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Sample records for bovine enzootic hematuria

  1. Neoplasmas da bexiga associados à hematúria enzoótica bovina Urinary bladder neoplasms associated with bovine enzootic hematuria

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    Marione de Albuquerque Moreira Souto

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Relatam-se três casos de hematúria enzoótica bovina (HEB em animais provenientes do município de Jaguari, RS, Brasil. As pastagens de todas as propriedades de origem estavam altamente infestadas por samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum. Três bovinos, com idades entre 4 e 7 anos, apresentaram sinais clínicos que incluíam emagrecimento progressivo, hematúria intermitente e palidez das mucosas. As principais lesões foram observadas na bexiga e consistiam de três tipos de neoplasmas: hemangioma capilar, hemangiossarcoma e carcinoma de células escamosas. A epidemiologia, os sinais clínicos e as lesões macroscópicas e microscópicas observadas nos três bovinos são consistentes com o diagnóstico de HEB.Three cases of bovine enzootic hematuria (BHE are described in cattle from the municipality of Jaguari, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The pastures of all affected farms were highly infested with bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum. Three 4-7-year-old bovine had clinical signs of progressive weight loss, intermittent hematuria, and mucosal pallor. The main lesions were observed in the urinary bladder and consisted of three types of neoplasms: capillary hemangioma, hemangiosarcoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. The epidemiology, the clinical signs, and the gross and microscopic lesions observed in all three bovine were of BHE.

  2. Histopathological aspects of Bovine Enzootic Hematuria in Brazil Aspectos histopatológicos da Hematúria Enzoótica Bovina no Brasil

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    Paulo Vargas Peixoto

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The bladder lesions of 59 cattle, from the States of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná and Amazon, affected by Bovine Enzootic Haematuria (BEH, were studied histologically. The objective of this study was to describe and reclassify neoplastic and non-neoplastic alterations not yet reported, according to the more complete current nomenclature used in human medicine. There was an almost complete identity with alterations observed in the bladder of man. Due to the occurrence of two or more neoplasms in the same animal, differences in the methodology and in the concept of classification, a more precise comparison was not possible. Coexistence of different types of epithelial and/or mesenchymal tumour growth was frequently seen. Rare neoplasms or differentiations not previously described were found in the bladder of some animals affected by BEH. These were trabecular carcinoma with Paneth cells differentiation, mesonephroid adenoma, mesonephroid adenocarcinoma, "signet ring" cell carcinoma, plasmocytoid carcinoma, chromophobe cell carcinoma and nested type of transitional cell carcinoma. Haemangiosarcomas originating from haemangiomas were also observed. This study also revealed the occurrence of many tumors with anaplasia and pronounced infiltrative features, but which did not metastasize. The elucidation of the cause of this "barrier against metastases" and its relationship with chemical carcinogenesis induced by the ptaquiloside, the active principle of bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum, could be of interest to future research on the control ofneoplasia in man and animals.Com o objetivo de descrever alterações neoplásicas e não-neoplásicas ainda não relatadas e, paralelamente, reclassificá-las de acordo com nomenclatura mais completa e atual utilizada em medicina humana, foram estudadas, histologicamente, lesões da bexiga de 59 bovinos com Hematúria Enzoótica (HEB

  3. Evaluation of urine dipstick and cystoscopy in bovine enzootic haematuria

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    Mariana Pavelski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Enzootic bovine haematuria is mainly caused by the chronic ingestion of bracken fern and is still considered an important cause of economic losses in beef herds, particularly in large metropolitan areas of Brazil that are not suitable for agriculture (weak soil, steep hills.The aim of this paper was evaluate if there is a correlation between the degree of haematuria and the presence of lesions in the urinary bladder of cows with bovine enzootic haematuria (BEH.We evaluated the bladder of twenty Nelore cows with bracken fern intoxication using a flexible endoscope to describe the lesions present and we performed a rapid urine test with a chemical multiple-reagent commercial strips (Combur test Roche® – Swiss to check the degree of haematuria; then we correlated both results with the Spearman statistical test. All cows presented lesions in their bladder walls and the urine was visually reddish and positive for haematuria in the strips. Urine dipstick has shown to correlate with bladder lesion number. In the bladders of the euthanised animals, multiple sub-mucosal reddish nodules and multiple ecchymotic haemorrhages were seen macroscopically, and one bladder had a larger tumour with a 3cm diameter, which was determined to be a haemangioma by analysing the histopathology. We concluded that urine dipstick is a valuable device for bovine enzootic haematuria prognostic purposes and to evaluate the severity of lesions from the urinary bladder. Moreover, cystoscopy is an important diagnostic tool to assess bladder lesions in cattle. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the involvement of papillomaviruses and bladder tumour occurrence in these cows.

  4. Fraction of bovine leukemia virus-infected dairy cattle developing enzootic bovine leukosis.

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    Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Sota; Hayama, Yoko; Yamamoto, Takehisa

    2016-02-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) is a transmissible disease caused by the bovine leukemia virus that is prevalent in cattle herds in many countries. Only a small fraction of infected animals develops clinical symptoms, such as malignant lymphosarcoma, after a long incubation period. In the present study, we aimed to determine the fraction of EBL-infected dairy cattle that develop lymphosarcoma and the length of the incubation period before clinical symptoms emerge. These parameters were determined by a mathematical modeling approach based on the maximum-likelihood estimation method, using the results of a nationwide serological survey of prevalence in cattle and passive surveillance records. The best-fit distribution to estimate the disease incubation period was determined to be the Weibull distribution, with a median and average incubation period of 7.0 years. The fraction of infected animals developing clinical disease was estimated to be 1.4% with a 95% confidence interval of 1.2-1.6%. The parameters estimated here contribute to an examination of efficient control strategies making quantitative evaluation available.

  5. Effectivity of PCR and AGID methods to detect of enzootic bovine leukosis in Indonesia

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    Saepulloh M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Enzootic Bovine Leucosis (EBL is one of viral diseases in cattle caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV, from Retroviridae. The virus can be detected using severals methods such as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR, while antibody can be detected using Agar Gel Immunodifussion (AGID. The aim of this experiment was to study the effectivity of PCR and AGID methods to detect enzootic bovine leukosis virus in Indonesia. Samples of peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL were collected from cattles those with and without showing clinical signs. A total of 307 blood and serum samples were tested against BLV using PCR and AGID tests, while 21 semen samples which were from similar animals for blood collection were collected only for PCR test. The results indicated that twelve cattles have positive results with PCR test in PBL, but from those cattles only seven were positive with AGID. On the other hand, the PCR did not detect EBL in 21 bovine semen samples tested, although one sample gave positive result with PCR in PBL. This results indicated that PCR method from blood samples was more sensitive than that AGID method. The PCR detection was also more sensitive for PBL than that for semen samples

  6. Detection of Ptaquilosides in different phenologic stages of Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) and analysis of milk samples in farms with hematuria in Tolima, Colombia

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    Bracken fern or “Helecho Macho” (Pteridium aquilinum) is one of the most common weeds in the meadows of the mountain ranges of Colombia. Consumption of this palatable plant by bovines causes a disease known as bovine enzootic hematuria and esophageal neoplasia. The toxic effect of the plant in bovin...

  7. Bovine papillomavirus type 2 detection in the urinary bladder of cattle with chronic enzootic haematuria

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    Sheila R Wosiacki

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2 involvement in the aetiology of chronic enzootic haematuria associated to bracken fern ingestion has been suggested for a long time. However, a few reports have shown the presence of the BPV-2 in urinary bladder tumors of cattle. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of the BPV-2 infection in the urinary bladder of cattle with chronic enzootic haematuria in Brazilian cattle herds. Sixty-two urinary bladders were collected from adult cattle in beef herds from the north region of the state of Paraná, Brazil. According to clinical and pathological finds the specimens were distributed in three groups: the group A was constituted by 22 urinary bladders with macroscopic lesions collected at necropsy of cattle with clinical signs of chronic enzootic haematuria; the group B by 30 urinary bladders with macroscopic lesions collected in a slaughterhouse of cows coming from bracken fern-endemic geographical region; and the group C (control by 10 urinary bladders without macroscopic lesions collected from asymptomatic cattle in a bracken fern-free geographical region. By a semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay, with an internal control, a fragment of the BPV-2 L1 gene with 386 bp length was amplified in 36 (58% urinary bladder. The rate of BPV-2 positive urinary bladders was 50% (11/22 for group A, 80% (24/30 for group B, and 10% (1/10 for group C (control. The rate of the positive results found in groups A and B that included urinary bladder samples with macroscopic lesions was 67% (35/52 and the detection of the BPV-2 in both groups was significantly higher (P < 0.05 than in the control group. RFLP with Rsa I and Hae III enzymes evaluated the specificity of the BPV-2 amplicons. The PCR internal control that amplified a 626 bp fragment of the ND5 gene of the bovine mitochondrial genome was amplified in all analyzed samples and excluded false-negatives or invalid results in the semi

  8. Comparison of the copy numbers of bovine leukemia virus in the lymph nodes of cattle with enzootic bovine leukosis and cattle with latent infection.

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    Somura, Yoshiko; Sugiyama, Emi; Fujikawa, Hiroshi; Murakami, Kenji

    2014-10-01

    To establish a diagnostic index for predicting enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), proviral bovine leukemia virus (BLV) copies in whole blood, lymph nodes and spleen were examined by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Cattle were divided into two groups, EBL and BLV-infected, based on meat inspection data. The number of BLV copies in all specimens of EBL cattle was significantly higher than those of BLV-infected cattle (p cattle had more than 1,000 copies/10 ng DNA, whereas lymph nodes from BLV-infected cattle did not. These findings suggest that the cattle harboring more than 1,000 BLV copies may be diagnosed with EBL.

  9. Evaluating enzootic bovine leukemia virus infection by means of molecular probe compared with the results of serological tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present studies were aimed at determining the relation between the finding obtained by means of serological tests and the specific molecular probe. Serological tests were performed according to the methods recommended by the Polish Ministry of Agriculture; ELISA was run with ''Bioveta'' and ''Rhone Merieux'' kits and the AGID test was performed with EBL antigen made in our laboratory. The molecular probe was prepared from the previously cloned provirus DNA of EBL virus. The EBL provirus was detected in 28 samples taken from 44 randomly selected cows in three herds on which a leukemia eradication programme was in process. Three sera out of 28 positive reacting animals were negative in AGID test and only one serum in ELISA. The results indicate that the use of a specific molecular probe has some advantages in the diagnosis of latent virus infections. Besides, it can be applied in the studies on the pathogenesis of enzootic bovine leukemia. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  10. Situação epidemiológica da leucose bovina enzoótica em Portugal entre os anos de 1995 e 2005 Epidemiological survey of enzootic bovine leukosis in Portugal from 1995 to 2005

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    P. Poeta

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluated the epidemiological situation of the enzootic bovine leucosis from 1995 to 2005, in Portugal. With exception of the South region, Algarve, the disease was distributed throughout the country, being more prevalent in the north, between Douro and Minho and Trás-os-Montes, than in the centre. A decrease in prevalence and incidence of the infection throughout the studied period was also observed.

  11. Bovine papillomavirus type 2 in enzootic haematuria aetiology/ Papilomavírus bovino tipo 2 na etiologia da hematúria enzoótica bovina

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    Amauri Alcindo Alfieri

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Bovine enzootic haematuria (EH occurs worldwide and is endemic in regions with bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum infested grassland. EH is chronic disease that is characterized by clinical signs of intermitent haematuria, anemia and progressive emaciation and haemorragic, hyperplasic and neoplasic lesions of urinary bladder. Although bracken fern intoxication has been related to EH, most recent bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2 infection has been also assessed. Some researches has shown that the presence of BPV-2 in association with bracken fern carcinogenic compound leads to the malignant progression of urinary bladder lesions that cause the clinical signs of EH. In this review the major evidence of BPV-2 involviment in the aetiology of EH is presented along with diagnostic methods and prophylaxis of this disease that causes considerable economic losses in brazilian cattle breeding.A hematúria enzoótica (HE bovina é de ocorrência mundial e apresenta caráter endêmico em regiões com pastagens infestadas com samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum. A HE é uma doença crônica caracterizada por sinais clínicos de hematúria intermitente, anemia e emagrecimento progressivo e por lesões hemorrágicas, hiperplásicas e neoplásicas da mucosa da bexiga. Apesar da intoxicação pela samambaia estar relacionada à etiologia da HE, mais recentemente a infecção pelo papilomavírus bovino tipo 2 (BPV-2 também tem sido avaliada. Estudos demonstram que a presença do BPV-2, associada à ação dos compostos carcinogênicos da samambaia, leva à progressão maligna das lesões na mucosa vesical responsáveis pelos quadros clínicos observados na HE. Nesta revisão são apresentadas as principais evidências do envolvimento do BPV-2 na etiologia da HE, bem como métodos de diagnóstico e profilaxia desta doença que ocasiona prejuízos econômicos consideráveis à pecuária bovina brasileira.

  12. Comparison of agar gel immunodiffusion test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PCR in diagnostics of enzootic bovine leukosis

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    Malovrh Tadej

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV is a retrovirus that induces a chronic infection in cattle. Once infected, cattle remain virus carriers for life and start to show an antibody response within a few weeks after infection. Eradication and control of the disease are based on early diagnostics and segregation of the carriers. The choice of a diagnostic method depends on the eradication programme, money resources and characteristics of the herd to be analysed. The agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID test has been the serological test of choice for routine diagnosis of serum samples. Nevertheless, in more recent years, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA has replaced the AGID for large scale testing. For this purpose, commercially available BLV-ELISA kits were compared to the AGID and to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR method performed with two sets of primers, amplifying env region. The ELISA kit based on the p24 core protein was found to be less specific and served as a screening test. The ELISA kit based on the envelope glycoprotein (gpSI served as a verification test and gave a good correlation with the AGID test and PCR method. However, ELISA showed a higher sensitivity than AGID. The p24 based ELiSA was useful for screening a large number of samples, whereas gp51 based ELISA, AGID and PCR were more important for detecting the antibody response against the individual BLV-proteins and therefore for verification of the infection with BLV.

  13. PCR em tempo real para diagnóstico da leucose enzoótica bovina Enzootic bovine leukosis real time PCR

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    Natanael Lamas Dias

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar a validação de uma reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real com o sistema Plexor® (qPCR para o diagnóstico da Leucose Enzoótica Bovina (LEB, por meio da comparação com testes de diagnóstico recomendados pela Organização Mundial de Saúde Animal (OIE. A qPCR foi comparada com duas outras técnicas: a PCR nested (nPCR e a imunodifusão em gel de ágar (IDGA. Das 82 amostras analisadas pela qPCR e nPCR, 79 apresentaram resultados concordantes, sendo a concordância, classificada pelo Índice Kappa, como alta. Entre as PCRs e a IDGA, o número de resultados concordantes foi de 71 e 69, respectivamente, para qPCR e nPCR, sendo a concordância classificada como considerável. A qPCR apresentou altos valores de sensibilidade e especificidade. Os valores preditivos da qPCR observados demonstraram a alta capacidade de classificação dos casos positivos e negativos. A qPCR não foi capaz de detectar três amostras positivas e tem custo ligeiramente superior que a nPCR. Entretanto, a qPCR é uma técnica mais rápida, menos susceptível a contaminações, tem alta sensibilidade, não utiliza e não gera resíduos carcinogênicos. Concluímos que a qPCR pode substituir a nPCR recomendada pela OIE no diagnóstico de rotina em áreas em que a LEB é endêmica, como no Brasil.The goal of this research was to validate a Plexor® real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR for Enzootic Bovine Leukosis (EBL diagnosis by comparison with methods recommend by the World Animal Health Organization (OIE. The qPCR was compared with two other techniques: the nested PCR (nPCR and to the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID. Of 82 qPCR and nPCR analysed samples, 79 presented concordant results, being the concordance classified by Kappa Index as high. Between the PCRs and AGID, the number of concordant results was 71 and 69, out of 82, to qPCR and nPCR, respectively, being the concordance classified as considerable, in both

  14. Prevalência de hematúria enzoótica bovina em rebanhos leiteiros na microrregião do Caparaó, Sul do Espírito Santo, entre 2007 e 2008 Prevalence of bovine enzootic haematuria in dairy cattle in the Caparaó microregion, southern Espirito Santo, between 2007 and 2008

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    Maria Aparecida da Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A hematúria enzoótica bovina (HEB é uma doença crônica que tem causado grandes perdas econômicas aos proprietários da microrregião do Caparaó, na região Sul do Estado do Espírito Santo (ES. O objetivo deste trabalho foi obter a prevalência e os achados hematológicos de bovinos com hematúria enzoótica decorrente de intoxicação natural por Pteridium aquilinum (samambaia no período de março de 2007 a abril de 2008, na microrregião do Caparaó, ES. Foram visitadas 50 propriedades onde foi constatada a presença da planta em todos os 10 municípios avaliados. Cento e oitenta e um bovinos foram examinados e 39 estavam doentes. Dentre os afetados, 22 (56,4% apresentavam HEB, todos provenientes dos Municípios de Guaçuí, Divino de São Lourenço, Iúna, Ibatiba e Ibitirama. Os bovinos tinham macrohematúria, e os valores do hematócrito mostraram-se baixos, variando de 8% a 31%. A leucometria total teve valor médio de 132 x 10³ mm-3, revelando leucocitose. A temperatura e o tempo de preenchimento capilar (TPC estavam dentro da normalidade. Quatro bovinos (18,2% tinham mucosas anêmicas. Nota-se que a prevalência de HEB, na microrregião do Caparaó, ES, é alta e que há a necessidade de novos estudos para diminuir as perdas econômicas causadas por essa doença.Bovine enzootic hematuria (BEH is a chronic disease that has been causing great economic losses to farmers of the Caparaó microregion, southern Espírito Santo State. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of cattle naturally affected by poisoning by Pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern with clinical hematuria between 2007 and 2008 and establish the hematologic findings of these animals. Fifty facilities were visited and the plant was observed in all of the ten evaluated municipal districts. One hundred and eighty one bovines were examined and 39 animals were sick. Among the affected cattle, 22 (56.4% presented BEH. Affected animals were from Gua

  15. CT urography and hematuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bretlau, Thomas; Hansen, Rasmus H; Thomsen, Henrik S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) urography is now used in the work-up of patients with hematuria. The dose of contrast medium and radiation varies considerably between the different CT protocols. PURPOSE: To study the disease prevalence in a consecutive group of patients with hematuria...... undergoing CT urography with a low dose of contrast medium and radiation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 1 April 2007 to 31 March 2008, using the Radiological Information System (RIS) as well as electronic patient records, demographic data, reason for referral, and diagnosis were obtained for all patients...... undergoing CT urography due to hematuria. The patients were followed for 3 years. RESULTS: A total of 771 patients had hematuria diagnosed at the time of referral. In 137 patients (18%), a tumor and / or a complex cyst was found in the urinary tract (renal, ureteral, or bladder), in 68 (9%) a calculi, in 118...

  16. Imaging of hematuria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Owen J

    2010-10-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this article, we will discuss the current status of imaging in patients with hematuria of urologic origin. Issues impacting evaluation of these patients with radiography, excretory urography, retrograde pyelography, and sonography will be discussed. CONCLUSION: Conventional radiography has no role in the detection of renal or urothelial carcinoma. Low-dose CT offers much greater sensitivities for the detection of urinary tract calculi than radiography at doses equivalent to conventional radiography. Ultrasound alone is insufficient for imaging of hematuria. Using ultrasound alone, it is often difficult to differentiate renal transitional cell carcinoma from other causes of filling defects of the renal collecting system such as blood clots, sloughed papillae, or fungus balls. The prominence of the role of excretory urography in the evaluation of patients with hematuria has diminished, and MDCT urography is now preferred to excretory urography in most cases.

  17. Imaging of hematuria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Owen J

    2012-02-03

    Hematuria may have a number of causes, of which the more common are urinary tract calculi, urinary tract infection, urinary tract neoplasms (including renal cell carcinoma and urothelial tumors), trauma to the urinary tract, and renal parenchymal disease. This article discusses the current status of imaging of patients suspected of having urologic causes of hematuria. The role of all modalities, including plain radiography, intravenous urography or excretory urography, retrograde pyelography, ultrasonography, and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in evaluation of these patients is discussed. The article highlights the current status of MDCT urography in imaging of patients with hematuria, and discusses various-often controversial-issues, such as optimal protocol design, accuracy of the technique in imaging of the urothelium, and the significant issue of radiation dose associated with MDCT urography.

  18. Diagnosis of enzootic pneumonia in Danish cattle: reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in naturally and experimentally infected cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Viuff, B.;

    1999-01-01

    A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed for detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) in lung tissue of naturally and experimentally infected cattle. Primers were selected from the gene coding the F fusion protein, which is relatively conserved...... among BRSV isolates. The RT-PCR assay was highly specific, it yielded positive reactions only when performed on BRSV-infected cell cultures or tissues. The detection limit of the RT-PCR assay was assessed as 5 TCID50. BRSV was detected in tissues of the respiratory tract and in the tracheobroncheal....... (7%), and Pasteurella haemolytica (7%) were the most common bacterial agents found in the lungs. BRSV was identified using a conventional antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 23 (17%) animals. The established BRSV-specific RT-PCR assay yielded positive results for the same 23 animals...

  19. Evaluation of hematuria.

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    Abuelo, J G

    1983-03-01

    A basic problem in evaluating hematuria is the large number of diagnostic possibilities. The causation may be suspected after the initial history and physical examination, and can be confirmed with appropriate studies. The addition of standard tests such as urine culture, intravenous pyelography, and cystoscopy will reveal the source of hematuria in many other cases and will bring the percentage of patients with a clear diagnosis up to 60 or 70 per cent. The physician must be careful in selecting further studies in the remaining patients, since the procedures necessary for diagnosis may be expensive, unpleasant, and potentially harmful, and the probability of finding a treatable condition is low. The diagnostic protocol described in this article is designed to reduce the studies performed to a minimum, while still identifying those individuals who can benefit from therapy.

  20. Diagnosis and Management of Hematuria.

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    Avellino, Gabriella J; Bose, Sanchita; Wang, David S

    2016-06-01

    Microscopic and gross hematuria present unique and difficult diagnostic and management challenges in the already complex general surgery patient. This article provides the general surgeon with relevant knowledge in the pathophysiology, anatomy, etiologies, workup, and treatments of hematuria. In addition common causes of hematuria that may be encountered by the general surgeon (including trauma, urinary tract infection, urolithiasis, and malignancy), the difficult to manage clinical situation of clot urinary retention is presented. This article provides a urologic framework of thinking for the clinician to best manage a general surgery patient who has hematuria. PMID:27261791

  1. The diagnosis of hematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, J G

    1983-05-01

    The causes of hematuria are briefly outlined and an approach to the diagnosis of this common finding is suggested. All cases require investigation, since even less than ten RBCs per high-power field may be the first sign of a malignant neoplasm or other serious disease. The most common causes are stones, malignant neoplasm, urethrotrigonitis, bacterial infection, prostatic hypertrophy, and glomerulonephritis; however, there are many other conditions to be kept in mind. A few simple laboratory tests will detect easily diagnosed problems such as bacterial infection, while more extensive and invasive studies are reserved to identify malignant neoplasms and other conditions in the remaining cases.

  2. Development of a fluorescent microsphere-based assay for the detection of enzootic bovine leukosis%牛地方流行性白血病液相蛋白芯片检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志玲; 陈茹; 舒鼎铭; 马静云; 朱道中; 吴晓薇; 林志雄

    2012-01-01

    应用xMAP液相芯片技术原理,以原核表达的重组牛白血病病毒gp51蛋白为抗原,建立了检测牛白血病病毒抗体的LiquiChip液相蛋白芯片检测方法,并进行了特异性、敏感性、重复性与稳定性试验。结果表明,该方法对牛白血病病毒阳性血清检测阳性,对其他常见牛病毒阳性血清检测阴性,表明特异性好;液相蛋白芯片方法对牛白血病病毒抗体的检测敏感性可达119.7ng/gL,对多份牛白血病病毒阳性血清的检测结果显示该方法的检测敏感性与商品化ELISA试剂盒无显著差异;对3份牛白血病病毒阳性血清进行4次重复检测,批内、批间的变异系数均低于10%。所制备的偶联微球芯片保存3个月,其检测结果无显著差异。采用该方法对169份临床牛血清样品进行检测,检出阳性率达57.4%,该检测结果与瑞典进口ELISA试剂盒检测结果的符合率为94.67%。本方法为牛地方流行性白血病的进出境检疫、疫病监测和流行学调查研究提供了一种特异、敏感的新型快速检测技术。%Recombinant gp51 protein of bovine leukemia virus(BLV) was expressed using a prokaryotic expression system, and purified and eovalently coupled to fluorescent xMap microspheres. The purified mysB-gp51 protein was used to establish an xMap method for the detection of antibodies against BLV. And the specificity,sensitivity'reproducibility and stability of the method were examined. For specificity analysis,no positive reaction with positive sera of bluetongue virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus,infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus,or bovine ephemeral fever virus was found. For sensitivity analysis,as low as 119. 7 ng/μL BLV positive serum could be detected and no significant difference with commercial ELISA kit. The variation coefficients of intra- or inter-batch were all less than 10% based on 4 replications of 3

  3. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; Ptrend=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk

  4. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seung Seok [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myounghee, E-mail: dkkim73@gmail.com [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Mi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sejoong [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwon Wook [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

  5. Avaliação de métodos de controle da infecção pelo vírus da leucose enzoótica bovina Appraisal methods for controlling the infection by enzootic bovine leukosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Machado Braga

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas três alternativas de controle da infecção pelo vírus da Leucose Bovina: a eliminação dos animais soropositivos: b segregação dos animais soropositivos: c manejo misto dos animais, com adoção de medidas recomendadas para evitar a transmissão do vírus. O primeiro teste sorológico realizado em oito propriedades leiteiras revelou a presença da infecção com índices que variaram entre 2,5% (1/40 e 58,1% (18/31. Duas propriedades com baixo nível de infecção inicial (Three procedures for the control of bovine leukemia vírus infection (BLV were evaluated: a elimination of seropositive animals: b segregation of animals into seropositive and seronegative groups: c combined management and use of strict procedures to minimize viral transmission. The first serological testing in eight dairy farms demonstrated a prevalence ranging of 2.5% (1/40 to 58.1% (18/31. Two farms with a low prevalence (<10% decided to cull the seropositive animals. In one of these farms, the culting of positive animals resulted in eradication of the infection, demonstrated by the absence of seropositive reactors in the following tests. In the second farm, where the only seropositive animal was kept in the herd, the incidence reached 20% (3/15 in a six months period. The culling of the reactors in farms with low levels of infection seemed to be the most efficient procedure for eradication the infection. Segregation of reactors and negative animals into two groups was adopted in one farm, where only one animal seroconverted during the experiment, resulting in an incidence of 4.5% (1/22. The farms where a combined management was adopted presented a incidence ranging between 2.6% (1/38 and 50% (4/8. These resulls suggested that this procedure woutd require a longer period of observation in order to evaluate its efficacy. It has been possible to obtain seronegative offspring from positive dams when a substitutive or heat-inactivated milk was used. The

  6. Evaluation of western blotting for the diagnosis of enzootic bovine leukemia Avaliação da técnica de western blot no diagnóstico da leucose enzoótica bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.T. Gonzalez

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available A western blotting (WB procedure has been developed for detecting antibodies to bovine leukosis virus (BLV in cattle sera. Two hundred and thirty three serum samples from naturally infected cattle with BLV virus and serial bleedings from experimentally BLV infected cows were used. An agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID was used for comparing with the results obtained by WB. The AGID positive sera showed a different degree of reactivity by WB test against the two most important viral antigens (gp51 and p24, or against one of them. Other proteins (gp30, p15, p12 and p10 were not detected with any AGID positive sera, being observed occasionally three bands corresponding to the p24 protein. Using sera obtained by BLV experimental inoculation, the antibodies directed to p24 appeared early (between the 2nd and 4th week post inoculation and thereafter antibodies to gp51were detected in some animals. The analysis of field serum samples by AGID as compared to WB showed an agreement of 90.9%. Only 1.7% of sera were negative by AGID and positive by WB and 7.2% that were not conclusive by AGID and were defined by WB (4.2% as positive and 3.0% as negative.Um sistema de western blotting (WB foi desenvolvido para detecção de anticorpos contra o vírus da leucose em soros de bovinos. Foram utilizadas amostras de soros de 233 animais naturalmente infectados e soros de vacas experimentalmente infectadas. O teste de imunodifusão em ágar (AGID foi usado para comparação dos resultados. Graus diferentes de reatividade foram observados em soros positivos ao AGID, quando testados em WB frente a um ou aos dois antígenos mais importantes (gp51 e p24. Outras proteínas (gp30, p15, p12 e p10 não foram detectadas por nenhum soro positivo ao AGID, sendo que três bandas correspondentes à proteína p24 foram observadas ocasionalmente. Em soros obtidos por inoculação experimental, anticorpos contra a proteína p24 foram detectados entre a segunda e a quarta semanas

  7. Is Marburg virus enzootic in Gabon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maganga, Gael D; Bourgarel, Mathieu; Ella, Ghislain Ebang; Drexler, Jan Felix; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Drosten, Christian; Leroy, Eric M

    2011-11-01

    Marburg virus (MARV) nucleic acid was detected in Rousettus aegyptiacus bats in 2005 and 2006 in the midwest and southeast of Gabon. In this study we used MARV-specific real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and MARV-specific nested RT-PCR assay to screen 1257 bats caught during July 2009, December 2009, and June 2010 in 3 caves situated in northern Gabon. Nine specimens tested positive by the real-time assay, with cycle threshold values ranging from 35 to 39, of which only 1 R. aegyptiacus specimen collected in 2009 was positive in the nested VP35 RT-PCR assay. Together with MARV-positive bats in the south and west found in 2005 and 2006, confirmation of phylogenetically closely related MARV-positive bats 5 years later and in northern Gabon suggests that MARV is now enzootic in Gabon and emphasizes the importance of long-term monitoring of bat populations and human-bat interfaces.

  8. PREVALÊNCIA DE LEUCOSE ENZOÓTICA BOVINA, DIARRÉIA VIRAL BOVINA RINOTRAQUEÍTE INFECCIOSA BOVINA E NEOSPOROSE BOVINA EM 26 PROPRIEDADES LEITEIRAS DA REGIÃO NORDESTE DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRASIL PREVALENCE OF ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS, BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA, INFECTIOUS BOVINE RHINOTRACHEITIS AND BOVINE NEOSPOROSIS IN 26 DAIRY CATTLE FARMS FROM THE NORTHEAST REGION OF RIO GRANDE DO SUL , BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Fiori

    2008-12-01

    .936 and sex (p = 0.562. Of the 360 sheep samples, nine (2.5% were reactive. There also was no significant association between the analyzed variables and the seropositiveness for brucellosis: age group (p = 0.522; race (p = 0.576 and sex (p = 0.461. Significant association was observed (p = 0.042 among the studied species and seropositiveness for brucellosis in the investigated animals. The seropositiveness for Brucella abortus in goats and sheep was traced for the first time in the “Sertão” (dry interior region, backlands of Pernambuco, fact that can hinder the success of the National Program of Control and Erradication of Brucellosis, due to the fact that it is common to raise small ruminants with bovines in this area, besides representing risks to Public Health.
     
    KEY WORDS: Brucellosis, ovines, caprines, small ruminants, serodiagnosis.

  9. A Case of Enzootic Nasal Adenocarcinoma in a Ewe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devorah Marks Stowe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An approximately 2-year-old open Suffolk ewe presented to the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine Veterinary Health Complex for evaluation of a left nasal mass. An ultrasound-guided aspirate and core biopsies were performed. An epithelial neoplasia with mild mixed inflammation (neutrophils and plasma cells was diagnosed on cytology and confirmed on histopathology. Immunohistochemistry (IHC, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and transmission electron microscopy were also performed. IHC and RT-PCR identified the presence of enzootic nasal tumor virus and confirmed the final diagnosis of enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma.

  10. Imaging in children with asymptomatic hypercalciuria and hematuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourteen children presenting with asymptomatic hematuria and hypercalciuria were evaluated with abdominal radiography, renal US, and CT of the kidneys. US and radiographic findings were negative in all patients, while CT demonstrated diffuse calcification in the medullary pyramids in eight of 14 patients (57%). Discrete foci of calcification in or adjacent to the medullary pyramids were identified in four of the eight patients (50%); one later developed overt nephrolithiasis. CT establishes that patients with hypercalciuria and hematuria are at risk for nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis, suggesting that small calcifications may be important in the pathogenesis of hematuria in such patients

  11. Frank hematuria as the presentation feature of acute leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriya Owais

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Muco-cutaneous bleeding is a common presenting feature of acute leukemias. Mucosal bleeding usually manifests as gum bleeding and/or epistaxis but may occur in any mucosal surface of the body. Hematuria as an isolated or main presenting feature of acute leukemia is rare. We describe two cases of acute leukemia, a 19 year old male with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and a 52 year old male with acute myeloid leukemia, both presenting with gross hematuria. There was no demonstrable leukemic infiltration of the urinary tract on imaging studies. Hematuria in these patients was likely to be due to occult leukemic infiltration of the urinary system, aggravated by thrombocytopenia, as it subsided after starting chemotherapy. Our cases highlight that hematuria should be remembered as a rare presenting feature of acute leukemia.

  12. Recurrent Macroscopic Hematuria and Abdominal Pain: Questions and Answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar NICKAVAR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A 6.5 yr old girl was admitted with a category of clinical signs and symptoms including recurrent gross hematuria, ab-dominal pain, and fever. After different examinations including genetic analysis, the disease was diagnosed as Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF. It is suggested to consider FMF as a rare cause of recurrent gross hematuria, which is re-sponsive to colchicine treatment.

  13. Forgotten Kirschner Wire Causing Severe Hematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kirschner wire (K-wire is commonly used in the treatment of hip fracture and its migration into pelvis leading to bladder injury is a very rare complication. Nonremoval of these devices either because of lack of followup or because of prolonged requirement due to disease process is associated with this complication. We report a case of a patient who presented with acute onset severe hematuria with clot retention secondary to perforation of bladder by a migrated K-wire placed earlier, for the treatment of hip fracture. Initial imaging showed its presence in the soft tissues of the pelvis away from the major vascular structures. Patient was taken for emergency laparotomy and wire was removed after cystotomy. Postoperative period was uneventful and patient was discharged in satisfactory condition. K-wires are commonly used in the management of fracture bones and their migration has been reported in the literature although such migration in the intrapelvic region involving bladder is very rare. Early diagnosis and prompt removal of such foreign bodies are required to avert potentially fatal involvement of major structures.

  14. Insurability for asymptomatic hematuria or proteinuria during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, L G; Stapleton, F B

    1993-08-01

    The objective of this survey was to describe life insurance underwriting practices concerning children with asymptomatic hematuria and proteinuria. A questionnaire was sent to 200 companies licensed to issue life insurance policies in the state of New York. The medical director of each company was asked to respond to the insurability of children with asymptomatic hematuria and proteinuria. Two case summaries were provided with the questionnaire. Of 97 companies, 66 would offer insurance to the patient with hematuria, although 38 (58%) would charge additional premiums. In response to the problem of proteinuria, 61 companies would offer life insurance, although 50 (82%) would require higher premium charges (P life insurance, although often at higher cost. Invasive diagnostic tests are not necessary for insurers to offer insurance.

  15. A Rare Cause of Macroscobic Hematuria: Nutcracker Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgün Selçuk Duru

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutcracker syndrome caused by compression of the left renal vein between the abdominal aorta and the superior mesenteric artery is a rare anatomo-pathological condition. The patients have symptoms such as hematuria, proteinuria, and left flank pain. In this paper, we report a 13-year-old boy who presented with macroscopic haematuria. Routine laboratory tests for the evaluation of hematuria were normal. Abdominal computed tomography revealed that the left renal vein was compressed between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery. A diagnosis of nutcracker syndrome was established. If Nutcracker syndrome is considered in the differential diagnosis of haematuria, it is easily diagnosed by imaging techniques.

  16. Enzootic calcinosis caused by Nierembergia rivularis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García y Santos, Carmen; Pereira, Rodrigo; Etcheberry, Gabriel; Goyen, Juan M; Pérez, William; Capelli, Alejandra; Alonso, Eduardo; Ruiz-Díaz, Alejandro; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2012-03-01

    Enzootic calcinosis was diagnosed in sheep in Uruguay in pastures containing the plant Nierembergia rivularis. In a flock of 200 sheep, 20 were affected and 12 died. Clinical signs were anorexia, weight loss followed by cachexia, stiffness, and kyphosis. At necropsy and histologic examination, mineral deposits were observed on the medial layer of the arteries, heart, lungs, and kidneys. Similar lesions were also observed in 3 sheep forced to graze in an area containing the plant, while no lesions were observed in a control sheep that grazed in an area free of N. rivularis. It is concluded that N. rivularis is a calcinogenic plant for sheep. PMID:22379059

  17. Prof. Guan Jinghuan's Experience in Treating Chronic Nephritic Hematuria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛莎; 刘毅; 马利

    2001-01-01

    @@ Our teacher Guan Jinghuan, a famous veteran TCM physician in Hubei province, has been engaging in clinical research for more than forty years in the treatment of nephrosis by the combined Chinese and western medicine, and he has accumulated a wealth of experience, especially in treating intractable nephritic diseases. The following is an introduction of his experience in treating chronic nephritic hematuria.

  18. Enzootic transmission of the agent of Lyme disease in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, S R; Spielman, A

    1989-10-01

    To determine whether cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) maintain an enzootic cycle of transmission of the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi), we examined the prevalence of infection in ticks and rabbits in a location in which rabbits were abundant. Of 72 unfed nymphal Ixodes dentatus swept from vegetation, 32% were infected by this spirochete, as determined by darkfield microscopy and indirect immunofluorescence using monoclonal antibody H5332. Infected ticks were reared from larvae feeding on each of 11 rabbits taken from the same site. Of 50 rabbits sampled there over a period of 2 years, sera of greater than 90% reacted with B. burgdorferi antigen by ELISA and by immunoblotting. Deer ticks (I. dammini) comprised less than 10% of ticks found on rabbits. We conclude that rabbits perpetuate the agent of Lyme disease in an enzootic cycle where rabbit-feeding Ixodes are abundant, that intensity of transmission is independent of the zoonotic cycle in mice, but that infection may occasionally be exchanged between these cycles. PMID:2802026

  19. The diagnosis of bovine basesiosis (babesia bovis) by means of the test of ELISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1994 and 1996 a kit ELISA, developed by the FAO - IAEA for the diagnose of bovine babesiosis produced by Babesia bovis, was validated. There were processed a total of 547 blood serums from bovine between 9 and 18 months old, coming from high and low risk to illness areas. The point obtained for the test was 0.178 (DO) and the resulting percentages inside the population studied was 48% animal positive and 52% bovine negative. These results confirm that bovine population in Venezuela is in enzootic uncertainty areas for bovine babesiosis

  20. Reach the Leech: An Unusual Cause of Hematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Sahibzada Nasir; Anwar, Zahid; Sheen, Salman Najam

    2016-02-01

    Leeches are found in fresh water as well as moist marshy tropical areas. Orifical Hirudiniasis is the presence of leech in natural human orifices. Leech have been reported in nose, oropharynx, vagina, rectum and bladder but leech per urethra is very rare. We report a case of leech in urethra causing hematuria and bleeding disorder in the form of epistaxis and impaired clotting profile after use of stream water for ablution. The case was diagnosed after a prolonged diagnostic dilemma. Asingle alive leech was recovered from the urethra after ten days with the help of forceps. The hematuria and epistaxis gradually improved over next 48 hours and the patient became asymptomatic. Natives of leech infested areas should be advised to avoid swimming in fresh water and desist from drinking and using stream water without inspection for leeches. PMID:26876408

  1. Microscopic hematuria and calculus-related ureteral obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, D P; Kowalski, R; Wong, P; Krome, R

    1990-01-01

    The evaluation of patients with ureteral calculi in the emergency department has historically included urinalysis (UA) and intravenous pyelograms (IVP). This retrospective study was done to determine if a statistically significant relationship existed between the degree of calculus-related ureteral obstruction, proven by IVP, and the presence or absence of microscopic hematuria. Urine red blood cells were recorded as less than 3 rbc/hpf (negative) or greater than or equal to 3 rbc/hpf (positive). IVPs were recorded as nonsevere or severe. IVP criteria were based on the presence or absence of extravasation, greater than 2-hour ureteral filling times, and a numerical scoring system of 1 to 4 for ureteral or calyceal dilatation and nephrogenic effect. Eighty-nine men (72%) had non-severe obstructions and 34 (28%) had severe obstructions. Twenty-five women (68%) had nonsevere obstructions and 12 (32%) had severe obstructions. Of the 28 patients with normal UAs, 11 had severe ureteral obstructions and 17 had nonsevere ureteral obstructions. There were no statistically significant differences between the presence or absence of significant microscopic hematuria and the presence or absence of severe ureteral obstruction. Microscopic hematuria is neither sensitive nor specific in determining the degree of calculus-related ureteral obstruction. PMID:2096163

  2. Microscopic hematuria and calculus-related ureteral obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, D P; Kowalski, R; Wong, P; Krome, R

    1990-01-01

    The evaluation of patients with ureteral calculi in the emergency department has historically included urinalysis (UA) and intravenous pyelograms (IVP). This retrospective study was done to determine if a statistically significant relationship existed between the degree of calculus-related ureteral obstruction, proven by IVP, and the presence or absence of microscopic hematuria. Urine red blood cells were recorded as less than 3 rbc/hpf (negative) or greater than or equal to 3 rbc/hpf (positive). IVPs were recorded as nonsevere or severe. IVP criteria were based on the presence or absence of extravasation, greater than 2-hour ureteral filling times, and a numerical scoring system of 1 to 4 for ureteral or calyceal dilatation and nephrogenic effect. Eighty-nine men (72%) had non-severe obstructions and 34 (28%) had severe obstructions. Twenty-five women (68%) had nonsevere obstructions and 12 (32%) had severe obstructions. Of the 28 patients with normal UAs, 11 had severe ureteral obstructions and 17 had nonsevere ureteral obstructions. There were no statistically significant differences between the presence or absence of significant microscopic hematuria and the presence or absence of severe ureteral obstruction. Microscopic hematuria is neither sensitive nor specific in determining the degree of calculus-related ureteral obstruction.

  3. Effect of renal Doppler ultrasound on the detection of nutcracker syndrome in children with hematuria

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Jae Il; Park, Jee Min; Lee, Jae Seung; Kim, Myung Joon

    2006-01-01

    To assess the detection rate of nutcracker syndrome in children with isolated hematuria, renal Doppler ultrasound examinations were routinely performed on 216 consecutive children (176 microscopic hematuria and 40 gross hematuria). Renal Doppler ultrasound was also performed on 32 healthy normal children. The peak velocity (PV) was measured at the hilar portion of the left renal vein (LRV) and at the LRV between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery. The PV at the aortomesenteric porti...

  4. Comparative evaluation of diagnostic possibilities of radioimmune BVL test for enzootic bovine leikosis in cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rutine radioimmune test BVL (SI-125-12, CSR) was compared with the immunodiffusion test by investigation of 110 farm cows with leucosis. In 63.7% of the animals examined by both methods a complete reproducibility of the negative and positive results was observed. In some specific cases BVL test showed greater possibilities, especially for discovering of antibodies in sera of low titers. This main advantage of the BVL test was observed in the cases of serum dilution X 100. The high reliability, reproducibility, sensitivity and automation are another advantages of the method. 3 tabs.; 33 refs

  5. Balloon-occluded percutaneous transheptic obliteration of isolated vesical varices causing gross hematuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Dong Hoon; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Min Seok; Kim, Chul Sung [Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Gross hematuria secondary to vesical varices is an unusual presentation. We report such a case recurrent gross hematuria in a male patient who had a history of bladder substitution with ileal segments that had been treated by balloon-occluded percutaneous transhepatic obliteration of vesical varices.

  6. Physiological responses of Brazilian amphibians to an enzootic infection of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovo, Rafael P; Andrade, Denis V; Toledo, Luís Felipe; Longo, Ana V; Rodriguez, David; Haddad, Célio F B; Zamudio, Kelly R; Becker, C Guilherme

    2016-01-13

    Pathophysiological effects of clinical chytridiomycosis in amphibians include disorders of cutaneous osmoregulation and disruption of the ability to rehydrate, which can lead to decreased host fitness or mortality. Less attention has been given to physiological responses of hosts where enzootic infections of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) do not cause apparent population declines in the wild. Here, we experimentally tested whether an enzootic strain of Bd causes significant mortality and alters host water balance (evaporative water loss, EWL; skin resistance, R(s); and water uptake, WU) in individuals of 3 Brazilian amphibian species (Dendropsophus minutus, n = 19; Ischnocnema parva, n = 17; Brachycephalus pitanga, n = 15). Infections with enzootic Bd caused no significant mortality, but we found an increase in R(s) in 1 host species concomitant with a reduction in EWL. These results suggest that enzootic Bd infections can indeed cause sub-lethal effects that could lead to reduction of host fitness in Brazilian frogs and that these effects vary among species. Thus, our findings underscore the need for further assessment of physiological responses to Bd infections in different host species, even in cases of sub-clinical chytridiomycosis and long-term enzootic infections in natural populations.

  7. Physiological responses of Brazilian amphibians to an enzootic infection of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovo, Rafael P; Andrade, Denis V; Toledo, Luís Felipe; Longo, Ana V; Rodriguez, David; Haddad, Célio F B; Zamudio, Kelly R; Becker, C Guilherme

    2016-01-13

    Pathophysiological effects of clinical chytridiomycosis in amphibians include disorders of cutaneous osmoregulation and disruption of the ability to rehydrate, which can lead to decreased host fitness or mortality. Less attention has been given to physiological responses of hosts where enzootic infections of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) do not cause apparent population declines in the wild. Here, we experimentally tested whether an enzootic strain of Bd causes significant mortality and alters host water balance (evaporative water loss, EWL; skin resistance, R(s); and water uptake, WU) in individuals of 3 Brazilian amphibian species (Dendropsophus minutus, n = 19; Ischnocnema parva, n = 17; Brachycephalus pitanga, n = 15). Infections with enzootic Bd caused no significant mortality, but we found an increase in R(s) in 1 host species concomitant with a reduction in EWL. These results suggest that enzootic Bd infections can indeed cause sub-lethal effects that could lead to reduction of host fitness in Brazilian frogs and that these effects vary among species. Thus, our findings underscore the need for further assessment of physiological responses to Bd infections in different host species, even in cases of sub-clinical chytridiomycosis and long-term enzootic infections in natural populations. PMID:26758658

  8. Using a Herd Profile to Determine Age-Specific Prevalence of Bovine Leukemia Virus in Michigan Dairy Herds

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald J. Erskine; Paul C. Bartlett; Byrem, Todd M.; Render, Chelsea L.; Catherine Febvay; Jessica T. Houseman

    2012-01-01

    Enzootic bovine leukosis is a contagious disease of cattle caused by the retrovirus, bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and is the most common cause of malignant neoplasm in cattle. In order to facilitate surveillance of this disease in dairy herds, we developed a method to combine ELISA of milk collected during routine production testing with a prescribed sampling of cows that is independent of the proportion of cows within each lactation. In 113 Michigan dairy herds, milk samples from ten cows i...

  9. 血尿与尿血%Hematuresis and Hematuria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈峥嵘

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To explore the connotation and relationship between hematuresis and hematuria, [Method] To sum up pro. Shen Qingfa's experience in treating kidney diseases, such as clinical hematuresis, combining with ancient and present doctors' statement, it induces the treatment based on differentiating signs of hematuresis and that based on differentiating disease of hematuria, [Result] Hematuria is divided into excessive and deficient ones, to clear heat and remove fire, and cool blood and stop bleeding for excessive one; and to tonify Yin and clear heat, cool blood and stop bleeding for deficient one. To take Bazheng Powder for urocystitis hematuresis; revised Maiwei Dihuang Pill for renal pelvis nephritis hematuresis; revised Liuwei Dihuang Pill and Xiaoji Yinzi and Zhuling Decoction for acute nephritis; revised Wubishan Pill for latent nephritis hematuresis; revised Xijiao Dihuang Decoction and Xiaoji Yinzi for purpura nephritis hematuresis in first stage, and revised Erzhi Pill and Zhibai Dihuang Pill in second stage; revised Yinqiao Powder and Xiaoji Yinzi for IgA nephropathy hematuresis in acute period, and revised Taohong Siwu Decoction in chronic period; and take revised Shiwei Powder, Bazheng Powder and Sanjin Decoction for urinary stone hematuresis.[Conclusion] Hematuresis can be divided into infective nephropathy hematuresis, gloinerulus hematuresis and non-glomerulus hematuresis; different type takes different TCM formula, revising with symptoms, with gpod curative effect.%[目的]探究血尿与尿血的涵义和关系.[方法]总结沈庆法教授治疗肾脏病的临床血尿经验方,结合古今医家的阐述,总结归纳尿血的辨证论治和血尿的辨病论治.[结果]尿血分实证尿血和虚证尿血,实火者以清热泻火、凉血止血为法,而虚火者可用养阴清热、凉血止血;膀胱炎血尿可以用八正散加味,肾孟肾炎血尿可用麦味地黄丸加减,急性肾炎血尿可用六味地黄丸、小

  10. The efficacy of hemostatic radiotherapy for bladder cancer-related hematuria in patients unfit for surgery

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    E. Lacarriere

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of our study was to assess short and mid-term clinical efficacy of external beam radiation therapy to achieve hemostasis in patients with bladder-cancer related gross hematuria who were unfit for surgery. We also assessed hypofractionation as a possible alternative option for more severe patients. Patients and Methods Thirty-two patients were included for hemostatic radiation therapy, with two schedules based on Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status. The standard treatment was 30 Gy in 10 fractions over 2 weeks. More severe patients underwent a hypofractionated regimen, with 20 Gy in 5 fractions over a one week period. Clinical evaluation was performed at 2 weeks and 6 months. Results At 2 weeks, 69% of patients were hematuria-free. Subgroup analysis showed that 79% of patients undergoing hypofractionated regimen were hematuria-free. A total of 54% were hematuria-free with the standard regimen. Based on tumor stage, hematuria was controlled at 2 weeks for 57% of non-muscle invasive tumors and 72% of muscle-invasive tumors. After 6 months, 69% of patients had relapsed, regardless of tumor stage or therapy schedules. Conclusions Hemostatic radiotherapy is an effective option for palliative-care hematuria related to bladder cancer in patients unfit for surgery. Although it appears to be rapidly effective, its effect is of limited duration. Hypofractionation also seems to be an effective option; however larger cohorts and prospective trials are needed to evaluate its efficacy compared to standard schedules.

  11. Restricted Enzooticity of Hepatitis E Virus Genotypes 1 to 4 in the United States ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Chen; Meng, Jihong; Dai, Xing; Liang, Jiu-Hong; Feagins, Alicia R; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Belfiore, Natalia M.; Bradford, Carol; Corn, Joseph L.; Cray, Carolyn; Glass, Gregory E.; Gordon, Melvin L.; Hesse, Richard A.; Montgomery, Donald L.; Nicholson, William L.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis E is recognized as a zoonosis, and swine are known reservoirs, but how broadly enzootic its causative agent, hepatitis E virus (HEV), is remains controversial. To determine the prevalence of HEV infection in animals, a serological assay with capability to detect anti-HEV-antibody across a wide variety of animal species was devised. Recombinant antigens comprising truncated capsid proteins generated from HEV-subgenomic constructs that represent all four viral genotypes were used to c...

  12. Statistical Tools for the Interpretation of Enzootic West Nile virus Transmission Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillouët, Kevin A; Robertson, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation of enzootic West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance indicators requires little advanced mathematical skill, but greatly enhances the ability of public health officials to prescribe effective WNV management tactics. Stepwise procedures for the calculation of mosquito infection rates (IR) and vector index (VI) are presented alongside statistical tools that require additional computation. A brief review of advantages and important considerations for each statistic's use is provided. PMID:27188561

  13. Clinicopathological Analysis of 155 Patients with Persistent Isolated Hematuria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-rong Li; Hang Li; Yu-bin Wen; Qing-yuan Huang; Lin Duan; Yan Li

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To reveal etiologies of persistent isolated hematuria (PIH) through ultrastructural pathological examination, to disclose clinicopathological correlation in cases with PIH, and to summarize appropriate management of patients with PIH. Methods we retrospectively studied 155 PIH patients receiving renal biopsy between January, 2003 and December, 2008 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital. All the clinical data and follow-up result were analyzed. Results All subjects included 38 children and 117 adults, with mean age of 11.38±3.25 years for children and 35.17±8.44 years for adults. Thin basement membrane nephropathy (TBMN) was the most common pathology (55.3% of children and 49.6% of adults), followed by IgA nephropathy (18.4% of children and 32.5% of adults, mainly grade 2-3) and mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (MsPGN) without IgA deposition (13.2%of children and 12.8%of adults). Besides, Alport syndrome (2.6%of children) and membrane nephropathy (2.6%of children and 0.9%of adults) were demonstrated as other causes of PIH. Elevated mean arteral pressure or protein excretion rate, as well as episodic macrohematuria, indicated higher risk for MsPGN rather than TBMN. On the other hand, severity of microhematuria was irrelevant to pathological types of PIH. Totally, 86 patients were followed up and 37 cases therein stayed on track for long term (mean duration 41.11±28.92 months, range 8-113 months). Most cases had benign clinical course except 3 cases with TBMN, 5 cases with IgA nephropathy, 1 case with MsPGN (without IgA deposition), and 1 case with Alport syndrome, who developed hypertension or proteinuria. All of them were administered timely intervention. Conclusions Close follow-up should be required as the primary management for PIH. Equally important is careful monitoring for early identification of undesirable predictors;while renal biopsy and other timely intervention are warranted if there is hypertension, significant proteinuria or

  14. Urinary bladder metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma: A rare cause of hematuria

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    Kan Wai Man Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We presented an unusual case of hematuria caused by a solitary bladder metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma. A confident diagnosis of secondary adenocarcinoma of the bladder was made by clinical suspicion based on patient′s past history, careful examination of tumor morphology, and a directed panel (cytokeratin [CK] 7/CK20/thyroid transcription factor 1 of immunohistochemistry. We sought, through sharing our experience in the investigative and diagnostic process, to contribute to the better understanding of this unusual cause of hematuria.

  15. The role of imaging in the investigation of painless hematuria in adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Regan, Kevin N

    2009-08-01

    The radiologic investigation of asymptomatic hematuria has changed significantly due to the introduction of new imaging modalities and innovative techniques, such as computed tomography urogaphy, which allows a comprehensive evaluation of the entire urinary tract in a single study. There is still a role for "older" imaging modalities, such as intravenous urography and ultrasound, and their use is still advocated in younger patients with a lower risk of malignancy to minimize radiation dose. Combined modality imaging can also be useful for characterization of lesions. Guidelines have recently been published for the radiologic investigation of hematuria; these are discussed in this article.

  16. The diagnostic efficiency of ultrasound guided imaging algorithm in evaluation of patients with hematuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unsal, Alparslan, E-mail: alparslanunsal@yahoo.com [Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 09100 Aydin (Turkey); Caliskan, Eda Kazak [Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 09100 Aydin (Turkey); Erol, Haluk [Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Urology, 09100 Aydin (Turkey); Karaman, Can Zafer [Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 09100 Aydin (Turkey)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To assess the efficiency of the following imaging algorithm, including intravenous urography (IVU) or computed tomography urography (CTU) based on ultrasonographic (US) selection, in the radiological management of hematuria. Materials and methods: One hundred and forty-one patients with hematuria were prospectively evaluated. Group 1 included 106 cases with normal or nearly normal US result and then they were examined with IVU. Group 2 was composed of the remaining 35 cases which had any urinary tract abnormality, and they were directed to CTU. Radiological results were compared with clinical diagnosis. Results: Ultrasonography and IVU results of 97 cases were congruent in group 1. Eight simple cysts were detected with US and 1 non-obstructing ureter stone was detected with IVU in remaining 9 patients. The only discordant case in clinical comparison was found to have urinary bladder cancer on conventional cystoscopy. Ultrasonography and CTU results were congruent in 30 cases. Additional lesions were detected with CTU (3 ureter stones, 1 ureter TCC, 1 advanced RCC) in remaining 5 patients. Ultrasonography + CTU combination results were all concordant with clinical diagnosis. Except 1 case, radio-clinical agreement was achieved. Conclusion: Cross-sectional imaging modalities are preferred in evaluation of hematuria. CTU is the method of choice; however the limitations preclude using CTU as first line or screening test. Ultrasonography is now being accepted as a first line imaging modality with the increased sensitivity in mass detection compared to IVU. The US guided imaging algorithm can be used effectively in radiological approach to hematuria.

