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Sample records for bovine enzootic hematuria

  1. Neoplasmas da bexiga associados à hematúria enzoótica bovina Urinary bladder neoplasms associated with bovine enzootic hematuria

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    Marione de Albuquerque Moreira Souto

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Relatam-se três casos de hematúria enzoótica bovina (HEB em animais provenientes do município de Jaguari, RS, Brasil. As pastagens de todas as propriedades de origem estavam altamente infestadas por samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum. Três bovinos, com idades entre 4 e 7 anos, apresentaram sinais clínicos que incluíam emagrecimento progressivo, hematúria intermitente e palidez das mucosas. As principais lesões foram observadas na bexiga e consistiam de três tipos de neoplasmas: hemangioma capilar, hemangiossarcoma e carcinoma de células escamosas. A epidemiologia, os sinais clínicos e as lesões macroscópicas e microscópicas observadas nos três bovinos são consistentes com o diagnóstico de HEB.Three cases of bovine enzootic hematuria (BHE are described in cattle from the municipality of Jaguari, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The pastures of all affected farms were highly infested with bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum. Three 4-7-year-old bovine had clinical signs of progressive weight loss, intermittent hematuria, and mucosal pallor. The main lesions were observed in the urinary bladder and consisted of three types of neoplasms: capillary hemangioma, hemangiosarcoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. The epidemiology, the clinical signs, and the gross and microscopic lesions observed in all three bovine were of BHE.

  2. Histopathological aspects of Bovine Enzootic Hematuria in Brazil Aspectos histopatológicos da Hematúria Enzoótica Bovina no Brasil

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    Paulo Vargas Peixoto

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The bladder lesions of 59 cattle, from the States of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná and Amazon, affected by Bovine Enzootic Haematuria (BEH, were studied histologically. The objective of this study was to describe and reclassify neoplastic and non-neoplastic alterations not yet reported, according to the more complete current nomenclature used in human medicine. There was an almost complete identity with alterations observed in the bladder of man. Due to the occurrence of two or more neoplasms in the same animal, differences in the methodology and in the concept of classification, a more precise comparison was not possible. Coexistence of different types of epithelial and/or mesenchymal tumour growth was frequently seen. Rare neoplasms or differentiations not previously described were found in the bladder of some animals affected by BEH. These were trabecular carcinoma with Paneth cells differentiation, mesonephroid adenoma, mesonephroid adenocarcinoma, "signet ring" cell carcinoma, plasmocytoid carcinoma, chromophobe cell carcinoma and nested type of transitional cell carcinoma. Haemangiosarcomas originating from haemangiomas were also observed. This study also revealed the occurrence of many tumors with anaplasia and pronounced infiltrative features, but which did not metastasize. The elucidation of the cause of this "barrier against metastases" and its relationship with chemical carcinogenesis induced by the ptaquiloside, the active principle of bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum, could be of interest to future research on the control ofneoplasia in man and animals.Com o objetivo de descrever alterações neoplásicas e não-neoplásicas ainda não relatadas e, paralelamente, reclassificá-las de acordo com nomenclatura mais completa e atual utilizada em medicina humana, foram estudadas, histologicamente, lesões da bexiga de 59 bovinos com Hematúria Enzoótica (HEB

  3. Evaluating enzootic bovine leukemia virus infection by means of molecular probe compared with the results of serological tests

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    Reichert, M.; Grundbock, J.; Rulka, J.; Kozaczynska, B.; Stec, J.

    1994-01-01

    The present studies were aimed at determining the relation between the finding obtained by means of serological tests and the specific molecular probe. Serological tests were performed according to the methods recommended by the Polish Ministry of Agriculture; ELISA was run with ''Bioveta'' and ''Rhone Merieux'' kits and the AGID test was performed with EBL antigen made in our laboratory. The molecular probe was prepared from the previously cloned provirus DNA of EBL virus. The EBL provirus was detected in 28 samples taken from 44 randomly selected cows in three herds on which a leukemia eradication programme was in process. Three sera out of 28 positive reacting animals were negative in AGID test and only one serum in ELISA. The results indicate that the use of a specific molecular probe has some advantages in the diagnosis of latent virus infections. Besides, it can be applied in the studies on the pathogenesis of enzootic bovine leukemia. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Relationship between the serological status towards enzootic bovine leukosis and reproductive parameters in specialized dairy herds in Costa Rica

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    Juan José Romero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An analytical longitudinal study was conducted to determine the cumulative incidence, and the relationship of the serostatus towards enzootic bovine leukosis virus (EBLV and reproductive parameters, in 26 dairy farms in Costa Rica using the VAMPP Bovine information system. A first sampling was carried out in 2006- 2007 in animals older than 6 months old; then, in 2009, a second sampling was performed in all cows seronegative in 2006-2007. The overall and farm- specific cumulative incidence were calculated; then, comparisons of these were performed by race and parity number, using the Chi-square test. The relationship of EBLV status with the calving interval (CI, services per conception (SPC and days open (DO by parity number and race groups, was determined using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The overall incidence was 21.8% (173/794, with 38.5% of farms with incidences higher to 40%. The seroconversion rate in cows with 1-2 parities (23.5% was different than those with 6 or more parities (p=0.03. Holstein x Jersey cows had the highest incidence (33.3%, followed by Holstein (27.1%. According to the farmers, in the 26 farms (100% they used an individual needle and a single rectal palpation glove per animal; however, 53.8% of farms showed incidences above 15%. In general, there was a tendency to lower CI in seronegative cows with regard to seropositives and seroconverters, especially in seropoisitives of 1-2 lactations (p=0.017 and 3-5 lactations (p=0.038. Regardless parity number or race, the seropositives and seroconverters required more SPC (p=0.031; this same tendency (not significant was observed in DO. Thus, it was found some relation of the status about EBLV with CI and SPC, but not with DO, although there was no statistical significance in some of the differences found, with better parameters in seronegative cows.

  5. Survey of ferns and clinico-pathological studies on the field cases of Enzootic bovine haematuria in Himachal Pradesh, a north-western Himalayan state of India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rai, Sarvesh K.; Sharma, Rinku; Kumari, Alka

    2017-01-01

    Enzootic bovine haematuria (EBH) in cattle occurs in upland areas of the world. In India, the disease is present in isolated pockets in the Himalayas and in the Nilgiri Hills. The variation in the disease incidence has been attributed to different environmental conditions and animal rearing pract...... bladder tissue, the field case was diagnosed as transitional cell adenocarcinoma with chronic lymphocytic cystitis.......B) in some of the ferns collected from Kullu and Chamba regions ranged from 0 to 358.6 ± 70.5 μg/g and 0 to 652.4 ± 50.0 μg/g, respectively. In addition, field cases of the disease in cattle were also studied in the EBH endemic districts. A total of sixteen cattle urine samples and one urinary bladder of EBH...

  6. Comparison of agar gel immunodiffusion test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PCR in diagnostics of enzootic bovine leukosis

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    Malovrh Tadej

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV is a retrovirus that induces a chronic infection in cattle. Once infected, cattle remain virus carriers for life and start to show an antibody response within a few weeks after infection. Eradication and control of the disease are based on early diagnostics and segregation of the carriers. The choice of a diagnostic method depends on the eradication programme, money resources and characteristics of the herd to be analysed. The agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID test has been the serological test of choice for routine diagnosis of serum samples. Nevertheless, in more recent years, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA has replaced the AGID for large scale testing. For this purpose, commercially available BLV-ELISA kits were compared to the AGID and to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR method performed with two sets of primers, amplifying env region. The ELISA kit based on the p24 core protein was found to be less specific and served as a screening test. The ELISA kit based on the envelope glycoprotein (gpSI served as a verification test and gave a good correlation with the AGID test and PCR method. However, ELISA showed a higher sensitivity than AGID. The p24 based ELiSA was useful for screening a large number of samples, whereas gp51 based ELISA, AGID and PCR were more important for detecting the antibody response against the individual BLV-proteins and therefore for verification of the infection with BLV.

  7. Loin pain hematuria syndrome.

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    Taba Taba Vakili, Sahar; Alam, Tausif; Sollinger, Hans

    2014-09-01

    Loin pain hematuria syndrome is a rare disease with a prevalence of ∼0.012%. The most prominent clinical features include periods of severe intermittent or persistent unilateral or bilateral loin pain accompanied by either microscopic or gross hematuria. Patients with loin pain hematuria syndrome initially present with hematuria, flank pain, or most often both hematuria and flank pain. Kidney biopsies from patients with loin pain hematuria typically reveal only minor pathologic abnormalities. Further, loin pain hematuria syndrome is not associated with loss of kidney function or urinary tract infections. Loin pain hematuria syndrome-associated hematuria and pain are postulated to be linked to vascular disease of the kidney, coagulopathy, renal vasospasm with microinfarction, hypersensitivity, complement activation on arterioles, venocalyceal fistula, abnormal ureteral peristalsis, and intratubular deposition of calcium or uric acid microcrystals. Many patients with loin pain hematuria syndrome also meet criteria for a somatoform disorder, and analgesic medications, including narcotics, commonly are used to treat loin pain hematuria syndrome-associated pain. Interventional treatments include renal denervation, kidney autotransplantation, and nephrectomy; however, these methods should be used only as a last resort when less invasive measures have been tried unsuccessfully. In this review article, we discuss and critique current clinical practices related to loin pain hematuria syndrome pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. PCR em tempo real para diagnóstico da leucose enzoótica bovina Enzootic bovine leukosis real time PCR

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    Natanael Lamas Dias

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar a validação de uma reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real com o sistema Plexor® (qPCR para o diagnóstico da Leucose Enzoótica Bovina (LEB, por meio da comparação com testes de diagnóstico recomendados pela Organização Mundial de Saúde Animal (OIE. A qPCR foi comparada com duas outras técnicas: a PCR nested (nPCR e a imunodifusão em gel de ágar (IDGA. Das 82 amostras analisadas pela qPCR e nPCR, 79 apresentaram resultados concordantes, sendo a concordância, classificada pelo Índice Kappa, como alta. Entre as PCRs e a IDGA, o número de resultados concordantes foi de 71 e 69, respectivamente, para qPCR e nPCR, sendo a concordância classificada como considerável. A qPCR apresentou altos valores de sensibilidade e especificidade. Os valores preditivos da qPCR observados demonstraram a alta capacidade de classificação dos casos positivos e negativos. A qPCR não foi capaz de detectar três amostras positivas e tem custo ligeiramente superior que a nPCR. Entretanto, a qPCR é uma técnica mais rápida, menos susceptível a contaminações, tem alta sensibilidade, não utiliza e não gera resíduos carcinogênicos. Concluímos que a qPCR pode substituir a nPCR recomendada pela OIE no diagnóstico de rotina em áreas em que a LEB é endêmica, como no Brasil.The goal of this research was to validate a Plexor® real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR for Enzootic Bovine Leukosis (EBL diagnosis by comparison with methods recommend by the World Animal Health Organization (OIE. The qPCR was compared with two other techniques: the nested PCR (nPCR and to the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID. Of 82 qPCR and nPCR analysed samples, 79 presented concordant results, being the concordance classified by Kappa Index as high. Between the PCRs and AGID, the number of concordant results was 71 and 69, out of 82, to qPCR and nPCR, respectively, being the concordance classified as considerable, in both

  9. CT urography and hematuria

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    Bretlau, Thomas; Hansen, Rasmus H; Thomsen, Henrik S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) urography is now used in the work-up of patients with hematuria. The dose of contrast medium and radiation varies considerably between the different CT protocols. PURPOSE: To study the disease prevalence in a consecutive group of patients with hematuria...

  10. Imaging of hematuria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Owen J

    2012-02-03

    Hematuria may have a number of causes, of which the more common are urinary tract calculi, urinary tract infection, urinary tract neoplasms (including renal cell carcinoma and urothelial tumors), trauma to the urinary tract, and renal parenchymal disease. This article discusses the current status of imaging of patients suspected of having urologic causes of hematuria. The role of all modalities, including plain radiography, intravenous urography or excretory urography, retrograde pyelography, ultrasonography, and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in evaluation of these patients is discussed. The article highlights the current status of MDCT urography in imaging of patients with hematuria, and discusses various-often controversial-issues, such as optimal protocol design, accuracy of the technique in imaging of the urothelium, and the significant issue of radiation dose associated with MDCT urography.

  11. Imaging of hematuria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Owen J

    2010-10-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this article, we will discuss the current status of imaging in patients with hematuria of urologic origin. Issues impacting evaluation of these patients with radiography, excretory urography, retrograde pyelography, and sonography will be discussed. CONCLUSION: Conventional radiography has no role in the detection of renal or urothelial carcinoma. Low-dose CT offers much greater sensitivities for the detection of urinary tract calculi than radiography at doses equivalent to conventional radiography. Ultrasound alone is insufficient for imaging of hematuria. Using ultrasound alone, it is often difficult to differentiate renal transitional cell carcinoma from other causes of filling defects of the renal collecting system such as blood clots, sloughed papillae, or fungus balls. The prominence of the role of excretory urography in the evaluation of patients with hematuria has diminished, and MDCT urography is now preferred to excretory urography in most cases.

  12. Diagnosis of enzootic pneumonia in Danish cattle: reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in naturally and experimentally infected cattle

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    Larsen, Lars Erik; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Viuff, B.

    1999-01-01

    A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed for detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) in lung tissue of naturally and experimentally infected cattle. Primers were selected from the gene coding the F fusion protein, which is relatively conserved......, in addition, 10 animals that were negative with the ELISA were positive with the RT-PCR assay. These results indicates that the RT-PCR assay can be a sensitive, reliable alternative to conventional diagnostic procedures....... among BRSV isolates. The RT-PCR assay was highly specific, it yielded positive reactions only when performed on BRSV-infected cell cultures or tissues. The detection limit of the RT-PCR assay was assessed as 5 TCID50. BRSV was detected in tissues of the respiratory tract and in the tracheobroncheal...

  13. Enzootic Nasal Adenocarcinoma: Cytological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma (ENA), a contagious retroviral disease of sheep and goats, characterized by neoplastic growth of the ethmoidal mucosa in the nasal cavity is described in a West African Dwarf goat (WAD). A two-year old WAD goat, weighing approximately 20kg was observed in the Teaching and Research ...

  14. Renal US in children with asymptomatic hematuria

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    Brody, A.S.; Strife, J.L.; Bisset, G.S. III.

    1987-01-01

    The authors reviewed the renal US clinical evaluation, and laboratory data of 78 pediatric patients referred for asymptomatic hematuria. Patients with known renal disease, trauma, mass, infection, or severe pain were excluded. Thirty-two presented with gross hematuria. Nine had abnormal findings on US (28%). Increased echogenicity was the most common abnormality. Forty-five presented with microscopic hematuria. Eight had abnormal findings on US (18%). Bladder wall thickening was the most common abnormality. All patients with renal disease or significant anatomic abnormalities presented with gross hematuria and/or associated abnormalities in history, physical examination, or urinalysis. In asymptomatic patients with microscopic hematuria, significant US abnormalities are rare

  15. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

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    Han, Seung Seok [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myounghee, E-mail: dkkim73@gmail.com [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Mi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sejoong [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwon Wook [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

  16. Leech in urinary bladder causing hematuria.

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    Alam, Shadrul; Das Choudhary, Mrigen Kumar; Islam, Kabirul

    2008-02-01

    To estimate efficacy of normal saline in the management of hematuria caused by accidental entry of a leech per urethra into the urinary bladder. An intervention study was carried out in the Department of Pediatric Surgery of Sylhet MAG Osmani Medical College between January 1998 and December 2003. A total of 43 boys (mean age 8 years, SD+/-2.6) were enrolled. In all cases, a leech had entered the urinary bladder through the urethra causing hematuria. All patients were equipped with a self-retaining Foley catheter. They were managed by infusing 50ml of normal saline into the urinary bladder through the catheter that was then clamped for 3h. After removing the catheter, in all cases the whole leech was spontaneously expelled intact, dead or alive, within 2-24h during the subsequent act of micturition. Hematuria gradually diminished to a clear flow within the next 6h in 27 cases, 12h in 14 cases and 24h in two cases. All patients were followed up for 2 weeks, and none developed recurrent hematuria. Catheterization and irrigation of the urinary bladder with normal saline is a relatively simple, safe and inexpensive method of removing the leech and controlling hematuria.

  17. Evaluation of hematuria in anticoagulated patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuttino, J.T.; Clark, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of investigating hematuria in anticoagulated patients the authors examined records of 25 consecutive patients with hematuria who were on an anticoagulation regimen with sodium warfarin (Coumadin) for various thromboembolic disorders. All had undergone intravenous urography (IVU) and 12 had undergone cystoscopy. Potential bleeding sources were discovered in 14 patients by IVU and in seven patients by cystoscopy. Disorders found were renal stones (4), transitional carcinoma (1), lymphoma (1), retroperitoneal hematoma (1), bladder tumors (2), calcified renal mass (1), hemorrhagic cystitis (2), and enlarged prostate (7). In 18 (72%) patients, the findings on IVU and/or cystoscopy were abnormal. Hematuria is a serious symptom that warrants investigation in anticoagulated as well as nonanticoagulated patients

  18. Castleman's Disease: An Interesting Cause of Hematuria.

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    Tolofari, Sotonye Karl; Chow, Wai-Man; Hussain, Basharat

    2015-03-01

    Castleman's disease is a rare benign lymphoproliferative disorder, characterized by benign growths of the lymph node tissue. It is associated with a number of malignancies, including Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's and Hodgkins lymphoma, and POEMS syndrome. This report describes the case of a 38 year old gentleman, presenting with painless hematuria. Initial investigations, including flexible cystoscopy were unremarkable. However, subsequent imaging including CT Urogram and MR pelvis revealed multiple prevesical lesions. Histology obtained from excision biopsy revealed histological features consistent with Castleman's disease. In this report we discuss the nature, presentation and treatment modalities of this rare condition.

  19. PREVALÊNCIA DE LEUCOSE ENZOÓTICA BOVINA, DIARRÉIA VIRAL BOVINA RINOTRAQUEÍTE INFECCIOSA BOVINA E NEOSPOROSE BOVINA EM 26 PROPRIEDADES LEITEIRAS DA REGIÃO NORDESTE DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRASIL PREVALENCE OF ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS, BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA, INFECTIOUS BOVINE RHINOTRACHEITIS AND BOVINE NEOSPOROSIS IN 26 DAIRY CATTLE FARMS FROM THE NORTHEAST REGION OF RIO GRANDE DO SUL , BRAZIL

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    Cleber Fiori

    2008-12-01

    .936 and sex (p = 0.562. Of the 360 sheep samples, nine (2.5% were reactive. There also was no significant association between the analyzed variables and the seropositiveness for brucellosis: age group (p = 0.522; race (p = 0.576 and sex (p = 0.461. Significant association was observed (p = 0.042 among the studied species and seropositiveness for brucellosis in the investigated animals. The seropositiveness for Brucella abortus in goats and sheep was traced for the first time in the “Sertão” (dry interior region, backlands of Pernambuco, fact that can hinder the success of the National Program of Control and Erradication of Brucellosis, due to the fact that it is common to raise small ruminants with bovines in this area, besides representing risks to Public Health.
     
    KEY WORDS: Brucellosis, ovines, caprines, small ruminants, serodiagnosis.

  20. Creation and validation of a visual macroscopic hematuria scale for optimal communication and an objective hematuria index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lih-Ming; Chum, Jia-Min; Maddy, Peter; Chan, Steven T F; Travis, Douglas; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2010-07-01

    Macroscopic hematuria is a common symptom and sign that is challenging to quantify and describe. The degree of hematuria communicated is variable due to health worker experience combined with lack of a reliable grading tool. We produced a reliable, standardized visual scale to describe hematuria severity. Our secondary aim was to validate a new laboratory test to quantify hemoglobin in hematuria specimens. Nurses were surveyed to ascertain current hematuria descriptions. Blood and urine were titrated at varying concentrations and digitally photographed in catheter bag tubing. Photos were processed and printed on transparency paper to create a prototype swatch or card showing light, medium, heavy and old hematuria. Using the swatch 60 samples were rated by nurses and laymen. Interobserver variability was reported using the generalized kappa coefficient of agreement. Specimens were analyzed for hemolysis by measuring optical density at oxyhemoglobin absorption peaks. Interobserver agreement between nurses and laymen was good (kappa = 0.51, p visual scale to grade and communicate hematuria with adequate interobserver agreement is feasible. The test for optical density at oxyhemoglobin absorption peaks is a new method, validated in our study, to quantify hemoglobin in a hematuria specimen. Copyright (c) 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. HYPNOTHERAPY INTERVENTION FOR LOIN PAIN HEMATURIA: A CASE STUDY1

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    Elkins, Gary R.; Koep, Lauren L.; Kendrick, Cassie E.

    2012-01-01

    Loin pain hematuria is characterized by chronic loin pain, hematuria, and dysuria. There are no known effective treatments for loin pain hematuria and longer-term use of analgesics and surgical options are often ineffective or associated with negative side effects. This article reports on a 17-year-old female patient diagnosed with loin pain hematuria who presented with unilateral, uncontrolled loin pain following numerous unsuccessful attempts at controlling her symptoms with traditional medical interventions—including antibiotics, opioids, and renal denervation. The patient received 8 sessions of hypnotherapy. Baseline, end-point, and follow-up measures administered included the General Health Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire, Pain Discomfort Scale, and visual analogue measures of pain, academic interference, and social interference. At follow-up, results indicated clinically significant decreases in pain, anxiety, and depression with nearly complete remission of presenting symptoms. PMID:22098573

  2. Frank hematuria as the presentation feature of acute leukemia

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    Suriya Owais

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Muco-cutaneous bleeding is a common presenting feature of acute leukemias. Mucosal bleeding usually manifests as gum bleeding and/or epistaxis but may occur in any mucosal surface of the body. Hematuria as an isolated or main presenting feature of acute leukemia is rare. We describe two cases of acute leukemia, a 19 year old male with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and a 52 year old male with acute myeloid leukemia, both presenting with gross hematuria. There was no demonstrable leukemic infiltration of the urinary tract on imaging studies. Hematuria in these patients was likely to be due to occult leukemic infiltration of the urinary system, aggravated by thrombocytopenia, as it subsided after starting chemotherapy. Our cases highlight that hematuria should be remembered as a rare presenting feature of acute leukemia.

  3. WhatsApp Use In The Evaluation of Hematuria.

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    Sener, Tarik Emre; Butticè, Salvatore; Sahin, Bahadir; Netsch, Christopher; Dragos, Laurian; Pappalardo, Rosa; Magno, Carlo

    2018-03-01

    The advancements in telemedicine provide the possibility to send photos of hematuria cases to professionals for further evaluation. We aimed to evaluate the inter-rater reliability of WhatsApp use in the evaluation of hematuria. Between December 2014 and April 2016, 212 patients were evaluated prospectively for hematuria by 2 groups of urologists; Group A: in direct contact with patients for evaluation; Group B: "blind" urologist who had no access to the patients' data but received pictures via WhatsApp. Two photos of voided urine in a sterile container were taken and sent using WhatsApp. The opinions of Group A and B about the grade of hematuria were evaluated. Shapiro-Wilk test and Fleiss' kappa statistics were used for statistical analyses. The median age of patients was 71 (min 22, max 96). The Group A urologists were in accordance in 96.22% of cases. Group B urologists had common opinions in 99.5% (n = 203) and there was almost perfect agreement between 2 groups (λ = 0.992). The number of common opinions among "blind" urologists is more than the number of common opinions among the consultants. When further classification is performed as serious and non-serious hematuria, the rate of misdiagnosing serious cases is approximately 6.5-7%. However, using WhatsApp, the urologists can differentiate normal urine and any form of hematuria with 100% accuracy. It is possible to evaluate hematuria remotely and also reduce unnecessary costs of services for hematuria of mild clinical significance by using telemedicine. WhatsApp can provide valuable aid to tertiary hospitals where the urologist is not always present as well as in rural areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Bleeding Diathesis in Unobserved Ground After the Diagnostic Ureterorenoscopy Gross Hematuria

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    Ižsmail Nalbant

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Hematuria is one of the common urological problem. The main causes of hematuria are malignancies, urinary tract infection and urinary tract stone disease. But sometimes use of anticoagulants, bleeding diathesis and intravesical chemotherapy can cause the hematuria. In our study, we aimed to present a patient with hematuria and has bleeding diathesis but detected any additional urological pathology.

  5. Familial microscopic hematuria caused by hypercalciuria and hyperuricosuria.

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    Praga, M; Alegre, R; Hernández, E; Morales, E; Domínguez-Gil, B; Carreño, A; Andrés, A

    2000-01-01

    We report 12 patients belonging to five different families in whom persistent isolated microhematuria was associated with hypercalciuria and/or hyperuricosuria. Four patients had episodes of gross hematuria, three patients had passed renal stones, and a history of nephrolithiasis was obtained in four of the families (80%). Calcium oxalate and uric acid crystals were commonly observed in the urine sediments. Urinary erythrocytes had a normal appearance on phase-microscopic examination. Reduction of calciuria and uricosuria by thiazide diuretics, allopurinol, forced fluid intake, and dietetic measures led to a persistent normalization of urine sediment with complete disappearance of hematuria. Determination of calcium and uric acid urinary excretions should be included in the study of familial hematuria.

  6. [Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia presenting with hematuria and severe anemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, A; Goren, E; Segal, M

    1995-07-01

    A patient with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia was admitted with hematuria and severe anemia after mild recurrent episodes of epistaxis. Telangiectasias were found in the skin and buccal and nasal mucosa. No defect in the coagulation mechanism was found; thrombocyte count and function were normal. On cystoscopy, tortuous engorged vessels, some actively bleeding, were seen in the trigonal mucosa. Biopsy showed enlarged vessels in the lamina propria. Electrocoagulation of the bleeding vessels stopped hematuria, but 6 months later it recurred. This time Nd-YAG laser was used to stop the bleeding after electrocoagulation was ineffective.

  7. Attenuated enzootic (pestoides) isolates of Yersinia pestis express active aspartase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearden, Scott W; Sexton, Christopher; Pare, Joshua; Fowler, Janet M; Arvidson, Cindy G; Yerman, Lyudmyla; Viola, Ronald E; Brubaker, Robert R

    2009-01-01

    It is established that Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic plague, recently evolved from enteropathogenic Yersinia pseudotuberculosis by undergoing chromosomal degeneration while acquiring two unique plasmids that facilitate tissue invasion (pPCP) and dissemination by fleabite (pMT). Thereafter, plague bacilli spread from central Asia to sylvatic foci throughout the world. These epidemic isolates exhibit a broad host range including man as opposed to enzootic (pestoides) variants that remain in ancient reservoirs where infection is limited to muroid rodents. Cells of Y. pseudotuberculosis are known to express glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (Zwf) and aspartase (AspA); these activities are not detectable in epidemic Y. pestis due to missense mutations (substitution of proline for serine at amino position 155 of Zwf and leucine for valine at position 363 of AspA). In this study, functional Zwf was found in pestoides strains E, F and G but not seven other enzootic isolates; enzymic activity was associated with retention of serine at amino acid position 155. Essentially, full AspA activity occurred in pestoides isolates where valine (pestoides A, B, C and D) or serine (pestoides E, F, G and I) occupied position 363. Reduced activity occurred in strains Angola and A16, which contained phenylalanine at this position. The kcat but not Km of purified AspA from strain Angola was significantly reduced. In this context, aspA of the recently described attenuated enzootic microtus biovar encodes active valine at position 363, further indicating that functional AspA is a biomarker for avirulence of Y. pestis in man.

  8. Use of tylvalosin in the control of porcine enzootic pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Pallarés, F. J.; Lasa, C.; Roozen, M.; Ramis, G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of tylvalosin (Aivlosin Water Soluble Granules, ECO Animal Health) in drinking water for control of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M hyo) on a farm with chronic enzootic pneumonia (EP) problems and high prevalence of mycoplasma-like lesions at slaughter. Design On a 4000-sow farm in the southeast of Spain, 1500 animals of same age were randomly divided into two groups: 900 pigs in the treated group (TG) and 600 pigs in the non-tr...

  9. The diagnosis of bovine basesiosis (babesia bovis) by means of the test of ELISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon Arenas, Edgar; Guillen, Ana Teresa; Silva, Maglene

    1997-01-01

    Between 1994 and 1996 a kit ELISA, developed by the FAO - IAEA for the diagnose of bovine babesiosis produced by Babesia bovis, was validated. There were processed a total of 547 blood serums from bovine between 9 and 18 months old, coming from high and low risk to illness areas. The point obtained for the test was 0.178 (DO) and the resulting percentages inside the population studied was 48% animal positive and 52% bovine negative. These results confirm that bovine population in Venezuela is in enzootic uncertainty areas for bovine babesiosis [es

  10. Macroscopic hematuria: A rare etiology in western countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahjat Barakat

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Although schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases worldwide, the infection frequently being found in migrants and travelers, its recognition in Italy may be delayed as patients may either present symptoms or be asymptomatic, especially with regard to localization in the bladder, in a similar way to other infectious diseases. We report a case of urinary schistosomiasis in a young African male with persistent hematuria which did not respond to antibiotic treatment administered on suspicion of a urinary bacterial infection. The present case indicates that urinary schistosomiasis should be ruled out, especially in those patients presenting symptoms and coming from areas known to be endemic for helminthiasis. Finally, bladder polyps must be ruled out in cases of migrants with unexplained urinary inflammation associated either with or without hematuria.

  11. Vesical schistosomiasis with terminal hematuria in sub-Saharan patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J; Calleja, E; Marne, C; Borque, A

    2014-03-01

    To know the characteristics of vesical schistosomiasis caused by schistosoma hematobium in immigrant patients. The retrospective study of 41 cases microbiologically diagnosed in our hospital over the last 16 years is presented. Data was collected on origin, age, presentation form, diagnostic tests and treatment. All were African patients whose ages ranged from 4 to 32 years and who had terminal macroscopic hematuria. Most of the patients (85%) were men. In all of the cases, diagnosis was by a urinary microbiological study and in one case, cystoscopy with a biopsy of a typical vesical lesion. Terminal hematuria is the most representative clinical sign. They were treated with praziquantel. The epidemiology and intermittent terminal hematuria in African patients should lead to the suspicion of vesical schistosomiasis as the first diagnostic option. Urinary microbiological study is a rapid, non-invasive, test with high diagnostic yield that would avoid performing invasive studies. Its simple treatment assures high level of compliance and consequent efficacy. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Nephrolithiasis and hematuria--sometimes a stony road to diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellin, L; Quack, I; Weiner, S M; Waldherr, R; Henning, B; Hofebauer, S; Rump, L C

    2005-08-01

    We report a case of a young man with a history of kidney stones. Occurrence of gross hematuria several months after the extracorporeal shock wave, lithotripsy (ESWL) treatment lead to hospitalization. By ultrasound and abdominal CT scan, the urologist could exclude post-renal causes of the gross hematuria and acute renal failure. After transfer to a department of nephrology hemodialysis was started, an immediate kidney biopsy was performed and prednisolone was administered on the same day. The kidney biopsy revealed an anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease. The renal function did not recover and the patient remained on hemodialysis. In the literature it has been hypothesized that ESWL-treated patients are prone to develop anti-GBM disease by liberation of glomerular basement antigen through the ESWL high energy shock waves. An additional hypothesis considering the higher susceptibility for anti-GBM disease among certain HLA-tissue types is discussed with regard to our case. Unfortunately, the prolonged track to diagnosis and delayed immunosuppressive treatment could not prevent poor clinical outcome. Although anti-GBM disease is a rather rare disease, it should be included as a differential diagnosis for hematuria--especially months after ESWL treatment. Otherwise early diagnosis may be missed and as in our patient immunosuppressive treatment will remain unsuccessful to recover renal function.

  13. Prevalence and epidemiological features of ovine enzootic abortion in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdonas, J; Petkevicius, S; Russo, P; Pepin, M; Salomskas, A

    2007-01-01

    The aim of performed study was to determine the level of enzootic abortion (EA) in sheep breeding farms in different districts of Lithuania, to determine differences in clinical signs and infection frequency between various age groups, and to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of complement fixation test for antibodies detection and indirect immunofluorescence for antigen detection in sheep chlamydiosis. The clinical, serological and immunological tests in sheep farms were performed in 2004 and 2005. Comparing different age groups of sheep revealed that the lowest number of infected sheep was registered in animals younger than 18 months (23.1%, antibodies titre 3.191 log2, Pabortus infection. The highest prevalence of chlamydia (66.7%) was registered in placentas of sheep which aborted.

  14. Hematuria intermitente: Esquistosomiasis vesical. A propósito de un caso Intermittent hematuria: Vesical schistosomosis. Concerning one case

    OpenAIRE

    D. Morales; J. Molina; A. Martínez Ortiz; V. Martínez Artola; X. Beristáin

    2009-01-01

    Presentamos un caso clínico de un paciente con esquistosomiasis vesical que consideramos inusual en nuestro entorno. El cuadro clínico de esta parasitosis es habitualmente el de una hematuria intermitente de semanas de evolución que no se resuelve con las medidas terapéuticas habituales. Debido al aumento de población inmigrante procedente de áreas endémicas, debemos pensar cada vez más en esta patología emergente. Con el tratamiento el proceso se resuelve satisfactoriamente, pudiéndose evita...

  15. Use of tylvalosin in the control of porcine enzootic pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallarés, F J; Lasa, C; Roozen, M; Ramis, G

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of tylvalosin (Aivlosin Water Soluble Granules, ECO Animal Health) in drinking water for control of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M hyo) on a farm with chronic enzootic pneumonia (EP) problems and high prevalence of mycoplasma-like lesions at slaughter. On a 4000-sow farm in the southeast of Spain, 1500 animals of same age were randomly divided into two groups: 900 pigs in the treated group (TG) and 600 pigs in the non-treated control group (CG). TG was medicated for seven days with tylvalosin in drinking water (2.5 mg tylvalosin/kg bodyweight (BW)) at weaning (from 21st to 28th day of life) and a second treatment when moved to finisher barn (from 63rd to 70th day of life). In the TG, there was a significant reduction in the severity (Ptylvalosin/kg BW in drinking water for seven days at weaning and when moved to finisher barn significantly reduces mycoplasma-like lung lesions and improves productivity parameters.

  16. Acquired factor VIII inhibitor syndrome: A rare cause of hematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthuvel Seral Kannan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old woman presented with gross hematuria for 1 month. Clinical examinations, laboratory investigations, ultrasound and contrast computed tomography were normal, except anemia. Cystoscopy revealed bloody efflux from the right side. Retrograde pyelogram showed filling defect in the renal pelvis and biopsy was inconclusive. Renal angiogram was normal. She developed ecchymosis on the right thigh and arm with elevated activated partial thromboplastin time. The partial thromboplastin time correction study and Bethesda study confirmed the presence of acquired factor VIII inhibitor (acquired hemophilia. With flexible ureterorenoscopy, the mass in the renal pelvis was removed and its histopathology revealed clotted blood. The patient was subsequently managed with steroids and Factor eight inhibitor bypass activity.

  17. Genetic and anatomic determinants of enzootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection of Culex (Melanoconion taeniopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan L Kenney

    Full Text Available Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE is a re-emerging, mosquito-borne viral disease with the potential to cause fatal encephalitis in both humans and equids. Recently, detection of endemic VEE caused by enzootic strains has escalated in Mexico, Peru, Bolivia, Colombia and Ecuador, emphasizing the importance of understanding the enzootic transmission cycle of the etiologic agent, VEE virus (VEEV. The majority of work examining the viral determinants of vector infection has been performed in the epizootic mosquito vector, Aedes (Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus. Based on the fundamental differences between the epizootic and enzootic cycles, we hypothesized that the virus-vector interaction of the enzootic cycle is fundamentally different from that of the epizootic model. We therefore examined the determinants for VEEV IE infection in the enzootic vector, Culex (Melanoconion taeniopus, and determined the number and susceptibility of midgut epithelial cells initially infected and their distribution compared to the epizootic virus-vector interaction. Using chimeric viruses, we demonstrated that the determinants of infection for the enzootic vector are different than those observed for the epizootic vector. Similarly, we showed that, unlike A. taeniorhynchus infection with subtype IC VEEV, C. taeniopus does not have a limited subpopulation of midgut cells susceptible to subtype IE VEEV. These findings support the hypothesis that the enzootic VEEV relationship with C. taeniopus differs from the epizootic virus-vector interaction in that the determinants appear to be found in both the nonstructural and structural regions, and initial midgut infection is not limited to a small population of susceptible cells.

  18. Hematuria following stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for clinically localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurka, Marie K; Chen, Leonard N; Bhagat, Aditi; Moures, Rudy; Kim, Joy S; Yung, Thomas; Lei, Siyuan; Collins, Brian T; Krishnan, Pranay; Suy, Simeng; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Lynch, John H; Collins, Sean P

    2015-01-01

    Hematuria following prostate radiotherapy is a known toxicity that may adversely affect a patient’s quality of life. Given the higher dose of radiation per fraction using stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) there is concern that post-SBRT hematuria would be more common than with alternative radiation therapy approaches. Herein, we describe the incidence and severity of hematuria following stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for prostate cancer at our institution. Two hundred and eight consecutive patients with prostate cancer treated with SBRT monotherapy with at least three years of follow-up were included in this retrospective analysis. Treatment was delivered using the CyberKnife® (Accuray) to doses of 35–36.25 Gy in 5 fractions. Toxicities were scored using the CTCAE v.4. Hematuria was counted at the highest grade it occurred in the acute and late setting for each patient. Cystoscopy findings were retrospectively reviewed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Hematuria-associated bother was assessed via the Expanded Prostate Index Composite (EPIC)-26. The median age was 69 years with a median prostate volume of 39 cc. With a median follow-up of 48 months, 38 patients (18.3%) experienced at least one episode of hematuria. Median time to hematuria was 13.5 months. In the late period, there were three grade 3 events and five grade 2 events. There were no grade 4 or 5 events. The 3-year actuarial incidence of late hematuria ≥ grade 2 was 2.4%. On univariate analysis, prostate volume (p = 0.022) and history of prior procedure(s) for benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) (p = 0.002) were significantly associated with hematuria. On multivariate analysis, history of prior procedure(s) for BPH (p < 0.0001) and α 1A antagonist use (p = 0.008) were significantly associated with the development of hematuria. SBRT for prostate cancer was well tolerated with hematuria rates comparable to other radiation modalities. Patients factors

  19. Emphysematous cystitis: a rare cause of gross hematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chirn-Bin; Chang, Chia-Chu

    2011-05-01

    Emphysematous cystitis is a relatively rare infectious condition of the urinary bladder. The mortality rate is high if the diagnosis is delayed or if the treatment is inadequate. We present an uncommon case of emphysematous cystitis and highlight the risk factors for this disease. An 81-year-old man with a past medical history of type 2 diabetes and a central pontine infarction presented to the Emergency Department due to gross hematuria. Computed tomography (CT) and plain radiography revealed localized gas within the bladder that was compatible with the diagnosis of emphysematous cystitis. A Foley catheter was inserted. Urine culture grew Klebsiella pneumoniae; 2 g cefotaxime daily was initiated. Subsequent plain radiography and CT scan showed regression of intraluminal gas. We recommend CT for the definitive diagnosis of emphysematous cystitis. Adequate antibiotic therapy, strict blood glucose control, adequate drainage of urine, and early goal-directed therapy for suspected sepsis are suggested to prevent the complications of emphysematous cystitis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Transarterial embolization for hematuria caused by renal arteriovenous malformations or fistulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xiaoxi; Liu Shiyuan; Dong Weihua; Dong Sheng; Jia Ningyang; Xiao Xiangsheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of transarterial embolization for hematuria caused by renal arteriovenous malformation or fistulae. Methods: Seven patients with gross hematuria caused by renal arterial abnormalities were retrospectively reviewed, of which three had congenital renal arteriovenous malformations and the other four had non-neoplastic acquired renal arteriovenous fistulae. All patients were confirmed by renal arterial angiography and undergone embolization with various embolic materials. Results: Embolization was successfully carried out in all cases. Gross hematuria disappeared one to seven days after the procedure. No severe complications were encountered. No recurrence occurred within 12 to 36 months of follow-up. Conclusions: Transarterial embolization is safe and effective for hematuria caused by renal arteriovenous malformations or fistulae. (authors)

  1. Treatment of Persistent Gross Hematuria with Tranexamic Acid in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In this retrospective study we aimed to compare the effect of tranexamic acid (TXA vs etamsylate, two hemostatic agents, on hematuria duration in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD patients with persistent gross hematuria. Methods: This is a retrospective study of 40 patients with ADPKD and macroscopic hematuria. 20 patients receiving TXA and snake venom blood clotting enzyme injection were compared with 20 matched patients receiving etamsylate and snake venom blood clotting enzyme injection. The primary outcome was hematuria duration and the secondary outcomes were blood transfusion requirements and adverse events. Results: The hematuria duration was shorter in the TXA group compared with the etamsylate group (4[3-5] d vs 7[6-10] d, P<0.001. The volume of blood transfusion tended to be less in the TXA group than in the etamsylate group (300±115 ml vs 486±195 ml, P=0.12, and the number of patients needing a blood transfusion also tended to be lower [20% (4/20 vs 35% (7/20, P=0.29]. TXA and etamsylate were equally well tolerated and no serious adverse events were observed in both groups. Conclusions: Our study indicates that TXA treatment was more effective than etamsylate in stopping bleeding in ADPKD patients with persistent gross hematuria.

  2. Macroscopic Hematuria After Conventional or Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy: Results From a Prospective Phase 3 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanguineti, Giuseppe, E-mail: sanguineti@ifo.it [Department of Radiation Oncology, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Arcidiacono, Fabio [Department of Radiation Oncology, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Landoni, Valeria [Department of Physics, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Saracino, Bianca Maria; Farneti, Alessia; Arcangeli, Stefano; Petrongari, Maria Grazia; Gomellini, Sara [Department of Radiation Oncology, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Strigari, Lidia [Department of Physics, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Arcangeli, Giorgio [Department of Radiation Oncology, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy)

    2016-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the macroscopic hematuria rates within a single-institution randomized phase 3 trial comparing dose-escalated, conventionally fractionated radiation therapy (CFRT) and moderately hypofractionated radiation therapy (MHRT) for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients with intermediate- to high-risk localized prostate cancer were treated with conformal RT and short-course androgen deprivation. Both the prostate and the entire seminal vesicles were treated to 80 Gy in 40 fractions over 8 weeks (CFRT) or 62 Gy in 20 fractions over 5 weeks (MHRT). The endpoint of the present study was the development of any episode or grade of macroscopic hematuria. The median follow-up period was 93 months (range 6-143). Results: Macroscopic hematuria was reported by 25 of 168 patients (14.9%). The actuarial estimate of hematuria at 8 years was 17.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.7%-23.3%). The number of patients with hematuria was 6 and 19 in the CFRT and MHRT arms, respectively, for an actuarial 8-year estimate of 9.7% and 24.3%, respectively (hazard ratio 3.468, 95% CI 1.385-8.684; P=.008). Overall, 8 of 25 patients were found to have biopsy-proven urothelial carcinoma (3 in the CFRT arm and 5 in the MHRT arm; P=.27). Thus, the 8-year actuarial incidence of macroscopic hematuria (after censoring urothelial cancer–related episodes) was 4.1% and 18.2% after CFRT and MHRT, respectively (hazard ratio 4.961, 95% CI 1.426-17.263; P=.012). The results were confirmed by multivariate analysis after accounting for several patient-, treatment-, and tumor-related covariates. Conclusions: MHRT was associated with a statistically significant increased risk of macroscopic hematuria compared with CFRT.

  3. Macroscopic Hematuria After Conventional or Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy: Results From a Prospective Phase 3 Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Arcidiacono, Fabio; Landoni, Valeria; Saracino, Bianca Maria; Farneti, Alessia; Arcangeli, Stefano; Petrongari, Maria Grazia; Gomellini, Sara; Strigari, Lidia; Arcangeli, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the macroscopic hematuria rates within a single-institution randomized phase 3 trial comparing dose-escalated, conventionally fractionated radiation therapy (CFRT) and moderately hypofractionated radiation therapy (MHRT) for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients with intermediate- to high-risk localized prostate cancer were treated with conformal RT and short-course androgen deprivation. Both the prostate and the entire seminal vesicles were treated to 80 Gy in 40 fractions over 8 weeks (CFRT) or 62 Gy in 20 fractions over 5 weeks (MHRT). The endpoint of the present study was the development of any episode or grade of macroscopic hematuria. The median follow-up period was 93 months (range 6-143). Results: Macroscopic hematuria was reported by 25 of 168 patients (14.9%). The actuarial estimate of hematuria at 8 years was 17.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.7%-23.3%). The number of patients with hematuria was 6 and 19 in the CFRT and MHRT arms, respectively, for an actuarial 8-year estimate of 9.7% and 24.3%, respectively (hazard ratio 3.468, 95% CI 1.385-8.684; P=.008). Overall, 8 of 25 patients were found to have biopsy-proven urothelial carcinoma (3 in the CFRT arm and 5 in the MHRT arm; P=.27). Thus, the 8-year actuarial incidence of macroscopic hematuria (after censoring urothelial cancer–related episodes) was 4.1% and 18.2% after CFRT and MHRT, respectively (hazard ratio 4.961, 95% CI 1.426-17.263; P=.012). The results were confirmed by multivariate analysis after accounting for several patient-, treatment-, and tumor-related covariates. Conclusions: MHRT was associated with a statistically significant increased risk of macroscopic hematuria compared with CFRT.

  4. First case report of enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma in "Ouled Djellal" ewe in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Sid

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report clinical and pathological features of enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma (ENA in one sheep in Algeria. A one-year-old Ouled Djellal sheep from a large herd (~1240 animals, located in Bordj Bou Arreridj, Algeria, was clinically diagnosed by the presence of persistent seromucous nasal discharge, head shaking, muzzle licking, dyspnoea, exophthalmia and frontal protrusion. The sheep was euthanized, and the necropsy was performed. Gross examination showed soft touch, pinkish-white tumour masses in the nasal cavities with distortion of the turbinates and of the medium septum. According to clinical and pathological findings, the tumour has been defined as a low grade mixed nasal adenocarcinoma, with the presence of tubular and papillary structures. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of ENA in Algeria known to be associated with enzootic nasal tumour virus (ENTV infection. However, such association requires confirmation by direct and/or indirect viral investigation.

  5. Therapeutic and post-lesional aspects of enzootic pneumonia in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian C. Stancu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The mycoplasmas are causing significant economic damage, these conditions being constant attention of farmers and veterinary services. Economic losses may be due to mortality, veterinary restrictions, a decrease in meat production, increased feed consumption and expenditure specific therapeutic and control measures. The conducted reaserches aimed at methods of disease treatment and diagnosis of enzootic pneumonia based on morphopathological lesions (macroscopic and histopathologicalin dead pigs cases.

  6. Therapeutic and post-lesional aspects of enzootic pneumonia in pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian C. Stancu

    2013-01-01

    The mycoplasmas are causing significant economic damage, these conditions being constant attention of farmers and veterinary services. Economic losses may be due to mortality, veterinary restrictions, a decrease in meat production, increased feed consumption and expenditure specific therapeutic and control measures. The conducted reaserches aimed at methods of disease treatment and diagnosis of enzootic pneumonia based on morphopathological lesions (macroscopic and histopathological)in dead p...

  7. Hematuria screening test for urinary bladder mucosal infiltration in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuttiangtum, Ayuth; Udomthavornsuk, Banchong; Chumworathayi, Bandit

    2012-01-01

    To determine the diagnostic performance of hematuria as a screening test for urinary bladder infiltration in cervical cancer patients with a prospective study design. Newly diagnosed cervical cancer patients at Srinagarind hospital from 14 June 2011 to 30 April 2012 were enrolled in this study. We collected midstream urine samples for urinalysis from every patient before routine cystoscopic exam for clinical staging. The presence of 3 or more red blood cells (RBCs) per high power field was defined as positive for hematuria. A two-by-two table was used to determine the diagnostic performance of hematuria to detect urinary bladder mucosal infiltration using cystoscopy and biopsy as the gold standard. A total of 130 were patients included, 54 of which (41.5%) had hematuria. Of these, four patients (3.08%) had pathological report from cystoscopic biopsy confirmed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of hematuria as a screening test to detect urinary bladder mucosal infiltration of cervical cancer were 100%, 60.3%, 7.4%, 100%, and 61.5%, respectively. There was no single case of urinary bladder mucosal infiltration in patients initially staged less than stage III. Hematuria can be used as a screening test to detect urinary bladder mucosal infiltration of cervical cancer. This can reduce the number of cervical cancer patients who really need to undergo cystoscopy as a staging procedure to less than half and to less than 20% if stage III or more were included without missing a single case of urinary bladder mucosal infiltration.

  8. Urinary bladder metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma: A rare cause of hematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Wai Man Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We presented an unusual case of hematuria caused by a solitary bladder metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma. A confident diagnosis of secondary adenocarcinoma of the bladder was made by clinical suspicion based on patient′s past history, careful examination of tumor morphology, and a directed panel (cytokeratin [CK] 7/CK20/thyroid transcription factor 1 of immunohistochemistry. We sought, through sharing our experience in the investigative and diagnostic process, to contribute to the better understanding of this unusual cause of hematuria.

  9. Nutcracker Syndrome and Sickle Cell Trait: A Perfect Storm for Hematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Amier; McElwee, Samuel K; Kraemer, Ryan R

    2017-05-01

    We describe the case of a 27-year-old woman with a history of sickle cell trait (SCT) who presented with several months of hematuria and was found to have nutcracker syndrome (NCS). While SCT is a common cause of hematuria resulting from renal papillary necrosis, our patient had concomitant abdominal pain and anemia, prompting further evaluation and the subsequent diagnosis of NCS. Interestingly, the anoxia in the left renal vein from NCS predisposes patients with SCT to sickling. Our case highlights key clinical features of both NCS and SCT and the relationship between the two disease processes.

  10. CT urography in the diagnosis of renal masses in patients with hematuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warshauer, D.M.; Street, L.; McCarthy, S.M.; Glickman, M.G.; Ritcher, J.; Rosenfield, A.T.

    1987-01-01

    The optimal method for the diagnosis of renal masses in patients with hematuria has been in question since the introduction of axial imaging techniques. A prospective study comparing excretory urography and nephrotomography (EU) with limited renal CT was undertaken. Results showed EU able to detect approximately 75% of CT-confirmed masses greater than 2 cm, but less than 10% of CT masses smaller than 2 cm. These results suggest that a combination study of CT/EU utilizing a single contrast injection with EU for imaging the collecting system and CT for renal parenchymal evaluation would be the best screening study in patients with hematuria

  11. The role of imaging in the investigation of painless hematuria in adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Regan, Kevin N

    2009-08-01

    The radiologic investigation of asymptomatic hematuria has changed significantly due to the introduction of new imaging modalities and innovative techniques, such as computed tomography urogaphy, which allows a comprehensive evaluation of the entire urinary tract in a single study. There is still a role for "older" imaging modalities, such as intravenous urography and ultrasound, and their use is still advocated in younger patients with a lower risk of malignancy to minimize radiation dose. Combined modality imaging can also be useful for characterization of lesions. Guidelines have recently been published for the radiologic investigation of hematuria; these are discussed in this article.

  12. Btryoid Wilm's tumor in a child presenting with gross hematuria: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chae Jung; Im, Young Jae; Shin, Hyun Joo; Kim, Myung Joon; Lee, Mi Jung [Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    We report a unique case of botryoid Wilms' tumor with its characteristic imaging findings in a 5-month-old boy presenting with gross hematuria. In our case, ultrasonography revealed lobulated hyperechoic lesions filling the pelvicalyceal system without parenchymal invasion, mimicking a blood clot. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated the exact extent of the lesion with diffusion restriction and delayed enhancement suggestive of a tumor. Despite their rarity, botryoid Wilms' tumors should be included in the differential diagnosis of lobulated renal pelvic lesions presenting as gross hematuria in children, and MRI can suggest the diagnosis.

  13. Computed tomography-urography for upper urinary tract imaging: is it required for all patients who present with hematuria?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauberg, Evelyne C. C.; Nio, C. Y.; de la Rosette, Jean M. C. H.; Laguna, M. Pilar; de Reijke, Theo M.

    2011-01-01

    To define in which patients who present with microscopic or macroscopic hematuria CT urography (CTU) is indicated as an imaging mode for the upper urinary tract (UUT). We conducted a prospective study on consecutive patients who attended a modern protocol-driven hematuria clinic from January 2006 to

  14. Pre-diagnosis quality of life (QoL) in patients with hematuria : Comparison of bladder cancer with other causes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens-Laan, C.A.; Kil, P.J.M.; Bosch, J.L.; de Vries, J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine quality of life (QoL), health status, sexual function, and anxiety in patients with primary hematuria who later appear to have bladder cancer (BC) and patients with other diagnoses. Methods From July 2007 to July 2010, 598 patients with primary hematuria were enrolled in this

  15. Idiopathic renal hematuria in a dog; the usefulness of a method of partial occlusion of the renal artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishina, M; Watanabe, T; Yugeta, N; Maeda, H; Fujii, K; Wakao, Y; Takahashi, M; Yamamura, H

    1997-04-01

    Exploratory laparotomy was performed on a dog suspected of having idiopathic renal hematuria. Two catheters were inserted into the bilateral ureters, and hematuria from the left kidney was confirmed. The blood flow was occluded in the ventral and dorsal rami of the left renal artery in order to localize the site of hemorrhage. As hematuria disappeared when the dorsal ramus was occluded, the site of renal hematuria was localized to the area dominated by the dorsal ramus of the renal artery. As a result of ligating the dorsal ramus of the left renal artery in this dog, renal hematuria subsided, and the dog has shown a favorable course, to date, one year after surgery.

  16. Bladder Metastasis of non-Small Cell Lung Cancer : an Unusual Cause of Hematuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karatas, O. Faruk; Bayrak, Reyhan; Yildirim, M. Erol; Bayrak, Omer; Cimentepe, Ersin; Unal, Dogan

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 2% of bladder malignancies are metastatic. The lung cancer makes metastasis sporadically to the bladder. A-69-year-old female patient presented with a history of pain in kidneys, vomiting and hematuria. Cystoscopic examination of the patient revealed small bladder capacity and solitary

  17. Gross hematuria as the presentation of an inguinoscrotal hernia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari Kayvan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Several complications have been reported with inguinal hernias. Although hematuria and flank pain, either as the presentation or as a complication of inguinal hernia, are infrequent, this condition may lead to the development of obstructive uropathy, which can have diverse manifestations. Case presentation A 71-year-old Iranian man with Persian ethnicity presented with new onset episodes of gross hematuria and left-sided flank pain. A physical examination revealed a large and non-tender inguinal hernia on his left side. An initial workup included an abdominal ultrasound, an intravenous pyelogram and cystoscopy, which showed left hydronephrosis and a bulging on the left-side of his bladder wall. On further evaluation, computed tomography confirmed that his sigmoid colon was the source of the pressure effect on his bladder, resulting in hydroureteronephrosis and hematuria. No tumoral lesion was evident. Herniorrhaphy led to the resolution of his signs and symptoms. Conclusion Our case illustrates a rare presentation of inguinal hernia responsible for gross hematuria and unilateral hydronephrosis. Urologic signs and symptoms can be caused by the content of inguinal hernias. They can also present as complications of inguinal hernias.

  18. The diagnostic efficiency of ultrasound guided imaging algorithm in evaluation of patients with hematuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unsal, Alparslan, E-mail: alparslanunsal@yahoo.com [Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 09100 Aydin (Turkey); Caliskan, Eda Kazak [Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 09100 Aydin (Turkey); Erol, Haluk [Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Urology, 09100 Aydin (Turkey); Karaman, Can Zafer [Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 09100 Aydin (Turkey)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To assess the efficiency of the following imaging algorithm, including intravenous urography (IVU) or computed tomography urography (CTU) based on ultrasonographic (US) selection, in the radiological management of hematuria. Materials and methods: One hundred and forty-one patients with hematuria were prospectively evaluated. Group 1 included 106 cases with normal or nearly normal US result and then they were examined with IVU. Group 2 was composed of the remaining 35 cases which had any urinary tract abnormality, and they were directed to CTU. Radiological results were compared with clinical diagnosis. Results: Ultrasonography and IVU results of 97 cases were congruent in group 1. Eight simple cysts were detected with US and 1 non-obstructing ureter stone was detected with IVU in remaining 9 patients. The only discordant case in clinical comparison was found to have urinary bladder cancer on conventional cystoscopy. Ultrasonography and CTU results were congruent in 30 cases. Additional lesions were detected with CTU (3 ureter stones, 1 ureter TCC, 1 advanced RCC) in remaining 5 patients. Ultrasonography + CTU combination results were all concordant with clinical diagnosis. Except 1 case, radio-clinical agreement was achieved. Conclusion: Cross-sectional imaging modalities are preferred in evaluation of hematuria. CTU is the method of choice; however the limitations preclude using CTU as first line or screening test. Ultrasonography is now being accepted as a first line imaging modality with the increased sensitivity in mass detection compared to IVU. The US guided imaging algorithm can be used effectively in radiological approach to hematuria.

