WorldWideScience

Sample records for bovine embryo-defining criteria

  1. Post-hatching development of the porcine and bovine embryo-defining criteria for expected development in vivo and in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejlsted, Morten; Du, Yutao; Vajta, Gábor

    2006-01-01

    Particular attention has been paid to the pre-hatching period of embryonic development although blastocyst development is a poor indicator of embryo viability. Post-hatching embryonic dev elopment in vitro would allow for establishment of more accurate tools for evaluating developmental potential...... without the need for transfer to recipient animals. Such a system would require (1) definition of milestones of expected post-hatching embryonic development in vivo; and (2) development of adequate culture systems. We propose a stereomicroscopical staging system for post-hatching embryos defining...

  2. bovine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of various breeds under local conditions of management. (Hale, 1974b). AdditionaIly, this procedure has been used to assess the production of LH by the bovine anterior pituitary in vitro and to study the relationships between this production and the activity of the pineal- hypothalamic axis (Hayes, Knight & Symington, 1974;.

  3. New interpretive criteria for danofloxacin antibacterial susceptibility testing against Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida associated with bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Michael T; Papich, Mark G; Watts, Jeffrey L

    2017-03-01

    Danofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent approved for use in veterinary medicine to treat and control bovine respiratory disease caused by Mannheimia haemolytica or Pasteurella multocida. Susceptible minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoint (≤0.25 µg/mL) and disk diffusion interpretive criteria (≥22 mm) values for danofloxacin against M. haemolytica and P. multocida were first approved by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) in 2003. However, intermediate and resistant breakpoint values were not established because only susceptible wild-type populations were evident at the time of breakpoint approvals. Since then, nonsusceptible isolates of M. haemolytica and P. multocida have been identified. We report danofloxacin intermediate MIC breakpoint (0.5 µg/mL) and disk diffusion interpretive criteria (18-21 mm), as well as danofloxacin-resistant MIC breakpoint (≥1 µg/mL) and disk diffusion interpretive criteria (≤17 mm), based on scattergram plots of MIC values versus disk zone diameters and calculated error-bound rates using M. haemolytica and P. multocida isolates recovered from bovine respiratory disease in North America in 2004-2014. These newly established intermediate and resistant clinical breakpoint values have been endorsed by CLSI and can be used for interpreting results from antibacterial susceptibility testing of danofloxacin against M. haemolytica and P. multocida isolated from bovine respiratory disease.

  4. An international delphi study of the causes of death and the criteria used to assign cause of death in bovine perinatal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, J F; Sanchez-Miguel, C; Doherty, M

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to elicit opinion from two groups of veterinarians [subject matter experts and non-subject matter experts] about the causes of bovine perinatal mortality and the criteria used to assign such causes. The subject matter experts were selected on the basis of their scientific publications or experience of working in a veterinary diagnostic or research laboratory in the area of bovine perinatal mortality. The non-subject matter experts were self-selected as cattle veterinarians without particular expertise in bovine perinatology. A total of 74 veterinarians (46 subject matter experts and 28 non-subject matter experts) from 23 countries responded. The study was conducted using Delphi methodology over seven rounds. Respondents were asked to agree the causes of bovine perinatal mortality and for each cause to agree the supporting diagnostic criteria. There was a close agreement between groups on 16 causes of death apart from intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR) and micronutrient imbalances which were accepted by fewer subject matter experts. There was inter-group consensus on the criteria to diagnose accidents, congenital defects, dystocia, hyperthermia, infections, premature placental separation, prematurity and prolonged calving. There was inter-group consensus on the criteria to diagnose anoxia, apart from gingival cyanosis; on haemorrhage, apart from haemorrhagic anaemia; on IUGR, apart from organ weights; and on iodine imbalance, apart from goitre and thyroid iodine content. The results from this study highlighted the current lack of standardization of the criteria used to define the cause of death for bovine perinatal mortality and the need for such standardization. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. 77 FR 29914 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products AGENCY... live bovines and products derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This... products to revise the conditions for the importation of live bovines and products derived from bovines...

  6. Antiviral effects of bovine interferons on bovine respiratory tract viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, R W; Downing, M M; Cummins, J M

    1984-01-01

    The antiviral effects of bovine interferons on the replication of bovine respiratory tract viruses were studied. Bovine turbinate monolayer cultures were treated with bovine interferons and challenged with several bovine herpesvirus 1 strains, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, goat respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, or vesicular stomatitis virus. Treatment with bovine interferons reduced viral yield for each of the...

  7. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is caused by a number of Mycobacterium species, of which Mycobacterium bovis, causing 'bovine tuberculosis' is ... KEY WORDS: Mycobacterium bovis, Zoonosis, Holeta, Ethiopia causing 'bovine tuberculosis ..... isolation of infected animals in which communal grazing and watering practiced.

  8. Serological responses in calves to vaccines against bovine respiratory syncytial, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhoea and parainfluenza-3 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollis, M; Di Trani, L; Cordioli, P; Vignolo, E; Di Pasquale, I

    1996-01-01

    The Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), the National Veterinary Services Laboratory in Italy, is in charge of assessing the quality, safety and efficacy of veterinary vaccines before and after licensing. To evaluate the relative potency of several vaccines against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V), the serological responses in vaccinated calves were studied. Vaccination with any of the vaccines under study induced specific antibody titres against the different viral antigens. The differences of the mean antibody titres within and among the test group vaccines were statistically significant. The results confirm and support those obtained by other authors in similar studies, suggesting that serological responses in vaccinated calves can be used as a helpful means of assessing the relative potency of vaccines against viral respiratory diseases of cattle. The criteria allowing such an evaluation are discussed.

  9. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing on...

  10. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule document...

  11. Diagnosis of bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Schares, G

    2006-08-31

    The protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle. The diagnosis of neosporosis-associated mortality and abortion in cattle is difficult. In the present paper we review histologic, serologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular methods for dignosis of bovine neosporosis. Although not a routine method of diagnosis, methods to isolate viable N. caninum from bovine tissues are also reviewed.

  12. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown

  13. Enzootic bovine leucosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, L

    1978-09-02

    Enzootic bovine leucosis is associated with infection by bovine leucosis virus. The incubation period is measured in years and a minority of infected animals develop clinical signs. The disease is widespread in Europe and elsewhere and can cause significant economic loss. The epidemiology is incompletely understood and findings from one cattle production system may not be directly applicable to another. Major control programmes exist in Denmark and West Germany and control schemes are being developed elsewhere. Eradication of enzootic bovine leucosis has been established as a goal in the EEC and research is revealing the ways in which this goal may be attained. To be effective, control and epidemiological monitoring must be interactive. Recently introduced serological tests, of improved sensitivity, provide a valuable tool.

  14. Intervet Symposium: bovine neosporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schetters, T.; Dubey, J.P.; Adrianarivo, A.; Frankena, K.; Romero, J.J.; Pérez, E.; Heuer, C.; Nicholson, C.; Russell, D.; Weston, J.

    2004-01-01

    This article summarises the most relevant data of presentations delivered at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) held in New Orleans, LA, USA, from 10 to 14 August 2003) in a symposium session on bovine neosporosis. The

  15. Genotyping bovine coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses of the Coronaviridae family. Infection is associated with enteritis and pneumonia in calves and Winter Dysentery in adult cattle. Strains, isolated more than 50 years ago, are used in vaccines and as laboratory ...

  16. Bovine parainfluenza-3 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John A

    2010-11-01

    Bovine parainfluenza-3 virus (bPI(3)V) is a long-recognized, currently underappreciated, endemic infection in cattle populations. Clinical disease is most common in calves with poor passive transfer or decayed maternal antibodies. It is usually mild, consisting of fever, nasal discharge, and dry cough. Caused at least partly by local immunosuppressive effects, bPI(3)V infection is often complicated by coinfection with other respiratory viruses and bacteria, and is therefore an important component of enzootic pneumonia in calves and bovine respiratory disease complex in feedlot cattle. Active infection can be diagnosed by virus isolation from nasal swabs, or IF testing on smears made from nasal swabs. Timing of sampling is critical in obtaining definitive diagnostic test results. Parenteral and intranasal modified live vaccine combination vaccines are available. Priming early in calfhood with intranasal vaccine, followed by boosting with parenteral vaccine, may be the best immunoprophylactic approach. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... chymosin. Both enzymes possess local positively charged patches on their surface that can play a role in interactions with the overall negatively charged C-terminus of κ-casein. Camel chymosin contains two additional positive patches that favour interaction with the substrate. The improved electrostatic...... interactions arising from variation in the surface charges and the greater malleability both in domain movements and substrate binding contribute to the better milk-clotting activity of camel chymosin towards bovine milk....

  18. Mycotic bovine nasal granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conti Díaz Ismael Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma in a 10 year-old Jersey cow, produced by Drechslera halodes is presented. Histopathological sections showed abundant hyaline and pigmented extra and intracellular fungal structures together with a polymorphic cellular granuloma formed by neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasmocytes, histiocytes and giant cells of the Langhans type. It is the first case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma recognized in Uruguay although this disease seems to be frequent according to the opinion of veterinarian specialists. Another similar clinical case also in a Jersey cow from the same dairy house with an intense cellular infiltrate rich in eosinophils without granulomatous image, together with extracellular hyaline and fuliginous fungal forms, is also referred for comparative purposes. Geotrichum sp. was isolated. The need of an early diagnosis and treatment of the disease is stressed.

  19. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenberg, G J; van der Poel, W H M; Van Oirschot, J T

    2002-08-02

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or parainfluenza 3 virus-induced clinical mastitis, while an intramammary inoculation of foot-and-mouth disease virus resulted in necrosis of the mammary gland. Subclinical mastitis has been induced after a simultaneous intramammary and intranasal inoculation of lactating cows with bovine herpesvirus 4. Bovine leukaemia virus has been detected in mammary tissue of cows with subclinical mastitis, but whether this virus was able to induce bovine mastitis has not been reported. Bovine herpesvirus 2, vaccinia, cowpox, pseudocowpox, vesicular stomatitis, foot-and-mouth disease viruses, and bovine papillomaviruses can play an indirect role in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. These viruses can induce teat lesions, for instance in the ductus papillaris, which result in a reduction of the natural defence mechanisms of the udder and indirectly in bovine mastitis due to bacterial pathogens. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bovine immunodeficiency virus, and bovine leukaemia virus infections may play an indirect role in bovine mastitis, due to their immunosuppressive properties. But, more research is warranted to underline their indirect role in bovine mastitis. We conclude that viral infections can play a direct or indirect role in the aetiology of bovine mastitis; therefore, their importance in the aetiology of bovine mastitis and their economical impact needs further attention.

  20. Diagnostic imaging in bovine orthopedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Johann; Geissbühler, Urs; Steiner, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    Although a radiographic unit is not standard equipment for bovine practitioners in hospital or field situations, ultrasound machines with 7.5-MHz linear transducers have been used in bovine reproduction for many years, and are eminently suitable for evaluation of orthopedic disorders. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use radiology and ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. These diagnostic imaging techniques improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis in every bovine patient but especially in highly valuable cattle, whose owners demand increasingly more diagnostic and surgical interventions that require high-level specialized techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or

  2. Pathogenesis of bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Buxton, D; Wouda, W

    2006-05-01

    The protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is a major pathogen of cattle and dogs, being a significant cause of abortion in cattle in many countries. It is one of the most efficiently transmitted parasites, with up to 90% of cattle infected in some herds. The pathogenesis of abortion due to Neospora is complex and only partially understood. Losses occur after a primary infection during pregnancy but more commonly as the result of recrudescence of a persistent infection during pregnancy. Parasitaemia is followed by invasion of the placenta and fetus. It is suggested that abortion occurs when primary parasite-induced placental damage jeopardises fetal survival directly or causes release of maternal prostaglandins that in turn cause luteolysis and abortion. Fetal damage may also occur due to primary tissue damage caused by the multiplication of N. caninum in the fetus or due to insufficient oxygen/nutrition, secondary to placental damage. In addition, maternal immune expulsion of the fetus may occur associated with maternal placental inflammation and the release of maternal pro-inflammatory cytokines in the placenta. Thus N. caninum is a primary pathogen capable of causing abortion either through maternal placental inflammation, maternal and fetal placental necrosis, fetal damage, or a combination of all three. The question of how N. caninum kills the fetus exposes the complex and finely balanced biological processes that have evolved to permit bovine and other mammalian pregnancies to occur. Defining these immunological mechanisms will shed light on potential methods of control of bovine neosporosis and enrich our understanding of the continuity of mammalian and protozoal survival.

  3. Control of declared origin of bovine serum, a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horacek, M.; Papesch, W.

    2009-04-01

    Bovine serum is the essential culture medium for cell cultures. Therefore it is highly demanded and the quality of the serum, e.g.: absence of bacteria, viruses certain antibodies, etc.., are important criteria. as some cattle diseases are endemic in certain regions, the origin of bovine serum is an important quality measure for its value. Thus the need to control the declared origins is present. Bovine serum was measured for d2H, d13C, d15N and d34S of proteine (dry residue) and d2H and d18O of the serum water. The hydrogen and oxygen are mainly depending by the isotopic composition of the water ingested by the cattle, and thus usually influenced by the isotopic signal of the precipitation. The carbon isotope signal is reflecting the diet of the cattle, whether it mainly feed on C3- or C4-plants. The nitrogen and sulphur isotope ratio is transferred from the ground/soil into the plant material and into the animal tissue, with some offset for nitrogen and without any significant offset for sulphur. Bovine serum samples from Canada, USA, Mexico, Brazil, Australia and New Zealand have been analysed. Due to the variations in the environmental conditions in different countries and regions which influence the isotope signatures of the serum samples it is possible to discriminate samples of different origin. Main discriminating parameters are d2H and d18O, d13C and d34S.

  4. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  5. Diprosopia em bovino Bovine diprosopus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.T. Rotta

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a malformation in one newborn female bovine, with two faces and two skull fused, showing one single head. Duplications of the nasal and oral structures, tetraofthalmy, two brains, one single cerebellum, and pons were observed. The right thyroid was hypertrophic and the other organs had normal morphology. Every change observed in this case was compatibles with diprosopus.

  6. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, B.E.C.; Somerville, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep has not been identified under natural conditions at the time of writing and remains a hypothetical issue. However, rumours about the possible finding of a BSE-like isolate in sheep have led to great unrest within the sheep industry, among the general

  7. Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-14

    A cattle dashboard has recently been developed to share surveillance information gathered from submissions to the Great Britain veterinary diagnostic network. Data relating to Scotland come from the SAC C VS. This article, by Tim Geraghty, relates to cases of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis in Scotland, as summarised on the APHA Cattle Dashboard. British Veterinary Association.

  8. Identification of lactoferrin in bovine tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M H; Brightman, A H; Fenwick, B W; Rider, M A

    1996-09-01

    To determine whether bovine tear film contains the iron-binding glycoprotein, lactoferrin. 40 Adult Hereford, Angus, and Simmental cattle. Protein analysis: pooled bovine tears were used for protein analysis (size exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography [HPLC] fractionation). HPLC was used for tear analysis. A diode array detector was used (215 and 280 microns) for chromatogram analysis and comparisons. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE): protein electrophoresis was performed, using 7.5% running gels with 4% stacking gels. Molecular weight of proteins in the unknown samples was determined as recommended by the manufacturer of the standards. Protein sequencing: amino acid sequencing, using automated Edman degradation of HPLC purified protein, was performed. The sequence obtained was compared with the known protein sequence of bovine lactoferrin. HPLC analysis of whole bovine tears resulted in a consistent chromatogram. Peak collection was performed to recover a protein from the bovine tear film with chromatogram characteristics nearly identical to purified bovine lactoferrin. Silver-stained SDS-PAGE of this peak revealed a band with molecular mass consistent with bovine lactoferrin (estimated mass of 78 kd). The first 13 amino acid residues of this protein were identical to the amino acid sequence of bovine lactoferrin. Analysis of whole bovine tears, using size exclusion HPLC, SDS-PAGE, and amino acid sequencing, provided evidence that bovine tears contain lactoferrin. Lactoferrin probably exerts a bacteriostatic effect in bovine tear film. Locally produced lactoferrin may bathe the ocular surface and sequester iron from potential pathogens.

  9. Bovine leukemia virus: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliarena MA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Marcela Alicia Juliarena,1 Clarisa Natalia Barrios,1 Claudia María Lützelschwab,1 Eduardo Néstor Esteban,2 Silvina Elena Gutiérrez1 1Department of Animal Health and Preventive Medicine, Veterinary Research Center of Tandil (CIVETAN, CIC-CONICET, Faculty of Veterinary Science, National University of the Center of Buenos Aires Province, Tandil, Argentina; 2BIOALPINA Program (GENIAL/COTANA, Colonia Alpina, Argentina Abstract: Enzootic bovine leukosis, caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV, is the most common neoplasm of dairy cattle. Although beef and dairy cattle are susceptible to BLV infection and BLV-associated lymphosarcoma, the disease is more commonly detected in dairy herds, mostly because of the management practices in dairy farms. The pathogenicity of BLV in its natural host, the bovine, depends mainly on the resistance/susceptibility genetics of the animal. The majority of infected cattle are asymptomatic, promoting the extremely high dissemination rate of BLV in many bovine populations. The important productive losses caused by the BLV, added to the health risk of maintaining populations with a high prevalence of infection with a retrovirus, generates the need to implement control measures. Different strategies to control the virus have been attempted. The most effective approach is to identify and cull the totality of infected cattle in the herd. However, this approach is not suitable for herds with high prevalence of infection. At present, no treatment or vaccine has proven effective for the control of BLV. Thus far, the genetic selection of resistant animals emerges as a natural strategy for the containment of the BLV dissemination. In natural conditions, most of the infected, resistant cattle can control the infection, and therefore do not pass the virus to other animals, gradually decreasing the prevalence of the herd. Keywords: bovine leukemia virus, control, genetic resistance, BoLA-DRB3

  10. Bovine cysticercosis situation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Augusto Marques Rossi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is a long known zoonotic parasitosis characteristic of underdeveloped countries. In addition to its public health significance, this parasitosis is cause of economic losses to the beef production chain, and synonymous of technical inadequacy in relation to the adoption of Good Agricultural Practices. The occurrences of both human teniasis and bovine cysticercosis could and should be controlled with basic sanitary measures. However, there is much variation in the occurrence of the disease in cattle, characterizing a low rate of technical development as well as problems related to the adoption of basic sanitation measures. This review describes, in details, the causative agent and its epidemiological chain, besides raising current information about the occurrence of bovine cysticercosis in different regions of Brazil, aiming at the adoption of prophylactic measures by different segments responsible.

  11. Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans What is Mycobacterium bovis ? In the United States, the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in people are caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( ...

  12. Biological Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page contains links to Technical Documents pertaining to Biological Water Quality Criteria, including, technical assistance documents for states, tribes and territories, program overviews, and case studies.

  13. Dual Criteria Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten Igel

    2014-01-01

    The most popular models of decision making use a single criterion to evaluate projects or lotteries. However, decision makers may actually consider multiple criteria when evaluating projects. We consider a dual criteria model from psychology. This model integrates the familiar tradeoffs between...

  14. Plutonium storage criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, D. [Scientech, Inc., Germantown, MD (United States); Ascanio, X. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  15. Green Supplier Selection Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaeian, Narges; Golinska, Paulina

    2014-01-01

    Green supplier selection (GSS) criteria arise from an organization inclination to respond to any existing trends in environmental issues related to business management and processes, so GSS is integrating environmental thinking into conventional supplier selection. This research is designed...... to determine prevalent general and environmental supplier selection criteria and develop a framework which can help decision makers to determine and prioritize suitable green supplier selection criteria (general and environmental). In this research we considered several parameters (evaluation objectives......) to establish suitable criteria for GSS such as their production type, requirements, policy and objectives instead of applying common criteria. At first a comprehensive and deep review on prevalent and green supplier selection literatures performed. Then several evaluation objectives defined to assess the green...

  16. (Npro) protein of bovine viral d

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle and sheep, and causes significant respiratory and reproductive disease worldwide. Bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 (BVDV-1), BVDV-2 along with the border disease virus (BDV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) belong to the genus ...