  17. Ureteroscopic management of chronic unilateral hematuria: a single-center experience over 22 years.

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    Motoo Araki

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the short and long term safety and efficacy of ureteroscopic evaluation and management of chronic unilateral hematuria. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients with chronic unilateral hematuria from 1987 to 2008. The distal to middle ureter was evaluated with a semi-rigid ureteroscope without a guidewire. Subsequently, the flexible ureteroscope was advanced into the upper ureter to the renal pelvis using a low-pressure automated irrigant system (Uromat™. Lesions identified ureteroscopically were treated with diathermy fulguration. RESULTS: One hundred and four (56 male, 48 female patients were identified, with a median age of 37 (14-80 years and median follow-up of 139 (34-277 months. The median preoperative duration of gross hematuria was 5 (1-144 months. Endoscopic findings included 61 (56% minute venous rupture (MVR; a venous bleeding without clear abnormalities, 21 (20% hemangioma (vascular tumor-like structure, 3 (3% varix (tortuous vein, 1 (1% calculus and 18 (17% no lesions. The incidence of "no lesions" was less in the recent 12 years (9% than the first 10 years (27%, while the incidence of MVR increased from 40 to 66% (p<0.05. All patients were treated endoscopically. Immediate success rate was 96% (100% in the recent 12 years. Long-term recurrent gross hematuria rate was 7%. Six resolved spontaneously and only 1 required ureteroscopy, revealing a different bleeding site. CONCLUSION: Ureteroscopy and diathermy fulguration is highly useful for evaluation and treatment of chronic unilateral hematuria. Sophisticated technique and improved instrumentation contributes to a better outcome.

  18. Clinical testing of combined vaccine against enzootic pneumonia in industrial pig farming in Bulgaria

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    Roman Pepovich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the pig farm with signs of a respiratory disease complex and laboratory confirmed enzootic pneumonia, the prophylactic efficacy of the combination vaccine (M. hyo+PCV2, a single injection administered intramuscularly 21 days after birth, at a dose of 2 ml was tested. The clinical condition, pathological changes in the lungs and some epidemiological and economic results were reported. It was found that vaccinated pigs are in a better clinical condition in comparison with the control group. Morbidity in the rearing period was reduced from 16.3% in the control group to 6.0% in vaccinated pigs, and in the fattening period, respectively, from 30.6% in the control group to 10.0% in the vaccinated group. Pathological features in the lung characteristic for the enzootic pneumonia in the vaccinated pigs were reduced from 25.5%±7.24 to 4.0%±2.44, and PCVI - from 13.0%±4.66 to 0%. Vaccination of pigs has been received and a higher average daily gain in groups for rearing (0.624 kg and for fattening (0.723 kg was recorded.

  19. Hematuria renal idiopática: reporte de un caso clínico

    OpenAIRE

    María A. Serna Valencia; Sergio E. Linares Villalba; Jorge M. Cruz Amaya

    2008-01-01

    Se describe un caso de hematuria renal idiopática en un canino de la raza Mastín Napolitano de 7,5 años de edad, presentado a consulta por hematuria con varios meses de evolución; los análisis de sangre, orina y las ayudas de imagenología (radiografía y ecografía) no fueron suficientes para indicar un diagnóstico. Se recomendó la celiotomía exploratoria y, después de cateterizar los uréteres desde el interior de la vejiga, se estableció que el sangrado provenía del riñón derecho, el cual fue ...

  20. A Case of Primary Hyperparathyroidism in Childhood Found by a Chance Hematuria

    OpenAIRE

    Ohata, Yasuhisa; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Kitai, Yukihiro; Mizoguchi, Yoshimi; Iwaki, Masaru; Sumi, Kiyoaki; Fujikawa, Yasuhiro; Koga, Minoru; Sugao, Hideki; Shimotsuji, Tsunesuke; Ozono, Keiichi

    2007-01-01

    A 10-yr-old boy visited Minoh City Hospital complaining of gross hematuria. Laboratory investigations revealed hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and elevated serum levels of parathyroid hormone. A stone was found in the right ureter with drip infusion pyelography. A parathyroid adenoma was successfully diagnosed with computed tomography, ultrasonography, and methoxy-2-isobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) scintigraphy. Multiple endocrine neoplasia was ruled out by normal results of endocrine laboratory e...

  1. Characterization of enzootic foci of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in western Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, R; Torres, N; Freier, J E; Navarro, J C; García, C Z; Salas, R; Vasquez, C; Weaver, S C

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of the sylvatic subtype ID Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) viruses in the lowland tropical forests of western Venezuela was investigated using remote sensing and geographic information system technologies. Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper satellite imagery was used to study the reflectance patterns of VEE endemic foci and to identify other locations with similar reflectance patterns. Enzootic VEE virus variants isolated during this study are the closest genetic relatives of the epizootic viruses that emerged in western Venezuela during 1992-1993. VEE virus surveillance was conducted by exposing sentinel hamsters to mosquito bites and trapping wild vertebrates in seven forests identified and located by means of the satellite image. We isolated VEE viruses from 48 of a total of 1,363 sentinel hamsters in two of the forests on six occasions, in both dry and wet seasons. None of the 12 small vertebrates captured in 8,190 trap-nights showed signs of previous VEE virus infection. The satellite image was classified into 13 validated classes of land use/vegetation using unsupervised and supervised techniques. Data derived from the image consisted of the raw digital values of near- and mid-infrared bands 4, 5, and 7, derived Tasseled Cap indices of wetness, greenness, and brightness, and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. Digitized maps provided ancillary data of elevation and soil geomorphology. Image enhancement was applied using Principal Component Analysis. A digital layer of roads together with georeferenced images was used to locate the study sites. A cluster analysis using the above data revealed two main groups of dense forests separated by spectral properties, altitude, and soil geomorphology. Virus was isolated more frequently from the forest type identified on flat flood plains of main rivers rather than the forest type found on the rolling hills of the study area. The spatial analysis suggests that mosquitoes carrying the enzootic viruses

  2. Hematuria renal idiopática: reporte de un caso clínico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Serna Valencia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un caso de hematuria renal idiopática en un canino de la raza Mastín Napolitano de 7,5 años de edad, presentado a consulta por hematuria con varios meses de evolución; los análisis de sangre, orina y las ayudas de imagenología (radiografía y ecografía no fueron suficientes para indicar un diagnóstico. Se recomendó la celiotomía exploratoria y, después de cateterizar los uréteres desde el interior de la vejiga, se estableció que el sangrado provenía del riñón derecho, el cual fue extirpado con su uréter. Se realizaron exámenes de histopatología del riñón extirpado, encontrándose nefrosis y un proceso degenerativo generalizado a nivel de corteza y médula renal. La hematuria no se resolvió en el postoperatorio, seguramente por ser de origen bilateral; el paciente murió de otra causa no relacionada, y no fue posible evaluar el riñón contralateral.

  3. Bladder Tumor in Women with Microscopic Hematuria: An Iranian Experience and a Review of the Literature

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    Shahin Abbaszadeh

    2009-01-01

    Materials and Methods. Overall 249 women were evaluated. Microscopic hematuria was defined as three or more red blood cells per high-power field on at least two different occasions. Patients with a history of gross hematuria or coagulation disorders, having organic diseases, urinary stones, urinary tract infections, nephrological diseases, and local lesions such as urethral caruncle were excluded from the study population. Final diagnosis of malignant tumors was done with cystoscopy and biopsy specimen pathological assessment in all cases. Results. Age for the study population was 49.7±11.8 years. 95 (38% of patients were identified during routine check up and presenting symptoms in other patients were frequency, dysuria, stress urge incontinence, urge incontinence, feeling of incomplete urine emptying, and flunk pain, respectively. Finally, 7 (2.8% of study subjects were confirmed as having bladder tumors. One of tumor cases was diagnosed 24 months after initial assessments. Patients with bladder tumor were significantly older; more frequently had diverticulum in their bladder wall (P<.05. Conclusion. Female microscopic hematuria is relevant and deserves evaluations, especially in elderly patients. Patients whose reason for microhematuria would not be diagnosed at the initial evaluations should be followed.

  4. Association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and hematuria: Results from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClintock, Tyler R. [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Urology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Chen, Yu, E-mail: yu.chen@nyumc.org [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Parvez, Faruque [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Makarov, Danil V. [Department of Urology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service, New York University, New York, NY (United States); United States Department of Veterans Affairs Harbor Healthcare System, New York, NY (United States); New York University Cancer Institute, New York, NY (United States); Ge, Wenzhen [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Hasan, Rabiul; Sarwar, Golam [U-Chicago Research Bangladesh, Ltd., Dhaka (Bangladesh); Slavkovich, Vesna [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Bjurlin, Marc A. [Department of Urology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Graziano, Joseph H. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); and others

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic (As) exposure has been associated with both urologic malignancy and renal dysfunction; however, its association with hematuria is unknown. We evaluated the association between drinking water As exposure and hematuria in 7843 men enrolled in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data was conducted with As exposure assessed in both well water and urinary As measurements, while hematuria was measured using urine dipstick. Prospective analyses with Cox proportional regression models were based on urinary As and dipstick measurements obtained biannually since baseline up to six years. At baseline, urinary As was significantly related to prevalence of hematuria (P-trend < 0.01), with increasing quintiles of exposure corresponding with respective prevalence odds ratios of 1.00 (reference), 1.29 (95% CI: 1.04–1.59), 1.41 (95% CI: 1.15–1.74), 1.46 (95% CI: 1.19–1.79), and 1.56 (95% CI: 1.27–1.91). Compared to those with relatively little absolute urinary As change during follow-up (− 10.40 to 41.17 μg/l), hazard ratios for hematuria were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.80–1.22) and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65–0.99) for those whose urinary As decreased by > 47.49 μg/l and 10.87 to 47.49 μg/l since last visit, respectively, and 1.17 (95% CI: 0.94–1.45) and 1.36 (95% CI: 1.10–1.66) for those with between-visit increases of 10.40 to 41.17 μg/l and > 41.17 μg/l, respectively. These data indicate a positive association of As exposure with both prevalence and incidence of dipstick hematuria. This exposure effect appears modifiable by relatively short-term changes in drinking water As. - Highlights: • Hematuria is the most common symptom of urinary tract disease. • Arsenic exposure is associated with renal dysfunction and urologic malignancy. • Water arsenic was positively associated with prevalence and incidence of hematuria. • Reduction in exposure lowered hematuria risk especially in low-to-moderate exposed

  5. Association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and hematuria: Results from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic (As) exposure has been associated with both urologic malignancy and renal dysfunction; however, its association with hematuria is unknown. We evaluated the association between drinking water As exposure and hematuria in 7843 men enrolled in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data was conducted with As exposure assessed in both well water and urinary As measurements, while hematuria was measured using urine dipstick. Prospective analyses with Cox proportional regression models were based on urinary As and dipstick measurements obtained biannually since baseline up to six years. At baseline, urinary As was significantly related to prevalence of hematuria (P-trend < 0.01), with increasing quintiles of exposure corresponding with respective prevalence odds ratios of 1.00 (reference), 1.29 (95% CI: 1.04–1.59), 1.41 (95% CI: 1.15–1.74), 1.46 (95% CI: 1.19–1.79), and 1.56 (95% CI: 1.27–1.91). Compared to those with relatively little absolute urinary As change during follow-up (− 10.40 to 41.17 μg/l), hazard ratios for hematuria were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.80–1.22) and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65–0.99) for those whose urinary As decreased by > 47.49 μg/l and 10.87 to 47.49 μg/l since last visit, respectively, and 1.17 (95% CI: 0.94–1.45) and 1.36 (95% CI: 1.10–1.66) for those with between-visit increases of 10.40 to 41.17 μg/l and > 41.17 μg/l, respectively. These data indicate a positive association of As exposure with both prevalence and incidence of dipstick hematuria. This exposure effect appears modifiable by relatively short-term changes in drinking water As. - Highlights: • Hematuria is the most common symptom of urinary tract disease. • Arsenic exposure is associated with renal dysfunction and urologic malignancy. • Water arsenic was positively associated with prevalence and incidence of hematuria. • Reduction in exposure lowered hematuria risk especially in low-to-moderate exposed

  6. Massive hematuria due to a congenital renal arteriovenous malformation mimicking a renal pelvis tumor: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sountoulides P

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Congenital renal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs are very rare benign lesions. They are more common in women and rarely manifest in elderly people. In some cases they present with massive hematuria. Contemporary treatment consists of transcatheter selective arterial embolization which leads to resolution of the hematuria whilst preserving renal parenchyma. Case presentation A 72-year-old man, who was heavy smoker, presented with massive hematuria and flank pain. CT scan revealed a filling defect caused by a soft tissue mass in the renal pelvis, which initially led to the suspicion of a transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the upper tract, in view of the patient's age and smoking habits. However a subsequent retrograde study could not depict any filling defect in the renal pelvis. Selective right renal arteriography confirmed the presence of a renal AVM by demonstrating abnormal arterial communication with a vein with early visualization of the venous system. At the same time successful selective transcatheter embolization of the lesion was performed. Conclusion This case highlights the importance of careful diagnostic work-up in the evaluation of upper tract hematuria. In the case presented, a congenital renal AVM proved to be the cause of massive upper tract hematuria and flank pain in spite of the initial evidence indicating the likely diagnosis of a renal pelvis tumor.

  7. Association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and hematuria: results from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Tyler R.; Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Makarov, Danil V.; Ge, Wenzhen; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Hasan, Rabiul; Sarwar, Golam; Slavkovich, Vesna; Bjurlin, Marc A.; Graziano, Joseph H.; Ahsan, Habibul

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) exposure has been associated with both urologic malignancy and renal dysfunction; however, its association with hematuria is unknown. We evaluated the association between drinking water As exposure and hematuria in 7,843 men enrolled in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data was conducted with As exposure assessed in both well water and urinary As measurements, while hematuria was measured using urine dipstick. Prospective analyses with Cox proportional regression models were based on urinary As and dipstick measurements obtained biannually since baseline up to six years. At baseline, urinary As was significantly related to prevalence of hematuria (P-trend 47.49 μg/l and 10.87 to 47.49 μg/l since last visit, respectively, and 1.17 (95% CI: 0.94–1.45) and 1.36 (95% CI: 1.10–1.66) for those with between-visit increases of 10.40 to 41.17 μg/l and >41.17 μg/l, respectively. These data indicate a positive association of As exposure with both prevalence and incidence of dipstick hematuria. This exposure effect appears modifiable by short-term changes in drinking water As. PMID:24486435

  8. Balantidium coli in urine sediment: report of a rare case presenting with hematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Arghya; Majumder, Kaushik; Goswami, Bidyut Krishna

    2013-10-01

    Balantidium coli (B. coli) is the only trophic ciliate of low virulence causing dysentery in human. However, may be due to their active motility and invasive nature, they have been rarely described to cause infection in extraintestinal sites also. We herein describe a case where trophozoites of B. coli were detected in urinary sediment examination of an elderly female presenting with mild fever, dysuria and hematuria for last 1 week. The parasites were identified by their characteristic morphology and rapid spiraling motility. This is only the third case described in literature to detect B. coli in urine sediment. PMID:24431585

  9. Clinicopathological Features and Outcomes of IgA Nephropathy with Hematuria and/or Minimal Proteinuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Tan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Information regarding the clinical and histological prognostic factors of IgA nephropathy (IgAN is mostly derived from patients in whom diagnostic renal biopsies were performed because their proteinuria levels were higher than 1-2 g/d. The clinicopathological features and outcomes of IgAN patients presenting with normal blood pressure, normal renal function, hematuria and minimal or no proteinuria are not well described. We therefore conducted a study of the clinicopathological features and outcomes in IgAN patients with these characteristics. Methods: The clinical, laboratory, and pathological manifestations and long-term outcomes of all IgAN patients with the above-mentioned characteristics were collected. The relationships between renal pathology, injury, long-term outcomes and clinical factors were studied, and the risk factors of IgAN were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Results: Of all of the renal biopsy cases, IgAN with the above features accounted for 8.9%. Among these patients, 67.2% (253 showed simultaneous hematuria and proteinuria, 23.1% (87 showed only hematuria, and 9.7% (36 showed only proteinuria. Additionally, 33.8% (127 patients showed macroscopic hematuria and 65.1% (245 had a prodromal infection. Regarding renal pathological changes, 45.5% (171 of the patients were unexpectedly classified as Grade II to IV (Hass classification. Proteinuria at the time of renal biopsy was an independent predictor of more severe renal pathological injury. After a median follow-up of 75 months, 61 (16.2% patients experienced adverse events. Among these patients, 28 (7.45% exhibited hypertension, 22 (5.85% presented proteinuria levels >1 g/24 h, and 11 (2.9% developed impaired renal function. Conclusions: Severe renal histological injury may be observed in some IgAN patients with benign clinical characteristics. Proteinuria is an independent predictor of severe renal pathological injury in IgAN patients with

  10. Gastrocystoplasty and Hematuria-dysuria Syndrome. What Role Plays Helicobacter Pylori? Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán A. Aponte

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available 49 years male, who comes to the urology department, complaining of 8 months of lower abdominal pain, burning and oppressive type, of variable intensity reaching 9/10, which is occasionally exacerbated by urination, associated with intermittent gross hematuria, dysuria, refers no fever at any time. Patient with past medical history of bladder and right kidney Tuberculosis (TBC 25 years ago, treated with a simple right nephrectomy and bladder augmentation with antrum segment of stomach, for low bladder capacity. Never showed any symptom during those 25 years lapsing time

  11. An investigation of enzootic Glasser's disease in a specific-pathogen-free grower-finisher facility using restriction endonuclease analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Smart, Nonie L.; Hurnik, Daniel; MacInnes, Janet I.

    1993-01-01

    Enzootic Glassers's disease was investigated to study the epidemiology of the disease strains on a farm where it presented a problem. Restriction endonuclease fingerprinting (REF) analysis technique was used, as all strains of Haemophilus parasuis are biochemically similar and many strains are biochemically untypable. After young weaned pigs were moved from farm A to farm B, Glasser's disease routinely occurred despite the use of antibiotics and a commercial bacterin. Isolates were taken from...

  12. Eficacia de finasterida en el tratamiento de la hematuria asociada a la hiperplasia protática benigna

    OpenAIRE

    Palou, J.; Gausa, L.; J. Salvador; MILLÁN, F.; Segarra, J; H. Villavicencio

    2005-01-01

    La hematuria es una complicación de la hiperplasia benigna de próstata (HBP), tanto en su evolución natural como durante el seguimiento post cirugía prostática. En el estudio de Mebust et al., de 3000 pacientes sometidos a prostactectomía por Hiperplasia prostática benigna (HBP), en el 12 % la presencia de hematuria fue la causa de esta indicación quirúrgica (1). Existen escasas referencias de la acción de la finasterida ante dicho síntoma (2-7), aunque los resultados publicados hasta el mome...

  13. Antiviral effects of bovine interferons on bovine respiratory tract viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, R W; Downing, M M; Cummins, J M

    1984-01-01

    The antiviral effects of bovine interferons on the replication of bovine respiratory tract viruses were studied. Bovine turbinate monolayer cultures were treated with bovine interferons and challenged with several bovine herpesvirus 1 strains, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, goat respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, or vesicular stomatitis virus. Treatment with bovine interferons reduced viral yield for each of the...

  14. High Diversity of Rabies Viruses Associated with Insectivorous Bats in Argentina: Presence of Several Independent Enzootics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, Carolina; Gury Dohmen, Federico; Beltran, Fernando; Martinez, Leila; Novaro, Laura; Russo, Susana; Palacios, Gustavo; Cisterna, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Rabies is a fatal infection of the central nervous system primarily transmitted by rabid animal bites. Rabies virus (RABV) circulates through two different epidemiological cycles: terrestrial and aerial, where dogs, foxes or skunks and bats, respectively, act as the most relevant reservoirs and/or vectors. It is widely accepted that insectivorous bats are not important vectors of RABV in Argentina despite the great diversity of bat species and the extensive Argentinean territory. Methods We studied the positivity rate of RABV detection in different areas of the country, and the antigenic and genetic diversity of 99 rabies virus (RABV) strains obtained from 14 species of insectivorous bats collected in Argentina between 1991 and 2008. Results Based on the analysis of bats received for RABV analysis by the National Rabies system of surveillance, the positivity rate of RABV in insectivorous bats ranged from 3.1 to 5.4%, depending on the geographic location. The findings were distributed among an extensive area of the Argentinean territory. The 99 strains of insectivorous bat-related sequences were divided into six distinct lineages associated with Tadarida brasiliensis, Myotis spp, Eptesicus spp, Histiotus montanus, Lasiurus blosseviilli and Lasiurus cinereus. Comparison with RABV sequences obtained from insectivorous bats of the Americas revealed co-circulation of similar genetic variants in several countries. Finally, inter-species transmission, mostly related with Lasiurus species, was demonstrated in 11.8% of the samples. Conclusions This study demonstrates the presence of several independent enzootics of rabies in insectivorous bats of Argentina. This information is relevant to identify potential areas at risk for human and animal infection. PMID:22590657

  15. Restricted enzooticity of hepatitis E virus genotypes 1 to 4 in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chen; Meng, Jihong; Dai, Xing; Liang, Jiu-Hong; Feagins, Alicia R; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Belfiore, Natalia M; Bradford, Carol; Corn, Joseph L; Cray, Carolyn; Glass, Gregory E; Gordon, Melvin L; Hesse, Richard A; Montgomery, Donald L; Nicholson, William L; Pilny, Anthony A; Ramamoorthy, Sheela; Shaver, Douglas D; Drobeniuc, Jan; Purdy, Michael A; Fields, Howard A; Kamili, Saleem; Teo, Chong-Gee

    2011-12-01

    Hepatitis E is recognized as a zoonosis, and swine are known reservoirs, but how broadly enzootic its causative agent, hepatitis E virus (HEV), is remains controversial. To determine the prevalence of HEV infection in animals, a serological assay with capability to detect anti-HEV-antibody across a wide variety of animal species was devised. Recombinant antigens comprising truncated capsid proteins generated from HEV-subgenomic constructs that represent all four viral genotypes were used to capture anti-HEV in the test sample and as an analyte reporter. To facilitate development and validation of the assay, serum samples were assembled from blood donors (n = 372), acute hepatitis E patients (n = 94), five laboratory animals (rhesus monkey, pig, New Zealand rabbit, Wistar rat, and BALB/c mouse) immunized with HEV antigens, and four pigs experimentally infected with HEV. The assay was then applied to 4,936 sera collected from 35 genera of animals that were wild, feral, domesticated, or otherwise held captive in the United States. Test positivity was determined in 457 samples (9.3%). These originated from: bison (3/65, 4.6%), cattle (174/1,156, 15%), dogs (2/212, 0.9%), Norway rats (2/318, 0.6%), farmed swine (267/648, 41.2%), and feral swine (9/306, 2.9%). Only the porcine samples yielded the highest reactivities. HEV RNA was amplified from one farmed pig and two feral pigs and characterized by nucleotide sequencing to belong to genotype 3. HEV infected farmed swine primarily, and the role of other animals as reservoirs of its zoonotic spread appears to be limited. PMID:21998412

  16. High diversity of rabies viruses associated with insectivorous bats in Argentina: presence of several independent enzootics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Piñero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rabies is a fatal infection of the central nervous system primarily transmitted by rabid animal bites. Rabies virus (RABV circulates through two different epidemiological cycles: terrestrial and aerial, where dogs, foxes or skunks and bats, respectively, act as the most relevant reservoirs and/or vectors. It is widely accepted that insectivorous bats are not important vectors of RABV in Argentina despite the great diversity of bat species and the extensive Argentinean territory. METHODS: We studied the positivity rate of RABV detection in different areas of the country, and the antigenic and genetic diversity of 99 rabies virus (RABV strains obtained from 14 species of insectivorous bats collected in Argentina between 1991 and 2008. RESULTS: Based on the analysis of bats received for RABV analysis by the National Rabies system of surveillance, the positivity rate of RABV in insectivorous bats ranged from 3.1 to 5.4%, depending on the geographic location. The findings were distributed among an extensive area of the Argentinean territory. The 99 strains of insectivorous bat-related sequences were divided into six distinct lineages associated with Tadarida brasiliensis, Myotis spp, Eptesicus spp, Histiotus montanus, Lasiurus blosseviilli and Lasiurus cinereus. Comparison with RABV sequences obtained from insectivorous bats of the Americas revealed co-circulation of similar genetic variants in several countries. Finally, inter-species transmission, mostly related with Lasiurus species, was demonstrated in 11.8% of the samples. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the presence of several independent enzootics of rabies in insectivorous bats of Argentina. This information is relevant to identify potential areas at risk for human and animal infection.

  17. Diagnostic characterization of a feral swine herd enzootically infected with Brucella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffregen, William C; Olsen, Steven C; Jack Wheeler, C; Bricker, Betsy J; Palmer, Mitchell V; Jensen, Allen E; Halling, Shirley M; Alt, David P

    2007-05-01

    Eighty feral swine were trapped from a herd that had been documented to be seropositive for Brucella and which had been used for Brucella abortus RB51 vaccine trials on a 7,100-hectare tract of land in South Carolina. The animals were euthanized and complete necropsies were performed. Samples were taken for histopathology, Brucella culture, and Brucella serology. Brucella was cultured from 62 (77.5%) animals. Brucella suis was isolated from 55 animals (68.8%), and all isolates were biovar 1. Brucella abortus was isolated from 28 animals (35.0%), and isolates included field strain biovar 1 (21 animals; 26.3%), vaccine strain Brucella abortus S19 (8 animals, 10.0%), and vaccine strain Brucella abortus RB51 (6 animals, 7.5%). Males were significantly more likely to be culture positive than females (92.9% vs. 60.6%). Thirty-nine animals (48.8%) were seropositive. Males also had a significantly higher seropositivity rate than females (61.9% vs. 34.2%). The relative sensitivity rates were significantly higher for the standard tube test (44.6%) and fluorescence polarization assay (42.6%) than the card agglutination test (13.1%). Lesions consistent with Brucella infection were commonly found in the animals surveyed and included inflammatory lesions of the lymph nodes, liver, kidney, and male reproductive organs, which ranged from lymphoplasmacytic to pyogranulomatous with necrosis. This is the first report of an apparent enzootic Brucella abortus infection in a feral swine herd suggesting that feral swine may serve as a reservoir of infection for Brucella abortus as well as Brucella suis for domestic livestock. PMID:17459850

  18. Hematuria in a 12-year-old child, a rare case of urothelial papilloma of the urinary bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Alexis Litchinko; Blaise Julien Meyrat; Antoine Nobile; Lara Raffoul; Gezim Dushi; Vanina Estremadoyro

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of a 12-year-old boy with an isolated macroscopic hematuria. A urinary ultrasound revealed a bladder tumor next to the right ureteric orifice. A biopsy revealed a urothelial papilloma. He underwent a successful resection by cystostomy. This benign tumor is extremely rare in children and its management remains controversial.

  19. Prevalence of hypertension in healthy school children in Pakistan and its relationship with body mass index, proteinuria and hematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshalooz Jamila Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of high blood pressure (BP in healthy school Pakistani children and its association with high body mass index (BMI, asymptomatic hematuria and proteinuria, we studied 661 public school children and measured their body weight, height and BP and urine dipstick for hematuria performed on a single occasion. Hypertension (BP >95 th centile and pre-hypertension (BP >90 th centile were defined based on the US normative BP tables. Over-weight and obesity were defined according to the World Health Organization (WHO classification of BMI. The mean age of the children was 14 ± 1.3 years. The mean BMI was 18.5 ± 4.3 kg/m 2 . The majority (81.8% of the children were found to be normotensive (BP 25 (RR for BMI b/w 25-30 = 2.6, RR for BMI >30 = 4.3, positive urine dipstick for proteinuria (RR = 2.3 95% CI 0.7-7.7 and positive urine dipstick for hematuria (RR 1.0 95% CI 0.2-8.3. Hypertension in children is strongly correlated with obesity, asymptomatic proteinuria and hematuria. Community based screening programs for children should include BP recording, BMI assessment and urine dipsticks analysis and approach high-risk groups for early detection and lifestyle modifications.

  20. Metastatic Bladder Cancer Presenting with Persistent Hematuria in Young Man with Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premal Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of metastatic bladder cancer developing in a young man with cystic fibrosis (CF that was initially diagnosed as ureterolithiasis and managed as renal colic. With the improved survival of patients with CF, an increasing burden of extrapulmonary disease manifestations is apparent. Renal colic is observed at an increased frequency in patients with CF relative to the general population and is a commonly recognized cause of hematuria. However, CF patients harboring a malignancy are recognized to be at increased risk of delayed identification owing to atypical symptoms and lack of demographic risk factors. This case illustrates how investigations to rule out malignancy are warranted in those CF patients not responding to therapies directed towards presumptive diagnoses.

  1. Metastatic bladder cancer presenting with persistent hematuria in young man with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Premal; Rabin, Harvey R; Vickers, Michael M; Parkins, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of metastatic bladder cancer developing in a young man with cystic fibrosis (CF) that was initially diagnosed as ureterolithiasis and managed as renal colic. With the improved survival of patients with CF, an increasing burden of extrapulmonary disease manifestations is apparent. Renal colic is observed at an increased frequency in patients with CF relative to the general population and is a commonly recognized cause of hematuria. However, CF patients harboring a malignancy are recognized to be at increased risk of delayed identification owing to atypical symptoms and lack of demographic risk factors. This case illustrates how investigations to rule out malignancy are warranted in those CF patients not responding to therapies directed towards presumptive diagnoses.

  2. Palliative radiotherapy for hematuria complicating the local evolution of primitive bladder cancers; Radiotherapie palliative pour hematurie compliquant l'evolution locale des cancers primitifs de vessie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saillard, S.M.; Benyoucef, A.; Dubray, B. [Centre Henri-Becquerel, 76 - Rouen (France); Smaali, C.; Albouy, B.; Pfister, C.; Grise, P. [Centre hospitalier universitaire, 76 - Rouen (France)

    2010-10-15

    As a haemostatic irradiation is often proposed to patients suffering from a primitive bladder cancer, the authors report a retrospective mono-centric analysis of the effects of an external bi-dimensional palliative radiotherapy on patients taken into care for relapsing macroscopic hematuria after failure of local urological treatments. The assessment concerns the hematuria persistence, the interval without hematuric relapse, global survival, and transfusion needs. Based on a sample of 21 patients submitted to different irradiation schemes, the authors notice that a simple pelvic irradiation technique results in a fast symptomatic improvement of hematuria among fragile patients. Short communication

  3. Presence of circulating macromolecular IgA in patients with hematuria due to primary IgA nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentijn, R.M.; Kauffmann, R.H.; de la Riviere, G.B.; Daha, M.R.; Van, E.S.

    1983-03-01

    The relation between renal histologic features and the presence of circulating immune complexes was studied in 50 patients with hematuria. Primary IgA nephropathy was found in 25 patients, and various other forms of glomerulopathy were seen in the remaining 25 patients. Circulating immune complexes were detected with the 125I-C1q-binding assay, the conglutinin-binding assay, and the anti-IgA inhibition binding assay, the latter detecting specifically IgA-containing immune complex-like material. The 125I-C1q-binding assay gave negative findings for all patients except one. With the conglutinin-binding assay, immune complexes were found in a similar frequency for patients with and without IgA nephropathy. However, the anti-IgA inhibition binding assay gave positive results only in patients with primary IgA nephropathy (68 percent) and in none of the other patients. Sucrose density ultracentrifugation, as well as experiments in which the anti-IgA inhibition binding assay was performed with and without pretreatment of serum with polyethylene glycol, showed the presumed IgA immune complexes to have intermediate sedimentation coefficients (11 to 21S). The presence and level of this macromolecular IgA in the circulation correlated significantly (p less than 0.001) with the presence of hematuria in patients who had this clinical manifestation intermittently. Furthermore, a significant correlation (r . 0.69, p less than 0.0001) was found between the degree of hematuria and the degree of positive findings of the anti-IgA inhibition binding assay. This study shows that in patients presenting with hematuria, a positive finding on the anti-IgA inhibition binding assay is restricted to patients with primary IgA nephropathy and therefore could be of diagnostic value.

  4. Hypomorphic variant of the slow allele of C3 associated with hypocomplementemia and hematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, R H; Bryan, R K; Winkelstein, J

    1985-05-01

    This report describes the first instance of a hypomorphic variant (C3*s) of the most common C3 allele, C3 Slow, which was detected in a four-year-old Caucasian boy with hematuria. Analysis of C3 phenotypes, as determined by agarose electrophoresis, showed a hypomorphic C3 Slow in the patient and a maternal aunt. Serum C3 concentration was significantly reduced in the patient and his mother (610 and 750 micrograms/ml; normal +/- 1 SD = 1,240 +/- 240 micrograms/ml) and was at the lower limits of normal in the affected aunt (770 micrograms/ml). The mother's phenotype was C3 S (? Ss) and she was the presumed carrier, since the father (C3 FS) had neither an abnormal C3 S band nor a low C3 concentration (980 micrograms/ml). Total hemolytic complement was significantly reduced only in the patient (19 units/ml; normal = 38 +/- 16). Hypomorphic C3 variants should be considered in the evaluation of decreased serum C3 levels. PMID:3993666

  5. Clinicopathologic analysis of isolated hematuria in child/adolescent and adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, GuangLei; Zhu, Jun; Song, MingHui; Ma, Lu; Pan, Tao; Yang, Qi; Zhang, WenSheng

    2015-12-01

    To our knowledge, no in-depth clinicopathologic study of isolated hematuria (IH) is currently available. To address this gap, we analyzed the clinicopathologic features of IH as it manifests in child/adolescent and adult patients. The clinical data and pathological types of 543 IH patients who underwent renal pathological examinations from January 2005 to June 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical manifestations differed among the age groups: children/adolescents exhibited the highest percentage of mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (41.78%), whereas adults showed the highest percentage of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) (52.39%). In addition, the percentage of IH patients who were classified according to clinical pathology differed from that of patients who were classified according to renal pathological type. Patients with IgAN who were found to have minimal proteinuria had more severe IH. For IH patients, especially those with a small amount of proteinuria, renal biopsy should be performed as early as possible in order to develop a long-term treatment plan and prognosis evaluation. PMID:27003766

  6. Laboratory results of females Nellore of different age groups from farms with and without the presence of bracken fern (Pteridium arachnoideum).

    OpenAIRE

    A. H. Q. Watanabe; W. S. Marçal

    2016-01-01

    The Pteridium arachnoideum, previously classified as Pteridium aquilinum, popularly known as bracken fern, is one of the most preoccupying poisonous vegetables in several countries, including Brazil. Brazilian researchers characterized, experimentally, three clinic forms of diseases caused by bracken fern to cattle: bleeding diathesis, Bovine Enzootic Hematuria and squamous cell carcinoma in the digestive tracts. In the present work we studied the hematological, biochemical and ur...

  7. Vector competence of Mexican and Honduran mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) for enzootic (IE) and epizootic (IC) strains of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turell, Michael J; O'Guinn, Monica L; Navarro, Roberto; Romero, Guadeloupe; Estrada-Franco, José G

    2003-05-01

    Experimental studies evaluated the vector competence of Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann), Culex cancer Theobald, Culex pseudes (Dyar and Knab), Culex taeniopus Dyar and Knab, and a Culex (Culex) species, probably Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Culex nigripalpus Theobald from Chiapas, Mexico, and Tocoa, Honduras, for epizootic (IC) and enzootic (IE) strains of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus. Culex pseudes was highly susceptible to infection with both the IC and IE strains of VEE (infection rates >78%). Patterns of susceptibility to VEE were similar for Oc. taeniorhynchus collected in Mexico and Honduras. Although Oc. taeniorhynchus was highly susceptible to the epizootic IC strains (infection rates > or = 95%, n = 190), this species was less susceptible to the enzootic IE strain (infection rates < or = 35%, n = 233). The Culex (Culex) species were refractory to both subtypes of VEE, and none of 166 contained evidence of a disseminated infection. Virus-exposed Cx. pseudes that refed on susceptible hamsters readily transmitted virus, confirming that this species was an efficient vector of VEE. Although Oc. taeniorhynchus that fed on hamsters infected with the epizootic IC strain transmitted VEE efficiently, only one of six of those with a disseminated infection with the enzootic IE virus that fed on hamsters transmitted virus by bite. These data indicate that Cx. pseudes is an efficient laboratory vector of both epizootic and enzootic strains of VEE and that Oc. taeniorhynchus could be an important vector of epizootic subtypes of VEE.

  8. 78 FR 72979 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... risks of other livestock diseases, such as bovine viral diarrhea, foot-and-mouth disease, infectious... Products Derived from Bovines,'' published in the Federal Register on September 18, 2007 (72 FR 53314-53379... 92, 93, 94, et al. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine...

  9. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro;

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined...... differential scanning calorimetry revealed a slightly higher thermal stability of camel chymosin compared with bovine chymosin. The crystal structure of a doubly glycosylated variant of camel chymosin was determined at a resolution of 1.6 Å and the crystal structure of unglycosylated bovine chymosin...

  10. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing...

  11. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule...

  12. Multiple Embolism in a Female Patient with Infective Endocarditis: Low Back Pain and Hematuria as the Initial Clinical Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Marcelo Luiz Campos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A 59-year-old female patient with mitral valve prolapse and a previous history of lumbosacral spondyloarthrosis and lumbar disk hernia had an episode of infective endocarditis due to Streptococcus viridans, which evolved with peripheral embolism to the left kidney, spleen, and left iliac artery, and intraventricular cerebral hemorrhage. Her clinical manifestations were low back pain and hematuria, which were initially attributed to an osteoarticular condition. Infective endocarditis is a severe polymorphic disease with multiple clinical manifestations and it should always be included in the differential diagnosis by clinicians.

  13. Unlocking the bovine genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The draft genome sequence of cattle (Bos taurus) has now been analyzed by the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium and the Bovine HapMap Consortium, which together represent an extensive collaboration involving more than 300 scientists from 25 different countries. ...

  14. Infecção pelo vírus da leucose enzoótica bovina(BLV Enzootic bovine leukosis infection(BLV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Machado Braga

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available O vírus da leucose bovina (BLV é o agente causal de duas condições clínicas relacionadas aos bovinos: o linfossarcorma, doença neoplásica comum no gado adulto, e linfocitose persistente, proliferação benigna das células linfóides. A identificação do BLV em 1969 e o subseqüente desenvolvimento de técnicas sorológicas sensíveis permitiram o reconhecimento da infecção como prevalente em muitos países, principalmente no gado leiteiro. Devido a inexistência de tratamento ou de uma vacina eficaz, as pesquisas concentram-se nos modos de transmissão e no desenvolvimento de programas de controle e prevenção da infecção. Este trabalho faz uma revisão bibliográfica sobre o BLV, incluindo modos de infecção, sinais clínicos e diagnóstico laboratorial, além de descrever medidas que o produtor deve seguir para prevenir ou controlar a disseminação do vírus no rebanho.Bovino leukaemia virus (BLV is the causative agent of tvo related conditions in cattle: the lymphosarcoma, common neoplastic disease of cattle, and persistent lymphocytosis, a benign proliferation of lymphoide cells. The identification of BLV in 1969 and the subsequent development of sensitive serological techniques allowed the recognition that infections of BLV are prevalent in many countries, especially in dairy cattle. Because of there 's no effective therapy or vaccine, the investigations concentrate on modes of transmission and the development of control and prevention programmes. This paper reviews the BLV, as to their modes of infection, clinical disease and laboratory diagnosis and also describes measures which the owner may take to prevent or control the dissemination of the virus in the herd.

  15. Ovine Enzootic Abortion (OEA): a comparison of antibody responses in vaccinated and naturally-infected swiss sheep over a two year period

    OpenAIRE

    Gerber, Andrea; Thoma, Ruedi; Vretou, Evangelia; Psarrou, Evgenia; Kaiser, Carmen; Doherr, Marcus G.; Zimmermann, Dieter R; Polkinghorne, Adam; Pospischil, Andreas; Borel, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prevention and control of ovine enzootic abortion (OEA) can be achieved by application of a live vaccine. In this study, five sheep flocks with different vaccination and infection status were serologically tested using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) specific for Chlamydophila (Cp.) abortus over a two-year time period. RESULTS: Sheep in Flock A with recent OEA history had high antibody values after vaccination similar to Flock C with natural Cp. abortus in...

  16. Transarterial coil embolization in treatment of gross hematuria following self-inflicted stab wound in a horseshoe kidney

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masoud Pezeshki Rad; Hassan Ahmadnia; Mahboobeh Abedi; Mohammad Sadegh Abedi

    2012-01-01

    Horseshoe kidney is an uncommon anomaly of the urinary system with an increased risk of injury during penetrating and blunt abdominal traumas.Selfinflicted abdominal stab wound,a rare type of abdominal injury,accounts for only a small percentage of suicidal attempts and may be infrequently encountered by physicians in trauma centers.Psychiatric disorders and alcohol or drug abuse are common risk factors in cases of self-stabbing.Here we report a rare case of self-stabbing of a horseshoe kidney.The case was a 19-year-old man with self-inflicted abdominal stab wound who was referred to our department of radiology due to re-occurred gross hematuria three days after exploratory laparotomy and surgical repair of injured abdominal organs.A horseshoe kidney was incidentally found in the patient's abdominal computed tomography.Renal angiography revealed active contrast extravasation from one of the segmental arteries.Selective transarterial embolization with a coil was successfully performed to control the hematuria.

  17. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown aetiol

  18. Spread of Coxiella burnetii between dairy cattle herds in an enzootic region: modelling contributions of airborne transmission and trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Pranav; Hoch, Thierry; Ezanno, Pauline; Beaudeau, François; Vergu, Elisabeta

    2016-04-05

    Q fever, a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a looming concern for livestock and public health. Epidemiological features of inter-herd transmission of C. burnetii in cattle herds by wind and trade of cows are poorly understood. We present a novel dynamic spatial model describing the inter-herd regional spread of C. burnetii in dairy cattle herds, quantifying the ability of airborne transmission and animal trade in C. burnetii propagation in an enzootic region. Among all the new herd infections, 92% were attributed to airborne transmission and the rest to cattle trade. Infections acquired following airborne transmission were shown to cause relatively small and ephemeral intra-herd outbreaks. On the contrary, disease-free herds purchasing an infectious cow experienced significantly higher intra-herd prevalence. The results also indicated that, for short duration, both transmission routes were independent from each other without any synergistic effect. The model outputs applied to the Finistère department in western France showed satisfactory sensitivity (0.71) and specificity (0.80) in predicting herd infection statuses at the end of one year in a neighbourhood of 3 km around expected incident herds, when compared with data. The model developed here thus provides important insights into the spread of C. burnetii between dairy cattle herds and paves the way for implementation and assessment of control strategies.

  19. Urinary Schistosomiasis in an Adolescent Refugee from Africa: An Uncommon Cause of Hematuria and an Emerging Infectious Disease in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddighe, Dimitri; Castelli, Lucia; Pulcrano, Giovanna; Grosini, Alessia; Balzaretti, Michela; Spadaro, Salvatore; Bruni, Paola

    2016-10-01

    We report a case of urinary schistosomiasis in an adolescent refugee from Gambia (arrived to Italy illegally), who was brought to the Emergency Department of our hospital. The patient complained of gross hematuria and, in the absence of clinical evidence of bacterial urinary infection, was admitted to the pediatric ward, considering his provenience and social setting. An appropriate collection and microscopic analysis of urine samples led to the detection of bilharzia. Much attention should be paid to this emerging disease in Europe by physicians in order to recognize and treat it timely, which could prevent future and higher costs for public health systems and could reduce the potential risk of environmental spreading. In fact, there are some areas in Italy where the parasite can find its intermediate host to complete its lifecycle. PMID:26335551

  20. Vector control improves survival of three species of prairie dogs (Cynomys) in areas considered enzootic for plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, Dean E.; Godbey, Jerry L.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Carter, Leon G.; Montenieri, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Plague causes periodic epizootics that decimate populations of prairie dogs (PDs) (Cynomys), but the means by which the causative bacterium (Yersinia pestis) persists between epizootics are poorly understood. Plague epizootics in PDs might arise as the result of introductions of Y. pestis from sources outside PD colonies. However, it remains possible that plague persists in PDs during interepizootic periods and is transmitted at low rates among highly susceptible individuals within and between their colonies. If this is true, application of vector control to reduce flea numbers might reduce mortality among PDs. To test whether vector control enhances PD survival in the absence of obvious plague epizootics, we reduced the numbers of fleas (vectors for Y. pestis) 96–98% (1 month posttreatment) on 15 areas involving three species of PDs (Cynomys leucurus, Cynomys parvidens in Utah, and Cynomys ludovicianus in Montana) during 2000–2004 using deltamethrin dust delivered into burrows as a pulicide. Even during years without epizootic plague, PD survival rates at dusted sites were 31–45% higher for adults and 2–34% higher for juveniles compared to survival rates at nondusted sites. Y. pestis was cultured from 49 of the 851 flea pools tested (6882 total fleas) and antibodies against Y. pestis were identified in serum samples from 40 of 2631 PDs. Although other explanations are possible, including transmission of other potentially fatal pathogens by fleas, ticks, or other ectoparasites, our results suggest that plague might be maintained indefinitely in PD populations in the absence of free epizootics and widespread mortality among these animals. If PDs and their fleas support enzootic cycles of plague transmission, there would be important implications for the conservation of these animals and other species.

  1. Dog bite histories and response to incidents in canine rabies-enzootic KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Hergert

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to report evaluated observations from survey records captured through a cross-sectional observational study regarding canine populations and dog owners in rabies enzootic KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. Our aim was to evaluate respondent knowledge of canine rabies and response to dog bite incidents towards improved rabies control. Six communities consisting of three land use types were randomly sampled from September 2009 to January 2011, using a cluster design. A total of 1992 household records were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression modeling to evaluate source of rabies knowledge, experiences with dog bites, and factors affecting treatment received within respective households that occurred within the 365 day period prior to the surveys. 86% of the population surveyed had heard of rabies. Non-dog owners were 1.6 times more likely to have heard of rabies than dog owners; however, fear of rabies was not a reason for not owning a dog. Government veterinary services were reported most frequently as respondent source of rabies knowledge. Nearly 13% of households had a member bitten by a dog within the year prior to the surveys with 82% of the victims visiting a clinic as a response to the bite. 35% of these clinic visitors received at least one rabies vaccination. Regression modeling determined that the only response variable that significantly reflected the likelihood of a patient receiving rabies vaccination or not was the term for the area surveyed. Overall the survey showed that most respondents have heard of dog associated rabies and seek medical assistance at a clinic in response to a dog bite regardless of offending dog identification. An in-depth study involving factors associated within area clinics may highlight the area dependency for patients receiving rabies post exposure prophylaxis shown by this model.

  2. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®)–Patient Version Overview Go to Health Professional ... 8 ). Questions and Answers About Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) What is cartilage? Cartilage is a type of ...

  3. 77 FR 15847 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ..., ``Analysis of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) Risk to the U.S. Cattle Population from Importation of... final rule did not limit the importation of bovine-derived meat from Canada to that derived from cattle... meat from bovines 30 months of age or older while continuing to prohibit the importation of live...

  4. Seroprevalence of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in dairy cattle in Isfahan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morovati, Hassan; Shirvani, Edris; Noaman, Vahid; Lotfi, Mohsen; Kamalzadeh, Morteza; Hatami, Alireza; Bahreyari, Masoume; Shahramyar, Zahra; Morovati, Mohammad H; Azimi, Mahmoud; Sakhaei, Davoud

    2012-08-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an exogenous C-type oncovirus in the Retroviridae family. It causes significant economic losses associated with the costs of control and eradication programs due to carcass condemnation at slaughter and restrictions of export of cattle and semen to importing countries. The main objective of this research was to determine the seroprevalence of BLV infection in cattle herds in central region of Iran (Isfahan province) using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect serum antibodies against BLV. Samples of blood serum were collected from 403 female dairy cattle (Holstein-Friesian) from 21 livestock farms and 303 animals (81.9%) were BLV seropositive. A significant association was found between age as a potential risk factor and BVL seroprevalence with animals ≥ 4 years (86.6%) having a significantly (χ(2) = 35.6, p 0.1). It is concluded that BLV infection is a very common problem in the study area. Hence, control measures should be instituted to combat the disease and further studies are required to investigate the impact of this disease on dairy production in the country.

  5. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. BVDV viruses are further subclassified as cytopathic and noncytopathic based on their activity in cultured epithelial cells. Noncytopathic BVDV p...

  6. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also referred to as “mad cow disease” is a chronic, non-febrile, neuro-degenerative disease affecting the central nervous system. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of domestic animals, of which BSE is a member includes scrapie of sheep...

  7. Bovine milk exosome proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin and are found in blood, urine, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as human and bovine milk. Exosomes are extracellular organelles important in intracellular communication/signaling, immune function, and biomarkers ...

  8. Using a Herd Profile to Determine Age-Specific Prevalence of Bovine Leukemia Virus in Michigan Dairy Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald J. Erskine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzootic bovine leukosis is a contagious disease of cattle caused by the retrovirus, bovine leukemia virus (BLV and is the most common cause of malignant neoplasm in cattle. In order to facilitate surveillance of this disease in dairy herds, we developed a method to combine ELISA of milk collected during routine production testing with a prescribed sampling of cows that is independent of the proportion of cows within each lactation. In 113 Michigan dairy herds, milk samples from ten cows in each of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and ≥4th lactations were analyzed for anti-Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV antibodies by milk ELISA. For each herd, a BLV herd profile (BHP was calculated as the simple average of the percent of BLV-positive cows within each of the four lactation groups. The mean BHP for all herds was 32.8%, with means of 18.5, 28.8, 39.2, and 44.8% of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and ≥4th lactation animals infected, respectively. In eight herds, we determined the correlation between the BHP, and true herd prevalence by testing the entire lactating herd (r=0.988,  P<0.0001. The BHP allows discrimination of lactation-specific BLV prevalence within a dairy herd, to help identify risk factors and management plans that may be important in transmission of BLV.

  9. Linkages of Weather and Climate With Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae), Enzootic Transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi, and Lyme Disease in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Rebecca J; Eisen, Lars; Ogden, Nicholas H; Beard, Charles B

    2016-03-01

    Lyme disease has increased both in incidence and geographic extent in the United States and Canada over the past two decades. One of the underlying causes is changes during the same time period in the distribution and abundance of the primary vectors: Ixodes scapularis Say and Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls in eastern and western North America, respectively. Aside from short periods of time when they are feeding on hosts, these ticks exist in the environment where temperature and relative humidity directly affect their development, survival, and host-seeking behavior. Other important factors that strongly influence tick abundance as well as the proportion of ticks infected with the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, include the abundance of hosts for the ticks and the capacity of tick hosts to serve as B. burgdorferi reservoirs. Here, we explore the linkages between climate variation and: 1) duration of the seasonal period and the timing of peak activity; 2) geographic tick distributions and local abundance; 3) enzootic B. burgdorferi transmission cycles; and 4) Lyme disease cases. We conclude that meteorological variables are most influential in determining host-seeking phenology and development, but, while remaining important cofactors, additional variables become critical when exploring geographic distribution and local abundance of ticks, enzootic transmission of B. burgdorferi, and Lyme disease case occurrence. Finally, we review climate change-driven projections for future impact on vector ticks and Lyme disease and discuss knowledge gaps and research needs.

  10. Enzootic plague foci, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Malek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Algeria, PCR sequencing of pla, glpD and rpoB genes found Yersinia pestis in 18/237 (8% rodents of five species, including Apodemus sylvaticus, previously undescribed as pestiferous; and disclosed three new plague foci. Multiple spacer typing confirmed a new Orientalis variant. Rodent survey should be reinforced in this country hosting reemerging plague.

  11. Differential Diagnosis and Analysis of Renal Biopsy for Hematuria Patients%单纯性血尿患者的鉴别诊断及肾穿活检分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程晖; 石明; 邱昌建; 刘红燕

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the importance of hematuria in the renal diseases through differential diagnosis and renal biopsy. Methods: The hematuria has been distinguished by contrast phase microscope and distribution analysis of erythrocyte volumes, then the patients with glomerular hematuria and mixed hematuria underwent renal biopsy. Results: Glomerular hematuria proportion was more than none glomerular hematuria. Renal biopsy indicated that IgA nephropathy was the first cause of isolated renal hematuria. Conclusion: The screening procedures are important for isolated hematuria suspected as renal disease, and renal biopsy is helpful for the final diagnosis and determining the therapeutic schedule.%目的:对单纯血尿患者进行鉴别诊断及肾穿活检,以阐明血尿在肾脏病变中的重要性.方法:相差显微镜和尿红细胞体积曲线进行血尿的鉴别诊断,对肾小球性血尿和混合性血尿的患者进行肾穿活检明确病理改变.结果:肾小球性血尿在单纯性血尿中的比例较非肾小球性血尿高,肾穿刺活检表明IgA肾病是肾性血尿第1位病因.结论:单纯性血尿患者的筛查十分重要,早期筛选出的可疑肾病患者应进行肾活检明确病理性质,有助于制定积极的治疗方案,延缓肾脏病变的进程.

  12. An unusual case of hematuria in a young female: renal artery embolism, mitral stenosis, and sinus rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Kapoor, Aditya; Kumar, Sudeep

    2016-03-01

    Renal artery embolism (RAE) is an uncommon entity that is most often secondary to a cardiac source. Most reported cases have been in patients with underlying atrial fibrillation (AF), and occurrence of RAE, especially in patients with valvular heart disease, and sinus rhythm is very rare. We describe an unusual case of a young female who presented with sudden onset right flank pain, vomiting, anorexia, and hematuria, and was found to have thrombotic occlusion of the distal right renal artery. Although she denied any previous cardiac history, detailed cardiovascular examination revealed the presence of severe rheumatic mitral stenosis without any evidence of AF or left atrial clot. She was initially managed conservatively using low molecular weight heparin followed by oral anticoagulation with resolution of symptoms. A successful balloon mitral valvotomy was performed six weeks later. The patient is asymptomatic at her last follow-up of six months with preserved renal function. In symptomatic patients, clinicians need to consider the possibility of RAE even in patients of valvular heart disease with underlying sinus rhythm. Appropriate management of the underlying cardiac condition is imperative since embolism may be recurrent leading to compromise of renal function, if left untreated. PMID:26997399

  13. The Natural Course of Biopsy-Proven Isolated Microscopic Hematuria: a Single Center Experience of 350 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae Min; Hyun, Ji In; Min, Ji-Won; Lee, Kyungsoo; Kim, Yong Kyun; Choi, Euy Jin; Song, Ho Cheol

    2016-06-01

    The increasing interest in healthcare and health screening events is revealing additional cases of asymptomatic isolated microscopic hematuria (IMH). However, a consensus of the evaluation and explanation of the IMH prognosis is controversial among physicians. Here, we present the natural course of IMH together with the pathological diagnosis and features to provide supportive data when approaching patients with IMH. We retrospectively evaluated 350 patients with IMH who underwent a renal biopsy between 2002 and 2011, and the pathological diagnosis and chronic histopathological features (glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, and tubular atrophy) were reviewed. Deterioration of renal function was examined during follow up. The patients with IMH were evaluated for a mean of 86 months. IgA nephropathy was the most common diagnosis in 164 patients (46.9%). Chronic histopathological changes were observed in 166 (47.4%) but was not correlated with proteinuria or a decline in renal function. Ten patients developed proteinuria, and all of them had IgA nephropathy. Three patients progressed to chronic kidney disease with an estimated glomerular filtration rate observation, although IgA nephropathy should be monitored if it progresses to proteinuria. Future prospective randomized studies may help conclude the long-term prognosis and lead to a consensus for managing IMH. PMID:27247500

  14. Hematuria induced by oral metronidazole in two patients%口服甲硝唑引起血尿2例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽华; 魏华; 宋笑丹

    2011-01-01

    2例患者(男性58岁,女性49岁)为防治口腔感染服用甲硝唑0.4 g,3次/d.分别于服药后第2、3天出现肉眼血尿,同时伴有腰痛、尿急、尿频、尿痛等症状.尿常规检查示男性患者红细胞(++),女性患者红细胞满视野.停用甲硝唑,改为头孢氨苄+琥乙红霉素,症状逐渐减轻并消失.%Two patients.a 58-year-old man and a 49-year-old woman , received metronidazole 0.4 g thrice daily for prevention and treatment of oral infection.They presented with gross hematuria on days 2 and 3 after drug administration.respectively, followed by lumbago, urgency of urination, urinary frequency, painful urination, and other symptoms.Routine urine tests revealed RBC( + + )in tLhe male patient and numerous RBC in the female patient.Metronidazole was discontinued and switched to combination treatment with cefalexin and erythromycin ethylsuccinate.Their symptoms improved gradually and then disappeared.

