Sample records for bovine enzootic hematuria

  1. Neoplasmas da bexiga associados à hematúria enzoótica bovina Urinary bladder neoplasms associated with bovine enzootic hematuria

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    Marione de Albuquerque Moreira Souto


    Full Text Available Relatam-se três casos de hematúria enzoótica bovina (HEB em animais provenientes do município de Jaguari, RS, Brasil. As pastagens de todas as propriedades de origem estavam altamente infestadas por samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum. Três bovinos, com idades entre 4 e 7 anos, apresentaram sinais clínicos que incluíam emagrecimento progressivo, hematúria intermitente e palidez das mucosas. As principais lesões foram observadas na bexiga e consistiam de três tipos de neoplasmas: hemangioma capilar, hemangiossarcoma e carcinoma de células escamosas. A epidemiologia, os sinais clínicos e as lesões macroscópicas e microscópicas observadas nos três bovinos são consistentes com o diagnóstico de HEB.Three cases of bovine enzootic hematuria (BHE are described in cattle from the municipality of Jaguari, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The pastures of all affected farms were highly infested with bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum. Three 4-7-year-old bovine had clinical signs of progressive weight loss, intermittent hematuria, and mucosal pallor. The main lesions were observed in the urinary bladder and consisted of three types of neoplasms: capillary hemangioma, hemangiosarcoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. The epidemiology, the clinical signs, and the gross and microscopic lesions observed in all three bovine were of BHE.

  2. Histopathological aspects of Bovine Enzootic Hematuria in Brazil Aspectos histopatológicos da Hematúria Enzoótica Bovina no Brasil

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    Paulo Vargas Peixoto


    Full Text Available The bladder lesions of 59 cattle, from the States of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná and Amazon, affected by Bovine Enzootic Haematuria (BEH, were studied histologically. The objective of this study was to describe and reclassify neoplastic and non-neoplastic alterations not yet reported, according to the more complete current nomenclature used in human medicine. There was an almost complete identity with alterations observed in the bladder of man. Due to the occurrence of two or more neoplasms in the same animal, differences in the methodology and in the concept of classification, a more precise comparison was not possible. Coexistence of different types of epithelial and/or mesenchymal tumour growth was frequently seen. Rare neoplasms or differentiations not previously described were found in the bladder of some animals affected by BEH. These were trabecular carcinoma with Paneth cells differentiation, mesonephroid adenoma, mesonephroid adenocarcinoma, "signet ring" cell carcinoma, plasmocytoid carcinoma, chromophobe cell carcinoma and nested type of transitional cell carcinoma. Haemangiosarcomas originating from haemangiomas were also observed. This study also revealed the occurrence of many tumors with anaplasia and pronounced infiltrative features, but which did not metastasize. The elucidation of the cause of this "barrier against metastases" and its relationship with chemical carcinogenesis induced by the ptaquiloside, the active principle of bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum, could be of interest to future research on the control ofneoplasia in man and animals.Com o objetivo de descrever alterações neoplásicas e não-neoplásicas ainda não relatadas e, paralelamente, reclassificá-las de acordo com nomenclatura mais completa e atual utilizada em medicina humana, foram estudadas, histologicamente, lesões da bexiga de 59 bovinos com Hematúria Enzoótica (HEB

  3. Enzootic bovine leukosis and Bovine leukemia virus


    Amauri Alcindo Alfieri; Alice Fernandes Alfieri; Luis Álvaro Leuzzi Junior


    All over de World the Enzootic Bovine Leukosis is a important viral infection in cattle herds. This revision points out topics relative to the etiological agent, clinical signals, diagnosis methods, control and prophylaxis of the infection.A Leucose Enzoótica Bovina é uma infecção viral amplamente disseminada em rebanhos bovinos de todo o mundo. Esta revisão tem por objetivo apresentar tópicos relacionados ao agente etiológico, à doença clínica e aos métodos de diagnóstico, controle e profila...

  4. The eradication experience of enzootic bovine leukosis from Lithuania. (United States)

    Acaite, J; Tamosiunas, V; Lukauskas, K; Milius, J; Pieskus, J


    Before 1985 the situation regarding enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) in Lithuanian cattle was described only haphazardly. In 1986 serological investigations were initiated together with an eradication programme. The EBL bovine leukosis virus (BLV) situation was monitored by the Institute of Immunology Vilnius University, national and regional veterinary laboratories. Starting in 1986 all EBL-positive cattle were separated from negative cattle into BLV-infected and BLV-free herds. To create the latter, calves were fed pasteurized milk. The seroprevalence in 1990 was 7.29%, but it steadily declined to 0.32% in 2006.

  5. An unusual presentation of enzootic bovine leukosis.


    Sparling, A M


    A 6-year-old, Holstein x Simmental cow diagnosed with pyelonephritis had increasing difficulty rising and became recumbent, despite treatment with antibiotics. A serological test for the bovine leukemia virus was positive; at necropsy, the left kidney and ureter and the myocardium showed lesions of lymphosarcoma, confirmed by histology.

  6. Evaluation of urine dipstick and cystoscopy in bovine enzootic haematuria

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    Mariana Pavelski


    Full Text Available Enzootic bovine haematuria is mainly caused by the chronic ingestion of bracken fern and is still considered an important cause of economic losses in beef herds, particularly in large metropolitan areas of Brazil that are not suitable for agriculture (weak soil, steep hills.The aim of this paper was evaluate if there is a correlation between the degree of haematuria and the presence of lesions in the urinary bladder of cows with bovine enzootic haematuria (BEH.We evaluated the bladder of twenty Nelore cows with bracken fern intoxication using a flexible endoscope to describe the lesions present and we performed a rapid urine test with a chemical multiple-reagent commercial strips (Combur test Roche® – Swiss to check the degree of haematuria; then we correlated both results with the Spearman statistical test. All cows presented lesions in their bladder walls and the urine was visually reddish and positive for haematuria in the strips. Urine dipstick has shown to correlate with bladder lesion number. In the bladders of the euthanised animals, multiple sub-mucosal reddish nodules and multiple ecchymotic haemorrhages were seen macroscopically, and one bladder had a larger tumour with a 3cm diameter, which was determined to be a haemangioma by analysing the histopathology. We concluded that urine dipstick is a valuable device for bovine enzootic haematuria prognostic purposes and to evaluate the severity of lesions from the urinary bladder. Moreover, cystoscopy is an important diagnostic tool to assess bladder lesions in cattle. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the involvement of papillomaviruses and bladder tumour occurrence in these cows.

  7. Fraction of bovine leukemia virus-infected dairy cattle developing enzootic bovine leukosis. (United States)

    Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Sota; Hayama, Yoko; Yamamoto, Takehisa


    Enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) is a transmissible disease caused by the bovine leukemia virus that is prevalent in cattle herds in many countries. Only a small fraction of infected animals develops clinical symptoms, such as malignant lymphosarcoma, after a long incubation period. In the present study, we aimed to determine the fraction of EBL-infected dairy cattle that develop lymphosarcoma and the length of the incubation period before clinical symptoms emerge. These parameters were determined by a mathematical modeling approach based on the maximum-likelihood estimation method, using the results of a nationwide serological survey of prevalence in cattle and passive surveillance records. The best-fit distribution to estimate the disease incubation period was determined to be the Weibull distribution, with a median and average incubation period of 7.0 years. The fraction of infected animals developing clinical disease was estimated to be 1.4% with a 95% confidence interval of 1.2-1.6%. The parameters estimated here contribute to an examination of efficient control strategies making quantitative evaluation available.

  8. Delayed-onset enzootic bovine leukosis possibly caused by superinfection with bovine leukemia virus mutated in the pol gene. (United States)

    Watanabe, Tadaaki; Inoue, Emi; Mori, Hiroshi; Osawa, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Katsunori


    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL), to which animals are most susceptible at 4-8 years of age. In this study, we examined tumor cells associated with EBL in an 18-year-old cow to reveal that the cells carried at least two different copies of the virus, one of which was predicted to encode a reverse transcriptase (RT) lacking ribonuclease H activity and no integrase. Such a deficient enzyme may exhibit a dominant negative effect on the wild-type RT and cause insufficient viral replication, resulting in delayed tumor development in this cow.

  9. Effectivity of PCR and AGID methods to detect of enzootic bovine leukosis in Indonesia

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    Saepulloh M


    Full Text Available Enzootic Bovine Leucosis (EBL is one of viral diseases in cattle caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV, from Retroviridae. The virus can be detected using severals methods such as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR, while antibody can be detected using Agar Gel Immunodifussion (AGID. The aim of this experiment was to study the effectivity of PCR and AGID methods to detect enzootic bovine leukosis virus in Indonesia. Samples of peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL were collected from cattles those with and without showing clinical signs. A total of 307 blood and serum samples were tested against BLV using PCR and AGID tests, while 21 semen samples which were from similar animals for blood collection were collected only for PCR test. The results indicated that twelve cattles have positive results with PCR test in PBL, but from those cattles only seven were positive with AGID. On the other hand, the PCR did not detect EBL in 21 bovine semen samples tested, although one sample gave positive result with PCR in PBL. This results indicated that PCR method from blood samples was more sensitive than that AGID method. The PCR detection was also more sensitive for PBL than that for semen samples

  10. Detection of Ptaquilosides in different phenologic stages of Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) and analysis of milk samples in farms with hematuria in Tolima, Colombia (United States)

    Bracken fern or “Helecho Macho” (Pteridium aquilinum) is one of the most common weeds in the meadows of the mountain ranges of Colombia. Consumption of this palatable plant by bovines causes a disease known as bovine enzootic hematuria and esophageal neoplasia. The toxic effect of the plant in bovin...

  11. Bovine papillomavirus type 2 detection in the urinary bladder of cattle with chronic enzootic haematuria

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    Sheila R Wosiacki


    Full Text Available The bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2 involvement in the aetiology of chronic enzootic haematuria associated to bracken fern ingestion has been suggested for a long time. However, a few reports have shown the presence of the BPV-2 in urinary bladder tumors of cattle. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of the BPV-2 infection in the urinary bladder of cattle with chronic enzootic haematuria in Brazilian cattle herds. Sixty-two urinary bladders were collected from adult cattle in beef herds from the north region of the state of Paraná, Brazil. According to clinical and pathological finds the specimens were distributed in three groups: the group A was constituted by 22 urinary bladders with macroscopic lesions collected at necropsy of cattle with clinical signs of chronic enzootic haematuria; the group B by 30 urinary bladders with macroscopic lesions collected in a slaughterhouse of cows coming from bracken fern-endemic geographical region; and the group C (control by 10 urinary bladders without macroscopic lesions collected from asymptomatic cattle in a bracken fern-free geographical region. By a semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay, with an internal control, a fragment of the BPV-2 L1 gene with 386 bp length was amplified in 36 (58% urinary bladder. The rate of BPV-2 positive urinary bladders was 50% (11/22 for group A, 80% (24/30 for group B, and 10% (1/10 for group C (control. The rate of the positive results found in groups A and B that included urinary bladder samples with macroscopic lesions was 67% (35/52 and the detection of the BPV-2 in both groups was significantly higher (P < 0.05 than in the control group. RFLP with Rsa I and Hae III enzymes evaluated the specificity of the BPV-2 amplicons. The PCR internal control that amplified a 626 bp fragment of the ND5 gene of the bovine mitochondrial genome was amplified in all analyzed samples and excluded false-negatives or invalid results in the semi

  12. Enzootic instability for bovine anaplasmosis on family farms located in southwestern Paraná, Brazil

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    Tatiane Sott

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to assess the occurence of animals seropositive for Anaplasma marginale in the municipality of Realeza, Paraná State, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 344 cows on 18 small farms in the municipality of Realeza-PR. The animals’serum samples were forwarded to the Federal University of Fronteira do Sul, in order to investigate the occurrence of anti-A. marginale IgG antibodies by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay commercial kit. IgG antibodies to A. marginale were detected in cattle from 77.7% of the farms. To the best author's knowledge, this is the first report of occurrence of A. marginale in cattle in southwestern Paraná. The serological assay showed that 24.4% of the animals were seropositive, thus characterizing the location investigated as an area of enzootic instability for the disease. The family farms located in the municipality of Realeza-PR showed enzootic instability for bovine anaplasmosis. It is necessary to conduct disease monitoring programs in association with preventive measures in order to ensure the sanitary quality of the herds and to reduce economic losses for the farmers. In addition, it is essential to implement educational extension actions that allow farmers to acquire knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding the risk factors that contribute towards herd A. marginale-infection.

  13. Detection of monoclonal integration of bovine leukemia virus proviral DNA as a malignant marker in two enzootic bovine leukosis cases with difficult clinical diagnosis


    Miura, Saori; HORIUCHI, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Kotaro; KOBAYASHI, Yoshiyasu; Kawazu, Shin-ichiro; INOKUMA, Hisashi


    Monoclonal integration of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) proviral DNA into bovine genomes was detected in peripheral blood from two clinical cases of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) without enlargement of superficial lymph nodes. A BLV-specific probe hybridized with 1 to 3 EcoRI and HindIII fragments in these 2 atypical EBL cattle by Southern blotting and hybridization, as well as in 3 typical EBL cattle. The probe also hybridized to a large number of EcoRI and HindIII fragments in 5 cattle with ...

  14. Molecular epidemiology of bovine leukemia virus associated with enzootic bovine leukosis in Japan. (United States)

    Matsumura, Keiko; Inoue, Emi; Osawa, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Katsunori


    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection of cattle has been increasing yearly in Japan although several European countries have successfully eradicated the infection. In the present study, phylogenetic analysis on the env gene obtained from 64 tumor samples found in different regions in Japan was carried out in order to define the genetic background of BLV strains prevailing in the country. Most of the Japanese isolates were found to reside in the consensus cluster or genotype 1 of BLV strains (Rodriguez et al., 2009). Out of them, 21 isolates and 10 isolates exhibited the identical sequences, respectively. Only one isolate was classified into the different genotype related to the US isolates. Analysis on the deduced amino acids of gp51 demonstrated the sequence diversity in the neutralizing domain. These data may indicate that two major populations of BLV prevailed throughout Japan, whereas antigenic variants also exist. It was further proved that multiple invasion of the genetically different BLV strains have occurred in Japan.

  15. Detection of monoclonal integration of bovine leukemia virus proviral DNA as a malignant marker in two enzootic bovine leukosis cases with difficult clinical diagnosis. (United States)

    Miura, Saori; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Kawazu, Shin-Ichiro; Inokuma, Hisashi


    Monoclonal integration of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) proviral DNA into bovine genomes was detected in peripheral blood from two clinical cases of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) without enlargement of superficial lymph nodes. A BLV-specific probe hybridized with 1 to 3 EcoRI and HindIII fragments in these 2 atypical EBL cattle by Southern blotting and hybridization, as well as in 3 typical EBL cattle. The probe also hybridized to a large number of EcoRI and HindIII fragments in 5 cattle with persistent leukosis. These results suggest that the detection of monoclonal integration of BLV provirus into the host genome may serve as a marker of monoclonal proliferation and malignancy in difficult to diagnose EBL cattle.

  16. Enzootic bovine leukosis and Bovine leukemia virus/ Leucose enzoótica bovina e vírus da leucemia bovina

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    Amauri Alcindo Alfieri


    Full Text Available All over de World the Enzootic Bovine Leukosis is a important viral infection in cattle herds. This revision points out topics relative to the etiological agent, clinical signals, diagnosis methods, control and prophylaxis of the infection.A Leucose Enzoótica Bovina é uma infecção viral amplamente disseminada em rebanhos bovinos de todo o mundo. Esta revisão tem por objetivo apresentar tópicos relacionados ao agente etiológico, à doença clínica e aos métodos de diagnóstico, controle e profilaxia da infecção.

  17. Comparison of the copy numbers of bovine leukemia virus in the lymph nodes of cattle with enzootic bovine leukosis and cattle with latent infection. (United States)

    Somura, Yoshiko; Sugiyama, Emi; Fujikawa, Hiroshi; Murakami, Kenji


    To establish a diagnostic index for predicting enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), proviral bovine leukemia virus (BLV) copies in whole blood, lymph nodes and spleen were examined by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Cattle were divided into two groups, EBL and BLV-infected, based on meat inspection data. The number of BLV copies in all specimens of EBL cattle was significantly higher than those of BLV-infected cattle (p < 0.0001), and the number of BLV copies in the lymph nodes was particularly large. Over 70 % of the superficial cervical, medial iliac and jejunal lymph nodes from EBL cattle had more than 1,000 copies/10 ng DNA, whereas lymph nodes from BLV-infected cattle did not. These findings suggest that the cattle harboring more than 1,000 BLV copies may be diagnosed with EBL.

  18. Enzootic bovine leukosis: report of eradication and surveillance measures in Italy over an 8-year period (2005-2012). (United States)

    Maresca, C; Costarelli, S; Dettori, A; Felici, A; Iscaro, C; Feliziani, F


    Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL). BLV causes malignant lymphoma and lymphosarcoma; however, most BLV infections remain clinically silent in an aleukaemic state. EBL is a notifiable disease, and official control measures include screening or monitoring, precautions at borders, control of movement inside the country, and stamping out. The objective of this study was to evaluate EBL eradication and surveillance measures in Italy from 2005 to 2012. One-hundred twenty-three outbreaks were recorded (1 January 2006 to 31 December 2012) in the National Veterinary Information System (SIMAN) on 7 November 2013. Of these, 101 had occurred in southern Italy. An outbreak usually lasted for a few days, but sometimes lasted for weeks. Some areas were subjected to normal eradication measures, whereas others were subjected to additional eradication measures as a consequence of persisting EBL outbreaks. During the study period, we noted an overall annual decrease from 0.21% in 2005 to 0.08% in 2012 in the herd prevalence rate, from 0.06% in 2005 to 0.04% in 2012 in the herd incidence rate, and from 0.027% in 2005 to 0.015% in 2012 in the animal prevalence rate. Regions officially recognised as EBL-free areas were found to have their own surveillance plans. Differences in their surveillance plans include the type of sample (serum, milk, or both), age at which the animals must be tested (12 or 24 months), and test frequency of herds (annually or every 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 years). The eradication programme for EBL is difficult to implement in some Italian areas because of several factors such as incomplete herd registry, geographical location and socio-economic conditions of the region.

  19. Overexpression of interleukin 2 receptor, thymidine kinase and immunoglobulin-associated alpha-1 messenger RNA in a clinical case of enzootic bovine leukosis. (United States)

    Tawfeeq, Mohammad Monir; Tagawa, Michihito; Itoh, Yuuki; Sugimoto, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Inokuma, Hisashi


    A 49-month-old Holstein cow with anorexia, tachypnea, enlarged peripheral lymph nodes, and difficulty standing up was suspected of bovine leukosis. Hematological examination revealed lymphocytosis with the presence of neoplastic cells. Increased total lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, isozymes of LDH-2 and LDH-3 activities and thymidine kinase activity were observed. Cytological findings of fine needle aspiration of subiliac lymph nodes indicated lymphosarcoma. Histopathology and antibody analysis confirmed the diagnosis of enzootic bovine leukosis, a B-cell bovine lymphoma caused by bovine leukemia virus. Gene expressions known as biomarkers of hematopoietic neoplasia in human were also examined in the present case. Increased messenger RNA expression of interleukin 2 receptor, thymidine kinase, and immunoglobulin-associated alpha-1 was observed in the case animal.

  20. Situação epidemiológica da leucose bovina enzoótica em Portugal entre os anos de 1995 e 2005 Epidemiological survey of enzootic bovine leukosis in Portugal from 1995 to 2005

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    P. Poeta


    Full Text Available This paper evaluated the epidemiological situation of the enzootic bovine leucosis from 1995 to 2005, in Portugal. With exception of the South region, Algarve, the disease was distributed throughout the country, being more prevalent in the north, between Douro and Minho and Trás-os-Montes, than in the centre. A decrease in prevalence and incidence of the infection throughout the studied period was also observed.

  1. Bovine papillomavirus type 2 in enzootic haematuria aetiology/ Papilomavírus bovino tipo 2 na etiologia da hematúria enzoótica bovina

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    Amauri Alcindo Alfieri


    Full Text Available Bovine enzootic haematuria (EH occurs worldwide and is endemic in regions with bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum infested grassland. EH is chronic disease that is characterized by clinical signs of intermitent haematuria, anemia and progressive emaciation and haemorragic, hyperplasic and neoplasic lesions of urinary bladder. Although bracken fern intoxication has been related to EH, most recent bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2 infection has been also assessed. Some researches has shown that the presence of BPV-2 in association with bracken fern carcinogenic compound leads to the malignant progression of urinary bladder lesions that cause the clinical signs of EH. In this review the major evidence of BPV-2 involviment in the aetiology of EH is presented along with diagnostic methods and prophylaxis of this disease that causes considerable economic losses in brazilian cattle breeding.A hematúria enzoótica (HE bovina é de ocorrência mundial e apresenta caráter endêmico em regiões com pastagens infestadas com samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum. A HE é uma doença crônica caracterizada por sinais clínicos de hematúria intermitente, anemia e emagrecimento progressivo e por lesões hemorrágicas, hiperplásicas e neoplásicas da mucosa da bexiga. Apesar da intoxicação pela samambaia estar relacionada à etiologia da HE, mais recentemente a infecção pelo papilomavírus bovino tipo 2 (BPV-2 também tem sido avaliada. Estudos demonstram que a presença do BPV-2, associada à ação dos compostos carcinogênicos da samambaia, leva à progressão maligna das lesões na mucosa vesical responsáveis pelos quadros clínicos observados na HE. Nesta revisão são apresentadas as principais evidências do envolvimento do BPV-2 na etiologia da HE, bem como métodos de diagnóstico e profilaxia desta doença que ocasiona prejuízos econômicos consideráveis à pecuária bovina brasileira.

  2. Comparison of agar gel immunodiffusion test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PCR in diagnostics of enzootic bovine leukosis

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    Malovrh Tadej


    Full Text Available Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV is a retrovirus that induces a chronic infection in cattle. Once infected, cattle remain virus carriers for life and start to show an antibody response within a few weeks after infection. Eradication and control of the disease are based on early diagnostics and segregation of the carriers. The choice of a diagnostic method depends on the eradication programme, money resources and characteristics of the herd to be analysed. The agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID test has been the serological test of choice for routine diagnosis of serum samples. Nevertheless, in more recent years, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA has replaced the AGID for large scale testing. For this purpose, commercially available BLV-ELISA kits were compared to the AGID and to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR method performed with two sets of primers, amplifying env region. The ELISA kit based on the p24 core protein was found to be less specific and served as a screening test. The ELISA kit based on the envelope glycoprotein (gpSI served as a verification test and gave a good correlation with the AGID test and PCR method. However, ELISA showed a higher sensitivity than AGID. The p24 based ELiSA was useful for screening a large number of samples, whereas gp51 based ELISA, AGID and PCR were more important for detecting the antibody response against the individual BLV-proteins and therefore for verification of the infection with BLV.

  3. Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) (United States)

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) KidsHealth > For Teens > Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) ... español Sangre en la orina (hematuria) What Is Hematuria? When blood gets into a person's urine (pee), ...

  4. CT urography and hematuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bretlau, Thomas; Hansen, Rasmus H; Thomsen, Henrik S


    (15%) other disease (i.e. infection or anomaly) was found. No abnormalities were found at CT urography in 455 (58%) of the patients with hematuria. Lesions were found more frequently in patients with visible hematuria than in patients with non-visible hematuria (48% vs. 29%). No malignant tumor...

  5. Loin pain hematuria syndrome. (United States)

    Taba Taba Vakili, Sahar; Alam, Tausif; Sollinger, Hans


    Loin pain hematuria syndrome is a rare disease with a prevalence of ∼0.012%. The most prominent clinical features include periods of severe intermittent or persistent unilateral or bilateral loin pain accompanied by either microscopic or gross hematuria. Patients with loin pain hematuria syndrome initially present with hematuria, flank pain, or most often both hematuria and flank pain. Kidney biopsies from patients with loin pain hematuria typically reveal only minor pathologic abnormalities. Further, loin pain hematuria syndrome is not associated with loss of kidney function or urinary tract infections. Loin pain hematuria syndrome-associated hematuria and pain are postulated to be linked to vascular disease of the kidney, coagulopathy, renal vasospasm with microinfarction, hypersensitivity, complement activation on arterioles, venocalyceal fistula, abnormal ureteral peristalsis, and intratubular deposition of calcium or uric acid microcrystals. Many patients with loin pain hematuria syndrome also meet criteria for a somatoform disorder, and analgesic medications, including narcotics, commonly are used to treat loin pain hematuria syndrome-associated pain. Interventional treatments include renal denervation, kidney autotransplantation, and nephrectomy; however, these methods should be used only as a last resort when less invasive measures have been tried unsuccessfully. In this review article, we discuss and critique current clinical practices related to loin pain hematuria syndrome pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.

  6. PCR em tempo real para diagnóstico da leucose enzoótica bovina Enzootic bovine leukosis real time PCR

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    Natanael Lamas Dias


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar a validação de uma reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real com o sistema Plexor® (qPCR para o diagnóstico da Leucose Enzoótica Bovina (LEB, por meio da comparação com testes de diagnóstico recomendados pela Organização Mundial de Saúde Animal (OIE. A qPCR foi comparada com duas outras técnicas: a PCR nested (nPCR e a imunodifusão em gel de ágar (IDGA. Das 82 amostras analisadas pela qPCR e nPCR, 79 apresentaram resultados concordantes, sendo a concordância, classificada pelo Índice Kappa, como alta. Entre as PCRs e a IDGA, o número de resultados concordantes foi de 71 e 69, respectivamente, para qPCR e nPCR, sendo a concordância classificada como considerável. A qPCR apresentou altos valores de sensibilidade e especificidade. Os valores preditivos da qPCR observados demonstraram a alta capacidade de classificação dos casos positivos e negativos. A qPCR não foi capaz de detectar três amostras positivas e tem custo ligeiramente superior que a nPCR. Entretanto, a qPCR é uma técnica mais rápida, menos susceptível a contaminações, tem alta sensibilidade, não utiliza e não gera resíduos carcinogênicos. Concluímos que a qPCR pode substituir a nPCR recomendada pela OIE no diagnóstico de rotina em áreas em que a LEB é endêmica, como no Brasil.The goal of this research was to validate a Plexor® real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR for Enzootic Bovine Leukosis (EBL diagnosis by comparison with methods recommend by the World Animal Health Organization (OIE. The qPCR was compared with two other techniques: the nested PCR (nPCR and to the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID. Of 82 qPCR and nPCR analysed samples, 79 presented concordant results, being the concordance classified by Kappa Index as high. Between the PCRs and AGID, the number of concordant results was 71 and 69, out of 82, to qPCR and nPCR, respectively, being the concordance classified as considerable, in both

  7. Imaging of hematuria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Owen J


    Hematuria may have a number of causes, of which the more common are urinary tract calculi, urinary tract infection, urinary tract neoplasms (including renal cell carcinoma and urothelial tumors), trauma to the urinary tract, and renal parenchymal disease. This article discusses the current status of imaging of patients suspected of having urologic causes of hematuria. The role of all modalities, including plain radiography, intravenous urography or excretory urography, retrograde pyelography, ultrasonography, and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in evaluation of these patients is discussed. The article highlights the current status of MDCT urography in imaging of patients with hematuria, and discusses various-often controversial-issues, such as optimal protocol design, accuracy of the technique in imaging of the urothelium, and the significant issue of radiation dose associated with MDCT urography.

  8. Imaging of hematuria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Owen J


    OBJECTIVE: In this article, we will discuss the current status of imaging in patients with hematuria of urologic origin. Issues impacting evaluation of these patients with radiography, excretory urography, retrograde pyelography, and sonography will be discussed. CONCLUSION: Conventional radiography has no role in the detection of renal or urothelial carcinoma. Low-dose CT offers much greater sensitivities for the detection of urinary tract calculi than radiography at doses equivalent to conventional radiography. Ultrasound alone is insufficient for imaging of hematuria. Using ultrasound alone, it is often difficult to differentiate renal transitional cell carcinoma from other causes of filling defects of the renal collecting system such as blood clots, sloughed papillae, or fungus balls. The prominence of the role of excretory urography in the evaluation of patients with hematuria has diminished, and MDCT urography is now preferred to excretory urography in most cases.

  9. Diagnosis of enzootic pneumonia in Danish cattle: reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in naturally and experimentally infected cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Viuff, B.;


    A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed for detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) in lung tissue of naturally and experimentally infected cattle. Primers were selected from the gene coding the F fusion protein, which is relatively conserved...... among BRSV isolates. The RT-PCR assay was highly specific, it yielded positive reactions only when performed on BRSV-infected cell cultures or tissues. The detection limit of the RT-PCR assay was assessed as 5 TCID50. BRSV was detected in tissues of the respiratory tract and in the tracheobroncheal....... (7%), and Pasteurella haemolytica (7%) were the most common bacterial agents found in the lungs. BRSV was identified using a conventional antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 23 (17%) animals. The established BRSV-specific RT-PCR assay yielded positive results for the same 23 animals...

  10. Evolution of Enzootic Bovine Leukosis prevalence in an university dairy herd / Evolução da soroprevalência da Leucose Enzoótica Bovina em um rebanho bovino leiteiro universitário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger Daniel Ollhoff


    Full Text Available The prevalence of Enzootic Bovine Leukosis virus infection was determined in adult cows of the catholic university of Paraná (Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná dairy herd in 2000, 2003 and 2006 using the agar-gel immunodiffusion. The prevalence of the infection in adult lactating cows was respectively, over the years, 63.33%, 81.08% and 55.56%. Serum samples of all animals were taken in 2006, observing a continuously rise in antibody prevalence over the time up to more than 80% in animals older than 60 months, after vanishing of colostral maternal antibodies. The possible causes of this high prevalence were discussed under the particular circumstances of a teaching and research farm of an university.Determinou-se a soroprevalência do vírus da Leucose Enzoótica Bovina (LEB em vacas adultas de um rebanho leiteiro da Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná nos anos de 2000, 2003 e 2006 através da imunodifusão em ágar-gel. Avaliou-se a evolução da prevalência da infecção neste rebanho, verificando-se respectivamente uma prevalência nos animais em lactação de 63,33%, 81,08% e 55,56%. Em 2006 determinou-se a soroprevalência para a LEB de todas as faixas etárias do rebanho, verificando-se após a queda dos anticorpos colostrais uma prevalência crescente, culminando com mais de 80% de animais soropositivos após os 60 meses de idade. Discutiram-se as possíveis causas destas soroprevalências ao vírus da LEB considerando-se a particularidade deste rebanho visar o ensino e a extensão.

  11. Evaluation of hematuria. (United States)

    Abuelo, J G


    A basic problem in evaluating hematuria is the large number of diagnostic possibilities. The causation may be suspected after the initial history and physical examination, and can be confirmed with appropriate studies. The addition of standard tests such as urine culture, intravenous pyelography, and cystoscopy will reveal the source of hematuria in many other cases and will bring the percentage of patients with a clear diagnosis up to 60 or 70 per cent. The physician must be careful in selecting further studies in the remaining patients, since the procedures necessary for diagnosis may be expensive, unpleasant, and potentially harmful, and the probability of finding a treatable condition is low. The diagnostic protocol described in this article is designed to reduce the studies performed to a minimum, while still identifying those individuals who can benefit from therapy.

  12. T、B淋巴细胞功能对流行性牛白血病发生发展的影响%The Relationship Between the Function of T、B Lymphocytes and the Pathogenesis of Enzootic Bovine Leukosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王选年; 潘耀谦; 康晓迪; 张改平


    本文回顾了T、B淋巴细胞功能与牛白血病发生发展的相关性。阐明了感染BLV牛B细胞淋巴瘤细胞除了来源于B1a(CD5+CD11b+)细胞,也可来源于B1b(CD5- CD11b+)及常规B2(CD5 -CD11b-)细胞。探讨了T细胞功能对牛白血病的发生发展的影响,指出IL-1 2表达下降和IL -10表达增加可能导致了B细胞淋巴肉瘤的形成,Ⅰ型和Ⅱ型细胞因子的不平衡引起了BLV的发展。同时讨论了B-T细胞的相互作用在BLV感染时疾病阶段性发展过程中的作用。%This review focuses on the relationship between the function of T、B lymp hocytes and the pathogenesis of Enzootic Bovine Leukosis. In BLV infection anima l, the phenotypes of B-cells lymphoma can be derived from B1a(CD5+CD11 b+), B1b(C D5-CD11b+) and conventional B2(CD5-CD11b-)cells. Co mbined with previous findi ngs the data suggests that the decrease of IL-12 and the increase of IL-10 res ult in the formation of B-cell lymphosarcoma, and the imbalance of phenotype Ⅰ and Ⅱ cytokines causes the progression of Bovine Leukemia. M eanwhile, the interaction of B and T cells could contribute to the polyclonal ac tivation and proliferation of B lymphocytes in BLV infectea animals.

  13. The diagnosis of hematuria. (United States)

    Abuelo, J G


    The causes of hematuria are briefly outlined and an approach to the diagnosis of this common finding is suggested. All cases require investigation, since even less than ten RBCs per high-power field may be the first sign of a malignant neoplasm or other serious disease. The most common causes are stones, malignant neoplasm, urethrotrigonitis, bacterial infection, prostatic hypertrophy, and glomerulonephritis; however, there are many other conditions to be kept in mind. A few simple laboratory tests will detect easily diagnosed problems such as bacterial infection, while more extensive and invasive studies are reserved to identify malignant neoplasms and other conditions in the remaining cases.

  14. Diagnosis and Management of Hematuria. (United States)

    Avellino, Gabriella J; Bose, Sanchita; Wang, David S


    Microscopic and gross hematuria present unique and difficult diagnostic and management challenges in the already complex general surgery patient. This article provides the general surgeon with relevant knowledge in the pathophysiology, anatomy, etiologies, workup, and treatments of hematuria. In addition common causes of hematuria that may be encountered by the general surgeon (including trauma, urinary tract infection, urolithiasis, and malignancy), the difficult to manage clinical situation of clot urinary retention is presented. This article provides a urologic framework of thinking for the clinician to best manage a general surgery patient who has hematuria.



    青木, 正治; 熊本, 悦明


    Clinical statistical studies on hematuria were performed in outpatients who were seen at our Department, during the 7-year period from 1974 through 1980. Of the 11,574 outpatients studied, the total number of outpatients with hematuria 1,705; macroscopic hematuria was found in 446 cases (3.9%) and microscopic hematuria was in 1,259 cases (10.9%). The most frequent cause of macroscopic hematuria was malignant urinary tumors and that of microscopic hematuria was urinary tract infections. Macros...

  16. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting with gross hematuria


    Kalbani, Naifain Al; Weitzman, Sheila; Abdelhaleem, Mohamed; Carcao, Manuel; Abla, Oussama


    A case of a six-year-old boy presenting with gross hematuria is reported. Investigations revealed the etiology of the hematuria to be thrombocytopenia in the setting of newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The diagnosis of leukemia was confirmed by bone marrow examination. The patient’s hematuria completely resolved with platelet transfusions. Although thrombocytopenia is a very common presenting feature of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, gross hematuria is exceedingly rare. Thus, thro...

  17. A Review on Hematuria in Children


    Sarel Halachmi; David Kakiashvili; Shimon Meretyk


    Asymptomatic hematuria is very common in pediatric and adolescent patients. In contrast to painless hematuria in adults, the differential diagnosis and investigative modalities in the pediatric population is vastly different. This article presents the major diseases that may cause hematuria in children and suggests an evaluation algorithm for the pediatric urologist.

  18. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seung Seok [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myounghee, E-mail: [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Mi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sejoong [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwon Wook [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)


    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

  19. Development of a fluorescent microsphere-based assay for the detection of enzootic bovine leukosis%牛地方流行性白血病液相蛋白芯片检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志玲; 陈茹; 舒鼎铭; 马静云; 朱道中; 吴晓薇; 林志雄


    应用xMAP液相芯片技术原理,以原核表达的重组牛白血病病毒gp51蛋白为抗原,建立了检测牛白血病病毒抗体的LiquiChip液相蛋白芯片检测方法,并进行了特异性、敏感性、重复性与稳定性试验。结果表明,该方法对牛白血病病毒阳性血清检测阳性,对其他常见牛病毒阳性血清检测阴性,表明特异性好;液相蛋白芯片方法对牛白血病病毒抗体的检测敏感性可达119.7ng/gL,对多份牛白血病病毒阳性血清的检测结果显示该方法的检测敏感性与商品化ELISA试剂盒无显著差异;对3份牛白血病病毒阳性血清进行4次重复检测,批内、批间的变异系数均低于10%。所制备的偶联微球芯片保存3个月,其检测结果无显著差异。采用该方法对169份临床牛血清样品进行检测,检出阳性率达57.4%,该检测结果与瑞典进口ELISA试剂盒检测结果的符合率为94.67%。本方法为牛地方流行性白血病的进出境检疫、疫病监测和流行学调查研究提供了一种特异、敏感的新型快速检测技术。%Recombinant gp51 protein of bovine leukemia virus(BLV) was expressed using a prokaryotic expression system, and purified and eovalently coupled to fluorescent xMap microspheres. The purified mysB-gp51 protein was used to establish an xMap method for the detection of antibodies against BLV. And the specificity,sensitivity'reproducibility and stability of the method were examined. For specificity analysis,no positive reaction with positive sera of bluetongue virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus,infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus,or bovine ephemeral fever virus was found. For sensitivity analysis,as low as 119. 7 ng/μL BLV positive serum could be detected and no significant difference with commercial ELISA kit. The variation coefficients of intra- or inter-batch were all less than 10% based on 4 replications of 3

  20. Enzootic bovine leukosis: performance of an indirect ELISA applied in serological diagnosis Leucose bovina enzoótica: desempenho de um ELISA indireto empregado no diagnóstico sorológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa González


    Full Text Available Bovine Leukosis Virus (EBLV is a widely distributed pathogen agent in the bovine population of many countries, especially in dairy cattle. Once the bovine is infected, it remains as a virus carrier for life and such state is correlated with a specific antibody detectable level. In this study the evaluation of an indirect ELISA (Leucokit-La Plata to detect antibodies against EBLV is presented. Comparing it with the Immunodiffusion as gold standard test, the sensitivity is 98.93%, the specificity 79.74%, the negative predictive value 99.56% and the positive predictive value 61.26%. The correspondence between both tests is 83.9% which is similar to the result mentioned by other authors (82.2%. The concordance was evaluated by calculating Kappa and Youden's J coefficients, obtaining values classified as good for both coefficients. Comparing Leucokit-La Plata and another commercial reference kit (Chekit Leucotest Bommeli AG, Bern Switzerland, the sensitivity (97.05%, specificity (94.11%, negative predictive value (92.30% and positive predictive value (97.77%, were obtained. Applying Kappa and Jouden's Index (J coefficients an almost perfect concordance was obtained between both kits. The Leucokit-La Plata is appropriate to apply to the commercialization of live bovines to export, bovine selection for hemo-vaccines and the implementation of control and eradication programmes.O vírus da leucose bovina é um agente patogênico amplamente distribuído na população bovina de muitos países, principalmente naqueles com aptidão para leite. Uma vez infectado o bovino permanece como portador do vírus para toda a vida, e esse estado é correlacionado com o nivel detectável de anticorpos específicos. Neste trabalho apresenta-se a avaliação de um ELISA indireto (Leucokit-La Plata para a detecção de anticorpos contra VLB. Comparando com a prova de imunodifusão como teste de referencia a sensibilidade é de 98.93%; a especificidade de 79.74%; o valor

  1. Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) (For Parents) (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... hematuria can be seen because it changes the color of urine, which can happen with just a ...

  2. Avaliação de métodos de controle da infecção pelo vírus da leucose enzoótica bovina Appraisal methods for controlling the infection by enzootic bovine leukosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Machado Braga


    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas três alternativas de controle da infecção pelo vírus da Leucose Bovina: a eliminação dos animais soropositivos: b segregação dos animais soropositivos: c manejo misto dos animais, com adoção de medidas recomendadas para evitar a transmissão do vírus. O primeiro teste sorológico realizado em oito propriedades leiteiras revelou a presença da infecção com índices que variaram entre 2,5% (1/40 e 58,1% (18/31. Duas propriedades com baixo nível de infecção inicial (Three procedures for the control of bovine leukemia vírus infection (BLV were evaluated: a elimination of seropositive animals: b segregation of animals into seropositive and seronegative groups: c combined management and use of strict procedures to minimize viral transmission. The first serological testing in eight dairy farms demonstrated a prevalence ranging of 2.5% (1/40 to 58.1% (18/31. Two farms with a low prevalence (<10% decided to cull the seropositive animals. In one of these farms, the culting of positive animals resulted in eradication of the infection, demonstrated by the absence of seropositive reactors in the following tests. In the second farm, where the only seropositive animal was kept in the herd, the incidence reached 20% (3/15 in a six months period. The culling of the reactors in farms with low levels of infection seemed to be the most efficient procedure for eradication the infection. Segregation of reactors and negative animals into two groups was adopted in one farm, where only one animal seroconverted during the experiment, resulting in an incidence of 4.5% (1/22. The farms where a combined management was adopted presented a incidence ranging between 2.6% (1/38 and 50% (4/8. These resulls suggested that this procedure woutd require a longer period of observation in order to evaluate its efficacy. It has been possible to obtain seronegative offspring from positive dams when a substitutive or heat-inactivated milk was used. The

  3. Evaluation of western blotting for the diagnosis of enzootic bovine leukemia Avaliação da técnica de western blot no diagnóstico da leucose enzoótica bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.T. Gonzalez


    Full Text Available A western blotting (WB procedure has been developed for detecting antibodies to bovine leukosis virus (BLV in cattle sera. Two hundred and thirty three serum samples from naturally infected cattle with BLV virus and serial bleedings from experimentally BLV infected cows were used. An agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID was used for comparing with the results obtained by WB. The AGID positive sera showed a different degree of reactivity by WB test against the two most important viral antigens (gp51 and p24, or against one of them. Other proteins (gp30, p15, p12 and p10 were not detected with any AGID positive sera, being observed occasionally three bands corresponding to the p24 protein. Using sera obtained by BLV experimental inoculation, the antibodies directed to p24 appeared early (between the 2nd and 4th week post inoculation and thereafter antibodies to gp51were detected in some animals. The analysis of field serum samples by AGID as compared to WB showed an agreement of 90.9%. Only 1.7% of sera were negative by AGID and positive by WB and 7.2% that were not conclusive by AGID and were defined by WB (4.2% as positive and 3.0% as negative.Um sistema de western blotting (WB foi desenvolvido para detecção de anticorpos contra o vírus da leucose em soros de bovinos. Foram utilizadas amostras de soros de 233 animais naturalmente infectados e soros de vacas experimentalmente infectadas. O teste de imunodifusão em ágar (AGID foi usado para comparação dos resultados. Graus diferentes de reatividade foram observados em soros positivos ao AGID, quando testados em WB frente a um ou aos dois antígenos mais importantes (gp51 e p24. Outras proteínas (gp30, p15, p12 e p10 não foram detectadas por nenhum soro positivo ao AGID, sendo que três bandas correspondentes à proteína p24 foram observadas ocasionalmente. Em soros obtidos por inoculação experimental, anticorpos contra a proteína p24 foram detectados entre a segunda e a quarta semanas

  4. Enzootic bovine Leukosis: development of an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (I-Elisa in seroepidemiological studies Leucose Enzoótica Bovina: desenvolvimento de um teste ELISA indireto (ELISA-I e sua aplicação em estudos epidemiológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Teresa González


    Full Text Available Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV is the etiologic agent of Enzootic Bovine Leukosis, a retrovirus exogenous to the bovine species. Once infected, there is no detectable viraemia but instead there is a strong and persistent immunological response to BLV structural proteins, essentially the gp51 envelope glycoprotein and the mayor core protein p24. We describe the test procedure of an indirect ELISA (I-ELISA using polyclonal reagents for the detection of antibodies to BLV. For comparison, the sera were simultaneously tested by agar gel immunodiffussion (AGID test, which is currently used as diagnostic standard for BLV infection. The antigen applied does not require a high degree of purification and the data from the analysis of the negative sera showed that the establishment of a cut-off level corresponding to 3 times the standard deviation (SD above the mean for the negative control set of sera provided acceptable specificity, reducing the risk of false positives results. A comparison of the results obtained by AGID test and I-ELISA showed that considering a total of 465 serum samples, all of the 234 samples (50% that were positive by AGID were positive to the I-ELISA. Of 225 serum samples which yielded negative results in the AGID test, 69 (15% were found to be positive by the I-ELISA and 156 (33% were negative by both techniques. Few sera (2% that were non-specific by AGID were defined as negative or positive by I-ELISA.O Vírus da Leucose Bovina (VLB é o agente etiológico da Leucose Enzoótica Bovina, um retrovirus exógeno da espécie bovina. Uma vez infectado, não se detecta viremia, mas uma forte e persistente resposta imunológica às proteínas estruturais, sobre tudo para gp51 da coberta e para proteína p24 do core. Neste trabalho se descreve o desenvolvimento de um ELISA indireto (ELISA-I, em que se utiliza o soro policlonal para a detecção de anticorpos para VLB. Os soros foram analisados pela prova de IDGA (imunodifusão dupla em gel

  5. Is Marburg virus enzootic in Gabon? (United States)

    Maganga, Gael D; Bourgarel, Mathieu; Ella, Ghislain Ebang; Drexler, Jan Felix; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Drosten, Christian; Leroy, Eric M


    Marburg virus (MARV) nucleic acid was detected in Rousettus aegyptiacus bats in 2005 and 2006 in the midwest and southeast of Gabon. In this study we used MARV-specific real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and MARV-specific nested RT-PCR assay to screen 1257 bats caught during July 2009, December 2009, and June 2010 in 3 caves situated in northern Gabon. Nine specimens tested positive by the real-time assay, with cycle threshold values ranging from 35 to 39, of which only 1 R. aegyptiacus specimen collected in 2009 was positive in the nested VP35 RT-PCR assay. Together with MARV-positive bats in the south and west found in 2005 and 2006, confirmation of phylogenetically closely related MARV-positive bats 5 years later and in northern Gabon suggests that MARV is now enzootic in Gabon and emphasizes the importance of long-term monitoring of bat populations and human-bat interfaces.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Fiori


    .936 and sex (p = 0.562. Of the 360 sheep samples, nine (2.5% were reactive. There also was no significant association between the analyzed variables and the seropositiveness for brucellosis: age group (p = 0.522; race (p = 0.576 and sex (p = 0.461. Significant association was observed (p = 0.042 among the studied species and seropositiveness for brucellosis in the investigated animals. The seropositiveness for Brucella abortus in goats and sheep was traced for the first time in the “Sertão” (dry interior region, backlands of Pernambuco, fact that can hinder the success of the National Program of Control and Erradication of Brucellosis, due to the fact that it is common to raise small ruminants with bovines in this area, besides representing risks to Public Health.
    KEY WORDS: Brucellosis, ovines, caprines, small ruminants, serodiagnosis.

  7. Increased hematuria following hypergravic exposure in middle-aged women (United States)

    Goldwater, D. J.; Ohara, D. B.; Sandler, H.


    The effects of simulated weightlessness on orthostatic tolerance were studied in 9 women (55 to 65 years old) who underwent acceleration and lower body negative pressure before and after 10 days of horizontal bed rest. The results of this study show the first known association of microscopic hematuria with hypergravic and orthostatic stress which suggests similarities to the 'stress hematuria syndrome' previously seen with heavy exercise (Boileau et al., 1980). In addition, the sporadic occurrence of this phenomenon indicates a multifactorial etiology in predisposed individuals. Bedrest or weightlessness simulation per se does not seem to significantly alter renal function, but may decrease microscopic hematuria with an orthostatic component.

  8. A Case of Enzootic Nasal Adenocarcinoma in a Ewe

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    Devorah Marks Stowe


    Full Text Available An approximately 2-year-old open Suffolk ewe presented to the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine Veterinary Health Complex for evaluation of a left nasal mass. An ultrasound-guided aspirate and core biopsies were performed. An epithelial neoplasia with mild mixed inflammation (neutrophils and plasma cells was diagnosed on cytology and confirmed on histopathology. Immunohistochemistry (IHC, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and transmission electron microscopy were also performed. IHC and RT-PCR identified the presence of enzootic nasal tumor virus and confirmed the final diagnosis of enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma.

  9. Forgotten Kirschner Wire Causing Severe Hematuria

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    Santosh Kumar


    Full Text Available Kirschner wire (K-wire is commonly used in the treatment of hip fracture and its migration into pelvis leading to bladder injury is a very rare complication. Nonremoval of these devices either because of lack of followup or because of prolonged requirement due to disease process is associated with this complication. We report a case of a patient who presented with acute onset severe hematuria with clot retention secondary to perforation of bladder by a migrated K-wire placed earlier, for the treatment of hip fracture. Initial imaging showed its presence in the soft tissues of the pelvis away from the major vascular structures. Patient was taken for emergency laparotomy and wire was removed after cystotomy. Postoperative period was uneventful and patient was discharged in satisfactory condition. K-wires are commonly used in the management of fracture bones and their migration has been reported in the literature although such migration in the intrapelvic region involving bladder is very rare. Early diagnosis and prompt removal of such foreign bodies are required to avert potentially fatal involvement of major structures.

  10. Frank hematuria as the presentation feature of acute leukemia

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    Suriya Owais


    Full Text Available Muco-cutaneous bleeding is a common presenting feature of acute leukemias. Mucosal bleeding usually manifests as gum bleeding and/or epistaxis but may occur in any mucosal surface of the body. Hematuria as an isolated or main presenting feature of acute leukemia is rare. We describe two cases of acute leukemia, a 19 year old male with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and a 52 year old male with acute myeloid leukemia, both presenting with gross hematuria. There was no demonstrable leukemic infiltration of the urinary tract on imaging studies. Hematuria in these patients was likely to be due to occult leukemic infiltration of the urinary system, aggravated by thrombocytopenia, as it subsided after starting chemotherapy. Our cases highlight that hematuria should be remembered as a rare presenting feature of acute leukemia.

  11. Unique pattern of enzootic primate viruses in Gibraltar macaques. (United States)

    Engel, Gregory A; Pizarro, Mark; Shaw, Eric; Cortes, John; Fuentes, Agustin; Barry, Peter; Lerche, Nicholas; Grant, Richard; Cohn, Douglas; Jones-Engel, Lisa


    Because Gibraltar's macaques (Macaca sylvanus) have frequent contact with humans, we assayed 79 macaques for antibodies to enzootic primate viruses. All macaques were seronegative for herpesvirus B, simian T-cell lymphotropic virus, simian retrovirus, simian immunodeficiency virus, and rhesus cytomegalovirus. Seroprevalence of simian foamy virus reached 88% among adult animals.

  12. Presence of Gumprecht shadows (smudge cells) in bovine leukemia virus-positive cattle. (United States)

    Panei, Carlos Javier; Larsen, Alejandra; González, Ester Teresa; Echeverría, María Gabriela


    Enzootic Bovine Leukosis is a chronic disease caused by the bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Smudge cells, also known as Gumprecht shadows, are not simple artifacts of slide preparation, but ragged lymphoid cells found mainly in peripheral blood smears from human patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. In this study, we report the presence of Gumprecht shadows in peripheral blood from BLV-positive cattle.

  13. Insurability for asymptomatic hematuria or proteinuria during childhood. (United States)

    Feld, L G; Stapleton, F B


    The objective of this survey was to describe life insurance underwriting practices concerning children with asymptomatic hematuria and proteinuria. A questionnaire was sent to 200 companies licensed to issue life insurance policies in the state of New York. The medical director of each company was asked to respond to the insurability of children with asymptomatic hematuria and proteinuria. Two case summaries were provided with the questionnaire. Of 97 companies, 66 would offer insurance to the patient with hematuria, although 38 (58%) would charge additional premiums. In response to the problem of proteinuria, 61 companies would offer life insurance, although 50 (82%) would require higher premium charges (P life insurance, although often at higher cost. Invasive diagnostic tests are not necessary for insurers to offer insurance.

  14. A Rare Cause of Macroscobic Hematuria: Nutcracker Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgün Selçuk Duru


    Full Text Available Nutcracker syndrome caused by compression of the left renal vein between the abdominal aorta and the superior mesenteric artery is a rare anatomo-pathological condition. The patients have symptoms such as hematuria, proteinuria, and left flank pain. In this paper, we report a 13-year-old boy who presented with macroscopic haematuria. Routine laboratory tests for the evaluation of hematuria were normal. Abdominal computed tomography revealed that the left renal vein was compressed between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery. A diagnosis of nutcracker syndrome was established. If Nutcracker syndrome is considered in the differential diagnosis of haematuria, it is easily diagnosed by imaging techniques.

  15. Prof. Guan Jinghuan's Experience in Treating Chronic Nephritic Hematuria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛莎; 刘毅; 马利


    @@ Our teacher Guan Jinghuan, a famous veteran TCM physician in Hubei province, has been engaging in clinical research for more than forty years in the treatment of nephrosis by the combined Chinese and western medicine, and he has accumulated a wealth of experience, especially in treating intractable nephritic diseases. The following is an introduction of his experience in treating chronic nephritic hematuria.

  16. The Use of Molecular Analyses in Voided Urine for the Assessment of Patients with Hematuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Beukers (Willemien); R. Kandimalla (Raju); D. van Houwelingen (Diandra); H. Kovacic (Hrvoje); J.-F.D. Chin (Jie-Fen); H.F. Lingsma (Hester); L. Dyrskjot (Lars); E.C. Zwarthoff (Ellen)


    textabstractIntroduction:Patients presenting with painless hematuria form a large part of the urological patient population. In many cases, especially in younger patients, the cause of hematuria is harmless. Nonetheless, hematuria could be a symptom of malignant disease and hence most patients will

  17. Microscopic hematuria and calculus-related ureteral obstruction. (United States)

    Stewart, D P; Kowalski, R; Wong, P; Krome, R


    The evaluation of patients with ureteral calculi in the emergency department has historically included urinalysis (UA) and intravenous pyelograms (IVP). This retrospective study was done to determine if a statistically significant relationship existed between the degree of calculus-related ureteral obstruction, proven by IVP, and the presence or absence of microscopic hematuria. Urine red blood cells were recorded as less than 3 rbc/hpf (negative) or greater than or equal to 3 rbc/hpf (positive). IVPs were recorded as nonsevere or severe. IVP criteria were based on the presence or absence of extravasation, greater than 2-hour ureteral filling times, and a numerical scoring system of 1 to 4 for ureteral or calyceal dilatation and nephrogenic effect. Eighty-nine men (72%) had non-severe obstructions and 34 (28%) had severe obstructions. Twenty-five women (68%) had nonsevere obstructions and 12 (32%) had severe obstructions. Of the 28 patients with normal UAs, 11 had severe ureteral obstructions and 17 had nonsevere ureteral obstructions. There were no statistically significant differences between the presence or absence of significant microscopic hematuria and the presence or absence of severe ureteral obstruction. Microscopic hematuria is neither sensitive nor specific in determining the degree of calculus-related ureteral obstruction.

  18. Balloon-occluded percutaneous transheptic obliteration of isolated vesical varices causing gross hematuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Dong Hoon; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Min Seok; Kim, Chul Sung [Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    Gross hematuria secondary to vesical varices is an unusual presentation. We report such a case recurrent gross hematuria in a male patient who had a history of bladder substitution with ileal segments that had been treated by balloon-occluded percutaneous transhepatic obliteration of vesical varices.

  19. Acquired factor VIII inhibitor syndrome: A rare cause of hematuria

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    Muthuvel Seral Kannan


    Full Text Available A 50-year-old woman presented with gross hematuria for 1 month. Clinical examinations, laboratory investigations, ultrasound and contrast computed tomography were normal, except anemia. Cystoscopy revealed bloody efflux from the right side. Retrograde pyelogram showed filling defect in the renal pelvis and biopsy was inconclusive. Renal angiogram was normal. She developed ecchymosis on the right thigh and arm with elevated activated partial thromboplastin time. The partial thromboplastin time correction study and Bethesda study confirmed the presence of acquired factor VIII inhibitor (acquired hemophilia. With flexible ureterorenoscopy, the mass in the renal pelvis was removed and its histopathology revealed clotted blood. The patient was subsequently managed with steroids and Factor eight inhibitor bypass activity.

  20. Physiological responses of Brazilian amphibians to an enzootic infection of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. (United States)

    Bovo, Rafael P; Andrade, Denis V; Toledo, Luís Felipe; Longo, Ana V; Rodriguez, David; Haddad, Célio F B; Zamudio, Kelly R; Becker, C Guilherme


    Pathophysiological effects of clinical chytridiomycosis in amphibians include disorders of cutaneous osmoregulation and disruption of the ability to rehydrate, which can lead to decreased host fitness or mortality. Less attention has been given to physiological responses of hosts where enzootic infections of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) do not cause apparent population declines in the wild. Here, we experimentally tested whether an enzootic strain of Bd causes significant mortality and alters host water balance (evaporative water loss, EWL; skin resistance, R(s); and water uptake, WU) in individuals of 3 Brazilian amphibian species (Dendropsophus minutus, n = 19; Ischnocnema parva, n = 17; Brachycephalus pitanga, n = 15). Infections with enzootic Bd caused no significant mortality, but we found an increase in R(s) in 1 host species concomitant with a reduction in EWL. These results suggest that enzootic Bd infections can indeed cause sub-lethal effects that could lead to reduction of host fitness in Brazilian frogs and that these effects vary among species. Thus, our findings underscore the need for further assessment of physiological responses to Bd infections in different host species, even in cases of sub-clinical chytridiomycosis and long-term enzootic infections in natural populations.

  1. Intractable Hematuria After Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation: Can Lessons Learned from Gastrointestinal Bleeding Be Applied? (United States)

    Son, Andre Y; Zhao, Lee; Reyentovich, Alex; Deanda, Abe; Balsam, Leora B


    Patients with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs) are at increased risk of bleeding. We reviewed our institutional experience with bleeding in the urinary tract after CF-LVAD implantation and quantified the impact on hospital resource utilization in comparison with bleeding in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, the most commonly reported mucosal site of bleeding after LVAD implantation. Records were retrospectively reviewed for patients undergoing CF-LVAD implantation at our institution between October 2011 and April 2015. Major adverse events of gross hematuria and GI bleeding were identified, and patient demographics and hospital course were reviewed. Gross hematuria occurred in 3 of the 35 patients (8.6%) and in 5.1% of all hospitalizations for CF-LVAD patients. Severe hematuria occurred after traumatic urethral catheterization, urinary retention, or urologic surgery. Hospitalization for hematuria was six times less likely than hospitalization for GI bleeding; however, hematuria hospitalizations lasted 3.2 times longer than GI bleeding hospitalizations (17.0 vs. 5.3 days). Late recurrent gross hematuria occurred in all cases, with rehospitalization occurring after 109 ± 53 days. In conclusion, gross hematuria is an infrequent but morbid bleeding complication in CF-LVAD patients. Strategies to avoid this complication include strict avoidance of traumatic urethral catheterization and urinary retention in high-risk patients.

  2. Role of m ulti-slice CT urography over ultraso-nography in patients with hematuria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUWADI Ayushma; JIN Ji-yang


    Objective:Understanding the role of Multi-slice CT Urography(MSCTU) over Ultrasonography(US) in patients presenting with hematuria .Materials and Methods:Retrospective study enrolled 131 patients presen-ting with hematuria [ microscopic hematuria ( n=60 ) ] and macroscopic hematuria ( n=71 ) ] who have undergone both MSCTU and US of urinary tract system simultaneously .Results of tests were compared with respective surgical and histopathological analysis of lesion .The cases obtained were bladder carcinoma , ureter carcinoma , renal carci-noma, urinary tract calculi and bladder inflammation .PASW-18th statistical tool was used for obtaining statistical analysis and final interpretation of results .Results:The sensitivity and specificity of MSCTU and US for recognition of lesions presenting with macroscopic hematuria were 95.38%,83.33% and 81.54%,66.67% respectively and for those with microscopic hematuria were 96.08%,88.89%and 86.27%, 77.8%respectively.The positive and negative likelihood ratios of MSCTU and US in macroscopic category were 5.73, 0.055 and 2.46, 0.277 respec-tively while for those in microscopic category were 8.65, 0.044 and 3.88, 0.176 respectively.In context to the sensitivity of MSCTU and US in patients presenting with macroscopic hematuriathedifferenceswere significant ( Mc-Nemar′s test,P=0.039)suggesting the tests are not similar whereas for those with microscopic hematuria the differ-ences were not significant(McNemar′s test, P=2.68) indicatingsimilarity between these tests.Conclusion:Diag-nostic efficacy of MSCTU is found to be far superior over US for patients presenting with macroscopic hematuria , thus current practice of using it as a first line modality seems to be justified .However, for those presenting with mi-croscopic hematuria MSCTU and ultrasonography shows near to similar resultsin accordance to MSCTU , thus US alone seems sufficient to exclude significant urinary tract lesions .