  17. Bovine cysticercosis in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blagojevic, Bojan; Robertson, Lucy J.; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

    2017-01-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of Taenia saginata and has a global distribution. This zoonosis usually causes only mild disease in humans, but has an important economic impact on the meat sector as bovine carcasses that are found to be infected are either condemned or undergo ...

  18. Models of bovine babesiosis including juvenile cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad-Roy, C M; Shuai, Zhisheng; van den Driessche, P

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Babesiosis in cattle is caused by the transmission of protozoa of Babesia spp. by ticks as vectors. Juvenile cattle (Bovine Babesiosis, rarely show symptoms, and acquire immunity upon recovery. Susceptibility to the disease varies between breeds of cattle. Models of the dynamics of Bovine Babesiosis transmitted by the cattle tick that include these factors are formulated as systems of ordinary differential equations. Basic reproduction numbers are calculated, and it is proved that if these numbers are below the threshold value of one, then Bovine Babesiosis dies out. However, above the threshold number of one, the disease may approach an endemic state. In this case, control measures are suggested by determining target reproduction numbers. The percentage of a particular population (for example, the adult bovine population) needed to be controlled to eradicate the disease is evaluated numerically using Columbia data from the literature.

  19. Fire protection design criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  20. Updating of the bovine neosporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Martínez Contreras

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the fields of Medicine and bovine production, there is a wide variety of diseases affecting reproduction, in relation to the number of live births, the interval between births and open days, among others. Some of these diseases produce abortions and embryonic death, which explain the alteration of reproductive parameters. Many of these diseases have an infectious origin, such as parasites, bacteria, viruses and fungi, which are transmitted among animals. Besides, some of them have zoonotic features that generate problems to human health. Among these agents, the Neospora caninum, protozoan stands out. Its life cycle is fulfilled in several species of animals like the dog and the coyote. These two act as its definitive hosts and the cattle as its intermediary host. The Neospora caninum causes in the infected animals, reproductive disorders, clinical manifestations and decreased production which affects productivity of small, medium and large producers. Because of this, diagnostic techniques that allow understanding the epidemiological behavior of this disease have been developed. However in spite of being a major agent in the bovine reproductive health, few studies have been undertaken to determine the prevalence of this agent around the world. Therefore, the objective of this review was to collect updated information on the behavior of this parasite, targeting its epidemiology, its symptoms, its impact on production and the methods of its control and prevention.

  1. Bovine papillomavirus isolation by ultracentrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araldi, R P; Giovanni, D N S; Melo, T C; Diniz, N; Mazzuchelli-de-Souza, J; Sant'Ana, T A; Carvalho, R F; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2014-11-01

    The bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is the etiological agent of bovine papillomatosis, which causes significant economic losses to livestock, characterized by the presence of papillomas that regress spontaneously or persist and progress to malignancy. Currently, there are 13 types of BPVs described in the literature as well as 32 putative new types. This study aimed to isolate viral particles of BPV from skin papillomas, using a novel viral isolation method. The virus types were previously identified with new primers designed. 77 cutaneous papilloma samples of 27 animals, Simmental breed, were surgically removed. The DNA was extracted and subjected to PCR using Delta-Epsilon and Xi primers. The bands were purified and sequenced. The sequences were analyzed using software and compared to the GenBank database, by BLAST tool. The viral typing showed a prevalence of BPV-2 in 81.81% of samples. It was also detected the presence of the putative new virus type BR/UEL2 in one sample. Virus isolation was performed by ultracentrifugation in a single density of cesium chloride. The method of virus isolation is less laborious than those previously described, allowing the isolation of complete virus particles of BPV-2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Multimodal freight investment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Literature was reviewed on multi-modal investment criteria for freight projects, examining measures and techniques for quantifying project benefits and costs, as well as ways to describe the economic importance of freight transportation. : A limited ...

  3. Aquatic Life Criteria - Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertain to Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality criteria for Copper (2007 Freshwater, 2016 Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Copper in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  4. Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA develops water quality criteria based on the latest scientific knowledge to protect human health and aquatic life. This information serves as guidance to states and tribes in adopting water quality standards.

  5. Integrated Criteria Document Chromium

    OpenAIRE

    Slooff W; Cleven RFMJ; Janus JA; van der Poel P; van Beelen P; Boumans LJM; Canton JH; Eerens HC; Krajnc EI; de Leeuw FAAM; Matthijsen AJCM; van de Meent D; van der Meulen A; Mohn GR; Wijland GC

    1990-01-01

    Betreft de engelse versie van rapport 758701001
    Bij dit rapport behoort een appendix onder hetzelfde nummer getiteld: "Integrated Criteria Document Chromium: Effects" Auteurs: Janus JA; Krajnc EI
    (appendix: see 710401002A)

  6. 9 CFR 113.309 - Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. 113.309... Virus Vaccines § 113.309 Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine shall be produced... virus dose from the lot of Master Seed Virus shall be established as follows: (1) Twenty-five bovine...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase (bovine liver) (CAS Reg. No. 81457-95-6) is an enzyme preparation obtained from extracts of bovine liver. It is...

  8. Molecular Weights of Bovine and Porcine Heparin Samples: Comparison of Chromatographic Methods and Results of a Collaborative Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Bertini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In a collaborative study involving six laboratories in the USA, Europe, and India the molecular weight distributions of a panel of heparin sodium samples were determined, in order to compare heparin sodium of bovine intestinal origin with that of bovine lung and porcine intestinal origin. Porcine samples met the current criteria as laid out in the USP Heparin Sodium monograph. Bovine lung heparin samples had consistently lower average molecular weights. Bovine intestinal heparin was variable in molecular weight; some samples fell below the USP limits, some fell within these limits and others fell above the upper limits. These data will inform the establishment of pharmacopeial acceptance criteria for heparin sodium derived from bovine intestinal mucosa. The method for MW determination as described in the USP monograph uses a single, broad standard calibrant to characterize the chromatographic profile of heparin sodium on high-resolution silica-based GPC columns. These columns may be short-lived in some laboratories. Using the panel of samples described above, methods based on the use of robust polymer-based columns have been developed. In addition to the use of the USP’s broad standard calibrant for heparin sodium with these columns, a set of conditions have been devised that allow light-scattering detected molecular weight characterization of heparin sodium, giving results that agree well with the monograph method. These findings may facilitate the validation of variant chromatographic methods with some practical advantages over the USP monograph method.

  9. Immunoprophylaxis of bovine respiratory syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogan Dragan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Respiratory Syndrome (BRS is a multifactorial disease caused by the interaction of infective agents, the environment and the individual immunological response of animals in the herd. Despite five decades of research on BRS, no clear understanding of how environmental factors influence pathogenic outcomes of the disease has been defined. As such, the development of immunoprophylaxis and vaccine programmes to prevent outbreaks of BRS in cattle has not been successful. The current paper discusses vaccination programmes for all categories of cattle and presents a review of existing vaccines being used for immunoprophylaxis of respiratory syndrome in cattle and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the currently used vaccines and vaccination programmes. Lastly, a discussion detailing the design of future perfect vaccines is presented.

  10. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen eThompson-Crispi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the High Immune Response (HIR technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+TM sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favourable production levels to feed a growing

  11. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population. PMID

  12. Lung donor selection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, John; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Cantu, Edward; van Berkel, Victor

    2014-08-01

    The criteria that define acceptable physiologic and social parameters for lung donation have remained constant since their empiric determination in the 1980s. These criteria include a donor age between 25-40, a arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/FiO2 ratio greater than 350, no smoking history, a clear chest X-ray, clean bronchoscopy, and a minimal ischemic time. Due to the paucity of organ donors, and the increasing number of patients requiring lung transplant, finding a donor that meets all of these criteria is quite rare. As such, many transplants have been performed where the donor does not meet these stringent criteria. Over the last decade, numerous reports have been published examining the effects of individual acceptance criteria on lung transplant survival and graft function. These studies suggest that there is little impact of the historical criteria on either short or long term outcomes. For age, donors should be within 18 to 64 years old. Gender may relay benefit to all female recipients especially in male to female transplants, although results are mixed in these studies. Race matched donor/recipients have improved outcomes and African American donors convey worse prognosis. Smoking donors may decrease recipient survival post transplant, but provide a life saving opportunity for recipients that may otherwise remain on the transplant waiting list. No specific gram stain or bronchoscopic findings are reflected in recipient outcomes. Chest radiographs are a poor indicator of lung donor function and should not adversely affect organ usage aside for concerns over malignancy. Ischemic time greater than six hours has no documented adverse effects on recipient mortality and should not limit donor retrieval distances. Brain dead donors and deceased donors have equivalent prognosis. Initial PaO2/FiO2 ratios less than 300 should not dissuade donor organ usage, although recruitment techniques should be implemented with intent to transplant.

  13. Recombinant viral vaccines for enzootic bovine leucosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel, R C; Gatei, M H; Good, M F; Boyle, D B; Lavin, M F

    1993-01-01

    ...) and part of gp30 of the bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) are described. It has been reported that vaccination of sheep with recombinant VV vaccines containing the complete env gene appears to protect sheep against challenge infection with BLV...

  14. Virome of US bovine calf serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Yugo, Danielle M; Phan, Tung Gia; Deng, Xutao; Kanevsky, Isis; Opriessnig, Tanja; Woolums, Amelia R; Hurley, David J; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Delwart, Eric

    2017-03-01

    Using viral metagenomics we analyzed four bovine serum pools assembled from 715 calves in the United States. Two parvoviruses, bovine parvovirus 2 (BPV2) and a previously uncharacterized parvovirus designated as bosavirus (BosaV), were detected in 3 and 4 pools respectively and their complete coding sequences generated. Based on NS1 protein identity, bosavirus qualifies as a member of a new species in the copiparvovirus genus. Also detected were low number of reads matching ungulate tetraparvovirus 2, bovine hepacivirus, and several papillomaviruses. This study further characterizes the diversity of viruses in calf serum with the potential to infect fetuses and through fetal bovine serum contaminate cell cultures. Copyright © 2017 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Robustness - acceptance criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzuto, Enrico; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kroon, Inger B.

    2010-01-01

    This factsheet describes the general framework on the bases of which acceptance criteria for requirements on the robustness of structures can be set. Such framework is based on the more general concept of risk-based assessment of engineering systems. The present factsheet is to be seen in conjunc......This factsheet describes the general framework on the bases of which acceptance criteria for requirements on the robustness of structures can be set. Such framework is based on the more general concept of risk-based assessment of engineering systems. The present factsheet is to be seen...

  16. A multilaboratory study on the variability of bovine semen analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Leonardo F C

    2016-01-15

    To evaluate the variability of semen analysis, five replicates of 10 different bovine frozen semen batches were coded with different identification numbers and submitted to various laboratories for evaluation. Three studies were conducted: study I included eight laboratories in semen processing centers in the United States; study II included one laboratory in one semen processing center and five veterinary university laboratories in the United States; and study III included five veterinary university laboratories in Brazil. Evaluation methodology, sample classification criteria, and reporting format varied considerably among laboratories. There were laboratory effects (P semen analysis in check and make it very difficult, if not impossible, to meaningfully interpret evaluation results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Metabolism and Calcification of Bovine Tooth Enamel

    OpenAIRE

    高木, 亨; 田上, 順次; 中村, 聡; Tohru, Takagi; Junji, TAGAMI; Satoshi, Nakamura; 東京医科歯科大学歯学部 生化学講座; 東京医科歯科大学歯学部 歯科保存学第1講座; 東京医科歯科大学歯学部 医用器材研究所; Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Dentistry Tokyo Medical and Dental University; Department of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry Tokyo Medical and Dental University; Institute of Medical and Dental Engineering, Faculty of Dentistry Tokyo Medical and Dental University

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mineralization mechanism in developing enamel using pH staining. Unerupted bovine teeth were used for the expriment. The activity of a proteolytic enzyme was evaluated against enamel protein obtainedfrom bovine enamel. Crystals in developing enamel, which were classlfied into neutral zone 1 and 2, acid zone 1 and 2, were investigated using infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and power X-ray diffractometry. Proteolytic enzyme showed the hig...

  18. Interactions between bovine cornea proteoglycans and collagen.

    OpenAIRE

    Speziale, P.; Bardoni, A; Balduini, C.

    1980-01-01

    Two types of proteoglycan subunits were obtained from bovine cornea, the first mainly composed of proteochondroitin sulphate and the second of proteokeratan sulphate. These two fractions can be obtained from the tissue as an aggregate, and are able to recombine each other after separation, to re-form the original structure. In order to investigate collagen-proteoglycan interactions, type-I collagen was isolated from bovine cornea by pepsin digestion followed by 3.5% (w/v) NaCl precipitation, ...

  19. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Anti-Bovine Programmed Death-1 Rat-Bovine Chimeric Antibody for Immunotherapy of Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection in Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagawa, Tomohiro; Konnai, Satoru; Nishimori, Asami; Maekawa, Naoya; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Goto, Shinya; Nakajima, Chie; Kohara, Junko; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Kato, Yukinari; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Blockade of immunoinhibitory molecules, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1), is a promising strategy for reinvigorating exhausted T cells and preventing disease progression in a variety of chronic infections. Application of this therapeutic strategy to cattle requires bovinized chimeric antibody targeting immunoinhibitory molecules. In this study, anti-bovine PD-1 rat-bovine chimeric monoclonal antibody 5D2 (Boch5D2) was constructed with mammalian expression systems, and its biochemical function and antiviral effect were characterized in vitro and in vivo using cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Purified Boch5D2 was capable of detecting bovine PD-1 molecules expressed on cell membranes in flow cytometric analysis. In particular, Biacore analysis determined that the binding affinity of Boch5D2 to bovine PD-1 protein was similar to that of the original anti-bovine PD-1 rat monoclonal antibody 5D2. Boch5D2 was also capable of blocking PD-1/PD-L1 binding at the same level as 5D2. The immunomodulatory and therapeutic effects of Boch5D2 were evaluated by in vivo administration of the antibody to a BLV-infected calf. Inoculated Boch5D2 was sustained in the serum for a longer period. Boch5D2 inoculation resulted in activation of the proliferation of BLV-specific CD4+ T cells and decrease in the proviral load of BLV in the peripheral blood. This study demonstrates that Boch5D2 retains an equivalent biochemical function to that of the original antibody 5D2 and is a candidate therapeutic agent for regulating antiviral immune response in vivo. Clinical efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade awaits further experimentation with a large number of animals.

  1. Anti-Bovine Programmed Death-1 Rat–Bovine Chimeric Antibody for Immunotherapy of Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagawa, Tomohiro; Konnai, Satoru; Nishimori, Asami; Maekawa, Naoya; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Goto, Shinya; Nakajima, Chie; Kohara, Junko; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Kato, Yukinari; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Blockade of immunoinhibitory molecules, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1), is a promising strategy for reinvigorating exhausted T cells and preventing disease progression in a variety of chronic infections. Application of this therapeutic strategy to cattle requires bovinized chimeric antibody targeting immunoinhibitory molecules. In this study, anti-bovine PD-1 rat–bovine chimeric monoclonal antibody 5D2 (Boch5D2) was constructed with mammalian expression systems, and its biochemical function and antiviral effect were characterized in vitro and in vivo using cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Purified Boch5D2 was capable of detecting bovine PD-1 molecules expressed on cell membranes in flow cytometric analysis. In particular, Biacore analysis determined that the binding affinity of Boch5D2 to bovine PD-1 protein was similar to that of the original anti-bovine PD-1 rat monoclonal antibody 5D2. Boch5D2 was also capable of blocking PD-1/PD-L1 binding at the same level as 5D2. The immunomodulatory and therapeutic effects of Boch5D2 were evaluated by in vivo administration of the antibody to a BLV-infected calf. Inoculated Boch5D2 was sustained in the serum for a longer period. Boch5D2 inoculation resulted in activation of the proliferation of BLV-specific CD4+ T cells and decrease in the proviral load of BLV in the peripheral blood. This study demonstrates that Boch5D2 retains an equivalent biochemical function to that of the original antibody 5D2 and is a candidate therapeutic agent for regulating antiviral immune response in vivo. Clinical efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade awaits further experimentation with a large number of animals. PMID:28638381

  2. Anti-Bovine Programmed Death-1 Rat–Bovine Chimeric Antibody for Immunotherapy of Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Okagawa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Blockade of immunoinhibitory molecules, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1, is a promising strategy for reinvigorating exhausted T cells and preventing disease progression in a variety of chronic infections. Application of this therapeutic strategy to cattle requires bovinized chimeric antibody targeting immunoinhibitory molecules. In this study, anti-bovine PD-1 rat–bovine chimeric monoclonal antibody 5D2 (Boch5D2 was constructed with mammalian expression systems, and its biochemical function and antiviral effect were characterized in vitro and in vivo using cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV. Purified Boch5D2 was capable of detecting bovine PD-1 molecules expressed on cell membranes in flow cytometric analysis. In particular, Biacore analysis determined that the binding affinity of Boch5D2 to bovine PD-1 protein was similar to that of the original anti-bovine PD-1 rat monoclonal antibody 5D2. Boch5D2 was also capable of blocking PD-1/PD-L1 binding at the same level as 5D2. The immunomodulatory and therapeutic effects of Boch5D2 were evaluated by in vivo administration of the antibody to a BLV-infected calf. Inoculated Boch5D2 was sustained in the serum for a longer period. Boch5D2 inoculation resulted in activation of the proliferation of BLV-specific CD4+ T cells and decrease in the proviral load of BLV in the peripheral blood. This study demonstrates that Boch5D2 retains an equivalent biochemical function to that of the original antibody 5D2 and is a candidate therapeutic agent for regulating antiviral immune response in vivo. Clinical efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade awaits further experimentation with a large number of animals.

  3. Susceptibility of bovine umbilical cord endothelial cells to bovine herpesviruses and pseudocowpox virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Verstraten, E.R.A.M.; Jongejan, F.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the susceptibility of bovine umbilical cord endothelial (BUE) cells to bovine herpesvirus (BHV) 1, BHV2, BHV4 and BHV5, and to pseudocowpox virus. the detection limits and growth curves of these viruses in BUE cells were compared with those in Vero,

  4. Antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides on bovine respiratory pathogen Histophilus somni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine NK-lysins, which are functionally and structurally similar to human granulysin and porcine NK-lysin, are predominantly found in the granules of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and NK-cells. Although antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin has been assessed for several bacterial pathogens, not all t...

  5. Human Systems Design Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of designing more humanised computer systems. This problem can be formally described as the need for defining human design criteria, which — if used in the design process - will secure that the systems designed get the relevant qualities. That is not only...... the necessary functional qualities but also the needed human qualities. The author's main argument is, that the design process should be a dialectical synthesis of the two points of view: Man as a System Component, and System as Man's Environment. Based on a man's presentation of the state of the art a set...... of design criteria is suggested and their relevance discussed. The point is to focus on the operator rather than on the computer. The crucial question is not to program the computer to work on its own conditions, but to “program” the operator to function on human conditions....

  6. Diagnostic criteria of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Rémi W

    2007-03-01

    In the past two decades there has been a tremendous effort among clinicians and searchers to improve the diagnostic criteria of the dementias on the basis of the differential neurological and neuropsychological profiles. This was an obligatory requirement for clinical trials and the development of treatments. Over the years it became rapidly evident that the cohorts of patients in studies had some degree of heterogeneity, making it difficult to interpret the results of some studies, particularly in the vascular dementias and the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) group. For example, many sub-types of the vascular group were included in clinical trials, such as the cortical strokes, the lacunar states and the diffuse white matter disease cases, and some of the patients might have had also mixed pathology. In addition, the standard DSM IV criteria for dementia no longer represent our present knowledge of the clinical profile of some of the dementias such as vascular dementia (VaD) and fronto-temporal dementia where the memory impairment is not necessarily the first requirement. To improve the validity of clinical trials and eventually help developing more appropriate treatments, we revised the present diagnostic criteria and made recommendations for some changes in the context of the 2nd Canadian Conference on the Development of Antidementia Therapies, held in 2004 and reviewed in the light of the recent literature as of early 2006. It is expected that in the near future, these dementia criteria for clinical trials will have to be revised again in order to include specific subtypes of the dementias as well as biomarkers, structural and functional imaging.