  15. Intravenous cephradine injection inducing pediatric hematuria%静脉滴注头孢拉啶注射液引起小儿血尿

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    普连梅

    2016-01-01

    目的:本文主要探讨静脉滴注头孢拉啶注射液引起的小儿血尿临床分析。方法我院在2014年1月至2015年12月期间共收治了17例静脉滴注头孢拉啶注射液引起的小儿血尿患者,对患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析,观察患者的预后情况,并探讨引发血尿的因素。结果17例患者,立刻停止使用头孢拉啶,给予碱化尿液等治疗后,12例患者24小时内肉眼血尿消退,3例患者48小时内消退,2例患者73小时内消退,所有患者均在7天内康复。结论本次研究结果表明,静脉滴注头孢拉啶注射液引起小儿血尿后,及时停药并给予碱化尿液等治疗,具有良好的预后效果。%Objective the article mainly discussed clinical analysis of intravenous cephradine injection inducing pediatric hematuria.Methods review and analyze clinical data of 17 pediatric hematuria patients caused by intravenous cephradine injection treated in our hospital from January 2014 to december 2015, observe their prognosis and explore factors causing hematuria.Results cephradine was immediately stopped for 17 patients and after therapy of alkalized urine, gross hematuria of 12 cases subsided within 24 hours, 3 cases subsided within 48 hours, 2 cases subsided within 73 hours, all patients recovered within 7 days.Conclusion study results showed pediatric hematuria induced by intravenous cefradine injection should stop the medicine in time and treat with alkalized urine therapy, which showed a good prognosis.

  16. Qiao Chenglin's Experiences in the Treatment of Glomerular Hematuria%乔成林治疗肾小球源性血尿经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴喜利; 安鹏; 叶冰玉; 董盛

    2014-01-01

    肾小球源性血尿为临床肾脏疾病常见症状之一。大多数肾小球源性血尿患者为原发性肾小球疾病,如急慢性肾小球肾炎、IgA 肾病等,亦可见于紫癜性肾炎、狼疮性肾炎等继发性肾小球疾病。肾小球源性血尿在临床上,多病情复杂、缠绵难愈,易反复发作。在临床上分为肉眼血尿和镜下血尿两大类,且以镜下血尿较为多见。肾小球性血尿属中医学“尿血”范畴,古籍中有“溲血”“溺血”之称,目前西医尚无有效的治疗方法。乔成林老师根据自己多年的临床经验,认为肾小球性血尿病机主要分为虚实两类,实证主要包括下焦湿热证和热入营血证;虚证包括脾肾不固证,阴虚内热证。文章对乔成林教授治疗肾小球源性血尿的经验进行总结,系统阐述了其对肾小球源性血尿中医病因病机的认识、辨病辨证治疗及用药经验。%Glomerular hematuria is one of the common symptoms of kidney disorders in clinic. Most patients of glomerular hematuria suffered from primary glomerular disease,such as acute or chronic glomerulo-nephritis and IgA nephropathy,or secondary glomerular disease such as anaphylactic purpura nephritis and lupus nephritis. In clinic,glomerular hematuria is complicated,difficulty in treatment and repeated attacks. This disease is classified into two categories,named gross hematuria and microscopic hematuria,the latter is common. Glomerular hematuria is in the category of“bloody urine”in traditional Chinese medicine and also named as“Sou Xue”and“Ni Xue”in ancient literatures. At present,there is no any effective therapeutic method in western medicine. According to the clinical experiences of Prof. Qiao Cheng - lin,Prof. Qiao thought that this disease was differentiated as the deficiency and the excess in pathogenesis. The excess syn-drome of it included damp heat in the lower Energizer and heat entering Ying and Xue

  17. Absence of Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in buffaloes from Amazon and southeast region in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Cairo H S; Resende, Cláudia F; Oliveira, Carlos M C; Barbosa, José D; Fonseca, Antônio A; Leite, Rômulo C; Reis, Jenner K P

    2016-07-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis is an infectious disease caused by Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and is well described in bovines. The majority of infected animals are asymptomatic, one to five percent develop lymphoma and from 30 to 50% present a persistent lymphocytosis. The virus occurs naturally in cattle and experimentally in buffaloes, capybaras and rabbits. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffaloes has been attributed to BLV infection by some authors in India and Venezuela, but not confirmed by other studies and little information on natural BLV infection in buffaloes is available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of BLV in a sub-sample of buffalo from Amazon and southeast regions in Brazil. Three hundred and fifteen serum samples were negative using commercial AGID and ELISA (ELISA-gp51) which detect anti-BLV glycoprotein gp51 antibodies. The same samples were also evaluated for antibodies to whole virus through a commercial ELISA (ELISA-BLV) in which 77 (24.44%) were found seropositive and two (0.63%) inconclusive. On the other hand, all animals were negative by PCR to BLV targeted to the env and tax genes. These results suggest that ELISA-BLV produces false positive results in buffalo serum (pAmazon basin and the southeast region of Brazil. Serological tests, like ELISA-BLV, usually used for cattle may produce false-positive results for BLV in buffaloes and direct detection tests such as PCR should be chosen in these surveys. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffalo was not associated with BLV infection in the one case analyzed in this work and the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease should be clarified.

  18. Development of an ante-mortem diagnostic test for enzootic nasal tumor virus and detection of neutralizing antibodies in host serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Scott R; Stinson, Kevin J; Menzies, Paula I; Wootton, Sarah K

    2014-08-01

    Enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma (ENA) is a contagious neoplasm of the nasal mucosa of sheep and goats and is associated with enzootic nasal tumour virus (ENTV). As ENA is a common disease in North America and there are no vaccines against ENTV-1, diagnostic tests that can identify infected animals and assist with eradication and disease surveillance efforts are greatly needed. In this study, we endeavoured to develop a novel, non-invasive diagnostic tool that could be used not only to validate clinical signs of ENA but also to detect ENTV-1 infection prior to the onset of disease signs (i.e. pre-clinical diagnosis). Cytology, serology and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR-based diagnostic methods were investigated. Although the cytology-based assay was able to detect ENTV-1 infection in some animals, it had poor sensitivity and specificity and thus was not developed further as an ante-mortem diagnostic method. Three different assays, including ELISA, Western blotting and virus neutralization, were developed to detect the presence of ENTV-1-specific antibodies in sheep serum. Whilst a surprisingly large number of sheep mounted an antibody-mediated immune response against ENTV-1, and in some cases neutralizing, correlation with disease status was poor. In contrast, RT-PCR on RNA extracted from nasal swabs reliably detected exogenous ENTV-1 sequences, did not amplify endogenous ovine betaretroviral sequences, demonstrated high concordance with immunohistochemical staining for ENTV-1 envelope protein, and had perfect sensitivity and specificity. This report describes a practical and highly specific RT-PCR technique for the detection of clinical and pre-clinical ENA that may prove beneficial in future control or eradication programmes.

  19. Bovine coronavirus hemagglutinin protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, B; Potts, B J; Brian, D A

    1985-02-01

    Treatment of purified bovine coronavirus (Mebus strain) with pronase destroyed the integrity of virion surface glycoproteins gp140, gp120, gp100, reduced the amount of gp26 and destroyed the hemagglutinating activity of the virus. Bromelain, on the other hand, destroyed the integrity of gp120, gp100 and gp26 but failed to remove gp140 and failed to destroy viral hemagglutinating activity. These experiments suggest that gp140 is the virion hemagglutinin. Immunoblotting studies using monospecific antiserum demonstrate that gp140 is a disulfide-linked dimeric structure reducible to monomers of 65 kDa.

  20. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro;

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... chymosin. Both enzymes possess local positively charged patches on their surface that can play a role in interactions with the overall negatively charged C-terminus of κ-casein. Camel chymosin contains two additional positive patches that favour interaction with the substrate. The improved electrostatic...

  1. Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoar, Bruce R.

    2004-01-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...

  2. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Nucleolus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amrutlal K.Patel; Doug Olson; Suresh K. Tikoo

    2010-01-01

    Nucleolus is the most prominent subnuclear structure, which performs a wide variety of functions in the eu-karyotic cellular processes. In order to understand the structural and functional role of the nucleoli in bovine cells,we analyzed the proteomie composition of the bovine nueleoli. The nucleoli were isolated from Madin Darby bo-vine kidney cells and subjected to proteomie analysis by LC-MS/MS after fractionation by SDS-PAGE and strongcation exchange chromatography. Analysis of the data using the Mascot database search and the GPM databasesearch identified 311 proteins in the bovine nucleoli, which contained 22 proteins previously not identified in theproteomic analysis of human nucleoli. Analysis of the identified proteins using the GoMiner software suggestedthat the bovine nueleoli contained proteins involved in ribosomal biogenesis, cell cycle control, transcriptional,translational and post-translational regulation, transport, and structural organization.

  3. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided renal biopsy in children: The need for renal biopsy in pediatric patients with persistent asymptomatic microscopic hematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Ching Yu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB is essential for the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of children with unknown kidney disease. In this study, the safety and efficacy of PRB is investigated, and also the common etiologies of childhood kidney disease, based on histological findings. In addition, we explored the role of PRBs in the diagnosis of children who presented with persistent asymptomatic hematuria. Methods: By chart review, from July 2005 to July 2009, a total of 99 PRBs were performed on 91 children (43 girls and 48 boys; mean age, 10.9 ± 4.4 years under ultrasound (US guidance, by a doctor, using an automated 18-gauge biopsy needle following the same protocol, at a medical center in northern Taiwan. Results: The accuracy of the histological diagnosis was excellent. The most common post-biopsy complications were perirenal hematoma (11.1% and asymptomatic gross hematuria (3.0%, respectively. Nevertheless, these complications resolved spontaneously, and none had major bleeding episodes. Histological results showed that lupus nephritis, minimal change disease, and IgA nephropathy (IgAN could be the current leading causes of childhood kidney diseases in Taiwan. Conclusions: Automated ultrasound (US-guided PRB is a safe and reliable method of assessing childhood renal disease. A recent study shows that the presence of persistent asymptomatic isolated microhematuria in adolescents is a predictive marker of future end-stage renal disease. Hence, the emphasis of renal biopsy on children with persistent asymptomatic hematuria is beneficial for the early diagnosis of IgAN or other glomerulonephritis (GN, which tends toward progressive kidney disease in adulthood without prompt therapeutic intervention.

  4. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or para

  5. AVALIAÇÃO BIOQUÍMICA DO ÁCIDO SIÁLICO COMO BIOMARCADOR TUMORAL EM NOVILHAS CRIADAS EM PROPRIEDADE ENDÊMICA PARA HEMATÚRIA ENZOÓTICA DOS BOVINOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS COELHO DE CARVALHO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern is one of the most concerning toxic vegetables in many countries in the world. Therefore, science aims to find ways for the epidemiological control of bovine intoxication with the purpose of making early diagnoses of Bovine Enzootic Hematuriae. Researches have shown a high correlation between the excessive production of mucoprotein by animals with Bovine Enzootic Hematuriae and sialic acid, proving that this acid acts as an inflammatorybiochemical marker associated to bladder tumor development. Based on this information, serum sialic acid levels of clinically healthy Nellore heifers (control group were statistically compared to Nellore heifers raised in bracken fern endemic properties (experimental group. The average level of serum sialic acid of the control groups was not different from the sialic acid level of the affected group (0.611 ± 0.225 g/L and 0.615 ± 0.258 g/L, respectively. Results obtained in the present study demonstrate no differences of the sialic acid average levels between the groups. Therefore, measurement ofsialic acid serum levels was not effective as a neoplasic biochemical marker in Nellore heifers continuously fed with bracken fern.

  6. L233P mutation of the Tax protein strongly correlated with leukemogenicity of bovine leukemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Emi; Matsumura, Keiko; Soma, Norihiko; Hirasawa, Shintaro; Wakimoto, Mayuko; Arakaki, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Takashi; Osawa, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Katsunori

    2013-12-27

    The bovine leukemia virus (BLV) Tax protein is believed to play a crucial role in leukemogenesis by the virus. BLV usually causes asymptomatic infections in cattle, but only one-third develop persistent lymphocytosis that rarely progress after a long incubation period to lymphoid tumors, namely enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL). In the present study, we demonstrated that the BLV tax genes could be divided into two alleles and developed multiplex PCR detecting an L233P mutation of the Tax protein. Then, in order to define the relationship between the Tax protein and leukemogenicity, we examined 360 tumor samples randomly collected from dairy or breeding cattle in Japan, of which Tax proteins were categorized, for age at the time of diagnosis of EBL. The ages of 288 animals (80.0%) associated with L233-Tax and those of 70 animals (19.4%) with P233-Tax individually followed log-normal distributions. Only the two earliest cases (0.6%) with L233-Tax disobeyed the log-normal distribution. These findings suggest that the animals affected by EBL were infected with the virus at a particular point in life, probably less than a few months after birth. Median age of those with P233-Tax was 22 months older than that with L233-Tax and geometric means exhibited a significant difference (PTax protein infect older cattle. Here, we conclude that BLV could be divided into two categories on the basis of amino acid at position 233 of the Tax protein, which strongly correlated with leukemogenicity.

  7. Detection and molecular characterization of bovine leukemia virus in Philippine cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Meripet; Ohno, Ayumu; Takeshima, Shin-Nosuke; Kim, Jiyun; Kikuya, Mari; Matsumoto, Yuki; Mingala, Claro Niegos; Onuma, Misao; Aida, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the etiological agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, which is the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. BLV infects cattle worldwide, imposing a severe economic impact on the dairy cattle industry. However, there are no comprehensive studies on the distribution of BLV in the Philippines, and the genetic characteristics of Philippine BLV strains are unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to detect BLV infections in the Philippines and determined their genetic variability. Blood samples were obtained from 1116 cattle from different farms on five Philippine islands, and BLV provirus was detected by BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2 and nested PCR targeting BLV long terminal repeats. Out of 1116 samples, 108 (9.7 %) and 54 (4.8 %) were positive for BLV provirus, as determined by BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2 and nested PCR, respectively. Of the five islands, Luzon Island showed the highest prevalence of BLV infection (23.1 %). Partial env gp51 genes from 43 samples, which were positive for BLV provirus by both methods, were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic analysis based on a 423-bp fragment of the env gene revealed that Philippine BLV strains clustered into either genotype 1 or genotype 6. Substitutions were mainly found in antigenic determinants, such as the CD4(+) T-cell epitope, the CD8(+) T-cell epitope, the second neutralizing domain, B and E epitopes, and these substitutions varied according to genotype. This study provides comprehensive information regarding BLV infection levels in the Philippines and documents the presence of two BLV genotypes, genotypes 1 and 6, in this population.

  8. Ovine Enzootic Abortion (OEA: a comparison of antibody responses in vaccinated and naturally-infected swiss sheep over a two year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann Dieter R

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention and control of ovine enzootic abortion (OEA can be achieved by application of a live vaccine. In this study, five sheep flocks with different vaccination and infection status were serologically tested using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA specific for Chlamydophila (Cp. abortus over a two-year time period. Results Sheep in Flock A with recent OEA history had high antibody values after vaccination similar to Flock C with natural Cp. abortus infections. In contrast, OEA serology negative sheep (Flock E showed individual animal-specific immunoreactions after vaccination. Antibody levels of vaccinated ewes in Flock B ranged from negative to positive two and three years after vaccination, respectively. Positive antibody values in the negative control Flock D (without OEA or vaccination are probably due to asymptomatic intestinal infections with Cp. abortus. Excretion of the attenuated strain of Cp. abortus used in the live vaccine through the eye was not observed in vaccinated animals of Flock E. Conclusion The findings of our study indicate that, using serology, no distinction can be made between vaccinated and naturally infected sheep. As a result, confirmation of a negative OEA status in vaccinated animals by serology cannot be determined.

  9. Emergence of a sylvatic enzootic formosan ferret badger-associated rabies in Taiwan and the geographical separation of two phylogenetic groups of rabies viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, K J; Hsu, W C; Chuang, W C; Chang, J C; Tu, Y C; Tsai, H J; Liu, H F; Wang, F I; Lee, S H

    2016-01-15

    Taiwan had been declared rabies-free in humans and domestic animals for five decades until July 2013, when surprisingly, three Formosan ferret badgers (FB) were diagnosed with rabies. Since then, a variety of wild carnivores and other wildlife species have been found dead, neurologically ill, or exhibiting aggressive behaviors around the island. To determine the affected animal species, geographic areas, and environments, animal bodies were examined for rabies by direct fluorescent antibody test (FAT). The viral genomes from the brains of selected rabid animals were sequenced for the phylogeny of rabies viruses (RABV). Out of a total of 1016 wild carnivores, 276/831 (33.2%) Formosan FBs were FAT positive, with occasional biting incidents in 1 dog and suspected spillover in 1 house shrew. All other animals tested, including dogs, cats, bats, mice, house shrews, and squirrels, were rabies-negative. The rabies was badger-associated and confined to nine counties/cities in sylvatic environments. Phylogeny of nucleoprotein and glycoprotein genes from 59 Formosan FB-associated RABV revealed them to be clustered in two distinct groups, TWI and TWII, consistent with the geographic segregation into western and eastern Taiwan provided by the Central Mountain Range and into northern rabies-free and central-southern rabies-affected regions by a river bisecting western Taiwan. The unique features of geographic and genetic segregation, sylvatic enzooticity, and FB-association of RABV suggest a logical strategy for the control of rabies in this nation. PMID:26711025

  10. Bovine Tuberculosis, A Zoonotic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarmudji

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is caused by the infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis (M. bovis. This species is one of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, can infect wide range of hosts: cattle and other domesticated animals, wild mammals and humans (zoonotic. M. bovis bacterium from infected hosts can be transmitted to other susceptible animals and humans through respiratory excretes and secretion materials. Humans can be infected with M. bovis by ingested M. bovis contaminated animal products, unpasteurised milk from tuberculosis cows or through respiratory route of contaminated aerosol. Bovine tuberculosis at the first stage does not show any clinical sign but as the disease progress in the next stage which may take several months or years, clinical signs may arise, suh as: fluctuative body temperature, anorexia, lost body weight, coughing, oedema of lymph nodes, increased respiratory frequencies. Pathological lesion of bovine tuberculosis is characterised by the formation of granulomas (tubercles, in which bacterial cells have been localised, most in lymph nodes and pulmonum, but can occur in other organs. The granulomas usually arise in small nodules or tubercles appear yellowish either caseus, caseo-calcareus or calcified. In Indonesia, bovine tuberculosis occurred in dairy cattle since 1905 through the imported dairy cows from Holland and Australian. It was unfortunate that until recently, there were not many research and surveilances of bovine tuberculosis conducted in this country, so the distribution of bovine tuberculosis is unknown. Early serological diagnosis can be done on live cattle by means of tuberculin tests under field conditions. Confirmation can be done by isolation and identification of excreted and secreted samples from the slaughter house. Antibiotic treatment and vaccination were uneffective, therefore the effective control of bovine tuberculosis is suggested by tuberculin tests and by slaughtering the selected

  11. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  12. Association of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus with Multiple Viral Infections in Bovine Respiratory Disease Outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Richer, Lisette; Marois, Paul; Lamontagne, Lucie

    1988-01-01

    We investigated eleven outbreaks of naturally occurring bovine respiratory diseases in calves and adult animals in the St-Hyacinthe area of Quebec. Specific antibodies to bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, reovirus type 3, and serotypes 1 to 7 of bovine adenovirus were found in paired sera from diseased animals. Several bovine viruses with respiratory tropism were involved concomitantly in herds during an outbreak of bov...

  13. Material Properties of Inorganic Bovine Cancellous Bovine: Nukbone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña, Cristina; Palma, Benito; Munguía, Nadia

    2006-09-01

    In this work, inorganic cancellous bovine bone implants prepared in the Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales — UNAM were characterized. Elementary chemical analysis was made, toxic elements concentration were measured and the content of organic matter also. These implants fulfill all the requirements of the ASTM standards, and therefore it is possible their use in medical applications.

  14. Ataxia enzoótica en ciervo rojo (Cervus elaphus en Argentina Enzootic ataxia in red deer (Cervus elaphus in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P Soler

    2007-01-01

    crecimiento fetal. Considerando que esta enfermedad se presenta usualmente en forma estacional, es de gran importancia realizar muestreos de sangre en la época de mayor riesgo (principios de primavera con el fin de hacer un diagnóstico temprano. De acuerdo a los datos clínicos, de laboratorio y epidemiológicos, se concluye que el diagnóstico corresponde a "ataxia enzoótica por deficiencia de Cu".Enzootic ataxia is a pathology that causes slow and progressive paralysis of the hind limbs in red deer and has been related to copper (Cu deficiency. This condition is not seen until deer are about 9 months old. The objective of this paper is to describe a clinical case of enzootic ataxia in red deer kept in captivity in Argentina. The problem started with two pregnant female deer that showed hind limb weakness. One was slaughtered for necropsy. Blood and organ samples were taken, and the latter were kept in formaldehyde at 10%. A necropsy of the foetus was also carried out and a liver sample was taken. Grass and water were analyzed. Cu, Fe, Zn, Mo and SO4 levels were measured in grass, while total salt, SO4 , Ca, Mg, Na and Cl levels were measured in water. Disease prevalence was 0.14%. Liver Cu values were 14.6 ppm and 337 ppm DM in the female and foetus respectively. Blood Cu level in the female was 0.5 μg/ml and haematocrit was 46%. In spinal cord a general medullar myelin sheath loss was found, but it was more severe in dorsal regions of the medulla. Vacuolization of white substance with no inflammatory response was also observed. Although liver Cu levels in the slaughtered female were lower than those considered as limiting, cupraemia was within the normal range. This is a commonly observed characteristic in Cu deficiency. Cu liver values in the foetus were also below the normal range. As this is a cronic disease, it is probable that the animals were exposed to a low Cu level diet for a long time. This condition could have been worsened by the high Cu demand during

  15. Assessing bovine babesiosis in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus ticks and 3 to 9-month-old cattle in the middle Magdalena region, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ríos-Tobón

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Babesia sp. is a protozoan hemoparasite that affects livestock worldwide. The Colombian Middle Magdalena is an enzootic region for babesiosis, but there is no previous research providing detail on its transmission cycle. This study aims to assess some Babesia sp. infection indicators in cattle and ticks from the area, by using direct microscopic and molecular techniques to detect the infection. In the cattle, 59.9% and 3.4 % positivity values for B. bigemina and mixed infection (B. bovis + B. bigemina were found respectively. In ticks, the positivity of B. bigemina reached 79.2% and 9.4% for the mixed infection. The degree of infestation in the region was 3.2 ticks per bovine. There was positive correlation between tick control acaricide frequencies and infestation in bovines. This leads us to infer that control periodicity greater than 90 days, in stable zones, is an abiotic factor that benefits the acquisition of protective immunity in calves, the natural control of the infection and eventual disease absence. It is necessary to monitor the disease by applying new entomological and parasitological indicators showing the complexity of this phenomenon.

  16. An 8-year longitudinal sero-epidemiological study of bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) infection in dairy cattle in Turkey and analysis of risk factors associated with BLV seropositivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şevik, Murat; Avcı, Oğuzhan; İnce, Ömer Barış

    2015-04-01

    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) which is caused by bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) has an important economic impact on dairy herds due to reduced milk production and restrictions on livestock exports. This study was conducted to determine the BLV infection status in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey, an important milk production centre, and to examine the risk factors such as purchasing cattle, increasing cattle age, cattle breed and herd size associated with transmission of BLV infection. To estimate the rate of BLV infection, a survey for specific antibodies in 28,982 serum samples from animals belonging to 1116 different herds situated in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey were tested from January 2006 to December 2013. A generalized mixed linear model was used to evaluate the risk factors that influenced BLV seroprevalence. Antibodies against BLV were detected in 431 (2.28 %) of 18,822 Holstein and 29 (0.28 %) of 10,160 Brown Swiss cows. Among 1116 herds, 132 herds (11.82 %) had one or more positive animals. Also results of our study show that the prevalence of BLV infection increased from 2006 to 2011, and it tends to reduce with BLV control programme. Furthermore, we found positive associations between percentage of seropositive animal and increasing cattle age, herd size, cattle breed and purchased cattle. Age-specific prevalence showed that BLV prevalence increased with age. These factors should be taken into consideration for control of BLV infection.

  17. 用单抗研究T细胞与牛流行性白血病发生的关系%T cell relation to occurrence of enzootic bovine leucosis observing by MoAb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘耀谦; 夏志平; 高丰; 冈田幸助

    2001-01-01

    本试验对10头患流行性白血病病牛的不同器官的肿瘤组织,用8种单克隆抗体(McAb),TH14B、BAQ44A、PIg45A、BIg715A、PIg501E、cAct105、MM1A、AH-CC125染色进行了观察.结果:病牛经临床病理学和免疫琼扩试验而诊断为EBL,通过免疫组织化学检测,在10个病例中发现有9个病例的肿瘤组织对B细胞属性的McAb有很强的染色反应,证明其来源于B细胞.仅有1个病例对B细胞属性的McAb着色很淡,而对T细胞属性的McAb着色很深,呈强阳性反应,说明其来源可能与T细胞有关.

  18. Studies on the expression and distribution of P53 protein in enzootic bovine leucosis tumorous tissue%流行性牛白血病肿瘤组织P53表达和分布研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙塔; 余锐萍; 潘耀谦; 杨自军; 董发明; 杨玉荣; 王天奇; 温文彦; 曹平华

    2004-01-01

    采用免疫组织化学ABC法对14例流行性牛白血病肿瘤组织P53蛋白阳性表达和分布进行了观察分析,结果表明:肿瘤组织中P53阳性细胞表达形式有三种,即弥散型、局灶型和周边型.14例流行性牛白血病淋巴结肿瘤组织中,P53阳性表达率64.2%,心脏肿瘤组织中P53阳性表达率80%,8例肾脏肿瘤组织中P53阳性表达率75%,相应瘤旁组织中均未发现P53阳性表达.淋巴结、肾脏、心脏肿瘤三种组织中P53阳性细胞表达强度差异不显著(P>0.05).提示,流行性牛白血病的发生与肿瘤组织中P53蛋白表达有重要关系.

  19. The use of ELISA and nucleic acid hybridization tests in research and diagnosis of bovine leukosis virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is a disease that affects adult cattle although animals can carry the virus without showing any clinical symptoms. An initial survey in Cuba using the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) revealed that only 15% of the animals on the island were infected and it was therefore decided to undertake a control and eradication campaign. However, prior to the onset of this campaign it was felt necessary to examine a variety of more modern diagnostic procedures to determine which might be most applicable. For the detection of antibodies an ELISA system based on the use of SUMA (a micro-analytical system developed in Cuba) was compared with the AGID and syncytia inhibition test and found to be more sensitive than AGID and far more suitable for large-scale use than either of the other two. For detection of viral proteins the ELISA was compared with a reverse transcriptase assay and the use of immunoperoxidase staining. The latter two methods detected viral proteins in over 50% more samples than the ELISA and although the ELISA is more simple than either of the other to assays when used routinely, its low sensitivity would preclude its use in an eradication programme. (author). 10 refs, 4 tabs

  20. Risk factors associated with increased bovine leukemia virus proviral load in infected cattle in Japan from 2012 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Ayumu; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Matsumoto, Yuki; Aida, Yoko

    2015-12-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, a malignant B cell lymphoma. BLV has spread worldwide and causes serious problems. After infection, the BLV genome is integrated into the host DNA and can be amplified during periods of latency. We previously designed degenerate primers using the Coordination of Common Motifs (CoCoMo) algorithm to establish a new quantitative real-time PCR method (BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2) of measuring the proviral load of both known and novel BLV variants. Here, we aimed to examine the correlation between proviral load and risk factors for BLV infection, such as breeding systems, parousity, and colostrum feeding. Blood and serum samples were collected from 83 BLV-positive farms in 22 prefectures of Japan, and the BLV proviral load and anti-BLV antibody levels were measured. BLV was detected in 73.3% (1039/1,417) of cattle by BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2 and the provirus was detected in 93 of 1039 antibody-negative samples. The results showed that the proviral load increased with progression of lymphocytosis. Next, the risk factors associated with increasing BLV infection rate were examined along with any association with proviral load. The proviral load was higher in cattle with lymphocytosis than in healthy cattle, and higher in multiparous cows than in nulliparous cows. Finally, proviral loads were higher in contact breeding systems than in non-contact breeding systems. Taken together, these findings may help to formulate a plan for eliminating BLV from contaminated farms. This is the first nationwide study to estimate BLV proviral load in Japanese cattle.

  1. Risk analysis and seroprevalence of bovine ephemeral fever virus in cattle in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghawa, Ahmed; Housawi, Fadhel Mohamed Taher; Al-Naeem, Abdulmohsen; Al-Nakhly, Hassan; Kamr, Ahmed; Toribio, Ramiro

    2016-03-01

    Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) is an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus that causes disabling clinical signs and major economic losses in cattle and water buffalo. The disease is well documented in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East; however, the seroprevalence of BEFV in different regions and bovine breeds in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze risk factors which affect the prevalence of antibodies against BEFV in small herds of cattle in four geographical regions of KSA. A total of 1480 serum samples from non-BEFV vaccinated small herds of cattle were collected from the Eastern, Jizan, Qasim, and Riyadh regions (370 samples per region) during the summer of 2010. Serum neutralization test was used to detect antibodies against BEFV. There was a significant effect of region, breed, sex, and age on the seroprevalence of BEFV. Seropositive ratios were 18, 18, 26, and 12 % for the Eastern, Jizan, Qasim, and Riyadh regions, respectively (P = 0.00002); 23.2 % for dairy and 13.7 % for non-dairy breeds (P = 0.00004); 24.4 % for males and 14.6 % for females (P = 0.00004); and 15.4, 29.1, and 11.4 % for animals 3 years, respectively (P < 0.001). Risk analysis showed a significant effect of different regions of KSA on the seroprevalence of BEFV. Host risk factors (age, sex, and breed) showed also a significant effect on the seroprevalence of BEFV. This indicates active circulation of this virus in small herds of cattle. Insect control strategies and BEFV vaccination programs during the spring are recommended to reduce the spread of BEFV and minimize subsequent economic losses as this is adopted in many enzootic countries. PMID:26676243

  2. Detection of a Novel Bovine Lymphotropic Herpesvirus

    OpenAIRE

    Rovnak, Joel; Quackenbush, Sandra L.; Reyes, Richard A.; Baines, Joel D.; Parrish, Colin R.; Casey, James W.

    1998-01-01

    Degenerate PCR primers which amplify a conserved region of the DNA polymerase genes of the herpesvirus family were used to provide sequence evidence for a new bovine herpesvirus in bovine B-lymphoma cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The sequence of the resultant amplicon was found to be distinct from those of known herpesvirus isolates. Alignment of amino acid sequences demonstrated 70% identity with ovine herpesvirus 2, 69% with alcelaphine herpesvirus 1, 65% with bovine h...

  3. Bovine Chymosin: A Computational Study of Recognition and Binding of Bovine κ-Casein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, David S.; Christensen, Anders Uhrenholt; Sørensen, Jesper;

    2010-01-01

    Bovine chymosin is an aspartic protease that selectively cleaves the milk protein κ-casein. The enzyme is widely used to promote milk clotting in cheese manufacturing. We have developed models of residues 97-112 of bovine κ-casein complexed with bovine chymosin, using ligand docking, conformation...

  4. Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans What is Mycobacterium bovis ? In the United States, the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in people are caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( ...

  5. Molecular epidemiological and serological studies of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in Thailand cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, EunJung; Kim, Eun-Ju; Ratthanophart, Jadsada; Vitoonpong, Ratchaneekorn; Kim, Bo-Hye; Cho, In-Soo; Song, Jae-Young; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Shin, Yeun-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    BLV is the etiological agent of enzootic bovine leucosis. BLV has negative effects on animal health and causes economic losses worldwide. However, epidemiological studies on BLV are relatively unknown in many parts of Asian countries. Thus, this study sought to explore BLV infections in cattle in Thailand to determine the extent of the geographic distribution of BLV and to measure its prevalence rates. For this study, 744 cattle from 11 farms in 9 provinces of Thailand were screened in 2013 and 2014 by ELISA and nested PCR. Of those cattle, 41 BLVs were genetically characterized using 188 BLV gp51 env gene sequences available in GenBank. The BLV prevalence in Thailand was high, ranging from 5.3% to 87.8%, as determined by PCR and 11.0% to 100% as determined by ELISA, according to geographical region. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Thailand BLVs belonged to genotypes 1 and 6 and a new genotype 10, which are sporadically observed across Thailand with a prevalence of 31.7%, 19.5%, and 48.8%, respectively. A significant number of amino acid substitutions were also found in the gp51 sequences, of which unique changes in genotype 10 have not been reported previously. Briefly, the majority of substitutions were confined to CD4+/CD8+ T-cell epitopes, neutralizing domains, and E-D-A epitopes. Those observations indicate that BLV infections in Thailand cattle are prevalent and that the geographic distribution of BLV is dynamic, with a high level of genetic diversity. This distribution implies a long-term BLV infection in cattle populations and the movement of infected cattle. In sum, this study suggests that intensive surveillance and effective prevention strategies are required to determine the prevalence of BLV in Thailand and control continuous infections with BLVs.

  6. Bovine Necrotic Vulvovaginitis Associated with Porphyromonas levii

    OpenAIRE

    Elad, Daniel; Friedgut, Orly; Alpert, Nir; Stram, Yehuda; Lahav, Dan; Tiomkin, Doron; Avramson, Miriam; Grinberg, Kalia; Bernstein, Michael

    2004-01-01

    An outbreak of bovine necrotic vulvovaginitis associated with Porphyromonas levii, an emerging animal and human pathogen, affected 32 cows on a dairy farm in the northeast of Israel. Five animals had to be culled. This report appears to be the first that associates P. levii with bovine necrotic vulvovagnitis.

  7. In vitro production of bovine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroebech, L.; Mazzoni, Gianluca; Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard;

    2015-01-01

    In vitro production (IVP) of bovine embryos has become a widespread technology implemented in cattle breeding and production. The implementation of genomic selection and systems biology adds great dimensions to the impact of bovine IVP. The physical procedures included in the IVP process can still...

  8. Novel CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell epitopes in bovine leukemia virus with cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lanlan; Takeshima, Shin-Nosuke; Isogai, Emiko; Kohara, Junko; Aida, Yoko

    2015-12-16

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis and is closely related to human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV). The cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) plays a key role in suppressing the progression of disease caused by BLV. T and B cell epitopes in BLV have been studied, but CD8(+) CTL epitopes remain poorly understood. We used a library of 115 synthetic peptides covering the entirety of the Env proteins (gp51 and gp30), the Gag proteins (p15, p24, and p12), and the Tax protein of BLV to identify 11 novel CD8(+) T cell epitopes (gp51N5, gp51N11, gp51N12, gp30N5, gp30N6, gp30N8, gp30N16, tax16, tax18, tax19, and tax20) in four calves experimentally infected with BLV. The number of CD8(+) T cell epitopes that could be identified in each calf correlated with the BLV proviral load. Interestingly, among the 11 epitopes identified, only gp51N11 was capable of inducing CD8(+) T cell-mediated cytotoxicity in all four calves, but it is not a suitable vaccine target because it shows a high degree of polymorphism according to the Wu-Kabat variability index. By contrast, no CTL epitopes were identified from the Gag structural protein. In addition, several epitopes were obtained from gp30 and Tax, indicating that cellular immunity against BLV is strongly targeted to these proteins. CD8(+) CTL epitopes from gp30 and Tax were less polymorphic than epitopes from. Indeed, peptides tax16, tax18, tax19, and tax20 include a leucine-rich activation domain that encompasses a transcriptional activation domain, and the gp30N16 peptide contains a proline-rich region that interacts with a protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP1 to regulate B cell activation. Moreover, at least one CD8(+) CTL epitope derived from gp30 was identified in each of the four calves. These results indicate that BLV gp30 may be the best candidate for the development of a BLV vaccine. PMID:26552001

  9. Novel CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell epitopes in bovine leukemia virus with cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lanlan; Takeshima, Shin-Nosuke; Isogai, Emiko; Kohara, Junko; Aida, Yoko

    2015-12-16

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis and is closely related to human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV). The cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) plays a key role in suppressing the progression of disease caused by BLV. T and B cell epitopes in BLV have been studied, but CD8(+) CTL epitopes remain poorly understood. We used a library of 115 synthetic peptides covering the entirety of the Env proteins (gp51 and gp30), the Gag proteins (p15, p24, and p12), and the Tax protein of BLV to identify 11 novel CD8(+) T cell epitopes (gp51N5, gp51N11, gp51N12, gp30N5, gp30N6, gp30N8, gp30N16, tax16, tax18, tax19, and tax20) in four calves experimentally infected with BLV. The number of CD8(+) T cell epitopes that could be identified in each calf correlated with the BLV proviral load. Interestingly, among the 11 epitopes identified, only gp51N11 was capable of inducing CD8(+) T cell-mediated cytotoxicity in all four calves, but it is not a suitable vaccine target because it shows a high degree of polymorphism according to the Wu-Kabat variability index. By contrast, no CTL epitopes were identified from the Gag structural protein. In addition, several epitopes were obtained from gp30 and Tax, indicating that cellular immunity against BLV is strongly targeted to these proteins. CD8(+) CTL epitopes from gp30 and Tax were less polymorphic than epitopes from. Indeed, peptides tax16, tax18, tax19, and tax20 include a leucine-rich activation domain that encompasses a transcriptional activation domain, and the gp30N16 peptide contains a proline-rich region that interacts with a protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP1 to regulate B cell activation. Moreover, at least one CD8(+) CTL epitope derived from gp30 was identified in each of the four calves. These results indicate that BLV gp30 may be the best candidate for the development of a BLV vaccine.

  10. An outbreak of bovine trypanosomiasis in the Blue Nile State, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Ichiro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper, we report an outbreak of bovine trypanosomiasis in Kurmuk District, Blue Nile State, Sudan that involved an infection with four Trypanosoma species in cattle. The outbreak occurred in June 2010 when indigenous cattle, mainly Kenana and Fulani breed types, crossed the national Sudanese border to Ethiopia and returned. A veterinarian was notified of massive deaths in the cattle populations that recently came from Ethiopia. All animals involved in the outbreak were from the nomadic Fulani group and resident local cattle were not infected and no death has been reported among them. A total of 210 blood samples were collected from the ear vein of cattle. A few samples were also collected from other domestic animals species. Parasitological examinations including hematocrit centrifugation techniques (HCT and Giemsa-stained thin blood films were carried out. ITS1-PCR, which provides a multi-species-specific diagnosis in a single PCR, was performed. Findings Parasitological examinations revealed that 43% (91/210 of the affected cattle population was infected with two morphologically distinct trypanosomes. Seventy animals (33.3% were infected with T. vivax and twenty one (10% with T. congolense. In contrast, ITS1-PCR was able to identify four Trypanosoma species namely T. vivax, T. congolense, T. simiae and T. brucei in 56.7% (80/141. T. brucei showed the highest prevalence of 36.9% (52/141 and the lowest 19% (27/141 was displayed by T. congolense. Furthermore, and because ITS1-PCR could not differentiate between T. brucei subspecies, serum resistance-associated (SRA gene based PCR was used to detect the human T. brucei rhodesiense in T. brucei positive samples. None of the samples was shown positive for T. b. rhodesiense. The identity of the 400 bp PCR product originating from T. simiae, was further confirmed by sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic analysis. Conclusions The outbreak of bovine trypanosomiasis occurred

  11. Scientific Opinion on bovine lactoferrin

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA)

    2012-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to carry out the additional assessment for ‘lactoferrin’ as a food ingredient in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97 taking into account the comments and objections of a scientific nature raised by Member States. Bovine lactoferrin (bLF) is a protein that occurs naturally in cow’s milk. The applicant intends to market bLF that is isolated from cheese whe...

  12. Models of bovine babesiosis including juvenile cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad-Roy, C M; Shuai, Zhisheng; van den Driessche, P

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Babesiosis in cattle is caused by the transmission of protozoa of Babesia spp. by ticks as vectors. Juvenile cattle (resistance to Bovine Babesiosis, rarely show symptoms, and acquire immunity upon recovery. Susceptibility to the disease varies between breeds of cattle. Models of the dynamics of Bovine Babesiosis transmitted by the cattle tick that include these factors are formulated as systems of ordinary differential equations. Basic reproduction numbers are calculated, and it is proved that if these numbers are below the threshold value of one, then Bovine Babesiosis dies out. However, above the threshold number of one, the disease may approach an endemic state. In this case, control measures are suggested by determining target reproduction numbers. The percentage of a particular population (for example, the adult bovine population) needed to be controlled to eradicate the disease is evaluated numerically using Columbia data from the literature. PMID:25715822

  13. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp;

    2014-01-01

    Bovine colostrum, the first milk that cows produce after parturition, contains high levels of growth factors and immunomodulatory components. Some healthy and diseased individuals may gain health benefits by consuming bovine colostrum as a food supplement. This review provides a systematic...... to populations, outcomes, and methodological quality, as judged by the Jadad assessment tool. Many studies used surrogate markers to study the effects of bovine colostrum. Studies suggesting clinical benefits of colostrum supplementation were generally of poor methodological quality, and results could...... not be confirmed by other investigators. Bovine colostrum may provide gastrointestinal and immunological benefits, but further studies are required before recommendations can be made for clinical application. Animal models may help researchers to better understand the mechanisms of bovine colostrum supplementation...

  14. Bracken fern poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) is found throughout the world and enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews the plant, the various poisoning syndrome that it produces, the current strategies to prevent poisoning, and recommended treatments....

  15. Updating of the bovine neosporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Martínez Contreras

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the fields of Medicine and bovine production, there is a wide variety of diseases affecting reproduction, in relation to the number of live births, the interval between births and open days, among others. Some of these diseases produce abortions and embryonic death, which explain the alteration of reproductive parameters. Many of these diseases have an infectious origin, such as parasites, bacteria, viruses and fungi, which are transmitted among animals. Besides, some of them have zoonotic features that generate problems to human health. Among these agents, the Neospora caninum, protozoan stands out. Its life cycle is fulfilled in several species of animals like the dog and the coyote. These two act as its definitive hosts and the cattle as its intermediary host. The Neospora caninum causes in the infected animals, reproductive disorders, clinical manifestations and decreased production which affects productivity of small, medium and large producers. Because of this, diagnostic techniques that allow understanding the epidemiological behavior of this disease have been developed. However in spite of being a major agent in the bovine reproductive health, few studies have been undertaken to determine the prevalence of this agent around the world. Therefore, the objective of this review was to collect updated information on the behavior of this parasite, targeting its epidemiology, its symptoms, its impact on production and the methods of its control and prevention.

  16. Adipogenesis of bovine perimuscular preadipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, non-transformed progeny adipofibroblasts, derived from mature adipocyte dedifferentiation, was used as a novel in vitro model to study adipogenic gene expression in cattle. Adipofibroblasts from dedifferentiated mature perimuscular fat (PMF) tissue were cultured with differentiation stimulants until the cells exhibited morphological differentiation. Treated cells were harvested from day 2 to 16 for RNA extraction, whereas control cells were cultured without addition of stimulants. Results from time course gene expression assays by quantitative real-time PCR revealed that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) and their six down-stream genes were co-expressed at day 2 post-differentiation induction. When compared to other adipogenesis culture systems, the adipogenic gene expression of bovine PMF adipofibroblasts culture was different, especially to the rodent model. Collectively, these results demonstrated PPAR-γ and SREBP-1 cooperatively play a key role to regulate the re-differentiation of bovine adipofibroblasts, during early conversion stages in vitro

  17. BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR: a useful tool for evaluating bovine leukemia virus infection status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimba Mayuko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine leukemia virus (BLV is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis, which is the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. BLV infects cattle worldwide, imposing a severe economic impact on the dairy cattle industry. Recently, we developed a new quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR method using Coordination of Common Motifs (CoCoMo primers to measure the proviral load of known and novel BLV variants in BLV-infected animals. Indeed, the assay was highly effective in detecting BLV in cattle from a range of international locations. This assay enabled us to demonstrate that proviral load correlates not only with BLV infection capacity as assessed by syncytium formation, but also with BLV disease progression. In this study, we compared the sensitivity of our BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR method for detecting BLV proviruses with the sensitivities of two real-time PCR systems, and also determined the differences of proviral load with serotests. Results BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR was found to be highly sensitive when compared with the real-time PCR-based TaqMan MGB assay developed by Lew et al. and the commercial TaKaRa cycleave PCR system. The BLV copy number determined by BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR was only partially correlated with the positive rate for anti-BLV antibody as determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, passive hemagglutination reaction, or agar gel immunodiffusion. This result indicates that, although serotests are widely used for the diagnosis of BLV infection, it is difficult to detect BLV infection with confidence by using serological tests alone. Two cattle were experimentally infected with BLV. The kinetics of the provirus did not precisely correlate with the change in anti-BLV antibody production. Moreover, both reactions were different in cattle that carried different bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA-DRB3 genotypes. Conclusions Our results suggest that the quantitative measurement of proviral load by BLV

  18. Arterial diffuse intimal thickening associated with enzootic calcinosis of sheep Espessamento intimal difuso das artérias na calcinose enzoótica dos ovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeri Oliveira Vasconcelos

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies were carried out on the diffuse intimal thickening (DIT in arteries of 7 sheep with clinical signs of naturally occurring enzootic calcinosis due to ingestion of the plant Nierembergia veitchii. Arterial lesions consisted of medial deposition of calcium salts and DIT. Calcification of the intima was rare, mild and located near the elastic lamina. By immunohistochemistry a-actin was detected in cells of the media and in cells forming the intimal thickening. Receptors for 1,25(OH2 vitamin D3 were detected in nuclei of intimal, medial and endothelial cells. DIT was irregularly distributed and was neither proportionally related to the intensity of the underlying mineralization area nor to the thickening of the remaining media. Ultrastructural morphometry in smooth muscle cells (SMCs of the media and thickened intima revealed, in the latter, an increase of 318% in the volumetric fraction of those organelles involved in synthesis and a proportional decrease in contractile elements when compared to normal values of media cells. There were histological and ultrastructural evidences of modification of SMCs and their migration to the intima, where they proliferated causing DIT. It was concluded that DIT is a consistent component of arteriosclerotic lesions in N. veitchii induced calcinosis of sheep and that the predominant cell in this process is the SMCs originated from its predecessors of the media. It is suggested that the inducing factor for the arterial changes is 1,25(OH2 D3 present in N. veitchii.Foram feitos estudos morfométrico, imunoistoquímico e ultra-estrutural do espessamento intimal difuso (DIT das artérias de 7 ovinos com sinais clínicos de calcinose enzoótica espontânea causada pela ingestão da planta Nierembergia veitchii. As lesões caracterizavam-se por deposição de sais de cálcio na média como placas e estrias que, com frequência faziam saliência para a luz

  19. Immunoprophylaxis of bovine respiratory syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogan Dragan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Respiratory Syndrome (BRS is a multifactorial disease caused by the interaction of infective agents, the environment and the individual immunological response of animals in the herd. Despite five decades of research on BRS, no clear understanding of how environmental factors influence pathogenic outcomes of the disease has been defined. As such, the development of immunoprophylaxis and vaccine programmes to prevent outbreaks of BRS in cattle has not been successful. The current paper discusses vaccination programmes for all categories of cattle and presents a review of existing vaccines being used for immunoprophylaxis of respiratory syndrome in cattle and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the currently used vaccines and vaccination programmes. Lastly, a discussion detailing the design of future perfect vaccines is presented.

  20. Search for the genome of bovine herpesvirus types 1, 4 and 5 in bovine semen

    OpenAIRE

    P.E. Morán; Favier, P.A.; Lomónaco, M.; Catena, M.C.; M.L. Chiapparrone; Odeón, A.C.; Verna, A.E.; S.E. Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) causes respiratory and reproductive disorders in cattle. Recently, bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) and bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BoHV-4) have been identified to be associated with genital disease. In this study, the presence of the genome of BoHV-1, BoHV-4 and BoHV-5 in bovine semen of Argentinean and international origin was analyzed by PCR assays. The most important finding of this study is the detection of the genome of BoHV-1 and BoHV-4 in semen of b...

  1. Interfacial behaviour of bovine testis hyaluronidase

    OpenAIRE

    Belem-Gonçalves, Silvia; Tsan, Pascale; Lancelin, Jean-Marc; Alves, Tito L. M.; Salim, Vera M.; Besson, Françoise

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The interfacial properties of bovine testicular hyaluronidase were suggested by demonstrating the association of hyaluronidase activity with membranes prepared from bovine testis. Protein adsorption to the air/water interface was investigated using surface pressure-area isotherms. Whatever the way to obtain interfacial films (protein injection or deposition), the hyaluronidase exhibited a significant affinity for the air/water interface. The isotherm obtained 180 min after...

  2. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: biotypes and disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Deregt, D; Loewen, K G

    1995-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus continues to produce significant economic losses for the cattle industry and challenges investigators with the complexity of diseases it produces and the mechanisms by which it causes disease. This paper updates and attempts to clarify information regarding the roles of noncytopathic and cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses in persistent infections and mucosal disease. It also covers, in brief, what is known of the new diseases: thrombocytopenia and hemorrhagic...

  3. Bovine endometrial stromal cells display osteogenic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavirani Sandro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The endometrium is central to mammalian fertility. The endometrial stromal cells are very dynamic, growing and differentiating throughout the estrous cycle and pregnancy. In humans, stromal cells appear to have progenitor or stem cell capabilities and the cells can even differentiate into bone. It is not clear whether bovine endometrial stromal cells exhibit a similar phenotypic plasticity. So, the present study tested the hypothesis that bovine endometrial stromal cells could be differentiated along an osteogenic lineage. Pure populations of bovine stromal cells were isolated from the endometrium. The endometrial stromal cell phenotype was confirmed by morphology, prostaglandin secretion, and susceptibility to viral infection. However, cultivation of the cells in standard endometrial cell culture medium lead to a mesenchymal phenotype similar to that of bovine bone marrow cells. Furthermore, the endometrial stromal cells developed signs of osteogenesis, such as alizarin positive nodules. When the stromal cells were cultured in a specific osteogenic medium the cells rapidly developed the characteristics of mineralized bone. In conclusion, the present study has identified that stromal cells from the bovine endometrium show a capability for phenotype plasticity similar to mesenchymal progenitor cells. These observations pave the way for further investigation of the mechanisms of stroma cell differentiation in the bovine reproductive tract.

  4. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. PMID:27436438

  5. Frequently Asked Questions on BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or Mad Cow Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BSE / FAQ on BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or Mad Cow Disease) Programs Beginning Farmer and Rancher Development Farm Storage ... Asked Questions on BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or Mad Cow Disease) Q. What is Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy? A. Bovine ...

  6. The Contribution of Infections with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses to Bovine Respiratory Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of bovine respiratory disease is the sum of a number of different factors. These factors include the contribution of acute uncomplicated BVDV infections, the high incidence of respiratory disease in animals persistently inf...

  7. Design and Construction of Chimeric VP8-S2 Antigen for Bovine Rotavirus and Bovine Coronavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Nasiri, Khadijeh; Nassiri, Mohammadreza; Tahmoorespur, Mojtaba; Haghparast, Alireza; Zibaee, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Bovine Rotavirus and Bovine Coronavirus are the most important causes of diarrhea in newborn calves and in some other species such as pigs and sheep. Rotavirus VP8 subunit is the major determinant of the viral infectivity and neutralization. Spike glycoprotein of coronavirus is responsible for induction of neutralizing antibody response.

  8. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: involvement in bovine respiratory disease and diagnostic challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reviews the contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD). Veterinarians and producers generally consider BRD as one of the most significant diseases affecting production in the cattle industry. BRD can affect the performance (...

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of a Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 2 from Commercial Fetal Bovine Serum

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hua; Li, Yan; Gao, Mingchun; Wen, Kai; Jia, Ying; Liu, Xiaomei; Zhang, Wenlong; Ma, Bo; Wang, Junwei

    2012-01-01

    We isolated a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) from commercial fetal bovine serum and designated it HLJ-10. The complete genome is 12,284 nucleotides (nt); the open reading frame is 11,694 nt, coding 3,898 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that this strain belongs to BVDV group 2.

  10. Hematologycal, biochemical, Urinary and histopathological changes in natural intoxication in bovine by bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kühn/ Alterações hematológicas, bioquímicas, urinárias e histopatológicas na intoxicação natural em bovinos pela samambaia Pteridium aquilnum (L. Kühn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itacir Eloi Sandini

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Enzootic hematuria is a cronic disease of cows clinically characterized by intermittent hematuria that can be caused by bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum and the papilomatosis virus. We describe the clinical and laboratorial abnormalities observed during period of 6 months in naturally affect cows extensively raised in the north region of Paraná State. The animals had low concentrations of total calcium, with normal levels phosphorus and magnesium. Fractional excretion of calcium and phosphorus were increased. Metaplasia and hyperplasia in the epithelium as well as papilomas, hemangiomas, and transitional cell carcinomas were observed histopathologically in the urinary bladder. We were unable to demonstrate any viral presence by imunnohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR of paraffin blocks.A hematúria enzoótica é uma doença crônica dos bovinos caracterizada clinicamente por hematúria intermitente que pode ser causada pela samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum e o vírus da papilomatose. Por meio deste estudo verificamos as alterações clínico-laboratoriais em bovinos, mestiços, fêmeas, naturalmente intoxicados pela samambaia, em propriedades rurais de criação extensiva na região norte do Paraná, durante o período de 6 meses. Os resultados mostraram baixo nível plasmático de cálcio, níveis plasmáticos normais para fósforo e magnésio, aumento da excreção urinária fracionada de cálcio e fósforo. Histopatologicamente foram observadas alterações neoplásicas como papiloma, hemangioma e carcinoma de células transicionais além de metaplasia e hiperplasia na bexiga. Provas de imuno-histoquimica e reação em cadeia pela polimerase (PCR de cortes parafinados mostraram resultado negativo para o agente viral.

  11. Bovine colostrum: an emerging nutraceutical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwe, Siddhi; Tharappel, Leo J P; Kaur, Ginpreet; Buttar, Harpal S

    2015-09-01

    Nutraceutical, a term combining the words "nutrition" and "pharmaceuticals", is a food or food product that provides health benefits as an adjuvant or alternative therapy, including the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases in children and adults. There is emerging evidence that bovine colostrum (BC) may be one of the promising nutraceuticals which can prevent or mitigate various diseases in newborns and adults. Immunity-related disorders are one of the leading causes of mortality in the world. BC is rich in immunity, growth and antimicrobial factors, which promote tissue growth and the maturation of digestive tract and immune function in neonatal animals and humans. The immunoglobulins and lactoferrin present in colostrum are known to build natural immunity in newborns which helps to reduce the mortality rate in this population. Also, the side-effect profile of colostrum proteins and possible lactose intolerance is relatively less in comparison with milk. In general, BC is considered safe and well tolerated. Since colostrum has several important nutritional constituents, well-designed, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with colostrum products should be conducted to widen its therapeutic use. The objectives of this review are to create awareness about the nutraceutical properties of colostrum and to discuss the various ongoing alternative treatments of colostrum and its active ingredients as well as to address colostrum's future nutraceutical and therapeutic implications in humans. PMID:25781716

  12. Recent Progress in Cryopreservation of Bovine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sul Hwang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Principle of oocyte cryoinjury is first overviewed and then research history of cryopreservation using bovine oocytes is summarized for the last two decades with a few special references to recent progresses. Various types of cryodevices have been developed to accelerate the cooling rate and applied to the oocytes from large domestic species enriched with cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Two recent approaches include the qualitative improvement of IVM oocytes prior to the vitrification and the short-term recovery culture of vitrified-warmed oocytes prior to the subsequent IVF. Supplementation of L-carnitine to IVM medium of bovine oocytes has been reported to reduce the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets and improve the cryotolerance of the oocytes, but it is still controversial whether the positive effect of L-carnitine is reproducible. Incidence of multiple aster formation, a possible cause for low developmental potential of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes, was inhibited by a short-term culture of the postwarm oocytes in the presence of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK inhibitor. Use of an antioxidant α-tocopherol, instead of the ROCK inhibitor, also supported the revivability of the postwarm bovine oocytes. Further improvements of the vitrification procedure, combined with pre- and postvitrification chemical treatment, would overcome the high sensitivity of bovine oocytes to cryopreservation.