  19. Enzootic plague reduces black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) survival in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchett, Marc R.; Biggins, Dean E.; Carlson, Valerie; Powell, Bradford; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2010-01-01

    Black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) require extensive prairie dog colonies (Cynomys spp.) to provide habitat and prey. Epizootic plague kills both prairie dogs and ferrets and is a major factor limiting recovery of the highly endangered ferret. In addition to epizootics, we hypothesized that enzootic plague, that is, presence of disease-causing Yersinia pestis without any noticeable prairie dog die off, may also affect ferret survival. We reduced risk of plague on portions of two ferret reintroduction areas by conducting flea control for 3 years. Beginning in 2004, about half of the ferrets residing on dusted and nondusted colonies were vaccinated against plague with an experimental vaccine (F1-V fusion protein). We evaluated 6-month reencounter rates (percentage of animals observed at the end of an interval that were known alive at the beginning of the interval), an index to survival, for ferrets in four treatment groups involving all combinations of vaccination and flea control. For captive-reared ferrets (115 individuals observed across 156 time intervals), reencounter rates were higher for vaccinates (0.44) than for nonvaccinates (0.23, p = 0.044) on colonies without flea control, but vaccination had no detectable effect on colonies with flea control (vaccinates = 0.41, nonvaccinates = 0.42, p = 0.754). Flea control resulted in higher reencounter rates for nonvaccinates (p = 0.026), but not for vaccinates (p = 0.508). The enhancement of survival due to vaccination or flea control supports the hypothesis that enzootic plague reduces ferret survival, even when there was no noticeable decline in prairie dog abundance. The collective effects of vaccination and flea control compel a conclusion that fleas are required for maintenance, and probably transmission, of plague at enzootic levels. Other studies have demonstrated similar effects of flea control on several species of prairie dogs and, when combined with this study, suggest

  20. Clinical testing of combined vaccine against enzootic pneumonia in industrial pig farming in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Pepovich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the pig farm with signs of a respiratory disease complex and laboratory confirmed enzootic pneumonia, the prophylactic efficacy of the combination vaccine (M. hyo+PCV2, a single injection administered intramuscularly 21 days after birth, at a dose of 2 ml was tested. The clinical condition, pathological changes in the lungs and some epidemiological and economic results were reported. It was found that vaccinated pigs are in a better clinical condition in comparison with the control group. Morbidity in the rearing period was reduced from 16.3% in the control group to 6.0% in vaccinated pigs, and in the fattening period, respectively, from 30.6% in the control group to 10.0% in the vaccinated group. Pathological features in the lung characteristic for the enzootic pneumonia in the vaccinated pigs were reduced from 25.5%±7.24 to 4.0%±2.44, and PCVI - from 13.0%±4.66 to 0%. Vaccination of pigs has been received and a higher average daily gain in groups for rearing (0.624 kg and for fattening (0.723 kg was recorded.

  1. Hematuria and clot retention after transvaginal oocyte aspiration: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modder, Joshua; Kettel, L Michael; Sakamoto, Kyoko

    2006-09-01

    To report a case of bladder injury with hematuria and urinary retention after transvaginal oocyte aspiration. Case report. Emergency room in a university medical center. A 28-year-old woman presented with urinary retention and suprapubic pain 8 hours after oocyte aspiration. Foley catheter, intravenous fluid bolus, bladder irrigation, and computed tomography with postvoid films that showed a blood clot in the bladder. Patient was discharged home with antibiotics and catheter in place. Clinical follow-up. Patient passed voiding trial 4 days later and was artificially inseminated. No further hematuria or voiding problems were reported, and she had a successful pregnancy. Patients who elect to undergo oocyte aspiration should be warned about the possibility of bladder injury because of the close proximity of the ovaries to the bladder, and physicians should have an appropriate treatment plan.

  2. Severe hematuria after transurethral electrocoagulation in a patient with an arteriovesical fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiangyi; Lin, Yiwei; Chen, Bin; Zhou, Xianyong; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Shen, Yuehong; Xie, Liping

    2013-12-01

    Arteriovesical fistulas are extremely rare. Only eleven cases were previously reported in the literature. They can occur iatrogenically, traumatically or spontaneously. We report an unusual case of a 62-year-old woman with arteriovesical fistula that developed fatal hematuria after transurethral electrocoagulation. Computed tomography (CT) and selective angiography revealed a pseudoaneurysm of the right superior vesical artery with arteriovesical fistula formation, which was managed by transarterial embolization. Contrast enhanced CT or CT angiography should be performed when a pulsatile hemorrhage is revealed during cystoscopy. Therapeutic vesical arterial embolization should be considered as a safe and effective procedure for arteriovesical fistulas. Transurethral electrocoagulation may cause severe hematuria for pulsatile bladder bleeding in patients with pelvic vascular malformation.

  3. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder without gross hematuria: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wanqiu; Luan, Yang; Jin, Lu; Wang, Tao; Chen, Ruibao; Liu, Zheng; Chen, Zhiqiang; Lan, Ruzhu

    2015-09-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCCB) is a rare and aggressive form of bladder cancer with poor prognosis. Hematuria is the main symptom of this malignancy, and most patients have a history of smoking. The disease incidence of malignant bladder tumors in China is approximately 0.74%. Early and accurate diagnosis of SCCB can ensure timely and appropriate treatment of this malignant disease. Oncologic surgery is the standard treatment; however, it may not be a curative approach. Chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy should be performed following surgical removal. This case report describes a patient with a single neoplasm diagnosed as SCCB that arose because of recurrence of bladder cancer after bladder tumor resection. In contrast to previously reported cases, this patient had no gross hematuria and no history of smoking.

  4. Arterioureteral Fistula: Treatment of a Hemorrhagic Shock with Massive Hematuria by Placing a Balloon Catheter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquet, Hervé; Nicolacopoulos, Ioannis; Alame, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Arterioureteral fistulas (AUF) are serious diseases with increasing incidence. This case report relates the management of AUF in a patient with a history of abdominal oncological surgery, pelvic radiotherapy, and a double J stent in place. The fistula was discovered during a hemorrhagic shock with massive hematuria. The bleeding was controlled by a balloon catheter which led to endovascular treatment consisting of a covered stent. PMID:28465857

  5. Arterioureteral Fistula: Treatment of a Hemorrhagic Shock with Massive Hematuria by Placing a Balloon Catheter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Merzeau

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Arterioureteral fistulas (AUF are serious diseases with increasing incidence. This case report relates the management of AUF in a patient with a history of abdominal oncological surgery, pelvic radiotherapy, and a double J stent in place. The fistula was discovered during a hemorrhagic shock with massive hematuria. The bleeding was controlled by a balloon catheter which led to endovascular treatment consisting of a covered stent.

  6. Hematuria renal idiopática: reporte de un caso clínico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Serna Valencia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un caso de hematuria renal idiopática en un canino de la raza Mastín Napolitano de 7,5 años de edad, presentado a consulta por hematuria con varios meses de evolución; los análisis de sangre, orina y las ayudas de imagenología (radiografía y ecografía no fueron suficientes para indicar un diagnóstico. Se recomendó la celiotomía exploratoria y, después de cateterizar los uréteres desde el interior de la vejiga, se estableció que el sangrado provenía del riñón derecho, el cual fue extirpado con su uréter. Se realizaron exámenes de histopatología del riñón extirpado, encontrándose nefrosis y un proceso degenerativo generalizado a nivel de corteza y médula renal. La hematuria no se resolvió en el postoperatorio, seguramente por ser de origen bilateral; el paciente murió de otra causa no relacionada, y no fue posible evaluar el riñón contralateral.

  7. Utility of urine cytology in evaluating hematuria with sonographically suspected bladder lesion in patients older than 50 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussam Eldin Helmy Mady

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Hematuria in patients older than 50 years with sonographically suspected bladder lesion mandates cystoscopy and biopsy. UC does not add more significant information in this group of patients.

  8. An enzootic outbreak of acute disease associated with pathogenic E. coli in Adler monkey colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapin, Boris A; Yakovleva, Lelita A; Dzhikidze, Eteri K; Gvozdik, Tatiana E; Agumava, Aslan A; Stasilevich, Zinaida K; Danilova, Irina G

    2015-12-01

    In spring 2009 in Adler colony of the Institute of Medical Primatology, a large enzootic outbreak of acute intestine infection associated with pathogenic E. coli occurred and caused 5% mortality of population (209 animals). The epidemiological analysis, bacteriological investigation, postmortem examination, histological analysis, and PCR were used to identify the infectious agent. Marked hemorrhagic diathesis, lethargy, dehydration, diarrhea with blood, wasting, and sometimes dystrophic changes in articular cartilages were noted. Morphologically, hemorrhagic enterocolitis and massive hemorrhages were found. PCR investigation of bacteriologically isolated E. coli characterized it as enteropathogenic and enteroinvasive E. coli. The outbreak in Adler colony slightly differed from similar outbreak in Florida in 2014 by more marked hemorrhagic diathesis and articular changes in some monkeys caused by polyavitaminosis developed in the course of infection. Sensitive to infection were M. mulatta, M. fascicularis, Cercopithecus aethiops, P. hamadryas and anubis, and Cebus capucinus. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Diagnosis of porcine enzootic pneumonia by post mortem sanitary inspection: comparison with other diagnostic methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kênia de Fátima Carrijo; Elmiro Rosendo do Nascimento; Virginia Léo de Almeida Pereira; Nelson Morés; Catia Silene Klein; Leonardo Muliterno Domingues; Rogerio Tortelly

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Carrijo K.F., Nascimento E.R., Pereira V.L.A., Morés N., Klein, C.S., Domingues L.M. & Tortelly R. [Diagnosis of porcine enzootic pneumonia by post mortem sanitary inspection: comparison with other diagnostic methods.] Diagnóstico da pneumonia enzoótica suína pela inspeção sanitária post mortem: comparação com outros métodos de diagnóstico. Revista Brasileira de Veterinária Brasileira 36(2):188-194, 2014. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Av. Par...

  10. Association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and hematuria: Results from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClintock, Tyler R.; Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Makarov, Danil V.; Ge, Wenzhen; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Hasan, Rabiul; Sarwar, Golam; Slavkovich, Vesna; Bjurlin, Marc A.; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) exposure has been associated with both urologic malignancy and renal dysfunction; however, its association with hematuria is unknown. We evaluated the association between drinking water As exposure and hematuria in 7843 men enrolled in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data was conducted with As exposure assessed in both well water and urinary As measurements, while hematuria was measured using urine dipstick. Prospective analyses with Cox proportional regression models were based on urinary As and dipstick measurements obtained biannually since baseline up to six years. At baseline, urinary As was significantly related to prevalence of hematuria (P-trend < 0.01), with increasing quintiles of exposure corresponding with respective prevalence odds ratios of 1.00 (reference), 1.29 (95% CI: 1.04–1.59), 1.41 (95% CI: 1.15–1.74), 1.46 (95% CI: 1.19–1.79), and 1.56 (95% CI: 1.27–1.91). Compared to those with relatively little absolute urinary As change during follow-up (− 10.40 to 41.17 μg/l), hazard ratios for hematuria were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.80–1.22) and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65–0.99) for those whose urinary As decreased by > 47.49 μg/l and 10.87 to 47.49 μg/l since last visit, respectively, and 1.17 (95% CI: 0.94–1.45) and 1.36 (95% CI: 1.10–1.66) for those with between-visit increases of 10.40 to 41.17 μg/l and > 41.17 μg/l, respectively. These data indicate a positive association of As exposure with both prevalence and incidence of dipstick hematuria. This exposure effect appears modifiable by relatively short-term changes in drinking water As. - Highlights: • Hematuria is the most common symptom of urinary tract disease. • Arsenic exposure is associated with renal dysfunction and urologic malignancy. • Water arsenic was positively associated with prevalence and incidence of hematuria. • Reduction in exposure lowered hematuria risk especially in low-to-moderate exposed

  11. Association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and hematuria: Results from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClintock, Tyler R. [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Urology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Chen, Yu, E-mail: yu.chen@nyumc.org [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Parvez, Faruque [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Makarov, Danil V. [Department of Urology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service, New York University, New York, NY (United States); United States Department of Veterans Affairs Harbor Healthcare System, New York, NY (United States); New York University Cancer Institute, New York, NY (United States); Ge, Wenzhen [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Hasan, Rabiul; Sarwar, Golam [U-Chicago Research Bangladesh, Ltd., Dhaka (Bangladesh); Slavkovich, Vesna [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Bjurlin, Marc A. [Department of Urology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Graziano, Joseph H. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); and others

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic (As) exposure has been associated with both urologic malignancy and renal dysfunction; however, its association with hematuria is unknown. We evaluated the association between drinking water As exposure and hematuria in 7843 men enrolled in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data was conducted with As exposure assessed in both well water and urinary As measurements, while hematuria was measured using urine dipstick. Prospective analyses with Cox proportional regression models were based on urinary As and dipstick measurements obtained biannually since baseline up to six years. At baseline, urinary As was significantly related to prevalence of hematuria (P-trend < 0.01), with increasing quintiles of exposure corresponding with respective prevalence odds ratios of 1.00 (reference), 1.29 (95% CI: 1.04–1.59), 1.41 (95% CI: 1.15–1.74), 1.46 (95% CI: 1.19–1.79), and 1.56 (95% CI: 1.27–1.91). Compared to those with relatively little absolute urinary As change during follow-up (− 10.40 to 41.17 μg/l), hazard ratios for hematuria were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.80–1.22) and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65–0.99) for those whose urinary As decreased by > 47.49 μg/l and 10.87 to 47.49 μg/l since last visit, respectively, and 1.17 (95% CI: 0.94–1.45) and 1.36 (95% CI: 1.10–1.66) for those with between-visit increases of 10.40 to 41.17 μg/l and > 41.17 μg/l, respectively. These data indicate a positive association of As exposure with both prevalence and incidence of dipstick hematuria. This exposure effect appears modifiable by relatively short-term changes in drinking water As. - Highlights: • Hematuria is the most common symptom of urinary tract disease. • Arsenic exposure is associated with renal dysfunction and urologic malignancy. • Water arsenic was positively associated with prevalence and incidence of hematuria. • Reduction in exposure lowered hematuria risk especially in low-to-moderate exposed

  12. Construction of a molecular clone of ovine enzootic nasal tumor virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Scott R; Gerpe, María Carla Rosales; Wootton, Sarah K

    2016-12-30

    Enzootic nasal tumor virus (ENTV-1) is an ovine betaretrovirus that has been linked to enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma (ENA), a contagious tumor of the ethmoid turbinates of sheep. Transmission experiments performed using virus isolated from cell free nasal tumor homogenates suggest that ENTV-1 is the causative agent of ENA; however, this etiological relationship has not been conclusively proven due to the fact that the virus cannot be propagated in vitro nor is there an infectious molecular clone of the virus. Here we report construction of a molecular clone of ENTV-1 and demonstrate that transfection of this molecular clone into HEK 293T cells produces mature virus particles. Analysis of recombinant virus particles derived from the initial molecular clone revealed a defect in the proteolytic processing of Gag; however, this defect could be corrected by co-expression of the Gag-Pro-Pol polyprotein from the highly related Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) suggesting that the polyprotein cleavage sites in the ENTV-1 molecular clone were functional. Mutagenesis of the molecular clone to correct amino acid variants identified within the pro gene did not restore proteolytic processing; whereas deletion of one proline residue from a polyproline tract located in variable region 1 (VR1) of the matrix resulted in production of CA protein of the mature (cleaved) size strongly suggesting that normal virion morphogenesis and polyprotein cleavage took place. Finally, electron microscopy revealed the presence of spherical virus particles with an eccentric capsid and an average diameter of about 100 nm. In summary, we have constructed the first molecular clone of ENTV-1 from which mature virus particles can be produced. Future experiments using virus produced from this molecular clone can now be conducted to fulfill Koch's postulates and demonstrate that ENTV-1 is necessary and sufficient to induce ENA in sheep.

  13. Evaluation of an Epigenetic Profile for the Detection of Bladder Cancer in Patients with Hematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kessel, Kim E M; Van Neste, Leander; Lurkin, Irene; Zwarthoff, Ellen C; Van Criekinge, Wim

    2016-03-01

    Many patients enter the care cycle with gross or microscopic hematuria and undergo cystoscopy to rule out bladder cancer. Sensitivity of this invasive examination is limited, leaving many patients at risk for undetected cancer. To improve current clinical practice more sensitive and noninvasive screening methods should be applied. A total of 154 urine samples were collected from patients with hematuria, including 80 without and 74 with bladder cancer. DNA from cells in the urine was epigenetically profiled using 2 independent assays. Methylation specific polymerase chain reaction was performed on TWIST1. SNaPshot™ methylation analysis was done for different loci of OTX1 and ONECUT2. Additionally all samples were analyzed for mutation status of TERT (telomerase reverse transcriptase), PIK3CA, FGFR3 (fibroblast growth factor receptor 3), HRAS, KRAS and NRAS. The combination of TWIST1, ONECUT2 (2 loci) and OTX1 resulted in the best overall performing panel. Logistic regression analysis on these methylation markers, mutation status of FGFR3, TERT and HRAS, and patient age resulted in an accurate model with 97% sensitivity, 83% specificity and an AUC of 0.93 (95% CI 0.88-0.98). Internal validation led to an optimism corrected AUC of 0.92. With an estimated bladder cancer prevalence of 5% to 10% in a hematuria cohort the assay resulted in a 99.6% to 99.9% negative predictive value. Epigenetic profiling using TWIST1, ONECUT2 and OTX1 results in a high sensitivity and specificity. Accurate risk prediction might result in less extensive and invasive examination of patients at low risk, thereby reducing unnecessary patient burden and health care costs. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The use of molecular analyses in voided urine for the assessment of patients with hematuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukers, Willemien; Kandimalla, Raju; van Houwelingen, Diandra

    2013-01-01

    variables into a logistic regression model. Results Logistic regression analysis based on the five methylation markers, age, gender and type of hematuria resulted in an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.88 and an optimism corrected AUC of 0.84 after internal validation by bootstrapping. Using a cut-off value...... examination of low risk patients and thereby, reducing patient burden and costs. Further validation in a large prospective patient cohort is necessary to prove the true clinical value of this model....

  15. [Placenta percreta with bladder invasion: an uncommon cause of hematuria during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Solís, A; Leo-Barahona, M; Romero-López, A I; Gómez-Guerrero, J M

    2014-01-01

    Placenta percreta with bladder invasion is a very uncommon condition that can lead to very severe complications in pregnant women. Although it is often diagnosed during delivery, imaging techniques are very useful for early diagnosis, which is fundamental for planning surgery and avoiding potentially lethal complications. We present the case of a woman with a history of cesarean section who presented with hematuria and low back pain. The diagnosis of placenta percreta with bladder invasion was suggested after ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging and was confirmed at surgery. We provide a brief review of the literature, emphasizing the role of imaging techniques. Copyright © 2012 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Massive hematuria due to a congenital renal arteriovenous malformation mimicking a renal pelvis tumor: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sountoulides P

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Congenital renal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs are very rare benign lesions. They are more common in women and rarely manifest in elderly people. In some cases they present with massive hematuria. Contemporary treatment consists of transcatheter selective arterial embolization which leads to resolution of the hematuria whilst preserving renal parenchyma. Case presentation A 72-year-old man, who was heavy smoker, presented with massive hematuria and flank pain. CT scan revealed a filling defect caused by a soft tissue mass in the renal pelvis, which initially led to the suspicion of a transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the upper tract, in view of the patient's age and smoking habits. However a subsequent retrograde study could not depict any filling defect in the renal pelvis. Selective right renal arteriography confirmed the presence of a renal AVM by demonstrating abnormal arterial communication with a vein with early visualization of the venous system. At the same time successful selective transcatheter embolization of the lesion was performed. Conclusion This case highlights the importance of careful diagnostic work-up in the evaluation of upper tract hematuria. In the case presented, a congenital renal AVM proved to be the cause of massive upper tract hematuria and flank pain in spite of the initial evidence indicating the likely diagnosis of a renal pelvis tumor.

  17. Effect of tranexamic acid on gross hematuria: A pilot randomized clinical trial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moharamzadeh, Payman; Ojaghihaghighi, Seyedhossein; Amjadi, Mohsen; Rahmani, Farzad; Farjamnia, Arezoo

    2017-12-01

    Local forms of the tranexamic acid have been effective in treating many haemorrhagic cases. So that the aim of the current study is to assess the effectiveness of local tranexamic acid in controlling painless hematuria in patients referred to the emergency department. This is a randomized, double-blind clinical trial study, which was conducted on 50 patients with complaints of painless lower urinary tract bleeding during June 2014 and August 2015. The patients were randomly divided into two groups of 25 people each, one group receiving tranexamic acid and the other given a placebo. During bladder irrigation, local tranexamic acid and the placebo were injected into the bladder via Foley catheter. Patients were examined over 24h in terms of the amount of normal saline serum used for irrigation, level of hemoglobin, and blood in urine. In this study it was observed that consumption of tranexamic acid significantly decreased the volume of used serum for bladder irrigation (P=0.041) and the microscopic status of urine decreased significantly in terms of the hematuria after 24h (P=0.026). However, the rate of packed cell transfusion and drop in hemoglobin levels showed no significant difference in both groups of patients (P˃0.05). The results of this study showed that tranexamic acid could significantly reduce the volume of required serum for bladder irrigation to clear urine, but it had no significant effect on the drop in serum hemoglobin levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Psychogenic purpura with hematuria and sexual pain disorder: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyildirim, Ilker; Yücel, Başak; Aktan, Melih

    2010-01-01

    Psychogenic purpura (Gardner-Diamond syndrome) is the occurrence and spontaneous recurrence of painful ecchymosis following emotional stress and minor trauma. Although the exact mechanism of this syndrome remains unknown, apart from skin lesions, different types of hemorrhaging have been reported, such as epistaxis, gastrointestinal bleeding, and bleeding from the ear canals and eyes. We report a psychogenic purpura case that presented with hematuria in addition to skin lesions. Based on the psychiatric evaluation she was diagnosed with major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Additionally, sexual pain disorder accompanied these disorders. With the help of antidepressant and supportive psychotherapy, the patient's ecchymosis and bleeding disappeared. During 8 months of follow-up the symptoms did not return. Vaginismus has not been reported in patients with psychogenic purpura. The presence of vaginismus, which is seen more frequently in eastern cultures and is thought to be related to sociocultural determinants, suggests that some cultural factors may be common to both psychogenic purpura and vaginismus. The aim of this case report was to call attention to a syndrome that is rarely seen and diagnosed, and to discuss its relationship to psychosocial factors. This syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of not only ecchymotic lesions, but also various types of bleeding, including hematuria. Despite the fact that its etiology and treatment are not clearly understood, it should be noted that psychological factors play a role in this disease and therefore, psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches can be effective.

  19. Diagnosis of porcine enzootic pneumonia by post mortem sanitary inspection: comparison with other diagnostic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia de Fátima Carrijo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Carrijo K.F., Nascimento E.R., Pereira V.L.A., Morés N., Klein, C.S., Domingues L.M. & Tortelly R. [Diagnosis of porcine enzootic pneumonia by post mortem sanitary inspection: comparison with other diagnostic methods.] Diagnóstico da pneumonia enzoótica suína pela inspeção sanitária post mortem: comparação com outros métodos de diagnóstico. Revista Brasileira de Veterinária Brasileira 36(2:188-194, 2014. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Av. Pará, 1720, Bloco 2T, Jardim Umuarama, Uberlândia, MG 38400-902, Brasil. E-mail: keniacarrijo@ famev.ufu.br To compare the concordance of the diagnosis of porcine enzootic pneumonia (PEP by post-mortem Sanitary Inspection with other methods (histophatology and immunohistochemistry - IHC, were used lung tissue samples from 100 pigs slaughtered under sanitary inspection, and 50 of these had macroscopic lesions suggestive of PEP and 50 had no such lesions. These were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and processed by routine procedures for paraffin embedding and IHC technique for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae using a monoespecific polyclonal antibody. The study demonstrating that there is concordance between the diagnosis of Sanitary Inspection with histophatology, between the diagnosis of Sanitary Inspection with IHC and histophatology with IHC. It can be conclude that when the lung has gross lesions of PEP, the probability the result is positive to M. hyopneumoniae by IHC and the presence of microscopic lesions increases. Thus, the microscopic diagnosis for PEP is feasible because it is associated to the other, so that the diagnosis given by the officials of Sanitary Inspection in slaughterhouses is not wrong; the macroscopic diagnosis is therefore a valid method for the diagnosis of PEP, it being understood this is not to say that the detection of M. hyopneumoniae.

  20. Susceptibility of Ae. aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to infection with epidemic (subtype IC) and enzootic (subtypes ID, IIIC, IIID) Venezuelan equine encephalitis complex alphaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Diana I; Kang, Wenli; Weaver, Scoti C

    2008-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that enzootic and epidemic Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) complex alphaviruses can infect and be transmitted by Ae. aegypti, we conducted a series of experimental infection studies. One set of experiments tested the susceptibility of geographic strains of Ae. aegypti from Peru and Texas (U.S.A.) for epidemic (subtype IC) and enzootic (subtype ID) strains from Colombia/Venezuela, whereas the second set of experiments tested the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti from Iquitos, Peru, to enzootic VEE complex strains (subtypes ID, IIIC, and IIID) isolated in the same region, at different infectious doses. Experimental infections using artificial bloodmeals suggested that Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, particularly the strain from Iquitos, Peru, is moderately to highly susceptible to all of these VEE complex alphaviruses. The occurrence of enzootic VEE complex viruses circulating endemically in Iquitos suggests the possibility of a dengue-like transmission cycle among humans in tropical cities.

  1. The changing scene of radiology: Value of urography as initial examination in infectious and hypertensive disease, hematuria and malignant disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethlin, J.H.; Gadeholt, G.; Hoeiem, L.; Aslaksen, A.

    1988-01-01

    Four to 20% positive findings were found in a review of 1913 excretory urographics. Possibly relevant findings were 20% in patients referred for infectious disease, 10% in hypertensive disease, 6% in hematuria and 4% in neoplasms. Urography influenced treatment mainly in the 2 groups with few positive findings. The costs for positive findings may be acceptable in patients with hematuria or suspicion of neoplasms, but are too high in the other groups. Until ultrasonography can replace intravenous urography as the first screening method in upper urinary tract disease, the patient selection for urography in infectious and hypertensive disease should be improved. (orig.)

  2. Low Prevalence of Enzootic Equine Influenza Virus among Horses in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Sack

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Horses are critically important for Mongolian herders’ livelihoods, providing transportation and food products, and playing important cultural roles. Equine influenza virus (EIV epizootics have been frequent among Mongolia’s horses, with five occurring since 1970. We sought to estimate the prevalence for EIV infection among horses and Bactrian camels with influenza-like illness between national epizootics. In 2016–2017, active surveillance for EIV was periodically performed in four aimags (provinces. Nasal swabs were collected from 680 horses and 131 camels. Seven of the horse swabs were “positive” for qRT-PCR evidence of influenza A (Ct value ≤ 38. Two more were “suspect positive” (Ct value > 38 and ≤ 40. These nine specimens were collected from four aimags. None of the camel specimens had molecular evidence of infection. Despite serial blind passage in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells (MDCK cells, none of the nine horse specimens yielded an influenza A virus. None of the 131 herder households surveyed had recently vaccinated their horses against EIV. It seems likely that sporadic EIV is enzootic in multiple Mongolian aimags. This finding, the infrequent use of EIV vaccination, periodic prevalence of highly pathogenic avian influenza, and the mixing of domestic and wild equid herds suggest that Mongolia may be a hot spot for novel EIV emergence.

  3. Comparison of CT urography and intravenous urography in patients with hematuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Guen Young; Kang, Byung Chul; Hwang, Ji Young [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    We wanted to compare CT urography (CTU) with using multi-detector row CT (MDCT) and intravenous urography (IVU) for diagnosing the causes of hematuria. From January 2003 to March 2004, IVU and CTU were obtained in 48 patients. We evaluated the causes of hematuria in 34 of 48 patients. The IVU images were obtained by the conventional method. The CTU images were routinely obtained before intravenous contrast injection, and at 2 and 5 minutes after intravenous contrast injection. In case of delayed excretion of contrast by the kidneys, the delayed CT scans were obtained at 120 minutes after contrast injection. All the CT images, including the axial and 3D coronal reformatted CTUs with using software as well as conventional IVU images, were reviewed by two radiologists working in consensus. We decided if urinary stone existed or not and we looked for the indirect signs such as hydronephrosis or delayed excretion, etc. We also observed if it was possible to determine the mass, ureteral stricture and enhancement of the ureteral wall, etc. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for each modality to diagnose urinary stone. We compared the detection rate according to the phases of CTU. We confirmed the presence of urinary tract stones in 27 of 34 patients who had undergone both IVU and CTU. We diagnosed ureteritis in 1, transitional cell carcinoma in 5 and acute pyelonephritis in 1 of the remaining 7 patients. The urinary stones were detected in fifteen patients on both IVU and CTU (15/27, 55.6%). We detected the urinary stones on CTU, but not IVU, in twelve patients (12/27, 44.5%). The sensitivity to detect the urinary stones was 100% (27/27) on CTU and 55.6% (12/27) on IVU respectively. The specificity was 100% (7/7) on IVU and CTU, respectively. The positive predictive value was 100% (15/15) on IVU and 100% (27/27) on CTU, respectively. The negative predictive value was 36.8% (7/19) on IVU and 100% (7/7) on CTU

  4. 77 FR 29914 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This action will allow interested... importation of live bovines and products derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy...

  5. Microscopic or occult hematuria, when reflex testing is not good laboratory practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froom, Paul; Barak, Mira

    2010-01-01

    Consensus opinion suggests that hematuria found by dipstick and not confirmed on microscopic examination (<2 erythrocytes per high power field) signifies a false-positive reagent strip test result. Standard practice is to repeat the dipstick test several days later and if still positive to confirm by microscopic examination. If discordant results are obtained, experts recommend reflex testing for urinary myoglobin and hemoglobin concentrations. The question is whether or not this approach represents good laboratory practice. These recommendations are not evidence based. We conclude that the reference range for red blood cells on the reagent strip should be increased to 25x10(6) cells/L for young men, and 50x10(6) cells/L for the rest of the adult population, ranges consistent with flow cytometry reports. Confirmation reflex testing using tests that have inferior sensitivity, precision and probably accuracy is not recommended.

  6. Prevalence of hypertension in healthy school children in Pakistan and its relationship with body mass index, proteinuria and hematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshalooz Jamila Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of high blood pressure (BP in healthy school Pakistani children and its association with high body mass index (BMI, asymptomatic hematuria and proteinuria, we studied 661 public school children and measured their body weight, height and BP and urine dipstick for hematuria performed on a single occasion. Hypertension (BP >95 th centile and pre-hypertension (BP >90 th centile were defined based on the US normative BP tables. Over-weight and obesity were defined according to the World Health Organization (WHO classification of BMI. The mean age of the children was 14 ± 1.3 years. The mean BMI was 18.5 ± 4.3 kg/m 2 . The majority (81.8% of the children were found to be normotensive (BP 25 (RR for BMI b/w 25-30 = 2.6, RR for BMI >30 = 4.3, positive urine dipstick for proteinuria (RR = 2.3 95% CI 0.7-7.7 and positive urine dipstick for hematuria (RR 1.0 95% CI 0.2-8.3. Hypertension in children is strongly correlated with obesity, asymptomatic proteinuria and hematuria. Community based screening programs for children should include BP recording, BMI assessment and urine dipsticks analysis and approach high-risk groups for early detection and lifestyle modifications.

  7. Occurrence of Mycoplasma hyorhinis infections in fattening pigs and association with clinical signs and pathological lesions of Enzootic Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luehrs, Adrian; Siegenthaler, Salome; Grützner, Niels; Grosse Beilage, Elisabeth; Kuhnert, Peter; Nathues, Heiko

    2017-05-01

    Respiratory disorders in fattening pigs are of major concern worldwide. Particularly Enzootic Pneumonia remains a problem for the pig industry. This chronic respiratory disease is primarily caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae). However, more recently it was hypothesised that M. hyorhinis can also cause similar lung lesions. To investigate the relevance of M. hyorhinis as a cause of pneumonia in fattening pigs 10 farms in Switzerland (considered free of Enzootic Pneumonia) and 20 farms in Germany (regarded as endemic for Enzootic Pneumonia) with a history of chronic and/or recurrent respiratory diseases were included in the study. During a one-time farm visit the coughing index was determined in the batch of oldest fattening pigs in each farm before submission to slaughter. In total, 1375 lungs from these pigs were collected at the abattoir and individually scored for lesions. Furthermore, 600 lungs with, if present, indicative lesions for Enzootic Pneumonia (purple to grey areas of tissue consolidation in the cranio-ventral lung lobes) were tested for mycoplasma species by culture and by real-time PCR for the presence of M. hyorhinis and M. hyopneumoniae. In total, 15.7% of the selected lungs were tested positive for M. hyorhinis by real-time PCR. The prevalence of M. hyorhinis was 10% in Switzerland and 18.5% in Germany and differed significantly between these two countries (p=0.007). M. hyorhinis was detected significantly more often in pneumonic lungs (p=0.004) but no significant association was found between M. hyorhinis and the coughing index or the M. hyopneumoniae status of the pig. M. hyopneumoniae was detected in 0% and 78.5% of the selected lungs in Switzerland and Germany, respectively. We found no evidence that M. hyorhinis alone can lead to similar lung lesions as seen by an infection with M. hyopneumoniae in fattening pigs. In addition, a simultaneous infection with both M. hyorhinis and M. hyopneumoniae did not aggravate the observed

  8. Palliative radiotherapy for hematuria complicating the local evolution of primitive bladder cancers; Radiotherapie palliative pour hematurie compliquant l'evolution locale des cancers primitifs de vessie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saillard, S.M.; Benyoucef, A.; Dubray, B. [Centre Henri-Becquerel, 76 - Rouen (France); Smaali, C.; Albouy, B.; Pfister, C.; Grise, P. [Centre hospitalier universitaire, 76 - Rouen (France)

    2010-10-15

    As a haemostatic irradiation is often proposed to patients suffering from a primitive bladder cancer, the authors report a retrospective mono-centric analysis of the effects of an external bi-dimensional palliative radiotherapy on patients taken into care for relapsing macroscopic hematuria after failure of local urological treatments. The assessment concerns the hematuria persistence, the interval without hematuric relapse, global survival, and transfusion needs. Based on a sample of 21 patients submitted to different irradiation schemes, the authors notice that a simple pelvic irradiation technique results in a fast symptomatic improvement of hematuria among fragile patients. Short communication

  9. Histopathologic Findings of Potential Kidney Donors With Asymptomatic Microscopic Hematuria: Impact on Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, E A; Ali, T Z; Abdulbaki, A; Ibrahim, I A; Almanae, H M; Aleid, H A

    2017-10-01

    Isolated microscopic hematuria (IMH) is not uncommon in potential kidney donors. The aim was to study the kidney biopsy findings of potential kidney donors with IMH and the impact of the histopathologic diagnoses on the decision to accept or decline such donors from kidney donation. In this retrospective study, all the potential kidney donors with IMH were identified from the medical records of patients who underwent kidney biopsies between January 2010 and December 2016. Forty-five such individuals were identified. The mean age of these potential donors was 32.6 years and 76% were male. All of them had normal blood pressure and no significant proteinuria. Seventeen (38%) biopsies showed histopathologic abnormalities; thin basement membrane disease (n = 13; 28%) was the most common cause followed by immunoglobulin (Ig)A nephropathy (n = 4; 9%). Donors with abnormal biopsy findings were excluded from donation. However, 62% of the potential donors had normal kidney biopsy findings and were accepted for kidney donation. IMH justifies extensive work-up including kidney biopsy to identify donors who may have underlying significant glomerular pathology excluding them from kidney donation. On the other hand, kidney biopsy also helps in accepting the donors if it does not show significant abnormality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Epizootic to enzootic transition of a fungal disease in tropical Andean frogs: Are surviving species still susceptible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Catenazzi

    Full Text Available The fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, which causes the disease chytridiomycosis, has been linked to catastrophic amphibian declines throughout the world. Amphibians differ in their vulnerability to chytridiomycosis; some species experience epizootics followed by collapse while others exhibit stable host/pathogen dynamics where most amphibian hosts survive in the presence of Bd (e.g., in the enzootic state. Little is known about the factors that drive the transition between the two disease states within a community, or whether populations of species that survived the initial epizootic are stable, yet this information is essential for conservation and theory. Our study focuses on a diverse Peruvian amphibian community that experienced a Bd-caused collapse. We explore host/Bd dynamics of eight surviving species a decade after the mass extinction by using population level disease metrics and Bd-susceptibility trials. We found that three of the eight species continue to be susceptible to Bd, and that their populations are declining. Only one species is growing in numbers and it was non-susceptible in our trials. Our study suggests that some species remain vulnerable to Bd and exhibit ongoing population declines in enzootic systems where Bd-host dynamics are assumed to be stable.

  11. Selective bilateral internal iliac artery embolization for controlling refractory hematuria due to the metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Mokhtari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bladder squamous cell carcinoma (SCC may lead to gross hematuria. However, the metastasis of head and neck cutaneous SCC to the urinary bladder has not been described in literature. Nowadays, noninvasive methods such as embolization, are considered as an appropriate choice for controlling life-threatening hematuria in patients with high operative risk. However, few reports exist on the effectiveness of this approach in managing the hematuria secondary to metastatic bladder SCC. Here we report a case of bladder SCC originating from the forehead cutaneous SCC. An 83-year-old man, a known case of forehead cutaneous SCC with distant metastasis, referred to our clinic with a chief complaint of hematuria. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic urinary bladder SCC. Angiography and embolization were undertaken and resulted in complete alleviation of the symptoms. The recurrence of hematuria or embolization-related complications were not observed during 3-month follow-up. Selective embolization of the bilateral internal iliac artery is a safe and efficient procedure for controlling severe hematuria in patients with primary or metastatic bladder SCC.

  12. New reassortant and enzootic European swine influenza 1 viruses transmits efficiently through direct contact in the ferret model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fobian, Kristina; P. Fabrizio, Thomas; Yoon, Sun-Woo

    2015-01-01

    The reverse zoonotic events that introduced the 2009 pandemic influenza virus into pigs have drastically increased the diversity of swine influenza viruses in Europe. The pandemic potential of these novel reassortments is still unclear, necessitating enhanced surveillance of European pigs...... with additional focus on risk assessment of these new viruses. In this study, four European swine influenza viruses were assessed for their zoonotic potential. Two of the four viruses were enzootic viruses of subtype H1N2 (with avian-like H1) and H3N2 and two were new reassortants, one with avian-like H1...... and human-like N2 and one with 2009 pandemic H1 and swine-like N2. All viruses replicated to high titers in nasal wash- and nasal turbinate samples from inoculated ferrets and transmitted efficiently by direct contact. Only the H3N2 virus transmitted to naïve ferrets via the airborne route. Growth kinetics...

  13. Development of an Indirect ELISA Based on a Recombinant Chimeric Protein for the Detection of Antibodies against Bovine Babesiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo Ortiz, José Manuel; Montenegro, Valeria Noely; de la Fournière, Sofía Ana María; Sarmiento, Néstor Fabián; Farber, Marisa Diana; Wilkowsky, Silvina Elizabeth

    2018-01-23

    The current method for Babesia spp. serodiagnosis based on a crude merozoite antigen is a complex and time-consuming procedure. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) based on a recombinant multi-antigen of Babesia bovis (rMABbO) was developed for detection of antibodies in bovines suspected of infection with this parasite. The multi-antigen comprises gene fragments of three previously characterized B. bovis antigens: MSA-2c, RAP-1 and the Heat Shock protein 20 that are well-conserved among geographically distant strains. The cutoff value for the new rMABbo-iELISA was determined using 75 known-positive and 300 known-negative bovine sera previously tested for antibodies to B. bovis by the gold-standard ELISA which uses a merozoite lysate. A cutoff value of ≥35% was determined in these samples by receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, showing a sensitivity of 95.9% and a specificity of 94.3%. The rMABbo-iELISA was further tested in a blind trial using an additional set of 263 field bovine sera from enzootic and tick-free regions of Argentina. Results showed a good agreement with the gold standard test with a Cohen's kappa value of 0.76. Finally, the prevalence of bovine babesiosis in different tick enzootic regions of Argentina was analyzed where seropositivity values among 68-80% were obtained. A certain level of cross reaction was observed when samples from B. bigemina infected cattle were analyzed with the new test, which can be attributed to shared epitopes between 2 of the 3 antigens. This new rMABbo-iELISA could be considered a simpler alternative to detect anti Babesia spp. antibodies and appears to be well suited to perform epidemiological surveys at the herd level in regions where ticks are present.

  14. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown

  15. Persistence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae sequence types in spite of a control program for enzootic pneumonia in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overesch, Gudrun; Kuhnert, Peter

    2017-09-15

    Enzootic pneumonia (EP) in pigs caused by Mycoplasma (M.) hyopneumoniae has successfully been combatted in Switzerland. A control program was fully implemented in 2004 which is based on total depopulation strategies of affected fattening farms as well as partial depopulation on breeding farms. Thereby, the number of cases has dropped drastically from more than 200 in 2003 to two cases in 2013. Currently monitoring is done based on clinical observation and subsequent diagnostic of coughing pigs. Moreover, in case of more than 10% gross pathological lesions per slaughter batch laboratory confirmation for EP is compulsory. Despite these strict measures it was not possible to eliminate M. hyopneumoniae from Swiss pig production. In fact, during the last few years the number of EP cases has slightly increased. Therefore, genotyping of the involved M. hyopneumoniae strains was conducted in order to elucidate possible sources and routes of infection. All available and typeable samples from totally 22 cases during the period 2014-2016 were investigated by extended multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 16 cases, including eight from 2014, five from 2015 and three from 2016 could thereby be included in the study. MLST revealed that the majority of cases in 2014/2015 were due to two major spread scenarios, i.e. two M. hyopneumoniae sequence types, each scenario involving six individual production farms in five to six different Cantons (states), respectively. Moreover, by comparison of archived sequences some sequence types were observed over ten years demonstrating their persistence over a long time and the possible partial failure of elimination measures in Switzerland. Insufficient sanitation on affected farms and subsequent animal transport of symptomless infected pigs could lead to recurrent cases. Wild boar harbor identical strains found with EP but solid data are missing to assign a role as reservoir to this wild animal. Implementing a monitoring scheme for M

  16. Evaluation of Anthelmintic Resistance and Exhaust Air Dust PCR as a Diagnostic Tool in Mice Enzootically Infected with Aspiculuris tetraptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Pratibha; Hayes, Yumiko O; Jarrell, Leslie T; Bellinger, Dwight A; Thomas, Rhiannon D; Lawson, Gregory W; Arkema, Jaclyn D; Fletcher, Craig A; Nielsen, Judith N

    2017-01-01

    The entry of infectious agents in rodent colonies occurs despite robust sentinel monitoring programs, strict quarantine measures, and stringent biosecurity practices. In light of several outbreaks with Aspiculuris tetraptera in our facilities, we investigated the presence of anthelmintic resistance and the use of exhaust air dust (EAD) PCR for early detection of A. tetraptera infection. To determine anthelmintic resistance, C57BL/6, DBA/2, and NCr nude mice were experimentally inoculated with embryonated A. tetraptera ova harvested from enzootically infected mice, followed by treatment with 150 ppm fenbendazole in feed, 150 ppm fenbendazole plus 5 ppm piperazine in feed, or 2.1 mg/mL piperazine in water for 4 or 8 wk. Regardless of the mouse strain or treatment, no A. tetraptera were recovered at necropsy, indicating the lack of resistance in the worms to anthelmintic treatment. In addition, 10 of 12 DBA/2 positive-control mice cleared the A. tetraptera infection without treatment. To evaluate the feasibility of EAD PCR for A. tetraptera, 69 cages of breeder mice enzootically infected with A. tetraptera were housed on a Tecniplast IVC rack as a field study. On day 0, 56% to 58% of the cages on this rack tested positive for A. tetraptera by PCR and fecal centrifugation flotation (FCF). PCR from EAD swabs became positive for A. tetraptera DNA within 1 wk of placing the above cages on the rack. When these mice were treated with 150 ppm fenbendazole in feed, EAD PCR reverted to pinworm-negative after 1 mo of treatment and remained negative for an additional 8 wk. The ability of EAD PCR to detect few A. tetraptera positive mice was investigated by housing only 6 infected mice on another IVC rack as a field study. The EAD PCR from this rack was positive for A. tetraptera DNA within 1 wk of placing the positive mice on it. These findings demonstrate that fenbendazole is still an effective anthelmintic and that EAD PCR is a rapid, noninvasive assay that may be a useful

  17. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    408 heads of cattle to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and assess its public health implications. A comparative ..... (78.6%) of the respondents consume raw and poorly heat ... compromises related to certain stress factors.

  18. New reassortant and enzootic European swine influenza viruses transmit efficiently through direct contact in the ferret model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fobian, Kristina; Fabrizio, Thomas P; Yoon, Sun-Woo; Hansen, Mette Sif; Webby, Richard J; Larsen, Lars E

    2015-07-01

    The reverse zoonotic events that introduced the 2009 pandemic influenza virus into pigs have drastically increased the diversity of swine influenza viruses in Europe. The pandemic potential of these novel reassortments is still unclear, necessitating enhanced surveillance of European pigs with additional focus on risk assessment of these new viruses. In this study, four European swine influenza viruses were assessed for their zoonotic potential. Two of the four viruses were enzootic viruses of subtype H1N2 (with avian-like H1) and H3N2, and two were new reassortants, one with avian-like H1 and human-like N2 and one with 2009 pandemic H1 and swine-like N2. All viruses replicated to high titres in nasal wash and nasal turbinate samples from inoculated ferrets and transmitted efficiently by direct contact. Only the H3N2 virus transmitted to naïve ferrets via the airborne route. Growth kinetics using a differentiated human bronchial epithelial cell line showed that all four viruses were able to replicate to high titres. Further, the viruses revealed preferential binding to the 2,6-α-silalylated glycans and investigation of the antiviral susceptibility of the viruses revealed that all were sensitive to neuraminidase inhibitors. These findings suggested that these viruses have the potential to infect humans and further underline the need for continued surveillance as well as biological characterization of new influenza A viruses.

  19. Tiamulin feed premix in the improvement of growth performance of pigs in herds severely affected with enzootic pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, D G

    1984-03-03

    Four field trials were carried out to evaluate the effect of feeding tiamulin hydrogen fumarate at 20 and 30 ppm to fattening pigs over an eight week period, on farms with histories of severe, complicated, enzootic pneumonia problems. These farms had a prevalence of pigs with pneumonic lesions from 81 to 94 per cent and a range between individual batches of 69 to 96 per cent. The results of the first three trials showed that tiamulin at 30 ppm significantly improved the weight gains and feed conversion efficiency of pigs, in comparison with controls and was superior to the groups fed 20 ppm tiamulin. A further trial with tiamulin at 30 ppm and controls only, confirmed the original findings. The overall average results showed that tiamulin improved average daily gain by 33 g (4.7 per cent) and feed conversion efficiency by 0.138 (4.7 per cent). This effect did not appear to result from a reduction in the total extent of pneumonic lesions and the possible reasons for this are discussed, but in the fourth trial the number of pigs requiring parenteral treatment was noticeably reduced.

  20. Efficacy of an inactivated aqueous vaccine for the control of enzootic pneumonia in pigs infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzivara, A; Kritas, S K; Bourriel, A R; Alexopoulos, C; Kyriakis, S C

    2007-02-17

    The efficacy of an inactivated aqueous vaccine against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae was evaluated at two M hyopneumoniae-infected farrow-to-finish commercial farms (A and B) in Greece. In a prospective, randomised double-blind study, two groups on each farm received intramuscular doses of either the vaccine or the adjuvant when they were one and four weeks of age. The pigs were observed daily for clinical signs of disease; morbidity and mortality were recorded; and bodyweight was recorded at intervals. At slaughter, the lungs of the animals were examined and the chest cavities were examined for signs of pleuritis. No adverse reactions to the treatments were observed in any of the pigs. On farm A the vaccinated pigs were on average 6 kg heavier at slaughter, and on farm B they were on average 4 kg heavier; on both farms the average daily gain of the pigs was greater than that of the unvaccinated pigs. The prevalence and severity of enzootic pneumonia in the affected lungs were significantly lower in the vaccinated than in the unvaccinated pigs.

  1. Urinary Schistosomiasis in an Adolescent Refugee from Africa: An Uncommon Cause of Hematuria and an Emerging Infectious Disease in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddighe, Dimitri; Castelli, Lucia; Pulcrano, Giovanna; Grosini, Alessia; Balzaretti, Michela; Spadaro, Salvatore; Bruni, Paola

    2016-10-01

    We report a case of urinary schistosomiasis in an adolescent refugee from Gambia (arrived to Italy illegally), who was brought to the Emergency Department of our hospital. The patient complained of gross hematuria and, in the absence of clinical evidence of bacterial urinary infection, was admitted to the pediatric ward, considering his provenience and social setting. An appropriate collection and microscopic analysis of urine samples led to the detection of bilharzia. Much attention should be paid to this emerging disease in Europe by physicians in order to recognize and treat it timely, which could prevent future and higher costs for public health systems and could reduce the potential risk of environmental spreading. In fact, there are some areas in Italy where the parasite can find its intermediate host to complete its lifecycle.

  2. Identification of two novel mutations C79X and R235Q in the dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase gene in a patient presenting with hematuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kuilenburg, A. B. P.; Meijer, J.; Dobritzsch, D.; Lohkamp, B.; Ruitenbeek, W.; Roelofsen, J.; Abeling, N. G. G. M.; Duran, M.; Buzing, C.

    2008-01-01

    A patient with hematuria was shown to have thymine-uraciluria. The dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was 0.16 nmol/mg/h; controls: 9.9 +/- 2.8 nmol/mg/h. Analysis of DPYD showed that the patient was compound heterozygous for the novel mutations 237C

  3. Dog bite histories and response to incidents in canine rabies-enzootic KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

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    Melinda Hergert

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to report evaluated observations from survey records captured through a cross-sectional observational study regarding canine populations and dog owners in rabies enzootic KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. Our aim was to evaluate respondent knowledge of canine rabies and response to dog bite incidents towards improved rabies control. Six communities consisting of three land use types were randomly sampled from September 2009 to January 2011, using a cluster design. A total of 1992 household records were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression modeling to evaluate source of rabies knowledge, experiences with dog bites, and factors affecting treatment received within respective households that occurred within the 365 day period prior to the surveys. 86% of the population surveyed had heard of rabies. Non-dog owners were 1.6 times more likely to have heard of rabies than dog owners; however, fear of rabies was not a reason for not owning a dog. Government veterinary services were reported most frequently as respondent source of rabies knowledge. Nearly 13% of households had a member bitten by a dog within the year prior to the surveys with 82% of the victims visiting a clinic as a response to the bite. 35% of these clinic visitors received at least one rabies vaccination. Regression modeling determined that the only response variable that significantly reflected the likelihood of a patient receiving rabies vaccination or not was the term for the area surveyed. Overall the survey showed that most respondents have heard of dog associated rabies and seek medical assistance at a clinic in response to a dog bite regardless of offending dog identification. An in-depth study involving factors associated within area clinics may highlight the area dependency for patients receiving rabies post exposure prophylaxis shown by this model.

  4. Molecular epidemiology of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae from outbreaks of enzootic pneumonia in domestic pig and the role of wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnert, Peter; Overesch, Gudrun

    2014-11-07

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the major cause of enzootic pneumonia (EP) in domestic pigs, a disease with low mortality but high morbidity, having a great economic impact for producers. In Switzerland EP has been successfully eradicated, however, sporadic outbreaks are observed with no obvious source. Besides the possibility of recurrent outbreaks due to persisting M. hyopneumoniae strains within the pig population, there is suspicion that wild boars might introduce M. hyopneumoniae into swine herds. To elucidate possible links between domestic pig and wild boar, epidemiological investigations of recent EP outbreaks were initiated and lung samples of pig and wild boar were tested for the presence of specific genotypes by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Despite generally different genotypes in wild boar, outbreak strains could be found in geographically linked wild boar lungs after, but so far not before the outbreak. Recurrent outbreaks in a farm were due to the same strain, indicating unsuccessful sanitation rather than reintroduction by wild boar. In another case outbreaks in six different farms were caused by the same strain never found in wild boar, confirming spread between farms due to hypothesized animal transport. Results indicate the presence of identical lineages of wild boar and domestic pig strains, and possible transmission of M. hyopneumoniae between wild boar and pig. However, the role of wild boar might be rather one as a recipient than a transmitter. More important than contact to wild boar for sporadic outbreaks in Switzerland is apparently persistence of M. hyopneumoniae within a farm as well as transmission between farms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Etiopatogenia e imunoprofilaxia da pneumonia enzoótica suína Etiopathogenesis and immunoprofilaxis of Swine Enzootic Pneumonia

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    Fabricio Rochedo Conceição

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A Pneumonia Enzoótica Suína (PES, causada pela bactéria fastidiosa Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, é a doença respiratória mais importante dos suínos, responsável por enormes prejuízos à suinocultura brasileira e mundial. A elevada prevalência e o fato de pré-dispor os suínos à patógenos oportunistas tornam esta doença o alvo central de um programa de saúde de rebanho para doenças respiratórias. O conhecimento das características do agente etiológico bem como dos seus fatores de patogenicidade pode ajudar na elaboração de novas estratégias de controle da PES. O objetivo desta revisão foi discutir alguns aspectos da etiopatogenia da PES que têm implicação na imunoprofilaxia da doença e os principais resultados obtidos com vacinas de última geração avaliadas experimentalmente.Swine Enzootic Pneumonia (SEP, caused by fastidious bacterium Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, is the most important respiratory disease of swines, responsible for high losses to Brazilian and worldwide swine breeding. The high prevalence and the fact to predis-pose the swines to secondary pathogens make this disease the central target of a herd health program to respiratory diseases. The knowledge of the characteristics and pathogenicity factors of etiologic agent could help in the development of new strategies to control SEP. The aim of this review was to discuss some aspects of the etiopathogenesis of the SEP that have implications in the immunoprofilaxis of disease and the main results obtained with new generation vaccines evaluated experimentally.

  6. Vector control improves survival of three species of prairie dogs (Cynomys) in areas considered enzootic for plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, Dean E.; Godbey, Jerry L.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Carter, Leon G.; Montenieri, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Plague causes periodic epizootics that decimate populations of prairie dogs (PDs) (Cynomys), but the means by which the causative bacterium (Yersinia pestis) persists between epizootics are poorly understood. Plague epizootics in PDs might arise as the result of introductions of Y. pestis from sources outside PD colonies. However, it remains possible that plague persists in PDs during interepizootic periods and is transmitted at low rates among highly susceptible individuals within and between their colonies. If this is true, application of vector control to reduce flea numbers might reduce mortality among PDs. To test whether vector control enhances PD survival in the absence of obvious plague epizootics, we reduced the numbers of fleas (vectors for Y. pestis) 96–98% (1 month posttreatment) on 15 areas involving three species of PDs (Cynomys leucurus, Cynomys parvidens in Utah, and Cynomys ludovicianus in Montana) during 2000–2004 using deltamethrin dust delivered into burrows as a pulicide. Even during years without epizootic plague, PD survival rates at dusted sites were 31–45% higher for adults and 2–34% higher for juveniles compared to survival rates at nondusted sites. Y. pestis was cultured from 49 of the 851 flea pools tested (6882 total fleas) and antibodies against Y. pestis were identified in serum samples from 40 of 2631 PDs. Although other explanations are possible, including transmission of other potentially fatal pathogens by fleas, ticks, or other ectoparasites, our results suggest that plague might be maintained indefinitely in PD populations in the absence of free epizootics and widespread mortality among these animals. If PDs and their fleas support enzootic cycles of plague transmission, there would be important implications for the conservation of these animals and other species.

  7. In vitro sensitivities to antimicrobial drugs of ureaplasmas isolated from the bovine respiratory tract, genital tract and eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishima, M; Hashimoto, K

    1979-09-01

    The sensitivity to 18 antimicrobial drugs was examined for 66 strains of Ureaplasma sp isolated from respiratory tracts of calves suffering from enzootic pneumonia, urinary tracts of bulls and eyes of cows suffering from infectious bovine kerato-conjunctivitis. Furamizole, tiamulin fumarate, erythromycin lactobionate, malidomycin C, doxycycline hydrochloride, kitasamycin tartrate, tylosin tartrate, T-2636C, tetracycline hydrochloride, oxytetracycline hydrochloride, chlortetracycline hydrochloride, oleandomycin phosphate, furazolidone, spiramycin adipate, chloramphenicol and thiophenicol showed strong inhibiting activity on all the test strains. Among them, furamizole, tiamulin fumarate and erythromycin lactobionate were most active. Kanamycin sulphate showed weak activity on all the strains tested. The differences in origin of the test strains did not affect their sensitivity to any of the drugs.