  7. Recent Progress in Cryopreservation of Bovine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sul Hwang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Principle of oocyte cryoinjury is first overviewed and then research history of cryopreservation using bovine oocytes is summarized for the last two decades with a few special references to recent progresses. Various types of cryodevices have been developed to accelerate the cooling rate and applied to the oocytes from large domestic species enriched with cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Two recent approaches include the qualitative improvement of IVM oocytes prior to the vitrification and the short-term recovery culture of vitrified-warmed oocytes prior to the subsequent IVF. Supplementation of L-carnitine to IVM medium of bovine oocytes has been reported to reduce the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets and improve the cryotolerance of the oocytes, but it is still controversial whether the positive effect of L-carnitine is reproducible. Incidence of multiple aster formation, a possible cause for low developmental potential of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes, was inhibited by a short-term culture of the postwarm oocytes in the presence of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK inhibitor. Use of an antioxidant α-tocopherol, instead of the ROCK inhibitor, also supported the revivability of the postwarm bovine oocytes. Further improvements of the vitrification procedure, combined with pre- and postvitrification chemical treatment, would overcome the high sensitivity of bovine oocytes to cryopreservation.

  8. Bovine Eimeria species in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutny, H; Joachim, A; Tichy, A; Baumgartner, W

    2012-05-01

    Bovine eimeriosis is considered to be of considerable importance for the productivity and health of cattle worldwide. Despite the importance of cattle farming in Austria, little is known in this country about the abundance and distribution of bovine Eimeria spp. The objective of this study was to obtain detailed information about the occurrence of different Eimeria spp. on Austrian dairy farms. Fecal samples from individual calves (n = 868) from 296 farms all over Austria (82 districts) were collected. Additionally, each farmer was questioned about the occurrence of calf diarrhea, and about the knowledge on coccidiosis and possible control measures. On 97.97% of the investigated farms, calves excreted Eimeria oocysts, and 83.67% of the individual samples were positive. After sporulation of positive samples pooled from each farm, 11 Eimeria species were found, with E. bovis (in 65.54% of the samples and 27.74% of the farms), E.zuernii (63.85%/13.86%), E. auburnensis (56.76%/13.41%) and E. ellipsoidalis (54.05%/14.38%) being the most prevalent, followed by E. alabamensis (45.61%/11.56%), E. subspherica (35.14%/5.5.05%), E. cylindrica (33.11%/7.00%), and E. canadensis (31.08%/7.74%). E. wyomingensis, E. pellita and E. bukidnonensis were only found sporadically (3.04-4.73% of the samples and 0.16-0.59% of the farms). Mixed infections were present on all farms (2-9 Eimeria species/farm). Prevalences by state provinces were high throughout with 77.1-87.9% of the samples and 93.8-100% of the farms. Lower Austria had the highest percentage of positive farms, and Vorarlberg the lowest. Individual OPG (oocysts per gram of feces) values were generally low; 75% of the samples had an OPG of 1,000 or less. The highest detected OPG was 72,400. The mean OPG was 2,525 with above average numbers in Tirol, Carinthia, and Lower Austria. The mean OPG values were significantly positively correlated with the cattle density in the different districts. The majority of the samples were from

  9. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease Note: ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) is a progressive neurological disorder of ...

  10. Investigation of the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and risk factors for human infection with bovine tuberculosis among dairy and non-dairy farming neighbour households in Dagoretti Division, Nairobi, Kenya.

  11. Web site Evaluation Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojdgan binesh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The ever-increasing evolution of the Internet and the growing number of the resources accessible through this medium, has turned the issue of resource evaluation of the internet-based information into a controversial and cogent issue. By nature, the internet milieu is uncontrollable. It concomitantly contains both verifiable and unverifiable information. Thus it behooves the internet users to develop resource evaluation and critical thinking skills in order to discern appropriate quality resources. Through review and comparison of the available checklists, the present paper endeavors to offer criteria for website evaluation

  12. Use of bovine carotid artery for buttonhole technique hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuman, Earl; Alexander, Philip; Ronfeld, Amy

    2017-11-08

    Assess the feasibility of using a bovine carotid artery graft for buttonhole technique hemodialysis in patients who are not candidates for a native fistula. Case reports used to demonstrate selection criteria and results for this approach. Criteria include: knowledgeable patient with prior dialysis experience, stable graft in place for 3 months minimum, not a candidate for a native fistula, and able to maintain close follow-up. Both grafts were based on axillary vessels and have been in place for a total of 64 months. They have been used for dialysis via buttonhole for a total of 40 months. There have been three procedures on these patients, post-buttonhole use (.87/year). There have been no infections. These patients were carefully selected based on desire, support, knowledge/experience and ability. Their success suggests that buttonhole technique for hemodialysis on a synthetic semi-biologic graft can be accomplished with morbidity and longevity similar to any graft using non-buttonhole needle access.

  13. Arachidonate metabolism in bovine gallbladder muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, M.; Hidaka, T.; Ueta, T.; Ogura, R.

    1983-04-01

    Incubation of (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid (AA) with homogenates of bovine gallbladder muscle generated a large amount of radioactive material having the chromatographic mobility of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (stable product of PGI2) and smaller amounts of products that comigrated with PGF2 alpha PGE2. Formation of these products was inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. The major radioactive product identified by thin-layer chromatographic mobility and by gas chromatography - mass spectrometric analysis was found to be 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. The quantitative metabolic pattern of (1-/sup 14/C)PGH2 was virtually identical to that of (1-/sup 14/C)AA. Incubation of arachidonic acid with slices of bovine gallbladder muscle released labile anti-aggregatory material in the medium, which was inhibited by aspirin or 15-hydroperoxy-AA. These results indicate that bovine gallbladder muscle has a considerable enzymatic capacity to produce PGI2 from arachidonic acid.

  14. Combining the IADPSG criteria with the WHO diagnostic criteria for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, yet there are no universally accepted ... and World Health Organization's (WHO) diagnostic criteria are commonly used criteria, although clinical outcome data .... GDM, hypertensive disorder, maternal age, maternal obesity,.

  15. Protection against bovine leukosis virus infection in sheep with the BL 20 bovine lymphoblastoid cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D H; Lucas, M H; Sands, J; Wibberley, G

    1982-11-01

    The bovine lymphoblastoid BL 20 cell line derived from a case of sporadic bovine leukosis when inoculated into sheep did not induce an antibody response directed against bovine leukosis virus (BLV) structural proteins. Sheep were inoculated twice with the BL 20 cell line and then challenged with BLV infected lymphocytes. Three out of four sheep challenged four weeks after BL 20 inoculation did not develop BLV antibodies. Of the 12 sheep challenged later, three sheep did not develop BLV antibodies. BLV was isolated from all the seropositive animals and from none of the seronegative animals.

  16. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13 grams per deciliter of polymerized hemoglobin of bovine origin in modified Lactated Ringer's Solution...

  17. Sexing bovine pre-implantation embryos using the polymerase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper aims to present a bovine model for human embryo sexing. Cows were super-ovulated, artificially inseminated and embryos were recovered 7 days later. Embryo biopsy was performed; DNA was extracted from blastomeres and amplified using bovine-specific and bovine-Y-chromosomespecific primers, followed ...

  18. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cultures for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be prepared from the first through the fifth... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious Bovine...

  19. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. 113.311... Virus Vaccines § 113.311 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine shall be prepared..., and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All...

  20. 9 CFR 113.310 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. 113... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.310 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine shall... as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine...

  1. Cloning and sequencing of the bovine gastrin gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T; Rehfeld, J F; Olsen, Jørgen

    1989-01-01

    In order to deduce the primary structure of bovine preprogastrin we therefore sequenced a gastrin DNA clone isolated from a bovine liver cosmid library. Bovine preprogastrin comprises 104 amino acids and consists of a signal peptide, a 37 amino acid spacer-sequence, the gastrin-34 sequence followed...

  2. Effect of melatonin on in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Vs 17.67, 15.68, 16.53). In conclusion in this experiment, melatonin cannot improve cumulus cell expansion and nuclear maturation of bovine oocytes. When concentrations is high, melatonin may affect bovine oocytes meiotic maturation at metaphase-1 stage, but it is improbable melatonin be toxic for bovine oocytes.

  3. 76 FR 38602 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework AGENCY... extending the comment period on a new framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis... bovine brucellosis in the United States. The notice stated that USDA would hold four public meetings...

  4. 76 FR 26239 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis... framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. The... tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United States. In keeping with its commitment to partnering...

  5. Bovine rotavirus pentavalent vaccine development in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zade, Jagdish K; Kulkarni, Prasad S; Desai, Sajjad A; Sabale, Rajendra N; Naik, Sameer P; Dhere, Rajeev M

    2014-08-11

    A bovine rotavirus pentavalent vaccine (BRV-PV) containing rotavirus human-bovine (UK) reassortant strains of serotype G1, G2, G3, G4 and G9 has been developed by the Serum Institute of India Ltd, in collaboration with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), USA. The vaccine underwent animal toxicity studies and Phase I and II studies in adults, toddlers and infants. It has been found safe and immunogenic and will undergo a large Phase III study to assess efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp

    2014-01-01

    Bovine colostrum, the first milk that cows produce after parturition, contains high levels of growth factors and immunomodulatory components. Some healthy and diseased individuals may gain health benefits by consuming bovine colostrum as a food supplement. This review provides a systematic......, critical evaluation of the current state of knowledge in this area. Fifty-one eligible studies were identified from the following databases: Medline, Embase, Global Health, the Cochrane Library, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Studies were heterogeneous with regard...

  7. Heterogeneity of Bovine Peripheral Blood Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Hussen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood monocytes of several species can be divided into different subpopulations with distinct phenotypic and functional properties. Herein, we aim at reviewing published work regarding the heterogeneity of the recently characterized bovine monocyte subsets. As the heterogeneity of human blood monocytes was widely studied and reviewed, this work focuses on comparing bovine monocyte subsets with their human counterparts regarding their phenotype, adhesion and migration properties, inflammatory and antimicrobial functions, and their ability to interact with neutrophilic granulocytes. In addition, the differentiation of monocyte subsets into functionally polarized macrophages is discussed. Regarding phenotype and distribution in blood, bovine monocyte subsets share similarities with their human counterparts. However, many functional differences exist between monocyte subsets from the two species. In contrast to their pro-inflammatory functions in human, bovine non-classical monocytes show the lowest phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species generation capacity, an absent ability to produce the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β after inflammasome activation, and do not have a role in the early recruitment of neutrophils into inflamed tissues. Classical and intermediate monocytes of both species also differ in their response toward major monocyte-attracting chemokines (CCL2 and CCL5 and neutrophil degranulation products (DGP in vitro. Such differences between homologous monocyte subsets also extend to the development of monocyte-derived macrophages under the influence of chemokines like CCL5 and neutrophil DGP. Whereas the latter induce the differentiation of M1-polarized macrophages in human, bovine monocyte-derived macrophages develop a mixed M1/M2 macrophage phenotype. Although only a few bovine clinical trials analyzed the correlation between changes in monocyte composition and disease, they suggest that functional differences between

  8. PERFORMANCE CRITERIA SLITTING-PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Starkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Criteria of efficiency the slitting process. For example double-line rolling of rebar No. 20 identified such criteria separation efficiency in non-dividing device as the size of the crossbar.

  9. User perspectives on relevance criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2002-01-01

    implications for relevance feedback in information retrieval systems, suggesting that systems accept and utilize multiple positive and negative relevance criteria from users. Systems designers may want to focus on supporting content criteria followed by full text criteria as these may provide the greatest cost...

  10. Sample quality criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Charles A; Wagner, Claas

    2015-01-01

    The concept of Sample Quality Criteria (SQC) is the initial step in the scientific approach to representative sampling. It includes the establishment of sampling objectives, Decision Unit (DU), and confidence. Once fully defined, these criteria serve as input, in addition to material properties, to the Theory of Sampling for developing a representative sampling protocol. The first component of the SQC establishes these questions: What is the analyte(s) of concern? What is the concentration level of interest of the analyte(s)? How will inference(s) be made from the analytical data to the DU? The second component of the SQC establishes the DU, i.e., the scale at which decisions are to be made. On a large scale, a DU could be a ship or rail car; examples for small-scale DUs are individual beans, seeds, or kernels. A well-defined DU is critical because it defines the spatial and temporal boundaries of sample collection. SQC are not limited to a single DU; they can also include multiple DUs. The third SQC component, the confidence, establishes the desired probability that a correct inference (decision) can be made. The confidence level should typically correlate to the potential consequences of an incorrect decision (e.g., health or economic). The magnitude of combined errors in the sampling, sample processing and analytical protocols determines the likelihood of an incorrect decision. Thus, controlling error to a greater extent increases the probability of a correct decision. The required confidence level directly affects the sampling effort and QC measures.

  11. Bovine papillomavirus type 2 in reproductive tract and gametes of slaughtered bovine females

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho,Claudemir de; Freitas,Antonio Carlos de; Brunner,Olga; Góes,Luiz Gustavo Bentim; Cavalcante,Andréa Yaguiu; Beçak,Willy; Santos,Rita de Cassia Stocco dos

    2003-01-01

    Papillomaviruses are described selectively infecting epithelial tissues and are associated with many forms of cancer in different species. Considering the widespread dissemination of papillomatosis in livestock, interest is being centred on possible forms of viral transmission and respective mechanisms. In the present study, we report the detection of bovine papillomavirus (BPV) DNA sequences in female reproductive tract tissues, fluids and oocytes from slaughtered bovines not afflicted by cu...

  12. Prototheca zopfii isolated from bovine mastitis induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in bovine mammary epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid, Muhammad; Gao, Jian; Zhou, Yanan; Liu, Gang; Ali, Tariq; Deng, Youtian; Sabir, Naveed; Su, Jingliang; Han, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Bovine protothecal mastitis results in considerable economic losses worldwide. However, Prototheca zopfii induced morphological alterations and oxidative stress in bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) is not comprehensively studied yet. Therefore, the aim of this current study was to investigate the P. zopfii induced pathomorphological changes, oxidative stress and apoptosis in bMECs. Oxidative stress was assessed by evaluating catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxi...

  13. Control of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesse, B.W.; Emery, R.S.; Thomas, J.W.

    1986-09-01

    Fatty acid oxidation by bovine liver slices and mitochondria was examined to determine potential regulatory sites of fatty acid oxidation. Conversion of 1-(/sup 14/C)palmitate to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and total (/sup 14/C)acid-soluble metabolites was used to measure fatty acid oxidation. Oxidation of palmitate (1 mM) was linear in both liver slice weight and incubation time. Carnitine stimulated palmitate oxidation; 2 mM dl-carnitine produced maximal stimulation of palmitate oxidation to both CO/sup 2/ and acid-soluble metabolites. Propionate (10 mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. Propionate (.5 to 10 mM) had no effect on palmitate oxidation by mitochondria, but malonyl Coenzyme A, the first committed intermediate of fatty acid synthesis, inhibited mitochondrial palmitate oxidation (inhibition constant = .3 ..mu..M). Liver mitochonndrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase exhibited Michaelis constants for palmitoyl Coenzyme A and l-carnitine of 11.5 ..mu..M and .59 mM, respectively. Long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver is regulated by mechanisms similar to those in rats but adapted to the unique digestive physiology of the bovine.

  14. Developing a vaccine for eradicating contagious bovine ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The challenge. Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) — also known as lung plague — is a highly contagious bacterial disease of cattle that has serious economic and trade consequences in sub-Saharan Africa. CBPP kills up to 50% of infected animals, when newly introduced into a population, and many cattle.

  15. Activities for leptin in bovine trophoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, C K; Xie, M M; McCoski, S R; Ealy, A D

    2017-01-01

    Leptin is involved in various reproductive processes in humans and rodents, including placental development and function. The specific ways that leptin influences placental development and function in cattle are poorly understood. This work was completed to explore how leptin regulates hormone, cytokine and metalloprotease transcript abundance, and cell proliferation in cultured bovine trophoblast cells. In the first set of studies, cells were cultured in the presence of graded recombinant bovine leptin concentrations (0, 10, 50, 250 ng/mL) for 6 or 24 h. Transcript profiles were examined from extracted RNA. Leptin supplementation did not affect abundance of the maternal recognition of pregnancy factor, interferon-tau (IFNT), but leptin increased (P leptin. Transcript abundance of the remodeling factor, metalloprotease 2 (MMP2), was greater (P leptin-treated cells at 24 h but not at 6 h. The 24 h MMP2 response was greatest (P leptin treatment. In a separate set of studies, cell proliferation assays were completed. Leptin supplementation did not affect bovine trophoblast cell line proliferation at any dose tested. In conclusion, leptin supplementation did not affect bovine trophoblast cell proliferation or IFNT expression, but leptin increases CSH2 and MMP2 transcript abundance. Both of these factors are involved with peri-implantation and postimplantation placental development and function, and this implicates leptin as a potential mediator of early placental development and function in cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Seroprevalence Study Of Bovine Brucellosis In Extensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of bovine brucellosis was measured in cross sectional study in Jimma zone, Western Ethiopia using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBT) and CFT from October 2003 to April 2004. The study animals consisted of 1305 local breed found in extensive system in five districts of in the zone. The overall individual animal ...

  17. Pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, van L.J.M.; Vromans, M.E.W.; Dolstra, C.H.; Bossers, A.; Zijderveld, van F.G.

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrPSc) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation of PrPSc was

  18. Hydrophobic interactions of phenoxazine modulators with bovine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The binding of phenothiazine drugs to bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been studied 1. Although most of the authors obtained total binding constants of the same order of magnitude, the number of binding sites varied considerably. It has been found 2 that the number of binding sites on BSA for promazine and ...

  19. Transmission of new bovine prion to mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baron, T.G.M.; Biacabe, A.G.; Bencsik, A.; Langeveld, J.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that cattle were affected by a prion disorder that differed from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) by showing distinct molecular features of disease-associated protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres). We show that intracerebral injection of such isolates into C57BL/6

  20. Pasteurella multocida and bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabo, S M; Taylor, J D; Confer, A W

    2007-12-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium that has been classified into three subspecies, five capsular serogroups and 16 serotypes. P. multocida serogroup A isolates are bovine nasopharyngeal commensals, bovine pathogens and common isolates from bovine respiratory disease (BRD), both enzootic calf pneumonia of young dairy calves and shipping fever of weaned, stressed beef cattle. P. multocida A:3 is the most common serotype isolated from BRD, and these isolates have limited heterogeneity based on outer membrane protein (OMP) profiles and ribotyping. Development of P. multocida-induced pneumonia is associated with environmental and stress factors such as shipping, co-mingling, and overcrowding as well as concurrent or predisposing viral or bacterial infections. Lung lesions consist of an acute to subacute bronchopneumonia that may or may not have an associated pleuritis. Numerous virulence or potential virulence factors have been described for bovine respiratory isolates including adherence and colonization factors, iron-regulated and acquisition proteins, extracellular enzymes such as neuraminidase, lipopolysaccharide, polysaccharide capsule and a variety of OMPs. Immunity of cattle against respiratory pasteurellosis is poorly understood; however, high serum antibodies to OMPs appear to be important for enhancing resistance to the bacterium. Currently available P. multocida vaccines for use in cattle are predominately traditional bacterins and a live streptomycin-dependent mutant. The field efficacy of these vaccines is not well documented in the literature.

  1. NUTRIENTS AND EPIGENETICS IN BOVINE CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a chapter for a book titled “Livestock Epigenetics” edited by Dr. Hasan Khatib and published by Wiley-Blackwell. This chapter is focused on the research development in our laboratory in the area of interaction of nutrients and genomic phonotype in bovine cells. Briefly, the Research on nutri...

  2. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV

    2007-01-01

    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology and cha...

  3. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaard, Greta

    1995-01-01

    Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

  4. Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia and lung condemnation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia and lung condemnation in Sokoto Metropolitan Abattoir in Nigeria. JE Onu. Abstract. No Abstract. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa Vol.