  3. 血尿与尿血%Hematuresis and Hematuria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    [Objective] To explore the connotation and relationship between hematuresis and hematuria, [Method] To sum up pro. Shen Qingfa's experience in treating kidney diseases, such as clinical hematuresis, combining with ancient and present doctors' statement, it induces the treatment based on differentiating signs of hematuresis and that based on differentiating disease of hematuria, [Result] Hematuria is divided into excessive and deficient ones, to clear heat and remove fire, and cool blood and stop bleeding for excessive one; and to tonify Yin and clear heat, cool blood and stop bleeding for deficient one. To take Bazheng Powder for urocystitis hematuresis; revised Maiwei Dihuang Pill for renal pelvis nephritis hematuresis; revised Liuwei Dihuang Pill and Xiaoji Yinzi and Zhuling Decoction for acute nephritis; revised Wubishan Pill for latent nephritis hematuresis; revised Xijiao Dihuang Decoction and Xiaoji Yinzi for purpura nephritis hematuresis in first stage, and revised Erzhi Pill and Zhibai Dihuang Pill in second stage; revised Yinqiao Powder and Xiaoji Yinzi for IgA nephropathy hematuresis in acute period, and revised Taohong Siwu Decoction in chronic period; and take revised Shiwei Powder, Bazheng Powder and Sanjin Decoction for urinary stone hematuresis.[Conclusion] Hematuresis can be divided into infective nephropathy hematuresis, gloinerulus hematuresis and non-glomerulus hematuresis; different type takes different TCM formula, revising with symptoms, with gpod curative effect.%[目的]探究血尿与尿血的涵义和关系.[方法]总结沈庆法教授治疗肾脏病的临床血尿经验方,结合古今医家的阐述,总结归纳尿血的辨证论治和血尿的辨病论治.[结果]尿血分实证尿血和虚证尿血,实火者以清热泻火、凉血止血为法,而虚火者可用养阴清热、凉血止血;膀胱炎血尿可以用八正散加味,肾孟肾炎血尿可用麦味地黄丸加减,急性肾炎血尿可用六味地黄丸、小

  4. Hematuria at laparoscopic hysterectomy: a 9-year review at Sydney West Advanced Pelvic Surgery, Australia. (United States)

    Wilson, Matthew; Merkur, Harry


    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and significance of hematuria during laparoscopic hysterectomy for benign uterine disease. The review assessed its incidence, risk factors, site of associated urinary tract injuries, methods of diagnosis, management strategies, and most likely intraoperative point at which hematuria occurred during laparoscopic hysterectomies. A retrospective review of 755 cases of laparoscopic-assisted and total laparoscopic hysterectomies from January 1998 through December 2006 was undertaken at Sydney West Advanced Pelvic Surgery, Sydney, Australia.

  5. Impact of primary hypertension on hematuria of the patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Li-jun; TANG Yuan; GUO Chao-ming; ZHANG Xiang-hua


    Background Both benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and primary hypertension are common in the elderly men. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible effect of primary hypertension on the hematuria in patients with BPH.Methods All patients who underwent transurethral resection of prostate or opening operation had confirmed diagnoses of BPH histologically. comparative analysis of packet was used to analyze the incidence of hematuria in 423 BPH patients with or without hypertension. Immunostaining of CD34 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was carried out in tissues of 50 cases of simple BPH and 50 cases of BPH accompanied with hypertension. Results The incidence of hematuria in the BPH with hypertension was significantly higher than that in the simple BPH (P<0.01). Furthermore, the incidence of hematuria in patients who had hypertension for more than 10 years was clearly higher than that in the patients who had hypertension for less than 10 years (P <0.01). Both microvessel density (MVD) based on CD34 immunostaining and VEGF expression were significantly higher in the BPH tissues of patients with hypertension than that in the simple BPH (P<0.01, P<0.05).Conclusions Long-term hypertension may significantly increase the incidence of hematuria in patients with both BPH and hypertension. Increased MVD level and VEGF expression may account for the higher incidence of hematuria in these patients.

  6. The efficacy of hemostatic radiotherapy for bladder cancer-related hematuria in patients unfit for surgery

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    E. Lacarriere


    Full Text Available Objective The aim of our study was to assess short and mid-term clinical efficacy of external beam radiation therapy to achieve hemostasis in patients with bladder-cancer related gross hematuria who were unfit for surgery. We also assessed hypofractionation as a possible alternative option for more severe patients. Patients and Methods Thirty-two patients were included for hemostatic radiation therapy, with two schedules based on Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status. The standard treatment was 30 Gy in 10 fractions over 2 weeks. More severe patients underwent a hypofractionated regimen, with 20 Gy in 5 fractions over a one week period. Clinical evaluation was performed at 2 weeks and 6 months. Results At 2 weeks, 69% of patients were hematuria-free. Subgroup analysis showed that 79% of patients undergoing hypofractionated regimen were hematuria-free. A total of 54% were hematuria-free with the standard regimen. Based on tumor stage, hematuria was controlled at 2 weeks for 57% of non-muscle invasive tumors and 72% of muscle-invasive tumors. After 6 months, 69% of patients had relapsed, regardless of tumor stage or therapy schedules. Conclusions Hemostatic radiotherapy is an effective option for palliative-care hematuria related to bladder cancer in patients unfit for surgery. Although it appears to be rapidly effective, its effect is of limited duration. Hypofractionation also seems to be an effective option; however larger cohorts and prospective trials are needed to evaluate its efficacy compared to standard schedules.

  7. Establishing the diagnosis of benign familial hematuria: the importance of examining the urine sediment of family members

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    Blumenthal, S.S.; Fritsche, C.; Lemann, J. Jr


    Patients with microscopic hematuria are generally referred for urologic investigation. The authors describe 30 patients with normal renal function referred to our clinic during the years 1970 through 1987 for evaluation of hematuria, usually microscopic, in whom prior urologic and radiological studies had failed to determine the cause of bleeding. Urinary sediment from the patients and first-degree relatives revealed hemoglobin and red blood cell casts; the inheritance pattern was consistent with autosomal dominant transmission. During follow-up for up to 18 years, renal function remained normal, thus confirming the diagnosis of benign familial hematuria. Immunoglobulin A nephropathy and Alport's syndrome were less common than benign familial hematuria and could be differentiated from it by history, physical examination, and routine laboratory testing. Since benign familial hematuria is a common disorder in adults with hematuria and normal renal function, urinary sediment from patients and family members should be examined before extensive urologic and radiological procedures are performed.

  8. Clinicopathological Analysis of 155 Patients with Persistent Isolated Hematuria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-rong Li; Hang Li; Yu-bin Wen; Qing-yuan Huang; Lin Duan; Yan Li


    Objectives To reveal etiologies of persistent isolated hematuria (PIH) through ultrastructural pathological examination, to disclose clinicopathological correlation in cases with PIH, and to summarize appropriate management of patients with PIH. Methods we retrospectively studied 155 PIH patients receiving renal biopsy between January, 2003 and December, 2008 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital. All the clinical data and follow-up result were analyzed. Results All subjects included 38 children and 117 adults, with mean age of 11.38±3.25 years for children and 35.17±8.44 years for adults. Thin basement membrane nephropathy (TBMN) was the most common pathology (55.3% of children and 49.6% of adults), followed by IgA nephropathy (18.4% of children and 32.5% of adults, mainly grade 2-3) and mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (MsPGN) without IgA deposition (13.2%of children and 12.8%of adults). Besides, Alport syndrome (2.6%of children) and membrane nephropathy (2.6%of children and 0.9%of adults) were demonstrated as other causes of PIH. Elevated mean arteral pressure or protein excretion rate, as well as episodic macrohematuria, indicated higher risk for MsPGN rather than TBMN. On the other hand, severity of microhematuria was irrelevant to pathological types of PIH. Totally, 86 patients were followed up and 37 cases therein stayed on track for long term (mean duration 41.11±28.92 months, range 8-113 months). Most cases had benign clinical course except 3 cases with TBMN, 5 cases with IgA nephropathy, 1 case with MsPGN (without IgA deposition), and 1 case with Alport syndrome, who developed hypertension or proteinuria. All of them were administered timely intervention. Conclusions Close follow-up should be required as the primary management for PIH. Equally important is careful monitoring for early identification of undesirable predictors;while renal biopsy and other timely intervention are warranted if there is hypertension, significant proteinuria or

  9. Superselective embolization of the inferior vesical artery for the treatment of intractable hematuria from pelvic malignancy: Case report

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    Lee, Hyun Jung; Jeon, Eui Yong [Hallym Univ. Sacred Heart Hospital/Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Anyang, (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sun Young [Ewha Womans Univ. Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Kum Hyun [Inje Univ. Ilsan Paik Hospital/Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)


    Intractable hematuria in from pelvic malignancy can be managed with conservative treatment in most patients. However, when treatment fails, surgical intervention may be required. Unfortunately, in most cases, the general condition of most patients is unfavorable for major surgery, with many patients having an inoperable status. We present two cases where intractable hematuria was successfully controlled by bilateral embolization of the inferior vesical artery with polyvinyl alcohol particles. Hematuria did not recur during the subsequent period and no complication was observed. Thus, bilateral embolization of the inferior vesical artery should be considered as an alternative method for the treatment of massive intractable hematuria caused by pelvic malignancy.

  10. 血尿的病因及鉴别%The etiology and differential diagnosis of hematuria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵赞梅; 赵金垣; 徐希娴


    Hematuria is a common clinical symptom. Many reasons can cause red urine which is hematuria or not. For example, kidney disease, hemorrhagic disease and the abnormal of certain metabolites can cause red urine, many drugs, pesticides , heavy metals can cause hematuria. Therefore, there is a close relationship between hematuria and environmental or occupational diseases. In this review, the etiology and differential diagnosis of hematuria were briefly summarized.%血尿是临床常见的症状,其病因很多:出血性疾病、肾脏疾病、体内某些代谢物的异常增多可以引起尿色发红,许多药物、农药、重金属等均可引起血尿,因此,血尿与环境和职业因素导致的疾病关系密切.本文主要对血尿的病因和鉴别诊断进行综述.

  11. A novel method for evaluating and expressing the degree of macroscopic hematuria. (United States)

    Sakuma, Shunji; Fujita, Ryo; Komiya, Hitoshi


    We have created a universal and simple scale of evaluation for urine of the connection pipe attached to a urine collection bag. The figure of the Roman numeral II is printed in black in four different sizes (10.5, 18, 36, and 72 points) using the MS Gothic letter configuration of Microsoft Word on white paper. If this paper is, then, placed beneath the connection pipe attached to a urine collection bag, it becomes possible to determine the grade of hematuria by checking whether the gap between the two lines of II can be seen clearly through the hematuria. Furthermore, we are also able to evaluate the grade of hematuria of urine collected in a cup, by pouring the urine into a small clear tube of the same diameter as the connection pipe.

  12. The accuracy of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of superficial bladder tumors in patients presenting with hematuria (United States)

    Stamatiou, Konstantinos; Papadoliopoulos, Ioannis; Dahanis, Stefanos; Zafiropoulos, Grigoris; Polizois, Konstantinos


    Ultrasonography has been proposed as the initial test for detection of bladder carcinomas in patients presenting with hematuria, but the accuracy of transabdominal ultrasonography in the diagnosis of superficial bladder carcinoma has not been assessed. We prospectively evaluated 173 patients presenting to the outpatient department with painless hematuria by transabdominal ultrasound and cystoscopy. The tolerability of cystoscopy was also assessed. Of 148 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 39 with bladder carcinoma were identified by cystoscopy as having bladder carcinoma, while 34 were identified by ultrasonography. For ultrasonography, the sensitivity (87.1%), specificity (98.1%), positive predictive value (94.4%) and negative predictive value (95.4%) were good but not as good as cystoscopy. While the tolerability of cystoscopy is relatively low, it is still superior to ultrasonography in the evaluation of the bladder as a possible source of hematuria. PMID:19318748

  13. Btryoid Wilm's tumor in a child presenting with gross hematuria: A case report

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    Park, Chae Jung; Im, Young Jae; Shin, Hyun Joo; Kim, Myung Joon; Lee, Mi Jung [Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    We report a unique case of botryoid Wilms' tumor with its characteristic imaging findings in a 5-month-old boy presenting with gross hematuria. In our case, ultrasonography revealed lobulated hyperechoic lesions filling the pelvicalyceal system without parenchymal invasion, mimicking a blood clot. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated the exact extent of the lesion with diffusion restriction and delayed enhancement suggestive of a tumor. Despite their rarity, botryoid Wilms' tumors should be included in the differential diagnosis of lobulated renal pelvic lesions presenting as gross hematuria in children, and MRI can suggest the diagnosis.

  14. The role of imaging in the investigation of painless hematuria in adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Regan, Kevin N


    The radiologic investigation of asymptomatic hematuria has changed significantly due to the introduction of new imaging modalities and innovative techniques, such as computed tomography urogaphy, which allows a comprehensive evaluation of the entire urinary tract in a single study. There is still a role for "older" imaging modalities, such as intravenous urography and ultrasound, and their use is still advocated in younger patients with a lower risk of malignancy to minimize radiation dose. Combined modality imaging can also be useful for characterization of lesions. Guidelines have recently been published for the radiologic investigation of hematuria; these are discussed in this article.

  15. Urinary bladder metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma: A rare cause of hematuria

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    Kan Wai Man Raymond


    Full Text Available We presented an unusual case of hematuria caused by a solitary bladder metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma. A confident diagnosis of secondary adenocarcinoma of the bladder was made by clinical suspicion based on patient′s past history, careful examination of tumor morphology, and a directed panel (cytokeratin [CK] 7/CK20/thyroid transcription factor 1 of immunohistochemistry. We sought, through sharing our experience in the investigative and diagnostic process, to contribute to the better understanding of this unusual cause of hematuria.

  16. Pasteurella multocida and bovine respiratory disease. (United States)

    Dabo, S M; Taylor, J D; Confer, A W


    Pasteurella multocida is a pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium that has been classified into three subspecies, five capsular serogroups and 16 serotypes. P. multocida serogroup A isolates are bovine nasopharyngeal commensals, bovine pathogens and common isolates from bovine respiratory disease (BRD), both enzootic calf pneumonia of young dairy calves and shipping fever of weaned, stressed beef cattle. P. multocida A:3 is the most common serotype isolated from BRD, and these isolates have limited heterogeneity based on outer membrane protein (OMP) profiles and ribotyping. Development of P. multocida-induced pneumonia is associated with environmental and stress factors such as shipping, co-mingling, and overcrowding as well as concurrent or predisposing viral or bacterial infections. Lung lesions consist of an acute to subacute bronchopneumonia that may or may not have an associated pleuritis. Numerous virulence or potential virulence factors have been described for bovine respiratory isolates including adherence and colonization factors, iron-regulated and acquisition proteins, extracellular enzymes such as neuraminidase, lipopolysaccharide, polysaccharide capsule and a variety of OMPs. Immunity of cattle against respiratory pasteurellosis is poorly understood; however, high serum antibodies to OMPs appear to be important for enhancing resistance to the bacterium. Currently available P. multocida vaccines for use in cattle are predominately traditional bacterins and a live streptomycin-dependent mutant. The field efficacy of these vaccines is not well documented in the literature.

  17. Gross hematuria as the presentation of an inguinoscrotal hernia: a case report

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    Ansari Kayvan


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Several complications have been reported with inguinal hernias. Although hematuria and flank pain, either as the presentation or as a complication of inguinal hernia, are infrequent, this condition may lead to the development of obstructive uropathy, which can have diverse manifestations. Case presentation A 71-year-old Iranian man with Persian ethnicity presented with new onset episodes of gross hematuria and left-sided flank pain. A physical examination revealed a large and non-tender inguinal hernia on his left side. An initial workup included an abdominal ultrasound, an intravenous pyelogram and cystoscopy, which showed left hydronephrosis and a bulging on the left-side of his bladder wall. On further evaluation, computed tomography confirmed that his sigmoid colon was the source of the pressure effect on his bladder, resulting in hydroureteronephrosis and hematuria. No tumoral lesion was evident. Herniorrhaphy led to the resolution of his signs and symptoms. Conclusion Our case illustrates a rare presentation of inguinal hernia responsible for gross hematuria and unilateral hydronephrosis. Urologic signs and symptoms can be caused by the content of inguinal hernias. They can also present as complications of inguinal hernias.

  18. Microfilaria in a patient of achylous hematuria: A rare finding in urine cytology

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    Arvind Ahuja


    Full Text Available Filariasis is a widespread public health problem seen commonly in tropical countries. Microfilariae have been reported in aspiration smears from various sites. However, it is very rare to detect these organisms in voided centrifuged urine cytology. We, report this rare finding in a 25-year-old patient who presented with achylous hematuria.

  19. A Rare Cause of Macroscopic Hematuria on Eleven-Year-Old Girl: Bladder Hemangioma

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    Sezgin Guvel


    Full Text Available Hemangiomas of the urinary tract can arise anywhere along the system. These rare benign lesions can cause life-threatening severe hematuria. We  present an 11-year-old girl with recurrent multiple bladder hemangioma treated with fulguration and review of the literature.  

  20. Bladder Metastasis of non-Small Cell Lung Cancer : an Unusual Cause of Hematuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karatas, O. Faruk; Bayrak, Reyhan; Yildirim, M. Erol; Bayrak, Omer; Cimentepe, Ersin; Unal, Dogan


    Approximately 2% of bladder malignancies are metastatic. The lung cancer makes metastasis sporadically to the bladder. A-69-year-old female patient presented with a history of pain in kidneys, vomiting and hematuria. Cystoscopic examination of the patient revealed small bladder capacity and solitary

  1. The diagnostic efficiency of ultrasound guided imaging algorithm in evaluation of patients with hematuria

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    Unsal, Alparslan, E-mail: [Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 09100 Aydin (Turkey); Caliskan, Eda Kazak [Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 09100 Aydin (Turkey); Erol, Haluk [Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Urology, 09100 Aydin (Turkey); Karaman, Can Zafer [Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 09100 Aydin (Turkey)


    Purpose: To assess the efficiency of the following imaging algorithm, including intravenous urography (IVU) or computed tomography urography (CTU) based on ultrasonographic (US) selection, in the radiological management of hematuria. Materials and methods: One hundred and forty-one patients with hematuria were prospectively evaluated. Group 1 included 106 cases with normal or nearly normal US result and then they were examined with IVU. Group 2 was composed of the remaining 35 cases which had any urinary tract abnormality, and they were directed to CTU. Radiological results were compared with clinical diagnosis. Results: Ultrasonography and IVU results of 97 cases were congruent in group 1. Eight simple cysts were detected with US and 1 non-obstructing ureter stone was detected with IVU in remaining 9 patients. The only discordant case in clinical comparison was found to have urinary bladder cancer on conventional cystoscopy. Ultrasonography and CTU results were congruent in 30 cases. Additional lesions were detected with CTU (3 ureter stones, 1 ureter TCC, 1 advanced RCC) in remaining 5 patients. Ultrasonography + CTU combination results were all concordant with clinical diagnosis. Except 1 case, radio-clinical agreement was achieved. Conclusion: Cross-sectional imaging modalities are preferred in evaluation of hematuria. CTU is the method of choice; however the limitations preclude using CTU as first line or screening test. Ultrasonography is now being accepted as a first line imaging modality with the increased sensitivity in mass detection compared to IVU. The US guided imaging algorithm can be used effectively in radiological approach to hematuria.

  2. Ureteroscopic management of chronic unilateral hematuria: a single-center experience over 22 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoo Araki

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the short and long term safety and efficacy of ureteroscopic evaluation and management of chronic unilateral hematuria. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients with chronic unilateral hematuria from 1987 to 2008. The distal to middle ureter was evaluated with a semi-rigid ureteroscope without a guidewire. Subsequently, the flexible ureteroscope was advanced into the upper ureter to the renal pelvis using a low-pressure automated irrigant system (Uromat™. Lesions identified ureteroscopically were treated with diathermy fulguration. RESULTS: One hundred and four (56 male, 48 female patients were identified, with a median age of 37 (14-80 years and median follow-up of 139 (34-277 months. The median preoperative duration of gross hematuria was 5 (1-144 months. Endoscopic findings included 61 (56% minute venous rupture (MVR; a venous bleeding without clear abnormalities, 21 (20% hemangioma (vascular tumor-like structure, 3 (3% varix (tortuous vein, 1 (1% calculus and 18 (17% no lesions. The incidence of "no lesions" was less in the recent 12 years (9% than the first 10 years (27%, while the incidence of MVR increased from 40 to 66% (p<0.05. All patients were treated endoscopically. Immediate success rate was 96% (100% in the recent 12 years. Long-term recurrent gross hematuria rate was 7%. Six resolved spontaneously and only 1 required ureteroscopy, revealing a different bleeding site. CONCLUSION: Ureteroscopy and diathermy fulguration is highly useful for evaluation and treatment of chronic unilateral hematuria. Sophisticated technique and improved instrumentation contributes to a better outcome.

  3. Giant prostatic hyperplasia: report of a previously asymptomatic man presenting with gross hematuria and hypovolemic shock. (United States)

    Wroclawski, Marcelo Langer; Carneiro, Ariê; Tristão, Rodrigo Alves; Sakuramoto, Paulo Kouiti; Youssef, Jorg Daoud Merched; Lopes Neto, Antonio Correa; Santiago, Lucila Heloísa Simardi; Pompeo, Antonio Carlos Lima


    Giant prostatic hyperplasia is a rare condition characterized by very high volume benign prostatic enlargement (>500g). Few cases have been reported so far and most of them are associated with severe lower urinary symptoms. We report the first case of asymptomatic giant prostatic hyperplasia in an elderly man who had a 720g prostate adenoma, sudden gross hematuria and hypovolemic shock. The patient was successfully treated with open transvesical prostatectomy and had an uneventful postoperative recovery.

  4. Clinical testing of combined vaccine against enzootic pneumonia in industrial pig farming in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Pepovich


    Full Text Available In the pig farm with signs of a respiratory disease complex and laboratory confirmed enzootic pneumonia, the prophylactic efficacy of the combination vaccine (M. hyo+PCV2, a single injection administered intramuscularly 21 days after birth, at a dose of 2 ml was tested. The clinical condition, pathological changes in the lungs and some epidemiological and economic results were reported. It was found that vaccinated pigs are in a better clinical condition in comparison with the control group. Morbidity in the rearing period was reduced from 16.3% in the control group to 6.0% in vaccinated pigs, and in the fattening period, respectively, from 30.6% in the control group to 10.0% in the vaccinated group. Pathological features in the lung characteristic for the enzootic pneumonia in the vaccinated pigs were reduced from 25.5%±7.24 to 4.0%±2.44, and PCVI - from 13.0%±4.66 to 0%. Vaccination of pigs has been received and a higher average daily gain in groups for rearing (0.624 kg and for fattening (0.723 kg was recorded.

  5. Utility of urine cytology in evaluating hematuria with sonographically suspected bladder lesion in patients older than 50 years

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    Hussam Eldin Helmy Mady


    Conclusion: Hematuria in patients older than 50 years with sonographically suspected bladder lesion mandates cystoscopy and biopsy. UC does not add more significant information in this group of patients.

  6. Diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis: a novel approach to compare bladder pathology measured by ultrasound and three methods for hematuria detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. van der Werf (Marieke); S.J. de Vlas (Sake)


    textabstractWe aggregated published data from field studies documenting prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium infection and bladder pathology determined by ultrasonography or hematuria detected by reagent strip, questionnaire, or visual examination. A mathematical expression was us

  7. Hematuria renal idiopática: reporte de un caso clínico

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    María A. Serna Valencia


    Full Text Available Se describe un caso de hematuria renal idiopática en un canino de la raza Mastín Napolitano de 7,5 años de edad, presentado a consulta por hematuria con varios meses de evolución; los análisis de sangre, orina y las ayudas de imagenología (radiografía y ecografía no fueron suficientes para indicar un diagnóstico. Se recomendó la celiotomía exploratoria y, después de cateterizar los uréteres desde el interior de la vejiga, se estableció que el sangrado provenía del riñón derecho, el cual fue extirpado con su uréter. Se realizaron exámenes de histopatología del riñón extirpado, encontrándose nefrosis y un proceso degenerativo generalizado a nivel de corteza y médula renal. La hematuria no se resolvió en el postoperatorio, seguramente por ser de origen bilateral; el paciente murió de otra causa no relacionada, y no fue posible evaluar el riñón contralateral.

  8. Association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and hematuria: Results from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClintock, Tyler R. [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Urology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Chen, Yu, E-mail: [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Parvez, Faruque [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Makarov, Danil V. [Department of Urology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service, New York University, New York, NY (United States); United States Department of Veterans Affairs Harbor Healthcare System, New York, NY (United States); New York University Cancer Institute, New York, NY (United States); Ge, Wenzhen [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Hasan, Rabiul; Sarwar, Golam [U-Chicago Research Bangladesh, Ltd., Dhaka (Bangladesh); Slavkovich, Vesna [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Bjurlin, Marc A. [Department of Urology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Graziano, Joseph H. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); and others


    Arsenic (As) exposure has been associated with both urologic malignancy and renal dysfunction; however, its association with hematuria is unknown. We evaluated the association between drinking water As exposure and hematuria in 7843 men enrolled in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data was conducted with As exposure assessed in both well water and urinary As measurements, while hematuria was measured using urine dipstick. Prospective analyses with Cox proportional regression models were based on urinary As and dipstick measurements obtained biannually since baseline up to six years. At baseline, urinary As was significantly related to prevalence of hematuria (P-trend < 0.01), with increasing quintiles of exposure corresponding with respective prevalence odds ratios of 1.00 (reference), 1.29 (95% CI: 1.04–1.59), 1.41 (95% CI: 1.15–1.74), 1.46 (95% CI: 1.19–1.79), and 1.56 (95% CI: 1.27–1.91). Compared to those with relatively little absolute urinary As change during follow-up (− 10.40 to 41.17 μg/l), hazard ratios for hematuria were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.80–1.22) and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65–0.99) for those whose urinary As decreased by > 47.49 μg/l and 10.87 to 47.49 μg/l since last visit, respectively, and 1.17 (95% CI: 0.94–1.45) and 1.36 (95% CI: 1.10–1.66) for those with between-visit increases of 10.40 to 41.17 μg/l and > 41.17 μg/l, respectively. These data indicate a positive association of As exposure with both prevalence and incidence of dipstick hematuria. This exposure effect appears modifiable by relatively short-term changes in drinking water As. - Highlights: • Hematuria is the most common symptom of urinary tract disease. • Arsenic exposure is associated with renal dysfunction and urologic malignancy. • Water arsenic was positively associated with prevalence and incidence of hematuria. • Reduction in exposure lowered hematuria risk especially in low-to-moderate exposed

  9. Vaccination for the control of Rift Valley fever in enzootic and epizootic situations. (United States)

    Dungu, B; Donadeu, M; Bouloy, M


    Vaccination continues to be the most effective way to control Rift Valley fever (RVF), a zoonotic insect-borne viral disease of livestock. The irregular, cyclical and persistent nature of RVF in its occurrence in enzootic situations suggests that the vaccination strategy to be considered for these regions should be different from what is envisaged for free from risk regions. Currently available RVF vaccines have been extensively used for the control of the disease. However, these vaccines have shortcomings that have encouraged many research groups to develop new vaccine candidates that would address a large number of the current challenges, and be suitable for use both in disease-free regions and in different contingency and emergency preparedness strategies. The characteristics of different RVF vaccines and vaccination strategies are discussed in this report.

  10. 61-year-old man with sudden onset of gross hematuria: a case report. (United States)

    Kogan, Alexander; Aitchison, Robert; Lees, Dania S; Landoli, Ciro Louis; Dayrit, Kristoffer; Kharasch, Morris; Wang, Ernest


    A 61-year-old man with a medical history of gastroesophageal reflux disease presented with complaints of gross hematuria for 2 days and occasional epistaxis for 1 week. The medication list included only ranitidine. Laboratory data showed significantly elevated prothrombin time and international normalized ratio. The liver panel was normal. On inspection, the patient's bottle of ranitidine, which was refilled 20 days before, contained 5-mg tablets of warfarin. The international normalized ratio and prothrombin time were reversed with FFP, vitamin K, and Novoseven.

  11. The use of molecular analyses in voided urine for the assessment of patients with hematuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukers, Willemien; Kandimalla, Raju; van Houwelingen, Diandra;


    diagnosed with bladder cancer. In the remaining 115 patients, the cause of hematuria was non-malignant. Urine samples were collected prior to cystoscopy. Urine DNA was analyzed for methylation of OSR1, SIM2, OTX1, MEIS1 and ONECUT2. Methylation percentages were calculated and were combined with clinical...... of 0.307 allowed stratification of patients in a low-risk and high-risk group, resulting in a sensitivity of 82% (44/54) and a specificity of 82% (94/115). Most aggressive tumors were found in patients in the high-risk group. The addition of cytology to the prediction model, improved the AUC from 0...

  12. Gastrocystoplasty and Hematuria-dysuria Syndrome. What Role Plays Helicobacter Pylori? Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán A. Aponte


    Full Text Available 49 years male, who comes to the urology department, complaining of 8 months of lower abdominal pain, burning and oppressive type, of variable intensity reaching 9/10, which is occasionally exacerbated by urination, associated with intermittent gross hematuria, dysuria, refers no fever at any time. Patient with past medical history of bladder and right kidney Tuberculosis (TBC 25 years ago, treated with a simple right nephrectomy and bladder augmentation with antrum segment of stomach, for low bladder capacity. Never showed any symptom during those 25 years lapsing time

  13. Clinicopathological Features and Outcomes of IgA Nephropathy with Hematuria and/or Minimal Proteinuria

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    Min Tan


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Information regarding the clinical and histological prognostic factors of IgA nephropathy (IgAN is mostly derived from patients in whom diagnostic renal biopsies were performed because their proteinuria levels were higher than 1-2 g/d. The clinicopathological features and outcomes of IgAN patients presenting with normal blood pressure, normal renal function, hematuria and minimal or no proteinuria are not well described. We therefore conducted a study of the clinicopathological features and outcomes in IgAN patients with these characteristics. Methods: The clinical, laboratory, and pathological manifestations and long-term outcomes of all IgAN patients with the above-mentioned characteristics were collected. The relationships between renal pathology, injury, long-term outcomes and clinical factors were studied, and the risk factors of IgAN were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Results: Of all of the renal biopsy cases, IgAN with the above features accounted for 8.9%. Among these patients, 67.2% (253 showed simultaneous hematuria and proteinuria, 23.1% (87 showed only hematuria, and 9.7% (36 showed only proteinuria. Additionally, 33.8% (127 patients showed macroscopic hematuria and 65.1% (245 had a prodromal infection. Regarding renal pathological changes, 45.5% (171 of the patients were unexpectedly classified as Grade II to IV (Hass classification. Proteinuria at the time of renal biopsy was an independent predictor of more severe renal pathological injury. After a median follow-up of 75 months, 61 (16.2% patients experienced adverse events. Among these patients, 28 (7.45% exhibited hypertension, 22 (5.85% presented proteinuria levels >1 g/24 h, and 11 (2.9% developed impaired renal function. Conclusions: Severe renal histological injury may be observed in some IgAN patients with benign clinical characteristics. Proteinuria is an independent predictor of severe renal pathological injury in IgAN patients with

  14. Discussion of Renal Hematuria%肾性血尿辨治探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    文章阐述了肾性血尿的病因病机,以脾肾两虚贯穿于发病的始终,治疗以辨证求因,优选药物组方,坚持规范治疗的原则,临床取得较好效果.%This paper expounds the etiology and pathogenesis of renal hematuria, spleen and kidney deficiency in the pathogenesis of two throughout the treatment to all the time, ask for differentiation, the optimum drug formula, adhere to the principle of standardized treatment, clinical achieves good effects.

  15. Massive hematuria due to a congenital renal arteriovenous malformation mimicking a renal pelvis tumor: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sountoulides P


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Congenital renal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs are very rare benign lesions. They are more common in women and rarely manifest in elderly people. In some cases they present with massive hematuria. Contemporary treatment consists of transcatheter selective arterial embolization which leads to resolution of the hematuria whilst preserving renal parenchyma. Case presentation A 72-year-old man, who was heavy smoker, presented with massive hematuria and flank pain. CT scan revealed a filling defect caused by a soft tissue mass in the renal pelvis, which initially led to the suspicion of a transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the upper tract, in view of the patient's age and smoking habits. However a subsequent retrograde study could not depict any filling defect in the renal pelvis. Selective right renal arteriography confirmed the presence of a renal AVM by demonstrating abnormal arterial communication with a vein with early visualization of the venous system. At the same time successful selective transcatheter embolization of the lesion was performed. Conclusion This case highlights the importance of careful diagnostic work-up in the evaluation of upper tract hematuria. In the case presented, a congenital renal AVM proved to be the cause of massive upper tract hematuria and flank pain in spite of the initial evidence indicating the likely diagnosis of a renal pelvis tumor.

  16. 血尿方治疗单纯性血尿59例临床观察%Clinical observation of 59 cases of hematuria decoction in the treatment of simple hematuria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张积银; 张庆合; 陈琼; 陈文


    Objective:To investigate the treatment effect of hematuria decoction in the treatment of hematuria.Methods:59 patients with simple hematuria were selected from February 2012 to May 2014.They were given the hematuria decoction treatment, decocted with water,1 dose/d.2 months was 1 course of the treatment.We observed its total efficiency.Results:29 cases were cured;10 cases were markedly effective;14 cases were effective;6 cases were invalid;the total efficiency was 90%.No adverse reactions. Conclusion:The hematuria decoction has obvious therapeutic effect on simple hematuria.It can rapidly improve the symptoms of patients,and no adverse reaction,so it is worth the clinical promotion.%目的:探讨血尿方治疗单纯性血尿的治疗效果。方法:2012年2月-2014年5月收治单纯性血尿患者59例,给予血尿方治疗,水煎服,1剂/d,2个月为1个疗程,观察其总有效率。结果:痊愈29例,显效10例,有效14例,无效6例,总有效率90%。未见不良反应。结论:血尿方治疗单纯性血尿疗效显著,能够迅速改善患者不适症状,且无不良反应,值得临床推广。

  17. Eficacia de finasterida en el tratamiento de la hematuria asociada a la hiperplasia protática benigna


    Palou, J.; Gausa, L.; J. Salvador; Millán, F.; Segarra, J; H. Villavicencio


    La hematuria es una complicación de la hiperplasia benigna de próstata (HBP), tanto en su evolución natural como durante el seguimiento post cirugía prostática. En el estudio de Mebust et al., de 3000 pacientes sometidos a prostactectomía por Hiperplasia prostática benigna (HBP), en el 12 % la presencia de hematuria fue la causa de esta indicación quirúrgica (1). Existen escasas referencias de la acción de la finasterida ante dicho síntoma (2-7), aunque los resultados publicados hasta el mome...

  18. Comparison of CT urography and intravenous urography in patients with hematuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Guen Young; Kang, Byung Chul; Hwang, Ji Young [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    We wanted to compare CT urography (CTU) with using multi-detector row CT (MDCT) and intravenous urography (IVU) for diagnosing the causes of hematuria. From January 2003 to March 2004, IVU and CTU were obtained in 48 patients. We evaluated the causes of hematuria in 34 of 48 patients. The IVU images were obtained by the conventional method. The CTU images were routinely obtained before intravenous contrast injection, and at 2 and 5 minutes after intravenous contrast injection. In case of delayed excretion of contrast by the kidneys, the delayed CT scans were obtained at 120 minutes after contrast injection. All the CT images, including the axial and 3D coronal reformatted CTUs with using software as well as conventional IVU images, were reviewed by two radiologists working in consensus. We decided if urinary stone existed or not and we looked for the indirect signs such as hydronephrosis or delayed excretion, etc. We also observed if it was possible to determine the mass, ureteral stricture and enhancement of the ureteral wall, etc. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for each modality to diagnose urinary stone. We compared the detection rate according to the phases of CTU. We confirmed the presence of urinary tract stones in 27 of 34 patients who had undergone both IVU and CTU. We diagnosed ureteritis in 1, transitional cell carcinoma in 5 and acute pyelonephritis in 1 of the remaining 7 patients. The urinary stones were detected in fifteen patients on both IVU and CTU (15/27, 55.6%). We detected the urinary stones on CTU, but not IVU, in twelve patients (12/27, 44.5%). The sensitivity to detect the urinary stones was 100% (27/27) on CTU and 55.6% (12/27) on IVU respectively. The specificity was 100% (7/7) on IVU and CTU, respectively. The positive predictive value was 100% (15/15) on IVU and 100% (27/27) on CTU, respectively. The negative predictive value was 36.8% (7/19) on IVU and 100% (7/7) on CTU

  19. Spatial and temporal patterns of enzootic raccoon rabies adjusted for multiple covariates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulldorff Martin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the objective of identifying spatial and temporal patterns of enzootic raccoon variant rabies, a spatial scan statistic was utilized to search for significant terrestrial rabies clusters by year in New York State in 1997–2003. Cluster analyses were unadjusted for other factors, adjusted for covariates, and adjusted for covariates and large scale geographic variation (LSGV. Adjustments were intended to identify the unusual aggregations of cases given the expected distribution based on the observed locations. Results Statistically significant clusters were identified particularly in the Albany, Finger Lakes, and South Hudson areas. The clusters were generally persistent in the Albany area, but demonstrated cyclical changes in rabies activity every few years in the other areas. Cluster adjustments allowed the discussion of possible causes for the high risk raccoon rabies areas identified. Conclusion This study analyzed raccoon variant rabies spatial and temporal patterns in New York that have not been previously described at a focal (census tract level. Comparisons across the type of spatial analysis performed with various degrees of adjustment allow consideration of the potential influence of geographical factors for raccoon rabies and possible reasons for the highest risk areas (statistically significant clusters.

  20. Attraction of mosquitoes to domestic cats in a heartworm enzootic region. (United States)

    Gomes, Luciana A M; Serrão, Maria Lucia; Duarte, Rosemere; Bendas, Alexandre; Labarthe, Norma


    Heartworm disease is caused by a mosquito-borne parasite that can affect many different mammalian species and has worldwide distribution. The agent, Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy 1856), infect mainly dogs but feline infection have been frequently reported in the last decade. Feline heartworm infection is difficult to detect, therefore, low reported prevalence could reflect true low prevalence or poor diagnostic efficiency. As mosquitoes are known to be attracted differently by different mammalian species, mosquitoes were collected from both a cattery and a contiguous home located in a canine heartworm enzootic area in Niterói, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. For 14 months, mosquitoes were collected weekly for genus identification, speciation when possible, and for individual blood meal identification. Culex species mosquitoes were the most captured and those most frequently found with feline blood meal, followed by Aedes species that, although captured in lower numbers, also fed on feline blood. While Culex species mosquitoes have been reported as potential secondary heartworm vectors for dogs and primary vectors for cats, the present results suggest that Aedes species mosquitoes may also be involved in feline heartworm transmission in a larger proportion than previously thought.

  1. Metastatic Bladder Cancer Presenting with Persistent Hematuria in Young Man with Cystic Fibrosis

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    Premal Patel


    Full Text Available We report a case of metastatic bladder cancer developing in a young man with cystic fibrosis (CF that was initially diagnosed as ureterolithiasis and managed as renal colic. With the improved survival of patients with CF, an increasing burden of extrapulmonary disease manifestations is apparent. Renal colic is observed at an increased frequency in patients with CF relative to the general population and is a commonly recognized cause of hematuria. However, CF patients harboring a malignancy are recognized to be at increased risk of delayed identification owing to atypical symptoms and lack of demographic risk factors. This case illustrates how investigations to rule out malignancy are warranted in those CF patients not responding to therapies directed towards presumptive diagnoses.

  2. Metastatic bladder cancer presenting with persistent hematuria in young man with cystic fibrosis. (United States)

    Patel, Premal; Rabin, Harvey R; Vickers, Michael M; Parkins, Michael D


    We report a case of metastatic bladder cancer developing in a young man with cystic fibrosis (CF) that was initially diagnosed as ureterolithiasis and managed as renal colic. With the improved survival of patients with CF, an increasing burden of extrapulmonary disease manifestations is apparent. Renal colic is observed at an increased frequency in patients with CF relative to the general population and is a commonly recognized cause of hematuria. However, CF patients harboring a malignancy are recognized to be at increased risk of delayed identification owing to atypical symptoms and lack of demographic risk factors. This case illustrates how investigations to rule out malignancy are warranted in those CF patients not responding to therapies directed towards presumptive diagnoses.

  3. Clinical Testing of Hematuria%血尿的临床检验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To study patients with hematuria diagnostic test case and affected factors.Methods A total of 250 patients with hematuria physical symptoms from 2008 to 2010,the patient had a urine test,if the situation was unknown,patients with biopsy to find the cause of the patient,the patient hospitalized and more than six months folow-up observation. Results Hematuria associated with many diseases,such as kidney disease,urinary tract diseases,etc,clinical diagnosis was common to more reliable through urine and other tests. Using more microscopy and wright's stain two methods in combination,erythrocytes in urine has a good diagnosis. After treatment,the patient's symptoms improved after 100 patients completed folow-up, four cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia,two cases of bladder tumors,eight cases of renal insufficiency. The rest without exception.Conclusion Hematuria is affected by many factors,can cause kidney disease and injury,need to actively look for reasons to improve patient outcomes.%目的:研究分析血尿症状患者接受检验诊断情况和受影响的因素。方法2008年~2010年我卫生院共有250例体检出现血尿症状的患者,对患者进行了尿检,如果是情况不明患者还进行了肾活检,对患者的病因进行寻找,让患者住院治疗并进行半年以上的观察随访。结果血尿的产生和很多疾病有关,比如肾脏疾病,尿路疾病等,临床中通过尿检和其他检查共同来进行诊断是比较可靠的,使用较多的是显微镜检查法和瑞氏染色两种方法联合使用,对尿中的红细胞形态具有比较好的诊断。治疗后,患者的症状有所好转,100例患者完成随访后,4例前列腺增生,2例膀胱肿瘤,8例肾功能不全。其余无异常。结论血尿的产生受到多方面因素的影响,肾脏疾病和损伤都会引起,需要积极的寻找原因,提升患者的治疗效果。

  4. Prevalence of hypertension in healthy school children in Pakistan and its relationship with body mass index, proteinuria and hematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshalooz Jamila Rahman


    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of high blood pressure (BP in healthy school Pakistani children and its association with high body mass index (BMI, asymptomatic hematuria and proteinuria, we studied 661 public school children and measured their body weight, height and BP and urine dipstick for hematuria performed on a single occasion. Hypertension (BP >95 th centile and pre-hypertension (BP >90 th centile were defined based on the US normative BP tables. Over-weight and obesity were defined according to the World Health Organization (WHO classification of BMI. The mean age of the children was 14 ± 1.3 years. The mean BMI was 18.5 ± 4.3 kg/m 2 . The majority (81.8% of the children were found to be normotensive (BP 25 (RR for BMI b/w 25-30 = 2.6, RR for BMI >30 = 4.3, positive urine dipstick for proteinuria (RR = 2.3 95% CI 0.7-7.7 and positive urine dipstick for hematuria (RR 1.0 95% CI 0.2-8.3. Hypertension in children is strongly correlated with obesity, asymptomatic proteinuria and hematuria. Community based screening programs for children should include BP recording, BMI assessment and urine dipsticks analysis and approach high-risk groups for early detection and lifestyle modifications.

  5. High Diversity of Rabies Viruses Associated with Insectivorous Bats in Argentina: Presence of Several Independent Enzootics (United States)

    Piñero, Carolina; Gury Dohmen, Federico; Beltran, Fernando; Martinez, Leila; Novaro, Laura; Russo, Susana; Palacios, Gustavo; Cisterna, Daniel M.


    Background Rabies is a fatal infection of the central nervous system primarily transmitted by rabid animal bites. Rabies virus (RABV) circulates through two different epidemiological cycles: terrestrial and aerial, where dogs, foxes or skunks and bats, respectively, act as the most relevant reservoirs and/or vectors. It is widely accepted that insectivorous bats are not important vectors of RABV in Argentina despite the great diversity of bat species and the extensive Argentinean territory. Methods We studied the positivity rate of RABV detection in different areas of the country, and the antigenic and genetic diversity of 99 rabies virus (RABV) strains obtained from 14 species of insectivorous bats collected in Argentina between 1991 and 2008. Results Based on the analysis of bats received for RABV analysis by the National Rabies system of surveillance, the positivity rate of RABV in insectivorous bats ranged from 3.1 to 5.4%, depending on the geographic location. The findings were distributed among an extensive area of the Argentinean territory. The 99 strains of insectivorous bat-related sequences were divided into six distinct lineages associated with Tadarida brasiliensis, Myotis spp, Eptesicus spp, Histiotus montanus, Lasiurus blosseviilli and Lasiurus cinereus. Comparison with RABV sequences obtained from insectivorous bats of the Americas revealed co-circulation of similar genetic variants in several countries. Finally, inter-species transmission, mostly related with Lasiurus species, was demonstrated in 11.8% of the samples. Conclusions This study demonstrates the presence of several independent enzootics of rabies in insectivorous bats of Argentina. This information is relevant to identify potential areas at risk for human and animal infection. PMID:22590657

  6. 77 FR 29914 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products (United States)


    ... RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products AGENCY... live bovines and products derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This... with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Comments on the proposed rule were required to......

  7. Genetic heterogeneity among bovine leukemia viruses in Japan and their relationship to leukemogenicity. (United States)

    Inoue, Emi; Matsumura, Keiko; Maekawa, Kohei; Nagatsuka, Kenta; Nobuta, Miwako; Hirata, Moe; Minagawa, Airi; Osawa, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Katsunori


    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in cattle causes persistent lymphocytosis, and a few percent of infected animals develop lymphoid tumors, namely enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL). In this study, a 440-bp fragment of the env gene was amplified from 204 tumor samples collected from different regions of Japan and analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to determine the association of BLV with EBL. Of the seven RFLP types defined, types I, II, and III were dominant and found in 12.7, 75.0, and 8.3% of tumor samples, respectively. Cattle harboring type III virus were significantly older than other animals at the time of diagnosis of EBL. Type III viruses were found in approximately 33% and 5.5% of Japanese Black and Holstein cattle, respectively, with EBL. These findings indicate that genetically distinct BLV was associated with EBL in Japan and that the genetic profile may influence the leukemogenicity of the virus.

  8. Palliative radiotherapy for hematuria complicating the local evolution of primitive bladder cancers; Radiotherapie palliative pour hematurie compliquant l'evolution locale des cancers primitifs de vessie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saillard, S.M.; Benyoucef, A.; Dubray, B. [Centre Henri-Becquerel, 76 - Rouen (France); Smaali, C.; Albouy, B.; Pfister, C.; Grise, P. [Centre hospitalier universitaire, 76 - Rouen (France)


    As a haemostatic irradiation is often proposed to patients suffering from a primitive bladder cancer, the authors report a retrospective mono-centric analysis of the effects of an external bi-dimensional palliative radiotherapy on patients taken into care for relapsing macroscopic hematuria after failure of local urological treatments. The assessment concerns the hematuria persistence, the interval without hematuric relapse, global survival, and transfusion needs. Based on a sample of 21 patients submitted to different irradiation schemes, the authors notice that a simple pelvic irradiation technique results in a fast symptomatic improvement of hematuria among fragile patients. Short communication

  9. Evaluation of the Importance of VlsE Antigenic Variation for the Enzootic Cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem S Rogovskyy

    Full Text Available Efficient acquisition and transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi by the tick vector, and the ability to persistently infect both vector and host, are important elements for the life cycle of the Lyme disease pathogen. Previous work has provided strong evidence implicating the significance of the vls locus for B. burgdorferi persistence. However, studies involving vls mutant clones have thus far only utilized in vitro-grown or host-adapted spirochetes and laboratory strains of mice. Additionally, the effects of vls mutation on tick acquisition and transmission has not yet been tested. Thus, the importance of VlsE antigenic variation for persistent infection of the natural reservoir host, and for the B. burgdorferi enzootic life cycle in general, has not been examined to date. In the current work, Ixodes scapularis and Peromyscus maniculatus were infected with different vls mutant clones to study the importance of the vls locus for the enzootic cycle of the Lyme disease pathogen. The findings highlight the significance of the vls system for long-term infection of the natural reservoir host, and show that VlsE antigenic variability is advantageous for efficient tick acquisition of B. burgdorferi from the mammalian reservoir. The data also indicate that the adaptation state of infecting spirochetes influences B. burgdorferi avoidance from host antibodies, which may be in part due to its respective VlsE expression levels. Overall, the current findings provide the most direct evidence on the importance of VlsE for the enzootic cycle of Lyme disease spirochetes, and underscore the significance of VlsE antigenic variation for maintaining B. burgdorferi in nature.

  10. Evaluation of the Importance of VlsE Antigenic Variation for the Enzootic Cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi. (United States)

    Rogovskyy, Artem S; Casselli, Timothy; Tourand, Yvonne; Jones, Cami R; Owen, Jeb P; Mason, Kathleen L; Scoles, Glen A; Bankhead, Troy


    Efficient acquisition and transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi by the tick vector, and the ability to persistently infect both vector and host, are important elements for the life cycle of the Lyme disease pathogen. Previous work has provided strong evidence implicating the significance of the vls locus for B. burgdorferi persistence. However, studies involving vls mutant clones have thus far only utilized in vitro-grown or host-adapted spirochetes and laboratory strains of mice. Additionally, the effects of vls mutation on tick acquisition and transmission has not yet been tested. Thus, the importance of VlsE antigenic variation for persistent infection of the natural reservoir host, and for the B. burgdorferi enzootic life cycle in general, has not been examined to date. In the current work, Ixodes scapularis and Peromyscus maniculatus were infected with different vls mutant clones to study the importance of the vls locus for the enzootic cycle of the Lyme disease pathogen. The findings highlight the significance of the vls system for long-term infection of the natural reservoir host, and show that VlsE antigenic variability is advantageous for efficient tick acquisition of B. burgdorferi from the mammalian reservoir. The data also indicate that the adaptation state of infecting spirochetes influences B. burgdorferi avoidance from host antibodies, which may be in part due to its respective VlsE expression levels. Overall, the current findings provide the most direct evidence on the importance of VlsE for the enzootic cycle of Lyme disease spirochetes, and underscore the significance of VlsE antigenic variation for maintaining B. burgdorferi in nature.

  11. Analysis of the relationship between hematuria and small intestine%试析溺血何出自小肠

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雁; 常毓颖


    Chronic glomerulonephritis is subordinate to the category of hematuria in traditional Chinese medicine. Essential debility and evil reality is the essential pathogenesis. It is closely related to Mibie Qingzhuo function of small intestine. The therapeutic method of hematuria is supplementing deficiency and eliminating pathogen, but the recovery of small intestine Mibie Qingzhuo function should be valued.%现代肾小球肾炎归属于祖国医学溺血范畴,其病机为本虚标实,与小肠泌别清浊功能紧密相关。治疗溺血不仅要补虚祛邪,而且应重视恢复小肠泌别清浊功能。

  12. Plasma and urine DNA levels are related to microscopic hematuria in patients with bladder urothelial carcinoma. (United States)

    de Almeida, Eduardo Ferreira Pedroso; Abdalla, Tomás Elias; Arrym, Tiago Pedromonico; de Oliveira Delgado, Pamela; Wroclawski, Marcelo Langer; da Costa Aguiar Alves, Beatriz; de S Gehrke, Flávia; Azzalis, Ligia Ajaime; Alves, Sarah; Tobias-Machado, Marcos; de Lima Pompeo, Antonio Carlos; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso


    a) Objective: An increase in cell-free DNA was observed in the plasma of many cancer patients. This major biomarker can be used to differentiate patients with malignant neoplasms from those with benign neoplasms or healthy patients. Depending on the characteristic of the tumor, there are qualitative variations in the circulating cell-free DNA. Today, studies on the concentration of fragments of circulating cell-free DNA and their respective sizes in patients with bladder cancer are not plentiful in the literature. A 100% effective plasma tumor marker, which would help in the diagnosis and follow-up of bladder cancer, is yet to be developed; therefore, cell-free DNA levels in the plasma may represent a valuable biomarker for the diagnosis, prognosis and follow-up of patients with this type of tumor. b) Design and methods: In this study we analyze the kinetics of plasma and urine DNA concentrations in patients with bladder cancer, relating them to the other clinical laboratory variables. c) Results: Patients with hematuria showed a positive correlation with urine DNA. d) Conclusion: An increase in plasma and urine DNA was unprecedentedly reported over time, a fact that may come in handy in the prognosis of patients. Furthermore, microscopic haematuria is correlated with plasma and urinary DNA levels.

  13. Female urethral cavernous hemangioma - An unusual cause of hematuria: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivraj N Kanthikar


    Full Text Available Hemangiomas are benign vascular lesion, most commonly seen in liver and skin whereas rarely found in genitourinary system. Urethral hemangiomas are mostly found in males. To the best of our knowledge, in females only handful of case reports has been described in the literature. We report a case of urethral hemangioma in a 28-year-old female presented with history of intermittent hematuria. Cystourethroscopy examination revealed vascular mass of 2 cm Χ 2 cm at anterior urethral meatus. Surgical excision of mass with fulguration of base with diathermy was performed under general anesthesia. Final diagnosis on histopathology was given as cavernous type of urethral hemangioma. In spite of its benign nature, these lesions have a tendency to recur. In more extensive lesions or recurrence, open exploration with resection of involved tissue is always needed. Treatment of hemangiomas depends on size and site of the lesion and follow-up is needed to avoid recurrence. Histomorphological diagnosis of the lesion is always warranted in view of different treatment modalities.

  14. Study on Treating Renal Hematuria from Kidney Collateral Stasis%从肾络瘀阻辨治肾性血尿探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周燕妮; 汤水福


    肾性血尿是慢性肾脏病的常见症状之一,临床上反复发作,缠绵难愈.文章试从肾络瘀阻的形成及病理变化,探讨其与肾性血尿的关系.提出从肾络瘀阻辩治肾性血尿,尤其是顽固性血尿,是提高临床疗效的重要方法.%Renal hematuria is a common and recurrent symptom of chronic kidney diseases. This paper discusses the formation and pathological changes of kidney collateral stasis, and the relationship with renal hematuria. We propose that treating renal hematuria from kidney collateral stasis, especial for obstinacy hematuria, is an important way to improve the clinical efficacy.

  15. Nephrotic Syndrome without Hematuria due to Infection-Related Glomerulonephritis Mimicking Minimal-Change Disease in a Child. (United States)

    Iwafuchi, Yoichi; Morioka, Tetsuo; Morita, Takashi; Watanabe, Kanako; Oyama, Yuko; Narita, Ichiei


    Nephrotic syndrome without hematuria due to infection-related glomerulonephritis is uncommon. The present report describes a case of nephrotic syndrome due to infection-related glomerulonephritis without hematuria and hypertension in an older child. A 14-year-old boy was referred to our hospital because of a 5-day history of fever, nausea, weight gain and recent leg edema without hypertension. Laboratory data showed nephrotic-range proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, mild hypocomplementemia and acute renal injury without hematuria. Although, due to the clinical presentation, minimal-change nephrotic syndrome was mostly suspected, a renal biopsy showed endocapillary hypercellularity mainly of mononuclear cells with segmental mesangiolytic changes. Fine granular IgG and C3 deposits were noted by an immunofluorescent study; many relatively small electron-dense deposits were observed electron-microscopically. These findings led to the diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome due to infection-related endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis, although the causative organism of his nephritis was not detected. He recovered with rest and dietary cure. When we examine an acute nephrotic child, infection-related glomerulonephritis should be considered as the differential diagnosis to avoid unnecessary use of corticosteroids.

  16. [Study of the probable role of the agent of enzootic ovine abortion in infectious human pathology. Preliminary report]. (United States)

    Gnutov, I N; Erokhina, S G


    418 workers were surveyed at a meat-packing plant. The presence of complement-fixing antibodies to the causative agent of enzootic abortion of sheep (EAS) was detected in 59 workers (14.27%), brucellosis in 32 workers (7.64%) and Q fever in 5 workers (1.18%). EAS antibodies were found to reach titers of 1 : 10 to 1 : 40 and higher, changing dynamically. The persons found to be seropositive belonged mainly to the workers of the sausage-making, slaughtering, intestinal, subproduct and skin-salting departments, as well as to the workers of the sanitary slaughter-house. Such diseases as acute respiratory infections, pneumonia, arthralgia, arthritis, and in women inflammatory urogenital infections, as well as spontaneous abortions were more frequent among the workers seropositive to the causative agent of EAS than in the control groups. Enzootic halprovial abortion of sheep was suggested to be potentially dangerous for certain groups of workers at the meat-packing plant, but the results of the survey indicate that further research in the fields of the epidemiology, clinical picture and laboratory diagnostics of infectious pathology in persons having contacts with the animals infected with the causative agent of EAS is necessary.

  17. Reducing radiation in CT urography for hematuria: Effect of using 100 kilovoltage protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sungwon, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 505 Banpo-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Seung Eun, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 505 Banpo-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Rha, Sung Eun, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 505 Banpo-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Jae Young, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 505 Banpo-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of)


    Objective: To compare 128-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) at 100 kVp and 120 kVp for image quality and radiation dose. Materials and methods: Our study had approval of our institutional review board. We retrospectively selected 25 patients who underwent CT urography for the evaluation of hematuria. The CT scans were taken with 128-slice MDCT, with three phases (precontrast, nephrographic, and excretory), using an automatic tube current modulation with reference tube level of 180 mA s and tube voltages of either 100 kVp (n = 14, mean age 26.71) or 120 kVp (n = 11, mean age 25.54). The signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR) of the urinary tract, the subjective image quality of the urinary tract evaluated with a five point scale by two radiologists and the effective dose calculated on the basis of dose-length-product (DLP) and volume-CT-dose-index (CTDIvol) were compared between the groups with Student's t test or Mann-Whitney U test. Results: There was no significant difference in the SNR (p = 0.358), CNR (p = 0.303) and the subjective image quality (p = 0.486) between the two protocols. The mean CTDIvol, DLP and the effective dose in the 100 kVp protocol were significantly lower than the 120 kVp protocol (p = 0.000, 0.000). Conclusion: CT urography using 100 kVp protocol resulted in reduction of radiation dose without loss of objective or subjective image quality.

  18. 自制血尿目测比色卡在经皮肾镜取石术后血尿观察中的应用效果%Application effects of self-made hematuria visual color card on hematuria observation postoperative hematuria of percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓丽; 乔够梅


    Objective To investigate the the application effect of self-made homemade hematuria visual color card in postoperative hematuria of percutaneous. Methods A total of 137 postoperative percutaneous nephrolithotomy patients were randomly admitted to either intervention group ( n=66 ) or control group ( n=71). The patients of control group adopted routine nursing and the patients of intervention group received homemade hematuria visual color card to observation illness. Results The duration of hematuria in observation group was shorter than in observation group, and the number of bleeding cases was easy to be found than that of control group, and the treatment rate was higher than that of control group (P <0. 05). Conclusions The homemade hematuria visual color card can help medical staff estimate the degree of bleeding after percutaneous renal puncture and provide a reliable basis for the observation.%目的 探讨血尿目测比色卡在经皮肾镜取石术后出血观察中的实施效果.方法 设计制作血尿目测比色卡,将137例经皮肾镜取石术后患者前后对照分组.对照组71例患者应用常规护理,观察组66例经皮肾镜取石术后患者应用血尿目测比色卡进行病情观察.比较两组效果.结果 观察组血尿持续时间短于对照组,及时发现出血例数多于对照组,及时救治率高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 经临床使用,色卡能帮助医护人员估计经皮肾穿刺术后出血的程度,为病情观察提供可靠依据.

  19. Vector competence of Mexican and Honduran mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) for enzootic (IE) and epizootic (IC) strains of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus. (United States)

    Turell, Michael J; O'Guinn, Monica L; Navarro, Roberto; Romero, Guadeloupe; Estrada-Franco, José G


    Experimental studies evaluated the vector competence of Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann), Culex cancer Theobald, Culex pseudes (Dyar and Knab), Culex taeniopus Dyar and Knab, and a Culex (Culex) species, probably Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Culex nigripalpus Theobald from Chiapas, Mexico, and Tocoa, Honduras, for epizootic (IC) and enzootic (IE) strains of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus. Culex pseudes was highly susceptible to infection with both the IC and IE strains of VEE (infection rates >78%). Patterns of susceptibility to VEE were similar for Oc. taeniorhynchus collected in Mexico and Honduras. Although Oc. taeniorhynchus was highly susceptible to the epizootic IC strains (infection rates > or = 95%, n = 190), this species was less susceptible to the enzootic IE strain (infection rates < or = 35%, n = 233). The Culex (Culex) species were refractory to both subtypes of VEE, and none of 166 contained evidence of a disseminated infection. Virus-exposed Cx. pseudes that refed on susceptible hamsters readily transmitted virus, confirming that this species was an efficient vector of VEE. Although Oc. taeniorhynchus that fed on hamsters infected with the epizootic IC strain transmitted VEE efficiently, only one of six of those with a disseminated infection with the enzootic IE virus that fed on hamsters transmitted virus by bite. These data indicate that Cx. pseudes is an efficient laboratory vector of both epizootic and enzootic strains of VEE and that Oc. taeniorhynchus could be an important vector of epizootic subtypes of VEE.