  8. Enzootic plague foci, Algeria

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    M.A. Malek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Algeria, PCR sequencing of pla, glpD and rpoB genes found Yersinia pestis in 18/237 (8% rodents of five species, including Apodemus sylvaticus, previously undescribed as pestiferous; and disclosed three new plague foci. Multiple spacer typing confirmed a new Orientalis variant. Rodent survey should be reinforced in this country hosting reemerging plague.

  9. Using a Herd Profile to Determine Age-Specific Prevalence of Bovine Leukemia Virus in Michigan Dairy Herds

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    Ronald J. Erskine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzootic bovine leukosis is a contagious disease of cattle caused by the retrovirus, bovine leukemia virus (BLV and is the most common cause of malignant neoplasm in cattle. In order to facilitate surveillance of this disease in dairy herds, we developed a method to combine ELISA of milk collected during routine production testing with a prescribed sampling of cows that is independent of the proportion of cows within each lactation. In 113 Michigan dairy herds, milk samples from ten cows in each of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and ≥4th lactations were analyzed for anti-Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV antibodies by milk ELISA. For each herd, a BLV herd profile (BHP was calculated as the simple average of the percent of BLV-positive cows within each of the four lactation groups. The mean BHP for all herds was 32.8%, with means of 18.5, 28.8, 39.2, and 44.8% of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and ≥4th lactation animals infected, respectively. In eight herds, we determined the correlation between the BHP, and true herd prevalence by testing the entire lactating herd (r=0.988,  P<0.0001. The BHP allows discrimination of lactation-specific BLV prevalence within a dairy herd, to help identify risk factors and management plans that may be important in transmission of BLV.

  10. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro

    2013-01-01

    chymosin. Both enzymes possess local positively charged patches on their surface that can play a role in interactions with the overall negatively charged C-terminus of κ-casein. Camel chymosin contains two additional positive patches that favour interaction with the substrate. The improved electrostatic......Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... interactions arising from variation in the surface charges and the greater malleability both in domain movements and substrate binding contribute to the better milk-clotting activity of camel chymosin towards bovine milk....

  11. Diagnóstico topográfico de las hematurias en pacientes pediátricos mediante el porcentaje de hematíes dismórficos

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    Juan Bautista García Sánchez

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio para fijar un porcentaje de hematíes dismórficos que sirva de punto de corte óptimo para el diagnóstico topográfico de las hematurias en pacientes pediátricos. Se utilizaron datos clínicos y de laboratorio de 77 pacientes con hematuria glomerular y 15 con hematuria no glomerular. Mediante una metodología estadística se obtuvo 14 % como valor del punto, con lo que se asigna al grupo de las hematurias glomerulares todo paciente que presente una cifra de hematíes dismórficos igual o superior. El área bajo la curva ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic asociada a este test fue 0,9597, lo que indica una elevada exactitud para la prueba, bastante cercana del valor ideal 1,0 que indica una discriminación perfecta.It was conducted a study to fix a percentage of dimorphic red cells acting as an optimal cutting point for the topographic diagnosis of hematurias in pediatric patients. Clinical and laboratory data of 77 patients with glomerular hematuria and of 15 with non glomerular hematuria were used. By using a statistical methodology it was obtained a value of 14 % for the point. Any patient having the same or a higher number of dimorphic red cells is included in the group of glomerular hematurias. The area beneath the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic curve associated to this test was of 0,9597, which indicates an elevated accuracy for the test, very close to the ideal value of 1,0 that shows a perfect discrimination.

  12. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE HERPESVIRUS-1,PARAINFLUENZA-3,BOVINE ROTAVIRUS, BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA, BOVINE ADENOVIRUS-7,BOVINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS AND BLUETONGUE VIRUS ANTIBODIES IN CATTLE IN MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    SUZAN, Victor M.; ONUMA, Misao; AGUILAR, Romero E.; MURAKAMI, Yosuke

    1983-01-01

    Sera were collected from dairy and beef cattle in 19 different states of Mexico. These sera were tested for bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza-3 virus (PIV-3), bovine rotavirus (BRV), bovine leukemia virus (BLV), bovine adenovirus-7 (BAV-7), bluetongue virus (BTV) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Seropositive rates for each virus for dairy cattle tested were 158/277(57.0%) for BHV-1,217/286(75.0%) for PIV-3,541/1498(36.1%) for BLV, 134/144(93.1%) for BRV, 39/90(43.3%) for BTV,...

  13. Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoar, Bruce R.

    2004-01-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...

  14. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Nucleolus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amrutlal K.Patel; Doug Olson; Suresh K. Tikoo

    2010-01-01

    Nucleolus is the most prominent subnuclear structure, which performs a wide variety of functions in the eu-karyotic cellular processes. In order to understand the structural and functional role of the nucleoli in bovine cells,we analyzed the proteomie composition of the bovine nueleoli. The nucleoli were isolated from Madin Darby bo-vine kidney cells and subjected to proteomie analysis by LC-MS/MS after fractionation by SDS-PAGE and strongcation exchange chromatography. Analysis of the data using the Mascot database search and the GPM databasesearch identified 311 proteins in the bovine nucleoli, which contained 22 proteins previously not identified in theproteomic analysis of human nucleoli. Analysis of the identified proteins using the GoMiner software suggestedthat the bovine nueleoli contained proteins involved in ribosomal biogenesis, cell cycle control, transcriptional,translational and post-translational regulation, transport, and structural organization.

  15. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or

  16. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided renal biopsy in children: The need for renal biopsy in pediatric patients with persistent asymptomatic microscopic hematuria

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    Mei-Ching Yu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB is essential for the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of children with unknown kidney disease. In this study, the safety and efficacy of PRB is investigated, and also the common etiologies of childhood kidney disease, based on histological findings. In addition, we explored the role of PRBs in the diagnosis of children who presented with persistent asymptomatic hematuria. Methods: By chart review, from July 2005 to July 2009, a total of 99 PRBs were performed on 91 children (43 girls and 48 boys; mean age, 10.9 ± 4.4 years under ultrasound (US guidance, by a doctor, using an automated 18-gauge biopsy needle following the same protocol, at a medical center in northern Taiwan. Results: The accuracy of the histological diagnosis was excellent. The most common post-biopsy complications were perirenal hematoma (11.1% and asymptomatic gross hematuria (3.0%, respectively. Nevertheless, these complications resolved spontaneously, and none had major bleeding episodes. Histological results showed that lupus nephritis, minimal change disease, and IgA nephropathy (IgAN could be the current leading causes of childhood kidney diseases in Taiwan. Conclusions: Automated ultrasound (US-guided PRB is a safe and reliable method of assessing childhood renal disease. A recent study shows that the presence of persistent asymptomatic isolated microhematuria in adolescents is a predictive marker of future end-stage renal disease. Hence, the emphasis of renal biopsy on children with persistent asymptomatic hematuria is beneficial for the early diagnosis of IgAN or other glomerulonephritis (GN, which tends toward progressive kidney disease in adulthood without prompt therapeutic intervention.

  17. Bovine leukaemia virus genotypes 5 and 6 are circulating in cattle from the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Lilian; Carrillo Gaeta, Natália; Araújo, Jansen; Matsumiya Thomazelli, Luciano; Harakawa, Ricardo; Ikuno, Alice A; Hiromi Okuda, Liria; de Stefano, Eliana; Pituco, Edviges Maristela

    2017-12-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) is a silent disease caused by a retrovirus [bovine leukaemia virus (BLV)]. BLV is classified into almost 10 genotypes that are distributed in several countries. The present research aimed to describe two BLV gp51 env sequences of strains detected in the state of São Paulo, Brazil and perform a phylogenetic analysis to compare them to other BLV gp51 env sequences of strains around the world. Two bovines from different herds were admitted to the Bovine and Small Ruminant Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, Brazil. In both, lymphosarcoma was detected and the presence of BLV was confirmed by nested PCR. The neighbour-joining algorithm distance method was used to genotype the BLV sequences by phylogenetic reconstruction, and the maximum likelihood method was used for the phylogenetic reconstruction. The phylogeny estimates were calculated by performing 1000 bootstrap replicates. Analysis of the partial envelope glycoprotein (env) gene sequences from two isolates (25 and 31) revealed two different genotypes of BLV. Isolate 25 clustered with ten genotype 6 isolates from Brazil, Argentina, Thailand and Paraguay. On the other hand, isolate 31 clustered with two genotype 5 isolates (one was also from São Paulo and one was from Costa Rica). The detected genotypes corroborate the results of previous studies conducted in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The prediction of amino acids showed substitutions, particularly between positions 136 and 150 in 11 out of 13 sequences analysed, including sequences from GenBank. BLV is still important in Brazil and this research should be continued.

  18. Inverted Nutcracker Syndrome: A Case of Persistent Hematuria and Pain in the Presence of a Left-Sided Inferior Vena Cava

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    Obi Ekwenna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutcracker syndrome is described as the symptomatic compression of left renal vein between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery, resulting in outflow congestion of the left kidney. We present the case of a 51-year-old male with a left-sided inferior vena cava, resulting in compression of the right renal vein by the superior mesenteric artery. Secondary to this anatomic anomaly, the patient experienced a many-year history of flank pain and intermittent gross hematuria. We have termed this unusual anatomic finding and its associated symptoms as the “inverted nutcracker syndrome”, and describe its successful management with nephrectomy and autotransplantation.

  19. Use of multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based assay to conduct epidemiological studies on bovine hemoparasites in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, J V; Alvarez, J A; Ramos, J A; Vega, C A; Buening, G M

    1993-01-01

    A study was conducted to test the applicability of a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based approach for the simultaneous detection of the bovine hemoparasites Babesia bigemina, B. bovis and Anaplasma marginale. Bovine blood samples from cattle ranches of a previously determined enzootic zone in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, were collected from peripheral blood and processed for PCR analysis. Blood samples were subjected to DNA amplification by placing an aliquot in a reaction tube containing oligonucleotide primers specific for DNA of each hemoparasite species. The PCR products were detected by Dot-Blot nucleic acid hybridization utilizing nonradioactive, species-specific, digoxigenin PCR-labeled DNA probes. Four hundred twenty one field samples analyzed by the multiplex PCR-DNA probe assay showed 66.7%, 60.1% and 59.6% prevalence rates for B. bigemina, B. bovis and A. marginale, respectively. The multiplex PCR analysis showed that animals with single, double or triple infection could be detected with the parasite specific DNA probes. The procedure is proposed as a valuable tool for the epidemiological analysis in regions where the hemoparasite species are concurrently infecting cattle.

  20. Bovine Tuberculosis, A Zoonotic Disease

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    Tarmudji

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is caused by the infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis (M. bovis. This species is one of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, can infect wide range of hosts: cattle and other domesticated animals, wild mammals and humans (zoonotic. M. bovis bacterium from infected hosts can be transmitted to other susceptible animals and humans through respiratory excretes and secretion materials. Humans can be infected with M. bovis by ingested M. bovis contaminated animal products, unpasteurised milk from tuberculosis cows or through respiratory route of contaminated aerosol. Bovine tuberculosis at the first stage does not show any clinical sign but as the disease progress in the next stage which may take several months or years, clinical signs may arise, suh as: fluctuative body temperature, anorexia, lost body weight, coughing, oedema of lymph nodes, increased respiratory frequencies. Pathological lesion of bovine tuberculosis is characterised by the formation of granulomas (tubercles, in which bacterial cells have been localised, most in lymph nodes and pulmonum, but can occur in other organs. The granulomas usually arise in small nodules or tubercles appear yellowish either caseus, caseo-calcareus or calcified. In Indonesia, bovine tuberculosis occurred in dairy cattle since 1905 through the imported dairy cows from Holland and Australian. It was unfortunate that until recently, there were not many research and surveilances of bovine tuberculosis conducted in this country, so the distribution of bovine tuberculosis is unknown. Early serological diagnosis can be done on live cattle by means of tuberculin tests under field conditions. Confirmation can be done by isolation and identification of excreted and secreted samples from the slaughter house. Antibiotic treatment and vaccination were uneffective, therefore the effective control of bovine tuberculosis is suggested by tuberculin tests and by slaughtering the selected

  1. Genome-wide association study for host response to bovine leukemia virus in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brym, P; Bojarojć-Nosowicz, B; Oleński, K; Hering, D M; Ruść, A; Kaczmarczyk, E; Kamiński, S

    2016-07-01

    The mechanisms of leukemogenesis induced by bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and the processes underlying the phenomenon of differential host response to BLV infection still remain poorly understood. The aim of the study was to screen the entire cattle genome to identify markers and candidate genes that might be involved in host response to bovine leukemia virus infection. A genome-wide association study was performed using Holstein cows naturally infected by BLV. A data set included 43 cows (BLV positive) and 30 cows (BLV negative) genotyped for 54,609 SNP markers (Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip). The BLV status of cows was determined by serum ELISA, nested-PCR and hematological counts. Linear Regression Analysis with a False Discovery Rate and kinship matrix (computed on the autosomal SNPs) was calculated to find out which SNP markers significantly differentiate BLV-positive and BLV-negative cows. Nine markers reached genome-wide significance. The most significant SNPs were located on chromosomes 23 (rs41583098), 3 (rs109405425, rs110785500) and 8 (rs43564499) in close vicinity of a patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 1 (PNPLA1); adaptor-related protein complex 4, beta 1 subunit (AP4B1); tripartite motif-containing 45 (TRIM45) and cell division cycle associated 2 (CDCA2) genes, respectively. Furthermore, a list of 41 candidate genes was composed based on their proximity to significant markers (within a distance of ca. 1 Mb) and functional involvement in processes potentially underlying BLV-induced pathogenesis. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that host response to BLV infection involves nine sub-regions of the cattle genome (represented by 9 SNP markers), containing many genes which, based on the literature, could be involved to enzootic bovine leukemia progression. New group of promising candidate genes associated with the host response to BLV infection were identified and could therefore be a target for future studies. The functions of candidate genes

  2. Evaluation of a commercially available molybdate formulation and zinc oxide boluses in preventing hepatic copper accumulation and thus enzootic icterus in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Botha

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of a molybdate formulation and a zinc oxide bolus as prophylactic agents for enzootic icterus was evaluated in sheep. Before copper loading, liver biopsies were performed on 12 male, 6-month-old, Mutton Merino sheep to determine hepatic copper (Cu and zinc (Zn concentrations. The animals were restrictively randomised according to liver copper concentrations to 3 treatment groups (n = 4 to achieve similar mean liver copper concentrations per group. All sheep received 4 m /kg of a 0.5 %aqueous solution of CuSO4·5H2O intraruminally 7 days per week for 10 weeks. On Day 0 the sheep in the Mo-group were injected subcutaneously with 42 mg molybdenum (Mo contained in a commercial molybdate formulation. The animals in the Zn-group each received a zinc oxide bolus, containing 43 g zinc oxide, via a rumen cannula. Treatment was repeated on Day 42. Four animals served as untreated controls. Urinary copper excretion, plasma copper concentration, haematocrit and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH activity were determined throughout the trial. The animals were sacrificed after 10 weeks and liver samples were submitted for histopathological examination. Liver and kidney copper and zinc concentrations were determined. Neither the molybdate treatment nor the zinc oxide boluses prevented hepatic copper accumulation. The urinary copper excretion, plasma copper concentration, haematocrit and GLDH activity were not significantly different (P > 0.05 from the controls.

  3. Ovine Enzootic Abortion (OEA: a comparison of antibody responses in vaccinated and naturally-infected swiss sheep over a two year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann Dieter R

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention and control of ovine enzootic abortion (OEA can be achieved by application of a live vaccine. In this study, five sheep flocks with different vaccination and infection status were serologically tested using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA specific for Chlamydophila (Cp. abortus over a two-year time period. Results Sheep in Flock A with recent OEA history had high antibody values after vaccination similar to Flock C with natural Cp. abortus infections. In contrast, OEA serology negative sheep (Flock E showed individual animal-specific immunoreactions after vaccination. Antibody levels of vaccinated ewes in Flock B ranged from negative to positive two and three years after vaccination, respectively. Positive antibody values in the negative control Flock D (without OEA or vaccination are probably due to asymptomatic intestinal infections with Cp. abortus. Excretion of the attenuated strain of Cp. abortus used in the live vaccine through the eye was not observed in vaccinated animals of Flock E. Conclusion The findings of our study indicate that, using serology, no distinction can be made between vaccinated and naturally infected sheep. As a result, confirmation of a negative OEA status in vaccinated animals by serology cannot be determined.

  4. Infection rate of Babesia spp. sporokinetes in engorged Boophilus microplus from an area of enzootic stability in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Quintão-Silva Maria G

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The infection rates of Babesia sporokinetes in engorged Boophilus microplus were evaluated during a 2-year period in a dairy farm located in an area of enzootic stability. Every 14 days engorged females were collected from calves and from adult animals. Ticks were incubated at 27 ± 0.5ºC and 80-90% relative humidity and Babesia infection rates were determined by microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained hemolymph smears. After 52 collections, 2105 ticks were obtained, from which 982 were collected from calves and 1123 from cows. The total Babesia infection rate was 10%, however the incidence was higher (p < 0.05 in ticks collected from calves (17.5% than in those collected from cows (3.6%. Females collected from cows showed the highest infection rates in January, March, and August, and absence of infection in April and May. Ticks feeding on calves were infected throughout the experimental period. The infection rates of engorged females collected from naturally infected calves that were artificially infested with Babesia-free-larvae of B. microplus gradually decreased until the calves were four months old. No differences were observed among infection rates of ticks collected from calves maintained under natural conditions.

  5. Prostate Artery Embolization (PAE) in the Management of Refractory Hematuria of Prostatic Origin Secondary to Iatrogenic Urological Trauma: A Safe and Effective Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kably, Isaam; Pereira, Keith; Chong, William; Bhatia, Shivank

    2016-02-01

    Incidence of refractory hematuria of prostatic origin (RHPO) is extremely rare, with an iatrogenic etiology even rarer. When conservative methods fail to control bleeding, more invasive surgical methods are needed. In this article we describe our experience with prostatic artery embolization (PAE) as a minimally invasive alternative treatment option in patients with RHPO secondary to iatrogenic urologic trauma. Three patients presented with RHPO. The etiologies were transurethral resection of prostate surgery, Foley catheter removal with a supratherapeutic international normalized ratio and self-traumatic Foley catheter removal respectively. Stepwise management with conservative and medical methods failed to control bleeding. Under local anesthesia and moderate sedation, bilateral PAE was performed via a right common femoral artery access and using cone beam computed tomography. An embolic mixture containing 300-500 um Embosphere® Microspheres (Biosphere Medical, Rockland, MA) was injected under fluoroscopic guidance until stasis was achieved. PAE using the described technique was a technical and clinical success in all three patients. Hematuria resolved within a period of 24 hours. There were no intra- or periprocedural complications. PAE offers a reasonable option in treatment of RHPO, regardless of the cause and may be attempted prior to surgical techniques or sometimes in conjunction. Being minimally invasive and performed under local anesthesia, PAE is especially useful when excessive bleeding prevents adequate visualization of a bleeding source during cystoscopy and in the elderly age group with several comorbidities. An added advantage is the prostatic parenchymal ischemia leading to significant prostate volume reduction and alleviation of the obstructive symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Diprosopia em bovino Bovine diprosopus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.T. Rotta

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a malformation in one newborn female bovine, with two faces and two skull fused, showing one single head. Duplications of the nasal and oral structures, tetraofthalmy, two brains, one single cerebellum, and pons were observed. The right thyroid was hypertrophic and the other organs had normal morphology. Every change observed in this case was compatibles with diprosopus.

  7. Diprosopia em bovino Bovine diprosopus

    OpenAIRE

    I.T. Rotta; M.B.A.M. Torres; R.G. Motta

    2008-01-01

    This work describes a malformation in one newborn female bovine, with two faces and two skull fused, showing one single head. Duplications of the nasal and oral structures, tetraofthalmy, two brains, one single cerebellum, and pons were observed. The right thyroid was hypertrophic and the other organs had normal morphology. Every change observed in this case was compatibles with diprosopus.

  8. Recent findings regarding maintenance of enzootic variants of Yersinia pestis in sylvatic reservoirs and their significance in the evolution of epidemic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearden, Scott W; Brubaker, Robert R

    2010-01-01

    Despite the widespread presence of bubonic plague in sylvatic reservoirs throughout the world, the causative agent (Yersinia pestis) evolved in its present form within the last 20,000 years from enteropathogenic Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Comparison of the genomes from the two species revealed that Y. pestis possesses only a few unique plasmid-encoded genes that contribute to acute disease, whereas this organism has lost about 13% of the chromosomal genes that remain active in Y. pseudotuberculosis. These losses reflect readily detectable additions, deletions, transpositions, inversions, and acquisition of about 70 insertion sequence (IS) inserts, none of which are likely to promote increased virulence. In contrast, major enzymes of intermediary metabolism, including glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (Zwf ) and aspartase, are present but not catalytically functional due to the presence of missense mutations. The latter are generally not detectable by the technology of bioinformatics and, in the case of Y. pestis, result in radical changes in the metabolic flow of carbon. As an important consequence, plague bacilli exhibit a stringent low-calcium response characterized by conversion of L-glutamate (and metabolically related amino acids) to L-aspartate with secretion of the latter into supernatant fluid at 37 degrees C in culture media containing Na(+) but lacking added Ca(2+). This phenomenon also occurs in vivo and likely adversely affects the bioenergetics of host amino acid pools. Curiously, aspartase is functional in all tested enzootic (pestoides) strains of Y. pestis. These isolates are typically restricted to the ancient plague reservoirs of Central Asia and Africa and are fully virulent in members of the rodent Superfamily Muroidea but avirulent in guinea pigs and man. The implications of these findings for the distribution and ecology of Y. pestis could be significant.

  9. Immune responses elicited by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae recombinant antigens and DNA constructs with potential for use in vaccination against porcine enzootic pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginio, Veridiana Gomes; Gonchoroski, Taylor; Paes, Jéssica Andrade; Schuck, Desirée Cigaran; Zaha, Arnaldo; Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer

    2014-10-07

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiological agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia (PEP) and causes major economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Commercially available vaccines provide only partial protection and are relatively expensive. In this study, we assessed the humoral and cellular immune responses to three recombinant antigens of M. hyopneumoniae. Immune responses to selected domains of the P46, HSP70 and MnuA antigens (P46102-253, HSP70212-601 and MnuA182-378), delivered as recombinant subunit or DNA vaccines, were evaluated in BALB/c mice. All purified recombinant antigens and two DNA vaccines, pcDNA3.1(+)/HSP70212-601 and pcDNA3.1(+)/MnuA182-378, elicited a strong humoral immune response, indicated by high IgG levels in the serum. The cellular immune response was assessed by detection of IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-4 in splenocyte culture supernatants. The recombinant subunit and DNA vaccines induced Th1-polarized immune responses, as evidenced by increased levels of IFN-γ. All recombinant subunit vaccines and the pcDNA3.1(+)/MnuA182-378 vaccine also induced the secretion of IL-10, a Th2-type cytokine, in large quantities. The mixed Th1/Th2-type response may elicit an effective immune response against M. hyopneumoniae, suggesting that P46102-253, HSP70212-601 and MnuA182-378 are potential novel and promising targets for the development of vaccines against PEP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing bovine babesiosis in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus ticks and 3 to 9-month-old cattle in the middle Magdalena region, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ríos-Tobón

    Full Text Available Babesia sp. is a protozoan hemoparasite that affects livestock worldwide. The Colombian Middle Magdalena is an enzootic region for babesiosis, but there is no previous research providing detail on its transmission cycle. This study aims to assess some Babesia sp. infection indicators in cattle and ticks from the area, by using direct microscopic and molecular techniques to detect the infection. In the cattle, 59.9% and 3.4 % positivity values for B. bigemina and mixed infection (B. bovis + B. bigemina were found respectively. In ticks, the positivity of B. bigemina reached 79.2% and 9.4% for the mixed infection. The degree of infestation in the region was 3.2 ticks per bovine. There was positive correlation between tick control acaricide frequencies and infestation in bovines. This leads us to infer that control periodicity greater than 90 days, in stable zones, is an abiotic factor that benefits the acquisition of protective immunity in calves, the natural control of the infection and eventual disease absence. It is necessary to monitor the disease by applying new entomological and parasitological indicators showing the complexity of this phenomenon.

  11. Bovine cysticercosis situation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Augusto Marques Rossi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is a long known zoonotic parasitosis characteristic of underdeveloped countries. In addition to its public health significance, this parasitosis is cause of economic losses to the beef production chain, and synonymous of technical inadequacy in relation to the adoption of Good Agricultural Practices. The occurrences of both human teniasis and bovine cysticercosis could and should be controlled with basic sanitary measures. However, there is much variation in the occurrence of the disease in cattle, characterizing a low rate of technical development as well as problems related to the adoption of basic sanitation measures. This review describes, in details, the causative agent and its epidemiological chain, besides raising current information about the occurrence of bovine cysticercosis in different regions of Brazil, aiming at the adoption of prophylactic measures by different segments responsible.

  12. Serodiagnosis of bovine trypanosomosis caused by non-tsetse transmitted Trypanosoma (Duttonella) vivax parasites using the soluble form of a Trypanozoon variant surface glycoprotein antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzcanga, Graciela L; Pérez-Rojas, Yenis; Camargo, Rocío; Izquier, Adriana; Noda, José A; Chacín, Ronny; Parra, Nereida; Ron, Lenin; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Richar; Bubis, José

    2016-03-15

    Previous studies have shown that a 64-kDa antigen (p64) that was purified from the Venezuelan TeAp-N/D1 isolate of Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) equiperdum corresponds to the soluble form of its predominant variant surface glycoprotein (VSG), and exhibited cross-reactivity with Trypanosoma (Duttonella) vivax. The course of experimental acute infections of bovines with T. vivax were followed by measuring whole anti-p64 antibodies and specific anti-p64 IgG and IgM antibodies in animal sera by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The value of p64 to diagnose bovine trypanosomosis was also examined using 350 sera from healthy and T. vivax-infected cows living in a trypanosomosis-endemic and enzootic stable area, and 48 sera obtained during a trypanosomosis outbreak. Serological assays showed that ∼ 70-80% of the infected sera contained anti-p64 antibodies, based on the comparative immunodetection of the T. equiperdum clarified antigenic fraction used as a reference test. In the absence of a gold standard, Bayesian analysis for multiple testing estimated a sensitivity and specificity of 71.6% and 98.8%, respectively, for the indirect ELISA using p64 as antigen. An apparent prevalence of 37.7% for bovine trypanosomosis infection was also estimated with a Bayesian approach when the p64 ELISA test was used. Employing blood from acute infected cows, the indirect ELISA response against p64 was contrasted with the microhematocrit centrifuge method and analyses by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers targeting the inter-specific length variation of the internal transcribed spacer 1 region of the 18S ribosomal gene. The efficiency of p64 for the detection of anti-trypanosome antibodies in acute infected bovines was also corroborated serologically by comparing its response to that of the Indonesian Trypanosoma evansi Rode Trypanozoon antigen type (RoTat) 1.2 VSG, which possesses high specificity and sensitivity. As expected, PCR was the best

  13. Bovine cysticercosis in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blagojevic, Bojan; Robertson, Lucy J.; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

    2017-01-01

    -only inspection of slaughtered cattle in order to reduce the potential for cross-contamination with bacteria that are of greatest public health risk, is expected in the European Union in the near future. With this system, the detection sensitivity for bovine cysticercosis that is already low with the current meat...... of bovine cysticercosis in the European Union....

  14. Bovine Necrotic Vulvovaginitis Associated with Porphyromonas levii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedgut, Orly; Alpert, Nir; Stram, Yehuda; Lahav, Dan; Tiomkin, Doron; Avramson, Miriam; Grinberg, Kalia; Bernstein, Michael

    2004-01-01

    An outbreak of bovine necrotic vulvovaginitis associated with Porphyromonas levii, an emerging animal and human pathogen, affected 32 cows on a dairy farm in the northeast of Israel. Five animals had to be culled. This report appears to be the first that associates P. levii with bovine necrotic vulvovagnitis. PMID:15109423

  15. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp

    2014-01-01

    Bovine colostrum, the first milk that cows produce after parturition, contains high levels of growth factors and immunomodulatory components. Some healthy and diseased individuals may gain health benefits by consuming bovine colostrum as a food supplement. This review provides a systematic...... to populations, outcomes, and methodological quality, as judged by the Jadad assessment tool. Many studies used surrogate markers to study the effects of bovine colostrum. Studies suggesting clinical benefits of colostrum supplementation were generally of poor methodological quality, and results could...... not be confirmed by other investigators. Bovine colostrum may provide gastrointestinal and immunological benefits, but further studies are required before recommendations can be made for clinical application. Animal models may help researchers to better understand the mechanisms of bovine colostrum supplementation...

  16. Bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Pablo J; Cibelli, Jose B

    2010-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a technique by which the nucleus of a differentiated cell is introduced into an oocyte from which its genetic material has been removed by a process called enucleation. In mammals, the reconstructed embryo is artificially induced to initiate embryonic development (activation). The oocyte turns the somatic cell nucleus into an embryonic nucleus. This process is called nuclear reprogramming and involves an important change of cell fate, by which the somatic cell nucleus becomes capable of generating all the cell types required for the formation of a new individual, including extraembryonic tissues. Therefore, after transfer of a cloned embryo to a surrogate mother, an offspring genetically identical to the animal from which the somatic cells where isolated, is born. Cloning by nuclear transfer has potential applications in agriculture and biomedicine, but is limited by low efficiency. Cattle were the second mammalian species to be cloned after Dolly the sheep, and it is probably the most widely used species for SCNT experiments. This is, in part due to the high availability of bovine oocytes and the relatively higher efficiency levels usually obtained in cattle. Given the wide utilization of this species for cloning, several alternatives to this basic protocol can be found in the literature. Here we describe a basic protocol for bovine SCNT currently being used in our laboratory, which is amenable for the use of the nuclear transplantation technique for research or commercial purposes.

  17. Usefulness of the UBCTM (urinary bladder cancer) test compared to urinary cytology for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in patients with hematuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Myung Cheol; Kang, Do Young; Seong, Youl Koon

    2001-01-01

    Urinary cytology and cystoscopic exam are effective methods for diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). But the former shows drawbacks such as the need for a well-trained examiner, and wide imprecision related to the variability of microscopic exam; the latter is a invasive method. UBC TM test detects the epitope on specific cytokeratin fragments released from epithelium of bladder cancer by immunoradiometric assay. We compared UBC TM test with urinary cytology for diagnosis of TCC to evaluate the utility of UBC TM test. Eighty-four patients with hematuria were included in our study, UBC TM tests (IDL Biotech, Sweden) were assayed in mid-stream urine according to the ordinary assay protocol. Nineteen patients were confirmed as TCC by cystoscopic examination and underwent transurethral resection (Group A). Other patients had various benign urinary tract conditions (Group B). Samples were considered positive as the UBC TM concentration was greater than 12 μg/L. UBC TM levels were significantly different between group A (95.9 ±166.4 μg/L) and group B (19.2 ± 85.6 μg/L)(p TM test and 100% (65/65) in cytology. UBC TM test was significantly more sensitive in stage Ta, T 1 tumors (84.6 vs 38.5%, p TM test showed a tendency to be more sensitive as the grade was higher (83.3% in Grade 1, 90% in Grade II and 100% in Grade III). UBC TM test could be a useful method in distinguishing TCC from other benign genitourinary diseases. Moreover, UBC TM test could be an especially valuable marker for diagnosis of TCC in patients with early TCC of low grade TCC compared to urinary cytology. Therefore, mbined use of UBC TM test in association with cytology is helpful to overcome the limited sensitivity of cytology

  18. An outbreak of bovine trypanosomiasis in the Blue Nile State, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Ichiro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper, we report an outbreak of bovine trypanosomiasis in Kurmuk District, Blue Nile State, Sudan that involved an infection with four Trypanosoma species in cattle. The outbreak occurred in June 2010 when indigenous cattle, mainly Kenana and Fulani breed types, crossed the national Sudanese border to Ethiopia and returned. A veterinarian was notified of massive deaths in the cattle populations that recently came from Ethiopia. All animals involved in the outbreak were from the nomadic Fulani group and resident local cattle were not infected and no death has been reported among them. A total of 210 blood samples were collected from the ear vein of cattle. A few samples were also collected from other domestic animals species. Parasitological examinations including hematocrit centrifugation techniques (HCT and Giemsa-stained thin blood films were carried out. ITS1-PCR, which provides a multi-species-specific diagnosis in a single PCR, was performed. Findings Parasitological examinations revealed that 43% (91/210 of the affected cattle population was infected with two morphologically distinct trypanosomes. Seventy animals (33.3% were infected with T. vivax and twenty one (10% with T. congolense. In contrast, ITS1-PCR was able to identify four Trypanosoma species namely T. vivax, T. congolense, T. simiae and T. brucei in 56.7% (80/141. T. brucei showed the highest prevalence of 36.9% (52/141 and the lowest 19% (27/141 was displayed by T. congolense. Furthermore, and because ITS1-PCR could not differentiate between T. brucei subspecies, serum resistance-associated (SRA gene based PCR was used to detect the human T. brucei rhodesiense in T. brucei positive samples. None of the samples was shown positive for T. b. rhodesiense. The identity of the 400 bp PCR product originating from T. simiae, was further confirmed by sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic analysis. Conclusions The outbreak of bovine trypanosomiasis occurred

  19. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase (bovine liver) (CAS Reg. No. 81457-95-6) is an enzyme preparation obtained from extracts of bovine liver. It is...

  20. 76 FR 38602 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ...] Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. This... proposed revisions to its programs regarding bovine tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United...

  1. bovine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'n Radio-irnmunologiese bepalingsmetode vir luteihiserende hormoon (LH) in bloed van die bees is ontwikkel duer die gebruik van buisies bestryk met teeliggame. .... proportion (%) of labelled LH bound by unadsorb- ed antisera in a double ... the location of the "protein" (elution volume 10-20 rnI) and "free iodine" (elution ...

  2. Bovine bone for white ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.L. de; Harima, E.; Leite, J.I.P.; Monteiro, F.M.; Bezerra, M.T.T.

    2011-01-01

    The porcelain is composed of feldspar, kaolin and about 50% for bovine bone ashes. This work aims to analyze the properties acquired by the substitution of kaolin by its waste. For characterization of raw materials chemical analyzes were made by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and mineralogical analysis by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Four formulations were produced varying the percentage of waste materials of kaolin and bone ashes of 25 and 55% by weight. The samples were sintered at temperatures of 1150, 1200 and 1250 deg C. The technological tests realized were: water absorption (WA), apparent porosity (AP), apparent density (AD) and linear retraction (LR). Improvement in the physical-mechanical properties of the samples with increasing temperature were observed, and 1250 deg C obtained 0.69% of WA, 1.22% AP, 2.26 g / cm3 AD, and 0.52% LR

  3. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population. PMID

  4. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen eThompson-Crispi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the High Immune Response (HIR technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+TM sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favourable production levels to feed a growing

  5. Spectroscopic study of gamma irradiated bovine hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghraby, Ahmed Mohamed; Ali, Maha Anwar

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of ionizing radiation of Cs-137 and Co-60 from 4.95 to 743.14 Gy and from 40 Gy to 300 kGy, respectively, on some bovine hemoglobin characteristics were studied. Such an effect was evaluated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and infra-red (IR) spectroscopy. Bovine hemoglobin EPR spectra were recorded and analyzed before and after irradiation and changes were explained in detail. IR spectra of unirradiated and irradiated Bovine hemoglobin were recorded and analyzed also. It was found that ionizing radiation may lead to the increase of free radicals production, the decrease in α-helices contents, which reflects the degradation of hemoglobin molecular structure, or at least its incomplete performance. Results also show that the combined application of EPR and FTIR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for determining structural modification of bovine hemoglobin samples exposed to gamma irradiation

  6. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE FASCIOLOSIS AT THE IBADAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ismail

    Bovine fasciolosis is a parasitic disease of cattle caused by trematodes usually. Fasciola gigantic ... and impaired fertility [6,7]. The value of the .... especially males with good body condition, are transported to these cities with higher population ...

  7. BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR: a useful tool for evaluating bovine leukemia virus infection status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimba Mayuko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine leukemia virus (BLV is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis, which is the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. BLV infects cattle worldwide, imposing a severe economic impact on the dairy cattle industry. Recently, we developed a new quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR method using Coordination of Common Motifs (CoCoMo primers to measure the proviral load of known and novel BLV variants in BLV-infected animals. Indeed, the assay was highly effective in detecting BLV in cattle from a range of international locations. This assay enabled us to demonstrate that proviral load correlates not only with BLV infection capacity as assessed by syncytium formation, but also with BLV disease progression. In this study, we compared the sensitivity of our BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR method for detecting BLV proviruses with the sensitivities of two real-time PCR systems, and also determined the differences of proviral load with serotests. Results BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR was found to be highly sensitive when compared with the real-time PCR-based TaqMan MGB assay developed by Lew et al. and the commercial TaKaRa cycleave PCR system. The BLV copy number determined by BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR was only partially correlated with the positive rate for anti-BLV antibody as determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, passive hemagglutination reaction, or agar gel immunodiffusion. This result indicates that, although serotests are widely used for the diagnosis of BLV infection, it is difficult to detect BLV infection with confidence by using serological tests alone. Two cattle were experimentally infected with BLV. The kinetics of the provirus did not precisely correlate with the change in anti-BLV antibody production. Moreover, both reactions were different in cattle that carried different bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA-DRB3 genotypes. Conclusions Our results suggest that the quantitative measurement of proviral load by BLV

  8. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Bovine TLR2 and TLR4 mediate Cryptosporidium parvum recognition in bovine intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhengtao; Fu, Yunhe; Gong, Pengtao; Zheng, Jingtong; Liu, Li; Yu, Yuqiang; Li, Jianhua; Li, He; Yang, Ju; Zhang, Xichen

    2015-08-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) is an intestinal parasite that causes diarrhea in neonatal calves. It results in significant morbidity of neonatal calves and economic losses for producers worldwide. Innate resistance against C. parvum is thought to depend on engagement of pattern recognition receptors. However, the role of innate responses to C. parvum has not been elucidated in bovine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of TLRs in host-cell responses during C. parvum infection of cultured bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The expressions of TLRs in bovine intestinal epithelial cells were detected by qRT-PCR. To determine which, if any, TLRs may play a role in the response of bovine intestinal epithelial cells to C. parvum, the cells were stimulated with C. parvum and the expression of TLRs were tested by qRT-PCR. The expression of NF-κB was detected by western blotting. Further analyses were carried out in bovine TLRs transfected HEK293 cells and by TLRs-DN transfected bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed that bovine intestinal epithelial cells expressed all known TLRs. The expression of TLR2 and TLR4 were up-regulated when bovine intestinal epithelial cells were treated with C. parvum. Meanwhile, C. parvum induced IL-8 production in TLR2 or TLR4/MD-2 transfected HEK293 cells. Moreover, C. parvum induced NF-κB activation and cytokine expression in bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The induction of NF-κB activation and cytokine expression by C. parvum were reduced in TLR2-DN and TLR4-DN transfected cells. The results showed that bovine intestinal epithelial cells expressed all known TLRs, and bovine intestinal epithelial cells recognized and responded to C. parvum via TLR2 and TLR4. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Arterial diffuse intimal thickening associated with enzootic calcinosis of sheep Espessamento intimal difuso das artérias na calcinose enzoótica dos ovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeri Oliveira Vasconcelos

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies were carried out on the diffuse intimal thickening (DIT in arteries of 7 sheep with clinical signs of naturally occurring enzootic calcinosis due to ingestion of the plant Nierembergia veitchii. Arterial lesions consisted of medial deposition of calcium salts and DIT. Calcification of the intima was rare, mild and located near the elastic lamina. By immunohistochemistry a-actin was detected in cells of the media and in cells forming the intimal thickening. Receptors for 1,25(OH2 vitamin D3 were detected in nuclei of intimal, medial and endothelial cells. DIT was irregularly distributed and was neither proportionally related to the intensity of the underlying mineralization area nor to the thickening of the remaining media. Ultrastructural morphometry in smooth muscle cells (SMCs of the media and thickened intima revealed, in the latter, an increase of 318% in the volumetric fraction of those organelles involved in synthesis and a proportional decrease in contractile elements when compared to normal values of media cells. There were histological and ultrastructural evidences of modification of SMCs and their migration to the intima, where they proliferated causing DIT. It was concluded that DIT is a consistent component of arteriosclerotic lesions in N. veitchii induced calcinosis of sheep and that the predominant cell in this process is the SMCs originated from its predecessors of the media. It is suggested that the inducing factor for the arterial changes is 1,25(OH2 D3 present in N. veitchii.Foram feitos estudos morfométrico, imunoistoquímico e ultra-estrutural do espessamento intimal difuso (DIT das artérias de 7 ovinos com sinais clínicos de calcinose enzoótica espontânea causada pela ingestão da planta Nierembergia veitchii. As lesões caracterizavam-se por deposição de sais de cálcio na média como placas e estrias que, com frequência faziam saliência para a luz

  11. Anti-Bovine Programmed Death-1 Rat–Bovine Chimeric Antibody for Immunotherapy of Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Okagawa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Blockade of immunoinhibitory molecules, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1, is a promising strategy for reinvigorating exhausted T cells and preventing disease progression in a variety of chronic infections. Application of this therapeutic strategy to cattle requires bovinized chimeric antibody targeting immunoinhibitory molecules. In this study, anti-bovine PD-1 rat–bovine chimeric monoclonal antibody 5D2 (Boch5D2 was constructed with mammalian expression systems, and its biochemical function and antiviral effect were characterized in vitro and in vivo using cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV. Purified Boch5D2 was capable of detecting bovine PD-1 molecules expressed on cell membranes in flow cytometric analysis. In particular, Biacore analysis determined that the binding affinity of Boch5D2 to bovine PD-1 protein was similar to that of the original anti-bovine PD-1 rat monoclonal antibody 5D2. Boch5D2 was also capable of blocking PD-1/PD-L1 binding at the same level as 5D2. The immunomodulatory and therapeutic effects of Boch5D2 were evaluated by in vivo administration of the antibody to a BLV-infected calf. Inoculated Boch5D2 was sustained in the serum for a longer period. Boch5D2 inoculation resulted in activation of the proliferation of BLV-specific CD4+ T cells and decrease in the proviral load of BLV in the peripheral blood. This study demonstrates that Boch5D2 retains an equivalent biochemical function to that of the original antibody 5D2 and is a candidate therapeutic agent for regulating antiviral immune response in vivo. Clinical efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade awaits further experimentation with a large number of animals.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides on bovine respiratory pathogen Histophilus somni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine NK-lysins, which are functionally and structurally similar to human granulysin and porcine NK-lysin, are predominantly found in the granules of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and NK-cells. Although antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin has been assessed for several bacterial pathogens, not all t...

  13. Bovine reproduction in tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Lopez, J.

    2001-01-01

    In this document it has met relating data to the reproduction of bovine and their handling for the man that it can serve as norms to judge reproductive efficiency but always view in the aspect of the nutritious, climatic circumstances and of handling under which met. Under the previous description one can say that the fertility is the resultant of the interaction among the inheritance, the means and the handling, they vary in particular for each region and property. The fertility can be good, regulate or bad in the measure in that the factors that intervene. The environmental effect on the reproductive processes of the cow represents 80 percent of the variation factors and they include climate, effect of the light, effect of the temperature, effect of the nutritious contribution, effect of psychological factors: the loss of the tendency to the seasonal reproduction is in fact an answer from the animals to its association with the man. The influence of the environment and the feeding of the animals are more intense in the females than in the males, being evidenced that the reproduction control is under the influence hormonal joint with the nutrition. An appropriate nutrition is prerequisite for the beginning of the sexual maturation with an appropriate weight and corporal condition. It is also described the effect and the relationship of the energy contribution about the fertility, the restart of the ovarian activity, its cause of the continuation of the interval childbirth-conception, silent ovulation, organic ancestry and interval among childbirths

  14. Bovine petechial fever (Ondiri disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G

    1993-02-01

    Bovine petechial fever is a Rickettsial disease of cattle, which has been diagnosed, only in Kenya, East Africa. Other countries in the region share some of the biotopes in which the disease occurs, and may well have the infection. The disease is characterised by widespread petechial and ecchymotic haemorrhages on the mucosal surfaces, and throughout the serosal and subserosal surfaces of the body organs and cavities. It may be fatal in up to 50% of untreated cases. The causal organism may be demonstrated most readily in the cytoplasm of polymorphonuclear granulocytes of the peripheral blood, as well as other leucocytes, and has been classified as Cytoecetes ondirii, a member of the tribe Ehrlichiae. Circumstantial and other evidence suggests that the disease is transmitted by an arthropod vector, which has yet to be identified. The blood of a naturally infected wild ruminant, the bushbuck, Tragelaphus scriptus has been shown to remain infective for at least 2 years, and other species such as the African buffalo, Syncercus caffer for at least 5 weeks. These and possibly other species, may serve as the amplifying and reservoir hosts.

  15. Recent Progress in Cryopreservation of Bovine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sul Hwang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Principle of oocyte cryoinjury is first overviewed and then research history of cryopreservation using bovine oocytes is summarized for the last two decades with a few special references to recent progresses. Various types of cryodevices have been developed to accelerate the cooling rate and applied to the oocytes from large domestic species enriched with cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Two recent approaches include the qualitative improvement of IVM oocytes prior to the vitrification and the short-term recovery culture of vitrified-warmed oocytes prior to the subsequent IVF. Supplementation of L-carnitine to IVM medium of bovine oocytes has been reported to reduce the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets and improve the cryotolerance of the oocytes, but it is still controversial whether the positive effect of L-carnitine is reproducible. Incidence of multiple aster formation, a possible cause for low developmental potential of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes, was inhibited by a short-term culture of the postwarm oocytes in the presence of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK inhibitor. Use of an antioxidant α-tocopherol, instead of the ROCK inhibitor, also supported the revivability of the postwarm bovine oocytes. Further improvements of the vitrification procedure, combined with pre- and postvitrification chemical treatment, would overcome the high sensitivity of bovine oocytes to cryopreservation.

  16. Radioimmunoassay of bovine heart protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, N.; Rosen, O.M.; Reichlin, M.

    1976-01-01

    Immunization of guinea pigs with bovine cardiac cAMP-dependent protein kinase (ATP : protein phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.37) resulted in the development of precipitating antibodies to the cAMP-binding subunit of the enzyme. Both the phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated cAMP-binding protein of the protein kinase reacted with the antiserum. A radioimmunoassay was developed that detects 10 ng of holoenzyme and permits measurement of enzyme concentrations in bovine cardiac muscle. Bovine liver, kidney, brain, and skeletal muscle contain protein kinases which are immunologically identical to those found in bovine cardiac muscle. However, the proportion of immunoreactive enzyme activity differed for each tissue. All of the immunologically nonreactive enzyme in skeletal muscle and heart was separable from immunoreactive enzyme by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. Rat tissues and pig heart contained protein kinase activity that cross reacted immunologically in a nonparallel fashion with bovine cardiac enzyme. These results indicate that cAMP-dependent protein kinases within and between species are immunologically heterogeneous

  17. Expression of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus glycoprotein D ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) belongs to the genus of ... through vaccination with recombinant vaccines of thymidine kinase, manufacturing and applying ..... Resistance to bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) induced in.

  18. Evolutionary history of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia using next generation sequencing of Mycoplasma mycoides Subsp. mycoides "Small Colony".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Dupuy

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides "Small Colony" (MmmSC is responsible for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP in bovidae, a notifiable disease to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE. Although its origin is not documented, the disease was known in Europe in 1773. It reached nearly world-wide distribution in the 19(th century through the cattle trade and was eradicated from most continents by stamping-out policies. During the 20(th century it persisted in Africa, and it reappeared sporadically in Southern Europe. Yet, classical epidemiology studies failed to explain the re-occurrence of the disease in Europe in the 1990s. The objectives of this study were to obtain a precise phylogeny of this pathogen, reconstruct its evolutionary history, estimate the date of its emergence, and determine the origin of the most recent European outbreaks. A large-scale genomic approach based on next-generation sequencing technologies was applied to construct a robust phylogeny of this extremely monomorphic pathogen by using 20 representative strains of various geographical origins. Sixty two polymorphic genes of the MmmSC core genome were selected, representing 83601 bp in total and resulting in 139 SNPs within the 20 strains. A robust phylogeny was obtained that identified a lineage specific to European strains; African strains were scattered in various branches. Bayesian analysis allowed dating the most recent common ancestor for MmmSC around 1700. The strains circulating in Sub-Saharan Africa today, however, were shown to descend from a strain that existed around 1810. MmmSC emerged recently, about 300 years ago, and was most probably exported from Europe to other continents, including Africa, during the 19(th century. Its diversity is now greater in Africa, where CBPP is enzootic, than in Europe, where outbreaks occurred sporadically until 1999 and where CBPP may now be considered eradicated unless MmmSC remains undetected.

  19. Bovine besnoitiosis emerging in Central-Eastern Europe, Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Hornok, Sándor; Fedák, András; Baska, Ferenc; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Basso, Walter

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Besnoitia besnoiti, the cause of bovine besnoitiosis, is a cyst-forming coccidian parasite that has recently been shown to be spreading in several Western and Southern European countries. FINDINGS: Clinical cases of bovine besnoitiosis were confirmed for the first time in Hungary, by histological, serological and PCR analyses. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of autochthonous bovine besnoitiosis in Central-Eastern Europe. The emergence of bovine besnoitiosis in this region re...

  20. Importance of bovine mastitis in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motaung, Thabiso E; Petrovski, Kiro R; Petzer, Inge-Marie; Thekisoe, Oriel; Tsilo, Toi J

    2017-06-01

    Bovine mastitis is an important animal production disease that affects the dairy industry globally. Studies have estimated the prevalence of this disease in approximately 30% of African countries, with the highest prevalence found in Ethiopia. This is despite the wide cattle distribution in Africa, and the largest number of dairy farms and herds in countries such as South Africa, Kenya and Uganda. Furthermore, the estimated financial losses due to direct and indirect impacts of bovine mastitis are lacking in this continent. Therefore, intensive research efforts will help determine the continent-wide economic impacts and advance careful monitoring of disease prevalence and epidemiology. Here, published cases supporting the occurrence and importance of bovine mastitis in certain regions of Africa are outlined.

  1. Bovine herpes virus infections in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S; Kumar, Manoj; Manohar, M; Chauhan, R S

    2009-06-01

    Bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1) is primarily associated with clinical syndromes such as rhinotracheitis, pustular vulvovaginitis and balanoposthitis, abortion, infertility, conjunctivitis and encephalitis in bovine species. The main sources of infection are the nasal exudates and the respiratory droplets, genital secretions, semen, fetal fluids and tissues. The BHV-1 virus can become latent following a primary infection with a field isolate or vaccination with an attenuated strain. The viral genomic DNA has been demonstrated in the sensory ganglia of the trigeminal nerve in infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and in sacral spinal ganglia in pustular vulvovaginitis and balanoposthitis cases. BHV-1 infections can be diagnosed by detection of virus or virus components and antibody by serological tests or by detection of genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nucleic acid hybridization and sequencing. Inactivated vaccines and modified live virus vaccines are used for prevention of BHV-1 infections in cattle; subunit vaccines and marker vaccines are under investigation.

  2. Seroprevalence of bovine theileriosis in northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqiong Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine theileriosis is a common disease transmitted by ticks, and can cause loss of beef and dairy cattle worldwide. Here, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA based on Theileria luwenshuni surface protein (TlSP was developed and used to carry out a seroepidemiological survey of bovine theileriosis in northern China. Methods We used the BugBuster Ni-NTA His•Bind Purification Kit to purify recombinant TlSP (rTlSP, which was subsequently analyzed by Western Blotting to evaluate cross-reactivity with other pathogen-positive sera. The iELISA method based on rTlSP was successfully developed. Sera from 2005 blood samples were tested with the rTlSP-iELISA method, and blood smears from these samples were observed by microscopy. Results The specificity of iELISA was 98.9%, the sensitivity was 98.5%, and the cut-off was selected as 24.6%. Western Blot analysis of rTlSP confirmed that there were cross-reactions with Theileria luwenshuni, Theileria uilenbergi, Theileria ovis, Theileria annulata, Theileria orientalis and Theileria sinensis. The epidemiological survey showed that the highest positive rate of bovine theileriosis was 98.3%, the lowest rate was 84.1%, and the average positive rate was 95.4% by iELISA. With microscopy, the highest positive rate was 38.9%, the lowest rate was 5.1%, and the relative average positive rate was 13.7%. Conclusions An rTlSP-iELISA was developed to detect circulating antibodies against bovine Theileria in northern China. This is the first report on the seroprevalence of bovine theileriosis in northern China, and it also provides seroepidemiological data on bovine theileriosis in China.

  3. Cloning and sequencing of the bovine gastrin gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T; Rehfeld, J F; Olsen, Jørgen

    1989-01-01

    In order to deduce the primary structure of bovine preprogastrin we therefore sequenced a gastrin DNA clone isolated from a bovine liver cosmid library. Bovine preprogastrin comprises 104 amino acids and consists of a signal peptide, a 37 amino acid spacer-sequence, the gastrin-34 sequence followed...

  4. Effect of melatonin on in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Vs 17.67, 15.68, 16.53). In conclusion in this experiment, melatonin cannot improve cumulus cell expansion and nuclear maturation of bovine oocytes. When concentrations is high, melatonin may affect bovine oocytes meiotic maturation at metaphase-1 stage, but it is improbable melatonin be toxic for bovine oocytes.

  5. Sexing bovine pre-implantation embryos using the polymerase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper aims to present a bovine model for human embryo sexing. Cows were super-ovulated, artificially inseminated and embryos were recovered 7 days later. Embryo biopsy was performed; DNA was extracted from blastomeres and amplified using bovine-specific and bovine-Y-chromosomespecific primers, followed ...

  6. 76 FR 26239 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0044] Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings AGENCY... bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. The meetings are being organized by... tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United States. In keeping with its commitment to partnering...

  7. Heterogeneity of Bovine Peripheral Blood Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Hussen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood monocytes of several species can be divided into different subpopulations with distinct phenotypic and functional properties. Herein, we aim at reviewing published work regarding the heterogeneity of the recently characterized bovine monocyte subsets. As the heterogeneity of human blood monocytes was widely studied and reviewed, this work focuses on comparing bovine monocyte subsets with their human counterparts regarding their phenotype, adhesion and migration properties, inflammatory and antimicrobial functions, and their ability to interact with neutrophilic granulocytes. In addition, the differentiation of monocyte subsets into functionally polarized macrophages is discussed. Regarding phenotype and distribution in blood, bovine monocyte subsets share similarities with their human counterparts. However, many functional differences exist between monocyte subsets from the two species. In contrast to their pro-inflammatory functions in human, bovine non-classical monocytes show the lowest phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species generation capacity, an absent ability to produce the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β after inflammasome activation, and do not have a role in the early recruitment of neutrophils into inflamed tissues. Classical and intermediate monocytes of both species also differ in their response toward major monocyte-attracting chemokines (CCL2 and CCL5 and neutrophil degranulation products (DGP in vitro. Such differences between homologous monocyte subsets also extend to the development of monocyte-derived macrophages under the influence of chemokines like CCL5 and neutrophil DGP. Whereas the latter induce the differentiation of M1-polarized macrophages in human, bovine monocyte-derived macrophages develop a mixed M1/M2 macrophage phenotype. Although only a few bovine clinical trials analyzed the correlation between changes in monocyte composition and disease, they suggest that functional differences between

  8. Radiography of the bovine cranioventral abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partington, B.P.; Biller, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    This study consists of a review of 115 consecutively accrued bovine cranial abdomial radiographs. The sensitivity and specificity of radiography in detecting traumatic reticuloperitonitis or pericarditis was 83% and 90%, respectively. Increased reticular size was associated with vagal indigestion. Increased reticulo-diaphragmatic separation did not correlate with a specific disease process, 25/35 (71%) cattle presented for radiographic examination with a 1 cm or longer metallic reticular foreign body unattached to a magnet had traumatic reticuloperitonitis. Standing lateral abdominal radiographs were determined to be a valuable tool in the diagnosis of cranial abdominal disorders in the bovine

  9. Mapping and polymorphism of bovine ghreline gene

    OpenAIRE

    Colinet, Frédéric; Eggen, André; Halleux, Caroline; Arnould, Valérie; Portetelle, Daniel; Renaville, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Bovine ghrelin, a 27-amino-acid peptide has been identified in bovine oxyntic glands of the abomasum. It is an endogenous growth hormone secretagogue. Total mRNA was extracted from abomasum and complete ghrelin mRNA was sequenced by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The gene contains five exons and four introns with a short noncoding first exon of 17 bp similar to mouse and human ghrelin gene. Using a radiation hybrid panel, the gene was mapped to chromosome 22 near microsat...