  5. Vaccination of cattle against bovine viral diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Rijn, van P.A.

    1999-01-01

    This brief review describes types and quality (efficacy and safety) of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) vaccines that are in the market or under development. Both conventional live and killed vaccines are available. The primary aim of vaccination is to prevent congenital infection, but the few

  6. Concomitant infection of Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 in spontaneous bovine abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia S. Marin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 has not been conclusively demonstrated to cause bovine abortion. Brain lesions produced by Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 exhibit common features. Therefore, careful microscopic evaluation and additional diagnostic procedures are required to achieve an accurate final etiological diagnosis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of infections due to BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and N. caninum in 68 cases of spontaneous bovine abortions which showed microscopic lesions in the fetal central nervous system. This study allowed the identification of 4 (5.9% fetuses with dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum and 33 (48.5% cases in which N. caninum was the sole pathogen identified. All cases were negative to BoHV-1. The results of this study provide evidence that dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum occur during pregnancy in cattle; however, the role of BoHV-5 as a primary cause of bovine abortion needs further research. Molecular diagnosis of BoHV-5 and N. caninum confirmed the importance of applying complementary assays to improve the sensitivity of diagnosing bovine abortion.

  7. Decision criteria in PSA applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, J.E.; Pulkkinen, U.; Rosqvist, T.; Simola, K. [VTT Automation (Finland)

    2001-11-01

    Along with the adoption of risk informed decision making principles, the need for formal probabilistic decision rule or criteria has been risen. However, there are many practical and theoretical problems in the application of probabilistic criteria. One has to think what is the proper way to apply probabilistic rules together with deterministic ones and how the criteria are weighted with respect to each other. In this report, we approach the above questions from the decision theoretic point of view. We give a short review of the most well known probabilistic criteria, and discuss examples of their use. We present a decision analytic framework for evaluating the criteria, and we analyse how the different criteria behave under incompleteness or uncertainty of the PSA model. As the conclusion of our analysis we give recommendations on the application of the criteria in different decision situations. (au)

  8. FHR Generic Design Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, G.F.; Holcomb, D.E.; Cetiner, S.M.

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this document is to provide an initial, focused reference to the safety characteristics of and a licensing approach for Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs). The document does not contain details of particular reactor designs nor does it attempt to identify or classify either design basis or beyond design basis accidents. Further, this document is an initial attempt by a small set of subject matter experts to document the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs for a larger audience. The document is intended to help in setting the safety and licensing research, development, and demonstration path forward. Input from a wider audience, further technical developments, and additional study will be required to develop a consensus position on the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs. This document begins with a brief overview of the attributes of FHRs and then a general description of their anticipated safety performance. Following this, an overview of the US nuclear power plant approval process is provided that includes both test and power reactors, as well as the role of safety standards in the approval process. The document next describes a General Design Criteria (GDC)–based approach to licensing an FHR and provides an initial draft set of FHR GDCs. The document concludes with a description of a path forward toward developing an FHR safety standard that can support both a test and power reactor licensing process.

  9. FHR Generic Design Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an initial, focused reference to the safety characteristics of and a licensing approach for Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs). The document does not contain details of particular reactor designs nor does it attempt to identify or classify either design basis or beyond design basis accidents. Further, this document is an initial attempt by a small set of subject matter experts to document the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs for a larger audience. The document is intended to help in setting the safety and licensing research, development, and demonstration path forward. Input from a wider audience, further technical developments, and additional study will be required to develop a consensus position on the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs. This document begins with a brief overview of the attributes of FHRs and then a general description of their anticipated safety performance. Following this, an overview of the US nuclear power plant approval process is provided that includes both test and power reactors, as well as the role of safety standards in the approval process. The document next describes a General Design Criteria (GDC) - based approach to licensing an FHR and provides an initial draft set of FHR GDCs. The document concludes with a description of a path forward toward developing an FHR safety standard that can support both a test and power reactor licensing process.

  10. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Christopher J; Angevine, Peter D; Aulino, Joseph M; Berger, Kevin L; Choudhri, Asim F; Fries, Ian Blair; Holly, Langston T; Kendi, Ayse Tuba Karaqulle; Kessler, Marcus M; Kirsch, Claudia F; Luttrull, Michael D; Mechtler, Laszlo L; O'Toole, John E; Sharma, Aseem; Shetty, Vilaas S; West, O Clark; Cornelius, Rebecca S; Bykowski, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Patients presenting with myelopathic symptoms may have a number of causative intradural and extradural etiologies, including disc degenerative diseases, spinal masses, infectious or inflammatory processes, vascular compromise, and vertebral fracture. Patients may present acutely or insidiously and may progress toward long-term paralysis if not treated promptly and effectively. Noncontrast CT is the most appropriate first examination in acute trauma cases to diagnose vertebral fracture as the cause of acute myelopathy. In most nontraumatic cases, MRI is the modality of choice to evaluate the location, severity, and causative etiology of spinal cord myelopathy, and predicts which patients may benefit from surgery. Myelopathy from spinal stenosis and spinal osteoarthritis is best confirmed without MRI intravenous contrast. Many other myelopathic conditions are more easily visualized after contrast administration. Imaging performed should be limited to the appropriate spinal levels, based on history, physical examination, and clinical judgment. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals, and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. ACR appropriateness criteria jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalani, Tasneem; Couto, Corey A; Rosen, Max P; Baker, Mark E; Blake, Michael A; Cash, Brooks D; Fidler, Jeff L; Greene, Frederick L; Hindman, Nicole M; Katz, Douglas S; Kaur, Harmeet; Miller, Frank H; Qayyum, Aliya; Small, William C; Sudakoff, Gary S; Yaghmai, Vahid; Yarmish, Gail M; Yee, Judy

    2013-06-01

    A fundamental consideration in the workup of a jaundiced patient is the pretest probability of mechanical obstruction. Ultrasound is the first-line modality to exclude biliary tract obstruction. When mechanical obstruction is present, additional imaging with CT or MRI can clarify etiology, define level of obstruction, stage disease, and guide intervention. When mechanical obstruction is absent, additional imaging can evaluate liver parenchyma for fat and iron deposition and help direct biopsy in cases where underlying parenchymal disease or mass is found. Imaging techniques are reviewed for the following clinical scenarios: (1) the patient with painful jaundice, (2) the patient with painless jaundice, and (3) the patient with a nonmechanical cause for jaundice. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2013 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Criteria for performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Weiss

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Using a cognitive task (mental calculation and a perceptual-motor task (stylized golf putting, we examined differential proficiency using the CWS index and several other quantitative measures of performance. The CWS index (Weiss and Shanteau, 2003 is a coherence criterion that looks only at internal properties of the data without incorporating an external standard. In Experiment 1, college students (n = 20 carried out 2- and 3-digit addition and multiplication problems under time pressure. In Experiment 2, experienced golfers (n = 12, also college students, putted toward a target from nine different locations. Within each experiment, we analyzed the same responses using different methods. For the arithmetic tasks, accuracy information (mean absolute deviation from the correct answer, MAD using a coherence criterion was available; for golf, accuracy information using a correspondence criterion (mean deviation from the target, also MAD was available. We ranked the performances of the participants according to each measure, then compared the orders using Spearman's rextsubscript{s}. For mental calculation, the CWS order correlated moderately (rextsubscript{s} =.46 with that of MAD. However, a different coherence criterion, degree of model fit, did not correlate with either CWS or accuracy. For putting, the ranking generated by CWS correlated .68 with that generated by MAD. Consensual answers were also available for both experiments, and the rankings they generated correlated highly with those of MAD. The coherence vs. correspondence distinction did not map well onto criteria for performance evaluation.

  13. Right-left propensity of cardiogenic cerebral embolism in standard versus bovine aortic arch variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Menachem; Khamesi, Mojdeh; Sivakumar, Mangaiyarkkarasi; Natarajan, Vijaya; Motahari, Hooman; Caputo, Nicholas

    2018-01-12

    Left-hemispheric ischemic strokes are more frequent overall and often have a worse outcome than their right-hemispheric counterparts. We hypothesized that the right-left propensity of CE cerebral infarcts differs between patients with standard and bovine arch variants. We retrospectively identified all patients with acute stroke of the anterior circulation admitted to our primary stroke center between January 2011 and June 2017 who had moderate- to high-risk cardio-embolic sources according to the SSS-TOAST classification. From amongst these patients, only those with available cross-sectional imaging of the aortic arch were included. Lesion side and patterns on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging were determined blinded to the aortic arch imaging. One hundred and nineteen patients met the TOAST criteria for moderate- or high-risk cardio-embolic source. Of these, 58 (49%) were men and the median age was 71.9 years; 33% of the patients had a bovine arch. The most common etiologies of CE were atrial fibrillation (n = 80 [67%]) and congestive heart failure with ejection fraction right- or left-sided infarct. Although there was a trend towards right-sided lesions in patients with standard arches, this did not reach statistical significance. No statistically significant difference in embolic stroke laterality was demonstrated in our relatively small sample. Bovine arch could be an independent risk factor for cardio-embolic embolism. Clin. Anat., 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Bovine rhinitis viruses are common in U.S. cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hause, Ben M; Collin, Emily A; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A; Anderson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4%) were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations.

  15. Multi-Criteria Recommender Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adomavicius, Gediminas; Manouselis, Nikos; Kwon, Youngok

    This chapter aims to provide an overview of the class of multi-criteria recommender systems. First, it defines the recommendation problem as a multicriteria decision making (MCDM) problem, and reviews MCDM methods and techniques that can support the implementation of multi-criteria recommenders. Then, it focuses on the category of multi-criteria rating recommenders - techniques that provide recommendations by modelling a user's utility for an item as a vector of ratings along several criteria. A review of current algorithms that use multi-criteria ratings for calculating predictions and generating recommendations is provided. Finally, the chapter concludes with a discussion on open issues and future challenges for the class of multi-criteria rating recommenders.

  16. Revised diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, O H; Nash, T E; White, A C; Rajshekhar, V; Wilkins, P P; Singh, G; Vasquez, C M; Salgado, P; Gilman, R H; Garcia, H H

    2017-01-15

    A unified set of criteria for neurocysticercosis (NCC) has helped to standardize its diagnosis in different settings. Cysticercosis experts were convened to update current diagnostic criteria for NCC according to two principles: neuroimaging studies are essential for diagnosis, and all other information provides indirect evidence favoring the diagnosis. Recent diagnostic advances were incorporated to this revised set. This revised set is structured in absolute, neuroimaging and clinical/exposure criteria. Absolute criteria include: histological confirmation of parasites, evidence of subretinal cysts, and demonstration of the scolex within a cyst. Neuroimaging criteria are categorized as major (cystic lesions without scolex, enhancing lesions, multilobulated cysts, and calcifications), confirmative (resolution of cysts after cysticidal drug therapy, spontaneous resolution of single enhancing lesions, and migrating ventricular cysts on sequential neuroimaging studies) and minor (hydrocephalus and leptomeningeal enhancement). Clinical/exposure criteria include: detection of anticysticercal antibodies or cysticercal antigens by well-standardized tests, systemic cysticercosis, evidence of a household Taenia carrier, suggestive clinical manifestations, and residency in endemic areas. Besides patients having absolute criteria, definitive diagnosis can be made in those having two major neuroimaging criteria (or one major plus one confirmative criteria) plus exposure. For patients presenting with one major and one minor neuroimaging criteria plus exposure, definitive diagnosis of NCC requires the exclusion of confounding pathologies. Probable diagnosis is reserved for individuals presenting with one neuroimaging criteria plus strong evidence of exposure. This revised set of diagnostic criteria provides simpler definitions and may facilitate its more uniform and widespread applicability in different scenarios. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  17. Bovine oocytes in secondary follicles grow in medium containing bovine plasma after vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketsuru, Hiroaki; Takajo, Asuka; Bao, Rong-Mei; Hamawaki, Atsushi; Yoshikawa, Motoichi; Miyano, Takashi

    2011-02-01

    There has been no culture system that supports the growth of bovine oocytes for more than 2 weeks. In the present study, bovine secondary follicles were cultured for 4 weeks, and the effects of supplemented protein components and FSH in the culture medium on the growth of the oocytes were examined. The effect of vitrification of secondary follicles on the subsequent oocyte growth was also examined. Secondary follicles (150 to 200 µm in diameter) containing growing oocytes (approximately 60 µm in diameter) were dissected from ovaries and cultured in a medium supplemented with FSH (0, 25 or 50 ng/ml) and one of the following four kinds of protein components: bovine serum albumin (BSA), bovine plasma (BPL), fetal calf serum (FCS) and bovine follicular fluid (BFF). In BSA- and BPL-supplemented media with 0 or 25 ng/ml FSH, more than 50% of follicles showed no degenerative signs during culture, and oocytes significantly increased in size after 4 weeks (Pbovine secondary follicles for 4 weeks, even after vitrification and warming of the follicles.

  18. Bovine serum albumin: survival and osmolarity effect in bovine spermatozoa stored above freezing point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nang, C F; Osman, K; Budin, S B; Ismail, M I; Jaffar, F H F; Mohamad, S F S; Ibrahim, S F

    2012-05-01

    Liquid nitrogen preservation in remote farms is a limitation. The goal of this study was to determine optimum temperature above freezing point for bovine spermatozoa preservation using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a supplementation. Pooled semen sample from three ejaculates was subjected to various BSA concentration (1, 4, 8 and 12 mg ml(-1)), before incubation in different above freezing point temperatures (4, 25 and 37 °C). Viability assessment was carried out against time from day 0 (fresh sample) until all spermatozoa become nonviable. Optimal condition for bovine spermatozoa storage was at 4 °C with 1 mg ml(-1) BSA for almost 7 days. BSA improved bovine spermatozoa viability declining rate to 44.28% at day 4 and 57.59% at day 7 compared to control, with 80.54% and 98.57% at day 4 and 7 respectively. Increase in BSA concentration did not improve sperm viability. Our results also confirmed that there was a strong negative correlation between media osmolarity and bovine spermatozoa survival rate with r = 0.885, P freezing point. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. The bovine QTL viewer: a web accessible database of bovine Quantitative Trait Loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polineni, Pavana; Aragonda, Prathyusha; Xavier, Suresh R; Furuta, Richard; Adelson, David L

    2006-06-05

    Many important agricultural traits such as weight gain, milk fat content and intramuscular fat (marbling) in cattle are quantitative traits. Most of the information on these traits has not previously been integrated into a genomic context. Without such integration application of these data to agricultural enterprises will remain slow and inefficient. Our goal was to populate a genomic database with data mined from the bovine quantitative trait literature and to make these data available in a genomic context to researchers via a user friendly query interface. The QTL (Quantitative Trait Locus) data and related information for bovine QTL are gathered from published work and from existing databases. An integrated database schema was designed and the database (MySQL) populated with the gathered data. The bovine QTL Viewer was developed for the integration of QTL data available for cattle. The tool consists of an integrated database of bovine QTL and the QTL viewer to display QTL and their chromosomal position. We present a web accessible, integrated database of bovine (dairy and beef cattle) QTL for use by animal geneticists. The viewer and database are of general applicability to any livestock species for which there are public QTL data. The viewer can be accessed at http://bovineqtl.tamu.edu.

  20. The bovine QTL viewer: a web accessible database of bovine Quantitative Trait Loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Suresh R

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many important agricultural traits such as weight gain, milk fat content and intramuscular fat (marbling in cattle are quantitative traits. Most of the information on these traits has not previously been integrated into a genomic context. Without such integration application of these data to agricultural enterprises will remain slow and inefficient. Our goal was to populate a genomic database with data mined from the bovine quantitative trait literature and to make these data available in a genomic context to researchers via a user friendly query interface. Description The QTL (Quantitative Trait Locus data and related information for bovine QTL are gathered from published work and from existing databases. An integrated database schema was designed and the database (MySQL populated with the gathered data. The bovine QTL Viewer was developed for the integration of QTL data available for cattle. The tool consists of an integrated database of bovine QTL and the QTL viewer to display QTL and their chromosomal position. Conclusion We present a web accessible, integrated database of bovine (dairy and beef cattle QTL for use by animal geneticists. The viewer and database are of general applicability to any livestock species for which there are public QTL data. The viewer can be accessed at http://bovineqtl.tamu.edu.

  1. Papillomatosis of the bovine teat (mammary papilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, R O; Olson, C; Easterday, B C

    1982-12-01

    A 4th of 667 cattle examined at a Wisconsin abattoir had teat papillomas. Excised teat papillomas were sorted by gross morphologic characteristics into 3 groups: (i) atypical filiform, (ii) atypical flat, and (iii) typical fibropapilloma. Bovine papilloma virus capsid antigen was detected in thin-section slides of the 3 groups of teat papillomas by peroxidase-antiperoxidase assay. The bovine papilloma virus involved with the atypical papillomas could not be characterized by molecular hybridization, because enough pure virus could not be harvested. Homogenates of the 3 groups of teat papillomas were inoculated on 2 ponies and 4 calves. Typical fibropapillomas were produced on the 4 calves, and fibromas, on the 2 ponies. Atypical papillomas were produced only in 2 heifers.

  2. Use of bovine carpal joints as a training model for cruciate ligament repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Nicholas; Grainger, Nicholas; Hurworth, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Currently, there is a lack of cheap and effective training models to allow orthopaedic surgery trainees to learn the basics of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The aim of this paper was to investigate the viability of using various animal joints as models for the training of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Equine stifles, bovine stifles and carpal joints, sheep stifles and porcine stifles, were sourced from a local abattoir. Each joint was assessed for the following criteria: suitable tendons for harvesting, ease of arthroscopy access, adequacy of arthroscopy view and suitable joint surfaces. Tendon harvesting, preparation, joint arthroscopy and tendon tunnelling were performed on the most suitable joint. Equine, bovine, sheep and porcine stifles were found to be unsuitable. The bovine carpal joint was similar to a human wrist joint with two rows of carpal bones and fused metacarpal bones, but with deeper flexion - similar to a human knee joint. The distal joint space was found to provide a greater range of flexion and space than the narrower proximal joint space. The joint capsule provided sufficient integrity during saline irrigation to allow adequate visualization of joint structures. Tendons surrounding the joint were found to be of similar diameter to human hamstring tendons and easily accessible. Tendon tunnelling was successfully performed in a manner similar to human anterior cruciate ligament repair. The use of bovine carpal joints is a cost-effective, safe and easily reproducible model for education on basic anterior cruciate ligament repair skills and technique prior to patient contact. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  3. Binding of anandamide to bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, I.N.; Hansen, Harald S.

    2003-01-01

    The endocannabinoid anandamide is of lipid nature and may thus bind to albumin in the vascular system, as do fatty acids. The knowledge of the free water-phase concentration of anandamide is essential for the investigations of its transfer from the binding protein to cellular membranes, because a...... in aqueous compartments. - Bojesen, I. N., and H. S. Hansen. Binding of anandamide to bovine serum albumin....

  4. Oxytocin binding sites in bovine mammary tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xin.

    1989-01-01

    Oxytocin binding sites were identified and characterized in bovine mammary tissue. ({sup 3}H)-oxytocin binding reached equilibrium by 50 min at 20{degree}C and by 8 hr at 4{degree}C. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. Thyrotropin releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropin, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, pentagastrin, bradykinin, xenopsin and L-valyl-histidyl-L-leucyl-L-threonyl-L-prolyl-L-valyl-L-glutamyl-L-lysine were not competitive. In the presence of 10 nM LiCl, addition of oxytocin to dispersed bovine mammary cells, in which phosphatidylinositol was pre-labelled, caused a time and dose-dependent increase in radioactive inositiol monophosphate incorporation. The possibility that there are distinct vasopressin receptors in bovine mammary tissue was investigated. ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding reached equilibrium by 40 min at 20{degree}. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. The ability of the peptides to inhibit ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding was: (Thr{sup 4},Gly{sup 7})-oxytocin > Arg{sup 8}-vasopressin > (lys{sup 8})-vasopressin > (Deamino{sup 1},D-arg{sup 8})-vasopressin > oxytocin > d (CH{sub 2}){sub 5}Tyr(Me)AVP.