  13. Is bovine dentine an appropriate substitute in abrasion studies

    OpenAIRE

    Wegehaupt, F J; Widmer, R.; Attin, T.

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the wear behaviour of human and bovine dentine due to toothbrushing with different relative dentin abrasivity (RDA) toothpastes. Forty human and 40 bovine dentine samples were prepared from bovine lower incisors or human premolars roots, and baseline surface profiles were recorded. The samples were distributed to four groups (each group n = 10 human and 10 bovine samples) and brushed with fluoridated experimental toothpastes with different RDAs (group A: RDA 10, B: ...

  14. The evolution of bovine viral diarrhea: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Goens, Denise

    2002-01-01

    The economic importance of bovine viral diarrhea is increasing with the emergence of seemingly more virulent viruses, as evidenced by outbreaks of hemorrhagic syndrome and severe acute bovine viral diarrhea beginning in the 1980s and 1990s. It appears that evolutionary changes in bovine viral diarrhea virus were responsible for these outbreaks. The genetic properties of the classical bovine viral diarrhea virus that contribute to the basis of current diagnostic tests, vaccines, and our unders...

  15. Production of cattle immunotolerant to bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    OpenAIRE

    McClurkin, A W.; Littledike, E T; Cutlip, R C; Frank, G H; Coria, M F; Bolin, S R

    1984-01-01

    Inoculation of bovine virus diarrhea virus into 58 to 125 day old fetuses of bovine virus diarrhea virus seropositive pregnant cows, or inoculation of bovine virus diarrhea virus into seronegative cows 42 to 114 days pregnant, may produce clinically normal calves which are persistently infected with the specific isolate of bovine virus diarrhea virus yet seronegative to the homologous and heterologous isolates. Reinoculation of these persistently infected cattle with their homologous isolate ...

  16. Understanding and evaluating bovine testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastelic, John P

    2014-01-01

    The objective is to briefly review bovine testes and how they are assessed, with an emphasis on articles from Theriogenology. Scrotal circumference (SC) is the most common method to assess testicular size; it varies among individual bulls and breeds and is highly heritable. In general, a large SC is associated with early puberty, more sperm, a higher percentage of morphologically normal sperm, and better reproductive performance in closely related females. Consequently, there are minimum requirements for SC for breeding soundness. In prepubertal bull calves, there is an early rise (10-20 weeks of age) in LH, which is critically related to onset of puberty and testicular development. Feeding bulls approximately 130% of maintenance requirements of energy and protein from approximately 8 to 30 weeks of age increased LH release during the early rise, hastened puberty (approximately 1 month), and increased mature testis size and sperm production (approximately 20%-30%). However, high-energy diets after weaning (>200 days) often reduced sperm production and semen quality. A bull's testes and scrotum have opposing (complementary) temperature gradients, which keep the testicular temperature 2 °C to 6 °C cooler than core body temperature for production of fertile sperm (increased testicular temperature reduces semen quality). Infrared thermography, a quick and noninvasive method of assessing scrotal surface temperature, may be beneficial for evaluations of breeding soundness. The primary clinical use of ultrasonography in assessment of reproductive function in the bull is characterization of grossly detectable lesions in the testes and scrotum. In conclusion, testis size and function are critical for bull fertility, affected by nutrition, and readily assessed clinically. PMID:24274406

  17. Arachidonate metabolism in bovine gallbladder muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, M.; Hidaka, T.; Ueta, T.; Ogura, R.

    1983-04-01

    Incubation of (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid (AA) with homogenates of bovine gallbladder muscle generated a large amount of radioactive material having the chromatographic mobility of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (stable product of PGI2) and smaller amounts of products that comigrated with PGF2 alpha PGE2. Formation of these products was inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. The major radioactive product identified by thin-layer chromatographic mobility and by gas chromatography - mass spectrometric analysis was found to be 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. The quantitative metabolic pattern of (1-/sup 14/C)PGH2 was virtually identical to that of (1-/sup 14/C)AA. Incubation of arachidonic acid with slices of bovine gallbladder muscle released labile anti-aggregatory material in the medium, which was inhibited by aspirin or 15-hydroperoxy-AA. These results indicate that bovine gallbladder muscle has a considerable enzymatic capacity to produce PGI2 from arachidonic acid.

  18. 76 FR 26239 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis... framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. The... tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United States. In keeping with its commitment to...

  19. 9 CFR 113.309 - Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. 113.309... Virus Vaccines § 113.309 Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine shall be produced... virus dose from the lot of Master Seed Virus shall be established as follows: (1) Twenty-five...

  20. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. 113.311... Virus Vaccines § 113.311 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine shall be prepared... virus dose from the lot of Master Seed Virus shall be established as follows: (1) Twenty-five...

  1. Cloning and sequencing of the bovine gastrin gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T; Rehfeld, J F; Olsen, Jørgen

    1989-01-01

    In order to deduce the primary structure of bovine preprogastrin we therefore sequenced a gastrin DNA clone isolated from a bovine liver cosmid library. Bovine preprogastrin comprises 104 amino acids and consists of a signal peptide, a 37 amino acid spacer-sequence, the gastrin-34 sequence followed...

  2. Bovine HEXIM1 inhibits bovine immunodeficiency virus replication through regulating BTat-mediated transactivation

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Hong-yan; Ma, Yong-gang; Gai, Yuan-ming; Liang, Zhi-bin; Ma, Jing; Su, Yang; Zhang, Qi-cheng; Chen, Qi-Min; Tan, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) transactivator (BTat) recruits the bovine cyclin T1 (B-cyclin T1) to the LTR to facilitate the transcription of BIV. Here, we demonstrate that bovine hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA)-induced protein 1 (BHEXIM1) inhibits BTat-mediated BIV LTR transcription. The results of in vivo and in vitro assays show direct binding of BHEXIM1 to the B-cyclin T1. These results suggest that the repression arises from BHEXIM1-BTat competition for B-cyclin T1, which all...

  3. Preliminary quality assessment of bovine colostrum

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Taranto; Francesca Conte; Rosario Fruci

    2013-01-01

    Data on bovine colostrum quality are scarce or absent, although Commission Regulations No 1662/2006 and No 1663/2006 include colostrum in the context of chapters on milk. Thus the aim of the present work is to study some physical, chemical, hygiene and safety quality parameters of bovine colostrum samples collected from Sicily and Calabria dairy herds. Thirty individual samples were sampled after 2-3 days from partum. The laboratory tests included: pH, fat (FT), total nitrogen (TN), lactose (...

  4. Molecular differentiation of bovine sarcocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Majedeh; Razavi, Mostafa; Hosseini, Arsalan

    2016-07-01

    Cattle are common intermediate hosts of Sarcocystis, and the prevalence in adult bovine muscle is close to 100 % in most regions of the world. Three Sarcocystis spp. are known to infect cattle as intermediate hosts, namely, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis. The aim of the present study was the molecular identification and differentiation of these three species, Neospora caninum and Besnoitia by PCR and RFLP methods. Tissue samples were obtained from diaphragmatic muscle of 101 cattle slaughtered in Shiraz, Fars Province, Iran, for both smear preparation and DNA extraction. The samples were digested by Pepsin, washed three times with PBS solution before taking smears, fixed in absolute methanol and stained with 10 % Giemsa. The slides were examined microscopically for Sarcocystis bradyzoites and DNA was extracted from 100 mg of Sarcocystis-infected meat samples. Since the primers also bind to 18S rRNA gene of some tissue cyst-forming coccidian protozoa, DNA was also extracted from 100 μl of tachyzoite-containing suspension of N. caninum and Besnoitia isolated from goat to compare RFLP pattern. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on DNA of samples which were microscopically positive for Sarcocystis. Five restriction enzymes Dra1, EcoRV, RsaI, AvaI, and SspI were used for RFLP and DNA of one sample from protozoa was sequenced. Based on the RFLP results, 87 (98.9 %) DNA samples were cut with DraI, indicating infection by S. cruzi. One sample (1.1 %) of PCR products of infected samples was cut only with EcoRV which showed S. hominis infection. Forty-eight samples (53.3 %) of PCR products were cut with both DraI, EcoRV, or with DraI, EcoRV, and RsaI while none of them was cut with SspI, which shows the mixed infection of both S. cruzi and S. hominis and no infection with S. hirsuta. It seems by utilizing these restriction enzymes, RLFP could be a suitable method not only for identification of Sarcocystis species but also for differentiating them

  5. Molecular differentiation of bovine sarcocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Majedeh; Razavi, Mostafa; Hosseini, Arsalan

    2016-07-01

    Cattle are common intermediate hosts of Sarcocystis, and the prevalence in adult bovine muscle is close to 100 % in most regions of the world. Three Sarcocystis spp. are known to infect cattle as intermediate hosts, namely, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis. The aim of the present study was the molecular identification and differentiation of these three species, Neospora caninum and Besnoitia by PCR and RFLP methods. Tissue samples were obtained from diaphragmatic muscle of 101 cattle slaughtered in Shiraz, Fars Province, Iran, for both smear preparation and DNA extraction. The samples were digested by Pepsin, washed three times with PBS solution before taking smears, fixed in absolute methanol and stained with 10 % Giemsa. The slides were examined microscopically for Sarcocystis bradyzoites and DNA was extracted from 100 mg of Sarcocystis-infected meat samples. Since the primers also bind to 18S rRNA gene of some tissue cyst-forming coccidian protozoa, DNA was also extracted from 100 μl of tachyzoite-containing suspension of N. caninum and Besnoitia isolated from goat to compare RFLP pattern. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on DNA of samples which were microscopically positive for Sarcocystis. Five restriction enzymes Dra1, EcoRV, RsaI, AvaI, and SspI were used for RFLP and DNA of one sample from protozoa was sequenced. Based on the RFLP results, 87 (98.9 %) DNA samples were cut with DraI, indicating infection by S. cruzi. One sample (1.1 %) of PCR products of infected samples was cut only with EcoRV which showed S. hominis infection. Forty-eight samples (53.3 %) of PCR products were cut with both DraI, EcoRV, or with DraI, EcoRV, and RsaI while none of them was cut with SspI, which shows the mixed infection of both S. cruzi and S. hominis and no infection with S. hirsuta. It seems by utilizing these restriction enzymes, RLFP could be a suitable method not only for identification of Sarcocystis species but also for differentiating them

  6. Scientific Opinion on bovine lactoferrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to carry out the additional assessment for ‘lactoferrin’ as a food ingredient in the context of Regulation (EC No 258/97 taking into account the comments and objections of a scientific nature raised by Member States. Bovine lactoferrin (bLF is a protein that occurs naturally in cow’s milk. The applicant intends to market bLF that is isolated from cheese whey and skimmed milk, and purified. The applicant intends to add bLF to foods for particular nutritional uses, i.e. infant and follow-on formulae, dietary food for special medical purposes, dairy products, yoghurts and yoghurt drinks, and chewing gums. According to the applicant, the high intake estimate for infants would be 1.1 g bLF per day. For adults, the applicant’s calculation estimates a mean and 97.5th percentile intake of 0.6 and 2.1 mg/kg bodyweight per day, respectively, and a mean and 97.5th percentile daily intake of about 45 mg and 150 mg, respectively. The Panel notes that the safety of bLF as a novel food ingredient has already been assessed with a favourable outcome. That evaluation was to a significant extent based on safety data on bLF produced by Morinaga. The Panel also notes that the applicant intends maximum use levels of bLF in foods which are equivalent or lower than those intended by the applicant of the previous Opinion, and that the range of foods to which it is intended to add bLF is smaller. Consequently, the estimated intake levels described for the present application are comparable for infants and lower for all other population groups. The Panel concludes that the novel food ingredient, bLF, is safe under the proposed uses and use levels.

  7. Survey on vertical infection of bovine viral diarrhea virus from fetal bovine sera in the field

    OpenAIRE

    NAGAYAMA, Kumiko; OGUMA, Keisuke; SENTSUI, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolation and antibody survey were performed using 2,758 fetal bovine sera (FBS) collected from slaughterhouses in New Zealand, Australia and the Dominican Republic, and then sent to Japan to manufacture commercial serum for cell culture use. FBS in the Dominican Republic were pooled for each several individuals, and those collected in other countries were separated according to each individual and subjected to the tests. BVDV was isolated from 25 (0.91%) FB...

  8. Concomitant infection of Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 in spontaneous bovine abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia S. Marin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 has not been conclusively demonstrated to cause bovine abortion. Brain lesions produced by Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 exhibit common features. Therefore, careful microscopic evaluation and additional diagnostic procedures are required to achieve an accurate final etiological diagnosis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of infections due to BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and N. caninum in 68 cases of spontaneous bovine abortions which showed microscopic lesions in the fetal central nervous system. This study allowed the identification of 4 (5.9% fetuses with dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum and 33 (48.5% cases in which N. caninum was the sole pathogen identified. All cases were negative to BoHV-1. The results of this study provide evidence that dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum occur during pregnancy in cattle; however, the role of BoHV-5 as a primary cause of bovine abortion needs further research. Molecular diagnosis of BoHV-5 and N. caninum confirmed the importance of applying complementary assays to improve the sensitivity of diagnosing bovine abortion.

  9. Parameters for natural resistance in bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploegaert, T.C.W.

    2010-01-01

    Parameters for natural resistance in bovine milk Mastitis or udder inflammation is one of the most important health problems of dairy cattle. Resistance against mastitis and many other diseases is partly based on the naturally present disease resistance capacity: innate immunity. This research ther

  10. Characterization of the bovine ampkgamma1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkel, Bernhard; Kollers, Sonja; Fries, Ruedi; Sazanov, Alexei; Yoshida, Erin; Valle, Edith; Davoren, Jon; Hickey, Donal

    2005-03-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) represents the mammalian form of the core component of a kinase cascade that is conserved between fungi, plants, and animals. AMPK plays a major role in protecting mammalian cells from metabolic stress by switching off biosynthetic pathways that require ATP and switching on ATP-regenerating pathways. In this report, we describe the isolation and characterization of the gene for the noncatalytic bovine gamma1 subunit of AMPK. The bovine ampkgamma1 (PRKAG1) gene spans in excess of 14 kb and is located at BTA 5q21-q22. It consists of 12 exons ranging in size from 38 b to 166 b, interspersed with 11 introns that range between 97 b and 6753 b in length. The coding region of the bovine gene shares 93% and 90% nucleotide sequence similarity with its human and rat counterparts, and the bovine AMPKgamma1 protein is 98% and 95% identical to its human and rat homologs, respectively, in amino acid sequence. SNP discovery using a cattle DNA panel revealed a number of polymorphisms that may be useful for the evaluation of ampkgamma1 as a candidate gene for energy metabolism-related production traits.

  11. Vaccination of cattle against bovine viral diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Rijn, van P.A.

    1999-01-01

    This brief review describes types and quality (efficacy and safety) of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) vaccines that are in the market or under development. Both conventional live and killed vaccines are available. The primary aim of vaccination is to prevent congenital infection, but the few va

  12. DETECTION OF THE BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA ANTIBODIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Goraichuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea is a widespread infection of cattle that has a wide range of clinical symptoms in domestic and wild ruminants. It is a major problem in cattle and causes significant economic losses in the cattle industry. The virus infects bovines of all ages and causes both immunosuppression and reproductive, respiratory and digestive disorders. Persistently infected cattle are the main factor in transmission of the disease between and among herds. Comparative results of antibodies presence received by two methods of enzymoimmunoassay and virus neutralization test are given in the paper. During the work, 1010 samples of blood serum of cattle from three farms in the Kharkiv region were selected and analyzed. Bovine viral diarrhea virus concerning antibodies were found by enzymoimmunoassay in 704 samples (69.7% using commercial kit and in 690 samples (68.3% using in house method. After results clarification by virus neutralization test, bovine viral diarrhea antibodies were found in 712 samples (70.5%. Immunoenzyme analysis is recommended for mass screening of cattle for viral diarrhea occurrence. The results confirm that the sensitivity immunoenzyme analysis satisfies the requirements of the diagnostic methods. Using the neutralization reaction of viruses as the «gold standard» of serological methods, it is appropriate to clarify the results of immunoenzyme analysis. Since the results contain a signi ficant number of false positive results, it is necessary to carry out comprehensive studies using both serological and molecular genetics methods.

  13. Molecular biology of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are arguably the most important viral pathogen of ruminants worldwide and can cause severe economic loss. Clinical symptoms of the disease caused by BVDV range from subclinical to severe acute hemorrhagic syndrome, with the severity of disease being strain depend...

  14. EVOLUTION AND RECOMBINATION OF BOVINE DNA REPEATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JOBSE, C; BUNTJER, JB; HAAGSMA, N; BREUKELMAN, HJ; BEINTEMA, JJ; LENSTRA, JA

    1995-01-01

    The history of the abundant repeat elements in the bovine genome has been studied by comparative hybridization and PCR. The Bov-A and Bov-B SINE elements both emerged just after the divergence of the Camelidae and the true ruminants. A 31-bp subrepeat motif in satellites of the Bovidae species cattl

  15. NUTRIENTS AND EPIGENETICS IN BOVINE CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a chapter for a book titled “Livestock Epigenetics” edited by Dr. Hasan Khatib and published by Wiley-Blackwell. This chapter is focused on the research development in our laboratory in the area of interaction of nutrients and genomic phonotype in bovine cells. Briefly, the Research on nutri...

  16. Linkage mapping bovine EST-based SNP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Gary L

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing linkage maps of the bovine genome primarily contain anonymous microsatellite markers. These maps have proved valuable for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL to broad regions of the genome, but more closely spaced markers are needed to fine-map QTL, and markers associated with genes and annotated sequence are needed to identify genes and sequence variation that may explain QTL. Results Bovine expressed sequence tag (EST and bacterial artificial chromosome (BACsequence data were used to develop 918 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers to map genes on the bovine linkage map. DNA of sires from the MARC reference population was used to detect SNPs, and progeny and mates of heterozygous sires were genotyped. Chromosome assignments for 861 SNPs were determined by twopoint analysis, and positions for 735 SNPs were established by multipoint analyses. Linkage maps of bovine autosomes with these SNPs represent 4585 markers in 2475 positions spanning 3058 cM . Markers include 3612 microsatellites, 913 SNPs and 60 other markers. Mean separation between marker positions is 1.2 cM. New SNP markers appear in 511 positions, with mean separation of 4.7 cM. Multi-allelic markers, mostly microsatellites, had a mean (maximum of 216 (366 informative meioses, and a mean 3-lod confidence interval of 3.6 cM Bi-allelic markers, including SNP and other marker types, had a mean (maximum of 55 (191 informative meioses, and were placed within a mean 8.5 cM 3-lod confidence interval. Homologous human sequences were identified for 1159 markers, including 582 newly developed and mapped SNP. Conclusion Addition of these EST- and BAC-based SNPs to the bovine linkage map not only increases marker density, but provides connections to gene-rich physical maps, including annotated human sequence. The map provides a resource for fine-mapping quantitative trait loci and identification of positional candidate genes, and can be integrated with other

  17. Comparative serological response in calves to eight commercial vaccines against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3, bovine respiratory syncytial, and bovine viral diarrhea viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; van den Hurk, Jan V.; McCartney, Duane; Harland, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    A field trial was conducted to compare the serological responses in calves to eight commercial vaccines against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and/or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Calves given IBRV, P13V, BRSV, and BVDV vaccines had significantly higher antibodies to these viruses than unvaccinated controls; however, serological responses to killed BVDV vaccines were low. Calves with preexisting an...

  18. Synergistic effects of bovine respiratory syncytial virus and non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus infection on selected bovine alveolar macrophage functions.

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, L.; Lehmkuhl, H D; Kaeberle, M L

    1999-01-01

    The effect of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncpBVDV) infection on selected bovine alveolar macrophage (AM) functions was investigated. Alveolar macrophages were harvested from 2- to 6-month-old calves seronegative for BRSV and BVDV and inoculated with approximately 1 median cell culture infective dose of virus per AM. Control, BRSV infected, ncpBVDV-infected and BRSV-ncpBVDV coinfected AM cultures were evaluated for Fc receptor expre...

  19. The relationship between the occurrence of undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease and titer changes to bovine coronavirus and bovine viral diarrhea virus in 3 Ontario feedlots.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, A; Martin, S W; Nagy, E.; Menzies, P; Harland, R

    2001-01-01

    Serological evidence of previous viral exposure (titer at arrival) and current viral exposure (titer increase) during a 28-day study period, was used to determine if bovine coronavirus (BCV) or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) was associated with the occurrence of undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease (UBRD) in feedlot calves. Neutralizing antibody titers to BCV and BVDV were determined for 852 animals from 3 Ontario feedlots. Calves at 2 of the 3 feedlots (n = 753) received a modifie...

  20. Identification of bovine leukemia virus tax function associated with host cell transcription, signaling, stress response and immune response pathway by microarray-based gene expression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arainga Mariluz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine leukemia virus (BLV is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis and is closely related to human T-cell leukemia virus type I. The Tax protein of BLV is a transcriptional activator of viral replication and a key contributor to oncogenic potential. We previously identified interesting mutant forms of Tax with elevated (TaxD247G or reduced (TaxS240P transactivation effects on BLV replication and propagation. However, the effects of these mutations on functions other than transcriptional activation are unknown. In this study, to identify genes that play a role in the cascade of signal events regulated by wild-type and mutant Tax proteins, we used a large-scale host cell gene-profiling approach. Results Using a microarray containing approximately 18,400 human mRNA transcripts, we found several alterations after the expression of Tax proteins in genes involved in many cellular functions such as transcription, signal transduction, cell growth, apoptosis, stress response, and immune response, indicating that Tax protein has multiple biological effects on various cellular environments. We also found that TaxD247G strongly regulated more genes involved in transcription, signal transduction, and cell growth functions, contrary to TaxS240P, which regulated fewer genes. In addition, the expression of genes related to stress response significantly increased in the presence of TaxS240P as compared to wild-type Tax and TaxD247G. By contrast, the largest group of downregulated genes was related to immune response, and the majority of these genes belonged to the interferon family. However, no significant difference in the expression level of downregulated genes was observed among the Tax proteins. Finally, the expression of important cellular factors obtained from the human microarray results were validated at the RNA and protein levels by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting

  1. Bovine rhinitis viruses are common in U.S. cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hause, Ben M; Collin, Emily A; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A; Anderson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4%) were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations.

  2. The bovine QTL viewer: a web accessible database of bovine Quantitative Trait Loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Suresh R

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many important agricultural traits such as weight gain, milk fat content and intramuscular fat (marbling in cattle are quantitative traits. Most of the information on these traits has not previously been integrated into a genomic context. Without such integration application of these data to agricultural enterprises will remain slow and inefficient. Our goal was to populate a genomic database with data mined from the bovine quantitative trait literature and to make these data available in a genomic context to researchers via a user friendly query interface. Description The QTL (Quantitative Trait Locus data and related information for bovine QTL are gathered from published work and from existing databases. An integrated database schema was designed and the database (MySQL populated with the gathered data. The bovine QTL Viewer was developed for the integration of QTL data available for cattle. The tool consists of an integrated database of bovine QTL and the QTL viewer to display QTL and their chromosomal position. Conclusion We present a web accessible, integrated database of bovine (dairy and beef cattle QTL for use by animal geneticists. The viewer and database are of general applicability to any livestock species for which there are public QTL data. The viewer can be accessed at http://bovineqtl.tamu.edu.

  3. Clinicopathological analysis of IgA nephropathy patients with mild proteinuria and/or hematuria%少量蛋白尿和(或)血尿IgA肾病临床病理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    萨茹拉; 傅辰生; 陈利明; 袁敏; 丁小强; 刘红; 於佳炜; 章晓燕; 蒋素华; 邹建洲; 滕杰; 吉俊; 钟一红

    2010-01-01

    Objective To clarify the relationship between clinical manifestation and pathological features of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients with mild proteinuria and/or hematuria.Methods Clinicopathological data from 316 biopsy-proven IgAN cases (proteinuria<1 g/24 h and/or hematuria, and Scr<133 μmol/L) from our hospital between January 1993 and October 2009 were studied retrospectively. The renal histopathology was quantified according to Lee's grading and Katafuchi's semi-quantitative standard, and the risk factors for renal pathological lesions were evaluated using multifactor logistic regression analysis. Results Among these 316 patients, 123 were male and 193 patients were female. The mean age at the time of renal biopsy was (33.10±10.69) years old. Clinical features were found as follows: hematuria with proteinuria was found in 267 patients (84.5%), isolated hematuria in 24 patients (7.6%), and isolated proteinuria in 25 patients (7.9%). 16.5% of patients had hypertension. The percentages of CKD stage Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ were 76.9%, 20.9% and 2.2%, respectively. 31.3% of patients presented Lee's grade Ⅲ or more severe.52.8% of patients had various degrees of glomerulosclerosis. Crescent formation was observed in 20.3% of patients. 22.5% of patients showed tubular atrophy;16.8% showed interstitial fibrosis and 24.7% also had renal vascular lesions. The extent of glomerulosclerosis was negatively correlated with eGFR levels, but positively correlated with the amount of proteinuria and mean arterial pressure (MAP) level (P<0.05). The score of tubulointerstitial lesion was positively correlated with the amount of proteinuria and negatively correlated with eGFR and hemoglobin (Hb)level (P<0.05). The degree of renal vascular lesion was also correlated to MAP level positively and eGFR level negatively (P<0.05). Multifactor logistic regression analysis revealed that proteinuria, Scr and Hb at the time of renal biopsy were independent risk factors for severe renal

  4. Epidemiologia e controle da tristeza parasitária bovina na região sudeste do Brasil Epidemiology and control of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis in Southeast region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Macêdo Gonçalves

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A babesiose bovina e a anaplasmose (Tristeza Parasitária Bovina são enfermidades transmitidas pelo carrapato Boophilus microplus e por moscas hematófagas, respectivamente, ocorrendo em caráter endêmico no Brasil, acarretando elevadas perdas econômicas na pecuária. Nesse país, observa-se uma grande variedade de fatores epidemiológicos influenciando sua ocorrência, tais como: variação climática, práticas de manejo, controle de carrapato e introdução de bovinos susceptíveis. Assim, esta revisão aborda aspectos epidemiológicos do controle da anaplasmose e da babesiose bovina do Brasil, com ênfase na região sudeste. Fatores que influenciam a instabilidade e a estabilidade enzoótica de ambas as espécies também são discutidos. As medidas de controle empregadas atualmente são: quimioprofilaxia, o uso de acaricidas para o controle do carrapato vetor B. microplus, a premunição e a vacinação.Bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis are diseases transmitted by Boophilus microplus and haematophagous diptera, respectively, occurring in endemic character in Brazil, resulting in high economic loss on livestock production. In this country a wide range of epidemiological factors influencing their occurrence, such as climate variations, husbandry practices, tick control and susceptible purebreed cattle that are regularly imported to upgrade local stocks have been described. This review focuses the epidemiological control and some aspects of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis in Brazil, with emphasis in southeast region. Factors influencing enzootic stability and instability of both species are also discussed. The control measures employed at present are chemoprophylaxis, use of acaricides for B. microplus, premunition and vaccination.

  5. 牛病毒性腹泻病研究进展及防控建议%Analysis of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Prevalence and Comprehensive Prevention and Control in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝宝成; 梁剑平; 王学红; 郭文柱; 郭志廷; 杨贤鹏

    2013-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus that is enzootic in most cattle populations throughout the world. This virus is present throughout the body of persistently infected cattle. In recent years, as more and more common the formation and development of large-scale farming. The jeopardized of Bovine viral diarrhea / mucosal disease for farming industry has become increasingly apparent. The BVDV's morphology of pathogens, genotype classification, hazards, diagnostic tests, the prevalence and prevention and control status were summarized in order to improve the prevention and control system and purification of eliminating the disease provide a reference for the country as soon as possible.%牛病毒性腹泻病由牛病毒性腹泻病毒引起,主要感染牛并引发疾病,呈世界性分布,可造成严重的经济损失.近年来,随着规模化养殖的发展,牛病毒性腹泻病对养殖业的危害日益显现.本文主要对牛病毒性腹泻病的病原特性、基因型分类、危害、诊断检测方法、国内流行情况和防控现状等进行综述,以期为国家尽快建立完善的防控体系和净化消除该病提供参考.

  6. Bovine Mastitis Associated with Prototheca blaschkeae▿

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Sara; Silva, Eliane; Kraft, Christine; Carvalheira, Júlio; Videira, Arnaldo; Huss, Volker A. R.; Thompson, Gertrude

    2008-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is an important and complex disease responsible for economic losses in the dairy industry. Biotype II strains of the green alga Prototheca zopfii can be involved, most often resulting in chronic mastitis of difficult treatment associated with reduced milk production. This type of infection is rare, but the number of reported cases is increasing worldwide. In order to determine the kind of species involved in mastitis by Prototheca in northwest Portugal, 41 Prototheca isolates ...

  7. Bovine Enteroviruses as Indicators of Fecal Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Ley, Victoria; Higgins, James; Fayer, Ronald

    2002-01-01

    Surface waters frequently have been contaminated with human enteric viruses, and it is likely that animal enteric viruses have contaminated surface waters also. Bovine enteroviruses (BEV), found in cattle worldwide, usually cause asymptomatic infections and are excreted in the feces of infected animals in large numbers. In this study, the prevalence and genotype of BEV in a closed herd of cattle were evaluated and compared with BEV found in animals in the immediate environment and in environm...

  8. Oxytocin binding sites in bovine mammary tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xin.

    1989-01-01

    Oxytocin binding sites were identified and characterized in bovine mammary tissue. ({sup 3}H)-oxytocin binding reached equilibrium by 50 min at 20{degree}C and by 8 hr at 4{degree}C. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. Thyrotropin releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropin, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, pentagastrin, bradykinin, xenopsin and L-valyl-histidyl-L-leucyl-L-threonyl-L-prolyl-L-valyl-L-glutamyl-L-lysine were not competitive. In the presence of 10 nM LiCl, addition of oxytocin to dispersed bovine mammary cells, in which phosphatidylinositol was pre-labelled, caused a time and dose-dependent increase in radioactive inositiol monophosphate incorporation. The possibility that there are distinct vasopressin receptors in bovine mammary tissue was investigated. ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding reached equilibrium by 40 min at 20{degree}. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. The ability of the peptides to inhibit ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding was: (Thr{sup 4},Gly{sup 7})-oxytocin > Arg{sup 8}-vasopressin > (lys{sup 8})-vasopressin > (Deamino{sup 1},D-arg{sup 8})-vasopressin > oxytocin > d (CH{sub 2}){sub 5}Tyr(Me)AVP.

  9. Potential Anticarcinogenic Peptides from Bovine Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Pepe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine milk possesses a protein system constituted by two major families of proteins: caseins (insoluble and whey proteins (soluble. Caseins (αS1, αS2, β, and κ are the predominant phosphoproteins in the milk of ruminants, accounting for about 80% of total protein, while the whey proteins, representing approximately 20% of milk protein fraction, include β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, immunoglobulins, bovine serum albumin, bovine lactoferrin, and lactoperoxidase, together with other minor components. Different bioactivities have been associated with these proteins. In many cases, caseins and whey proteins act as precursors of bioactive peptides that are released, in the body, by enzymatic proteolysis during gastrointestinal digestion or during food processing. The biologically active peptides are of particular interest in food science and nutrition because they have been shown to play physiological roles, including opioid-like features, as well as immunomodulant, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antiviral, and antioxidant activities. In recent years, research has focused its attention on the ability of these molecules to provide a prevention against the development of cancer. This paper presents an overview of antitumor activity of caseins and whey proteins and derived peptides.

  10. Bovine colostrum and immune function after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Glen

    2012-01-01

    Strenuous and/or prolonged exercise causes transient perturbations in immune function. It is well accepted that this is one mechanism contributing to the higher occurrence of infection (e.g. upper respiratory tract infection (URTI)) in athletes, especially endurance athletes. URTI or upper respiratory tract (URT) symptoms can negatively affect training and competition performance but athletes must train intensively to be successful. Therefore, interventions that can legitimately enhance immune function and reduce URTI risk can be of benefit to athletes. Bovine colostrum supplementation has been investigated as a possible nutritional countermeasure to enhance (or maintain) immune function, and reduce URTI risk, following strenuous or prolonged exercise and during intensive training periods. There is convincing evidence that daily supplementation with bovine colostrum, for a number of weeks (and preliminary evidence for acute effects after a single dose), can maintain intestinal barrier integrity, immune function and reduce the chances of suffering URTI or URT symptoms in athletes or those undertaking heavy training. The mechanisms are not fully understood at present but there is preliminary evidence suggesting that the effects on immune function are attributable, at least in part, to small bioactive components that survive digestion and are biologically available after consumption, but further work is required. In summary, the balance of existing evidence does support the notion that bovine colostrum is beneficial for certain groups of athletes, such as those involved in strenuous training (e.g. endurance athletes), in terms of immunity and resistance to infection. PMID:23075556

  11. A clinical comparison of purified bovine and purified porcine insulins.

    OpenAIRE

    Olczak, S A; Greenwood, R H

    1985-01-01

    Twenty four patients with established insulin dependent diabetes treated with twice daily soluble and isophane bovine insulins were changed to equivalent doses of either purified bovine Neusulin and Neuphane (Wellcome) or purified porcine Actrapid and Monotard (Novo) insulins. After 6 months treatment the porcine group showed a 35% fall in insulin binding antibodies and a 14% reduction in insulin dosage. The group changed to purified bovine insulins showed no significant change in insulin bin...

  12. 76 FR 35185 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Bovine Spongiform...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... Collection; Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Animals and Animal Products AGENCY: Animal and... byproducts to protect against the introduction of bovine spongiform encephalopathy into the United States... animal products and byproducts to prevent the introduction of bovine spongiform encephalopathy into...

  13. Kinetics of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoite neutralization by monoclonal antibodies, immune bovine serum, and immune bovine colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman, L E; Riggs, M W; Mason, P H; Fayer, R

    1990-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies, immune bovine serum, and immune bovine colostral whey neutralized infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites for mice in a time-dependent manner. Immune colostral whey neutralized sporozoites more rapidly and completely than immune serum, monoclonal antibody (MAb) 18.44, or a combination of MAb 18.44 and MAb 17.41. Mice were partially protected against oral challenge with C. parvum oocytes when treated with immune colostral whey, MAb 17.41, or a combination of MAb 17.41 and MAb 18.44. PMID:2294054

  14. Detection of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses in the Nasal Epithelial Cells by the Direct Immunofluorescence Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Silim, A.; Elazhary, M. A. S. Y.

    1983-01-01

    Nasal epithelial cells were collected by cotton swabs for the diagnosis in experimental and field cases of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and field cases of bovine viral diarrhea in calves. A portion of the cells was washed twice in phosphate buffered saline and a 25 µL drop was placed on microscope slides. The cells were dried, fixed and stained according to the direct fluorescent antibody technique. Another portion of the same specimen was inoculated onto primary bovine skin cell culture...

  15. Diagnosis and Control of Viral Diseases of Reproductive Importance: Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Bovine Viral Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Givens, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Both bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus 1 can have significant negative reproductive impacts on cattle health. Vaccination is the primary control method for the viral pathogens in US cattle herds. Polyvalent, modified-live vaccines are recommended to provide optimal protection against various viral field strains. Of particular importance to bovine viral diarrhea control is the limitation of contact of pregnant cattle with potential viral reservoirs during the critical first 125 days of gestation. PMID:27140298

  16. In vitro protective effect of bacteria-derived bovine alpha interferon I1 against selected bovine viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie, J H; Robson, D. S.; Scott, F. W.; Schiff, E I

    1985-01-01

    We used bacteria-derived bovine alpha-interferon I1 (Bo IFN-alpha I1) to study its antiviral effect in a bovine turbinate cell line on bovine diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, parainfluenza 3 virus, and pseudorabies virus. We based our study upon replicate tests for each strain by using a block titration system with various concentrations of Bo IFN-alpha I1 against various concentrations of virus. The data were compiled in two-axis tables (replicate X concentration) and...

  17. Seroprevalence of Bovine Herpes Virus-1, Bovine Herpes Virus-4 and Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Dairy Cattle in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira M. Elhassan*, M.A Fadol and A.M. El-Hussein

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to determine prevalence of antibodies against Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHv-1, Bovine herpes virus-4 (BoHv-4 and Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD in dairy cattle in farms with reproductive problems in two areas in Sudan. Sera samples were collected from Khartoum state and central Sudan during 2005-2008 and analyzed using direct ELISA. The prevalence of antibodies was discussed with respect to age, season, sex, breed and locality BoHv-1 and BVD antibodies were highly prevalent in Khartoum state (51.7 and 50.4%, respectively while in central Sudan BoHv-1 (32.7% antibodies were the most prevalent followed by, BVD (25.7% and BoHv-4 (19.3%. The highest prevalence of antibodies against the three viruses in both areas was found during the rainy season (July to October. The prevalence of antibodies to viruses studied was significantly associated with female sex except for BoHv-1. Prevalence of antibodies to BoHv-4 was significantly associated with breed while those of BoHv-1 and BVD were not. The present results indicated that older cattle were more likely to be seropositive in case of BoHv-4 but to BoHv-1 or BVD viruses. Furthermore, it was found that BoHv-1 and BVD antibodies were highly prevalent in aborted dams. While, infertility problems were highly associated with BoHv-1 antibodies. BVD antibodies showed the highest prevalence in case of death after birth. The results of this study provide better understanding of viral epidemics of reproductive disorders and represent the first report of BoHv-4 antibodies in cattle in Sudan.

  18. The major bovine mastitis pathogens have different cell tropisms in cultures of bovine mammary gland cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, A.; Vorstenbosch, van C.J.; Erkens, J.H.F.; Smith, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    We previously showed that Staphylococcus aureus cells adhered mainly to an elongated cell type, present in cultures of bovine mammary gland cells. Moreover. we showed that this adhesion was mediated by binding to fibronectin. The same in vitro model was used here, to study adhesion of other importan

  19. Establishment of bovine prion peptide-based monoclonal antibodies for identifying bovine prion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    To obtain high titer monoclonal antibodies(McAbs) which can react with mammalian prion protein(PrP),Balb/C mice were immunized with bovine(Bo) PrP peptide(BoPrP 209-228 aa) coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin(KLH).The hybridoma cell lines secreting monoclonal antibodies against the peptide were established by cell fusion and cloning.The obtained McAbs were applied to detect recombinant human,bovine and hamster PrP,cellular prion protein(PrPc) in normal bovine brain and pathogenic scrapie prion protein(PrPSc) accumulated in the medulla oblongata of bovine spongiform encephalopathy(BSE)specimen with Western blot and immunohistochemical detection,respectively.The current procedure might offer a simple,feasible method to raise high titer antibodies for studying biological features of PrP in mammals,as well as detection of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy(TSE) and diagnosis of BSE,in particular.

  20. Characterization of carbohydrate structures of bovine MUC15 and distribution of the mucin in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Lone Tjener; Pedersen, Lise Refstrup Linnebjerg; Petersen, Torben Ellebæk;

    2007-01-01

    -containing fractions as well, such as skim milk and whey. Compositional and structural studies of the carbohydrates of bovine milk MUC15 showed that the glycans are composed of fucose, galactose, mannose, N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglycosamine, and sialic acid. The carbohydrate was shown to constitute 65...

  1. Prevalence of antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial, and bovine viral diarrhea viruses in cattle in Saskatchewan and Alberta

    OpenAIRE

    Durham, Peter J.K.; Hassard, Lori E.

    1990-01-01

    A total of 1745 healthy cattle from 295 farms in Saskatchewan and Alberta was tested by ELISA for antibodies to four viruses. Antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus were found in 37.8% of sera (59.5% of properties), to parainfluenza 3 (PI3) virus in 93.9% of sera (99.7% of properties), to bovine respiratory syncytial (BRS) virus in 78.5% of sera (86.6% of properties), and to bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus in 40.6% of sera (66.7% of properties)

  2. 9 CFR 113.68 - Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.68 Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine. Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine of an avirulent...

  3. 9 CFR 113.69 - Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.69 Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine. Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine of an avirulent...

  4. Bovine viral diarrhea virus modulations of monocyte derived macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a single stranded, positive sense RNA virus and is the causative agent of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD). Disease can range from persistently infected (PI) animals displaying no clinical symptoms of disease to an acute, severe disease. Presently, limited studies ha...

  5. Comparative analysis of human and bovine teeth: radiographic density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luis Oshiro Tanaka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since bovine teeth have been used as substitutes for human teeth in in vitro dental studies, the aim of this study was to compare the radiographic density of bovine teeth with that of human teeth to evaluate their usability for radiographic studies. Thirty bovine and twenty human teeth were cut transversally in 1 millimeter-thick slices. The slices were X-rayed using a digital radiographic system and an intraoral X-ray machine at 65 kVp and 7 mA. The exposure time (0.08 s and the target-sensor distance (40 cm were standardized for all the radiographs. The radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin of each slice were obtained separately using the "histogram" tool of Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software. The mean radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin were calculated by the arithmetic mean of the slices of each tooth. One-way ANOVA demonstrated statistically significant differences for the densities of bovine and human enamel (p 0.05. Based on the results, the authors concluded that: a the radiographic density of bovine enamel is significantly higher than that of human enamel; b the radiodensity of bovine coronal dentin is statistically lower than the radiodensity of human coronal dentin; bovine radicular dentin is also less radiodense than human radicular dentin, although this difference was not statistically significant; c bovine teeth should be used with care in radiographic in vitro studies.

  6. Characterisation of bovine epiblast-derived outgrowth colonies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Esben; Gjørret, Jakob; Schauser, Kirsten Hallundbæk;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterise bovine epiblast-derived outgrowth colonies (OCs) with respect to the embryonic origin of their cellular components. Epiblasts were isolated mechanically from bovine Day 12 embryos. Epiblasts were cultured on feeder layers of SNL cells (neomycin...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase...

  8. 76 FR 38602 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ...-5256. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On May 6, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 26239... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework AGENCY... extending the comment period on a new framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and...

  9. Comparative molecular analysis of ovine and bovine Streptococcus uberis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, T L; Smith, D G E; Fitzpatrick, J L; Zadoks, R N; Fontaine, M C

    2013-02-01

    Streptococcus uberis causes clinical and subclinical mastitis in cattle and sheep, but it is unknown whether the composition of Strep. uberis populations differs between host species. To address this, we characterized a collection of bovine and ovine Strep. uberis isolates with shared geographical and temporal origins by means of an expanded multilocus sequence typing scheme. Among 14 ovine and 35 bovine isolates, 35 allelic profiles were detected. Each allelic profile was associated with a single host species and all but one were new to the multilocus sequence typing database. The median number of new alleles per isolate was higher for ovine isolates than for bovine isolates. None of the ovine isolates belonged to the global clonal complexes 5 or 143, which are commonly associated with bovine mastitis and which have a wide geographical distribution. Ovine isolates also differed from bovine isolates in carriage of plasminogen activator genes, with significantly higher prevalence of pauB in ovine isolates. Isolates that were negative for yqiL, one of the targets of multilocus sequence typing, were found among ovine and bovine isolates and were not associated with a specific sequence type or global clonal complex. One bovine isolate carried a gapC allele that was probably acquired through lateral gene transfer, most likely from Streptococcus salivarius. We conclude that ovine isolates are distinct from bovine isolates of Strep. uberis, and that recombination between isolates from different host species or bacterial species could contribute to changes in virulence gene profiles with relevance for vaccine development. PMID:23200465

  10. Advances in development and evaluation of bovine herpesvirus 1 vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Kaashoek, M.J.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    This review deals with conventional and modern bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) vaccines. Conventional vaccines are widely used to prevent clinical signs of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. The use of conventional vaccines, however, does not appear to have resulted in reduction of the prevalence of inf

  11. Comparison of levels and duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 in calves fed maternal colostrum or a colostrum-replacement product

    OpenAIRE

    Chamorro, Manuel F; Walz, Paul H.; Haines, Deborah M.; Passler, Thomas; Earleywine, Thomas; Palomares, Roberto A.; Riddell, Kay P; Galik, Patricia; Zhang, Yijing; Givens, M. Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Colostrum-replacement products are an alternative to provide passive immunity to neonatal calves; however, their ability to provide adequate levels of antibodies recognizing respiratory viruses has not been described. The objective of this study was to compare the serum levels of IgG at 2 d of age and the duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1)...

  12. Transcriptional organization of bovine papillomavirus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, L W; Heilman, C A; Howley, P M

    1983-09-01

    Multiple bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1)-specific polyadenylated RNA species in a BPV-1-infected bovine fibropapilloma were identified and mapped. All of the RNA species were transcribed from the same DNA strand of the BPV-1 genome. Five RNA species previously identified in BPV-1-transformed mouse cells were also present in the bovine fibropapilloma. These five species measured 1,050, 1,150, 1,700, 3,800, and 4,050 bases, mapped within the 69% transforming segment of the BPV-1 genome, and shared a 3' coterminus at 0.53 map units (m.u.). The 5' ends of the bodies of these distinct transcripts were located at ca. 0.03, 0.09, 0.34, 0.39, and 0.41 m.u. Additional polyadenylated RNA species not present in BPV-1-transformed mouse cells were specific for the BPV-1-infected bovine fibropapilloma and measured 1,700, 3,700, 3,800, 6,700, and 8,000 bases. These wart-specific species shared a 3' coterminus at 0.90 m.u. The 5' termini of the bodies of the 1,700- and 3,800-base species mapped at 0.71 and 0.42 m.u., respectively. Exonuclease VII analysis failed to reveal any internal splicing in these two species; however, the presence of small remote 5' leader sequences could not be ruled out. The 3,700-base species hybridized to DNA fragments from the 69% transforming segment as well as from the 31% nontransforming segment of the BPV-1 genome; however, this species was not precisely mapped. The 5' termini of the two largest RNA species (6,700 and 8,000 bases in size) were located at ca. 0.01 and 0.90 m.u., respectively. Since the 5' ends of these mapped adjacent to a TATAAA sequence which could possibly serve as an element of a transcriptional promoter, it is possible that one or both of these species represent nonspliced precursor RNA molecules. PMID:6137574

  13. Interaction of Nicotine and Bovine Serum Albumin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The binding of nicotine to bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by UV absorption, fluorescence, and 1H NMR methods. With the addition of nicotine, the absorption band of BSA at about 210 nm decreased gradually, moved to longer wavelengths, and narrowed. BSA fluorescence of tryptophan residue was quenched by nicotine. The 1H NMR peaks of nicotine moved to downfield by the addition of BSA. The experimental results showed that nicotine was capable of binding with BSA to form a 1:1 complex. BSA's high selectivity for nicotine binding suggests a unique role for this protein in the detoxification and/or transport of nicotine.

  14. Photodynamically generated bovine serum albumin radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvester, J A; Timmins, G S; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    Porphyrin-sensitized photoxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) results in oxidation of the protein at (at least) two different, specific sites: the Cys-34 residue giving rise to a thiyl radical (RS.); and one or both of the tryptophan residues (Trp-134 and Trp-214) resulting in the formation...... of tertiary carbon-centred radicals and disruption of the tryptophan ring system. In the case of porphyrins such as hematoporphyrin, which bind at specific sites on BSA, these species appear to arise via long-range transfer of damage within the protein structure, as the binding site is some distance from...

  15. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV): A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik

    2000-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection is the major cause of respiratory disease in calves during the first year of life. The study of the virus has been difficult because of its lability and very poor growth in cell culture. However, during the last decade, the introduction of new...... complex and unpredictable which makes the diagnosis and subsequent therapy very difficult. BRSV is closely related to human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) which is an important cause of respiratory disease in young children. In contrast to BRSV, the recent knowledge of HRSV is regularly extensively...

  16. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, Mad Cow Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Bruckner

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Mad Cow Disease or BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy became a household name internationally and also in South Africa. International hysteria resulted following reports of a possible link between a disease diagnosed in cattle in Britain and a variant of the disease diagnosed in humans after the presumed ingestion or contact with meat from infected cattle. The European Union instituted a ban on the importation of beef from the United Kingdom during March 1996 that had a severe effect on the beef industry in the UK and also resulted in a world wide consumer resistance against beef consumption.

  17. Characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Purchio, A F; Larson, R.; Collett, M S

    1984-01-01

    Virus-specific proteins were examined in cultured cells infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus. By using antisera obtained from virus-infected animals, three major virus-specific polypeptides with molecular weights of 115,000 (115K), 80K, and 55K were observed. Minor proteins of 45,000 and 38,000 daltons were also noted. Tryptic peptide mapping indicated that the 115K and the 80K polypeptides were structurally related. The 55K protein was glycosylated and appeared not to be related to the ...

  18. Enzootic Transmission of Yellow Fever Virus, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Auguste, Albert J; Lemey, Philippe; Bergren, Nicholas A.; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Morón, Dulce; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Weaver, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in Venezuela, with evidence of regionally independent evolution within the country. However, there is considerable YFV movement from Brazil to Venezuela and between Trinidad and Venezuela.

  19. Detection of bovine herpesvirus 4 glycoprotein B and thymidine kinase DNA by PCR assays in bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Verstraten, E.; Belak, S.; Verschuren, S.B.E.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Peshev, R.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2001-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to detect bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4) glycoprotein B (gB) DNA, and a nested-PCR assay was modified for the detection of BHV4 thymidine kinase (TK) DNA in bovine milk samples. To identify false-negative PCR results, internal control templates were

  20. Affinity purification of aprotinin from bovine lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yu; Liu, Lanhua; Chen, Beizhan; Zhang, Ling; Tong, Yanjun

    2015-05-01

    An affinity protocol for the purification of aprotinin from bovine lung was developed. To simulate the structure of sucrose octasulfate, a natural specific probe for aprotinin, the affinity ligand was composed of an acidic head and a hydrophobic stick, and was then linked with Sepharose. The sorbent was then subjected to adsorption analysis with pure aprotinin. The purification process consisted of one step of affinity chromatography and another step of ultrafiltration. Then purified aprotinin was subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, trypsin inhibitor activity, gel-filtration, and thin-layer chromatography analysis. As calculated, the theoretical maximum adsorption (Qmax ) of the affinity sorbent was 25,476.0 ± 184.8 kallikrein inactivator unit/g wet gel; the dissociation constant of the complex "immobilized ligand-aprotinin" (Kd ) was 4.6 ± 0.1 kallikrein inactivator unit/mL. After the affinity separation of bovine lung aprotinin, reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and gel-filtration chromatography revealed that the protein was a single polypeptide, and the purities were ∼ 97 and 100%, respectively; the purified peptide was also confirmed with aprotinin standard by gel-filtration chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. After the whole purification process, protein, and bioactivity recoveries were 2.2 and 92.6%, respectively; and the specific activity was up to 15,907.1 ± 10.2 kallikrein inactivator unit/mg. PMID:25677462

  1. Human exposure to bovine polyomavirus: a zoonosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, J.V.; Gardner, S.D.

    1986-01-01

    A competitive-type solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed for the detection of antibody to bovine polyomavirus. Comparison of RIA and counter-immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) results on 273 cattle sera indicated that both techniques were detecting antibody of like specificity. Human sera from 256 blood donors, 219 people recently vaccinated against polio, rubella or rabies, 50 immunosuppressed patients and 472 people with various occupational exposure to cattle were tested for antibody to bovine polyomavirus, the foetal rhesus monkey kidney strain, (anti-FRKV) by RIA. Apart from one blood donor and one of 108 rabies vaccinees only those in close contact with cattle possessed anti-FRKV. Compared with 62 per cent seropositive in the natural hosts, cattle, 71 per cent of veterinary surgeons, 50 per cent of cattle farmers, 40 per cent of abattoir workers, 16 per cent of veterinary institute technical staff and 10 per cent of veterinary students were anti-FRKV positive. Our findings indicate that the theoretical hazard of FRKV infection from undetected contamination of current tissue culture derived vaccines may, in practice, be remote. Proposed wider use of primate kidney cells as substrates for new vaccines may increase this risk.

  2. Identification of Prototheca Zopfii from Bovine Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Zaini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was identification of the epidemiology of Prototheca zopfii species from the milk samples of dairy cattle in Isfahan, central Iran.Methods: Milk samples were obtained from 230 dairy cattle, 130 with and 100 without mastitis, in Isfahan. The samples were cultured in Prototheca Isolation Medium (PIM and Sabouraud's dextrose agar. All P. zopfii isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical methods. Then, as a confirmatory test they were examined by genotype-specific PCR.Results: Four P. zopfii strains (3.07% were isolated from the 130 samples of dairy cattle with clinical mastitis and there was no isolation from totally 100 samples of healthy bovines without mastitis. Specific PCR product (about 946 bp was detected in four isolates.Conclusion: It seems that P. zopfii genotype II plays a key role in affecting bovine mastitis that confirmed other previous studies. Our study was the first, which identified the Prototheca species by traditional and molecular methods in Iran and Middle East as well.

  3. [Serological study of bovine leptospirosis in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moles Cervantes, Luis Pedro; Cisneros Puebla, Miguel Angel; Rosas, Dolores Gavaldón; Serranía, Nora Rojas; Torres Barranca, Jorge Isaac

    2002-01-01

    The results of 4 043 bovine sera samples from various Mexican regions, which were sent to a diagnosis lab, were analyzed. The method was the agglutination technique, taking the dilution rate 1:1000 or higher as positive. The analysis revealed 31,1% of seroprevalence and the most frequent serovarietes were hardjo (strain H 89 isolated in Mexico), wolffi and tarassovi. There is coincidence with early data obtained in Mexico on a 34% of prevalence found in a similar study performed in 1994, and with the scientific literature from other countries. The former study also indicated that tarassovi and wolffi were the most common leptospira, so there is coincidence with the figures in the reviewed literature. It was concluded that there was no significant variation in the prevalence rate between the 1994 study and the present one; therefore, it is recommended that this study be promoted so as to increase the bovine vaccination and achieve a reduction in leptospirosis in Mexico. PMID:15846936

  4. Tensile strength of bovine trabecular bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, S J; Hayes, W C; Stone, J L; Beaupré, G S

    1985-01-01

    Data on the tensile and compressive properties of trabecular bone are needed to define input parameters and failure criteria for modeling total joint replacements. To help resolve differences in reports comparing tensile and compressive properties of trabecular bone, we have developed new methods, based on porous foam technology, for tensile testing of fresh/frozen trabecular bone specimens. Using bovine trabecular bone from an isotropic region from the proximal humerus as a model material, we measured ultimate strengths in tension and compression for two groups of 24 specimens each. The average ultimate strength in tension was 7.6 +/- 2.2 (95% C.I.) MPa and in compression was 12.4 +/- 3.2 MPa. This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.013) and was not related to density differences between the test groups (p = 0.28). Strength was related by a power-law function of the local apparent density, but, even accounting for density influences, isotropic bovine trabecular bone exhibits significantly lower strengths in tension than in compression. PMID:4077868

  5. Copy number variation in the bovine genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendixen Christian

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Copy number variations (CNVs, which represent a significant source of genetic diversity in mammals, have been shown to be associated with phenotypes of clinical relevance and to be causative of disease. Notwithstanding, little is known about the extent to which CNV contributes to genetic variation in cattle. Results We designed and used a set of NimbleGen CGH arrays that tile across the assayable portion of the cattle genome with approximately 6.3 million probes, at a median probe spacing of 301 bp. This study reports the highest resolution map of copy number variation in the cattle genome, with 304 CNV regions (CNVRs being identified among the genomes of 20 bovine samples from 4 dairy and beef breeds. The CNVRs identified covered 0.68% (22 Mb of the genome, and ranged in size from 1.7 to 2,031 kb (median size 16.7 kb. About 20% of the CNVs co-localized with segmental duplications, while 30% encompass genes, of which the majority is involved in environmental response. About 10% of the human orthologous of these genes are associated with human disease susceptibility and, hence, may have important phenotypic consequences. Conclusions Together, this analysis provides a useful resource for assessment of the impact of CNVs regarding variation in bovine health and production traits.