  10. Bovine rotavirus pentavalent vaccine development in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zade, Jagdish K; Kulkarni, Prasad S; Desai, Sajjad A; Sabale, Rajendra N; Naik, Sameer P; Dhere, Rajeev M

    2014-08-11

    A bovine rotavirus pentavalent vaccine (BRV-PV) containing rotavirus human-bovine (UK) reassortant strains of serotype G1, G2, G3, G4 and G9 has been developed by the Serum Institute of India Ltd, in collaboration with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), USA. The vaccine underwent animal toxicity studies and Phase I and II studies in adults, toddlers and infants. It has been found safe and immunogenic and will undergo a large Phase III study to assess efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Diagnóstico da pneumonia enzoótica suína pela técnica da imunoperoxidase Immunoperoxidase technique for diagnosis of enzootic pnemonia in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C. Ribeiro

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a técnica da imunoperoxidase como método auxiliar para a detecção de Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae em suínos naturalmente infectados. Foram colhidos 80 fragmentos de pulmões de 40 animais provenientes de granjas consideradas negativas e 40 de granjas com diagnóstico positivo de pneumonia enzoótica. Com a utilização de soro policlonal específico (IgG de coelho anti- M. hyopneumoniae observou-se correlação positiva de 77% entre os diagnósticos microscópicos e imunoistoquímicos, enquanto que a correlação entre os diagnósticos macroscópico e imunoistoquímico foi de 49%. Nas granjas consideradas negativas observou-se presença de discreta imunorreação em 22,5% dos casos, o que poderia indicar a existência de reação cruzada com outros microrganismos. Nas granjas com diagnóstico positivo para pneumonia enzoótica a técnica da peroxidase-anti-peroxidase (PAP revelou diferentes graus de intensidade, variando de fraca imunomarcação até espesso depósito amarronzado no epitélio ou na luz das vias aéreas, ou ainda no interior de macrófagos, com relação direta entre a intensidade das lesões e da imunorreação. A técnica imunoistoquímica possui sensibilidade de 95% e especificidade de 77,5%, podendo ser recomendada como ferramenta auxiliar, rápida e de baixo custo para o diagnóstico de pneumonia enzoótica suína em laboratórios de rotina em histopatologia.The immunoperoxidase technique as an auxiliary method for the detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in naturally infected pigs was evaluated. Eighty lung fragments of which 40 from animals of farms considered negatives and 40 of farms with positive diagnosis of enzootic pneumonia were collected. The results obtained with polyclonal specific serum (IgG of rabbit anti - M. hyopneumoniae evidentiated a positive correlation of 77% between microscopic and immunohistochemical diagnoses, while the correlation between the macroscopic and immunohistochemical diagnoses

  12. Successful Application of the Gamma-Interferon Assay in a Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication Program: The French Bullfighting Herd Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Nicolas; Boschiroli, Maria-Laura; Smyej, Florence; Vogler, Valérie; Moyen, Jean-Louis; Desvaux, Stéphanie

    2018-01-01

    In the French Camargue region, where bovine tuberculosis had been enzootic for several years in bullfighting cattle herds, the gamma-interferon (IFN) assay was used since 2003 in parallel with the intradermal test in order to increase overall disease detection sensitivity in infected herds. This study presents the results of a field-evaluation of the assay during a 10-year period (2004-2014) of disease control and surveillance program and explores the particular pattern of IFN assay results in bullfight herds in comparison to cattle from other regions of France. The low sensitivity [59.2% (50.6; 67.3)] of IFN assay using the tuberculin stimulation could be related to the poor gamma-IFN production from bullfight cattle blood cells which is significantly lower than in animals of conventional breeds. The characteristics of the assay were progressively adapted to the epidemiological situation and the desired strategic applications. Data analysis with a receiver operating characteristic curve based on a simple S/P value algorithm allowed for the determination of a new cutoff adapted for a global screening, giving a high specificity of 99.9% results and a high accuracy of the assay. Having regularly risen to above 5% since 2005, with a peak around 10% in 2010, the annual incidence dropped to under 1% in 2014. The positive predictive value relative to the bacteriological confirmation evolved during the years, from 33% in 2009 to 12% during the last screening period, a normal trend in a context of decreasing prevalence. The estimated rate of false-positive reactions during screening campaigns was 0.67%, confirming the high specificity of the test, measured in bTB negative herds, in this epidemiological context. The proportion of false-positive reactions decreased with the age and was higher in males than in females. Although these results indicate that the IFN assay is accurate in the field, it also emphasizes great differences between interferon quantities produced by

  13. Control of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesse, B.W.; Emery, R.S.; Thomas, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Fatty acid oxidation by bovine liver slices and mitochondria was examined to determine potential regulatory sites of fatty acid oxidation. Conversion of 1-[ 14 C]palmitate to 14 CO 2 and total [ 14 C]acid-soluble metabolites was used to measure fatty acid oxidation. Oxidation of palmitate (1 mM) was linear in both liver slice weight and incubation time. Carnitine stimulated palmitate oxidation; 2 mM dl-carnitine produced maximal stimulation of palmitate oxidation to both CO 2 and acid-soluble metabolites. Propionate (10 mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. Propionate (.5 to 10 mM) had no effect on palmitate oxidation by mitochondria, but malonyl Coenzyme A, the first committed intermediate of fatty acid synthesis, inhibited mitochondrial palmitate oxidation (inhibition constant = .3 μM). Liver mitochonndrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase exhibited Michaelis constants for palmitoyl Coenzyme A and l-carnitine of 11.5 μM and .59 mM, respectively. Long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver is regulated by mechanisms similar to those in rats but adapted to the unique digestive physiology of the bovine

  14. Vaccination of cattle against bovine viral diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Rijn, van P.A.

    1999-01-01

    This brief review describes types and quality (efficacy and safety) of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) vaccines that are in the market or under development. Both conventional live and killed vaccines are available. The primary aim of vaccination is to prevent congenital infection, but the few

  15. Pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, van L.J.M.; Vromans, M.E.W.; Dolstra, C.H.; Bossers, A.; Zijderveld, van F.G.

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrPSc) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation of PrPSc was

  16. NUTRIENTS AND EPIGENETICS IN BOVINE CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a chapter for a book titled “Livestock Epigenetics” edited by Dr. Hasan Khatib and published by Wiley-Blackwell. This chapter is focused on the research development in our laboratory in the area of interaction of nutrients and genomic phonotype in bovine cells. Briefly, the Research on nutri...

  17. diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in Kenyan cattle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 55 cattle divided into two groups of experimentally (n =30) and naturally ... sensitive than meat inspection in the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis, detecting .... The second group of 15 calves was ... ined for the presence of C. bovis. .... variable and pour ' ..... appropriate intermediate host is dependent on:- the state.

  18. Aortic reconstruction with bovine pericardial grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Lindemberg Mota

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Glutaraldehyde-treated crimped bovine pericardial grafts are currently used in aortic graft surgery. These conduits have become good options for these operations, available in different sizes and shapes and at a low cost. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the results obtained with bovine pericardial grafts for aortic reconstruction, specially concerning late complications. METHOD: Between January 1995 and January 2002, 57 patients underwent different types of aortic reconstruction operations using bovine pericardial grafts. A total of 29 (50.8% were operated on an urgent basis (mostly acute Stanford A dissection and 28 electively. Thoracotomy was performed in three patients for descending aortic replacement (two patients and aortoplasty with a patch in one. All remaining 54 underwent sternotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic resection. Deep hypothermia and total circulatory arrest was used in acute dissections and arch operations. RESULTS: Hospital mortality was 17.5%. Follow-up was 24.09 months (18.5 to 29.8 months confidence interval and complication-free actuarial survival curve was 92.3% (standard deviation ± 10.6. Two patients lately developed thoracoabdominal aneurysms following previous DeBakey II dissection and one died from endocarditis. One "patch" aortoplasty patient developed local descending aortic pseudoaneurysm 42 months after surgery. All other patients are asymptomatic and currently clinically evaluated with echocardiography and CT scans, showing no complications. CONCLUSION: Use of bovine pericardial grafts in aortic reconstruction surgery is adequate and safe, with few complications related to the conduits.

  19. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV

    2007-01-01

    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology...

  20. Chemotherapy of experimental bovine petechial fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, D R

    1976-01-01

    A dithiosemicarbazone was compared with two tetracycline formulations in the treatment of bovine petechial fever (BPF) in experimentally infected sheep, and was then used to treat the disease in experimental cattle. The dithiosemicarbazone was found to be more efficacious than either of the other two drugs in treating ovine BPF, and also to be effective against BPF in cattle.

  1. Concomitant infection of Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 in spontaneous bovine abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia S. Marin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 has not been conclusively demonstrated to cause bovine abortion. Brain lesions produced by Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 exhibit common features. Therefore, careful microscopic evaluation and additional diagnostic procedures are required to achieve an accurate final etiological diagnosis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of infections due to BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and N. caninum in 68 cases of spontaneous bovine abortions which showed microscopic lesions in the fetal central nervous system. This study allowed the identification of 4 (5.9% fetuses with dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum and 33 (48.5% cases in which N. caninum was the sole pathogen identified. All cases were negative to BoHV-1. The results of this study provide evidence that dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum occur during pregnancy in cattle; however, the role of BoHV-5 as a primary cause of bovine abortion needs further research. Molecular diagnosis of BoHV-5 and N. caninum confirmed the importance of applying complementary assays to improve the sensitivity of diagnosing bovine abortion.

  2. Detection and identification of the atypical bovine pestiviruses in commercial foetal bovine serum batches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Xia

    Full Text Available The recently emerging atypical bovine pestiviruses have been detected in commercial foetal bovine serum (FBS of mainly South American origin so far. It is unclear how widely the viruses are presented in commercial FBS of different geographic origins. To further investigate the possible pestivirus contamination of commercially available FBS batches, 33 batches of FBS were obtained from ten suppliers and analysed in this study for the presence of both the recognised and the atypical bovine pestiviruses. All 33 batches of FBS were positive by real-time RT-PCR assays for at least one species of bovine pestiviruses. According to the certificate of analysis that the suppliers claimed for each batch of FBS, BVDV-1 was detected in all 11 countries and BVDV-2 was detected exclusively in the America Continent. The atypical pestiviruses were detected in 13 batches claimed to originate from five countries. Analysis of partial 5'UTR sequences showed a high similarity among these atypical bovine pestiviruses. This study has demonstrated, for the first time that commercial FBS batches of different geographic origins are contaminated not only with the recognised species BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, but also with the emerging atypical bovine pestiviruses.

  3. A randomized controlled study on the efficacy of a novel combination vaccine against enzootic pneumonia (Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae) and porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in the presence of strong maternally derived PCV2 immunity in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassis, Panagiotis D; Tsakmakidis, Ioannis; Papatsiros, Vassileios G; Koulialis, Dimitrios; Nell, Tom; Brellou, Georgia; Tzika, Eleni D

    2017-04-07

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyo) and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) are major pathogens that cause significant health problems in swine worldwide. Maternal derived immunity (MDI) has been suggested as a significant immediate defence factor for newborn piglets and may interfere with piglet's vaccination-induced immunity. The study aimed to assess the efficacy of a novel combination vaccine (consisting of PCV2 subunits and inactivated M. hyo strain J), against PCV2 and M. hyo natural infection [Porcilis ® PCV M Hyo (MSD Animal Health, Boxmeer, the Netherlands)], in the presence of strong maternally derived PCV2 immunity (antibody titre averaged 11.08 log 2 ), under field conditions. The study was performed according to a controlled, randomized and blinded design in a Greek swine unit with Enzootic Pneumonia (EP) and subclinical PCV2 infection. In total, 600 healthy three-week-old suckling piglets were allocated randomly, either to treatment (vaccinated with the test product) or control group (injected with sterile buffered saline). Vaccination significantly reduced the severity of lung lesions at slaughter (lesions of cranio-ventral pulmonary consolidation) (P pigs. Furthermore, 25 g higher average daily weight gain (ADWG) was observed during the finishing phase (P < 0.001) and 18 g greater ADWG overall (P < 0.001). Results of LLS, PCV2 viremia and ADWG support the test product's efficacy in the face of strong maternally derived PCV2 immunity.

  4. Identification of bovine leukemia virus tax function associated with host cell transcription, signaling, stress response and immune response pathway by microarray-based gene expression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arainga Mariluz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine leukemia virus (BLV is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis and is closely related to human T-cell leukemia virus type I. The Tax protein of BLV is a transcriptional activator of viral replication and a key contributor to oncogenic potential. We previously identified interesting mutant forms of Tax with elevated (TaxD247G or reduced (TaxS240P transactivation effects on BLV replication and propagation. However, the effects of these mutations on functions other than transcriptional activation are unknown. In this study, to identify genes that play a role in the cascade of signal events regulated by wild-type and mutant Tax proteins, we used a large-scale host cell gene-profiling approach. Results Using a microarray containing approximately 18,400 human mRNA transcripts, we found several alterations after the expression of Tax proteins in genes involved in many cellular functions such as transcription, signal transduction, cell growth, apoptosis, stress response, and immune response, indicating that Tax protein has multiple biological effects on various cellular environments. We also found that TaxD247G strongly regulated more genes involved in transcription, signal transduction, and cell growth functions, contrary to TaxS240P, which regulated fewer genes. In addition, the expression of genes related to stress response significantly increased in the presence of TaxS240P as compared to wild-type Tax and TaxD247G. By contrast, the largest group of downregulated genes was related to immune response, and the majority of these genes belonged to the interferon family. However, no significant difference in the expression level of downregulated genes was observed among the Tax proteins. Finally, the expression of important cellular factors obtained from the human microarray results were validated at the RNA and protein levels by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting

  5. The bovine QTL viewer: a web accessible database of bovine Quantitative Trait Loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Suresh R

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many important agricultural traits such as weight gain, milk fat content and intramuscular fat (marbling in cattle are quantitative traits. Most of the information on these traits has not previously been integrated into a genomic context. Without such integration application of these data to agricultural enterprises will remain slow and inefficient. Our goal was to populate a genomic database with data mined from the bovine quantitative trait literature and to make these data available in a genomic context to researchers via a user friendly query interface. Description The QTL (Quantitative Trait Locus data and related information for bovine QTL are gathered from published work and from existing databases. An integrated database schema was designed and the database (MySQL populated with the gathered data. The bovine QTL Viewer was developed for the integration of QTL data available for cattle. The tool consists of an integrated database of bovine QTL and the QTL viewer to display QTL and their chromosomal position. Conclusion We present a web accessible, integrated database of bovine (dairy and beef cattle QTL for use by animal geneticists. The viewer and database are of general applicability to any livestock species for which there are public QTL data. The viewer can be accessed at http://bovineqtl.tamu.edu.

  6. Random laser action in bovine semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smuk, Andrei; Lazaro, Edgar; Olson, Leif P.; Lawandy, N. M.

    2011-03-01

    Experiments using bovine semen reveal that the addition of a high-gain water soluble dye results in random laser action when excited by a Q-switched, frequency doubled, Nd:Yag laser. The data shows that the linewidth collapse of the emission is correlated to the sperm count of the individual samples, potentially making this a rapid, low sample volume approach to count determination.

  7. Radioimmunoassay of bovine leukosis virus antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, J.; Hampl, J.; Svoboda, I.; Granatova, M.; Hofirek, B.; Skrobak, F.

    1986-01-01

    A RIA method was developed for identifying the presence of serum antibodies to the bovine leukosis virus. The chosen procedure uses the ability of the virus antigen to bind to the solid phase of a polystyrene carrier. The method was compared with the ELISA method and with the pseudoneutralization and immunodiffusion tests. A high level of agreement was achieved between the RIA and the ELISA methods (95%). By its accuracy the RIA method proves superior to the immunodiffusion test. (author)

  8. Radioimmunoassay of bovine leukosis virus antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz, J; Hampl, J; Svoboda, I; Granatova, M; Hofirek, B; Skrobak, F

    1986-08-01

    A RIA method was developed for identifying the presence of serum antibodies to the bovine leukosis virus. The chosen procedure uses the ability of the virus antigen to bind to the solid phase of a polystyrene carrier. The method was compared with the ELISA method and with the pseudoneutralization and immunodiffusion tests. A high level of agreement was achieved between the RIA and the ELISA methods (95%). By its accuracy the RIA method proves superior to the immunodiffusion test.

  9. Characterization of carbohydrate structures of bovine MUC15 and distribution of the mucin in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Lone Tjener; Pedersen, Lise Refstrup Linnebjerg; Petersen, Torben Ellebæk

    2007-01-01

    by densitometric scanning of Western blots. In raw milk, MUC15 was shown to constitute 0.08% (wt) of the protein and approximately 1.5% (wt) of the MFGM-associated proteins. Surprisingly, this study showed that in addition to the fat-containing fractions, such as MFGM and buttermilk, MUC15 was present in nonfat......The present work reports the characterization of carbohydrate structures and the distribution of the newly identified mucin MUC15, a highly glycosylated protein associated with the bovine milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). Distribution of MUC15 was investigated in various fractions of bovine milk......-containing fractions as well, such as skim milk and whey. Compositional and structural studies of the carbohydrates of bovine milk MUC15 showed that the glycans are composed of fucose, galactose, mannose, N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglycosamine, and sialic acid. The carbohydrate was shown to constitute 65...

  10. Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Bovine Mammary Microbiota: Potential Allies against Bovine Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Damien S; Seridan, Bianca; Saraoui, Taous; Rault, Lucie; Germon, Pierre; Gonzalez-Moreno, Candelaria; Nader-Macias, Fatima M E; Baud, Damien; François, Patrice; Chuat, Victoria; Chain, Florian; Langella, Philippe; Nicoli, Jacques; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine

    2015-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. As of yet, the control of bovine mastitis is mostly based on prevention by thorough hygienic procedures during milking. Additional strategies include vaccination and utilization of antibiotics. Despite these measures, mastitis is not fully under control, thus prompting the need for alternative strategies. The goal of this study was to isolate autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from bovine mammary microbiota that exhibit beneficial properties that could be used for mastitis prevention and/or treatment. Sampling of the teat canal led to the isolation of 165 isolates, among which a selection of ten non-redundant LAB strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Lactococcus were further characterized with regard to several properties: surface properties (hydrophobicity, autoaggregation); inhibition potential of three main mastitis pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus uberis; colonization capacities of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC); and immunomodulation properties. Three strains, Lactobacillus brevis 1595 and 1597 and Lactobacillus plantarum 1610, showed high colonization capacities and a medium surface hydrophobicity. These strains are good candidates to compete with pathogens for mammary gland colonization. Moreover, nine strains exhibited anti-inflammatory properties, as illustrated by the lower IL-8 secretion by E. coli-stimulated bMEC in the presence of these LAB. Full genome sequencing of five candidate strains allowed to check for undesirable genetic elements such as antibiotic resistance genes and to identify potential bacterial determinants involved in the beneficial properties. This large screening of beneficial properties while checking for undesirable genetic markers allowed the selection of promising candidate LAB strains from bovine mammary microbiota for the prevention and/or treatment of bovine mastitis.

  11. Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Bovine Mammary Microbiota: Potential Allies against Bovine Mastitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien S Bouchard

    Full Text Available Bovine mastitis is a costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. As of yet, the control of bovine mastitis is mostly based on prevention by thorough hygienic procedures during milking. Additional strategies include vaccination and utilization of antibiotics. Despite these measures, mastitis is not fully under control, thus prompting the need for alternative strategies. The goal of this study was to isolate autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB from bovine mammary microbiota that exhibit beneficial properties that could be used for mastitis prevention and/or treatment. Sampling of the teat canal led to the isolation of 165 isolates, among which a selection of ten non-redundant LAB strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Lactococcus were further characterized with regard to several properties: surface properties (hydrophobicity, autoaggregation; inhibition potential of three main mastitis pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus uberis; colonization capacities of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC; and immunomodulation properties. Three strains, Lactobacillus brevis 1595 and 1597 and Lactobacillus plantarum 1610, showed high colonization capacities and a medium surface hydrophobicity. These strains are good candidates to compete with pathogens for mammary gland colonization. Moreover, nine strains exhibited anti-inflammatory properties, as illustrated by the lower IL-8 secretion by E. coli-stimulated bMEC in the presence of these LAB. Full genome sequencing of five candidate strains allowed to check for undesirable genetic elements such as antibiotic resistance genes and to identify potential bacterial determinants involved in the beneficial properties. This large screening of beneficial properties while checking for undesirable genetic markers allowed the selection of promising candidate LAB strains from bovine mammary microbiota for the prevention and/or treatment of bovine mastitis.

  12. Microstructure and hardness of bovine enamel in roselle extract solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dame, M. T.; Noerdin, A.; Indrani, D. J.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of roselle extract solution on the microstructure and hardness of bovine enamel. Ten bovine teeth and a 5% concentration of roselle extract solution were prepared. Immersions of each bovine tooth in roselle extract solution were conducted up to 60 minutes. The bovine enamel surface was characterized in hardness and microscopy. It was apparent that the initial hardness was 328 KHN, and after immersion in 15 and 60 min, the values decrease to 57.4 KHN and 11 KHN, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed changes in enamel rods after immersion in the roselle extract solution.

  13. Herd-level risk factors for the seropositivity to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and the occurrence of enzootic pneumonia among fattening pigs in areas of endemic infection and high pig density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathues, H; Chang, Y M; Wieland, B; Rechter, G; Spergser, J; Rosengarten, R; Kreienbrock, L; Grosse Beilage, E

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify potential risk factors for the occurrence of enzootic pneumonia (EP) in herds situated in a region of high pig density, where a majority of herds is endemically infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Between 2006 and 2010, overall 100 herds were enrolled in a case-control study. Data were collected through personal interview with the farmers, clinical examination of pigs and their environments, and serological testing for M. hyopneumoniae, swine influenza virus and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. There were 40 case herds (coughing index high, seroprevalence high) with a mean coughing index of 4.3 and a seroprevalence of 86.6%. There were two control groups. Control group I consisted of 25 herds (coughing index low, seroprevalence low) with mean values of 0.7 and 11.2%, and 35 herds were allocated to control group II (coughing index low, seroprevalence high) where the mean coughing index was 0.9 and seroprevalence 86.3%. Case herds and control II herds had an increased age of piglets at weaning compared to control I herds. Any contact between fattening pigs of different age during restocking of compartments increased the risk for the occurrence of EP in a herd. Finally, farms that use living animals for the exposure to gilts during the acclimatization and farms that had increased number of weaned piglets per sow and year were less likely to test positive for M. hyopneumoniae and less likely to develop clinical symptoms of EP in fattening pigs. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Investigating the role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa in the re-emergence of enzootic pneumonia in domestic pig herds: a pathological, prevalence and risk-factor study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mainity Batista Linhares

    Full Text Available Enzootic pneumonia (EP caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae has a significant economic impact on domestic pig production. A control program carried out from 1999 to 2003 successfully reduced disease occurrence in domestic pigs in Switzerland, but recurrent outbreaks suggested a potential role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa as a source of re-infection. Since little is known on the epidemiology of EP in wild boar populations, our aims were: (1 to estimate the prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae infections in wild boar in Switzerland; (2 to identify risk factors for infection in wild boar; and (3 to assess whether infection in wild boar is associated with the same gross and microscopic lesions typical of EP in domestic pigs. Nasal swabs, bronchial swabs and lung samples were collected from 978 wild boar from five study areas in Switzerland between October 2011 and May 2013. Swabs were analyzed by qualitative real time PCR and a histopathological study was conducted on lung tissues. Risk factor analysis was performed using multivariable logistic regression modeling. Overall prevalence in nasal swabs was 26.2% (95% CI 23.3-29.3% but significant geographical differences were observed. Wild boar density, occurrence of EP outbreaks in domestic pigs and young age were identified as risk factors for infection. There was a significant association between infection and lesions consistent with EP in domestic pigs. We have concluded that M. hyopneumoniae is widespread in the Swiss wild boar population, that the same risk factors for infection of domestic pigs also act as risk factors for infection of wild boar, and that infected wild boar develop lesions similar to those found in domestic pigs. However, based on our data and the outbreak pattern in domestic pigs, we propose that spillover from domestic pigs to wild boar is more likely than transmission from wild boar to pigs.

  15. Osseointegration of subperiosteal implants using bovine bone substitute and various membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, Merete; Schou, S.; Hjørting-Hansen, E.

    2000-01-01

    Osseointegration, subperiosteal implant, bone substitute, bovine bone, guided bone, regeneration, histology, rabbits......Osseointegration, subperiosteal implant, bone substitute, bovine bone, guided bone, regeneration, histology, rabbits...

  16. The major bovine mastitis pathogens have different cell tropisms in cultures of bovine mammary gland cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, A.; Vorstenbosch, van C.J.; Erkens, J.H.F.; Smith, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    We previously showed that Staphylococcus aureus cells adhered mainly to an elongated cell type, present in cultures of bovine mammary gland cells. Moreover. we showed that this adhesion was mediated by binding to fibronectin. The same in vitro model was used here, to study adhesion of other

  17. Quality control of commercial bovine lactoferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki

    2018-06-01

    Herein we review commercial bovine lactoferrin quality issues by describing an example of industrial production, the current status of global quality standardization, and quality-activity concerns for further discussion. Morinaga Milk Industry has been industrially producing bovine lactoferrin in Milei GmbH, Germany, since 1989. We delineate its production and quality as an example of safe and high-quality manufacturing. Currently, global standardization in the quality of bovine lactoferrin is progressing through Novel Food and GRAS in the EU and USA, respectively. Novel Food was applied or notified to seven lactoferrin manufacturers and GRAS was notified to three manufacturers, two of which are for infant use and one is for adult use, by the end of 2017. The specifications of these regulations are relatively high, including more than 95% lactoferrin purity in protein, which means that such companies can supply relatively high-grade lactoferrin. There appear to be several concerns regarding lactoferrin quality affecting activities, including contamination of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and angiogenin, purity, and degradation of lactoferrin sample. Although LPS is immunologically toxic when invading the body, it is distributed normally in foods and the gut. However, an industrial lactoferrin sample may contain LPS at a maximum LPS/lactoferrin molecule ratio = 1/1724, which means 99.9% of the lactoferrin molecule is LPS-free. It is difficult to speculate that LPS contained in a lactoferrin sample affects its activities. Finally in order to achieve good and reproducible results, we make proposals to researchers a use of high-grade lactoferrin, careful storage, and indication the manufacturers' names and specifications in the paper.

  18. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine herpesvirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are well known etiological agents of cattle that produce important economic losses due to reproductive failures and calf mortality, as well as enteric and respiratory disease. Tamaulipas is located northeast of Mexico, an important cattle production and ...

  19. Anticancer activities of bovine and human lactoferricin-derived peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arias, M.; Hilchie, A.L.; Haney, E.F.; Bolscher, J.G.M.; Hyndman, M.E.; Hancock, R.E.W.; Vogel, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a mammalian host defense glycoprotein with diverse biological activities. Peptides derived from the cationic region of LF possess cytotoxic activity against cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Bovine lactoferricin (LFcinB), a peptide derived from bovine LF (bLF), exhibits

  20. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.216 Section 113.216 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious Bovine...

  1. The vaccines for Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1: A review | Zhao ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) is the pathogen of Infectious Bovine Rhinothracheitis (IBR) disease, causing great economic losses in the livestock industry. Vaccine is a powerful means to control the virus. Here, the review described the currently available knowledge regarding to the advance in the field of BoHV-1 ...

  2. Mutational and Evolutionary Analyses of Bovine Reprimo Gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It can therefore be concluded that bovine RPRM gene contained 4 transition mutations and 5 indels that can be used in marker assisted selection. Evolutionary findings also demonstrated the existence of a divergent evolution between bovine RPRM gene and RPRM gene of fishes and frog. Keywords: Identity, phylogeny ...

  3. Comparative analysis of human and bovine teeth: radiographic density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luis Oshiro Tanaka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since bovine teeth have been used as substitutes for human teeth in in vitro dental studies, the aim of this study was to compare the radiographic density of bovine teeth with that of human teeth to evaluate their usability for radiographic studies. Thirty bovine and twenty human teeth were cut transversally in 1 millimeter-thick slices. The slices were X-rayed using a digital radiographic system and an intraoral X-ray machine at 65 kVp and 7 mA. The exposure time (0.08 s and the target-sensor distance (40 cm were standardized for all the radiographs. The radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin of each slice were obtained separately using the "histogram" tool of Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software. The mean radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin were calculated by the arithmetic mean of the slices of each tooth. One-way ANOVA demonstrated statistically significant differences for the densities of bovine and human enamel (p 0.05. Based on the results, the authors concluded that: a the radiographic density of bovine enamel is significantly higher than that of human enamel; b the radiodensity of bovine coronal dentin is statistically lower than the radiodensity of human coronal dentin; bovine radicular dentin is also less radiodense than human radicular dentin, although this difference was not statistically significant; c bovine teeth should be used with care in radiographic in vitro studies.

  4. Molecular Epidemiology of Bovine Tuberculosis and most Common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even though tuberculosis is endemic in Nigeria, information on the epidemiology of the disease especially bovine tuberculosis is still very scanty. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) was carried out on 113 tissue samples to have an idea of not only the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis but also the most common ...

  5. Prevalence and economic loss of bovine tuberculosis in a municipal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 12 month cross-sectional study was carried out at Lafenwa Abattoir Abeokuta, Southwestern Nigeria from July, 2011 to June, 2012. This was to determine the prevalence and economic loss of bovine tuberculosis in this abattoir. A total of 928 cases of bovine tuberculosis out of 52,273 cattle slaughtered during this period ...

  6. Advances in development and evaluation of bovine herpesvirus 1 vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Kaashoek, M.J.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    This review deals with conventional and modern bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) vaccines. Conventional vaccines are widely used to prevent clinical signs of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. The use of conventional vaccines, however, does not appear to have resulted in reduction of the prevalence of

  7. Characterisation of bovine epiblast-derived outgrowth colonies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Esben; Gjørret, Jakob; Schauser, Kirsten Hallundbæk

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterise bovine epiblast-derived outgrowth colonies (OCs) with respect to the embryonic origin of their cellular components. Epiblasts were isolated mechanically from bovine Day 12 embryos. Epiblasts were cultured on feeder layers of SNL cells (neomycin...

  8. Production of biological nanoparticles from bovine serum albumin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of biological nanoparticles from bovine serum albumin for drug delivery. ... Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used for generation of nanoparticles in a drug delivery system. ... The impact of protein concentration and additional rate of organic solvent (i.e. ethanol) upon the particle ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  9. Detection of lipomannan in cattle infected with bovine tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early and rapid detection of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is critical to controlling the spread of this disease in cattle and other animals. In this study, we demonstrate the development of an immunoassay for the direct detection of the bovine bTB biomarker, lipomannan (LM) in serum using a waveguide-...

  10. Sucrose/bovine serum albumin mediated biomimetic crystallization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To understand the role of the sucrose/bovine serum albumin system in the biomineralization process, we have tested the influence of different concentration of the sucrose/bovine serum albumin (BSA) on calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation. The CaCO3 crystals were characterized by scanning electron microscope ...

  11. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13...

  12. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, Mad Cow Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Bruckner

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Mad Cow Disease or BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy became a household name internationally and also in South Africa. International hysteria resulted following reports of a possible link between a disease diagnosed in cattle in Britain and a variant of the disease diagnosed in humans after the presumed ingestion or contact with meat from infected cattle. The European Union instituted a ban on the importation of beef from the United Kingdom during March 1996 that had a severe effect on the beef industry in the UK and also resulted in a world wide consumer resistance against beef consumption.

  13. Bovine aortic arch with supravalvular aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idhrees, Mohammed; Cherian, Vijay Thomas; Menon, Sabarinath; Mathew, Thomas; Dharan, Baiju S; Jayakumar, K

    2016-09-01

    A 5-year-old boy was diagnosed to have supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS). On evaluation of CT angiogram, there was associated bovine aortic arch (BAA). Association of BAA with SVAS has not been previously reported in literature, and to best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of SVAS with BAA. Recent studies show BAA as a marker for aortopathy. SVAS is also an arteriopathy. In light of this, SVAS can also possibly be a manifestation of aortopathy associated with BAA. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Bovine aortic arch with supravalvular aortic stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Idhrees

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A 5-year-old boy was diagnosed to have supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS. On evaluation of CT angiogram, there was associated bovine aortic arch (BAA. Association of BAA with SVAS has not been previously reported in literature, and to best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of SVAS with BAA. Recent studies show BAA as a marker for aortopathy. SVAS is also an arteriopathy. In light of this, SVAS can also possibly be a manifestation of aortopathy associated with BAA.

  15. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV): A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik

    2000-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection is the major cause of respiratory disease in calves during the first year of life. The study of the virus has been difficult because of its lability and very poor growth in cell culture. However, during the last decade, the introduction of new...... complex and unpredictable which makes the diagnosis and subsequent therapy very difficult. BRSV is closely related to human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) which is an important cause of respiratory disease in young children. In contrast to BRSV, the recent knowledge of HRSV is regularly extensively...

  16. BIOLOGICAL CLONING OF A BOVINE CORONAVIRUS ISOLATE

    OpenAIRE

    Betancourt, A; Rodríguez, Edisleidy; Relova, Damarys; Barrera, Maritza

    2008-01-01

    Con el objetivo de obtener un aislado de Coronavirus bovino clonado biológicamente se adaptó el aislado VB73/04 a la multiplicación en la línea celular MDBK. Este aislado indujo la formación de placas, las cuales resultaron homogéneas después del clonaje biológico. La población viral obtenida fue identificada como Coronavirus bovino por RT-PCR y Seroneutralización. In order to obtain a biologically cloned bovine coronavirus isolate, the isolate VB73/04 was adapted to multiplication in MDBK...

  17. A bovine aortic arch in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Arnáiz-García

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe a curious congenital variation of human aortic arch (AA branching pattern termed the “bovine aortic arch”. Rather than arising directly from the AA as a separate branch as occurs in the most common AA branching pattern, the left common carotid artery moves to the right and merges from the brachiocephalic trunk. It is the normal AA branching pattern presented in a number of animals (canines, felines or Macaque monkeys but it has nothing to do with anatomy of AA in ruminant animals, including cattle and buffalo. That is why it is one of the most widely misnomers used in medical literature whose origin is nowadays unknown.

  18. Detection of bovine herpesvirus 4 glycoprotein B and thymidine kinase DNA by PCR assays in bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Verstraten, E.; Belak, S.; Verschuren, S.B.E.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Peshev, R.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2001-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to detect bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4) glycoprotein B (gB) DNA, and a nested-PCR assay was modified for the detection of BHV4 thymidine kinase (TK) DNA in bovine milk samples. To identify false-negative PCR results, internal control templates were

  19. Human exposure to bovine polyomavirus: a zoonosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, J V; Gardner, S D

    1986-01-01

    A competitive-type solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed for the detection of antibody to bovine polyomavirus. Comparison of RIA and counter-immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) results on 273 cattle sera indicated that both techniques were detecting antibody of like specificity. Human sera from 256 blood donors, 219 people recently vaccinated against polio, rubella or rabies, 50 immunosuppressed patients and 472 people with various occupational exposure to cattle were tested for antibody to bovine polyomavirus, the foetal rhesus monkey kidney strain, (anti-FRKV) by RIA. Apart from one blood donor and one of 108 rabies vaccinees only those in close contact with cattle possessed anti-FRKV. Compared with 62 per cent seropositive in the natural hosts, cattle, 71 per cent of veterinary surgeons, 50 per cent of cattle farmers, 40 per cent of abattoir workers, 16 per cent of veterinary institute technical staff and 10 per cent of veterinary students were anti-FRKV positive. Our findings indicate that the theoretical hazard of FRKV infection from undetected contamination of current tissue culture derived vaccines may, in practice, be remote. Proposed wider use of primate kidney cells as substrates for new vaccines may increase this risk.

  20. Retinol improves bovine embryonic development in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards J Lannett

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Retinoids are recognized as important regulators of vertebrate development, cell differentiation, and tissue function. Previous studies, performed both in vivo and in vitro, indicate that retinoids influence several reproductive events, including follicular development, oocyte maturation and early embryonic development. The present study evaluated in vitro effects of retinol addition to media containing maturing bovine oocytes and developing embryos in both a low oxygen atmosphere (7% and under atmospheric oxygen conditions (20%. In the first experiment, abbatoir collected bovine oocytes were matured in the presence or absence of varying concentrations of retinol. After a 22–24 hour maturation period the oocytes were fertilized, denuded 18 hours later and cultured in a modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOF in a humidified atmosphere at 38.5 degrees C, 5% CO2, 7% O2 and 88% N2. Cleavage rates did not differ among control and retinol-treated oocytes in all three experiments. Addition of 5 micromolar retinol to the maturation medium (IVM tended (p

  1. Seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases among the bovines in Himachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailja Katoch

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was designed to measure the seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases: Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea, bovine leukemia, bovine parainfluenza, bovine respiratory syncytial disease, brucellosis, and paratuberculosis among bovine of Himachal Pradesh during the year 2013-2015. Materials and Methods: The serum samples were collected from seven districts of state, namely, Bilaspur, Kangra, Kinnaur, Lahul and Spiti, Mandi, Sirmour, and Solan. The samples were screened using indirect ELISA kits to measure the seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases. Results: The overall seroprevalence of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis was 24.24%, bovine viral diarrhea 1.52%, bovine leukemia 9.09%, bovine parainfluenza 57.58%, bovine respiratory syncytial disease 50%, brucellosis 19.69%, and paratuberculosis 9.09% in Himachal Pradesh. The seroprevalence of bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine leukemia, bovine parainfluenza, bovine respiratory syncytial disease, and paratuberculosis in the state varied significantly (p0.01. Multiple seropositivity has been observed in this study. Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 was observed commonly in mixed infection with almost all viruses and bacteria under study. Conclusion: The viral and bacterial diseases are prevalent in the seven districts of Himachal Pradesh investigated in the study. Therefore, appropriate management practices and routine vaccination programs should be adopted to reduce the prevalence of these diseases.

  2. Enzootic transmission of yellow fever virus, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auguste, Albert J; Lemey, Philippe; Bergren, Nicholas A; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Morón, Dulce; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Weaver, Scott C

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in Venezuela, with evidence of regionally independent evolution within the country. However, there is considerable YFV movement from Brazil to Venezuela and between Trinidad and Venezuela.

  3. Determining fertility in a bovine subject comprises detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of genetic marker alleles associated with a trait indicative of fertility of the bovine subject and/or off-spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    NOVELTY - Determining fertility in a bovine subject comprises detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of two or more genetic marker alleles that are associated with a trait indicative of fertility of the bovine subject and/or off-spring. USE - The methods are useful...... for determining fertility in a bovine subject; and selecting bovine subjects for breeding purposes (all claimed). DETAILED DESCRIPTION - Determining fertility in a bovine subject comprises detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of two or more genetic marker alleles...... that are associated with a trait indicative of fertility of the bovine subject and/or off-spring, where the two or more genetic marker alleles are single nucleotide polymorphisms selected from Hapmap60827-rs29019866, ARS-BFGL-NGS-40979, Hapmap47854-BTA-119090, ARS-BFGL-NGS-114679, Hapmap43841-BTA-34601, Hapmap43407...

  4. Characterization of carbohydrate structures of bovine MUC15 and distribution of the mucin in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Lone Tjener; Pedersen, Lise Refstrup Linnebjerg; Petersen, Torben Ellebæk

    2007-01-01

    -containing fractions as well, such as skim milk and whey. Compositional and structural studies of the carbohydrates of bovine milk MUC15 showed that the glycans are composed of fucose, galactose, mannose, N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglycosamine, and sialic acid. The carbohydrate was shown to constitute 65......% of the total molecular weight, and the molar ratios of the individual sugars to protein of the O-linked glycans were determined. The glycan structures of MUC15 were further studied by enzymatic deglycosylation experiments using different endo- and exoglycosidases as well as a panel of lectins. The N......-linked glycans. By comparing the results of peanut agglutinin lectin binding, enzymatic deglycosylation, and monosaccharide composition analysis, we concluded that bovine MUC15 also contains more complex O-glycans containing high amounts N-acetylglucosamine residues. Furthermore, a small subset of the O...

  5. [Antiviral activity of different drugs in vitro against viruses of bovine infectious rhinotracheitis and bovine diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotov, A G; Glotova, T I; Sergeev, A A; Belkina, T V; Sergeev, A N

    2004-01-01

    In vitro experiments studied the antiviral activity of 11 different drugs against viruses of bovine infective rhinotracheitis (BIRT) and bovine viral diarrhea (BVD). The 50% inhibiting concentrations of the test agents were determined in the monolayers of MDBK and KCT cell cultures. Only did phosprenyl show a virucidal activity against BIRT virus. All the tested drugs significantly inhibited the reproduction of BIRT virus in the sensitive MDBK cell cultures. Thus, bromuridin, acyclovir, ribavirin and methisazonum inhibited the virus by > or = 100,000 times; liposomal ribavirin, gossypolum, anandinum, polyprenolum, phosprenyl, by 1000-10,000 times; eracond and argovit, by 100 times. In experiments on BVD virus, the cultured KCT cells displayed the antiviral activity of bromuridin, phosprenil, polyprenolum, methisazonum, acyclovir, gossypolum, argovit, and ribavirin (in two variants), which caused a statistically significant (100-10,000-fold) decrease in the productive activity of this virus. Eracond and anandid proved to be ineffective.

  6. Genome analysis of an atypical bovine pestivirus from fetal bovine serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shandian; Du, Junzheng; Tian, Zhancheng; Xing, Shanshan; Chang, Huiyun; Liu, Guangyuan; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2016-08-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of a bovine pestivirus LVRI/cont-1 originated from a commercial batch of fetal bovine serum. Its complete genome consists of 12,282 nucleotides (nt), which contain an open reading frame (ORF) of 11,700 bp flanked by 5' and 3' untranslated regions (383 and 199 bp). The size of the 5'UTR and the individual protein coding region of LVRI/cont-1 are identical to those of the reference virus Th/04_KhonKaen, but it has a deletion of the first 56 nt in the 3'UTR. Alignment of the complete nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicate that this viral isolate belongs to atypical pestiviruses.

  7. Bovine Mastitis Resistance: Novel Quantitative Trait Loci and the Role of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kurz, Jacqueline P.

    2018-01-01

    Bovine mastitis, or inflammation of the mammary gland, has substantial economic and animal welfare implications. A genetic basis for mastitis resistance traits is recognized and can be used to guide selective breeding programs. The discovery of regions of the genome associated with mastitis resistance, and knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible, can facilitate development of efficient mastitis control and therapeutic strategies. The objectives of this dissertation resear...

  8. Seroprevalence of bovine immunodeficiency virus and bovine leukemia virus in draught animals in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meas, S; Ohashi, K; Tum, S; Chhin, M; Te, K; Miura, K; Sugimoto, C; Onuma, M

    2000-07-01

    Since bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), known as bovine lentivirus, has been detected in dairy and beef cattle in various countries around the world, a prevalence study of antibodies to BIV and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) was conducted in draught animals in five provinces in Cambodia, where protozoan parasite infections were suspected in some animals. To clarify the status of draught animals including Haryana, Brahman, mixed-breed, local breed cattle and muscle water buffaloes, a total of 544 cattle and 42 buffaloes were tested, and 26.3 and 16.7%, respectively, were found positive for anti-BIV p26 antibodies determined by Western blotting. There were 5.3% positive for anti-BLV antibodies detected by immunodiffusion test among the cattle, but no reactors among buffaloes and no dual infection for both BIV and BLV was determined in this study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from BIV-seropositive cattle were found to have BIV-provirus DNA, as detected by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent Southern blot hybridization. This is the first evidence for the presence of BIV and BLV infections in draught animals in tropical countries such as Cambodia. This wide distribution of BIV suggests its association with problems in animal health as reported worldwide, and that a primary BIV infection can predispose death of affected animals by other aggressive pathogens or stresses.

  9. Heterologous expression of bovine lactoferricin in Pichia methanolica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haikuan; Zhao, Xinhuai; Lu, Fuping

    2007-06-01

    According to the bias of codon utilization of Pichia methanolica, a fragment encoding bovine lactoferricin has been cloned and expressed in the P. methanolica under the control of the alcohol oxidase promoter, which was followed by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-factor signal peptide. The alpha-factor signal peptide efficiently directed the secretion of bovine lactoferricin from the recombinant yeast cell. The recombinant bovine lactoferricin appears to be successfully expressed, as it displays antibacterial activity (antibacterial assay). Moreover, the identity of the recombinant product was estimated by Tricine-SDS-PAGE.

  10. Photochemistry of modified proteins benzophenone-containing bovine serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariano, P.S.; Glover, G.I.; Wilkinson, T.J.

    1976-01-01

    The results of exploratory and mechanistic studies of the photochemistry of poly-p-benzoyl-acetimido-bovine serum albumin, a modified protein containing photoreactive and photosensitizing groups, are reported. Specifically described are recent findings concerning (1) the synthesis and characterization of a modified bovine serum albumin that contains benzophenone-like moieties, (2) the photochemistry of this modified protein which appeared to involve photoreductive coupling of the benzophenone chromophores to the protein backbone, and (3) triplet energy transfer from modified bovine serum albumin to small molecule acceptors resulting in quenching of the photoreaction. (author)

  11. Gabor Weber Local Descriptor for Bovine Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition is a robust biometric technology. This paper proposes a novel local descriptor for bovine iris recognition, named Gabor Weber local descriptor (GWLD. We first compute the Gabor magnitude maps for the input bovine iris image, and then calculate the differential excitation and orientation for each pixel over each Gabor magnitude map. After that, we use these differential excitations and orientations to construct the GWLD histogram representation. Finally, histogram intersection is adopted to measure the similarity between different GWLD histograms. The experimental results on the SEU bovine iris database verify the representation power of our proposed local descriptor.

  12. LukMF′ is the major secreted leukocidin of bovine Staphylococcus aureus and is produced in vivo during bovine mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieling, Manouk; Boerhout, Eveline M.; van Wigcheren, Glenn F.; Koymans, Kirsten J.; Mols-Vorstermans, Tanja G.; de Haas, Carla J. C.; Aerts, Piet C.; Daemen, Ineke J. J. M.; van Kessel, Kok P. M.; Koets, Ad P.; Rutten, Victor P. M. G.; Nuijten, Piet J.M.; van Strijp, Jos A. G.; Benedictus, Lindert

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human and animal pathogen and a common cause of mastitis in cattle. S. aureus secretes several leukocidins that target bovine neutrophils, crucial effector cells in the defence against bacterial pathogens. In this study, we investigated the role of staphylococcal leukocidins in the pathogenesis of bovine S. aureus disease. We show that LukAB, in contrast to the γ-hemolysins, LukED, and LukMF′, was unable to kill bovine neutrophils, and identified CXCR2 as a bovine receptor for HlgAB and LukED. Furthermore, we assessed functional leukocidin secretion by bovine mastitis isolates and observed that, although leukocidin production was strain dependent, LukMF′ was most abundantly secreted and the major toxin killing bovine neutrophils. To determine the role of LukMF′ in bovine mastitis, cattle were challenged with high (S1444) or intermediate (S1449, S1463) LukMF′-producing isolates. Only animals infected with S1444 developed severe clinical symptoms. Importantly, LukM was produced in vivo during the course of infection and levels in milk were associated with the severity of mastitis. Altogether, these findings underline the importance of LukMF′ as a virulence factor and support the development of therapeutic approaches targeting LukMF′ to control S. aureus mastitis in cattle. PMID:27886237

  13. Tear and decohesion of bovine pericardial tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobaruela, Almudena; Elices, Manuel; Bourges, Jean Yves; Rojo, Francisco Javier; Atienza, José Miguel; Guinea, Gustavo

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the fracture-by tear and delamination-of bovine pericardium tissues which are usually employed for the manufacture of bioprosthetic valves. A large number of samples (77) were tested in root-to-apex and circumferential directions, according to a standardised tear test (ASTM D 1938). Before performing the tear test, some samples were subjected to 1000 cycles of fatigue to a maximum stress of 3MPa. Fracture toughness of tearing and delamination were computed by following a simple fracture model. The study showed significantly lower values of delamination toughness compared with tear delamination. Moreover, tear forces were different in each test direction, revealing a clear orthotropic behaviour. All these results, as well as the testing procedure, could be of value for future research in the physiological function of pericardium tissues and clinical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Photodynamically generated bovine serum albumin radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvester, J A; Timmins, G S; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    Porphyrin-sensitized photoxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) results in oxidation of the protein at (at least) two different, specific sites: the Cys-34 residue giving rise to a thiyl radical (RS.); and one or both of the tryptophan residues (Trp-134 and Trp-214) resulting in the formation...... of tertiary carbon-centred radicals and disruption of the tryptophan ring system. In the case of porphyrins such as hematoporphyrin, which bind at specific sites on BSA, these species appear to arise via long-range transfer of damage within the protein structure, as the binding site is some distance from...... the ultimate site of radical formation. This transfer of damage is shown to depend on a number of factors including the conformation of the protein, the presence of blocking groups and pH. Alteration of the protein conformation results in radical formation at additional (or alternative) sites, as does blocking...

  15. Radioimmunoassay for progesterone in bovine milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Miriam; Figueredo, Nancy; Castillo, Sonia; Pizarro

    2002-01-01

    A system for the measurement of progesterone in bovine milk by radioimmunoassay has been developed and validated. This assay includes an iodine tracer purified by HPLC, the standard prepared in fat-free milk and an antibody anti-progesterone combined with second antibody. The detection limit of the assay is at 0.2 nmol/L calculated from the maximum binding menus two standard deviations and the precision is satisfactory. In the recovery assay was used 4 milk different samples and the result was 98% of recuperation. The progesterone was determinate in milk samples from post-partum animals taking samples three times per week for 40 days. The assay is simple, rapid and possibility the progesterone measurement without sample dilution, distinguish the cyclic changes of this hormone that reflect the ovarian activity in the animals. (author)

  16. Radioimmunological progesteron determination in peripheral bovine blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ender, M.

    1974-01-01

    A radioimmunological method of determination of the progesterone level in peripheral bovine blood is described which enables a monitoring of the corpus luteum function under varying conditions. There is no dependence of the corpus luteum function on the pituitary gland after endogenous prolactin inhibition with a synthetic prolactin inhibitor in the oestrus cycle and in the end-phase of gravidity. In hysterectomized animals, however, the inhibition of endogenous LH leads to luteolysis. The release of endogenous LH, induced by the administration of an LH release hormone, causes a short increase in progesterone production in the middle phase of the cycle only. The administration of exogenous glucocorticoids during the oestrus cycle did not influence the corpus luteum function. The method described is used in a field test to determine the right time for artificial insemination. There is a significant difference between the progesterone values of impregnated and non-pregnant animals at 16-18 days after insemination. (BSC/AK) [de

  17. Nucleolar ultrastructure in bovine nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanka, J; Smith, S D; Soloy, E

    1999-01-01

    in nuclear morphology as a transformation of the nucleolus precursor body into a functional rRNA synthesising nucleolus with a characteristic ultrastructure. We examined nucleolar ultrastructure in bovine in vitro produced (control) embryos and in nuclear transfer embryos reconstructed from a MII phase...... at 1 hr after fusion and, by 3 hr after fusion, it was restored again. At this time, the reticulated fibrillo-granular nucleolus had an almost round shape. The nucleolar precursor body seen in the two-cell stage nuclear transfer embryos consisted of intermingled filamentous components and secondary...... time intervals after fusion. In the two-cell stage nuclear transfer embryo, the originally reticulated nucleolus of the donor blastomere had changed into a typical nucleolar precursor body consisting of a homogeneous fibrillar structure. A primary vacuole appeared in the four-cell stage nuclear...

  18. Copy number variation in the bovine genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadista, João; Thomsen, Bo; Holm, Lars-Erik

    2010-01-01

    to genetic variation in cattle. Results We designed and used a set of NimbleGen CGH arrays that tile across the assayable portion of the cattle genome with approximately 6.3 million probes, at a median probe spacing of 301 bp. This study reports the highest resolution map of copy number variation...... in the cattle genome, with 304 CNV regions (CNVRs) being identified among the genomes of 20 bovine samples from 4 dairy and beef breeds. The CNVRs identified covered 0.68% (22 Mb) of the genome, and ranged in size from 1.7 to 2,031 kb (median size 16.7 kb). About 20% of the CNVs co-localized with segmental...... duplications, while 30% encompass genes, of which the majority is involved in environmental response. About 10% of the human orthologous of these genes are associated with human disease susceptibility and, hence, may have important phenotypic consequences. Conclusions Together, this analysis provides a useful...

  19. Human bovine tuberculosis - remains in the differential.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bilal, Shaukat

    2010-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is a pathogen of cattle. The unpasteurized milk of affected cattle is a source of infection in humans. Despite the screening of cattle and the pasteurization of milk, M bovis has not been eradicated. A high index of clinical suspicion is needed in symptomatic patients with a history of possible exposure. At risk groups include animal workers, farmers, meat packers, vets and zoo keepers. Humans are usually infected by the aerosol route. We present two cases of human bovine tuberculosis. One was a presumptive case and the second was a confirmed case. Both responded well to antituberculous therapy. In the confirmed case, there was evidence of transmission to the partner living in the same house. Rifampicin prophylaxis was given to the exposed case. The M. bovis from the confirmed case was isoniazid resistant, in addition to having the well known resistance to pyrazinamide. Isoniazid resistance has been described before in those who are immunocompromised. We describe it in an immunocompetent patient.

  20. Pathological studies on bovine viral diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkady, A.A.M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified as an RNA virus in the family flavin viride and is a member of the genus pest virus (Collet et al 1989). BVDV has a worldwide distribution and infections in cattle populations (Kahrs et al 1970). It was recognized since 50 years ago, the initial description of an acute enteric disease of cattle in North America, which was characterized by outbreaks of diarrhea and erosive of digestive tract (Olafsonp et al 1946). The disease and causative agent were named bovine viral diarrhea (B V D ) and (B V DV), respectively. This virus was subsequently associated with a sporadically occurring and highly fatal enteric disease that was termed mucosal disease (M D), (Ramsey and Chivers 1953). The initial isolate of BVDV did not produce cytopathic effect in cell culture, whereas an isolate from MD did produce cytopathic effects (Lee et al 1957). In vitro characteristic of non cytopathic or sytopathic effects of BVDV is referred to as the biotype of the virus. It has now been established that MD occurs only when xattle that are born immuno tolerant to and persistently infected with a noncyropathic BVDV become super infected with a cytopathic BVDV. The knowledge of the molecular biology. Pathogenesis and epidemiology of BVDV has greatly evolved in the past 10-15 years and has provided a better understanding of this complex infectious agent. Infection with BVDV can result in a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from subclinical infection s to a highly fatal from known as mucosal disease (ND). The clinical response to infection depends on multiple interactive factors. Host factors that influence the clinical outcome of BVDV infection include whether the host is immunocompetent or immuno tolerant to BVDV, pregnancy status, gestational age of the fetus, immune status (passively derived or actively derived from previous infection or vaccination) and concurrent level of environmental stress

  1. Nonenzymatic glycosylation of bovine myelin basic protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitz, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    In the CNS myelin sheath the nonenzymatic glycosylation reaction (at the early stage of the Amadori product) occurs only with the myelin basic protein and not with the other myelin proteins. This was observed in isolated bovine myelin by in vitro incubation with [ 14 C]-galactose and [ 14 C]-glucose. The respective in-vitro incorporation rates for purified bovine myelin basic protein with D-galactose, D-glucose and D-mannose were 7.2, 2.4 and 2.4 mmoles/mole myelin basic protein per day at 37 0 C. A more rapid, HPLC method was devised and characterized to specifically analyze for the Amadori product. The HPLC method was correlated to the [ 14 C]-sugar incorporation method for myelin basic protein under a set of standard reaction conditions using [ 14 C]-glucose and [ 14 C]-mannose with HPLC values at 1/6 and 1/5 of the [ 14 C]-sugar incorporation method. A novel myelin basic protein purification step has been developed that yields a relativity proteolytic free preparation that is easy to work with, being totally soluble at a neutral pH. Nine new spots appear for a trypsinized glycosylated MBP in the paper peptide map of which eight correspond to positions of the [ 3 H]-labeled Amadori product in affinity isolated peptides. These studies provide a general characterization of and a structural basis for investigations on nonenzymatically glycosylated MBP as well as identifying MBP as the only nonenzymatically glycosylated protein in the CNS myelin sheath which may accumulate during aging, diabetes, and demyelinating diseases in general

  2. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the CDC Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... spongiform encephalopathy) is a progressive neurological disorder of cattle that results from infection by an unusual transmissible ...

  3. Aspiration lung disorders in bovines: A case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony S. Shakespeare

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Lung aspiration disorders in bovines are invariably diagnosed as infectious aspiration pneumonias. There is a distinct differentiation between aspiration pneumonia and aspiration pneumonitis in humans that can be applied to bovines. The nature and quantity of the aspirate can result in differing pathogeneses which can require differing therapeutic approaches. Whilst blood gases were important in detecting and prognosticating lung problems, changes in barometric pressure with altitude have to be considered when interpreting partial pressures of oxygen. Anatomical differences in the lungs of bovines can explain why this species is more prone to certain pneumonic problems. Pulmonary physiotherapy is important in treating lung disorders in humans and should be considered as an adjunct therapy in bovine respiratory conditions. A case work-up was used to highlight some of the points discussed in this article.