  5. Mycoplasma bovis escapes bovine neutrophil extracellular traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondaira, Satoshi; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Nishi, Koji; Iwano, Hidetomo; Nagahata, Hajime

    2017-02-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a significant pathogen in bovine infections including mastitis, pneumonia, arthritis and otitis media, and is the cause of large economic losses in beef and dairy farms. During infection with M. bovis, recruited neutrophils are not sufficient to eradicate M. bovis from the infection site. The release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is one of the innate immune responses of neutrophils but the effect of M. bovis on NET formation by bovine neutrophils has not yet been clarified. The objective of our research was to examine the effect of M. bovis on NET formation and the killing activity of bovine neutrophils. We showed that NETs were not detected following stimulation of neutrophils by M. bovis alone or with Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetat (PMA). Reactive oxygen species production is essential for NET formation but the levels in neutrophils stimulated with M. bovis at multiplicity of infections of 10, 100, and 1000 were similar to those of unstimulated cells. NET formation induced by PMA stimulated neutrophils disappeared following the addition of M. bovis but this phenomenon was not observed when ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was added. M. bovis colony forming units were significantly decreased by the addition of EDTA in the presence of NETs. Our results suggested that M. bovis infection alone did not induce NETs and that M. bovis nucleases, as hypothesis-based, contributed to resistance against the killing activity of NETs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Potential Anticarcinogenic Peptides from Bovine Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Pepe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine milk possesses a protein system constituted by two major families of proteins: caseins (insoluble and whey proteins (soluble. Caseins (αS1, αS2, β, and κ are the predominant phosphoproteins in the milk of ruminants, accounting for about 80% of total protein, while the whey proteins, representing approximately 20% of milk protein fraction, include β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, immunoglobulins, bovine serum albumin, bovine lactoferrin, and lactoperoxidase, together with other minor components. Different bioactivities have been associated with these proteins. In many cases, caseins and whey proteins act as precursors of bioactive peptides that are released, in the body, by enzymatic proteolysis during gastrointestinal digestion or during food processing. The biologically active peptides are of particular interest in food science and nutrition because they have been shown to play physiological roles, including opioid-like features, as well as immunomodulant, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antiviral, and antioxidant activities. In recent years, research has focused its attention on the ability of these molecules to provide a prevention against the development of cancer. This paper presents an overview of antitumor activity of caseins and whey proteins and derived peptides.

  7. Bovine Chymosin: A Computational Study of Recognition and Binding of Bovine κ-Casein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, David S.; Christensen, Anders Uhrenholt; Sørensen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    search algorithms, and molecular dynamics simulations. In agreement with limited experimental evidence, the model suggests that the substrate binds in an extended conformation with charged residues on either side of the scissile bond playing an important role in stabilizing the binding pose. Lys111......Bovine chymosin is an aspartic protease that selectively cleaves the milk protein κ-casein. The enzyme is widely used to promote milk clotting in cheese manufacturing. We have developed models of residues 97-112 of bovine κ-casein complexed with bovine chymosin, using ligand docking, conformational......) is found to be important for stabilizing the binding pose. The catalytic site (including the catalytic water molecule) is stable in the starting conformation of the previously proposed general acid/base catalytic mechanism for 18 ns of molecular dynamics simulations...

  8. Characterization of carbohydrate structures of bovine MUC15 and distribution of the mucin in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Lone Tjener; Pedersen, Lise Refstrup Linnebjerg; Petersen, Torben Ellebæk

    2007-01-01

    The present work reports the characterization of carbohydrate structures and the distribution of the newly identified mucin MUC15, a highly glycosylated protein associated with the bovine milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). Distribution of MUC15 was investigated in various fractions of bovine milk......-containing fractions as well, such as skim milk and whey. Compositional and structural studies of the carbohydrates of bovine milk MUC15 showed that the glycans are composed of fucose, galactose, mannose, N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglycosamine, and sialic acid. The carbohydrate was shown to constitute 65......-linked glycans were shown to contain mainly hybrid-type N-glycans. In addition, the N-glycans were shown to be sialylated and contain terminal poly-lactosamine structures. The O-linked glycans were found to constitute some unsubstituted Core-1 structures and a substantial number of sialylated Core-1 O...

  9. Diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheltens, P.; Hijdra, A. H.

    1998-01-01

    The term vascular dementia implies the presence of a clinical syndrome (dementia) caused by, or at least assumed to be caused by, a specific disorder (cerebrovascular disease). In this review, the various sets of criteria used to define vascular dementia are outlined. The various sets of criteria

  10. AFRICAN PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT CRITERIA: YORUBA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This analysis presents personality assessment criteria often used by the Yoruba as psychological tools to position an individual on the social responsibility scale and also to determine the norm compliant level of the Yoruba person. The study focused on four core criteria upon which such assessment is anchored, namely, ...

  11. Mathematics Teachers' Criteria of Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ural, Alattin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine mathematics teachers' decisions about dimensions of the geometric figures, criteria of dimension and consistency of decision-criteria. The research is a qualitative research and the model applied in the study is descriptive method on the basis of general scanning model. 15 mathematics teachers attended the…

  12. New criteria to identify spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Arne; Krishna, M.

    In this paper we give some new criteria for identifying the components of a probability measure, in its Lebesgue decomposition. This enables us to give new criteria to identify spectral types of self adjoint operators on Hilbert spaces, especially those of interest....

  13. New criteria to identify spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Arne; Krishna, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we give some new criteria for identifying the components of a probability measure, in its Lebesgue decomposition. This enables us to give new criteria to identify spectral types of self-adjoint operators on Hilbert spaces, especially those of interest....

  14. Failure Criteria for Reinforced Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathkjen, Arne

    Failure of materials is often characterized as ductile yielding, brittle fracture, creep rupture, etc., and different criteria given in terms of different parameters have been used to describe different types of failure. Only criteria expressing failure in terms of stress are considered in what...... place until the matrix, the continuous component of the composite, fails. When an isotropic matrix is reinforced as described above, the result is an anisotropic composite material. Even if the material is anisotropic, it usually exhibits a rather high degree of symmetry and such symmetries place...... certain restrictions on the form of the failure criteria for anisotropic materials. In section 2, some failure criteria for homogenous materials are reviewed. Both isotropic and anisotropic materials are described, and in particular the constraints imposed on the criteria from the symmetries orthotropy...

  15. Microstructure and hardness of bovine enamel in roselle extract solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dame, M. T.; Noerdin, A.; Indrani, D. J.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of roselle extract solution on the microstructure and hardness of bovine enamel. Ten bovine teeth and a 5% concentration of roselle extract solution were prepared. Immersions of each bovine tooth in roselle extract solution were conducted up to 60 minutes. The bovine enamel surface was characterized in hardness and microscopy. It was apparent that the initial hardness was 328 KHN, and after immersion in 15 and 60 min, the values decrease to 57.4 KHN and 11 KHN, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed changes in enamel rods after immersion in the roselle extract solution.

  16. Neurogenic vasodilatation in isolated bovine and canine penile arteries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A Bowman; J S Gillespie

    1983-01-01

    Field stimulation of isolated, perfused bovine or canine penile arteries produced dilatation, after the adrenergic motor component of the response had been blocked with guanethidine and the vessels...

  17. Morphologic and mechanical characteristics of engineered bovine arteries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Niklason, Laura E; Abbott, William; Gao, Jinming; Klagges, Brian; Hirschi, Karen K; Ulubayram, Kezban; Conroy, Nancy; Jones, Rosemary; Vasanawala, Ami; Sanzgiri, Seema; Langer, Robert

    2001-01-01

    .... Engineered vessels were cultured from bovine aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells that were seeded onto biodegradable polymer scaffolds and cultured under physiologically pulsatile conditions...

  18. Effects of resin or charcoal treatment on fetal bovine serum and bovine calf serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhimin; West, Clint; Norton-Wenzel, Carol S; Rej, Robert; Davis, Faith B; Davis, Paul J; Rej, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Charcoal- or resin-stripping of fetal bovine serum (FBS) or bovine calf serum (BCS) intended for supplementation of cell culture media is widely practiced to remove a variety of endogenous compounds, including steroid, peptide, and thyroid hormones. The possibility that stripping removes other biologically relevant factors from serum may not be appreciated. In this report, standardized clinical laboratory testing methods were used to assess the effects of resin- and charcoal-stripping on content in FBS and BCS of more than 25 analytes in the sera. In addition to hormones, the serum constituents affected by stripping are certain vitamins, electrolytes, enzyme activities, and metabolites.

  19. Seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases among the bovines in Himachal Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Shailja Katoch; Shweta Dohru; Mandeep Sharma; Vikram Vashist; Rajesh Chahota; Prasenjit Dhar; Aneesh Thakur; Subhash Verma

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The study was designed to measure the seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases: Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea, bovine leukemia, bovine parainfluenza, bovine respiratory syncytial disease, brucellosis, and paratuberculosis among bovine of Himachal Pradesh during the year 2013-2015. Materials and Methods: The serum samples were collected from seven districts of state, namely, Bilaspur, Kangra, Kinnaur, Lahul and Spiti, Mandi, Sirmour, and Solan. The sam...

  20. Osseointegration of subperiosteal implants using bovine bone substitute and various membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, Merete; Schou, S.; Hjørting-Hansen, E.

    2000-01-01

    Osseointegration, subperiosteal implant, bone substitute, bovine bone, guided bone, regeneration, histology, rabbits......Osseointegration, subperiosteal implant, bone substitute, bovine bone, guided bone, regeneration, histology, rabbits...

  1. GNS-12 Packaging design criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, E.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-24

    The purpose of this Packaging Design Criteria (PDC) is to provide criteria for the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP)(Onsite). The SARP provides the evaluation to demonstrate that the onsite transportation safety criteria are met for the transport and storage of the 324 Building vitrified encapsulated material in the GNS-12 cask. In this application, the approved PDC provides a formal set of standards for the payload requirements, and guidance for the current cask transport configuration and a revised storage seal and primary lid modification design.

  2. Principles and Criteria for Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beghin, D.; Cervetto, D.; Hansen, Peter Friis

    1997-01-01

    The mandate of ISSC Committee IV.1 on principles and Criteria for Design is to report on the following:The ongoing concern for quantification of general economic and safety criteria for marine structures and for the development of appropriate principles for rational life cycle design using...... such criteria. Reassessment of existing structures shall also be addressed. Special attention shall be given to issues affecting code formulation and development, with accounting of all uncertainties affecting actual structural behaviour.The emphasis is on ships, with offshore structures teated primarily...

  3. Effect of newborn bovine serum on cryopreservation of adult bovine testicular tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J Y; Sun, Y X; Wang, A B; Che, G Y; Hu, T J; Zhang, X M

    2014-04-01

    Bovine serum is widely used for cryopreservation of various cells and tissues. However, its cryoprotective effects on the cells and tissues are ambiguous and controversial. To test the effects of newborn calf serum (NCS) on cryopreservation of bovine testis tissue, NCS of 0%, 5%, 10% and 20% (v/v) was added into minimum essential medium + 10% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO)-based medium according to our previous report. Interestingly, the testicular cell viabilities and spermatogonia percentages from four groups were very close. The results indicated that an increase in the concentration of NCS in freezing medium to 20% has no significant effect on survival of both testicular cells and spermatogonia, and 10% DMSO-based freezing medium can maintain the testicular cell viability and spermatogonia percentage at a relatively high level (83.4 ± 0.7 and 56.5 ± 2.2 respectively). Taken together, NCS is dispensable for cryopreservation of adult bovine testis tissue. Our results provide an evidence for cutting down the costs in cryopreservation research of bovine testis tissue by reducing or giving up the use of serum. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. The major bovine mastitis pathogens have different cell tropisms in cultures of bovine mammary gland cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, A.; Vorstenbosch, van C.J.; Erkens, J.H.F.; Smith, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    We previously showed that Staphylococcus aureus cells adhered mainly to an elongated cell type, present in cultures of bovine mammary gland cells. Moreover. we showed that this adhesion was mediated by binding to fibronectin. The same in vitro model was used here, to study adhesion of other

  5. Structured literature review of responses of cattle to viral and bacterial pathogens causing bovine respiratory disease complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissett, G P; White, B J; Larson, R L

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is an economically important disease of cattle and continues to be an intensely studied topic. However, literature summarizing the time between pathogen exposure and clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion is minimal. A structured literature review of the published literature was performed to determine cattle responses (time from pathogen exposure to clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion) in challenge models using common BRD viral and bacterial pathogens. After review a descriptive analysis of published studies using common BRD pathogen challenge studies was performed. Inclusion criteria were single pathogen challenge studies with no treatment or vaccination evaluating outcomes of interest: clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion. Pathogens of interest included: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza-3 virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, Pastuerella multocida, and Histophilus somni. Thirty-five studies and 64 trials were included for analysis. The median days to the resolution of clinical signs after BVDV challenge was 15 and shedding was not detected on day 12 postchallenge. Resolution of BHV-1 shedding resolved on day 12 and clinical signs on day 12 postchallenge. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus ceased shedding on day 9 and median time to resolution of clinical signs was on day 12 postchallenge. M. haemolytica resolved clinical signs 8 days postchallenge. This literature review and descriptive analysis can serve as a resource to assist in designing challenge model studies and potentially aid in estimation of duration of clinical disease and shedding after natural pathogen exposure. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  6. Discovery of a bovine enterovirus in alpaca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasta D McClenahan

    Full Text Available A cytopathic virus was isolated using Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK cells from lung tissue of alpaca that died of a severe respiratory infection. To identify the virus, the infected cell culture supernatant was enriched for virus particles and a generic, PCR-based method was used to amplify potential viral sequences. Genomic sequence data of the alpaca isolate was obtained and compared with sequences of known viruses. The new alpaca virus sequence was most similar to recently designated Enterovirus species F, previously bovine enterovirus (BEVs, viruses that are globally prevalent in cattle, although they appear not to cause significant disease. Because bovine enteroviruses have not been previously reported in U.S. alpaca, we suspect that this type of infection is fairly rare, and in this case appeared not to spread beyond the original outbreak. The capsid sequence of the detected virus had greatest homology to Enterovirus F type 1 (indicating that the virus should be considered a member of serotype 1, but the virus had greater homology in 2A protease sequence to type 3, suggesting that it may have been a recombinant. Identifying pathogens that infect a new host species for the first time can be challenging. As the disease in a new host species may be quite different from that in the original or natural host, the pathogen may not be suspected based on the clinical presentation, delaying diagnosis. Although this virus replicated in MDBK cells, existing standard culture and molecular methods could not identify it. In this case, a highly sensitive generic PCR-based pathogen-detection method was used to identify this pathogen.

  7. Discovery of a bovine enterovirus in alpaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClenahan, Shasta D; Scherba, Gail; Borst, Luke; Fredrickson, Richard L; Krause, Philip R; Uhlenhaut, Christine

    2013-01-01

    A cytopathic virus was isolated using Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells from lung tissue of alpaca that died of a severe respiratory infection. To identify the virus, the infected cell culture supernatant was enriched for virus particles and a generic, PCR-based method was used to amplify potential viral sequences. Genomic sequence data of the alpaca isolate was obtained and compared with sequences of known viruses. The new alpaca virus sequence was most similar to recently designated Enterovirus species F, previously bovine enterovirus (BEVs), viruses that are globally prevalent in cattle, although they appear not to cause significant disease. Because bovine enteroviruses have not been previously reported in U.S. alpaca, we suspect that this type of infection is fairly rare, and in this case appeared not to spread beyond the original outbreak. The capsid sequence of the detected virus had greatest homology to Enterovirus F type 1 (indicating that the virus should be considered a member of serotype 1), but the virus had greater homology in 2A protease sequence to type 3, suggesting that it may have been a recombinant. Identifying pathogens that infect a new host species for the first time can be challenging. As the disease in a new host species may be quite different from that in the original or natural host, the pathogen may not be suspected based on the clinical presentation, delaying diagnosis. Although this virus replicated in MDBK cells, existing standard culture and molecular methods could not identify it. In this case, a highly sensitive generic PCR-based pathogen-detection method was used to identify this pathogen.

  8. Reliability criteria for voltage stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Carson W.; Silverstein, Brian L. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

    1994-12-31

    In face of costs pressures, there is need to allocate scare resources more effectively in order to achieve voltage stability. This naturally leads to development of probabilistic criteria and notions of rick management. In this paper it is presented a discussion about criteria for long term voltage stability limited to the case in which the time frames are topically several minutes. (author) 14 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Determination of criteria weights in solving multi-criteria problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Maznah Mat

    2014-12-01

    A multi-criteria (MC) problem comprises of units to be analyzed under a set of evaluation criteria. Solving a MC problem is basically the process of finding the overall performance or overall quality of the units of analysis by using certain aggregation method. Based on these overall measures of each unit, a decision can be made whether to sort them, to select the best or to group them according to certain ranges. Prior to solving the MC problems, the weights of the related criteria have to be determined with the assumption that the weights represent the degree of importance or the degree of contribution towards the overall performance of the units. This paper presents two main approaches which are called as subjective and objective approaches, where the first one involves evaluator(s) while the latter approach depends on the intrinsic information contained in each criterion. The subjective and objective weights are defined if the criteria are assumed to be independent with each other, but if they are dependent, there is another type of weight, which is called as monotone measure weight or compound weights which represent degree of interaction among the criteria. The measure of individual weights or compound weights must be addressed in solving multi-criteria problems so that the solutions are more reliable since in the real world, evaluation criteria always come with different degree of importance or are dependent with each other. As the real MC problems have their own uniqueness, it is up to the decision maker(s) to decide which type of weights and which method are the most applicable ones for the problem under study.

  10. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV): A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik

    2000-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection is the major cause of respiratory disease in calves during the first year of life. The study of the virus has been difficult because of its lability and very poor growth in cell culture. However, during the last decade, the introduction of new...... complex and unpredictable which makes the diagnosis and subsequent therapy very difficult. BRSV is closely related to human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) which is an important cause of respiratory disease in young children. In contrast to BRSV, the recent knowledge of HRSV is regularly extensively...

  11. Bovine neosporosis: clinical and practical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almería, S; López-Gatius, F

    2013-10-01

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite with a wide host range but with a preference for cattle and dogs. Since the description of N. caninum as a new genus and species in 1988, bovine neosporosis has become a disease of international concern as it is among the main causes of abortion in cattle. At present there is no effective treatment or vaccine. This review focuses on the epidemiology of the disease and on prospects for its control in cattle. Finally, based on the implications of clinical findings reported to date, a set of recommendations is provided for veterinarians and cattle farmers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fatty acids in bovine milk fat

    OpenAIRE

    Lindmark Månsson, Helena

    2008-01-01

    Milk fat contains approximately 400 different fatty acid, which make it the most complex of all natural fats. The milk fatty acids are derived almost equally from two sources, the feed and the microbial activity in the rumen of the cow and the lipids in bovine milk are mainly present in globules as an oil-in-water emulsion. Almost 70% of the fat in Swedish milk is saturated of which around 11% comprises short-chain fatty acids, almost half of which is butyric acid. Approximately 25% of the fa...

  13. Bluetongue virus infection of bovine monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetter, L E; Maclachlan, N J; Gebhard, D H; Heidner, H W; Moore, P F

    1989-07-01

    Cultures of adherent and non-adherent bovine blood mononuclear cells were infected with bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 10. Production of BTV proteins in mononuclear cell cultures was detected by immune precipitation of viral proteins from [35S]methionine-labelled extracts of these cells, by immunofluorescence staining of cells using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to BTV proteins VP7 and NS2, and by flow cytometry with MAbs to VP2, VP7, NS1 and NS2. BTV-infected cells were most numerous in cultures of adherent mononuclear cells; infected cells were initially identified as monocytes on the basis of their morphology, and size and scatter characteristics as determined by analysis with a fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). The majority of adherent mononuclear cells with these scatter characteristics were confirmed to be monocytes by FACS analysis with a MAb specific for bovine monocytes. Identification of BTV-infected adherent mononuclear cells as monocytes was further established by double immunofluorescent labelling, as infected adherent cells reacted with the MAb specific for bovine monocytes, and with another MAb specific for class II antigen. Infection of adherent mononuclear cells was also confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, as BTV virions and tubules were present in lysates of cultures of BTV-infected adherent mononuclear cells and within the cytoplasm of adherent cells. In contrast, BTV proteins were detected in few cells identified as lymphocytes on the basis of their scatter characteristics, and mean fluorescence of such cells was considerably less than that of BTV-infected monocytes. Viraemia persisted until 35 days after inoculation of a colostrum-deprived calf inoculated with BTV. Virus was isolated from blood mononuclear cells at 1 week after infection of the calf, but not thereafter. BTV infection of blood mononuclear cells was demonstrated until 9 days after inoculation by indirect immunofluorescence staining of mononuclear cells. In

  14. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, Mad Cow Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Bruckner

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Mad Cow Disease or BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy became a household name internationally and also in South Africa. International hysteria resulted following reports of a possible link between a disease diagnosed in cattle in Britain and a variant of the disease diagnosed in humans after the presumed ingestion or contact with meat from infected cattle. The European Union instituted a ban on the importation of beef from the United Kingdom during March 1996 that had a severe effect on the beef industry in the UK and also resulted in a world wide consumer resistance against beef consumption.