  6. Determining fertility in a bovine subject comprises detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of genetic marker alleles associated with a trait indicative of fertility of the bovine subject and/or off-spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    for determining fertility in a bovine subject; and selecting bovine subjects for breeding purposes (all claimed). DETAILED DESCRIPTION - Determining fertility in a bovine subject comprises detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of two or more genetic marker alleles......NOVELTY - Determining fertility in a bovine subject comprises detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of two or more genetic marker alleles that are associated with a trait indicative of fertility of the bovine subject and/or off-spring. USE - The methods are useful...... that are associated with a trait indicative of fertility of the bovine subject and/or off-spring, where the two or more genetic marker alleles are single nucleotide polymorphisms selected from Hapmap60827-rs29019866, ARS-BFGL-NGS-40979, Hapmap47854-BTA-119090, ARS-BFGL-NGS-114679, Hapmap43841-BTA-34601, Hapmap43407...

  7. Enzootic transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi and T. rangeli in the Federal District of Brazil Transmissão enzoótica de Trypanosoma cruzi e T. rangeli no Distrito Federal, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The Federal District of Brazil (DF lies within the Cerrado biome, where open shrubland (savannas is interspersed with riverside gallery forests and permanent swamps (veredas. Trypanosoma cruzi-infected native triatomines occur in the area, but the enzootic transmission of trypanosomatids remains poorly characterized. A parasitological survey involving sylvatic triatomines (166 Rhodnius neglectus collected from Mauritia flexuosa palms and small mammals (98 marsupials and 70 rodents, totaling 18 species was conducted in 18 sites (mainly gallery forests and veredas of the DF. Parasites were isolated, morphologically identified, and characterized by PCR of nuclear (mini-exon gene and kinetoplast DNA (kDNA. Six R. neglectus, seven Didelphis albiventris and one Akodon cursor were infected by trypanosomes; wild reservoir infection is documented for the first time in the DF. kDNA PCR detected T. cruzi in five R. neglectus and mini-exon gene PCR revealed T. cruzi I in isolates from D. albiventris. Parasites infecting one bug yielded T. rangeli KP1+ kDNA amplicons. In spite of the occurrence of T. cruzi-infected D. albiventris (an important wild and peridomestic reservoir and R. neglectus (a secondary vector displaying synanthropic behavior, a low-risk of human Chagas disease transmission could be expected in the DF, considering the low prevalence infection recorded in this work. The detection of T. rangeli KP1+ associated with R. neglectus in the DF widens the known range of this parasite in Brazil and reinforces the hypothesis of adaptation of T. rangeli populations (KP1+ and KP1- to distinct evolutionary Rhodnius lineages.O Distrito Federal (DF do Brasil está localizado no bioma Cerrado, um complexo de fisionomias savânicas incluindo matas de galeria e campos úmidos permanentes (veredas. Triatomíneos silvestres infectados por Trypanosoma cruzi ocorrem na área, mas a transmissão enzoótica de tripanossomatídeos permanece insuficientemente

  8. Gabor Weber Local Descriptor for Bovine Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition is a robust biometric technology. This paper proposes a novel local descriptor for bovine iris recognition, named Gabor Weber local descriptor (GWLD. We first compute the Gabor magnitude maps for the input bovine iris image, and then calculate the differential excitation and orientation for each pixel over each Gabor magnitude map. After that, we use these differential excitations and orientations to construct the GWLD histogram representation. Finally, histogram intersection is adopted to measure the similarity between different GWLD histograms. The experimental results on the SEU bovine iris database verify the representation power of our proposed local descriptor.

  9. Serological evidences of bovine herpesvirus-1 infection in bovines of organized farms in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S; Kumar, M; Yadav, V; Chander, V

    2011-04-01

    Bovine herpesvirus type-1 (BHV-1) is an important pathogen of cattle causing a variety of clinical signs, including the upper respiratory tract infection, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR). Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, a highly infectious disease of cattle and buffaloes, occurs throughout the world including India. The present study based on micro-serum neutralization test reports the sero-epidemiology of BHV-1 infection in cattle and buffaloes from different parts of India. Serum samples from cattle, bulls, buffalo bulls and yaks were screened for BHV-1 antibodies. A total of 1115 serum samples were screened, and a total of 437 (39.2%) serum samples were found positive and 678 (60.8%) serum samples were found negative. Overall 168 (38.0%) cattle, 17 (85.0%) buffalo, 212 (38.6%) bulls, 8 (13.5%) buffalo bulls and 32 (71.1%) yaks were found positive for BHV-1 antibodies. State wise, Assam had highest seropositivity of 71.1% for yaks, Madhya Pradesh had 68.9% for cattle and Meghalaya was negative for the presence of antibodies to BHV-1 in cattle. PMID:21156033

  10. Field Surgical Intervention of Bovine Actinomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Farooq*, A. Qayyum, H. A. Samad, H. R. Chaudhry and N. Ahmad1

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycosis, or lumpy jaw, is an important cause of economic losses in livestock because of its widespread occurrence and poor response to the routine clinical treatment. The present study describes a typical case of bovine actinomycosis in a seven-month pregnant Sahiwal heifer with a hard swelling on the middle of the maxilla bone at the level of the central molar teeth. Tentative diagnosis was made through clinical signs. After maturation of the swelling, the area was incised under local anesthesia and debridement of the wound was achieved by sharp surgical debridement and mechanical debridement. Pus, having the appearance of sulphur granules, was completely removed from the excised cavity, which was closed by applying mattress sutures. Adjunct therapy of broad-spectrum antibiotic was administered intramuscularly for five days as a post-operative measure. Catamnesis revealed that the healing was complete in 15 days with no recurrence and untoward consequences.

  11. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV;

    2007-01-01

    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology...... and changes in morphology suggest the existence of different aggregate species. Although beta-sheet content increases from 0 to ca. 40% upon aggregation, the aggregates retain significant amounts of alpha-helix structure, and lack a protease-resistant core. Thus BSA is able to form well-ordered beta...... significant amounts of alpha-helix, highlights the universality of the fibrillation mechanism. However, the presence of non-beta-sheet structure may influence the final fibrillar structure and could be a key component in aggregated BSA's lack of cytotoxicity....

  12. Human bovine tuberculosis - remains in the differential.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bilal, Shaukat

    2010-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is a pathogen of cattle. The unpasteurized milk of affected cattle is a source of infection in humans. Despite the screening of cattle and the pasteurization of milk, M bovis has not been eradicated. A high index of clinical suspicion is needed in symptomatic patients with a history of possible exposure. At risk groups include animal workers, farmers, meat packers, vets and zoo keepers. Humans are usually infected by the aerosol route. We present two cases of human bovine tuberculosis. One was a presumptive case and the second was a confirmed case. Both responded well to antituberculous therapy. In the confirmed case, there was evidence of transmission to the partner living in the same house. Rifampicin prophylaxis was given to the exposed case. The M. bovis from the confirmed case was isoniazid resistant, in addition to having the well known resistance to pyrazinamide. Isoniazid resistance has been described before in those who are immunocompromised. We describe it in an immunocompetent patient.

  13. Nucleolar ultrastructure in bovine nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaňka, Jiří; Smith, Steven Dale; Soloy, Eva;

    1999-01-01

    in nuclear morphology as a transformation of the nucleolus precursor body into a functional rRNA synthesising nucleolus with a characteristic ultrastructure. We examined nucleolar ultrastructure in bovine in vitro produced (control) embryos and in nuclear transfer embryos reconstructed from a MII phase...... at 1 hr after fusion and, by 3 hr after fusion, it was restored again. At this time, the reticulated fibrillo-granular nucleolus had an almost round shape. The nucleolar precursor body seen in the two-cell stage nuclear transfer embryos consisted of intermingled filamentous components and secondary...... time intervals after fusion. In the two-cell stage nuclear transfer embryo, the originally reticulated nucleolus of the donor blastomere had changed into a typical nucleolar precursor body consisting of a homogeneous fibrillar structure. A primary vacuole appeared in the four-cell stage nuclear...

  14. Presence of osteoinductive factors in bovine colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussano, Federico; Bartorelli Cusani, Alberto; Brossa, Alessia; Carossa, Stefano; Bussolati, Gianni; Bussolati, Benedetta

    2014-01-01

    New approaches in the treatment of skeletal defects may benefit from the use of soluble biological factors. We previously standardized a derivative of bovine colostrum (SBCD), deprived of casein and fat and rich in cytokines. In the present study, we tested its possible use as an adjuvant in bone healing. SBCD contained factors involved in stromal cell stimulation and differentiation and induced cytokine production from stimulated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In vitro, SBCD promoted proliferation, migration and, in association with osteogenic factors, osteogenic differentiation of osteoblastic and MSCs. In in vivo experiments of subcutaneous Matrigel injection in mice, SBCD plus hydroxyapatite, but not hydroxyapatite nor SBCD alone, induced recruitment of macrophages and stromal cells. After 60 days, plugs containing SBCD and hydroxyapatite were densely calcified and diffusely positive for osteocalcin, supporting the occurrence of an early osteogenic process. These results indicate that SBCD is a rich source of factors with osteoinductive properties. PMID:25036965

  15. Copy number variation in the bovine genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadista, João; Thomsen, Bo; Holm, Lars-Erik;

    2010-01-01

    to genetic variation in cattle. Results We designed and used a set of NimbleGen CGH arrays that tile across the assayable portion of the cattle genome with approximately 6.3 million probes, at a median probe spacing of 301 bp. This study reports the highest resolution map of copy number variation...... in the cattle genome, with 304 CNV regions (CNVRs) being identified among the genomes of 20 bovine samples from 4 dairy and beef breeds. The CNVRs identified covered 0.68% (22 Mb) of the genome, and ranged in size from 1.7 to 2,031 kb (median size 16.7 kb). About 20% of the CNVs co-localized with segmental...

  16. A retrospective study on management of gross hematuria in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease patients%常染色体显性多囊肾病患者并发肉眼血尿治疗方法的回顾研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马熠熠; 陈冬平; 梅长林; 郁胜强; 戎殳; 张彤; 李林

    2012-01-01

    目的 寻找治疗常染色体显性多囊肾病(ADPKD)并发肉眼血尿的理想疗法.方法 1993年以来曾在我科住院治疗以及目前在我科多囊肾病专科门诊定期就诊随访的ADPKD患者为对象.收集ADPKD患者出现肉眼血尿时的平均年龄、性别构成、肾功能水平、诱发因素、治疗方案、症状持续时间、血小板计数、凝血参数、肾脏囊肿大小等资料,分别以不同的肉眼血尿诱发因素及治疗方案进行分组,比较其各指标间的差异.结果 共筛选出ADPKD患者905例.279例(男150例,女129例)曾有肉眼血尿病史,其中146例能提供完整的病史和治疗经过,而只有101例能提供相关的实验室检查结果.在这101例中,肉眼血尿可出现在慢性肾脏病(CKD)任何一期;GFR为(56.4±44.1)ml·min-1·(1.73 m2)-1;症状持续时间(8.8±8.0)d;男、女患者症状持续时间差异无统计学意义[(8.2±7.3)d比(9.5±8.8)d,P=0.426);凝血参数均在正常参考范围内,其中91例患者血小板计数正常.不同诱发因素导致的肉眼血尿持续时间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).卧床休息组症状持续时间显著短于其他组患者(P<0.05).各组间血小板计数、凝血酶时间和国际标准化比值等差异无统计学意义.结论 对出现肉眼血尿的ADPKD患者应首先明确其诱因.卧床休息应作为核心治疗措施.在考虑使用止血药物时建议使用抗纤维蛋白溶解类药物,不需要预防性使用抗生索.%Objective To seauch the ideal management for gross hematuria in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD).Methods ADPKD patients who were ever hospitalized and followed up in our department since 1993 were enrolled in the study.Demographic and clinical data were colloected,such as gender,age of gross hematuria,level of renal function,causative factors,management strategies,duration of gross hematuria,blood platelet count,activated partial thromboplastin time,prothrombin time

  17. Pathological studies on bovine viral diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified as an RNA virus in the family flavin viride and is a member of the genus pest virus (Collet et al 1989). BVDV has a worldwide distribution and infections in cattle populations (Kahrs et al 1970). It was recognized since 50 years ago, the initial description of an acute enteric disease of cattle in North America, which was characterized by outbreaks of diarrhea and erosive of digestive tract (Olafsonp et al 1946). The disease and causative agent were named bovine viral diarrhea (B V D ) and (B V DV), respectively. This virus was subsequently associated with a sporadically occurring and highly fatal enteric disease that was termed mucosal disease (M D), (Ramsey and Chivers 1953). The initial isolate of BVDV did not produce cytopathic effect in cell culture, whereas an isolate from MD did produce cytopathic effects (Lee et al 1957). In vitro characteristic of non cytopathic or sytopathic effects of BVDV is referred to as the biotype of the virus. It has now been established that MD occurs only when xattle that are born immuno tolerant to and persistently infected with a noncyropathic BVDV become super infected with a cytopathic BVDV. The knowledge of the molecular biology. Pathogenesis and epidemiology of BVDV has greatly evolved in the past 10-15 years and has provided a better understanding of this complex infectious agent. Infection with BVDV can result in a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from subclinical infection s to a highly fatal from known as mucosal disease (ND). The clinical response to infection depends on multiple interactive factors. Host factors that influence the clinical outcome of BVDV infection include whether the host is immunocompetent or immuno tolerant to BVDV, pregnancy status, gestational age of the fetus, immune status (passively derived or actively derived from previous infection or vaccination) and concurrent level of environmental stress

  18. Prevalence and economics and bovine leukosis in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, D.K.; Beal, V.C. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews the prevalence of bovine leukosis in the US and discusses the economic significance of the disease. The term leukosis is used except when reporting the Meat Inspection Department data which used the term malignant lymphoma instead. (PCS)

  19. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... damages the central nervous system of cattle. More Mad Cow Disease is a neurological disorder of cattle. About BSE ...

  20. Guidelines for taking and interpreting radiographs of the bovine foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This step-by-step guide to radiographing the bovine foot tells you how to 1) obtain the radiograph you need, 2) allow for normal variations when assessing the findings, and 3) interpret abnormalities accurately by following a systematic approach

  1. Recognizing the radiographic features of some common bovine foot problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiographs of an injured or infected bovine foot can be tricky to interpret - the anatomy is complex, and the signs may be subtle. This guide leads you through the classic radiographic features of several common foot conditions

  2. Aspiration lung disorders in bovines: A case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony S. Shakespeare

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Lung aspiration disorders in bovines are invariably diagnosed as infectious aspiration pneumonias. There is a distinct differentiation between aspiration pneumonia and aspiration pneumonitis in humans that can be applied to bovines. The nature and quantity of the aspirate can result in differing pathogeneses which can require differing therapeutic approaches. Whilst blood gases were important in detecting and prognosticating lung problems, changes in barometric pressure with altitude have to be considered when interpreting partial pressures of oxygen. Anatomical differences in the lungs of bovines can explain why this species is more prone to certain pneumonic problems. Pulmonary physiotherapy is important in treating lung disorders in humans and should be considered as an adjunct therapy in bovine respiratory conditions. A case work-up was used to highlight some of the points discussed in this article.

  3. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of bovine and shark cartilage as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  4. Structure and Function of Bovine and Camel Chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm

    The central step in cheese making is the separation of milk into curd and whey. This can be done enzymatically by hydrolysis of the Phe105-Met106 bond or nearby bonds in bovine κ-casein, which releases its hydrophilic C-terminal leading to coagulation of the milk. The preferred enzyme...... and characterised, and turned out to have an even higher activity and specificity towards the Phe105-Met106 bond than bovine chymosin. The sequences of bovine and camel chymosin are 85% identical, and yet they have significantly different cheese making properties. The aim of the project was to explain...... this difference through the study of the structures of bovine and camel chymosin, and preparation of catalytically inactive enzymes in complex with substrate. Their milk-clotting activities was determined using the traditional assay on skimmed milk, and a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay...

  5. Bovine Papillomavirus Clastogenic Effect Analyzed in Comet Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Araldi, R. P.; Melo, T. C.; N. Diniz; J. Mazzuchelli-de-Souza; R.F. Carvalho; Beçak, W.; Stocco, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is an oncogenic virus related to serious livestock diseases. Oncoproteins encoded by BPV are involved in several steps of cellular transformation and have been reported as presenting clastogenic effects in peripheral lymphocytes and primary culture cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clastogenic potential of BPV types 1, 2, and 4 by comet assay. Peripheral blood was collected from 37 bovines, 32 infected with different levels of papillomatosis (12 anim...

  6. Epidemiology of Bovine Mastitis in Cows of Dharwad District

    OpenAIRE

    Mahantesh M. Kurjogi; Kaliwal, Basappa B

    2014-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is very common in cows of both developed and developing countries. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis (SCM) varies from region to region. Hence, the present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of mastitis using three diagnostic tests by considering different risk factors like age, lactation, breed, season, quarters, and herd. The results showed that surf field mastitis test (SFMT) is the most sensitive test for diagnosis of bovine mastitis, the o...

  7. Bovine Viral Diarrhea in Cattle in Indonesia and its Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Sudarisman

    2011-01-01

    Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) is a disease caused by the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), an ubiquitous, easily transmitted virus with worldwide distribution. The majority of postnatal infections with BVDV are nonclinical, with biphasic temperature elevation and leucopenia followed by a spesific immune response measurable by serum neutralisation test. The infection can be diagnosed serologically or virologically and the disease is recognized by clinical signs and pathological lesions. Diseas...

  8. Cell-free translation of bovine viral diarrhea virus RNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Purchio, A F; Larson, R.; Torborg, L L; Collett, M S

    1984-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus RNA was translated in a reticulocyte cell-free protein synthesizing system. The purified, 8.2-kilobase, virus-specific RNA species was unable to serve an an efficient message unless it was denatured immediately before translation. In this case, several polypeptides, ranging in molecular weight from 50,000 to 150,000 and most of which were immunoprecipitated by bovine viral diarrhea virus-specific antiserum, were synthesized in vitro. When polyribosomes were used to...

  9. BTA2 and BTA26 are linked with bovine respiratory disease and associated with persistent infection of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a pathogen associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). BRD causes 28% of all cattle deaths and an annual U.S. loss over $692 million. The objective of this study was to refine the linkage of BRD and association of bovine viral diarrhea-persistent infection (BVD-P...

  10. Local IL2 and IL12 treatment of Bovine Ocular Squamous Cell Carcinoma (BOSCC) and Bovine Vulval Papilloma and Carcinoma Complex (BVPCC) in Cattle in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stewart, R.J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Effect of local IL-2 application on bovine cancer In tropical countries there is an increased prevalence of two important cancers in cattle: Bovine Ocular Squamous Cell Carcinoma (BOSCC) and Bovine Vulval Papilloma Carcinoma Complex (BVPCC). Both cancers are associated with increased annual hours of

  11. Remodeling of bovine endometrium throughout the estrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Miki; Yoshioka, Shin; Tasaki, Yukari; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2013-11-01

    The mammalian endometrium changes morphologically and functionally throughout the estrous cycle. In some species, endometrial cells also undergo periodic proliferation and degeneration. However, the remodeling of bovine endometrium throughout the estrous cycle remains unclear. In the present study, we examined how the remodeling of bovine endometrium varied through the estrous cycle by measuring the relative rates of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Cells positive for both KI-67 (a proliferation marker) and cleaved caspase-3 (CCP3: an apoptotic cell marker) were immunohistochemically evaluated throughout the estrous cycle in the luminal and glandular epithelia, and the stroma of bovine endometrium. Percentages of KI-67-positive cells tended to be higher at the early luteal and follicular stages than at the mid and late luteal stages in all cell types. Similarly, percentages of CCP3-positive cells were higher at the early luteal stage than at the mid and late luteal stages in the luminal epithelium and stroma. Furthermore, CCP3 expression levels by Western blot analysis agreed with these immunohistological observations. On the other hand, DNA fragmentation was detected in the bovine endometrium without significant differences during the estrous cycle by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. Together, these results show that cell proliferation and apoptosis undergo cyclic patterns in the bovine endometrium, and suggest that the bovine endometrium is remodeled in each estrous cycle. PMID:24051170

  12. Expression of a 50 kDa putative receptor for bovine viral diarrhea virus in bovine fetal tissues.

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, L; Zhang, S.; W. Xue; Kapil, S; Minocha, H C

    1998-01-01

    The expression of a 50 kDa bovine viral diarrhea virus putative receptor in different bovine fetal tissues from 3-month old fetuses was studied. The receptor expression was examined by immunocytochemical staining and by immunoblotting using antiidiotypic probe (anti-D89). Intense specific staining in enterocytes of the small and large intestines, cortical tubular epithelial cells of kidneys, respiratory epithelial cells of the trachea and esophageal mucosal epithelial cells was observed, demo...

  13. Preliminary quality assessment of bovine colostrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Taranto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Data on bovine colostrum quality are scarce or absent, although Commission Regulations No 1662/2006 and No 1663/2006 include colostrum in the context of chapters on milk. Thus the aim of the present work is to study some physical, chemical, hygiene and safety quality parameters of bovine colostrum samples collected from Sicily and Calabria dairy herds. Thirty individual samples were sampled after 2-3 days from partum. The laboratory tests included: pH, fat (FT, total nitrogen (TN, lactose (LTS and dry matter (NM percentage (Lactostar and somatic cell count (CCS (DeLaval cell counter DCC. Bacterial counts included: standard plate count (SPC, total psychrophilic aerobic count (PAC, total, fecal coliforms by MPN (Most Probable Number, sulphite-reducing bacteria (SR. Salmonella spp. was determined. Bacteriological examinations were performed according to the American Public Health Association (APHA methods, with some adjustements related to the requirements of the study. Statistical analysis of data was performed by Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. The results showed a low variability of pH values and FT, TN and DM percentage between samples; whereas LTS trend was less noticeable. A significant negative correlation (P<0.01 was observed between pH, TN and LTS amount. The correlation between LTS and TN contents was highly significant (P<0.001. Highly significant and negative was the correlation (P<0.001 between DM, NT and LTS content. SPC mean values were 7.54 x106 CFU/mL; PAC mean values were also high (3.3x106 CFU/mL. Acceptable values of coagulase positive staphylococci were showed; 3 Staphylococcus aureus and 1 Staphylococcus epidermidis strains was isolated. Coagulase negative staphylococci counts were low. A high variability in the number of TC, as for FC was observed; bacterial loads were frequently fairly high. Salmonella spp. and SR bacteria were absent. It was assumed that bacteria from samples had a prevailing environmental origin

  14. Treponema denticola in microflora of bovine periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Borsanelli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis in cattle is an infectious purulent progressive disease associated with strict anaerobic subgingival biofilm and is epidemiologically related to soil management at several locations of Brazil. This study aimed to detect Treponema species in periodontal pockets of cattle with lesions deeper than 5mm in the gingival sulcus of 6 to 24-month-old animals considered periodontally healthy. We used paper cones to collect the materials, after removal of supragingival plaques, and kept frozen (at -80°C up to DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR using T. amylovorum, T. denticola, T. maltophilum, T. medium and T. vincentii primers. In periodontal pocket, it was possible to identify by PCR directly, the presence of Treponema amylovorum in 73% of animals (19/26, T. denticola in 42.3% (11/26 and T. maltophilum in 54% (14/26. Among the 25 healthy sites, it was possible to identify T. amylovorum in 18 (72%, T. denticola in two (8% and T. maltophilum in eight (32%. Treponema medium and T. vincentii were not detected over all 51 evaluated samples. The presence of Treponema amylovorum, T. maltophilum and, in particular, the widely recognized T. denticola in subgingival microflora brings an original and potencially important contribution in studies of the bovine periodontitis.

  15. Macro mineral requirements by grazing zebu bovines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Henrique Bevitori Kling de Moraes

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine requirements of calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, magnesium (Mg, potassium (K and sodium (Na for grazing zebu bovines. The experiment area was composed of Brachiaria decumbens paddocks. Twenty-seven non-castrated animals, with initial live weight of 311.0 kg and at an average age of 14 months were used. Three animals were slaughtered, after adaptation period, so they were used as control for estimates of empty body weight and initial body composition of animals in the experiment. Out of the 24 remaining animals, four were sent to the maintenance group with restrict grazing time to limit energy intake close to the maintenance level. The other 20 animals were distributed in four treatments: mineral mixture, self-control intake and three-times-a-week-offer frequency (offered on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays and daily. Concentrations of all studied macro elements in empty body and empty body gain decreased as live weight increased. The ratios obtained for g Ca/100 g of retained protein and g P/100 g of retained protein were 9.18 and 4.72, respectively. Total dietary requirement of calcium was lower than the one recommended by NRC (2000, but P requirement was very close to that.

  16. Bovine Model of Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo R. Bartoli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs constitute a recent advance in heart failure (HF therapeutics. As the rigorous experimental assessment of LVADs in HF requires large animal models, our objective was to develop a bovine model of cardiomyopathy. Male calves (n=8 were used. Four animals received 1.2 mg/kg intravenous doxorubicin weekly for seven weeks and four separate animals were studied as controls. Doxorubicin-treated animals were followed with weekly echocardiography. Target LV dysfunction was defined as an ejection fraction ≤35%. Sixty days after initiating doxorubicin, a terminal study was performed to determine hemodynamic, histological, biochemical, and molecular parameters. All four doxorubicin-treated animals exhibited significant (P<0.05 contractile dysfunction, with target LV dysfunction achieved in three animals. Doxorubicin-treated hearts exhibited significantly reduced coronary blood flow and interstitial fibrosis and significantly increased apoptosis and myocyte size. Gene expression of atrial natriuretic factor increased more than 3-fold. Plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine levels were significantly increased early and late during the development of cardiomyopathy, respectively. We conclude that sequential administration of intravenous doxorubicin in calves induces a cardiomyopathy with many phenotypic hallmarks of the failing human heart. This clinically-relevant model may be useful for testing pathophysiologic responses to LVADs in the context of HF.

  17. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  18. Morphological classification of bovine ovarian follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, R J; Irving-Rodgers, H F

    2010-02-01

    Follicle classification is an important aid to the understanding of follicular development and atresia. Some bovine primordial follicles have the classical primordial shape, but ellipsoidal shaped follicles with some cuboidal granulosa cells at the poles are far more common. Preantral follicles have one of two basal lamina phenotypes, either a single aligned layer or one with additional layers. In antral follicles basal granulosa cells and additional layers of basal lamina, which appear as loops in cross section ('loopy'). The remainder have aligned single-layered follicular basal laminas with rounded basal cells, and contain better quality oocytes than the loopy/columnar follicles. In sizes >5 mm, only aligned/rounded phenotypes are present. Dominant and subordinate follicles can be identified by ultrasound and/or histological examination of pairs of ovaries. Atretic follicles basal atretic or antral atretic, named on the basis of the location in the membrana granulosa where cells die first. Basal atretic follicles have considerable biological differences to antral atretic follicles. In follicles >5 mm, only antral atresia is observed. The concentrations of follicular fluid steroid hormones can be used to classify atresia and distinguish some of the different types of atresia; however, this method is unlikely to identify follicles early in atresia, and hence misclassify them as healthy. Other biochemical and histological methods can be used, but since cell death is a part of normal homoeostatis, deciding when a follicle has entered atresia remains somewhat subjective. PMID:19786400

  19. Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a thin, tube-like instrument with a tiny camera on the end) Treatment Most of the time, ... Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com

  20. Enzymic characteristics of fat globule membranes from bovine colostrum and bovine milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Fat globule membranes have been isolated from bovine colostrum and bovine milk by the dispersion of the fat in sucrose solutions at 4 degrees C and fractionation by centrifugation through discontinuous sucrose gradients. The morphology and enzymic characteristics of the separated fractions were examined. Fractions comprising a large proportion of the total extracted membrane were thus obtained having high levels of the Golgi marker enzymes UDP-galactose N- acetylglucosamine beta-4-galactosyltransferase and thiamine pyrophosphatase. A membrane-derived form of the galactosyltransferase has been solubilized from fat and purified to homogeneity. This enzyme is larger in molecular weight than previously studied soluble galactosyltransferases, but resembles in size the galactosyltransferase of lactating mammary Golgi membranes. In contrast, when fat globule membranes were prepared by traditional procedures, which involved washing the fat at higher temperatures, before extraction, galactosyltransferase was not present in the membranes, having been released into supernatant fractions, When the enzyme released by this procedure was partially purified and examined by gel filtration, it was found to be of a degraded form resembling in size the soluble galactosyltransferase of milk. The release is therefore attributed to the action of proteolytic enzymes. Our observations contrast with previous biochemical studies which suggested that Golgi membranes do not contribute to the milk fat globule membrane. They are, however, consistent with electron microscope studies of the fat secretion process, which indicate that secretory vesicle membranes, derived from the Golgi apparatus, may provide a large proportion of the fat globule membrane. PMID:402369

  1. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp; Husby, Steffen

    2014-04-01

    Bovine colostrum, the first milk that cows produce after parturition, contains high levels of growth factors and immunomodulatory components. Some healthy and diseased individuals may gain health benefits by consuming bovine colostrum as a food supplement. This review provides a systematic, critical evaluation of the current state of knowledge in this area. Fifty-one eligible studies were identified from the following databases: Medline, Embase, Global Health, the Cochrane Library, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Studies were heterogeneous with regard to populations, outcomes, and methodological quality, as judged by the Jadad assessment tool. Many studies used surrogate markers to study the effects of bovine colostrum. Studies suggesting clinical benefits of colostrum supplementation were generally of poor methodological quality, and results could not be confirmed by other investigators. Bovine colostrum may provide gastrointestinal and immunological benefits, but further studies are required before recommendations can be made for clinical application. Animal models may help researchers to better understand the mechanisms of bovine colostrum supplementation, the dosage regimens required to obtain clinical benefits, and the optimal methods for testing these effects in humans. PMID:24571383

  2. Epidemiology of Bovine Mastitis in Cows of Dharwad District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurjogi, Mahantesh M.; Kaliwal, Basappa B.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is very common in cows of both developed and developing countries. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis (SCM) varies from region to region. Hence, the present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of mastitis using three diagnostic tests by considering different risk factors like age, lactation, breed, season, quarters, and herd. The results showed that surf field mastitis test (SFMT) is the most sensitive test for diagnosis of bovine mastitis, the older age and cows with later part of lactation period were more prone to bovine mastitis, and exotic breeds like Holstein freshen (HF) were more susceptible to bovine mastitis. The highest incidence of mastitis was recorded in monsoon season. The prevalence of subclinical and clinical mastitis was more in single and two quarters, respectively, and the rate of bovine mastitis was more in unorganized herds. The study concluded that SCM is directly associated with age, lactation period, and environmental factors of the cow and clinical mastitis is more associated with breed of the cow and environmental conditions.

  3. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kasuga, Fumiko

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a progressive neurological disease of cattle affecting the central nervous system and was first diagnosed in the United Kingdom (UK) in 1986 (Wells et al., 1987). This disease is one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) which includes Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans and scrapie in sheep. The causative agent of TSE is considered to be an abnormal form of prion protein. However, the details of its pathogenic mechanism have not been fully identified. Scrapie, which causes neurological symptoms in sheep and goats, has existed in the UK for 200 years (Hoinville, 1996) and spread across the rest of the world in the 1900s (Detwiler & Baylis, 2003). There has been no report so far that scrapie can be transmitted to humans. Initially, BSE was also considered as a disease affecting only animals. However, a variant type of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) was first reported in the UK, and exposure to a BSE agent was suspected (Collinge, Sidle, Meads, Ironside, & Hill, 1996). vCJD is clinically and pathologically different from the sporadic type of CJD, and age at clinical onset of vCJD is younger than sporadic type (Will et al., 1996). Since the UK government announced the possible association between BSE and vCJD in 1996, BSE has become a huge public health concern all over the world. Of particular concern about vCJD, the fatal disease in younger age, distorted consumer confidence in beef safety, and as a result reduced beef consumption has been seen in many BSE-affected countries.

  4. A monoclonal antibody to pestviruses in bovine and ovine sera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed to defeat antibodies to pestviruses in bovine and ovine sera. Single sera from 211 cattle and 22 sheep from 7 different farms were tested using ELISA and Serum Neutralisation Test (SNT). 17 Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) directed against P80, gp48 and gp53 were tested for ability to coat ELISA plates and capture the bovine viral diarrhea antigen. 5 mabs(WB 103, WB, 105, WB 112 against P80 kDa protein, WB 210 and WB 214 directed against gp48 and gp 53 kDa protein. Specific antibody to BVDV was detected by rabbit anti-bovine and anti-ovine IgG antisera. The quantitative correlation between two tests was good

  5. Processed bovine cartilage: an improved biosynthetic implant for contour defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersek, R.A.; Hart, W.G. Jr.; Greer, D.; Beisang, A.A.; Flynn, P.J.; Denton, D.R.

    1984-05-01

    Irradiated human cartilage has been found to be a superior implant material for correction of contour defects; however, availability problems have prevented this material from gaining wide acceptance. Implantation of processed irradiated bovine cartilage in primates and rabbits, as described here, provides strong evidence that this material performs like irradiated allograft cartilage antigenically and has certain cosmetic advantages over allograft cartilage. Our studies in primates have shown that there is no systemically measurable antibody-antigen reaction, either cellular or noncellular, to irradiated processed bovine cartilage. Neither primary nor second-set provocative implantations produced any measurable rejection. In rabbits, composite grafts of two pieces of irradiated bovine cartilage adjacent to each other were also well tolerated, with no measurable absorption and with capsule formation typical of a foreign body reaction to an inert object.

  6. Dynamic compressive properties of bovine knee layered tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Masahiro; Hino, Yuki; Todo, Mitsugu

    2015-09-01

    In Japan, the most common articular disease is knee osteoarthritis. Among many treatment methodologies, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have recently received a lot of attention. In this field, cells and scaffolds are important, both ex vivo and in vivo. From the viewpoint of effective treatment, in addition to histological features, the compatibility of mechanical properties is also important. In this study, the dynamic and static compressive properties of bovine articular cartilage-cancellous bone layered tissue were measured using a universal testing machine and a split Hopkinson pressure bar method. The compressive behaviors of bovine articular cartilage-cancellous bone layered tissue were examined. The effects of strain rate on the maximum stress and the slope of stress-strain curves of the bovine articular cartilage-cancellous bone layered tissue were discussed.

  7. Splitting and biopsy for bovine embryo sexing under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, R F; Forell, F; Oliveira, A T; Rodrigues, J L

    2001-12-01

    Improvements on embryo micromanipulation techniques led to the use of embryo bisection technology in commercial embryo transfer programs, and made possible the direct genetic analysis of preimplantation bovine embryos by biopsy. For example, aspiration and microsection, allow bovine embryos sexing by detection of male-specific Y-chromosome in a sample of embryonic cells. We report on the application of the methodologies of splitting and biopsy of bovine embryos in field conditions, and on the results of embryo sex determination by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Pregnancy rates achieved with fresh bisected or biopsied embryos (50 to 60%) were similar to the fresh intact embryos (55 to 61%). The PCR protocol used for embryo sexing showed 92% to 94% of efficiency and 90 to 100% of accuracy. These results demonstrate these procedures are suitable for use in field conditions.

  8. A novel glutamate dehydrogenase from bovine brain: purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Kim, S W; Cho, S W

    1995-08-01

    A soluble form of novel glutamate dehydrogenase has been purified from bovine brain. The preparation was homogeneous on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and composed of six identical subunits having a subunit size of 57,500 Da. The biochemical properties of glutamate dehydrogenase such as N-terminal amino acids sequences, kinetic parameters, amino acids analysis, and optimum pH were examined in both reductive amination of alpha-ketoglutarate and oxidative deamination of glutamate. N-terminal amino acid sequences of the bovine brain enzyme showed the significant differences in the first 5 amino acids compared to other glutamate dehydrogenases from various sources. These results indicate that glutamate dehydrogenase isolated from bovine brain is a novel polypeptide.

  9. Establishment and characterization of feeder-cell-dependent bovine fetal liver cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The establishment and initial characterization of bovine fetal liver cell lines is described. Bovine fetal hepatocytes were cultured from the liver of a 34-day bovine fetus by physical disruption of the liver tissue. Released liver cells and clumps of cells were plated on STO feeder layers and wer...

  10. The host defense proteome of human and bovine milk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Hettinga

    Full Text Available Milk is the single source of nutrients for the newborn mammal. The composition of milk of different mammals has been adapted during evolution of the species to fulfill the needs of the offspring. Milk not only provides nutrients, but it also serves as a medium for transfer of host defense components to the offspring. The host defense proteins in the milk of different mammalian species are expected to reveal signatures of evolution. The aim of this study is therefore to study the difference in the host defense proteome of human and bovine milk. We analyzed human and bovine milk using a shot-gun proteomics approach focusing on host defense-related proteins. In total, 268 proteins in human milk and 269 proteins in bovine milk were identified. Of these, 44 from human milk and 51 from bovine milk are related to the host defense system. Of these proteins, 33 were found in both species but with significantly different quantities. High concentrations of proteins involved in the mucosal immune system, immunoglobulin A, CD14, lactoferrin, and lysozyme, were present in human milk. The human newborn is known to be deficient for at least two of these proteins (immunoglobulin A and CD14. On the other hand, antimicrobial proteins (5 cathelicidins and lactoperoxidase were abundant in bovine milk. The high concentration of lactoperoxidase is probably linked to the high amount of thiocyanate in the plant-based diet of cows. This first detailed analysis of host defense proteins in human and bovine milk is an important step in understanding the function of milk in the development of the immune system of these two mammals.

  11. Preparation and characterization of 125 I labeled bovine serum albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Ashwitha Rai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine serum albumin is a model protein, which has been conventionally used as protein standard and in many areas of biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine. Radioiodination procedure for bovine serum albumin employing chloramine-T as an oxidant with slight modification was evaluated critically to establish the optimal conditions for the preparation of radiolabeled tracer ( 125 I-BSA with required specific activity without impairing the immune reactivity and biological activity. Optimized radioiodination procedure involving 10 µg of chloramine-T along with 20 µg of sodium metabisulphite with 60 seconds incubation at 2° yielded 125 I-BSA with high integrity.

  12. Histologic and Immunohistochemical classification of 41 bovine adrenal gland neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Anette Blak; Leifsson, Páll S.; Jensen, Henrik Elvang;

    2013-01-01

    Tumors of the adrenal glands are among the most frequent tumors in cattle; however, few studies have been conducted to describe their characteristics. The aim of this study was to classify 41 bovine adrenal neoplasms from 40 animals based on macroscopic and histologic examination, including....... An immunohistochemistry panel consisting of antibodies against melan A, synaptophysin, and CNPase was considered most useful to classify bovine adrenal tumors. However, the distinction between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors was based on histologic features as in human medicine....

  13. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-Associated Disease in Feedlot Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) is associated with bovine respiratory disease complex and other diseases of feedlot cattle. Although occasionally a primary pathogen, BVDv's impact on cattle health is through the immunosuppressive effects of the virus and its synergism with other pathogens. The simple presence or absence of BVDv does not result in consistent health outcomes because BVDv is only one of many risk factors that contribute to disease syndromes. Current interventions have limitations and the optimum strategy for their uses to limit the health, production, and economic costs associated with BVDv have to be carefully considered for optimum cost-effectiveness.

  14. Stabilization of Tyrosinase-Bovine Serum Albumin Crystals by Glutaraldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Norouzian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosinase and bovine serum albumin were co-crystallized by saturated ammonium sulfate solution(65% and 20% polyethylene glycol ( PEG 6000 and n-propanol as co-solvents .The obtained crystals were cross linked by glutaraldehyde solution(1% v/v.Polyethylene glycol 6000 was found to be better co-solvent than n-propanol. The developed biocatalyst could be recycled 6 times without further loss of tyrosinase activity. No loss of activity of cross linked tyrosinase -bovine serum albumin crystals was observed upon storage of the developed CLECs at refrigerator for six months.

  15. Generation of bovine transgenics using somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stice Steven L

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The ability to produce transgenic animals through the introduction of exogenous DNA has existed for many years. However, past methods available to generate transgenic animals, such as pronuclear microinjection or the use of embryonic stem cells, have either been inefficient or not available in all animals, bovine included. More recently somatic cell nuclear transfer has provided a method to create transgenic animals that overcomes many deficiencies present in other methods. This review summarizes the benefits of using somatic cell nuclear transfer to create bovine transgenics as well as the possible opportunities this method creates for the future.

  16. Antibody Tracing, Seroepidemiology and Risk Factors of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Bovine Adenovirus-3 in Dairy Holstein Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa FARZINPOUR

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibody tracing, risk factors and seroepidemiology of bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine adenovirus-3 were investigated in 22 Industrial and Semi-Industrial dairy Holstein farms. Serum samples (n=736 from various ages of unvaccinated cows were collected from May to September 2012. Risk factors including age, past history of respiratory diseases, amount of milk production, husbandry type and herd size were considered. Data were analyzed by Chi-square and logistic regression. Results indicated that the infection with some of individual viruses was related to past history of respiratory disease and herd size. No specific pattern was seen on the effect of level of milk production on seropositivity of animals. The seroprevalence for BRSV and BAV-3 were 89.1% and 88%, respectively. The present study indicates that infections of bovine respiratory viruses frequently occur in cattle of Fars province and the main viral cause of primary occurrence of respiratory diseases may be due to aforementioned viruses.

  17. Design and Construction of Chimeric VP8-S2 Antigen for Bovine Rotavirus and Bovine Coronavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Khadijeh; Nassiri, Mohammadreza; Tahmoorespur, Mojtaba; Haghparast, Alireza; Zibaee, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Bovine Rotavirus and Bovine Coronavirus are the most important causes of diarrhea in newborn calves and in some other species such as pigs and sheep. Rotavirus VP8 subunit is the major determinant of the viral infectivity and neutralization. Spike glycoprotein of coronavirus is responsible for induction of neutralizing antibody response. Methods: In the present study, several prediction programs were used to predict B and T-cells epitopes, secondary and tertiary structures, antigenicity ability and enzymatic degradation sites. Finally, a chimeric antigen was designed using computational techniques. The chimeric VP8-S2 antigen was constructed. It was cloned and sub-cloned into pGH and pET32a(+) expression vector. The recombinant pET32a(+)-VP8-S2 vector was transferred into E.oli BL21CodonPlus (DE3) as expression host. The recombinant VP8-S2 protein was purified by Ni-NTA chromatography column. Results: The results of colony PCR, enzyme digestion and sequencing showed that the VP8-S2 chimeric antigen has been successfully cloned and sub-cloned into pGH and pET32a(+).The results showed that E.coli was able to express VP8-S2 protein appropriately. This protein was expressed by induction of IPTG at concentration of 1mM and it was confirmed by Ni–NTA column, dot-blotting analysis and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that E.coli can be used as an appropriate host to produce the recombinant VP8-S2 protein. This recombinant protein may be suitable to investigate to produce immunoglobulin, recombinant vaccine and diagnostic kit in future studies after it passes biological activity tests in vivo in animal model and or other suitable procedure. PMID:27123423

  18. Morphoquantitative description of bovine digital cushion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Borges

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The digital cushion is characterized as a modified subcutaneous tissue that absorbs the shock during gait, assists venous return of the hoof and supports a considerable part of body weight. Digital cushions have particular importance in the pathogenesis of the hoof, since they need to properly work in order to prevent compression and traumas in soft tissues. This study aimed to measure and determine how is the arrangement of these structures, and for this it was established the proportions of connective, adipose, vascular tissues and collagen fibers and collagen types found in palmar and plantar digital cushion of bovine using fore and hindlimbs of twelve adult zebu cattle of both sexes, 11 male and one female, with 269kg average carcass weight and without limb disorders. Fragments of cushions were subjected to conventional histology, cut to a thickness of 4µm and stained with Red Picrosirius. With digital optical microscope, the quantification of the connective tissue and differentiation of types of collagen used the Image Pro Plus® software, and of adipose and vascular tissue, the test point system. The mean and standard error were estimated with the GraphPad Prism 5.0 software, and then data were subjected to Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality test and Student's t-test with significance level set at 5% for determining the amount of different tissues between fore and hindlimbs of studied animals. In forelimbs the mean and standard error of the connective tissue proportion was 50.10%+1.54, of the adipose tissue was 21.34%+1.44, and of vascular tissue was 3.43%+0.28. Hindlimbs presented a proportion of connective tissue of 61.61%+1.47, 20.66%+1.53 of adipose tissue, and 3.06%+0.20 of vascular tissue. A significant difference (p<0.001 was detected in the connective tissue proportion between fore and hindlimbs. Types I and II collagen fibers have presented, respectively, a proportion of 31.89% and 3.9% in forelimbs and 34.05% and 1.78% in

  19. Microarray chip based identification of a mixed infection of bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine viral diarrhea 2 from Indian cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratta, Barkha; Yadav, Brijesh Singh; Pokhriyal, Mayank; Saxena, Meeta; Sharma, Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVD2) are endemic in India although no mixed infection with these viruses has been reported from India. We report first mixed infection of these viruses in cattle during routine screening with a microarray chip. 62 of the 69 probes of BHV1 and 42 of the 57 BVD2 probes in the chip gave positive signals for the virus. The virus infections were subsequently confirmed by RT-PCR. We also discuss the implications of these findings.

  20. Fine Mapping of Loci on BTA2 and BTA26 Associated with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Persistent Infection and Linked with Bovine Respiratory Disease in Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Zanella, Ricardo; Casas, Eduardo; Snowder, Gary; Neibergs, Holly L.

    2011-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is considered to be the most costly infectious disease in the cattle industry. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the pathogens involved with the BRD complex of disease. BVDV infection also negatively impacts cow reproduction and calf performance. Loci associated with persistently infected animals (BVD-PI) and linked with BRD have previously been identified near 14 Mb on bovine chromosome 2 (BTA2) and 15.3 Mb on bovine chromosome 26 (BTA26). The obje...

  1. Fluorometric determination of free and total isocitrate in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Isocitrate is an intermediate metabolite in the citric acid cycle found both inside the mitochondria as well as outside in the cytosolic shunt. Oxidation of isocitrate is believed to deliver large fractions of energy [i.e., reducing equivalents (NADPH) in the bovine udder] used for fatty acid...

  2. Isolation of bovine serum albumin from whey using affinity chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) to a chromatography resin with immobilised llama antibody fragments as affinity ligands was investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity of the affinity resin was 21.6 mg mL-1 with a Langmuir equilibrium constant of 20.4 mg mg-1. Using packed bed chromat

  3. A quantitative risk assessment for bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadohira, M.; Stevenson, M.A.; Hogasen, H.R.; Koeijer, de A.A.

    2012-01-01

    A predictive case-cohort model was applied to Japanese data to analyze the interaction between challenge and stability factors for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) for the period 1985–2020. BSE risk in cattle was estimated as the expected number of detectable cases per year. The model was comp

  4. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.216 Section 113.216 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious...

  5. Genes involved in bovine milk-fat composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schennink, A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research described in this thesis was to identify genes that underlie the genetic variation in bovine milk-fat composition. The fat composition of milk samples from approximately 2,000 Dutch Holstein Friesian cows in their first lactation was measured by gas chromatography. Quantita

  6. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus : immunopathology and vaccine evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonis, A.F.G.

    2010-01-01

    Human and bovine RSVs cause severe disease in humans and in cattle respectively. They have been recognised as important respiratory pathogens in the last five decades, and this has resulted in significant research activities on the pathogenesis and intervention strategies around the world. Physician

  7. Identifying and Prioritizing Genes involved in Bovine Mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Li

    and integrate different layers of biological data, attempting to make a systematic inference of underlying genes to bovine mastitis. Robust and flexible methods have been implemented in data summarization and integration for gene prioritization, which can be applied to study various complex traits in different...

  8. Propagation of bovine spermatogonial stem cells in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aponte, P.M.; Soda, T.; Teerds, K.J.; Mizrak, S.C.; Kant, van de H.J.; Rooij, de D.G.

    2008-01-01

    The access to sufficient numbers of spermatogonial stem cells (SSC) is a prerequisite for the study of their regulation and further biomanipulation. A specialized medium and several growth factors were tested to study the in vitro behaviour of bovine type A spermatogonia, a cell population that incl

  9. Crystallization of Bovine Cervical Mucus at Oestrus: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel E. Cortés

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bovine cervical mucus changes its biochemical composition and biophysical properties due to the variations in sex steroid levels during the oestrous cycle. As a consequence of oestrogen rise, cervical mucus is produced in larger amounts at oestrus—a stage also characterized by an increase in mucus crystallization when observed under light microscopy. The objective of this article is to provide an updated review of the main aspects regarding crystallization of bovine cervical mucus. First, it makes reference to the composition of cervical mucus and the critical functions that this secretion exerts on bovine reproductive physiology, as well as in other species. Then, the article deals with the phenomenon of crystallization observed in cervical mucus, describing the main models used to classify the crystalline patterns observable in mucus at oestrus stage (some of them resembling ferns, palm leaves and stellar patterns, among others. Finally, it addresses the importance of the phenomenon of cervical mucus crystallization for the understanding of bovine reproductive physiology.

  10. 9 CFR 113.310 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... rhinotracheitis virus and observed for 14 days. The rectal temperature of each animal shall be taken and the... of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and a marked temperature rise to 104.5 °F. or higher post... tubes of the 1:2 final serum dilution, or if more than one of the vaccinates show a temperature of...

  11. Hedgehog signaling pathway in small bovine ovarian follicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hedgehog signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and turnover in a variety of mammalian embryonic and adult tissues including bovine ovarian granulosa and theca cells. Binding of hedgehog to the patch receptor derepresses smoothened resulting in t...

  12. Control of declared origin of bovine serum, a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horacek, M.; Papesch, W.

    2009-04-01

    Bovine serum is the essential culture medium for cell cultures. Therefore it is highly demanded and the quality of the serum, e.g.: absence of bacteria, viruses certain antibodies, etc.., are important criteria. as some cattle diseases are endemic in certain regions, the origin of bovine serum is an important quality measure for its value. Thus the need to control the declared origins is present. Bovine serum was measured for d2H, d13C, d15N and d34S of proteine (dry residue) and d2H and d18O of the serum water. The hydrogen and oxygen are mainly depending by the isotopic composition of the water ingested by the cattle, and thus usually influenced by the isotopic signal of the precipitation. The carbon isotope signal is reflecting the diet of the cattle, whether it mainly feed on C3- or C4-plants. The nitrogen and sulphur isotope ratio is transferred from the ground/soil into the plant material and into the animal tissue, with some offset for nitrogen and without any significant offset for sulphur. Bovine serum samples from Canada, USA, Mexico, Brazil, Australia and New Zealand have been analysed. Due to the variations in the environmental conditions in different countries and regions which influence the isotope signatures of the serum samples it is possible to discriminate samples of different origin. Main discriminating parameters are d2H and d18O, d13C and d34S.

  13. Bovine colostrum in oral treatment of enterogenic endotoxaemia in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döhler, J Rüdiger; Nebermann, Lars

    2002-01-01

    Introduction Under conditions of shock, bacteria and endotoxins in the intestines can traverse the mucosal barrier by translocation and enter the blood and lymphatic system. Immunoglobulins and lactoferrin have been reported to neutralize endotoxins and bacteria. We studied the essential therapeutic factors of colostrum products in an animal experiment. Method We simulated endotoxaemia by per-oral administration of a suspension of Escherichia coli and antibiotics into the duodenum of anaesthetized rats after giving intraperitoneal carrageenan. At the same time, pure bovine colostrum or lactoferrin-enriched bovine colostrum was given. Therapeutic effects were studied by examining plasma endotoxin activity and bacterial contamination of mesenterial lymph nodes and peritoneal lavages. Albumin was used in a control group. Results The most effective bovine colostrum was able to reduce the maximum plasma endotoxin value by 67% as compared with the albumin group. The combination of this colostrum with lactoferrin brought about a reduction by 80%. The reduction in bacterial contamination of lymph nodes and peritoneal lavages was also evident. Conclusion Both gammaglobulin and lactoferrin may help to eliminate endotoxins when bovine colostrum is administered into the gut in conditions of septic shock. PMID:12493077

  14. Peptidomic analysis of healthy and subclinically mastitic bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerrero, A.; Dallas, D.C.; Contreras, S.; Bhandari, A.; Canovas, A.; Islas-Trejo, A.; Medrano, J.F.; Parker, E.A.; Wang, M.; Hettinga, K.A.; Chee, S.; German, J.B.; Barile, D.; Lebrilla, C.B.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of proteases release hundreds of endogenous peptide fragments from intact bovine milk proteins. Mass spectrometry-based peptidomics allows for high throughput sequence assignment of a large number of these peptides. Mastitis is known to result in increased protease activity in the mammary

  15. Photoaffinity labeling of the lysosomal neuraminidase from bovine testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.T.J. van der Horst (Gijsbertus); U. Rose (Ursula); R. Brossmer (Reinhard); F.W. Verheijen (Frans)

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract ASA-NeuAc2en, a photoreactive arylazide derivative of sialic acid, is shown to be a powerful competitive inhibitor of lysosomal neuraminidase from bovine testis (Ki ≈ 21 μM). Photoaffinity labeling and partial purification of preparations containing this lysosomal neuramin

  16. Conjugation of Chitooligosaccharide-5-fluorouracil with Bovine Serum Albumin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Min WANG; Jing Feng SONG; Yu Feng HE; Juan Juan MAO; Yan LI

    2006-01-01

    The interaction between chitooligosaccharide-5-fluorouracil (COS-5FU) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. It was found that an energy transfer between COS-5FU and BSA had been occurred. The binding constants were calculated,between the donor and acceptor, the distance between BSA and COS-5FU was determined.

  17. Interaction of Tannin with Bovine Serum Albumin by Fluorescence Spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dong-Il, Kim; Kye-Ryong, Sin

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between tannin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was examined by the fluorescent quenching. The process of elimination between BSA and tannin was the one of a stationary state, and the coupling coefficient was one. The working strength between the tannin and the beef serum was hydrophobic one.

  18. New York Milk Supply with Bovine Growth Hormone

    OpenAIRE

    Magrath, William B.; Tauer, Loren W.

    1986-01-01

    New York milk supply functions with ans without Bovine Growth Hormone were estimated by a sector linear programming model. High Government price supports make bGH profitable and induces significant increases in output. Reduction or elimination of Price supports greatly diminishes bGH as a variable technology except at low bGH prices

  19. Bovine explant model of degeneration of the intervertebral disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivan Sarit

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many new treatments for degeneration of the intervertebral disc are being developed which can be delivered through a needle. These require testing in model systems before being used in human patients. Unfortunately, because of differences in anatomy, there are no ideal animal models of disc degeneration. Bovine explant model systems have many advantages but it is not possible to inject any significant volume into an intact disc. Therefore we have attempted to mimic disc degeneration in an explant bovine model via enzymatic digestion. Methods Bovine coccygeal discs were incubated with different concentrations of the proteolytic enzymes, trypsin and papain, and maintained in culture for up to 3 weeks. A radio-opaque solution was injected to visualise cavities generated. Degenerative features were monitored histologically and biochemically (water and glycosaminoglycan content, via dimethylmethylene blue. Results and Conclusion The central region of both papain and trypsin treated discs was macro- and microscopically fragmented, with severe loss of metachromasia. The integrity of the surrounding tissue was mostly in tact with cells in the outer annulus appearing viable. Biochemical analysis demonstrated greatly reduced glycosaminoglycan content in these compared to untreated discs. We have shown that bovine coccygeal discs, treated with proteolytic enzymes can provide a useful in vitro model system for developing and testing potential new treatments of disc degeneration, such as injectable implants or biological therapies.

  20. Analysis of copy number variation in the bovine genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    We initiated a systematic study of the copy number variation (CNV) within the Bovine HapMap cattle population using array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH). Oligonucleotide CGH arrays were designed and fabricated to provide a genome-wide coverage with an average interval of 6 kb using t...