  4. Aspiration lung disorders in bovines: A case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony S. Shakespeare

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lung aspiration disorders in bovines are invariably diagnosed as infectious aspiration pneumonias. There is a distinct differentiation between aspiration pneumonia and aspiration pneumonitis in humans that can be applied to bovines. The nature and quantity of the aspirate can result in differing pathogeneses which can require differing therapeutic approaches. Whilst blood gases were important in detecting and prognosticating lung problems, changes in barometric pressure with altitude have to be considered when interpreting partial pressures of oxygen. Anatomical differences in the lungs of bovines can explain why this species is more prone to certain pneumonic problems. Pulmonary physiotherapy is important in treating lung disorders in humans and should be considered as an adjunct therapy in bovine respiratory conditions. A case work-up was used to highlight some of the points discussed in this article.

  5. Histologic and Immunohistochemical classification of 41 bovine adrenal gland neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Anette Blak; Leifsson, Páll S.; Jensen, Henrik Elvang

    2013-01-01

    . An immunohistochemistry panel consisting of antibodies against melan A, synaptophysin, and CNPase was considered most useful to classify bovine adrenal tumors. However, the distinction between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors was based on histologic features as in human medicine....

  6. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of bovine and shark cartilage as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  7. Recognizing the radiographic features of some common bovine foot problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebeid, M.; Steiner, A.

    1996-01-01

    Radiographs of an injured or infected bovine foot can be tricky to interpret - the anatomy is complex, and the signs may be subtle. This guide leads you through the classic radiographic features of several common foot conditions

  8. Prevalence of bovine mastitis and multi-antibiotic resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of bovine mastitis and multi-antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus and ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... their antibiotic sensitivities and management practices of sahiwal and dairy cattle kept at a centre of Kenya ...

  9. Aspiration lung disorders in bovines: a case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, Anthony S

    2012-11-01

    Lung aspiration disorders in bovines are invariably diagnosed as infectious aspiration pneumonias. There is a distinct differentiation between aspiration pneumonia and aspiration pneumonitis in humans that can be applied to bovines. The nature and quantity of the aspirate can result in differing pathogeneses which can require differing therapeutic approaches. Whilst blood gases were important in detecting and prognosticating lung problems, changes in barometric pressure with altitude have to be considered when interpreting partial pressures of oxygen. Anatomical differences in the lungs of bovines can explain why this species is more prone to certain pneumonic problems. Pulmonary physiotherapy is important in treating lung disorders in humans and should be considered as an adjunct therapy in bovine respiratory conditions. A case work-up was used to highlight some of the points discussed in this article.

  10. Detection of genes associated with developmental competence of bovine oocytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němcová, Lucie; Jansová, Denisa; Vodičková Kepková, Kateřina; Vodička, Petr; Jeseta, M.; Machatková, M.; Kaňka, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 166, č. 1 (2016), s. 58-71 ISSN 0378-4320 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : oocyte * embryo * bovine * developmental competence * transcription Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.605, year: 2016

  11. Characterization Of Bovine Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Cebo

    2017-01-01

    Bovine adipose-derived stem cells were obtained from the subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue. The cells were cultured by the modified tissue-explants method developed in our laboratory and then analyzed using optical microscopy and flow cytometry. These cells were able to replicate in our cell culture conditions. cell Flow cytometry showed that bovine adipose-derived stem cells expressed mesenchymal stem cell markers CD73 and CD90. Meanwhile haematopoietic markers CD45 and CD34 are absent f...

  12. Gabor Weber Local Descriptor for Bovine Iris Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Shengnan; Zhao, Lindu; Yang, Shicai

    2013-01-01

    Iris recognition is a robust biometric technology. This paper proposes a novel local descriptor for bovine iris recognition, named Gabor Weber local descriptor (GWLD). We first compute the Gabor magnitude maps for the input bovine iris image, and then calculate the differential excitation and orientation for each pixel over each Gabor magnitude map. After that, we use these differential excitations and orientations to construct the GWLD histogram representation. Finally, histogram intersectio...

  13. Traitement De La Peripneumonie Contagieuse Bovine Par L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traitement De La Peripneumonie Contagieuse Bovine Par L'oxyteTracycline Longe Action Et Transmission Experimentale de la Maladie A Partir de Bovins Traites. ... Tous les 14 animaux ont séroconverti et l'analyse post-mortem a montré la présence des lésions chroniques dont des séquestres pulmonaires chez 4 d'entre ...

  14. Epidemiology of Bovine Mastitis in Cows of Dharwad District

    OpenAIRE

    Kurjogi, Mahantesh M.; Kaliwal, Basappa B.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is very common in cows of both developed and developing countries. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis (SCM) varies from region to region. Hence, the present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of mastitis using three diagnostic tests by considering different risk factors like age, lactation, breed, season, quarters, and herd. The results showed that surf field mastitis test (SFMT) is the most sensitive test for diagnosis of bovine mastitis, the o...

  15. No evidence for a bovine mastitis Escherichia coli pathotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimbach, Andreas; Poehlein, Anja; Vollmers, John; Görlich, Dennis; Daniel, Rolf; Dobrindt, Ulrich

    2017-05-08

    Escherichia coli bovine mastitis is a disease of significant economic importance in the dairy industry. Molecular characterization of mastitis-associated E. coli (MAEC) did not result in the identification of common traits. Nevertheless, a mammary pathogenic E. coli (MPEC) pathotype has been proposed suggesting virulence traits that differentiate MAEC from commensal E. coli. The present study was designed to investigate the MPEC pathotype hypothesis by comparing the genomes of MAEC and commensal bovine E. coli. We sequenced the genomes of eight E. coli isolated from bovine mastitis cases and six fecal commensal isolates from udder-healthy cows. We analyzed the phylogenetic history of bovine E. coli genomes by supplementing this strain panel with eleven bovine-associated E. coli from public databases. The majority of the isolates originate from phylogroups A and B1, but neither MAEC nor commensal strains could be unambiguously distinguished by phylogenetic lineage. The gene content of both MAEC and commensal strains is highly diverse and dominated by their phylogenetic background. Although individual strains carry some typical E. coli virulence-associated genes, no traits important for pathogenicity could be specifically attributed to MAEC. Instead, both commensal strains and MAEC have very few gene families enriched in either pathotype. Only the aerobactin siderophore gene cluster was enriched in commensal E. coli within our strain panel. This is the first characterization of a phylogenetically diverse strain panel including several MAEC and commensal isolates. With our comparative genomics approach we could not confirm previous studies that argue for a positive selection of specific traits enabling MAEC to elicit bovine mastitis. Instead, MAEC are facultative and opportunistic pathogens recruited from the highly diverse bovine gastrointestinal microbiota. Virulence-associated genes implicated in mastitis are a by-product of commensalism with the primary function

  16. Influenza A Viruses of Swine (IAV-S) in Vietnam from 2010 to 2015: Multiple Introductions of A(H1N1)pdm09 Viruses into the Pig Population and Diversifying Genetic Constellations of Enzootic IAV-S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemae, Nobuhiro; Harada, Michiyo; Nguyen, Phuong Thanh; Nguyen, Tung; Nguyen, Tien Ngoc; To, Thanh Long; Nguyen, Tho Dang; Pham, Vu Phong; Le, Vu Tri; Do, Hoa Thi; Vo, Hung Van; Le, Quang Vinh Tin; Tran, Tan Minh; Nguyen, Thanh Duy; Thai, Phuong Duy; Nguyen, Dang Hoang; Le, Anh Quynh Thi; Nguyen, Diep Thi; Uchida, Yuko; Saito, Takehiko

    2017-01-01

    Active surveillance of influenza A viruses of swine (IAV-S) involving 262 farms and 10 slaughterhouses in seven provinces in northern and southern Vietnam from 2010 to 2015 yielded 388 isolates from 32 farms; these viruses were classified into H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtypes. Whole-genome sequencing followed by phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolates represented 15 genotypes, according to the genetic constellation of the eight segments. All of the H1N1 viruses were entirely A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, whereas all of the H1N2 and H3N2 viruses were reassortants among 5 distinct ancestral viruses: H1 and H3 triple-reassortant (TR) IAV-S that originated from North American pre-2009 human seasonal H1, human seasonal H3N2, and A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. Notably, 93% of the reassortant IAV-S retained M genes that were derived from A(H1N1)pdm09, suggesting some advantage in terms of their host adaptation. Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis revealed that multiple introductions of A(H1N1)pdm09 and TR IAV-S into the Vietnamese pig population have driven the genetic diversity of currently circulating Vietnamese IAV-S. In addition, our results indicate that a reassortant IAV-S with human-like H3 and N2 genes and an A(H1N1)pdm09 origin M gene likely caused a human case in Ho Chi Minh City in 2010. Our current findings indicate that human-to-pig transmission as well as cocirculation of different IAV-S have contributed to diversifying the gene constellations of IAV-S in Vietnam. This comprehensive genetic characterization of 388 influenza A viruses of swine (IAV-S) isolated through active surveillance of Vietnamese pig farms from 2010 through 2015 provides molecular epidemiological insight into the genetic diversification of IAV-S in Vietnam after the emergence of A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. Multiple reassortments among A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses and enzootic IAV-S yielded 14 genotypes, 9 of which carried novel gene combinations. The reassortants that carried M genes derived from A(H1N1

  17. Enzootic transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi and T. rangeli in the Federal District of Brazil Transmissão enzoótica de Trypanosoma cruzi e T. rangeli no Distrito Federal, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The Federal District of Brazil (DF lies within the Cerrado biome, where open shrubland (savannas is interspersed with riverside gallery forests and permanent swamps (veredas. Trypanosoma cruzi-infected native triatomines occur in the area, but the enzootic transmission of trypanosomatids remains poorly characterized. A parasitological survey involving sylvatic triatomines (166 Rhodnius neglectus collected from Mauritia flexuosa palms and small mammals (98 marsupials and 70 rodents, totaling 18 species was conducted in 18 sites (mainly gallery forests and veredas of the DF. Parasites were isolated, morphologically identified, and characterized by PCR of nuclear (mini-exon gene and kinetoplast DNA (kDNA. Six R. neglectus, seven Didelphis albiventris and one Akodon cursor were infected by trypanosomes; wild reservoir infection is documented for the first time in the DF. kDNA PCR detected T. cruzi in five R. neglectus and mini-exon gene PCR revealed T. cruzi I in isolates from D. albiventris. Parasites infecting one bug yielded T. rangeli KP1+ kDNA amplicons. In spite of the occurrence of T. cruzi-infected D. albiventris (an important wild and peridomestic reservoir and R. neglectus (a secondary vector displaying synanthropic behavior, a low-risk of human Chagas disease transmission could be expected in the DF, considering the low prevalence infection recorded in this work. The detection of T. rangeli KP1+ associated with R. neglectus in the DF widens the known range of this parasite in Brazil and reinforces the hypothesis of adaptation of T. rangeli populations (KP1+ and KP1- to distinct evolutionary Rhodnius lineages.O Distrito Federal (DF do Brasil está localizado no bioma Cerrado, um complexo de fisionomias savânicas incluindo matas de galeria e campos úmidos permanentes (veredas. Triatomíneos silvestres infectados por Trypanosoma cruzi ocorrem na área, mas a transmissão enzoótica de tripanossomatídeos permanece insuficientemente

  18. Bovine origin Staphylococcus aureus: A new zoonotic agent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Relangi Tulasi; Jayakumar, Kannan; Kumar, Pavitra

    2017-10-01

    The study aimed to assess the nature of animal origin Staphylococcus aureus strains. The study has zoonotic importance and aimed to compare virulence between two different hosts, i.e., bovine and ovine origin. Conventional polymerase chain reaction-based methods used for the characterization of S. aureus strains and chick embryo model employed for the assessment of virulence capacity of strains. All statistical tests carried on R program, version 3.0.4. After initial screening and molecular characterization of the prevalence of S. aureus found to be 42.62% in bovine origin samples and 28.35% among ovine origin samples. Meanwhile, the methicillin-resistant S. aureus prevalence is found to be meager in both the hosts. Among the samples, only 6.8% isolates tested positive for methicillin resistance. The biofilm formation quantified and the variation compared among the host. A Welch two-sample t -test found to be statistically significant, t=2.3179, df=28.103, and p=0.02795. Chicken embryo model found effective to test the pathogenicity of the strains. The study helped to conclude healthy bovines can act as S. aureus reservoirs. Bovine origin S. aureus strains are more virulent than ovine origin strains. Bovine origin strains have high probability to become zoonotic pathogen. Further, gene knock out studies may be conducted to conclude zoonocity of the bovine origin strains.

  19. Bovine coronavirus antibody titers at weaning negatively correlate with incidence of bovine respiratory disease in the feed yard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is a multifactorial disease caused by complex interactions among viral and bacterial pathogens, stressful management practices and host genetic variability. Although vaccines and antibiotic treatments are readily available to prevent and treat infection caus...

  20. Proteomic characterisation of bovine and avian purified protein derivatives and identification of specific antigens for serodiagnosis of bovine tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Infantes-Lorenzo, José Antonio; Moreno, Inmaculada; Risalde, María de los Ángeles; Roy, Álvaro; Villar, Margarita; Romero, Beatriz; Ibarrola, Nieves; de la Fuente, José; Puentes, Eugenia; de Juan, Lucía; Gortázar, Christian; Bezos, Javier; Domínguez, Lucas; Domínguez, Mercedes

    2017-01-01

    Background Bovine purified protein derivative (bPPD) and avian purified protein derivative (aPPD) are widely used for bovine tuberculosis diagnosis. However, little is known about their qualitative and quantitative characteristics, which makes their standardisation difficult. In addition, bPPD can give false-positive tuberculosis results because of sequence homology between Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) and M. avium proteins. Thus, the objective of this study was to carry out a proteomic cha...

  1. Preliminary quality assessment of bovine colostrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Taranto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Data on bovine colostrum quality are scarce or absent, although Commission Regulations No 1662/2006 and No 1663/2006 include colostrum in the context of chapters on milk. Thus the aim of the present work is to study some physical, chemical, hygiene and safety quality parameters of bovine colostrum samples collected from Sicily and Calabria dairy herds. Thirty individual samples were sampled after 2-3 days from partum. The laboratory tests included: pH, fat (FT, total nitrogen (TN, lactose (LTS and dry matter (NM percentage (Lactostar and somatic cell count (CCS (DeLaval cell counter DCC. Bacterial counts included: standard plate count (SPC, total psychrophilic aerobic count (PAC, total, fecal coliforms by MPN (Most Probable Number, sulphite-reducing bacteria (SR. Salmonella spp. was determined. Bacteriological examinations were performed according to the American Public Health Association (APHA methods, with some adjustements related to the requirements of the study. Statistical analysis of data was performed by Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. The results showed a low variability of pH values and FT, TN and DM percentage between samples; whereas LTS trend was less noticeable. A significant negative correlation (P<0.01 was observed between pH, TN and LTS amount. The correlation between LTS and TN contents was highly significant (P<0.001. Highly significant and negative was the correlation (P<0.001 between DM, NT and LTS content. SPC mean values were 7.54 x106 CFU/mL; PAC mean values were also high (3.3x106 CFU/mL. Acceptable values of coagulase positive staphylococci were showed; 3 Staphylococcus aureus and 1 Staphylococcus epidermidis strains was isolated. Coagulase negative staphylococci counts were low. A high variability in the number of TC, as for FC was observed; bacterial loads were frequently fairly high. Salmonella spp. and SR bacteria were absent. It was assumed that bacteria from samples had a prevailing environmental origin

  2. Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  3. Diffusion of fluoride in bovine enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flim, G.J.; Arends, J.; Kolar, Z.

    1976-01-01

    The uptake of 18 F and the penetration of both F and 18 F in bovine enamel was investigated. Sodium fluoride solutions buffered at pH 7 were employed. The uptake of 18 F was measured by a method described by R. Duckworth and M. Braden, Archs. Oral. Biol., 12(1967), pp. 217-230. The penetration concentration profiles of fluoride (F, 18 F) in the enamel were measured by a sectioning technique. The 18 F uptake in enamel was proportional to approximately tsup(3/4); t being the uptake time. The 18 F concentration as a function of the position in the enamel can be described by: c*(x,t) = c 0 *(t)exp[-α*(t)x]. After correction for the initial fluoride concentration in enamel, for unlabelled fluoride the same dependency is obtained. A model based on simultaneous diffusion and chemical reaction in the pores and diffusion into the hydroxyapatite crystallites will be presented. The results show that diffusion coefficients of the pores are approximately equal to 10 -10 cm 2 s -1 and in the apatite crystallites approximately equal to 10 -17 cm 2 s -1 . The limitations and the approximations of the model are discussed

  4. Insights into the bovine rumen plasmidome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kav, Aya Brown; Sasson, Goor; Jami, Elie; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Benhar, Itai; Mizrahi, Itzhak

    2012-01-01

    Plasmids are self-replicating genetic elements capable of mobilization between different hosts. Plasmids often serve as mediators of lateral gene transfer, a process considered to be a strong and sculpting evolutionary force in microbial environments. Our aim was to characterize the overall plasmid population in the environment of the bovine rumen, which houses a complex and dense microbiota that holds enormous significance for humans. We developed a procedure for the isolation of total rumen plasmid DNA, termed rumen plasmidome, and subjected it to deep sequencing using the Illumina paired-end protocol and analysis using public and custom-made bioinformatics tools. A large number of plasmidome contigs aligned with plasmids of rumen bacteria isolated from different locations and at various time points, suggesting that not only the bacterial taxa, but also their plasmids, are defined by the ecological niche. The bacterial phylum distribution of the plasmidome was different from that of the rumen bacterial taxa. Nevertheless, both shared a dominance of the phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. Evidently, the rumen plasmidome is of a highly mosaic nature that can cross phyla. Interestingly, when we compared the functional profile of the rumen plasmidome to two plasmid databases and two recently published rumen metagenomes, it became apparent that the rumen plasmidome codes for functions, which are enriched in the rumen ecological niche and could confer advantages to their hosts, suggesting that the functional profiles of mobile genetic elements are associated with their environment, as has been previously implied for viruses. PMID:22431592

  5. Membrane associated phospholipase C from bovine brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.; Ryu, S.H.; Suh, P.; Choi, W.C.; Rhee, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    Cytosolic fractions of bovine brain contain 2 immunologically distinct phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase (PLC), PLC-I and PLC-II, whose MW are 150,000 and 145,000 respectively, under a denaturing condition. Monoclonal antibodies were derived against each form and specific radioimmunoassays were developed. Distribution of PLC-I and PLC-II in cytosolic and particulate fractions was measured using the radioimmunoassay. More than 90% of PLC-II was found in the cytosolic fraction, while the anti-PLC-I antibody cross-reacting protein was distributed nearly equally between the soluble fraction and the 2 M KCl extract of particulate fraction. The PLC enzyme in the particulate fraction was purified to homogeneity, yielding 2 proteins of 140 KDa and 150 KDa when analyzed on SDS-PAGE. Neither of the 2 enzymes cross-reacted with anti-PLC-II antibodies, but both could be immunoblotted by all 4 different anti-PLC-I antibodies. This suggests that the 140 KDa PLC was derived from the 150 KDa form. The 150 Kda form from particulate fraction was indistinguishable from the cytosolic PLC-I when their mixture was analyzed on SDS-PAGE. In addition, the elution profile of tryptic peptides derived from the 150 KDa particulate form was identical to that of cytosolic PLC-I. This result indicates that PLC-I is reversibly associated to membranes

  6. Lipoprotein receptors in cultured bovine endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struempfer, A.E.M.

    1983-07-01

    In this study, receptors that may be involved in the uptake of low density lipoproteins (LDL) and low density lipoproteins which have been modified by acetylation (AcLDL), were characterized. Aortic epithelial cells were used and a cell culture system which closely resembled the in vivo monolayer was established. Endothelial cell and lipoprotein interactions were examined by incubating the cells with 125 l-labelled lipoproteins under various conditions. The receptor affinity of bovine aortic endothelial cells was higher for AcLDL than that for LDL. Competition studies demonstrated that there were two distinct receptors for LDL and AcLDL on the endothelial cells. AcLDL did not compete with LDL for the LDL receptor, and conversely LDL did not compete with AcLDL for the AcLDL receptor. The receptor activities for LDL and AcLDL were examined as a function of culture age. Whereas the LDL receptor could be regulated, the AcLDL receptor was not as susceptible to regulation. Upon exposing endothelial cells for 72 h to either LDL or AcLDL, it was found that the total amount of cellular cholesterol increased by about 50%. However, the increase of total cholesterol was largely in the form of free cholesterol. This is in contrast to macrophages, where the increase in total cholesterol upon exposure to AcLDL is largely in the form cholesteryl esters

  7. Bovine trypanosomosis in north province of cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndamkou, C N; Nchare, A [Laboratoire National Veterinaire de Bokle (LANAVET), Garoua (Cameroon)

    1997-02-01

    The results of the examination of 2959 bovine blood samples collected from four divisions of North Province of Cameroon showed a prevalence of 1.72 for T. brucei, 0.98 for T. congolense and 4.03 for T. vivax using parasitological techniques, such as the buffy coat technique (BCT) and the microhaematrocrit centrifugation technique (MHCT). Prevalence rates in tsetse infested areas were higher than in tsetse free areas for T. brucei and T. congolense, but not for T. vivax. The Antigen ELISA was used to detect trypanosomal antigens in serum samples of a subset of the same animals. By using the Ag-ELISA many more animals were detected positive for T. brucei and T. vivax, but not for T. congolense, than when just the two parasitological techniques were used. As a matter of fact 90% of the T. brucei infections were detected by the Ag-ELISA and 10% by using either the BCT or the MHCT. (author).6 refs, 5 figs, 6 tabs.

  8. Pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Keulen, L J M; Vromans, M E W; Dolstra, C H; Bossers, A; van Zijderveld, F G

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation of PrP(Sc) was detected after 6 months in the tonsil and the ileal Peyer's patches. At 9 months postinfection, PrP(Sc) accumulation involved all gut-associated lymphoid tissues and lymph nodes as well as the spleen. At this time point, PrP(Sc) accumulation in the peripheral neural tissues was first seen in the enteric nervous system of the caudal jejunum and ileum and in the coeliac-mesenteric ganglion. In the central nervous system, PrP(Sc) was first detected in the dorsal motor nucleus of the nervus Vagus in the medulla oblongata and in the intermediolateral column in the spinal cord segments T7-L1. At subsequent time points, PrP(Sc) was seen to spread within the lymphoid system to also involve all non-gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In the enteric nervous system, further spread of PrP(Sc) involved the neural plexi along the entire gastrointestinal tract and in the CNS the complete neuraxis. These findings indicate a spread of the BSE agent in sheep from the enteric nervous system through parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves to the medulla oblongata and the spinal cord.

  9. Bilateral cheiloschisis in bovine - A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Andrade Caldas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Caldas S.A., Nogueira V.A., Lima A.E.S., Aragão A.P., d’Avila M.S., Santos A.M., Miranda I.C., Costa S.Z.R. & Peixoto T.C. [Bilateral cheiloschisis in bovine - A case report.] Queilosquise bilateral em bovino - Relato de caso. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(1:55-59, 2014. Departamento de Medicina e Cirurgia Veterinária, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica RJ 23890-000, Brasil. E-mail: saulocaldas@hotmail.com A case of bilateral queilosquise in a cattle two years old was reported. Clinically, there was cachexia, difficulty in grasping food and water intake. The clinical examination revealed that the nasal orifices were discontinuous with the upper lip, which allowed communication between the nostrils and mouth in its rostral portion, crowding of incisors (tweezers, as well as exposure of medium and the 2nd corner and of the tongue. In this case, the bilateral queilosquise was the result of flaws in fusion of the maxillary process and the medial nasal process and its surroundings, probably due to mineral deficiencies of pregnant cow. This pathogenesis was suggested by excluding other possible causes, the knowledge of the existence of mineral deficiencies in the region where the event occurred and bad nutritional status of pregnant female.

  10. Bovine trypanosomosis in north province of cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndamkou, C.N.; Nchare, A.

    1997-01-01

    The results of the examination of 2959 bovine blood samples collected from four divisions of North Province of Cameroon showed a prevalence of 1.72 for T. brucei, 0.98 for T. congolense and 4.03 for T. vivax using parasitological techniques, such as the buffy coat technique (BCT) and the microhaematrocrit centrifugation technique (MHCT). Prevalence rates in tsetse infested areas were higher than in tsetse free areas for T. brucei and T. congolense, but not for T. vivax. The Antigen ELISA was used to detect trypanosomal antigens in serum samples of a subset of the same animals. By using the Ag-ELISA many more animals were detected positive for T. brucei and T. vivax, but not for T. congolense, than when just the two parasitological techniques were used. As a matter of fact 90% of the T. brucei infections were detected by the Ag-ELISA and 10% by using either the BCT or the MHCT. (author).6 refs, 5 figs, 6 tabs

  11. Closed system for bovine oocyte vitrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Ševelová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to develop a vitrification carrier for bovine oocyte cryopreservation. The carrier was to be cheap enough, elementary in its construction and meet contemporary requirements for a safe closed system. In a closed system, a cell is prevented from direct exposure to liquid nitrogen, thus minimizing the risk of cross-contamination. Furthermore, two questions regarding the proper vitrification technique were resolved: if it is necessary to partially denude the oocytes before the vitrification process or whether intact cumulus oocyte complexes should be frozen; and if it is more advantageous to preheat the vitrification solutions to female body temperature (39 °C or to keep them at room temperature. Our results show that it is better to partially denude the oocytes prior to vitrification because cryopreserved intact cumulus oocyte complexes often proved dark, non-homogeneous or fragmented cytoplasm after warming, with many of them having visibly widened perivitelline spaces or fractured zonae pellucidae as a result of extensive damage during vitrification. Consequently, intact cumulus oocyte complexes showed significantly lower numbers of cleavage stage embryos on Day 3 compared to partially denuded oocytes (7.4% and 26%, respectively. On the other hand, the survival rate and following development of fertilized oocytes in preheated vitrification solution were equal to results reached at room temperature conditions. In conclusion, results achieved with the newly developed carrier were comparable to previously published studies and therefore they could be recommended for common use.

  12. Advances in lactoferrin research concerning bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Kei-Ichi; Kawai, Kazuhiro

    2017-02-01

    Lactoferrin is a multifunctional, iron-binding glycoprotein found in milk and other exocrine secretions. Lactoferrin in milk plays vital roles in the healthy development of newborn mammals, and is also an innate resistance factor involved in the prevention of mammary gland infection by microorganisms. Inflammation of the udder because of bacterial infection is referred to as mastitis. There have been many investigations into the relationships between lactoferrin and mastitis, which fall into several categories. The main categories are fluctuations in the lactoferrin concentration of milk, lactoferrin activity against mastitis pathogens, elucidation of the processes underlying the onset of mastitis, participation of lactoferrin in the immune system, and utilization of lactoferrin in mastitis treatment and prevention. This minireview describes lactoferrin research concerning bovine mastitis. In the 1970s, many researchers reported that the lactoferrin concentration fluctuates in milk from cows with mastitis. From the late 1980s, many studies clarified the infection-defense mechanism in the udder and the contribution of lactoferrin to the immune system. After the year 2000, the processes underlying the onset of mastitis were elucidated in vivo and in vitro, and lactoferrin was applied for the treatment and prevention of mastitis.

  13. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, E. A.; Bertemes-Filho, P.

    2012-12-01

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  14. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga, E A; Bertemes-Filho, P [Department of Electrical Eng., State University of Santa Catarina, Joinville (Brazil)

    2012-12-20

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20 Degree-Sign C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  15. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, E A; Bertemes-Filho, P

    2012-01-01

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  16. Femtosecond laser ablation of bovine cortical bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangueiro, Liliana T.; Vilar, Rui; Botelho do Rego, Ana M.; Muralha, Vania S. F.

    2012-12-01

    We study the surface topographical, structural, and compositional modifications induced in bovine cortical bone by femtosecond laser ablation. The tests are performed in air, with a Yb:KYW chirped-pulse-regenerative amplification laser system (500 fs, 1030 nm) at fluences ranging from 0.55 to 2.24 J/cm2. The ablation process is monitored by acoustic emission measurements. The topography of the laser-treated surfaces is studied by scanning electron microscopy, and their constitution is characterized by glancing incidence x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results show that femtosecond laser ablation allows removing bone without melting, carbonization, or cracking. The structure and composition of the remaining tissue are essentially preserved, the only constitutional changes observed being a reduction of the organic material content and a partial recrystallization of hydroxyapatite in the most superficial region of samples. The results suggest that, within this fluence range, ablation occurs by a combination of thermal and electrostatic mechanisms, with the first type of mechanism predominating at lower fluences. The associated thermal effects explain the constitutional changes observed. We show that femtosecond lasers are a promising tool for delicate orthopaedic surgeries, where small amounts of bone must be cut with negligible damage, thus minimizing surgical trauma.

  17. Radiation effects on bovine taste bud membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatzman, A.R.; Mossman, K.L.

    1982-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanisms of radiation-induced taste loss, the effects of radiation on preparations of enriched bovine taste bud membranes were studied. Taste buds containing circumvallate papilae, and surrounding control epithelial tissues devoid of taste buds, were obtained from steers and given radiation doses of 0-7000 cGy (rad). Tissue fractions were isolated into membrane-enriched and heterogeneous components using differential and sucrose gradient centrifugation of tissue homogenates. The yield of membranes, as measured by protein content in the buoyant membrane-enriched fractions, was reduced in quantity with increasing radiation dose. The relation between radiation dose and membrane quantity in membrane-enriched fractions could be fit by a simple exponential model with taste bud-derived membranes twice as radiosensitive as membranes from control epithelial tissue. Binding of sucrose, sodium, and acetate and fluoride stimulation of adenylate cyclase were nearly identical in both irradiated and nonirradiated intact membranes. Radiation had no effect on fractions of heterogeneous components. While it is not clear what changes are occurring in enriched taste cell membranes, damage to membranes may play an important role in the taste loss observed in patients following radiotherapy

  18. Origin and implications of bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, H

    1996-04-01

    All spongiform encephalopathies in animals, including humans, are slow developing infectious diseases. The current working theory links the origin of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to the feeding of cattle with meat and bone meal prepared from scrapie-infected sheep remains. Recycling of cattle meat and bones (MBM) essentially resulted in the selection of a single strain from the "wild type", a mixture of 20 strains. The BSE agent is easily transmitted through ingestion, with some evidence of vertical transmission. Paradoxically, cattle have selected a major new strain which appears to be more virulent than an unselected strain found in scrapie sheep. The same strain of BSE agent is implicated in the occurrence of spongiform encephalopathy in domestic cats, tiger, and some exotic species of ruminants in zoos. The properties of BSE and its spread into cattle are still disputed. Since our understanding of the disease and its transmissibility in humans must await observations that will be made over some years to come, it is important to keep a reasonable perspective and ensure that any speculative comment is consistent with fact. In risk assessment in such circumstances, it is tempting give too much credence to persuasive parallels when direct relevant information is not available. On the other hand, it would also not be wise to assume that the disease will die by itself and will have no effect on humans.

  19. Production and manipulation of bovine embryos: techniques and terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machaty, Z; Peippo, J; Peter, A

    2012-09-15

    There are numerous publications regarding bovine embryos, ranging from descriptions of their appearance and development to emerging techniques in the field of assisted reproductive technology. Concurrently, several specialized terms have been developed to describe the bovine embryo. The purpose of the current review is two-fold; it is primarily to describe techniques involved in the in vivo and in vitro production of bovine embryos and their manipulation, and secondarily to summarize specialized terms used in these processes. The intention is not to review these techniques in detail, but instead to provide salient points and current knowledge regarding these techniques, with a focus on terminology. The first review dealt with classical and contemporary terminology used to describe morphologic aspects of ovarian dynamics in cattle. Subsequently, the terms and current understanding of processes involved in preattachment bovine embryos were described in the second review. As the third article in a series, this mini-review is focused on defining the production, manipulation, and transfer of bovine preattachment embryos. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. MicroRNA-2400 promotes bovine preadipocyte proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Yao; Cui, Ya Feng; Tong, Hui Li; Zhang, Wei Wei; Yan, Yun Qin

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in the proliferation of bovine preadipocytes. miR-2400 is a novel and unique miRNA from bovines. In the present study, we separated and identified preadipocytes from bovine samples. miR-2400 overexpression increased the rate of preadipocyte proliferation, which was analyzed with a combination of EdU and flow cytometry. Simultaneously, functional genes related to proliferation (PCNA, CCND2, CCNB1) were also increased, which was detected by real-time PCR. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assays showed that miR-2400 bound directly to the 3'untranslated regions (3′UTRs) of PRDM11 mRNA. These data suggested that miR-2400 could promote preadipocyte proliferation by targeting PRDM11. - Highlights: • miRNAs are important in bovine preadipocyte proliferation. • miR-2400 is a novel miRNA from bovines. • miR-2400 overexpression increased preadipocyte proliferation. • Functional genes related to preadipocyte proliferation were upregulated. • Preadipocyte proliferation was promoted by targeting PRDM11.

  1. Bovine aortic arch: A novel association with thoracic aortic dilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, C.D.; Urbania, T.H.; Crook, S.E.S.; Hope, M.D.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether there is a link between bovine arch and thoracic aortic aneurysm. Materials and methods: Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images of the thorax of 191 patients with dilated thoracic aortas and 391 consecutive, unselected patients as controls were retrospectively reviewed. Bovine arch was considered present if either a shared origin of the left common carotid and innominate arteries or an origin of the left common carotid from the innominate artery was identified. A chi-square test was used to evaluate the significance of differences between subgroups. Results: A trend towards increased prevalence of bovine arch was seen in patients with dilated aortas (26.2%) compared to controls (20.5%, p = 0.12). The association was statistically significant in patients over 70 years old (31.9%, p = 0.019) and when dilation involved the aortic arch (47.6%, p = 0.003). Conclusions: An association between bovine arch and aortic dilation is seen in older patients, and when dilation involves the aortic arch. Bovine arch should be considered a potential risk factor for thoracic aortic aneurysm.

  2. Effect of triiodothyronine on developmental competence of bovine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, N N; Cordeiro, M S; Silva, T V G; Sastre, D; Santana, P P B; Sá, A L A; Sampaio, R V; Santos, S S D; Adona, P R; Miranda, M S; Ohashi, O M

    2013-09-01

    Developmental competence of in vitro-matured bovine oocytes is a limiting factor in production of embryos in vitro. Several studies have suggested a potential positive effect of thyroid hormones on cultured oocytes and/or their supporting cells. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to ascertain whether medium supplementation with triiodothyronine (T3) improved subsequent developmental competence of in vitro-matured bovine oocytes. For this purpose, we first documented (using reverse transcription PCR) that whereas bovine cumulus cells expressed both thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-α and TRβ, immature bovine oocytes expressed TRα only. Thereafter, to test the effects of TH on developmental competence, abattoir-derived oocytes were matured in vitro in a medium containing 0, 25, 50, or 100 nM T3 and subjected to in vitro fertilization. Embryo quality was evaluated by assessing cleavage and blastocyst rates, morphological quality, development kinetics, and total cell number on Day 8 of culture. Notably, addition of 50 or 100 nM T3 to the in vitro maturation medium increased (P 0.05) on gene expression. We concluded that supplementation of bovine oocyte in vitro maturation medium with T3 may have a beneficial effect on the kinetics of embryo development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Epidemiology of Bovine Mastitis in Cows of Dharwad District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurjogi, Mahantesh M.; Kaliwal, Basappa B.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is very common in cows of both developed and developing countries. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis (SCM) varies from region to region. Hence, the present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of mastitis using three diagnostic tests by considering different risk factors like age, lactation, breed, season, quarters, and herd. The results showed that surf field mastitis test (SFMT) is the most sensitive test for diagnosis of bovine mastitis, the older age and cows with later part of lactation period were more prone to bovine mastitis, and exotic breeds like Holstein freshen (HF) were more susceptible to bovine mastitis. The highest incidence of mastitis was recorded in monsoon season. The prevalence of subclinical and clinical mastitis was more in single and two quarters, respectively, and the rate of bovine mastitis was more in unorganized herds. The study concluded that SCM is directly associated with age, lactation period, and environmental factors of the cow and clinical mastitis is more associated with breed of the cow and environmental conditions. PMID:27382623

  4. Okra yield fertilized with bovine manure and biofertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar Pereira de Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of bovine manure becomes an useful and economic practice for the small and medium producers of vegetables, and the okra plant normally demands high doses of organic fertilizers. This study was carried out, from January to July 2011, at the Federal University of Paraíba, in Areia city - PB, aiming to evaluate the effect of bovine manure and biofertilizer on the productive behavior of the okra plant. The experimental design used was randomized blocks, with four repetitions in factorial scheme 6 x 2, with the doses factors of bovine manure (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 t ha-1 with and without biofertilizer. The average mass of commercial fruit of okra, with and without biofertilizer was 18 and 16.5 g, respectively, in the doses of 27.5 and 60 t ha-1 of manure. The number of fruit plant-1 without biofertilizer was 30 fruits plant-1 of okra in the dose of 60 t ha-1 and with biofertilizer, the number of fruits plant-1 was 33 fruits in the dose of 28 t ha-1 of bovine manure. The productivity of commercial fruits of okra without biofertilizer was 20.4 t ha-1 and 22 t ha-1 with biofertilizer, respectively, in the doses of 60 and 31 t ha-1 of bovine manure.

  5. Biosynthesis of lipids by bovine meibomian glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolattukudy, P.E.; Rogers, L.M.; Nicolaides, N.

    1985-01-01

    Isolated bovine meibomian glands incorporated exogenous [1- 14 C]acetate into lipids. Thin layer chromatographic analysis of the lipids showed that wax esters and sterol esters contained 61% of the total label. Radio gas liquid chromatographic analysis of the acid and alcohol moieties of both ester fractions showed the label was distributed equally between the two portions of the ester in both cases. Cholesterol and 5-alpha-cholest-7-en-3 beta-ol were the major labeled sterols, and anteiso-C25, anteiso-C27 and anteiso-C23 were the most highly labeled alcohols. The major labeled fatty acids in the wax esters were anteiso-C15, n-C16, anteiso-C17 and n-C18:1, whereas anteiso-C25 and anteiso-C27 were the major labeled acids in the sterol esters. The diester region with 6% of the total label contained labeled fatty acids and fatty alcohols each with anteiso-C25 as the major component and omega-hydroxy acids in which n-C32:1 was the major labeled component. The triglyceride fraction which contained 8% of the total lipids was composed of labeled fatty acids similar to those found in both sterol and wax ester fractions. Chromatographic analyses of the labeled lipids derived from exogenous labeled isoleucine showed that anteiso-branched products were preferentially labeled. The labeled triglyceride fraction derived from [U- 14 C] isoleucine also contained esterified C15, C13, C11, C9, C7 and possibly shorter anteiso-branched acids

  6. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kasuga, Fumiko

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a progressive neurological disease of cattle affecting the central nervous system and was first diagnosed in the United Kingdom (UK) in 1986 (Wells et al., 1987). This disease is one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) which includes Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans and scrapie in sheep. The causative agent of TSE is considered to be an abnormal form of prion protein. However, the details of its pathogenic mechanism have not been fully identified. Scrapie, which causes neurological symptoms in sheep and goats, has existed in the UK for 200 years (Hoinville, 1996) and spread across the rest of the world in the 1900s (Detwiler & Baylis, 2003). There has been no report so far that scrapie can be transmitted to humans. Initially, BSE was also considered as a disease affecting only animals. However, a variant type of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) was first reported in the UK, and exposure to a BSE agent was suspected (Collinge, Sidle, Meads, Ironside, & Hill, 1996). vCJD is clinically and pathologically different from the sporadic type of CJD, and age at clinical onset of vCJD is younger than sporadic type (Will et al., 1996). Since the UK government announced the possible association between BSE and vCJD in 1996, BSE has become a huge public health concern all over the world. Of particular concern about vCJD, the fatal disease in younger age, distorted consumer confidence in beef safety, and as a result reduced beef consumption has been seen in many BSE-affected countries.

  7. Bovine Lactoferrin and Lactoferricin, a Peptide Derived from Bovine Lactoferrin, Inhibit Tumor Metastasis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shikiko; Watanabe, Ryosuke; Hata, Katsusuke; Shimazaki, Kei–ichi; Azuma, Ichiro

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the effect of a bovine milk protein, lactoferrin (LF–B), and a pepsin–generated peptide of LF–B, lactoferricin (Lfcin–B), on inhibition of tumor metastasis produced by highly metastatic murine tumor cells, B16–BL6 melanoma and L5178Y–ML25 lymphoma cells, using experimental and spontaneous metastasis models in syngeneic mice. The subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of bovine apo–lactoferrin (apo–LF–B, 1 mg/mouse) and Lfcin–B (0.5 mg/monse) 1 day after tumor inoculation significantly inhibited liver and lung metastasis of L5178Y–ML25 cells. However, human apo–lactoferrin (apo–LF–H) and bovine holo–lactoferrin (holo–LF–B) at the dose of 1 mg/mouse failed to inhibit tumor metastasis of L5178Y–ML25 cells. Similarly, the s.c. administration of apo–LF–B as well as Lfcin–B, but not apo–LF–H and holo–LF–B, 1 day after tumor inoculation resulted in significant inhibition of lung metastasis of B16–BL6 cells in an experimental metastasis model. Furthermore, in in vivo analysis for tumor–induced angiogenesis, both apo–LF–B and Lfcin–B inhibited the number of tumor–induced blood vessels and suppressed tumor growth on day 8 after tumor inoculation. However, in a long–term analysis of tumor growth for up to 21 days after tumor inoculation, single administration of apo–LF–B significantly suppressed the growth of B16–BL6 cells throughout the examination period, whereas Lfcin–B showed inhibitory activity only during the early period (8 days). In spontaneous metastasis of B16–BL6 melanoma cells, multiple administration of both apo–LF–B and Lfcin–B into tumor–bearing mice significantly inhibited lung metastasis produced by B16–BL6 cells, though only apo–LF–B exhibited an inhibitory effect on tumor growth at the time of primary tumor amputation (on day 21) after tumor inoculation. These results suggest that apo–LF–B and Lfcin–B inhibit tumor metastasis through different

  8. A monoclonal antibody to pestviruses in bovine and ovine sera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mweene, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed to defeat antibodies to pestviruses in bovine and ovine sera. Single sera from 211 cattle and 22 sheep from 7 different farms were tested using ELISA and Serum Neutralisation Test (SNT). 17 Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) directed against P80, gp48 and gp53 were tested for ability to coat ELISA plates and capture the bovine viral diarrhea antigen. 5 mabs(WB 103, WB, 105, WB 112 against P80 kDa protein, WB 210 and WB 214 directed against gp48 and gp 53 kDa protein. Specific antibody to BVDV was detected by rabbit anti-bovine and anti-ovine IgG antisera. The quantitative correlation between two tests was good

  9. Algorithms for automatic segmentation of bovine embryos produced in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, D H; Oliveira, D L; Nascimento, M Z; Neves, L A; Annes, K

    2014-01-01

    In vitro production has been employed in bovine embryos and quantification of lipids is fundamental to understand the metabolism of these embryos. This paper presents a unsupervised segmentation method for histological images of bovine embryos. In this method, the anisotropic filter was used in the differents RGB components. After pre-processing step, the thresholding technique based on maximum entropy was applied to separate lipid droplets in the histological slides in different stages: early cleavage, morula and blastocyst. In the postprocessing step, false positives are removed using the connected components technique that identify regions with excess of dye near pellucid zone. The proposed segmentation method was applied in 30 histological images of bovine embryos. Experiments were performed with the images and statistical measures of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated based on reference images (gold standard). The value of accuracy of the proposed method was 96% with standard deviation of 3%

  10. Adherence of Moraxella bovis to cell cultures of bovine origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annuar, B O; Wilcox, G E

    1985-09-01

    The adherence of five strains of Moraxella bovis to cell cultures was investigated. M bovis adhered to cultures of bovine corneal epithelial and Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells but not to cell types of non-bovine origin. Both piliated and unpiliated strains adhered but piliated strains adhered to a greater extent than unpiliated strains. Antiserum against pili of one strain inhibited adherence of piliated strains but caused only slight inhibition of adherence to the unpiliated strains. Treatment of bacteria with magnesium chloride caused detachment of pili from the bacterial cell and markedly inhibited adherence of piliated strains but caused only slight inhibition of adherence by the unpiliated strains. The results suggested that adhesion of piliated strains to cell cultures was mediated via pili but that adhesins other than pili may be involved in the attachment of unpiliated strains of M bovis to cells.

  11. Processed bovine cartilage: an improved biosynthetic implant for contour defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersek, R.A.; Hart, W.G. Jr.; Greer, D.; Beisang, A.A.; Flynn, P.J.; Denton, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    Irradiated human cartilage has been found to be a superior implant material for correction of contour defects; however, availability problems have prevented this material from gaining wide acceptance. Implantation of processed irradiated bovine cartilage in primates and rabbits, as described here, provides strong evidence that this material performs like irradiated allograft cartilage antigenically and has certain cosmetic advantages over allograft cartilage. Our studies in primates have shown that there is no systemically measurable antibody-antigen reaction, either cellular or noncellular, to irradiated processed bovine cartilage. Neither primary nor second-set provocative implantations produced any measurable rejection. In rabbits, composite grafts of two pieces of irradiated bovine cartilage adjacent to each other were also well tolerated, with no measurable absorption and with capsule formation typical of a foreign body reaction to an inert object

  12. Control of Bovine Mastitis: Old and Recent Therapeutic Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Fernanda; Henriques, Mariana

    2016-04-01

    Mastitis is defined as the inflammatory response resulting of the infection of the udder tissue and it is reported in numerous species, namely in domestic dairy animals. This pathology is the most frequent disease of dairy cattle and can be potentially fatal. Mastitis is an economically important pathology associated with reduced milk production, changes in milk composition and quality, being considered one of the most costly to dairy industry. Therefore, the majority of research in the field has focused on control of bovine mastitis and many efforts are being made for the development of new and effective anti-mastitis drugs. Antibiotic treatment is an established component of mastitis control programs; however, the continuous search for new therapeutic alternatives, effective in the control and treatment of bovine mastitis, is urgent. This review will provide an overview of some conventional and emerging approaches in the management of bovine mastitis' infections.

  13. Immunogenicity of a modified-live virus vaccine against bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 and 2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine parainfluenza-3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus when administered intranasally in young calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wenzhi; Ellis, John; Mattick, Debra; Smith, Linda; Brady, Ryan; Trigo, Emilio

    2010-05-14

    The immunogenicity of an intranasally-administered modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine in 3-8 day old calves was evaluated against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus, parainfluenza-3 (PI-3) virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Calves were intranasally vaccinated with a single dose of a multivalent MLV vaccine and were challenged with one of the respective viruses three to four weeks post-vaccination in five separate studies. There was significant sparing of diseases in calves intranasally vaccinated with the MLV vaccine, as indicated by significantly fewer clinical signs, lower rectal temperatures, reduced viral shedding, greater white blood cell and platelet counts, and less severe pulmonary lesions than control animals. This was the first MLV combination vaccine to demonstrate efficacy against BVDV types 1 and 2, IBR, PI-3 and BRSV in calves 3-8 days of age. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Structure and Function of Bovine and Camel Chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm

    for this action is bovine chymosin from the calf's stomach, as it has a high activity towards the Phe105-Met106 bond, and a low activity towards other bonds in the milk proteins, as the latter can lead to loss of protein in the whey and release of peptides with a bitter taste. Chymosin was isolated from camel...... structures, and the structure of bovine chymosin in complex with the inhibitor pepstatin was solved to 1.6 A resolution. The fold of camel chymosin differs with respect to the conformation of the N-terminal residues 1-16. The β-strand of the central sheet from the bovine enzyme is disrupted in camel chymosin...... matches previous studies suggesting that the domains move by a sliding mechanism inside their hydrophobic cores. A comparison of the surface charges show that camel chymosin contains additional positive charges, which may improve interaction with the negatively charged C-terminal of κ...

  15. Bovine and human lactoferricin peptides: chimeras and new cyclic analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Mauricio; McDonald, Lindsey J; Haney, Evan F; Nazmi, Kamran; Bolscher, Jan G M; Vogel, Hans J

    2014-10-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is an important antimicrobial and immune regulatory protein present in neutrophils and most exocrine secretions of mammals. The antimicrobial activity of LF has been related to the presence of an antimicrobial peptide sequence, called lactoferricin (LFcin), located in the N-terminal region of the protein. The antimicrobial activity of bovine LFcin is considerably stronger than the human version. In this work, chimera peptides combining segments of bovine and human LFcin were generated in order to study their antimicrobial activity and mechanism of action. In addition, the relevance of the conserved disulfide bridge and the resulting cyclic structure of both LFcins were analyzed by using "click chemistry" and sortase A-catalyzed cyclization of the peptides. The N-terminal region of bovine LFcin (residues 17-25 of bovine LF) proved to be very important for the antimicrobial activity of the chimera peptides against E. coli, when combined with the C-terminal region of human LFcin. Similarly the cyclic bovine LFcin analogs generated by "click chemistry" and sortase A preserved the antimicrobial activity of the original peptide, showing the significance of these two techniques in the design of cyclic antimicrobial peptides. The mechanism of action of bovine LFcin and its active derived peptides was strongly correlated with membrane leakage in E. coli and up to some extent with the ability to induce vesicle aggregation. This mechanism was also preserved under conditions of high ionic strength (150 mM NaCl) illustrating the importance of these peptides in a more physiologically relevant system.

  16. Simultaneous intramammary and intranasal inoculation of lactating cows with bovine herpesvirus 4 induce subclinical mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Wisselink, H.J.; Barkema, H.W.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether an experimental bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4) infection can induce bovine mastitis, or can enhance bovine mastitis induced by Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis). Four lactating cows were inoculated intramammarily and intranasally with BHV4, and four lactating control

  17. The anti-catabolic role of bovine lactoferricin in cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadinia, Kasra; Yan, Dongyao; Ellman, Michael; Im, Hee-Jeong

    2013-10-01

    Bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB) is a multifunctional peptide derived from bovine lactoferrin that demonstrates antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antitumor, and immunomodulatory activities. Recently, studies have focused on the anti-catabolic and anti-inflammatory potential of LfcinB. LfcinB is able to modulate the effects cytokines such as IL-1 and fibroblast growth factor 2 as well as promote specific cartilage anabolic factors. These properties are particularly important in maintaining cartilage homeostasis and preventing a catabolic state, which leads to clinical pathology. This review focuses on the recent literature elucidating the role of LfcinB in preventing cartilage degradation.

  18. Fluorometric determination of free and total isocitrate in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Isocitrate is an intermediate metabolite in the citric acid cycle found both inside the mitochondria as well as outside in the cytosolic shunt. Oxidation of isocitrate is believed to deliver large fractions of energy [i.e., reducing equivalents (NADPH) in the bovine udder] used for fatty acid...... and cholesterol synthesis. This study describes a new analytical method for determination of free and total isocitrate in bovine milk where time-consuming pretreatment of the sample is not necessary. Methods for estimation of both total isocitrate and free isocitrate are described, the difference being...

  19. In vitro production of bovine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroebech, L.; Mazzoni, Gianluca; Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard

    2015-01-01

    be improved, and aspects related to the oocyte donor, oocyte maturation and the recipients are addressed in the following. Also, some of the future aspects of genomic selection and systems biology are addressed with particular focus on the Brazilian-Danish collaboration in the so-called GIFT-project.......In vitro production (IVP) of bovine embryos has become a widespread technology implemented in cattle breeding and production. The implementation of genomic selection and systems biology adds great dimensions to the impact of bovine IVP. The physical procedures included in the IVP process can still...

  20. Cryo-gamma radiation inactivation of bovine herpesvirus type-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degiorgi, C. Fernández; Smolko, E. E.; Lombardo, J. H.

    1999-07-01

    The radioresistance of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), commonly known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), suspended in free serum Glasgow-MEM medium and frozen at -78°C was studied. The number of surviving virus at a given dose of gamma-radiation was determined by a plaque assay system. D 10 values were calculated before and after removal of cell debris. The D 10 values obtained were 4.72 kGy and 7.31 kGy before and after removal of cell debris, respectively. Our results indicate that the inactivated viral particles could be used for vaccine preparation or diagnostic reagents.

  1. Structure and regulated expression of bovine prolactin and bovine growth hormone genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rottman, F.; Camper, S.; Goodwin, E.; Hampson, R.; Lyons, R.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a description of several studies which utilize the transfection of cloned chimeric genes in an attempt to analyze the regulatory signals found in the bPRL and bGH genes. Examination of 5' flanking region of PRL genes reveals a high degree of sequence homology between the bovine, human, and rat species. In order to assess the existence of possible regulatory sequences in a more direct manner, the authors transfected homologous and heterologous cells with chimeric gene constructs containing possible regulatory sequences derived from both the bPRL and bGH genes. An analysis is presented of the polyadenylation signal contained in the bGH 3' flanking sequence

  2. Prototheca zopfii isolated from bovine mastitis induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Gao, Jian; Zhou, Yanan; Liu, Gang; Ali, Tariq; Deng, Youtian; Sabir, Naveed; Su, Jingliang; Han, Bo

    2017-05-09

    Bovine protothecal mastitis results in considerable economic losses worldwide. However, Prototheca zopfii induced morphological alterations and oxidative stress in bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) is not comprehensively studied yet. Therefore, the aim of this current study was to investigate the P. zopfii induced pathomorphological changes, oxidative stress and apoptosis in bMECs. Oxidative stress was assessed by evaluating catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, while ROS generation and apoptosis was measured by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results revealed that infection of P. zopfii genotype II (GTII) significantly changed bMECs morphology, increased apoptotic rate and MDA contents at 12 h (p < 0.05) and 24 h (p < 0.01) in comparison with control group, in time-dependent manner. LDH activity and ROS generation was also increased (p < 0.01) at 12 h and 24 h. However, SOD and CAT contents in bMECs infected with GTII were decreased (p < 0.05) at 12 h, while GPx (p < 0.01), SOD (p < 0.05) and CAT (p < 0.01) levels were reduced at 24 h. In case of GTI, only CAT and GPx activities were significantly decreased when the duration prolonged to 24 h but lesser than GTII. This suggested that GTII has more devastating pathogenic effects in bMECs, and the findings of this study concluded that GTII induced apoptosis and oxidative stress in bMECs via the imbalance of oxidant and antioxidant defenses as well as the production of intracellular ROS.

  3. Antibody Tracing, Seroepidemiology and Risk Factors of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Bovine Adenovirus-3 in Dairy Holstein Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa FARZINPOUR

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibody tracing, risk factors and seroepidemiology of bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine adenovirus-3 were investigated in 22 Industrial and Semi-Industrial dairy Holstein farms. Serum samples (n=736 from various ages of unvaccinated cows were collected from May to September 2012. Risk factors including age, past history of respiratory diseases, amount of milk production, husbandry type and herd size were considered. Data were analyzed by Chi-square and logistic regression. Results indicated that the infection with some of individual viruses was related to past history of respiratory disease and herd size. No specific pattern was seen on the effect of level of milk production on seropositivity of animals. The seroprevalence for BRSV and BAV-3 were 89.1% and 88%, respectively. The present study indicates that infections of bovine respiratory viruses frequently occur in cattle of Fars province and the main viral cause of primary occurrence of respiratory diseases may be due to aforementioned viruses.