  15. Isolation of new serotypes of bovine rotavirus. Brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, T; Samejima, T; Kuwahara, H; Tajima, M

    1983-01-01

    Two cytopathogenic bovine rotavirus strains were isolated. The infectivity of both isolates was relatively stable at pH 3.0 and resistant to ether. Their replication was not affected by 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine. The new isolates shared immunofluorescent antigen with the Lincoln strain of bovine rotavirus. By neutralization test, however, these strains were clearly distinguished from one another.

  16. Prevalence and economic loss of bovine tuberculosis in a municipal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 12 month cross-sectional study was carried out at Lafenwa Abattoir Abeokuta, Southwestern Nigeria from July, 2011 to June, 2012. This was to determine the prevalence and economic loss of bovine tuberculosis in this abattoir. A total of 928 cases of bovine tuberculosis out of 52,273 cattle slaughtered during this period ...

  17. Prevalence of Enzootic Bovine Leukosis (EBL) in the Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, a commercial immuno enzymatic assay (blocking- ELISA), were used to detect BLV antibodies in bovine serum using two monoclonal antibodies against the viral gp51 from bovines of two major districts namely, Waqoyi Galbed, and Togdheer of northern Somalia (Somaliland). Out of 468 tested cows ...

  18. Comparison of bovine lymphocyte antigen DRB3.2 allele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA-DRB3) gene encodes cell surface glycoproteins that initiate immune responses by presenting processed antigenic peptides to CD4 T helper cells. DRB3 is the most polymorphic bovine MHC class II gene which encodes the peptide-binding groove. Since different alleles favor the ...

  19. Molecular Epidemiology of Bovine Tuberculosis and most Common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even though tuberculosis is endemic in Nigeria, information on the epidemiology of the disease especially bovine tuberculosis is still very scanty. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) was carried out on 113 tissue samples to have an idea of not only the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis but also the most common ...

  20. Anticancer activities of bovine and human lactoferricin-derived peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arias, M.; Hilchie, A.L.; Haney, E.F.; Bolscher, J.G.M.; Hyndman, M.E.; Hancock, R.E.W.; Vogel, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a mammalian host defense glycoprotein with diverse biological activities. Peptides derived from the cationic region of LF possess cytotoxic activity against cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Bovine lactoferricin (LFcinB), a peptide derived from bovine LF (bLF), exhibits

  1. Sucrose/bovine serum albumin mediated biomimetic crystallization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To understand the role of the sucrose/bovine serum albumin system in the biomineralization process, we have tested the influence of different concentration of the sucrose/bovine serum albumin (BSA) on calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation. The CaCO3 crystals were characterized by scanning electron microscope ...

  2. Study on Seroprevalence of Bovine Brucellosis and Abortion and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional study was carried on bovine brucellosis from November 2008 to March 2009 to determine the sero-prevalence and distribution of bovine brucel osis in selected sites of Jimma zone, Southwestern Ethiopia. A total of 950 animals (541 female and 409 male) were examined serologically by using RBPT as ...

  3. Viral and Bacterial Pathogens in Bovine Respiratory Disease in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soveri T

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathogens causing bovine respiratory tract disease in Finland were investigated. Eighteen cattle herds with bovine respiratory disease were included. Five diseased calves from each farm were chosen for closer examination and tracheobronchial lavage. Blood samples were taken from the calves at the time of the investigation and from 86 calves 3–4 weeks later. In addition, 6–10 blood samples from animals of different ages were collected from each herd, resulting in 169 samples. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to bovine parainfluenza virus-3 (PIV-3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, bovine coronavirus (BCV, bovine adenovirus-3 (BAV-3 and bovine adenovirus-7 (BAV-7. About one third of the samples were also tested for antibodies to bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV with negative results. Bacteria were cultured from lavage fluid and in vitro susceptibility to selected antimicrobials was tested. According to serological findings, PIV-3, BAV-7, BAV-3, BCV and BRSV are common pathogens in Finnish cattle with respiratory problems. A titre rise especially for BAV-7 and BAV-3, the dual growth of Mycoplasma dispar and Pasteurella multocida, were typical findings in diseased calves. Pasteurella sp. strains showed no resistance to tested antimicrobials. Mycoplasma bovis and Mannheimia haemolytica were not found.

  4. Preliminary study on the impact of Bovine Tuberculosis on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study was conducted on 100 (50 bovine TB positive and 50 negative) dairy cows to determine the effect of bovine tuberculosis (TB) on reproductive efficiency and productivity of Holstein dairy cows. In order to achieve this, five year records of reproductive/ productive variables including age at puberty, age at ...

  5. Detection of lipomannan in cattle infected with bovine tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early and rapid detection of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is critical to controlling the spread of this disease in cattle and other animals. In this study, we demonstrate the development of an immunoassay for the direct detection of the bovine bTB biomarker, lipomannan (LM) in serum using a waveguide-...

  6. Research Article: Food Animal Practice Bovine Papillomatosis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six cases of bovine papillomatosis were reported to the University of Nairobi veterinary clinic. Diagnosis was based on presented clinical signs and histopathology of affected skin lesions. The histological samples of the warts confirmed the diagnosis of papillomatosis. An autogenous formalin killed bovine specific wart ...

  7. Traitement De La Peripneumonie Contagieuse Bovine Par L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oxytétracycline LA) dans le traitement des bovins atteints de péripneumonie contagieuse bovine (PPCB) et de déterminer le risque de transmission de la maladie à partir d'animaux traités. Une transmission expérimentale a été conduite par la mise ...

  8. Modulation of human immune responses by bovine interleukin-10.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerco den Hartog

    Full Text Available Cytokines can be functionally active across species barriers. Bovine IL-10 has an amino acid sequence identity with human IL-10 of 76.8%. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether bovine IL-10 has immunomodulatory activities on human monocytes and dendritic cells. Peripheral blood monocytes were isolated from healthy donors, and used directly or allowed to differentiate to dendritic cells under the influence of IL-4 and GM-CSF. Recombinant bovine IL-10 inhibited TLR induced activation of monocytes, and dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced activation of monocyte-derived DCs comparable to human IL-10. By using blocking antibodies to either bovine IL-10 or the human IL-10 receptor it was demonstrated that inhibition of monocyte activation by bovine IL-10 was dependent on binding of bovine IL-10 to the human IL-10R. These data demonstrate that bovine IL-10 potently inhibits the activation of human myeloid cells in response to TLR activation. Bovine IL-10 present in dairy products may thus potentially contribute to the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis and allergy, enhance mucosal tolerance induction and decrease intestinal inflammation and may therefore be applicable in infant foods and in immunomodulatory diets.

  9. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine herpesvirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are well known etiological agents of cattle that produce important economic losses due to reproductive failures and calf mortality, as well as enteric and respiratory disease. Tamaulipas is located northeast of Mexico, an important cattle production and ...

  10. Computational identification of fertility functions of bovine Reprimo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The domain structure of bovine RPRM protein was predicted using simple modular architecture research tool (SMART). Protein tertiary structures (3D structures) of bovine RPRM gene and other cattle fertility genes were predicted with Phyre2 software. To have structural and functional similarity, it has been found that protein ...

  11. Comparative analysis of human and bovine teeth: radiographic density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luis Oshiro Tanaka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since bovine teeth have been used as substitutes for human teeth in in vitro dental studies, the aim of this study was to compare the radiographic density of bovine teeth with that of human teeth to evaluate their usability for radiographic studies. Thirty bovine and twenty human teeth were cut transversally in 1 millimeter-thick slices. The slices were X-rayed using a digital radiographic system and an intraoral X-ray machine at 65 kVp and 7 mA. The exposure time (0.08 s and the target-sensor distance (40 cm were standardized for all the radiographs. The radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin of each slice were obtained separately using the "histogram" tool of Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software. The mean radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin were calculated by the arithmetic mean of the slices of each tooth. One-way ANOVA demonstrated statistically significant differences for the densities of bovine and human enamel (p 0.05. Based on the results, the authors concluded that: a the radiographic density of bovine enamel is significantly higher than that of human enamel; b the radiodensity of bovine coronal dentin is statistically lower than the radiodensity of human coronal dentin; bovine radicular dentin is also less radiodense than human radicular dentin, although this difference was not statistically significant; c bovine teeth should be used with care in radiographic in vitro studies.

  12. Diagnosis of enzootic bovine leucosis in single and pooled samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff-Jørgensen, R

    1990-12-01

    Diagnosis of enzootic bovine leucosis is based on detection of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, BLV. Some ELISA modifications have proved sensitive enough for use in the examination of pooled blood samples from slaughterhouses, milk and pooled milk samples. Suggestions for the standardisation of different ELISA modifications using a common reference serum are presented.

  13. The vaccines for Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1: A review | Zhao ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) is the pathogen of Infectious Bovine Rhinothracheitis (IBR) disease, causing great economic losses in the livestock industry. Vaccine is a powerful means to control the virus. Here, the review described the currently available knowledge regarding to the advance in the field of BoHV-1 ...

  14. Advances in development and evaluation of bovine herpesvirus 1 vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Kaashoek, M.J.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    This review deals with conventional and modern bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) vaccines. Conventional vaccines are widely used to prevent clinical signs of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. The use of conventional vaccines, however, does not appear to have resulted in reduction of the prevalence of

  15. Modulation of human immune responses by bovine interleukin-10

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den C.G.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Schoemaker, R.; Tijhaar, E.; Westphal, A.H.; Ruiter, de T.; Weg-Schrijver, van de Elise; Neerven, van R.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Cytokines can be functionally active across species barriers. Bovine IL-10 has an amino acid sequence identity with human IL-10 of 76.8%. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether bovine IL-10 has immunomodulatory activities on human monocytes and dendritic cells. Peripheral blood

  16. A review of the biology and transmission ecology of African bovine species of the genus Schistosoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, N O; Mutani, A; Frandsen, F

    1983-01-01

    The present paper reviews the information available concerning the biology and transmission ecology of the African bovine species Schistosoma bovis, S. mattheei, S. margrebowiei and S. leiperi. Criteria for species identification (egg morphology, intermediate host spectra, definitive host-parasite relationships, etc.) are listed and the geographical distribution of the four species and factors determining the relative occurrence within their overall distributional ranges are described. S bovis and S. mattheei occur north and south of 10 degrees S, respectively, and S. margrebowiei occurs mainly, and S. leiperi only, in southern central Africa. Definitive host-related factors (susceptibility, water contact pattern, ect.) providing the background for being a primary definitive host and the primary definitive host spectra for the four schistosome species are described. The primary definitive host spectrum for S. margrebowiei and S. leiperi comprise lechwe, puku and waterbuck, for S. mattheei lechwe, puku, waterbuck plus cattle, and for S. bovis cattle and possibly also some of the listed antelope species. In addition, wild bovines and cattle may provide a reservoir of S. mattheei and S. margrebowiei in humans, but wild bovines and domestic stock play no major role in the transmission of other human species of schistosomes. The intermediate snail host spectra of S. mattheei and S. leiperi only comprise members of the Bulinus africanus species complex; S. bovis is transmitted by members of the B. truncatus, B. africanus and B. forskalii species groups, and S. margrebowiei is transmitted by members of the B. forskalii species group and possibly also by members of the B. tropicus and B. truncatus species groups. Factors determining the transmission ecology of the four schistosome species, and thereby the epidemiology of bovine schistosomiasis, are discussed. Influential factors comprise environmental conditions mediated via the effect of these on the size of the snail

  17. Detection of bovine herpesvirus 4 glycoprotein B and thymidine kinase DNA by PCR assays in bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Verstraten, E.; Belak, S.; Verschuren, S.B.E.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Peshev, R.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2001-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to detect bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4) glycoprotein B (gB) DNA, and a nested-PCR assay was modified for the detection of BHV4 thymidine kinase (TK) DNA in bovine milk samples. To identify false-negative PCR results, internal control templates were

  18. Lack of Virus-Specific Bacterial Adherence to Bovine Embryonic Lung Cells Infected with Bovine Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 †

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, Thomas E.; Gates, Connie

    1983-01-01

    Infection of bovine embryonic lung cells with bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 did not induce in vitro, virus-specific, hemadsorption-related adherence of Corynebacterium pyogenes, Haemophilus somnus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus zooepidemicus, Pasteurella haemolytica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Pasteurella multocida, Brucella sp., or Salmonella typhimurium.

  19. Diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis, revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Oscar H

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) can be a challenge. Clinical manifestations are non-specific, most neuroimaging findings are non-pathognomonic, and some serologic tests have low sensitivity or specificity. A set of diagnostic criteria was proposed in 2001 to avoid the over diagnosis of NCC that occurs in epidemiologic surveys, and to help clinicians evaluating patients with suspected NCC. The set included four stratified categories of criteria, including: (1) absolute: histological demonstration of cysticerci, cystic lesions showing the scolex on neuroimaging studies, and direct visualization of subretinal parasites by fundoscopic examination; (2) major: lesions highly suggestive of NCC on neuroimaging studies, positive serum enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) for the detection of anticysticercal antibodies, resolution of intracranial cystic lesions after cysticidal drug therapy, and spontaneous resolution of single enhancing lesions; (3) minor: lesions compatible with NCC on neuroimaging studies, suggestive clinical manifestations, positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ELISA for detection of anticysticercal antibodies or cysticercal antigens, and cysticercosis outside the nervous system; and (4) epidemiological: evidence of a household contact with Taenia solium infection, individuals coming from or living in cysticercosis endemic areas, and history of travel to disease-endemic areas. Interpretation of these criteria permits two degrees of diagnostic certainty: (1) definitive diagnosis, in patients who have one absolute criterion or in those who have two major plus one minor and one epidemiological criteria; and (2) probable diagnosis, in patients who have one major plus two minor criteria, in those who have one major plus one minor and one epidemiological criteria, and in those who have three minor plus one epidemiological criteria. After 10 years of usage, this set has been proved useful in both, field studies, and hospital settings. Recent

  20. Ultrasonographic anatomy of the bovine eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Timothy J; Hallowell, Gayle D; Bowen, I Mark

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to describe the ultrasonographic appearance and measurements of the normal bovine eye, to compare the measurements to those reported previously for cadaveric eyes and to describe differences between ocular dimensions of Holstein Friesian and Jersey cattle. Sixty transpalpebral ocular ultrasonographic examinations were performed on 30 adult Holstein Friesian cows, and 16 examinations were performed on 8 adult Jersey cows. Transpalpebral ultrasonographic images were obtained with a 10 MHz linear transducer in both horizontal and vertical imaging planes. The ultrasonographic appearance of structures within the bovine eye is similar to that in other species, although the ciliary artery was frequently identified, appearing as a 0.33 +/- 0.04 cm diameter hypoechoic area. The axial length of the globe was significantly greater in Holstein Friesian cattle (3.46 +/- 0.09 cm) compared with Jersey cattle (3.27 +/- 0.19 cm; P = 0.001), although the vitreous depth was smaller in Holstein Friesian cattle (1.46 +/- 0.09 cm) (P = 0.0009). The anterioposterior depth of the lens was significantly greater in Jersey cattle (1.92 +/- 0.11 cm) and the cornea was thinner in Jersey cattle (0.17 +/- 0.02 cm). The appearance and ocular distances for live animals were similar to those reported previously for cadaveric specimens. The knowledge of normal ocular dimensions facilitates the use of ultrasonography in the evaluation of ocular disease in cattle.

  1. Looseness in bovine leather: microstructural characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Hannah C; Holmes, Geoff; Haverkamp, Richard G

    2016-06-01

    A substantial proportion of bovine leather production may be of poor quality, with the leather suffering from a characteristic known as looseness. This defect results in a poor visual appearance and greatly reduced value. The structural mechanism of looseness is not well understood. Samples of loose and tight bovine leather are characterized using small-angle X-ray scattering, ultrasonic imaging, and electron microscopy. The density of fibre packing and orientation of the fibrils are analysed. Tensile strength is also measured. Loose leather is characterized by more highly aligned collagen fibrils. This results in a weaker connection between the layers. There is a looser packing of the fibres in loose leather than in tight leather, with more gaps between fibre bundles, particularly in a region in the lower grain. This region is visible with in situ ultrasonic imaging. Loose leather has a higher tensile strength than tight leather. While a high degree of collagen fibril alignment is normally associated with strong leather, it has been shown that too much alignment results in loose leather. Understanding the physical basis of looseness is the first step in identifying looseness in hides and learning how to prevent looseness from developing during leather manufacture. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Human exposure to bovine polyomavirus: a zoonosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, J.V.; Gardner, S.D.

    1986-01-01

    A competitive-type solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed for the detection of antibody to bovine polyomavirus. Comparison of RIA and counter-immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) results on 273 cattle sera indicated that both techniques were detecting antibody of like specificity. Human sera from 256 blood donors, 219 people recently vaccinated against polio, rubella or rabies, 50 immunosuppressed patients and 472 people with various occupational exposure to cattle were tested for antibody to bovine polyomavirus, the foetal rhesus monkey kidney strain, (anti-FRKV) by RIA. Apart from one blood donor and one of 108 rabies vaccinees only those in close contact with cattle possessed anti-FRKV. Compared with 62 per cent seropositive in the natural hosts, cattle, 71 per cent of veterinary surgeons, 50 per cent of cattle farmers, 40 per cent of abattoir workers, 16 per cent of veterinary institute technical staff and 10 per cent of veterinary students were anti-FRKV positive. Our findings indicate that the theoretical hazard of FRKV infection from undetected contamination of current tissue culture derived vaccines may, in practice, be remote. Proposed wider use of primate kidney cells as substrates for new vaccines may increase this risk.

  3. Antihelmintic Resistance For Gastrointestinal Bovine Nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Torres Vásquez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN, in domestic animals, especially in bovines are a very important factor that affects their productivity, because cattle production systems have intervened in the relationship between gastrointestinal parasites (PGI and the host, breaking therefore the ecological balance between them. In many opportunities the development of parasitic populations have been favored or a parasitic population have been led to extinction, it has made that these populations express genes that would not express under normal conditions, favoring thus, resistance to medications that were made to their destruction. NGI are highly important in all cattle exploitations, but their inappropriate handling, mainly in the pharmacological aspect, has created vermifuge resistance by some parasitic populations. This article will determine the importance of the vermifuge resistance in cattle exploitations, as a factor of risk for the control of parasitic populations. The most important antihelmintic groups used in bovine are Benzimidazoles, Levamisol and Ivermectine and with these products resistance has been reported by parasitic populations such as in Haemochus contortus, Trichostrongylus. colubriformis, Ostertagia circumcicta, Ostertagia ostertagi. Different risk factors were classified in extrinsic (which don’t depend on the gastrointestinal parasite and intrinsic (which depend directly on gastrointestinal parasites related with genetics which occupy a great importance in the development of the vermifuge resistance.

  4. The collagens of the developing bovine cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R E; Davison, P F

    1984-11-01

    The morphology of the developing bovine eye has been examined and the collagens in fetal bovine eyes from three months' gestation to maturity have been solubilized by pepsin treatment and analyzed to determine the ratios of the predominant types of collagen. The type I collagen decreased, while the type V collagen increased with age. Type III collagen comprised less than 1% of all the corneas, except for the three-month fetal calf. The anterior to posterior thickness of the paraffin-embedded fetal calf cornea increased from the third to the seventh month, decreased from the seventh month to birth, and then increased after birth. Descemet's membrane increased in thickness with age. Analysis of dissected regions of the calf cornea showed a uniform distribution of the collagen populations from the center to the limbus (89% type I, 10% type V and less than 1% type III collagen) and uniformity through the depth of the stroma, except that type III was concentrated around Bowman's layer, and type IV in Descement's membrane. The localization of the different collagens was consistent with the immunofluorescent staining studies with anticollagen antibodies, but the ratios of the intensities of the fluorescence did not correspond to the quantitative analyses. These results are concordant with other studies that have shown that antibody binding may be masked or diminished in certain tissues and therefore immunofluorescence cannot be used reliably for quantitative measurements.