  1. Prevalence of bovine Cysticercosis of Slaughtered Cattle in Meshkinshahr Abattoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Garedaghi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The occurrence of the larvae of Taenia saginata (T. saginata in cattle musculature causes T. saginata cysticercosis or bovine cysticercosis while the adult worms in human small intestines cause taeniasis. Approach: In this study, the prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in cattle slaughtered for meat in Meshkinshahr Abattoir, Iran between September 2010 and August 2011 was reported. Results: The examination of various organs of 500 cattle in Meshkinshahr Abattoir showed that 15(3% were infected with T. saginata cysticercosis. The tongue, masseter muscles, cardiac muscles, triceps muscles and thigh muscles were the main predilection sites of the cysts. The cysts of bovine cysticercosis were also identified on the spleen, intercostal muscles, diaphragm and liver. Out of 460 male cattle, examined, 14 (3% had cysts of bovine cysticercosis while 1 (2.5% of the 40 female animals investigated were infected. Conclusion: The animals slaughtered were all adults. No significant difference in prevalence rates was recorded between the sexes. The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis was higher in local sarabi cattle breeds than Holstein-Frisian cattle.

  2. Immunohistochemical diagnosis of systemic bovine zygomycosis by murine monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H.E.; Aalbaek, B.; Lind, Peter;

    1996-01-01

    with homologous antigens in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were subsequently screened for reactivity with homologous fungi in immunohistochemical techniques. All four Mabs raised against the WF of A. arrhizus failed to react on tissues. However, four of the Mabs raised against the WSSA of R. arrhizus (Mab...... for the in situ diagnosis of systemic bovine zygomycosis....

  3. Investigation of bovine serum albumin glycation by THz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkasova, Olga P.; Nazarov, Maxim M.; Shkurinov, Alexander P.

    2016-04-01

    Protein glycation is accelerated under hyperglycemic conditions resulting to loss in the structure and biological functions of proteins. The transmission THz spectroscopy has been used for measuring of bovine serum albumin glycation dynamics. It was found that amplitude of albumin THz absorption depends on type of sugars and incubation time.

  4. Bacterial expression and purification of recombinant bovine Fab fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Philippa M; Maxwell, Gavin; Campo, M Saveria

    2002-02-01

    We have previously described a recombinant phagemid expression vector, pComBov, designed for the production of native sequence bovine monoclonal antibodies (mAb) generated by antibody phage display. Bovine mAb Fab fragments isolated from libraries constructed using pComBov in Escherichia coli strain XL1-Blue, which is routinely used for antibodies expressed on the surface of phage, were expressed at very low yields. Therefore, a study was undertaken to determine optimal growth conditions for maximal expression of bovine Fab fragments in E. coli. By varying the E. coli strain, and the temperature and length of the culture growth, we were able to substantially increase the yield of soluble Fab fragments. A high yield of Fab fragments was found in the culture growth medium, which enabled us to devise a rapid and simple single-step method for the purification of native (nondenatured) Fabs based on immobilized metal affinity chromatography against a six-histidine amino acid carboxyl-terminal extension of the heavy-chain constant region. Using these methods we were able to express and purify antigen-specific bovine Fab fragments from E. coli. PMID:11812221

  5. Bovine colostrum to children with short bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunsholt, Lise; Jeppesen, Palle Bekker; Lund, Pernille;

    2014-01-01

    intestinal development and hence adaptive processes. Aim: The efficacy of bovine colostrum to improve intestinal function in children with SBS was evaluated by metabolic balance studies. Materials and Methods: Nine children with SBS were included in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Twenty percent...

  6. Effect of Ergot Alkaloids on Bovine Foregut Vasculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids induce vasoconstriction of bovine foregut vasculature. Ergovaline induced the greatest response in ruminal artery while ergovaline and ergotamine induced the greatest response in ruminal vein. Lysergic acid did not stimulate a contractile response in either the ruminal artery or vein...

  7. Effects of Ergot Alkaloids on Bovine Sperm Motility In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids are synthesized by endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire). Our objective was to determine direct effects of ergot alkaloids (ergotamine, dihydroergotamine and ergonovine) on the motility of bovine spermatozoa in vit...

  8. Control of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is a consensus statement, produced at the request of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine that reflects the opinion of an expert panel regarding the prevalence and host range, clinical manifestations, and the potential for ultimate eradication of bovine viral diarrhea v...

  9. Interferon Gamma Assay for the Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contact Irene Schiller Prionics AG Wagistrasse 27A CH-8952 Schlieren Switzerland irene.schiller@prionics.com Introduction Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), a zoonotic disease with a major economic impact, continues to be a significant problem with a global perspective and increasing prevalence in vario...

  10. Short communication. Microculture syncytia assay for bovine leukemia virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, P.S.; Castro, A.E.; Pomeroy, K.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Muscoplat, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    A microculture syncytia assay for the detection of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) has been described and compared with the conventional macroculture assay. The microculture assay required fewer indicator cells, was as sensitive as the macroculture assay and provided a reproducible test for the detection and titration of BLV.

  11. Propionate induces the bovine cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase promoter activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Koser, Stephanie L; Donkin, Shawn S

    2016-08-01

    Cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) is a critical enzyme within the metabolic networks for gluconeogenesis, hepatic energy metabolism, and tricarboxylic acid cycle function, and is controlled by several transcription factors including hepatic nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α). The primary objective of the present study was to determine whether propionate regulates bovine PCK1 transcription. The second objective was to determine the action of cyclic AMP (cAMP), glucocorticoids, and insulin, hormonal cues known to modulate glucose metabolism, on bovine PCK1 transcriptional activity. The proximal promoter of the bovine PCK1 gene was ligated to a Firefly luciferase reporter and transfected into H4IIE hepatoma cells. Cells were exposed to treatments for 23 h and luciferase activity was determined in cell lysates. Activity of the PCK1 promoter was linearly induced by propionate, and maximally increased 7-fold with 2.5 mM propionate, which was not muted by 100 nM insulin. Activity of the PCK1 promoter was increased 1-fold by either 1.0 mM cAMP or 5.0µM dexamethasone, and 2.2-fold by their combination. Induction by cAMP and dexamethasone was repressed 50% by 100 nM insulin. Propionate, cAMP, and dexamethasone acted synergistically to induce the PCK1 promoter activity. Propionate-responsive regions, identified by 5' deletion analysis, were located between -1,238 and -409 bp and between -85 and +221 bp. Deletions of the core sequences of the 2 putative HNF4α sites decreased the responsiveness to propionate by approximately 40%. These data indicate that propionate regulates its own metabolism through transcriptional stimulation of the bovine PCK1 gene. This induction is mediated, in part, by the 2 putative HNF4α binding sites in the bovine PCK1 promoter. PMID:27289145

  12. Eight-year results of site retention of anorganic bovine bone and anorganic bovine matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degidi, Marco; Perrotti, Vittoria; Piattelli, Adriano; Iezzi, Giovanna

    2013-12-01

    The long-term fate of some biomaterials is still unknown, and the reports present in the literature are not conclusive as to whether these biomaterials are resorbed over time or not. Different reports can be found with regard to the resorption behavior of anorganic bovine bone (ABB). The aim of the present study was to provide a comparative histological and histomorphometrical evaluation, in the same patient, of 2 specimens retrieved from a sinus augmented with ABB and with anorganic bovine matrix added to a cell-binding peptide (PepGen P-15), respectively, after a healing period of 6 months and after 8 years of implant loading, to evaluate the resorption of both biomaterials. A unilateral sinus augmentation procedure with ABB (50%) and with PepGen P-15 (50%) was performed in a 54-year-old male patient. Two titanium dental implants with a sandblasted and acid-etched surface were inserted after 6 months. During this procedure, 2 tissue cores were retrieved from the sinus with a trephine, before implant insertion. After an additional 6 months, a fixed prosthetic restoration was fabricated. One of these implants, after a loading period of 8 years, fractured in the coronal portion and was removed. Both specimens, one retrieved after a 6-month healing period and the other after an 8-year loading period, were treated to obtain thin ground sections. In the 6-month specimen, the histomorphometry showed that the percentage of newly formed bone was 27.2% ± 3.6%, marrow spaces 35.6% ± 2.3%, residual ABB particles 25.1% ± 1.2%, and residual PepGen P-15 particles 12.1% ± 2.2%. In the 8-year specimen, the histomorphometry showed that the percentage of newly formed bone was 51.4% ± 4.8%, marrow spaces 40% ± 7.1%, residual ABB particles 6.2% ± 0.7%, and residual PepGen P-15 particles 2.4% ± 0.5%. Both biomaterials underwent significant resorption over the course of this study. PMID:22103882

  13. Subcellular Localization and Polymorphism of Bovine FABP4 in Bovine Intramuscular Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonekura, Shinichi; Hirota, Shohei; Miyazaki, Honami; Tokutake, Yukako

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) I74 V, a gene polymorphism associated with unsaturated fatty acid contents, was discovered in Japanese Black cattle. Individuals with FABP4 I/I genotype contain a significantly high level of palmitoleic acid compared to those with FABP4 V/V genotype. It remains unknown how the FABP4 polymorphism leads to different palmitoleic acid contents. We overexpressed FABP4 of different genotypes in bovine intramuscular preadipocytes and examined whether the intracellular localization of FABP4 and the expression levels of lipid metabolism-related genes were different among cells expressing different genotypes. Nuclear localization was observed for the FABP4 V/V, while the FABP4 I/I almost did not. The cells expressing FABP4 of different genotypes were comparable in terms of the expression levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism. FABP4 I/I was localized in most of the lipid droplets 4 days after differentiation induction, whereas approximately 25% lipid droplet co-localized with FABP4 in cells expressing FABP4 V/V. The lipid droplet size increased when palmitoleic acid was added compared to the size observed when palmitic acid was added. These results suggest that lipid droplet enlargement caused by palmitoleic acid and genotype-dependent differences in the fatty acid transporting capacity underlie variations in palmitoleic acid content among FABP4 polymorphisms. PMID:26913550

  14. Seroprevalence of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum in dairy cattle in Saskatchewan

    OpenAIRE

    VanLeeuwen, John A.; Forsythe, LeeAnn; Tiwari, Ashwani; Chartier, Renee

    2005-01-01

    Blood was drawn from 1530 dairy cows in 51 herds. For antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum, 37.4%, 2.7%, and 5.6% of cows were test positive, respectively, while 29.2% of herds had unvaccinated animals with ≥ 1:64 for bovine viral diarrhea virus.

  15. Limited efficacy of Fever Tag® temperature sensing ear tags in calves with naturally occurring bovine respiratory disease or induced bovine viral diarrhea virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    McCorkell, Robert; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Windeyer, Claire; Schaefer, Al

    2014-01-01

    Temperature sensing ear tags were tested in 1) auction-derived calves with 50% incidence of bovine respiratory disease, and 2) specific pathogen-free calves infected with bovine virus diarrhea virus. There were no false positives, but tag placement, probe displacement, and a high threshold for activation all contributed to failure to reliably detect sick calves.

  16. Association studies in QTL regions linked to bovine trypanotolerance in a West African crossbred population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayo, G K; Gautier, M; Berthier, D; Poivey, J P; Sidibe, I; Bengaly, Z; Eggen, A; Boichard, D; Thevenon, S

    2012-04-01

    African animal trypanosomosis is a parasitic blood disease transmitted by tsetse flies and is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa. West African taurine breeds have the ability, known as trypanotolerance, to limit parasitaemia and anaemia and remain productive in enzootic areas. Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying traits related to trypanotolerance have been identified in an experimentally infected F(2) population resulting from a cross between taurine and zebu cattle. Although this information is highly valuable, the QTL remain to be confirmed in populations subjected to natural conditions of infection, and the corresponding regions need to be refined. In our study, 360 West African cattle were phenotyped for the packed cell volume control under natural conditions of infection in south-western Burkina Faso. Phenotypes were assessed by analysing data from previous cattle monitored over 2 years in an area enzootic for trypanosomosis. We further genotyped for 64 microsatellite markers mapping within four previously reported QTL on BTA02, BTA04, BTA07 and BTA13. These data enabled us to estimate the heritability of the phenotype using the kinship matrix between individuals computed from genotyping data. Thus, depending on the estimators considered and the method used, the heritability of anaemia control ranged from 0.09 to 0.22. Finally, an analysis of association identified an allele of the MNB42 marker on BTA04 as being strongly associated with anaemia control, and a candidate gene, INHBA, as being close to that marker. PMID:22404348

  17. The characterization of DNA methylation-mediated regulation of bovine placental lactogen and bovine prolactin-related protein-1 genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Osman V

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine trophoblast binucleate cells (BNC express a plethora of molecules including bovine placental lactogen (bPL, gene name is bCSH1 and bovine prolactin-related protein-1 (bPRP1. BCSH1 and bPRP1 are members of the growth hormone (GH/prolactin (PRL gene family, which are expressed simultaneously in BNC and are central to placentation and the progression of pregnancy in cattle. However, there is a paucity of information on the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of both the bCSH1 and bPRP1 genes. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated that the expression of a number of genes is controlled by the methylation status of their promoter region. In the present study, we examined the cell-type-specific epigenetic alterations of the 5'-flanking region of the bCSH1 and bPRP1 genes to gain an insight into their regulatory mechanisms. Results Analysis of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment demonstrated that bCSH1 expression is moderately induced in fibroblast cultures but enhanced in BT-1 cells. Sodium bisulfite based sequencing revealed that bCSH1 is hypomethylated in the cotyledonary tissue but not in the fetal skin, and this pattern was not altered with the progression of pregnancy. On the other hand, the methylation status of bPRP1 was similar between the cotyledon and fetal skin. The bPRP1 gene was exclusively hypermethylated in a bovine trophoblast cell-derived BT-1 cell-line. While the activity of bCSH1 was similar in both BT-1 and bovine fibroblast cells, that of bPRP1 was specific to BT-1. Treatment with a demethylating agent and luciferase assays provided in vitro evidence of the positive regulation of bCSH1 but not bPRP1. Conclusion This is the first report to identify the differential regulatory mechanisms of the bCSH1 and bPRP1 genes and indicates that bCSH1 might potentially be the only transcript that is subject to DNA methyltransferase regulation. The data indicates the possibility of novel kinetics of induction of

  18. Development of Eimeria bovis in vitro: suitability of several bovine, human and porcine endothelial cell lines, bovine fetal gastrointestinal, Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) and African green monkey kidney (VERO) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosilla, C; Barbisch, B; Heise, A; Kowalik, S; Zahner, H

    2002-04-01

    Several bovine, human and porcine endothelial cell lines, bovine fetal gastrointestinal cells (BFGC), Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) and African green monkey kidney (VERO) cells were exposed in vitro to sporozoites of Eimeria bovis. Parasites invaded all cells used and changed their shape to more stumpy forms within 12 h. Sporozoites left their host cells and invaded new ones frequently within the first 12 h post-infection. Further development took place only in bovine cells, although parasites survived in the other cells for at least 3 weeks. Within the non-bovine cells, conspicuously enlarged parasitophorous vacuoles developed in VERO cells and reached a diameter of 15-20 microm. The best development to first generation schizonts with regard both to time required to mature, to schizont size and to merozoite yields was observed in BFGC, followed by bovine umbilical vein and bovine spleen lymphatic endothelial cells. MDBK cells were less suitable. The life cycle was completed (development of oocysts) only occasionally in BFGC. Results are considered under several aspects. Thus, infected VERO cells may represent a suitable tool for studying the parasitophorous vacuole, while infected endothelial cells represent a system quite narrow to the in vivo situation and should allow basic studies on parasite/host cell interactions and BFGC can be used for the mass production of E. bovis first generation merozoites.

  19. An overview of bovine α-lactalbumin structure and functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta STĂNCIUC

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available α-Lactalbumin is the second major protein in bovine milk (2-5% of the total protein in bovine milk. The human variant has several physiologic functions in the neonatal period. In the mammary gland, itparticipates in lactose synthesis and facilitates milk production and secretion. α-Lactalbumin binds divalent cations (Ca2+, Zn2+ and may facilitate the absorption of essential minerals. Also, it provides awell-balanced supply of essential amino acids for the growing infant. During its digestion, peptides with antibacterial and imunostimulatory properties are formed, thereby possibly helping in the protection against infection. The protein fractions enriched with α-lactalbumin may be added to infant formula to provide some of the benefits of this protein. This article reviews a number of studies which may contribute to a more coherent understanding of the structure and some functional properties of α-lactalbumin.

  20. Vaccination against δ-Retroviruses: The Bovine Leukemia Virus Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerónimo Gutiérrez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine leukemia virus (BLV and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 are closely related d-retroviruses that induce hematological diseases. HTLV-1 infects about 15 million people worldwide, mainly in subtropical areas. HTLV-1 induces a wide spectrum of diseases (e.g., HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis and leukemia/lymphoma (adult T-cell leukemia. Bovine leukemia virus is a major pathogen of cattle, causing important economic losses due to a reduction in production, export limitations and lymphoma-associated death. In the absence of satisfactory treatment for these diseases and besides the prevention of transmission, the best option to reduce the prevalence of d-retroviruses is vaccination. Here, we provide an overview of the different vaccination strategies in the BLV model and outline key parameters required for vaccine efficacy.

  1. Experimental infection of reindeer with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Morton

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available Two 8-month reindeer (Rangifer tarandus and a 1-month-old Hereford-Holstein calf (Bos taurus were inoculated intranasally with the Singer (cytopathogenic strain of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD virus. Clinical signs in reindeer included loose stools containing blood and mucus, and transient laminitis or coronitis. Signs in the calf were limited to bloody mucus in the stool and lesions in the nasal mucosa. Antibody titers to BVD virus in the reindeer were intermittent, and titers in the calf persisted from days 14 to 63 post-inoculation (PI. Viremia was detected on PI day 4 in one reindeer, days 3-7 in the other, and days 2-7 in the calf. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was isolated from the lung of the calf at necropsy (PI day 63.

  2. Genotypification of bovine group A rotavirus in México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Limas, William A; Flores-Samaniego, Beatriz; de la Mora, Germán; Ramírez, Octavio T; Palomares, Laura A

    2009-10-30

    Bovine scours, frequently provoked by rotavirus infection, causes significant economic losses. Nevertheless, no information exists about the bovine rotavirus genotypes present in Mexico. This information is necessary for designing efficient vaccines. In this work, 128 samples from diarrheic calves were collected between 2005 and 2006 in 26 dairy and/or beef cattle herds located in 10 regions of Mexico, and analyzed for the presence of group A rotavirus. G and P genotypes were determined by PCR in rotavirus-positive samples (12/128). Three different genotype combinations were found, G10, P[11]; G6, P[5]; and G10, P[5]; in 67, 25 and 8% of the positive samples, respectively. Some rotavirus-positive animals had been vaccinated with an inactivated rotavirus strain of a different genotype.

  3. Proteomic analysis of bovine blastocoel fluid and blastocyst cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Linnert; Grøndahl, Marie Louise; Beck, Hans Christian;

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The understanding of the early mammalian development is a prerequisite for the advancement of in vitro fertilization and improvement of derivation and culturing of embryonic stem cells. While, whole genome transcriptomic analysis on bovine blastocysts has identified genes active in early...... development, little information is available about the protein complement of early embryos. Modern, sensitive proteomic technology (nano HPLC tandem mass spectrometry) allowed us to describe the proteome of the scarce blastocoel fluid and cell material of expanded bovine blastocysts isolated...... by micromanipulation. From two independent replicates, 23 proteins were identified in the blastocoel fluid while 803 proteins were identified in the remaining cell material. The proteins were grouped into categories according to their gene ontology (GO) terms by which proteins involved in cell differentiation, cell...

  4. Improvement of the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of camel and bovine whey proteins by limited proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Maryam; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Ehsani, Mohammad Reza; Yousefi, Reza; Haertlé, Thomas; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Razavi, Seyed Hadi; Henrich, Robert; Balalaie, Saeed; Ebadi, Seyed Ahmad; Pourtakdoost, Samineh; Niasari-Naslaji, Amir

    2010-03-24

    The compositions and structures of bovine and camel milk proteins are different, which define their functional and biological properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of enzymatic hydrolysis of camel and bovine whey proteins (WPs) on their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. After enzymatic treatment, both the antioxidant and the antimicrobial activities of bovine and camel WPs were improved. The significantly higher antioxidant activity of camel WPs and their hydrolysates as compared with that of bovine WPs and their hydrolysates may result from the differences in amounts and/or in accessibilities of antioxidant amino acid residues present in their primary structures and from the prevalence of alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin as proteolytic substrates in camel and bovine whey, respectively. The results of this study reveal differences in antimicrobial and antioxidant activities between WP hydrolysates of bovine and camel milk and the effects of limited proteolysis on these activities.

  5. Effect of dietary bovine colostrum on the responses of immune cells to stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mei Ling; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have revealed that ingestion of bovine colostrum is effective in preventing pathogens from invading through the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and modulating the mucosal immunity of the GI tract, indicating that its effect is principally local. Thus it is unclear if ingestion of bovine colostrum can affect the systemic immune system. In this study, we investigated the effect of taking bovine colostrum (vs phosphate-buffered saline) for 14 days on the behavior of the immune cells of mice. Isolated splenocytes, which are pivotal cells of systemic immunity, were then stimulated with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. Bovine colostrum significantly reduced NK cell and monocyte activities and lymphoproliferaltive responses to LPS stimulation. Thus dietary bovine colostrum renders immune cells less responsive to LPS stimulation. Dietary bovine colostrum thus affects the systemic immune system and may have anti-inflammatory actions. PMID:24234910

  6. Screen of Bovine Mammary Gland Epithelial Cell Specifcity Promotor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiao-fei; Li Qing-zhang; Qiu You-wen; Gao Xue-jun

    2012-01-01

    Three lactoproteins (α-Sl-casein, β-lactoglobulin, and β-casein) promotors were cloned, sequenced and compared relative luciferase expression. The results showed that the promotor activity of bovine α-S1-casein gene was the best, and would be used to produce pharmaceutically and medically important proteins in the mammary gland of transgenic animals and also for the construction of an inducible eukaryotic expression vector.

  7. Three-Dimensional Biomechanical Analysis of the Bovine Humerus

    OpenAIRE

    Bouza-Rodríguez, José Benito; Miramontes-Sequeiros, Luz Calia

    2014-01-01

    There are few reports on the biomechanical analysis of the animal humerus. In this study, a three-dimensional finite element model of the bovine humerus was created, and loaded with the physiological forces acting when the cow is falling or jumping (weight and impact forces). Subsequently the corresponding stress and strain distribution in the humerus for different inclined positions of bone was determined.The highest stress concentration occurred in the distal humeral diaphysis, both when on...

  8. Bovine milk usage and feeding practices for infants in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meha Mayuri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Milk and dairy products from animal sources (cow′s milk or buffalo′s milk are an important part of Indian diet and its consumption starts at an early age. Objective: The purpose of this study is to understand the processing, storage and modifications carried out before bovine milk is fed to the infants and compare it with recommendations by Health Care Professionals (HCPs. Materials and Methods: The study involved assessments involving HCPs and mothers of children below 1 year of age through both qualitative and quantitative methods. Feeding recommendations by HCPs were assessed through a quantitative method. Results: The children are commonly initiated on bovine milk post 3 months of age. The milk is not covered while boiling in 70% cases and boiled at suboptimal temperature (moderate: 62% or low: 31%. Half of the families store milk outside refrigerators openly in the kitchen or rooms. The milk is modified in the majority of cases (81% before being fed. Modification of the milk was often done with sugar (85%, followed by water (49%, biscuits, fennel seeds, cardamom or infant cereals before feeding the baby. Addition of water was more prevalent among mothers of infants between 3 and 6 months. HCPs do not advise consumption of bovine milk by infants unless there is no other option available. Conclusion: A clear gap exists between recommended and actual practices for infant feeding in India. There is a huge opportunity to educate mothers on importance of breast feeding and benefits of implementing appropriate processing, storage, and consumption practices of bovine milk.

  9. Methicillin resistant S. aureus in human and bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Mark A; Zadoks, Ruth N

    2011-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous organism that causes a variety of diseases including mastitis in cattle and humans. High-level resistance of S. aureus to β-lactams conferred by a mecA gene encoding a modified penicillin binding protein (PBP2a) was first observed in the early 1960's. These methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have been responsible for both hospital acquired infections (HA-MRSA) and, more recently, community acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA). A small number of human MRSA mastitis cases and outbreaks in maternity or neonatal units have been reported which are generally the result of CA-MRSA. The establishment of the sequence type 398 (ST398) in farm animals, primarily pigs, in the early 2000's has provided a reservoir of infection for humans and dairy cattle, particularly in continental Europe, described as livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA). Prior to the emergence of ST398 there were sporadic reports of MRSA in bovine milk and cases of mastitis, often caused by strains from human associated lineages. Subsequently, there have been several reports describing bovine udder infections caused by ST-398 MRSA. Recently, another group of LA-MRSA strains was discovered in humans and dairy cattle in Europe. This group carries a divergent mecA gene and includes a number of S. aureus lineages (CC130, ST425, and CC1943) that were hitherto thought to be bovine-specific but are now also found as carriage or clinical isolates in humans. The emergence of MRSA in dairy cattle may be associated with contact with other host species, as in the case of ST398, or with the exchange of genetic material between S. aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus species, which are the most common species associated with bovine intramammary infections and commonly carry antimicrobial resistance determinants.

  10. Chromium propionate enhances adipogenic differentiation of bovine intramuscular adipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca eTokach; Flavio eRibeiro; Ki Yong eChung; Whitney eRounds; Johnson, Bradley J.

    2015-01-01

    In vitro experiments were performed to determine the effects of increasing concentrations of chromium propionate on mRNA and protein abundance of different enzymes and receptors. Intramuscular and subcutaneous preadipocytes and bovine satellite cells were isolated from the longissimus muscle to determine the effect of treatment on glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ mRNA and GLUT4 protein abundance. Preadipocyte cultures were treated with diffe...

  11. Chromium Propionate Enhances Adipogenic Differentiation of Bovine Intramuscular Adipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Tokach, Rebecca J.; Ribeiro, Flavio R. B.; Chung, Ki Yong; Rounds, Whitney; Johnson, Bradley J.

    2015-01-01

    In vitro experiments were performed to determine the effects of increasing concentrations of chromium propionate (CrPro) on mRNA and protein abundance of different enzymes and receptors. Intramuscular (IM) and subcutaneous (SC) preadipocytes and bovine satellite cells were isolated from the longissimus muscle to determine the effect of treatment on glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ mRNA and GLUT4 protein abundance. Preadipocyte cultures were t...

  12. Cattle traceability system in Japan for bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Katsuaki Sugiura; Takashi Onodera

    2008-01-01

    To promote consumer confidence in the safety of beef and to ensure the proper implementation of eradication measures against bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), the Cattle Traceability Law was approved by the Diet in June 2003 and a cattle traceability system has been in operation in Japan since December 2003. The system enables tracing the cohort and offspring animals of a BSE case within 24 h of its detection. The traceability database system also provides distributors, restaurants and ...

  13. Bovine explant model of degeneration of the intervertebral disc

    OpenAIRE

    Sivan Sarit; Menage Janis; Roberts Sally; Urban Jill PG

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Many new treatments for degeneration of the intervertebral disc are being developed which can be delivered through a needle. These require testing in model systems before being used in human patients. Unfortunately, because of differences in anatomy, there are no ideal animal models of disc degeneration. Bovine explant model systems have many advantages but it is not possible to inject any significant volume into an intact disc. Therefore we have attempted to mimic disc de...

  14. Kinins produced from bovine colostrum by kallikrein and saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guth, Paul S.

    1959-01-01

    Substances capable of stimulating smooth muscle are produced on the incubation of bovine colostrum with urinary kallikrein or calf saliva. These substances, called urine- and saliva-colostrokinin, have been differentiated from kallidin, substance A and similar smooth muscle activating agents. Saliva-colostrokinin is likely to be formed in the suckling calf. Further, as colostrum became milk, the ability to form colostrokinin diminished. A function for saliva-colostrokinin in the newborn is suggested. PMID:13830444

  15. Bovine Colostrum Supplementation During Running Training Increases Intestinal Permeability

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkworth, Grant D.; Emma Southcott; Buckley, Jonathan D.; Butler, Ross N.

    2009-01-01

    Endurance exercise training can increase intestinal permeability which may contribute to the development of gastrointestinal symptoms in some athletes. Bovine colostrum (BC) supplementation reduces intestinal permeability induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This study aimed to determine whether BC could also reduce intestinal permeability induced by endurance exercise. Thirty healthy adult males (25.0 ± 4.7 yr; mean ± SD) completed eight weeks of running three times per week for...

  16. Prevalence of bovine Cysticercosis of Slaughtered Cattle in Meshkinshahr Abattoir

    OpenAIRE

    Garedaghi, Y.; A. P.R. Saber; M. S. Khosroshahi

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The occurrence of the larvae of Taenia saginata (T. saginata) in cattle musculature causes T. saginata cysticercosis or bovine cysticercosis while the adult worms in human small intestines cause taeniasis. Approach: In this study, the prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in cattle slaughtered for meat in Meshkinshahr Abattoir, Iran between September 2010 and August 2011 was reported. Results: The examination of various organs of 500 cattle in Meshkinshahr Abattoir sh...

  17. Immunochemical, biomolecular and biochemical characterization of bovine epithelial intestinal primocultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mainil Jacques

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultures of enterocytes and colonocytes represent valuable tools to study growth and differentiation of epithelial cells. In vitro models may be used to evaluate passage or toxicity of drugs, interactions of enteropathogenes bacteria strains with intestinal epithelium and other physiologic or pathologic phenomenon involving the digestive tract. Results Cultures of bovine colonocytes and jejunocytes were obtained from organoid-enriched preparations, using a combination of enzymatic and mechanical disruption of the intestine epithelium, followed by an isopicnic centrifugation discarding most single cells. Confluent cell monolayers arising from plated organoids exhibited epithelium typical features, such as the pavement-like structure, the presence of apical microvilli and tight junctions. Accordingly, cells expressed several markers of enterocyte brush border (i.e. maltase, alkaline phosphatase and fatty acid binding protein as well as an epithelial cytoskeleton component (cytokeratin 18. However, enterocyte primocultures were also positive for the vimentin immunostaining (mesenchyme marker. Vimentin expression studies showed that this gene is constitutively expressed in bovine enterocytes. Comparison of the vimentin expression profile with the pattern of brush border enzymes activities, suggested that the decrease of cell differentiation level observed during the enterocyte isolation procedure and early passages of the primoculture could result from a post-transcriptional de-repression of vimentin synthesis. The low differentiation level of bovine enterocytes in vitro could partly be counteracted adding butyrate (1–2 mM or using a glucose-deprived culture medium. Conclusion The present study describes several complementary approaches to characterize bovine primary cultures of intestinal cells. Cultured cells kept their morphologic and functional characteristics during several generations.

  18. Structure and gene organization of bovine neuromedin K precursor.

    OpenAIRE

    Kotani, H.; Hoshimaru, M; Nawa, H; Nakanishi, S.

    1986-01-01

    cDNA and genomic DNA clones for the precursor of a mammalian neuropeptide tachykinin, neuromedin K, have been isolated and characterized by molecular cloning and sequence analysis. The deduced amino acid sequence indicates that the bovine neuromedin K precursor (preprotachykinin B) consists of 126 amino acid residues including a putative signal peptide. There are two preprotachykinin B mRNAs that differ only at the 5' extremity of the untranslated regions. The major mRNA species is encoded by...

  19. Genomic Comparative Study of Bovine Mastitis Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Kempf, Florent; Slugocki, Cindy; Blum, Shlomo E.; Leitner, Gabriel; Germon, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli, one of the main causative agents of bovine mastitis, is responsible for significant losses on dairy farms. In order to better understand the pathogenicity of E. coli mastitis, an accurate characterization of E. coli strains isolated from mastitis cases is required. By using phylogenetic analyses and whole genome comparison of 5 currently available mastitis E. coli genome sequences, we searched for genotypic traits specific for mastitis isolates. Our data confirm that there i...

  20. Prokaryotic expression of Chinese bovine enterokinase catalytic subunit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄鹤; 赵阳; 甘一如

    2004-01-01

    Background To express in vitro the bovine enterokinase catalytic subunit (EKL ) protein, which could be used in the future for the cleavage and purification of fusion proteins. Methods Bovine enterokinase catalytic subunit cDNA was obtained by RT-PCR from the duodenal mucosa of a bovine obtained at a wholesale market, and then cloned into a pUCmT cloning vector and sequenced. The desired gene fragment was inserted into a pET39b expression plasmid and the recombinant vector pET39b-EKL was transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3). Protein expression was induced using IPTG. The recombinant DsbA-EK, was purified with His · Tag affinity chromatography, and its bioactivity was analyzed. Results Compared with the sequence deposited in GenBank, the sequence of the EKL gene cloned in the present study is correct. It was also confirmed that the nucleotide sequence of expression plasmid pET39b-EKL was correct at the conjunction site between the recombinant DNA 5'terminal multi-cloning site and the recombinant fragment. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the target product was about 65 kDa and represented 28% of total cell protein. Purified recombinant protein was obtained by metal chelating chromatography using a NJ-IDA resin, After desalting and changing the buffer, the crude kinase was incubated at 21℃ overnight and shown to have a high autocatalytic cleavage activity. Conclusion The EKE gene from a Chinese bovine has been cloned successfully and expressed. This investigation has layed the foundation for future enterokinase activity research and for further large-scale application of expression products.

  1. Production and characterization of a bovine liver candidate reference material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, S. R.; Peixoto, A. M. J.; Souza, G. B.; Tullio, R. R.; Nogueira, A. R. A.

    2016-07-01

    The preparation of a bovine liver candidate reference material and the steps are taken to confirm its homogeneity, long and short term stabilities, and consensus values are described. Details of the sample preparation and the final collaborative exercise are presented. The material elemental composition was characterized by 17 elements (As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mo, Mn, Na, P, Pb, Se, Sr, V, and Zn) of nutritional and toxicological significance.

  2. Experimental bovine genital ureaplasmosis. I. Granular vulvitis following vulvar inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, P A; Ruhnke, H L; Palmer, N C

    1980-07-01

    Granular vulvitis was reproduced in ten virgin heifers following vulvar inoculation with strains of ureaplasma previously isolated from natural cases. The disease appeared one to three days postinoculation and was characterized by vulvar swabs but not from the upper mucopurulent discharge. At necropsy 13 to 41 days later, ureaplasmas were recovered consistently from vulvar swabs but not from the upper reproductive tract. It was concluded that some strains of ureaplasma are pathogenic and should be viewed as a cause of bovine granular vulvitis.

  3. Bovine gene polymorphisms related to fat deposition and meat tenderness

    OpenAIRE

    Fortes, Marina R. S.; Rogério A. Curi; Chardulo, Luis Artur L.; Antonio C. Silveira; Assumpção, Mayra E. O. D.; José Antonio Visintin; Oliveira, Henrique N.

    2009-01-01

    Leptin, thyroglobulin and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase play important roles in fat metabolism. Fat deposition has an influence on meat quality and consumers' choice. The aim of this study was to determine allele and genotype frequencies of polymorphisms of the bovine genes, which encode leptin (LEP), thyroglobulin (TG) and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1). A further objective was to establish the effects of these polymorphisms on meat characteristics. We genotyped 147 animals belo...

  4. Theileria parva infection induces autocrine growth of bovine lymphocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbelaere, D A; Coquerelle, T M; Roditi, I J; Eichhorn, M; Williams, R O

    1988-01-01

    Bovine lymphocytes infected with the parasite Theileria parva continuously secrete a growth factor that is essential for their proliferation in vitro and also constitutively express interleukin 2 receptors on their surface. Dilution of the secreted growth factor, caused by culturing cells at low density, results in retardation of culture growth. Human recombinant interleukin 2, however, effectively substitutes for the diluted growth factor by restoring normal growth rates and also allows Thei...

  5. Differentiation of Bovine Spermatogonial Stem Cells into Osteoblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Qasemi-Panahi, Babak; Tajik, Parviz; Movahedin, Mansoureh; Moghaddam, Gholamali; Barzgar, Younes; Heidari-Vala, Hamed

    2011-01-01

    Spermatogonial Stem Cell (SSC) technologies provide multiple opportunities for research in the field of biotechnology and regenerative medicine. The therapeutic use of Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs) is restricted due to severe ethical and immunological concerns. Therefore, we need a new pluripotent cell type. Despite well-known role of germ cells in the gametogenesis, some facts apparently show their multipotentiality. In the present study, bovine SSCs were co-cultured with Sertoli cell for 7 da...

  6. A combined vaccine against Brucella abortus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaraj, Govindasamy; Chinchkar, Shankar R.; Rajendra, Lingala; Srinivasan, Villuppanoor Alwar

    2009-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the immune response in calves vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain 19, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) vaccines in monovalent form and combined vaccine containing both antigen. The seroconversion of monovalent and combined vaccines was tested in seronegative cattle calves. IBR vaccine alone and combination with live Brucella abortus S19 vaccine elicited an anamnestic response on day 60 post booster but started declining from day 90 onwards ...

  7. Bovine milk usage and feeding practices for infants in India

    OpenAIRE

    Meha Mayuri; Vivek Garg; Chandan Mukherji; Divya Aggarwal; Sanjeev Ganguly

    2012-01-01

    Background: Milk and dairy products from animal sources (cow′s milk or buffalo′s milk) are an important part of Indian diet and its consumption starts at an early age. Objective: The purpose of this study is to understand the processing, storage and modifications carried out before bovine milk is fed to the infants and compare it with recommendations by Health Care Professionals (HCPs). Materials and Methods: The study involved assessments involving HCPs and mothers of children below 1 year o...

  8. Relationship of bovine NOS2 gene polymorphisms to the risk of bovine tuberculosis in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yafen; Huang, ChenShen; Tsai, Hsiang-Jung

    2016-02-01

    Many studies suggest significant genetic variation in the resistance of cattle and humans to infection with Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of zoonotic tuberculosis. The inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS which is encoded by the NOS2 gene) plays a key role in the immunological control of a broad spectrum of infectious agents. This study aimed to investigate the influence of genetic variations in the promoter of the NOS2 gene on bovine tuberculosis (bTB) susceptibility. In this study, the NOS2 genes of 74 bTB-infected Holstein cows and 90 healthy controls were genotyped using PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing. Polymorphisms at rs207692718, rs109279434, rs209895548, rs385993919, rs433717754, rs383366213, rs466730386, rs715225976, rs525673647, rs720757654 and g.19958101T>G in the promoter region of the NOS2 gene were detected. The g.19958101T>G SNP produced two different conformation patterns (TT and TG) and the TG genotype was over-represented in the bTB group (20.27%) compared with the control group (2.22%). The TG genotype frequency of the g.19958101T>G variant was significantly higher in bTB cattle than in healthy controls (OR, 11.19; 95% CI, 2.47-50.73; P=0.0002). The G allele of the g.19958101T>G polymorphism was more frequent in bTB group when compared to control group (10.14% versus 1.11%). Furthermore, the G allele was a risk factor for bTB susceptibility (OR, 10.04; 95% CI, 2.26-44.65; P=0.0002). In conclusion, the g.19958101T>G polymorphism of the NOS2 gene may contribute to the susceptibility of Holstein cattle to bTB. PMID:26468216

  9. Economic losses due to bovine brucellosis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato L. Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is an important zoonosis of worldwide distribution. Reliable epidemiologic brucellosis data covering approximately 90% of the cattle population in Brazil have been recently published. Therefore, considering the scarcity of information regarding the economic impact of bovine brucellosis in Brazil, the goal of this study was to estimate economic impact of brucellosis on the Brazilian cattle industry. Several parameters including abortion and perinatal mortality rates, temporary infertility, replacement costs, mortality, veterinary costs, milk and meat losses were considered in the model. Bovine brucellosis in Brazil results in an estimated loss of R$ 420,12 or R$ 226,47 for each individual dairy or beef infected female above 24 months of age, respectively. The total estimated losses in Brazil attributed to bovine brucellosis were estimated to be approximately R$ 892 million (equivalent to about 448 million American dollars. Every 1% increase or decrease in prevalence is expected to increase or decrease the economic burden of brucellosis in approximately 155 million Reais.

  10. Development and evaluation of immunoassay for zeranol in bovine urine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A high affinity polyclonal antibody-based enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the quantification of zeranol in bovine urine. On the basis of urine matrix studies, the optimized dilution factors producing insignificant matrix interference were selected as 1:5 in pretreatment. In the improved ELISA, the linear response range was between 0.02 and 1 μg/ml, and the detection limit was 0.02 μg/ml for the assay. The overall recoveries and the coefficients of variation (CVs) were in the range of 82% ~127% and 3.5%~8.8%, respectively. Thirty-six bovine urine samples spiked with zeranol (ranging from 0.2 to 10 μg/ml) were detected by the ELISA and liquid chromatography (LC) method, and good correlations were obtained between the two methods (R2=0.9643). We conclude that this improved ELISA is suitable tool for a mass zeranol screening and can be an alternative for the conventional LC method for zeranol in bovine urine.

  11. Structural and functional analysis of the bovine Mx1 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kohji; Nakatsu, Yuichiro; Onogi, Akio; Takasuga, Akiko; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Ueda, Junji; Watanabe, Tomomasa

    2009-04-01

    The bovine Mx1 promoter region was found to contain 4 IFN-stimulated response elements (ISREs), 7 GC boxes, 2 IL-6 responsive elements, 2 NFκB-binding sites and 2 AP-1-binding sites. Among Holstein, Charolai, and Brahman breeds, 5 nucleotide substitutions were detected in the promoter region. After the Mx1 promoter region from Holstein had been constructed with pGL-basic expression vector, the transfected cells showed promoter activity after IFN induction. Several artificial deletion mutants were prepared to determine the important regulatory elements responsible for the promoter activity, and it was found that ISRE has a key function in IFN response. The proximal ISRE1 showed potential induction by IFN. Furthermore, the proximal GC boxes were found to be essential for IFN response in the bovine Mx1 promoter with the deletion mutants. In this case, the 2 GC boxes exhibited a synergistic activation in the IFN response. Mithramycin A, an agent that inhibits gene expression selectively by coating GC boxes, was used, and Mx mRNA expression in MDBK cells was suppressed by this chemical. Therefore, GC boxes were also shown to be essential for IFN response in the bovine Mx1 gene. PMID:19203250

  12. Identification and Characterization of TEX101 in Bovine Epididymal Spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subir K. Nagdas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies exhibit the presence of Ricinus Communis Agglutinin I (RCA binding glycocalyx in mammalian spermatozoa. However, the molecular characterization of RCA binding glycocalyx in sperm membranes and its mechanism of action are poorly understood. The objective of the study was to identify and to characterize RCA binding glycoprotein of the bovine sperm plasma membranes (PM. Lectin blots of caput and cauda sperm PM revealed a 38 kDa polypeptide exhibiting the highest affinity to RCA among the several major RCA binding polypeptides. The 38 kDa RCA binding polypeptide of cauda sperm PM was purified and exhibited a charge train of three distinct spots with isoelectric points (pH 5.3 and 5.8. Proteomic identification yielded ten peptides that matched the sequence of Testis Expressed 101 protein (TEX101. Western blots data revealed that bovine sperm TEX101 is present in both testicular and epididymal sperm PM fractions. The native TEX101 polypeptide contains ~17 kDa N-linked oligosaccharides and the polypeptide is anchored to sperm membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol lipid linkage. Immunofluorescence staining of sperm with anti-TEX101 demonstrated that the polypeptide is localized at the head of cauda sperm. Our biochemical results provide evidence on the presence of TEX101 in bovine epididymal sperm plasma membranes and may have a potential role in sperm-egg interaction.

  13. Determination of bovine immunoglobulin G in bovine colostrum powders, bovine milk powders, and dietary supplements containing bovine colostrum products by an automated direct immunoassay with optical biosensor: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapper, Leyton

    2013-01-01

    Nine laboratories participated in an AOAC collaborative study to determine bovine immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels in selected dairy powders and dietary supplements by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) methodology. Each sample matrix was dissolved in buffer and suitably diluted to fit within the standard curve. The sample extract was injected over a surface functionalized with affinity-purified, polyclonal goat anti-bovine IgG (H+L) antibody; IgG was then detected. SPR detection was used for the direct immunoassay and quantification was made against a calibration curve prepared from bovine serum IgG. Between each standard and sample, the surface was regenerated using 10 mM glycine at pH 1.5. The samples analyzed included the likely matrixes for which the assay would find commercial use, namely, high- and low-protein-content colostrum powders, tablets containing colostrum powder, infant formula containing colostrum powder, and some IgG-containing dairy powders, i.e., milk protein isolate, whey protein concentrate, and skim milk powder. Each laboratory provided data for the study and assayed blind duplicates of seven materials. Due to gross outliers in the majority of results from one laboratory, the data from eight laboratories were used for the statistical analysis. The repeatability RSD (RSDr) values ranged from 3.2 to 7.3%, and the reproducibility RSDR values from 13.0 to 22.6%. PMID:24282942

  14. Evaluation of immunoglobulins in bovine colostrum using laser induced fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Salam, Z; Abdel Ghany, Sh; Harith, M A

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to exploit laser induced fluorescence (LIF) as a spectrochemical analytical technique for evaluation of immunoglobulin (IgG) in bovine colostrum. Colostrum samples were collected from different American Holstein cows at different times after calving. Four samples were gathered from each cow; the first three samples were obtained from the first three milkings (colostrum) and the fourth sample (milk) was obtained a week after calving. It has been demonstrated that LIF can be used as a simple, fast, sensitive and less costly spectrochemical analytical technique for qualitative estimation of IgG in colostrum. LIF results have been confirmed via the quantitative evaluation of IgG in the same samples adopting the single radial immunodiffusion conventional technique and a very good agreement has been obtained. Through LIF it was possible to evaluate bovine colostrum after different milking times and to differentiate qualitatively between colostrum from different animals which may reflect their general health status. A fluorescence linear calibration curve for IgG concentrations from 0 up to 120 g L(-1) has been obtained. In addition, it is feasible to adopt this technique for in situ measurements, i.e. in dairy cattle farms as a simple and fast method for evaluation of IgG in bovine colostrum instead of using lengthy and complicated conventional techniques in laboratories. PMID:25127559

  15. Biological components in a standardized derivative of bovine colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacerdote, P; Mussano, F; Franchi, S; Panerai, A E; Bussolati, G; Carossa, S; Bartorelli, A; Bussolati, B

    2013-03-01

    Products of different origin, time of collection, and activities fall under the general term of colostrum and, therefore, great variability in composition as well as in the concentration of its components has been reported in the literature. In the present study, we describe the standardization of a bovine colostrum derivative and the characterization of its bioactive components. Evaluation of the most representative agents (lactoferrin, transferrin, IL-2, IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor, IgG, and IgA) showed that a marked decrease in active components occurs after the first few hours. Bovine colostrum was, therefore, collected up to the fifth hour after delivery from Holstein cows, in the presence of preservatives, and immediately frozen. A protocol of centrifugation, filtration, and lyophilization was then applied to pools of colostrum from at least 30 cows to obtain a stable, sterile, standardized product. Preservatives were removed by dialysis. Evaluation of the active biological components of colostrum showed that the final product of colostrums contained significant and reproducible amounts of bioactive factors, including cytokines, immunomodulating factors, growth factors, and immunoglobulins. The final product appeared, therefore, as a sterile, pyrogen-free, standardized derivative of bovine colostrum with a high concentration of bioactive components. PMID:23332842

  16. Prostaglandinsvis-à-vis bovine embryonic mortality:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jerome A; Srivastava N

    2012-01-01

    Decline in fertility in bovines is attributed to various reproductive problems viz. anoestrus, repeat breeding, abortions and post parturient disorders.Among these, repeat breeding has been an important cause for reducing the animals’ fertility and life-time productivity.Many researchers have reported embryonic mortality as a major cause of repeat breeding arising due to premature corpus luteumlysis.ProstaglandinF2α released from the uterus causes alterations in luteal blood flow, induces luteal lysis, and hence reduces progesterone secretion from the bovine corpus luteum.Therefore various strategies have been tried to modulate prostaglandinF2α synthesis and secretion in order to prolong the lifespan ofCL.Administration of cyclooxygenase inhibitors which include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs acting by competitive inhibition of key enzymes of prostaglandin synthesis is one such method.Feeding of diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids during critical period significantly reduces prostaglandin synthesis.Other drugs, which are potential candidates for reducing prostaglandin synthesis, include oxytocin receptor antagonist, recombinant bovine somatotropin, lysophosphatidic acid and prostaglandinF synthase inhibitors. To conclude, there is much scope of using various compounds to reduce prostaglandins synthesis during the critical period of pregnancy for improving the embryo survival rate.

  17. Multilineage Potential Research of Bovine Amniotic Fluid Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Gao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of amnion and amniotic fluid (AF are abundant sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs that can be harvested at low cost and do not pose ethical conflicts. In human and veterinary research, stem cells derived from these tissues are promising candidates for disease treatment, specifically for their plasticity, their reduced immunogenicity, and high anti-inflammatory potential. This work aimed to obtain and characterize bovine amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSC. The bovine AF from the amniotic cavity of pregnant gilts in the early stages of gestation (3- and 4-m-old bovine embryos was collected. AFMSCs exhibit a fibroblastic-like morphology only starting from the fourth passage, being heterogeneous during the primary culture. Immunofluorescence results showed that AFMSCs were positive for β-integrin, CD44, CD73 and CD166, but negative for CD34, CD45. Meanwhile, AFMSCs expressed ES cell markers, such as Oct4, and when appropriately induced, are capable of differentiating into ectodermal and mesodermal lineages. This study reinforces the emerging importance of these cells as ideal tools in veterinary medicine; future studies aimed at a deeper evaluation of their immunological properties will allow a better understanding of their role in cellular therapy.

  18. SCAFFOLD DARI BOVINE HYDROXYAPATITE DENGAN POLY VYNIALCHOHOL COATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alva Edy Tontowi, Punto Dewo, Endang Tri Wahyuni, dan Joko Triyono

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, it is about 40% patients with hard tissue defect due to ostheoporosis, cancer or accidents and therest are defect since they have born.For many years, efforts for recovering have been done by transplantation orimplantation methods.Transplantation is more appropriate butit is not sustain because of limited donor, whileimplantation using synthetic materials such as bioceramics scaffoldis expensive due to import and the scaffold iseasier to break which does not match to the medical requirements.The research therefore has been addressed to thisissue. Local bovine hydroxyapatite (bHAscaffold has been used as thebase material and poly vynilalchohol (PVAas a coating material.The bHA scaffold was prepared by cutting a fresh bovine bone in the size of 5mmx5mmx5mmand boil it in a distilled water to remove its organic material. It was then heated up at 900 oC for 2 hours infurnace to obtain bovine hydroxyapatite scaffold (bHA. Coating process has been carried out by dip coating of thebHAscaffold in PVA solution.

  19. Guest Editorial: Managing Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Risk in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Rick

    2002-01-01

    The United States has built a triple firewall system to prevent the introduction or emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The firewalls are preventing bovine spongiform encephalopathy's introduction through bans on imports of animals and animal products, actively looking for bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the US cattle herd, and banning ruminant animal feed supplements found to carry the infectious agent and spread the disease in England. PMID:11984425

  20. Identification of major cell types in paraffin sections of bovine tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Pessa-Morikawa Tiina; Ekman Anna; Niku Mikael; Iivanainen Antti

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Identification of cell types in bovine tissue sections is complicated by the limited availability of anti-bovine antibodies, and by antigen retrieval treatments required for formalin-fixed tissue samples. We have evaluated an antibody and lectin panel for identifying major cell types in paraffin-embedded bovine tissue sections, and report optimized pretreatments for these markers. Results We selected 31 useful antibodies and lectins which can be used to identify cell types...

  1. Experimental fetal infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus. II. Morphological reactions and distribution of viral antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohmann, H B

    1982-01-01

    The effect of an infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus on fetal bovine tissues as well as the tissue-localization of viral antigen are described. Four bovine fetuses, 120-165 days of gestation, were inoculated in utero with a second passage virus strain. Lymphoid tissues were studied by light and electron microscopy. The infection induced precocious development of the secondary lymphoid organs. Characteristic changes were seen in postcapillary venules, cells of the mononuclear phagocyte ...

  2. Adjuvant enhancement of humoral immune response to chemically inactivated bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, K S; Johnson, D. W.; Muscoplat, C C

    1985-01-01

    Potentiation of the antibody response to inactivated bovine viral diarrhea virus by immunological adjuvants was studied in guinea pigs and cattle. The inactivated bovine viral diarrhea virus alone was demonstrated to be a weak immunogen. Addition of either 2 mg per mL diethylaminoethyl-dextran or 5% alhydrogel to inactivated bovine viral diarrhea virus did not or only slightly stimulated the antibody response; the combined adjuvants induced a significantly higher titer. A higher concentration...

  3. Biochemical characterization of bovine plasma thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valnickova, Zuzana; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Højrup, Peter;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: TAFI is a plasma protein assumed to be an important link between coagulation and fibrinolysis. The three-dimensional crystal structures of authentic mature bovine TAFI (TAFIa) in complex with tick carboxypeptidase inhibitor, authentic full lenght bovine plasma thrombin-activatable fib......BACKGROUND: TAFI is a plasma protein assumed to be an important link between coagulation and fibrinolysis. The three-dimensional crystal structures of authentic mature bovine TAFI (TAFIa) in complex with tick carboxypeptidase inhibitor, authentic full lenght bovine plasma thrombin...

  4. Bovine Genome Database: new tools for gleaning function from the Bos taurus genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsik, Christine G; Unni, Deepak R; Diesh, Colin M; Tayal, Aditi; Emery, Marianne L; Nguyen, Hung N; Hagen, Darren E

    2016-01-01

    We report an update of the Bovine Genome Database (BGD) (http://BovineGenome.org). The goal of BGD is to support bovine genomics research by providing genome annotation and data mining tools. We have developed new genome and annotation browsers using JBrowse and WebApollo for two Bos taurus genome assemblies, the reference genome assembly (UMD3.1.1) and the alternate genome assembly (Btau_4.6.1). Annotation tools have been customized to highlight priority genes for annotation, and to aid annotators in selecting gene evidence tracks from 91 tissue specific RNAseq datasets. We have also developed BovineMine, based on the InterMine data warehousing system, to integrate the bovine genome, annotation, QTL, SNP and expression data with external sources of orthology, gene ontology, gene interaction and pathway information. BovineMine provides powerful query building tools, as well as customized query templates, and allows users to analyze and download genome-wide datasets. With BovineMine, bovine researchers can use orthology to leverage the curated gene pathways of model organisms, such as human, mouse and rat. BovineMine will be especially useful for gene ontology and pathway analyses in conjunction with GWAS and QTL studies.

  5. Cell Infectivity in Relation to Bovine Leukemia Virus gp51 and p24 in Bovine Milk Exosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Tetsuya; Shigemura, Hiroaki; ISHIGURO, Naotaka; Inoshima, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Exosomes are small membranous microvesicles (40–100 nm in diameter) and are extracellularly released from a wide variety of cells. Exosomes contain microRNA, mRNA, and cellular proteins, which are delivered into recipient cells via these exosomes, and play a role in intercellular communication. In bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection of cattle, although it is thought to be a minor route of infection, BLV can be transmitted to calves via milk. Here, we investigated the association between exo...

  6. Cell Infectivity in Relation to Bovine Leukemia Virus gp51 and p24 in Bovine Milk Exosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsuya Yamada; Hiroaki Shigemura; Naotaka Ishiguro; Yasuo Inoshima

    2013-01-01

    Exosomes are small membranous microvesicles (40-100 nm in diameter) and are extracellularly released from a wide variety of cells. Exosomes contain microRNA, mRNA, and cellular proteins, which are delivered into recipient cells via these exosomes, and play a role in intercellular communication. In bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection of cattle, although it is thought to be a minor route of infection, BLV can be transmitted to calves via milk. Here, we investigated the association between exo...