  4. Morphoquantitative description of bovine digital cushion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Borges

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The digital cushion is characterized as a modified subcutaneous tissue that absorbs the shock during gait, assists venous return of the hoof and supports a considerable part of body weight. Digital cushions have particular importance in the pathogenesis of the hoof, since they need to properly work in order to prevent compression and traumas in soft tissues. This study aimed to measure and determine how is the arrangement of these structures, and for this it was established the proportions of connective, adipose, vascular tissues and collagen fibers and collagen types found in palmar and plantar digital cushion of bovine using fore and hindlimbs of twelve adult zebu cattle of both sexes, 11 male and one female, with 269kg average carcass weight and without limb disorders. Fragments of cushions were subjected to conventional histology, cut to a thickness of 4µm and stained with Red Picrosirius. With digital optical microscope, the quantification of the connective tissue and differentiation of types of collagen used the Image Pro Plus® software, and of adipose and vascular tissue, the test point system. The mean and standard error were estimated with the GraphPad Prism 5.0 software, and then data were subjected to Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality test and Student's t-test with significance level set at 5% for determining the amount of different tissues between fore and hindlimbs of studied animals. In forelimbs the mean and standard error of the connective tissue proportion was 50.10%+1.54, of the adipose tissue was 21.34%+1.44, and of vascular tissue was 3.43%+0.28. Hindlimbs presented a proportion of connective tissue of 61.61%+1.47, 20.66%+1.53 of adipose tissue, and 3.06%+0.20 of vascular tissue. A significant difference (p<0.001 was detected in the connective tissue proportion between fore and hindlimbs. Types I and II collagen fibers have presented, respectively, a proportion of 31.89% and 3.9% in forelimbs and 34.05% and 1.78% in

  5. Cost estimate of bovine tuberculosis to Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, Rea; Hattendorf, Jan; Roth, Felix; Choudhury, Adnan Ali Khan; Choudhoury, Adnan; Shaw, Alexandra; Aseffa, Abraham; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    While bovine tuberculosis (BTB) has been eliminated in some industrialized countries, it prevails worldwide, particularly in Africa. In Ethiopia, BTB is prevalent as numerous studies have shown its occurrence in livestock and in abattoirs but it has not been demonstrated in wildlife and only very few cases have been found in humans. The objective of this study is to estimate the cost of BTB to Ethiopia with the aim of informing Ethiopian policy on options for BTB control. BTB in livestock affects both animal productivity and herd demographic composition. The Livestock Development Planning System (LDPS2, FAO) was modified to allow for stochastic simulation of parameters. We performed an incremental cost of disease analysis, comparing livestock production with and without BTB. For the rural scenario we considered an endemically stable 4 % comparative intradermal test (CIDT) prevalence and for the urban scenario an endemically stable 32 % CIDT prevalence among cattle. The net present value of rural Ethiopian livestock products in 2005 is estimated at 65.7 billion (thousand million) Ethiopian Birr (95 % Confidence Interval (CI) 53.8-77.7 billion Birr), which is the equivalent of 7.5 billion US$ (95 %CI 6.1-8.9 billion US$) at a rate of 8.7 Birr per US$ in 2005. The cost of BTB ranges from 646 million Birr (75.2 million US$) in 2005 to 3.1 Billion Birr in 2011 (358 million US$) but is within the range of uncertainty of our estimate and can thus not be distinguished from zero. The cost of disease in the urban livestock production ranges from 5 to 42 million Birr (500,000-4.9 million US$) between 2005 and 2011 but is also within the range of uncertainty of our estimate. Our study shows no measurable loss in asset value or cost of disease due to BTB in rural and urban production systems in Ethiopia. This does not mean that there is not a real cost of disease, but the variability of the productivity parameters and prices are high and would require more precise estimates

  6. Bovine response to lipoarabinomannan vaccination and challenge with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Jolly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the immune response in bovines following immunization with a mycobaterial Lipoarabinomannan extract (LAMe and the effect of Map challenge. LAMe vaccine induced specific antibody levels that diminished after the challenge and affected Map excretion at least for 100 days thereafter.

  7. Incidence and Economic Cost of Bovine Trypanosomosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidence and economic cost of cases of bovine trypanosomosis in nomadic herds at the Jos Plateau from 1997 to 2001 were determined. These were done using records kept at the Plateau State Ministry of Animal and Forest Resources headquarters at Jos, and the model described by Alonge et al. (1984). The incidence ...

  8. Perspectives on avian and bovine leukemia virus immunological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, T.; Souza, J.M.M. de; Nogueira, Z.M.; Ogata, H.

    1984-01-01

    The avian and bovine RNA virus are studied. The mechanism of replication, the genome, the ultrastructural composition, the immunogens reactivity, the class of determinants and affinity are presented. Purification techniques of viral proteins and immunoassay proceeding are reported. (M.A.C.) [pt

  9. Risk factors analysis and implications for public health of bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a neglected zoonosis of cattle that is prevalent but under-investigated in Cameroon. Based on epidemiological data of the disease, this study was designed to assess the risks and public health implications for zoonotic M. bovis infection in cattle and humans in the highlands of Cameroon.

  10. Structural and functional analysis of bovine herpesvirus 1 minor glycoproteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baranowski, E.; Keil, G.; Lyaku, J.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.; Pastoret, P.P.; Thiry, E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper focuses on the structure and functions of bovine herpesvirus 1 minor glycoproteins gH, gE, gG and gp42. It reviews the progress which has been made in their identification and characterization, in the study of their temporal expression and processing in infected cells, and finally in the

  11. Sero-prevalence of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a disease of cattle caused by ... of veterinary departments have resulted in CBPP running riot in east and ... 5 334 of Sheep, 9 253 of Goat, 72 of Horses, 601 of Mules, 3 300 of Donkeys.

  12. New York Milk Supply with Bovine Growth Hormone

    OpenAIRE

    Magrath, William B.; Tauer, Loren W.

    1986-01-01

    New York milk supply functions with ans without Bovine Growth Hormone were estimated by a sector linear programming model. High Government price supports make bGH profitable and induces significant increases in output. Reduction or elimination of Price supports greatly diminishes bGH as a variable technology except at low bGH prices

  13. Effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin application intervals on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    productivity gains in dairy herds is recombinant bovine somatotropin ... intervals of 14 days can increase milk production from 3 to 5 kg/day, on ... blood flow and improving the efficiency in the use of .... The total increase in liters of milk produced within 30 days .... maintenance on production throughout the experimental.

  14. SP-A binding sites on bovine alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaga, S; Plattner, H; Schlepper-Schaefer, J

    1998-11-25

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A) binding to bovine alveolar macrophages was examined in order to characterize SP-A binding proteins on the cell surface and to isolate putative receptors from these cells that could be obtained in large amounts. Human SP-A, unlabeled or labeled with gold particles, was bound to freshly isolated macrophages and analyzed with ELISA or the transmission electron microscope. Binding of SP-A was inhibited by Ca2+ chelation, by an excess of unlabeled SP-A, or by the presence of 20 mg/ml mannan. We conclude that bovine alveolar macrophages expose binding sites for SP-A that are specific and that depend on Ca2+ and on mannose residues. For isolation of SP-A receptors with homologous SP-A as ligand we isolated SP-A from bovine lung lavage. SDS-PAGE analysis of the purified SP-A showed a protein of 32-36 kDa. Functional integrity of the protein was demonstrated. Bovine SP-A bound to Dynabeads was used to isolate SP-A binding proteins. From the fractionated and blotted proteins of the receptor preparation two proteins bound SP-A in a Ca2+-dependent manner, a 40-kDa protein showing mannose dependency and a 210-kDa protein, showing no mannose sensitivity. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  15. Molecular epidemiology and population structure of bovine Streptococcus uberis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rato, M G; Bexiga, R; Nunes, S F

    2008-01-01

    The molecular epidemiology and population structure of 30 bovine subclinical mastitis field isolates of Streptococcus uberis, collected from 6 Portuguese herds (among 12 farms screened) during 2002 and 2003, were examined by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for clustering of the isol...

  16. Bovine Hydatidosis in Ambo Municipality Abattoir, West Shoa, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study on bovine hydatidosis was conducted in Ambo municipality abattoir from November 2007 to March 2008 with the aim of investigating the prevalence, intensity, fertility and economic losses in cattle slaughtered for human consumption. Stray dogs killed with strychnine baited meat piece were also ...

  17. Haplotype combination of the bovine PCSK1 gene sequence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prohormone convertase subtilisin/kexin type 1 gene. (PCSK1) plays a role in body mass control. Recent associa- tion studies have shown that three common nonsynonymous. SNPs are linked to increase risk of obesity and therefore it has been the focus of this study. Hence, in this study, polymorphisms of the bovine ...

  18. Development of a Vaccine for Eradicating Contagious Bovine ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Since eventual success depends on the vaccine's acceptability by livestock keepers, the project involves them in field-testing and assesses their willingness to pay for the vaccine. The project also ... Outputs. Studies. Developing vaccines for animals, the case of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in Africa. 53232.

  19. Comparison of bovine lymphocyte antigen DRB3.2 allele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... The bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA-DRB3) gene encodes cell ... alleles were more resistant to clinical mastitis. ... DRB3.2 allele pattern in two Iranian Holstein cow .... observed and the number of immune parameters with.

  20. Seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in agro pastoral areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the sero-prevalence of bovine brucellosis in four districts of Jijjiga Zone, eastern. Ethiopia. ... animals and herds given the extensive production system prevailing in the area which may allow contact ... due to abortion, infertility and reduction in milk production. In addition, the ..... Epidemiology and surveillance. In: Nielsen, K.

  1. Effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin application intervals on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST) application intervals on chemical composition of milk from Girolando cows with productivity below 20 L/milk/day and animals with productivity above 20.1 liters/milk/day. The study included 30 Girolando cows with production ranging ...

  2. 9 CFR 113.68 - Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine. 113.68 Section 113.68 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Service. (4) A satisfactory challenge shall be evidenced in the controls by progression of clinical signs...

  3. 9 CFR 113.69 - Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine. 113.69 Section 113.69 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. (4) A satisfactory challenge shall be evidenced in the...

  4. Epizootiological Survey of Bovine Brucellosis in Nomadic Pastoral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They called bovine brucellosis (Bakkale) and described it as a cattle disease characterized by standing hair coat, fever, loss of appetite, swollen joints, and abortion and transmitted by ingestion and contact. The high prevalence observed calls for urgent government intervention towards public health enlightenment of ...

  5. Short communication. Microculture syncytia assay for bovine leukemia virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, P.S.; Castro, A.E.; Pomeroy, K.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Muscoplat, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    A microculture syncytia assay for the detection of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) has been described and compared with the conventional macroculture assay. The microculture assay required fewer indicator cells, was as sensitive as the macroculture assay and provided a reproducible test for the detection and titration of BLV.

  6. Propagation of bovine spermatogonial stem cells in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aponte, Pedro M.; Soda, Takeshi; Teerds, Katja J.; Mizrak, S. Canan; van de Kant, Henk J. G.; de Rooij, Dirk G.

    2008-01-01

    The access to sufficient numbers of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) is a prerequisite for the study of their regulation and further biomanipulation. A specialized medium and several growth factors were tested to study the in vitro behavior of bovine type A spermatogonia, a cell population that

  7. Optimization of in vitro culture and transfection condition of bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study aimed to optimize the in vitro culture and transfection efficiency of bovine primary spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). To this end, SSCs were obtained from newborn Holstein bull calves by two-step enzymatic digestion. After enrichment and culture, SSCs were characterized by using alkaline phosphatase ...

  8. Proteomic analyses of host and pathogen responses during bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmer, Jamie L

    2011-12-01

    The pursuit of biomarkers for use as clinical screening tools, measures for early detection, disease monitoring, and as a means for assessing therapeutic responses has steadily evolved in human and veterinary medicine over the past two decades. Concurrently, advances in mass spectrometry have markedly expanded proteomic capabilities for biomarker discovery. While initial mass spectrometric biomarker discovery endeavors focused primarily on the detection of modulated proteins in human tissues and fluids, recent efforts have shifted to include proteomic analyses of biological samples from food animal species. Mastitis continues to garner attention in veterinary research due mainly to affiliated financial losses and food safety concerns over antimicrobial use, but also because there are only a limited number of efficacious mastitis treatment options. Accordingly, comparative proteomic analyses of bovine milk have emerged in recent years. Efforts to prevent agricultural-related food-borne illness have likewise fueled an interest in the proteomic evaluation of several prominent strains of bacteria, including common mastitis pathogens. The interest in establishing biomarkers of the host and pathogen responses during bovine mastitis stems largely from the need to better characterize mechanisms of the disease, to identify reliable biomarkers for use as measures of early detection and drug efficacy, and to uncover potentially novel targets for the development of alternative therapeutics. The following review focuses primarily on comparative proteomic analyses conducted on healthy versus mastitic bovine milk. However, a comparison of the host defense proteome of human and bovine milk and the proteomic analysis of common veterinary pathogens are likewise introduced.

  9. Genes involved in bovine milk-fat composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schennink, A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research described in this thesis was to identify genes that underlie the genetic variation in bovine milk-fat composition. The fat composition of milk samples from approximately 2,000 Dutch Holstein Friesian cows in their first lactation was measured by gas chromatography.

  10. Occurrence of bovine mastitis and isolation of Staphyloccocus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence of bovine mastitis and isolation of Staphyloccocus species from ... the samples that were positive for CMT were found to be culture positive and out of ... S. aureus and 12.3% (12/97) were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CONS).

  11. The phosphorylation pattern of bovine heart complex I subunits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmisano, Giuseppe; Sardanelli, Anna Maria; Signorile, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The phosphoproteome of bovine heart complex I of the respiratory chain has been analysed with a procedure based on nondenaturing gel electrophoretic separation of complex I from small quantities of mitochondria samples, in-gel digestion, in combination with phosphopeptide enrichment by titanium d...

  12. A comparative study of lyophilized bovine pericardium and tunica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of lyophilized bovine pericardium and tunica vaginalis in repairing large abdominal wall defect in a rabbit model. Full thickness (all the layers of muscles except the skin) abdominal wall defects (3 x 4 cm) were created in 18 anaesthetized male clinically healthy New ...

  13. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus : immunopathology and vaccine evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonis, A.F.G.

    2010-01-01

    Human and bovine RSVs cause severe disease in humans and in cattle respectively. They have been recognised as important respiratory pathogens in the last five decades, and this has resulted in significant research activities on the pathogenesis and intervention strategies around the world.

  14. Detection of bovine tuberculosis in African buffaloes and indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycobacterium bovis is the aetiological agent for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in wildlife and livestock. A study to detect BTB in live buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) and evaluation of diagnostics was conducted in buffaloes and indigenous cattle in Mikumi ecosystem. Gamma interferon (γIFN) and BovidTB Stat-Pak tests were used ...

  15. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis at the SODEPA Douala abattoir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology ... The paper therefore confirms that bovine tuberculosis is endemic in Cameroon and suggests that systematic knowledge on the biodiversity of the causative agents, epidemiology and control of the disease as well as the interrelationship between animal and human tuberculosis ...

  16. Colonization of the bovine uterus by Candida kefyr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen Karstrup, Cecilia; Aalbæk, Bent; Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard

    2017-01-01

    Background. While fungal infections of the bovine uterus are well-known diseases in pregnant cattle, very limited knowledge exists on the presence and significance of fungi in the uterus of non-pregnant cows. Presence of fungi in the uterine lumen of postpartum (pp) cows has been reported, but li...

  17. Diffusion of calcium and fluride ions in bovine enamel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flim, Gerrit Jan

    1976-01-01

    This thesis deals with the diffusion of calcium and fluoride ions in bovine enamel, Special attention was given to the mechanism of this diffusion, The experiments were carried out with radioactive labeled ions. The information obtained is relevant with respect to de- and remineralization processes

  18. In vitro photoinactivation of bovine mastitis related pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellera, Fábio Parra; Sabino, Caetano Padial; Ribeiro, Martha Simões; Gargano, Ronaldo Gomes; Benites, Nilson Roberti; Melville, Priscilla Anne; Pogliani, Fabio Celidonio

    2016-03-01

    Bovine mastitis is considered the most important disease of worldwide dairy industry. Treatment of this disease is based on the application intramammary antibiotic, which favors an increase in the number of resistant bacteria in the last decade. Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) has been investigated in different areas of Health Sciences, and has shown great potential for inactivating different pathogens, without any selection of resistant microorganisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of PDI in the inactivation of pathogens associated with bovine mastitis. We tested the effectiveness of PDI against antibiotic resistant strains, isolated from bovine mastitis, from the following species: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Corynebacterium bovis, and the alga Prototheca zopfii. Nine experimental groups were evaluated: control, no treatment; light only, irradiation of a red light-emitting diode (λ=662 (20) nm) for 180 s; exposure to 50 μM methylene blue alone for 5 min; and PDI for 5, 10, 30, 60, 120 and 180 s. S. dysgalactiae, S. aureus, and C. bovis were inactivated after 30s of irradiation, whereas S. agalactiae was inactivated after 120 s and P. zopfii at 180 s of irradiation. These results show that PDI can be an interesting tool for inactivating pathogens for bovine mastitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Bovine mastitis: An appraisal of its alternative herbal cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Saleem; Shah, Aabid Manzoor; Shah, Aiyatullah; Lone, Sajad Ahmad; Hussain, Aehtesham; Hassan, Qazi Parvaiz; Ali, Md Niamat

    2018-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is globally recognized as the most common and costly disease affecting dairy herds. The disease causes huge financial losses to dairy industries by reduced yield and milk quality, deaths and culling of affected cows and also by associated treatment costs. The disease occurs due to invasion of the mammary glands by pathogenic bacteria followed by their multiplication in the milk producing tissues. The most common treatment method available against bovine mastitis is the intra-mammary infusion of antibiotics. However, their use is associated with the problem of antimicrobial resistance. This scenario has made search for alternative treatment approaches necessary. Medicinal plants with their well-established history are an excellent natural product resource used as an alternative therapy. Antibacterial agents from plants can act as important sources of novel antibiotics, efflux pump inhibitors, compounds that target bacterial virulence or can be used in combination with existing drugs. The plants form an essential component of ethno-veterinary medicine used in the treatment of different diseases like bovine mastitis. This review article attempts to provide an overview of the different medicinal plants used in the treatment of bovine mastitis. Antimicrobial studies of these plant species and some of their isolated constituents have been reviewed in detail. It highlights the logic and precedence behind mining this important natural product resource. Our own research findings in this direction and future scope of research are also discussed briefly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bovine mastitis therapy and why it fails : continuing education

    OpenAIRE

    J.H. Du Preez

    2000-01-01

    Treatment of bovine mastitis depends on the cause, the clinical manifestation and the antibiotic susceptibility of the agent. Mastitis therapy is commonly unsuccessful owing to pathological changes that occur in the udder parenchyma as a result of the inflammatory reaction to mastitogenic bacteria, pharmacokinetic properties of antimicrobial mastitis drugs, mastitogenic bacterial and related factors, and poor animal husbandry and veterinary interventions.

  1. Bovine mastitis therapy and why it fails : continuing education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Du Preez

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of bovine mastitis depends on the cause, the clinical manifestation and the antibiotic susceptibility of the agent. Mastitis therapy is commonly unsuccessful owing to pathological changes that occur in the udder parenchyma as a result of the inflammatory reaction to mastitogenic bacteria, pharmacokinetic properties of antimicrobial mastitis drugs, mastitogenic bacterial and related factors, and poor animal husbandry and veterinary interventions.

  2. Bovine response to lipoarabinomannan vaccination and challenge with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Ana; Morsella, Claudia; Bass, Laura; Fiorentino, María Andrea; Paolicchi, Fernando Alberto; Mundo, Silvia Leonor

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the immune response in bovines following immunization with a mycobaterial Lipoarabinomannan extract (LAMe) and the effect of Map challenge. LAMe vaccine induced specific antibody levels that diminished after the challenge and affected Map excretion at least for 100 days thereafter.

  3. Surface analysis of polydimethylsiloxane fouled with bovine serum albumin

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Windvoel, T

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available -specific adsorption of proteins. The non specific adsorption becomes a limitation in applications that require clean hydrophobic surfaces and the use of proteins. This paper investigates the changes in the surface of PDMS after being in contact with bovine serum...

  4. Structural changes during the unfolding of Bovine serum albumin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The native form of serum albumin is the most important soluble protein in the body plasma. In order to investigate the structural changes of Bovine serum albumin (BSA) during its unfolding in the presence of urea, a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) study was performed. The scattering curves of dilute solutions of BSA ...

  5. Preliminary assessment of bovine trypanosomiasis and its vectors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study involving a questionnaire, parasitological examination of cattle and entomological prospection were conducted in the Mezam Division of Cameroon from December 2013 to May 2014 in two seasons for the first time. The objectives were to determine the prevalence of bovine trypanosomiais and its ...

  6. Prevalence of Bovine Tuberculosis in indigenous cattle in Gairo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis is an important zoonosis that affects uman, wildlife and livestock. A cross sectional study was carried out between December 2012 and January 2013 to establish the prevalence of bTB and the associated risk factors among ive and slaughter indigenous cattle in ...

  7. [Isolation and characterization of siphovirus phages infecting bovine Streptococcus agalactiae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Qinqin; Yang, Yongchun; Lu, Chengping

    2016-02-04

    To isolate and identify Streptococcus agalactiae phages and screen candidate phages to control infection caused by bovine S. agalactiae. We used two methods for isolation of S. agalactiae phages, namely (1) isolation of phages from milk and environmental samples, and (2) isolation of phages via induction of lysogens with Mitomycin C. Double-layer agar culture method was used to purify phages. Then the newly obtained phages, with S. agalactiae phage JX01 isolated from mastitis milk, were comparatively analyzed in the following aspects: morphology of phages by transmission electron microscopy, host range of phages to 55 S. agalactiae strains and other Streptococcus strains, phages DNA using EcoR I, Xba I, Pst I and Sal I, the optical multiplicity of infection, absorption curve and one step growth curve, and the stability of phages at different storage conditions. The comparative analysis of the 3 novel phages LYGO9, HZ04 and pA11 (induced from S. agalctiae bovine clinical isolate HAJL2011070601) with JX01 showed that the 4 phages were classified as the member of Siphovirdae family. EcoR I, Sal I, Xba I and Pst I separately digested the 4 phages DNA provided 4, 3, 3 and 2 profiles, respectively. This suggested that they were different strains. All the 4 phages specifically infected bovine S. agalactiae isolates. LYGO9, pA11, JX01 and HZ04 could lyse 12, 13, 20 and 23 of 42 tested bovine S. agalctiae isolates, respectively. This clearly indicated that these 4 phages are closely related. The 3 new phages which specifically lyse bovine S. agalactiae isolates are siphovirus phages. Phage LYGO9 was shown having a short latent period and a larger burst size.

  8. Improved detection of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Bovine lymphoid cell lines using PrimeFlow RNA assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections, whether as acute, persistent or contributing to co-infections, result in significant losses for cattle producers. BVDV can be identified by real-time PCR and ELISA, detection and quantification of viral infection at the single cell level is extremely di...

  9. Sheep-passaged bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent exhibits altered pathobiological properties in bovine-PrP transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinosa, J.C.; Andreoletti, O.; Castilla, J.; Herva, M.E.; Morales, M.; Alamillo, E.; San-Segundo, F.D.; Lacroux, C.; Lugan, S.; Salguero, F.J.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Torres, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Sheep can be experimentally infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), and the ensuing disease is similar to scrapie in terms of pathogenesis and clinical signs. BSE infection in sheep is an animal and human health concern. In this study, the transmission in BoPrP-Tg110 mice of prions

  10. LukMF′ is the major secreted leukocidin of bovine Staphylococcus aureus and is produced in vivo during bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, Manouk; Boerhout, Eveline M.; Van Wigcheren, Glenn F.; Koymans, Kirsten J.; Mols-Vorstermans, Tanja G.; de Haas, Carla J C; Aerts, Piet C.; Daemen, Ineke J J M; van Kessel, Kok P M; Koets, Ad P.; Rutten, Victor P M G; Nuijten, Piet J M; Van Strijp, Jos A G; Benedictus, Lindert

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human and animal pathogen and a common cause of mastitis in cattle. S. aureus secretes several leukocidins that target bovine neutrophils, crucial effector cells in the defence against bacterial pathogens. In this study, we investigated the role of staphylococcal

  11. LukMF' is the major secreted leukocidin of bovine Staphylococcus aureus and is produced in vivo during bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, Manouk; Boerhout, Eveline M; van Wigcheren, Glenn F; Koymans, Kirsten J; Mols-Vorstermans, Tanja G; de Haas, Carla J C; Aerts, Piet C; Daemen, Ineke J J M; van Kessel, Kok P M; Koets, Ad P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/194306992; Rutten, Victor P M G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/092848028; Nuijten, Piet J M; van Strijp, Jos A G; Benedictus, Lindert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/37157742X

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human and animal pathogen and a common cause of mastitis in cattle. S. aureus secretes several leukocidins that target bovine neutrophils, crucial effector cells in the defence against bacterial pathogens. In this study, we investigated the role of staphylococcal

  12. LukMF′ is the major secreted leukocidin of bovine Staphylococcus aureus and is produced in vivo during bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, Manouk; Boerhout, Eveline M.; Wigcheren, Van Glenn F.; Koymans, Kirsten J.; Mols-Vorstermans, Tanja G.; Haas, de Carla J.C.; Aerts, Piet C.; Daemen, Ineke J.J.M.; Kessel, Van Kok P.M.; Koets, Ad P.; Rutten, Victor P.M.G.; Nuijten, Piet J.M.; Strijp, van Jos A.G.; Benedictus, Lindert

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human and animal pathogen and a common cause of mastitis in cattle. S. aureus secretes several leukocidins that target bovine neutrophils, crucial effector cells in the defence against bacterial pathogens. In this study, we investigated the role of staphylococcal

  13. A high resolution radiation hybrid map of bovine chromosome 14 identifies scaffold rearrangement in the latest bovine assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhiquan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiation hybrid (RH maps are considered to be a tool of choice for fine mapping closely linked loci, considering that the resolution of linkage maps is determined by the number of informative meiosis and recombination events which may require very large mapping populations. Accurately defining the marker order on chromosomes is crucial for correct identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL, haplotype map construction and refinement of candidate gene searches. Results A 12 k Radiation hybrid map of bovine chromosome 14 was constructed using 843 single nucleotide polymorphism markers. The resulting map was aligned with the latest version of the bovine assembly (Btau_3.1 as well as other previously published RH maps. The resulting map identified distinct regions on Bovine chromosome 14 where discrepancies between this RH map and the bovine assembly occur. A major region of discrepancy was found near the centromere involving the arrangement and order of the scaffolds from the assembly. The map further confirms previously published conserved synteny blocks with human chromosome 8. As well, it identifies an extra breakpoint and conserved synteny block previously undetected due to lower marker density. This conserved synteny block is in a region where markers between the RH map presented here and the latest sequence assembly are in very good agreement. Conclusion The increase of publicly available markers shifts the rate limiting step from marker discovery to the correct identification of their order for further use by the research community. This high resolution map of bovine chromosome 14 will facilitate identification of regions in the sequence assembly where additional information is required to resolve marker ordering.

  14. A retrospective analysis of the infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (bovine herpes virus-1) surveillance program in Norway using Monte Carlo simulation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paisley, Larry; Tharaldsen, J.; Jarp, J.

    2001-01-01

    Serological surveillance for antibodies against bovine herpes virus type I (BHV-1) which causes infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and infectious pustular vulvovaginitis has been carried out since 1992 in Norway. Since 1993 (when a single infected herd was detected) all bulk-milk and pooled...

  15. The characterization of DNA methylation-mediated regulation of bovine placental lactogen and bovine prolactin-related protein-1 genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Osman V

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine trophoblast binucleate cells (BNC express a plethora of molecules including bovine placental lactogen (bPL, gene name is bCSH1 and bovine prolactin-related protein-1 (bPRP1. BCSH1 and bPRP1 are members of the growth hormone (GH/prolactin (PRL gene family, which are expressed simultaneously in BNC and are central to placentation and the progression of pregnancy in cattle. However, there is a paucity of information on the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of both the bCSH1 and bPRP1 genes. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated that the expression of a number of genes is controlled by the methylation status of their promoter region. In the present study, we examined the cell-type-specific epigenetic alterations of the 5'-flanking region of the bCSH1 and bPRP1 genes to gain an insight into their regulatory mechanisms. Results Analysis of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment demonstrated that bCSH1 expression is moderately induced in fibroblast cultures but enhanced in BT-1 cells. Sodium bisulfite based sequencing revealed that bCSH1 is hypomethylated in the cotyledonary tissue but not in the fetal skin, and this pattern was not altered with the progression of pregnancy. On the other hand, the methylation status of bPRP1 was similar between the cotyledon and fetal skin. The bPRP1 gene was exclusively hypermethylated in a bovine trophoblast cell-derived BT-1 cell-line. While the activity of bCSH1 was similar in both BT-1 and bovine fibroblast cells, that of bPRP1 was specific to BT-1. Treatment with a demethylating agent and luciferase assays provided in vitro evidence of the positive regulation of bCSH1 but not bPRP1. Conclusion This is the first report to identify the differential regulatory mechanisms of the bCSH1 and bPRP1 genes and indicates that bCSH1 might potentially be the only transcript that is subject to DNA methyltransferase regulation. The data indicates the possibility of novel kinetics of induction of

  16. NAA characterization of the new Bovine Liver SRM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeisler, R.; Mackey, E.A.; Spatz, R.O.; Greenberg, R.R.; James, W.D.

    2008-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is preparing a freeze-dried powdered bovine liver tissue Standard Reference Material (SRM) to replace SRM 1577b Bovine Liver as the stock of this material was exhausted during 2006. Like the original SRM 1577 issued in 1972, this renewal focuses on the key elements for diagnostic, nutritional, and toxicological measurements that are important to medical, veterinary, and environmental sciences investigations. NIST's approach for value assignment included extensive characterization by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Difficulties in the determination of some elements present at very low levels were overcome by use of radiochemical separations. Twentyone elements were characterized in SRM 1577c by NAA. The previous materials, SRM 1577 and 1577b, served as quality control. (author)

  17. Characterization and stabilization of suspension of bovine bone ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carus, L.A.; Bento, L.; Takimi, A.S.; Braganca, S.R.

    2012-01-01

    The bovine bone powder is the main component in the production of bone china, which is known to be one of the finest and most expensive tableware. This special type of porcelain has unique aesthetic characteristics, among which stands out the whiteness, translucency and brightness. The properties of this porcelain, as well as its manufacture, depend on the characteristics of the bone ash. In this study the rheological properties of the suspensions using exclusively bovine bone ash were evaluated by testing the influence of the concentration of solids in suspension, the calcination temperature and the use of dispersing agents. It was found that the powder calcination temperature affects the rheology of the suspension by lowering the viscosity. (author)

  18. ESR signal changes recorded in γ-irradiated bovine livers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    After fresh raw livers of bovine were exposed to γ-rays on ice, radiation-induced radicals in the livers were measured in liquid nitrogen using electron spin resonance spectroscopy. In the magnetic field of 320.5 to 335.5 mT, the signals responsible to absorbed doses were found. The signal intensity from a main peak was increased up to 5 kGy. The side peaks existing both low and high magnetic field of the main peak showed linear responses as increasing absorbed doses. Radiation-induced radicals were found in a tissue without bones from animals. Without complicated sample preparations, the raw bovine livers can be easily measured on ESR at liquid nitrogen temperature. The ESR method may be applicable to distinguish irradiated fresh raw livers within a few days after irradiation. (author)

  19. An overview of bovine α-lactalbumin structure and functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta STĂNCIUC

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available α-Lactalbumin is the second major protein in bovine milk (2-5% of the total protein in bovine milk. The human variant has several physiologic functions in the neonatal period. In the mammary gland, itparticipates in lactose synthesis and facilitates milk production and secretion. α-Lactalbumin binds divalent cations (Ca2+, Zn2+ and may facilitate the absorption of essential minerals. Also, it provides awell-balanced supply of essential amino acids for the growing infant. During its digestion, peptides with antibacterial and imunostimulatory properties are formed, thereby possibly helping in the protection against infection. The protein fractions enriched with α-lactalbumin may be added to infant formula to provide some of the benefits of this protein. This article reviews a number of studies which may contribute to a more coherent understanding of the structure and some functional properties of α-lactalbumin.

  20. Colonization of the bovine uterus by Candida kefyr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen Karstrup, Cecilia; Aalbæk, Bent; Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard

    2017-01-01

    Background. While fungal infections of the bovine uterus are well-known diseases in pregnant cattle, very limited knowledge exists on the presence and significance of fungi in the uterus of non-pregnant cows. Presence of fungi in the uterine lumen of postpartum (pp) cows has been reported......, but little attention has been paid to this as most studies of the bovine pp uterus have focused on bacteria. Case presentation. Microscopy of uterine lavage cytology slides of three cows from one herd revealed the presence of numerous yeast-like organisms, which were located either free in the fluid...... pregnant and delivered a normal calf at term, while the two others were not bred. Conclusions. Candida kefyr is commonly isolated from milk of cows with mastitis, but has not been reported in association with other diseases of cattle. The infection was present as a monoculture in all three cows...

  1. Bioelectrical impedance analysis for bovine milk: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertemes-Filho, P.; Valicheski, R.; Pereira, R. M.; Paterno, A. S.

    2010-04-01

    This work reports the investigation and analysis of bovine milk quality by using biological impedance measurements using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The samples were distinguished by a first chemical analysis using Fourier transform midinfrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and flow citometry. A set of milk samples (100ml each) obtained from 17 different cows in lactation with and without mastitis were analyzed with the proposed technique using EIS. The samples were adulterated by adding distilled water and hydrogen peroxide in a controlled manner. FTIR spectroscopy and flow cytometry were performed, and impedance measurements were made in a frequency range from 500Hz up to 1MHz with an implemented EIS system. The system's phase shift was compensated by measuring saline solutions. It was possible to show that the results obtained with the Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) technique may detect changes in the milk caused by mastitis and the presence of water and hydrogen peroxide in the bovine milk.

  2. Current trend of drug sensitivity in bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Ranjan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on 190 milk samples of bovine mastitis and 138 samples were confirmed positives for microorganisms. All the 138 samples were subjected to drug sensitivity test. The most effective antibiotic was enrofloxacin (91.67% followed by ciprofloxacin (90.15%, amikacin (87.12%, ceftriaxone (84.10%, chloramphenicol (80.31%, cefotaxime (79.55% and gentamicin (77.27%. Microorganisms were mostly resistant to drugs like streptomycin, penicillinG, ampicillin, cloxacillin, amoxycillin and neomycin in increasing order of resistance. Hence, it is suggested that the line of treatment should be based on antibiogram study of various isolates from bovine mastitis. Further, the selection of drugs after culture and sensitivity test should be based on their ability to cross blood tissue barrier or mammary parenchyma, lipophilicity and ability to work in alkaline pH. [Vet. World 2010; 3(1.000: 17-20

  3. Inhibitory effect of chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides on bovine testicular hyaluronidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakizaki, Ikuko; Koizumi, Hideyo; Chen, Fengchao; Endo, Masahiko

    2015-05-05

    Hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfates are prominent components of the extracellular matrices of animal tissues; however, their functions in relation to their oligosaccharide structures have not yet been fully elucidated. The oligosaccharides of hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate were prepared and used to investigate their effects on the hydrolysis and transglycosylation reactions of bovine testicular hyaluronidase when hyaluronan was used as a substrate. Hydrolysis and transglycosylation activities were assessed in independent reaction systems by analyzing the products by HPLC. The hydrolysis and transglycosylation reactions of bovine testicular hyaluronidase were dose-dependently inhibited by chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides, but not by hyaluronan or chondroitin oligosaccharides. A kinetic analysis of the hydrolysis reaction using hyaluronan octasaccharide revealed that the inhibition mode by chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides was competitive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bovine colostrum to children with short bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunsholt, Lise; Jeppesen, Palle Bekker; Lund, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    Background: Management of short bowel syndrome (SBS) aims to achieve intestinal autonomy to prevent fluid, electrolyte, and nutrient deficiencies and maintain adequate development. Remnant intestinal adaptation is required to obtain autonomy. In the newborn pig, colostrum has been shown to support...... intestinal development and hence adaptive processes. Aim: The efficacy of bovine colostrum to improve intestinal function in children with SBS was evaluated by metabolic balance studies. Materials and Methods: Nine children with SBS were included in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Twenty percent...... of enteral fluid intake was replaced with bovine colostrum or a mixed milk diet for 4 weeks, separated by a 4-week washout period. Intestinal absorption of energy and wet weight was used to assess intestinal function and the efficacy of colostrum. Results: Colostrum did not improve energy or wet weight...

  5. A look at the insemination use in bovine cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo Giraldo, John Jairo

    2007-01-01

    We aim to analyze the influence that this biotechnology has had from its introduction into our country, Colombia, in fundamental aspects for the bovine exploitation as the reproductive efficiency, the genetic improvement, the technology transfer to the country and the training of the producer, everything finally reflected in the productivity and the profitability of the cattle exploitations. Se pretende analizar la influencia que esta biotecnología ha tenido desde su i...

  6. The distribution of multiple opiate receptors in bovine brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkovic, M.; Hunt, S.P.; Emson, P.C.; Iversen, L.L.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of μ and delta opiate receptors in bovine brain has been investigated using the selective radioligands [ 3 H]morphine and D-[ 3 H]Ala 2 , D-Leu 5 -enkephalin. Their distributions were found to vary independently through different brain areas with up to a 10-fold difference between the ratio of μ to delta binding sites for the substantia nigra and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. (Auth.)

  7. Differentiation of Bovine Spermatogonial Stem Cells into Osteoblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Qasemi-Panahi, Babak; Tajik, Parviz; Movahedin, Mansoureh; Moghaddam, Gholamali; Barzgar, Younes; Heidari-Vala, Hamed

    2011-01-01

    Spermatogonial Stem Cell (SSC) technologies provide multiple opportunities for research in the field of biotechnology and regenerative medicine. The therapeutic use of Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs) is restricted due to severe ethical and immunological concerns. Therefore, we need a new pluripotent cell type. Despite well-known role of germ cells in the gametogenesis, some facts apparently show their multipotentiality. In the present study, bovine SSCs were co-cultured with Sertoli cell for 7 da...

  8. BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS IN EAST AFRICA ABSTRACT RÉSUMÉ

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    J.M. MUGAMBI, S.G. OMWENGA, H.O. WESONGA, P. MBATHA1, S. GATHOGO1, A.C. CHOTA2,. H.B. MAGWISHA2 ... In one area of Mwingi County, eastern Kenya, all the 161 cattle tested negative; while in the other ... Dans une zone de Mwingi a l'Est du Kenya, tous les 161 bovins ont été testes négative; tandis que dans.

  9. Antibacterial performance of bovine lactoferrin-fish gelatine electrospun nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Padrão, Jorge; Machado, Raul; Casal, Margarida; Rodrigues, L. R.; Dourado, Fernando; Lanceros-Méndez, S.; Sencadas, V.

    2014-01-01

    Antibacterial performance of bovine lactoferrin-fish gelatine electrospun nanocomposites The alarming increase of antibiotic resistant microorganisms urged the development and synthesis of novel antimicrobial biomaterials, to be employed in a broad range of applications, ranging from food casings to medical devices [1 – 3]. This work describes the processing and characterization of an innovative fully biobased eletrctrospun nanocomposite material displaying antibacterial properties. Its c...

  10. Envelope proteins of bovine herpesvirus 1: immunological and biochemical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Roque, L.L.

    1986-01-01

    The authors studied immunological and biochemical properties of the bovid herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) envelope proteins in order to understand the pathogenesis of BHV-1 infection and to provide basic information for the production of effective subunit vaccines against BHV-1. Ten glycoproteins MW 180, 150, 130, 115, 97, 77, 74, 64, 55, and 45 kilodaltons (K), and a single non-glycosylated 108 K protein were quantitatively removed from purified BHV-1 virions by detergent treatment. These glycoproteins were present on the virion envelope and on the surface of BHV-1 infected cells. The quantitative removal from virions by treatment with nonionic detergents and their presence on the surface of infected cells indicate that 180/97, 150/77, and 130/74/55 K are major components of the BHV-1 envelope and are also the targets of virus neutralizing humoral immune response. Envelope glycoproteins of herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) bind immunoglobulin by the Fc end and it is suggested this may increase pathogenicity of this virus. They searched for a similar function in BVH-1 by measuring the ability of BHV-1 infected cells and viral envelope proteins to bind radiolabelled rabbit and bovine IgG. Binding activity for rabbit IgG or bovine IgG-Fc could not be demonstrated by BHV-1 infected MDBK cells, whereas, MDBK cells infected with HSV-1 bound rabbit IgG and bovine IgG-Fc. None of the three major envelope proteins of BHV-1 bound to rabbit or bovine IgG. The results of this study indicate that BHV-1, unlike some other herpesviruses, lack Fc binding activity

  11. Ingredients derived from the slaughter of bovines in dog food

    OpenAIRE

    Loureiro, Karina De Carli; Haese, Douglas; Kill, João Luís; Pires, Achicine Furno; Fernandes, Danieli Rankel; Colnago, Geraldo Luiz; Lucas, Wendius Henrique; Gama, Gabriela Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the nutritional levels, apparent digestibility coefficients, and faecal characteristics of dogs fed with four by-products from bovine slaughter: testicles, residue sirloin steak, trachea, and liver. Ingredients were processed and packed in tins for heat treatment in autoclaves. For the digestibility and faeces quality, ingredients were mixed with a reference diet (commercial food) in the proportion of 30g kg-1 test ingredient and 70g kg-1 reference diet (as dry ...

  12. Methicillin resistant S. aureus in human and bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Mark A; Zadoks, Ruth N

    2011-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous organism that causes a variety of diseases including mastitis in cattle and humans. High-level resistance of S. aureus to β-lactams conferred by a mecA gene encoding a modified penicillin binding protein (PBP2a) was first observed in the early 1960's. These methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have been responsible for both hospital acquired infections (HA-MRSA) and, more recently, community acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA). A small number of human MRSA mastitis cases and outbreaks in maternity or neonatal units have been reported which are generally the result of CA-MRSA. The establishment of the sequence type 398 (ST398) in farm animals, primarily pigs, in the early 2000's has provided a reservoir of infection for humans and dairy cattle, particularly in continental Europe, described as livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA). Prior to the emergence of ST398 there were sporadic reports of MRSA in bovine milk and cases of mastitis, often caused by strains from human associated lineages. Subsequently, there have been several reports describing bovine udder infections caused by ST-398 MRSA. Recently, another group of LA-MRSA strains was discovered in humans and dairy cattle in Europe. This group carries a divergent mecA gene and includes a number of S. aureus lineages (CC130, ST425, and CC1943) that were hitherto thought to be bovine-specific but are now also found as carriage or clinical isolates in humans. The emergence of MRSA in dairy cattle may be associated with contact with other host species, as in the case of ST398, or with the exchange of genetic material between S. aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus species, which are the most common species associated with bovine intramammary infections and commonly carry antimicrobial resistance determinants.

  13. Is The Bovine Pedal Bone Sinking Around Calving?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Kurt; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Capion, Nynne

    weeks. The correlation between “days from calving” and “thickness of the soft tissue” was 0.31 (Pearson’s, p...Introduction Softening of connective tissue of the claw suspensory apparatus around calving as described by Tarlton, et al. (2002) may lead to sinking of the bovine pedal bone resulting in compression of the digital cushion. The objective of this study was to describe changes in the thickness...

  14. Expression of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus glycoprotein D ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) belongs to the genus of Varicellovirus and the family of Herpesviridae which contains three main gB, gC and gD genes. In order to cloning of the coding region of gD gene of IBR virus , PCR product of the open reading frame of the gene from IBR virus isolated in Iran was amplified by PCR.

  15. Status of bovine tuberculosis in Addis Ababa dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, K; Hussein, D; Asseged, B; Wondwossen, T; Gebeyehu, M

    2008-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine the status of bovine tuberculosis in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, by a comparative intradermal tuberculin test of 1,869 animals in 106 farms. Epidemiological information was also collected, taking into account factors chosen for their epidemiological significance and local livestock husbandry characteristics. In addition, milk samples were collected from tuberculin reactors for mycobacterial isolation and characterisation. Chi-square statistic, simple regression and multiple stepwise logistic regression were used to analyse the data. Of the 106 farms examined, 46 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 33.8% to 53.4%) contained comparative skin test reactors. Of the 1,869 animals, 443 (95% CI: 21.8% to 25.7%) were comparative skin test reactors. Furthermore, about 8.5% of tuberculin sensitive cows (12 of a sample of 141) secreted acid-fast bacteria in their milk. The microbes are described in more detail in the paper. Factors identified as possibly increasing the risk of bovine tuberculosis in Addis Ababa were herd size (large herd), farming (housing) condition (poor), and age (older animals). Similarly, as body condition scores improved from poor to medium and then to good, the likelihood of positive results significantly decreased (OR = 0.54; p < 0.01). Other factors including breed, sex, and physiological status of animals did not seem to significantly contribute to tuberculin sensitivity. The finding that large-size and intensively (often poorly) managed herds were at greater risk of bovine tuberculosis suggests that the significance of bovine tuberculosis is increasing in Addis Ababa parallel to an increasing dairy operation. If measures are not taken promptly, the impact on the economy and public health could be enormous.

  16. A Novel Genetic Group of Bovine Hepacivirus in Archival Serum Samples from Brazilian Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio W. Canal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV (genus Hepacivirus; family Flaviviridae is a major human pathogen causing persistent infection and hepatic injury. Recently, emerging HCV-like viruses were described infecting wild animals, such as bats and rodents, and domestic animals, including dogs, horses, and cattle. Using degenerate primers for detecting bovine pestiviruses in a 1996 survey three bovine serum samples showed a low identity with the genus Pestivirus of the Flaviviridae family. A virus could not be isolated in cell culture. The description of bovine hepaciviruses (BovHepV in 2015 allowed us to retrospectively identify the sequences as BovHepV, with a 88.9% nucleotide identity. In a reconstructed phylogenetic tree, the Brazilian BovHepV samples grouped within the bovine HCV-like cluster in a separated terminal node that was more closely related to the putative bovine Hepacivirus common ancestor than to bovine hepaciviruses detected in Europe and Africa.

  17. SCAFFOLD DARI BOVINE HYDROXYAPATITE DENGAN POLY VYNIALCHOHOL COATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alva Edy Tontowi, Punto Dewo, Endang Tri Wahyuni, dan Joko Triyono

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, it is about 40% patients with hard tissue defect due to ostheoporosis, cancer or accidents and therest are defect since they have born.For many years, efforts for recovering have been done by transplantation orimplantation methods.Transplantation is more appropriate butit is not sustain because of limited donor, whileimplantation using synthetic materials such as bioceramics scaffoldis expensive due to import and the scaffold iseasier to break which does not match to the medical requirements.The research therefore has been addressed to thisissue. Local bovine hydroxyapatite (bHAscaffold has been used as thebase material and poly vynilalchohol (PVAas a coating material.The bHA scaffold was prepared by cutting a fresh bovine bone in the size of 5mmx5mmx5mmand boil it in a distilled water to remove its organic material. It was then heated up at 900 oC for 2 hours infurnace to obtain bovine hydroxyapatite scaffold (bHA. Coating process has been carried out by dip coating of thebHAscaffold in PVA solution.

  18. Platelet activating factor activity in the phospholipids of bovine spermatozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, J.E.; Hough, S.; Elrod, C. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Platelet activating factor (PAF) has been detected in sperm from several mammalian species and can affect sperm motility and fertilization. Because bovine sperm contain a high percentage of ether-linked phospholipid precursors required for PAF synthesis, a study was undertaken to determine the PAF activity of bovine sperm phospholipids. Total lipids of washed, ejaculated bull sperm were extracted, and phospholipids were fractionated by thin-layer chromatography. Individual phospholipid fractions were assayed for PAF activity on the basis of (3H)serotonin release from equine platelets. PAF activity was detected in the PAF fraction (1.84 pmol/mumol total phospholipid) and in serine/inositol (PS/PI), choline (CP), and ethanolamine phosphoglyceride (EP) and cardiolipin (CA) fractions. Activity was highest in the CP fraction (8.05 pmol/mumol total phospholipid). Incomplete resolution of PAF and neutral lipids may have contributed to the activity in the PS/PI and CA fractions, respectively. Phospholipids from nonsperm sources did not stimulate serotonin release. Platelet activation by purified PAF and by sperm phospholipid fractions was inhibited by the receptor antagonist SRI 63-675. These results indicate that bovine sperm contain PAF and that other sperm phospholipids, especially CP and EP, which are high in glycerylether components, are capable of receptor-mediated platelet activation.

  19. Expression of uncoupling protein 1 in bovine muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Eldaim, M A; Hashimoto, O; Ohtsuki, H; Yamada, T; Murakami, M; Onda, K; Sato, R; Kanamori, Y; Qiao, Y; Tomonaga, S; Matsui, T; Funaba, M

    2016-12-01

    Uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) is predominantly expressed in brown/beige adipocytes in mammals. Although myogenic cells have been suggested to commit to a brown adipocyte lineage through the induction of Prdm16 expression, Prdm16 is also expressed in skeletal muscle. Thus, we examined expression of Ucp1 in bovine myogenic cells. Considering that Ucp1 is a principle molecule that induces energy expenditure in brown/beige adipocytes, expression of Ucp1 is not preferable in beef cattle because of potential decrease in energy (fattening) efficiency. The RT-PCR analyses revealed the expression of Ucp1 in the skeletal muscle of cattle; expression levels were markedly lower than those in the brown fat of calves. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that Ucp1 surrounded muscle fibers, but not adipocytes residing in skeletal muscle. Myosatellite cells cultured in myogenic medium showed an increase in the expression levels of myogenic regulatory factors ( levels were greater in cells after myogenic culture for 12 d than in those after myogenic culture for 6 d ( bovine skeletal muscle, which suggests the necessity for further studies on Ucp1-mediated energy expenditure in bovine skeletal muscle.

  20. Human and bovine spinal disc mechanics subsequent to trypsin injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsup, Jeremy; Bishop, Timothy; Eggett, Dennis; Bowden, Anton E

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the biomechanical effects of injections of a protease on the characteristics of bovine coccygeal and human lumbar disc motion segments. Mechanics of treated tissues were measured immediately after injection and 3 h after injection. Motion segments underwent axial rotation and flexion-extension loading. Stiffness and neutral zone parameters experienced significant changes over time, with bovine tissues more strongly affected than human cadaver tissues. This was true in both axial rotation and flexion-extension. The treatment type significantly affected the neutral zone measurements in axial rotation. Hysteresis parameters were impacted by control injections. The extrapolation of bovine coccygeal motion testing results to human lumbar disc mechanics is not yet practical. The injected treatment may have a smaller impact on disc mechanics than time in testing. Viscoelasticity of human lumbar discs may be impacted by any damage to the annulus fibrosis induced by needlestick. Preclinical testing of novel spinal devices is essential to the design validation and regulatory processes, but current testing techniques rely on cadaveric testing of primarily older spines with essentially random amounts of disc degeneration. The present work investigates the viability of using trypsin injections to create a more uniform preclinical model of disc degeneration from a mechanics perspective, for the purpose of testing spinal devices. Such a model would facilitate translation of new spinal technologies to clinical practice.

  1. Multilineage Potential Research of Bovine Amniotic Fluid Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Gao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of amnion and amniotic fluid (AF are abundant sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs that can be harvested at low cost and do not pose ethical conflicts. In human and veterinary research, stem cells derived from these tissues are promising candidates for disease treatment, specifically for their plasticity, their reduced immunogenicity, and high anti-inflammatory potential. This work aimed to obtain and characterize bovine amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSC. The bovine AF from the amniotic cavity of pregnant gilts in the early stages of gestation (3- and 4-m-old bovine embryos was collected. AFMSCs exhibit a fibroblastic-like morphology only starting from the fourth passage, being heterogeneous during the primary culture. Immunofluorescence results showed that AFMSCs were positive for β-integrin, CD44, CD73 and CD166, but negative for CD34, CD45. Meanwhile, AFMSCs expressed ES cell markers, such as Oct4, and when appropriately induced, are capable of differentiating into ectodermal and mesodermal lineages. This study reinforces the emerging importance of these cells as ideal tools in veterinary medicine; future studies aimed at a deeper evaluation of their immunological properties will allow a better understanding of their role in cellular therapy.

  2. Economic losses due to bovine brucellosis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato L. Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is an important zoonosis of worldwide distribution. Reliable epidemiologic brucellosis data covering approximately 90% of the cattle population in Brazil have been recently published. Therefore, considering the scarcity of information regarding the economic impact of bovine brucellosis in Brazil, the goal of this study was to estimate economic impact of brucellosis on the Brazilian cattle industry. Several parameters including abortion and perinatal mortality rates, temporary infertility, replacement costs, mortality, veterinary costs, milk and meat losses were considered in the model. Bovine brucellosis in Brazil results in an estimated loss of R$ 420,12 or R$ 226,47 for each individual dairy or beef infected female above 24 months of age, respectively. The total estimated losses in Brazil attributed to bovine brucellosis were estimated to be approximately R$ 892 million (equivalent to about 448 million American dollars. Every 1% increase or decrease in prevalence is expected to increase or decrease the economic burden of brucellosis in approximately 155 million Reais.

  3. Control of bovine ringworm by vaccination in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Arve; Bratberg, Anna Marie; Næss, Bjørn; Gudding, Roar

    2014-03-15

    Bovine ringworm caused by Trichophyton verrucosum is a notifiable disease in Norway. New infected herds are reported to the Norwegian Food Safety Authority. To limit spread of the disease, restrictions are imposed on holdings including access to common pastures and sale of live animals. Bovine ringworm has been endemic in the Norwegian dairy population for decades. Since 1980 a vaccine (Bovilis Ringvac LTF-130, Merck Animal Health) has been available. The vaccine contains an attenuated strain of T. verrucosum and stimulates humoral and cellular immune responses conferring protection. Efficacy and safety of the vaccine have been evaluated in experimental and field studies. Vaccination campaigns in densely populated counties have contributed to a substantial decrease in number of ringworm outbreaks. The annual incidence of new infected herds decreased from 1.7% in 1980 to 0.043% in 2004. Few herds remained with restrictions and a "mopping up" project was established to offer assistance specifically to these holdings. A milestone was achieved in 2009; no new herds with cases of clinical ringworm caused by T. verrucosum were reported to the authorities. By end of 2012, there are only two herds with restrictions. Vaccination during the last 30 years has been a key control measure in the effort to prevent disease outbreaks and eradicate bovine ringworm in Norway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Interferon induction in bovine and feline monolayer cultures by four bluetongue virus serotypes.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, R W; Pearson, N J

    1982-01-01

    The interferon inducing ability of bluetongue viruses was studied in bovine and feline monolayer cultures inoculated with each of four bluetongue virus serotypes. Interferon was assayed by a plaque reduction method in monolayer cultures with vesicular stomatitis virus as challenge virus. Interferon was produced by bovine turbinate, Georgia bovine kidney, and Crandell feline kidney monolayer cultures in response to bluetongue virus serotypes 10, 11, 13 and 17. The antiviral substances produced...

  5. Culture conditions for bovine embryonic stem cell-like cells isolated from blastocysts after external fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Muzi; Wu, Asga; Dorzhin, Sergei; Yue, Qunhua; Ma, Yuzhen; Liu, Dongjun

    2012-01-01

    Although isolation and characterization of embryonic stem cells have been successful in cattle, maintenance of bovine embryonic stem cells in culture remains difficult. In this study, we compared different methods of cell passaging, feeder cell layers and medium conditions for bovine embryonic stem cell-like cells. We found that a murine embryonic fibroblast feeder layer is more suitable for embryonic stem cell-like cells than bovine embryonic fibroblasts. When murine embryonic fibroblasts we...

  6. Les femmes prennent part à la lutte contre les maladies des bovins ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    6 juin 2016 ... Des chercheurs du Kenya et du Canada sont à mettre au point un nouveau vaccin contre une maladie pulmonaire des bovins et font participer activement des éleveuses de bovins Somalis au processus. Les femmes Somalis jouent un rôle crucial dans l'élevage des bovins, mais ce sont en général les ...

  7. Strategical control of cattle tick in the Milk Bovine: A Revision

    OpenAIRE

    Furlong, Jonh; EMBRAPA - Gado de Leite; Sales, Ronaldo de Oliveira; Universidade Federal do Ceará

    2013-01-01

    In this bibliographical revision the different types of controls used in the eradication of the bovine cattle tick are presented that to develop itself, it needs to pass a phase of its life in the animals. It is important to know that the carrapato of the bovines is different of the cattle tick of the equines. In this text the common cattle tick of the bovines will be argued only (Boophilus microplus), mainly of the milk bovines, whose way of combat is different of that it is made for cut bov...