  5. Bovine Mammary Gene Expression Profiling during the Onset of Lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuanyuan; Lin, Xueyan; Shi, Kerong; Yan, Zhengui; Wang, Zhonghua

    2013-01-01

    Background Lactogenesis includes two stages. Stage I begins a few weeks before parturition. Stage II is initiated around the time of parturition and extends for several days afterwards. Methodology/Principal Findings To better understand the molecular events underlying these changes, genome-wide gene expression profiling was conducted using digital gene expression (DGE) on bovine mammary tissue at three time points (on approximately day 35 before parturition (−35 d), day 7 before parturition (−7 d) and day 3 after parturition (+3 d)). Approximately 6.2 million (M), 5.8 million (M) and 6.1 million (M) 21-nt cDNA tags were sequenced in the three cDNA libraries (−35 d, −7 d and +3 d), respectively. After aligning to the reference sequences, the three cDNA libraries included 8,662, 8,363 and 8,359 genes, respectively. With a fold change cutoff criteria of ≥2 or ≤−2 and a false discovery rate (FDR) of ≤0.001, a total of 812 genes were significantly differentially expressed at −7 d compared with −35 d (stage I). Gene ontology analysis showed that those significantly differentially expressed genes were mainly associated with cell cycle, lipid metabolism, immune response and biological adhesion. A total of 1,189 genes were significantly differentially expressed at +3 d compared with −7 d (stage II), and these genes were mainly associated with the immune response and cell cycle. Moreover, there were 1,672 genes significantly differentially expressed at +3 d compared with −35 d. Gene ontology analysis showed that the main differentially expressed genes were those associated with metabolic processes. Conclusions The results suggest that the mammary gland begins to lactate not only by a gain of function but also by a broad suppression of function to effectively push most of the cell's resources towards lactation. PMID:23990904

  6. Bovine mammary gene expression profiling during the onset of lactation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lactogenesis includes two stages. Stage I begins a few weeks before parturition. Stage II is initiated around the time of parturition and extends for several days afterwards. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To better understand the molecular events underlying these changes, genome-wide gene expression profiling was conducted using digital gene expression (DGE on bovine mammary tissue at three time points (on approximately day 35 before parturition (-35 d, day 7 before parturition (-7 d and day 3 after parturition (+3 d. Approximately 6.2 million (M, 5.8 million (M and 6.1 million (M 21-nt cDNA tags were sequenced in the three cDNA libraries (-35 d, -7 d and +3 d, respectively. After aligning to the reference sequences, the three cDNA libraries included 8,662, 8,363 and 8,359 genes, respectively. With a fold change cutoff criteria of ≥ 2 or ≤-2 and a false discovery rate (FDR of ≤ 0.001, a total of 812 genes were significantly differentially expressed at -7 d compared with -35 d (stage I. Gene ontology analysis showed that those significantly differentially expressed genes were mainly associated with cell cycle, lipid metabolism, immune response and biological adhesion. A total of 1,189 genes were significantly differentially expressed at +3 d compared with -7 d (stage II, and these genes were mainly associated with the immune response and cell cycle. Moreover, there were 1,672 genes significantly differentially expressed at +3 d compared with -35 d. Gene ontology analysis showed that the main differentially expressed genes were those associated with metabolic processes. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the mammary gland begins to lactate not only by a gain of function but also by a broad suppression of function to effectively push most of the cell's resources towards lactation.

  7. Combining the IADPSG criteria with the WHO diagnostic criteria for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Odds ratio (OR) =13.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.4–50.6] compared to the GDMIADPSG women (OR = 5.3, 95% CI 1.5–18.9). Macrosomia or at least one adverse outcome were more likely in GDM patients who met the diagnostic criteria by ...

  8. Seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases among the bovines in Himachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailja Katoch

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was designed to measure the seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases: Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea, bovine leukemia, bovine parainfluenza, bovine respiratory syncytial disease, brucellosis, and paratuberculosis among bovine of Himachal Pradesh during the year 2013-2015. Materials and Methods: The serum samples were collected from seven districts of state, namely, Bilaspur, Kangra, Kinnaur, Lahul and Spiti, Mandi, Sirmour, and Solan. The samples were screened using indirect ELISA kits to measure the seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases. Results: The overall seroprevalence of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis was 24.24%, bovine viral diarrhea 1.52%, bovine leukemia 9.09%, bovine parainfluenza 57.58%, bovine respiratory syncytial disease 50%, brucellosis 19.69%, and paratuberculosis 9.09% in Himachal Pradesh. The seroprevalence of bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine leukemia, bovine parainfluenza, bovine respiratory syncytial disease, and paratuberculosis in the state varied significantly (p0.01. Multiple seropositivity has been observed in this study. Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 was observed commonly in mixed infection with almost all viruses and bacteria under study. Conclusion: The viral and bacterial diseases are prevalent in the seven districts of Himachal Pradesh investigated in the study. Therefore, appropriate management practices and routine vaccination programs should be adopted to reduce the prevalence of these diseases.

  9. Lossless Coding with Generalised Criteria

    CERN Document Server

    Charalambous, Charalambos D; Rezaei, Farzad

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents prefix codes which minimize various criteria constructed as a convex combination of maximum codeword length and average codeword length or maximum redundancy and average redundancy, including a convex combination of the average of an exponential function of the codeword length and the average redundancy. This framework encompasses as a special case several criteria previously investigated in the literature, while relations to universal coding is discussed. The coding algorithm derived is parametric resulting in re-adjusting the initial source probabilities via a weighted probability vector according to a merging rule. The level of desirable merging has implication in applications where the maximum codeword length is bounded.

  10. [Diagnostic criteria of demodex blepharitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, L Y; Li, J; Liu, Y

    2017-09-11

    Demodex infestation is a common cause of blepharitis and now is drawing more and more attention from clinicians. Demodex mite is the most common age-related ectoparasite of human being and may be detected from asymptomatic normal population. Furthermore, the pathogenesis of demodicosis remains unclear. Therefore, the commonly accepted diagnostic criteria of demodex infestation related blepharitis have not been established. Herein, we summarize the related studies about ocular demodicosis and comment the debates about the diagnosis of the disease. We also propose diagnostic criteria of demodex blepharitis. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53: 648-652).

  11. Bovine-associated mucoprotein: de novo synthesis by nonmammary tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringnitz, D J; Butler, J E

    1985-08-01

    Bovine tissues were cultured in vitro in the presence of carbon-14 amino acids and tritiated hexosamine to examine the de novo synthesis of the milk fat globule glycoprotein bovine-associated mucoprotein, by selected tissues. Among tissues examined, the relative synthesis of bovine-associated mucoprotein was highest in mammary tissue. The de novo synthesized bovine-associated mucoprotein in mammary and lacrimal gland cultures when examined for incorporation of carbon-14, had similar sedimentation profiles in sucrose density gradients and incorporated the same relative amount of carbohydrate. The bovine-associated mucoprotein synthesized by lung and spleen cultures sedimented in similar fashion to mammary gland bovine-associated mucoprotein when incorporation of carbon-14 was used as the marker, but it displayed greater heterogeneity when evaluated for tritium incorporation. Bovine-associated mucoprotein in the lung and spleen incorporated relatively less carbohydrate than that synthesized by mammary tissue. These findings support the concept of intertissue heterogeneity, which had been suggested by previous studies.

  12. Determining fertility in a bovine subject comprises detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of genetic marker alleles associated with a trait indicative of fertility of the bovine subject and/or off-spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    NOVELTY - Determining fertility in a bovine subject comprises detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of two or more genetic marker alleles that are associated with a trait indicative of fertility of the bovine subject and/or off-spring. USE - The methods are useful...... for determining fertility in a bovine subject; and selecting bovine subjects for breeding purposes (all claimed). DETAILED DESCRIPTION - Determining fertility in a bovine subject comprises detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of two or more genetic marker alleles...... that are associated with a trait indicative of fertility of the bovine subject and/or off-spring, where the two or more genetic marker alleles are single nucleotide polymorphisms selected from Hapmap60827-rs29019866, ARS-BFGL-NGS-40979, Hapmap47854-BTA-119090, ARS-BFGL-NGS-114679, Hapmap43841-BTA-34601, Hapmap43407...

  13. Determining bovine viral diarrhea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis infections in dairy cattle using precolostral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillargeon, Paul; Arango-Sabogal, Juan C; Wellemans, Vincent; Fecteau, Gilles

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if precolostral blood samples are useful to detect apparent fetal infections with bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) viruses. A convenience sample of 317 sera from 50 Canadian herds was used in the study. Antibody level was measured using 2 commercial IBR and BVD ELISA kits. Precolostral status of sera was confirmed on 304 samples using serum gamma-glutamyl transferase activity. Postcolostral serum samples yielded a higher proportion of positive results to IBR (OR = 86; 95% CI: 17.8 to 415.7) and BVD (OR = 199.3; 95% CI: 41.7 to 952.3) than did precolostral samples. All positive precolostral serum samples (n = 7 of 304) originated from calves born to vaccinated cows. Postcolostral positive serum samples (n = 11 of 13) originated mostly (60%) from calves born to non-vaccinated cows. Precolostral serum sampling can detect apparent fetal infections in a herd.

  14. [In vitro study of the interactions between bovine herpesvirus 4 and the bovine host cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderplasschen, A

    1999-01-01

    This work was devoted to the study of the interactions between bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV-4) and bovine cells in vitro. It led to the discovery of two interesting properties of BVH-4 replication cycle: first, the cellular receptor heparan sulfate was proven to mediate BVH-4 binding to target cells. This is the first description of the implication of heparan sulfate in the binding process of a gammaherpesvirus. Second, using synchronised cells, the replication of BVH-4 DNA was proven to be dependent on the S phase of the cell cycle. This dependence could explain some properties of BVH-4 infection in vitro and could play an important role in the biology of the infection in vivo. Finally, in order to produce monoclonal antibodies against BVH-4 IE1 and IE2 proteins, the genes coding for these proteins were cloned and expressed in prokaryotic cells.

  15. Prototheca zopfii isolated from bovine mastitis induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Gao, Jian; Zhou, Yanan; Liu, Gang; Ali, Tariq; Deng, Youtian; Sabir, Naveed; Su, Jingliang; Han, Bo

    2017-05-09

    Bovine protothecal mastitis results in considerable economic losses worldwide. However, Prototheca zopfii induced morphological alterations and oxidative stress in bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) is not comprehensively studied yet. Therefore, the aim of this current study was to investigate the P. zopfii induced pathomorphological changes, oxidative stress and apoptosis in bMECs. Oxidative stress was assessed by evaluating catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, while ROS generation and apoptosis was measured by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results revealed that infection of P. zopfii genotype II (GTII) significantly changed bMECs morphology, increased apoptotic rate and MDA contents at 12 h (p effects in bMECs, and the findings of this study concluded that GTII induced apoptosis and oxidative stress in bMECs via the imbalance of oxidant and antioxidant defenses as well as the production of intracellular ROS.

  16. Serological diagnosis of bovine neosporosis: a comparative study of commercially available ELISA tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-García, Gema; García-Culebras, Alicia; Gutiérrez-Expósito, Daniel; Navarro-Lozano, Vanesa; Pastor-Fernández, Iván; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel

    2013-11-15

    Bovine neosporosis control programs are currently based on herd management and serodiagnosis because effective treatments and vaccines are unavailable. Although a wide variety of serological tools have been developed, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are the most commonly commercialized tests. Partial comparative studies have been performed in the past, and the panel of available ELISAs has notably changed in the last few years. Therefore, diagnostic laboratories are requesting updated information about the performance of these tests. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to compare all of the commercially available ELISAs (n=10) by evaluating their performance and to re-standardize them based on TG-ROC analyses when necessary. For this purpose, a well-characterized serum panel from experimentally and naturally infected bovines and non-infected bovines (n=458) was used. Two different definitions of gold standard were considered: (i) the result of the majority of tests and (ii) pre-test information based on epidemiological, clinical and serological data. Most of the tests displayed high sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) values when both gold standard criteria were considered. Furthermore, all the tests showed near perfect agreement, with the exception of the pair-wise comparisons that included the VMRD and SVANOVIR. The best-adjusted ELISAs were the HIPRA-CIVTEST, IDVET, BIOVET and IDEXX Rum (Se and Sp>95%). After the TG-ROC analyses, higher Se and Sp values were obtained for the BIO-X, LSI Bov, LSI Rum and IDEXX Bov, though the increases were more significant for the SVANOVIR and VMRD. The Kappa values also increased with the new adjusted cut-offs. This is the first study that offers updated performance evaluations of commercially available ELISAs. Such analyses are essential for diagnostic laboratories and are valuable to the companies that develop and distribute these tests. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Epidemiology, pathology, immunology and diagnosis of bovine farcy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Mohamed E

    2012-06-01

    Bovine farcy (which is caused by Mycobacterium farcinogenes and Mycobacterium senegalense) is a chronic suppurative granulomatous inflammation of the skin and lymphatics of cattle and is seen mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. It is not yet certain whether Nocardia farcinica causes cutaneous nocardiosis (farcy) in animals that mimics bovine farcy. Epidemiological data have steadily reported finding bovine farcy in adult cattle of the transhumance pastoralist tribes of the Sahel and the Sudanian savannah zones. M. farcinogenes and or M. senegalense do not affect other domestic or non-domestic animals; it is not known whether these bacteria are zoonotic. The disease--once widespread in many regions--has disappeared from some countries historically known to have it. Reports of bovine farcy prevalence seem to be linked to the existence of survey initiatives by governments and diagnostic capabilities in each country. Farcy causes economic loss due to damaged hides and also is a public-health burden (because the lymphadenitis due to farcy resembles the lesions of bovine tuberculosis in carcasses and the meat is considered inappropriate for human consumption). The current literature is deficient in establishing definitely the prevalence, transmission patterns, and risk factors of bovine farcy. Ixodid ticks transmit other skin diseases (such as dermatophilosis) and might play a role in bovine farcy (given the similarity in the bio-physiology and geographic distribution of the disease). In addition, the tick-resistance of cattle breeds such as the N'Dama, Fulani or the Nilotic might explain their resistance to bovine farcy. Apart from the judicious use of conventional smear-and-culture methods, few diagnostic tests have been developed; the molecular and serological tests have not been evaluated for reproducibility and accuracy. This review points out aspects of bovine farcy that need further research and updates available data on the prevalence, distribution, risk factors

  18. Validation of proposed diagnostic criteria (the "Budapest Criteria") for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harden, R.N.; Bruehl, S.; Perez, R.S.G.M.; Birklein, F.; Marinus, J.; Maihofner, C.; Lubenow, T.; Buvanendran, A.; Mackey, S.; Graciosa, J.; Mogilevski, M.; Ramsden, C.; Chont, M.; Vatine, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Current IASP diagnostic criteria for CRPS have low specificity, potentially leading to overdiagnosis. This validation study compared current IASP diagnostic criteria for CRPS to proposed new diagnostic criteria (the "Budapest Criteria") regarding diagnostic accuracy. Structured evaluations of

  19. Detection of bovine herpesvirus type 4 antibodies and bovine lymphotropic herpesvirus in New Zealand dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, M W; Zheng, T; Buddle, B M; McDougall, S

    2014-11-01

    To detect the presence of bovine herpesvirus (BoHV) type 4 in New Zealand dairy cows with clinical metritis. Serum samples taken from 92 dairy cows with clinical metritis, each from a different farm, were tested for the presence of antibodies against BoHV-4 using a commercially available, indirect ELISA. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were collected from 10 BoHV-4 seropositive cows, and PBMC were examined by a pan-herpesvirus nested PCR to detect herpesvirus. PCR products were sequenced directly and a proportion of the PCR products were cloned and sequenced to identify the virus present. Antibodies to BoHV-4 were detected in 23/92 (25%) serum samples. The pan-herpesvirus PCR was positive in 8/10 PBMC samples. Cloning and sequencing identified that all of the eight PCR-positive PBMC contained bovine lymphotropic herpesvirus (BLHV); no BoHV-4 DNA was detected. This study reports the finding of the presence of apparent antibodies to BoHV-4, and BLHV DNA in New Zealand dairy cows affected by metritis. Bovine herpesvirus type 4 and BLHV are reported to have the potential to cause reproduction failure in cows. This is the first report of apparent BoHV-4 antibodies, and BLHV in New Zealand. The importance and epidemiology of these viruses in cattle in New Zealand requires further investigation.

  20. Bovine papillomavirus DNA in milk, blood, urine, semen, and spermatozoa of bovine papillomavirus-infected animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, C L; Almeida, M E; Vicari, C F; Carvalho, C; Yaguiu, A; Freitas, A C; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2009-01-01

    Papillomavirus infection in bovines is associated with cutaneous papillomatosis on the hide, udders and other epithelial tissues, as well as in oral respiratory, alimentary and urinary tract mucosa. Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is also considered the etiological agent of esophageal tumors and the malignant bladder tumors that characterize the clinical condition associated with chronic enzootic hematuria. After infective viral DNA was found in cattle blood and BPV1, 2 and 4 DNA in cattle reproductive and embryonic tissues, we looked for and found BPV DNA in blood, milk, urine, seminal fluid, and spermatozoa of BPV-infected animals. Peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures from BPV-infected animals had high rates of chromosome aberrations, including radial rearrangements that signal oncogenic potential and viral interaction with telomeric regions. The finding of BPV DNA in body fluids and tissues other than the epithelium demonstrates co-infection of other tissues or cell types by papillomavirus and shows the potential role of lymphocytes, seminal fluid and spermatozoa in BPV transmission. Our findings reinforce a peremptory need for prophylactic and therapeutic instruments to curtail this disease in bovine livestock.

  1. Gabor Weber Local Descriptor for Bovine Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition is a robust biometric technology. This paper proposes a novel local descriptor for bovine iris recognition, named Gabor Weber local descriptor (GWLD. We first compute the Gabor magnitude maps for the input bovine iris image, and then calculate the differential excitation and orientation for each pixel over each Gabor magnitude map. After that, we use these differential excitations and orientations to construct the GWLD histogram representation. Finally, histogram intersection is adopted to measure the similarity between different GWLD histograms. The experimental results on the SEU bovine iris database verify the representation power of our proposed local descriptor.

  2. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV

    2007-01-01

    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology...... and characteristic amyloid X-ray fiber diffraction peaks. Fibrillation occurs over minutes to hours without a lag phase, is independent of seeding and shows only moderate concentration dependence, suggesting intramolecular aggregation nuclei. Nevertheless, multi-exponential increases in dye-binding signal...... and changes in morphology suggest the existence of different aggregate species. Although beta-sheet content increases from 0 to ca. 40% upon aggregation, the aggregates retain significant amounts of alpha-helix structure, and lack a protease-resistant core. Thus BSA is able to form well-ordered beta...

  3. Diagnosis and Control of Bovine Neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Milton M

    2016-07-01

    Neosporosis is one of the most common and widespread causes of bovine abortion. The causative parasite is transmitted in at least two ways, horizontally from canids, and by endogenous transmission within maternal lines of infected cattle. The prevalence of neosporosis is higher in the dairy industry than in the beef industry because of risk factors associated with intensive feeding. There are no vaccines, but logical management options are discussed that can lower the risk of abortion outbreaks and gradually reduce the prevalence of infection within herds. Steps should be taken to prevent total mixed rations from becoming contaminated by canine feces. If a herd has a high rate of infection that is associated with abortions in heifers, then the rate of reduction of infection prevalence can be speeded by only selecting seronegative replacement heifers to enter the breeding herd. Elimination of all infected cattle is not a recommended goal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Copy number variation in the bovine genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadista, João; Thomsen, Bo; Holm, Lars-Erik

    2010-01-01

    to genetic variation in cattle. Results We designed and used a set of NimbleGen CGH arrays that tile across the assayable portion of the cattle genome with approximately 6.3 million probes, at a median probe spacing of 301 bp. This study reports the highest resolution map of copy number variation...... in the cattle genome, with 304 CNV regions (CNVRs) being identified among the genomes of 20 bovine samples from 4 dairy and beef breeds. The CNVRs identified covered 0.68% (22 Mb) of the genome, and ranged in size from 1.7 to 2,031 kb (median size 16.7 kb). About 20% of the CNVs co-localized with segmental...