  20. Epidemiology investigation of hematuria in healthy physical examinees of Deyang%德阳市区健康体检者血尿流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莹; 何联勇; 赵进; 杨初霞


    目的 了解德阳市区健康体检者血尿的患病率及主要危险因素.方法 调查2011年1-12月4871例健康体检者血尿的患病情况,分析血尿相关危险因素.结果 血尿总患病率为2.46%(男性1.29%,女性5.21%).女性血尿患病率高于男性,差异有统计学意义(P<0 05);血尿患病率随年龄增加而升高(P<0 05).性别、年龄、高血压、高脂血症是血尿的危险因素.结论 应加强对高危人群血尿的筛查和预防,有针对性采取干预措施.%Objective To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of hematuria in physical examination adults in Deyang.Methods A total of 4871 physical examination adults selected from the Fifth Hospital of Deyang between January and December 2011 were investigated for prevalences of hematuria.Then the risk factor of hematuria was analyzed.Results The prevalence of hematuria was 2.46% (male 1.29%,female 5.21%).The prevalence of hematuria was higher in female and increased with age.Elder,female,high blood pressure,hyperlipemia were the risk factors of hematuria.Conclusions Hematuria in high risk group should be screened and some intervention actions should be taken purposely.

  1. Multiple Embolism in a Female Patient with Infective Endocarditis: Low Back Pain and Hematuria as the Initial Clinical Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Marcelo Luiz Campos


    Full Text Available A 59-year-old female patient with mitral valve prolapse and a previous history of lumbosacral spondyloarthrosis and lumbar disk hernia had an episode of infective endocarditis due to Streptococcus viridans, which evolved with peripheral embolism to the left kidney, spleen, and left iliac artery, and intraventricular cerebral hemorrhage. Her clinical manifestations were low back pain and hematuria, which were initially attributed to an osteoarticular condition. Infective endocarditis is a severe polymorphic disease with multiple clinical manifestations and it should always be included in the differential diagnosis by clinicians.

  2. Transarterial coil embolization in treatment of gross hematuria following self-inflicted stab wound in a horse-shoe kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezeshki Rad Masoud


    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Horseshoe kidney is an uncommon anomaly of the urinary system with an increased risk of injury during penetrating and blunt abdominal traumas. Self-inflicted abdominal stab wound, a rare type of abdominal injury, accounts for only a small percentage of suicidal at-tempts and may be infrequently encountered by physicians in trauma centers. Psychiatric disorders and alcohol or drug abuse are common risk factors in cases of self-stabbing. Here we report a rare case of self-stabbing of a horseshoe kidney. The case was a 19-year-old man with self-inflicted abdominal stab wound who was referred to our department of radiology due to re-occurred gross hematuria three days after exploratory laparotomy and surgical repair of injured abdominal organs. A horseshoe kidney was incidentally found in the patient’s abdominal computed tomography. Renal angiography revealed active contrast extravasation from one of the segmental arteries. Selective transarterial embolization with a coil was successfully performed to con-trol the hematuria. Key words: Embolization, therapeutic; Kidney; Wounds, stab

  3. Transarterial coil embolization in treatment of gross hematuria following self-inflicted stab wound in a horseshoe kidney

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masoud Pezeshki Rad; Hassan Ahmadnia; Mahboobeh Abedi; Mohammad Sadegh Abedi


    Horseshoe kidney is an uncommon anomaly of the urinary system with an increased risk of injury during penetrating and blunt abdominal traumas.Selfinflicted abdominal stab wound,a rare type of abdominal injury,accounts for only a small percentage of suicidal attempts and may be infrequently encountered by physicians in trauma centers.Psychiatric disorders and alcohol or drug abuse are common risk factors in cases of self-stabbing.Here we report a rare case of self-stabbing of a horseshoe kidney.The case was a 19-year-old man with self-inflicted abdominal stab wound who was referred to our department of radiology due to re-occurred gross hematuria three days after exploratory laparotomy and surgical repair of injured abdominal organs.A horseshoe kidney was incidentally found in the patient's abdominal computed tomography.Renal angiography revealed active contrast extravasation from one of the segmental arteries.Selective transarterial embolization with a coil was successfully performed to control the hematuria.

  4. 孤立性血尿诊治中的一些问题%Diagnosis and treatment of isolated hematuria:a few points

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    孤立性血尿(isolated hematuria)指仅尿中红细胞数量超过正常,而无明确的全身性和(或)泌尿系疾病及其相关的检查异常(如水肿、高血压、肾功能减退等)而言。在1979年我国儿科肾脏病科研协作组拟定的肾脏病分类方案中称“无症状性血尿”(asymptomatic hematuria),1981年修订为“单纯性血尿”[1],2000年中华医学会儿科学分会肾脏病学组于珠海会议上命名为“孤立性血尿”(isolated hematuria)[2]。

  5. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products (United States)


    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule...

  6. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products (United States)


    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing...

  7. 2型糖尿病并发血尿的临床分析%Clinical analysis of type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with hematuria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢潜红; 沈世忠; 杨忠民; 胡义阳; 孙凌云; 蔡佳盈


    目的:分析2型糖尿病并发血尿的原因,探讨与糖尿病肾病之间的关系。方法:回顾性地总结38例2型糖尿病合并血尿患者的临床资料。结果:血尿原因为多方面,包括糖尿病和非糖尿病因素,如感染、尿路结石、肿瘤、原发性和继发性肾小球肾炎等。结论:糖尿病合并血尿并不一定存在糖尿病肾脏疾病。大部分血尿原因通过临床检查可以确诊。%Objective:To analyze the causes of hematuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,and explore the relationship between hematuria and diabetic nephropathy.Methods:38 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with hematuria were selected.Their clinical data were summaried retrospectively.Results:There are variety of reasons which can lead to hematuria, including diabetes and non diabetes mellitus,such as infection,urinary calculi,tumor,primary and secondary glomerular nephritis. Conclusion:Not all patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with hematuria exist diabetic kidney disease.Most of the reasons that leading to hematuria can be diagnosed by clinical examination.

  8. Clinical diagnostic value of laboratory testing for hematuria%血尿实验室检测的临床诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周伟梁; 曾凡杰; 秦伟毅


    Objective: To judge the diagnostic value of laboratory testing for hematuria. Methods: Mean corpuscular volume ( MCV ) , red blood cell distribution width ( RDW) and urine - erythrocytes shape of 86 hedmaturia patients were detected. Results: Urine - erythrocytes abnormality rate of glomerular hematuria was 91. 11% , and that of non - glo - merular hematuria was 29. 27% . The MCV of glomerular hematuria was 68. 36 ±7. 58 fL, and that of non - glomerular hematuria was 87. 64 ±7. 52 fL. The RDW of glomerular hematuria was 25. 14 ±4. 37% , and that of non - glomerular hematuria was 16. 36 ±2. 59%. Conclusion: Union testing of RBC morph, MCV and RDW have some reference value in hematuria diagnosis.%目的:利用红细胞分析仪检测血尿,评价实验室检测的诊断价值.方法:检测86例血尿患者的血尿红细胞平均体积和分布宽度,镜检尿红细胞形态.结果:肾小球性血尿红细胞畸形率为91.11%,非肾小球性血尿红细胞畸形率为29.27%;肾小球性血尿红细胞平均体积为68.36±7.58 fL,非肾源性血尿红细胞平均体积为87.64 ±7.52 fL;肾小球性血尿红细胞体积分布宽度为23.14 ±4.37%,非肾源性血尿红细胞体积分布宽度为16.36±2.59%.结论:联合检测患者血尿红细胞形态、平均体积和分布宽度,有一定的诊断参考价值.

  9. Unlocking the bovine genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worley Kim C


    Full Text Available Abstract The draft genome sequence of cattle (Bos taurus has now been analyzed by the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium and the Bovine HapMap Consortium, which together represent an extensive collaboration involving more than 300 scientists from 25 different countries.

  10. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langholm Jensen, Jesper; Mølgaard, Anne; Navarro Poulsen, Jens Christian;


    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined...... interactions arising from variation in the surface charges and the greater malleability both in domain movements and substrate binding contribute to the better milk-clotting activity of camel chymosin towards bovine milk....

  11. Infecção pelo vírus da leucose enzoótica bovina(BLV Enzootic bovine leukosis infection(BLV

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    Fátima Machado Braga


    Full Text Available O vírus da leucose bovina (BLV é o agente causal de duas condições clínicas relacionadas aos bovinos: o linfossarcorma, doença neoplásica comum no gado adulto, e linfocitose persistente, proliferação benigna das células linfóides. A identificação do BLV em 1969 e o subseqüente desenvolvimento de técnicas sorológicas sensíveis permitiram o reconhecimento da infecção como prevalente em muitos países, principalmente no gado leiteiro. Devido a inexistência de tratamento ou de uma vacina eficaz, as pesquisas concentram-se nos modos de transmissão e no desenvolvimento de programas de controle e prevenção da infecção. Este trabalho faz uma revisão bibliográfica sobre o BLV, incluindo modos de infecção, sinais clínicos e diagnóstico laboratorial, além de descrever medidas que o produtor deve seguir para prevenir ou controlar a disseminação do vírus no rebanho.Bovino leukaemia virus (BLV is the causative agent of tvo related conditions in cattle: the lymphosarcoma, common neoplastic disease of cattle, and persistent lymphocytosis, a benign proliferation of lymphoide cells. The identification of BLV in 1969 and the subsequent development of sensitive serological techniques allowed the recognition that infections of BLV are prevalent in many countries, especially in dairy cattle. Because of there 's no effective therapy or vaccine, the investigations concentrate on modes of transmission and the development of control and prevention programmes. This paper reviews the BLV, as to their modes of infection, clinical disease and laboratory diagnosis and also describes measures which the owner may take to prevent or control the dissemination of the virus in the herd.

  12. 儿童肉眼血尿63例临床分析%Clinical Analysis of 63 Children with Gross Hematuria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧; 林瑜; 钟日荣


    目的:探讨儿童肉眼血尿的病因和临床意义。方法对63例首次以肉眼血尿为主要症状患儿的病因进行回顾性分析。结果63例患儿中肾小球性血尿50例(79.37%),非肾小球性血尿13例(20.63%)。急性肾小球肾炎7例(11.11%)、IgA 肾病20例(31.75%)、原发性肾病综合征3例(4.76%)、紫癜性肾炎9例(14.28%)、狼疮性肾炎3例(4.76%)、药物性血尿7例(11.11%)、Alport 综合征1例(1.58%),泌尿系感染6例(9.52%)、泌尿系结石3例(4.76%)、肾肿瘤1例(1.58%)、白血病1例(1.58%)、脓毒症并弥漫性血管内凝血(DIC)2例(3.17%)。结论小儿肉眼血尿病因复杂,必须通过认真分析病史、伴随症状体征和特异的实验室指标,并结合尿红细胞形态来确定肉眼血尿来源。当肉眼血尿排除了非肾小球血尿,而且迁延不愈、反复发作、难以明确病因时,应动员对患儿尽早行肾活检术。%Objective To investigate the causes and the clinical significance of the children with gross hematuria. Methods Restrospective analysis of the causes of 63 children with gross hematuria. Results Among 63 children with gross hematuria, 50 cases were with glomerular hematuria(79.3%) and 13 cases were with non-glomerular hematuria(20.63). The causes of hematuria of 63 cases included 7 cases of acute glomerulonephritis(11.11%), 20 cases of IgA renopathy(1.58%), 3 cases of primary nephrotic syndrome(4.76%), 9 cases of anaphylactic purpura nephritis(14.28%), 3 cases of lupus nephritis(4.76%), 7 cases of drug-induced hematuria (11.11%), 1 case of Alport Syndrome(1.58%), 6 cases of urinary tract infection(9.52%), 3 cases of urinary calculus(4.76%), 1 case of renal tumor(1.58%), 1 case of leukemia(1.58%), 2 cases of sepsis with disseminated intravascular coagulation(3.17%). Conclusion The causes of gross hematuria of children are complex, so the history, symptoms, signs and lab

  13. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus


    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown aetiol

  14. Spread of Coxiella burnetii between dairy cattle herds in an enzootic region: modelling contributions of airborne transmission and trade. (United States)

    Pandit, Pranav; Hoch, Thierry; Ezanno, Pauline; Beaudeau, François; Vergu, Elisabeta


    Q fever, a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a looming concern for livestock and public health. Epidemiological features of inter-herd transmission of C. burnetii in cattle herds by wind and trade of cows are poorly understood. We present a novel dynamic spatial model describing the inter-herd regional spread of C. burnetii in dairy cattle herds, quantifying the ability of airborne transmission and animal trade in C. burnetii propagation in an enzootic region. Among all the new herd infections, 92% were attributed to airborne transmission and the rest to cattle trade. Infections acquired following airborne transmission were shown to cause relatively small and ephemeral intra-herd outbreaks. On the contrary, disease-free herds purchasing an infectious cow experienced significantly higher intra-herd prevalence. The results also indicated that, for short duration, both transmission routes were independent from each other without any synergistic effect. The model outputs applied to the Finistère department in western France showed satisfactory sensitivity (0.71) and specificity (0.80) in predicting herd infection statuses at the end of one year in a neighbourhood of 3 km around expected incident herds, when compared with data. The model developed here thus provides important insights into the spread of C. burnetii between dairy cattle herds and paves the way for implementation and assessment of control strategies.

  15. Molecular epidemiology of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae from outbreaks of enzootic pneumonia in domestic pig and the role of wild boar. (United States)

    Kuhnert, Peter; Overesch, Gudrun


    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the major cause of enzootic pneumonia (EP) in domestic pigs, a disease with low mortality but high morbidity, having a great economic impact for producers. In Switzerland EP has been successfully eradicated, however, sporadic outbreaks are observed with no obvious source. Besides the possibility of recurrent outbreaks due to persisting M. hyopneumoniae strains within the pig population, there is suspicion that wild boars might introduce M. hyopneumoniae into swine herds. To elucidate possible links between domestic pig and wild boar, epidemiological investigations of recent EP outbreaks were initiated and lung samples of pig and wild boar were tested for the presence of specific genotypes by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Despite generally different genotypes in wild boar, outbreak strains could be found in geographically linked wild boar lungs after, but so far not before the outbreak. Recurrent outbreaks in a farm were due to the same strain, indicating unsuccessful sanitation rather than reintroduction by wild boar. In another case outbreaks in six different farms were caused by the same strain never found in wild boar, confirming spread between farms due to hypothesized animal transport. Results indicate the presence of identical lineages of wild boar and domestic pig strains, and possible transmission of M. hyopneumoniae between wild boar and pig. However, the role of wild boar might be rather one as a recipient than a transmitter. More important than contact to wild boar for sporadic outbreaks in Switzerland is apparently persistence of M. hyopneumoniae within a farm as well as transmission between farms.

  16. Anterior Nutcracker syndrome as a rare cause of hematuria in an 8 year old boy: A case report

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    Prashant S Patil


    Full Text Available Nutcracker syndrome is caused by a compression of the left renal vein between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery. It results in left renal venous hypertension, and the subsequent development of venous varicosities of the renal pelvis, ureter, and gonadal vein. We report a rare case in an 8-year-old boy who presented with a history of intermittent episodes of hematuria leading to anemia and left flank pain. Ultrasound examination of abdomen revealed bulky left kidney and features of subacute medical renal disease. Computed tomography of abdomen showed compressed left renal vein between aorta and superior mesenteric artery. Authors report the successful operative management of this rare syndrome in a pediatric patient.

  17. Vector control improves survival of three species of prairie dogs (Cynomys) in areas considered enzootic for plague (United States)

    Biggins, Dean E.; Godbey, Jerry L.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Carter, Leon G.; Montenieri, John A.


    Plague causes periodic epizootics that decimate populations of prairie dogs (PDs) (Cynomys), but the means by which the causative bacterium (Yersinia pestis) persists between epizootics are poorly understood. Plague epizootics in PDs might arise as the result of introductions of Y. pestis from sources outside PD colonies. However, it remains possible that plague persists in PDs during interepizootic periods and is transmitted at low rates among highly susceptible individuals within and between their colonies. If this is true, application of vector control to reduce flea numbers might reduce mortality among PDs. To test whether vector control enhances PD survival in the absence of obvious plague epizootics, we reduced the numbers of fleas (vectors for Y. pestis) 96–98% (1 month posttreatment) on 15 areas involving three species of PDs (Cynomys leucurus, Cynomys parvidens in Utah, and Cynomys ludovicianus in Montana) during 2000–2004 using deltamethrin dust delivered into burrows as a pulicide. Even during years without epizootic plague, PD survival rates at dusted sites were 31–45% higher for adults and 2–34% higher for juveniles compared to survival rates at nondusted sites. Y. pestis was cultured from 49 of the 851 flea pools tested (6882 total fleas) and antibodies against Y. pestis were identified in serum samples from 40 of 2631 PDs. Although other explanations are possible, including transmission of other potentially fatal pathogens by fleas, ticks, or other ectoparasites, our results suggest that plague might be maintained indefinitely in PD populations in the absence of free epizootics and widespread mortality among these animals. If PDs and their fleas support enzootic cycles of plague transmission, there would be important implications for the conservation of these animals and other species.

  18. Dog bite histories and response to incidents in canine rabies-enzootic KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

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    Melinda Hergert

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to report evaluated observations from survey records captured through a cross-sectional observational study regarding canine populations and dog owners in rabies enzootic KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. Our aim was to evaluate respondent knowledge of canine rabies and response to dog bite incidents towards improved rabies control. Six communities consisting of three land use types were randomly sampled from September 2009 to January 2011, using a cluster design. A total of 1992 household records were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression modeling to evaluate source of rabies knowledge, experiences with dog bites, and factors affecting treatment received within respective households that occurred within the 365 day period prior to the surveys. 86% of the population surveyed had heard of rabies. Non-dog owners were 1.6 times more likely to have heard of rabies than dog owners; however, fear of rabies was not a reason for not owning a dog. Government veterinary services were reported most frequently as respondent source of rabies knowledge. Nearly 13% of households had a member bitten by a dog within the year prior to the surveys with 82% of the victims visiting a clinic as a response to the bite. 35% of these clinic visitors received at least one rabies vaccination. Regression modeling determined that the only response variable that significantly reflected the likelihood of a patient receiving rabies vaccination or not was the term for the area surveyed. Overall the survey showed that most respondents have heard of dog associated rabies and seek medical assistance at a clinic in response to a dog bite regardless of offending dog identification. An in-depth study involving factors associated within area clinics may highlight the area dependency for patients receiving rabies post exposure prophylaxis shown by this model.

  19. Direct production losses and treatment costs from bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bovine leukosis virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum. (United States)

    Chi, Junwook; VanLeeuwen, John A; Weersink, Alfons; Keefe, Gregory P


    Our purpose was to determine direct production losses (milk loss, premature voluntary culling and reduced slaughter value, mortaliy loss, and abortion and reproductive loss) and treatmetn costs (veterinary services, medication cost, and extra farm labour cost) due to four infectious diseases in the maritime provinces of Canada: bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD), enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), Johne's Disease (JD), and neosporosis. We used a partial-budget model, and incorporated risk and sensitivity analyses to identify the effects of uncertainty on costs. Total annual costs for an average, infected, 50 cow herd were: JD$ 2472; BVD$ 2421; neosporosis $ 2304; EBL$ 806. The stochastic nature of the proportion of infected herds and prevalence of infection within a herd were used to estimate probability distributions for these ex post costs. For all diseases, these distributions were right skewed. A sensitivity analysis showed the largest effect on costs was due to milk yield effects. For example, changing milk production loss from 0 to 5% for BVD increased the costs for the disease by 266%.

  20. Sexing Bovine Embryos Using PCR Amplification of Bovine SRY Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾溢滔; 张美兰; 陈美珏; 周霞娣; 黄英; 任兆瑞; 黄淑帧; 胡明信; 吴学清; 高建明; 张斌; 徐慧如


    This study analyses the bovine SRY DNA sequence by direct sequencing procedure, followed by the designation of the PCR primers specific for bovine SRY. Using PCR amplification of bovine SRY gene, the embryo sex was determined. The results of the embryo sex identification were confirmed after the embryo transfer and pregnancies.

  1. In vitro sensitivities to antimicrobial drugs of ureaplasmas isolated from the bovine respiratory tract, genital tract and eye. (United States)

    Kishima, M; Hashimoto, K


    The sensitivity to 18 antimicrobial drugs was examined for 66 strains of Ureaplasma sp isolated from respiratory tracts of calves suffering from enzootic pneumonia, urinary tracts of bulls and eyes of cows suffering from infectious bovine kerato-conjunctivitis. Furamizole, tiamulin fumarate, erythromycin lactobionate, malidomycin C, doxycycline hydrochloride, kitasamycin tartrate, tylosin tartrate, T-2636C, tetracycline hydrochloride, oxytetracycline hydrochloride, chlortetracycline hydrochloride, oleandomycin phosphate, furazolidone, spiramycin adipate, chloramphenicol and thiophenicol showed strong inhibiting activity on all the test strains. Among them, furamizole, tiamulin fumarate and erythromycin lactobionate were most active. Kanamycin sulphate showed weak activity on all the strains tested. The differences in origin of the test strains did not affect their sensitivity to any of the drugs.

  2. Evaluation of adenosine deaminase seric activity in the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis

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    Márcio Roberto Silva


    Full Text Available Determination of seric levels of adenosine deaminase (ADA, an enzyme produced by monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes, has been used in the diagnosis of human tuberculosis (TB. In the present study, ADA seric activity was evaluated comparatively to the comparative tuberculin test in the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis. Two hundred fifty-six cattle were classified by origin and by the comparative tuberculin test as TB-positive animals (n = 52, from herds where the Mycobacterium bovis had previously been isolated, and TB-negative animals (n = 204, TB-free herds. The mean ADA seric value from the TB-positive group (4.45 ± 2.33 U/L was significantly lower (p = 0.008 than that observed in sera from the TB-negative group (6.12 ± 4.47 U/L. When animals from a herd with clinical cases of enzootic bovine leukosis of TB-negative group were withdrawn from analysis, the mean ADA seric values of TB-negative group (5.12 ± 3.75 U/L was not significantly different anymore from that of the TB-positive group (p = 0.28. There was no agreement in the diagnosis of bovine TB between comparative tuberculin test and determination of ADA seric values, using two different cutoff points, being 6.12 U/L and 15.0 U/L, (kappa = -0.086 and kappa = -0.082, respectively. In conclusion, the determination of ADA seric activity was not a good auxiliary test for bovine TB, because it was not able to distinguish between TB-positive and TB-negative animals.

  3. Professor MA Jin's Experience in Treating Nephrogenic Hematuria from the Kidney Essence%马进教授从肾精论治血尿经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高翔; 马进


    介绍马进教授治疗血尿的经验,认为血尿多由于肾精不足,卫外理内功能失调所致,治疗上在补益肾精的同时,要注重辨别他邪,对风热湿瘀,别而驱之,对五脏,辨而调之,驱除内外邪因,从而能够收到良好的疗效.%This paper introduces Professor MA Jin's experience in the treatment on hematuria. He suggests that nephrogenic hematuria results from insufficient kidney essence. During the course of treatment, treatment focusing on the relieving both the secondary and primary symptoms can receive a good curative effect.

  4. An unusual case of hematuria in a young female: renal artery embolism, mitral stenosis, and sinus rhythm

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    Ashok Kumar


    Full Text Available Renal artery embolism (RAE is an uncommon entity that is most often secondary to a cardiac source. Most reported cases have been in patients with underlying atrial fibrillation (AF, and occurrence of RAE, especially in patients with valvular heart disease, and sinus rhythm is very rare. We describe an unusual case of a young female who presented with sudden onset right flank pain, vomiting, anorexia, and hematuria, and was found to have thrombotic occlusion of the distal right renal artery. Although she denied any previous cardiac history, detailed cardiovascular examination revealed the presence of severe rheumatic mitral stenosis without any evidence of AF or left atrial clot. She was initially managed conservatively using low molecular weight heparin followed by oral anticoagulation with resolution of symptoms. A successful balloon mitral valvotomy was performed six weeks later. The patient is asymptomatic at her last follow-up of six months with preserved renal function. In symptomatic patients, clinicians need to consider the possibility of RAE even in patients of valvular heart disease with underlying sinus rhythm. Appropriate management of the underlying cardiac condition is imperative since embolism may be recurrent leading to compromise of renal function, if left untreated.

  5. Hematuria induced by oral metronidazole in two patients%口服甲硝唑引起血尿2例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽华; 魏华; 宋笑丹


    2例患者(男性58岁,女性49岁)为防治口腔感染服用甲硝唑0.4 g,3次/d.分别于服药后第2、3天出现肉眼血尿,同时伴有腰痛、尿急、尿频、尿痛等症状.尿常规检查示男性患者红细胞(++),女性患者红细胞满视野.停用甲硝唑,改为头孢氨苄+琥乙红霉素,症状逐渐减轻并消失.%Two patients.a 58-year-old man and a 49-year-old woman , received metronidazole 0.4 g thrice daily for prevention and treatment of oral infection.They presented with gross hematuria on days 2 and 3 after drug administration.respectively, followed by lumbago, urgency of urination, urinary frequency, painful urination, and other symptoms.Routine urine tests revealed RBC( + + )in tLhe male patient and numerous RBC in the female patient.Metronidazole was discontinued and switched to combination treatment with cefalexin and erythromycin ethylsuccinate.Their symptoms improved gradually and then disappeared.

  6. Clinical Analysis of 1 056 Cases of Drug-induced Hematuria in Children%儿童药物性血尿1056例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉刚; 张亚明


    目的:探讨儿童药物性血尿的原因和机制,提出预防措施,促进临床合理用药.方法:对2005-2010年国内公开发表的医药期刊报道的1 056例儿童(≤16岁)药物性血尿进行统计、分析.结果:本研究中药物性血尿共涉及5类药物41个品种,以抗微生物药、解热镇痛抗炎药和抗感冒药为主,且与年龄、给药剂量、给药途径等有关.结论:充分认识药物性血尿产生的原因,安全、合理地使用药品,积极采取预防措施,对避免或减少儿童药物性血尿的发生有重要的临床意义.%OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics and regularity of drug-induced hematuria in children, and to put forwards prevention measures in order to promote rational use of drugs in the clinic. METHODS: We summarized and analyzed 1056 cases of drug-induced hematuria in children (≤16 years old) published on public medical journals from 2005 to 2010. RESULTS: 5 categories and 41 kinds of drugs were involved, which included anti-microbial drugs, antipyretics-analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-cold drugs. Besides, some cases happened due to patients' age, drug dosage, route of administration, etc. CONCLUSIONS: We come to recognize the causes of drug-induced hematuria, use drugs safely and properly, take preventive measures actively to avoid or reduce drug-induced hematuria in children.

  7. Fluorescence in situ hybridization assay detects upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma in patients with asymptomatic hematuria and negative urine cytology. (United States)

    Huang, W T; Li, L Y; Pang, J; Ruan, X X; Sun, Q P; Yang, W J; Gao, X


    We evaluated the performance of a multiprobe FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) assay for noninvasive detection of upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (UUT-TCC) in patients with asymptomatic hematuria and negative urine cytology. Voided urine samples from 285 patients with asymptomatic hematuria and negative urine cytology were prospectively analyzed by FISH technique. FISH assays were performed to detect chromosomal changes frequently associated with TCC, including aneuploidy of chromosomes 3, 7 and 17, and loss of the 9p21 locus. Eleven (3.9%) had a positive FISH result. Of the 11 patients, nine (81.8%) were found to have a TCC of the upper urinary tract, while no patients with negative FISH findings were found to have UUT-TCC. In this selected cohort, the sensitivity and specificity of FISH for the detection of UUT-TCC was 100% and 99.3%, respectively. Our preliminary data suggest that the clinical utility of FISH assay of chromosomes 3, 7, 9, and 17 as a noninvasive ancillary test for the diagnosis of UUT-TCC in a selected patient population with asymptomatic hematuria and negative urine cytology and by significant high sensitivity and specificity may be a reliable diagnostic approach for early detection of UUT-TCC patients. Further larger prospective and multicenter trials are needed to confirm our results.

  8. Clinical observation on treating 171 cases of hematuria in the integrative medicine%中西医结合治疗血尿171例观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective:To explore the clinical effect of Integrative Medicine on hematuria. Methods:171 patients with hematuria were analyzed. Results:all patients were effectively treated, cured in 135 cases, improved in 30 cases, 6 cases, the effective rate was 96.5%. Invalid for 6 patients, including 3 cases of emergency surgery, deterioration of 2 deaths, 1 case to abandon treatment. Conclusion: The integrative medicine for hematuria can gain significant clinical effect.%目的:探讨中西医结合治疗血尿的临床效果。方法:回顾性分析我院2010年9月-2013年9月期间收治的171例血尿患者的临床病例资料。结果:所有患者经有效治疗后,痊愈135例,好转30例,无效6例,有效率为96.5%。无效的6例患者中包括3例急诊手术治疗,2例恶化死亡,1例放弃治疗。结论:中西医结合治疗血尿临床效果显著,该方法值得在临床推广应用。

  9. Management factors related to seroprevalences to bovine viral-diarrhoea virus, bovine-leukosis virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum in dairy herds in the Canadian Maritimes. (United States)

    Chi, Junwook; VanLeeuwen, John A; Weersink, Alfons; Keefe, Gregory P


    Bovine viral-diarrhoea (BVD), enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), Johne's disease (JD), and neosporosis lower on-farm productivity, reduce export competitiveness, and increase consumer concerns regarding safety. Our purpose was to examine the relationship between 27 control practices and the estimated true seroprevalences for these four diseases for 2604 cattle in 90 dairy herds in the Maritimes provinces of Canada. Overall, 37.8, 20.4, 3.4, and 19.2% of all sampled cattle were truly exposed to the agents of BVD, EBL, JD, and neosporosis, respectively. The median within-herd true prevalences were 0, 9.3, 0, and 12.3%, respectively. Factor analysis reduced the 27 control practices to two highly correlated factors. Tobit-regression analyses determined that vaccination practices were associated with reduced prevalence of exposure for Bovine viral-diarrhoea and EBL. Also, farms that tended to purchase their dairy animals were associated with higher seroprevalence for Johnes' disease. Neither of these two factors was associated with the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection. The few routine biosecurity measures that were investigated in this study were generally not related to the seroprevalences of these farms.

  10. Differential Diagnosis and Analysis of Renal Biopsy for Hematuria Patients%单纯性血尿患者的鉴别诊断及肾穿活检分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程晖; 石明; 邱昌建; 刘红燕


    Objective: To investigate the importance of hematuria in the renal diseases through differential diagnosis and renal biopsy. Methods: The hematuria has been distinguished by contrast phase microscope and distribution analysis of erythrocyte volumes, then the patients with glomerular hematuria and mixed hematuria underwent renal biopsy. Results: Glomerular hematuria proportion was more than none glomerular hematuria. Renal biopsy indicated that IgA nephropathy was the first cause of isolated renal hematuria. Conclusion: The screening procedures are important for isolated hematuria suspected as renal disease, and renal biopsy is helpful for the final diagnosis and determining the therapeutic schedule.%目的:对单纯血尿患者进行鉴别诊断及肾穿活检,以阐明血尿在肾脏病变中的重要性.方法:相差显微镜和尿红细胞体积曲线进行血尿的鉴别诊断,对肾小球性血尿和混合性血尿的患者进行肾穿活检明确病理改变.结果:肾小球性血尿在单纯性血尿中的比例较非肾小球性血尿高,肾穿刺活检表明IgA肾病是肾性血尿第1位病因.结论:单纯性血尿患者的筛查十分重要,早期筛选出的可疑肾病患者应进行肾活检明确病理性质,有助于制定积极的治疗方案,延缓肾脏病变的进程.

  11. First Report of Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection in Yaks (Bos mutus in China

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    Jian-Gang Ma


    Full Text Available Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL is a chronic lymphosarcoma disease of cattle caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV. No information is available concerning the epidemiology of BLV infection in yaks (Bos mutus. One thousand five hundred and eighty-four serum samples from 610 black yaks and 974 white yaks from Gansu province, northwest China, were collected between April 2013 and March 2014 and tested for BLV antibodies using a commercially available ELISA kit. The overall BLV seroprevalence in yaks was 21.09% (334/1584, with 24.26% (148/610 black yaks and 19.10% (186/974 white yaks yielding positive results. Risk factor analysis indicated that with the exception of breed (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.06–1.73, P<0.05, the age, region, gender, farm, and the numbers of pregnancies were not considered as risk factors for the presence of BLV in yaks included in this study. This is the first report of BLV infection in yaks in China, which provides information for controlling BLV infection in yaks.

  12. Interaction between Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection and age on telomerase misregulation. (United States)

    Hemmatzadeh, Farhid; Keyvanfar, Hadi; Hasan, Noor Haliza; Niap, Faustina; Bani Hassan, Ebrahim; Hematzade, Azar; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; McWhorter, Andrea; Ignjatovic, Jagoda


    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL). BLV can interact with telomerase and inhibits telomere shortening, contributing in leukemogenesis and tumour induction. The role of telomerase in BLV-induced lymphosarcoma and aging has been extensively studied. To date, the interaction of both BLV and aging on telomerase mis-regulation have, however, not been investigated. In the present study, telomerase activity in BLV positive and negative cows was compared over a wide range of ages (11-85 months). Lymphocyte counts were also measured in both BLV positive and negative groups. Telomerase activity was detected in all BLV infected animals with persistent lymphocytosis (PL), especially in older individuals. This study revealed that the cells undergo the natural telomerase shortening even in the presence of an existing viral infection. We also show that viral infection, especially during the PL phase of the disease, increases telomerase activity. A statistically significant interaction between age and viral infection was observed for telomere shortening during BLV infection. Older animals with BLV infection, especially those with persistent lymphocytosis or visible tumors, exhibited a sharp increase in telomerase activity. This study demonstrates that there is a significant interaction between BLV infection and telomerase up-regulation and lymphocytosis.

  13. Using PCR for early diagnosis of bovine leukemia virus infection in some native cattle. (United States)

    Mohammadabadi, M R; Soflaei, M; Mostafavi, H; Honarmand, M


    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, is an exogenous, B lymphotropic retrovirus belonging to the Retroviridae family that induces persistent lymphocytosis in cattle and sheep. PCR has proven to be particularly suitable for investigating herds of cattle with a very low incidence of BLV infection and for clarifying doubtful serological results obtained by immunodiffusion or ELISA. The native Iranian and Russian cattle have a series of valuable traits that discriminate them as unique breeds that are well able to compete with western analogues. However, their gene pools have not been analyzed with molecular markers, including detection of BLV by PCR. Two pairs of primers were used: gag1 and gag2, and pol1 and pol2, which encompass 347- and 599-bp fragments of the BLV gene, respectively. Sixty-five Iranian Sistani, 120 Yaroslavl, 50 Mongolian, and 35 Black Pied cows were investigated. Among these 270 animals, we obtained 42 positive and 15 doubtful results in the first PCR. The second PCR was very effective in increasing BLV test reliability data to support detection of BLV.

  14. Seroprevalence of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in dairy cattle in Isfahan Province, Iran. (United States)

    Morovati, Hassan; Shirvani, Edris; Noaman, Vahid; Lotfi, Mohsen; Kamalzadeh, Morteza; Hatami, Alireza; Bahreyari, Masoume; Shahramyar, Zahra; Morovati, Mohammad H; Azimi, Mahmoud; Sakhaei, Davoud


    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an exogenous C-type oncovirus in the Retroviridae family. It causes significant economic losses associated with the costs of control and eradication programs due to carcass condemnation at slaughter and restrictions of export of cattle and semen to importing countries. The main objective of this research was to determine the seroprevalence of BLV infection in cattle herds in central region of Iran (Isfahan province) using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect serum antibodies against BLV. Samples of blood serum were collected from 403 female dairy cattle (Holstein-Friesian) from 21 livestock farms and 303 animals (81.9%) were BLV seropositive. A significant association was found between age as a potential risk factor and BVL seroprevalence with animals ≥ 4 years (86.6%) having a significantly (χ(2) = 35.6, p 0.1). It is concluded that BLV infection is a very common problem in the study area. Hence, control measures should be instituted to combat the disease and further studies are required to investigate the impact of this disease on dairy production in the country.

  15. [Detection of bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) in tissue samples of naturally and experimentally infected cattle]. (United States)

    Teifke, Jens P; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W


    Enzootic bovine leukaemia (EBL) which is caused by the bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) still plays a remarkable role despite a significant success in sanitation programmes. In the Federal Republic of Germany it was not possible to eradicate the disease until today. Sporadically during slaughter or necropsy of cattle neoplastic lesions of the lymphatic tissues are observed that need to be clarified with regard to BLV as etiological agent. Due to the fact that in most instances no serological data are available from the respective animals and blood drawings from the original holdings are not easy to obtain the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) opens new avenues as supplementary diagnostic tool to test unfixed lymphatic tissues for the presence of BLV proviral DNA. Lymph node tissues from 10 naturally or experimentally BLV-infected cattle, which have been monitored virologically and serologically, and tissues from 4 negative animals were processed, DNA was extracted and subjected to PCR to amplify BLV env gene specific sequences. The results show that in cattle with BLV-induced leukosis as well as in cattle, which were clinically healthy and unsuspicious at slaughter or at post-mortem, either with persistent lymphocytosis (PL) or without, BLV proviral DNA could be detected easily in samples of lymphatic tissues and in high concordance with serological data. In this article data from the National and OIE reference laboratory for EBL at the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (FLI, Germany) are presented. Elaborated laboratory protocols for processing of tissue samples and performing of BLV-PCR are recommended.

  16. Bovine milk glycome. (United States)

    Tao, N; DePeters, E J; Freeman, S; German, J B; Grimm, R; Lebrilla, C B


    Bovine milk oligosaccharides have several potentially important biological activities including the prevention of pathogen binding to the intestinal epithelial and as nutrients for beneficial bacteria. It has been suggested that milk oligosaccharides are an important source of complex carbohydrates as supplements for the food and the pharmaceutical industries. However, only a small number of structures of bovine milk oligosaccharides (bMO) are known. There have been no systematic studies on bMO. High-performance mass spectrometry and separation methods are used to evaluate bMO, and nearly 40 oligosaccharides are present in bovine milk. Bovine milk oligosaccharides are composed of shorter oligomeric chains than are those in human milk. They are significantly more anionic with nearly 70%, measured abundances, being sialylated. Additionally, bMO are built not only on the lactose core (as are nearly all human milk oligosaccharides), but also on lactose amines. Sialic acid residues include both N-acetyl and N-glycolylneuraminic acid, although the former is significantly more abundant.

  17. Bovine milk exosome proteome (United States)

    Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin and are found in blood, urine, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as human and bovine milk. Exosomes are extracellular organelles important in intracellular communication/signaling, immune function, and biomarkers ...

  18. Intervet Symposium: bovine neosporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schetters, T.; Dubey, J.P.; Adrianarivo, A.; Frankena, K.; Romero, J.J.; Pérez, E.; Heuer, C.; Nicholson, C.; Russell, D.; Weston, J.


    This article summarises the most relevant data of presentations delivered at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) held in New Orleans, LA, USA, from 10 to 14 August 2003) in a symposium session on bovine neosporosis. The sy

  19. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (United States)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is caused by a novel contagion, known to as a prion. Prions are proteins capable of converting a normal cellular protein into a prion, thereby propagating an infection. BSE is the first known prion zoonotic. As such it has attracted broad scientific and, to a r...

  20. Using a Herd Profile to Determine Age-Specific Prevalence of Bovine Leukemia Virus in Michigan Dairy Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald J. Erskine


    Full Text Available Enzootic bovine leukosis is a contagious disease of cattle caused by the retrovirus, bovine leukemia virus (BLV and is the most common cause of malignant neoplasm in cattle. In order to facilitate surveillance of this disease in dairy herds, we developed a method to combine ELISA of milk collected during routine production testing with a prescribed sampling of cows that is independent of the proportion of cows within each lactation. In 113 Michigan dairy herds, milk samples from ten cows in each of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and ≥4th lactations were analyzed for anti-Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV antibodies by milk ELISA. For each herd, a BLV herd profile (BHP was calculated as the simple average of the percent of BLV-positive cows within each of the four lactation groups. The mean BHP for all herds was 32.8%, with means of 18.5, 28.8, 39.2, and 44.8% of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and ≥4th lactation animals infected, respectively. In eight herds, we determined the correlation between the BHP, and true herd prevalence by testing the entire lactating herd (r=0.988,  P<0.0001. The BHP allows discrimination of lactation-specific BLV prevalence within a dairy herd, to help identify risk factors and management plans that may be important in transmission of BLV.

  1. Polymorphism and expression of the tumor necrosis factor receptor II gene in cows infected with the bovine leukemia virus. (United States)

    Stachura, A; Brym, P; Bojarojć-Nosowicz, B; Kaczmarczyk, E


    A single T>C nucleotide polymorphism (rs42686850) of bovine tumor necrosis factor receptor type II gene (TNF-RII) is located within a sequence with allele-specific affinity to bind E2F transcription factors, considered pivotal in the regulation of cell cycle and cell proliferation. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of this SNP and BLV infection on the TNF-RII gene expression at the mRNA and protein levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). We noted that analyzed TNF-RII gene polymorphism influenced the expression of the TNF-RII gene at the mRNA level but only in BLV-positive cows. Concurrently, no statistically significant association was found between gene polymorphism and TNF-RII expression at the protein level. However, we found a significant effect of BLV infection status on the amount of TNF-RII mRNA and the percentage of PBMC expressing TNF-RII. These results show an unclear effect of considered T>C polymorphism on TNF-RII gene expression in bovine leukocytes and they suggest the involvement of BLV in modifying the TNF-RII expression in BLV-infected cows potentially implying the EBL (Enzootic Bovine Leukosis) associated pathogenesis.

  2. Linkages of Weather and Climate With Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae), Enzootic Transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi, and Lyme Disease in North America. (United States)

    Eisen, Rebecca J; Eisen, Lars; Ogden, Nicholas H; Beard, Charles B


    Lyme disease has increased both in incidence and geographic extent in the United States and Canada over the past two decades. One of the underlying causes is changes during the same time period in the distribution and abundance of the primary vectors: Ixodes scapularis Say and Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls in eastern and western North America, respectively. Aside from short periods of time when they are feeding on hosts, these ticks exist in the environment where temperature and relative humidity directly affect their development, survival, and host-seeking behavior. Other important factors that strongly influence tick abundance as well as the proportion of ticks infected with the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, include the abundance of hosts for the ticks and the capacity of tick hosts to serve as B. burgdorferi reservoirs. Here, we explore the linkages between climate variation and: 1) duration of the seasonal period and the timing of peak activity; 2) geographic tick distributions and local abundance; 3) enzootic B. burgdorferi transmission cycles; and 4) Lyme disease cases. We conclude that meteorological variables are most influential in determining host-seeking phenology and development, but, while remaining important cofactors, additional variables become critical when exploring geographic distribution and local abundance of ticks, enzootic transmission of B. burgdorferi, and Lyme disease case occurrence. Finally, we review climate change-driven projections for future impact on vector ticks and Lyme disease and discuss knowledge gaps and research needs.

  3. Enzootic plague foci, Algeria (United States)

    Malek, M.A.; Hammani, A.; Beneldjouzi, A.; Bitam, I.


    In Algeria, PCR sequencing of pla, glpD and rpoB genes found Yersinia pestis in 18/237 (8%) rodents of five species, including Apodemus sylvaticus, previously undescribed as pestiferous; and disclosed three new plague foci. Multiple spacer typing confirmed a new Orientalis variant. Rodent survey should be reinforced in this country hosting reemerging plague. PMID:25834736

  4. Enzootic plague foci, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Malek


    Full Text Available In Algeria, PCR sequencing of pla, glpD and rpoB genes found Yersinia pestis in 18/237 (8% rodents of five species, including Apodemus sylvaticus, previously undescribed as pestiferous; and disclosed three new plague foci. Multiple spacer typing confirmed a new Orientalis variant. Rodent survey should be reinforced in this country hosting reemerging plague.

  5. Detection of Urinary Podocalyxin and Its Value of Identify Resource of Hematuria in Children%尿Podocalyxin鉴别儿童血尿来源的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉; 张碧丽


    目的 探讨尿液足细胞标志蛋白Podocalyxin(PCX)检测对血尿患儿的临床诊断价值.方法 采用透射比浊法对210例儿童清晨首次尿标本足细胞标志蛋白PCX进行检测,其中包括肾小球源性血尿患儿78例(肾小球源性血尿组)、非肾小球源性血尿患儿66例(非肾小球源性血尿组),以及66例健康儿童(健康对照组).采用透射比浊法对78例肾小球源性血尿组患儿同期尿清蛋白水平进行检测.采用速率法对78例肾性血尿患儿同期血清清蛋白、胆固醇、尿素氮及肌酐水平进行检测.结果 1.肾小球源性血尿组尿PCX为(16.48±18.95) μg·L-1,非肾小球源性血尿组为(1.85±2.91) μg·L-1,健康对照组为(1.69±2.12) μg·L-1,肾小球源性血尿组与非肾小球源性血尿组及健康对照组比较,尿PCX水平明显升高,差异均有统计学意义(Pa0.05).2.PCX水平检测与尿流式细胞检测结果在判断血尿来源方面一致性较好(Kappa=0.647,P<0.01).3.PCX曲线下面积(ROC)=0.909(P<0.01),诊断准确性较高,诊断截点为5.73 μg·L-1.4.肾小球源性血尿组尿PCX水平与尿蛋白水平呈正相关(r=0.465,P<0.01),与血清清蛋白水平呈负相关(r=-0.736,P<0.01),与血胆固醇水平呈正相关(r=0.671,P<0.01),与血尿素氮水平呈正相关(r=0.309,P<0.01),与血肌酐水平无相关性.结论 尿PCX水平检测可作为临床判断肾小球源性与非肾小球源性血尿、肾小球损伤严重程度及病情活动与缓解的一个较好指标.%Objective To explore the clinical diagnostic value of the detection of urinary podocyte marker protein podocalyxin(PCX) in children with hematuria.Methods Urinary samples voided in the morning were obtained from 210 children including 78 children with glomerular hematuria,66 children with non - glomerular hematuria and 66 children without kidney disease for healthy control group.The urinary PCX content of the 210 children and urinary albumin content of the 78 children

  6. Qiao Chenglin's Experiences in the Treatment of Glomerular Hematuria%乔成林治疗肾小球源性血尿经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴喜利; 安鹏; 叶冰玉; 董盛


    肾小球源性血尿为临床肾脏疾病常见症状之一。大多数肾小球源性血尿患者为原发性肾小球疾病,如急慢性肾小球肾炎、IgA 肾病等,亦可见于紫癜性肾炎、狼疮性肾炎等继发性肾小球疾病。肾小球源性血尿在临床上,多病情复杂、缠绵难愈,易反复发作。在临床上分为肉眼血尿和镜下血尿两大类,且以镜下血尿较为多见。肾小球性血尿属中医学“尿血”范畴,古籍中有“溲血”“溺血”之称,目前西医尚无有效的治疗方法。乔成林老师根据自己多年的临床经验,认为肾小球性血尿病机主要分为虚实两类,实证主要包括下焦湿热证和热入营血证;虚证包括脾肾不固证,阴虚内热证。文章对乔成林教授治疗肾小球源性血尿的经验进行总结,系统阐述了其对肾小球源性血尿中医病因病机的认识、辨病辨证治疗及用药经验。%Glomerular hematuria is one of the common symptoms of kidney disorders in clinic. Most patients of glomerular hematuria suffered from primary glomerular disease,such as acute or chronic glomerulo-nephritis and IgA nephropathy,or secondary glomerular disease such as anaphylactic purpura nephritis and lupus nephritis. In clinic,glomerular hematuria is complicated,difficulty in treatment and repeated attacks. This disease is classified into two categories,named gross hematuria and microscopic hematuria,the latter is common. Glomerular hematuria is in the category of“bloody urine”in traditional Chinese medicine and also named as“Sou Xue”and“Ni Xue”in ancient literatures. At present,there is no any effective therapeutic method in western medicine. According to the clinical experiences of Prof. Qiao Cheng - lin,Prof. Qiao thought that this disease was differentiated as the deficiency and the excess in pathogenesis. The excess syn-drome of it included damp heat in the lower Energizer and heat entering Ying and Xue

  7. 医源性全血尿:动脉造影与栓塞治疗%Iatrogenic Hematuria:Arterial Angiography and Transcatheter Embolization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾晓华; 邱怀明; 刘忠; 易翠荣; 罗力


    目的 探讨医源性血尿的动脉造影诊断及其血管内介入治疗的价值.资料与方法 24例医源性血尿患者,依据其临床治疗经过,采用Seldering技术行一侧股动脉穿刺插管,选择性行患侧肾动脉或双侧髂内动脉造影,以微导管行超选择性造影,明确出血原因、具体部位,以明胶海绵碎屑或/并微弹簧罔栓塞.最后行栓塞后造影.观察栓塞情况.结果 24例动脉造影均获得明确诊断,其中经皮肾盂穿刺造瘘术后局部肾动脉小分支损伤、局部假性动脉瘤形成、全血尿8例,经皮肾穿刺取石术后肾动脉小分支损伤全血尿6例,超声碎石术后肾实质损伤全血尿2例,前列腺癌、前列腺增生症摘除术后手术区渗血、全血尿7例,男性尿道医源性损伤出血1例.所有病例栓塞治疗后止血效果明显,无并发症发生.结论 对于医源性全血尿患者,依据其临床治疗经过,行患侧肾动脉或双侧髂内动脉造影具有定性定位诊断价值,经微导管对所涉动脉分支超选择性栓塞能成功控制出血.%Objective To evaluate the clinical value of arterial angiography and transcatheter embolization in treatment of iatrogenic hematuria. Materials and Methods Arterial angiography by Seldinger technique in abdomal aorta, selective angiography in renal artery or in the internal iliac artery, superselective angiography in the arterial branch were performed for 24 patients with hematuria secondary to urology surgical procedures. The embolization with gelfoam particle and steel spring coil was performed to stop bleeding. Results The hematuria was secondary to percutaneous nephrostomy in 8 cases, minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy in 6 cases, ultrasonic lithotripsy in 2 cases, prostatectomy in 7 cases, and male urethra injury in 1 case. The cause of iatrogenic hematuria was identified and the hematuria was halted successfully. Conclusion Aterial angiography is effective in diagnosis of

  8. BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2: improvements to the BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR assay for bovine leukemia virus by reducing primer degeneracy and constructing an optimal standard curve. (United States)

    Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Kitamura-Muramatsu, Yuri; Yuan, Yuan; Polat, Meripet; Saito, Susumu; Aida, Yoko


    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the etiological agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, which is the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. Because BLV infection can remain clinically silent, the proviral load is an important index for estimating disease progression. CoCoMo-qPCR, an assay developed to estimate BLV proviral load, allows the highly sensitive detection of BLV originating in different countries. Here, we developed a modified version of the CoCoMo-qPCR assay, the "BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2" assay, which uses optimized degenerate primers. We also constructed a new plasmid standard. Finally, we used both assays to examine DNA samples from BLV-infected cattle and compared the results.

  9. Mycotic bovine nasal granuloma. (United States)

    Conti Díaz, Ismael Alejandro; Vargas, Roberto; Apolo, Ada; Moraña, José Antonio; Pedrana, Graciela; Cardozo, Elena; Almeida, Edgardo


    A case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma in a 10 year-old Jersey cow, produced by Drechslera halodes is presented. Histopathological sections showed abundant hyaline and pigmented extra and intracellular fungal structures together with a polymorphic cellular granuloma formed by neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasmocytes, histiocytes and giant cells of the Langhans type. It is the first case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma recognized in Uruguay although this disease seems to be frequent according to the opinion of veterinarian specialists. Another similar clinical case also in a Jersey cow from the same dairy house with an intense cellular infiltrate rich in eosinophils without granulomatous image, together with extracellular hyaline and fuliginous fungal forms, is also referred for comparative purposes. Geotrichum sp. was isolated. The need of an early diagnosis and treatment of the disease is stressed.

  10. Selenium in bovine spermatozoa. (United States)

    Niemi, S M; Kuzan, F B; Senger, P L


    This study investigated the association of selenium with ejaculated bovine spermatozoa. Over 75% of the radioactive spermatozoa. Over 75% of the radioactive selenium-75 was released after 30 min of incubation in 2 X 10(-3) dithiothreitol. Of the selenium-75 released by dithiothreitol, 85% was associated with spermatozoal protein. Protein containing selenium-75 was found predominantly in a single band after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Molecular weight was approximately 21,500 daltons.

  11. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (pinkeye)


    Angelos, JA


    Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. As is the case for controlling other infectious livestock diseases, the most successful efforts to control infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) will include consideration of the host, the environment, herd management, and ongoing surveillance even after the immediate crisis has passed. Research over many years has led to the discovery of a variety of antibiotic treatments and antibiotic regimens that can be effective against IBK. The...

  12. Diagnostic imaging in bovine orthopedics. (United States)

    Kofler, Johann; Geissbühler, Urs; Steiner, Adrian


    Although a radiographic unit is not standard equipment for bovine practitioners in hospital or field situations, ultrasound machines with 7.5-MHz linear transducers have been used in bovine reproduction for many years, and are eminently suitable for evaluation of orthopedic disorders. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use radiology and ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. These diagnostic imaging techniques improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis in every bovine patient but especially in highly valuable cattle, whose owners demand increasingly more diagnostic and surgical interventions that require high-level specialized techniques.

  13. Absence of Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in buffaloes from Amazon and southeast region in Brazil. (United States)

    De Oliveira, Cairo H S; Resende, Cláudia F; Oliveira, Carlos M C; Barbosa, José D; Fonseca, Antônio A; Leite, Rômulo C; Reis, Jenner K P


    Enzootic bovine leucosis is an infectious disease caused by Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and is well described in bovines. The majority of infected animals are asymptomatic, one to five percent develop lymphoma and from 30 to 50% present a persistent lymphocytosis. The virus occurs naturally in cattle and experimentally in buffaloes, capybaras and rabbits. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffaloes has been attributed to BLV infection by some authors in India and Venezuela, but not confirmed by other studies and little information on natural BLV infection in buffaloes is available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of BLV in a sub-sample of buffalo from Amazon and southeast regions in Brazil. Three hundred and fifteen serum samples were negative using commercial AGID and ELISA (ELISA-gp51) which detect anti-BLV glycoprotein gp51 antibodies. The same samples were also evaluated for antibodies to whole virus through a commercial ELISA (ELISA-BLV) in which 77 (24.44%) were found seropositive and two (0.63%) inconclusive. On the other hand, all animals were negative by PCR to BLV targeted to the env and tax genes. These results suggest that ELISA-BLV produces false positive results in buffalo serum (pAmazon basin and the southeast region of Brazil. Serological tests, like ELISA-BLV, usually used for cattle may produce false-positive results for BLV in buffaloes and direct detection tests such as PCR should be chosen in these surveys. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffalo was not associated with BLV infection in the one case analyzed in this work and the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease should be clarified.

  14. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided renal biopsy in children: The need for renal biopsy in pediatric patients with persistent asymptomatic microscopic hematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Ching Yu


    Full Text Available Background: Percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB is essential for the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of children with unknown kidney disease. In this study, the safety and efficacy of PRB is investigated, and also the common etiologies of childhood kidney disease, based on histological findings. In addition, we explored the role of PRBs in the diagnosis of children who presented with persistent asymptomatic hematuria. Methods: By chart review, from July 2005 to July 2009, a total of 99 PRBs were performed on 91 children (43 girls and 48 boys; mean age, 10.9 ± 4.4 years under ultrasound (US guidance, by a doctor, using an automated 18-gauge biopsy needle following the same protocol, at a medical center in northern Taiwan. Results: The accuracy of the histological diagnosis was excellent. The most common post-biopsy complications were perirenal hematoma (11.1% and asymptomatic gross hematuria (3.0%, respectively. Nevertheless, these complications resolved spontaneously, and none had major bleeding episodes. Histological results showed that lupus nephritis, minimal change disease, and IgA nephropathy (IgAN could be the current leading causes of childhood kidney diseases in Taiwan. Conclusions: Automated ultrasound (US-guided PRB is a safe and reliable method of assessing childhood renal disease. A recent study shows that the presence of persistent asymptomatic isolated microhematuria in adolescents is a predictive marker of future end-stage renal disease. Hence, the emphasis of renal biopsy on children with persistent asymptomatic hematuria is beneficial for the early diagnosis of IgAN or other glomerulonephritis (GN, which tends toward progressive kidney disease in adulthood without prompt therapeutic intervention.

  15. 外伤性血尿患者膀胱痉挛的护理干预%The Nursing Intervention on Bladder Spasm in Patients with Traumatic Hematuria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To explore the effect of nursing intervention on bladder spasm in traumatic hematuria patients.Method We retrospectively analyzed the experiences in nursing interventions with different ways on 147 traumatic hematuria patients in Kunming Yan'an Hospital from April 2010 to September 2012.Results There were 18 cases of bladder spasm in 78 patients received nursing intervention,the incidence was 23%.There were 27 cases of bladder spasm in 69 patients received routine nursing care,the incidence was 39%.There was a statistically significant difference between two groups (P < 0.05).Conclusion Nursing intervention on the traumatic hematuria patients can effectively decrease the incidence of bladder spasm.%目的 探讨护理干预对降低外伤性血尿患者膀胱痉挛发生率的作用.方法 回顾性分析昆明市延安医院2010年4月至2012年9月之间不同方式护理干预处理的外伤性血尿147例患者的护理经验.结果 改进护理措施处理78例患者中有18例发生过膀胱痉挛,发生率为23%;采用常规护理措施的69例患者中计有27例发生过膀胱痉挛,发生率为39%.两者相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 改进护理干预可有效降低外伤性血尿患者膀胱痉挛的发生率.

  16. Development of an ante-mortem diagnostic test for enzootic nasal tumor virus and detection of neutralizing antibodies in host serum. (United States)

    Walsh, Scott R; Stinson, Kevin J; Menzies, Paula I; Wootton, Sarah K


    Enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma (ENA) is a contagious neoplasm of the nasal mucosa of sheep and goats and is associated with enzootic nasal tumour virus (ENTV). As ENA is a common disease in North America and there are no vaccines against ENTV-1, diagnostic tests that can identify infected animals and assist with eradication and disease surveillance efforts are greatly needed. In this study, we endeavoured to develop a novel, non-invasive diagnostic tool that could be used not only to validate clinical signs of ENA but also to detect ENTV-1 infection prior to the onset of disease signs (i.e. pre-clinical diagnosis). Cytology, serology and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR-based diagnostic methods were investigated. Although the cytology-based assay was able to detect ENTV-1 infection in some animals, it had poor sensitivity and specificity and thus was not developed further as an ante-mortem diagnostic method. Three different assays, including ELISA, Western blotting and virus neutralization, were developed to detect the presence of ENTV-1-specific antibodies in sheep serum. Whilst a surprisingly large number of sheep mounted an antibody-mediated immune response against ENTV-1, and in some cases neutralizing, correlation with disease status was poor. In contrast, RT-PCR on RNA extracted from nasal swabs reliably detected exogenous ENTV-1 sequences, did not amplify endogenous ovine betaretroviral sequences, demonstrated high concordance with immunohistochemical staining for ENTV-1 envelope protein, and had perfect sensitivity and specificity. This report describes a practical and highly specific RT-PCR technique for the detection of clinical and pre-clinical ENA that may prove beneficial in future control or eradication programmes.

  17. Inverted Nutcracker Syndrome: A Case of Persistent Hematuria and Pain in the Presence of a Left-Sided Inferior Vena Cava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obi Ekwenna


    Full Text Available Nutcracker syndrome is described as the symptomatic compression of left renal vein between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery, resulting in outflow congestion of the left kidney. We present the case of a 51-year-old male with a left-sided inferior vena cava, resulting in compression of the right renal vein by the superior mesenteric artery. Secondary to this anatomic anomaly, the patient experienced a many-year history of flank pain and intermittent gross hematuria. We have termed this unusual anatomic finding and its associated symptoms as the “inverted nutcracker syndrome”, and describe its successful management with nephrectomy and autotransplantation.