  8. Bacteriocins of Non-aureus Staphylococci Isolated from Bovine Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Domonique A; Barkema, Herman W; Naushad, Sohail; De Buck, Jeroen

    2017-09-01

    Non- aureus staphylococci (NAS), the bacteria most commonly isolated from the bovine udder, potentially protect the udder against infection by major mastitis pathogens due to bacteriocin production. In this study, we determined the inhibitory capability of 441 bovine NAS isolates (comprising 26 species) against bovine Staphylococcus aureus Furthermore, inhibiting isolates were tested against a human methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolate using a cross-streaking method. We determined the presence of bacteriocin clusters in NAS whole genomes using genome mining tools, BLAST, and comparison of genomes of closely related inhibiting and noninhibiting isolates and determined the genetic organization of any identified bacteriocin biosynthetic gene clusters. Forty isolates from 9 species ( S. capitis , S. chromogenes , S. epidermidis , S. pasteuri , S. saprophyticus , S. sciuri , S. simulans , S. warneri , and S. xylosus ) inhibited growth of S. aureus in vitro , 23 isolates of which, from S. capitis , S. chromogenes , S. epidermidis , S. pasteuri , S. simulans , and S. xylosus , also inhibited MRSA. One hundred five putative bacteriocin gene clusters encompassing 6 different classes (lanthipeptides, sactipeptides, lasso peptides, class IIa, class IIc, and class IId) in 95 whole genomes from 16 species were identified. A total of 25 novel bacteriocin precursors were described. In conclusion, NAS from bovine mammary glands are a source of potential bacteriocins, with >21% being possible producers, representing potential for future characterization and prospective clinical applications. IMPORTANCE Mastitis (particularly infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus ) costs Canadian dairy producers $400 million/year and is the leading cause of antibiotic use on dairy farms. With increasing antibiotic resistance and regulations regarding use, there is impetus to explore bacteriocins (bacterially produced antimicrobial peptides) for treatment and prevention of bacterial

  9. Bacteriocins of Non-aureus Staphylococci Isolated from Bovine Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Domonique A.; Barkema, Herman W.; Naushad, Sohail

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Non-aureus staphylococci (NAS), the bacteria most commonly isolated from the bovine udder, potentially protect the udder against infection by major mastitis pathogens due to bacteriocin production. In this study, we determined the inhibitory capability of 441 bovine NAS isolates (comprising 26 species) against bovine Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, inhibiting isolates were tested against a human methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolate using a cross-streaking method. We determined the presence of bacteriocin clusters in NAS whole genomes using genome mining tools, BLAST, and comparison of genomes of closely related inhibiting and noninhibiting isolates and determined the genetic organization of any identified bacteriocin biosynthetic gene clusters. Forty isolates from 9 species (S. capitis, S. chromogenes, S. epidermidis, S. pasteuri, S. saprophyticus, S. sciuri, S. simulans, S. warneri, and S. xylosus) inhibited growth of S. aureus in vitro, 23 isolates of which, from S. capitis, S. chromogenes, S. epidermidis, S. pasteuri, S. simulans, and S. xylosus, also inhibited MRSA. One hundred five putative bacteriocin gene clusters encompassing 6 different classes (lanthipeptides, sactipeptides, lasso peptides, class IIa, class IIc, and class IId) in 95 whole genomes from 16 species were identified. A total of 25 novel bacteriocin precursors were described. In conclusion, NAS from bovine mammary glands are a source of potential bacteriocins, with >21% being possible producers, representing potential for future characterization and prospective clinical applications. IMPORTANCE Mastitis (particularly infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus) costs Canadian dairy producers $400 million/year and is the leading cause of antibiotic use on dairy farms. With increasing antibiotic resistance and regulations regarding use, there is impetus to explore bacteriocins (bacterially produced antimicrobial peptides) for treatment and prevention of bacterial infections

  10. Interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells and Leptospira species; innate responses in the natural bovine reservoir host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer H Wilson-Welder

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cattle are the reservoir hosts of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, and can also be reservoir hosts of other Leptospira species such as L. kirschneri, and L. interrogans. As a reservoir host, cattle shed Leptospira, infecting other animals, including humans. Previous studies with human and murine neutrophils have shown activation of neutrophil extracellular trap or NET formation, and upregulation of inflammatory mediators by neutrophils in the presence of Leptospira. Humans, companion animals and most widely studied models of Leptospirosis are of acute infection, hallmarked by systemic inflammatory response, neutrophilia and septicemia. In contrast, cattle exhibit chronic infection with few outward clinical signs aside from reproductive failure. Taking into consideration that there is host species variation in innate immunity, especially in pathogen recognition and response, the interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs and several Leptospira strains was evaluated. Studies including bovine-adapted strains, human pathogen strains, a saprophyte and inactivated organisms. Incubation of PMNs with Leptospira did induce slight activation of neutrophil NETs, greater than unstimulated cells but less than the quantity from E. coli P4 stimulated PMNs. Very low but significant from non-stimulated, levels of reactive oxygen peroxides were produced in the presence of all Leptospira strains and E. coli P4. Similarly, significant levels of reactive nitrogen intermediaries (NO2 was produced from PMNs when incubated with the Leptospira strains and greater quantities in the presence of E. coli P4. PMNs incubated with Leptospira induced RNA transcripts of IL-1β, MIP-1α, and TNF-α, with greater amounts induced by live organisms when compared to heat-inactivated leptospires. Transcript for inflammatory cytokine IL-8 was also induced, at similar levels regardless of Leptospira strain or viability. However, incubation of

  11. Determining resistance to mastitis in a bovine subject involves detecting presence or absence of genetic marker associated with trait indicative of mastitis resistance of the bovine subject and/or off-spring from it

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    NOVELTY - Determining (m1) resistance to mastitis in a bovine subject, involves detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of at least one genetic marker that is associated with at least one trait indicative of mastitis resistance of the bovine subject and/or off......-spring from it, where the genetic marker is located on the bovine chromosome BTA11 in the region flanked by and including the zeta-chain associated protein 70kD (ZAP70) and CD8B genes, where the presence or absence of the genetic marker is indicative of mastitis resistance. USE - For determining resistance...... to mastitis in a bovine subject for determining mastitis resistance in a bovine subject; for detecting the presence or absence in a bovine subject of at least one genetic marker associated with resistance to mastitis; and for estimating breeding value in respect of susceptibility to mastitis in a bovine...

  12. Subunit and whole molecule specificity of the anti-bovine casein immune response in recent onset psychosis and schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severance, E.G.; Dickerson, F.B.; Halling, M.; Krivogorsky, B.; Haile, L.; Yang, S.; Stallings, C.R.; Origoni, A.E.; Bossis, I.; Xiao, J.; Dupont, D.; Haasnoot, W.; Yolken, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies show increased antibody levels to bovine casein in some individuals with schizophrenia. The immunogenicity of specific domains of bovine casein varies among people with milk sensitivities and thus could vary among different neuropsychiatric disorders. Using ELISAs and

  13. Evaluation of diode endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation in bovine cadaver eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Jay T; McMullen, Richard J; Cullen, John M; Gilger, Brian C

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the anterior chamber approach and energy levels for endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation (ECPC) and assess ECPC-induced tissue damage in phakic eyes of bovine cadavers. 12 bovine cadaver eyes. Angle of reach was measured in 6 eyes following placement of a curved endoscopic probe through multiple corneal incisions. In another 6 eyes, each ocular quadrant underwent ECPC at 1 of 3 energy levels (0.75, 0.90, and 1.05 J) or remained untreated. Visible effects on tissues (whitening and contraction of ciliary processes) were scored (scale of 0 [no effects] to 6 [severe effects]), and severity and extent of histologic damage to the pigmented and nonpigmented ciliary epithelium and fibromuscular stroma were each scored (scale of 0 [no effect] to 3 [severe effect]) and summed for each quadrant. Overall mean scores for 6 quadrants/treatment were calculated. Mean ± SD combined angle of reach was 148 ± 24° (range, 123 ± 23° [ventromedial] to 174 ± 11° [dorsolateral]). At the 0.75-, 0.90-, and 1.05-J levels, mean visible tissue effect scores were 3.12 ± 0.47, 3.86 ± 0.35, and 4.68 ± 0.58, respectively; mean histologic damage scores were 4.79 ± 1.38 (mild damage), 6.82 ± 1.47 (moderate damage), and 9.37 ± 1.42 (severe damage), respectively. Occasional popping noises (venting of vaporized interstitial water) were heard at the 1.05-J level. Multiple incisions were necessary to facilitate 360° ECPC treatment in bovine eyes. For ECPC in vivo, the 0.75- and 0.90-J energy levels had the potential to effectively treat the ciliary epithelium.

  14. Expression of somatotropin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in bovine tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucy, M.C.; Boyd, C.K.; Koenigsfeld, A.T.; Okamura, C.S.

    1998-01-01

    The somatotropin receptor mRNA is controlled by at least two different gene promoters that generate 2 two variants with different exon 1 sequences (1A and 1B). The location of 1A and 1B somatotropin receptor mRNA within cattle tissues and, hence, the tissue specificity of the 1A and 1B promoters are unknown. In addition, the cDNA sequence of the 1B somatotropin receptor has not been determined. Our objective, therefore, was to sequence a cDNA for the 1B somatotropin receptor and to analyze bovine tissues for expression of 1A and 1B somatotropin receptor mRNA. Twenty adult tissues and six fetal tissues were collected at slaughter from each of four cows and two fetuses. Messenger RNA was analyzed using ribonuclease protection assays. The adult liver expressed both 1A and 1B mRNA. All other adult tissues expressed 1B mRNA but not 1A mRNA. The greatest amount of 1B mRNA was detected in liver and adipose (abdominal and subcutaneous) tissues. Other tissues had approximately one-half to one-tenth of the amount of 1B mRNA in the liver or adipose tissue. Fetal tissues (including fetal liver) expressed 1B mRNA and not 1A mRNA. Based on cDNA sequencing, the protein encoded by the 1A and 1B mRNA was nearly identical. We concluded that 1A somatotropin receptor mRNA is specific to adult bovine liver. Other adult and fetal bovine tissues expressed 1B somatotropin receptor mRNA with a predicted protein sequence that was similar to the 1A somatotropin receptor

  15. Prevention and control of bovine cysticercosis: a Delphi study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizandro Pruence Nickele

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonotic parasitic infection caused by the larval stage (Cysticercus bovis of Taenia saginata. This study aimed to identify prevention and control measures for bovine cysticercosis indicated by experts in the fields of public and animal health. The study was conducted through three rounds of the Delphi method and had the participation of 44 experts from 13 Brazilian states in 30 educational institutions, research institutions, and sanitary inspection services. The first round comprised an open question, the answers to which formed the basis for structuring the second and third questionnaire. To reach a consensus in the second and third rounds, experts were asked to express their agreement or disagreement of each proposition on the questionnaire using a five-point Likert scale. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed at the end of each round. Twenty-three specialists (52.27% participated in all three rounds. The first round resulted in 28 proposals categorized into six areas: health education, methods of diagnosis and treatment, sanitation measures, epidemiological studies, legislation and sanitary supervision, and intersectorality. In the second round, the experts reached a consensus on 16 propositions (57.14%. This percentage increased by 3.54% during the third round. At the end of the third round, the experts had reached a consensus on 17 of the 28 initial propositions (60.71%. The highest percentage of agreement (29.4% was observed in the category of health education. This study allowed us to identify 17 recommendations pertaining to the prevention and control of bovine cysticercosis. These measures are not mutually exclusive, and require an integrated approach to the establishment of intervention actions at various points in the life cycle of the parasite.

  16. Development of a Radioimmunoassay for Bovine Chymosin B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borceux, JP.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to develop and validate a specific radioimmunoassay system for measurement of bovine chymosin B (bChyB concentrations in plasma samples. Bovine ChyB was used for immunization of rabbits and as standard and tracer. Chymosin B concentrations were measured in plasma samples from two groups of calves (Group 1: calves sampled from birth to 24 hours; Group 2: calves sampled from Day 1 to 21 after birth and from one cow during the peri-partum period. Detection limit of the assay was 9.0 ng/ml. Recovery was higher than 89.3%. Repeatability and reproducibility ranged from 1.52% to 5.23% and from 1.52% to 12.57% respectively. No cross-reaction was found with pepsinogen A from bovine, porcine or human origins. In Group 1, bChyB concentrations increased from 47.3 ± 45.1 ng/ml (5 min after birth to 325.5 ± 161.2 ng/ml (12 hours after birth, then no significant change was observed till 24 hours after birth (293.0 ± 161.5 ng/ml. In Group 2, concentrations decreased from Day 1 (455.3 ± 191.1 ng/ml to Day 21 (117.9 ± 85.1 ng/ml. In adult cow, mean concentration was 136.0 ± 32.3 ng/ml. In conclusion, bChyB is able to cross the stomach basal membrane and to reach the blood circulation at detectable levels in both young calves and adult cows.

  17. Preliminary surface analysis of etched, bleached, and normal bovine enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruse, N.D.; Smith, D.C.; Torneck, C.D.; Titley, K.C.

    1990-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) and secondary ion-mass spectroscopic (SIMS) analyses were performed on unground un-pumiced, unground pumiced, and ground labial enamel surfaces of young bovine incisors exposed to four different treatments: (1) immersion in 35% H2O2 for 60 min; (2) immersion in 37% H3PO4 for 60 s; (3) immersion in 35% H2O2 for 60 min, in distilled water for two min, and in 37% H3PO4 for 60 s; (4) immersion in 37% H3PO4 for 60 s, in distilled water for two min, and in 35% H2O2 for 60 min. Untreated unground un-pumiced, unground pumiced, and ground enamel surfaces, as well as synthetic hydroxyapatite surfaces, served as controls for intra-tooth evaluations of the effects of different treatments. The analyses indicated that exposure to 35% H2O2 alone, besides increasing the nitrogen content, produced no other significant change in the elemental composition of any of the enamel surfaces investigated. Exposure to 37% H3PO4, however, produced a marked decrease in calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and an increase in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) concentrations in unground un-pumiced specimens only, and a decrease in C concentration in ground specimens. These results suggest that the reported decrease in the adhesive bond strength of resin to 35% H2O2-treated enamel is not caused by a change in the elemental composition of treated enamel surfaces. They also suggest that an organic-rich layer, unaffected by acid-etching, may be present on the unground un-pumiced surface of young bovine incisors. This layer can be removed by thorough pumicing or by grinding. An awareness of its presence is important when young bovine teeth are used in a model system for evaluation of resin adhesiveness

  18. Novel SNPs polymorphism of bovine CACNA2D1 gene and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the bovine CACNA2D1 gene was taken as a candidate gene for mastitis resistance. The objective of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine CACNA2D1 gene and evaluate the association of these SNPs with mastitis in cattle. Through DNA sequencing and PCR-RFLP ...

  19. Bovine lymphosarcoma: development of a radioimmunologic techniques for detection of the etiologic agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devare, S.G.; Stephenson, J.R.; Sarma, P.S.; Aaronson, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    A highly sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay has been developed for the major structural protein of an oncornavirus etiologically associated with bovine lymphosarcoma. This test can be used to identify cattle which have been exposed to the bovine leukemia virus and may thus develop or transmit the disease. Analysis of randomly obtained serums indicates that infection with this virus is widespread among cattle

  20. Studies on the transverse localization of lysophospholipase II in bovine liver microsomes by immunological techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, H.; Bosch, H. van den

    1979-01-01

    1. 1. Lysophospholipase activity solubilized from bovine liver microsomes could be precipitated for more than 80% by antibodies evoked in rabbits against the purified bovine liver lysophospholipase II. 2. 2. After solubilization of the microsomes in 1.5% sodium deoxycholate, an immunoprecipitate

  1. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF BOVINE SERUM ALBUMIN IN PRESENCE OF SOME BISCHALCONES

    OpenAIRE

    Shweta Garg; Mamta Singh; N. Raghav

    2013-01-01

    We have synthesized a series of bischalcones by the Claisen-Schmidt condensation and their effect was observed on bovine serum albumin. We have found that the synthesized bischalcones interacted with bovine serum albumin irrespective of the nature and position of the substituent with a little difference.

  2. Quantitative milk genomics: estimation of variance components and prediction of fatty acids in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Kristian

    The composition of bovine milk fat, used for human consumption, is far from the recommendations for human fat nutrition. The aim of this PhD was to describe the variance components and prediction probabilities of individual fatty acids (FA) in bovine milk, and to evaluate the possibilities...

  3. Detection of bluetongue virus by using bovine endothelial cells and embryonated chicken eggs.

    OpenAIRE

    Wechsler, S J; Luedke, A J

    1991-01-01

    Two systems, inoculation of bovine endothelial cells and of embryonated chicken eggs, were compared for detection of bluetongue virus (BTV) in blood specimens from experimentally inoculated sheep. For all BTV serotypes tested, embryonated chicken eggs detected longer periods of viremia than did bovine endothelial cells, primarily by detecting BTV in samples containing lower virus concentrations.

  4. Bovine Staphylococcus aureus secretes the leukocidin LukMF′ to kill migrating neutrophils through CCR1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, M.; Koymans, K.J.; Heesterbeek, D.A.C.; Aerts, P.C.; Rutten, V.P.M.G.; de Haas, C.J.C.; van Kessel, K.P.M.; Koets, A.P.; Nijland, R; van Strijp, J.A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Although Staphylococcus aureus is best known for infecting humans, bovine-specific strains are a major cause of mastitis in dairy cattle. The bicomponent leukocidin LukMF′, exclusively harbored by S. aureus of ruminant origin, is a virulence factor associated with bovine infections. In this study,

  5. Bovine Staphylococcus aureus secretes the leukocidin LukMF' to kill migrating neutrophils through CCR1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, M.; Koymans, K.J.; Heesterbeek, D.A.C.; Aerts, P.C.; Rutten, V.P.M.G.; Haas, de C.J.C.; Kessel, van K.P.M.; Koets, A.P.; Nijland, R.; Strijp, van J.A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Although Staphylococcus aureus is best known for infecting humans, bovine-specific strains are a major cause of mastitis in dairy cattle. The bicomponent leukocidin LukMF′, exclusively harbored by S. aureus of ruminant origin, is a virulence factor associated with bovine infections. In this study,

  6. Parachlamydia spp. and Related Chlamydia-like Organisms and Bovine Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Nicole; Ruhl, Silke; Casson, Nicola; Kaiser, Carmen; Pospischil, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Chlamydophila abortus and Waddlia chondrophila cause abortion in ruminants. We investigated the role of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae in bovine abortion. Results of immunohistochemical analyses were positive in 30 (70%) of 43 placentas from which Chlamydia-like DNA was amplified, which supports the role of Parachlamydia spp. in bovine abortion. PMID:18258043

  7. TACC3 Is Important for Correct Progression of Meiosis in Bovine Oocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahdipour, Mahdi; Leitoguinho, Ana Rita Canhoto; Zacarias Silva, Ricardo A; van Tol, Helena T A; Stout, Tom A E; Rodrigues, Gabriela; Roelen, Bernard A J

    2015-01-01

    Transforming acidic coiled-coil (TACC) proteins are key players during mitosis via stabilization of the spindle. The roles of TACCs during meiosis are however less clear. We used bovine oocytes to study the expression and function of TACC3 during meiosis. TACC3 mRNA was detected in bovine oocytes

  8. Antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides on Mycoplasma bovis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a diverse group of molecules which play an important role in the innate immune response. Bovine NK-lysins, a type of AMP, have been predominantly found in the granules of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and NK-cells. Bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides demonstrate antimicrobia...

  9. Genomic regions associated with bovine milk fatty acids in both summer and winter milk samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, A.C.; Visker, M.H.P.W.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background - In this study we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for bovine milk fatty acids from summer milk samples. This study replicates a previous study where we performed a GWAS for bovine milk fatty acids based on winter milk samples from the same population. Fatty acids from

  10. Complete genome sequences of Escherichia coli strains 1303 and ECC-1470 isolated from bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leimbach, Andreas; Poehlein, Anja; Witten, Anika; Scheutz, Flemming; Schukken, Ynte|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075051907; Daniel, Rolf; Dobrindt, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the leading causative agent of acute bovine mastitis. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of E. coli O70:H32 strain 1303, isolated from an acute case of bovine mastitis, and E. coli Ont:Hnt strain ECC-1470, isolated from a persistent infection.

  11. SELECTIVITY PROFILE OF SOME RECENT MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS IN BOVINE AND GUINEA-PIG TRACHEA AND HEART

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROFFEL, AF; HAMSTRA, JJ; ELZINGA, CRS; ZAAGSMA, J

    1994-01-01

    The functional affinities of some recently developed subtype-selective muscarinic antagonists towards bovine tracheal smooth muscle muscarinic M(3) receptors were established and compared to binding affinities for bovine cardiac M(2) and functional affinities for guinea-pig tracheal smooth muscle

  12. Raw bovine milk improves gut responses to feeding relative to infant formula in preterm piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanqi; Jensen, Mikkel Lykke; Chatterton, Dereck Edward Winston

    2014-01-01

    For preterm neonates, the quality of the first milk is crucial for intestinal maturation and resistance to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Among other factors, milk quality is determined by the stage of lactation and processing. We hypothesized that unprocessed mature bovine milk (BM, raw bovine...

  13. Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1b fetal infection with extensive hemorrhages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) subtype 1b was isolated from tissues of a term bovine fetus with hemorrhages in multiple tissues. At autopsy, multiple petechial hemorrhages were observed at gross examination throughout the body and placenta. Lung, kidney, thymus, and liver fresh tissues were exam...

  14. Characterization of Bovine 5′-flanking Region during Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jeong Jang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cells (ESCs have been used as a powerful tool for research including gene manipulated animal models and the study of developmental gene regulation. Among the critical regulatory factors that maintain the pluripotency and self-renewal of undifferentiated ESCs, NANOG plays a very important role. Nevertheless, because pluripotency maintaining factors and specific markers for livestock ESCs have not yet been probed, few studies of the NANOG gene from domestic animals including bovine have been reported. Therefore, we chose mouse ESCs in order to understand and compare NANOG expression between bovine, human, and mouse during ESCs differentiation. We cloned a 600 bp (−420/+181 bovine NANOG 5′-flanking region, and tagged it with humanized recombinant green fluorescent protein (hrGFP as a tracing reporter. Very high GFP expression for bovine NANOG promoter was observed in the mouse ESC line. GFP expression was monitored upon ESC differentiation and was gradually reduced along with differentiation toward neurons and adipocyte cells. Activity of bovine NANOG (−420/+181 promoter was compared with already known mouse and human NANOG promoters in mouse ESC and they were likely to show a similar pattern of regulation. In conclusion, bovine NANOG 5-flanking region functions in mouse ES cells and has characteristics similar to those of mouse and human. These results suggest that bovine gene function studied in mouse ES cells should be evaluated and extrapolated for application to characterization of bovine ES cells.

  15. HoBi-like viruses – the typical 'atypical bovine pestivirus'

    Science.gov (United States)

    HoBi-like viruses, also referred to as bovine viral diarrhea virus 3 (BVDV-3) and atypical pestivirus, have been proposed as a new putative bovine pestivirus species. These viruses were first identified in the last decade and are currently distributed in at least three continents. Published findings...

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on in vitro bovine lens proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, D.M.L.; Mastro, N.L. del.

    1988-07-01

    The radiosensitivity of the ocular lens manifested by cataract formation has been of considerable interest in the study on the biological efects of radiations. Cataract can ben produced by different causes and also for the normal process of ageing. The aim of this work was to develop an in vitro system similar to in vivo cataract formation. It was used an aqueous solution of bovine lenses. The lenses after surgical removal mechanical and ultrasonic disrupted. The suspension was centrifuged and the supernatant was dialyzed and irradiated with different doses of 60 Co radiation. The opacification extent was measured in an spectrophotometer. (author) [pt

  17. Developments in diagnosis and control of bovine paratuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2014-01-01

    the exposure of susceptible animals to the milk and faeces of infected animals. However, cost-effectiveness may depend on labour costs, and strategic use of diagnostics may have certain appeals through the information provided. Current bulk tank milk tests are not deemed to have a role in MAP control, whereas......Bovine paratuberculosis can be costly to farmers who, as a consequence, may be interested in control of the causative agent, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Between-herd spread is primarily due to movement of MAP-infected livestock, and within-herd transmission most often occurs...

  18. Effect of chloramphenicol on sister chromatid exchange in bovine fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruga, M V; Catalan, J; Moreno, C

    1992-03-01

    The genotoxic potential of different chloramphenicol concentrations (5, 20, 40 and 60 micrograms ml-1) was investigated in bovine fibroblast primary lines by sister chromatid exchange assay. Chloramphenicol acted for long enough to ensure similar effects to persistent storage in the kidney. In this experiment 10 micrograms ml-1 of 5-bromodeoxyuridine was added for 60 hours for all doses of chloramphenicol and to the control. When the tissue culture cells were exposed to increasing doses, increased numbers of sister chromatid exchanges developed. Differences were significantly different to the control.

  19. Function of JARID2 in bovines during early embryonic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Fu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Histone lysine modifications are important epigenetic modifications in early embryonic development. JARID2, which is a member of the jumonji demethylase protein family, is a regulator of early embryonic development and can regulate mouse development and embryonic stem cell (ESC differentiation by modifying histone lysines. JARID2 can affect early embryonic development by regulating the methylation level of H3K27me3, which is closely related to normal early embryonic development. To investigate the expression pattern of JARID2 and the effect of JARID2-induced H3K27 methylation in bovine oocytes and early embryonic stages, JARID2 mRNA expression and localization were detected in bovine oocytes and early embryos via qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence in the present study. The results showed that JARID2 is highly expressed in the germinal vesicle (GV, MII, 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, 16-cell and blastocyst stages, but the relative expression level of JARID2 in bovine GV oocytes is significantly lower than that at other oocyte/embryonic stages (p < 0.05, and JARID2 is expressed primarily in the nucleus. We next detected the mRNA expression levels of embryonic development-related genes (OCT4, SOX2 and c-myc after JARID2 knockdown through JARID2-2830-siRNA microinjection to investigate the molecularpathwayunderlying the regulation of H3K27me3 by JARID2 during early embryonic development. The results showed that the relative expression levels of these genes in 2-cell embryos weresignificantly higher than those in the blastocyst stage, and expression levels were significantly increased after JARID2 knockdown. In summary, the present study identified the expression pattern of JARID2 in bovine oocytes and at each early embryonic stage, and the results suggest that JARID2 plays a key role in early embryonic development by regulating the expression of OCT4, SOX2 and c-myc via modification of H3K27me3 expression. This work provides new data for improvements in the

  20. Radiography of osseous lesions of the bovine locomotor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blond, L.; Beauregard, G.; Mulon, P.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Radiography is the ancillary test of choice for lameness in cattle. Osseous lesions due to osteoporosis, osteitis or osteomyelitis and sequestrae can be visualised. Radiography is the only ancillary examination that provides a thorough investigation of the lesion affecting a bovine presented with a non-weight bearing suspected fracture and limb inflammation associated with soft tissue crepitation. Radiography is the only method to ensure that the fracture is not open. It facilitates follow-up of healing of osseous lesions. The period of time required for immobilisation can be adjusted depending on the type of lesions [it

  1. Hydrometer test for estimation of immunoglobulin concentration in bovine colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleenor, W A; Stott, G H

    1980-06-01

    A practical field method for measuring immunoglobulin concentration in bovine colostrum has been developed from the linear relationship between colostral specific gravity and immunoglobulin concentration. Fourteen colostrums were collected within 24 h postpartum from nursed and unnursed cows and were assayed for specific gravity and major colostral constituents. Additionally, 15 colostrums were collected immediately postpartum prior to suckling and assayed for specific gravity and immunoglobulin concentration. Regression analysis provided an equation to estimate colostral immunoglobulin concentration from the specific gravity of fresh whole colostrum. From this, a colostrometer was developed for practical field use.

  2. Expression of costimulatory molecules in the bovine corpus luteum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pate Joy L

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine luteal parenchymal cells express class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecules and stimulate class II MHC-dependent activation of T cells in vitro. The ability of a class II MHC-expressing cell type to elicit a response from T cells in vivo is also dependent on expression of costimulatory molecules by the antigen presenting cell and delivery of a costimulatory signal to the T cell. Whether bovine luteal parenchymal cells express costimulatory molecules and can deliver the costimulatory signal is currently unknown. Methods Bovine luteal tissue was collected during the early (day 5; day of estrus = day 0, mid (day 11–12, or late (day 18 luteal phase of the estrous cycle, and at 0, 0.5, 1, 4, 12 or 24 hours following administration of PGF2alpha to cows on day 10 of the estrous cycle. Northern analysis was used to measure CD80 or CD86 mRNA concentrations in luteal tissue samples. Mixed luteal parenchymal cell cultures and purified luteal endothelial cell cultures were prepared, and real-time RT-PCR was used to examine the presence of CD80 and CD86 mRNA in each culture type. Monoclonal antibodies to CD80 and CD86 were added to a mixed luteal parenchymal cell-T cell co-culture in vitro T cell proliferation assay to assess the functional significance of costimulatory molecules on activation of T lymphocytes by luteal parenchymal cells. Results Northern analysis revealed CD80 and CD86 mRNAs in luteal tissue, with greatest steady-state concentrations at midcycle. CD80 and CD86 mRNAs were detected in mixed luteal parenchymal cell cultures, but only slight amounts of CD80 (and not CD86 mRNA were detected in cultures of luteal endothelial cells. Luteinizing hormone, PGF2alpha and TNF-alpha were without effect on concentrations of CD80 or CD86 mRNA in mixed luteal parenchymal cells cultures. Anti-CD80 or anti-CD86 monoclonal antibodies inhibited T cell proliferation in the in vitro T cell proliferation assay

  3. Non-specific esterases in partly mineralized bovine enamel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, D; Kirkeby, S

    1990-01-01

    Activity for non-specific esterase was demonstrated in the matrix of developing bovine enamel with alpha-naphthyl acetate and 5-bromoindoxyl acetate as the esterase substrates. By use of high-performance liquid chromatography gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography, and electrophoresis three...... esterases were shown to be present in the enamel matrix. The enzymes showed highest activity at pH 6.5-7.5. In sections a strong reaction was observed in the secretory ameloblasts. The esterases may be proteolytic enzymes that participate in the degradation of the matrix proteins....

  4. Cattle traceability system in Japan for bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Sugiura

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available To promote consumer confidence in the safety of beef and to ensure the proper implementation of eradication measures against bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, the Cattle Traceability Law was approved by the Diet in June 2003 and a cattle traceability system has been in operation in Japan since December 2003. The system enables tracing the cohort and offspring animals of a BSE case within 24 h of its detection. The traceability database system also provides distributors, restaurants and consumers with information on the cattle from which the beef that they sell, serve and consume originate.

  5. Pathogenesis and Treatment of Bovine Foot Rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, David C

    2017-07-01

    Bovine foot rot (BFR) is an infectious disease of the interdigital skin and subcutaneous tissues of beef and dairy cattle that occurs under a variety of management and environmental settings. The anaerobic, gram-negative bacteria Fusobacterium necrophorum, Porphyromonas levii, and Prevotella intermedia are commonly isolated from lesions. A multitude of host, agent, and environmental factors contribute to the development of BFR. Initiation of systemic antimicrobial therapy early in the course of disease commonly leads to resolution. Delays in treatment may result in extension of infection into deeper bone, synovial structures, or ligamentous structures, and the prognosis for recovery is reduced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative evaluation of various solid phases for the development of coated tube assays for the estimation of progesterone in human serum, bovine serum and bovine milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karir, Tarveen; Samuel, Grace; Sivaprasad, N.; Venkatesh, Meera

    2009-01-01

    Immobilization of progesterone antibody using three polystyrene surfaces and two progesterone radiotracers for use in the development of a coated tube assay for the evaluation of progesterone levels in human serum, bovine serum and bovine milk was studied. The selection of the solid phase and the tracers were based on the maximum binding, non-specific binding, sensitivity and percentage recovery. Amongst the polystyrene tubes studied, streptavidin coated tubes showed the acceptable assay features such as low non-specific binding (0.5-1.0%), adequate sensitivity (0.13-0.16 ng/ml) and recovery (85-115%) for all the three sample matrices, human serum, bovine serum and bovine milk.

  7. Preparation of bovine muscle, bovine liver and pig kidney reference materials and the certification of the contents of nine elements of toxicological and nutritional interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagstaffe, P.J.; Muntau, H.

    1987-01-01

    The preparation of 3 meat reference materials (bovine muscle, bovine liver and pig kidney) and the steps taken to confirm their homogeneity and stability are described. Details are presented of a preliminary intercomparison and of the final collaborative exercise which led to the certification of the contents of 9 elements of toxicological and nutritional importance. Indicative values are given for the contents of a further 9 elements in these materials. (orig.)

  8. The Role of MicroRNAs in Bovine Infection and Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan eLawless

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small, non-coding RNAs that are recognised as critical regulators of immune gene expression during infection. Many immunologically significant human miRNAs have been found to be conserved in agriculturally important species, including cattle. Discovering how bovine miRNAs mediate the immune defence during infection is critical to understanding the aetiology of the most prevalent bovine diseases. Here, we review current knowledge of miRNAs in the bovine genome, and discuss the advances in understanding of miRNAs as regulators of immune cell function, and bovine immune response activation, regulation, and resolution. Finally, we consider the future perspectives on miRNAs in bovine viral disease, their role as potential biomarkers and in therapy.

  9. Characterization and regulation of the bovine stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keating, Aileen F.; Kennelly, John J.; Zhao Fengqi

    2006-01-01

    The bovine stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Scd) gene plays an important role in the bovine mammary gland where substrates such as stearic and vaccenic acids are converted to oleic acid and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), respectively. Up to 90% of the CLA in bovine milk is formed due to the action of this enzyme in the mammary gland. The areas of the bovine promoter of importance in regulating this key enzyme were examined and an area of 36 bp in length was identified as having a critical role in transcriptional activation and is designated the Scd transcriptional enhancer element (STE). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay detected three binding complexes on this area in Mac-T cell nuclear extracts. Treatment of cells with CLA caused a significant reduction in transcriptional activity, with this effect being mediated through the STE region. The bovine Scd gene promoter was up-regulated by insulin and down-regulated by oleic acid

  10. Prevalence study and genetic typing of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV in four bovine species in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingliang Deng

    Full Text Available To determine the nationwide status of persistent BVDV infection in different bovine species in China and compare different test methods, a total of 1379 serum samples from clinical healthy dairy cattle, beef cattle, yaks (Bos grunniens, and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis were collected in eight provinces of China from 2010 to 2013. The samples were analyzed using commercial antibody (Ab and antigen (Ag detection kits, and RT-PCR based on the 5'-UTR and Npro gene sequencing. Results showed that the overall positive rates for BVDV Ab, Ag and RT-PCR detection were 58.09% (801/1379, 1.39% (14/1010, and 22.64% (146/645, respectively, while the individual positive rates varied among regions, species, and farms. The average Ab-positive rates for dairy cattle, beef cattle, yaks, and water buffalo were 89.49% (298/333, 63.27% (248/392, 45.38% (236/520, and 14.18% (19/134, respectively, while the Ag-positive rates were 0.00% (0/116, 0.77% (3/392, 0.82% (3/368, and 5.97% (8/134, respectively, and the nucleic acid-positive rates detected by RT-PCR were 32.06% (42/131, 13.00% (26/200, 28.89% (52/180, and 19.40% (26/134, respectively. In addition, the RT-PCR products were sequenced and 124 5'-UTR sequences were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of the 5'-UTR sequences indicated that all of the 124 BVDV-positive samples were BVDV-1 and subtyped into either BVDV-1b (33.06%, BVDV-1m (49.19%, or a new cluster, designated as BVDV-1u (17.74%. Phylogenetic analysis based on Npro sequences confirmed this novel subtype. In conclusion, this study revealed the prevalence of BVDV-1 in bovine species in China and the dominant subtypes. The high proportion of bovines with detectable viral nucleic acids in the sera, even in the presence of high Ab levels, revealed a serious threat to bovine health.

  11. Prevalence study and genetic typing of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in four bovine species in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mingliang; Ji, Sukun; Fei, Wentao; Raza, Sohail; He, Chenfei; Chen, Yingyu; Chen, Huanchun; Guo, Aizhen

    2015-01-01

    To determine the nationwide status of persistent BVDV infection in different bovine species in China and compare different test methods, a total of 1379 serum samples from clinical healthy dairy cattle, beef cattle, yaks (Bos grunniens), and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) were collected in eight provinces of China from 2010 to 2013. The samples were analyzed using commercial antibody (Ab) and antigen (Ag) detection kits, and RT-PCR based on the 5'-UTR and Npro gene sequencing. Results showed that the overall positive rates for BVDV Ab, Ag and RT-PCR detection were 58.09% (801/1379), 1.39% (14/1010), and 22.64% (146/645), respectively, while the individual positive rates varied among regions, species, and farms. The average Ab-positive rates for dairy cattle, beef cattle, yaks, and water buffalo were 89.49% (298/333), 63.27% (248/392), 45.38% (236/520), and 14.18% (19/134), respectively, while the Ag-positive rates were 0.00% (0/116), 0.77% (3/392), 0.82% (3/368), and 5.97% (8/134), respectively, and the nucleic acid-positive rates detected by RT-PCR were 32.06% (42/131), 13.00% (26/200), 28.89% (52/180), and 19.40% (26/134), respectively. In addition, the RT-PCR products were sequenced and 124 5'-UTR sequences were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of the 5'-UTR sequences indicated that all of the 124 BVDV-positive samples were BVDV-1 and subtyped into either BVDV-1b (33.06%), BVDV-1m (49.19%), or a new cluster, designated as BVDV-1u (17.74%). Phylogenetic analysis based on Npro sequences confirmed this novel subtype. In conclusion, this study revealed the prevalence of BVDV-1 in bovine species in China and the dominant subtypes. The high proportion of bovines with detectable viral nucleic acids in the sera, even in the presence of high Ab levels, revealed a serious threat to bovine health.

  12. Apicomplexan profilins in vaccine development applied to bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansilla, Florencia C; Capozzo, Alejandra V

    2017-12-01

    Neospora caninum, an intracellular protozoan parasite from the phylum Apicomplexa, is the etiologic agent of neosporosis, a disease considered as a major cause of reproductive loss in cattle and neuromuscular disease in dogs. Bovine neosporosis has a great economic impact in both meat and dairy industries, related to abortion, premature culling and reduced milk yields. Although many efforts have been made to restrain bovine neosporosis, there are still no efficacious control methods. Many vaccine-development studies focused in the apicomplexan proteins involved in the adhesion and invasion of the host cell. Among these proteins, profilins have recently emerged as potential vaccine antigens or even adjuvant candidates for several diseases caused by apicomplexan parasites. Profilins bind Toll-like receptors 11 and 12 initiating MyD88 signaling, that triggers IL-12 and IFN-γ production, which may promote protection against infection. Here we summarized the state-of-the-art of novel vaccine development based on apicomplexan profilins applied as antigens or adjuvants, and delved into recent advances on N. caninum vaccines using profilin in the mouse model and in cattle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Saline-enhanced radiofrequency electrocoagulation in bovine liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hong Seop; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Yoon, Yup; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Ko, Young Tae; Choi, Woo Suk; Lim, Joo Won; Kim, Eui Jong

    1997-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of saline-enhanced radiofrequency electrocoagulation in bovine liver tissue Saline-enhanced radiofrequency electrocoagulation (group I), hot saline injection induced by radiofrequency electrocoagulation (group II), and radiofrequency electrocoagulation (group III) were performed in ex vivo bovine liver. Radiofrequency power was 100 and 200 watts, and current was applied for 10, 20, and 30 seconds. Tissue was histopathologically examined for thermal injury. The largest diameter of thermal injury was about 41.0 mm in group I, 12.3 mm in group II and 9.3 mm in group III. The mean diameter of the injury increased with higher wattage in group I and II and with longer procedure time in group I (p<0.05). At corresponding wattage and times, group I showed a larger diameter of thermal injury and more increase in than group II or III (p<0.05). The degree of carbonization was more severe in group III than in groups I and II. Grossly, thermal injury showed a well-defined, relatively spherical configuration without extension along parenchymal interstitium. In an animal model, saline-enhanced radiofrequency electrocoagulation may effectively induce thermal injury, and may thus be another effective tool for use in the treatment of hepatic tumors. Further clinical experience is needed

  14. Anticancer activities of bovine and human lactoferricin-derived peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Mauricio; Hilchie, Ashley L; Haney, Evan F; Bolscher, Jan G M; Hyndman, M Eric; Hancock, Robert E W; Vogel, Hans J

    2017-02-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a mammalian host defense glycoprotein with diverse biological activities. Peptides derived from the cationic region of LF possess cytotoxic activity against cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Bovine lactoferricin (LFcinB), a peptide derived from bovine LF (bLF), exhibits broad-spectrum anticancer activity, while a similar peptide derived from human LF (hLF) is not as active. In this work, several peptides derived from the N-terminal regions of bLF and hLF were studied for their anticancer activities against leukemia and breast-cancer cells, as well as normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The cyclized LFcinB-CLICK peptide, which possesses a stable triazole linkage, showed improved anticancer activity, while short peptides hLF11 and bLF10 were not cytotoxic to cancer cells. Interestingly, hLF11 can act as a cell-penetrating peptide; when combined with the antimicrobial core sequence of LFcinB (RRWQWR) through either a Pro or Gly-Gly linker, toxicity to Jurkat cells increased. Together, our work extends the library of LF-derived peptides tested for anticancer activity, and identified new chimeric peptides with high cytotoxicity towards cancerous cells. Additionally, these results support the notion that short cell-penetrating peptides and antimicrobial peptides can be combined to create new adducts with increased potency.

  15. The anti-papillomavirus activity of human and bovine lactoferricin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Nitesh; Drobni, Peter; Näslund, Jonas; Sunkari, Vivekananda Gupta; Jenssen, Håvard; Evander, Magnus

    2007-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) cause common warts, laryngeal papilloma and genital condylomata and is necessary for the development of cervical cancer. We have previously found that lactoferrin has antiviral activity against HPV-16 and others have demonstrated that lactoferricin, an N-terminal fragment of lactoferrin, has inhibitory activities against several viruses. Two cell lines and two virus types, HPV-5 and HPV-16, were used to study if lactoferrin and lactoferricin could inhibit HPV pseudovirus (PsV) infection. We demonstrated that bovine lactoferrin (bLf) and human lactoferrin (hLf) were both potent inhibitors of HPV-5 and -16 PsV infections. Among the four lactoferricin derivatives we analyzed, a 15 amino acid peptide from bovine lactoferricin (bLfcin) 17-31 was the most potent inhibitor of both HPV-5 and HPV-16 PsV infection. Among the other derivatives, the human lactoferricin (hLfcin) 1-49 showed some antiviral activity against HPV PsV infection while bLfcin 17-42 inhibited only HPV-5 PsV infection in one of the cell lines. When we studied initial attachment of HPV-16, only bLfcin 17-42 and hLfcin 1-49 had an antiviral effect. This is the first time that lactoferricin was demonstrated to have an inhibitory effect on HPV infection and the antiviral activity differed depending on size, charge and structures of the lactoferricin.

  16. Microbiomes associated with bovine periodontitis and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsanelli, Ana C; Lappin, David F; Viora, Lorenzo; Bennett, David; Dutra, Iveraldo S; Brandt, Bernd W; Riggio, Marcello P

    2018-05-01

    Periodontitis is an infectious polymicrobial, immuno-inflammatory disease of multifactorial aetiology that has an impact on the health, production and welfare of ruminants. The objective of the present study was to determine the microbial profiles present in the gingival sulcus of cattle considered periodontally healthy and in the periodontal pocket of animals with periodontitis lesions using high-throughput bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Subgingival biofilm samples were collected from 40 cattle with periodontitis and 38 periodontally healthy animals. In total, 1923 OTUs were identified and classified into 395 genera or higher taxa. Microbial profiles in health differed significantly from periodontitis in their composition (p PERMANOVA) but no statistically significant differences were observed in the diversity of healthy and periodontitis microbiomes. The most prevalent taxa in health were Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and Actinobacteria, whereas in disease these were Prevotella, Fusobacterium and Porphyromonas. The most discriminative taxa in health were Gastranaerophilales, Planifilum and Burkholderia, and in disease these were Elusimicrobia, Synergistes and Propionivibrio. In conclusion, statistically significant difference exists between the microbiome in bovine oral health and periodontitis, with populations showing 72.6% dissimilarity. The diversity of the bacteria found in health and periodontitis were similar and bacteria recognised as periodontal pathogens showed increased abundance in disease. In this context, the main components of bacterial homeostasis in the biofilm of healthy sites and of dysbiosis in periodontal lesions provide unprecedented indicators for the evolution of knowledge about bovine periodontitis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of bovine viral diarrhea virus in New World camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, Philip A; Belknap, Ellen B; Brock, Kenneth V; Collins, James K; Pugh, David G

    2003-07-15

    To determine the effect of experimental infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) on llamas and their fetuses, evaluate seroprevalence of BVDV in llamas and alpacas, and genetically characterize BVDV isolates from llamas. Prospective study. 4 pregnant llamas for the experimental infection study and 223 llamas and alpacas for the seroprevalence study. Llamas (seronegative to BVDV) were experimentally infected with a llama isolate of BVDV via nasal aerosolization. After inoculation, blood samples were collected every other day for 2 weeks; blood samples were obtained from crias at birth and monthly thereafter. For the seroprevalence study, blood was collected from a convenience sample of 223 camelids. Isolates of BVDV were characterized by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. Viremia and BVDV-specific antibody response were detected in the experimentally infected llamas, but no signs of disease were observed. No virus was detected in the crias or aborted fetus, although antibodies were evident in crias after colostrum consumption. Seroprevalence to BVDV was 0.9% in llamas and alpacas. Sequences of the llama BVDV isolates were comparable to known bovine isolates. Findings suggest that llamas may be infected with BVDV but have few or no clinical signs. Inoculation of llamas during gestation did not result in fetal infection or persistent BVDV infection of crias. Seroprevalence to BVDV in llamas and alpacas is apparently low. The most likely source for BVDV infection in camelids may be cattle.

  18. Contamination of bovine, sheep and goat meat with Brucella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%: 1 bovine (2.5%, 9 sheep (15% and 15 goats (7.2% and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%. Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method.

  19. National control and eradication program of bovine tuberculosis in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, Vanessa; Paredes, Luis; Rivera, Alejandro; Ternicier, Claudio

    2011-07-05

    There have been reports of the presence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in Chile for more than 100 years. Several prevalence studies have revealed that there is a wide spectrum of disease across the country with certain geographic areas where the disease is endemic through to other geographic areas where infection is sporadic and at very low prevalence. In 2009, this information was used to divide Chile into different geographic zones based on prevalence rates. This will enable the correct actions to be undertaken to reduce the prevalence of TB. Thus the northern part of Chile which has a medium to high prevalence of TB will be categorized as a control zone. In contrast, the southern part of Chile which has a high proportion of the bovine population, has a low prevalence of TB and will be classified as an eradication zone (Paredes, 2008). Although there have been several past attempts to create a national control and eradication program in Chile, none has been successful. A national program is proposed, and outlined in this paper. Progress toward program initiation in 2009 has been difficult, mostly because of the global economic crisis, difficulties in the milk and meat industry, and social and political issues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of bovine milk lactoperoxidase system on some bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankaya, M; Sişecioğlu, M; Bariş, O; Güllüce, M; Ozdemir, H

    2010-01-01

    Bovine lactoperoxidase (LPO) was purified from skimmed milk using amberlite CG-50-H+ resin, CM sephadex C-50 ion-exchange chromatography, and sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography. Lactoperoxidase was purified 20.45-fold with a yield of 28.8%. Purity of enzyme checked by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method and a single band was observed. Km was 0.25 mM at 20 degrees C, Vmax value was 7.95 micromol/ml min at 20 degrees C (pH 6.0). Antibacterial study was done by disk diffusion method of Kir-by-Bauer using Mueller-Hinton agar medium with slight modification. Bovine LPO showed high antibacterial activity in 100 mM thiocyanate-100 mM H2O2 medium for some bacteria (Brevibacillus centrosaurus, B. choshinensis, B. lyticum, Cedecea davisae, Chryseobacterium indoltheticum, Clavibacter michiganense pv. insidiosum, Kocuria erythromyxa, K. kristinae, K. rosea, K. varians, Paenibacillus validus, Pseudomonas syringae pv. populans, Ralstonia pickettii, Rhodococcus wratislaviensis, Serratia fonticola, Streptomyces violaceusniger, Vibrio cholerae-nonO1) respectively, and compared with well known antibacterial substances (levofloxacin, netilmicin). LPO system has inhibition effects on all type bacteria and concentration is really important such as LPO-100 mM thiocyanate-100 mM H2O2 system was proposed as an effective agent against many factors causing several diseases.

  1. ON THE THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF DIFFERENT TANNED BOVINE LEATHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VARGANICI Cristian-Dragoş

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Leather is one of the most globally spread biomaterial which is obtained by the processing of different animal skins. It encompasses a wide palette of applications, from footwear and clothing to upholsteries and different types of furniture [1], [2], [3]. The main constituent of animal skins is collagen, a supramolecular fibrillar protein in the form of a triple helix. This form endows leather with elasticity, good mechanical properties and softness. A major disadvantage resides in the inapplicability of raw animal hides, due to their microbiological instability and decay through rotting. Microbiological stability is obtained through the tanning process, characterized by protein crosslinking and drying afterwards. After tanning the leather exhibits the required properties for the desired specific applications in terms of aspect, availability and sustainability [4], [5]. The study aims to elucidate the thermal decomposition process of chrome-free tanned bovine hide (wet-white using a new product based on titanium and aluminium salts compared with the same hide tanned by chromium salts (wet-blue. The thermal behavior was studied by dynamic thermogravimetry in nitrogen atmosphere, up to 700 oC. A comparative thermal decomposition study between the different tanned bovine leathers was undertaken.

  2. Saline-enhanced radiofrequency electrocoagulation in bovine liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hong Seop; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Yoon, Yup; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Ko, Young Tae; Choi, Woo Suk; Lim, Joo Won; Kim, Eui Jong [Kyunghee Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-01

    To determine the effectiveness of saline-enhanced radiofrequency electrocoagulation in bovine liver tissue Saline-enhanced radiofrequency electrocoagulation (group I), hot saline injection induced by radiofrequency electrocoagulation (group II), and radiofrequency electrocoagulation (group III) were performed in ex vivo bovine liver. Radiofrequency power was 100 and 200 watts, and current was applied for 10, 20, and 30 seconds. Tissue was histopathologically examined for thermal injury. The largest diameter of thermal injury was about 41.0 mm in group I, 12.3 mm in group II and 9.3 mm in group III. The mean diameter of the injury increased with higher wattage in group I and II and with longer procedure time in group I (p<0.05). At corresponding wattage and times, group I showed a larger diameter of thermal injury and more increase in than group II or III (p<0.05). The degree of carbonization was more severe in group III than in groups I and II. Grossly, thermal injury showed a well-defined, relatively spherical configuration without extension along parenchymal interstitium. In an animal model, saline-enhanced radiofrequency electrocoagulation may effectively induce thermal injury, and may thus be another effective tool for use in the treatment of hepatic tumors. Further clinical experience is needed.

  3. A repetitive probe for FISH analysis of bovine interphase nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cribiu Edmond

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to generate repetitive DNA sequence probes for the analysis of interphase nuclei by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH. Such probes are useful for the diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities in bovine preimplanted embryos. Of the seven probes (E1A, E4A, Ba, H1A, W18, W22, W5 that were generated and partially sequenced, five corresponded to previously described Bos taurus repetitive DNA (E1A, E4A, Ba, W18, W5, one probe (W22 shared no homology with other DNA sequences and one (H1A displayed a significant homology with Rattus norvegicus mRNA for secretin receptor transmembrane domain 3. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation was performed on metaphase bovine fibroblast cells and showed that five of the seven probes hybridised most centromeres (E1A, E4A, Ba, W18, W22, one labelled the arms of all chromosomes (W5 and the H1A probe was specific to three chromosomes (ch14, ch20, and ch25. Moreover, FISH with H1A resulted in interpretable signals on interphase nuclei in 88% of the cases, while the other probes yielded only dispersed overlapping signals.

  4. Bovine and human insulin adsorption at lipid monolayers: a comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri, Sergio; Pandey, Ravindra; Rzeznicka, Izabela; Lu, Hao; Bonn, Mischa; Weidner, Tobias

    2015-07-01

    Insulin is a widely used peptide in protein research and it is utilised as a model peptide to understand the mechanics of fibril formation, which is believed to be the cause of diseases such as Alzheimer and Creutzfeld-Jakob syndrome. Insulin has been used as a model system due to its biomedical relevance, small size and relatively simple tertiary structure. The adsorption of insu lin on a variety of surfaces has become the focus of numerous studies lately. These works have helped in elucidating the consequence of surface/protein hydrophilic/hydrophobic interaction in terms of protein refolding and aggregation. Unfortunately, such model surfaces differ significantly from physiological surfaces. Here we spectroscopically investigate the adsorption of insulin at lipid monolayers, to further our understanding of the interaction of insulin with biological surfaces. In particular we study the effect of minor mutations of insulin’s primary amino acid sequence on its interaction with 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (DPPG) model lipid layers. We probe the structure of bovine and human insulin at the lipid/water interface using sum frequency generation spectroscopy (SFG). The SFG experiments are complemented with XPS analysis of Langmuir-Schaefer deposited lipid/insulin films. We find that bovine and human insulin, even though very similar in sequence, show a substantially different behavior when interacting with lipid films.

  5. Development of a new live rough vaccine against bovine brucellosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comerci, D.J.; Ugalde, J.E.; Ugalde, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    Brucella abortus S19 is the most commonly used attenuated live vaccine to prevent bovine brucellosis. In spite of its advantages, S19 has several drawbacks: it is abortive for pregnant cattle, is virulent for humans, and re-vaccination is not advised due to the persistence of anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antibodies that hamper the immunoscreening procedures. For these reasons, there is a continuous search for new bovine vaccine candidates. We have previously characterized the phenotype of the phosphoglucomutase (pgm) gene disruption in Brucella abortus S2308, as well as the possible role for the smooth LPS in virulence and intracellular multiplication. Here we evaluate the vaccine properties of an unmarked deletion mutant of pgm. Western blot analysis of purified lipopolysaccharide and whole-cell extract from Δpgm indicate that it synthesizes O-antigen but is incapable of assembling a complete LPS. In consequence Δpgm has a rough phenotype. Experimental infections of mice indicate that Δpgm is avirulent. Vaccination with Δpgm induces protection levels comparable to those induced by S19, and generates a splenocyte proliferative response and cytokines profile typical of a Th-1 response. The ability of the mutant to generate a strong cellular Th-1 response without eliciting specific O-antigen antibodies highlights the potential use of this mutant as a new live vaccine for cattle. (author)

  6. Acellular matrix of bovine pericardium bound with L-arginine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo Joo; Bae, Jin Woo; Kim, Chun Ho; Lee, Jin Woo; Shin, Jung Woog; Park, Ki Dong

    2007-01-01

    Surface immobilization of bioactive molecules onto natural tissues has been interestingly studied for the development of new functional matrices for the replacement of lost or malfunctioning tissues. In this study, an acellular matrix of bovine pericardium (ABP) was chemically modified by the direct coupling of L-arginine after glutaraldehyde (GA) cross-linking. The effects of L-arginine coupling on durability and calcification were investigated and the biocompatibility was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. A four-step detergent and enzymatic extraction process has been utilized to remove cellular components from fresh bovine pericardium (BP). Microscopic observation confirmed that nearly all cellular constituents are removed. Thermal and mechanical properties showed that the durability of L-arginine-treated matrices increased as compared with control ABP and GA-treated ABP. Resistance to collagenase digestion revealed that modified matrices have greater resistance to enzyme digestion than control ABP and GA-treated ABP. The in vivo calcification study demonstrated much less calcium deposition on L-arginine-treated ABP than GA-treated one. In vitro cell viability results showed that ABP modified with L-arginine leads to a significant increase in attachment of human dermal fibroblasts. The obtained results attest to the usefulness of L-arginine-treated ABP matrices for cardiovascular bioprostheses

  7. Acellular matrix of bovine pericardium bound with L-arginine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo Joo [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Jin Woo [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chun Ho [Laboratory of Tissue Engineering, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul 139-240 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Woo [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jung Woog [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ki Dong [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    Surface immobilization of bioactive molecules onto natural tissues has been interestingly studied for the development of new functional matrices for the replacement of lost or malfunctioning tissues. In this study, an acellular matrix of bovine pericardium (ABP) was chemically modified by the direct coupling of L-arginine after glutaraldehyde (GA) cross-linking. The effects of L-arginine coupling on durability and calcification were investigated and the biocompatibility was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. A four-step detergent and enzymatic extraction process has been utilized to remove cellular components from fresh bovine pericardium (BP). Microscopic observation confirmed that nearly all cellular constituents are removed. Thermal and mechanical properties showed that the durability of L-arginine-treated matrices increased as compared with control ABP and GA-treated ABP. Resistance to collagenase digestion revealed that modified matrices have greater resistance to enzyme digestion than control ABP and GA-treated ABP. The in vivo calcification study demonstrated much less calcium deposition on L-arginine-treated ABP than GA-treated one. In vitro cell viability results showed that ABP modified with L-arginine leads to a significant increase in attachment of human dermal fibroblasts. The obtained results attest to the usefulness of L-arginine-treated ABP matrices for cardiovascular bioprostheses.

  8. Bovine parvovirus uses clathrin-mediated endocytosis for cell entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudleenamjil, Enkhmart; Lin, Chin-Yo; Dredge, Devin; Murray, Byron K; Robison, Richard A; Johnson, F Brent

    2010-12-01

    Entry events of bovine parvovirus (BPV) were studied. Transmission electron micrographs of infected cells showed virus particles in cytoplasmic vesicles. Chemical inhibitors that block certain aspects of the cellular machinery were employed to assess viral dependency upon those cellular processes. Chlorpromazine, ammonium chloride, chloroquine and bafilamicin A1 were used to inhibit acidification of endosomes and clathrin-associated endocytosis. Nystatin was used as an inhibitor of the caveolae pathway. Cytochalasin D and ML-7 were used to inhibit actin and myosin functions, respectively. Nocodazole and colchicine were employed to inhibit microtubule activity. Virus entry was assessed by measuring viral transcription using real-time PCR, synthesis of capsid protein and assembly of infectious progeny virus in the presence of inhibitor blockage. The results indicated that BPV entry into embryonic bovine trachael cells utilizes endocytosis in clathrin-coated vesicles, is dependent upon acidification, and appears to be associated with actin and microtubule dependency. Evidence for viral entry through caveolae was not obtained. These findings provide a fuller understanding of the early cell-entry events of the replication cycle for members of the genus Bocavirus.

  9. Model of nutritional balance for bovine in pasturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huertas Ramirez, H.B.