  7. Prevalência e aspectos epidemiológicos da leptospirose bovina em rebanho leiteiro na microrregião de Goiânia - GO Prevalence and epidemiology aspects of bovine leptospirosis in dairy herd from goiânia microregion, Goiás state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Soares Juliano

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram colhidas 426 amostras de hemossoro bovino, provenientes de vacas em lactação na microrregião de Goiânia-GO, e testadas pelo método de soroaglutinação microscópica (SAM para detecção de aglutininas antileptospiras, para efetuar um estudo de prevalência. Paralelamente, foi realizado um questionário epidemiológico, contendo informações que pudessem fornecer dados sobre a epidemiologia da leptospirose nessa região. Os resultados obtidos revelaram uma prevalência de 81,90% de animais reagentes. Os principais sorovares envolvidos foram: wolffi (36,10%, icterohaemorrhagiae (20,50%, hardjo (5,20% e tarassovi (4,90%. A presença de ratos e suínos, a utilização de inseminação artificial e o tipo de fonte de água não interferiram no número de animais reagentes no teste de SAM. A leptospirose tem um comportamento enzoótico nessa região.With the aim of search the prevalence of anti-leptospiral antibodies, 426 sera samples were collected from dairy cattle in the microregion of Goiânia-GO, Brazil. Some questions were made about epidemiological and sanitary conditions characteristics of the farms to help us to understand the behavior of leptospirosis in this region. The prevalence was 81.90% and the serovars more involved were: wolffi (36.10%, icterohaemorrhagiae (20.50%, hardjo (5.20% and tarassovi (4.90%. There were pigs and rats in the farms, but they did'nt interfer on positive animals number. This afirmative is also correct to artificial insemination and water supplying. The bovine leptospirosis had enzootic characteristics in this region.

  8. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 and retinoic acid trigger bovine VASA homolog expression in differentiating bovine induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaver-Ortega, Luis F; Sumer, Huseyin; Jain, Kanika; Verma, Paul J

    2016-02-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the earliest identifiable and completely committed progenitors of female and male gametes. They are obvious targets for genome editing because they assure the transmission of desirable or introduced traits to future generations. PGCs are established at the earliest stages of embryo development and are difficult to propagate in vitro--two characteristics that pose a problem for their practical application. One alternative method to enrich for PGCs in vitro is to differentiate them from pluripotent stem cells derived from adult tissues. Here, we establish a reporter system for germ cell identification in bovine pluripotent stem cells based on green fluorescent protein expression driven by the minimal essential promoter of the bovine Vasa homolog (BVH) gene, whose regulatory elements were identified by orthologous modelling of regulatory units. We then evaluated the potential of bovine induced pluripotent stem cell (biPSC) lines carrying the reporter construct to differentiate toward the germ cell lineage. Our results showed that biPSCs undergo differentiation as embryoid bodies, and a fraction of the differentiating cells expressed BVH. The rate of differentiation towards BVH-positive cells increased up to tenfold in the presence of bone morphogenetic protein 4 or retinoic acid. Finally, we determined that the expression of key PGC genes, such as BVH or SOX2, can be modified by pre-differentiation cell culture conditions, although this increase is not necessarily mirrored by an increase in the rate of differentiation. PMID:26660942

  9. Interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells and Leptospira species; innate responses in the natural bovine reservoir host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer H Wilson-Welder

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cattle are the reservoir hosts of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, and can also be reservoir hosts of other Leptospira species such as L. kirschneri, and L. interrogans. As a reservoir host, cattle shed Leptospira, infecting other animals, including humans. Previous studies with human and murine neutrophils have shown activation of neutrophil extracellular trap or NET formation, and upregulation of inflammatory mediators by neutrophils in the presence of Leptospira. Humans, companion animals and most widely studied models of Leptospirosis are of acute infection, hallmarked by systemic inflammatory response, neutrophilia and septicemia. In contrast, cattle exhibit chronic infection with few outward clinical signs aside from reproductive failure. Taking into consideration that there is host species variation in innate immunity, especially in pathogen recognition and response, the interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs and several Leptospira strains was evaluated. Studies including bovine-adapted strains, human pathogen strains, a saprophyte and inactivated organisms. Incubation of PMNs with Leptospira did induce slight activation of neutrophil NETs, greater than unstimulated cells but less than the quantity from E. coli P4 stimulated PMNs. Very low but significant from non-stimulated, levels of reactive oxygen peroxides were produced in the presence of all Leptospira strains and E. coli P4. Similarly, significant levels of reactive nitrogen intermediaries (NO2 was produced from PMNs when incubated with the Leptospira strains and greater quantities in the presence of E. coli P4. PMNs incubated with Leptospira induced RNA transcripts of IL-1β, MIP-1α, and TNF-α, with greater amounts induced by live organisms when compared to heat-inactivated leptospires. Transcript for inflammatory cytokine IL-8 was also induced, at similar levels regardless of Leptospira strain or viability. However, incubation of

  10. Bovine coronavirus detection in a collection of diarrheic stool samples positive for group a bovine rotavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Fernandes Barry

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal diarrhea is an important cause of economic losses for cattle farmers. The main viral etiologies of enteric diseases are group A rotaviruses (GARV and the bovine coronavirus (BCoV. Although both viruses infect calves of the same age, the occurrence of mixed infections is still under studied. The present study describes the co-infection of BCoV and GARV in stool samples. Forty-four diarrheic fecal samples from calves up to 60 days old that had previously tested positive for GARV by SS-PAGE were analyzed using semi-nested PCR for BCoV. A product with 251 bp of the BCoV nucleoprotein gene was amplified in 15.9% (7/44 of the samples, demonstrating that co-infection is not an unusual event. These results reinforce the need for testing for both GARV and BCoV, even in fecal samples that previously tested positive for one virus.A diarreia neonatal é uma importante causa de perdas econômicas para a criação de bovinos. Os principais agentes etiológicos virais das doenças entéricas são o rotavírus bovino grupo A (GARV e o coronavírus bovino (BCoV. Embora ambos os vírus infectem bezerros na mesma faixa etária, infecções mistas ainda são pouco estudadas. O presente trabalho descreve a identificação do BCoV em amostras de fezes positivas para o GARV, caracterizando a ocorrência de infecções mistas. Quarenta e quatro amostras de fezes diarreicas de bezerros com até 60 dias de idade, previamente identificadas como positivas para o GARV bovino por meio da técnica de SS-PAGE, foram avaliadas quanto a presença do BCoV pela técnica de semi-nested PCR. Um produto com 251 pb do gene da nucleoproteína do BCoV foi amplificado em 15,9% (7/44 das amostras de fezes demonstrando que a co-infecção não é um evento raro. Esse resultado enfatizada a importância da realização simultânea do diagnóstico para esses dois importantes vírus entéricos de bezerros em surtos de diarreia neonatal tanto em rebanhos bovinos leiteiros quanto de

  11. Enhanced spontaneous locomotor activity in bovine GH transgenic mice involves peripheral mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlooly-Y, M; Olsson, B; Gritli-Linde, A; Brusehed, O; Isaksson, O G; Ohlsson, C; Söderpalm, B; Törnell, J; Ola, B

    2001-10-01

    Clinical and experimental studies indicate a role for GH in mechanisms related to anhedonia/hedonia, psychic energy, and reward. Recently we showed that transgenic mice with general overexpression of bovine GH display increased spontaneous locomotor activity. In the present study, we investigated whether this behavioral change is owing to a direct action of GH in the central nervous system or to peripheral GH actions. A transgenic construct, containing the glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter directing specific expression of bovine GH to the central nervous system, was designed. The central nervous system-specific expression of bovine GH in the glial fibrillary acidic protein-bovine GH transgenic mice was confirmed, but no effect on spontaneous locomotor activity was observed. Serum bovine GH levels were increased in glial fibrillary acidic protein-bovine GH transgenic mice but clearly lower than in transgenic mice with general overexpression of bovine GH. In contrast to the transgenic mice with general overexpression of bovine GH, glial fibrillary acidic protein-bovine GH mice did not display any difference in serum IGF-I levels. The levels of free T(3) and the conversion of the free T(4) to free T(3) were only increased in transgenic mice with general overexpression of bovine GH, but serum corticosterone levels were similarly increased in both transgenic models. These results suggest that free T(3) and/or IGF-I, affecting dopamine and serotonin systems in the central nervous system, may mediate the enhanced locomotor activity observed in transgenic mice with general overexpression of bovine GH. PMID:11564723

  12. Subunit and whole molecule specificity of the anti-bovine casein immune response in recent onset psychosis and schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severance, E.G.; Dickerson, F.B.; Halling, M.; Krivogorsky, B.; Haile, L.; Yang, S.; Stallings, C.R.; Origoni, A.E.; Bossis, I.; Xiao, J.; Dupont, D.; Haasnoot, W.; Yolken, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies show increased antibody levels to bovine casein in some individuals with schizophrenia. The immunogenicity of specific domains of bovine casein varies among people with milk sensitivities and thus could vary among different neuropsychiatric disorders. Using ELISAs and immunoblotting

  13. Expression of Bovine Leukemia Virus Genome is Blocked by a Nonimmunoglobulin Protein in Plasma from Infected Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, P.; Ferrer, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    Plasma of cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus contains a soluble factor that blocks the expression of the viral genome in cultured lymphocytes. The blocking factor is not present in plasma of bovine leukemia virus-free cattle or of cattle infected with common bovine viruses. Blocking of bovine leukemia virus expression by the plasma factor is reversible, and seems to be mediated by a nonimmunoglobulin protein molecule.

  14. Femoral artery superselective arterial embolization in treatment of intractable hematuria (13 case reports attached)%经股动脉插管超选择肾动脉栓塞治疗顽固性血尿(附13例报告)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁海; 陈希晨; 刘为林; 杜杰; 龙军; 崔怀争; 张良平

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨经股动脉超选择插管动脉栓塞术治疗各种原因引起的顽固性血尿临床疗效。方法回顾性分析13例经内科药物治疗无效的顽固性血尿患者经股动脉超选择插管肾动脉或髂内动脉栓塞(或同时化疗药灌注)的临床资料。结果13例患者中5例晚期未手术膀胱癌,2例膀胱癌术后,2例经皮肾镜取石,2例晚期肾癌(后证实为1例肾结核),1例移植肾出血,1例阴茎海绵体血管瘤伴动脉畸形出血;术后1~3 d完全或基本止血,2例无效(1例通过抗结核4d止血1例膀胱全切双肾造瘘尿道残端出血未能止血)。结论经股动脉插管行动脉栓塞术治疗各种顽固性血尿有显著疗效。%Objective To explore the clinical effect of femoral artery superselective arterial embolization in treatment of in -tractable hematuria induced by a variety of causes .Methods Clinical data of 13 cases suffering from intractable hematuria were retrospectively analyzed , who, after ineffective internal medication treatment , underwent femoral artery superselective ar-terial embolization or iliac artery embolization (or at the same time chemotherapeutic infusion ).Results Of the 13 cases, 5 were with advanced bladder cancer ( without surgery ) ,2 had bladder cancer ( treated by surgery ) ,2 had undergone percutane-ous nephrolithotrips,2 suffered from advanced kidney cancer (1 was later confirmed as renal tuberculosis ),transplant kidney hemorrhage appeared in one case , and penis cavernous hemangioma with artery malformation hemorrhage occurred in another . 1~3 days after the operation ,all the cases completely or basically stopped bleeding .No effect was seen in 2 cases ( Hemostasis was achieved in 1 case by anti-tuberculosis for 4 days).One case manifested apparent hemostatic effect after undergoing par-tial cystectomy .Urethral bleeding occurred in one case after radical cystectomy and double nephrostomy ,but the bleeding failed to

  15. Studies of the transmissibility of the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to the domestic chicken.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, J.; Hawkins, S.A.C.; Austin, A.R.; Konold, T.; Green, R.B.; Blamire, I.W.; Dexter, I.; Stack, M.J.; Chaplin, M.J.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Simmons, M.; Spencer, Y.I.; Webb, P.R.I.; Dawson, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Transmission of the prion disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) occurred accidentally to cattle and several other mammalian species via feed supplemented with meat and bone meal contaminated with infected bovine tissue. Prior to United Kingdom controls in 1996 on the feeding of

  16. Transcriptomic microarray analysis of BoMac cells after infection with bovine foamy virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rola-Luszczak, M.; Materniak, M.; Pluta, A.; Hulst, M.M.; Kuz'mak, J.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine foamy virus (BFV) infections are highly prevalent among cattle worldwide. However, relatively little is known about the impact of this virus on the host immune system. In our study, we focused on a bovine macrophage cell line (BoMac) and examined changes in the BoMac transcriptome after in vi

  17. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF BOVINE SERUM ALBUMIN IN PRESENCE OF SOME BISCHALCONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Garg

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We have synthesized a series of bischalcones by the Claisen-Schmidt condensation and their effect was observed on bovine serum albumin. We have found that the synthesized bischalcones interacted with bovine serum albumin irrespective of the nature and position of the substituent with a little difference.

  18. Biochemical characterization of bovine plasma thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristensen Torsten

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TAFI is a plasma protein assumed to be an important link between coagulation and fibrinolysis. The three-dimensional crystal structures of authentic mature bovine TAFI (TAFIa in complex with tick carboxypeptidase inhibitor, authentic full lenght bovine plasma thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI, and recombinant human TAFI have recently been solved. In light of these recent advances, we have characterized authentic bovine TAFI biochemically and compared it to human TAFI. Results The four N-linked glycosylation sequons within the activation peptide were all occupied in bovine TAFI, similar to human TAFI, while the sequon located within the enzyme moiety of the bovine protein was non-glycosylated. The enzymatic stability and the kinetic constants of TAFIa differed somewhat between the two proteins, as did the isoelectric point of TAFI, but not TAFIa. Equivalent to human TAFI, bovine TAFI was a substrate for transglutaminases and could be proteolytically cleaved by trypsin or thrombin/solulin complex, although small differences in the fragmentation patterns were observed. Furthermore, bovine TAFI exhibited intrinsic activity and TAFIa attenuated tPA-mediated fibrinolysis similar to the human protein. Conclusion The findings presented here suggest that the properties of these two orthologous proteins are similar and that conclusions reached using the bovine TAFI may be extrapolated to the human protein.

  19. A simple mathematical model of the bovine estrous cycle: Follicle development and endocrine interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, H.M.T.; Stötzel, C.; Röblitz, S.; Deuflhard, P.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Woelders, H.

    2011-01-01

    Bovine fertility is the subject of extensive research in animal sciences, especially because fertility of dairy cows has declined during the last decades. The regulation of estrus is controlled by the complex interplay of various organs and hormones. Mathematical modeling of the bovine estrous cycle

  20. Purification and characterization of an isoform of protein kinase C from bovine neutrophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protein kinase C (PKC) from bovine neutrophils was purified 1,420-fold. Subcellular fractionation analysis of bovine neutrophil homogenate in the presence of EGTA indicated that more than 95% of the PKC activity was present in the soluble fraction. Whereas bovine brain PKC could be resolved into four isoenzymatic forms by chromatography on a hydroxylapatite column, bovine neutrophil PKC was eluted in a single peak, suggesting that it corresponded to a single isoform. The apparent molecular weight of bovine neutrophil PKC was 82,000, as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Bovine neutrophil PKC was autophosphorylated in the presence of [γ-32P]ATP, provided that the medium was supplemented with Mg2+, Ca2+, phosphatidylserine, and diacylglycerol; phorbol myristate acetate could substitute for diacylglycerol. Autophosphorylated PKC could be cleaved by trypsin to generate two radiolabeled peptides of Mr 48,000 and 39,000. The labeled amino acids were serine and threonine. During the course of the purification procedure of bovine neutrophil PKC, a protein of Mr 23,000 was found to exhibit a strong propensity to PKC-dependent phosphorylation in the presence of [γ-32P]ATP, Mg2+, Ca2+, phosphatidylserine, and diacylglycerol. This protein was recovered together with PKC in one of the two active peaks eluted from the Mono Q column at the second step of PKC purification. It is suggested that the Mr 23,000 protein might be a natural substrate for bovine neutrophil PKC

  1. Evaluation of commercial ELISA kits for detection of antibodies against bovine atypical pestivirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larska, Magdalena; Polak, Mirosław P.; Uttenthal, Åse;

    A group of emerging bovine pestiviruses becomes a possible threat to Bovine Viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) control and eradication programs in the countries of their origin and in the new continents due to the lack of validated detection methods. The use of ELISA kits may be acheaper, time saving...

  2. A collaborative Canadian-United Kingdom evaluation of an immunohistochemistry protocol to diagnose bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of domestic cattle. The disorder was reported in the United Kingdom in the late 1980s and was associated with recycling of ruminant byproducts in cattle feed. In 1996, the bovine disease was reported to be the cause of a...

  3. TACC3 Is Important for Correct Progression of Meiosis in Bovine Oocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahdipour, Mahdi; Leitoguinho, Ana Rita Canhoto; Zacarias Silva, Ricardo A; van Tol, Helena T A; Stout, Tom A E; Rodrigues, Gabriela; Roelen, Bernard A J

    2015-01-01

    Transforming acidic coiled-coil (TACC) proteins are key players during mitosis via stabilization of the spindle. The roles of TACCs during meiosis are however less clear. We used bovine oocytes to study the expression and function of TACC3 during meiosis. TACC3 mRNA was detected in bovine oocytes du

  4. Genome sequence of Staphylococcus aureus newbould 305, a strain associated with mild bovine mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchard, Damien; Peton, Vincent; Almeida, Sintia; Le Maréchal, Caroline; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco; Berkova, Nadia; Rault, Lucie; Francois, Patrice; Schrenzel, Jacques; Even, Sergine; Hernandez, David; Le Loir, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major etiological agent of mastitis in ruminants. We report here the genome sequence of bovine strain Newbould 305, isolated in the 1950s in a case of bovine mastitis and now used as a model strain able to reproducibly induce chronic mastitis in cows.

  5. A Method of Purification of Bovine Colostrum sIgA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaofei; GAO Xuejun; YAO Yonghao; ZHOU Shenghua

    2008-01-01

    sIgA in bovine colostrum was purified by ultrafiltration and enzymolysis methods in this experiment, and the prepared substance was detected by Western Blot. The purity and yield were up to 73.6% and 65.2%, respectively. This convenient technique offers helpful exploration for production of bovine colostrum sIgA.

  6. Effects of putrescine, cadaverine, spermine, spermidine and beta-phenylethylamine on cultured bovine mammary epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusi, Eleonora; Baldi, Antonella; Cheli, Federica;

    2008-01-01

    A bovine mammary epithelial cell line (BME-UV1) and three-dimensional collagen primary bovine organoids were used to evaluate the effects of cadaverine, putrescine, spermine, spermicline and beta-phenylethylamine on mammary epithelial cells. Each biogenic amine was diluted in several concentratio...

  7. Quantitative milk genomics: estimation of variance components and prediction of fatty acids in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Kristian

    The composition of bovine milk fat, used for human consumption, is far from the recommendations for human fat nutrition. The aim of this PhD was to describe the variance components and prediction probabilities of individual fatty acids (FA) in bovine milk, and to evaluate the possibilities...

  8. Studies on the transverse localization of lysophospholipase II in bovine liver microsomes by immunological techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, H.; Bosch, H. van den

    1979-01-01

    1. 1. Lysophospholipase activity solubilized from bovine liver microsomes could be precipitated for more than 80% by antibodies evoked in rabbits against the purified bovine liver lysophospholipase II. 2. 2. After solubilization of the microsomes in 1.5% sodium deoxycholate, an immunoprecipitate co

  9. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SURFACE-HYPERBRANCHED MAGNETITE NANOPARTICLE FOR BOVINE SERUM ALBUMIN IMMOBILIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bifeng Pan; Feng Gao; Hongchen Gu

    2004-01-01

    A hyperbranched polyamidoamine polymer was synthesized on the surface of magnetite nanoparticles to enhance bovine serum albumin (BSA) immobilization efficiency. The amount of immobilized bovine serum albumin (BSA)on the surface-hyperbranched magnetite nanoparticle was up to 2.5 times as much as that of magnetite nanoparticle modified with only amino silane.

  10. Simulation modelling to support national policy making in the control of bovine herpesvirus 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, A.

    2002-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) is the causative agent of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), a respiratory disease in cattle. Increased international legislation, together with a high prevalence of BHV1 infected cattle in The Netherlands, put pressure on Dutch livestock industry to

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Bovine Papillomavirus Genotype 13 from Local Yellow Cattle in Hainan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Feng; Shi, Qiaoyun; Du, Li; Zhao, Tianjing; Cheng, Ying; Jiao, Hanwei; Zhao, Jianguo; Wang, Manchuriga; Rong, Hui; Zhou, Hailong; Wang, Fengyang

    2014-01-01

    Here, we present the complete genome sequence of bovine papillomavirus genotype 13 isolated from local yellow cattle in Hainan, China. The genome is 7,961 bp and contains six early genes and two late genes. This analysis provides important information for the research of bovine papillomavirus (BPV) in China.

  12. Determining bovine viral diarrhea virus genotypes and biotypes circulating in cattle populations in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is the disease in cattle that results from infection with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV). BVDV is found in cattle populations throughout the world. While the term BVD encompasses a wide range of clinical manifestations, including severe respiratory disease, gastroe...

  13. Evidence for lipoxin formation by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes via triple dioxygenation of arachidonic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Walstra, P.; Verhagen, J.; Vermeer, M.A.; Klerks, J.P.M.; Veldink, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Incubation of bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) with arachidonic acid leads to the formation of four lipoxins. The same lipoxins are also formed upon incubation of bovine PMNs with 5(S)-hydroperoxy-6-trans-8,11,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid, 5-hydroxy-6-trans-8,11,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic aci

  14. Mitral valve repair with a malleable bovine pericardium ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio Volpe

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe a surgical procedure utilizing a malleable bovine pericardium ring in mitral valve repair and clinical and echodopplercadiographic results. METHODS: Thirty-two (25 female and 7 male patients, aged between 9 and 66 (M=36.4±17.2 years, were studied over a 16-month period, with 100% follow-up. In 23 (72% of the patients, the mitral approach was the only one applied; 9 patients underwent associated operations. The technique applied consisted of measuring the perimeter of the anterior leaflet and implanting, according to this measurement, a flexible bovine pericardium prosthesis for reinforcement and conformation of the posterior mitral annulus, reducing it to the perimeter of the anterior leaflet with adjustment of the valve apparatus. RESULTS: The patient survival ratio was 93.8%, with 2 (6.2% fatal outcomes, one from unknown causes, the other due to left ventricular failure. Only one reoperation was performed. On echodopplercardiography, 88% of the patients had functional recovery of the mitral valve (50% without and 38% with mild insufficiency and no hemodynamic repercussions. Of four (12% of the remaining patients, 6% had moderate and 6% had seigre insufficiency. Twenty-eight percent of class II patients and 72% of class III patients passed into classes I (65%, II (32%, and III (3%, according to NYHA classification criteria. CONCLUSION: Being flexible, the bovine pericardium ring fit perfectly into the valve annulus, taking into account its geometry and contractility. Valve repair was shown to be reproducible, demonstrating significant advantages during patient evolution, which did not require anticoagulation measures.

  15. Development of a Radioimmunoassay for Bovine Chymosin B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borceux, JP.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to develop and validate a specific radioimmunoassay system for measurement of bovine chymosin B (bChyB concentrations in plasma samples. Bovine ChyB was used for immunization of rabbits and as standard and tracer. Chymosin B concentrations were measured in plasma samples from two groups of calves (Group 1: calves sampled from birth to 24 hours; Group 2: calves sampled from Day 1 to 21 after birth and from one cow during the peri-partum period. Detection limit of the assay was 9.0 ng/ml. Recovery was higher than 89.3%. Repeatability and reproducibility ranged from 1.52% to 5.23% and from 1.52% to 12.57% respectively. No cross-reaction was found with pepsinogen A from bovine, porcine or human origins. In Group 1, bChyB concentrations increased from 47.3 ± 45.1 ng/ml (5 min after birth to 325.5 ± 161.2 ng/ml (12 hours after birth, then no significant change was observed till 24 hours after birth (293.0 ± 161.5 ng/ml. In Group 2, concentrations decreased from Day 1 (455.3 ± 191.1 ng/ml to Day 21 (117.9 ± 85.1 ng/ml. In adult cow, mean concentration was 136.0 ± 32.3 ng/ml. In conclusion, bChyB is able to cross the stomach basal membrane and to reach the blood circulation at detectable levels in both young calves and adult cows.

  16. Bovine brucellosis in Argentina and bordering countries: update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, M N; Samartino, L E; Humblet, M-F; Saegerman, C

    2014-04-01

    Bovine brucellosis is a zoonotic disease spread worldwide. The infection in cattle is predominantly caused by Brucella abortus and is usually detected in pregnant females through abortions. The disease is endemic in Argentina; however, infection in humans is underestimated and often not reported. The prevalence of bovine brucellosis in countries bordering Argentina is quite variable: 0.04% in Uruguay, 10.20% in the north and 0.06% in the south of Brazil, 0.2% in Chile, 3.15% in Paraguay and 2.27% in Bolivia. In 1999, the Argentine National Control and Eradication Program was implemented. Its strategies include identification of vaccinated animals, compulsory vaccination with B. abortus S19 of 100% of 3- to 8-month-old females, negative serological tests before animal movements and categorization of farms in terms of their brucellosis status. The epidemiological surveillance in milk is performed through the milk ring test and the indirect ELISA. The result of a national brucellosis survey performed in 2004 indicates that 12.4% (95% CI: 10.89-14.0) of Argentine beef farms are seropositive to Brucella and that the apparent prevalence in cattle is 2.10% (95% CI: 1.90-2.40). The official serological diagnostic tests are as follows: buffered plate antigen test, as screening, serum agglutination test, 2-mercaptoethanol and fluorescence polarization assay, competitive ELISA, as confirmatory tests, and complement fixation test, as definitive test. Santa Fe and a district in Córdoba have 'Outstanding Plans'. Tierra del Fuego is a 'Zone free from bovine brucellosis'. One question arising when studying the Argentine situation is why the disease remains endemic if good regulations exist to control and eradicate it. In future, some different aspects might be evaluated to understand it, and further studies should be performed to prioritize, select and refine control strategies. PMID:23046031

  17. 9 CFR 94.18 - Restrictions on importation of meat and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... importation of meat and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. (a)(1) Bovine... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on importation of meat and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. 94.18 Section...

  18. A rapid and sensitive diagnosis of bovine leukaemia virus infection using the nested shuttle polymerase chain reaction Diagnóstico rápido e sensível da infecção com o vírus da Leucemia Bovina através de Shuttle Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester T. González

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL. In Argentina, where a program to eradicate EBL has been introduced, sensitive and reliable diagnosis has attained high priority. Although the importance of the agar gel immunodiffusion test remains unchanged for routine work, an additional diagnostic technique is necessary to confirm cases of sera with equivocal results or of calves carrying maternal antibodies.Utilizing a nested shuttle polymerase chain reaction, the proviral DNA was detected from cows experimentally infected with as little as 5 ml of whole blood from BLV seropositive cows that were nonetheless normal in haematological terms. It proved to be a very sensitive technique, since it rapidly revealed the presence of the provirus, frequently at 2 weeks postinoculation and using a two-round procedure of nested PCR taking only 3 hours. Additionally, the primers used flanked a portion of the viral genome often employed to differentiate BLV type applying BamHI digestion. It is concluded that this method might offer a highly promising diagnostic tool for BLV infection.O Vírus da leucemia bovina (BLV é o agente causal da Leucose Enzoótica Bovina (EBL. Na Argentina, iniciou-se um programa de erradicação da EBL. Neste estágio, é prioritário possuir uma ferramenta de diagnóstico confiável. Embora seja indiscutível a importância do teste de agar gel imunodifusão, empregado rotineiramente no diagnóstico serológico da EBL, faz-se necessária uma técnica de diagnóstico adicional capaz de confirmar os resultados duvidosos. Foi possivel detectar ADN proviral aplicando Nested-PCR em novilhos experimentalmente infectados com pequenas doses de sangue total (5ml obtidas de um bovino BLV soropositivo. Esta técnica, cujo procedimento leva 3 horas, demonstrou ser muito sensível, uma vez que foi capaz de detectar a presença do provirus duas semanas após a inoculação. Os primers utilizados são os que

  19. The phosphorylation pattern of bovine heart complex I subunits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmisano, Giuseppe; Sardanelli, Anna Maria; Signorile, Anna;

    2007-01-01

    The phosphoproteome of bovine heart complex I of the respiratory chain has been analysed with a procedure based on nondenaturing gel electrophoretic separation of complex I from small quantities of mitochondria samples, in-gel digestion, in combination with phosphopeptide enrichment by titanium...... dioxide and MS. The results, complemented by analyses of purified samples of complex I, showed phosphorylation of five subunits of the complex, 42 kDa (human gene NDUFA10), ESSS, B14.5a (human gene NDUFA7), B14.5b (human gene NDUFC2) and B16.6 (GRIM-19). MS also revealed the presence of phosphorylated...

  20. Detecting β-Casein Variation in Bovine Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Maria Caroli; Salvatore Savino; Omar Bulgari; Eugenio Monti

    2016-01-01

    In bovine species, β-casein (β-CN) is characterized by genetic polymorphism. The two most common protein variants are β-CN A2 (the original one) and A1, differing from A2 for one amino acid substitution (Pro67 to His67). Several bioactive peptides affecting milk nutritional properties can originate from β-CN. Among them, β-casomorphin-7 (BCM7) ranging from amino acid 60 to 66 can be released more easily from β-CN variants carrying His67 (A1 type) instead of Pro67 (A2 type). Nowadays, “A2 milk...

  1. Non-specific esterases in partly mineralized bovine enamel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, D; Kirkeby, S

    1990-01-01

    Activity for non-specific esterase was demonstrated in the matrix of developing bovine enamel with alpha-naphthyl acetate and 5-bromoindoxyl acetate as the esterase substrates. By use of high-performance liquid chromatography gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography, and electrophoresis three...... esterases were shown to be present in the enamel matrix. The enzymes showed highest activity at pH 6.5-7.5. In sections a strong reaction was observed in the secretory ameloblasts. The esterases may be proteolytic enzymes that participate in the degradation of the matrix proteins....

  2. Pathways for improving the nitrogen efficiency of grazing bovines

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekstra, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    Livestock production has been identified as a major source of nitrogen (N) losses in agro-ecosystems. N excreted in dung and urine contributes to environmental N pollution either as ammonia and N oxides in air, or as nitrate in soil and ground water. Therefore, it is important to reduce N output through animal excretions by improving N utilisation by the animal. Bovine N utilisation can be increased substantially through changing the composition of the diet. In many parts of Europe, a large p...

  3. Phospholipase C associated with particulate fractions of bovine brain.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, K Y; Ryu, S H; Suh, P G; Choi, W C; Rhee, S G

    1987-01-01

    We previously reported that cytosolic fractions of bovine brain contain two immunologically distinct phosphoinositide-specific phospholipases C (PLCs), PLC-I and PLC-II. In this report the subcellular distribution of PLC-I and PLC-II in brain homogenates was measured using RIA. Significant differences were found in the distribution of the two forms of PLC in 100,000 X g supernatants (cytosolic fraction) of brain homogenized in hypotonic buffer and 2 M KCl extracts of washed pellets (particula...

  4. Proteomic analysis of whey from bovine colostrum and mature milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Pacheco Golinelli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to standardize a methodology to obtain two-dimensional (2D maps of whey proteins from bovine colostrum and mature milk, using two-dimensional electrophoresis, in order to identify the minor proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/TOF MS. A total of 38 proteins were identified, 20 spots in the colostrum whey and 18 in the mature milk whey; 5 of them were identified for the first time.

  5. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHOEA VIRUS IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmi Ghosh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD is one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. The present study was undertaken to diagnose the persistently infected (PI animals by AntigenELISA and Reverse Transcriptase PCR using serum samples from organized farms as well as rural areas of West Bengal. The results showed that out of 964 serum samples tested 07 (0.73% was positive for BVDV by Antigen-ELISA. For further confirmation, RNA was extracted from the positive samples and RT-PCR was performed with 5' UTR specific primers which showed 294 bp amplicons. This finding showed circulation of BVDV in cattle in West Bengal, India.

  6. Ingestive and metabolic behavior of bovines fed rations containing probiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Luiz Massaro Junior; Leandro das Dores Ferreira da Silva; Ana Paula de Sousa Fortaleza; Fernando Henrique Brussi Beran; Valdecir de Souza Castro; Edson Luiz de Azambuja Ribeiro; Marco Aurélio Alves de Freitas Barbosa; Valter Harry Bumbieris Junior; Ivone Yurika Mizubuti; Odimári Priscila Pires do Prado

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of Saccharomices cerevisiae and Lactobacillus casei in bovine diets, on dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) intake and digestibility, ruminal pH and ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3) and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN). Rations were isoproteic (13,04% CP) and isoenergetic (66,39% TDN) with sorghum silage used as roughage (50% of DM). Six ruminal-cannulated males, castrat...

  7. INSULIN INDUCES NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION IN BOVINE AORTIC ENDOTHELIAL CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧丽; 黄定九

    2000-01-01

    ffeStun6. ObjeCtif Dens cette dtude nons avons ewilue l' effet de l' insuline sur ba Proliferation cellulaire, liberationd' oxide nitrique et l' expression gdrktique de synthase d' oxide nitrique dens la cellule endotheliale aortique bovine. methIn mitogdthe est evalude per la ndthae M7T. In Production de NO dans ie alga en culture est determine per la reactionGness. In technique quantitative RT/PCR est utility pour quantifier ie niveau de sWthase d' oxide nitrique mRNA dens la cellule endotheliale aortique...

  8. Effects of Visible Light on Cultured Bovine Trabecular Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜发纲; 郝风芹; 魏厚仁; 许德胜

    2004-01-01

    To explore the biological effects of light on trabecular cells, cultured bovine trabecular cells were exposed to visible light of different wavelength with different energy. Cellular morphology, structure, proliferation, and phagocytosis were observed. The cells showed no remarkable changes when the energy was low. When the exposure energy reached 1. 12 mW/cm2 , the cytoplasm showed a rough appearance, and cell proliferation and phagocytosis decreased. This phototoxicity was strong with white light (compound chromatic light), moderate with violet light or yellow light, and mild with red light.

  9. In vitro palmitoylation of native bovine brain Goα

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The native Goα was purified from bovine brain cortex and palmitoylated in vitro. The in vitro palmitoylation site was the same as that in vivo. The internal palmitoylation of purified native Goα was found to be largely maintained. The apparant palmitoylation ratio was significantly increased after the Goa was treated with DTT. The GTPg S binding characteristic of Goα was not influenced by palmitoylation, however, the affinity for LUVs was increased dramatically. The in vitro palmitoylation model of Goα provides a better basis for studying the functional role of G protein palmitoylation in signal transduction.

  10. Cattle traceability system in Japan for bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Sugiura

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available To promote consumer confidence in the safety of beef and to ensure the proper implementation of eradication measures against bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, the Cattle Traceability Law was approved by the Diet in June 2003 and a cattle traceability system has been in operation in Japan since December 2003. The system enables tracing the cohort and offspring animals of a BSE case within 24 h of its detection. The traceability database system also provides distributors, restaurants and consumers with information on the cattle from which the beef that they sell, serve and consume originate.

  11. Genetic and physical mapping of the bovine X chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, C C; Taylor, J F; Gallagher, D S; Sanders, J O; Turner, J W; Davis, S K

    1996-03-01

    Three hundred eighty reciprocal backcross and F(2) full sib progeny from 33 families produced by embryo transfer from 77 Angus (Bos taurus), Brahman (Bos indicus), and F1 parents and grandparents were used to construct genetic maps of the bovine X and Y chromosomes. Ml individuals were scored for 15 microsatellite loci, with an average of 608 informative meioses per locus. The length of the bovine X chromosome genetic map was 118.7 cM (female only) and of the pseudoautosomal region was 13.0 cM (male only). The 15-marker framework map in Kosambi centimorgans is [BM6017-6.1 -TGLA89-35.8-TEXAN13-3.4-TGLA128-1.3 -BM2713 -21.1 -BM4604-2.4-BR215 - 12.9-TGLA68-10.0-BM4321 - 1.0-HEL14-4.9-TGLA15-2.3-INRA12O- 12.5-TGLA325- 1.6-MAF45-3.2-INRA3O], with an average interval of 7.91 cM. Clones containing pseudoautosomal or sex-linked microsatellites were isolated from a bovine bacterial artificial chromosome library and were physically mapped to bovine metaphase chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization to orient the X and Y chromosome maps. BAC57, containing the pseudoautosomal microsatellite INRA3O, mapped to the distal end of the long arm of the X chromosome at q42-ter and to the short arm of the Y chromosome at p13-ter. This confirms the published assignment of this region to Ypl2-ter, but challenges the published assignment of Xpl4-ter and thus reorients the X chromosome physical map. BAC2O4, containing the X-linked microsatellite BM4604, mapped to the middle of the long arm of the X chromosome at q26-q31. The position of the physically mapped markers indicates either a lack of microsatellite markers for a large (30 to 50 cM) region of the short arm of the X chromosome or heterogeneity of recombination along the X chromosome. PMID:8833151

  12. Genetic and physical mapping of the bovine X chromosome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Chen Chen; Taylor, J.F.; Sanders, J. O. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    Three hundred eighty reciprocal backcross and F{sub 2} full sib progeny from 33 families produced by embryo transfer from 77 Angus (Bos taurus), Brahman (Bos indicus), and F{sub 1} parents and grandparents were used to construct genetic maps of the bovine X and Y chromosomes. All individuals were scored for 15 microsatellite loci, with an average of 608 informative meioses per locus. The length of the bovine X chromosome genetic map was 118.7 cM (female only) and of the pseudoautosomal region was 13.0 cM (male only). The 15-marker framework map in Kosambi centimorgans is (BM6017-6.1-TGLA89-35.8-TEXAN13-3.4-TGLA128-1.3-BM2713-21.1-BM4604-2.4-BR215-12.9-TGLA68-10.0-BM4321-1.0-HEL14-4.9-TGLA15-2.3-INRA120-12.5-TGLA325-1.6-MAF45-3.2-INRA30), with an average interval of 7.91 cM. Clones containing pseudoautosomal or sex-linked microsatellites were isolated from a bovine bacterial artificial chromosome library and were physically mapped to bovine metaphase chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization to orient the X and Y chromosome maps. BAC57, containing the pseudoautosomal microsatellite INRA30, mapped to the distal end of the long arm of the X chromosome at q42-ter and to the short arm of the Y chromosome at p13-ter. This confirms the published assignment of this region to Yp12-ter, but challenges the published assignment of Xp14-ter and thus reorients the X chromosome physical map. BAC204, containing the X-linked microsatellite BM4604, mapped to the middle of the long arm of the X chromosome at q26-q31. The position of the physically mapped to the middle of the long arm of the X chromosome at q26-q31. The position of the physically mapped markers indicates either a lack of microsatellite markers for a large (30 to 50 cM) region of the short arm of the X chromosome or heterogeneity of recombination along the X chromosome. 46 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. The Role of MicroRNAs in Bovine Infection and Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan eLawless

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small, non-coding RNAs that are recognised as critical regulators of immune gene expression during infection. Many immunologically significant human miRNAs have been found to be conserved in agriculturally important species, including cattle. Discovering how bovine miRNAs mediate the immune defence during infection is critical to understanding the aetiology of the most prevalent bovine diseases. Here, we review current knowledge of miRNAs in the bovine genome, and discuss the advances in understanding of miRNAs as regulators of immune cell function, and bovine immune response activation, regulation, and resolution. Finally, we consider the future perspectives on miRNAs in bovine viral disease, their role as potential biomarkers and in therapy.

  14. Characterization and regulation of the bovine stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bovine stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Scd) gene plays an important role in the bovine mammary gland where substrates such as stearic and vaccenic acids are converted to oleic acid and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), respectively. Up to 90% of the CLA in bovine milk is formed due to the action of this enzyme in the mammary gland. The areas of the bovine promoter of importance in regulating this key enzyme were examined and an area of 36 bp in length was identified as having a critical role in transcriptional activation and is designated the Scd transcriptional enhancer element (STE). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay detected three binding complexes on this area in Mac-T cell nuclear extracts. Treatment of cells with CLA caused a significant reduction in transcriptional activity, with this effect being mediated through the STE region. The bovine Scd gene promoter was up-regulated by insulin and down-regulated by oleic acid

  15. Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel J Gershwin

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in cattle; costing the dairy and beef industries millions of dollars annually, despite the use of vaccines and antibiotics. BRDC is caused by one or more of several viruses (bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpes type 1 also known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and bovine viral diarrhea virus, which predispose animals to infection with one or more bacteria. These include: Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, and Histophilus somni. Some cattle appear to be more resistant to BRDC than others. We hypothesize that appropriate immune responses to these pathogens are subject to genetic control. To determine which genes are involved in the immune response to each of these pathogens it was first necessary to experimentally induce infection separately with each pathogen to document clinical and pathological responses in animals from which tissues were harvested for subsequent RNA sequencing. Herein these infections and animal responses are described.

  16. Preparation of bovine muscle, bovine liver and pig kidney reference materials and the certification of the contents of nine elements of toxicological and nutritional interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of 3 meat reference materials (bovine muscle, bovine liver and pig kidney) and the steps taken to confirm their homogeneity and stability are described. Details are presented of a preliminary intercomparison and of the final collaborative exercise which led to the certification of the contents of 9 elements of toxicological and nutritional importance. Indicative values are given for the contents of a further 9 elements in these materials. (orig.)

  17. Seroprevalences of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum in beef and dairy cattle in Manitoba

    OpenAIRE

    VanLeeuwen, John A.; Tiwari, Ashwani; Plaizier, Jan C; Whiting, Terry L.

    2006-01-01

    Of 1204 dairy cows and 1425 beef cows sampled, 60.8% and 10.3% were seropositive for Bovine leukemia virus, 4.5% and 1.7% were seropositive for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and 8.3% and 9.1% were seropositive for Neospora caninum, respectively, while 28.1% of dairy herds had unvaccinated animals with titres ≥ 1:64 for Bovine viral diarrhea virus.

  18. Diagnosis of natural exposure to bovine viral diarrhea in a vaccinated herd by measuring extended antibody titers against bovine viral diarrhea virus

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Jeremy

    2003-01-01

    Two abortions occurred in a 150-head commercial cow-calf herd. Bovine viral diarrhea was suspected and confirmed by measuring extended titers against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a sample of 15 breeding females. Fifteen were sero-positive and 11 had significantly high titers (1:972–1:8748), likely due to natural exposure to cattle persistently infected with BVDV.

  19. Characterization of bovine A20 gene: Expression mediated by NF-κB pathway in MDBK cells infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericksen, Fernanda; Villalba, Melina; Olavarría, Víctor H

    2016-05-01

    Cytokine production for immunological process is tightly regulated at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. The NF-κB signaling pathway maintains immune homeostasis in the cell through the participation of molecules such as A20 (TNFAIP3), which is a key regulatory factor in the immune response, hematopoietic differentiation, and immunomodulation. Although A20 has been identified in mammals, and despite recent efforts to identify A20 members in other higher vertebrates, relatively little is known about the composition of this regulator in other classes of vertebrates, particularly for bovines. In this study, the genetic context of bovine A20 was explored and compared against homologous genes in the human, mouse, chicken, dog, and zebrafish chromosomes. Through in silico analysis, several regions of interest were found conserved between even phylogenetically distant species. Additionally, a protein-deduced sequence of bovine A20 evidenced many conserved domains in humans and mice. Furthermore, all potential amino acid residues implicated in the active site of A20 were conserved. Finally, bovine A20 mRNA expression as mediated by the bovine viral diarrhea virus and poly (I:C) was evaluated. These analyses evidenced a strong fold increase in A20 expression following virus exposure, a phenomenon blocked by a pharmacological NF-κB inhibitor (BAY 117085). Interestingly, A20 mRNA had a half-life of only 32min, likely due to adenylate- and uridylate-rich elements in the 3'-untranslated region. Collectively, these data identify bovine A20 as a regulator of immune marker expression. Finally, this is the first report to find the bovine viral diarrhea virus modulating bovine A20 activation through the NF-κB pathway. PMID:26809100

  20. Whole genomic analysis of human and bovine G8P[1] rotavirus strains isolated in Nigeria provides evidence for direct bovine-to-human interspecies transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoto, Satoshi; Adah, Mohammed Ignatius; Ide, Tomihiko; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Taniguchi, Koki

    2016-09-01

    Bovine group A rotavirus (RVA) G8P[1] strains have been rarely detected in humans. Two Nigerian G8P[1] strains, HMG035 (RVA/Human-tc/NGA/HMG035/1999/G8P[1]) and NGRBg8 (RVA/Cow-tc/NGA/NGRBg8/1998/G8P[1]), were previously suggested to have the VP7, VP4, and NSP1 genes of bovine origin. In order to obtain precise information on the origin and evolution of these G8P[1] strains, the complete nucleotide sequences of the whole genomes of strains HMG035 and NGRBg8 were determined and analyzed in the present study. On whole genomic analysis, strains HMG035 and NGRBg8 were found to be very closely related to each other in all the 11 segments, and were found to have a bovine RVA-like genotype constellation (G8-P[1]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A11-N2-T6-E2-H3). Furthermore, on phylogenetic analysis, each of the 11 genes of strains HMG035 and NGRBg8 appeared to be of bovine origin. Thus, strains HMG035 and NGRBg8 were suggested to be derived from a common origin, and strain NGRBg8 was assumed to represent an example of bovine RVA strains that were transmitted to humans. Our findings provide clear evidence for direct bovine-to-human interspecies transmission of RVA strains. PMID:27302094

  1. Comparison of levels and duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 in calves fed maternal colostrum or a colostrum-replacement product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Manuel F; Walz, Paul H; Haines, Deborah M; Passler, Thomas; Earleywine, Thomas; Palomares, Roberto A; Riddell, Kay P; Galik, Patricia; Zhang, Yijing; Givens, M Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Colostrum-replacement products are an alternative to provide passive immunity to neonatal calves; however, their ability to provide adequate levels of antibodies recognizing respiratory viruses has not been described. The objective of this study was to compare the serum levels of IgG at 2 d of age and the duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3) in calves fed maternal colostrum (MC) or a colostrum replacement (CR) at birth. Forty newborn male Holstein calves were assigned to the CR or the MC group. Group CR (n = 20) received 2 packets of colostrum replacement (100 g of IgG per 470-g packet), while group MC (n = 20) received 3.8 L of maternal colostrum. Blood samples for detection of IgG and virus antibodies were collected from each calf at birth, at 2 and 7 d, and monthly until the calves became seronegative. Calves in the MC group had greater IgG concentrations at 2 d of age. The apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG was greater in the MC group than in the CR group, although the difference was not significant. Calves in the CR group had greater concentrations of BVDV neutralizing antibodies during the first 4 mo of life. The levels of antibodies to BRSV, BHV-1, and BPIV-3 were similar in the 2 groups. The mean time to seronegativity was similar for each virus in the 2 groups; however, greater variation was observed in the antibody levels and in the duration of detection of immunity in the MC group than in the CR group. Thus, the CR product provided calves with more uniform levels and duration of antibodies to common bovine respiratory viruses. PMID:24688168

  2. Virus-Mediated Metalloproteinase 1 Induction Revealed by Transcriptome Profiling of Bovine Herpesvirus 4-Infected Bovine Endometrial Stromal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebaldi, Giulia; Jacca, Sarah; Montanini, Barbara; Capra, Emanuele; Rosamilia, Alfonso; Sala, Arianna; Stella, Alessandra; Castiglioni, Bianca; Ottonello, Simone; Donofrio, Gaetano

    2016-07-01

    Viral infections can cause genital tract disorders (including abortion) in cows, and bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is often present in endometritis-affected animals. A major problem with cattle uterine viral infections in general, and BoHV-4 in particular, is our limited understanding of the pathogenic role(s) that these infections play in the endometrium. A similar lack of knowledge holds for the molecular mechanisms utilized, and the host cell pathways affected, by BoHV-4. To begin to fill these gaps, we set up optimized conditions for BoHV-4 infection of a pure population of bovine endometrial stromal cells (BESCs) to be used as source material for RNA sequencing-based transcriptome profiling. Many genes were found to be upregulated (417) or downregulated (181) after BoHV-4 infection. As revealed by enrichment functional analysis on differentially expressed genes, BoHV-4 infection affects various pathways related to cell proliferation and cell surface integrity, at least three of which were centered on upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1) and interleukin 8 (IL8). This was confirmed by reverse transcription PCR, real-time PCR, Western-immunoblot analysis, and a luciferase assay with a bovine MMP1-specific promoter reporter construct. Further, it was found that MMP1 transcription was upregulated by the BoHV-4 transactivator IE2/RTA, leading to abnormally high metalloproteinase tissue levels, potentially leading to defective endometrium healing and unresolved inflammation. Based on these findings, we propose a new model for BoHV-4 action centered on IE2-mediated MMP1 upregulation and novel therapeutic interventions based on IFN gamma-mediated MMP1 downregulation. PMID:27281703

  3. Complete genome sequence of Deltapapillomavirus 4 (bovine papillomavirus 2) from a bovine papillomavirus lesion in Amazon Region, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudt, Cíntia; da Silva, Flavio RC; Cibulski, Samuel P; Weber, Matheus N; Mayer, Fabiana Q; Varela, Ana Paula M; Roehe, Paulo M; Canal, Cláudio W

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of bovine papillomavirus 2 (BPV2) from Brazilian Amazon Region was determined using multiple-primed rolling circle amplification followed by Illumina sequencing. The genome is 7,947 bp long, with 45.9% GC content. It encodes seven early (E1, E2,E4, E5, E6,E7, and E8) and two late (L1 and L2) genes. The complete genome of a BPV2 can help in future studies since this BPV type is highly reported worldwide although the lack of complete genome sequences available. PMID:27074259

  4. Complete genome sequence of Deltapapillomavirus 4 (bovine papillomavirus 2 from a bovine papillomavirus lesion in Amazon Region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Daudt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The complete genome sequence of bovine papillomavirus 2 (BPV2 from Brazilian Amazon Region was determined using multiple-primed rolling circle amplification followed by Illumina sequencing. The genome is 7,947 bp long, with 45.9% GC content. It encodes seven early (E1, E2,E4, E5, E6,E7, and E8 and two late (L1 and L2 genes. The complete genome of a BPV2 can help in future studies since this BPV type is highly reported worldwide although the lack of complete genome sequences available.

  5. Prevalence study and genetic typing of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV in four bovine species in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingliang Deng

    Full Text Available To determine the nationwide status of persistent BVDV infection in different bovine species in China and compare different test methods, a total of 1379 serum samples from clinical healthy dairy cattle, beef cattle, yaks (Bos grunniens, and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis were collected in eight provinces of China from 2010 to 2013. The samples were analyzed using commercial antibody (Ab and antigen (Ag detection kits, and RT-PCR based on the 5'-UTR and Npro gene sequencing. Results showed that the overall positive rates for BVDV Ab, Ag and RT-PCR detection were 58.09% (801/1379, 1.39% (14/1010, and 22.64% (146/645, respectively, while the individual positive rates varied among regions, species, and farms. The average Ab-positive rates for dairy cattle, beef cattle, yaks, and water buffalo were 89.49% (298/333, 63.27% (248/392, 45.38% (236/520, and 14.18% (19/134, respectively, while the Ag-positive rates were 0.00% (0/116, 0.77% (3/392, 0.82% (3/368, and 5.97% (8/134, respectively, and the nucleic acid-positive rates detected by RT-PCR were 32.06% (42/131, 13.00% (26/200, 28.89% (52/180, and 19.40% (26/134, respectively. In addition, the RT-PCR products were sequenced and 124 5'-UTR sequences were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of the 5'-UTR sequences indicated that all of the 124 BVDV-positive samples were BVDV-1 and subtyped into either BVDV-1b (33.06%, BVDV-1m (49.19%, or a new cluster, designated as BVDV-1u (17.74%. Phylogenetic analysis based on Npro sequences confirmed this novel subtype. In conclusion, this study revealed the prevalence of BVDV-1 in bovine species in China and the dominant subtypes. The high proportion of bovines with detectable viral nucleic acids in the sera, even in the presence of high Ab levels, revealed a serious threat to bovine health.

  6. Bovine mammary stem cells: new perspective for dairy science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martignani, E; Cravero, D; Miretti, S; Accornero, P; Baratta, M

    2014-01-01

    Mammary stem cells provide opportunities for the cyclic remodelling of the bovine mammary gland. Therefore, understanding the character and regulation of mammary stem cells is important for increasing animal health and productivity. The exciting possibility that stem cell expansion can influence milk production is currently being investigated by several researchers. In fact, appropriate regulation of mammary stem cells could hopefully benefit milk yield, persistency of lactation, dry period management and tissue repair. Accordingly, we and others have attempted to characterize and regulate the function of bovine mammary stem cells. However, research on mammary stem cells requires tissue biopsies, which represents a limitation for the management of animal welfare. Interestingly, different studies recently reported the identification of putative mammary stem cells in human breast milk. The possible identification of primitive cell types within cow's milk may provide a non-invasive source of relevant mammary cells for a wide range of applications. In this review, we have summarized the main achievements in this field for dairy cow science and described the interesting perspectives open to manipulate milk persistency during lactation and to cope with oxidative stress during the transition period by regulating mammary stem cells.

  7. Properties and Mechanobiological Behavior of Bovine Nasal Septum Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correro-Shahgaldian, Maria Rita; Introvigne, Jasmin; Ghayor, Chafik; Weber, Franz E; Gallo, Luigi M; Colombo, Vera

    2016-05-01

    Bovine nasal septum (BNS) is a source of non-load bearing hyaline cartilage. Little information is available on its mechanical and biological properties. The aim of this work was to assess the characteristics of BNS cartilage and investigate its behavior in in vitro mechanobiological experiments. Mechanical tests, biochemical assays, and microscopic assessment were performed for tissue characterization. Compressions tests showed that the tissue is viscoelastic, although values of elastic moduli differ from the ones of other cartilaginous tissues. Water content was 78 ± 1.4%; glycosaminoglycans and collagen contents-measured by spectrophotometric assay and hydroxyproline assay-were 39 ± 5% and 25 ± 2.5% of dry weight, respectively. Goldner's Trichrome staining and transmission electron microscopy proved isotropic cells distribution and results of earlier cell division. Furthermore, gene expression was measured after uniaxial compression, showing variations depending on compression time as well as trends depending on equilibration time. In conclusion, BNS has been characterized at several levels, revealing that bovine nasal tissue is regionally homogeneous. Results suggest that, under certain conditions, BNS could be used to perform in vitro cartilage loading experiments.

  8. Characterizing bovine host responses to mastitis pathogens by targeted proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bislev, Stine Lønnerup

    mælkeproteiner såsom kasein er dog med til at komplicere analyserne af følsomme biomarkører i mælk. De seneste år er målrettet kvantitativ proteomics ved hjælp af metoden ’selected reaction monitoring’ (SRM) blevet udbredt. Ved SRM metoden bliver peptider fra et udvalgt protein detekteret og kvantificeret i en...... beskriver dette Bovine PeptideAtlas og dets indbyggede værktøjer til at understøtte SRM metoder. Ved hjælp af Bovine PeptideAtlas blev der udvalgt kvantificerbare og observerbare peptider, der er velegnede til udvikling af SRM metoden. To peptider per protein blev herefter genetisk udtrykt i et QconCAT...... protein som tungt isotop mærkede peptider. I manuskript II præsenteres udviklingen og valideringen af SRM metoden i yvervæv ved brug af QconCAT peptider rettet mod 20 proteiner. Resultaterne af dette forsøg var en solid bestemmelse af 17 kandidatproteiner og en pålidelig kvantificering af 12 af disse. I...

  9. Protein composition in the fluid of individual bovine follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, M M; Kroll, J; Byskov, A G; Faber, M

    1976-09-01

    The proteins in follicular fluid from individual and pooled bovine follicles were studied by gel chromatography and quantitative immunoelectrophoresis. The mean protein concentration was 86-4% of serum; very large proteins were present in only low concentrations. A minimum of 40 individual proteins was distinguished in follicular fluid, and 15 of these proteins were quantitated. A correlation between molecular weight and follicular fluid: serum concentration ratio was found. Fluid from individual follicles differed only in the relative concentrations of small and large proteins. An exception to this was IgG which was occasionally, but never in healthy growing follicles, present in concetrations above 150% of serum. Healthy growing, preovulatory and atretic follicles had higher, and cystic follicles mostly lower, concentrations of small proteins than serum. The concentration of alpha2-macroglobulin in healthy growing follicles never exceeded 16% of serum. The concentration of large proteins in follicular fluid increased with increasing follicle size. Attempts to detect proteins specific to follicular fluid by immunizing rabbits with pooled follicular samples and the follicular fluid proteins not bound by anti-bovine antiserum resulted in production of antibodies against fibrinogen and its split products D+E only.