  18. Professor ZOU Yanqin's Herbal Prescription in Treating Simple Hematuria%邹燕勤教授治疗单纯性血尿经验介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳; 迪丽努尔


    介绍邹燕勤教授应用补益肾元、益气健脾、补气养阴、疏风清热、清热凉血、化瘀止血等法辨证治疗单纯性血尿的经验.%It is to introduce experiences of professor ZOU Yanqin on tonifying kidney,strengthening spleen,tonifying qi,nourishing Yin,dispersing wind,clearing heat,cooling blood,etc.The method of dialectical experience for the treatment of simple hematuria.

  19. 远方教授辨治肾性血尿经验%The Distance in Treating Renal Hematuria Experience of Professor YUAN Fang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper expounds the distant professor for renal hematuria syndrome differentiation and treatment experience, mainly by expelling the wind evil, nourishing yin to clear fire, promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis, invigorating spleen and kidney, strengthening treatment method, clinical curative effect.%文章阐述了远方教授对于肾生血尿辨证论治的经验,主要运用疏风散邪、滋阴清火、活血化瘀、补益脾肾、扶正祛邪等治疗方法,临床疗效较好.

  20. Bovine coronavirus hemagglutinin protein. (United States)

    King, B; Potts, B J; Brian, D A


    Treatment of purified bovine coronavirus (Mebus strain) with pronase destroyed the integrity of virion surface glycoproteins gp140, gp120, gp100, reduced the amount of gp26 and destroyed the hemagglutinating activity of the virus. Bromelain, on the other hand, destroyed the integrity of gp120, gp100 and gp26 but failed to remove gp140 and failed to destroy viral hemagglutinating activity. These experiments suggest that gp140 is the virion hemagglutinin. Immunoblotting studies using monospecific antiserum demonstrate that gp140 is a disulfide-linked dimeric structure reducible to monomers of 65 kDa.

  1. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (pinkeye). (United States)

    Angelos, John A


    As is the case for controlling other infectious livestock diseases, the most successful efforts to control infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) will include consideration of the host, the environment, herd management, and ongoing surveillance even after the immediate crisis has passed. Research over many years has led to the discovery of a variety of antibiotic treatments and antibiotic regimens that can be effective against IBK. The discoveries of Mor bovoculi and reports of IBK associated with Mycoplasma spp without concurrent Mor bovis or Mor bovoculi have raised new questions into the roles that other organisms may play in IBK pathogenesis.

  2. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Nucleolus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amrutlal K.Patel; Doug Olson; Suresh K. Tikoo


    Nucleolus is the most prominent subnuclear structure, which performs a wide variety of functions in the eu-karyotic cellular processes. In order to understand the structural and functional role of the nucleoli in bovine cells,we analyzed the proteomie composition of the bovine nueleoli. The nucleoli were isolated from Madin Darby bo-vine kidney cells and subjected to proteomie analysis by LC-MS/MS after fractionation by SDS-PAGE and strongcation exchange chromatography. Analysis of the data using the Mascot database search and the GPM databasesearch identified 311 proteins in the bovine nucleoli, which contained 22 proteins previously not identified in theproteomic analysis of human nucleoli. Analysis of the identified proteins using the GoMiner software suggestedthat the bovine nueleoli contained proteins involved in ribosomal biogenesis, cell cycle control, transcriptional,translational and post-translational regulation, transport, and structural organization.

  3. Presence of Viral Genome in Urine and Development of Hematuria and Pathological Changes in Kidneys in Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus after Inoculation with Dengue Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Akari


    Full Text Available Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus developed high levels of viremia, clinical signs including fever, weight loss, a decrease in activity and hematuria upon inoculation with dengue virus (DENV. Presence of DENV genome in urine samples and pathological changes in kidneys were examined in the present study. Levels of DENV genome were determined in 228 urine samples from 20 primary DENV-inoculated marmosets and in 56 urine samples from four secondary DENV-inoculated marmosets. DENV genome was detected in 75% (15/20 of marmosets after primary DENV infection. No DENV genome was detected in urine samples from the marmosets with secondary infection with homologous DENV (0%, 0/4. Two marmosets demonstrated hematuria. Pathological analysis of the kidneys demonstrated non-suppressive interstitial nephritis with renal tubular regeneration. DENV antigen-positive cells were detected in kidneys. In human dengue virus infections, some patients present renal symptoms. The results indicate that marmosets recapitulate some aspects of the involvement of kidneys in human DENV infection, and suggest that marmosets are potentially useful for the studies of the pathogenesis of DENV infection, including kidneys.

  4. Status and Method of Epidemiological Survey on Hematuria and Its Influence on Prognosis in CKD%血尿流行病学调查的现状和方法及其对肾病预后的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹道馨; 王梅


    近年来终末期肾病(ESRD)呈现出上升趋势,我国ESRD的病因构成仍以慢性肾小球肾炎为首.部分单纯血尿患者病情可进展成蛋白尿和(或)肾功能不全.本文对慢性肾脏病(CKD)筛查中血尿的筛查方法、患病率及单纯血尿对肾病的影响进行综述.%The incidence and the prevalence of the end stage of renal disease ( ESRD ) is increasing. In China, the leading cause of ESRD is glomerulonephritis. Some studies suggested a part of isolated hematuria patients developed proteinuria or/and renal dysfuction. This paper reviews the advances in hematuria screening and the progression of isolated hematuria.

  5. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.


    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or para

  6. Bovine herpesvirus 1 infection and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis



    International audience; Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), classified as an alphaherpesvirus, is a major pathogen of cattle. Primary infection is accompanied by various clinical manifestations such as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, abortion, infectious pustular vulvovaginitis, and systemic infection in neonates. When animals survive, a life-long latent infection is established in nervous sensory ganglia. Several reactivation stimuli can lead to viral re-excretion, which is responsible for the...

  7. Intervet symposium: bovine neosporosis. (United States)

    Schetters, T; Dubey, J P; Adrianarivo, A; Frankena, K; Romero, J J; Pérez, E; Heuer, C; Nicholson, C; Russell, D; Weston, J


    This article summarises the most relevant data of presentations delivered at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP)held in New Orleans, LA, USA, from 10 to 14 August 2003) in a symposium session on bovine neosporosis. The symposium was organised by Juan Muñoz-Bielsa,Wicher Holland, Enzo Foccoliand Theo Schetters (chairman). The focus was on the present state of knowledge of the biology, epidemiology(presented by J.P. Dubey) and immunology of Neospora infection (presented by A. Adrianarivo),with special emphasis on the prospects of vaccination of cattle against Neospora-induced abortion (presentations of K. Frankena (Costa Rican trial) and C. Heuer (New Zealand trial)).

  8. Clinicopathological analysis of isolated hematuria in children%儿童孤立性血尿的临床病理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓英; 蔡明辉; 林洪洲; 杨青


    Objective To investigate the clinical and renal pathologic features of isolated hematuria in children and the relationship between them. Methods A retrospective review of 251 cases of isolated hematuria undergone renal biopsy from 1995 to 2008 in our hospital were conducted to analyze their clinical manifestations and renal pathologic features. Results Among the pathologic changes, minor abnormalities was found in 93 cases (37.05%), normal biopsies in 62 cases (24.70%), IgA nephropathy (IgAN) in 52 cases (20.72%), thin basement membrane nephropathy (TBMN) in 17 cases(6.77%), mesangial proliferative giomerulonephritis(MsPGN) in 16 cases (6.37%), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in 5 cases (1.99%), focal proliferative glomerulonephritis (FPGN) in 5 cases (1.99%), capillary proliferative glomerulonephritis (EnPGN) in 1 case (0.40%). IgAN was more popular in gross hematuria group than that in microscopic hematuria group (31.88% vs 16.48%, P<0.05). zcording to Haas classification, the ratio of class Ⅲ in two groups had no statistical significance (microscopic vs gross: 16.67% vs 4.55%, P>0.05). In the 35 cases (102 cases were detected) with elevated urinary microalbuminuria, the proportion of IgAN Ⅲ was significantly higher than those cases without urinary microalbuminuria (14.28% vs 0%, P<0.01). There were more FSGS and FPGN (total 20.00%) and less minor abnormalities (28.57%) in these cases as compared to the normal albuminuria cases (1.49% and 58.21%, all P<0.01). Conclusion The main pathologic changes of isolated hematuria in children are minor abnormalities, normal and IgAN. IgAN is more popular in the cases with gross hematuria. Elevated urinary microalbuminuria may be an indicator of more serious pathologic changes in children with isolated hematuria.%目的 探讨儿童孤立性血尿的肾组织病理类型与临床特点.方法 回顾性分析1995年至2008年间我科肾活检的251例孤立性血尿患儿肾组

  9. 药物性血尿52例临床分析%Clinical analysis of 52 cases of drug-induced hematuria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶惠尧; 温小春


    Objective:To explore the cause of drug-induced hematuria. Methods:To analyse for clinical information of 52 cases of drug-induced hematuria in the data and reason. Results:The drugs causing hematuria were sulfa drugs, diclofenac, indocin, centamyein, cefradine, cefletin, ciprofloxacin, oflxaein and amethopterin.These patients had historical to use related drugs. Clinical maniteslations: hematufia, cryslats by microscopic examination of uria, skin rash in a small mumber of patients. Old people were more (51.92%) in these patients. All patients were fully recovered by stoping drugs and symptomatic treatment. All patients recovered not recured by following and visiting them at six months. Conclusion:In order to avoid occurrence of the disease, clinical doctors should master strictly medication indications and prevent to abuse drugs and try to use fewer or no drugs of nephrotoxicity particularly in elderly patients and educate patients to use drugs under the guidance of doctor as much as possible and no blind.%目的:探讨药物所致血尿的病因.方法:对52例药物性血尿的临床资料进行数理分析.结果:表明引起血尿的药物有磺胺类、双氯酚酸、消炎痛、庆大霉素、头孢拉啶、头孢氨苄、环丙沙星、氧氟沙星、甲氨蝶呤.患者有使用相关药物史,临床表现为血尿,镜检尿液有结晶体,少数患者有皮疹,老年患者较多(51.9%).停用药物及对症处理后痊愈.随访6个月无复发.结论:为避免该症的发生,临床医生应严格掌握用药指征,防止滥用药物,尽量少用或不用肾毒性药物,特别是老年患者,并教育患者应尽可能在医生指导下用药、不要盲目用药.

  10. 尿血宁方加味治疗隐匿性肾炎血尿%Treating occult nephritis hematuria by modified Niaoxuening recipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective:To investigate the effect of modified Niaoxuening recipe on treating occult nephritis hematuria. Methods:90 cases from January 2010 to January 2012 in our hospital were divided into the treated group and control group, 45 for each, the control group was given the TWP treatment, while the treated group was given the modified Niaoxuening recipe more. Retrospectively analysis the effect of modified Niaoxuening recipe in treating occult nephritis hematuria. Results:The total efficiency was 71.1%in the treated group, significantly higher than 59.9%of the control group (P<0.05), the modified Niaoxuening recipe was effective in treating Ganshen Yinzheng and Xieyu Xuezheng, had statistical significance. Conclusion: The modified Niaoxuening recipe is effective in treating occult nephritis hematuria, worthy of a wide clinical application.%目的:探讨尿血宁方加味治疗隐匿性肾炎血尿的临床疗效。方法:选取2010年1月~2012年1月期间在本院住院治疗的90例隐匿性肾炎患者为研究对象,根据是否在雷公藤多苷基础上加用尿血宁加味分为观察组和对照组,回顾性分析尿血宁加味治疗隐匿性肾炎血尿的效果。结果:观察组总有效率71.1%,显著高于对照组59.9%(P<0.05),尿血宁加味治疗肝肾阴证、挟瘀血证疗效显著,有统计学意义。结论:尿血宁方加味治疗隐匿性肾炎疗效确切,值得临床推广应用。

  11. Investigation of some hematological and blood biochemical parameters in cattle spontaneously infected with bovine leukosis virus

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    Sandev Nikolay


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to follow out the alterations in some haematological and blood biochemical parameters in cattle spontaneously infected with enzootic bovine leukosis virus with regard to the invivodifferentiation of bovine leukosis stages. The experiment included 76 cows at various ages and body weight. Serological leukosis tests were done by agar-gel immunodiffusion test with a commercial kit of Synbiotiсs (France, containing standardised gp 51 antigen and positive serum approved by the EU. On the basis of haematological results, the cows were divided into three groups: first group – EBL-seropositive with normal haemogramme; second group – EBL seropositive with altered haemogramme and third group – controls. In cows from the first and the second group, a statistically significantly increased blood cell counts was established compared to healthy controls. The total WBC were increased in the second group (leukocytosis up to 33.21×109/l vs reference range of 5-10×109/l as well as lymphocyte percentages (lymphocytosis – 81.89% (reference 40–63%. A reduction in the proportion of neutrophils to 12.78% (relative neutropenia vs the reference range of 22-49% and monocytes (monocytopenia to 1.78% (reference range 2–6% was observed. A statistically significant reduction in Ca concentrations (4.41 mg/dl and higher inorganic phosphate levels (5.28 mg/dl were established in cows from the second group. Also, ASAT activity was considerably lower – 47.03 U/l, while alkaline phosphatase increased slightly within the reference range up to 167.68 U/l and 165.81 U/l in groups one and two, respectively. The present haematological and whole blood/serum biochemical results in cows spontaneously infected with EBL virus could be used as prognostic markers of the course of the disease, to distinguish the stages of infection with regard to alive diagnostics.

  12. Detection and molecular characterization of bovine leukemia virus in Philippine cattle. (United States)

    Polat, Meripet; Ohno, Ayumu; Takeshima, Shin-Nosuke; Kim, Jiyun; Kikuya, Mari; Matsumoto, Yuki; Mingala, Claro Niegos; Onuma, Misao; Aida, Yoko


    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the etiological agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, which is the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. BLV infects cattle worldwide, imposing a severe economic impact on the dairy cattle industry. However, there are no comprehensive studies on the distribution of BLV in the Philippines, and the genetic characteristics of Philippine BLV strains are unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to detect BLV infections in the Philippines and determined their genetic variability. Blood samples were obtained from 1116 cattle from different farms on five Philippine islands, and BLV provirus was detected by BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2 and nested PCR targeting BLV long terminal repeats. Out of 1116 samples, 108 (9.7 %) and 54 (4.8 %) were positive for BLV provirus, as determined by BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2 and nested PCR, respectively. Of the five islands, Luzon Island showed the highest prevalence of BLV infection (23.1 %). Partial env gp51 genes from 43 samples, which were positive for BLV provirus by both methods, were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic analysis based on a 423-bp fragment of the env gene revealed that Philippine BLV strains clustered into either genotype 1 or genotype 6. Substitutions were mainly found in antigenic determinants, such as the CD4(+) T-cell epitope, the CD8(+) T-cell epitope, the second neutralizing domain, B and E epitopes, and these substitutions varied according to genotype. This study provides comprehensive information regarding BLV infection levels in the Philippines and documents the presence of two BLV genotypes, genotypes 1 and 6, in this population.

  13. L233P mutation of the Tax protein strongly correlated with leukemogenicity of bovine leukemia virus. (United States)

    Inoue, Emi; Matsumura, Keiko; Soma, Norihiko; Hirasawa, Shintaro; Wakimoto, Mayuko; Arakaki, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Takashi; Osawa, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Katsunori


    The bovine leukemia virus (BLV) Tax protein is believed to play a crucial role in leukemogenesis by the virus. BLV usually causes asymptomatic infections in cattle, but only one-third develop persistent lymphocytosis that rarely progress after a long incubation period to lymphoid tumors, namely enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL). In the present study, we demonstrated that the BLV tax genes could be divided into two alleles and developed multiplex PCR detecting an L233P mutation of the Tax protein. Then, in order to define the relationship between the Tax protein and leukemogenicity, we examined 360 tumor samples randomly collected from dairy or breeding cattle in Japan, of which Tax proteins were categorized, for age at the time of diagnosis of EBL. The ages of 288 animals (80.0%) associated with L233-Tax and those of 70 animals (19.4%) with P233-Tax individually followed log-normal distributions. Only the two earliest cases (0.6%) with L233-Tax disobeyed the log-normal distribution. These findings suggest that the animals affected by EBL were infected with the virus at a particular point in life, probably less than a few months after birth. Median age of those with P233-Tax was 22 months older than that with L233-Tax and geometric means exhibited a significant difference (PTax protein infect older cattle. Here, we conclude that BLV could be divided into two categories on the basis of amino acid at position 233 of the Tax protein, which strongly correlated with leukemogenicity.

  14. Literature Analysis of 75 Cases of Hematuria Caused by Antibiotics%75例抗菌药物致血尿文献分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Nowadays,having been widely used in clinical ,the antibacterial drugs is very effective in treatment ,and meantime also cause a large mount of adverse reactions. In this paper,I analysed 75 kinds of antimicrobial drugs which can cases the hematuria,clarifing the relevant factors and the mechanism of actions to call attention to the clinical medication safety.%抗菌药物广泛应用于临床,其疗效确切,但不良反应也同时存在,笔者通过对75例抗菌药物致血尿不良反应进行分析,阐明相关因素、作用机制,提示临床安全用药。

  15. Persistent Müllerian duct structures presenting as hematuria in an adult: Case report of robotic surgical removal and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L I Smith-Harrison


    Full Text Available Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by a male with retained Müllerian structures. Remnant excision must be considered due to the possibility of malignant degeneration. We review a case of delayed diagnosis in a 25-year-old man presenting with hematuria. Preoperative counseling must emphasize the risk of malignancy versus the risks to fertility. The da Vinci robot offers a novel, safe approach for excision of the relevant Müllerian structures. Dissection should be limited to structures superior to the cavernosal neurovascular bundles to preserve the continence and erectile function. A semen analysis is recommended preoperatively to determine effects on fertility.

  16. Etiological Analysis and Folow-up for 343 cases of Children with Hematuria%小儿血尿343例病因分析及随访观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辉; 王峥


      Objective: To investigate the etiology of hematuria in children and folow up the outcome.Methods: Retrospective analysis and folow-up for 343 cases of children with hematuria admitted to hospital from January 2010 to June 2011. Results: 343 cases included 232 cases of glomerular hematuria(67.6%)and non- glomerular hematuria(32.4%). In 232 cases of glomerular hematuria, the most common types were isolated hematuria(52 cases, 15.2%), persistent glomerulonephritis (37 cases,10.8%) and acute glomerulonephritis(37 cases, 10.8%). While In 111 cases of non-glomerular hematuria, the most common type was urinary infection(75 cases, 21.9%), and uncommon types included medulary sponge kidney(1 case, 0.3%) and nephroblastoma(1 case, 0.3%). Renal biopsy was performed in 40 children with glomerular hematuria. The pathological types included 29 cases of IgA nephropathy, 6 cases of mesangial proliferation glomerulonephritis, 1 case of membranous glomerulopathy, 1 case of focal segmental glomerulonephritis and 3 cases of minimal change glomerulopathy. At the end of the folow-up period, of 52 cases with isolated hematuria, 28 were free from hematuria.Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that the etiology of hematuria in children was complex as wel as various, and the children with glomerular hematuria were in the majority. The most common types of glomerular hematuria were isolated hematuria, persistent glomerulonephritis, acute glomerulonephritis. Urinary infection was stil the main cause of non-glomerular hematuria. Renal biopsy was not indicated for its limited value in treatment and prognosis of children with isolated hematuria. Folow-up in a long time was the key point.%  目的探讨小儿血尿的病因及随访病情转归.方法对2010年1月1日至2011年6月30日以血尿为主要表现收治入院的343例患儿的病因进行回顾性分析,并随访1年观察病情转归.结果343例患儿中肾小球性血尿232例(67.6%),非肾小球性血尿111例(32.4%).

  17. 清热化湿重用贯众治疗肾炎血尿临床经验%Clearing Heat Dispelling Dampness with Cyrtomium Fortunei on Treating Nephritis Hematuria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆华; 王硕


    Objective: To observe the effect of Cyrtomium Fortunei on treating Nephritis Hematuria. Methods: Use heavy dosage of Cyrto-mium Fortunei together with other appropriate drugs to treat Nephritis Hematuria. Methods: Methods were as follows: Clearing heat dispelling dampness,cold blood and dispelling toxify,induces diuresis to eliminate edema,tonifying spleen and kidney. Results;Good result can be got when using heavy dosage of Cyrtomium Fortunei on both acute and chronic Nephritis Hematuria. Conclusion: Cyrtomium Fortunei should be used to treat Nephritis Hematuria because Pyretic toxicity attributes to the disease.%目的:探讨中药贯众治疗血尿的临床疗效.方法:临证重用贯众配伍清热化湿、凉血解毒、利水消肿、滋补睥肾等药物治疗肾炎血尿.结果:重用清热解毒止血之贯众加减配伍治疗急慢性肾炎血尿收效颇佳.结论:热毒贯穿于血尿病程的始终,在治疗过程中应当重视清热解毒止血药物贯众的应用.

  18. Ovine Enzootic Abortion (OEA: a comparison of antibody responses in vaccinated and naturally-infected swiss sheep over a two year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann Dieter R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention and control of ovine enzootic abortion (OEA can be achieved by application of a live vaccine. In this study, five sheep flocks with different vaccination and infection status were serologically tested using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA specific for Chlamydophila (Cp. abortus over a two-year time period. Results Sheep in Flock A with recent OEA history had high antibody values after vaccination similar to Flock C with natural Cp. abortus infections. In contrast, OEA serology negative sheep (Flock E showed individual animal-specific immunoreactions after vaccination. Antibody levels of vaccinated ewes in Flock B ranged from negative to positive two and three years after vaccination, respectively. Positive antibody values in the negative control Flock D (without OEA or vaccination are probably due to asymptomatic intestinal infections with Cp. abortus. Excretion of the attenuated strain of Cp. abortus used in the live vaccine through the eye was not observed in vaccinated animals of Flock E. Conclusion The findings of our study indicate that, using serology, no distinction can be made between vaccinated and naturally infected sheep. As a result, confirmation of a negative OEA status in vaccinated animals by serology cannot be determined.

  19. Evaluation of a commercially available molybdate formulation and zinc oxide boluses in preventing hepatic copper accumulation and thus enzootic icterus in sheep

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    C.J. Botha


    Full Text Available The efficacy of a molybdate formulation and a zinc oxide bolus as prophylactic agents for enzootic icterus was evaluated in sheep. Before copper loading, liver biopsies were performed on 12 male, 6-month-old, Mutton Merino sheep to determine hepatic copper (Cu and zinc (Zn concentrations. The animals were restrictively randomised according to liver copper concentrations to 3 treatment groups (n = 4 to achieve similar mean liver copper concentrations per group. All sheep received 4 m /kg of a 0.5 %aqueous solution of CuSO4·5H2O intraruminally 7 days per week for 10 weeks. On Day 0 the sheep in the Mo-group were injected subcutaneously with 42 mg molybdenum (Mo contained in a commercial molybdate formulation. The animals in the Zn-group each received a zinc oxide bolus, containing 43 g zinc oxide, via a rumen cannula. Treatment was repeated on Day 42. Four animals served as untreated controls. Urinary copper excretion, plasma copper concentration, haematocrit and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH activity were determined throughout the trial. The animals were sacrificed after 10 weeks and liver samples were submitted for histopathological examination. Liver and kidney copper and zinc concentrations were determined. Neither the molybdate treatment nor the zinc oxide boluses prevented hepatic copper accumulation. The urinary copper excretion, plasma copper concentration, haematocrit and GLDH activity were not significantly different (P > 0.05 from the controls.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern is one of the most concerning toxic vegetables in many countries in the world. Therefore, science aims to find ways for the epidemiological control of bovine intoxication with the purpose of making early diagnoses of Bovine Enzootic Hematuriae. Researches have shown a high correlation between the excessive production of mucoprotein by animals with Bovine Enzootic Hematuriae and sialic acid, proving that this acid acts as an inflammatorybiochemical marker associated to bladder tumor development. Based on this information, serum sialic acid levels of clinically healthy Nellore heifers (control group were statistically compared to Nellore heifers raised in bracken fern endemic properties (experimental group. The average level of serum sialic acid of the control groups was not different from the sialic acid level of the affected group (0.611 ± 0.225 g/L and 0.615 ± 0.258 g/L, respectively. Results obtained in the present study demonstrate no differences of the sialic acid average levels between the groups. Therefore, measurement ofsialic acid serum levels was not effective as a neoplasic biochemical marker in Nellore heifers continuously fed with bracken fern.

  1. Identification of bovine leukocyte antigen class II haplotypes associated with variations in bovine leukemia virus proviral load in Japanese Black cattle. (United States)

    Miyasaka, T; Takeshima, S-n; Jimba, M; Matsumoto, Y; Kobayashi, N; Matsuhashi, T; Sentsui, H; Aida, Y


    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the etiological agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, which is the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. Bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA) is strongly involved in the subclinical progression of BLV infections. Recent studies show that the BoLA-DRB3 gene might play a direct role in controlling the number of BLV-infected peripheral B lymphocytes in vivo in Holstein cattle. However, the specific BoLA class II allele and DRB3-DQA1 haplotypes determining the BLV proviral load in Japanese Black cattle are yet to be identified. In this study, we focused on the association of BLV proviral load and polymorphism of BoLA class II in Japanese Black cattle. We genotyped 186 BLV-infected, clinically normal cattle for BoLA-DRB3 and BoLA-DQA1 using a polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based typing method. BoLA-DRB3*0902 and BoLA-DRB3*1101 were associated with a low proviral load (LPVL), and BoLA-DRB3*1601 was associated with a high proviral load (HPVL). Furthermore, BoLA-DQA1*0204 and BoLA-DQA1*10012 were related to LPVL and HPVL, respectively. Furthermore, we confirmed the correlation between the DRB3-DQA1 haplotype and BLV proviral load. Two haplotypes, namely 0902B or C (DRB3*0902-DQA1*0204) and 1101A (DRB3*1101-DQA1*10011), were associated with a low BLV proviral load, whereas one haplotype 1601B (DRB3*1601-DQA1*10012) was associated with a high BLV proviral load. We conclude that resistance is a dominant trait and susceptibility is a recessive trait. Additionally, resistant alleles were common between Japanese Black and Holstein cattle, and susceptible alleles differed. This is the first report to identify an association between the DRB3-DQA1 haplotype and variations in BLV proviral load.

  2. Etiological analysis of asymptomatic hematuria in 431 children and follow-up%儿童无症状血尿431例病因分析及随访

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙智才; 刘玉玲; 潘晓芬; 林国模; 雷辛衍


    ObjectiveTo investigate the etiology and prognosis of asymptomatic hematuria in children.MethodsThe etiological factors, clinical features and prognosis of asymptomatic hematuria were analyzed retrospectively in 431 children from Jan. 2001 to Dec . 2014. ResultsIn 431 children (197 males and 234 females) with asymptomatic hematuria, the mean age of ifrst visit was 5.52±2.77 years (8 months-17 years). Four hundred and twenty-ifve cases had persistent microscopic hematuria and 6 cases had gross hematuria. Three hundred and iffteen cases (73.1%) were glomerular hematuria, among which 286 cases were isolated hematuria, 5 cases were acute glomerulonephritis, 13 cases were minimal change glomerulopathy, 4 cases were IgA nephropathy, 4 cases were mesangial proliferation glomerulonephritis and 3 cases were thin basement membrane nephropathy. One hundred and thirty-six cases (31.5%) were non-glomerular hematuria, among whom 113 cases were left renal vein entrap-ment syndrome, 17 cases were idiopathic hypercalciuria, 4 cases were kidney stone, 1 case was urinary tract infection and 1 case was left kidney absence. The mean follow-up period was 3.05±2.69 years (0.5-13.5 years). One hundred and forty-ifve patients showed the resolution of microscopic hematuria, among whom 110 cases (75.8%) had the resolution in 3 years after the ifrst visit. In 24 cases with family history of hematuria, only 6 cases showed the resolution. At the end of the follow-up, renal function remained stable in all children.ConclusionsThe onset age of asymptomatic hematuria in children varies widely, and most of them are glomerular hematuria. Most children with isolated hematuria show resolution within three years after the ifrst visit. The children with familial hematuria may last longer. The isolated hematuria has good prognosis but needs to be followed up.%目的:探讨儿童无症状血尿的病因和转归。方法回顾性分析2001年1月至2014年12月就诊的431例无症状血尿患儿的

  3. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  4. Immune responses elicited by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae recombinant antigens and DNA constructs with potential for use in vaccination against porcine enzootic pneumonia. (United States)

    Virginio, Veridiana Gomes; Gonchoroski, Taylor; Paes, Jéssica Andrade; Schuck, Desirée Cigaran; Zaha, Arnaldo; Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer


    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiological agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia (PEP) and causes major economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Commercially available vaccines provide only partial protection and are relatively expensive. In this study, we assessed the humoral and cellular immune responses to three recombinant antigens of M. hyopneumoniae. Immune responses to selected domains of the P46, HSP70 and MnuA antigens (P46102-253, HSP70212-601 and MnuA182-378), delivered as recombinant subunit or DNA vaccines, were evaluated in BALB/c mice. All purified recombinant antigens and two DNA vaccines, pcDNA3.1(+)/HSP70212-601 and pcDNA3.1(+)/MnuA182-378, elicited a strong humoral immune response, indicated by high IgG levels in the serum. The cellular immune response was assessed by detection of IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-4 in splenocyte culture supernatants. The recombinant subunit and DNA vaccines induced Th1-polarized immune responses, as evidenced by increased levels of IFN-γ. All recombinant subunit vaccines and the pcDNA3.1(+)/MnuA182-378 vaccine also induced the secretion of IL-10, a Th2-type cytokine, in large quantities. The mixed Th1/Th2-type response may elicit an effective immune response against M. hyopneumoniae, suggesting that P46102-253, HSP70212-601 and MnuA182-378 are potential novel and promising targets for the development of vaccines against PEP.

  5. Material Properties of Inorganic Bovine Cancellous Bovine: Nukbone (United States)

    Piña, Cristina; Palma, Benito; Munguía, Nadia


    In this work, inorganic cancellous bovine bone implants prepared in the Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales — UNAM were characterized. Elementary chemical analysis was made, toxic elements concentration were measured and the content of organic matter also. These implants fulfill all the requirements of the ASTM standards, and therefore it is possible their use in medical applications.

  6. Ataxia enzoótica en ciervo rojo (Cervus elaphus en Argentina Enzootic ataxia in red deer (Cervus elaphus in Argentina

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    J P Soler


    crecimiento fetal. Considerando que esta enfermedad se presenta usualmente en forma estacional, es de gran importancia realizar muestreos de sangre en la época de mayor riesgo (principios de primavera con el fin de hacer un diagnóstico temprano. De acuerdo a los datos clínicos, de laboratorio y epidemiológicos, se concluye que el diagnóstico corresponde a "ataxia enzoótica por deficiencia de Cu".Enzootic ataxia is a pathology that causes slow and progressive paralysis of the hind limbs in red deer and has been related to copper (Cu deficiency. This condition is not seen until deer are about 9 months old. The objective of this paper is to describe a clinical case of enzootic ataxia in red deer kept in captivity in Argentina. The problem started with two pregnant female deer that showed hind limb weakness. One was slaughtered for necropsy. Blood and organ samples were taken, and the latter were kept in formaldehyde at 10%. A necropsy of the foetus was also carried out and a liver sample was taken. Grass and water were analyzed. Cu, Fe, Zn, Mo and SO4 levels were measured in grass, while total salt, SO4 , Ca, Mg, Na and Cl levels were measured in water. Disease prevalence was 0.14%. Liver Cu values were 14.6 ppm and 337 ppm DM in the female and foetus respectively. Blood Cu level in the female was 0.5 μg/ml and haematocrit was 46%. In spinal cord a general medullar myelin sheath loss was found, but it was more severe in dorsal regions of the medulla. Vacuolization of white substance with no inflammatory response was also observed. Although liver Cu levels in the slaughtered female were lower than those considered as limiting, cupraemia was within the normal range. This is a commonly observed characteristic in Cu deficiency. Cu liver values in the foetus were also below the normal range. As this is a cronic disease, it is probable that the animals were exposed to a low Cu level diet for a long time. This condition could have been worsened by the high Cu demand during

  7. Non Staining Urinary Sediment Microscopy Observation for the Diagnosis of Children With Hematuria%非染色尿沉渣镜检法用于诊断小儿血尿症的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of using non staining urinary sediment microscopy in the diagnosis of hematuria in children.Methods The review analysis method randomly selected in non staining of urinary sediment microscopy 800 cases of children with hematuria in children in our hospital,comparison of detection in children after red blood cel morphology.ResultsThere were 696 cases of children with hematuria in children with polymorphic form of red blood cels,the proportion was 87%,104 cases showed a uniform pattern of red blood cel morphology,the proportion was 13%.Conclusion Diagnosis of hematuria in children using non stained urinary sediment microscopy can accurately distinguish and identify the shapes of red blood cels in urine of children,source of effective assistant identification of hematuria,in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of hematuria has important significance,has clinical application value.%目的:探讨在小儿血尿症的诊断中利用非染色尿沉渣镜检法的临床疗效。方法本文利用回顾性分析的方法随机选取了在我院行非染色尿沉渣镜检法的800例小儿血尿症患儿,比较检测后患儿的红细胞形态。结果小儿血尿症患儿中有696例呈多形型的红细胞形态,比例为87.00%;104例呈均一型的红细胞形态,比例为13.00%。结论小儿血尿症诊断中利用非染色尿沉渣镜检法可以准确的鉴别与辨认患儿尿液的红细胞形态,有效的辅助鉴别血尿的来源,在血尿的诊断与鉴别中具有重要意义,具有临床的应用价值。

  8. An 8-year longitudinal sero-epidemiological study of bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) infection in dairy cattle in Turkey and analysis of risk factors associated with BLV seropositivity. (United States)

    Şevik, Murat; Avcı, Oğuzhan; İnce, Ömer Barış


    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) which is caused by bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) has an important economic impact on dairy herds due to reduced milk production and restrictions on livestock exports. This study was conducted to determine the BLV infection status in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey, an important milk production centre, and to examine the risk factors such as purchasing cattle, increasing cattle age, cattle breed and herd size associated with transmission of BLV infection. To estimate the rate of BLV infection, a survey for specific antibodies in 28,982 serum samples from animals belonging to 1116 different herds situated in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey were tested from January 2006 to December 2013. A generalized mixed linear model was used to evaluate the risk factors that influenced BLV seroprevalence. Antibodies against BLV were detected in 431 (2.28 %) of 18,822 Holstein and 29 (0.28 %) of 10,160 Brown Swiss cows. Among 1116 herds, 132 herds (11.82 %) had one or more positive animals. Also results of our study show that the prevalence of BLV infection increased from 2006 to 2011, and it tends to reduce with BLV control programme. Furthermore, we found positive associations between percentage of seropositive animal and increasing cattle age, herd size, cattle breed and purchased cattle. Age-specific prevalence showed that BLV prevalence increased with age. These factors should be taken into consideration for control of BLV infection.

  9. Selected biochemical and oxidative stress parameters and ceruloplasmin as acute phase protein associated with bovine leukaemia virus infection in dairy cows

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    Akalın Pınar Peker


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the ceruloplasmin (Cp and vitamin C concentrations, the total antioxidant status (TAS, and selected biochemical parameters in dairy cows spontaneously infected with bovine leukaemia virus (BLV. Of the 27 cows included in the study, 18 animals were seropositive for enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL, whereas nine cows were seronegative and were used as controls. The serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST (P = 0.003 and Cp concentrations (P = 0.03 decreased (65.17 ± 5.03 and 7.70 ± 0.72 respectively in BLV-infected cows, as compared to healthy animals (100.67 ± 11.50 and 10.40 ± 0.70 respectively. A slight insignificant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity and unchanged levels of alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, calcium, magnesium, and TAS were demonstrated in EBL cows. As the TAS and vitamin C levels remained unchanged in EBL cows, it may be suggested that ruminants may compensate for the impaired oxidative/antioxidative balance. The results obtained also indicate that BLV may suppress AST and Cp synthesis or secretion in the liver through an unknown mechanism. The mechanism of action of BLV in hepatocytes, especially on AST and Cp, requires further investigation to elucidate the immune suppression caused by oncogenic retroviruses.

  10. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, B.E.C.; Somerville, R.A.


    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep has not been identified under natural conditions at the time of writing and remains a hypothetical issue. However, rumours about the possible finding of a BSE-like isolate in sheep have led to great unrest within the sheep industry, among the general p

  11. Prevalence tendency and risk factors study of hematuria in occupational population of Changzhi%长治市职业人员血尿患病情况及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To investigate the prevalence tendency and risk factors study of hematuria in occupational population of Changzhi city,Shanxi province.Methods Cluster sampling was used to select 29 852 occupational population from January 2007 to December 2010.Questionnaire survey,physical examinations and biochemical assessment were conducted among all subjects.Results A total of 5206 patients were indentified form all subject and enrolled in the final analysis.(1) The number of newly diagnosed cases increased year by year and females was highter than males (P <0.01).(2)Mixed hematuria rate increased from 22.5% in 2007 to 45.3% in 2010; and homogeneity hematuria decreased from 58.1% to 14.9% ;non-uniformity of hematuria increased from 19.3% to 39.8%.(3) High triglycerides,and age > 50 years were the a major risk factors of hematuria.The main risk factors in young group (< 39 years) was a major risk included urinary tract infections,stones,and physical exertion.Conclusion The hematuria rate in female higher than that of male patient.For men hematuria,high triglycerides,prostatic hypertrophy,age > 50 years,high cholesterol were the risk factors.As for women,high triglycerides,gynecological diseases,age > 50 years.High triglycerides and physical exertion were associated with hematuria.%目的 探讨山西省长治市职业人群血尿患病情况及其影响因素.方法 采用整群抽样方法进行分析.对2007年1月至2010年12月29 852名职业人员体检者进行问卷调查、体格检查和实验室检查.结果 共5206例血尿患者入选.(1)新诊断例数逐年增加.女性高于男性(P<0.01).(2)与2007年相比,混合性血尿由22.5%上升至2010年的45.3%;均一性血尿由58.1%下降至14.9%;非均一性血尿由19.3%上升至39.8%.(3)高甘油三酯和年龄>50岁是血尿的主要危险因素.年轻人组(<39岁)血尿的主要危险因素为尿路感染、结石和体能消耗.结论 女性血尿患者高于

  12. Analyses of Clinical Data with 835 Cases of Hematuria at Yin Hang Community in Shanghai%上海殷行社区835例血尿患者临床资料分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕月萍; 何立群


    Objective:To study the incidence of patients with hematuria and explore the causes of hematuria, prognosis and physical classification at Yinhang Community Health Center in Shanghai. Method:835 hematuria patients during 2009 at Yinhang Community Health Center in Shanghai were studied from sex, age, etiology, incentives, treatment and prognosis, physical. Result; Hematuria of age from 2 to 94, male 260, female 575 were appeared in all the researched group. Hematuria caused by urinary tract infection was occupied 35.93% , kidney disease was 22. 16% , and cause of fatigue was 45.99%. The improvement rate of hematuria was 48.50% , the recurrence rate was 41.98%. The dampness -heat was 25.63% , yin deficiency was 22.04% in Physical Classification. Conclusion; With increasing age, the incidence of hematuria was significantly higher, and females more than males, Urinary tract infection and kidney disease are the most common etiology of all the hematuria. Fatigue is the most common incentives, Integrative Medicine with Chinese and western is the method to improve the highest and the lowest relapse rate. The most common physical constitution is yin deficiency and dampness - heat Constitution.%目的:了解血尿患者的发病情况,探讨血尿的病因、预后及体质分类.方法:以2009年殷行社区卫生服务中心所有835例血尿患者为对象,对其性别、年龄、病因、诱因、治疗方法与预后、体质进行分析.结果:血尿患者年龄2~94岁,男260例,女575例.病因中泌尿系统感染占35.93%、肾病占22.16%,以疲劳为诱因占45.99%.血尿的好转率为48.50%,复发率为41.98%.体质分型中湿热质为25.63%,阴虚质为22.04%.结论:血尿随着年龄的增长,其发病率明显升高,且女性高于男性,病因以泌尿系统感染、肾病多见,以疲劳为最多见诱因,中西医结合治疗方法的好转率最高,复发率最低.体质以湿热质、阴虚质为主.

  13. 尿红细胞形态及平均体积在在血尿定位应用分析%The application value of urine red blood cell morphology and mean corpuscular volume in localization of hematuria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To investigate the application value of urinary red cell morphology and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) in localization of hematuria. Methods Select 100 cases of hematuria samples as investigation object,Sysmex XN-1000 automatic blood cell analyzer was used to detect urine mean corpuscular volume (MCV),and phase-contrast microscope was used to observe urine red blood cell morphology. Observation and analysis of the difference of urinary red cell morphology and mean corpuscular volume between glomerular hematuria group (GH) and non glomerular hematuria (NGH) group. Results The MCV values (63.71+6.03) fl in glomerular hematuria (GH) group were significantly lower than MCV values (92.37+12.11) fl in glomerular hematuria (NGH)group. the urine MCV values are not higher than 72.0 fl,The rate of deformed of red blood cells >80% and the red blood cells are polymorphic type. Conclusion The characteristics analysis of urine red blood cell morphology and mean corpuscular vol-ume can be used as one of the methods in the localization diagnosis and differential diagnosis of hematuria ,It is helpful to deter-mine the origin of hematuria and provide clinical reference.%目的:探讨尿红细胞形态及尿红细胞平均体积(MCV)检查在判定血尿来源定位应用价值。方法选取100例血尿的标本作为考察对象,Sysmex XN-1000全自动血球分析仪检测尿红细胞平均体积(MCV),并用相差显微镜检查尿红细胞形态学,观察和分析肾小球性血尿组(glomerular hematuria,GH)和非肾小球血尿组(non glomerular hematuria,NGH)尿红细胞形态及尿红细胞平均体积的差异。结果肾小球性血尿(GH)组尿MCV值(63.71±6.03)fl明显低于非肾小球性血尿(NGH)组MCV值(92.37±12.11)fl(P<0.05)且尿MCV不高于72.0fl,变形红细胞>80%呈多形型。结论尿中红细胞形态及红细胞平均体积特征分析可作为血尿定位诊断和鉴别诊断的方法之一,有助于判

  14. 77 FR 15847 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products (United States)


    ... been fed ruminant protein, other than milk protein, during their lifetime; The bovines from which the... from animals that are not known to have been fed ruminant protein, other than milk protein, during... community is that the agent is an abnormal form of a normal protein known as cellular prion protein. The...

  15. 伴有肉眼血尿的IgA肾病患者临床特点分析%Study on clinical features of idiopathic IgA nephropathy with gross hematuria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玺; 沈明静; 缪蕙


    Objective To study the clinical features of idiopathic IgA nephropathy with gross hematuria. Methods Seventy six patients with IgA nephropathy diagnosed by renal biopsy were divided into study group and control group according to whether with gross hematuria or not. Twenty two patients with gross hematuria were allocated in study group; and 54 patients without gross hematuria were allocated in control group. Katafuchi semi - quantitative analysis had been applied for determination of the severity of renal lesions in patients, and it combined with clinical features had been applied to analyze the characteristics of pathological changes and clinical characteristics of patients. Results ①Patients in study group were significantly higher in precursory infection rate, incidence of hypertension was lower than that of control group, serum level of creatinine was lower than that of control group, and mean duration of disease was shorter than that of control group ( P 0. 05 ). ② Scores of renal pathology, vascular scores, and scores of glomerular sclerosis and thickening of vessel wall were lower than those of control group ( P 0.05).②研究组患者肾脏病理积分、血管积分、球硬化积分及血管壁增厚积分低于对照组(P<0.05).结论 伴有肉眼血尿的IgA肾病患者发病期多伴有前驱感染,病程中高血压发生率、血肌酐水平较不伴有肉眼血尿的IgA肾病患者低.病理改变较不伴有肉眼血尿的IgA肾病轻,预后相对较好.

  16. Risk factors associated with within-herd transmission of bovine leukemia virus on dairy farms in Japan

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    Konishi Misako


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although several attempts have been made to control enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL at the local level, a nationwide control program has not been implemented in Japan, except for passive surveillance. Effective control of EBL requires that the transmission routes of bovine leukemia virus (BLV infection should be identified and intercepted based on scientific evidence. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the risk factors associated with within-herd transmission of BLV on infected dairy farms in Japan. Blood samples taken from 30 randomly selected adult cows at each of 139 dairy farms were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Information on herd management was collected using a structured questionnaire. Results Infected farms were defined as those with more than one ELISA-positive animal and accounted for 110 (79.1% of the 139 farms in the study. Completed questionnaires obtained from 90 of these 110 farms were used for statistical analysis. Seroprevalence, which was defined as the proportions of animals that tested positive out of all animals tested on the farm, was 17.1%, 48.1%, and 68.5% for the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles, respectively. A mixed logistic regression analysis implicated a loose housing system, dehorning, and a large number of horseflies in summer as risk factors (coefficient = 0.71, 1.11, and 0.82; p = 0.03, Conclusion Control of EBL in infected dairy farms in Japan will be improved by focusing particularly on these risk and protective factors.

  17. Risk factors associated with increased bovine leukemia virus proviral load in infected cattle in Japan from 2012 to 2014. (United States)

    Ohno, Ayumu; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Matsumoto, Yuki; Aida, Yoko


    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, a malignant B cell lymphoma. BLV has spread worldwide and causes serious problems. After infection, the BLV genome is integrated into the host DNA and can be amplified during periods of latency. We previously designed degenerate primers using the Coordination of Common Motifs (CoCoMo) algorithm to establish a new quantitative real-time PCR method (BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2) of measuring the proviral load of both known and novel BLV variants. Here, we aimed to examine the correlation between proviral load and risk factors for BLV infection, such as breeding systems, parousity, and colostrum feeding. Blood and serum samples were collected from 83 BLV-positive farms in 22 prefectures of Japan, and the BLV proviral load and anti-BLV antibody levels were measured. BLV was detected in 73.3% (1039/1,417) of cattle by BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2 and the provirus was detected in 93 of 1039 antibody-negative samples. The results showed that the proviral load increased with progression of lymphocytosis. Next, the risk factors associated with increasing BLV infection rate were examined along with any association with proviral load. The proviral load was higher in cattle with lymphocytosis than in healthy cattle, and higher in multiparous cows than in nulliparous cows. Finally, proviral loads were higher in contact breeding systems than in non-contact breeding systems. Taken together, these findings may help to formulate a plan for eliminating BLV from contaminated farms. This is the first nationwide study to estimate BLV proviral load in Japanese cattle.

  18. Bovine cysticercosis situation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Augusto Marques Rossi


    Full Text Available The taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is a long known zoonotic parasitosis characteristic of underdeveloped countries. In addition to its public health significance, this parasitosis is cause of economic losses to the beef production chain, and synonymous of technical inadequacy in relation to the adoption of Good Agricultural Practices. The occurrences of both human teniasis and bovine cysticercosis could and should be controlled with basic sanitary measures. However, there is much variation in the occurrence of the disease in cattle, characterizing a low rate of technical development as well as problems related to the adoption of basic sanitation measures. This review describes, in details, the causative agent and its epidemiological chain, besides raising current information about the occurrence of bovine cysticercosis in different regions of Brazil, aiming at the adoption of prophylactic measures by different segments responsible.

  19. Serodiagnosis of bovine trypanosomosis caused by non-tsetse transmitted Trypanosoma (Duttonella) vivax parasites using the soluble form of a Trypanozoon variant surface glycoprotein antigen. (United States)

    Uzcanga, Graciela L; Pérez-Rojas, Yenis; Camargo, Rocío; Izquier, Adriana; Noda, José A; Chacín, Ronny; Parra, Nereida; Ron, Lenin; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Richar; Bubis, José


    Previous studies have shown that a 64-kDa antigen (p64) that was purified from the Venezuelan TeAp-N/D1 isolate of Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) equiperdum corresponds to the soluble form of its predominant variant surface glycoprotein (VSG), and exhibited cross-reactivity with Trypanosoma (Duttonella) vivax. The course of experimental acute infections of bovines with T. vivax were followed by measuring whole anti-p64 antibodies and specific anti-p64 IgG and IgM antibodies in animal sera by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The value of p64 to diagnose bovine trypanosomosis was also examined using 350 sera from healthy and T. vivax-infected cows living in a trypanosomosis-endemic and enzootic stable area, and 48 sera obtained during a trypanosomosis outbreak. Serological assays showed that ∼ 70-80% of the infected sera contained anti-p64 antibodies, based on the comparative immunodetection of the T. equiperdum clarified antigenic fraction used as a reference test. In the absence of a gold standard, Bayesian analysis for multiple testing estimated a sensitivity and specificity of 71.6% and 98.8%, respectively, for the indirect ELISA using p64 as antigen. An apparent prevalence of 37.7% for bovine trypanosomosis infection was also estimated with a Bayesian approach when the p64 ELISA test was used. Employing blood from acute infected cows, the indirect ELISA response against p64 was contrasted with the microhematocrit centrifuge method and analyses by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers targeting the inter-specific length variation of the internal transcribed spacer 1 region of the 18S ribosomal gene. The efficiency of p64 for the detection of anti-trypanosome antibodies in acute infected bovines was also corroborated serologically by comparing its response to that of the Indonesian Trypanosoma evansi Rode Trypanozoon antigen type (RoTat) 1.2 VSG, which possesses high specificity and sensitivity. As expected, PCR was the best

  20. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis: a review. (United States)

    Brown, M H; Brightman, A H; Fenwick, B W; Rider, M A


    The economic impact of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) warrants continued investigation of the mechanisms by which Moraxella bovis survives on and colonizes the corneal surface. Virulent strains of M bovis produce hemolysin and exhibit different plasmid profiles than nonvirulent strains. Interactions among host, environment, vector, season, and concurrent infection influence the prevalence of IBK. Mycoplasma sp. or infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus may enhance or hasten the disease process. The manifestations of IBK may range from mild conjunctivitis to severe ulceration, corneal perforation, and blindness. Treatment of IBK is dictated by economic considerations, intended animal use, and feasibility of administration. Antibiotic therapy is aimed at achieving drug concentrations in tears to meet or exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration for prolonged periods. At present, IBK is not a preventable disease. Affected animals must be separated from the herd and vector control vigorously instituted. Carrier animals must be identified and removed from the herd. Vaccination trials have been unsuccessful because of pili antigen cross-reactivity, variable strains, and uncontrolled environmental factors. Recent investigations have determined that M bovis may utilize host iron sources via iron-repressible outer membrane proteins and siderophores for growth. Elucidation of normal defense mechanisms of the bovine eye may lead to new strategies to enhance the immune response against M bovis.

  1. Bovine Chymosin: A Computational Study of Recognition and Binding of Bovine κ-Casein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, David S.; Christensen, Anders Uhrenholt; Sørensen, Jesper


    Bovine chymosin is an aspartic protease that selectively cleaves the milk protein κ-casein. The enzyme is widely used to promote milk clotting in cheese manufacturing. We have developed models of residues 97-112 of bovine κ-casein complexed with bovine chymosin, using ligand docking, conformational...

  2. 槐杞黄颗粒对儿童孤立性血尿的疗效观察%The observation of yellow huaiqi particles' efficacy on the children's Isolated hematuria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晟; 李志辉; 康志娟; 银燕; 王成


    目的 通过观察槐杞黄颗粒对孤立性血尿患儿的治疗效果,为临床治疗儿童孤立性血尿可能提供新的方法及思路.方法 将2007年至2014年收治入院的326例儿童孤立性血尿患者根据口服的药物不同随机分为槐杞黄治疗组、VitE治疗组及空白组,观察其血尿阴转时间及阴转率,分析槐杞黄颗粒治疗孤立性血尿阴转的肾脏病理.结果 随访6个月,空白组有10/104例患儿血尿转阴,槐杞黄治疗组有46/116例患儿血尿转阴,VitE治疗组有10/106例患儿血尿转阴.经槐杞黄治疗发生阴转的肾脏病理改变类型及病例数分别为MsPGN.28例,IgM肾病12例,IgA肾病4例,C3肾病2例.6例IgG肾病的孤立性血尿患儿口服槐杞黄未见血尿阴转病例,槐杞黄治疗组中28例阴转的MsPGN中表现为肾小球系膜IgG沉积10例中未见阴转病例.结论 槐杞黄颗粒对儿童孤立性血尿阴转有一定的疗效,可能对于免疫机制介导的血尿疗效更好.槐杞黄颗粒对于IgM肾病效果较好,对于IgA肾病可能有效.%Objectives To provide new methods and ideas for the clinical treatment of children with isolated hematuria by observing the Yellow Huaiqi particles' curative effect.Methods Divide 326 children who received in the hospital from 2007 to 2014 into Yellow Huaiqi treatment group, VitE treatment group and blank group respectively according to different oral drugs they took, observe their hematuria negative conversion time and negative conversion rate, analyze the renal pathology of Yellow Huaiqi particles' treatment of isolated hematuria negative conversion.Results During six months' following up, 10 of the 104 patients' hematuria in the blank group turned negative, 46 of the 116 patients' hematuria in the Yellow Huaiqi treatment group became negative, and 10 of 106 patients' hematuria in the VitE treatment group turned negative.The types of the renal pathology changes and cases that received Yellow Huaiqi treatment are

  3. Novel CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell epitopes in bovine leukemia virus with cattle. (United States)

    Bai, Lanlan; Takeshima, Shin-Nosuke; Isogai, Emiko; Kohara, Junko; Aida, Yoko


    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis and is closely related to human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV). The cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) plays a key role in suppressing the progression of disease caused by BLV. T and B cell epitopes in BLV have been studied, but CD8(+) CTL epitopes remain poorly understood. We used a library of 115 synthetic peptides covering the entirety of the Env proteins (gp51 and gp30), the Gag proteins (p15, p24, and p12), and the Tax protein of BLV to identify 11 novel CD8(+) T cell epitopes (gp51N5, gp51N11, gp51N12, gp30N5, gp30N6, gp30N8, gp30N16, tax16, tax18, tax19, and tax20) in four calves experimentally infected with BLV. The number of CD8(+) T cell epitopes that could be identified in each calf correlated with the BLV proviral load. Interestingly, among the 11 epitopes identified, only gp51N11 was capable of inducing CD8(+) T cell-mediated cytotoxicity in all four calves, but it is not a suitable vaccine target because it shows a high degree of polymorphism according to the Wu-Kabat variability index. By contrast, no CTL epitopes were identified from the Gag structural protein. In addition, several epitopes were obtained from gp30 and Tax, indicating that cellular immunity against BLV is strongly targeted to these proteins. CD8(+) CTL epitopes from gp30 and Tax were less polymorphic than epitopes from. Indeed, peptides tax16, tax18, tax19, and tax20 include a leucine-rich activation domain that encompasses a transcriptional activation domain, and the gp30N16 peptide contains a proline-rich region that interacts with a protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP1 to regulate B cell activation. Moreover, at least one CD8(+) CTL epitope derived from gp30 was identified in each of the four calves. These results indicate that BLV gp30 may be the best candidate for the development of a BLV vaccine.

  4. Herd-level risk factors for infection with bovine leukemia virus in Canadian dairy herds. (United States)

    Nekouei, Omid; VanLeeuwen, John; Sanchez, Javier; Kelton, David; Tiwari, Ashwani; Keefe, Greg


    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an economically important infection of dairy cattle worldwide, which is caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV). The prevalence of infection in Canadian dairy herds is high and continues to increase; however, there has not been a national program to control BLV. This cross-sectional study was conducted to identify potentially important risk factors for BLV infection on Canadian dairy herds, which is a prerequisite to developing an effective control program. During 1998-2003, based on a stratified two-stage random sampling process, 315 dairy farms from seven provinces of Canada were selected. Within each farm, 9-45 cows were bled and tested with a commercial serum ELISA kit for BLV antibodies. A comprehensive questionnaire, targeting potentially important herd-level management indicators, was successfully administered in 272 herds. A zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression model was fit to the resulting data to assess the potential associations between BLV seropositivity and a variety of herd-level factors. Seventy-eight percent of the herds were identified as BLV-positive (had one or more test positive animals). In the negative-binomial part of the final ZINB model, herds with clinical cases of leukosis during the 12 months prior to sampling, as well as herds which purchased animals with unknown BLV infection status in the last five years, had a significantly larger proportion of BLV positive animals. Based on a significant interaction between two of the risk factors, changing gloves between cows during pregnancy examination was not statistically associated with lower proportion of infected cows compared with not changing gloves, in the western Canadian provinces. In the logistic part of the model, herds from eastern Canadian provinces and those not purchasing cows in the last five years had increased odds of being free from BLV. The high prevalence of infection across Canada should be addressed through the development and

  5. An outbreak of bovine trypanosomiasis in the Blue Nile State, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Ichiro


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper, we report an outbreak of bovine trypanosomiasis in Kurmuk District, Blue Nile State, Sudan that involved an infection with four Trypanosoma species in cattle. The outbreak occurred in June 2010 when indigenous cattle, mainly Kenana and Fulani breed types, crossed the national Sudanese border to Ethiopia and returned. A veterinarian was notified of massive deaths in the cattle populations that recently came from Ethiopia. All animals involved in the outbreak were from the nomadic Fulani group and resident local cattle were not infected and no death has been reported among them. A total of 210 blood samples were collected from the ear vein of cattle. A few samples were also collected from other domestic animals species. Parasitological examinations including hematocrit centrifugation techniques (HCT and Giemsa-stained thin blood films were carried out. ITS1-PCR, which provides a multi-species-specific diagnosis in a single PCR, was performed. Findings Parasitological examinations revealed that 43% (91/210 of the affected cattle population was infected with two morphologically distinct trypanosomes. Seventy animals (33.3% were infected with T. vivax and twenty one (10% with T. congolense. In contrast, ITS1-PCR was able to identify four Trypanosoma species namely T. vivax, T. congolense, T. simiae and T. brucei in 56.7% (80/141. T. brucei showed the highest prevalence of 36.9% (52/141 and the lowest 19% (27/141 was displayed by T. congolense. Furthermore, and because ITS1-PCR could not differentiate between T. brucei subspecies, serum resistance-associated (SRA gene based PCR was used to detect the human T. brucei rhodesiense in T. brucei positive samples. None of the samples was shown positive for T. b. rhodesiense. The identity of the 400 bp PCR product originating from T. simiae, was further confirmed by sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic analysis. Conclusions The outbreak of bovine trypanosomiasis occurred

  6. In vitro production of bovine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroebech, L.; Mazzoni, Gianluca; Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard;


    In vitro production (IVP) of bovine embryos has become a widespread technology implemented in cattle breeding and production. The implementation of genomic selection and systems biology adds great dimensions to the impact of bovine IVP. The physical procedures included in the IVP process can still...

  7. Frequency of COL4A3/COL4A4 mutations amongst families segregating glomerular microscopic hematuria and evidence for activation of the unfolded protein response. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis is a frequent development during ageing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louiza Papazachariou

    Full Text Available Familial glomerular hematuria(s comprise a genetically heterogeneous group of conditions which include Alport Syndrome (AS and thin basement membrane nephropathy (TBMN. Here we investigated 57 Greek-Cypriot families presenting glomerular microscopic hematuria (GMH, with or without proteinuria or chronic kidney function decline, but excluded classical AS. We specifically searched the COL4A3/A4 genes and identified 8 heterozygous mutations in 16 families (28,1%. Eight non-related families featured the founder mutation COL4A3-p.(G1334E. Renal biopsies from 8 patients showed TBMN and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS. Ten patients (11.5% reached end-stage kidney disease (ESKD at ages ranging from 37-69-yo (mean 50,1-yo. Next generation sequencing of the patients who progressed to ESKD failed to reveal a second mutation in any of the COL4A3/A4/A5 genes, supporting that true heterozygosity for COL4A3/A4 mutations predisposes to CRF/ESKD. Although this could be viewed as a milder and late-onset form of autosomal dominant AS, we had no evidence of ultrastructural features or extrarenal manifestations that would justify this diagnosis. Functional studies in cultured podocytes transfected with wild type or mutant COL4A3 chains showed retention of mutant collagens and differential activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR cascade. This signifies the potential role of the UPR cascade in modulating the final phenotype in patients with collagen IV nephropathies.