    2001-01-01

    The shepherding is nevertheless the most economic alimentary system for the bovine, the pastures of the warm tropic, it has high fiber and low nitrogen (protein) and they restrict the production of the animal. The investigations suggest that small quantities of supplements of the metabolic environment of the rumen rebound significantly in the production. The bovines (Brachiaria spp) presented deficit of ammonia ruminal (4-10 mgs/100 ml of flowing ruminal), but when elevating the ammonia to 15-30 mgs the animal answer, was favorable since in young bulls was supplemented with 60 gr. of urea and 300 of molasses during 350 days won 210 kgs of weight, against 145 kgs of molasses and 130 kgs in single Brachiaria. Other investigations indicate that the supplement of urea, molasses is more effective in dry time than rainy, but if there is not enough biomass it decreases its effectiveness, since this supplement adds quality and not, quantity and it also stimulates the consumption. They also suggest that the supplement urea-molasses should be strategic according to nutritional quality of the pasture, in periods of the year, addition of true protein, age of the animal and production type. The determinations have more than enough speed of consumption of urea and concentrations of ruminal ammonia indicate that the key is in the regulation of the consumption of urea, independent of the daily quantity, to avoid intoxications and to favor the environment

  10. Use of FT-NIR Spectroscopy for Bovine Colostrum Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Navrátilová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transformation near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR in combination with partial least squares (PLS method were used to determine the content of total solids, fat, non-fatty solids, lactose and proteins in bovine colostrum. Spectra of 90 samples were measured in the reflectance mode with a transflectance cuvette in the 10000-4000 cm-1 spectral ranges with 100 scans. Calibration was performed and statistical values of correlation coefficients (R and standard error of calibration values (SEC were computed for total solids (0.986 and 0.919, respectively, fat (0.997 and 0.285, respectively, non-fatty solids (0.995 and 0.451, respectively, lactose (0.934 and 0.285, respectively and protein (0.999 and 0.149, respectively. The calibration models developed were verified by cross validation. It follows from the study that FT-NIR spectroscopy can be used to determine the components of bovine colostrum.

  11. Cholinergic regulation of protein phosphorylation in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haycock, J.W.; Browning, M.D.; Greengard, P.

    1988-01-01

    Chromaffin cells were isolated from bovine adrenal medullae and maintained in primary culture. After prelabeling with 32 PO 4 , exposure of the chromaffin cells to acetylcholine increased the phosphorylation of a M/sub r/ ≅ 100,000 protein and a M/sub r/ ≅ 60,000 protein (tyrosine hydroxylase), visualized after separation of total cellular proteins in NaDodSO 4 /polyacrylamide gels. Immunoprecipitation with antibodies to three known phosphoproteins (100-kDa, 87-kDa, and protein III) revealed an acetylcholine-dependent phosphorylation of these proteins. These three proteins were also shown to be present in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells by immunolabeling techniques. 100-kDa is a M/sub r/ ≅ 100,000 protein selectively phosphorylated by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase III, 87-kDa is a M/sub r/ ≅ 87,000 protein selectively phosphorylated by protein kinase C, and protein III is a phosphoprotein doublet of M/sub r/ ≅ 74,000 (IIIa) and M/sub r/ ≅ 55,000 (IIIb) phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I. The data demonstrate that cholinergic activation of chromaffin cells increases the phosphorylation of several proteins and that several protein kinase systems may be involved in these effects

  12. Importância do dismorfismo eritrocitário na investigação da origem da hematúria: revisão da literatura The importance of the dysmorphic erythrocyte for investigation of the source of hematuria: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Souza Vasconcellos

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available As hematúrias são achados comuns nos exames de urina de rotina e nem sempre são sinais de doenças. A presença de hematúria associada a outras alterações urinárias, especialmente a proteinúria, sugere comprometimento do trato urinário e merece investigação. Na literatura são inúmeros os trabalhos que valorizam a sedimentoscopia urinária, principalmente a morfologia das hemácias, como indicativo do local do sangramento: se glomerular ou não-glomerular. Neste artigo, os autores revisam o estudo do dismorfismo eritrocitário, enfatizando a definição, a fisiopatologia, os métodos, os valores de referência e as limitações apontadas na literatura. As comparações com demais marcadores de hemorragia glomerular também foram discutidas. No final, os autores relatam como a literatura interpreta e utiliza os resultados da pesquisa do dismorfismo eritrocitário para guiar a propedêutica complementar na investigação da origem da hematúria.The hematurias are a frequent finding in urinary routine exams and do not necessarily indicate illness. The presence of hematuria associated with other urinary disturbances, especially proteinuria, indicates urinary tract pathology and should be investigated. In the literature, several studies point out the importance of urinary sedimentoscopy, specially the red cells morphology, to determine the source of bleeding: glomerular or non-glomerular. In this article, the authors review the dysmorphic erythrocyte, emphasizing on the meaning, the physiopathology, the methods, the cut-of values, and the limitations according to the literature. The comparisons with other markers of glomerular bleeding were also discussed. At the end, the authors exposed how the literature analyses and applies the dysmorphic erythrocyte results to guide the complementary research for investigation the source of urinary bleeding.

  13. A rapid and sensitive diagnosis of bovine leukaemia virus infection using the nested shuttle polymerase chain reaction Diagnóstico rápido e sensível da infecção com o vírus da Leucemia Bovina através de Shuttle Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester T. González

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL. In Argentina, where a program to eradicate EBL has been introduced, sensitive and reliable diagnosis has attained high priority. Although the importance of the agar gel immunodiffusion test remains unchanged for routine work, an additional diagnostic technique is necessary to confirm cases of sera with equivocal results or of calves carrying maternal antibodies.Utilizing a nested shuttle polymerase chain reaction, the proviral DNA was detected from cows experimentally infected with as little as 5 ml of whole blood from BLV seropositive cows that were nonetheless normal in haematological terms. It proved to be a very sensitive technique, since it rapidly revealed the presence of the provirus, frequently at 2 weeks postinoculation and using a two-round procedure of nested PCR taking only 3 hours. Additionally, the primers used flanked a portion of the viral genome often employed to differentiate BLV type applying BamHI digestion. It is concluded that this method might offer a highly promising diagnostic tool for BLV infection.O Vírus da leucemia bovina (BLV é o agente causal da Leucose Enzoótica Bovina (EBL. Na Argentina, iniciou-se um programa de erradicação da EBL. Neste estágio, é prioritário possuir uma ferramenta de diagnóstico confiável. Embora seja indiscutível a importância do teste de agar gel imunodifusão, empregado rotineiramente no diagnóstico serológico da EBL, faz-se necessária uma técnica de diagnóstico adicional capaz de confirmar os resultados duvidosos. Foi possivel detectar ADN proviral aplicando Nested-PCR em novilhos experimentalmente infectados com pequenas doses de sangue total (5ml obtidas de um bovino BLV soropositivo. Esta técnica, cujo procedimento leva 3 horas, demonstrou ser muito sensível, uma vez que foi capaz de detectar a presença do provirus duas semanas após a inoculação. Os primers utilizados são os que

  14. Evaluation of envelope glycoprotein E(rns) of an atypical bovine pestivirus as antigen in a microsphere immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and atypical bovine pestivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, Balaje; Xia, Hongyan; Harimoorthy, Rajiv; Liu, Lihong; Belák, Sándor

    2012-11-01

    Atypical bovine pestiviruses are related antigenically and phylogenetically to bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2), and may cause the same clinical manifestations in animals. Glycoprotein E(rns) of an atypical bovine pestivirus Th/04_KhonKaen was produced in a baculovirus expression system and was purified by affinity chromatography. The recombinant E(rns) protein was used as an antigen in a microsphere immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against BVDV-1 and atypical bovine pestivirus. The diagnostic performance of the new method was evaluated by testing a total of 596 serum samples, and the assay was compared with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Based on the negative/positive cut-off median fluorescence intensity (MFI) value of 2800, the microsphere immunoassay had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 100% compared to ELISA. The immunoassay was able to detect antibodies against both BVDV-1 and the atypical pestivirus. This novel microsphere immunoassay has the potential to be multiplexed for simultaneous detection of antibodies against different bovine pathogens in a high-throughput and economical way. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Antigenic variability in bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolates from alpaca (Vicugna pacos), llama (Lama glama) and bovines in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, I M; Quezada, M P; Celedón, M O

    2014-01-31

    Llamas and alpacas are domesticated South American camelids (SACs) important to ancestral population in the Altiplano region, and to different communities where they have been introduced worldwide. These ungulates have shown to be susceptible to several livestock viral pathogens such as members of the Pestivirus genus and mainly to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Seventeen Chilean BVDV isolates were analyzed by serum cross neutralization with samples obtained from five llama, six alpacas, three bovines, plus three reference strains belonging to different subgroups and genotypes. The objective was to describe antigenic differences and similarities among them. Antigenic comparison showed significant differences between different subgroups. Consequently, antigenic similarities were observed among isolates belonging to the same subgroup and also between isolates from different animal species belonging the same subgroup. Among the analyzed samples, one pair of 1b subgroup isolates showed significant antigenic differences. On the other hand, one pair of isolates from different subgroups (1b and 1j) shared antigenic similarities indicating antigenic relatedness. This study shows for the first time the presence of antigenic differences within BVDV 1b subgroup and antigenic similarities within 1j subgroup isolates, demonstrating that genetic differences within BVDV subgroups do not necessary corresponds to differences on antigenicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Radiographic Comparison of Bovine Bone Substitute Alone versus Bovine Bone Substitute and Simvastatin for Human Maxillary Sinus Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ali Reza Rasouli Ghahroudi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of bovine bone substitute (Compact Bone B. ® alone versus bovine bone substitute and simvastatin for human maxillary sinus augmentation.Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 16 sinuses in eight patients. Radiographic assessments were done preoperatively (T0, immediately (T1 and at nine months after sinus grafting (T2. Alveolar bone height and density were assessed on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT scans using Planmeca Romexis™ Imaging Software 2.2.Results: The change in alveolar bone height and density between T0, T1 and T2 was significant in both groups. Alveolar bone height (h0, h1, h2 and vertical height of the grafted bone (g1, g2 in three lines (anterior, middle and posterior were not significantly different between groups. The grafted bone height shrinkage (% in the anterior, middle and posterior limits of the augmented area were not significantly different between groups. The existing alveolar and grafted bone density increased significantly in both groups between T1 and T2, except for the existing alveolar bone density in the control group. There were no statistically significant differences between the alveolar bone density values obtained in TI and T2 between groups, except for the existing alveolar bone density at T1.Conclusions: This study did not show any significant positive effect for simvastatin in maxillary sinus augmentation based on radiographic examination.

  17. First Results in the Use of Bovine Ear Notch Tag for Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus Detection and Genetic Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Quinet

    Full Text Available Infection due to bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV is endemic in most cattle-producing countries throughout the world. The key elements of a BVDV control programme are biosecurity, elimination of persistently infected animals and surveillance. Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD is a notifiable disease in Belgium and an official eradication programme started from January 2015, based on testing ear notches sampled during the official identification and registration of calves at birth. An antigen-capture ELISA test based on the detection of BVDV Erns protein is used. Ear notch sample may also be used to characterize the genotype of the calf when appropriate elution/dilution buffer is added. Both BVDV antigen-ELISA analysis and animal traceability could be performed.With regards to the reference protocol used in the preparation of ear notch samples, alternative procedures were tested in terms of BVDV analytic sensitivity, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, as well as quality and purity of animal DNA.The Allflex DNA Buffer D showed promising results in BVDV diagnosis and genome analyses, opening new perspectives for the livestock industry by the exploitation of the animal genome. Due to the high number of cattle involved in the Belgian official BVDV eradication programme based on ear notch tags sample, a large database on both BVDV status of newborn calves and cattle genome could be created for subsequent different uses (e.g. traceability, determination of parentage, genetic signatures throughout the genome associated with particular traits evolving through a more integrated animal health.

  18. Discovery and genomic characterization of a novel ovine partetravirus and a new genotype of bovine partetravirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Tse

    Full Text Available Partetravirus is a recently described group of animal parvoviruses which include the human partetravirus, bovine partetravirus and porcine partetravirus (previously known as human parvovirus 4, bovine hokovirus and porcine hokovirus respectively. In this report, we describe the discovery and genomic characterization of partetraviruses in bovine and ovine samples from China. These partetraviruses were detected by PCR in 1.8% of bovine liver samples, 66.7% of ovine liver samples and 71.4% of ovine spleen samples. One of the bovine partetraviruses detected in the present samples is phylogenetically distinct from previously reported bovine partetraviruses and likely represents a novel genotype. The ovine partetravirus is a novel partetravirus and phylogenetically most related to the bovine partetraviruses. The genome organization is conserved amongst these viruses, including the presence of a putative transmembrane protein encoded by an overlapping reading frame in ORF2. Results from the present study provide further support to the classification of partetraviruses as a separate genus in Parvovirinae.

  19. High Prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum and Fasciola gigantica in Bovines from Northern Samar, the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Catherine A.; Acosta, Luz P.; Gobert, Geoffrey N.; Jiz, Mario; Olveda, Remigio M.; Ross, Allen G.; Gray, Darren J.; Williams, Gail M.; Harn, Donald; Li, Yuesheng; McManus, Donald P.

    2015-01-01

    The cause of zoonotic schistosomiasis in the Philippines is Schistosoma japonicum, which infects up to 46 mammalian hosts, including humans and bovines. In China, water buffaloes have been identified as major reservoir hosts for schistosomiasis japonica, contributing up to 75% of human transmission. In the Philippines, water buffaloes (carabao; Bubalus bubalis carabanesis) have, historically, been considered unimportant reservoirs. We therefore revisited the possible role of bovines in schistosome transmission in the Philippines, using the recently described formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation (FEA-SD) technique and a qPCR assay to examine fecal samples from 153 bovines (both carabao and cattle) from six barangays in Northern Samar. A high prevalence of S. japonicum was found using qPCR and FEA-SD in both cattle (87.50% and 77.08%, respectively) and carabao (80.00% and 55.24%, respectively). The average daily egg output for each bovine was calculated at 195,000. High prevalence and infection intensity of F. gigantica was also found in the bovines by qPCR and FEA-SD (95.33% and 96.00%, respectively). The identification of bovines as major reservoir hosts for S. japonicum transmission suggests that bovine treatment and/or vaccination, as one becomes available, should be included in any future control program that aims to reduce the disease burden due to schistosomiasis in the Philippines. PMID:25643317

  20. Bovine brain ribonuclease is the functional homolog of human ribonuclease 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Chelcie H; Lomax, Jo E; Raines, Ronald T

    2014-09-19

    Mounting evidence suggests that human pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase 1) plays important roles in vivo, ranging from regulating blood clotting and inflammation to directly counteracting tumorigenic cells. Understanding these putative roles has been pursued with continual comparisons of human RNase 1 to bovine RNase A, an enzyme that appears to function primarily in the ruminant gut. Our results imply a different physiology for human RNase 1. We demonstrate distinct functional differences between human RNase 1 and bovine RNase A. Moreover, we characterize another RNase 1 homolog, bovine brain ribonuclease, and find pronounced similarities between that enzyme and human RNase 1. We report that human RNase 1 and bovine brain ribonuclease share high catalytic activity against double-stranded RNA substrates, a rare quality among ribonucleases. Both human RNase 1 and bovine brain RNase are readily endocytosed by mammalian cells, aided by tight interactions with cell surface glycans. Finally, we show that both human RNase 1 and bovine brain RNase are secreted from endothelial cells in a regulated manner, implying a potential role in vascular homeostasis. Our results suggest that brain ribonuclease, not RNase A, is the true bovine homolog of human RNase 1, and provide fundamental insight into the ancestral roles and functional adaptations of RNase 1 in mammals. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. High prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum and Fasciola gigantica in bovines from Northern Samar, the Philippines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Gordon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The cause of zoonotic schistosomiasis in the Philippines is Schistosoma japonicum, which infects up to 46 mammalian hosts, including humans and bovines. In China, water buffaloes have been identified as major reservoir hosts for schistosomiasis japonica, contributing up to 75% of human transmission. In the Philippines, water buffaloes (carabao; Bubalus bubalis carabanesis have, historically, been considered unimportant reservoirs. We therefore revisited the possible role of bovines in schistosome transmission in the Philippines, using the recently described formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation (FEA-SD technique and a qPCR assay to examine fecal samples from 153 bovines (both carabao and cattle from six barangays in Northern Samar. A high prevalence of S. japonicum was found using qPCR and FEA-SD in both cattle (87.50% and 77.08%, respectively and carabao (80.00% and 55.24%, respectively. The average daily egg output for each bovine was calculated at 195,000. High prevalence and infection intensity of F. gigantica was also found in the bovines by qPCR and FEA-SD (95.33% and 96.00%, respectively. The identification of bovines as major reservoir hosts for S. japonicum transmission suggests that bovine treatment and/or vaccination, as one becomes available, should be included in any future control program that aims to reduce the disease burden due to schistosomiasis in the Philippines.

  2. Impairments of mecA gene detection in bovine Staphylococcus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanne Araújo de Melo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus antimicrobial resistance, especially to beta-lactams, favors treatment failures and its persistence in herd environment. This work aimed to develop a more specific primer for mecA gene detection based on the comparison of the conserved regions from distinct host origins and also investigated the presence of homologue mecA LGA251 in bovine strains. A total of 43 Staphylococcus spp. were included in this study, comprising 38 bovine S. aureus, two human and three equine coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS. Phenotypical methicillin-resistance detection was performed through oxacillin agar-screening and cefoxitin disk-diffusion test. None isolate tested positive for mecA LGA251 gene. For mecA gene PCR, new primers were designed based on the sequences of human S. aureus (HE681097 and bovine S. sciuri (AY820253 mecA. The new primers based on the S. aureus mecA sequence amplified fragments of human and equine CNS and the ones based on S. sciuri mecA sequence only yielded fragments for S. aureus bovine strains. Multiples alignments of mecA gene sequences from bovine, human and equine revealed punctual but significant differences in bovine strains that can lead to the mecA gene detection impairment. The observed divergences of mecA gene sequences are not a matter of animal or human origin, it is a specificity of bovine samples.

  3. Biomimetic acellular detoxified glutaraldehyde cross-linked bovine pericardium for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathapati, Santosh; Bishi, Dillip Kumar; Guhathakurta, Soma; Cherian, Kotturathu Mammen; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Verma, Rama Shanker

    2013-01-01

    Glutaraldehyde (GLUT) processing, cellular antigens, calcium ions in circulation, and phospholipids present in the native tissue are predominantly responsible for calcification, degeneration, and lack of natural microenvironment for host progenitor cell migration in tissue implants. The study presents an improved methodology for adhesion and proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) without significant changes in biomechanical and biodegradation properties of the processed acellular bovine pericardium. The anti-calcification potential of the processed tissue was enhanced by detoxification of GLUT-cross-linked bovine pericardium by decellularization, pretreating it with ethanol or removing the free aldehydes by citric acid treatment and lyophilization. The treated tissues were assessed for biomechanical properties, GLUT ligand quantification, adhesion, proliferation of EPCs, and biodegradability. The results indicate that there was no significant change in biomechanical properties and biodegradability when enzymatic hydrolysis (p > 0.05) is employed in detoxified acellular GLUT cross-linked tissue (DBP–G–CA–ET), compared with the native detoxified GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium (NBP–G–CA–ET). DBP–G–CA–ET exhibited a significant (p > 0.05) increase in the viability of EPCs and cell adhesion as compared to acellular GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium (p < 0.05). Lyophilized acellular detoxified GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium, employed in our study as an alternative to conventional GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium, might provide longer durability and better biocompatibility, and reduce calcification. The developed bovine pericardium patches could be used in cardiac reconstruction and repair, arteriotomy, soft tissue repair, and general surgical procedures with tissue regeneration dimensions. - Highlights: ► We improved the quality of patch biomaterial for cardiovascular surgical procedures. ► Bovine pericardium was

  4. A dynamic model to calculate cadmium concentrations in bovine tissues from basic soil characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waegeneers, Nadia; Ruttens, Ann; De Temmerman, Ludwig

    2011-01-01

    A chain model was developed to calculate the flow of cadmium from soil, drinking water and feed towards bovine tissues. The data used for model development were tissue Cd concentrations of 57 bovines and Cd concentrations in soil, feed and drinking water, sampled at the farms were the bovines were reared. Validation of the model occurred with a second set of measured tissue Cd concentrations of 93 bovines of which age and farm location were known. The exposure part of the chain model consists of two parts: (1) a soil-plant transfer model, deriving cadmium concentrations in feed from basic soil characteristics (pH and organic matter content) and soil Cd concentrations, and (2) bovine intake calculations, based on typical feed and water consumption patterns for cattle and Cd concentrations in feed and drinking water. The output of the exposure model is an animal-specific average daily Cd intake, which is then taken forward to a kinetic uptake model in which time-dependent Cd concentrations in bovine tissues are calculated. The chain model was able to account for 65%, 42% and 32% of the variation in observed kidney, liver and meat Cd concentrations in the validation study. - Research highlights: → Cadmium transfer from soil, drinking water and feed to bovine tissues was modeled. → The model was based on 57 bovines and corresponding feed and soil Cd concentrations. → The model was validated with an independent data set of 93 bovines. → The model explained 65% of variation in kidney Cd in the validation study.

  5. Biomimetic acellular detoxified glutaraldehyde cross-linked bovine pericardium for tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathapati, Santosh; Bishi, Dillip Kumar [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India); Frontier Lifeline Pvt Ltd. and Dr. K. M. Cherian Heart Foundation, Mogappair, Chennai (India); Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, NUSNNI, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Guhathakurta, Soma [Departmet of Engineering Design, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India); Cherian, Kotturathu Mammen [Frontier Lifeline Pvt Ltd. and Dr. K. M. Cherian Heart Foundation, Mogappair, Chennai (India); Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Ramakrishna, Seeram [Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, NUSNNI, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Verma, Rama Shanker, E-mail: vermars@iitm.ac.in [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India)

    2013-04-01

    Glutaraldehyde (GLUT) processing, cellular antigens, calcium ions in circulation, and phospholipids present in the native tissue are predominantly responsible for calcification, degeneration, and lack of natural microenvironment for host progenitor cell migration in tissue implants. The study presents an improved methodology for adhesion and proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) without significant changes in biomechanical and biodegradation properties of the processed acellular bovine pericardium. The anti-calcification potential of the processed tissue was enhanced by detoxification of GLUT-cross-linked bovine pericardium by decellularization, pretreating it with ethanol or removing the free aldehydes by citric acid treatment and lyophilization. The treated tissues were assessed for biomechanical properties, GLUT ligand quantification, adhesion, proliferation of EPCs, and biodegradability. The results indicate that there was no significant change in biomechanical properties and biodegradability when enzymatic hydrolysis (p > 0.05) is employed in detoxified acellular GLUT cross-linked tissue (DBP–G–CA–ET), compared with the native detoxified GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium (NBP–G–CA–ET). DBP–G–CA–ET exhibited a significant (p > 0.05) increase in the viability of EPCs and cell adhesion as compared to acellular GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium (p < 0.05). Lyophilized acellular detoxified GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium, employed in our study as an alternative to conventional GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium, might provide longer durability and better biocompatibility, and reduce calcification. The developed bovine pericardium patches could be used in cardiac reconstruction and repair, arteriotomy, soft tissue repair, and general surgical procedures with tissue regeneration dimensions. - Highlights: ► We improved the quality of patch biomaterial for cardiovascular surgical procedures. ► Bovine pericardium was

  6. Evidence for the replication of bovine leukemia virus in the B lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, P.S.; Pomeroy, K.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Muscoplat, C.C.; Handwerger, B.S.; Soper, F.F.; Sorensen, D.K.

    1977-01-01

    Bovine peripheral blood lymphocytes from a cow with persistent lymphocytosis were separated on nylon wool columns into nylon-adherent and nonadherent populations. Nylon-adherent cells were highly enriched for surface immunoglobulin (SIg) bearing B lymphocytes (95.5%) and nonadherent cells for SIg negative non-B cells, presumably T lymphocytes (96.3%). The B lymphocytes were found to be the major producers for bovine leukemia virus. A total of 39% of the B-enriched cells, surviving after 72 hours in culture, produced bovine leukemia virus as compared with 0.5% of the non-B cells

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of Izumo1 gene from bovine testis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ekyune

    2015-01-01

    A well-characterized sperm specific protein of the Member of immunoglobulin superfamily, IZUMO1, has crucial role in fertilization by mediating sperm binding to the egg plasma membrane in the mouse. However little is known about IZUMO1 in bovine. Here, we describe the molecular cloning and expression analysis of bovine IZUMO1 (bIZUMO1). RT-PCR and Western blot analysis of the bovine tissues indicated that bIZUMO1 was specifically expressed in the testis and sperm, Furthermore, the result of o...

  8. Camel and bovine chymosin: the relationship between their structures and cheese-making properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langholm Jensen, Jesper; Mølgaard, Anne; Navarro Poulsen, Jens-Christian; Harboe, Marianne Kirsten; Simonsen, Jens Bæk; Lorentzen, Andrea Maria; Hjernø, Karin; Brink, Johannes M. van den; Qvist, Karsten Bruun; Larsen, Sine

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the crystal structures of the two milk-clotting enzymes bovine and camel chymosin has revealed that the better milk-clotting activity towards bovine milk of camel chymosin compared with bovine chymosin is related to variations in their surface charges and their substrate-binding clefts. Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined. Different variants of the enzymes were isolated by hydrophobic interaction chromatography and showed variations in their glycosylation, N-terminal sequences and activities. Glycosylation at Asn291 and the loss of the first three residues of camel chymosin significantly decreased its activity. Thermal differential scanning calorimetry revealed a slightly higher thermal stability of camel chymosin compared with bovine chymosin. The crystal structure of a doubly glycosylated variant of camel chymosin was determined at a resolution of 1.6 Å and the crystal structure of unglycosylated bovine chymosin was redetermined at a slightly higher resolution (1.8 Å) than previously determined structures. Camel and bovine chymosin share the same overall fold, except for the antiparallel central β-sheet that connects the N-terminal and C-terminal domains. In bovine chymosin the N-terminus forms one of the strands which is lacking in camel chymosin. This difference leads to an increase in the flexibility of the relative orientation of the two domains in the camel enzyme. Variations in the amino acids

  9. Study on the interaction of bovine serum albumin and fleroxacin by fluorescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Lihua; Zhao Huichun; Wang Xuebin; Wang Xu

    2001-01-01

    A fluorescence method is used to study the fluorescence quenching of bovine serum albumin by its interaction with fleroxacin. The interaction association constants of bovine serum albumin and fleroxacin are determined from a double reciprocal Lineweaver-Burk plot. According to the Foester dipole-dipole energy transfer, the distance to be measured between the fleroxacin and tryptophane is 4.37 nm. From thermodynamical coordination it can be judged that the binding power between fleroxacin and bovine serum albumin is static electric power

  10. Camel and bovine chymosin: the relationship between their structures and cheese-making properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langholm Jensen, Jesper [University of Copenhagen, (Denmark); Chr. Hansen A/S, Bøge Allé 10-12, DK-2970 Hørsholm (Denmark); Mølgaard, Anne; Navarro Poulsen, Jens-Christian [University of Copenhagen, (Denmark); Harboe, Marianne Kirsten [Chr. Hansen A/S, Bøge Allé 10-12, DK-2970 Hørsholm (Denmark); Simonsen, Jens Bæk [University of Copenhagen, (Denmark); Lorentzen, Andrea Maria; Hjernø, Karin [University of Southern Denmark, (Denmark); Brink, Johannes M. van den; Qvist, Karsten Bruun [Chr. Hansen A/S, Bøge Allé 10-12, DK-2970 Hørsholm (Denmark); Larsen, Sine, E-mail: sine@chem.ku.dk [University of Copenhagen, (Denmark)

    2013-05-01

    Analysis of the crystal structures of the two milk-clotting enzymes bovine and camel chymosin has revealed that the better milk-clotting activity towards bovine milk of camel chymosin compared with bovine chymosin is related to variations in their surface charges and their substrate-binding clefts. Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined. Different variants of the enzymes were isolated by hydrophobic interaction chromatography and showed variations in their glycosylation, N-terminal sequences and activities. Glycosylation at Asn291 and the loss of the first three residues of camel chymosin significantly decreased its activity. Thermal differential scanning calorimetry revealed a slightly higher thermal stability of camel chymosin compared with bovine chymosin. The crystal structure of a doubly glycosylated variant of camel chymosin was determined at a resolution of 1.6 Å and the crystal structure of unglycosylated bovine chymosin was redetermined at a slightly higher resolution (1.8 Å) than previously determined structures. Camel and bovine chymosin share the same overall fold, except for the antiparallel central β-sheet that connects the N-terminal and C-terminal domains. In bovine chymosin the N-terminus forms one of the strands which is lacking in camel chymosin. This difference leads to an increase in the flexibility of the relative orientation of the two domains in the camel enzyme. Variations in the amino acids

  11. Prevalence of coagulase gene polymorphism in Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing bovine mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Dangler, C. A.; Sordillo, L. M.

    1995-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate polymorphism of the coagulase gene of Staphylococcus aureus causing bovine mastitis. One hundred eighty-seven strains of S. aureus were isolated from bovine mastitic milk samples obtained from 187 different Danish dairy farms. The isolates were characterised......% of the isolates. The ease of analysing coagulase gene polymorphisms among a large number of strains, and the multiple distinct polymorphic patterns generated, supports the use of this technique in epidemiological investigations of bovine mastitis. The predominating variants may have predelection for causing...

  12. Expanding the bovine milk proteome through extensive fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Asger; Bendixen, Emøke; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne

    2013-01-01

    Bovine milk is an agricultural product of tremendous value worldwide. It contains proteins, fat, lactose, vitamins, and minerals. It provides nutrition and immunological protection (e.g., in the gastrointestinal tract) to the newborn and young calf. It also forms an important part of human...... of low abundant proteins. Further, the general health and udder health of the dairy cows delivering the milk may influence the composition of the milk proteome. To gain a more exhaustive and true picture of the milk proteome, we performed an extensive preanalysis fractionation of raw composite milk...... nutrition. The repertoire of proteins in milk (i.e., its proteome) is vast and complex. The milk proteome can be described in detail by mass spectrometry-based proteomics. However, the high concentration of dominating proteins in milk reduces mass spectrometry detection sensitivity and limits detection...

  13. Bovine immunity - a driver for diversity in Theileria parasites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeever, Declan J

    2009-06-01

    Theileria parva and Theileria annulata are tick-borne parasites of cattle that infect and transform leukocytes, causing severe and often fatal parasitic leukoses. Both species provoke strong immunity against subsequent infection. However, considerable diversity is observed in field populations of each parasite and protection is only assured against homologous challenge. The life cycles of these parasites are complex and involve prolonged exposure to host and vector defence mechanisms. Although the relevant vector mechanisms are poorly defined, protective responses of cattle seem to be tightly focused and variable in their specificity between individuals. This review considers whether bovine immunity acts as a driver for diversity in T. parva and T. annulata and explores other factors that might underlie genetic variation in these parasites.

  14. Construction of recombinant DNA clone for bovine viral diarrhea virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, S.G.; Cho, H.J.; Masri, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Molecular cloning was carried out on the Danish strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) to construct strategy for the diagnostic tools and effective vaccine of BVD afterwards. A recombinant DNA clone (No. 29) was established successfully from cDNA for viral RNA tailed with adenine homopolymer at 3 -end. 32 P-labeled DNA probes of 300~1, 800bp fragments, originating from the clone 29, directed specific DNA-RNA hybridization results with BVDV RNA. Recombinant DNA of the clone 29 was about 5,200bp representing 41.6% of the full length of Danish strain's RNA, and restriction sites were recognized for EooR I, Sst I, Hind III and Pst I restriction enzymes in the DNA fragment

  15. Bovine aortic endothelial cells are susceptible to Hantaan virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, U.; Muranyi, W.; Mueller, S.; Kehm, R.; Handermann, M.; Darai, G.; Zeier, M.

    2004-01-01

    Hantavirus serotype Hantaan (HTN) is one of the causative agents of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS, lethality up to 10%). The natural host of HTN is Apodemus agrarius. Recent studies have shown that domestic animals like cattle are sporadically seropositive for hantaviruses. In the present study, the susceptibility of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) expressing α V β 3 -integrin to a HTN infection was investigated. Viral nucleocapsid protein and genomic RNA segments were detected in infected BAEC by indirect immunofluorescence assay, Western blot analysis, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. The results of this study strongly support our previous observation on Puumala virus (PUU) that has been propagated efficiently in BAEC. These findings open a new window to contemplate the ecology of hantavirus infection and transmission route from animal to man

  16. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus: first serological evidence in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M; García, L; Yunus, A S; Rockemann, D D; Samal, S K; Cristina, J

    2000-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is a major cause of respiratory disease in calves resulting in a substantial economic loss for the cattle industry worldwide. In order to determine the presence of BRSV in Uruguay, an immunoenzymatic test was set up, using a recombinant BRSV nucleocapsid (N) protein as the antigen. The N protein was produced in Sf9 insect cells by a recombinant baculovirus expressing the N protein. Serum samples collected from one hundred cattle from four different geographic regions of Uruguay were analyzed. Antibodies against the N protein of BRSV were detected in 95% of the serum samples analyzed. These results show for the first time the presence of BRSV antibodies and suggest a widespread BRSV infection in the cattle population of Uruguay.

  17. Optimised deconjugation of androgenic steroid conjugates in bovine urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikael; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Andersen, Jens Hinge

    2017-01-01

    and glucuronidase resulting in free steroids in the extract. It is well known that some sulphates are not deconjugated using aryl sulphatase; instead, for example, solvolysis can be used for deconjugation of these aliphatic sulphates. The effectiveness of solvolysis on androgenic steroid sulphates was tested......After administration of steroids to animals the steroids are partially metabolised in the liver and kidney to phase 2 metabolites, i.e., glucuronic acid or sulphate conjugates. During analysis these conjugated metabolites are normally deconjugated enzymatically with aryl sulphatase...... with selected aliphatic steroid sulphates (boldenone sulphate, nortestosteron sulphate and testosterone sulphate), and the method was validated for analysis of androgenic steroids in bovine urine using free steroids, steroid sulphates and steroid glucuronides as standards. Glucuronidase and sulphuric acid...

  18. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy and spatial analysis of the feed industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Mathilde; Abrial, David; Jarrige, Nathalie; Rican, Stéphane; Garrido, Myriam; Calavas, Didier; Ducrot, Christian

    2007-06-01

    In France, despite the ban of meat-and-bone meal (MBM) in cattle feed, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was detected in hundreds of cattle born after the ban. To study the role of MBM, animal fat, and dicalcium phosphate on the risk for BSE after the feed ban, we conducted a spatial analysis of the feed industry. We used data from 629 BSE cases as well as data on use of each byproduct and market area of the feed factories. We mapped risk for BSE in 951 areas supplied by the same factories and connection with use of byproducts. A disease map of BSE with covariates was built with the hierarchical Bayesian modeling methods, based on Poisson distribution with spatial smoothing. Only use of MBM was spatially linked to risk for BSE, which highlights cross-contamination as the most probable source of infection after the feed ban.

  19. Bovine milk osteopontin - Targeting bacterial adhesion for biofilm control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mathilde Frost; Meyer, Rikke Louise; Schlafer, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Self-performed mechanical tooth cleaning does usually not result in complete biofilm removal, due to the complex oral anatomy and the strong adhesion of the biofilm to the tooth. Therefore, different supportive measures are employed, most of which aim at the chemical eradication of bacteria...... in dental biofilms. As their bactericidal action impacts the entire oral microflora, agents that inhibit biofilm formation without killing bacteria, such as the bovine milk protein osteopontin, have gained increasing attention. Here, we investigate the adhesion of 8 bacterial species associated with dental...... subsp. paracasei, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus oralis with 74.0%, 62.4%, 90.0%, 89.6% and 81.5%, respectively, compared to protein-free saliva. All reductions were statistically significant (p

  20. The HIST1 Locus Escapes Reprogramming in Cloned Bovine Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byungkuk Min

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic reprogramming is necessary in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT embryos in order to erase the differentiation-associated epigenetic marks of donor cells. However, such epigenetic memories often persist throughout the course of clonal development, thus decreasing cloning efficiency. Here, we explored reprogramming-refractory regions in bovine SCNT blastocyst transcriptomes. We observed that histone genes residing in the 1.5 Mb spanning the cow HIST1 cluster were coordinately downregulated in SCNT blastocysts. In contrast, both the nonhistone genes of this cluster, and histone genes elsewhere remained unaffected. This indicated that the downregulation was specific to HIST1 histone genes. We found that, after trichostatin A treatment, HIST1 histone genes were derepressed, and DNA methylation at their promoters was decreased to the level of in vitro fertilization embryos. Therefore, our results indicate that the reduced expression of HIST1 histone genes is a consequence of poor epigenetic reprogramming in SCNT blastocysts.

  1. Interaction of amphiphilic drugs with human and bovine serum albumins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abbul Bashar; Khan, Javed Masood; Ali, Mohd Sajid; Khan, Rizwan Hasan; Kabir-Ud-Din

    2012-11-01

    To know the interaction of amphiphilic drugs nortriptyline hydrochloride (NOT) and promazine hydrochloride (PMZ) with serum albumins (i.e., human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA)), techniques of UV-visible, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies are used. The binding affinity is more in case of PMZ with both the serum albumins. The quenching rate constant (k(q)) values suggest a static quenching process for all the drug-serum albumin interactions. The UV-visible results show that the change in protein conformation of PMZ-serum albumin interactions are more prominent as compared to NOT-serum albumin interactions. The CD results also explain the conformational changes in the serum albumins on binding with the drugs. The increment in %α-helical structure is slightly more for drug-BSA complexes as compared to drug-HSA complexes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Individual-based modelling and control of bovine brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomuceno, Erivelton G.; Barbosa, Alípio M.; Silva, Marcos X.; Perc, Matjaž

    2018-05-01

    We present a theoretical approach to control bovine brucellosis. We have used individual-based modelling, which is a network-type alternative to compartmental models. Our model thus considers heterogeneous populations, and spatial aspects such as migration among herds and control actions described as pulse interventions are also easily implemented. We show that individual-based modelling reproduces the mean field behaviour of an equivalent compartmental model. Details of this process, as well as flowcharts, are provided to facilitate the reproduction of the presented results. We further investigate three numerical examples using real parameters of herds in the São Paulo state of Brazil, in scenarios which explore eradication, continuous and pulsed vaccination and meta-population effects. The obtained results are in good agreement with the expected behaviour of this disease, which ultimately showcases the effectiveness of our theory.

  3. Eimeria tenella: in vitro development in irradiated bovine kidney cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, M.St.J.; Schmatz, D.M.; Stevens, S.; Habbersett, M.C.; Murray, P.K. (Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Labs., Rahway, NJ (USA))

    1984-06-01

    The initial infection and first-generation development of Eimeria tenella was quantified using a cloned MDBK (Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney) cell line, irradiated with gamma radiation prior to infection, as the host cell. Irradiated cell cultures were found to be more susceptible to infection and had a greater capacity to support parasite development than non-irradiated cultures. It was suggested that the larger proportion of cells in the G/sub 2/ phase of the cell cycle, the larger individual cell size and the inhibition of cell division in the irradiated cultures were all factors contributing to the increased susceptibility to infection and capacity to support parasite growth and development. The application of this technique (host cell irradiation) to the cultivation of other intracellular, protozoan parasites is discussed.

  4. Eimeria tenella: in vitro development in irradiated bovine kidney cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, M. St.J.; Schmatz, D.M.; Stevens, S.; Habbersett, M.C.; Murray, P.K.

    1984-01-01

    The initial infection and first-generation development of Eimeria tenella was quantified using a cloned MDBK (Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney) cell line, irradiated with gamma radiation prior to infection, as the host cell. Irradiated cell cultures were found to be more susceptible to infection and had a greater capacity to support parasite development than non-irradiated cultures. It was suggested that the larger proportion of cells in the G 2 phase of the cell cycle, the larger individual cell size and the inhibition of cell division in the irradiated cultures were all factors contributing to the increased susceptibility to infection and capacity to support parasite growth and development. The application of this technique (host cell irradiation) to the cultivation of other intracellular, protozoan parasites is discussed. (author)

  5. Multiple forms of tropoelastin produced by RNA from bovine ligament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, W.C.; Wrenn, D.S.; Mecham, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Tropoelastin is the monomeric precursor protein of elastin, a major connective tissue component. Whether elastin is the product of one of multiple forms of tropoelastin is unknown. Here they provide evidence for three forms of tropoelastin that are the products of unique RNAs. Total RNA was isolated from fetal bovine ligamentum nuchae and used as substrate for cell-free translation in a reticulocyte lysate system. Translated products were immunoprecipitated by a specific monoclonal antibody. Immunoprepitates were analyzed by PAGE-SDS electrophoresis followed by fluorography. When ligament RNA was translated with either [ 3 H] leucine or [ 35 S] cysteine three bands that migrated at 71, 68.7 and 65.2 KD, respectively, were detected. These observations suggest that there are multiple forms of tropoelastin mRNA. Whether these RNA, are the products of different genes or the result of gene splicing remains to be demonstrated

  6. Bovine bone for white ceramic; Osso bovino para ceramica branca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, J.L. de; Harima, E.; Leite, J.I.P.; Monteiro, F.M.; Bezerra, M.T.T., E-mail: leonaldo.souza@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio Grande do Norte (LPMR/IFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Laboratorio de Processamento Mineral e de Residuos

    2011-07-01

    The porcelain is composed of feldspar, kaolin and about 50% for bovine bone ashes. This work aims to analyze the properties acquired by the substitution of kaolin by its waste. For characterization of raw materials chemical analyzes were made by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and mineralogical analysis by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Four formulations were produced varying the percentage of waste materials of kaolin and bone ashes of 25 and 55% by weight. The samples were sintered at temperatures of 1150, 1200 and 1250 deg C. The technological tests realized were: water absorption (WA), apparent porosity (AP), apparent density (AD) and linear retraction (LR). Improvement in the physical-mechanical properties of the samples with increasing temperature were observed, and 1250 deg C obtained 0.69% of WA, 1.22% AP, 2.26 g / cm3 AD, and 0.52% LR.

  7. Bovine plasma protein fractionation by ion exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moure, F; Rendueles, M; Díaz, M

    2004-12-01

    An ion exchange chromatography process was developed to separate the main protein fractions of bovine blood plasma using a composite material, Q-HyperD resin, and a gel material, DEAE-Sepharose. The experiments were carried out at semipreparative scale. It was necessary to establish analytical methods of electrophoresis and HPLC to identify the fractionated proteins. Results show that these materials are able to adequately fractionate different protein groups from the raw blood plasma. This method may be used to avoid chemical fractionation using agents such as ethanol or PEG and, thus, decrease protein denaturation of the different fractions to be used for research or pharmaceutical purposes. The Q-HyperD resin presents a better retention capacity for plasma protein than DEAE-Sepharose under the experimental conditions employed.

  8. Bovine annulus fibrosus cell lines isolated from intervertebral discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kraus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The adult bovine (Bos taurus intervertebral disc is primarily comprised of two major tissue types: The outer annulus fibrosus (AF and the central nucleus pulposus (NP. We isolated several primary cell lineages of passage (P 0 cells from the AF tissue omitting typically used enzymatic tissue digestion protocols. The cells grow past p10 without signs of senescence in DMEM + 10% FCS on 0.1% gelatin coated/uncoated surfaces of standard cell culture plates and survive freeze-thawing. Preliminary analysis of the AF derived cells for expression of the two structural genes Col1a1 and Col2a1 was performed by PISH recapitulating the expression observed in vivo.

  9. Differentiation of bovine spermatogonial stem cells into osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasemi-Panahi, Babak; Tajik, Parviz; Movahedin, Mansoureh; Moghaddam, Gholamali; Barzgar, Younes; Heidari-Vala, Hamed

    2011-07-01

    Spermatogonial Stem Cell (SSC) technologies provide multiple opportunities for research in the field of biotechnology and regenerative medicine. The therapeutic use of Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs) is restricted due to severe ethical and immunological concerns. Therefore, we need a new pluripotent cell type. Despite well-known role of germ cells in the gametogenesis, some facts apparently show their multipotentiality. In the present study, bovine SSCs were co-cultured with Sertoli cell for 7 days. Sertoli cells and SSCs were identified by Vimentin and Oct-4 immunocytochemical staining method, respectively. In order to differentiate SSCs into osteoblasts, we used consecutive inducer media without separation of the colonies. We characterized osteoblasts using Alizarin red staining.

  10. 3-hydroxyflavone-bovine serum albumin interaction in Dextran medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voicescu Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectroscopic analysis of a bioactive flavonol, 3-Hydroxyflavone (3-HF, in systems based on Dextran 70 (Dx70 (an important bio-relevant polysacharide and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA (a carrier protein, have been studied by fluorescence and circular dichroism. Changes produced by different concentrations of Dx70 on the fluorescent characteristics of 3-HF, and on the excited - state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT process were studied. The influence of 3-HF binding and of Dx70 on the secondary structure of BSA were investigated by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The influence of temperature (30-80°C range on the intrinsic Tryptophan fluorescence in 3-HF/BSA/Dx70 systems, was investigated. The results are discussed with relevance to 3-HF as a sensitive fluorescence probe for exploring flavone-protein interaction in plasma expander media and also for its biological evaluation.

  11. Genetic patterns of Streptococcus uberis isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina B Reinoso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotypic relationships among 40 Streptococcus uberis isolated from bovine mastitis by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Additionally, the association between PFGE patterns and virulence profiles was investigated. The isolates exhibited 17 PFGE patterns. Different strains were found within and among herds; however, a low number of isolates within the same herd shared an identical PFGE type. No association between PFGE patterns and virulence profiles was found. However, the detection of specific strains in some herds could indicate that some strains are more virulent than others. Further research needs to be undertaken to elucidate new virulence-associated genes that might contribute to the capability of these strains to produce infection.

  12. Tritiated bovine fibrinogen labelled in fibrinopeptide A region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegrzynowicz, Z.; Kloczewiak, M.; Kopec, M.

    1974-01-01

    The method is described for labelling of bovine fibrinogen with 3 H-AcOAc. Preparations labelled at pH 7.8 with 10 to 40 molar excess of 3 H-AcOAc were found to contain 8 to 13 moles of acetyl residues per mole of fibrinogen. The content of clottable protein and UV spectra were unchanged as compared with control unlabelled preprations. The rate of clotting with thrombin was only slightly affected. The investigations on distribution of 3 H in products of proteolysis of 3 H-fibrinogen by thrombin and plasmin demonstrated a preferential labelling of fibrinopeptide A, absence of radioactive tracer in fibrinopeptide B, significantly higher specific radioactivity of fragment E than that of fragment D. Incorporation of the label into fibrinopeptide A opens the possibility for application of 3 H-fibrinogen as a convenient substrate for selective investigations on the enzymatic phase of clotting. (author)

  13. Bovine immunodeficiency-like virus: inactivation in milk by pasteurisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venables, C; Lysons, R; Horigan, M; Stagg, D; Dawson, M

    1997-03-15

    Bioassay was used to determine whether bovine immunodeficiency-like virus (BIV) in milk was inactivated by pasteurisation. Three groups of three calves were inoculated with virus (BIV isolate FL112), milk seeded with virus and milk seeded with virus that had been pasteurised before inoculation, respectively. Seroconversion to BIV was monitored for 12 months by an indirect immunofluorescence assay. The presence of BIV proviral DNA in peripheral blood was determined by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The animals were euthanized and virus isolation and PCR were attempted on peripheral blood mononunclear cells, prescapular lymph node and spleen. Transmission of BIV was confirmed in the groups that were inoculated with the virus and with the virus in milk, but no evidence of its transmission was demonstrated in the group that received the pasteurised inoculum.

  14. Genetic patterns of Streptococcus uberis isolated from bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso, Elina B; Lasagno, Mirta C; Odierno, Liliana M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotypic relationships among 40 Streptococcus uberis isolated from bovine mastitis by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Additionally, the association between PFGE patterns and virulence profiles was investigated. The isolates exhibited 17 PFGE patterns. Different strains were found within and among herds; however, a low number of isolates within the same herd shared an identical PFGE type. No association between PFGE patterns and virulence profiles was found. However, the detection of specific strains in some herds could indicate that some strains are more virulent than others. Further research needs to be undertaken to elucidate new virulence-associated genes that might contribute to the capability of these strains to produce infection. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Studies on radiation induced changes in bovine hemoglobin type A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wdzieczak, J.; Duda, W.; Leyko, W.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper the structural and functional changes of gamma irradiated bovine hemoglobin are presented. Aqueous solutions/1%/of HbO 2 were irradiated in air with doses ranging from 1 to 4 Mrad. Isoelectric focusing indicated change of the charge of irradiated hemoglobin. The isoelectric point of hemoglobin was displaced towards more acid values with increasing doses, up from 1 Mrad. Fingerprint analysis and peptide column chromatography of irradiated hemoglobin demonstrated disturbances increasing with the dose. These changes were confirmed by amino acid analysis which showed that Cys, Met, Trp, His, Pro and Tyr residues were destroyed or modified following irradiation. At doses exceeding 1 Mrad the irradiated solutions of hemoglobin showed a decrease of heme-heme interaction and an increase of affinity for oxygen. Differences observed in oxygen-dissociation curves seem to be correlated with the radiation induced destruction of amino acid residues which are responsible for the functional properties of hemoglobin. (auth.)

  16. Molecular diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus in uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, L; Puentes, R; Reolón, E; Acuña, P; Riet, F; Rivero, R; Cristina, J; Colina, R

    2016-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) affects bovine production and reproduction causing significant economic losses all over the world. Two viral species has been recognized: BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, both distributed worldwide. Recently, novel specie of BVDV named HoBi-like pestivirus was discovered. The presence of BVDV was confirmed in 1996 in Uruguay, however, does not exist until today a schedule of compulsory vaccination along the country. Serological studies with samples from all Uruguayan herds were performed during 2000 and 2001 demonstrating that all of them were seropositive to BVDV with a mean prevalence of 69%. In addition, there have been no new studies done since those previously described and it is important to mention that the genetic diversity of BVD has never been described in Uruguay. Nowadays, there is strongly suspect that BVDV is one of the most important causes of reproductive failures in our herds. The aim of this study was to describe for the first time in Uruguay the genetic diversity of BVDV with samples collected from different regions along the country. Serological status of 390 non-vaccinated animals against BVDV with reproductive problems from farms of Rivera, Tacuarembó and Florida departments of Uruguay were studied. All herds were seropositive to BVDV and high proportion of animals were positive (298/390), while 4.1% (16/390) of the animals were positive to Antigen Capture ELISA test and Real Time PCR. Phylogenetic analysis performed with concatenated sequences from the 5'UTR and Npro genomic regions revealed that BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 are infecting our herds, being BVDV-1 the most frequently found. The major subtype was BVDV-1a, followed by BVDV-1i and BVDV-2b. This is the first study that describes the genetic diversity of BVDV in Uruguay and it will contribute to the elaboration of sanitization programs.

  17. Early photolysis intermediates of gecko and bovine artificial visual pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J W; Liang, J; Ebrey, T G; Sheves, M; Livnah, N; Kuwata, O; Jäger, S; Kliger, D S

    1997-11-25

    Nanosecond laser photolysis measurements were conducted on digitonin extracts of artificial pigments prepared from the cone-type visual pigment, P521, of the Tokay gecko (Gekko gekko) retina. Artificial pigments were prepared by regeneration of bleached gecko photoreceptor membranes with 9-cis-retinal, 9-cis-14-methylretinal, or 9-cis-alpha-retinal. Absorbance difference spectra were recorded at a sequence of time delays from 30 ns to 60 microseconds following excitation with a pulse of 477-nm actinic light. Global analysis showed the kinetic data for all three artificial gecko pigments to be best fit by two-exponential processes. These two-exponential decays correspond to similar decays observed after photolysis of P521 itself, with the first process being the decay of the equilibrated P521 BathoP521 BSI mixture to P521 Lumi and the second process being the decay of P521 Lumi to P521 Meta I. In spite of its large blue shift relative to P521, iso-P521 displays a normal chloride depletion induced blue shift. Iso-P521's early intermediates up to Lumi were also blue-shifted, with the P521 BathoP521 BSI equilibrated mixture being 15 nm blue-shifted and P521 Lumi being 8 nm blue-shifted relative to the intermediates formed after P521 photolysis. The blue shift associated with the iso-pigment is reduced or disappears entirely by P521 Meta I. Similar blue shifts were observed for the early intermediates observed after photolysis of bovine isorhodopsin, with the Lumi intermediate blue-shifted 5 nm compared to the Lumi intermediate formed after photolysis of bovine rhodopsin. These shifts indicate that a difference exists between the binding sites of 9- and 11-cis pigments which persists for microseconds at 20 degrees C.

  18. Emergence of bovine ehrlichiosis in Belgian cattle herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, Hugues; Ramery, Eve; O'Grady, Luke; Sandersen, Charlotte; Rollin, Frédéric

    2011-06-01

    Bovine ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne rickettsial disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The disease can also be transmitted to humans. Outbreaks in cattle have been described in many European countries. In Belgium, infections caused by A. phagocytophilum have been reported in humans and dogs; however, this paper details the first report of ehrlichiosis in cattle herds in Belgium. The first case described was in a dairy herd located in eastern Belgium. Clinical signs included hyperthermia, polypnea, and swelling of the limbs. The other case was diagnosed in a second, mixed purpose herd in western Belgium. Within the second herd, all of the affected animals came from the same pasture. All animals in that pasture showed recurrent hyperthermia, and some also showed signs of mastitis and late-term abortions. Blood smears and serology revealed the presence of A. phagocytophilum in the majority of animals with pyrexia. Furthermore, the presence of leptospirosis, Neospora caninum, and Q fever antibodies was tested by serological analysis, but all results were negative. Paired serology for Adenovirus, BHV-4, BHV-1, BVD, PI3, and RSV-B did not show any significant seroconversion. Milk samples from cows affected by mastitis revealed minor pathogens. Fecal testing for the presence of Dictyocaulus viviparus in the first herd was negative. Recurrent pyrexia in pastured cattle is a non-specific sign, and can be related to several different pathogens. Bovine ehrlichiosis is transmitted by the tick species Ixodes ricinus which is known to be present throughout Belgium. Belgian practitioners should include ehrlichiosis in their differential diagnosis when confronted with pastured cattle suffering from recurrent pyrexia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevention and treatment of influenza with hyperimmune bovine colostrum antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wy Ching Ng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the availability of specific vaccines and antiviral drugs, influenza continues to impose a heavy toll on human health worldwide. Passive transfer of specific antibody (Ab may provide a useful means of preventing or treating disease in unvaccinated individuals or those failing to adequately seroconvert, especially now that resistance to antiviral drugs is on the rise. However, preparation of appropriate Ab in large scale, quickly and on a yearly basis is viewed as a significant logistical hurdle for this approach to control seasonal influenza. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, bovine colostrum, which contains approximately 500 g of IgG per milking per animal, has been investigated as a source of polyclonal antibody for delivery to the respiratory tract. IgG and F(ab'2 were purified from the hyperimmune colostrum of cows vaccinated with influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8 vaccine and were shown to have high hemagglutination-inhibitory and virus-neutralizing titers. In BALB/c mice, a single administration of either IgG or F(ab'2 could prevent the establishment of infection with a sublethal dose of PR8 virus when given as early as 7 days prior to exposure to virus. Pre-treated mice also survived an otherwise lethal dose of virus, the IgG- but not the F(ab'2-treated mice showing no weight loss. Successful reduction of established infection with this highly virulent virus was also observed with a single treatment 24 hr after virus exposure. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that a novel and commercially-scalable technique for preparing Ab from hyperimmune bovine colostrum could allow production of a valuable substitute for antiviral drugs to control influenza with the advantage of eliminating the need for daily administration.

  20. Increasing resistant coagulase negative staphylococci in bovine clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniri, R; Dastehgoli, K; Akramian, A

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS) and other bacteria for their resistance to antimicrobial agents approved for the control of pathogens involved in clinical bovine mastitis. This descriptive study was done on 106 milk samples obtained from clinical mastitis in dairy cattle husbandry from April 2006 through August 2006 in Kashan, Iran. From the total of 106 milk samples collected from clinical mastitis, 96 (90.6%) lead to positive culture. Coagulase negative Staphylococci isolated in 51 out of 96 samples (53.1%), Staphylococcus aureus isolated in 21 out of 96 (21.9%), gram negative bacilli isolated in 14 out of 96 (14.6%) and Enterococci isolated in 4 (4.2%). The highest rate of resistant CNS observed to penicillin (56.6%) and the highest rate of sensitivity to enrofloxacin 100%, followed by kanamycin, streptomycin and neomycin, 92.2, 82.3 and 82.3%, respectively. The highest rate of resistance S. aureus exhibited to penicillin (66.6%); while the highest rate of sensitivity showed to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxasole (81%), followed by kanamycin and enrofloxacin both at 76.2%. The highest rate of resistance gram negative bacilli exhibited to ampicillin and erythromycin at 71.4%. Their highest rate of sensitivity observed to enrofloxacin (78.6%), followed by kanamycin, (71.4%). In recent years, CNS is emerging as important minor mastitis pathogens and can be the cause of substantial economic losses. The high resistance rate to penicillin and other antibiotics found in this study emphasize the importance of identification of CNS when a bovine clinical mastitis is present.