  10. Contamination of bovine, sheep and goat meat with Brucella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%: 1 bovine (2.5%, 9 sheep (15% and 15 goats (7.2% and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%. Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method.

  11. Effect of Microstructure on Fatigue Strength of Bovine Compact Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Heon; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Akahori, Toshikazu; Takeda, Junji; Toda, Hiroyuki

    Despite its clinical importance in developing artificial bone, limited information is available regarding the microstructure with respect to the fatigue characteristics of bones. In this study, the fatigue characteristics of the bovine humerus and femur were investigated with respect to microstructures. Fatigue tests were conducted on the bovine humerus and femur at a stress ratio of 0.1 and a frequency of 10Hz. The fatigue strength of the plexiform bone is slightly greater than that of the haversian bone. This is because the volume fraction of voids in the haversian bone, which is the site of stress concentration, is higher than that of voids in the plexiform bone. Several microcracks are observed on the fatigue fracture surface of the haversian bone. The microcracks are short and their propagation directions are random. However, the number of the microcracks in the plexiform bone is very small. The microcracks are relatively long and their propagation directions are parallel to the longitudinal direction of the lamellar bone. Therefore, the crack requires relatively more energy to propagate across the lamella in the plexiform bone.

  12. Short communication: Imputation of markers on the bovine X chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiaowei; Johansson, Anna Maria; Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; De Koning, Dirk-Jan

    2016-09-01

    Imputation is a cost-effective approach to augment marker data for genomic selection and genome-wide association studies. However, most imputation studies have focused on autosomes. Here, we assessed the imputation of markers on the X chromosome in Holstein cattle for nongenotyped animals and animals genotyped with low-density (Illumina BovineLD, Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) chips, using animals genotyped with medium-density (Illumina BovineSNP50) chips. A total of 26,884 genotyped Holstein individuals genotyped with medium-density chips were used in this study. Imputation was carried out using FImpute V2.2. The following parameters were examined: treating the pseudoautosomal region as autosomal or as X specific, different sizes of reference groups, different male/female proportions in the reference group, and cumulated degree of relationship between the reference group and target group. The imputation accuracy of markers on the X chromosome was improved if the pseudoautosomal region was treated as autosomal. Increasing the proportion of females in the reference group improved the imputation accuracy for the X chromosome. Imputation for nongenotyped animals in general had lower accuracy compared with animals genotyped with the low-density single nucleotide polymorphism array. In addition, higher cumulative pedigree relationships between the reference group and the target animal led to higher imputation accuracy. In the future, better marker coverage of the X chromosome should be developed to facilitate genomic studies involving the X chromosome.

  13. Bovine and human insulin adsorption at lipid monolayers: a comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri, Sergio; Pandey, Ravindra; Rzeznicka, Izabela; Lu, Hao; Bonn, Mischa; Weidner, Tobias

    2015-07-01

    Insulin is a widely used peptide in protein research and it is utilised as a model peptide to understand the mechanics of fibril formation, which is believed to be the cause of diseases such as Alzheimer and Creutzfeld-Jakob syndrome. Insulin has been used as a model system due to its biomedical relevance, small size and relatively simple tertiary structure. The adsorption of insu lin on a variety of surfaces has become the focus of numerous studies lately. These works have helped in elucidating the consequence of surface/protein hydrophilic/hydrophobic interaction in terms of protein refolding and aggregation. Unfortunately, such model surfaces differ significantly from physiological surfaces. Here we spectroscopically investigate the adsorption of insulin at lipid monolayers, to further our understanding of the interaction of insulin with biological surfaces. In particular we study the effect of minor mutations of insulin’s primary amino acid sequence on its interaction with 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (DPPG) model lipid layers. We probe the structure of bovine and human insulin at the lipid/water interface using sum frequency generation spectroscopy (SFG). The SFG experiments are complemented with XPS analysis of Langmuir-Schaefer deposited lipid/insulin films. We find that bovine and human insulin, even though very similar in sequence, show a substantially different behavior when interacting with lipid films.

  14. Model of nutritional balance for bovine in pasturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shepherding is nevertheless the most economic alimentary system for the bovine, the pastures of the warm tropic, it has high fiber and low nitrogen (protein) and they restrict the production of the animal. The investigations suggest that small quantities of supplements of the metabolic environment of the rumen rebound significantly in the production. The bovines (Brachiaria spp) presented deficit of ammonia ruminal (4-10 mgs/100 ml of flowing ruminal), but when elevating the ammonia to 15-30 mgs the animal answer, was favorable since in young bulls was supplemented with 60 gr. of urea and 300 of molasses during 350 days won 210 kgs of weight, against 145 kgs of molasses and 130 kgs in single Brachiaria. Other investigations indicate that the supplement of urea, molasses is more effective in dry time than rainy, but if there is not enough biomass it decreases its effectiveness, since this supplement adds quality and not, quantity and it also stimulates the consumption. They also suggest that the supplement urea-molasses should be strategic according to nutritional quality of the pasture, in periods of the year, addition of true protein, age of the animal and production type. The determinations have more than enough speed of consumption of urea and concentrations of ruminal ammonia indicate that the key is in the regulation of the consumption of urea, independent of the daily quantity, to avoid intoxications and to favor the environment

  15. Effect of Prototheca zopfii on neutrophil function from bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Luciane T; Pugine, Silvana P; Valle, Claudia R; Ribeiro, Andrea R; Costa, Ernane J X; De Melo, Mariza P

    2006-12-01

    This study was carried to investigate neutrophil function in the presence of Prototheca zopfii. For this purpose, bovine milk neutrophils were incubated in the absence (control) of and presence of P. zopfii, and then they were examined hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) production, antioxidant enzyme activities, and phagocytic capacity. Milk was collected from negative "California Mastitis Test" (CMT) quarter from three lactating Holstein cows after induction of leukocytosis with an intramammary infusion of oyster glycogen. H(2)O(2) production was measured using the phenol red method. Catalase activity was measured following H(2)O(2) reduction at 240 nm and the activity of glutathione reductase was determined by measuring the rate of NADPH oxidation at 340 nm. P. zopfii death was assessed by fluorescent microscopy using acridine orange assay and by colony forming units (CFUs). Comparisons between the groups were initially performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significant differences were then compared using Tukey's test with a significance coefficient of 0.05. Hydrogen peroxide production, catalase and glutathione reductase activities by neutrophils incubated in presence of P. zopfii were stimulated five times, 21% and 27% respectively, compared to the unstimulated-neutrophils. Neutrophils did not affect P. zopfii death as shown by microscopy and CFUs. These observations led to the conclusion that the P. zopfii promote a high increase of H(2)O(2) production by neutrophils from bovine milk during algae exposition accompanied by increase of antioxidant enzyme activities; however, this process did not affect P. zopfii death. PMID:17146586

  16. Acellular matrix of bovine pericardium bound with L-arginine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo Joo [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Jin Woo [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chun Ho [Laboratory of Tissue Engineering, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul 139-240 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Woo [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jung Woog [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ki Dong [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    Surface immobilization of bioactive molecules onto natural tissues has been interestingly studied for the development of new functional matrices for the replacement of lost or malfunctioning tissues. In this study, an acellular matrix of bovine pericardium (ABP) was chemically modified by the direct coupling of L-arginine after glutaraldehyde (GA) cross-linking. The effects of L-arginine coupling on durability and calcification were investigated and the biocompatibility was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. A four-step detergent and enzymatic extraction process has been utilized to remove cellular components from fresh bovine pericardium (BP). Microscopic observation confirmed that nearly all cellular constituents are removed. Thermal and mechanical properties showed that the durability of L-arginine-treated matrices increased as compared with control ABP and GA-treated ABP. Resistance to collagenase digestion revealed that modified matrices have greater resistance to enzyme digestion than control ABP and GA-treated ABP. The in vivo calcification study demonstrated much less calcium deposition on L-arginine-treated ABP than GA-treated one. In vitro cell viability results showed that ABP modified with L-arginine leads to a significant increase in attachment of human dermal fibroblasts. The obtained results attest to the usefulness of L-arginine-treated ABP matrices for cardiovascular bioprostheses.

  17. Effects of bovine milk lactoperoxidase system on some bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankaya, M; Sişecioğlu, M; Bariş, O; Güllüce, M; Ozdemir, H

    2010-01-01

    Bovine lactoperoxidase (LPO) was purified from skimmed milk using amberlite CG-50-H+ resin, CM sephadex C-50 ion-exchange chromatography, and sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography. Lactoperoxidase was purified 20.45-fold with a yield of 28.8%. Purity of enzyme checked by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method and a single band was observed. Km was 0.25 mM at 20 degrees C, Vmax value was 7.95 micromol/ml min at 20 degrees C (pH 6.0). Antibacterial study was done by disk diffusion method of Kir-by-Bauer using Mueller-Hinton agar medium with slight modification. Bovine LPO showed high antibacterial activity in 100 mM thiocyanate-100 mM H2O2 medium for some bacteria (Brevibacillus centrosaurus, B. choshinensis, B. lyticum, Cedecea davisae, Chryseobacterium indoltheticum, Clavibacter michiganense pv. insidiosum, Kocuria erythromyxa, K. kristinae, K. rosea, K. varians, Paenibacillus validus, Pseudomonas syringae pv. populans, Ralstonia pickettii, Rhodococcus wratislaviensis, Serratia fonticola, Streptomyces violaceusniger, Vibrio cholerae-nonO1) respectively, and compared with well known antibacterial substances (levofloxacin, netilmicin). LPO system has inhibition effects on all type bacteria and concentration is really important such as LPO-100 mM thiocyanate-100 mM H2O2 system was proposed as an effective agent against many factors causing several diseases.

  18. Chromium propionate enhances adipogenic differentiation of bovine intramuscular adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca eTokach

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In vitro experiments were performed to determine the effects of increasing concentrations of chromium propionate on mRNA and protein abundance of different enzymes and receptors. Intramuscular and subcutaneous preadipocytes and bovine satellite cells were isolated from the longissimus muscle to determine the effect of treatment on glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ mRNA and GLUT4 protein abundance. Preadipocyte cultures were treated with differentiation media plus either sodium propionate or different concentrations of chromium propionate (CrPro for 96, 120, and 144 h before harvest. This study indicated adipogenesis of the bovine intramuscular adipocytes were more sensitive to the treatment of chromium propionate as compared to subcutaneous adipocytes. Enhancement of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and GLUT4 mRNA by CrPro treatment may enhance glucose uptake in intramuscular adipocytes. Chromium propionate decreased GLUT4 protein levels in muscle cell cultures suggesting those cells have increased efficiency of glucose uptake due to exposure to increased levels of CrPro. In contrast, each of the two adipogenic lines had opposing responses to the CrPro. It appeared that CrPro had the most stimulative effect of GLUT4 response in the intramuscular adipocytes as compared to subcutaneous adipocytes. These findings indicated opportunities to potentially augment marbling in beef cattle fed chromium propionate during the finishing phase.

  19. Bovine and human insulin adsorption at lipid monolayers: a comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eMauri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Insulin is a widely used peptide in protein research and it is utilised as a model peptide to understand the mechanics of fibril formation, which is believed to be the cause of diseases such as Alzheimer and Creutzfeld-Jakob syndrome. Insulin has been used as a model system due to its biomedical relevance, small size and relatively simple tertiary structure. The adsorption of insu lin on a variety of surfaces has become the focus of numerous studies lately. These works have helped in elucidating the consequence of surface/protein hydrophilic/hydrophobic interaction in terms of protein refolding and aggregation. Unfortunately, such model surfaces differ significantly from physiological surfaces. Here we spectroscopically investigate the adsorption of insulin at lipid monolayers, to further our understanding of the interaction of insulin with biological surfaces.In particular we study the effect of minor mutations of insulin’s primary amino acid sequence on its interaction with 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (DPPG model lipid layers. We probe the structure of bovine and human insulin at the lipid/water interface using sum frequency generation spectroscopy (SFG. The SFG experiments are complemented with XPS analysis of Langmuir-Schaefer deposited lipid/insulin films. We find that bovine and human insulin, even though very similar in sequence, show a substantially different behavior when interacting with lipid films.

  20. Theca interna: the other side of bovine follicular atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Leigh J; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F; Dharmarajan, Arun M; Rodgers, Raymond J

    2004-10-01

    Currently, histological classifications of ovarian follicular atresia are almost exclusively based on the morphology of the membrana granulosa without reference to the theca interna. Atresia in the bovine small antral ovarian follicle has been redefined into antral or basal atresia where cell death commences initially within antral or basal regions of the membrana granulosa, respectively. To examine cell death in the theca interna in the two types of atretic follicles, bovine ovaries were collected and processed for immunohistochemistry and light microscopy. Follicles were classified as healthy, antral atretic, or basal atretic. Follicle diameter was recorded and sections stained with lectin from Bandeiraea simplicifolia to identify endothelial cells or with an antibody to cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage to identify steroidogenic cells and combined with TUNEL labeling to identify dead cells. The numerical density of steroidogenic cells within the theca interna was significantly reduced (P basal atretic follicles in comparison with other follicles. Cell death was greater in both endothelial cells (P basal atretic follicles compared with healthy and antral atretic follicles. Thus, we conclude that the theca interna is susceptible to cell death early in atresia, particularly in basal atretic follicles. PMID:15175236

  1. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine viral diarrhea virus in North-Eastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Correa, J C; Zapata-Campos, C C; Jasso-Obregón, J O; Martinez-Burnes, J; López-Zavala, R

    2016-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are well known etiological agents of cattle that produce important economic losses due to reproductive failures and calf mortality, as well as enteric and respiratory disease. Tamaulipas is located northeast of Mexico, an important cattle production and the principal exporter of calf and heifer to the United States. The objectives of this study were to estimate the seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and of BVDV, and to determine the effects of risk factors on these infections. Blood samples of cattle from 57 farms from rural districts of Tamaulipas were collected. The samples were tested for antibodies against BoHV-1 and BVDV using commercial ELISA kits. Data on potential risk factors were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the farmer at the time the blood samples were taken. The seroprevalences for BoHV-1 and BVDV were 64.4% and 47.8%, respectively. In the logistic regression analysis, the significant risk factors were rural district, herd size and cattle introduced to the farm. This study confirms the high seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and BVDV in unvaccinated cattle in Tamaulipas, Mexico. The results of this study could be used for the development of BoHV-1 and BVDV prevention and control program in North-Eastern, Mexico. PMID:27622156

  2. Antigenic variability in bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolates from alpaca (Vicugna pacos), llama (Lama glama) and bovines in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, I M; Quezada, M P; Celedón, M O

    2014-01-31

    Llamas and alpacas are domesticated South American camelids (SACs) important to ancestral population in the Altiplano region, and to different communities where they have been introduced worldwide. These ungulates have shown to be susceptible to several livestock viral pathogens such as members of the Pestivirus genus and mainly to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Seventeen Chilean BVDV isolates were analyzed by serum cross neutralization with samples obtained from five llama, six alpacas, three bovines, plus three reference strains belonging to different subgroups and genotypes. The objective was to describe antigenic differences and similarities among them. Antigenic comparison showed significant differences between different subgroups. Consequently, antigenic similarities were observed among isolates belonging to the same subgroup and also between isolates from different animal species belonging the same subgroup. Among the analyzed samples, one pair of 1b subgroup isolates showed significant antigenic differences. On the other hand, one pair of isolates from different subgroups (1b and 1j) shared antigenic similarities indicating antigenic relatedness. This study shows for the first time the presence of antigenic differences within BVDV 1b subgroup and antigenic similarities within 1j subgroup isolates, demonstrating that genetic differences within BVDV subgroups do not necessary corresponds to differences on antigenicity.

  3. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine viral diarrhea virus in North-Eastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Correa, J.C.; Zapata-Campos, C.C.; Jasso-Obregón, J.O.; Martinez-Burnes, J.; López-Zavala, R.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are well known etiological agents of cattle that produce important economic losses due to reproductive failures and calf mortality, as well as enteric and respiratory disease. Tamaulipas is located northeast of Mexico, an important cattle production and the principal exporter of calf and heifer to the United States. The objectives of this study were to estimate the seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and of BVDV, and to determine the effects of risk factors on these infections. Blood samples of cattle from 57 farms from rural districts of Tamaulipas were collected. The samples were tested for antibodies against BoHV-1 and BVDV using commercial ELISA kits. Data on potential risk factors were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the farmer at the time the blood samples were taken. The seroprevalences for BoHV-1 and BVDV were 64.4% and 47.8%, respectively. In the logistic regression analysis, the significant risk factors were rural district, herd size and cattle introduced to the farm. This study confirms the high seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and BVDV in unvaccinated cattle in Tamaulipas, Mexico. The results of this study could be used for the development of BoHV-1 and BVDV prevention and control program in North-Eastern, Mexico. PMID:27622156

  4. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine viral diarrhea virus in North-Eastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Correa, J.C.; Zapata-Campos, C.C.; Jasso-Obregón, J.O.; Martinez-Burnes, J.; López-Zavala, R.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are well known etiological agents of cattle that produce important economic losses due to reproductive failures and calf mortality, as well as enteric and respiratory disease. Tamaulipas is located northeast of Mexico, an important cattle production and the principal exporter of calf and heifer to the United States. The objectives of this study were to estimate the seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and of BVDV, and to determine the effects of risk factors on these infections. Blood samples of cattle from 57 farms from rural districts of Tamaulipas were collected. The samples were tested for antibodies against BoHV-1 and BVDV using commercial ELISA kits. Data on potential risk factors were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the farmer at the time the blood samples were taken. The seroprevalences for BoHV-1 and BVDV were 64.4% and 47.8%, respectively. In the logistic regression analysis, the significant risk factors were rural district, herd size and cattle introduced to the farm. This study confirms the high seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and BVDV in unvaccinated cattle in Tamaulipas, Mexico. The results of this study could be used for the development of BoHV-1 and BVDV prevention and control program in North-Eastern, Mexico.

  5. Discovery and genomic characterization of a novel ovine partetravirus and a new genotype of bovine partetravirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Tse

    Full Text Available Partetravirus is a recently described group of animal parvoviruses which include the human partetravirus, bovine partetravirus and porcine partetravirus (previously known as human parvovirus 4, bovine hokovirus and porcine hokovirus respectively. In this report, we describe the discovery and genomic characterization of partetraviruses in bovine and ovine samples from China. These partetraviruses were detected by PCR in 1.8% of bovine liver samples, 66.7% of ovine liver samples and 71.4% of ovine spleen samples. One of the bovine partetraviruses detected in the present samples is phylogenetically distinct from previously reported bovine partetraviruses and likely represents a novel genotype. The ovine partetravirus is a novel partetravirus and phylogenetically most related to the bovine partetraviruses. The genome organization is conserved amongst these viruses, including the presence of a putative transmembrane protein encoded by an overlapping reading frame in ORF2. Results from the present study provide further support to the classification of partetraviruses as a separate genus in Parvovirinae.

  6. Molecular analysis of non structural rotavirus group A enterotoxin gene of bovine origin from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Yashpal Singh; Kumar, Naveen; Sharma, Kuldeep; Ghosh, Souvik; Bányai, Krisztián; Balasubramanian, Ganesh; Kobayashi, Nobumichi; Matthijnssens, Jelle

    2014-07-01

    The rotavirus enterotoxin NSP4 (nonstructural protein 4), plays a pivotal role in viral morphogenesis as well as pathogenesis. In this study, the NSP4 gene of rotavirus group A (RVA) isolates of bovine origin isolated in several states of India from 2008 to 2011 were characterized. The complete open reading frame of 23 RVA strains were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. Genotype E1 was detected for the first time in bovines from India, in addition to the more common bovine genotype E2. Sequence similarity analysis of the E1 sequences showed a close genetic relatedness to human strains. Six of the bovine E2 genotypes strains clustered near bovine and unusual human strains (possible human animal reassortant) from Thailand, while the remaining E2 sequences clustered with Indian bovine strains. Analysis pointed out one positively selected site (154aa), believe to be part of an antigenic region and 123 negatively selected sites. Unexpectedly, a pentameric NSP4 structure of the coiled coil domain in the E1 carrying strains and a monomeric NSP4 in RVA strain P14 (E2) was predicted based on homology modeling, potentially affecting the biological properties of NSP4. The close relationship between bovine and human rotavirus strains further highlights the complex interaction among rotaviruses of different species. PMID:24747605

  7. A new bovine conjunctiva model shows that Listeria monocytogenes invasion is associated with lysozyme resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jessica; Owen, A Rhys; Glanvill, Amy; Francis, Asher; Maboni, Grazieli; Nova, Rodrigo J; Wapenaar, Wendela; Rees, Catherine; Tötemeyer, Sabine

    2015-08-31

    Listerial keratoconjunctivitis ('silage eye') is a wide spread problem in ruminants causing economic losses to farmers and impacts negatively on animal welfare. It results from direct entry of Listeria monocytogenes into the eye, often following consumption of contaminated silage. An isolation protocol for bovine conjunctival swabbing was developed and used to sample both infected and healthy eyes bovine eyes (n=46). L. monocytogenes was only isolated from one healthy eye sample, and suggests that this organism can be present without causing disease. To initiate a study of this disease, an infection model was developed using isolated conjunctiva explants obtained from cattle eyes post slaughter. Conjunctiva were cultured and infected for 20 h with a range of L. monocytogenes isolates (n=11), including the healthy bovine eye isolate and also strains isolated from other bovine sources, such as milk or clinical infections. Two L. monocytogenes isolates (one from a healthy eye and one from a cattle abortion) were markedly less able to invade conjunctiva explants, but one of those was able to efficiently infect Caco2 cells indicating that it was fully virulent. These two isolates were also significantly more sensitive to lysozyme compared to most other isolates tested, suggesting that lysozyme resistance is an important factor when infecting bovine conjunctiva. In conclusion, we present the first bovine conjunctiva explant model for infection studies and demonstrate that clinical L. monocytogenes isolates from cases of bovine keratoconjunctivitis are able to infect these tissues. PMID:25778543

  8. High prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum and Fasciola gigantica in bovines from Northern Samar, the Philippines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Gordon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The cause of zoonotic schistosomiasis in the Philippines is Schistosoma japonicum, which infects up to 46 mammalian hosts, including humans and bovines. In China, water buffaloes have been identified as major reservoir hosts for schistosomiasis japonica, contributing up to 75% of human transmission. In the Philippines, water buffaloes (carabao; Bubalus bubalis carabanesis have, historically, been considered unimportant reservoirs. We therefore revisited the possible role of bovines in schistosome transmission in the Philippines, using the recently described formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation (FEA-SD technique and a qPCR assay to examine fecal samples from 153 bovines (both carabao and cattle from six barangays in Northern Samar. A high prevalence of S. japonicum was found using qPCR and FEA-SD in both cattle (87.50% and 77.08%, respectively and carabao (80.00% and 55.24%, respectively. The average daily egg output for each bovine was calculated at 195,000. High prevalence and infection intensity of F. gigantica was also found in the bovines by qPCR and FEA-SD (95.33% and 96.00%, respectively. The identification of bovines as major reservoir hosts for S. japonicum transmission suggests that bovine treatment and/or vaccination, as one becomes available, should be included in any future control program that aims to reduce the disease burden due to schistosomiasis in the Philippines.

  9. Enrichment for Repopulating Cells and Identification of Differentiation Markers in the Bovine Mammary Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauner, Gat; Barash, Itamar

    2016-06-01

    Elucidating cell hierarchy in the mammary gland is fundamental for understanding the mechanisms governing its normal development and malignant transformation. There is relatively little information on cell hierarchy in the bovine mammary gland, despite its agricultural potential and relevance to breast cancer research. Challenges in bovine-to-mouse xenotransplantation and difficulties obtaining bovine-compatible antibodies hinder the study of mammary stem-cell dynamics in this species. In-vitro indications of distinct bovine mammary epithelial cell populations, sorted according to CD24 and CD49f expression, have been provided. Here, we successfully transplanted these bovine populations into the cleared fat pads of immunocompromised mice, providing in-vivo evidence for the multipotency and self-renewal capabilities of cells that are at the top of the cell hierarchy (termed mammary repopulating units). Additional outgrowths from transplantation, composed exclusively of myoepithelial cells, were indicative of unipotent basal stem cells or committed progenitors. Sorting luminal cells according to E-cadherin revealed three distinct populations: luminal progenitors, and early- and late-differentiating cells. Finally, miR-200c expression was negatively correlated with differentiation levels in both the luminal and basal branches of the bovine mammary cell hierarchy. Together, these experiments provide further evidence for the presence of a regenerative entity in the bovine mammary gland and for the multistage differentiation process within the luminal lineage. PMID:26615610

  10. Studies on prekallikrein of bovine plasma. II. Activation of prekallikrein with proteinases and properties of kallikrein activated by bovine Hageman factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H; Nagasawa, S; Suzuki, T

    1980-01-01

    Activation of bovine plasma prekallikrein was investigated with several proteinases. Highly purified bovine plasma prekallikrein was rapidly activated to kallikrein [EC 3.4.21.8] by bovine activated Hageman factor, trypsin [EC 3.4.21.4] and Pronase P (proteinases from Streptomyces griseus) and more gradually by papain [EC 3.4.22.2] and ficin [EC 3.4.22.3]. Activation of prekallikrein was also observed with bovine plasmin [EC 3.4.21.7], but not with bovine clotting factors Xa (Stuart factor) [EC 3.4.21.6] and IXa (Christmas factor) or thrombin [EC 3.4.21.5]. Urokinase [EC 3.4.99.26], Reptilase, collagenase [EC 3.4.24.3], elastase [EC 3.4.21.11], alpha-chymotrypsin [EC 3.4.21.1], Nagarse [EC 3.4.21.14], and stem bromelain [EC 3.4.22 4] did not convert prekallikrein to kallikrein. Plasma kallikrein activated to Hageman factor released kinin rapidly from bovine high molecular weight (HMW) kininogen. However, from bovine low molecular weight (LMW) kininogen, liberation of kinin was extremely slow. The kallikrein activity was inhibited by soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI), Trasylol, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), and N-alpha-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethylketone (TLCK), but not by egg-white trypsin inhibitor (EWTI), lima bean trypsin inhibitor (LBTI), heparin or hexadimethrine bromide (Polybrene). The kallikrein formed an enzyme-inhibitor complex with SBTI and Trasylol, but not with LBTI. Prekallikrein did not react with SBTI. Prekallikrein consists of a single polypeptide chain of molecular weight about 90,000, as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Activation of prekallikrein by Hageman factor was found to involve cleavage of the single peptide bond on the disulfide-bridged polypeptide chain, and no change of molecular weight was observed during the activation. The peptide bond cleaved in prekallikrein by the activation was an Arg-X peptide bond on a disulfide-bridged polypeptide chain.

  11. Characterisation and application of a bovine U6 promoter for expression of short hairpin RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalrymple Brian P

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of small interfering RNA (siRNA molecules in animals to achieve double-stranded RNA-mediated interference (RNAi has recently emerged as a powerful method of sequence-specific gene knockdown. As DNA-based expression of short hairpin RNA (shRNA for RNAi may offer some advantages over chemical and in vitro synthesised siRNA, a number of vectors for expression of shRNA have been developed. These often feature polymerase III (pol. III promoters of either mouse or human origin. Results To develop a shRNA expression vector specifically for bovine RNAi applications, we identified and characterised a novel bovine U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA promoter from bovine sequence data. This promoter is the putative bovine homologue of the human U6-8 snRNA promoter, and features a number of functional sequence elements that are characteristic of these types of pol. III promoters. A PCR based cloning strategy was used to incorporate this promoter sequence into plasmid vectors along with shRNA sequences for RNAi. The promoter was then used to express shRNAs, which resulted in the efficient knockdown of an exogenous reporter gene and an endogenous bovine gene. Conclusion We have mined data from the bovine genome sequencing project to identify a functional bovine U6 promoter and used the promoter sequence to construct a shRNA expression vector. The use of this native bovine promoter in shRNA expression is an important component of our future development of RNAi therapeutic and transgenic applications in bovine species.

  12. A dynamic model to calculate cadmium concentrations in bovine tissues from basic soil characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waegeneers, Nadia, E-mail: nadia.waegeneers@var.fgov.be; Ruttens, Ann; De Temmerman, Ludwig

    2011-06-15

    A chain model was developed to calculate the flow of cadmium from soil, drinking water and feed towards bovine tissues. The data used for model development were tissue Cd concentrations of 57 bovines and Cd concentrations in soil, feed and drinking water, sampled at the farms were the bovines were reared. Validation of the model occurred with a second set of measured tissue Cd concentrations of 93 bovines of which age and farm location were known. The exposure part of the chain model consists of two parts: (1) a soil-plant transfer model, deriving cadmium concentrations in feed from basic soil characteristics (pH and organic matter content) and soil Cd concentrations, and (2) bovine intake calculations, based on typical feed and water consumption patterns for cattle and Cd concentrations in feed and drinking water. The output of the exposure model is an animal-specific average daily Cd intake, which is then taken forward to a kinetic uptake model in which time-dependent Cd concentrations in bovine tissues are calculated. The chain model was able to account for 65%, 42% and 32% of the variation in observed kidney, liver and meat Cd concentrations in the validation study. - Research highlights: {yields} Cadmium transfer from soil, drinking water and feed to bovine tissues was modeled. {yields} The model was based on 57 bovines and corresponding feed and soil Cd concentrations. {yields} The model was validated with an independent data set of 93 bovines. {yields} The model explained 65% of variation in kidney Cd in the validation study.

  13. The molecular structure and lubricating activity of lubricin isolated from bovine and human synovial fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, D A; Silver, F H; Slayter, H S; Stafford, W; Shore, E

    1985-01-01

    Lubricin was isolated from bovine ankle, metacarpophalangeal and knee and human knee synovial fluids. The lubricins isolated from the bovine joint fluids had the same amino acid and carbohydrate compositions, but differences were observed in the relative molecular masses. The Mr values of bovine metacarpophalangeal and ankle lubricin determined by light-scattering measurements were about 200 000, whereas values of 132 000 and 143 000 were obtained for the bovine knee lubricin. The human knee lubricin had a similar carbohydrate composition to bovine knee lubricin except for the higher glucosamine content, and the amino acid composition differed slightly. The human sample had a lower glutamic acid content and a leucine/isoleucine ratio of 2:1 compared with 1:1 in the bovine. The Mr value of the human knee lubricin (166 000) was also lower than that of the bovine metacarpophalangeal and ankle samples. The Mr value of the bovine knee lubricin determined by sedimentation-equilibrium measurements was 171 000. The length measurements determined by electron microscopy and also the sedimentation measurements showed considerable polydispersity and indicate that the degree of extension of lubricin molecules can vary. Friction measurements showed that the human knee synovial-fluid lubricin had equivalent lubricating ability in a test system in vitro to that observed for lubricin isolated from normal bovine synovial fluids. The lubricating ability of lubricin was concentration-dependent, and each lubricin sample was able to act as a lubricant in vitro in an equivalent manner to whole synovial fluid at concentrations that are thought to occur in vivo. PMID:3977823

  14. Biomimetic acellular detoxified glutaraldehyde cross-linked bovine pericardium for tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathapati, Santosh; Bishi, Dillip Kumar [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India); Frontier Lifeline Pvt Ltd. and Dr. K. M. Cherian Heart Foundation, Mogappair, Chennai (India); Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, NUSNNI, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Guhathakurta, Soma [Departmet of Engineering Design, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India); Cherian, Kotturathu Mammen [Frontier Lifeline Pvt Ltd. and Dr. K. M. Cherian Heart Foundation, Mogappair, Chennai (India); Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Ramakrishna, Seeram [Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, NUSNNI, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Verma, Rama Shanker, E-mail: vermars@iitm.ac.in [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India)

    2013-04-01

    Glutaraldehyde (GLUT) processing, cellular antigens, calcium ions in circulation, and phospholipids present in the native tissue are predominantly responsible for calcification, degeneration, and lack of natural microenvironment for host progenitor cell migration in tissue implants. The study presents an improved methodology for adhesion and proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) without significant changes in biomechanical and biodegradation properties of the processed acellular bovine pericardium. The anti-calcification potential of the processed tissue was enhanced by detoxification of GLUT-cross-linked bovine pericardium by decellularization, pretreating it with ethanol or removing the free aldehydes by citric acid treatment and lyophilization. The treated tissues were assessed for biomechanical properties, GLUT ligand quantification, adhesion, proliferation of EPCs, and biodegradability. The results indicate that there was no significant change in biomechanical properties and biodegradability when enzymatic hydrolysis (p > 0.05) is employed in detoxified acellular GLUT cross-linked tissue (DBP–G–CA–ET), compared with the native detoxified GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium (NBP–G–CA–ET). DBP–G–CA–ET exhibited a significant (p > 0.05) increase in the viability of EPCs and cell adhesion as compared to acellular GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium (p < 0.05). Lyophilized acellular detoxified GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium, employed in our study as an alternative to conventional GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium, might provide longer durability and better biocompatibility, and reduce calcification. The developed bovine pericardium patches could be used in cardiac reconstruction and repair, arteriotomy, soft tissue repair, and general surgical procedures with tissue regeneration dimensions. - Highlights: ► We improved the quality of patch biomaterial for cardiovascular surgical procedures. ► Bovine pericardium was

  15. Research on Isolation and Clone of Embryonic Stem Cell-Like in Bovine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Li-long; YANG Qi; XIAO Mei; FENG Xiu-Liang; YANG Chun-rong; LEI An-min; GAO Zhi-min; DOU Zhong-ying; QIU Huai

    2002-01-01

    Bovine embryonic stem cell would be invaluable for researching the aspect of animal cloning, production transgenic animal and discussion of gene function in vitro. With the object of establishing an effective culture system for isolation and clone of bovine pluripotent stem cell, we cultured bovine embryos and mouse embryos including morula blastula and hatached blastula and obtained animal ICM on Primary marine embryonic fibroblast (Primary murine embryonic fibroblast, PMEF) feeder layer with tissue medium(DMEM supplemented with 15ml/100ml NBS ,0.1μmol/L Na2SeO3, 0. 1mmol/L β-mercaptoethanol, 1 000ng/ml LIF,10 ng/ml IGF, 1mmol/L necessary amino acid and 1mmol/L L-glutamine), then, we obtained mouse ICM and bovine ICM. Moreover, we isolated and cloned the 6 passage bovine ES like cells(12 cell lines) and 9 passage marine ES like cells (52 cell lines) deriving from bovine ICM and murine ICM respectively on the feeder layer of PMEF by disaggregating ICM and ES cell clones of bovine and murine into smaller clumps through digesting with 0. 125g/100ml trypsin and 0.02g/100ml EDTA and scattering with a glass needle. The pluripotency of both murine and bovine ES like cells was identified with morphological character, histochemistry identification, karyotype analysis and differentiation of ES cells in vitro or in vivo. This result showed that bovine embryonic stem cell and murine embryonic stem cell had developmental pluripotency.

  16. Laboratory results of females Nellore of different age groups from farms with and without the presence of bracken fern (Pteridium arachnoideum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Q. Watanabe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Pteridium arachnoideum, previously classified as Pteridium aquilinum, popularly known as bracken fern, is one of the most preoccupying poisonous vegetables in several countries, including Brazil. Brazilian researchers characterized, experimentally, three clinic forms of diseases caused by bracken fern to cattle: bleeding diathesis, Bovine Enzootic Hematuria and squamous cell carcinoma in the digestive tracts. In the present work we studied the hematological, biochemical and urinalysis values of two different phases of the animal development being 56 calves and 55 cows from farms with similar zootechnical characteristics and with and without the presence of bracken fern. In this study there was a significant fall in the values of the hematocrit, hemoglobin and number of red blood cells in the calves from farms with the presence of bracken fern, however, for the group of cows there was a fall only in the number of red blood cells compared to the group of animals from farms without the presence of bracken fern. The number of Platelets was significantly superior in all of the age groups of animals from farms with bracken fern. There were no significant alterations in the leucocyte count indicating that there was no systemic inflammatory response in any of the two categories

  17. Study on the interaction of bovine serum albumin and fleroxacin by fluorescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fluorescence method is used to study the fluorescence quenching of bovine serum albumin by its interaction with fleroxacin. The interaction association constants of bovine serum albumin and fleroxacin are determined from a double reciprocal Lineweaver-Burk plot. According to the Foester dipole-dipole energy transfer, the distance to be measured between the fleroxacin and tryptophane is 4.37 nm. From thermodynamical coordination it can be judged that the binding power between fleroxacin and bovine serum albumin is static electric power

  18. Peroxidase-linked assay for detection of antibodies against bovine leukosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Clarissa C; Nunes, Cristina F; Finger, Paula F; Siedler, Bianca S; Dummer, Luana; de Lima, Marcelo; Leite, Fábio P L; Fischer, Geferson; Vargas, Gilberto D'A; Hübner, Silvia de O

    2013-01-01

    A peroxidase linked assay (PLA) was designed to screen bovine sera for the presence of specific antibodies against bovine leukosis virus (BLV). Out of 201 samples of bovine sera analyzed, 52.2% were considered positive by PLA, 26.4% by AGID, and 38.9% by ELISA. Western blotting analyses excluded 27 samples found to be positive by PLA. PLA showed 100% of sensitivity when compared with AGID and ELISA. Specificity was 64.8% and 78%, respectively (kappa coefficients were 0.70 and 0.83). These findings indicate that PLA can be used as an alternative method for the diagnosis of BLV infection in cattle.

  19. SERO-PREVALENCE OF BOVINE LEPTOSPIROSIS IN SOUTH ANANDAMAN ISLANDS, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyjit Mitra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 108 blood serum samples of bovine were collected from different regions of South Andaman to Regional Disease Diagnostic Laboratory (RDDL, ER, Kolkata for sero-prevalence study of bovine leptospirosis. All the sera samples were tested by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT against eight serovars of Leptospira spp. Out of 108 serum samples tested, 75(69.44% were serologically positive. The most prevalent serovars were Automnalis (53.70% followed by Sejroe (28.70% and Hardjo (22.22%. This study suggests that bovine may have a role in maintaining Autumnalis serovar of Leptospira as reservoir in Anandaman and Nicobar Islands.

  20. Sucrose/bovine serum albumin mediated biomimetic crystallization of calcium carbonate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cheng-Li Yao; Wang-Hua Xu; Ai-Min Ding; Jin-Mao Zhu

    2009-01-01

    To understand the role of the sucrose/bovine serum albumin system in the biomineralization process, we have tested the influence of different concentration of the sucrose/bovine serum albumin (BSA) on calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation. The CaCO3 crystals were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrograph (FT-IR) and powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The possible formation mechanism of CaCO3 in the sucrose/bovine serum albumin system was discussed.

  1. Binding interactions of pefloxacin mesylate with bovine lactoferrin and human serum albumin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Ji-cai; CHEN Xiang; WANG Yun; FAN Cheng-ping; SHANG Zhi-cai

    2006-01-01

    The binding of pefloxacin mesylate (PFLX) to bovine lactoferrin (BLf) and human serum albumin (HSA) in dilute aqueous solution was studied using fluorescence spectra and absorbance spectra. The binding constant K and the binding sites n were obtained by fluorescence quenching method. The binding distance r and energy-transfer efficiency E between pefloxacin mesylate and bovine lactoferrin as well as human serum albumin were also obtained according to the mechanism of Forster-type dipole-dipole nonradiative energy-transfer. The effects of pefloxacin mesylate on the conformations of bovine lactoferrin and human serum albumin were also analyzed using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy.

  2. Camel and bovine chymosin: the relationship between their structures and cheese-making properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langholm Jensen, Jesper [University of Copenhagen, (Denmark); Chr. Hansen A/S, Bøge Allé 10-12, DK-2970 Hørsholm (Denmark); Mølgaard, Anne; Navarro Poulsen, Jens-Christian [University of Copenhagen, (Denmark); Harboe, Marianne Kirsten [Chr. Hansen A/S, Bøge Allé 10-12, DK-2970 Hørsholm (Denmark); Simonsen, Jens Bæk [University of Copenhagen, (Denmark); Lorentzen, Andrea Maria; Hjernø, Karin [University of Southern Denmark, (Denmark); Brink, Johannes M. van den; Qvist, Karsten Bruun [Chr. Hansen A/S, Bøge Allé 10-12, DK-2970 Hørsholm (Denmark); Larsen, Sine, E-mail: sine@chem.ku.dk [University of Copenhagen, (Denmark)

    2013-05-01

    Analysis of the crystal structures of the two milk-clotting enzymes bovine and camel chymosin has revealed that the better milk-clotting activity towards bovine milk of camel chymosin compared with bovine chymosin is related to variations in their surface charges and their substrate-binding clefts. Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined. Different variants of the enzymes were isolated by hydrophobic interaction chromatography and showed variations in their glycosylation, N-terminal sequences and activities. Glycosylation at Asn291 and the loss of the first three residues of camel chymosin significantly decreased its activity. Thermal differential scanning calorimetry revealed a slightly higher thermal stability of camel chymosin compared with bovine chymosin. The crystal structure of a doubly glycosylated variant of camel chymosin was determined at a resolution of 1.6 Å and the crystal structure of unglycosylated bovine chymosin was redetermined at a slightly higher resolution (1.8 Å) than previously determined structures. Camel and bovine chymosin share the same overall fold, except for the antiparallel central β-sheet that connects the N-terminal and C-terminal domains. In bovine chymosin the N-terminus forms one of the strands which is lacking in camel chymosin. This difference leads to an increase in the flexibility of the relative orientation of the two domains in the camel enzyme. Variations in the amino acids

  3. Infection of human keratinocytes by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies dysgalactiae isolated from milk of the bovine udder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma-Rodrigues, Catarina; Alves-Barroco, Cynthia; Raposo, Luís R; Costa, Mafalda N; Fortunato, Elvira; Baptista, Pedro Viana; Fernandes, Alexandra R; Santos-Sanches, Ilda

    2016-04-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (SDSD) are considered exclusive animal pathogens; however, a putative zoonotic upper limb cellulitis, a prosthetic joint infection and an infective endocarditis were described in humans. To unravel if bovine SDSD isolates are able to infect human cells, the adherence and internalization to human primary keratinocytes of two bovine SDSD strains isolated from milk collected from udder were analyzed. Bacterial adhesion assays and confocal microscopy indicate a high adherence and internalization of SDSD isolates to human cells, suggesting for the first time the ability of bovine isolates to infect human cells. PMID:26655883

  4. Bovine brain cytosol contains three immunologically distinct forms of inositolphospholipid-specific phospholipase C.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, S H; Suh, P G; Cho, K. S.; Lee, K Y; Rhee, S G

    1987-01-01

    We previously reported that cytosolic fractions of bovine brain contain two immunologically distinct forms of phospholipase C (PLC), PLC-I and PLC-II. We now report the purification of another form of inositolphospholipid-specific phospholipase C from bovine brain cytosol, designated PLC-III, and the comparison of the catalytic properties of the three isozymes. Approximately 450 micrograms of pure PLC-III was obtained from 36 bovine brains, and it had a final specific activity of 30-40 mumol ...

  5. Characterization of a lectin in human plasma analogous to bovine conglutinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiel, S; Baatrup, G; Friis-Christiansen, P;

    1987-01-01

    The structural characteristics of a human plasma protein analogous to bovine conglutinin were studied. The protein was previously found to bind to complement-reacted IgG in a calcium-dependent and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-inhibitable manner and it further shows cross-reactivity with anti-bovine con......The structural characteristics of a human plasma protein analogous to bovine conglutinin were studied. The protein was previously found to bind to complement-reacted IgG in a calcium-dependent and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-inhibitable manner and it further shows cross-reactivity with anti...

  6. Experimental fetal infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus. I. Virological and serological studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohmann, H B; Jensen, M. H.; Sørensen, K J; Dalsgaard, K

    1982-01-01

    The serological and virological results of an experimental infection of bovine fetuses with bovine viral diarrhea virus are presented. Four fetuses, 120-165 days gestational age, were inoculated in utero with a second passage virus strain. Two fetuses received a sham-inoculum. A humoral immune response in the virus-inoculated fetuses, was demonstrated three weeks later. In three fetuses only IgM and IgG1 were detectable. The serum from the fourth fetus also contained IgG2 and IgA. Bovine vira...

  7. DETECTION OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST BOVINE HERPES VIRUS 1, BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS AND BOVINE RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS IN EARLY AND ULTRA-EARLY WEANED BEEF CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Daniel Gonzalez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in weaned calves. In Argentina, two weaning practices have been implemented. In the early weaning, the calf is removed from the cow at 60-70 days of age while in ultra-early weaning the calf is weaned at 30-45 days of age. The purposes of both systems is to improve cow body condition, calf performance, conception rates and forage availability for the cow. In this study we evaluated the antibody response against BVDV and BoHV1 in early and ultra-early weaned calves that had received a conventional vaccination schedule (first dose at weaning and a booster 21 days post-weaning. Passively acquired immunity may provide protection against disease caused by these viruses. The presence of antibodies against BRSV, a virus that was not present in the vaccines used, was also evaluated as an indirect indicator of viral circulation in the herd. At the time of vaccination, calves presented a wide range of maternally-derived antibody titers. Vaccination against BoHV-1 did not evoke seroconvertion and antibody titers continued to decay throughout the experience. After vaccination, seroconversion to BVDV could be detected in calves with low antibody titers, while higher antibody titers exerted an inhibitory effect of the active humoral response.

  8. Genetic variability of fatty acids in bovine milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyeurt H.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids composition of bovine milk influences the technological properties of butterfat and also presents some potential benefits for human health. Impact of feeding on fat composition is well described in the literature; less information is available about the impact of genetics. Based on few studies, essentially conducted to isolate some feeding effect, the breed seemed to influence the fatty acids composition. The variation in the activity of δ-9 desaturase, key enzyme in the production of monounsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in milk, could explain these differences. Very few studies have been focussing on the estimation of genetic parameters of fatty acids composition. However, the moderate heritability estimates observed by these studies for the major fatty acids could suggest a potential genetic effect.

  9. 3-hydroxyflavone-bovine serum albumin interaction in Dextran medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voicescu Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectroscopic analysis of a bioactive flavonol, 3-Hydroxyflavone (3-HF, in systems based on Dextran 70 (Dx70 (an important bio-relevant polysacharide and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA (a carrier protein, have been studied by fluorescence and circular dichroism. Changes produced by different concentrations of Dx70 on the fluorescent characteristics of 3-HF, and on the excited - state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT process were studied. The influence of 3-HF binding and of Dx70 on the secondary structure of BSA were investigated by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The influence of temperature (30-80°C range on the intrinsic Tryptophan fluorescence in 3-HF/BSA/Dx70 systems, was investigated. The results are discussed with relevance to 3-HF as a sensitive fluorescence probe for exploring flavone-protein interaction in plasma expander media and also for its biological evaluation.

  10. Technological advances in bovine mastitis diagnosis: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Carla M; Freitas, Paulo P; Bexiga, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    Bovine mastitis is an economic burden for dairy farmers and preventive control measures are crucial for the sustainability of any dairy business. The identification of etiological agents is necessary in controlling the disease, reducing risk of chronic infections and targeting antimicrobial therapy. The suitability of a detection method for routine diagnosis depends on several factors, including specificity, sensitivity, cost, time in producing results, and suitability for large-scale sampling of milk. This article focuses on current methodologies for identification of mastitis pathogens and for detection of inflammation, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of different methods. Emerging technologies, such as transcriptome and proteome analyses and nano- and microfabrication of portable devices, offer promising, sensitive methods for advanced detection of mastitis pathogens and biomarkers of inflammation. The demand for alternative, fast, and reliable diagnostic procedures is rising as farms become bigger. Several examples of technological and scientific advances are summarized which have given rise to more sensitive, reliable and faster diagnostic results.

  11. Origin of Fluorescence in 11-cis Locked Bovine Rhodopsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laricheva, Elena N; Gozem, Samer; Rinaldi, Silvia; Melaccio, Federico; Valentini, Alessio; Olivucci, Massimo

    2012-08-14

    The excited state lifetime of bovine rhodopsin (Rh) increases from ca. 100 fs to 85 ps when the C11═C12 bond of its chromophore is locked by a cyclopentene moiety (Rh5). To explain such an increase, we employed ab initio multiconfigurational quantum chemistry to construct computer models of Rh and Rh5 and to investigate the shape of their excited state potential energy surfaces in a comparative way. Our results show that the observed Rh5 fluorescence (λmax(f) = 620 nm) is due to a previously unreported locally excited intermediate whose lifetime is controlled by a small energy barrier. The analysis of the properties and decay path of such an intermediate provides useful information for engineering rhodopsin variants with augmented fluorescence efficiencies.

  12. Similarity of Bovine Rotavirus Receptor and Human Rotavirus Receptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏琦华; 訾自强; 潘菊芬; 徐燕

    2004-01-01

    The monoclonal antibody against bovine rotavirus (BRV) receptor (BRV-R-mAb) was used to explore the similarity between the receptors of BRV and human rotavirus (HRV). ELISA, dot immunobinding assay, cell protection assay, solid-phase assay and immunohistochemistry method were applied. BRV-R-mAb bound both anti-BRV IgG and anti-HRV IgG respectively and could protect MA 104 cells against BRV and HRV challenges. Immunohistochemistry test showed that there were rotavirus receptors on the surfaces of foetal intestinal, tracheal mucosa and MA 104 cells membrane. We purified the rotavirus receptors on MA 104 ceils, which could bind both BRV and HRV in vitro. It is concluded that BRV receptor and HRV receptor are homogenous proteins and can be recognized by both BRV and HRV.

  13. Study of cultured bovine capsular bag in pure ocular tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-qing; LI Qiu-ming

    2006-01-01

    @@ The proliferation, differentiation and fibrosis of lens epithelia cells (LECs) is mainly responsible for posterior capsular opacification (PCO). From the primary culture of LECs to the culture of lens capsular bag, the models of posterior capsular opacification have been developed. At present, the most commonly used model is cell culture in medium with serum. But the culture in pure ocular tissue has not been reported. Therefore, we established a new model of posterior capsular opacification-culturing bovine lens capsular bag in pure ocular tissue to exclude the role of serum. Our study established a new culture method to investigate the proliferation,differentiation and apoptosis of lens epithelia cells in the aqueous humor with or without lens cortex and vitreous humor. The purpose of the study is to model posterior capsular opacification in vivo as closely as possible and to discuss the influence of ocular tissue on posterior capsular opacification.

  14. Effects of Cryoprotective Agents on the Bovine Articular Chondrocyte Viability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Cryopreservation is the process of choice for long term preservation of cells and tissues. In this study, the effects of cryoprotective agents, dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO), glycerol and 1,2-propanediol on the bovine articular chondrocyte viability were examined experimentally. The CPA was added at the concentrations of 0. 6. 0.9, 1.2 and 1.5 mol/I and at 4℃ and 37℃ and removed at 37℃ in one-step. CPA stepwise addition and removal at 0. 6 and 1. 2 mol/L and at 37℃ was also tested as an alternative protocol. Cell volume excursion during DMSO addition and removal was estimated and correlated well with cell survival rates. Solution makeup affects cell survival rate and a stepwise protocol can improve the cell survival rates significantly.

  15. Bovine milk osteopontin - Targeting bacterial adhesion for biofilm control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mathilde Frost; Meyer, Rikke Louise; Schlafer, Sebastian

    Self-performed mechanical tooth cleaning does usually not result in complete biofilm removal, due to the complex oral anatomy and the strong adhesion of the biofilm to the tooth. Therefore, different supportive measures are employed, most of which aim at the chemical eradication of bacteria...... in dental biofilms. As their bactericidal action impacts the entire oral microflora, agents that inhibit biofilm formation without killing bacteria, such as the bovine milk protein osteopontin, have gained increasing attention. Here, we investigate the adhesion of 8 bacterial species associated with dental.......05). ), as determined by two-sample t-tests. The broad range anti-adhesive effect of osteopontin on dental bacterial strains might explain the reduced biofilm formation observed and be exploited in vivo for increased caries control....

  16. Inactivation of bovine immunodeficiency virus by photodynamic therapy with HMME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huijuan Yin; Yingxin Li; Zhaohui Zou; Wentao Qiao; Xue Yao; Yang Su; Hongyan Guo

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with hematoporphrin monomethyl ether (HMME) on bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) can provide the basis theory for photoinactivation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To assess the protection of HMME-PDT on the cell line Cf2Th infected with BIVR29 by 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazol-2-yl-3,5-di-phenytetrazolium bromide (MTT) with power density of 5 and 25 mW/cm2 and energy density from 0.6 to 3 J/cm. To observe the inhibition of membrane fusion using a new reporter cell line BIVE by fluorescence microscope. HMME-PDT has significant protectant effects on Cf2Th-BIVR29 with both power densities, especially in the group of high power density. Fluorescent microscope shows that there is no significant difference between the group of PDT and control, which means PDT could not inhibit the BIV-mediated membrane fusion.

  17. STAPHYLOCOCCAL MASTITIS IN BOVINES AND SOME PROPERTIES OF STAPHYLOCOCCAL ISOLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ARSHAD, G. MUHAMMAD1, M. SIDDIQUE, M. ASHRAF AND H.A. KHAN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk samples of 100 clinically mastitic bovines (50 each from buffaloes and cows were processed for bacterial isolation. A total of 90 bacterial isolates, including 33 of staphylococci and 57 of other bacterial species were recovered. Of the 33 staphylococcal isolates, 23 were identified as Staphylococcus aureus and 10 as Staphylococcus epidermidis. All Staphylococcus aureus isolates were positive for deoxyribonuclease and mannitol fermentation test and produced ß-haemolysis on blood agar. All Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates were negative to these tests and failed to produce ß-haemolysis on blood agar containing 5% sheep erythrocytes. Penicillin resistance was detected in 13(56.5% isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and 8(80% isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Penicillinase was produced by 4 of the 13 penicillin resistant isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and 2 of the 8 penicillin resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates.

  18. Eimeria tenella: in vitro development in irradiated bovine kidney cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, M.St.J.; Schmatz, D.M.; Stevens, S.; Habbersett, M.C.; Murray, P.K. (Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Labs., Rahway, NJ (USA))

    1984-06-01

    The initial infection and first-generation development of Eimeria tenella was quantified using a cloned MDBK (Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney) cell line, irradiated with gamma radiation prior to infection, as the host cell. Irradiated cell cultures were found to be more susceptible to infection and had a greater capacity to support parasite development than non-irradiated cultures. It was suggested that the larger proportion of cells in the G/sub 2/ phase of the cell cycle, the larger individual cell size and the inhibition of cell division in the irradiated cultures were all factors contributing to the increased susceptibility to infection and capacity to support parasite growth and development. The application of this technique (host cell irradiation) to the cultivation of other intracellular, protozoan parasites is discussed.

  19. Life-Threatening Lactation or "Bovine" Ketoacidosis: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaney, David J; Benson, Pat

    2016-08-15

    Lactation or "bovine" ketoacidosis is a rare cause of raised anion gap metabolic acidosis whereby a perfect storm of negative calorie balance (starvation/glucose preferentially used for milk production) and insulin resistance (counter regulatory stress hormone release/infection) leads to a dysregulated ketogenic state. We present a case of life-threatening lactation-related ketoacidosis in a patient 9 weeks postpartum, who presented to the emergency department with an arterial pH of 6.88, HCO3 of 5.8 mmol/L and blood ketone level of 5.8 mmol/L. Treatment consists of aggressive glucose loading, triggering supraphysiologic endogenous insulin release, and subsequent inhibition of ketone body formation. PMID:27310899

  20. Vitrification of Bovine Oocytes by Open Pulled Straw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shi-en; ZENG Shen-ming; WU Tong-yi; MENG Qing-gang; ZHANG Zhong-cheng; CHEN Yong-fu

    2002-01-01

    Bovine oocytes cultured in vitro for 6 hours or 22 hours were cryopreserved in different vitrification solutions (EFS40, EFS50, EDFS30 or EDFS40) by the two-step method with OPS (open pulled straw).The best results were achieved by using EDFS30 to cryopreserve the oocytes either for in vitro fertilization or for chemical activation. The blastocyst rates were 12% and 17% in 6 hour and 22 hour cultures respectively following in vitro fertilization. If frozen-thawed oocytes were continued in culture up to 24 hours, and were activated by chemicals, the blastocyst rates were 22% and 24% in 6-hour and 22-hour groups respectively.There were no statistical differences between frozen and fresh oocytes (P > 0.05).