  8. Bovine milk antibodies for health. (United States)

    Korhonen, H; Marnila, P; Gill, H S


    The immunoglobulins of bovine colostrum provide the major antimicrobial protection against microbial infections and confer a passive immunity to the newborn calf until its own immune system matures. The concentration in colostrum of specific antibodies against pathogens can be raised by immunising cows with these pathogens or their antigens. Immune milk products are preparations made of such hyperimmune colostrum or antibodies enriched from it. These preparations can be used to give effective specific protection against different enteric diseases in calves and suckling pigs. Colostral immunoglobulin supplements designed for farm animals are commercially available in many countries. Also, some immune milk products containing specific antibodies against certain pathogens have been launched on the market. A number of clinical studies are currently in progress to evaluate the efficacy of immune milks in the prevention and treatment of various human infections, including those caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria. Bovine colostrum-based immune milk products have proven effective in prophylaxis against various infectious diseases in humans. Good results have been obtained with products targeted against rotavirus, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli, Clostridium difficile, Streptococcus mutans, Cryptosporidium parvum and Helicobacter pylori. Some successful attempts have been made to use immune milk in balancing gastrointestinal microbial flora. Immune milk products are promising examples of health-promoting functional foods, or nutraceuticals. This review summarises the recent progress in the development of these products and evaluates their potential as dietary supplements and in clinical nutrition.

  9. [Toxinology of bovine paraplegic syndrome]. (United States)

    Sevcik, C; Brito, J C; D'Suze, G; Mijares, A J; Domínguez, M G


    A clinical entity named "Bovine Paraplegic Syndrome" ("Síndrome Parapléjico de los Bovinos") has spread alarmingly, in the cattle growing areas of the central and eastern plains of Venezuela. Approximately four million cattle are bread in the area were the disease occurs. The mortality index due to the disease ranges 5 to 25% of the animals at risk, mostly cows, pregnant or lactating. The principal characteristic of the bovine paraplegic syndrome is decubitus, ventral or sternal, in animals that make vane efforts to stand when stimulated. The diagnosis is established ruling out, clinically and with laboratory findings, that the animals are suffering known diseases with similar symptoms such as paralytic rabies, botulism and blood parasites such Trypanosoma sp., Babesia sp., and Anaplasma sp.. Death occurs always, usually after few days, and to this date there is no known treatment able to save the sick cows. In this work, we describe results that suggest the presence of a toxin in the cattle suffering and prone to suffer the syndrome; it is a natural toxin produced by ruminal bacteria. In squid giant axons under voltage clamp conditions, this toxin is very specific to block sodium current during nerve electrical activity.

  10. Bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer. (United States)

    Ross, Pablo J; Cibelli, Jose B


    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a technique by which the nucleus of a differentiated cell is introduced into an oocyte from which its genetic material has been removed by a process called enucleation. In mammals, the reconstructed embryo is artificially induced to initiate embryonic development (activation). The oocyte turns the somatic cell nucleus into an embryonic nucleus. This process is called nuclear reprogramming and involves an important change of cell fate, by which the somatic cell nucleus becomes capable of generating all the cell types required for the formation of a new individual, including extraembryonic tissues. Therefore, after transfer of a cloned embryo to a surrogate mother, an offspring genetically identical to the animal from which the somatic cells where isolated, is born. Cloning by nuclear transfer has potential applications in agriculture and biomedicine, but is limited by low efficiency. Cattle were the second mammalian species to be cloned after Dolly the sheep, and it is probably the most widely used species for SCNT experiments. This is, in part due to the high availability of bovine oocytes and the relatively higher efficiency levels usually obtained in cattle. Given the wide utilization of this species for cloning, several alternatives to this basic protocol can be found in the literature. Here we describe a basic protocol for bovine SCNT currently being used in our laboratory, which is amenable for the use of the nuclear transplantation technique for research or commercial purposes.

  11. Usefulness of the UBC{sup TM} (urinary bladder cancer) test compared to urinary cytology for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in patients with hematuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Myung Cheol; Kang, Do Young; Seong, Youl Koon [School of Medicine, Donaga Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)] [and others


    Urinary cytology and cystoscopic exam are effective methods for diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). But the former shows drawbacks such as the need for a well-trained examiner, and wide imprecision related to the variability of microscopic exam; the latter is a invasive method. UBC{sup TM} test detects the epitope on specific cytokeratin fragments released from epithelium of bladder cancer by immunoradiometric assay. We compared UBC{sup TM} test with urinary cytology for diagnosis of TCC to evaluate the utility of UBC{sup TM} test. Eighty-four patients with hematuria were included in our study, UBC{sup TM} tests (IDL Biotech, Sweden) were assayed in mid-stream urine according to the ordinary assay protocol. Nineteen patients were confirmed as TCC by cystoscopic examination and underwent transurethral resection (Group A). Other patients had various benign urinary tract conditions (Group B). Samples were considered positive as the UBC{sup TM} concentration was greater than 12 {mu}g/L. UBC{sup TM} levels were significantly different between group A (95.9 {+-}166.4 {mu}g/L) and group B (19.2 {+-} 85.6 {mu}g/L)(p<0.001). Sensitivity for diagnosis of TCC was 89.5% (17/19) in UBC test and 47.4% (9/19) in cytology (p<0.05). Specificity for diagnosis of TCC was 81.5% (53/65) in UBC{sup TM} test and 100% (65/65) in cytology. UBC{sup TM} test was significantly more sensitive in stage Ta, T{sub 1} tumors (84.6 vs 38.5%, p<0.05) and in grade I (83.3% vs 16.7%, p<005) than cytology. UBC{sup TM} test showed a tendency to be more sensitive as the grade was higher (83.3% in Grade 1, 90% in Grade II and 100% in Grade III). UBC{sup TM} test could be a useful method in distinguishing TCC from other benign genitourinary diseases. Moreover, UBC{sup TM} test could be an especially valuable marker for diagnosis of TCC in patients with early TCC of low grade TCC compared to urinary cytology. Therefore, mbined use of UBC{sup TM} test in association with cytology is helpful to

  12. 《内经》“藏象”理论在中医诊治尿血中的应用%Application of“Viscera State”Theory in“Internal Classics”on TCM Diagnosing and Treating Hematuria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    [目的]探讨《内经》“藏象”理论在中医诊治尿血中的应用。[方法]整理与中医诊治尿血相关的《内经》“藏象”理论,并结合历代医家的相关论述,分析其在临床中的应用价值。[结果]《内经》“心合小肠”、“小肠者,受盛之官,化物出焉”、“肾上连肺”、“脾藏营”、“脾气散精,上归于肺”、“肝藏血”、“肾者水藏”以及肾“开窍于二阴”等“藏象”理论有助于中医对尿血病变准确定位,明确病机,进而正确治疗,历代医家对此多有发挥,并得到现代临床的证实。[结论]《内经》“藏象”理论对中医诊治尿血具有重要的指导意义。%Objective] To explore the application of “viscera state”theory in “Internal Classics”in TCM diagnosing and treating hematuria. [Method] Clear up the“viscera state”theories in“Internal Classics”related to TCM diagnosing and treating hematuria, combining with concerned thesis of doctors in the past dynasties, to analyse its application value in clinic. [Result] “Heart joining with smal intestine through the meridian and col ateras”,“smal intestine being organ of receiving food and digestion”, “kidney connects lung upward”, “spleen storing Ying”, “spleen Qi disperseing essence and returning to lung upward”,“liver storing blood”,“kidney being organ of water”and“kidney opening into 2 lower orifices”, such“viscera state”theories are helpful to correct position of hematuria in TCM, define the mechanism and correct the treatment; doctors in the past dynasties had development on this, which is proved by the modern clinic. [Conclusion]“Viscera state”theories in“Internal Classics”have important guiding meaning in TCM diagnosing and treating hematuria.

  13. 肉眼血尿对流式尿沉渣仪红细胞检测的干扰及对策%The Influence of Gross Hematuria on Sysmex UF-500

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔雪峰; 崔巍


    Objective:To investigate influence of the gross hematuria on red cell determination of subsequent adjacent specimen. Methods:Choose healthy fresh urine specimens of 9 copies, and gross hematuria to be detected alternately by automatic sampling mode on the Sysmex UF-500 flow cytometer urine sediment analyzer. Results:Group A:difference in red blood cells count before and after jamming has statistics significance t=6.70,P=0.0002;Group B:2 false positive. Conclusion:Interference of gross hematuria on adjacent follow-up specimens erythrocyte detection is obvious;with hematuria concentration increased and even can lead to false positive results.%  目的:考察肉眼血尿对流式尿沉渣仪sysmex UF-500的红细胞检测是否造成干扰。方法:挑选9份结果正常的健康体检者新鲜尿标本,每份取2管分为A、B 2组分别与低、高2种浓度肉眼血尿间隔放置,用sysmex UF-500以自动进样模式进行检测并记录红细胞结果。然后观察A、B 2组干扰后结果有无假阳性,并对A组干扰前后红细胞结果进行配对t检验。结果:A组干扰后红细胞结果仍在本室正常参考值范围(30/ul),即有2例假阳性。结论:肉眼血尿致流式尿沉渣仪红细胞检测结果较真实结果偏高,差异有统计学意义;且随肉眼血尿浓度的增加可致流式尿沉渣红细胞检测假阳性的出现。

  14. Bracken fern poisoning (United States)

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) has worldwide distribution and in some areas dominated plant communities replacing desirable forages. Poisoning is identified as enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews updates new information on the plant, the various poi...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver). (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase (bovine liver) (CAS Reg. No. 81457-95-6) is an enzyme preparation obtained from extracts of bovine liver. It...

  16. BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR: a useful tool for evaluating bovine leukemia virus infection status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimba Mayuko


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine leukemia virus (BLV is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis, which is the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. BLV infects cattle worldwide, imposing a severe economic impact on the dairy cattle industry. Recently, we developed a new quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR method using Coordination of Common Motifs (CoCoMo primers to measure the proviral load of known and novel BLV variants in BLV-infected animals. Indeed, the assay was highly effective in detecting BLV in cattle from a range of international locations. This assay enabled us to demonstrate that proviral load correlates not only with BLV infection capacity as assessed by syncytium formation, but also with BLV disease progression. In this study, we compared the sensitivity of our BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR method for detecting BLV proviruses with the sensitivities of two real-time PCR systems, and also determined the differences of proviral load with serotests. Results BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR was found to be highly sensitive when compared with the real-time PCR-based TaqMan MGB assay developed by Lew et al. and the commercial TaKaRa cycleave PCR system. The BLV copy number determined by BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR was only partially correlated with the positive rate for anti-BLV antibody as determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, passive hemagglutination reaction, or agar gel immunodiffusion. This result indicates that, although serotests are widely used for the diagnosis of BLV infection, it is difficult to detect BLV infection with confidence by using serological tests alone. Two cattle were experimentally infected with BLV. The kinetics of the provirus did not precisely correlate with the change in anti-BLV antibody production. Moreover, both reactions were different in cattle that carried different bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA-DRB3 genotypes. Conclusions Our results suggest that the quantitative measurement of proviral load by BLV

  17. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp


    to populations, outcomes, and methodological quality, as judged by the Jadad assessment tool. Many studies used surrogate markers to study the effects of bovine colostrum. Studies suggesting clinical benefits of colostrum supplementation were generally of poor methodological quality, and results could...... not be confirmed by other investigators. Bovine colostrum may provide gastrointestinal and immunological benefits, but further studies are required before recommendations can be made for clinical application. Animal models may help researchers to better understand the mechanisms of bovine colostrum supplementation......, the dosage regimens required to obtain clinical benefits, and the optimal methods for testing these effects in humans....

  18. Arterial diffuse intimal thickening associated with enzootic calcinosis of sheep Espessamento intimal difuso das artérias na calcinose enzoótica dos ovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeri Oliveira Vasconcelos


    Full Text Available Morphometric, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies were carried out on the diffuse intimal thickening (DIT in arteries of 7 sheep with clinical signs of naturally occurring enzootic calcinosis due to ingestion of the plant Nierembergia veitchii. Arterial lesions consisted of medial deposition of calcium salts and DIT. Calcification of the intima was rare, mild and located near the elastic lamina. By immunohistochemistry a-actin was detected in cells of the media and in cells forming the intimal thickening. Receptors for 1,25(OH2 vitamin D3 were detected in nuclei of intimal, medial and endothelial cells. DIT was irregularly distributed and was neither proportionally related to the intensity of the underlying mineralization area nor to the thickening of the remaining media. Ultrastructural morphometry in smooth muscle cells (SMCs of the media and thickened intima revealed, in the latter, an increase of 318% in the volumetric fraction of those organelles involved in synthesis and a proportional decrease in contractile elements when compared to normal values of media cells. There were histological and ultrastructural evidences of modification of SMCs and their migration to the intima, where they proliferated causing DIT. It was concluded that DIT is a consistent component of arteriosclerotic lesions in N. veitchii induced calcinosis of sheep and that the predominant cell in this process is the SMCs originated from its predecessors of the media. It is suggested that the inducing factor for the arterial changes is 1,25(OH2 D3 present in N. veitchii.Foram feitos estudos morfométrico, imunoistoquímico e ultra-estrutural do espessamento intimal difuso (DIT das artérias de 7 ovinos com sinais clínicos de calcinose enzoótica espontânea causada pela ingestão da planta Nierembergia veitchii. As lesões caracterizavam-se por deposição de sais de cálcio na média como placas e estrias que, com frequência faziam saliência para a luz

  19. Immunoprophylaxis of bovine respiratory syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogan Dragan


    Full Text Available Bovine Respiratory Syndrome (BRS is a multifactorial disease caused by the interaction of infective agents, the environment and the individual immunological response of animals in the herd. Despite five decades of research on BRS, no clear understanding of how environmental factors influence pathogenic outcomes of the disease has been defined. As such, the development of immunoprophylaxis and vaccine programmes to prevent outbreaks of BRS in cattle has not been successful. The current paper discusses vaccination programmes for all categories of cattle and presents a review of existing vaccines being used for immunoprophylaxis of respiratory syndrome in cattle and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the currently used vaccines and vaccination programmes. Lastly, a discussion detailing the design of future perfect vaccines is presented.

  20. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen eThompson-Crispi


    Full Text Available Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the High Immune Response (HIR technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+TM sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favourable production levels to feed a growing

  1. Analysis of influencing factors on hematuria in patients with acute coronary syndrome%急性冠状动脉综合征患者血尿产生的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鹏; 刘建云; 李勋


    目的 探讨急性冠状动脉综合征(ACS)患者血糖、血压和血尿酸水平对血尿产生的影响.方法 选择162例ACS患者,入院后即给予规范化治疗,行尿液分析并根据结果将患者分为无血尿组(37例,尿液离心沉淀后镜检红细胞<3个/高倍镜视野)、镜下血尿组(56例,尿液离心沉淀后镜检红细胞≥3个/高倍镜视野)及肉眼血尿组(69例,每升尿液中含血量超过1 ml).测量各组血压、血糖、糖化血红蛋白、血尿酸,并进行比较.结果 空腹及餐后2h血糖、糖化血红蛋白、收缩压及血尿酸水平镜下血尿组较无血尿组分别升高58.0%[ (7.9±0.7) mmol/L比(5.0±1.1) mmol/L]、33.3%[( 12.4±0.8) mmol/L比(9.3±0.6) mmol/L]、48.2%[(8.3±0.8)%比(5.6±0.5)%]、23.8%[(151.6±7.0) mm Hg(1mm Hg =0.133 kPa)比(122.5±9.9) mm Hg]、29.2%[(635.4±47.4)μmol/L比(491.8±83.4)μmol/L],差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或<0.01);肉眼血尿组上述指标较镜下血尿组分别升高16.5%[(9.2±1.1)mmol/L 比(7.9±0.7) mmol/L]、30.6%[ (16.2±1.8)mmol/L比(12.4±0.8) mmol/L]、14.5%[(9.5±0.8)%比(8.3土0.8)%]、18.8%[( 180.1±12.3) mm Hg比(151.6±7.0)mm Hg]、34.6%[( 855.5±74.5)μmol/L比(635.4±47.4)μmol/L],差异有统计学意义(P< 0.05或<0.01);肉眼血尿组上述指标较无血尿组均显著升高(P<0.01),但舒张压各组间比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).Logistic回归分析显示,除舒张压外,糖化血红蛋白(r=16.109,P=0.001)、空腹及餐后2h血糖(r=3.175,P=0.001;r=0.906,P=0.001)、收缩压(r=0.429,P=0.003)及血尿酸水平(r=1.317,P=0.004)均是ACS患者行抗栓治疗后产生血尿的危险因素,糖化血红蛋白和空腹血糖对产生血尿的影响强于血尿酸和收缩压.结论 ACS患者随着血糖、收缩压、血尿酸水平升高,产生血尿的风险增加.%Objective To investigate the impact of blood glucose,blood pressure and blood uric acid level on hematuria in patients

  2. Bovine colostrum: an emerging nutraceutical. (United States)

    Bagwe, Siddhi; Tharappel, Leo J P; Kaur, Ginpreet; Buttar, Harpal S


    Nutraceutical, a term combining the words "nutrition" and "pharmaceuticals", is a food or food product that provides health benefits as an adjuvant or alternative therapy, including the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases in children and adults. There is emerging evidence that bovine colostrum (BC) may be one of the promising nutraceuticals which can prevent or mitigate various diseases in newborns and adults. Immunity-related disorders are one of the leading causes of mortality in the world. BC is rich in immunity, growth and antimicrobial factors, which promote tissue growth and the maturation of digestive tract and immune function in neonatal animals and humans. The immunoglobulins and lactoferrin present in colostrum are known to build natural immunity in newborns which helps to reduce the mortality rate in this population. Also, the side-effect profile of colostrum proteins and possible lactose intolerance is relatively less in comparison with milk. In general, BC is considered safe and well tolerated. Since colostrum has several important nutritional constituents, well-designed, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with colostrum products should be conducted to widen its therapeutic use. The objectives of this review are to create awareness about the nutraceutical properties of colostrum and to discuss the various ongoing alternative treatments of colostrum and its active ingredients as well as to address colostrum's future nutraceutical and therapeutic implications in humans.

  3. 尿G1红细胞对肾小球性血尿的诊断价值%The Value of G1 Red Blood Cell to Diagnose Glomerular Hematuria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄芸; 高兵


    Objective To explore the accuracy and clinical value of examining morphology of a special shaped red blood cell - G1 red blood cell in urine by common microscopy in localization of hematuria. The diagnostic standard of glomerular hematuria was G1 red blood cell≥5%. Methods Research 101 patients with hematuria patients, 73 cases of glomerular disease, 28 cases with non - glomerular diseases. Contact microscope examination and the patient's clinical diagnosis to calculate the sensitivity and specificity. Results The sensitivity of the diagnostic standard of G1 red blood ce11≥5% was 32.88% and the specificity was 96.43% ;the sensitivity of the diagnostic standard of G1 red blood cell ≥2% was 53.43% and the specificity was 96.43%. Conclusion The diagnostic standard of Gl red blood cell ≥2% is high specificity, sensitivity is acceptable to promote in the clinical.%目的:探讨尿液中一种特殊形态的红细胞--C1红细胞对血尿原因鉴别诊断的临床意义.以镜检G1红细胞≥2%,作为肾小球性血尿的诊断标准,评估其准确性及临床应用价值.方法:研究101例血尿患者,其中73例为肾小球疾病,28例为非肾小球性疾病.联系镜检结果与病人临床诊断,计算其灵敏度和特异度.结果:以G1细胞≥5%为诊断标准的敏感度为32.88%,特异度为96.43%;以G1细胞≥2%为诊断标准的敏感度为53.43%,特异度为96.43%.结论:以G1红细胞≥2%为诊断标准的特异度很高,敏感度尚可,可以在临床上进行推广.

  4. Recent Progress in Cryopreservation of Bovine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sul Hwang


    Full Text Available Principle of oocyte cryoinjury is first overviewed and then research history of cryopreservation using bovine oocytes is summarized for the last two decades with a few special references to recent progresses. Various types of cryodevices have been developed to accelerate the cooling rate and applied to the oocytes from large domestic species enriched with cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Two recent approaches include the qualitative improvement of IVM oocytes prior to the vitrification and the short-term recovery culture of vitrified-warmed oocytes prior to the subsequent IVF. Supplementation of L-carnitine to IVM medium of bovine oocytes has been reported to reduce the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets and improve the cryotolerance of the oocytes, but it is still controversial whether the positive effect of L-carnitine is reproducible. Incidence of multiple aster formation, a possible cause for low developmental potential of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes, was inhibited by a short-term culture of the postwarm oocytes in the presence of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK inhibitor. Use of an antioxidant α-tocopherol, instead of the ROCK inhibitor, also supported the revivability of the postwarm bovine oocytes. Further improvements of the vitrification procedure, combined with pre- and postvitrification chemical treatment, would overcome the high sensitivity of bovine oocytes to cryopreservation.

  5. 非那雄胺治疗良性前列腺增生继发血尿的临床观察%The effect of finasteride on treatment of hematuria in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁敬东; 黄遂斌; 吴维; 章传华


    目的:探讨非那雄胺在治疗良性前列腺增生继发血尿的临床应用价值,并评价其疗效.方法:收集良性前列腺增生继发间歇性血尿患者86例,平均年龄73岁.随机分为三组:对照组患者23例,均未使用非那雄胺;常规剂量组患者30例,每日口服非那雄胺5 mg(5 mg,qd);大剂量组33例,每日口服非那雄胺10 mg(5 mg,bid).随访时间12个月,随访期间每个月复查一次尿常规,观察血尿复发情况及程度.结果:经过为期一年的随访观察,对照组出现反复血尿15例(65.2%),其中2例因血块堵塞急诊入院进一步处理,3例因反复血尿行手术治疗;一般剂量组有7例(23.3%)出现间歇性血尿,其中1例因反复血尿行手术治疗;而大剂量组仅5例(15.2%)出现间歇性血尿,无患者需手术干预.结论:非那雄胺对良性前列腺增生继发性出血有显著疗效,大剂量应用非那雄胺可提高其疗效.%Objective:To study the effect of finasteride on treatment of hematuria in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Method: We evaluated 86 BPH patients with intermittent hematuria who were randomly divided into three group: control group (n= 23) . routine finasteride group(n = 30, 5 mg,qd) and high dose finasteride group (n=33. 5 Routine urine analysis was carried out once a month in all the 86 patients in 12 months. Result: In the control group hematuria recurred 65. 2 % (15/23) but 23.3% (7/30) in the routine finasteride group and 15. 2% (5/33) in the high dose finasteride group within 12 months. There were a statistically significant different between the control group and finasteride group ( P <0. 05). Conclusion: Finasteride appears to be effective in eliminating hematuria caused by benign prostate hyperplasia.

  6. 全自动尿沉渣检测法判断血尿来源临床价值分析%The clinical value of automated urine assay to determine hematuria sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王霞; 李佳音


    Objective To investigate the clinical value of automated urine assay to determine hematuria sources. Methods 106 cases with looking for hematuria were diagnosed by biopsy examination, all were produced by Sysnex UF-100 type analyzer and ordinary optical microscope examination, then clinical detect compliance rate and calculate specificity of two methods were compared.results to determine for: automated urine assay as follows: non-uniformity, homogeneity and mixed. Microscopy shaped as follows: red blood cells and red blood cells into normal. Statistical analysis performed were used SPSS13.0, The mean value between the two groups compared were used the t test, P < 0.05 was as the difference has statistically significant. Results Automated urine microscopy and light microscopy method for the clinical diagnosis of glomerular hematuria coincidence rate was significantly higher than non-glomerular origin(P < 0.05), automatic analysis method for glomerular and non-glomerular diseases diagnostic specificity hematuria sources were higher than microscopy(P < 0.05). Conclusion Automated urine microscopy analyzer sources glomerular urine red blood cells has high specificity and clinical diagnosis, it has simply operation and short time-consuming, so it is worthy of attention.%目的:探讨全自动尿沉渣检测法判断血尿来源的临床价值。方法选择因血尿查因住院患者106例,所有患者均经肾活检检查确诊,并均通过使用Sysnex公司生产的UF-100型分析仪和普通光学显微镜检查,比较两种检查方法的检测临床符合率,并计算特异性。结果判断为:全自动尿沉渣检测法为:非均一性、均一性与混合性三种。显微镜法分为正常红细胞和异形红细胞。统计学处理应用SPSS13.0进行,两组间均数的比较使用t检验,P<0.05为差异有统计学意义。结果全自动尿沉渣镜法和光镜法对肾小球性血尿诊断临床符合率显著高

  7. Observation on Curative Effect of Modified Xiaoji Zhixue Decoction in Treatment of Simple Hematuria IgA Kidney Disease%小蓟止血汤加减治疗IgA肾病单纯血尿疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To observe the clinical curative effect of modified xiaoji zhixue decoction in treatment of simple hematuria IgA kidney disease. Methods 70 cases of patients with simple hematuria IgA kidney disease admitted and treated in our hospital from September 2013 to October 2015 were selected and randomly divided into two groups with 35 cases in each, the control group were treated with prednisone tablet and dipyridamole tablet, the observation group were treated with additional modified xiaoji zhixue decoction on the basis of the control group, and the curative effects of the two groups were observed and analyzed. Results The total effective rate in the observation group was obviously higher that in the control group, and the difference had statistical significance, (91.43%vs 65.71%), P<0.01, and the curative effect in the observation group was better than that in the control group. Conclusion The curative effect of modified xiaoji zhixue decoction in treat-ment of simple hematuria IgA kidney disease is obvious, which can effectively relieve the hematuria symptoms, and the clinical cure rate is much higher than the simple western medicine treatment with high safety and without side and toxic ef-fects, and it is of higher clinical application value.%目的:探讨小蓟止血汤加减治疗IgA肾病单纯血尿的临床疗效。方法随机选取2013年9月—2015年10月该院收治IgA肾病单纯血尿患者70例,随机分为对照组和观察组。对照组35例患者,给予泼尼松龙片和双嘧达莫片治疗;观察组35例患者则在对照组的基础上,加用小蓟止血汤加减治疗。观察分析两组疗效。结果观察组的总有效率为91.43%,明显高于对照组的65.71%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),可见观察组疗效优于对照组。结论小蓟止血汤加减对于单纯血尿型IgA肾病疗效显著,可有效缓解血尿症状,临床治愈率远高于单纯的西药治疗,且安全性高,无毒副作用

  8. The evolution of bovine viral diarrhea: a review


    Goens, Denise


    The economic importance of bovine viral diarrhea is increasing with the emergence of seemingly more virulent viruses, as evidenced by outbreaks of hemorrhagic syndrome and severe acute bovine viral diarrhea beginning in the 1980s and 1990s. It appears that evolutionary changes in bovine viral diarrhea virus were responsible for these outbreaks. The genetic properties of the classical bovine viral diarrhea virus that contribute to the basis of current diagnostic tests, vaccines, and our unders...

  9. Neurological disorder in cattle associated with bovine herpesvirus 4



    A nested PCR assay was used to diagnose bovine encephalitis through herpesviruses including bovine herpesvirus 5 (BHV-5), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), Aujeszky's disease virus (SHV-1), and ovine herpesvirus 2 (OHV-2) in 14 fragments of central nervous system (CNS) from cattle that died with neurological signs. In addition, as some samples of bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BHV-4) have been isolated from neural tissue, it was also tested by nested PCR. The cases of encephalitis occurred in isolati...

  10. Predicting within-herd prevalence of infection with bovine leukemia virus using bulk-tank milk antibody levels. (United States)

    Nekouei, Omid; Stryhn, Henrik; VanLeeuwen, John; Kelton, David; Hanna, Paul; Keefe, Greg


    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an economically important infection of dairy cattle caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Estimating the prevalence of BLV within dairy herds is a fundamental step towards pursuing efficient control programs. The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the prevalence of BLV infection at the herd level using a bulk-tank milk (BTM) antibody ELISA in the Maritime region of Canada (3 provinces); and (2) to develop appropriate statistical models for predicting within-herd prevalence of BLV infection using BTM antibody ELISA titers. During 2013, three monthly BTM samples were collected from all dairy farms in the Maritime region of Canada (n=623) and tested for BLV milk antibodies using a commercial indirect ELISA. Based on the mean of the 3 BTM titers, 15 strata of herds (5 per province) were defined. From each stratum, 6 herds were randomly selected for a total of 90 farms. Within every selected herd, an additional BTM sample was taken (round 4), approximately 2 months after the third round. On the same day of BTM sampling, all cows that contributed milk to the fourth BTM sample were individually tested for BLV milk antibodies (n=6111) to estimate the true within-herd prevalence for the 90 herds. The association between true within-herd prevalence of BLV and means of various combinations of the BTM titers was assessed using linear regression models, adjusting for the stratified random sampling design. Herd level prevalence of BLV in the region was 90.8%. In the individual testing, 30.4% of cows were positive. True within-herd prevalences ranged from 0 to 94%. All linear regression models were able to predict the true within-herd prevalence of BLV reasonably well (R(2)>0.69). Predictions from the models were particularly accurate for low-to-medium spectrums of the BTM titers. In general, as a greater number of the four repeated BTM titers were incorporated in the models, narrower confidence intervals around the prediction lines

  11. Arachidonate metabolism in bovine gallbladder muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, M.; Hidaka, T.; Ueta, T.; Ogura, R.


    Incubation of (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid (AA) with homogenates of bovine gallbladder muscle generated a large amount of radioactive material having the chromatographic mobility of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (stable product of PGI2) and smaller amounts of products that comigrated with PGF2 alpha PGE2. Formation of these products was inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. The major radioactive product identified by thin-layer chromatographic mobility and by gas chromatography - mass spectrometric analysis was found to be 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. The quantitative metabolic pattern of (1-/sup 14/C)PGH2 was virtually identical to that of (1-/sup 14/C)AA. Incubation of arachidonic acid with slices of bovine gallbladder muscle released labile anti-aggregatory material in the medium, which was inhibited by aspirin or 15-hydroperoxy-AA. These results indicate that bovine gallbladder muscle has a considerable enzymatic capacity to produce PGI2 from arachidonic acid.

  12. 76 FR 26239 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings (United States)


    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis... framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. The... tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United States. In keeping with its commitment to...

  13. 76 FR 38602 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework (United States)


    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework AGENCY... extending the comment period on a new framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis... bovine brucellosis in the United States. The notice stated that USDA would hold four public...

  14. 9 CFR 113.310 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. 113... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.310 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine shall... as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for...

  15. 9 CFR 113.309 - Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. 113.309... Virus Vaccines § 113.309 Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine shall be produced..., and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production....

  16. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. 113.311... Virus Vaccines § 113.311 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine shall be prepared..., and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production....

  17. Cloning and sequencing of the bovine gastrin gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T; Rehfeld, J F; Olsen, Jørgen


    In order to deduce the primary structure of bovine preprogastrin we therefore sequenced a gastrin DNA clone isolated from a bovine liver cosmid library. Bovine preprogastrin comprises 104 amino acids and consists of a signal peptide, a 37 amino acid spacer-sequence, the gastrin-34 sequence followed...

  18. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13 grams per deciliter of polymerized hemoglobin of bovine origin in modified Lactated Ringer's...

  19. 三种方法检查判断血尿来源的比较研究%A comparative study of three methods of examination to determine the source of hematuria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨麦贵; 杨铮; 杨阳; 岳波; 郑善銮; 饶国洲; 何娟; 樊爱琳; 郝晓柯


    Objective Discussion comparative study to determine the source of the three detection methods hematu-ria.Methods Microscopic examination of the use of red blood cell morphology mutation rate,immunofluorescence stai-ning and erythrocyte electrophoresis,respectively,318 cases diagnosed by clinical and pathological origin of hematuria patients were detected compare.Results Confirmed 208 cases of renal hematuria RBC morphology total coincidence rate 69.2% (208/144);Ig immunofluorescence coincidence was 98.1%(208/204);erythrocyte electrophoresis time the rate was 97.6% (208/203),immunofluorescence and electrophoresis was significantly higher red blood cell morphology consistent with a significant difference(P 0.05).Three methods of 110 cases of non-compliance with renal hematuria negative detection rates were 97.3%(110/107);98.2% (110/108);97.3% (110/107),significantly higher red blood cell morphology law immunofluores-cence and electrophoresis was a significant difference(P <0.01).Conclusion RBC renal hematuria is an immunoglobu-lin (Ig)parcels,the surface charge reduced,so Ig immunofluorescence and erythrocyte electrophoresis method for the diagnosis of renal hematuria more specific and accurate,though less red blood cell morphology,but easy to carry suit-able for all levels medical units,for non-renal hematuria diagnostic yield than immunofluorescence and electrophoresis.%目的:探讨三种检测方法判断血尿来源的比较研究。方法采用显微镜检查红细胞形态变异率、免疫荧光染色和红细胞电泳,分别对318例经临床及病理确诊的血尿来源患者,进行检测比较。结果确诊的208例肾源性血尿红细胞形态学检查总符合率为69.2%(208/144);Ig 免疫荧光符合率为98.1%(208/204);红细胞电泳时间符合率为97.6%(208/203),免疫荧光和电泳法符合率明显高于红细胞形态学有显著性差异(P <0.01),免疫荧光与

  20. Value of immunofluorescence staining of urine erythrocytes for Tamm-Horsfall protein in determining the origin of hematuria%尿红细胞THP免疫荧光染色在血尿红细胞来源鉴定中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋世平; 王淼; 董磊; 安映红; 全首祯; 马红雨


    Objective To investigate the clinical significance of immunofluorescence staining of urine erythrocytes for Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) in determining the origin of hematuria, and to sum up the hematuria situation from 2004 to 2007 for understanding pathological distribution between renal hematuria and non-renal hematuria. Methods Urine erythrocytes from 30 patients of glomerular hematuria and 25 patients of non-glomerular specimens were immunocytochemically stained with antibody against human Tamm-Horsfall protein. The results were compared with the pathological findings. Results Among the 30 patients of glomerular hematuria according to pathological diagnosis, 28 were confirmed by the immunofluorescence assay, with a coincidence rate of 93.3%. Among the 25 patients of non-renal hematuria according to pathological diagnosis, 22 were confirmed by the immunofluorescence assay, with a coincidence rate of 88%. Pathologic analysis showed IgA nephropathy in 16 of the patients with renal he-maturia (16/30, 53.3%), small glomerular lesions in 10 patients (10/30, 33.3%), non-IgA nephropathy mesangial cell proliferative glomerulonephritis in 3 patients (3/30, 10.0%) and focal sclerosing lomerulonephritis stage in 1 patients (1/30, 3.3%). Conclusion Immunofluorescence staining of urine erythrocytes for THP are stable, accurate, objective and reliable for identifying the origin of hematuria, which provides the foundation of the early diagnosis and treatment of patients with hematuria.%目的 探讨尿红细胞T-H蛋白(Tamm-Horsfall protein,THP)免疫荧光检测在鉴定尿红细胞来源中的临床应用价值,并对2004-2007年临床诊断单纯血尿情况进行总结,了解肾性血尿与非肾性血尿的病因和分布特点.方法 利用尿红细胞THP免疫荧光染色技术对明确诊断的30例肾小球性血尿和25例非肾小球性血尿标本进行尿红细胞的THP免疫荧光染色,并与病理结果进行比较分析.结果 在病理诊断确定的30例

  1. Scientific Opinion on bovine lactoferrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies


    Full Text Available

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to carry out the additional assessment for ‘lactoferrin’ as a food ingredient in the context of Regulation (EC No 258/97 taking into account the comments and objections of a scientific nature raised by Member States. Bovine lactoferrin (bLF is a protein that occurs naturally in cow’s milk. The applicant intends to market bLF that is isolated from cheese whey and skimmed milk, and purified. The applicant intends to add bLF to foods for particular nutritional uses, i.e. infant and follow-on formulae, dietary food for special medical purposes, dairy products, yoghurts and yoghurt drinks, and chewing gums. According to the applicant, the high intake estimate for infants would be 1.1 g bLF per day. For adults, the applicant’s calculation estimates a mean and 97.5th percentile intake of 0.6 and 2.1 mg/kg bodyweight per day, respectively, and a mean and 97.5th percentile daily intake of about 45 mg and 150 mg, respectively. The Panel notes that the safety of bLF as a novel food ingredient has already been assessed with a favourable outcome. That evaluation was to a significant extent based on safety data on bLF produced by Morinaga. The Panel also notes that the applicant intends maximum use levels of bLF in foods which are equivalent or lower than those intended by the applicant of the previous Opinion, and that the range of foods to which it is intended to add bLF is smaller. Consequently, the estimated intake levels described for the present application are comparable for infants and lower for all other population groups. The Panel concludes that the novel food ingredient, bLF, is safe under the proposed uses and use levels.

  2. Molecular differentiation of bovine sarcocysts. (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Majedeh; Razavi, Mostafa; Hosseini, Arsalan


    Cattle are common intermediate hosts of Sarcocystis, and the prevalence in adult bovine muscle is close to 100 % in most regions of the world. Three Sarcocystis spp. are known to infect cattle as intermediate hosts, namely, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis. The aim of the present study was the molecular identification and differentiation of these three species, Neospora caninum and Besnoitia by PCR and RFLP methods. Tissue samples were obtained from diaphragmatic muscle of 101 cattle slaughtered in Shiraz, Fars Province, Iran, for both smear preparation and DNA extraction. The samples were digested by Pepsin, washed three times with PBS solution before taking smears, fixed in absolute methanol and stained with 10 % Giemsa. The slides were examined microscopically for Sarcocystis bradyzoites and DNA was extracted from 100 mg of Sarcocystis-infected meat samples. Since the primers also bind to 18S rRNA gene of some tissue cyst-forming coccidian protozoa, DNA was also extracted from 100 μl of tachyzoite-containing suspension of N. caninum and Besnoitia isolated from goat to compare RFLP pattern. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on DNA of samples which were microscopically positive for Sarcocystis. Five restriction enzymes Dra1, EcoRV, RsaI, AvaI, and SspI were used for RFLP and DNA of one sample from protozoa was sequenced. Based on the RFLP results, 87 (98.9 %) DNA samples were cut with DraI, indicating infection by S. cruzi. One sample (1.1 %) of PCR products of infected samples was cut only with EcoRV which showed S. hominis infection. Forty-eight samples (53.3 %) of PCR products were cut with both DraI, EcoRV, or with DraI, EcoRV, and RsaI while none of them was cut with SspI, which shows the mixed infection of both S. cruzi and S. hominis and no infection with S. hirsuta. It seems by utilizing these restriction enzymes, RLFP could be a suitable method not only for identification of Sarcocystis species but also for differentiating them

  3. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows. (United States)

    Gaard, Greta


    Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

  4. Abnormal fibrillin metabolism in bovine Marfan syndrome. (United States)

    Potter, K. A.; Hoffman, Y.; Sakai, L. Y.; Byers, P. H.; Besser, T. E.; Milewicz, D. M.


    Bovine Marfan syndrome is a disorder that closely resembles human Marfan syndrome in its clinical signs and pathological lesions. The similarities between the human and bovine diseases suggest that similar metabolic defects could be responsible. Although indirect immunofluorescent assays for fibrillin in skin biopsies did not distinguish affected cattle from control animals, cultures of skin fibroblasts of affected animals were distinguished from normal, unrelated control animals and normal half-siblings on the basis of fibrillin staining. After 72 to 96 hours in culture, stained with anti-fibrillin monoclonal antibody 201, hyperconfluent fibroblast cultures of affected cattle had less immunoreactive fibrillin than control cultures, and the staining pattern was granular rather than fibrillar. Under similar culture conditions, normal bovine aortic smooth muscle cells produced large amounts of immunoreactive fibrillin, but smooth muscle cells from a single affected cow showed markedly less fibrillin staining. In pulse-chase metabolic labeling experiments with [35S]cysteine, dermal fibroblasts from 6 affected calves, incorporated far less fibrillin into the extracellular matrix than control cells. These findings are similar to those reported in human Marfan syndrome, and they suggest that the bovine Marfan syndrome, like the human disorder, is caused by a mutation in fibrillin, leading to defective microfibrillar synthesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8456941

  5. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: biosecurity and control (United States)

    This paper discusses the recommended procedures involved in setting up biosecurity and control programs designed to limit bovine viral diarrhea virus infections in beef cattle operations. For the purpose of these discussions, a working definition of a biosecurity plan was considered to be an organiz...

  6. Characterization of the bovine ampkgamma1 gene. (United States)

    Benkel, Bernhard; Kollers, Sonja; Fries, Ruedi; Sazanov, Alexei; Yoshida, Erin; Valle, Edith; Davoren, Jon; Hickey, Donal


    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) represents the mammalian form of the core component of a kinase cascade that is conserved between fungi, plants, and animals. AMPK plays a major role in protecting mammalian cells from metabolic stress by switching off biosynthetic pathways that require ATP and switching on ATP-regenerating pathways. In this report, we describe the isolation and characterization of the gene for the noncatalytic bovine gamma1 subunit of AMPK. The bovine ampkgamma1 (PRKAG1) gene spans in excess of 14 kb and is located at BTA 5q21-q22. It consists of 12 exons ranging in size from 38 b to 166 b, interspersed with 11 introns that range between 97 b and 6753 b in length. The coding region of the bovine gene shares 93% and 90% nucleotide sequence similarity with its human and rat counterparts, and the bovine AMPKgamma1 protein is 98% and 95% identical to its human and rat homologs, respectively, in amino acid sequence. SNP discovery using a cattle DNA panel revealed a number of polymorphisms that may be useful for the evaluation of ampkgamma1 as a candidate gene for energy metabolism-related production traits.

  7. Vaccination of cattle against bovine viral diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Rijn, van P.A.


    This brief review describes types and quality (efficacy and safety) of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) vaccines that are in the market or under development. Both conventional live and killed vaccines are available. The primary aim of vaccination is to prevent congenital infection, but the few va


    This is a chapter for a book titled “Livestock Epigenetics” edited by Dr. Hasan Khatib and published by Wiley-Blackwell. This chapter is focused on the research development in our laboratory in the area of interaction of nutrients and genomic phonotype in bovine cells. Briefly, the Research on nutri...

  9. Epidemiology and control of bovine ephemeral fever. (United States)

    Walker, Peter J; Klement, Eyal


    Bovine ephemeral fever (or 3-day sickness) is an acute febrile illness of cattle and water buffaloes. Caused by an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus, bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV), the disease occurs seasonally over a vast expanse of the globe encompassing much of Africa, the Middle East, Asia and Australia. Although mortality rates are typically low, infection prevalence and morbidity rates during outbreaks are often very high, causing serious economic impacts through loss of milk production, poor cattle condition at sale and loss of traction power at harvest. There are also significant impacts on trade to regions in which the disease does not occur, including the Americas and most of Europe. In recent years, unusually severe outbreaks of bovine ephemeral fever have been reported from several regions in Asia and the Middle East, with mortality rates through disease or culling in excess of 10-20%. There are also concerns that, like other vector-borne diseases of livestock, the geographic distribution of bovine ephemeral fever could expand into regions that have historically been free of the disease. Here, we review current knowledge of the virus, including its molecular and antigenic structure, and the epidemiology of the disease across its entire geographic range. We also discuss the effectiveness of vaccination and other strategies to prevent or control infection.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Goraichuk


    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea is a widespread infection of cattle that has a wide range of clinical symptoms in domestic and wild ruminants. It is a major problem in cattle and causes significant economic losses in the cattle industry. The virus infects bovines of all ages and causes both immunosuppression and reproductive, respiratory and digestive disorders. Persistently infected cattle are the main factor in transmission of the disease between and among herds. Comparative results of antibodies presence received by two methods of enzymoimmunoassay and virus neutralization test are given in the paper. During the work, 1010 samples of blood serum of cattle from three farms in the Kharkiv region were selected and analyzed. Bovine viral diarrhea virus concerning antibodies were found by enzymoimmunoassay in 704 samples (69.7% using commercial kit and in 690 samples (68.3% using in house method. After results clarification by virus neutralization test, bovine viral diarrhea antibodies were found in 712 samples (70.5%. Immunoenzyme analysis is recommended for mass screening of cattle for viral diarrhea occurrence. The results confirm that the sensitivity immunoenzyme analysis satisfies the requirements of the diagnostic methods. Using the neutralization reaction of viruses as the «gold standard» of serological methods, it is appropriate to clarify the results of immunoenzyme analysis. Since the results contain a signi ficant number of false positive results, it is necessary to carry out comprehensive studies using both serological and molecular genetics methods.

  11. Transmission of new bovine prion to mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baron, T.G.M.; Biacabe, A.G.; Bencsik, A.; Langeveld, J.P.M.


    We previously reported that cattle were affected by a prion disorder that differed from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) by showing distinct molecular features of disease-associated protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres). We show that intracerebral injection of such isolates into C57BL/6 mi

  12. Aortic reconstruction with bovine pericardial grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Lindemberg Mota


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Glutaraldehyde-treated crimped bovine pericardial grafts are currently used in aortic graft surgery. These conduits have become good options for these operations, available in different sizes and shapes and at a low cost. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the results obtained with bovine pericardial grafts for aortic reconstruction, specially concerning late complications. METHOD: Between January 1995 and January 2002, 57 patients underwent different types of aortic reconstruction operations using bovine pericardial grafts. A total of 29 (50.8% were operated on an urgent basis (mostly acute Stanford A dissection and 28 electively. Thoracotomy was performed in three patients for descending aortic replacement (two patients and aortoplasty with a patch in one. All remaining 54 underwent sternotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic resection. Deep hypothermia and total circulatory arrest was used in acute dissections and arch operations. RESULTS: Hospital mortality was 17.5%. Follow-up was 24.09 months (18.5 to 29.8 months confidence interval and complication-free actuarial survival curve was 92.3% (standard deviation ± 10.6. Two patients lately developed thoracoabdominal aneurysms following previous DeBakey II dissection and one died from endocarditis. One "patch" aortoplasty patient developed local descending aortic pseudoaneurysm 42 months after surgery. All other patients are asymptomatic and currently clinically evaluated with echocardiography and CT scans, showing no complications. CONCLUSION: Use of bovine pericardial grafts in aortic reconstruction surgery is adequate and safe, with few complications related to the conduits.

  13. Molecular biology of bovine viral diarrhea virus (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are arguably the most important viral pathogen of ruminants worldwide and can cause severe economic loss. Clinical symptoms of the disease caused by BVDV range from subclinical to severe acute hemorrhagic syndrome, with the severity of disease being strain depend...

  14. Pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, van L.J.M.; Vromans, M.E.W.; Dolstra, C.H.; Bossers, A.; Zijderveld, van F.G.


    The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrPSc) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation of PrPSc was dete

  15. Proficiency test for antibiotics in bovine muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, I.J.W.; Berendsen, B.J.A.; Pikkemaat, M.G.; Stolker, A.A.M.


    The aim of this proficiency study was to give laboratories the possibility to evaluate or demonstrate their competence for the analysis of antibiotics in bovine muscle, including the screening analysis. This study also provided an evaluation of the methods applied for screening and quantitative conf

  16. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV;


    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The history of the abundant repeat elements in the bovine genome has been studied by comparative hybridization and PCR. The Bov-A and Bov-B SINE elements both emerged just after the divergence of the Camelidae and the true ruminants. A 31-bp subrepeat motif in satellites of the Bovidae species cattl

  18. Concomitant infection of Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 in spontaneous bovine abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia S. Marin


    Full Text Available Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 has not been conclusively demonstrated to cause bovine abortion. Brain lesions produced by Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 exhibit common features. Therefore, careful microscopic evaluation and additional diagnostic procedures are required to achieve an accurate final etiological diagnosis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of infections due to BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and N. caninum in 68 cases of spontaneous bovine abortions which showed microscopic lesions in the fetal central nervous system. This study allowed the identification of 4 (5.9% fetuses with dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum and 33 (48.5% cases in which N. caninum was the sole pathogen identified. All cases were negative to BoHV-1. The results of this study provide evidence that dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum occur during pregnancy in cattle; however, the role of BoHV-5 as a primary cause of bovine abortion needs further research. Molecular diagnosis of BoHV-5 and N. caninum confirmed the importance of applying complementary assays to improve the sensitivity of diagnosing bovine abortion.

  19. BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR: Quantitation of bovine leukemia virus proviral load using the CoCoMo algorithm

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    Matoba Kazuhiro


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine leukemia virus (BLV is closely related to human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV and is the etiological agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, a disease characterized by a highly extended course that often involves persistent lymphocytosis and culminates in B-cell lymphomas. BLV provirus remains integrated in cellular genomes, even in the absence of detectable BLV antibodies. Therefore, to understand the mechanism of BLV-induced leukemogenesis and carry out the selection of BLV-infected animals, a detailed evaluation of changes in proviral load throughout the course of disease in BLV-infected cattle is required. The aim of this study was to develop a new quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR method using Coordination of Common Motifs (CoCoMo primers to measure the proviral load of known and novel BLV variants in clinical animals. Results Degenerate primers were designed from 52 individual BLV long terminal repeat (LTR sequences identified from 356 BLV sequences in GenBank using the CoCoMo algorithm, which has been developed specifically for the detection of multiple virus species. Among 72 primer sets from 49 candidate primers, the most specific primer set was selected for detection of BLV LTR by melting curve analysis after real-time PCR amplification. An internal BLV TaqMan probe was used to enhance the specificity and sensitivity of the assay, and a parallel amplification of a single-copy host gene (the bovine leukocyte antigen DRA gene was used to normalize genomic DNA. The assay is highly specific, sensitive, quantitative and reproducible, and was able to detect BLV in a number of samples that were negative using the previously developed nested PCR assay. The assay was also highly effective in detecting BLV in cattle from a range of international locations. Finally, this assay enabled us to demonstrate that proviral load correlates not only with BLV infection capacity as assessed by syncytium formation, but

  20. Identification of bovine leukemia virus tax function associated with host cell transcription, signaling, stress response and immune response pathway by microarray-based gene expression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arainga Mariluz


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine leukemia virus (BLV is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis and is closely related to human T-cell leukemia virus type I. The Tax protein of BLV is a transcriptional activator of viral replication and a key contributor to oncogenic potential. We previously identified interesting mutant forms of Tax with elevated (TaxD247G or reduced (TaxS240P transactivation effects on BLV replication and propagation. However, the effects of these mutations on functions other than transcriptional activation are unknown. In this study, to identify genes that play a role in the cascade of signal events regulated by wild-type and mutant Tax proteins, we used a large-scale host cell gene-profiling approach. Results Using a microarray containing approximately 18,400 human mRNA transcripts, we found several alterations after the expression of Tax proteins in genes involved in many cellular functions such as transcription, signal transduction, cell growth, apoptosis, stress response, and immune response, indicating that Tax protein has multiple biological effects on various cellular environments. We also found that TaxD247G strongly regulated more genes involved in transcription, signal transduction, and cell growth functions, contrary to TaxS240P, which regulated fewer genes. In addition, the expression of genes related to stress response significantly increased in the presence of TaxS240P as compared to wild-type Tax and TaxD247G. By contrast, the largest group of downregulated genes was related to immune response, and the majority of these genes belonged to the interferon family. However, no significant difference in the expression level of downregulated genes was observed among the Tax proteins. Finally, the expression of important cellular factors obtained from the human microarray results were validated at the RNA and protein levels by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting

  1. Clinicopathological analysis of IgA nephropathy patients with mild proteinuria and/or hematuria%少量蛋白尿和(或)血尿IgA肾病临床病理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    萨茹拉; 傅辰生; 陈利明; 袁敏; 丁小强; 刘红; 於佳炜; 章晓燕; 蒋素华; 邹建洲; 滕杰; 吉俊; 钟一红


    Objective To clarify the relationship between clinical manifestation and pathological features of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients with mild proteinuria and/or hematuria.Methods Clinicopathological data from 316 biopsy-proven IgAN cases (proteinuria<1 g/24 h and/or hematuria, and Scr<133 μmol/L) from our hospital between January 1993 and October 2009 were studied retrospectively. The renal histopathology was quantified according to Lee's grading and Katafuchi's semi-quantitative standard, and the risk factors for renal pathological lesions were evaluated using multifactor logistic regression analysis. Results Among these 316 patients, 123 were male and 193 patients were female. The mean age at the time of renal biopsy was (33.10±10.69) years old. Clinical features were found as follows: hematuria with proteinuria was found in 267 patients (84.5%), isolated hematuria in 24 patients (7.6%), and isolated proteinuria in 25 patients (7.9%). 16.5% of patients had hypertension. The percentages of CKD stage Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ were 76.9%, 20.9% and 2.2%, respectively. 31.3% of patients presented Lee's grade Ⅲ or more severe.52.8% of patients had various degrees of glomerulosclerosis. Crescent formation was observed in 20.3% of patients. 22.5% of patients showed tubular atrophy;16.8% showed interstitial fibrosis and 24.7% also had renal vascular lesions. The extent of glomerulosclerosis was negatively correlated with eGFR levels, but positively correlated with the amount of proteinuria and mean arterial pressure (MAP) level (P<0.05). The score of tubulointerstitial lesion was positively correlated with the amount of proteinuria and negatively correlated with eGFR and hemoglobin (Hb)level (P<0.05). The degree of renal vascular lesion was also correlated to MAP level positively and eGFR level negatively (P<0.05). Multifactor logistic regression analysis revealed that proteinuria, Scr and Hb at the time of renal biopsy were independent risk factors for severe renal

  2. Bovine rhinitis viruses are common in U.S. cattle with bovine respiratory disease. (United States)

    Hause, Ben M; Collin, Emily A; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A; Anderson, Gary


    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4%) were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations.

  3. Bovine rhinitis viruses are common in U.S. cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben M Hause

    Full Text Available Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1 has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2 and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1 was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4% were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations.

  4. Investigating the role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the re-emergence of enzootic pneumonia in domestic pig herds: a pathological, prevalence and risk-factor study. (United States)

    Batista Linhares, Mainity; Belloy, Luc; Origgi, Francesco C; Lechner, Isabel; Segner, Helmut; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre


    Enzootic pneumonia (EP) caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae has a significant economic impact on domestic pig production. A control program carried out from 1999 to 2003 successfully reduced disease occurrence in domestic pigs in Switzerland, but recurrent outbreaks suggested a potential role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) as a source of re-infection. Since little is known on the epidemiology of EP in wild boar populations, our aims were: (1) to estimate the prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae infections in wild boar in Switzerland; (2) to identify risk factors for infection in wild boar; and (3) to assess whether infection in wild boar is associated with the same gross and microscopic lesions typical of EP in domestic pigs. Nasal swabs, bronchial swabs and lung samples were collected from 978 wild boar from five study areas in Switzerland between October 2011 and May 2013. Swabs were analyzed by qualitative real time PCR and a histopathological study was conducted on lung tissues. Risk factor analysis was performed using multivariable logistic regression modeling. Overall prevalence in nasal swabs was 26.2% (95% CI 23.3-29.3%) but significant geographical differences were observed. Wild boar density, occurrence of EP outbreaks in domestic pigs and young age were identified as risk factors for infection. There was a significant association between infection and lesions consistent with EP in domestic pigs. We have concluded that M. hyopneumoniae is widespread in the Swiss wild boar population, that the same risk factors for infection of domestic pigs also act as risk factors for infection of wild boar, and that infected wild boar develop lesions similar to those found in domestic pigs. However, based on our data and the outbreak pattern in domestic pigs, we propose that spillover from domestic pigs to wild boar is more likely than transmission from wild boar to pigs.

  5. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) gene polymorphism and expression of membrane-bound TNFα protein on CD11b+ and IgM+ cells in cows naturally infected with bovine leukemia virus. (United States)

    Bojarojć-Nosowicz, B; Kaczmarczyk, E; Stachura, A; Kubińska, M


    The aim of this study was to determine whether SNP at position -824 (promoter region) of the TNFα gene significantly differentiates the size of IgM+, CD5+ and CD11b+ cell subpopulations and affects the expression of membrane-bound TNFα protein (mTNFα) on these cells and their susceptibility to BLV infections. In this study, significant differences were determined for the first time between TNFα genotypes and the percentage of cells with the CD11b+TNFα+p24+ immunophenotype. Furthermore, greater expansion of lymphocytes with the IgM+TNFα+p24+ immunophenotype was reported in cows with the G/G genotype than in A/A homozygotes. Cells with the above immunophenotype were more frequently observed in cows with persistent leukocytosis than in aleukemic cattle. Our results suggest that polymorphism of the TNFα-824 A>G gene and mTNFα protein expression play an important role in the pathogenesis of enzootic bovine leukosis.

  6. 牛病毒性腹泻病研究进展及防控建议%Analysis of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Prevalence and Comprehensive Prevention and Control in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝宝成; 梁剑平; 王学红; 郭文柱; 郭志廷; 杨贤鹏


    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus that is enzootic in most cattle populations throughout the world. This virus is present throughout the body of persistently infected cattle. In recent years, as more and more common the formation and development of large-scale farming. The jeopardized of Bovine viral diarrhea / mucosal disease for farming industry has become increasingly apparent. The BVDV's morphology of pathogens, genotype classification, hazards, diagnostic tests, the prevalence and prevention and control status were summarized in order to improve the prevention and control system and purification of eliminating the disease provide a reference for the country as soon as possible.%牛病毒性腹泻病由牛病毒性腹泻病毒引起,主要感染牛并引发疾病,呈世界性分布,可造成严重的经济损失.近年来,随着规模化养殖的发展,牛病毒性腹泻病对养殖业的危害日益显现.本文主要对牛病毒性腹泻病的病原特性、基因型分类、危害、诊断检测方法、国内流行情况和防控现状等进行综述,以期为国家尽快建立完善的防控体系和净化消除该病提供参考.

  7. Dental fluorosis in bovine temporary teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suttie, J.W.; Clay, A.B.; Shearer, T.R.


    Deciduous incisors from calves born to dams fed an average of 40 mg of fluoride/kg of forage ration (40 ppm) were compared with incisors from calves born to dams fed a normal dairy ration. Skeletal fluoride concentration in the calves born to fluoride-fed dams was increased 5 to 8 fold, but enamel mottling and hypoplasia, typical of permanent bovine incisor dental fluorosis were not seen by gross, histologic, or radiologic examination. Decreases in the amount of enamel on the tooth or hardness of the enamel were not observed. These data do not support recent reports of widespread dental fluorosis of deciduous bovine teeth as a clinical sign of fluoride toxicity.

  8. Mycoplasmas associated with bovine conjunctivitis and keratoconjunctivitis. (United States)

    Naglić, T; Sanković, F; Madić, J; Hajsig, D; Seol, B; Busch, K


    In two separate herds of fattening calves a sudden-onset outbreak of ocular disease with profuse lacrimation occurred. The disease resembled the early stage of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis but after a few days the clinical signs of bronchopneumonia appeared. From conjunctival swabs Mycoplasma (M.) bovigenitalium, M. bovirhinis and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus were isolated. Moraxella bovis infection was not established. In one of the herds M. bovigenitalium was also found in the pneumonic lungs of dead calves. In one herd M. bovoculi was isolated from a cow with chronic keratoconjunctivitis, housed together with affected calves. Mycoplasmas were not isolated from ocular swabs of six bulls originating from a Reproductive Centre with temporary occurrence of unilateral serous conjunctivitis resistant to antibiotic therapy.

  9. Evidence for Parachlamydia in bovine abortions


    Ruhl, S; Casson, N.; Kaiser, C.; Thoma, R; Pospischil, A.; Greub, G; Borel, N.


    Bovine abortion of unknown infectious aetiology still remains a major economic problem. In this study, we focused on new possible abortigenic agents such as Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and Waddlia chondrophila. Retrospective samples (n = 235) taken from late-term abortions in cattle were investigated by real-time diagnostic PCR for Chlamydiaceae, rachlamydia spp. and Waddlia spp., respectively. Histological sections of cases positive by real-time PCR for any Chlamydia-related agent were furth...

  10. [Bovine viral diarrhea control in Russian Federation]. (United States)

    Guliukin, M I; Iurov, K P; Glotov, A G; Donchenko, N A


    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is one of the greatest challenges for breeding and commercial livestock. It is characterized by lesions of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract, abortion, infertility, immune deficiency, and persistence of the pathogen. In this work, a set of measures for the rehabilitation and prevention of BVD in cattle is described. It includes the data of the literature, guidance documents for the diagnosis and control of BVD adopted by OIE, EU countries, USA, as well as the results of this research.

  11. Experimental production of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. (United States)

    Aikman, J G; Allan, E M; Selman, I E


    The left eyes of 10 conventional dairy cross calves were inoculated with a pathogenic strain of Moraxella bovis and lesions of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis developed in nine of these eyes. M bovis was isolated from all inoculated eyes and lesions developed in five out of 10 eyes which had become naturally infected. The clinical and microbiological findings were similar to those described in field cases.

  12. Photodynamically generated bovine serum albumin radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvester, J A; Timmins, G S; Davies, Michael Jonathan


    Porphyrin-sensitized photoxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) results in oxidation of the protein at (at least) two different, specific sites: the Cys-34 residue giving rise to a thiyl radical (RS.); and one or both of the tryptophan residues (Trp-134 and Trp-214) resulting in the formation of...... of proteases. The generation of protein-derived radicals also results in an enhancement of photobleaching of the porphyrin, suggesting that protein radical generation is linked to porphyrin photooxidation....

  13. Evidence for Parachlamydia in bovine abortion. (United States)

    Ruhl, Silke; Casson, Nicola; Kaiser, Carmen; Thoma, Ruedi; Pospischil, Andreas; Greub, Gilbert; Borel, Nicole


    Bovine abortion of unknown infectious aetiology still remains a major economic problem. In this study, we focused on a new possible abortigenic agent called Parachlamydia acanthamoebae. Retrospective samples (n=235) taken from late-term abortions in cattle were investigated by real-time diagnostic PCR for Chlamydiaceae and Parachlamydia spp., respectively. Histological sections of cases positive by real-time PCR for any Chlamydia-related agent were further examined by immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies. Chlamydophila abortus was detected only in three cases (1.3%) by real-time PCR and ArrayTube Microarray playing a less important role in bovine abortion compared to the situation in small ruminants in Switzerland. By real-time PCR as many as 43 of 235 (18.3%) cases turned out to be positive for Parachlamydia. The presence of Parachlamydia within placental lesions was confirmed in 35 cases (81.4%) by immunohistochemistry. The main histopathological feature in parachlamydial abortion was purulent to necrotizing placentitis (25/43). Parachlamydia should be considered as a new abortigenic agent in Swiss cattle. Since Parachlamydia may be involved in lower respiratory tract infections in humans, bovine abortion material should be handled with care given the possible zoonotic risk.

  14. Potential Anticarcinogenic Peptides from Bovine Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Pepe


    Full Text Available Bovine milk possesses a protein system constituted by two major families of proteins: caseins (insoluble and whey proteins (soluble. Caseins (αS1, αS2, β, and κ are the predominant phosphoproteins in the milk of ruminants, accounting for about 80% of total protein, while the whey proteins, representing approximately 20% of milk protein fraction, include β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, immunoglobulins, bovine serum albumin, bovine lactoferrin, and lactoperoxidase, together with other minor components. Different bioactivities have been associated with these proteins. In many cases, caseins and whey proteins act as precursors of bioactive peptides that are released, in the body, by enzymatic proteolysis during gastrointestinal digestion or during food processing. The biologically active peptides are of particular interest in food science and nutrition because they have been shown to play physiological roles, including opioid-like features, as well as immunomodulant, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antiviral, and antioxidant activities. In recent years, research has focused its attention on the ability of these molecules to provide a prevention against the development of cancer. This paper presents an overview of antitumor activity of caseins and whey proteins and derived peptides.

  15. Oxytocin binding sites in bovine mammary tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xin.


    Oxytocin binding sites were identified and characterized in bovine mammary tissue. ({sup 3}H)-oxytocin binding reached equilibrium by 50 min at 20{degree}C and by 8 hr at 4{degree}C. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. Thyrotropin releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropin, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, pentagastrin, bradykinin, xenopsin and L-valyl-histidyl-L-leucyl-L-threonyl-L-prolyl-L-valyl-L-glutamyl-L-lysine were not competitive. In the presence of 10 nM LiCl, addition of oxytocin to dispersed bovine mammary cells, in which phosphatidylinositol was pre-labelled, caused a time and dose-dependent increase in radioactive inositiol monophosphate incorporation. The possibility that there are distinct vasopressin receptors in bovine mammary tissue was investigated. ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding reached equilibrium by 40 min at 20{degree}. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. The ability of the peptides to inhibit ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding was: (Thr{sup 4},Gly{sup 7})-oxytocin > Arg{sup 8}-vasopressin > (lys{sup 8})-vasopressin > (Deamino{sup 1},D-arg{sup 8})-vasopressin > oxytocin > d (CH{sub 2}){sub 5}Tyr(Me)AVP.

  16. Application of the urine sediment parameters of UF-1000i analyser in the identification of the source of hematuria%UF-1000i尿有形成分分析仪研究性参数在血尿来源鉴别中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞倩; 陈保德; 徐卫益


    目的:探讨UF-1000i尿有形成分分析仪研究参数在鉴别肾性及非肾性血尿中的应用价值。方法回顾性分析血尿患者449例,其中肾性血尿患者259例,非肾性血尿患者190例。尿液标本用UF-1000i尿有形成分分析仪测定后记录各项参数测试结果,将红细胞研究性参数与患者临床诊断的符合情况进行统计分析。结果肾小球性血尿组与非肾小球性血尿组的RBC数值、RBC-P70Fsc、RBC-Fsc-DW、电导率及pH值等研究参数均存在明显差异,P<0.01。两组数据的RBC-Info (红细胞形态信息)临床诊断符合率均较高,且非肾小球性血尿组的临床符合率随红细胞数量增多而升高,但肾小球性血尿组未有明显变化。结论 UF-1000i尿有形成分分析仪的研究参数对肾性及非肾性血尿的鉴别有较好的临床参考价值。%Objective To evaluate the value of study parameters of the UF-1000i urine sediment analyzer in the identifica-tion of renal and non-renal hematuria. Methods A retrospective analysis of 449 patients with hematuria, including 259 patients with renal hematuria and 190 patients with non-renal hematuria, was conducted. Urine specimens were analyzed by the UF-1000i urine sediment analyzer, and the corresponding parameters were recorded. The statistical analyses were performed by SPSS. Re-sults The parameters of RBC counts, RBC-P70Fsc, RBC-Fsc-DW, conductivity and pH values were significantly different between the glomerular hematuria group and the non-glomerular hematuria group (P<0.01). Clinical manifestations were well explained by RBC-Info (RBC morphology information) in both groups, particularly in the non-glomerular hematuria group. Conclusion The study parameters of UF-1000i urine sediment analyzer have clinical reference value in the identification of patients with renal or non-renal hematuria.

  17. Potential Synthetic Biolubricant as an Alternative to Bovine Serum


    Scholes, Susan C.; Colledge, Coral J.; Naylor, Andrew; Mahdi, Mohammed H.; Smith, Alan M.; Joyce, Thomas


    It is crucial that orthopaedic implant materials are tested in conditions that replicate the natural body’s environment as closely as possible. Bovine serum is currently recommended for use by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) for the wear testing of these implant materials, however, the rheological properties of bovine serum do not match fully those of the body’s natural lubricant, synovial fluid. This study looks at a potential alternative to bovine serum for the test...

  18. Characterization of carbohydrate structures of bovine MUC15 and distribution of the mucin in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Lone Tjener; Pedersen, Lise Refstrup Linnebjerg; Petersen, Torben Ellebæk


    -containing fractions as well, such as skim milk and whey. Compositional and structural studies of the carbohydrates of bovine milk MUC15 showed that the glycans are composed of fucose, galactose, mannose, N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglycosamine, and sialic acid. The carbohydrate was shown to constitute 65......The present work reports the characterization of carbohydrate structures and the distribution of the newly identified mucin MUC15, a highly glycosylated protein associated with the bovine milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). Distribution of MUC15 was investigated in various fractions of bovine milk...... by densitometric scanning of Western blots. In raw milk, MUC15 was shown to constitute 0.08% (wt) of the protein and approximately 1.5% (wt) of the MFGM-associated proteins. Surprisingly, this study showed that in addition to the fat-containing fractions, such as MFGM and buttermilk, MUC15 was present in nonfat...

  19. 76 FR 35185 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Bovine Spongiform... (United States)


    ... Collection; Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Animals and Animal Products AGENCY: Animal and... byproducts to protect against the introduction of bovine spongiform encephalopathy into the United States... animal products and byproducts to prevent the introduction of bovine spongiform encephalopathy into...

  20. Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Bovine Mammary Microbiota: Potential Allies against Bovine Mastitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien S Bouchard

    Full Text Available Bovine mastitis is a costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. As of yet, the control of bovine mastitis is mostly based on prevention by thorough hygienic procedures during milking. Additional strategies include vaccination and utilization of antibiotics. Despite these measures, mastitis is not fully under control, thus prompting the need for alternative strategies. The goal of this study was to isolate autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB from bovine mammary microbiota that exhibit beneficial properties that could be used for mastitis prevention and/or treatment. Sampling of the teat canal led to the isolation of 165 isolates, among which a selection of ten non-redundant LAB strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Lactococcus were further characterized with regard to several properties: surface properties (hydrophobicity, autoaggregation; inhibition potential of three main mastitis pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus uberis; colonization capacities of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC; and immunomodulation properties. Three strains, Lactobacillus brevis 1595 and 1597 and Lactobacillus plantarum 1610, showed high colonization capacities and a medium surface hydrophobicity. These strains are good candidates to compete with pathogens for mammary gland colonization. Moreover, nine strains exhibited anti-inflammatory properties, as illustrated by the lower IL-8 secretion by E. coli-stimulated bMEC in the presence of these LAB. Full genome sequencing of five candidate strains allowed to check for undesirable genetic elements such as antibiotic resistance genes and to identify potential bacterial determinants involved in the beneficial properties. This large screening of beneficial properties while checking for undesirable genetic markers allowed the selection of promising candidate LAB strains from bovine mammary microbiota for the prevention and/or treatment of bovine mastitis.

  1. Diagnosis and Control of Viral Diseases of Reproductive Importance: Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Bovine Viral Diarrhea. (United States)

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Givens, Daniel


    Both bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus 1 can have significant negative reproductive impacts on cattle health. Vaccination is the primary control method for the viral pathogens in US cattle herds. Polyvalent, modified-live vaccines are recommended to provide optimal protection against various viral field strains. Of particular importance to bovine viral diarrhea control is the limitation of contact of pregnant cattle with potential viral reservoirs during the critical first 125 days of gestation.

  2. Seroprevalence of Bovine Herpes Virus-1, Bovine Herpes Virus-4 and Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Dairy Cattle in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira M. Elhassan*, M.A Fadol and A.M. El-Hussein


    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to determine prevalence of antibodies against Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHv-1, Bovine herpes virus-4 (BoHv-4 and Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD in dairy cattle in farms with reproductive problems in two areas in Sudan. Sera samples were collected from Khartoum state and central Sudan during 2005-2008 and analyzed using direct ELISA. The prevalence of antibodies was discussed with respect to age, season, sex, breed and locality BoHv-1 and BVD antibodies were highly prevalent in Khartoum state (51.7 and 50.4%, respectively while in central Sudan BoHv-1 (32.7% antibodies were the most prevalent followed by, BVD (25.7% and BoHv-4 (19.3%. The highest prevalence of antibodies against the three viruses in both areas was found during the rainy season (July to October. The prevalence of antibodies to viruses studied was significantly associated with female sex except for BoHv-1. Prevalence of antibodies to BoHv-4 was significantly associated with breed while those of BoHv-1 and BVD were not. The present results indicated that older cattle were more likely to be seropositive in case of BoHv-4 but to BoHv-1 or BVD viruses. Furthermore, it was found that BoHv-1 and BVD antibodies were highly prevalent in aborted dams. While, infertility problems were highly associated with BoHv-1 antibodies. BVD antibodies showed the highest prevalence in case of death after birth. The results of this study provide better understanding of viral epidemics of reproductive disorders and represent the first report of BoHv-4 antibodies in cattle in Sudan.

  3. Perspectives on the History of Bovine TB and the Role of Tuberculin in Bovine TB Eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Good


    Full Text Available Tuberculosis remains a significant disease of animals and humans worldwide. Bovine tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacteria with an extremely wide host range and serious, although currently probably underdiagnosed, zoonotic potential. Where bovine tuberculosis controls are effective, human zoonotic TB, due to Mycobacterium bovis or M. caprae, is uncommon and clinical cases are infrequent in cattle. Therefore, the control and ultimate eradication of bovine tuberculosis is desirable. Tuberculin tests are the primary screening tool used in bovine eradication. The choice of tuberculin test is dependent on the environment in which it is to be used. Tuberculin potency is critical to test performance, and the accurate determination of potency is therefore particularly important. The design of a control or eradication programme should take into consideration the fundamental scientific knowledge, the epidemiological profile of disease, the experience of other eradication programmes, and the presence, in the same ecosystem, of maintenance hosts, in which infection is self-sustaining and which are capable of transmitting infection. A control or eradication programme will necessarily require modification as it progresses and must be under constant review to identify the optimal desirable goals, the efficacy of policy, and constraints to progress.

  4. Establishment of bovine prion peptide-based monoclonal antibodies for identifying bovine prion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    To obtain high titer monoclonal antibodies(McAbs) which can react with mammalian prion protein(PrP),Balb/C mice were immunized with bovine(Bo) PrP peptide(BoPrP 209-228 aa) coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin(KLH).The hybridoma cell lines secreting monoclonal antibodies against the peptide were established by cell fusion and cloning.The obtained McAbs were applied to detect recombinant human,bovine and hamster PrP,cellular prion protein(PrPc) in normal bovine brain and pathogenic scrapie prion protein(PrPSc) accumulated in the medulla oblongata of bovine spongiform encephalopathy(BSE)specimen with Western blot and immunohistochemical detection,respectively.The current procedure might offer a simple,feasible method to raise high titer antibodies for studying biological features of PrP in mammals,as well as detection of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy(TSE) and diagnosis of BSE,in particular.

  5. The major bovine mastitis pathogens have different cell tropisms in cultures of bovine mammary gland cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, A.; Vorstenbosch, van C.J.; Erkens, J.H.F.; Smith, H.E.


    We previously showed that Staphylococcus aureus cells adhered mainly to an elongated cell type, present in cultures of bovine mammary gland cells. Moreover. we showed that this adhesion was mediated by binding to fibronectin. The same in vitro model was used here, to study adhesion of other importan

  6. Modulation of human immune responses by bovine interleukin-10.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerco den Hartog

    Full Text Available Cytokines can be functionally active across species barriers. Bovine IL-10 has an amino acid sequence identity with human IL-10 of 76.8%. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether bovine IL-10 has immunomodulatory activities on human monocytes and dendritic cells. Peripheral blood monocytes were isolated from healthy donors, and used directly or allowed to differentiate to dendritic cells under the influence of IL-4 and GM-CSF. Recombinant bovine IL-10 inhibited TLR induced activation of monocytes, and dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced activation of monocyte-derived DCs comparable to human IL-10. By using blocking antibodies to either bovine IL-10 or the human IL-10 receptor it was demonstrated that inhibition of monocyte activation by bovine IL-10 was dependent on binding of bovine IL-10 to the human IL-10R. These data demonstrate that bovine IL-10 potently inhibits the activation of human myeloid cells in response to TLR activation. Bovine IL-10 present in dairy products may thus potentially contribute to the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis and allergy, enhance mucosal tolerance induction and decrease intestinal inflammation and may therefore be applicable in infant foods and in immunomodulatory diets.

  7. Advances in development and evaluation of bovine herpesvirus 1 vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Kaashoek, M.J.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.


    This review deals with conventional and modern bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) vaccines. Conventional vaccines are widely used to prevent clinical signs of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. The use of conventional vaccines, however, does not appear to have resulted in reduction of the prevalence of inf

  8. Prevalence, transmission and impact of bovine leukosis in Michigan dairies (United States)

    Bovine leukosis, caused by infection with the retrovirus bovine leukemia virus (BLV), has been characterized as a contagious, but practically benign disease of the immune system. National Animal Health Monitoring Surveys in 1996 and 2007 indicate complacency has resulted in high prevalence of infect...

  9. Viral and Bacterial Pathogens in Bovine Respiratory Disease in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soveri T


    Full Text Available Pathogens causing bovine respiratory tract disease in Finland were investigated. Eighteen cattle herds with bovine respiratory disease were included. Five diseased calves from each farm were chosen for closer examination and tracheobronchial lavage. Blood samples were taken from the calves at the time of the investigation and from 86 calves 3–4 weeks later. In addition, 6–10 blood samples from animals of different ages were collected from each herd, resulting in 169 samples. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to bovine parainfluenza virus-3 (PIV-3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, bovine coronavirus (BCV, bovine adenovirus-3 (BAV-3 and bovine adenovirus-7 (BAV-7. About one third of the samples were also tested for antibodies to bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV with negative results. Bacteria were cultured from lavage fluid and in vitro susceptibility to selected antimicrobials was tested. According to serological findings, PIV-3, BAV-7, BAV-3, BCV and BRSV are common pathogens in Finnish cattle with respiratory problems. A titre rise especially for BAV-7 and BAV-3, the dual growth of Mycoplasma dispar and Pasteurella multocida, were typical findings in diseased calves. Pasteurella sp. strains showed no resistance to tested antimicrobials. Mycoplasma bovis and Mannheimia haemolytica were not found.

  10. Comparative analysis of human and bovine teeth: radiographic density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luis Oshiro Tanaka


    Full Text Available Since bovine teeth have been used as substitutes for human teeth in in vitro dental studies, the aim of this study was to compare the radiographic density of bovine teeth with that of human teeth to evaluate their usability for radiographic studies. Thirty bovine and twenty human teeth were cut transversally in 1 millimeter-thick slices. The slices were X-rayed using a digital radiographic system and an intraoral X-ray machine at 65 kVp and 7 mA. The exposure time (0.08 s and the target-sensor distance (40 cm were standardized for all the radiographs. The radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin of each slice were obtained separately using the "histogram" tool of Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software. The mean radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin were calculated by the arithmetic mean of the slices of each tooth. One-way ANOVA demonstrated statistically significant differences for the densities of bovine and human enamel (p 0.05. Based on the results, the authors concluded that: a the radiographic density of bovine enamel is significantly higher than that of human enamel; b the radiodensity of bovine coronal dentin is statistically lower than the radiodensity of human coronal dentin; bovine radicular dentin is also less radiodense than human radicular dentin, although this difference was not statistically significant; c bovine teeth should be used with care in radiographic in vitro studies.

  11. Detection of lipomannan in cattle infected with bovine tuberculosis (United States)

    Early and rapid detection of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is critical to controlling the spread of this disease in cattle and other animals. In this study, we demonstrate the development of an immunoassay for the direct detection of the bovine bTB biomarker, lipomannan (LM) in serum using a waveguide-...

  12. Bovine dental fluorosis: histologic and physical characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, T.R.; Kolstad, D.L.; Suttie, J.W.


    Incisor teeth from 5- to 6-year-old Holstein-Friesian cattle maintained on a ration averaging 40 ppm F annually from 4 months of age were analyzed by a variety of histologic techniques. These techniques included photomicroscopy, microradiography, protein staining, and microhardness testing. The features of fluorotic enamel that were noted were: hypomineralized outer enamel, coronal cementum hyperplasia, disrupted subsurface pigment band, hypoplastic pits, puckered incremental lines, periodic radiolucent regions, positive protein staining, and decreased microhardness of the outer enamel. These results were similar to the lesions of dental fluorosis observed in other species, and explain the external appearance of fluorotic bovine teeth observed under field conditions.

  13. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, Mad Cow Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Bruckner


    Full Text Available Mad Cow Disease or BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy became a household name internationally and also in South Africa. International hysteria resulted following reports of a possible link between a disease diagnosed in cattle in Britain and a variant of the disease diagnosed in humans after the presumed ingestion or contact with meat from infected cattle. The European Union instituted a ban on the importation of beef from the United Kingdom during March 1996 that had a severe effect on the beef industry in the UK and also resulted in a world wide consumer resistance against beef consumption.

  14. Creep Behavior of Passive Bovine Extraocular Muscle


    Lawrence Yoo; Hansang Kim; Andrew Shin; Vijay Gupta; Demer, Joseph L.


    This paper characterized bovine extraocular muscles (EOMs) using creep, which represents long-term stretching induced by a constant force. After preliminary optimization of testing conditions, 20 fresh EOM samples were subjected to four different loading rates of 1.67, 3.33, 8.33, and 16.67%/s, after which creep was observed for 1,500 s. A published quasilinear viscoelastic (QLV) relaxation function was transformed to a creep function that was compared with data. Repeatable creep was observed...

  15. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV): A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik


    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection is the major cause of respiratory disease in calves during the first year of life. The study of the virus has been difficult because of its lability and very poor growth in cell culture. However, during the last decade, the introduction of new...... complex and unpredictable which makes the diagnosis and subsequent therapy very difficult. BRSV is closely related to human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) which is an important cause of respiratory disease in young children. In contrast to BRSV, the recent knowledge of HRSV is regularly extensively...

  16. Interaction of Nicotine and Bovine Serum Albumin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The binding of nicotine to bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by UV absorption, fluorescence, and 1H NMR methods. With the addition of nicotine, the absorption band of BSA at about 210 nm decreased gradually, moved to longer wavelengths, and narrowed. BSA fluorescence of tryptophan residue was quenched by nicotine. The 1H NMR peaks of nicotine moved to downfield by the addition of BSA. The experimental results showed that nicotine was capable of binding with BSA to form a 1:1 complex. BSA's high selectivity for nicotine binding suggests a unique role for this protein in the detoxification and/or transport of nicotine.

  17. Ultrasonography of bovine urinary tract disorders. (United States)

    Floeck, Martina


    Ultrasonography is a helpful diagnostic tool in cattle with urinary tract disorders. It can be used to diagnose pyelonephritis, urolithiasis, hydronephrosis, renal cysts, renal tumors, amyloidosis, cystitis, bladder paralysis, bladder rupture, bladder neoplasms, and, occasionally, nephrosis, glomerulonephritis, and embolic nephritis. This article describes the anatomy, scanning technique, indications, limitations, normal and pathologic sonographic appearance of the bovine urinary tract. References from horses and humans are included, especially when the sonographic findings in these species may complement the understanding of similar diseases reported in cattle.

  18. 尿脱落细胞FISH检测在恶性血尿病因诊断中的应用%The Application of Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization in the Etiological Diagnosis of Malignant Hematuria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜雷; 梁朝朝; 马磊; 江长琴


    Objective: To evaluate the effectivity and value of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique in the diagnosis of malignant hematuria, meanwhile to provide the theoretical basis for establishing or improving the diagnosis of malignant hematuria. Methods: Labeled probes for chromosomes 3,7,9 and 17 were used to assess chromosomal abnormalities by FISH from lOpeople without haematuria and established the threshold, the other 100 urine samples from people with haematuria were analyzed by FISH and cytology at the same time. The gold standard was pathology diagnosis. The sensitivity and specificity of FISH were evaluated and compared with Cytological examination. Results:The sensitivity of FISH and cytology in detection urothelial cancer are 74. 7% and 46. 0% respectively and the specificity are 92. 3% and 100% respectively. When comparing the two examination there is a significant difference between.the sensitivity of FISH and cytology(P<0. 05). Conclusions;Compared to cytological examination the FISH assay has a higher sensitivity and a similar specificity in the detection of urothelial cancer, and the non-in-vasivenessNthe fastness making it could be used as a new method in the early detection of urothelial cancer.%目的:比较尿脱落细胞荧光原位杂交(Fluorescence in situ hybridization,FISH)检测、细胞学分析和膀胱镜对恶性血尿诊断的临床有效性及应用价值,为建立或完善恶性血尿病因诊断提供理论基础.方法:10例正常人通过FISH技术检测9号染色体p16位点、3号染色体、7号染色体及17号染色体的变异情况,建立FISH检测尿脱落细胞的方法学平台及标准检测方法同时确立阈值.同时收集100例血尿患者晨尿同步进行细胞学分析、膀胱镜检查及FISH检测.以组织病理确诊为膀胱尿路上皮癌为金标准,评估FISH诊断的特异度和敏感度及与膀胱癌发生及发展的关系.结果:FISH诊断尿路上皮癌的特异度为86.1

  19. Detection of bovine herpesvirus 4 glycoprotein B and thymidine kinase DNA by PCR assays in bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Verstraten, E.; Belak, S.; Verschuren, S.B.E.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Peshev, R.; Oirschot, van J.T.


    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to detect bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4) glycoprotein B (gB) DNA, and a nested-PCR assay was modified for the detection of BHV4 thymidine kinase (TK) DNA in bovine milk samples. To identify false-negative PCR results, internal control templates were

  20. Hematuria due to concomitant use of clopidogrel hydrogen sulfate and aspirin%硫酸氢氯吡格雷与阿司匹林联用致血尿

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩毓博; 程指民; 李湘晖


    A 57-year-old woman,who had 20 years history of hypertension,was treated with longterm use of oral aspirin,nifedipine,and bisoprolol fumarate.Oral clopidogrel hydrogen sulfate 75 mg once daily and an Ⅳ infusion of cinepazide maleate 320 mg once daily were added to her regimen due to angina pectoris caused by coronary atherosclerotic heart disease.Six hours later,the patient developed intermittent hematuria,followed by urinary frequency,urinary urgency,and urodynia.Routine urine test showed occult blood (+++) and 17 red blood cells/HP.Ultrasonography showed no abnormal changes in bilateral kidney and bladder.Clopidogrel hydrogen sulfate was withdrawn.The next day,her urine color was normalized gradually and routine urinalysis showed occult blood (+ +) and 4 red blood cells/HP.Three days later,all results in the routine urine test was within normal range.%1例57岁女性高血压病患者,长期口服阿司匹林、硝苯地平、富马酸比索洛尔,因冠状动脉粥样硬化性心脏病致心绞痛,加用硫酸氢氯吡格雷75 mg口服,1次/d;马来酸桂哌齐特320 mg,1次/d静脉注射.6h后出现间歇性血尿,伴尿频、尿急、尿痛.尿常规检查示尿隐血(+++),红细胞17个/高倍视野(HP).双肾、膀胱超声检查未见异常.停用硫酸氢氯吡格雷.次日,患者尿色逐渐恢复,尿隐血(++),红细胞4个/HP.3d后尿常规检查正常.

  1. Identification of Prototheca Zopfii from Bovine Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Zaini


    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was identification of the epidemiology of Prototheca zopfii species from the milk samples of dairy cattle in Isfahan, central Iran.Methods: Milk samples were obtained from 230 dairy cattle, 130 with and 100 without mastitis, in Isfahan. The samples were cultured in Prototheca Isolation Medium (PIM and Sabouraud's dextrose agar. All P. zopfii isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical methods. Then, as a confirmatory test they were examined by genotype-specific PCR.Results: Four P. zopfii strains (3.07% were isolated from the 130 samples of dairy cattle with clinical mastitis and there was no isolation from totally 100 samples of healthy bovines without mastitis. Specific PCR product (about 946 bp was detected in four isolates.Conclusion: It seems that P. zopfii genotype II plays a key role in affecting bovine mastitis that confirmed other previous studies. Our study was the first, which identified the Prototheca species by traditional and molecular methods in Iran and Middle East as well.

  2. Human exposure to bovine polyomavirus: a zoonosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, J.V.; Gardner, S.D.


    A competitive-type solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed for the detection of antibody to bovine polyomavirus. Comparison of RIA and counter-immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) results on 273 cattle sera indicated that both techniques were detecting antibody of like specificity. Human sera from 256 blood donors, 219 people recently vaccinated against polio, rubella or rabies, 50 immunosuppressed patients and 472 people with various occupational exposure to cattle were tested for antibody to bovine polyomavirus, the foetal rhesus monkey kidney strain, (anti-FRKV) by RIA. Apart from one blood donor and one of 108 rabies vaccinees only those in close contact with cattle possessed anti-FRKV. Compared with 62 per cent seropositive in the natural hosts, cattle, 71 per cent of veterinary surgeons, 50 per cent of cattle farmers, 40 per cent of abattoir workers, 16 per cent of veterinary institute technical staff and 10 per cent of veterinary students were anti-FRKV positive. Our findings indicate that the theoretical hazard of FRKV infection from undetected contamination of current tissue culture derived vaccines may, in practice, be remote. Proposed wider use of primate kidney cells as substrates for new vaccines may increase this risk.

  3. Toxicology of a bovine paraplegic syndrome. (United States)

    Sevcik, C; Brito, J C; D'Suze, G; Domínguez-Bello, M G; Lovera, M; Mijares, A J; Bónoli, S


    A clinical entity named 'bovine paraplegic syndrome' ('síndrome parapléjico de los bovinos') has spread alarmingly in the cattle-growing areas of the central and eastern plains of Venezuela. It is estimated that four million cattle are bred in the area where the disease occurs. The mortality ranges from 5 to 25% of the animals at risk, mostly pregnant or lactating cows. The principal characteristic of the bovine paraplegic syndrome is ventral or sternal decubitus, in animals that make vain efforts to stand when stimulated. The diagnosis is established when all other possible causes (e.g. paralytic rabies, botulism and blood parasites such as Anaplasma marginal, Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, and Trypanosoma vivax) have been ruled out clinically and by laboratory tests. Death always occurs, usually after a few days, and there is no known treatment. In this work, we describe results that show the presence of a toxin in the cattle suffering from, or liable to suffer from the syndrome. The toxin is produced by ruminal bacteria. In squid giant axons under voltage clamp conditions, the toxin blocks the sodium current. We detected the toxin analytically by absorbance measurements at 340 nm after reacting with picrylsulfonic acid. We obtained a good separation of the toxin with isocratic high pressure liquid chromatography, using 40% methanol in water on phenylborasil columns.

  4. A retrospective study on management of gross hematuria in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease patients%常染色体显性多囊肾病患者并发肉眼血尿治疗方法的回顾研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马熠熠; 陈冬平; 梅长林; 郁胜强; 戎殳; 张彤; 李林


    目的 寻找治疗常染色体显性多囊肾病(ADPKD)并发肉眼血尿的理想疗法.方法 1993年以来曾在我科住院治疗以及目前在我科多囊肾病专科门诊定期就诊随访的ADPKD患者为对象.收集ADPKD患者出现肉眼血尿时的平均年龄、性别构成、肾功能水平、诱发因素、治疗方案、症状持续时间、血小板计数、凝血参数、肾脏囊肿大小等资料,分别以不同的肉眼血尿诱发因素及治疗方案进行分组,比较其各指标间的差异.结果 共筛选出ADPKD患者905例.279例(男150例,女129例)曾有肉眼血尿病史,其中146例能提供完整的病史和治疗经过,而只有101例能提供相关的实验室检查结果.在这101例中,肉眼血尿可出现在慢性肾脏病(CKD)任何一期;GFR为(56.4±44.1)ml·min-1·(1.73 m2)-1;症状持续时间(8.8±8.0)d;男、女患者症状持续时间差异无统计学意义[(8.2±7.3)d比(9.5±8.8)d,P=0.426);凝血参数均在正常参考范围内,其中91例患者血小板计数正常.不同诱发因素导致的肉眼血尿持续时间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).卧床休息组症状持续时间显著短于其他组患者(P<0.05).各组间血小板计数、凝血酶时间和国际标准化比值等差异无统计学意义.结论 对出现肉眼血尿的ADPKD患者应首先明确其诱因.卧床休息应作为核心治疗措施.在考虑使用止血药物时建议使用抗纤维蛋白溶解类药物,不需要预防性使用抗生索.%Objective To seauch the ideal management for gross hematuria in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD).Methods ADPKD patients who were ever hospitalized and followed up in our department since 1993 were enrolled in the study.Demographic and clinical data were colloected,such as gender,age of gross hematuria,level of renal function,causative factors,management strategies,duration of gross hematuria,blood platelet count,activated partial thromboplastin time,prothrombin time

  5. Determining fertility in a bovine subject comprises detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of genetic marker alleles associated with a trait indicative of fertility of the bovine subject and/or off-spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    for determining fertility in a bovine subject; and selecting bovine subjects for breeding purposes (all claimed). DETAILED DESCRIPTION - Determining fertility in a bovine subject comprises detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of two or more genetic marker alleles......NOVELTY - Determining fertility in a bovine subject comprises detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of two or more genetic marker alleles that are associated with a trait indicative of fertility of the bovine subject and/or off-spring. USE - The methods are useful...... purposes; and (2) a diagnostic kit for detecting the presence or absence in a bovine subject of two or more genetic marker alleles comprising a detection member....

  6. Enzootic transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi and T. rangeli in the Federal District of Brazil Transmissão enzoótica de Trypanosoma cruzi e T. rangeli no Distrito Federal, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves


    Full Text Available The Federal District of Brazil (DF lies within the Cerrado biome, where open shrubland (savannas is interspersed with riverside gallery forests and permanent swamps (veredas. Trypanosoma cruzi-infected native triatomines occur in the area, but the enzootic transmission of trypanosomatids remains poorly characterized. A parasitological survey involving sylvatic triatomines (166 Rhodnius neglectus collected from Mauritia flexuosa palms and small mammals (98 marsupials and 70 rodents, totaling 18 species was conducted in 18 sites (mainly gallery forests and veredas of the DF. Parasites were isolated, morphologically identified, and characterized by PCR of nuclear (mini-exon gene and kinetoplast DNA (kDNA. Six R. neglectus, seven Didelphis albiventris and one Akodon cursor were infected by trypanosomes; wild reservoir infection is documented for the first time in the DF. kDNA PCR detected T. cruzi in five R. neglectus and mini-exon gene PCR revealed T. cruzi I in isolates from D. albiventris. Parasites infecting one bug yielded T. rangeli KP1+ kDNA amplicons. In spite of the occurrence of T. cruzi-infected D. albiventris (an important wild and peridomestic reservoir and R. neglectus (a secondary vector displaying synanthropic behavior, a low-risk of human Chagas disease transmission could be expected in the DF, considering the low prevalence infection recorded in this work. The detection of T. rangeli KP1+ associated with R. neglectus in the DF widens the known range of this parasite in Brazil and reinforces the hypothesis of adaptation of T. rangeli populations (KP1+ and KP1- to distinct evolutionary Rhodnius lineages.O Distrito Federal (DF do Brasil está localizado no bioma Cerrado, um complexo de fisionomias savânicas incluindo matas de galeria e campos úmidos permanentes (veredas. Triatomíneos silvestres infectados por Trypanosoma cruzi ocorrem na área, mas a transmissão enzoótica de tripanossomatídeos permanece insuficientemente

  7. Gabor Weber Local Descriptor for Bovine Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Sun


    Full Text Available Iris recognition is a robust biometric technology. This paper proposes a novel local descriptor for bovine iris recognition, named Gabor Weber local descriptor (GWLD. We first compute the Gabor magnitude maps for the input bovine iris image, and then calculate the differential excitation and orientation for each pixel over each Gabor magnitude map. After that, we use these differential excitations and orientations to construct the GWLD histogram representation. Finally, histogram intersection is adopted to measure the similarity between different GWLD histograms. The experimental results on the SEU bovine iris database verify the representation power of our proposed local descriptor.

  8. [Bovine heterologous bone graft in orbital surgery]. (United States)

    Morax, S; Hurbli, T; Smida, R


    Lubboc (T650) is a bovine heterologous bone implant obtained by specific preparation of trabecular of bone. In vitro and in vivo biocompatibility studies have revealed the absence of any cytotoxicity or systemic toxicity. Lubboc has many fields of application, including all bone graft surgical indications. We report our first results concerning the use of this product in orbital surgery either as a filling or contention material or as an apposition material. On all 20 operated patients we did not encounter any intolerance, inflammation or infection. The follow-up is still too short to appreciate the long term integration of this material which has the advantage of being a substitute for autologous bone, avoiding bone graft harvesting.

  9. Human bovine tuberculosis - remains in the differential.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bilal, Shaukat


    Mycobacterium bovis is a pathogen of cattle. The unpasteurized milk of affected cattle is a source of infection in humans. Despite the screening of cattle and the pasteurization of milk, M bovis has not been eradicated. A high index of clinical suspicion is needed in symptomatic patients with a history of possible exposure. At risk groups include animal workers, farmers, meat packers, vets and zoo keepers. Humans are usually infected by the aerosol route. We present two cases of human bovine tuberculosis. One was a presumptive case and the second was a confirmed case. Both responded well to antituberculous therapy. In the confirmed case, there was evidence of transmission to the partner living in the same house. Rifampicin prophylaxis was given to the exposed case. The M. bovis from the confirmed case was isoniazid resistant, in addition to having the well known resistance to pyrazinamide. Isoniazid resistance has been described before in those who are immunocompromised. We describe it in an immunocompetent patient.

  10. Studies on bovine demodecosis in northern Nigeria. (United States)

    Slingenbergh, J; Mohammed, A N; Bida, S A


    Summary The study reported in the present paper discusses the clinical and histological picture of bovine demodecosis and the morphology of Demodex mites as seen in four cows suffering from generalized demodecosis. There were no clinical signs of other skin affections. Changes in both the number and the appearance of visible skin lesions were seen and related to the level of nutrition and the exposure to sunshine of the cattle. Histological sections of some skin nodules showed the presence of mite colonies in the hair follicles. Only adults were seen in the sebaceous glands. Microscopical study of the morphology of the mites revealed the presence of two types of demodicids in the skin lesions and three types from epilated eyelashes. Morphological criteria are presented to aid in identification of species and of life stages.

  11. Tear and decohesion of bovine pericardial tissue. (United States)

    Tobaruela, Almudena; Elices, Manuel; Bourges, Jean Yves; Rojo, Francisco Javier; Atienza, José Miguel; Guinea, Gustavo


    The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the fracture-by tear and delamination-of bovine pericardium tissues which are usually employed for the manufacture of bioprosthetic valves. A large number of samples (77) were tested in root-to-apex and circumferential directions, according to a standardised tear test (ASTM D 1938). Before performing the tear test, some samples were subjected to 1000 cycles of fatigue to a maximum stress of 3MPa. Fracture toughness of tearing and delamination were computed by following a simple fracture model. The study showed significantly lower values of delamination toughness compared with tear delamination. Moreover, tear forces were different in each test direction, revealing a clear orthotropic behaviour. All these results, as well as the testing procedure, could be of value for future research in the physiological function of pericardium tissues and clinical applications.

  12. Electron probe microananlysis of fluorotic bovine teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, T.R.; Kolstad, D.L.; Suttie, J.W.


    Incisor teeth were obtained from adult cattle which since 4 months of age to 5 or 6 years were maintained on rations containing a yearly average of 40 ppM F in the forage. Microchemical analyses were performed on the fluorotic bovine incisors. The microdistribution of fluoride varied markedly at different sites within the same tooth. Fluoride concentrations varied with depth from the tooth surface and were influenced by the concentrations of fluoride present in the forage during amelogenesis, and the presence of hypoplastic pits and hyperplastic coronal cementum in enamel. The cementum in these lesions contained remarkably high concentrations of fluoride, and it was less calcified and more porous than adjacent enamel. 5 figures.

  13. Copy number variation in the bovine genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadista, João; Thomsen, Bo; Holm, Lars-Erik;


    to genetic variation in cattle. Results We designed and used a set of NimbleGen CGH arrays that tile across the assayable portion of the cattle genome with approximately 6.3 million probes, at a median probe spacing of 301 bp. This study reports the highest resolution map of copy number variation...... in the cattle genome, with 304 CNV regions (CNVRs) being identified among the genomes of 20 bovine samples from 4 dairy and beef breeds. The CNVRs identified covered 0.68% (22 Mb) of the genome, and ranged in size from 1.7 to 2,031 kb (median size 16.7 kb). About 20% of the CNVs co-localized with segmental...

  14. Value of carbon dioxide for cystoscopy and its clinical application in the diagnosis of adult patients with hematuria%二氧化碳气膀胱镜在成人血尿患者诊断中的临床应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈友干; 孙健; 李光; 张邓新; 向从明; 邓圆圆; 丁锡奇


    目的 探讨二氧化碳(CO2)气膀胱镜在成人血尿患者诊断中的临床应用价值.方法 以CO2为介质,对入选的215例成人血尿患者进行CO2气膀胱镜检查,其中男141例,女74例,肉眼血尿180例,镜下血尿35例.观察膀胱内壁、前列腺及尿道内等情况,必要时活检病理检查.结果 所有患者均顺利完成检查或活检,手术时间13~24 min,术中无1例因出血而导致操作中断.患者术中术后均无明显CO2相关并发症.本组最终诊断为膀胱炎73例,膀胱癌46例,前列腺增生症27例,膀胱结石9例,上尿路出血17例,尿道炎10例,其中33例未见异常改变.结论 CO2气膀胱镜安全、可靠,操作视野清晰,对成人血尿患者尤其是严重血尿者的临床诊治有一定优势,值得临床推广应用.%Objective To investigate the value of carbon dioxide for cystoscopy and its clinical application in the diagnosis of adult patients with hematuria. Methods The study group consisted of 215 adult patients with hematuria requiring CO2 cystoscopy. Among them, there were 141 male patients and 74 female patients. The number of patients with gross hematuria was 180, and patients with microscopic hematuria was 35. Results All examinations were successful with an average examination duration of 13-24 min. No examination was stopped as a result of bleeding. There were no CO2 - related complications during preoperative and postoperative periods. Among 215 adult patients with hematuria, cystitis occurred in 73, bladder cancer in 46, benign prostate hy-perplasia (BPH) in 27, bladder stones in 9, upper urinary tract hemorrhage in 17, urethritis in 10, and no abnormalities in 33. Conclusion Carbon dioxide for cystoscopy is a safe and effective technique that provides a good endoscopic view, and this technique would seem to have considerable advantages in the clinical diagnosis of adult patients with hematuria.

  15. Tylosin susceptibility of Staphylococci from bovine mastitis. (United States)

    Entorf, Monika; Feßler, Andrea T; Kadlec, Kristina; Kaspar, Heike; Mankertz, Joachim; Peters, Thomas; Schwarz, Stefan


    Although the 16-membered macrolide tylosin is commonly used for the treatment of bovine mastitis, little information is currently available about the susceptibility of mastitis pathogens to tylosin. In the present study, 112 Staphylococcus aureus and 110 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) spp. isolates from cases of bovine mastitis were tested by broth microdilution and agar disk diffusion with 30 μg tylosin disks. Susceptibility to erythromycin was tested by broth microdilution and disk diffusion using 15 μg disks. Both test populations showed bimodal distributions of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and zone diameters with eleven S. aureus and eight CoNS isolates showing tylosin MICs of ≥ 256 μg/ml and no zones of growth inhibition around the tylosin 30 μg disks. All 19 isolates with tylosin MICs of ≥ 256 μg/ml were also resistant to erythromycin. For six additional erythromycin-resistant isolates, tylosin MICs of 1-8 μg/ml were observed. One S. aureus and two CoNS isolates showed inducible macrolide resistance. PCR analysis of the 25 erythromycin-resistant staphylococcal isolates identified the resistance genes erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), erm(T), mph(C) and msr(A) alone or in different combinations. An excellent correlation between the results of the different tylosin susceptibility tests (broth microdilution versus disk diffusion) was seen for S. aureus and CoNS isolates. Since tylosin does not induce the expression of the aforementioned erm genes, isolates with an inducible resistance phenotype may - if only tylosin is tested - be falsely classified as tylosin-susceptible. Thus, erythromycin should be tested in parallel and tylosin should only be used for the treatment of infections caused by erythromycin-susceptible staphylococci.

  16. 髂内动脉化疗栓塞治疗膀胱癌合并持续血尿疗效观察%A study on embolization and chemotherapy through the internal iliac artery for the treatment of bladder cancer with persistant hematuria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林靖箕; 高中度; 颜志平; 乔德林


    Objective To study and provide an effective method for treating bladder cancer with persistant hematuria, using chemo-embolization throngh internal iliac artery. Methods Inserted a catheter from the femoral artery of the normal side into the internal iliac artery of the opposite side and furthermore inturn into the target vessel. The procedure of chemo-embolization with gelform was carried out, and then superselectively inserted the catheter into the target vessel from the visceral branch with lipiodol and gelfoam emboliztion. Simultaneously chemo-embolization of internal iliac antery on the normal side was also performed with proper amount of embolization. Results The persistant hematuria of 30 patients was under controlled effectively. One of them was reoperated and resected successfully. Conclusion Chemoembolization through internal iliac artery is an effective method for treating bladder cancer with persistant hematuria.%目的探讨髂内动脉化疗栓塞术治疗膀胱癌合并持续血尿的疗效。方法经健侧股动脉穿刺插管至患侧髂内动脉灌注化疗并超选择至前支的脏支靶血管处作碘油及明胶海绵栓塞,同时作健侧髂内动脉灌注化疗和适量栓塞。结果 30例的持续血尿均得到有效控制,其中1例再次手术切除。结论髂内动脉化疗栓塞治疗膀胱癌合并持续血尿能得到良好的疗效。

  17. 少阴血尿与复脉辈修复脉损止血论%An analysis of Hematuria caused by Shaoyin disease And hemostasis through the restoration of the injured venation by the prescription Fumai soup the like

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    以少阴血尿为题,血脉损伤与修复为理,复脉辈消除血尿为旨,论述少阴血尿的含义、血脉损伤的原因及复脉辈消除血尿的机理.创新了张仲景炙甘草汤复脉之意,开拓了吴鞠通下焦湿病阴伤脉损之理,开辟了复脉辈治疗少阴血尿之径,触会了古今宏现与微观、检验与证候的辨证统一,为中医经典经方的发展走出了一条传承与创新之路.%In this paper, the topic is the hematuria caused by Shaoyin disease, the pathogenesis is the restoration of the injured venation, aiming at wiping off the bloody urine by prescription Fumal soup the like. This paper explains the definition of hematuria which is caused by Shaoyin disease, the reason for the injury of venation, and the mechanism of the bloody urine removed by the prescription Fumai soup the like. This article reforms the Zhigancao - tang created by Zhang Zhongjing, opens up the truth of the injuried of venation which come up with the theory of xiajiao warm disease symptom by Wu Jutong, finds the way to cure the hematuria led from Shaoyin disease by the prescription Fumai soup the like.Furthermore, this paper is the mixture of the dialectical unity of macro and micro, inspection and syndrome from ancient to the present. It paves a new and sucessive way to the development of Chinese traditional prescription.

  18. 静脉肾盂造影在无症状血尿与胡桃夹现象的表现及其临床价值%Intravenous Pyelography in a Symptomatic Hematuria and presentation of phenomenon of nutcracker and its clinical value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛克伟; 蔡曰新; 王立军


    目的为探讨无痛血尿的正确检查方法,研究胡桃夹现象的静脉肾盂造影(以下简称IVP)表现。方法选取13例无痛性血尿患者进行IVP检查并结合B超检查对比两者在无痛性血尿及胡桃夹现象的诊断价值。结果 13例患者中IVP表现异常考虑胡桃夹现象有6例,B超诊断7例(含IVP确诊的6例)。结论对无痛性血尿IVP既能排除泌尿系结石、结核、畸形、肿瘤等疾病,又能显示肾盂肾盏饱满、排空延迟等表现对胡桃夹现象提出参考诊断依据,结合B超、临床进一步确定诊断。%Objective To explore the correct method to examine painless hematuria,to study the phenomenon of nutcracker of representation of intravenous pyelography(IVP).Methods  13 patients with painless hematuria were conducted IVP,and combined with the examination of B ultrasound,and compared the diagnostic value between the painless hematuria and the phenomenon of nutcracker.Results In 13 patients,the IVP abnormalities apperaed the phenomenon of nutcracker in 6 patients,7 patients were diagnosed by B ultrasound (included 6 patients diagnosed by IVP).Conclusion For painless hematuria,the IVP can exclude the urethral concretion,tuberculosis,abnormalities,tumor etc,and show the fullness of renal calices,the manifestation of empty delayed,which provide a diagnostic base for the phenomenon of nutcracker,combined with B ultrasound,and further made with the clinical final diagnosis.

  19. Detection and characterization of viruses as field and vaccine strains in feedlot cattle with bovine respiratory disease (United States)

    This study investigated viruses in bovine respiratory disease (BRD) cases in feedlots, including bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V). Nasal swabs were collected fro...

  20. Prevalence and economics and bovine leukosis in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, D.K.; Beal, V.C. Jr.


    This paper reviews the prevalence of bovine leukosis in the US and discusses the economic significance of the disease. The term leukosis is used except when reporting the Meat Inspection Department data which used the term malignant lymphoma instead. (PCS)

  1. Proteomic analysis of bovine blastocoel fluid and blastocyst cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Linnert; Grøndahl, Marie Louise; Beck, Hans Christian


    development, little information is available about the protein complement of early embryos. Modern, sensitive proteomic technology (nano HPLC tandem mass spectrometry) allowed us to describe the proteome of the scarce blastocoel fluid and cell material of expanded bovine blastocysts isolated...

  2. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of bovine and shark cartilage as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  3. X chromosome regulation of autosomal gene expression in bovine blastocysts


    Itoh, Yuichiro; Arnold, Arthur P.


    Although X chromosome inactivation in female mammals evolved to balance the expression of X chromosome and autosomal genes in the two sexes, female embryos pass through developmental stages in which both X chromosomes are active in somatic cells. Bovine blastocysts show higher expression of many X genes in XX than XY embryos, suggesting that X inactivation is not complete. Here we reanalyzed bovine blastocyst microarray expression data from a network perspective with a focus on interactions b...

  4. Occupational asthma caused by inhalation of bovine serum albumin powder


    Choi, Gil-Soon; Kim, Joo-Hee; Lee, Haet-Nim; Sung, Jun-Mo; Lee, Jin-Woo; Park, Hae-Sim


    Bovine serum albumin (BSA), which is present in bovine plasma, is one of the major allergens affecting patients with food allergies induced by milk and meat. It is also commonly used in research laboratories. Although some reports have documented food allergies associated with BSA, BSA-induced occupational asthma has not been reported. We report a case of occupational asthma and rhinitis in a laboratory worker caused by the inhalation of BSA powder, in which an IgE-mediated response was sugge...

  5. Homologous recombination in bovine pestiviruses. Phylogenetic and statistic evidence. (United States)

    Jones, Leandro Roberto; Weber, E Laura


    Bovine pestiviruses (Bovine Viral Diarrea Virus 1 (BVDV 1) and Bovine Viral Diarrea Virus 2 (BVDV 2)) belong to the genus Pestivirus (Flaviviridae), which is composed of positive stranded RNA viruses causing significant economic losses world-wide. We used phylogenetic and bootstrap analyses to systematically scan alignments of previously sequenced genomes in order to explore further the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for variation in the virus. Previously published data suggested that homologous crossover might be one of the mechanisms responsible for the genomic rearrangements observed in cytopathic (cp) strains of bovine pestiviruses. Nevertheless, homologous recombination involves not just homologous crossovers, but also replacement of a homologous region of the acceptor RNA. Furthermore, cytopathic strains represent dead paths in evolution, since they are isolated exclusively from the fatal cases of mucosal disease. Herein, we report evidence of homologous inter-genotype recombination in the genome of a non-cytopathic (ncp) strain of Bovine Viral Diarrea Virus 1, the type species of the genus Pestivirus. We also show that intra-genotype homologous recombination might be a common phenomenon in both species of Pestivirus. This evidence demonstrates that homologous recombination contribute to the diversification of bovine pestiviruses in nature. Implications for virus evolution, taxonomy and phylogenetics are discussed.

  6. Bovine coronavirus antibody titers at weaning negatively correlate with incidence of bovine respiratory disease in the feed yard (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is a multifactorial disease caused by complex interactions among viral and bacterial pathogens, stressful management practices and host genetic variability. Although vaccines and antibiotic treatments are readily available to prevent and treat infection caus...

  7. Bovine PrP expression levels in transgenic mice influence transmission characteristics of atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy



    Until recently, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) disease in cattle was thought to be caused by a single agent strain, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) (classical BSE or BSE-C). However, due to the initiation of a large-scale surveillance programme throughout Europe, two atypical BSE strains, bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE, also named BSE-L) and BSE-H have since been discovered. These atypical BSE isolates have been previously transmitted to a range of tr...

  8. Antibody response against three widespread bovine viruses is not impaired in Holstein cattle carrying bovine leukocyte antigen DRB3.2 alleles associated with bovine leukemia virus resistance. (United States)

    Juliarena, M A; Poli, M; Ceriani, C; Sala, L; Rodríguez, E; Gutierrez, S; Dolcini, G; Odeon, A; Esteban, E N


    Due to the wide dissemination of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection among dairy cattle, control and eradication programs based on serological detection of infected cattle and subsequent culling face a major economic task. In Argentina, genetic selection of cattle carrying alleles of the bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA) DRB3.2 gene associated with BLV-infection resistance, like *0902, emerges as the best additional tool toward controlling virus spread. A potential risk in expanding or segregating BoLA selected populations of cattle is that it might increase susceptibility to other common viruses. Special concern raises the strong association found between low proviral load and low antibody titer against major BLV structural proteins. This phenomenon might depend on host genetic factors influencing other viruses requiring, unlike BLV, strong and long-lasting humoral immune response to prevent infection. In this study, we demonstrate that there is no association among neutralizing antibody titers against foot and mouth disease virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, or bovine herpesvirus type 1 and polymorphism of the BoLA DRB3.2 gene. Conversely, there is strong association between BoLA DRB3.2*0902 and low antibody titers against 2 BLV structural proteins--env gp51 and gag p24--to date, the best BLV resistance marker. There is also significant association between low antibody titers against gp51 and p24 and BoLA DRB3.2*1701 and low antibody titers against p24 and BoLA DRB3.2*1101 or 02. Our data suggest that increasing BoLA-selected BLV-resistant cattle or segregating BoLA-associated alleles to BLV susceptibility would not affect the resistance or the predisposition to bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine herpesvirus type 1, or foot and mouth disease virus infection.

  9. Preliminary quality assessment of bovine colostrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Taranto


    Full Text Available Data on bovine colostrum quality are scarce or absent, although Commission Regulations No 1662/2006 and No 1663/2006 include colostrum in the context of chapters on milk. Thus the aim of the present work is to study some physical, chemical, hygiene and safety quality parameters of bovine colostrum samples collected from Sicily and Calabria dairy herds. Thirty individual samples were sampled after 2-3 days from partum. The laboratory tests included: pH, fat (FT, total nitrogen (TN, lactose (LTS and dry matter (NM percentage (Lactostar and somatic cell count (CCS (DeLaval cell counter DCC. Bacterial counts included: standard plate count (SPC, total psychrophilic aerobic count (PAC, total, fecal coliforms by MPN (Most Probable Number, sulphite-reducing bacteria (SR. Salmonella spp. was determined. Bacteriological examinations were performed according to the American Public Health Association (APHA methods, with some adjustements related to the requirements of the study. Statistical analysis of data was performed by Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. The results showed a low variability of pH values and FT, TN and DM percentage between samples; whereas LTS trend was less noticeable. A significant negative correlation (P<0.01 was observed between pH, TN and LTS amount. The correlation between LTS and TN contents was highly significant (P<0.001. Highly significant and negative was the correlation (P<0.001 between DM, NT and LTS content. SPC mean values were 7.54 x106 CFU/mL; PAC mean values were also high (3.3x106 CFU/mL. Acceptable values of coagulase positive staphylococci were showed; 3 Staphylococcus aureus and 1 Staphylococcus epidermidis strains was isolated. Coagulase negative staphylococci counts were low. A high variability in the number of TC, as for FC was observed; bacterial loads were frequently fairly high. Salmonella spp. and SR bacteria were absent. It was assumed that bacteria from samples had a prevailing environmental origin

  10. Swelling studies of camel and bovine corneal stroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turki Almubrad


    Full Text Available Turki Almubrad, Mohammad Faisal Jamal Khan, Saeed AkhtarCornea Research Chair, Department of Optometry, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: In the present study we investigated the swelling characteristics of fresh camel and bovine cornea in sodium salt solutions. Swelling studies were carried out at 20 minutes, 14 hours, and 46 hours on five fresh camel and 5 five fresh bovine corneas. During the 20-minute hydration of fresh corneal stroma was investigated using sodium chloride (NaCl, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, sodium acetate (CH3COONa, sodium thiocyanate (NaSCN, and sodium floride (NaF at 2-minute time intervals. During a 46-hour time period, the hydration study was carried out using NaCl (150, 300 mM and NaF (150 mM at random intervals. The 14-hour study was carried out to assess the rehydration of corneal stroma after 6 hours of drying. During the 20-minute swelling studies in the first 2 minutes the rate of hydration in both camel and bovine corneas was high but gradually reduced in the 2–20-minute period. The rates and levels of hydration of camel and bovine cornea were not significantly different from each other in all the strengths of solutions. During the 46-hour swelling studies, the initial rate of hydration (0–2 hours of camel and bovine stroma, in all solutions was significantly higher (Z = 0.056 compared to hydration during later hours (2–46 hours. Camel stromal hydration (high in 150 mM NaCl was significantly higher compared to bovine stromal hydration in the same solution during the 10–24, and 24–46-hour time periods. Rehydration in camel stroma was significantly lower than bovine in 150 mM NaF. The 20-minute study showed that there was no selective affinity for particular ions in camel or bovine corneal stroma. Initial swelling in both corneal and bovine stroma is faster and more prominant compared to later swelling. The swelling in camel cornea is more prominant compared

  11. Interaction between Xanthoxylin and Bovine Serum Albumin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Maogui; TIAN Jianniao; HUANG Yonglin; BIAN Hedong; CHEN Zhengfeng; LIANG Hong


    The interaction between xanthoxylin (XT) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) under simulative physiological conditions has been analyzed in detail by various spectroscopic techniques including fluorescence, circular dichro- ism (CD), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Fluorescence quenching data revealed that the quenching constants (K) were 3.31×105, 2.03×105 and 0.94×105 L·mol-1 at 286, 298 and 310 K, respectively. Based on the fluorescence results, the fluorescence quenching mechanism of the interaction between XT and BSA has been found to be combined static and dynamic quenching. Thermodynamic parameters △H0, △S0 and △G0 sug- gested that the hydrophobic force played a main role in binding of XT to BSA. The effect of XT on the conforma- tion of BSA was analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy and quantitatively calculated from CD spectroscopy with reduc- tion of α-helical content by about 3.9%. In addition, the effect of common ions on the binding constant was also dis- cussed.

  12. Creep behavior of passive bovine extraocular muscle. (United States)

    Yoo, Lawrence; Kim, Hansang; Shin, Andrew; Gupta, Vijay; Demer, Joseph L


    This paper characterized bovine extraocular muscles (EOMs) using creep, which represents long-term stretching induced by a constant force. After preliminary optimization of testing conditions, 20 fresh EOM samples were subjected to four different loading rates of 1.67, 3.33, 8.33, and 16.67%/s, after which creep was observed for 1,500 s. A published quasilinear viscoelastic (QLV) relaxation function was transformed to a creep function that was compared with data. Repeatable creep was observed for each loading rate and was similar among all six anatomical EOMs. The mean creep coefficient after 1,500 seconds for a wide range of initial loading rates was at 1.37 ± 0.03 (standard deviation, SD). The creep function derived from the relaxation-based QLV model agreed with observed creep to within 2.7% following 16.67%/s ramp loading. Measured creep agrees closely with a derived QLV model of EOM relaxation, validating a previous QLV model for characterization of EOM biomechanics.

  13. Creep Behavior of Passive Bovine Extraocular Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Yoo


    Full Text Available This paper characterized bovine extraocular muscles (EOMs using creep, which represents long-term stretching induced by a constant force. After preliminary optimization of testing conditions, 20 fresh EOM samples were subjected to four different loading rates of 1.67, 3.33, 8.33, and 16.67%/s, after which creep was observed for 1,500 s. A published quasilinear viscoelastic (QLV relaxation function was transformed to a creep function that was compared with data. Repeatable creep was observed for each loading rate and was similar among all six anatomical EOMs. The mean creep coefficient after 1,500 seconds for a wide range of initial loading rates was at 1.37±0.03 (standard deviation, SD. The creep function derived from the relaxation-based QLV model agreed with observed creep to within 2.7% following 16.67%/s ramp loading. Measured creep agrees closely with a derived QLV model of EOM relaxation, validating a previous QLV model for characterization of EOM biomechanics.

  14. Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD): a review. (United States)

    Nagahata, Hajime


    Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) in Holstein cattle is an autosomal recessive congenital disease characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, delayed wound healing and stunted growth, and is also associated with persistent marked neutrophilia. The molecular basis of BLAD is a single point mutation (adenine to guanine) at position 383 of the CD18 gene, which caused an aspartic acid to glycine substitution at amino acid 128 (D128G) in the adhesion molecule CD18. Neutrophils from BLAD cattle have impaired expression of the beta2 integrin (CD11a,b,c/CD18) of the leukocyte adhesion molecule. Abnormalities in a wide spectrum of adherence dependent functions of leukocytes have been fully characterized. Cattle affected with BLAD have severe ulcers on oral mucous membranes, severe periodontitis, loss of teeth, chronic pneumonia and recurrent or chronic diarrhea. Affected cattle die at an early age due to the infectious complications. Holstein bulls, including carrier sires that had a mutant BLAD gene in heterozygote were controlled from dairy cattle for a decade. The control of BLAD in Holstein cattle by publishing the genotypes and avoiding the mating between BLAD carriers was found to be successful. This paper provides an overview of the genetic disease BLAD with reference to the disease in Holstein cattle.

  15. Macro mineral requirements by grazing zebu bovines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Henrique Bevitori Kling de Moraes


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine requirements of calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, magnesium (Mg, potassium (K and sodium (Na for grazing zebu bovines. The experiment area was composed of Brachiaria decumbens paddocks. Twenty-seven non-castrated animals, with initial live weight of 311.0 kg and at an average age of 14 months were used. Three animals were slaughtered, after adaptation period, so they were used as control for estimates of empty body weight and initial body composition of animals in the experiment. Out of the 24 remaining animals, four were sent to the maintenance group with restrict grazing time to limit energy intake close to the maintenance level. The other 20 animals were distributed in four treatments: mineral mixture, self-control intake and three-times-a-week-offer frequency (offered on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays and daily. Concentrations of all studied macro elements in empty body and empty body gain decreased as live weight increased. The ratios obtained for g Ca/100 g of retained protein and g P/100 g of retained protein were 9.18 and 4.72, respectively. Total dietary requirement of calcium was lower than the one recommended by NRC (2000, but P requirement was very close to that.

  16. Spatial epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in Mexico. (United States)

    Martínez, Horacio Zendejas; Suazo, Feliciano Milián; Cuador Gil, José Quintín; Bello, Gustavo Cruz; Anaya Escalera, Ana María; Márquez, Gabriel Huitrón; Casanova, Leticia García


    The purpose of this study was to use geographic information systems (GIS) and geo-statistical methods of ordinary kriging to predict the prevalence and distribution of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in Jalisco, Mexico. A random sample of 2 287 herds selected from a set of 48 766 was used for the analysis. Spatial location of herds was obtained by either a personal global positioning system (GPS), a database from the Instituto Nacional de Estadìstica Geografìa e Informàtica (INEGI) or Google Earth. Information on TB prevalence was provided by the Jalisco Commission for the Control and Eradication of Tuberculosis (COEETB). Prediction of TB was obtained using ordinary kriging in the geostatistical analyst module in ArcView8. A predicted high prevalence area of TB matching the distribution of dairy cattle was observed. This prediction was in agreement with the prevalence calculated on the total 48 766 herds. Validation was performed taking estimated values of TB prevalence at each municipality, extracted from the kriging surface and then compared with the real prevalence values using a correlation test, giving a value of 0.78, indicating that GIS and kriging are reliable tools for the estimation of TB distribution based on a random sample. This resulted in a significant savings of resources.

  17. Pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep. (United States)

    van Keulen, L J M; Vromans, M E W; Dolstra, C H; Bossers, A; van Zijderveld, F G


    The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation of PrP(Sc) was detected after 6 months in the tonsil and the ileal Peyer's patches. At 9 months postinfection, PrP(Sc) accumulation involved all gut-associated lymphoid tissues and lymph nodes as well as the spleen. At this time point, PrP(Sc) accumulation in the peripheral neural tissues was first seen in the enteric nervous system of the caudal jejunum and ileum and in the coeliac-mesenteric ganglion. In the central nervous system, PrP(Sc) was first detected in the dorsal motor nucleus of the nervus Vagus in the medulla oblongata and in the intermediolateral column in the spinal cord segments T7-L1. At subsequent time points, PrP(Sc) was seen to spread within the lymphoid system to also involve all non-gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In the enteric nervous system, further spread of PrP(Sc) involved the neural plexi along the entire gastrointestinal tract and in the CNS the complete neuraxis. These findings indicate a spread of the BSE agent in sheep from the enteric nervous system through parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves to the medulla oblongata and the spinal cord.

  18. Treponema denticola in microflora of bovine periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Borsanelli


    Full Text Available Periodontitis in cattle is an infectious purulent progressive disease associated with strict anaerobic subgingival biofilm and is epidemiologically related to soil management at several locations of Brazil. This study aimed to detect Treponema species in periodontal pockets of cattle with lesions deeper than 5mm in the gingival sulcus of 6 to 24-month-old animals considered periodontally healthy. We used paper cones to collect the materials, after removal of supragingival plaques, and kept frozen (at -80°C up to DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR using T. amylovorum, T. denticola, T. maltophilum, T. medium and T. vincentii primers. In periodontal pocket, it was possible to identify by PCR directly, the presence of Treponema amylovorum in 73% of animals (19/26, T. denticola in 42.3% (11/26 and T. maltophilum in 54% (14/26. Among the 25 healthy sites, it was possible to identify T. amylovorum in 18 (72%, T. denticola in two (8% and T. maltophilum in eight (32%. Treponema medium and T. vincentii were not detected over all 51 evaluated samples. The presence of Treponema amylovorum, T. maltophilum and, in particular, the widely recognized T. denticola in subgingival microflora brings an original and potencially important contribution in studies of the bovine periodontitis.

  19. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy: a systematic review. (United States)

    Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp; Husby, Steffen


    Bovine colostrum, the first milk that cows produce after parturition, contains high levels of growth factors and immunomodulatory components. Some healthy and diseased individuals may gain health benefits by consuming bovine colostrum as a food supplement. This review provides a systematic, critical evaluation of the current state of knowledge in this area. Fifty-one eligible studies were identified from the following databases: Medline, Embase, Global Health, the Cochrane Library, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Studies were heterogeneous with regard to populations, outcomes, and methodological quality, as judged by the Jadad assessment tool. Many studies used surrogate markers to study the effects of bovine colostrum. Studies suggesting clinical benefits of colostrum supplementation were generally of poor methodological quality, and results could not be confirmed by other investigators. Bovine colostrum may provide gastrointestinal and immunological benefits, but further studies are required before recommendations can be made for clinical application. Animal models may help researchers to better understand the mechanisms of bovine colostrum supplementation, the dosage regimens required to obtain clinical benefits, and the optimal methods for testing these effects in humans.

  20. Potential Synthetic Biolubricant as an Alternative to Bovine Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan C. Scholes


    Full Text Available It is crucial that orthopaedic implant materials are tested in conditions that replicate the natural body’s environment as closely as possible. Bovine serum is currently recommended for use by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO for the wear testing of these implant materials, however, the rheological properties of bovine serum do not match fully those of the body’s natural lubricant, synovial fluid. This study looks at a potential alternative to bovine serum for the testing of orthopaedic implant materials; 0.5% gellan gum fluid gel. Wear tests using multidirectional motion were conducted on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE pins rubbing against stainless steel plates. Roughness measurements were performed during testing along with particle analysis of the testing lubricant. At two million cycles (equivalent to 121.3 km of sliding, the mean wear factor for the four UHMWPE pins was 0.25 (standard deviation (SD 0.03 × 10−6 mm3/Nm and there was no evidence of any transfer film on the plate surfaces. The wear factor produced by 0.5% gellan gum fluid gel was lower than that measured in previous studies using bovine serum as the lubricant but greater than the wear factor shown in published work using a similar alternative lubricant (sodium alginate mixed with gellan gum. Work on the development of a suitable alternative lubricant to bovine serum will continue.

  1. Intracellular survival of Clostridium chauvoei in bovine macrophages. (United States)

    Pires, Prhiscylla Sadanã; Santos, Renato Lima; da Paixão, Tatiane Alves; de Oliveira Bernardes, Laura Cristina; de Macêdo, Auricélio Alves; Gonçalves, Luciana Aramuni; de Oliveira Júnior, Carlos Augusto; Silva, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria


    Clostridium chauvoei is the etiological agent of blackleg, a severe disease of domestic ruminants, causing myonecrosis and serious toxemia with high mortality. Despite the known importance of this agent, studies evaluating its pathogenesis of blackleg are scarce, and many are based on an unproven hypothesis that states that macrophages are responsible for carrying C. chauvoei spores from the intestines to muscles in the early stages of blackleg. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the survival of C. chauvoei vegetative cells or spores after phagocytosis by a murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) and bovine monocyte-derived macrophages and to profile inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine transcripts of bovine macrophages infected with C. chauvoei vegetative cells or spores. Both vegetative cells and spores of C. chauvoei remain viable after internalization by murine and bovine macrophages. Bovine macrophages infected with vegetative cells showed a pro-inflammatory profile, while those infected with spores displayed an anti-inflammatory profile. Together, these results corroborate the classical hypothesis that macrophages may play a role in the early pathogenesis of blackleg. Moreover, this is the first study to evaluate the infection kinetics and cytokine profile of bovine monocyte-derived macrophages infected with a Clostridium species.

  2. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (United States)

    Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kasuga, Fumiko

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a progressive neurological disease of cattle affecting the central nervous system and was first diagnosed in the United Kingdom (UK) in 1986 (Wells et al., 1987). This disease is one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) which includes Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans and scrapie in sheep. The causative agent of TSE is considered to be an abnormal form of prion protein. However, the details of its pathogenic mechanism have not been fully identified. Scrapie, which causes neurological symptoms in sheep and goats, has existed in the UK for 200 years (Hoinville, 1996) and spread across the rest of the world in the 1900s (Detwiler & Baylis, 2003). There has been no report so far that scrapie can be transmitted to humans. Initially, BSE was also considered as a disease affecting only animals. However, a variant type of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) was first reported in the UK, and exposure to a BSE agent was suspected (Collinge, Sidle, Meads, Ironside, & Hill, 1996). vCJD is clinically and pathologically different from the sporadic type of CJD, and age at clinical onset of vCJD is younger than sporadic type (Will et al., 1996). Since the UK government announced the possible association between BSE and vCJD in 1996, BSE has become a huge public health concern all over the world. Of particular concern about vCJD, the fatal disease in younger age, distorted consumer confidence in beef safety, and as a result reduced beef consumption has been seen in many BSE-affected countries.

  3. Risk factors against bovine respiratory diseade in suckling calves from Argentina


    García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Arenas-Montes, Antonio José; Perea-Remujo, J.A.; Arenas-Casas, Antonio; Torralbo, A.; Borge-Rodríguez, Carmen; Carbonero-Martínez, Alfonso; Maldonado García, Alfonso


    An observacional cross-sectional study was performed to determine the risk factors associated to the main viral agents of the bovine respiratory disease: bovine herpesvirus type 1 (HVB1), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (VDVB), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (VRSB) and parainfluenza 3 virus (VPI3). Blood samples from dairy calves in the provinces of Cordova and Santa Fe (Argentina) were obtained, and an epidemiological ques-tionnaire was filled. Antibodies against studied viruses were detect...

  4. Microarray analysis of embryo-derived bovine pluripotent cells: The vulnerable state of bovine embryonic stem cells (United States)

    Kim, Daehwan; Jung, Yeon-Gil


    Although there are many studies about pluripotent stem cells, little is known about pluripotent pathways and the difficulties of maintaining the pluripotency of bovine cells in vitro. Here, we investigated differently expressed genes (DEG) in bovine embryo-derived stem-like cells (eSLCs) from various origins to validate their distinct characteristics of pluripotency and differentiation. We identified core pluripotency markers and additional markers which were not determined as pluripotency markers yet in bovine eSLCs. Using the KEGG database, TGFβ, WNT, and LIF signaling were related to the maintenance of pluripotency. In contrast, some DEGs related to the LIF pathway were down-regulated, suggesting that reactivation of the pathway may be required for the establishment of true bovine embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Interestingly, oncogenes were co-down-regulated, while tumor suppressor genes were co-up-regulated in eSLCs, implying that this pattern may induce abnormal teratomas. These data analyses of signaling pathways provide essential information on authentic ESCs in addition to providing evidence for pluripotency in bovine eSLCs. PMID:28257460

  5. Structure and Function of Bovine and Camel Chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm

    The central step in cheese making is the separation of milk into curd and whey. This can be done enzymatically by hydrolysis of the Phe105-Met106 bond or nearby bonds in bovine κ-casein, which releases its hydrophilic C-terminal leading to coagulation of the milk. The preferred enzyme...... for this action is bovine chymosin from the calf's stomach, as it has a high activity towards the Phe105-Met106 bond, and a low activity towards other bonds in the milk proteins, as the latter can lead to loss of protein in the whey and release of peptides with a bitter taste. Chymosin was isolated from camel...... this difference through the study of the structures of bovine and camel chymosin, and preparation of catalytically inactive enzymes in complex with substrate. Their milk-clotting activities was determined using the traditional assay on skimmed milk, and a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay...

  6. Elastic Comparison Between Human and Bovine Femural Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Gaith


    Full Text Available In this study, the elastic stiffness and the degree of anisotropy will be compared for the femur human and bovine bones are presented. A scale for measuring the overall elastic stiffness of the bone at different locations is introduced and its correlation with the calculated bulk modulus is analyzed. Based on constructing orthonormal tensor basis elements using the form-invariant expressions, the elastic stiffness for orthotropic system materials is decomposed into two parts; isotropic (two terms and anisotropic parts. The overall elastic stiffness is calculated and found to be directly proportional to bulk modulus. A scale quantitative comparison of the contribution of the anisotropy to the elastic stiffness and to measure the degree of anisotropy in an anisotropic material is proposed using the Norm Ratio Criteria (NRC. It is found that bovine femure plexiform has the largest overall elastic stiffness and bovine has the most isotropic (least anisotropic symmetry.

  7. Adherence of Moraxella bovis to cell cultures of bovine origin. (United States)

    Annuar, B O; Wilcox, G E


    The adherence of five strains of Moraxella bovis to cell cultures was investigated. M bovis adhered to cultures of bovine corneal epithelial and Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells but not to cell types of non-bovine origin. Both piliated and unpiliated strains adhered but piliated strains adhered to a greater extent than unpiliated strains. Antiserum against pili of one strain inhibited adherence of piliated strains but caused only slight inhibition of adherence to the unpiliated strains. Treatment of bacteria with magnesium chloride caused detachment of pili from the bacterial cell and markedly inhibited adherence of piliated strains but caused only slight inhibition of adherence by the unpiliated strains. The results suggested that adhesion of piliated strains to cell cultures was mediated via pili but that adhesins other than pili may be involved in the attachment of unpiliated strains of M bovis to cells.

  8. Distribution and localization of histamine in bovine and rabbit eye. (United States)

    Nowak, J Z; Nawrocki, J; Maslinski, C


    Histamine (HI) is present in various structures of the bovine and rabbit eye (retina, choroid, sclera) and in the optic nerve of both species. The amine levels in particular structures of either cow or rabbit are highly differentiated, as well as profile of HI distribution which differs markedly between both species, except only the retina structure (HI levels were between 70-80 ng per g tissue). In the bovine retina HI is stored in non mast cell compartment, while in the optic nerve at least 50% of the amine is of mast cell origin. Approximately 90% of the retinal HI was recovered in the P1 subcellular fraction. HI in the bovine retina is metabolized by methylation. The data are discussed in terms of a possible physiological role of HI in the retina.

  9. Dynamic compressive properties of bovine knee layered tissue (United States)

    Nishida, Masahiro; Hino, Yuki; Todo, Mitsugu


    In Japan, the most common articular disease is knee osteoarthritis. Among many treatment methodologies, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have recently received a lot of attention. In this field, cells and scaffolds are important, both ex vivo and in vivo. From the viewpoint of effective treatment, in addition to histological features, the compatibility of mechanical properties is also important. In this study, the dynamic and static compressive properties of bovine articular cartilage-cancellous bone layered tissue were measured using a universal testing machine and a split Hopkinson pressure bar method. The compressive behaviors of bovine articular cartilage-cancellous bone layered tissue were examined. The effects of strain rate on the maximum stress and the slope of stress-strain curves of the bovine articular cartilage-cancellous bone layered tissue were discussed.

  10. Splitting and biopsy for bovine embryo sexing under field conditions. (United States)

    Lopes, R F; Forell, F; Oliveira, A T; Rodrigues, J L


    Improvements on embryo micromanipulation techniques led to the use of embryo bisection technology in commercial embryo transfer programs, and made possible the direct genetic analysis of preimplantation bovine embryos by biopsy. For example, aspiration and microsection, allow bovine embryos sexing by detection of male-specific Y-chromosome in a sample of embryonic cells. We report on the application of the methodologies of splitting and biopsy of bovine embryos in field conditions, and on the results of embryo sex determination by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Pregnancy rates achieved with fresh bisected or biopsied embryos (50 to 60%) were similar to the fresh intact embryos (55 to 61%). The PCR protocol used for embryo sexing showed 92% to 94% of efficiency and 90 to 100% of accuracy. These results demonstrate these procedures are suitable for use in field conditions.

  11. A novel glutamate dehydrogenase from bovine brain: purification and characterization. (United States)

    Lee, J; Kim, S W; Cho, S W


    A soluble form of novel glutamate dehydrogenase has been purified from bovine brain. The preparation was homogeneous on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and composed of six identical subunits having a subunit size of 57,500 Da. The biochemical properties of glutamate dehydrogenase such as N-terminal amino acids sequences, kinetic parameters, amino acids analysis, and optimum pH were examined in both reductive amination of alpha-ketoglutarate and oxidative deamination of glutamate. N-terminal amino acid sequences of the bovine brain enzyme showed the significant differences in the first 5 amino acids compared to other glutamate dehydrogenases from various sources. These results indicate that glutamate dehydrogenase isolated from bovine brain is a novel polypeptide.

  12. Production effects of pathogens causing bovine leukosis, bovine viral diarrhea, paratuberculosis, and neosporosis. (United States)

    Tiwari, A; Vanleeuwen, J A; Dohoo, I R; Keefe, G P; Haddad, J P; Tremblay, R; Scott, H M; Whiting, T


    The primary purpose of this research was to determine associations among seropositivity for bovine leukemia virus (BLV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), and Neospora caninum (NC) and each of 3 outcome variables (305-d milk, fat, and protein production) in Canadian dairy cattle. Serum samples from up to 30 randomly selected cows from 342 herds on monthly milk testing were tested for antibodies against BLV (IDEXX ELISA; IDEXX Corporation, Westbrook, ME), MAP (IDEXX or Biocor ELISA; Biocor Animal Health, Inc., Omaha, NE), and NC (IDEXX or Biovet ELISA; Biovet Inc., St. Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada). Up to 5 unvaccinated cattle over 6 mo of age were tested for virus-neutralizing antibodies to the Singer strain of type 1 BVDV. Dairy Herd Improvement records were obtained electronically for all sampled cows. Linear mixed models with herd and cow as random variables were fit, with significant restricted maximum likelihood estimates of outcome effects being obtained, while controlling for potential confounding variables. Bovine leukemia virus seropositivity was not associated with 305-d milk, 305-d fat, or 305-d protein production. Cows in BVDV-seropositive herds (at least one unvaccinated animal with a titer > or =1:64) had reductions in 305-d milk, fat, and protein of 368, 10.2, and 9.5 kg, respectively, compared with cows in BVDV-seronegative herds. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis seropositivity was associated with lower 305-d milk of 212 kg in 4+-lactation cows compared with MAP-seronegative 4+-lactation cows. Neospora caninum seropositivity in primiparous cows was associated with lower 305-d milk, fat, and protein of 158, 5.5, and 3.3 kg, respectively, compared with NC-seronegative primiparous cows. There were no interactions among seropositivity for any of the pathogens and their effects on any of the outcomes examined, although the low MAP seroprevalence limited this analysis. Results from this research

  13. Sequence analysis of a bovine rhinovirus type 1 strain RS3x (United States)

    Bovine rhinoviruses, known to cause clinical and subclinical upper respiratory infections in bovines worldwide, include three serotypes. Bovine rhinovirus (BRV) 1, 2 and 3 were originally classified as tentative members of the genus Rhinovirus (family Picornaviridae), however, in 2008 this genus was...

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma bovigenitalium Strain HAZ 596 from a Bovine Vagina in Japan (United States)

    Nagai, Kazuya; Murakami, Kenji


    ABSTRACT Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, a mycoplasmal species involved in various bovine diseases, including genital disease and mastitis, is also a commensal microorganism that inhabits the bovine genital organs. We present here the complete 853,553-bp genome sequence of M. bovigenitalium strain HAZ 596, which was isolated from a bovine vagina in Japan. PMID:28183755

  15. Pharm GKB: Acute bovine pulmonary emphysema AND edema [PharmGKB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Overview Alternate Names: Synonym ABPE; Acute bovine pulmonary emphysema and edema;...63 External Vocabularies MeSH: Pneumonia, Atypical Interstitial, of Cattle (D011016) SnoMedCT: Acute bovine ...ia, Atypical Interstitial, of Cattle [Disease/Finding] (N0000010988) Common Searches Search Medline Plus Search CTD Pharm GKB: Acute bovine pulmonary emphysema AND edema ...

  16. Simultaneous intramammary and intranasal inoculation of lactating cows with bovine herpesvirus 4 induce subclinical mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Wisselink, H.J.; Barkema, H.W.; Oirschot, van J.T.


    In this study, we examined whether an experimental bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4) infection can induce bovine mastitis, or can enhance bovine mastitis induced by Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis). Four lactating cows were inoculated intramammarily and intranasally with BHV4, and four lactating control c

  17. Establishment and characterization of feeder-cell-dependent bovine fetal liver cell lines (United States)

    The establishment and initial characterization of bovine fetal liver cell lines is described. Bovine fetal hepatocytes were cultured from the liver of a 34-day bovine fetus by physical disruption of the liver tissue. Released liver cells and clumps of cells were plated on STO feeder layers and wer...

  18. The host defense proteome of human and bovine milk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Hettinga

    Full Text Available Milk is the single source of nutrients for the newborn mammal. The composition of milk of different mammals has been adapted during evolution of the species to fulfill the needs of the offspring. Milk not only provides nutrients, but it also serves as a medium for transfer of host defense components to the offspring. The host defense proteins in the milk of different mammalian species are expected to reveal signatures of evolution. The aim of this study is therefore to study the difference in the host defense proteome of human and bovine milk. We analyzed human and bovine milk using a shot-gun proteomics approach focusing on host defense-related proteins. In total, 268 proteins in human milk and 269 proteins in bovine milk were identified. Of these, 44 from human milk and 51 from bovine milk are related to the host defense system. Of these proteins, 33 were found in both species but with significantly different quantities. High concentrations of proteins involved in the mucosal immune system, immunoglobulin A, CD14, lactoferrin, and lysozyme, were present in human milk. The human newborn is known to be deficient for at least two of these proteins (immunoglobulin A and CD14. On the other hand, antimicrobial proteins (5 cathelicidins and lactoperoxidase were abundant in bovine milk. The high concentration of lactoperoxidase is probably linked to the high amount of thiocyanate in the plant-based diet of cows. This first detailed analysis of host defense proteins in human and bovine milk is an important step in understanding the function of milk in the development of the immune system of these two mammals.

  19. Choline Uptake by Glomerular Synapses Isolated from Bovine Cerebellar Vermis. (United States)


    28 034 UNCLASSIFIED -7t. holing uptake by glomerular aynapaea isolated from bovine cerebellar venni - . 1) N1 IrRRIAN.E L NfISINndwr EtIIOMAS86 .t...w. -%FAt~Jr~a~etn 0,oAAM TX78215-5301 IL’SAJ) A-xpid ( kaolin 22nd. 19W5) hh.lhoac-anln uplake -ainalnnn 177 DIOMIDICAL DmIVIIN,~ F-5’. . Brain...Research. 366 (1986) 401-404 401 Elsevier BRE 21387 Choline uptake by glomerular synapses isolated from bovine cerebellar vermis D.M. TERRIAN, E.L

  20. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-Associated Disease in Feedlot Cattle. (United States)

    Larson, Robert L


    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) is associated with bovine respiratory disease complex and other diseases of feedlot cattle. Although occasionally a primary pathogen, BVDv's impact on cattle health is through the immunosuppressive effects of the virus and its synergism with other pathogens. The simple presence or absence of BVDv does not result in consistent health outcomes because BVDv is only one of many risk factors that contribute to disease syndromes. Current interventions have limitations and the optimum strategy for their uses to limit the health, production, and economic costs associated with BVDv have to be carefully considered for optimum cost-effectiveness.

  1. Histologic and Immunohistochemical classification of 41 bovine adrenal gland neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Anette Blak; Leifsson, Páll S.; Jensen, Henrik Elvang;


    Tumors of the adrenal glands are among the most frequent tumors in cattle; however, few studies have been conducted to describe their characteristics. The aim of this study was to classify 41 bovine adrenal neoplasms from 40 animals based on macroscopic and histologic examination, including....... An immunohistochemistry panel consisting of antibodies against melan A, synaptophysin, and CNPase was considered most useful to classify bovine adrenal tumors. However, the distinction between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors was based on histologic features as in human medicine....

  2. Calf form bovine leukosis with lameness in a Holstein heifer. (United States)

    Tawfeeq, Mohammad Monir; Miura, Saori; Nakanishi, Yuuki; Sugimoto, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Inokuma, Hisashi


    A 12-month-old Holstein heifer with anorexia, lameness, and enlargement of peripheral lymph nodes was suspected of having bovine leukosis. Although lymphocytosis was not observed, cytology of fine needle aspirate from a superficial cervical node, and increased serum lactate dehydrogenase and thymidine kinase activities, strongly suggested lymphosarcoma. Increased numbers of mononuclear cells as well as mitotic cells were observed in synovial fluid collected from swollen joints. Pathological examination confirmed B-cell calf form bovine leukosis and joint swelling related to neoplastic cell infiltration. Both interleukin-2 receptor and thymidine kinase 1 genes were highly expressed in cells from superficial cervical lymph node aspirate.

  3. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis: a review of cases in clinical practice. (United States)

    Alexander, Dominic


    Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) is a painful ocular disease affecting cattle worldwide. The publications documenting this condition focus on what is the accepted cause of IBK--Moraxella bovis. This article draws on experience and recorded data made at the time of the initial examination and follow-up visits. Laboratory culture of ocular swabs was undertaken where appropriate. Diagnosis of IBK is usually based on clinical signs, environment, and history. Misdiagnosis of the organisms involved is a genuine possibility. This article focuses on recent outbreaks of bovine ocular disease in the United Kingdom in three counties over a 12-month period.

  4. Preparation and characterization of 125 I labeled bovine serum albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Ashwitha Rai


    Full Text Available Bovine serum albumin is a model protein, which has been conventionally used as protein standard and in many areas of biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine. Radioiodination procedure for bovine serum albumin employing chloramine-T as an oxidant with slight modification was evaluated critically to establish the optimal conditions for the preparation of radiolabeled tracer ( 125 I-BSA with required specific activity without impairing the immune reactivity and biological activity. Optimized radioiodination procedure involving 10 µg of chloramine-T along with 20 µg of sodium metabisulphite with 60 seconds incubation at 2° yielded 125 I-BSA with high integrity.

  5. Characterization of a Deswapped Triple Mutant Bovine Odorant Binding Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Favilla


    Full Text Available The stability and functionality of GCC-bOBP, a monomeric triple mutant of bovine odorant binding protein, was investigated, in the presence of denaturant and in acidic pH conditions, by both protein and 1-aminoanthracene ligand fluorescence measurements, and compared to that of both bovine and porcine wild type homologues. Complete reversibility of unfolding was observed, though refolding was characterized by hysteresis. Molecular dynamics simulations, performed to detect possible structural changes of the monomeric scaffold related to the presence of the ligand, pointed out the stability of the β-barrel lipocalin scaffold.

  6. Ultrasonography as a diagnostic aid in bovine musculoskeletal disorders. (United States)

    Kofler, Johann


    In the last 15 years, ultrasonography of the bovine musculoskeletal system has become an established diagnostic method used routinely in many veterinary teaching hospitals worldwide. Ultrasonography is ideal for the evaluation of musculoskeletal disorders because they are often associated with extensive soft tissue swelling and inflammatory exudation. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. Not only does ultrasonography improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis, added use of the machine helps recoup expenses.

  7. Stabilization of Tyrosinase-Bovine Serum Albumin Crystals by Glutaraldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Norouzian


    Full Text Available Tyrosinase and bovine serum albumin were co-crystallized by saturated ammonium sulfate solution(65% and 20% polyethylene glycol ( PEG 6000 and n-propanol as co-solvents .The obtained crystals were cross linked by glutaraldehyde solution(1% v/v.Polyethylene glycol 6000 was found to be better co-solvent than n-propanol. The developed biocatalyst could be recycled 6 times without further loss of tyrosinase activity. No loss of activity of cross linked tyrosinase -bovine serum albumin crystals was observed upon storage of the developed CLECs at refrigerator for six months.

  8. Antibody Tracing, Seroepidemiology and Risk Factors of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Bovine Adenovirus-3 in Dairy Holstein Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Antibody tracing, risk factors and seroepidemiology of bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine adenovirus-3 were investigated in 22 Industrial and Semi-Industrial dairy Holstein farms. Serum samples (n=736 from various ages of unvaccinated cows were collected from May to September 2012. Risk factors including age, past history of respiratory diseases, amount of milk production, husbandry type and herd size were considered. Data were analyzed by Chi-square and logistic regression. Results indicated that the infection with some of individual viruses was related to past history of respiratory disease and herd size. No specific pattern was seen on the effect of level of milk production on seropositivity of animals. The seroprevalence for BRSV and BAV-3 were 89.1% and 88%, respectively. The present study indicates that infections of bovine respiratory viruses frequently occur in cattle of Fars province and the main viral cause of primary occurrence of respiratory diseases may be due to aforementioned viruses.

  9. Microarray chip based identification of a mixed infection of bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine viral diarrhea 2 from Indian cattle. (United States)

    Ratta, Barkha; Yadav, Brijesh Singh; Pokhriyal, Mayank; Saxena, Meeta; Sharma, Bhaskar


    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVD2) are endemic in India although no mixed infection with these viruses has been reported from India. We report first mixed infection of these viruses in cattle during routine screening with a microarray chip. 62 of the 69 probes of BHV1 and 42 of the 57 BVD2 probes in the chip gave positive signals for the virus. The virus infections were subsequently confirmed by RT-PCR. We also discuss the implications of these findings.

  10. Solvent Binding Analysis and Computational Alanine Scanning of the Bovine Chymosin-Bovine κ-Casein Complex Using Molecular Integral Equation Theory. (United States)

    Palmer, David S; Sørensen, Jesper; Schiøtt, Birgit; Fedorov, Maxim V


    We demonstrate that the relative binding thermodynamics of single-point mutants of a model protein-peptide complex (the bovine chymosin-bovine κ-casein complex) can be calculated accurately and efficiently using molecular integral equation theory. The results are shown to be in good overall agreement with those obtained using implicit continuum solvation models. Unlike the implicit continuum models, however, molecular integral equation theory provides useful information about the distribution of solvent density. We find that experimentally observed water-binding sites on the surface of bovine chymosin can be identified quickly and accurately from the density distribution functions computed by molecular integral equation theory. The bovine chymosin-bovine κ-casein complex is of industrial interest because bovine chymosin is widely used to cleave bovine κ-casein and to initiate milk clotting in the manufacturing of processed dairy products. The results are interpreted in light of the recent discovery that camel chymosin is a more efficient clotting agent than bovine chymosin for bovine milk.

  11. Genes involved in bovine milk-fat composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schennink, A.


    The aim of the research described in this thesis was to identify genes that underlie the genetic variation in bovine milk-fat composition. The fat composition of milk samples from approximately 2,000 Dutch Holstein Friesian cows in their first lactation was measured by gas chromatography. Quantita

  12. An immunochemical assay to detect DNA damage in bovine sperm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, G.P. van der; Haring, R.; Dijk- Knijnenburg, H.C.M. van; Bruijnzeel, P.L.B.; Daas, N.H.G. den


    An immunochemical assay has been developed to detect oxidative damage in bovine sperm DNA. Sperm DNA contains a large amount of oxidative damage as a result of exposure to exogenous agents, but damage also can caused by normal metabolic processes and the absence of DNA repair in the later stages of

  13. Conjugation of Chitooligosaccharide-5-fluorouracil with Bovine Serum Albumin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Min WANG; Jing Feng SONG; Yu Feng HE; Juan Juan MAO; Yan LI


    The interaction between chitooligosaccharide-5-fluorouracil (COS-5FU) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. It was found that an energy transfer between COS-5FU and BSA had been occurred. The binding constants were calculated,between the donor and acceptor, the distance between BSA and COS-5FU was determined.

  14. Crystallization of Bovine Cervical Mucus at Oestrus: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel E. Cortés


    Full Text Available Bovine cervical mucus changes its biochemical composition and biophysical properties due to the variations in sex steroid levels during the oestrous cycle. As a consequence of oestrogen rise, cervical mucus is produced in larger amounts at oestrus—a stage also characterized by an increase in mucus crystallization when observed under light microscopy. The objective of this article is to provide an updated review of the main aspects regarding crystallization of bovine cervical mucus. First, it makes reference to the composition of cervical mucus and the critical functions that this secretion exerts on bovine reproductive physiology, as well as in other species. Then, the article deals with the phenomenon of crystallization observed in cervical mucus, describing the main models used to classify the crystalline patterns observable in mucus at oestrus stage (some of them resembling ferns, palm leaves and stellar patterns, among others. Finally, it addresses the importance of the phenomenon of cervical mucus crystallization for the understanding of bovine reproductive physiology.

  15. Photoaffinity labeling of the lysosomal neuraminidase from bovine testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.T.J. van der Horst (Gijsbertus); U. Rose (Ursula); R. Brossmer (Reinhard); F.W. Verheijen (Frans)


    markdownabstractAbstract ASA-NeuAc2en, a photoreactive arylazide derivative of sialic acid, is shown to be a powerful competitive inhibitor of lysosomal neuraminidase from bovine testis (Ki ≈ 21 μM). Photoaffinity labeling and partial purification of preparations containing this lysosomal neuramin

  16. Acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity in bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruns, K.; Foster, R.A.; Casillas, E.R.


    Recently, the authors identified mM concentrations of acetylcarnitine in epidiymal fluids and have investigated the metabolism of acetylcarnitine by bovine and hamster caudal epididymal spermatozoa. (1-/sup 14/C)acetyl-L-carnitine is oxidized to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ by washed, intact hamster and bovine sperm at maximal rates of 8.4 and 15.2 nmol/hr/10/sup 7/ cells respectively. Conversely, the carnitine moiety of acetyl-L-(/sup 3/H-methyl)carnitine is not accumulated by sperm under similar conditions. Hydrolysis of (/sup 3/H)acetyl-L-carnitine and competition of uptake of (/sup 3/H)acetate by unlabeled acetate was demonstrated in incubations of intact cells of both species. The amount of (/sup 3/H)acetate accumulated in the incubation medium is time-dependent and also depends on the concentration of unlabeled acetate. A partial solubilization of acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity from washed, intact bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa in buffer or 0.01% Triton X-100 is observed. There is an enrichment of acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity in purified plasma membranes from bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa when compared to the activity present in broken cell preparations or other cellular fractions. The results suggest that acetylcarnitine is a substrate for spermatozoa as they traverse the epididymis.

  17. Propagation of bovine spermatogonial stem cells in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aponte, P.M.; Soda, T.; Teerds, K.J.; Mizrak, S.C.; Kant, van de H.J.; Rooij, de D.G.


    The access to sufficient numbers of spermatogonial stem cells (SSC) is a prerequisite for the study of their regulation and further biomanipulation. A specialized medium and several growth factors were tested to study the in vitro behaviour of bovine type A spermatogonia, a cell population that incl

  18. Interferon Gamma Assay for the Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis (United States)

    Contact Irene Schiller Prionics AG Wagistrasse 27A CH-8952 Schlieren Switzerland Introduction Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), a zoonotic disease with a major economic impact, continues to be a significant problem with a global perspective and increasing prevalence in vario...

  19. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Sweden: an H-type variant (United States)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) had never been detected in Sweden until 2006, when the active surveillance identified a case in a 12-year-old cow. The case was an unusual form since several molecular features of the protease-resistant prion protein (PrP**res) were different from classical BSE...

  20. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus : immunopathology and vaccine evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonis, A.F.G.


    Human and bovine RSVs cause severe disease in humans and in cattle respectively. They have been recognised as important respiratory pathogens in the last five decades, and this has resulted in significant research activities on the pathogenesis and intervention strategies around the world. Physician

  1. Bovine tuberculosis in a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Poland. (United States)

    Krajewska, Monika; Lipiec, Marek; Zabost, Anna; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Szulowski, Krzysztof


    Poland is officially tuberculosis free and bovine tuberculosis (BTB) cases are rarely found except in bovids. We found BTB in a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Bieszczady Mountains, southeastern Poland. Studies suggest possible transmission of infection between free-living European bison (Bison bonasus caucasicus) and wild boar in this area.

  2. Non-specific esterases in partly mineralized bovine enamel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, D; Kirkeby, S


    Activity for non-specific esterase was demonstrated in the matrix of developing bovine enamel with alpha-naphthyl acetate and 5-bromoindoxyl acetate as the esterase substrates. By use of high-performance liquid chromatography gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography, and electrophoresis three ...

  3. Bovine lactotroph cultures for the study of prolactin synthesis functions. (United States)

    Wang, Jianfa; Yang, Zhanqing; Fu, Shoupeng; Liu, Bingrun; Wu, Dianjun; Wang, Wei; Sun, Dongbo; Wu, Rui; Liu, Juxiong


    The aim of this study was to establish a bovine anterior pituitary-derived lactotroph (BAPDL) line that expresses prolactin (PRL) in vitro to study the mechanisms of bovine PRL synthesis and secretion. Immunohistochemistry assay of PRL in the newborn calves' anterior pituitary glands showed that most lactotrophs were located within the superior border of the lateral wings of the anterior pituitary. Tissues of the superior border of the lateral wings of the anterior pituitary were dispersed and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). The limiting dilution method was used to establish BAPDL from single cell clone. BAPDL cells constantly expressed mRNAs for PRL and pituitary-specific transcription factor 1 (Pit-1) gene and grew steadily and rapidly in the DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS. PRL immunoreactivity was present in BAPDL at passage 20. The concentration of bovine PRL in BAPDL at passage 20 culture supernatant was decreased to below 35% compared with that in BAPDL at passage 1. The effects of human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) and dopamine (DA) on the expression and secretion of PRL in BAPDL at passage 4 were also investigated. The results are consistent with those of previous studies. Thus, it can be used successfully for studying the mechanisms of stimuli regulating PRL synthesis and release.

  4. Isolation of bovine serum albumin from whey using affinity chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.


    The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) to a chromatography resin with immobilised llama antibody fragments as affinity ligands was investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity of the affinity resin was 21.6 mg mL-1 with a Langmuir equilibrium constant of 20.4 mg mg-1. Using packed bed chromat

  5. Mannheimia haemolytica biofilm formation on bovine respiratory epithelial cells. (United States)

    Boukahil, Ismail; Czuprynski, Charles J


    Mannheimia haemolytica is the most important bacterial agent associated with the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), which causes worldwide economic losses to the cattle industry. M. haemolytica cells initially colonize the tonsillar crypts in the upper respiratory tract of cattle, from where they can subsequently descend into the lungs to cause disease. Many bacteria exist as biofilms inside their hosts. We hypothesize that M. haemolytica colonization of cattle during its commensal state may include biofilm formation. To begin to assess this possibility, we developed an in vitro system to study biofilm formation directly on bovine respiratory epithelial cells. Using fixed primary bovine bronchial epithelial cells, we observed M. haemolytica biofilm formation after a 48h incubation period at 37°C. Addition of mucin, the main component of mucus present in the upper respiratory tract, decreased M. haemolytica biofilm formation on bovine epithelial cells. We investigated the effects of prior viral infection of the epithelial cells on subsequent biofilm formation by M. haemolytica and found negligible effects. Utilization of this model system will provide new insights into the potential role of biofilm formation by M. haemolytica in the pathogenesis of BRDC.

  6. A quantitative risk assessment for bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadohira, M.; Stevenson, M.A.; Hogasen, H.R.; Koeijer, de A.A.


    A predictive case-cohort model was applied to Japanese data to analyze the interaction between challenge and stability factors for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) for the period 1985–2020. BSE risk in cattle was estimated as the expected number of detectable cases per year. The model was comp

  7. Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of a bovine serotonin transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, O V; Kristensen, A S; Rudnick, G


    . Here we report the molecular cloning of SERT from the bovine species. Translation of the nucleotide sequence revealed 44 amino acid differences compared to human SERT. When transiently expressed in HeLa cells and compared with rat and human SERTs the K(m) value for uptake was increased 2-fold. V...

  8. Pathogen reduction in minimally managed composting of bovine manure (United States)

    Persistence of pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes in bovine feces and contaminated soils is an important risk factor in perpetuating the initial infection as well as re-infection of cattle and dissemination of pathogens throughout agricultural la...

  9. Bovine colostrum against gut inflammatory lesions in preterm pigs (United States)

    Bovine colostrum is rich in bioactive factors and may prevent necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in pre-term neonates. We hypothesized that both native and sterilized, heat-treated colostrum protect neonates against NEC following preterm birth and formula feeding. Further, we aimed to investigate if pr...

  10. Interaction of Tannin with Bovine Serum Albumin by Fluorescence Spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dong-Il, Kim; Kye-Ryong, Sin


    Interaction between tannin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was examined by the fluorescent quenching. The process of elimination between BSA and tannin was the one of a stationary state, and the coupling coefficient was one. The working strength between the tannin and the beef serum was hydrophobic one.

  11. Immunohistochemical diagnosis of systemic bovine zygomycosis by murine monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H.E.; Aalbaek, B.; Lind, Peter


    Murine monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) against water-soluble somatic antigens (WSSA) and the wall fraction (WF) from Rhizopus arrhizus (Rhizopus oryzae) were produced in vitro by fusion of splenocytes from immunized BALB/c mice with mouse myeloma X63-Ag 8.653 cells. Supernatants reacting only with h...... for the in situ diagnosis of systemic bovine zygomycosis....

  12. Successful vitrification of bovine blastocysts on paper container. (United States)

    Kim, Y M; Uhm, S J; Gupta, M K; Yang, J S; Lim, J-G; Das, Z C; Heo, Y T; Chung, H-J; Kong, I-K; Kim, N-H; Lee, H T; Ko, D H


    Cryopreservation of bovine embryos can be performed by a variety of methods with variable degree of success. Here, we report a new, easy to perform, simple, inexpensive, and successful method for vitrification of bovine blastocysts. In vitro produced bovine blastocysts were exposed to vitrification solution (5.5 m ethylene glycol, 10% serum and 1% sucrose) in one single step for 20 s, loaded on a paper container prepared from commonly available non-slippery, absorbent writing paper, and then were directly plunged into liquid nitrogen for storage. Vitrified blastocysts were warmed by serial rinsing in 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 m sucrose solution for 1 min each. Results showed that one step exposure of bovine blastocysts to cryoprotective agents was sufficient to achieve successful cryopreservation. Under these conditions, more than 95% of blastocysts survived the vitrification-warming on paper containers which was significantly higher than those obtained from other containers, such as electron microscope (EM) grid (78.1%), open pulled straw (OPS; 80.2%), cryoloop (76.2%) or plastic straw (73.9%). Embryo transfer of blastocysts vitrified-warmed on paper container resulted in successful conception (19.3%) and full-term live birth of offspring (12.3%) which were lower (P 0.05) to those obtained from blastocysts vitrified-warmed on EM grid (23.3 and 14.2%). Our results, therefore, suggest that paper may be an inexpensive and useful container for the cryopreservation of animal embryos.

  13. Bovine copy number variation and its implication in animal health (United States)

    Recently it has become apparent that previously unappreciated genomic structural variation, including copy number variations (CNV), contributes significantly to individual health and disease in humans and rodents. As a complement to the bovine HapMap project, we initiated a systematic study of the C...

  14. Genetic analysis of protein composition of bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schopen, G.C.B.


    This thesis is part of the Dutch Milk Genomics Initiative, and the general aim was to obtain more insight into the genetic background of bovine milk protein composition. Morning milk samples from roughly 2000 cows were analyzed for the six major milk proteins (αS1-casein, αS2-casein, β-casein, κ-cas

  15. Typical and atypical cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (United States)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cattle, first detected in 1986 in the United Kingdom and subsequently in other countries. It is the most likely cause of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans, but the origin of BSE has not been eluci...

  16. Mechanism of 3D domain swapping in bovine seminal ribonuclease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spadaccini, Roberta; Ercole, Carmine; Graziano, Giuseppe; Wechselberger, Rainer; Boelens, Rolf; Picone, Delia


    3D domain swapping (3D-DS) is a complex protein aggregation process for which no unique mechanism exists. We report an analysis of 3D-DS in bovine seminal ribonuclease, a homodimeric protein whose subunits are linked by two disulfide bridges, based on NMR and biochemical studies. The presence of the

  17. Prevalence of bovine Cysticercosis of Slaughtered Cattle in Meshkinshahr Abattoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Garedaghi


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The occurrence of the larvae of Taenia saginata (T. saginata in cattle musculature causes T. saginata cysticercosis or bovine cysticercosis while the adult worms in human small intestines cause taeniasis. Approach: In this study, the prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in cattle slaughtered for meat in Meshkinshahr Abattoir, Iran between September 2010 and August 2011 was reported. Results: The examination of various organs of 500 cattle in Meshkinshahr Abattoir showed that 15(3% were infected with T. saginata cysticercosis. The tongue, masseter muscles, cardiac muscles, triceps muscles and thigh muscles were the main predilection sites of the cysts. The cysts of bovine cysticercosis were also identified on the spleen, intercostal muscles, diaphragm and liver. Out of 460 male cattle, examined, 14 (3% had cysts of bovine cysticercosis while 1 (2.5% of the 40 female animals investigated were infected. Conclusion: The animals slaughtered were all adults. No significant difference in prevalence rates was recorded between the sexes. The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis was higher in local sarabi cattle breeds than Holstein-Frisian cattle.

  18. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. (United States)


    ... Virus. 113.216 Section 113.216 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious...

  19. 凝血酶联合冰冻盐水膀胱灌注治疗膀胱癌TURBT术后难治性血尿临床观察%Clinical observation of thrombin combined with frozen normal saline bladder irrigation in refractory hematuria of patients with bladder cancer after TURBT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周涓; 袁学明; 梁如生; 王耿介; 蔡绵翔; 黄承智; 陈海腊


    目的 探讨凝血酶联合冰冻生理盐水膀胱灌注对膀胱癌TURBT术后难治性血尿临床疗效的影响.方法 选取本院特定时间段住院的符合标准的膀胱癌TURBT术后难治性血尿患者19例,以治疗前症状、尿常规等情况作为对照组,均予凝血酶联合冰冻生理盐水膀胱灌注干预后,对其症状、尿常规等重新进行评估作为治疗组,对比治疗前后的差异.结果 临床观察结果显示,与治疗前比较,19例疗效较满意,血尿症状消失,尿常规示红细胞(-~+),其中5例灌注1次后出血停止,症状明显缓解;8例灌注少于4次后,出血停止,病情稳定后出院;5例灌注7次,同时给予止血对症支持治疗后,病情缓解.结论 凝血酶联合冰冻生理盐水膀胱灌注膀胱癌TURBT术后性血尿止血疗效明显,简单易行,且经济实惠,缩短了患者术后恢复正常排尿时间.%Objective To investigate clinical efficacy of thrombin combined with frozen normal saline bladder irrigation in refractory hematuria of patients with bladder cancer after TURBT.Methods 19 cases of bladder cancer combined with refractory hematuria after TURBT in our hospital from February 2013 to February 2015 were selected,all patients received thrombin combined with frozen normal saline bladder irrigation treatment,recorded their clinical symptoms and routine urine examination results before and after treatment.Results Curative effect of 19 patients was satisfactory,hematuria symptoms disappeared,routine urine examination showed red blood cells (-~ +).Bleeding stopped in 5 cases after 1 time of bladder irrigation,symptoms relieved;bleeding stopped in 8 cases after less than 4 times of bladder irrigation,discharged in stable condition;5 cases received 7 times of bladder irrigation and hemostasis symptomatic and supportive treatment,condition relieved.Conclusions Thrombin combined with frozen normal saline bladder irrigation has obvious hemostatic effect in refractory

  20. Sex determination of bovine preimplantation embryos by oligonucleotide microarray. (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Zhong, Fagang; Yang, Yonglin; Wang, Xinhua; Liu, Shouren; Zhu, Bin


    The aim has been to set up a rapid and accurate microarray assay using sandwich mode for sex determination of bovine preimplantation embryos. Twelve sequence-specific oligonucleotide capture probes used to discriminate 12 samples were spotted onto the aldehyde-modified glass slides by Arrayer. The 2 recognition probes used to identify coding regions of the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome gene (SRY) and β-casein (CSN2) reference gene were coupled with biotin. The assay was optimized by using genomic DNA extracted from blood samples of known sex individuals. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify the fragments in the HMG box region of SRY gene and CSN2 gene with sequence-specific primers. The sex of samples was identified by detecting both the SRY and CSN2 genes simultaneously in 2 reaction cells of microarrays, with the male having SRY and CSN2 signals and the female only CSN2. The sex of 20 bovine preimplantation embryos was determined by oligonucleotide microarray. The protocol was run with a blind test that showed a 100% (82/82) specificity and accuracy in sexing of leukocytes. The bovine embryos were transferred into 20 bovine recipients, with a pregnant rate of 40% (8/20). Three calves were born at term, and 5 fetuses were miscarried. Their sexes were fully in accordance with the embryonic sex predetermination predicted by oligonucleotide microarray. This suggests that the oligonucleotide microarray method of SRY gene analysis can be used in early sex prediction of bovine embryos in breeding programs.

  1. Histamine receptors in isolated bovine oviductal arteries. (United States)

    Martínez, A C; Novella, S; Raposo, R; Recio, P; Labadía, A; Costa, G; Garcia-Sacristán, A; Benedito, S


    The present in vitro study was designed to evaluate the effect of histamine on isolated rings of bovine oviductal artery and to characterize the histamine receptors involved in the histamine-induced response. Endothelial dependence of the response was also investigated. Cumulative addition of histamine and 2-pyridylethylamine (histamine H receptor agonist) induced a concentration-dependent relaxation in intact arterial segments precontracted with noradrenaline. The histamine H1 receptor antagonist mepyramine showed non-competitive antagonism in the histamine-induced concentration-response curve. However, when the response to histamine was evaluated in the presence of mepyramine and histamine H1 and H3 receptors were blocked, Schild analysis yielded a line with a slope of 1.10 and a pA2 value of 8.91, indicating simple competitive antagonism of mepyramine at histamine H1 receptor sites. The histamine H2 receptor agonist, dimaprit, caused marked dilatation only at high doses. Cimetidine, propranolol and mepyramine failed to inhibit this relaxant effect. In precontracted oviductal arteries, cimetidine did not modify the histamine-induced concentration-response curves. Combined treatment with histamine H1 and H2 receptor antagonists did not induce an additional displacement with respect to the isolated effect of mepyramine thus excluding activation of histamine H2 receptors. Histamine and (R)-alpha-methylhistamine, a selective histamine H3 receptor agonist, produced a moderate contractile effect on the resting tone of preparations. Pretreatment with the selective histamine H1 receptor antagonist decreased the (R)-alpha-methylhistamine response but increased the maximal relaxant effect and abolished the contractile effect of histamine, suggesting the presence of a limited population of contractile histamine H3 receptors. Removal of the endothelium or pretreatment with methylene blue produced a significant inhibition of the relaxant response to histamine. Remaining

  2. LukMF′ is the major secreted leukocidin of bovine Staphylococcus aureus and is produced in vivo during bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, Manouk; Boerhout, Eveline M.; Wigcheren, Van Glenn F.; Koymans, Kirsten J.; Mols-Vorstermans, Tanja G.; Haas, de Carla J.C.; Aerts, Piet C.; Daemen, Ineke J.J.M.; Kessel, Van Kok P.M.; Koets, Ad P.; Rutten, Victor P.M.G.; Nuijten, Piet J.M.; Strijp, van Jos A.G.; Benedictus, Lindert


    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human and animal pathogen and a common cause of mastitis in cattle. S. aureus secretes several leukocidins that target bovine neutrophils, crucial effector cells in the defence against bacterial pathogens. In this study, we investigated the role of staphylococcal leu

  3. Bovine PrP expression levels in transgenic mice influence transmission characteristics of atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy. (United States)

    Wilson, Rona; Hart, Patricia; Piccardo, Pedro; Hunter, Nora; Casalone, Cristina; Baron, Thierry; Barron, Rona M


    Until recently, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) disease in cattle was thought to be caused by a single agent strain, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) (classical BSE or BSE-C). However, due to the initiation of a large-scale surveillance programme throughout Europe, two atypical BSE strains, bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE, also named BSE-L) and BSE-H have since been discovered. These atypical BSE isolates have been previously transmitted to a range of transgenic mouse models overexpressing PrP from different species at different levels, on a variety of genetic backgrounds. To control for genetic background and expression level in the analysis of these isolates, we performed here a comprehensive comparison of the neuropathological and molecular properties of all three BSE agents (BASE, BSE-C and BSE-H) upon transmission into the same gene-targeted transgenic mouse line expressing the bovine prion protein (Bov6) and a wild-type control of the same genetic background. Significantly, upon challenge with these BSE agents, we found that BASE did not produce shorter survival times in these mice compared with BSE-C, contrary to previous studies using overexpressing bovine transgenic mice. Amyloid plaques were only present in mice challenged with atypical BSE and neuropathological features, including intensity of PrP deposition in the brain and severity of vacuolar degeneration were less pronounced in BASE compared with BSE-C-challenged mice.

  4. Sheep-passaged bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent exhibits altered pathobiological properties in bovine-PrP transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinosa, J.C.; Andreoletti, O.; Castilla, J.; Herva, M.E.; Morales, M.; Alamillo, E.; San-Segundo, F.D.; Lacroux, C.; Lugan, S.; Salguero, F.J.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Torres, J.M.


    Sheep can be experimentally infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), and the ensuing disease is similar to scrapie in terms of pathogenesis and clinical signs. BSE infection in sheep is an animal and human health concern. In this study, the transmission in BoPrP-Tg110 mice of prions fro

  5. Effects of Preinfection With Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus on Immune Cells From the Lungs of Calves Inoculated With Bovine Herpesvirus 1.1. (United States)

    Risalde, M A; Molina, V; Sánchez-Cordón, P J; Romero-Palomo, F; Pedrera, M; Gómez-Villamandos, J C


    The aim of this work was to study the interstitial aggregates of immune cells observed in pulmonary parenchyma of calves preinfected with bovine viral diarrhea virus and challenged later with bovine herpesvirus 1. In addition, the intent of this research was to clarify the role of bovine viral diarrhea virus in local cell-mediated immunity and potentially in predisposing animals to bovine respiratory disease complex. Twelve Friesian calves, aged 8 to 9 months, were inoculated with noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus genotype 1. Ten were subsequently challenged with bovine herpesvirus 1 and euthanized at 1, 2, 4, 7, or 14 days postinoculation. The other 2 calves were euthanized prior to the second inoculation. Another cohort of 10 calves was inoculated only with bovine herpesvirus 1 and then were euthanized at the same time points. Two calves were not inoculated with any agent and were used as negative controls. Pulmonary lesions were evaluated in all animals, while quantitative and biosynthetic changes in immune cells were concurrently examined immunohistochemically to compare coinfected calves and calves challenged only with bovine herpesvirus 1. Calves preinfected with bovine viral diarrhea virus demonstrated moderate respiratory clinical signs and histopathologic evidence of interstitial pneumonia with aggregates of mononuclear cells, which predominated at 4 days postinoculation. Furthermore, this group of animals was noted to have a suppression of interleukin-10 and associated alterations in the Th1-driven cytokine response in the lungs, as well as inhibition of the response of CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes against bovine herpesvirus 1. These findings suggest that bovine viral diarrhea virus preinfection could affect the regulation of the immune response as modulated by regulatory T cells, as well as impair local cell-mediated immunity to secondary respiratory pathogens.

  6. A retrospective analysis of the infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (bovine herpes virus-1) surveillance program in Norway using Monte Carlo simulation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paisley, Larry; Tharaldsen, J.; Jarp, J.


    Serological surveillance for antibodies against bovine herpes virus type I (BHV-1) which causes infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and infectious pustular vulvovaginitis has been carried out since 1992 in Norway. Since 1993 (when a single infected herd was detected) all bulk-milk and pooled-serum...

  7. Application of Functional Genomics for Bovine Respiratory Disease Diagnostics. (United States)

    Rai, Aswathy N; Epperson, William B; Nanduri, Bindu


    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common economically important disease affecting cattle. For developing accurate diagnostics that can predict disease susceptibility/resistance and stratification, it is necessary to identify the molecular mechanisms that underlie BRD. To study the complex interactions among the bovine host and the multitude of viral and bacterial pathogens, as well as the environmental factors associated with BRD etiology, genome-scale high-throughput functional genomics methods such as microarrays, RNA-seq, and proteomics are helpful. In this review, we summarize the progress made in our understanding of BRD using functional genomics approaches. We also discuss some of the available bioinformatics resources for analyzing high-throughput data, in the context of biological pathways and molecular interactions. Although resources for studying host response to infection are avail-able, the corresponding information is lacking for majority of BRD pathogens, impeding progress in identifying diagnostic signatures for BRD using functional genomics approaches.

  8. Experimental infection of reindeer with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Morton


    Full Text Available Two 8-month reindeer (Rangifer tarandus and a 1-month-old Hereford-Holstein calf (Bos taurus were inoculated intranasally with the Singer (cytopathogenic strain of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD virus. Clinical signs in reindeer included loose stools containing blood and mucus, and transient laminitis or coronitis. Signs in the calf were limited to bloody mucus in the stool and lesions in the nasal mucosa. Antibody titers to BVD virus in the reindeer were intermittent, and titers in the calf persisted from days 14 to 63 post-inoculation (PI. Viremia was detected on PI day 4 in one reindeer, days 3-7 in the other, and days 2-7 in the calf. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was isolated from the lung of the calf at necropsy (PI day 63.

  9. Volatile compounds in the thermoplastic extrusion of bovine rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Conti e Silva


    Full Text Available The volatile compounds of raw and extruded bovine rumen, extracted by dynamic headspace, were separated by gas chromatography and analyzed by GC-MS. Raw and extruded materials presented thirty-two volatile compounds. The following compounds were identified in raw bovine rumen: heptane, 1-heptene, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, toluene, hexanal, ethyl butyrate, o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene, heptanal, limonene, nonanal, dodecane, tridecane, tetradecane, pentadecane, hexadecane, heptadecane and octadecane. The following compounds were identified in the extruded material: 1-heptene, 2,4-dimethylhexane, toluene, limonene, undecane, tetradecane, pentadecane, hexadecane, heptadecane, octadecane and nonadecane. Mass spectra of some unidentified compounds indicated the presence of hydrocarbons with branched chains or cyclic structure.

  10. Current trend of drug sensitivity in bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Ranjan


    Full Text Available The study was conducted on 190 milk samples of bovine mastitis and 138 samples were confirmed positives for microorganisms. All the 138 samples were subjected to drug sensitivity test. The most effective antibiotic was enrofloxacin (91.67% followed by ciprofloxacin (90.15%, amikacin (87.12%, ceftriaxone (84.10%, chloramphenicol (80.31%, cefotaxime (79.55% and gentamicin (77.27%. Microorganisms were mostly resistant to drugs like streptomycin, penicillinG, ampicillin, cloxacillin, amoxycillin and neomycin in increasing order of resistance. Hence, it is suggested that the line of treatment should be based on antibiogram study of various isolates from bovine mastitis. Further, the selection of drugs after culture and sensitivity test should be based on their ability to cross blood tissue barrier or mammary parenchyma, lipophilicity and ability to work in alkaline pH. [Vet. World 2010; 3(1.000: 17-20

  11. Depletion of TGF-β from fetal bovine serum. (United States)

    Oida, Takatoku; Weiner, Howard L


    TGF-β is one of the key cytokines controlling immune responses. Measuring TGF-β from culture supernatants in vitro is an important index of immune function. However, fetal bovine serum (FBS) contains a high level of latent TGF-β that often hampers measuring T cell-derived TGF-β in culture using FBS-supplemented medium. In this report, we generated anti-latency associated peptide (LAP) monoclonal antibodies which cross-react with bovine LAP, and developed a protocol to deplete TGF-β from FBS. This provides the ability to reliably quantify TGF-β in vitro without relying on serum-free media which do not support growth of murine T cells.

  12. Vaccination against δ-Retroviruses: The Bovine Leukemia Virus Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerónimo Gutiérrez


    Full Text Available Bovine leukemia virus (BLV and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 are closely related d-retroviruses that induce hematological diseases. HTLV-1 infects about 15 million people worldwide, mainly in subtropical areas. HTLV-1 induces a wide spectrum of diseases (e.g., HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis and leukemia/lymphoma (adult T-cell leukemia. Bovine leukemia virus is a major pathogen of cattle, causing important economic losses due to a reduction in production, export limitations and lymphoma-associated death. In the absence of satisfactory treatment for these diseases and besides the prevention of transmission, the best option to reduce the prevalence of d-retroviruses is vaccination. Here, we provide an overview of the different vaccination strategies in the BLV model and outline key parameters required for vaccine efficacy.

  13. Immunoglobulin A in Bovine Milk: A Potential Functional Food? (United States)

    Cakebread, Julie A; Humphrey, Rex; Hodgkinson, Alison J


    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is an anti-inflammatory antibody that plays a critical role in mucosal immunity. It is found in large quantities in human milk, but there are lower amounts in bovine milk. In humans, IgA plays a significant role in providing protection from environmental pathogens at mucosal surfaces and is a key component for the establishment and maintenance of intestinal homeostasis via innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. To date, many of the dairy-based functional foods are derived from bovine colostrum, targeting the benefits of IgG. IgA has a higher pathogenic binding capacity and greater stability against proteolytic degradation when ingested compared with IgG. This provides IgA-based products greater potential in the functional food market that has yet to be realized.

  14. Genotypification of bovine group A rotavirus in México. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Limas, William A; Flores-Samaniego, Beatriz; de la Mora, Germán; Ramírez, Octavio T; Palomares, Laura A


    Bovine scours, frequently provoked by rotavirus infection, causes significant economic losses. Nevertheless, no information exists about the bovine rotavirus genotypes present in Mexico. This information is necessary for designing efficient vaccines. In this work, 128 samples from diarrheic calves were collected between 2005 and 2006 in 26 dairy and/or beef cattle herds located in 10 regions of Mexico, and analyzed for the presence of group A rotavirus. G and P genotypes were determined by PCR in rotavirus-positive samples (12/128). Three different genotype combinations were found, G10, P[11]; G6, P[5]; and G10, P[5]; in 67, 25 and 8% of the positive samples, respectively. Some rotavirus-positive animals had been vaccinated with an inactivated rotavirus strain of a different genotype.

  15. An overview of bovine α-lactalbumin structure and functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta STĂNCIUC


    Full Text Available α-Lactalbumin is the second major protein in bovine milk (2-5% of the total protein in bovine milk. The human variant has several physiologic functions in the neonatal period. In the mammary gland, itparticipates in lactose synthesis and facilitates milk production and secretion. α-Lactalbumin binds divalent cations (Ca2+, Zn2+ and may facilitate the absorption of essential minerals. Also, it provides awell-balanced supply of essential amino acids for the growing infant. During its digestion, peptides with antibacterial and imunostimulatory properties are formed, thereby possibly helping in the protection against infection. The protein fractions enriched with α-lactalbumin may be added to infant formula to provide some of the benefits of this protein. This article reviews a number of studies which may contribute to a more coherent understanding of the structure and some functional properties of α-lactalbumin.

  16. Development of Eimeria bovis in vitro: suitability of several bovine, human and porcine endothelial cell lines, bovine fetal gastrointestinal, Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) and African green monkey kidney (VERO) cells. (United States)

    Hermosilla, C; Barbisch, B; Heise, A; Kowalik, S; Zahner, H


    Several bovine, human and porcine endothelial cell lines, bovine fetal gastrointestinal cells (BFGC), Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) and African green monkey kidney (VERO) cells were exposed in vitro to sporozoites of Eimeria bovis. Parasites invaded all cells used and changed their shape to more stumpy forms within 12 h. Sporozoites left their host cells and invaded new ones frequently within the first 12 h post-infection. Further development took place only in bovine cells, although parasites survived in the other cells for at least 3 weeks. Within the non-bovine cells, conspicuously enlarged parasitophorous vacuoles developed in VERO cells and reached a diameter of 15-20 microm. The best development to first generation schizonts with regard both to time required to mature, to schizont size and to merozoite yields was observed in BFGC, followed by bovine umbilical vein and bovine spleen lymphatic endothelial cells. MDBK cells were less suitable. The life cycle was completed (development of oocysts) only occasionally in BFGC. Results are considered under several aspects. Thus, infected VERO cells may represent a suitable tool for studying the parasitophorous vacuole, while infected endothelial cells represent a system quite narrow to the in vivo situation and should allow basic studies on parasite/host cell interactions and BFGC can be used for the mass production of E. bovis first generation merozoites.

  17. One-step multiplex real time RT-PCR for the detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine parainfluenza virus 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thonur Leenadevi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of respiratory viruses in veterinary species has traditionally relied on virus detection by isolation or immunofluorescence and/or detection of circulating antibody using ELISA or serum neutralising antibody tests. Multiplex real time PCR is increasingly used to diagnose respiratory viruses in humans and has proved to be superior to traditional methods. Bovine respiratory disease (BRD is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in housed cattle and virus infections can play a major role. We describe here a one step multiplex reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (mRT-qPCR to detect the viruses commonly implicated in BRD. Results A mRT-qPCR assay was developed and optimised for the simultaneous detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, bovine herpes virus type 1 (BoHV-1 and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPI3 i & ii nucleic acids in clinical samples from cattle. The assay targets the highly conserved glycoprotein B gene of BoHV-1, nucleocapsid gene of BRSV and nucleoprotein gene of BPI3. This mRT-qPCR assay was assessed for sensitivity, specificity and repeatability using in vitro transcribed RNA and recent field isolates. For clinical validation, 541 samples from clinically affected animals were tested and mRT-qPCR result compared to those obtained by conventional testing using virus isolation (VI and/or indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT. Conclusions The mRT-qPCR assay was rapid, highly repeatable, specific and had a sensitivity of 97% in detecting 102 copies of BRSV, BoHV-1 and BPI3 i & ii. This is the first mRT-qPCR developed to detect the three primary viral agents of BRD and the first multiplex designed using locked nucleic acid (LNA, minor groove binding (MGB and TaqMan probes in one reaction mix. This test was more sensitive than both VI and IFAT and can replace the aforesaid methods for virus detection during outbreaks of BRD.

  18. Methicillin resistant S. aureus in human and bovine mastitis. (United States)

    Holmes, Mark A; Zadoks, Ruth N


    Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous organism that causes a variety of diseases including mastitis in cattle and humans. High-level resistance of S. aureus to β-lactams conferred by a mecA gene encoding a modified penicillin binding protein (PBP2a) was first observed in the early 1960's. These methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have been responsible for both hospital acquired infections (HA-MRSA) and, more recently, community acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA). A small number of human MRSA mastitis cases and outbreaks in maternity or neonatal units have been reported which are generally the result of CA-MRSA. The establishment of the sequence type 398 (ST398) in farm animals, primarily pigs, in the early 2000's has provided a reservoir of infection for humans and dairy cattle, particularly in continental Europe, described as livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA). Prior to the emergence of ST398 there were sporadic reports of MRSA in bovine milk and cases of mastitis, often caused by strains from human associated lineages. Subsequently, there have been several reports describing bovine udder infections caused by ST-398 MRSA. Recently, another group of LA-MRSA strains was discovered in humans and dairy cattle in Europe. This group carries a divergent mecA gene and includes a number of S. aureus lineages (CC130, ST425, and CC1943) that were hitherto thought to be bovine-specific but are now also found as carriage or clinical isolates in humans. The emergence of MRSA in dairy cattle may be associated with contact with other host species, as in the case of ST398, or with the exchange of genetic material between S. aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus species, which are the most common species associated with bovine intramammary infections and commonly carry antimicrobial resistance determinants.

  19. Seroepidemiology of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis infection in unvaccinated cattle



    Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the seroepidemiology of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) infection in the non-vaccinated cattle population in northern part of Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 255 sera samples were collected from cattle having the history of respiratory and reproductive disorder from cattle of different age, breeds, and sex. All the sera samples were subjected to indirect ELISA for the diagnosis of IBR antibodies. Results: Results reveale...

  20. A combined vaccine against Brucella abortus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis



    The present study was undertaken to study the immune response in calves vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain 19, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) vaccines in monovalent form and combined vaccine containing both antigen. The seroconversion of monovalent and combined vaccines was tested in seronegative cattle calves. IBR vaccine alone and combination with live Brucella abortus S19 vaccine elicited an anamnestic response on day 60 post booster but started declining from day 90 onwards ...

  1. Production and characterization of a bovine liver candidate reference material (United States)

    Bianchi, S. R.; Peixoto, A. M. J.; Souza, G. B.; Tullio, R. R.; Nogueira, A. R. A.


    The preparation of a bovine liver candidate reference material and the steps are taken to confirm its homogeneity, long and short term stabilities, and consensus values are described. Details of the sample preparation and the final collaborative exercise are presented. The material elemental composition was characterized by 17 elements (As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mo, Mn, Na, P, Pb, Se, Sr, V, and Zn) of nutritional and toxicological significance.

  2. Residual stress around the cortical surface in bovine femoral diaphysis. (United States)

    Yamada, Satoshi; Tadano, Shigeru


    Residual stress in living tissue plays an important role in mechanical strength. We have reported that residual stress exists in the bone tissue of a rabbit's tibiofibula. The purpose of this study is to measure the residual stress around the outer cortical region of bovine femoral diaphysis and to discuss the distribution of the stress. This work proposed the sin(2) psi method of X-ray diffraction to the measurement of residual stresses in bone tissue. In this method, residual stress can be estimated from the variation in the interplanar spacings orientated to a number of directions without the lattice strain in the stress direction. Four-point bending tests of strip specimens taken from bovine femoral diaphysis were carried out during X-ray irradiation in advance. In the proximal, middle, and distal sections of bovine femoral diaphyses, the residual stresses at the cortical surface were measured using characteristic Mo-Kalpha X-rays. The bending tests of strip specimens with X-ray irradiation showed that the method could reliably estimate residual stresses in the bone tissue. The residual stress of the bone axial direction was larger than that of the circumferential direction. The stresses in the middle part of five diaphyses along the bone axial direction were tensile. The maximum stress was 162 MPa at the lateral position and the minimum was 78 MPa at the posterior position. The residual stress in the bone axial direction varies around the circumferential region. In addition, the bone axial distributions of residual stresses were different in the proximal, middle, and distal sections of the individual femur. Furthermore, it was confirmed that residual stress in the bone tissue was released by the cutting out of the specimen. The residual stresses in bone tissue could be measured by this method. The results show that residual stress in the bone axial direction at the cortical surface in bovine femoral diaphysis is tensile and varies around the circumferential

  3. Susceptibilities of bovine summer mastitis bacteria to antimicrobial agents.


    Jousimies-Somer, H; Pyörälä, S.; Kanervo, A


    The susceptibility to 9 antimicrobial agents of 32 aerobic bacterial isolates and to 10 antimicrobial agents of 37 anaerobic bacterial isolates from 23 cases of bovine summer mastitis (16 Actinomyces pyogenes isolates, 8 Streptococcus dysgalactiae isolates, 3 S. uberis isolates, 3 S. acidominimus isolates, 2 Streptococcus spp., 15 Peptostreptococcus indolicus isolates, 10 Fusobacterium necrophorum isolates, and 12 isolates of anaerobic gram-negative rods) was determined by the agar dilution m...

  4. Bovine milk usage and feeding practices for infants in India

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    Meha Mayuri


    Full Text Available Background: Milk and dairy products from animal sources (cow′s milk or buffalo′s milk are an important part of Indian diet and its consumption starts at an early age. Objective: The purpose of this study is to understand the processing, storage and modifications carried out before bovine milk is fed to the infants and compare it with recommendations by Health Care Professionals (HCPs. Materials and Methods: The study involved assessments involving HCPs and mothers of children below 1 year of age through both qualitative and quantitative methods. Feeding recommendations by HCPs were assessed through a quantitative method. Results: The children are commonly initiated on bovine milk post 3 months of age. The milk is not covered while boiling in 70% cases and boiled at suboptimal temperature (moderate: 62% or low: 31%. Half of the families store milk outside refrigerators openly in the kitchen or rooms. The milk is modified in the majority of cases (81% before being fed. Modification of the milk was often done with sugar (85%, followed by water (49%, biscuits, fennel seeds, cardamom or infant cereals before feeding the baby. Addition of water was more prevalent among mothers of infants between 3 and 6 months. HCPs do not advise consumption of bovine milk by infants unless there is no other option available. Conclusion: A clear gap exists between recommended and actual practices for infant feeding in India. There is a huge opportunity to educate mothers on importance of breast feeding and benefits of implementing appropriate processing, storage, and consumption practices of bovine milk.

  5. Price transmission in the Spanish bovine sector: the BSE effect



    A regime-switching vector error correction model is applied to monthly price data to assess the impact of BSE outbreaks on price relationships and patterns of transmission among farm and retail markets for bovine in Spain. To evaluate the degree to which price transmission is affected by BSE food scares, a BSE food scare index is developed and used to determine regime-switching. Results suggest that BSE scares affect beef producers and retailers differently. Consumer prices are found to be we...

  6. Original findings associated with two cases of bovine papular stomatitis. (United States)

    Dal Pozzo, F; Martinelle, L; Gallina, L; Mast, J; Sarradin, P; Thiry, E; Scagliarini, A; Büttner, M; Saegerman, C


    Bovine papular stomatitis virus was isolated from two calves in an animal house with biosafety level 3 confinement. The hypotheses on the origin of the infection, the interesting features of the partial amino acid sequences of the major envelope viral protein, and the importance of diagnostic tools available for animal diseases that are not listed by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) are discussed.

  7. A multiway analysis for identifying high integrity bovine BACs


    McEwan John C; Brauning Rudiger; McWilliam Sean; Barris Wesley; Ratnakumar Abhirami; Snelling Warren M; Dalrymple Brian P


    Abstract Background In large genomics projects involving many different types of analyses of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), such as fingerprinting, end sequencing (BES) and full BAC sequencing there are many opportunities for the identities of BACs to become confused. However, by comparing the results from the different analyses, inconsistencies can be identified and a set of high integrity BACs preferred for future research can be defined. Results The location of each bovine BAC in...

  8. Die Immunantwort boviner und capriner Euterepithelzellen auf verschiedene Mastitiserreger



    Infections of the bovine mammary gland are, in addition to the affliction of the animals, a great economic burden in the dairy industry. A better understanding of the innate immune response of the host could lead to a better selection of mastitis resistant cows or to better prophylactic and therapeutical treatments. The objective of the present study was to investigate the involvement of the epithelial cells into the outcome of mastitis induced by different pathogens. Primary epithelial cell ...

  9. Development of a laboratory animal model for infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. (United States)

    Chandler, R L; Turfrey, B A; Smith, K


    Guinea pigs, gerbils, voles, golden hamsters and Chinese hamsters exposed to experimental infection with Moraxella bovis by ocular instillation or associated routes showed transient infections only and no clinical signs. Five strains of mice were of similarly low susceptibility but another, the C57 Bl strain, was relatively susceptible and treatment with corticosteroid before infection regularly produced keratoconjunctivitis. This system therefore offers a promising model for studies on infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis.

  10. Screen of Bovine Mammary Gland Epithelial Cell Specifcity Promotor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiao-fei; Li Qing-zhang; Qiu You-wen; Gao Xue-jun


    Three lactoproteins (α-Sl-casein, β-lactoglobulin, and β-casein) promotors were cloned, sequenced and compared relative luciferase expression. The results showed that the promotor activity of bovine α-S1-casein gene was the best, and would be used to produce pharmaceutically and medically important proteins in the mammary gland of transgenic animals and also for the construction of an inducible eukaryotic expression vector.

  11. Binding of several benzodiazepines to bovine serum albumin: Fluorescence study (United States)

    Machicote, Roberta G.; Pacheco, María E.; Bruzzone, Liliana


    The interactions of lorazepam, oxazepam and bromazepam with bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied by fluorescence spectrometry. The Stern-Volmer quenching constants and corresponding thermodynamic parameters Δ H, Δ G and Δ S were calculated. The binding constants and the number of binding sites were also investigated. The distances between the donor (BSA) and the acceptors (benzodiazepines) were obtained according to fluorescence resonance energy transfer and conformational changes of BSA were observed from synchronous fluorescence spectra.

  12. Improvement of the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of camel and bovine whey proteins by limited proteolysis. (United States)

    Salami, Maryam; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Ehsani, Mohammad Reza; Yousefi, Reza; Haertlé, Thomas; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Razavi, Seyed Hadi; Henrich, Robert; Balalaie, Saeed; Ebadi, Seyed Ahmad; Pourtakdoost, Samineh; Niasari-Naslaji, Amir


    The compositions and structures of bovine and camel milk proteins are different, which define their functional and biological properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of enzymatic hydrolysis of camel and bovine whey proteins (WPs) on their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. After enzymatic treatment, both the antioxidant and the antimicrobial activities of bovine and camel WPs were improved. The significantly higher antioxidant activity of camel WPs and their hydrolysates as compared with that of bovine WPs and their hydrolysates may result from the differences in amounts and/or in accessibilities of antioxidant amino acid residues present in their primary structures and from the prevalence of alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin as proteolytic substrates in camel and bovine whey, respectively. The results of this study reveal differences in antimicrobial and antioxidant activities between WP hydrolysates of bovine and camel milk and the effects of limited proteolysis on these activities.

  13. Structural and functional analysis of the bovine Mx1 promoter. (United States)

    Yamada, Kohji; Nakatsu, Yuichiro; Onogi, Akio; Takasuga, Akiko; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Ueda, Junji; Watanabe, Tomomasa


    The bovine Mx1 promoter region was found to contain 4 IFN-stimulated response elements (ISREs), 7 GC boxes, 2 IL-6 responsive elements, 2 NFκB-binding sites and 2 AP-1-binding sites. Among Holstein, Charolai, and Brahman breeds, 5 nucleotide substitutions were detected in the promoter region. After the Mx1 promoter region from Holstein had been constructed with pGL-basic expression vector, the transfected cells showed promoter activity after IFN induction. Several artificial deletion mutants were prepared to determine the important regulatory elements responsible for the promoter activity, and it was found that ISRE has a key function in IFN response. The proximal ISRE1 showed potential induction by IFN. Furthermore, the proximal GC boxes were found to be essential for IFN response in the bovine Mx1 promoter with the deletion mutants. In this case, the 2 GC boxes exhibited a synergistic activation in the IFN response. Mithramycin A, an agent that inhibits gene expression selectively by coating GC boxes, was used, and Mx mRNA expression in MDBK cells was suppressed by this chemical. Therefore, GC boxes were also shown to be essential for IFN response in the bovine Mx1 gene.

  14. Economic losses due to bovine brucellosis in Brazil

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    Renato L. Santos


    Full Text Available Brucellosis is an important zoonosis of worldwide distribution. Reliable epidemiologic brucellosis data covering approximately 90% of the cattle population in Brazil have been recently published. Therefore, considering the scarcity of information regarding the economic impact of bovine brucellosis in Brazil, the goal of this study was to estimate economic impact of brucellosis on the Brazilian cattle industry. Several parameters including abortion and perinatal mortality rates, temporary infertility, replacement costs, mortality, veterinary costs, milk and meat losses were considered in the model. Bovine brucellosis in Brazil results in an estimated loss of R$ 420,12 or R$ 226,47 for each individual dairy or beef infected female above 24 months of age, respectively. The total estimated losses in Brazil attributed to bovine brucellosis were estimated to be approximately R$ 892 million (equivalent to about 448 million American dollars. Every 1% increase or decrease in prevalence is expected to increase or decrease the economic burden of brucellosis in approximately 155 million Reais.

  15. Bovine gallbladder muscularis: Source of a myogenic receptor for cholecystokinin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schjoldager, B.; Shaw, M.J.; Powers, S.P.; Schmalz, P.E.; Szurszewski, J.; Miller, L.J. (Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN (USA))


    Despite being a classic target for the gastrointestinal peptide hormone, cholecystokinin (CCK), the gallbladder CCK receptor is not well characterized. Pharmacological studies of small species suggest that CCK action can be mediated by direct myogenic or by both myogenic and neurogenic receptors. To prepare for the biochemical characterization of a gallbladder CCK receptor and to define the subtype of the receptor being studied. The authors have performed autoradiographic localization and pharmacological characterization of CCK receptors on bovine gallbladder. Autoradiography demonstrated high-affinity specific CCK-binding sites only on the muscularis. CCK-8 stimulated tonic contraction of longitudinal strips of gallbladder muscularis in a concentration-dependent manner. Antagonism at the cholinergic receptor with 1{mu}M atropine or axonal transmission with 1{mu}M tetrodotoxin did not modify CCK-induced contraction, supporting a direct myogenic effect of this hormone. Optimal electrical field stimulation to elicit a neuronal response resulted in muscle strip relaxation, which was abolished with adrenergic blockade. Although acetylcholine administration stimulated contraction, electrical field stimulation did not, even in the presence of phentolamine, propranolol, and/or CCK. Thus, in bovine gallbladder muscularis, there is evidence for a functional CCK receptor only on smooth muscle cells. Demonstration of a single, high-affinity specific CCK-binding site on an enriched plasma membrane preparation of bovine gallbladder muscularis is consistent with this representing a myogenic CCK receptor.

  16. Development and evaluation of immunoassay for zeranol in bovine urine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A high affinity polyclonal antibody-based enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the quantification of zeranol in bovine urine. On the basis of urine matrix studies, the optimized dilution factors producing insignificant matrix interference were selected as 1:5 in pretreatment. In the improved ELISA, the linear response range was between 0.02 and 1 μg/ml, and the detection limit was 0.02 μg/ml for the assay. The overall recoveries and the coefficients of variation (CVs) were in the range of 82% ~127% and 3.5%~8.8%, respectively. Thirty-six bovine urine samples spiked with zeranol (ranging from 0.2 to 10 μg/ml) were detected by the ELISA and liquid chromatography (LC) method, and good correlations were obtained between the two methods (R2=0.9643). We conclude that this improved ELISA is suitable tool for a mass zeranol screening and can be an alternative for the conventional LC method for zeranol in bovine urine.

  17. Prostaglandinsvis-à-vis bovine embryonic mortality:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jerome A; Srivastava N


    Decline in fertility in bovines is attributed to various reproductive problems viz. anoestrus, repeat breeding, abortions and post parturient disorders.Among these, repeat breeding has been an important cause for reducing the animals’ fertility and life-time productivity.Many researchers have reported embryonic mortality as a major cause of repeat breeding arising due to premature corpus luteumlysis.ProstaglandinF2α released from the uterus causes alterations in luteal blood flow, induces luteal lysis, and hence reduces progesterone secretion from the bovine corpus luteum.Therefore various strategies have been tried to modulate prostaglandinF2α synthesis and secretion in order to prolong the lifespan ofCL.Administration of cyclooxygenase inhibitors which include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs acting by competitive inhibition of key enzymes of prostaglandin synthesis is one such method.Feeding of diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids during critical period significantly reduces prostaglandin synthesis.Other drugs, which are potential candidates for reducing prostaglandin synthesis, include oxytocin receptor antagonist, recombinant bovine somatotropin, lysophosphatidic acid and prostaglandinF synthase inhibitors. To conclude, there is much scope of using various compounds to reduce prostaglandins synthesis during the critical period of pregnancy for improving the embryo survival rate.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alva Edy Tontowi, Punto Dewo, Endang Tri Wahyuni, dan Joko Triyono


    Full Text Available In Indonesia, it is about 40% patients with hard tissue defect due to ostheoporosis, cancer or accidents and therest are defect since they have born.For many years, efforts for recovering have been done by transplantation orimplantation methods.Transplantation is more appropriate butit is not sustain because of limited donor, whileimplantation using synthetic materials such as bioceramics scaffoldis expensive due to import and the scaffold iseasier to break which does not match to the medical requirements.The research therefore has been addressed to thisissue. Local bovine hydroxyapatite (bHAscaffold has been used as thebase material and poly vynilalchohol (PVAas a coating material.The bHA scaffold was prepared by cutting a fresh bovine bone in the size of 5mmx5mmx5mmand boil it in a distilled water to remove its organic material. It was then heated up at 900 oC for 2 hours infurnace to obtain bovine hydroxyapatite scaffold (bHA. Coating process has been carried out by dip coating of thebHAscaffold in PVA solution.

  19. Evaluation of immunoglobulins in bovine colostrum using laser induced fluorescence. (United States)

    Abdel-Salam, Z; Abdel Ghany, Sh; Harith, M A


    The objective of the present study was to exploit laser induced fluorescence (LIF) as a spectrochemical analytical technique for evaluation of immunoglobulin (IgG) in bovine colostrum. Colostrum samples were collected from different American Holstein cows at different times after calving. Four samples were gathered from each cow; the first three samples were obtained from the first three milkings (colostrum) and the fourth sample (milk) was obtained a week after calving. It has been demonstrated that LIF can be used as a simple, fast, sensitive and less costly spectrochemical analytical technique for qualitative estimation of IgG in colostrum. LIF results have been confirmed via the quantitative evaluation of IgG in the same samples adopting the single radial immunodiffusion conventional technique and a very good agreement has been obtained. Through LIF it was possible to evaluate bovine colostrum after different milking times and to differentiate qualitatively between colostrum from different animals which may reflect their general health status. A fluorescence linear calibration curve for IgG concentrations from 0 up to 120 g L(-1) has been obtained. In addition, it is feasible to adopt this technique for in situ measurements, i.e. in dairy cattle farms as a simple and fast method for evaluation of IgG in bovine colostrum instead of using lengthy and complicated conventional techniques in laboratories.

  20. Prevalência e aspectos epidemiológicos da leptospirose bovina em rebanho leiteiro na microrregião de Goiânia - GO Prevalence and epidemiology aspects of bovine leptospirosis in dairy herd from goiânia microregion, Goiás state, Brazil

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    Raquel Soares Juliano


    Full Text Available Foram colhidas 426 amostras de hemossoro bovino, provenientes de vacas em lactação na microrregião de Goiânia-GO, e testadas pelo método de soroaglutinação microscópica (SAM para detecção de aglutininas antileptospiras, para efetuar um estudo de prevalência. Paralelamente, foi realizado um questionário epidemiológico, contendo informações que pudessem fornecer dados sobre a epidemiologia da leptospirose nessa região. Os resultados obtidos revelaram uma prevalência de 81,90% de animais reagentes. Os principais sorovares envolvidos foram: wolffi (36,10%, icterohaemorrhagiae (20,50%, hardjo (5,20% e tarassovi (4,90%. A presença de ratos e suínos, a utilização de inseminação artificial e o tipo de fonte de água não interferiram no número de animais reagentes no teste de SAM. A leptospirose tem um comportamento enzoótico nessa região.With the aim of search the prevalence of anti-leptospiral antibodies, 426 sera samples were collected from dairy cattle in the microregion of Goiânia-GO, Brazil. Some questions were made about epidemiological and sanitary conditions characteristics of the farms to help us to understand the behavior of leptospirosis in this region. The prevalence was 81.90% and the serovars more involved were: wolffi (36.10%, icterohaemorrhagiae (20.50%, hardjo (5.20% and tarassovi (4.90%. There were pigs and rats in the farms, but they did'nt interfer on positive animals number. This afirmative is also correct to artificial insemination and water supplying. The bovine leptospirosis had enzootic characteristics in this region.

  1. Bovine Genome Database: new tools for gleaning function from the Bos taurus genome. (United States)

    Elsik, Christine G; Unni, Deepak R; Diesh, Colin M; Tayal, Aditi; Emery, Marianne L; Nguyen, Hung N; Hagen, Darren E


    We report an update of the Bovine Genome Database (BGD) ( The goal of BGD is to support bovine genomics research by providing genome annotation and data mining tools. We have developed new genome and annotation browsers using JBrowse and WebApollo for two Bos taurus genome assemblies, the reference genome assembly (UMD3.1.1) and the alternate genome assembly (Btau_4.6.1). Annotation tools have been customized to highlight priority genes for annotation, and to aid annotators in selecting gene evidence tracks from 91 tissue specific RNAseq datasets. We have also developed BovineMine, based on the InterMine data warehousing system, to integrate the bovine genome, annotation, QTL, SNP and expression data with external sources of orthology, gene ontology, gene interaction and pathway information. BovineMine provides powerful query building tools, as well as customized query templates, and allows users to analyze and download genome-wide datasets. With BovineMine, bovine researchers can use orthology to leverage the curated gene pathways of model organisms, such as human, mouse and rat. BovineMine will be especially useful for gene ontology and pathway analyses in conjunction with GWAS and QTL studies.

  2. Cell Infectivity in relation to bovine leukemia virus gp51 and p24 in bovine milk exosomes.

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    Tetsuya Yamada

    Full Text Available Exosomes are small membranous microvesicles (40-100 nm in diameter and are extracellularly released from a wide variety of cells. Exosomes contain microRNA, mRNA, and cellular proteins, which are delivered into recipient cells via these exosomes, and play a role in intercellular communication. In bovine leukemia virus (BLV infection of cattle, although it is thought to be a minor route of infection, BLV can be transmitted to calves via milk. Here, we investigated the association between exosomes and BLV in bovine milk. BLV structural proteins, gp51 (Env and p24 (Gag, were detected in bovine milk exosomes from BLV-infected cattle by Western blot analysis. In cells inoculated with these milk exosomes, BLV DNA was not detected during three serial passages by nested PCR. Purification of exosomes from persistently BLV-infected cells was achieved by immuno-magnetic separation using an antibody against exosomes coupled to magnetic beads. Consistently, BLV gp51 and p24 proteins were detected in purified exosomes. Moreover, reverse transcriptase activity was observed in purified exosomes, meaning that exosomes also contain viral enzyme. However, BLV DNA was not detected in serially passaged cells after inoculation of purified exosomes, indicating that exosomes carrying BLV proteins appeared to be not infectious. These results suggest that BLV proteins are released with milk exosomes and could be transferred into recipient cells of calves via milk exosomes as an alternative route not requiring virus infection. Moreover it is also possible that bovine milk exosomes play a role in clearance of BLV proteins from infected cells.

  3. Importância do dismorfismo eritrocitário na investigação da origem da hematúria: revisão da literatura The importance of the dysmorphic erythrocyte for investigation of the source of hematuria: literature review

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    Leonardo de Souza Vasconcellos


    Full Text Available As hematúrias são achados comuns nos exames de urina de rotina e nem sempre são sinais de doenças. A presença de hematúria associada a outras alterações urinárias, especialmente a proteinúria, sugere comprometimento do trato urinário e merece investigação. Na literatura são inúmeros os trabalhos que valorizam a sedimentoscopia urinária, principalmente a morfologia das hemácias, como indicativo do local do sangramento: se glomerular ou não-glomerular. Neste artigo, os autores revisam o estudo do dismorfismo eritrocitário, enfatizando a definição, a fisiopatologia, os métodos, os valores de referência e as limitações apontadas na literatura. As comparações com demais marcadores de hemorragia glomerular também foram discutidas. No final, os autores relatam como a literatura interpreta e utiliza os resultados da pesquisa do dismorfismo eritrocitário para guiar a propedêutica complementar na investigação da origem da hematúria.The hematurias are a frequent finding in urinary routine exams and do not necessarily indicate illness. The presence of hematuria associated with other urinary disturbances, especially proteinuria, indicates urinary tract pathology and should be investigated. In the literature, several studies point out the importance of urinary sedimentoscopy, specially the red cells morphology, to determine the source of bleeding: glomerular or non-glomerular. In this article, the authors review the dysmorphic erythrocyte, emphasizing on the meaning, the physiopathology, the methods, the cut-of values, and the limitations according to the literature. The comparisons with other markers of glomerular bleeding were also discussed. At the end, the authors exposed how the literature analyses and applies the dysmorphic erythrocyte results to guide the complementary research for investigation the source of urinary bleeding.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的 探讨血尿中变形红细胞(erythrocyte RBC)与尿微量白蛋白(micro-albumin ,MA)及尿免疫球蛋白轻链(light chain , L)三者间的相关性,以鉴别肾小球性血尿(glomerular hematuria , GH)和非肾小球性血尿(non glomerular hematuria ,NGH).方法 对132例血尿诊断明确患者进行相差显微镜尿中 RBC形态观察、MA和L测定.结果 132例血尿中91例为肾小球性血尿,通过RBC形态观察,以多形性变形RBC改变为主85例占93.4%;41例非肾小球性血尿中,多形性RBC改变仅16例占39.0%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);在肾小球性血尿中,变形型RBC阳性伴MA阳性79例占86.8%,MA的单项符合率90.1%;而非肾小球性血尿中的变形RBC假阳性率为39.2%,MA的假阳性率为41.5%,二者有相关性(r=0.729,P<0.01).L的检出率在肾小球性血尿中为62.6%(57/91),非肾小球性血尿中为58.5%(24/41),二者差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);在肾小球性血尿中,变形RBC和L均阳性52例占57.1%,非肾小球性血尿中的L假阳性24例占58.5%,二者差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 尿RBC形态多形性观察有助于肾小球性血尿与非肾小球性血尿的鉴别;MA检出率肾小球性血尿明显高于非肾小球性血尿,L与尿变形RBC检出对二种血尿的鉴别无明显相关性.

  5. Bovine coronavirus detection in a collection of diarrheic stool samples positive for group a bovine rotavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Fernandes Barry


    Full Text Available Neonatal diarrhea is an important cause of economic losses for cattle farmers. The main viral etiologies of enteric diseases are group A rotaviruses (GARV and the bovine coronavirus (BCoV. Although both viruses infect calves of the same age, the occurrence of mixed infections is still under studied. The present study describes the co-infection of BCoV and GARV in stool samples. Forty-four diarrheic fecal samples from calves up to 60 days old that had previously tested positive for GARV by SS-PAGE were analyzed using semi-nested PCR for BCoV. A product with 251 bp of the BCoV nucleoprotein gene was amplified in 15.9% (7/44 of the samples, demonstrating that co-infection is not an unusual event. These results reinforce the need for testing for both GARV and BCoV, even in fecal samples that previously tested positive for one virus.A diarreia neonatal é uma importante causa de perdas econômicas para a criação de bovinos. Os principais agentes etiológicos virais das doenças entéricas são o rotavírus bovino grupo A (GARV e o coronavírus bovino (BCoV. Embora ambos os vírus infectem bezerros na mesma faixa etária, infecções mistas ainda são pouco estudadas. O presente trabalho descreve a identificação do BCoV em amostras de fezes positivas para o GARV, caracterizando a ocorrência de infecções mistas. Quarenta e quatro amostras de fezes diarreicas de bezerros com até 60 dias de idade, previamente identificadas como positivas para o GARV bovino por meio da técnica de SS-PAGE, foram avaliadas quanto a presença do BCoV pela técnica de semi-nested PCR. Um produto com 251 pb do gene da nucleoproteína do BCoV foi amplificado em 15,9% (7/44 das amostras de fezes demonstrando que a co-infecção não é um evento raro. Esse resultado enfatizada a importância da realização simultânea do diagnóstico para esses dois importantes vírus entéricos de bezerros em surtos de diarreia neonatal tanto em rebanhos bovinos leiteiros quanto de

  6. Interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells and Leptospira species; innate responses in the natural bovine reservoir host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer H Wilson-Welder


    Full Text Available Cattle are the reservoir hosts of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, and can also be reservoir hosts of other Leptospira species such as L. kirschneri, and L. interrogans. As a reservoir host, cattle shed Leptospira, infecting other animals, including humans. Previous studies with human and murine neutrophils have shown activation of neutrophil extracellular trap or NET formation, and upregulation of inflammatory mediators by neutrophils in the presence of Leptospira. Humans, companion animals and most widely studied models of Leptospirosis are of acute infection, hallmarked by systemic inflammatory response, neutrophilia and septicemia. In contrast, cattle exhibit chronic infection with few outward clinical signs aside from reproductive failure. Taking into consideration that there is host species variation in innate immunity, especially in pathogen recognition and response, the interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs and several Leptospira strains was evaluated. Studies including bovine-adapted strains, human pathogen strains, a saprophyte and inactivated organisms. Incubation of PMNs with Leptospira did induce slight activation of neutrophil NETs, greater than unstimulated cells but less than the quantity from E. coli P4 stimulated PMNs. Very low but significant from non-stimulated, levels of reactive oxygen peroxides were produced in the presence of all Leptospira strains and E. coli P4. Similarly, significant levels of reactive nitrogen intermediaries (NO2 was produced from PMNs when incubated with the Leptospira strains and greater quantities in the presence of E. coli P4. PMNs incubated with Leptospira induced RNA transcripts of IL-1β, MIP-1α, and TNF-α, with greater amounts induced by live organisms when compared to heat-inactivated leptospires. Transcript for inflammatory cytokine IL-8 was also induced, at similar levels regardless of Leptospira strain or viability. However, incubation of

  7. Subunit and whole molecule specificity of the anti-bovine casein immune response in recent onset psychosis and schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severance, E.G.; Dickerson, F.B.; Halling, M.; Krivogorsky, B.; Haile, L.; Yang, S.; Stallings, C.R.; Origoni, A.E.; Bossis, I.; Xiao, J.; Dupont, D.; Haasnoot, W.; Yolken, R.H.


    Previous studies show increased antibody levels to bovine casein in some individuals with schizophrenia. The immunogenicity of specific domains of bovine casein varies among people with milk sensitivities and thus could vary among different neuropsychiatric disorders. Using ELISAs and immunoblotting

  8. Expression of Bovine Leukemia Virus Genome is Blocked by a Nonimmunoglobulin Protein in Plasma from Infected Cattle (United States)

    Gupta, P.; Ferrer, J. F.


    Plasma of cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus contains a soluble factor that blocks the expression of the viral genome in cultured lymphocytes. The blocking factor is not present in plasma of bovine leukemia virus-free cattle or of cattle infected with common bovine viruses. Blocking of bovine leukemia virus expression by the plasma factor is reversible, and seems to be mediated by a nonimmunoglobulin protein molecule.

  9. A rapid and sensitive diagnosis of bovine leukaemia virus infection using the nested shuttle polymerase chain reaction Diagnóstico rápido e sensível da infecção com o vírus da Leucemia Bovina através de Shuttle Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester T. González


    Full Text Available Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL. In Argentina, where a program to eradicate EBL has been introduced, sensitive and reliable diagnosis has attained high priority. Although the importance of the agar gel immunodiffusion test remains unchanged for routine work, an additional diagnostic technique is necessary to confirm cases of sera with equivocal results or of calves carrying maternal antibodies.Utilizing a nested shuttle polymerase chain reaction, the proviral DNA was detected from cows experimentally infected with as little as 5 ml of whole blood from BLV seropositive cows that were nonetheless normal in haematological terms. It proved to be a very sensitive technique, since it rapidly revealed the presence of the provirus, frequently at 2 weeks postinoculation and using a two-round procedure of nested PCR taking only 3 hours. Additionally, the primers used flanked a portion of the viral genome often employed to differentiate BLV type applying BamHI digestion. It is concluded that this method might offer a highly promising diagnostic tool for BLV infection.O Vírus da leucemia bovina (BLV é o agente causal da Leucose Enzoótica Bovina (EBL. Na Argentina, iniciou-se um programa de erradicação da EBL. Neste estágio, é prioritário possuir uma ferramenta de diagnóstico confiável. Embora seja indiscutível a importância do teste de agar gel imunodifusão, empregado rotineiramente no diagnóstico serológico da EBL, faz-se necessária uma técnica de diagnóstico adicional capaz de confirmar os resultados duvidosos. Foi possivel detectar ADN proviral aplicando Nested-PCR em novilhos experimentalmente infectados com pequenas doses de sangue total (5ml obtidas de um bovino BLV soropositivo. Esta técnica, cujo procedimento leva 3 horas, demonstrou ser muito sensível, uma vez que foi capaz de detectar a presença do provirus duas semanas após a inoculação. Os primers utilizados são os que

  10. Regulatory microRNA network identification in bovine blastocyst development. (United States)

    Goossens, Karen; Mestdagh, Pieter; Lefever, Steve; Van Poucke, Mario; Van Zeveren, Alex; Van Soom, Ann; Vandesompele, Jo; Peelman, Luc


    Mammalian blastocyst formation is characterized by two lineage segregations resulting in the formation of the trophectoderm, the hypoblast, and the epiblast cell lineages. Cell fate determination during these early lineage segregations is associated with changes in the expression of specific transcription factors. In addition to the transcription factor-based control, it has become clear that also microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the post-transcriptional regulation of pluripotency and differentiation. To elucidate the role of miRNAs in early lineage segregation, we compared the miRNA expression in early bovine blastocysts with the more advanced stage of hatched blastocysts. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR-based miRNA expression profiling revealed eight upregulated miRNAs (miR-127, miR-130a, miR-155, miR-196a, miR-203, miR-28, miR-29c, and miR-376a) and four downregulated miRNAs (miR-135a, miR-218, miR-335, and miR-449b) in hatched blastocysts. Through an integrative analysis of matching miRNA and mRNA expression data, candidate miRNA-mRNA interaction pairs were prioritized for validation. Using an in vitro luciferase reporter assay, we confirmed a direct interaction between miR-218 and CDH2, miR-218 and NANOG, and miR-449b and NOTCH1. By interfering with the FGF signaling pathway, we found functional evidence that miR-218, mainly expressed in the inner cell mass, regulates the NANOG expression in the bovine blastocyst in response to FGF signaling. The results of this study expand our knowledge about the miRNA signature of the bovine blastocyst and of the interactions between miRNAs and cell fate regulating transcription factors.

  11. Effects of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) on bovine sperm function. (United States)

    Siqueira, Adriano F P; Maria, Fernanda S; Mendes, Camilla M; Hamilton, Thais R S; Dalmazzo, Andressa; Dreyer, Thiago R; da Silva, Herculano M; Nichi, Marcilio; Milazzotto, Marcella P; Visintin, José A; Assumpção, Mayra E O A


    Fertilization rates and subsequent embryo development rely on sperm factors related to semen quality and viability. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) is based on emission of electromagnetic waves of a laser optical system that interact with cells and tissues resulting in biological effects. This interaction is mediated by photoacceptors that absorb the electromagnetic energy. Effects are dependent of irradiation parameters, target cell type, and species. In sperm, PBMT improves several features like motility and viability, affecting sperm aerobic metabolism and energy production. The aim of this study was to investigate, under same conditions, how different output powers (5, 7.5, and 10 mW) and time of irradiation (5 and 10 min) of laser (He-Ne laser, 633 nm) may affect frozen/thawed bovine sperm functions. Results showed significant effects depending on power while using 10 min of irradiation on motility parameters and mitochondrial potential. However, no effect was observed using 5 min of irradiation, regardless of power applied. In conclusion, PBMT is effective to modulate bovine sperm function. The effectiveness is dependent on the interaction between power applied and duration of irradiation, showing that these two parameters simultaneously influence sperm function. In this context, when using the same fluency and energy with different combinations of power and time of exposure, we observed distinct effects, revealing that biological effects should be also based on simple parameters rather than only composite parameters such as fluency, irradiance and energy. Laser irradiation of frozen/thawed bovine semen led to an increase on mitochondrial function and motility parameters that could potentially improve fertility rates.

  12. MicroRNA Expression during Bovine Oocyte Maturation and Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham C. Gilchrist


    Full Text Available Successful fertilization and subsequent embryo development rely on complex molecular processes starting with the development of oocyte competence through maturation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that function as gene regulators in many biological systems, including the oocyte and embryo. In order to further explore the roles of miRNAs in oocyte maturation, we employed small RNA sequencing as a screening tool to identify and characterize miRNA populations present in pools of bovine germinal vesicle (GV oocytes, metaphase II (MII oocytes, and presumptive zygotes (PZ. Each stage contained a defined miRNA population, some of which showed stable expression while others showed progressive changes between stages that were subsequently confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Bta-miR-155, bta-miR-222, bta-miR-21, bta-let-7d, bta-let-7i, and bta-miR-190a were among the statistically significant differentially expressed miRNAs (p < 0.05. To determine whether changes in specific primary miRNA (pri-miRNA transcripts were responsible for the observed miRNA changes, we evaluated pri-miR-155, -222 and let-7d expression. Pri-miR-155 and -222 were not detected in GV oocytes but pri-miR-155 was present in MII oocytes, indicating transcription during maturation. In contrast, levels of pri-let-7d decreased during maturation, suggesting that the observed increase in let-7d expression was likely due to processing of the primary transcript. This study demonstrates that both dynamic and stable populations of miRNAs are present in bovine oocytes and zygotes and extend previous studies supporting the importance of the small RNA landscape in the maturing bovine oocyte and early embryo.

  13. Proteome analysis of early lineage specification in bovine embryos. (United States)

    Demant, Myriam; Deutsch, Daniela R; Fröhlich, Thomas; Wolf, Eckhard; Arnold, Georg J


    During mammalian embryo development, the zygote undergoes embryonic cleavage in the oviduct and reaches the uterus at the morula stage, when compaction and early lineage specification take place. To increase knowledge about the associated changes of the embryonic protein repertoire, we performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis of in vitro produced bovine morulae and blastocysts (six biological replicates), using an iTRAQ-based approach. A total of 560 proteins were identified of which 502 were quantified. The abundance of 140 proteins was significantly different between morulae and blastocysts, among them nucleophosmin (NPM1), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A-1 (EIF5A), receptor of activated protein kinase C 1 (GNB2L1/RACK1), and annexin A6 (ANXA6) with increased, and glutathione S-transferase mu 3 (GSTM3), peroxiredoxin 2 (PRDX2), and aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B1 (AKR1B1) with decreased abundance in blastocysts. Seventy-three percent of abundance altered proteins increased, reflecting an increase of translation activity in this period. This is further supported by an increase in the abundance of proteins involved in the translation machinery and the synthesis of ATP. Additionally, a complementary 2D saturation DIGE analysis led to the detection of protein isoforms, e.g. of GSTM3 and PRDX2, relevant for this period of mammalian development, and exemplarily verified the results of the iTRAQ approach. In summary, our systematic differential proteome analysis of bovine morulae and blastocysts revealed new molecular correlates of early lineage specification and differentiation events during bovine embryogenesis.

  14. Development of a Radioimmunoassay for Bovine Chymosin B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borceux, JP.


    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to develop and validate a specific radioimmunoassay system for measurement of bovine chymosin B (bChyB concentrations in plasma samples. Bovine ChyB was used for immunization of rabbits and as standard and tracer. Chymosin B concentrations were measured in plasma samples from two groups of calves (Group 1: calves sampled from birth to 24 hours; Group 2: calves sampled from Day 1 to 21 after birth and from one cow during the peri-partum period. Detection limit of the assay was 9.0 ng/ml. Recovery was higher than 89.3%. Repeatability and reproducibility ranged from 1.52% to 5.23% and from 1.52% to 12.57% respectively. No cross-reaction was found with pepsinogen A from bovine, porcine or human origins. In Group 1, bChyB concentrations increased from 47.3 ± 45.1 ng/ml (5 min after birth to 325.5 ± 161.2 ng/ml (12 hours after birth, then no significant change was observed till 24 hours after birth (293.0 ± 161.5 ng/ml. In Group 2, concentrations decreased from Day 1 (455.3 ± 191.1 ng/ml to Day 21 (117.9 ± 85.1 ng/ml. In adult cow, mean concentration was 136.0 ± 32.3 ng/ml. In conclusion, bChyB is able to cross the stomach basal membrane and to reach the blood circulation at detectable levels in both young calves and adult cows.

  15. Scientific Opinion on BSE risk in bovine intestines and mesentery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ


    Full Text Available Bovine intestines and mesenteries in the European Union (EU have to be removed from the food and feed chain. The opinion provides a quantitative assessment of the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE infectious load that might enter the food and feed chain yearly if bovine intestine and mesentery from animals born and raised in the EU would be re-allowed for consumption. Data on the evolution of the BSE infectious titre; and of the weight of histological structures accumulating BSE infectivity, were collected. The Cattle TSE Monitoring Model (C-TSEMM was used to estimate the number of BSE infected cattle entering undetected in the food and feed chain yearly. A model named TSEi was developed to estimates the BSE infectious load in tissues from infected animals at different ages and the total yearly infectious load that could enter the food and feed chain in the EU27. In BSE infected cattle, the infectivity associated with intestine and mesentery reaches its maximum in animals younger than 18 months and then progressively declines to a minimum value in animals older than 60 months. Due to the decline of the BSE prevalence in the EU, between 2007 and 2012, the yearly amount of BSE infectivity associated with intestine and mesentery (sent to destruction from animals entering the food and feed chain was reduced by a factor of 10. However, over this period, the maximum level of exposure to the BSE agent for individuals that would have consumed these tissues remained stable. Finally, the TSEi model indicated that the removal of the last four metres of the small intestine and of the caecum from the food and feed chain would result in a major reduction of the BSE exposure risk associated with intestine and mesentery in cattle.

  16. Mitral valve repair with a malleable bovine pericardium ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio Volpe


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe a surgical procedure utilizing a malleable bovine pericardium ring in mitral valve repair and clinical and echodopplercadiographic results. METHODS: Thirty-two (25 female and 7 male patients, aged between 9 and 66 (M=36.4±17.2 years, were studied over a 16-month period, with 100% follow-up. In 23 (72% of the patients, the mitral approach was the only one applied; 9 patients underwent associated operations. The technique applied consisted of measuring the perimeter of the anterior leaflet and implanting, according to this measurement, a flexible bovine pericardium prosthesis for reinforcement and conformation of the posterior mitral annulus, reducing it to the perimeter of the anterior leaflet with adjustment of the valve apparatus. RESULTS: The patient survival ratio was 93.8%, with 2 (6.2% fatal outcomes, one from unknown causes, the other due to left ventricular failure. Only one reoperation was performed. On echodopplercardiography, 88% of the patients had functional recovery of the mitral valve (50% without and 38% with mild insufficiency and no hemodynamic repercussions. Of four (12% of the remaining patients, 6% had moderate and 6% had seigre insufficiency. Twenty-eight percent of class II patients and 72% of class III patients passed into classes I (65%, II (32%, and III (3%, according to NYHA classification criteria. CONCLUSION: Being flexible, the bovine pericardium ring fit perfectly into the valve annulus, taking into account its geometry and contractility. Valve repair was shown to be reproducible, demonstrating significant advantages during patient evolution, which did not require anticoagulation measures.

  17. A Method of Purification of Bovine Colostrum sIgA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaofei; GAO Xuejun; YAO Yonghao; ZHOU Shenghua


    sIgA in bovine colostrum was purified by ultrafiltration and enzymolysis methods in this experiment, and the prepared substance was detected by Western Blot. The purity and yield were up to 73.6% and 65.2%, respectively. This convenient technique offers helpful exploration for production of bovine colostrum sIgA.

  18. Determining bovine viral diarrhea virus genotypes and biotypes circulating in cattle populations in Mexico (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is the disease in cattle that results from infection with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV). BVDV is found in cattle populations throughout the world. While the term BVD encompasses a wide range of clinical manifestations, including severe respiratory disease, gastroe...

  19. Evaluation of commercial ELISA kits for detection of antibodies against bovine atypical pestivirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larska, Magdalena; Polak, Mirosław P.; Uttenthal, Åse;

    A group of emerging bovine pestiviruses becomes a possible threat to Bovine Viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) control and eradication programs in the countries of their origin and in the new continents due to the lack of validated detection methods. The use of ELISA kits may be acheaper, time saving...

  20. HoBi-like viruses – the typical 'atypical bovine pestivirus' (United States)

    HoBi-like viruses, also referred to as bovine viral diarrhea virus 3 (BVDV-3) and atypical pestivirus, have been proposed as a new putative bovine pestivirus species. These viruses were first identified in the last decade and are currently distributed in at least three continents. Published findings...

  1. Transcriptomic microarray analysis of BoMac cells after infection with bovine foamy virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rola-Luszczak, M.; Materniak, M.; Pluta, A.; Hulst, M.M.; Kuz'mak, J.


    Bovine foamy virus (BFV) infections are highly prevalent among cattle worldwide. However, relatively little is known about the impact of this virus on the host immune system. In our study, we focused on a bovine macrophage cell line (BoMac) and examined changes in the BoMac transcriptome after in vi

  2. Characterization of a lectin in human plasma analogous to bovine conglutinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiel, S; Baatrup, G; Friis-Christiansen, P


    The structural characteristics of a human plasma protein analogous to bovine conglutinin were studied. The protein was previously found to bind to complement-reacted IgG in a calcium-dependent and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-inhibitable manner and it further shows cross-reactivity with anti-bovine con...

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. funduliforme Bovine Liver Abscess Isolate B35. (United States)

    Calcutt, Michael J; Foecking, Mark F; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G; Stewart, George C


    Fusobacterium necrophorum is a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium that causes foot rot and liver abscesses in cattle. F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and the less virulent organism F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme are recognized. We present here a draft genome sequence of the bovine liver abscess isolate F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme strain B35, which affords a genomic perspective of virulence and bovine adaptation.

  4. Feasibility of computed tomography based thermometry during interstitial laser heating in bovine liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandeya, G. D.; Klaessens, J. H. G. M.; Greuter, M. J. W.; Schmidt, B.; Flohr, T.; van Hillegersberg, R.; Oudkerk, M.


    To assess the feasibility of computed tomography (CT) based thermometry during interstitial laser heating in the bovine liver. Four freshly exercised cylindrical blocks of bovine tissue were heated using a continuous laser of Nd:YAG (wavelength: 1064 nm, active length: 30 mm, power: 10-30 W). All ti

  5. Quantitative milk genomics: estimation of variance components and prediction of fatty acids in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Kristian

    The composition of bovine milk fat, used for human consumption, is far from the recommendations for human fat nutrition. The aim of this PhD was to describe the variance components and prediction probabilities of individual fatty acids (FA) in bovine milk, and to evaluate the possibilities...

  6. A simple mathematical model of the bovine estrous cycle: Follicle development and endocrine interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, H.M.T.; Stötzel, C.; Röblitz, S.; Deuflhard, P.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Woelders, H.


    Bovine fertility is the subject of extensive research in animal sciences, especially because fertility of dairy cows has declined during the last decades. The regulation of estrus is controlled by the complex interplay of various organs and hormones. Mathematical modeling of the bovine estrous cycle

  7. Control of bovine leukosis virus in a dairy herd by a change in dehorning.


    DiGiacomo, R F; Hopkins, S G; Darlington, R L; Evermann, J F


    Following the demonstration that bovine leukosis virus was transmitted in calves by gouge dehorning, electrical dehorning at a younger age was implemented in a commercial Holstein herd. Subsequently, annual testing of the herd revealed a decline in the prevalence of bovine leukosis virus antibodies as older cattle dehorned by the former method were replaced by younger cattle dehorned by the latter method.

  8. Prevalence of coagulase gene polymorphism in Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing bovine mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Dangler, C. A.; Sordillo, L. M.


    This study was conducted to investigate polymorphism of the coagulase gene of Staphylococcus aureus causing bovine mastitis. One hundred eighty-seven strains of S. aureus were isolated from bovine mastitic milk samples obtained from 187 different Danish dairy farms. The isolates were characterised...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Garg


    Full Text Available We have synthesized a series of bischalcones by the Claisen-Schmidt condensation and their effect was observed on bovine serum albumin. We have found that the synthesized bischalcones interacted with bovine serum albumin irrespective of the nature and position of the substituent with a little difference.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bifeng Pan; Feng Gao; Hongchen Gu


    A hyperbranched polyamidoamine polymer was synthesized on the surface of magnetite nanoparticles to enhance bovine serum albumin (BSA) immobilization efficiency. The amount of immobilized bovine serum albumin (BSA)on the surface-hyperbranched magnetite nanoparticle was up to 2.5 times as much as that of magnetite nanoparticle modified with only amino silane.

  11. Studies on the transverse localization of lysophospholipase II in bovine liver microsomes by immunological techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, H.; Bosch, H. van den


    1. 1. Lysophospholipase activity solubilized from bovine liver microsomes could be precipitated for more than 80% by antibodies evoked in rabbits against the purified bovine liver lysophospholipase II. 2. 2. After solubilization of the microsomes in 1.5% sodium deoxycholate, an immunoprecipitate co

  12. Biochemical characterization of bovine plasma thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristensen Torsten


    Full Text Available Abstract Background TAFI is a plasma protein assumed to be an important link between coagulation and fibrinolysis. The three-dimensional crystal structures of authentic mature bovine TAFI (TAFIa in complex with tick carboxypeptidase inhibitor, authentic full lenght bovine plasma thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI, and recombinant human TAFI have recently been solved. In light of these recent advances, we have characterized authentic bovine TAFI biochemically and compared it to human TAFI. Results The four N-linked glycosylation sequons within the activation peptide were all occupied in bovine TAFI, similar to human TAFI, while the sequon located within the enzyme moiety of the bovine protein was non-glycosylated. The enzymatic stability and the kinetic constants of TAFIa differed somewhat between the two proteins, as did the isoelectric point of TAFI, but not TAFIa. Equivalent to human TAFI, bovine TAFI was a substrate for transglutaminases and could be proteolytically cleaved by trypsin or thrombin/solulin complex, although small differences in the fragmentation patterns were observed. Furthermore, bovine TAFI exhibited intrinsic activity and TAFIa attenuated tPA-mediated fibrinolysis similar to the human protein. Conclusion The findings presented here suggest that the properties of these two orthologous proteins are similar and that conclusions reached using the bovine TAFI may be extrapolated to the human protein.

  13. A Simplified Chromatographic Approach to Purify Commercially Available Bovine Submaxillary Mucins (BSM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Busk; Pakkanen, Kirsi I.; Duelund, Lars;


    In this study, a simple purification protocol is developed to reduce the bovine serum albumin (BSA) content in commercially available bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM). This involved purification of the BSM by one-column anion-exchange chromatography protocol resulting in BSM with greatly reduced BSA...

  14. Studies of the transmissibility of the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to the domestic chicken.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, J.; Hawkins, S.A.C.; Austin, A.R.; Konold, T.; Green, R.B.; Blamire, I.W.; Dexter, I.; Stack, M.J.; Chaplin, M.J.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Simmons, M.; Spencer, Y.I.; Webb, P.R.I.; Dawson, M.


    Background: Transmission of the prion disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) occurred accidentally to cattle and several other mammalian species via feed supplemented with meat and bone meal contaminated with infected bovine tissue. Prior to United Kingdom controls in 1996 on the feeding of

  15. TACC3 Is Important for Correct Progression of Meiosis in Bovine Oocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahdipour, Mahdi; Leitoguinho, Ana Rita Canhoto; Zacarias Silva, Ricardo A; van Tol, Helena T A; Stout, Tom A E; Rodrigues, Gabriela; Roelen, Bernard A J


    Transforming acidic coiled-coil (TACC) proteins are key players during mitosis via stabilization of the spindle. The roles of TACCs during meiosis are however less clear. We used bovine oocytes to study the expression and function of TACC3 during meiosis. TACC3 mRNA was detected in bovine oocytes du

  16. Simulation modelling to support national policy making in the control of bovine herpesvirus 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, A.


    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) is the causative agent of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), a respiratory disease in cattle. Increased international legislation, together with a high prevalence of BHV1 infected cattle in The Netherlands, put pressure on Dutch livestock industry to

  17. A collaborative Canadian-United Kingdom evaluation of an immunohistochemistry protocol to diagnose bovine spongiform encephalopathy (United States)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of domestic cattle. The disorder was reported in the United Kingdom in the late 1980s and was associated with recycling of ruminant byproducts in cattle feed. In 1996, the bovine disease was reported to be the cause of a...

  18. Phenotypic, ultra-structural and functional characterization of bovine peripheral blood dendritic cell subsets (United States)

    Dendritic cells (DC) are multifunctional cells that bridge the gap between innate and adaptive immune systems. In bovine, significant information is lacking on the precise identity and role of peripheral blood DC subsets. In this study, we identify and characterize bovine peripheral blood DC subsets...

  19. Evidence for a relationship between bovine erythrocyte lipid membrane peculiarities and immune pressure from ruminal ciliates (United States)

    Erythrocytes of bovines and other ruminants have a strikingly anomalous phospholipid composition, with low or absent phosphatidylcholine (PC) together with high sphingomyelin (SM) content. Here, we report the presence in normal bovine serum of high levels of anti-phospholipid antibodies of IgM isoty...

  20. Comparative evaluation of various solid phases for the development of coated tube assays for the estimation of progesterone in human serum, bovine serum and bovine milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karir, Tarveen [Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), BARC Vashi Complex, Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Navi Mumbai 400 705 (India); Samuel, Grace [Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), BARC Vashi Complex, Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Navi Mumbai 400 705 (India)], E-mail:; Sivaprasad, N.; Venkatesh, Meera [Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), BARC Vashi Complex, Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Navi Mumbai 400 705 (India)


    Immobilization of progesterone antibody using three polystyrene surfaces and two progesterone radiotracers for use in the development of a coated tube assay for the evaluation of progesterone levels in human serum, bovine serum and bovine milk was studied. The selection of the solid phase and the tracers were based on the maximum binding, non-specific binding, sensitivity and percentage recovery. Amongst the polystyrene tubes studied, streptavidin coated tubes showed the acceptable assay features such as low non-specific binding (0.5-1.0%), adequate sensitivity (0.13-0.16 ng/ml) and recovery (85-115%) for all the three sample matrices, human serum, bovine serum and bovine milk.