  5. Human bovine tuberculosis - remains in the differential.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bilal, Shaukat

    2010-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is a pathogen of cattle. The unpasteurized milk of affected cattle is a source of infection in humans. Despite the screening of cattle and the pasteurization of milk, M bovis has not been eradicated. A high index of clinical suspicion is needed in symptomatic patients with a history of possible exposure. At risk groups include animal workers, farmers, meat packers, vets and zoo keepers. Humans are usually infected by the aerosol route. We present two cases of human bovine tuberculosis. One was a presumptive case and the second was a confirmed case. Both responded well to antituberculous therapy. In the confirmed case, there was evidence of transmission to the partner living in the same house. Rifampicin prophylaxis was given to the exposed case. The M. bovis from the confirmed case was isoniazid resistant, in addition to having the well known resistance to pyrazinamide. Isoniazid resistance has been described before in those who are immunocompromised. We describe it in an immunocompetent patient.

  6. Paternally inherited markers in bovine hybrid populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkaar, E L C; Vervaecke, H; Roden, C; Romero Mendoza, L; Barwegen, M W; Susilawati, T; Nijman, I J; Lenstra, J A

    2003-12-01

    The genetic integrity of crossfertile bovine- or cattle-like species may be endangered by species hybridization. Previously, amplified fragment length polymorphism, satellite fragment length polymorphism and microsatellite assays have been used to analyze the species composition of nuclear DNA in taurine cattle, zebu, banteng and bison populations, while mitochondrial DNA reveals the origin of the maternal lineages. Here, we describe species-specific markers of the paternally transmitted Y-chromosome for the direct detection of male-mediated introgression. Convenient PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and competitive PCR assays are shown to differentiate the Y-chromosomes of taurine cattle, American bison and European bison, and to detect the banteng origin of Indonesian Madura and Bali cattle bulls.

  7. Field Surgical Intervention of Bovine Actinomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Farooq*, A. Qayyum, H. A. Samad, H. R. Chaudhry and N. Ahmad1

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycosis, or lumpy jaw, is an important cause of economic losses in livestock because of its widespread occurrence and poor response to the routine clinical treatment. The present study describes a typical case of bovine actinomycosis in a seven-month pregnant Sahiwal heifer with a hard swelling on the middle of the maxilla bone at the level of the central molar teeth. Tentative diagnosis was made through clinical signs. After maturation of the swelling, the area was incised under local anesthesia and debridement of the wound was achieved by sharp surgical debridement and mechanical debridement. Pus, having the appearance of sulphur granules, was completely removed from the excised cavity, which was closed by applying mattress sutures. Adjunct therapy of broad-spectrum antibiotic was administered intramuscularly for five days as a post-operative measure. Catamnesis revealed that the healing was complete in 15 days with no recurrence and untoward consequences.

  8. Evaluating Dependence Criteria for Caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striley, Catherine L W; Griffiths, Roland R; Cottler, Linda B

    2011-12-01

    Background: Although caffeine is the most widely used mood-altering drug in the world, few studies have operationalized and characterized Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV) substance dependence criteria applied to caffeine. Methods: As a part of a nosological study of substance use disorders funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, we assessed caffeine use and dependence symptoms among high school and college students, drug treatment patients, and pain clinic patients who reported caffeine use in the last 7 days and also reported use of alcohol, nicotine, or illicit drugs within the past year (n=167). Results: Thirty-five percent met the criteria for dependence when all seven of the adopted DSM dependence criteria were used. Rates of endorsement of several of the most applicable diagnostic criteria were as follows: 26% withdrawal, 23% desire to cut down or control use, and 44% continued use despite harm. In addition, 34% endorsed craving, 26% said they needed caffeine to function, and 10% indicated that they talked to a physician or counselor about problems experienced with caffeine. There was a trend towards increased caffeine dependence among those dependent on nicotine or alcohol. Within a subgroup that had used caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine in the past year, 28% fulfilled criteria for caffeine dependence compared to 50% for alcohol and 80% for nicotine. Conclusion: The present study adds to a growing literature suggesting the reliability, validity, and clinical utility of the caffeine dependence diagnosis. Recognition of caffeine dependence in the DSM-V may be clinically useful.

  9. Nonenzymatic glycosylation of bovine myelin basic protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitz, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    In the CNS myelin sheath the nonenzymatic glycosylation reaction (at the early stage of the Amadori product) occurs only with the myelin basic protein and not with the other myelin proteins. This was observed in isolated bovine myelin by in vitro incubation with (/sup 14/C)-galactose and (/sup 14/C)-glucose. The respective in-vitro incorporation rates for purified bovine myelin basic protein with D-galactose, D-glucose and D-mannose were 7.2, 2.4 and 2.4 mmoles/mole myelin basic protein per day at 37/sup 0/C. A more rapid, HPLC method was devised and characterized to specifically analyze for the Amadori product. The HPLC method was correlated to the (/sup 14/C)-sugar incorporation method for myelin basic protein under a set of standard reaction conditions using (/sup 14/C)-glucose and (/sup 14/C)-mannose with HPLC values at 1/6 and 1/5 of the (/sup 14/C)-sugar incorporation method. A novel myelin basic protein purification step has been developed that yields a relativity proteolytic free preparation that is easy to work with, being totally soluble at a neutral pH. Nine new spots appear for a trypsinized glycosylated MBP in the paper peptide map of which eight correspond to positions of the (/sup 3/H)-labeled Amadori product in affinity isolated peptides. These studies provide a general characterization of and a structural basis for investigations on nonenzymatically glycosylated MBP as well as identifying MBP as the only nonenzymatically glycosylated protein in the CNS myelin sheath which may accumulate during aging, diabetes, and demyelinating diseases in general.

  10. Determination of ibuprofen, ketoprofen, diclofenac and phenylbutazone in bovine milk by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, G; Gallo, P; Fabbrocino, S; Serpe, L; Regan, L

    2008-12-01

    A method has been developed to analyse for ibuprofen (IBP), ketoprofen (KPF), diclofenac (DCF) and phenylbutazone (PBZ) residues in bovine milk. Milk samples were extracted with acetonitrile and sample extracts were purified on Isolute C(18) solid-phase extraction cartridges. Aliquots were analysed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The method was validated in bovine milk, according to the criteria defined in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The decision limits (CCalpha were 0.59, 2.69, 0.90 and 0.70 ng ml(-1), respectively, for IBP, KPF, DCF and PBZ, and detection capabilities (CCbeta) of 1.01, 4.58, 1.54 and 1.19 ng ml(-1), respectively, were obtained. The measurement uncertainty of the method was 17.8%, 80.9%, 28.2% and 20.2% for IBP, KPF, DCF and PBZ, respectively. Fortifying bovine milk samples (n = 18) in three separate assays show the accuracy of the method to be between 104% and 112%. The precision of the method, expressed as relative standard deviations for the within-laboratory reproducibility at the three levels of fortification (5, 7.5 and 10 ng ml(-1)) was less than 8% for IBP, DCF and PBZ, respectively. Poor precision was obtained for KPF with a relative standard deviation of 28%.

  11. Characterization of angiogenin receptors on bovine brain capillary endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamoux, M; Dehouck, M P; Fruchart, J C; Spik, G; Montreuil, J; Cecchelli, R

    1991-04-30

    The mitogenic effect of bovine milk angiogenin was studied on bovine brain capillary and aortic endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. The proliferation of only bovine brain capillary endothelial cells was detected at concentrations ranging from 10 to 1,000 ng/ml, with a maximum effect at 100 ng/ml. This mitogenic activity may be correlated with a specific binding of angiogenin which was demonstrated only to bovine brain capillary endothelial cells. [125I]-labeled angiogenin binding was time and concentration dependent and saturable. Scatchard analyses of binding data showed evidence of a single class of binding sites with an apparent dissociation constant of 5.10(-10)M. The molecular mass of the angiogenin receptor (49 kDa) was determined by ligand blotting.

  12. Fraction V of bovine albumin improves the adherence and survival ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-04

    2,3. , Y. Yong ... Key words: Adult, neocortex, primary culture, fraction V of bovine albumin. INTRODUCTION. Alzheimer's disease ... models to study development, aging and death (Lesuisse et al., 2002; Akasofu et al., 2006).

  13. Horosho li Iraku i Rossii vmeste? / Aleksandr Bovin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bovin, Aleksandr

    2003-01-01

    Venemaa erakorraline ja täievoliline suursaadik Iisraelis Aleksandr Bovin arvab, et Venemaa ei tohiks võtta jäika positsiooni Iraagi kaitseks USA vastu, vaid ootama kõrvalseisjana konflikti lahendust

  14. Short communication Prevalence and risk factors of bovine mastitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were selected from all volunteer dairy farms in Ambo town of West Shewa Zone of ... economic implication of bovine mastitis derives from the high costs of treat- ... wot et al., 2013) and 95% statistical confidence level at 5% absolute precision.

  15. Investigation into the prevalence of bovine brucellosis and the risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation into the prevalence of bovine brucellosis and the risk factors that predispose human to infection among urban dairy and non-dairy farming households in Dagoretti Division, Nairobi, Kenya.

  16. Aspiration lung disorders in bovines: A case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony S. Shakespeare

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Lung aspiration disorders in bovines are invariably diagnosed as infectious aspiration pneumonias. There is a distinct differentiation between aspiration pneumonia and aspiration pneumonitis in humans that can be applied to bovines. The nature and quantity of the aspirate can result in differing pathogeneses which can require differing therapeutic approaches. Whilst blood gases were important in detecting and prognosticating lung problems, changes in barometric pressure with altitude have to be considered when interpreting partial pressures of oxygen. Anatomical differences in the lungs of bovines can explain why this species is more prone to certain pneumonic problems. Pulmonary physiotherapy is important in treating lung disorders in humans and should be considered as an adjunct therapy in bovine respiratory conditions. A case work-up was used to highlight some of the points discussed in this article.

  17. Isolation rates and antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The success of bovine mastitis therapy depends on the aetiology, clinical ... Among the main reasons of low efficacy of antibiotic treatment of mastitis cases is ..... Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed, Williams and Wilkins, USA.

  18. Structure and Function of Bovine and Camel Chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm

    The central step in cheese making is the separation of milk into curd and whey. This can be done enzymatically by hydrolysis of the Phe105-Met106 bond or nearby bonds in bovine κ-casein, which releases its hydrophilic C-terminal leading to coagulation of the milk. The preferred enzyme...... for this action is bovine chymosin from the calf's stomach, as it has a high activity towards the Phe105-Met106 bond, and a low activity towards other bonds in the milk proteins, as the latter can lead to loss of protein in the whey and release of peptides with a bitter taste. Chymosin was isolated from camel...... and characterised, and turned out to have an even higher activity and specificity towards the Phe105-Met106 bond than bovine chymosin. The sequences of bovine and camel chymosin are 85% identical, and yet they have significantly different cheese making properties. The aim of the project was to explain...

  19. Expression of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus glycoprotein D ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    , immunoblotting. INTRODUCTION. Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), a member of the Alphahe- rpesvirinae subfamily (Meurens et al., 2004), classified in the list B of the Office International des Epizooties. (Winkler et al., 2000), ...

  20. Studies on the interaction between triptolide and Bovine Serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the interaction between triptolide and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) by spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods. Haidong Wang, Hailang Shi, Jie Pang, Xingfa Song, Caiyun Xu, Zengxian Sun ...

  1. On the possible involvement of bovine serum albumin precursor in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    biotin affinity chromatography and mass finger printing analysis technique, herein we report the identification of a 70 kDa size protein (bovine serum albumin precursor, BSAP) which binds strongly with lipoplexes and may play role in lipofection ...

  2. Prevalence and economics and bovine leukosis in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, D.K.; Beal, V.C. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews the prevalence of bovine leukosis in the US and discusses the economic significance of the disease. The term leukosis is used except when reporting the Meat Inspection Department data which used the term malignant lymphoma instead. (PCS)

  3. Bacteriological Studies of Bovine Granulomatous Lesions in Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ogoja, Ikom and Calabar) in Cross River State within a 12-month study period April, 2002 – March, 2003. Mycobacteriological study of bovine granulomatous lesions obtained from these abattoirs was carried out. The diagnostic tools used for this ...

  4. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of bovine and shark cartilage as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  5. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of bovine and shark cartilage as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  6. 7 CFR 1570.20 - Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria. 1570.20 Section 1570.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Criteria § 1570.20 Criteria. The criteria considered by FAS in reviewing proposals for SOAP and COAP...

  7. 22 CFR 181.2 - Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Criteria. 181.2 Section 181.2 Foreign Relations... AGREEMENTS § 181.2 Criteria. (a) General. The following criteria are to be applied in deciding whether any... meaning of 1 U.S.C. 112a, requiring the publication of international agreements. Each of the criteria...

  8. 7 CFR 1494.20 - Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria. 1494.20 Section 1494.20 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS EXPORT BONUS PROGRAMS Export Enhancement Program Criteria § 1494.20 Criteria. The criteria considered by CCC in reviewing proposals for initiatives will include...

  9. 33 CFR 331.5 - Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria. 331.5 Section 331.5... ADMINISTRATIVE APPEAL PROCESS § 331.5 Criteria. (a) Criteria for appeal—(1) Submission of RFA. The appellant must... material fact; incorrect application of the current regulatory criteria and associated guidance for...

  10. 36 CFR 401.9 - Evaluation criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evaluation criteria. 401.9... MEMORIALS § 401.9 Evaluation criteria. Commission consideration of a request to approve a memorial will include, but not be limited to, evaluation of following criteria: Criteria Discussion (a) How long has it...

  11. 7 CFR 658.5 - Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria. 658.5 Section 658.5 Agriculture Regulations... AGRICULTURE SUPPORT ACTIVITIES FARMLAND PROTECTION POLICY ACT § 658.5 Criteria. This section states the criteria required by section 1541(a) of the Act, 7 U.S.C. 4202(a). The criteria were developed by the...

  12. 7 CFR 1494.1101 - Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria. 1494.1101 Section 1494.1101 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Criteria § 1494.1101 Criteria. The criteria considered in evaluating and approving proposals for the DEIP...

  13. 40 CFR 131.11 - Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria. 131.11 Section 131.11... Establishment of Water Quality Standards § 131.11 Criteria. (a) Inclusion of pollutants: (1) States must adopt those water quality criteria that protect the designated use. Such criteria must be based on sound...

  14. 15 CFR 768.6 - Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria. 768.6 Section 768.6 Commerce... DETERMINATION PROCEDURES AND CRITERIA § 768.6 Criteria. BIS will evaluate the evidence contained in a FAS or TAC certification and all other evidence gathered in the assessment process in accordance with certain criteria that...

  15. 30 CFR 104.3 - Pattern criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pattern criteria. 104.3 Section 104.3 Mineral... VIOLATIONS § 104.3 Pattern criteria. (a) The criteria of this section shall be used to identify those mines with a potential pattern of violations. These criteria shall be applied only after initial screening...

  16. 32 CFR 761.6 - Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria. 761.6 Section 761.6 National Defense... PACIFIC ISLANDS Criteria and Basic Controls § 761.6 Criteria. (a) General. (1) Entry authorizations may be... granted; 1 1 The criteria so marked are applicable only to those applications concerning entry into areas...

  17. 46 CFR 385.51 - Criteria: Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criteria: Projects. 385.51 Section 385.51 Shipping... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS Criteria for Award § 385.51 Criteria: Projects. The criteria to be used by MarAd in evaluating all projects prior to award of a grant or cooperative agreement are as follows: (a...

  18. A philosophical analysis of the Hill criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Andersen, Gregers Stig; Andersen, Hanne

    2005-01-01

    The epidemiological literature contains an ongoing and diversified discussion of the Hill criteria. This article offers a philosophical analysis of the criteria, showing that the criteria are related to two different views of causality. The authors argue that the criteria of strength, specificity...

  19. Detection and characterization of viruses as field and vaccine strains in feedlot cattle with bovine respiratory disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated viruses in bovine respiratory disease (BRD) cases in feedlots, including bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V). Nasal swabs were collected fro...

  20. Strain-Specific Barriers against Bovine Prions in Hamsters ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Nicot, Simon; Baron, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the susceptibilities of Syrian golden hamsters to transmissible spongiform encephalopathy agents from cattle. We report efficient transmission of the L-type atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent into hamsters. Importantly, hamsters were also susceptible to the transmissible mink encephalopathy agent from cattle, which has molecular features similar to those of the L-type BSE agent, as also shown in bovinized transgenic mice. In sharp contrast, hamsters could no...

  1. MG-132 reduces virus release in Bovine herpesvirus-1 infection

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorito, Filomena; Iovane, Valentina; Cantiello, Antonietta; Marullo, Annarosaria; Martino, Luisa De; Iovane, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) can provoke conjunctivitis, abortions and shipping fever. BoHV-1 infection can also cause immunosuppression and increased susceptibility to secondary bacterial infections, leading to pneumonia and occasionally to death. Herein, we investigated the influence of MG-132, a proteasome inhibitor, on BoHV-1 infection in bovine kidney (MDBK) cells. Infection of MDBK cells with BoHV-1 induces apoptotic cell death that enhances virus release. Whereas, MG-132 inhibited vir...

  2. Genetic analysis of lactoferrin content in bovine milk

    OpenAIRE

    Arnould, Valérie; Soyeurt, Hélène; Gengler, Nicolas; Colinet, Frédéric; Georges, Marielle; Bertozzi, Carlo; Portetelle, Daniel; Renaville, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Bovine lactoferrin (LF) is mainly present in milk and shows important physiological and biological functions. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability and correlation values of LF content in bovine milk with different economic traits as milk yield (MY), fat and protein percentages, and somatic cell score (SCS). Variance components of the studied traits were estimated by REML using a multiple-trait mixed model. The obtained heritability (0.22) for LF content predicted using mid-i...

  3. Drug solubility classification in the bovine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M N; Apley, M D

    2012-04-01

    Currently, the basis for solubility test conditions and the corresponding solubility criteria is derived from the tremendous wealth of information developed to support human pharmaceutical product development and regulation. However, there are several critical differences between the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants and monogastric species that can affect the conditions and criteria to be applied to the classification of drug solubility in cattle. These include the pH of the stomach, the volume of the stomach, the types of oral formulations, and the definition of 'highest dose'. These points are discussed below and alternative perspectives for consideration with regard to possible modification of solubility criteria for ruminants are presented. © Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Reflexive criteria of sociological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R T Ubaydullaeva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the sociological criteria of explaining the way of thinking and actions of subjects, their spiritual and moral positions and intellectual forces that form the laws of social life. The author seeks to adapt such categories as ‘meaning of life’, ‘human dignity’, ‘rationality’ etc. for the purposes of sociological analysis by methodological construction of some real life dichotomies such as ‘subjective meaning and social function’, ‘the real and the ideal’, ‘the demanded and the excluded’. Thus, the author studies economic, political and technical processes in terms of both positivity and negativity of social interaction and states that given the increasing differentiation of the society and the contradictory trends of social development the reflexive criteria that take into account the socio-cultural nature of the man help to find one’s own model of development.

  5. Four Criteria for Design Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hodges

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that the adoption of the four criteria we outline will strengthen future design theories and encourage existing design theories to expand or reconfigure in useful directions. We propose four criteria for design theory creation and evaluation. These are (1 the theory should have substantial design applications, and be applicable to any topic; (2 the theory should use propositions—if-then language—as a way of describing, explaining, and predicting actual and existing aspects of designing; (3 where appropriate, a new theory should accept and adopt propositions and language contained in other design theories; and (4 the theory should accommodate, or at least acknowledge, generative activity. We are not proposing a new general design theory—this paper outlines a strong approach to studying and building theory. Please also note that this essay does not pretend to exhaust a topic that has been discussed for at least the last 50 years.

  6. Good Criteria for Supply Chain Performance Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Kusrini

    2014-03-01

    conducted by distributing questionnaires to supply chain actors from different industry fields (both manufacturing and services in Indonesia using random sampling techniques. Data analysis using pairwise comparisons with an analytical Hierarchy Process model showed that efficient criteria were more important than effective criteria. Efficient criteria consisted of three sub-criteria: the amount of data is not too much and low cost and output is presented in a simple form. Effective criteria consisted of the criteria in the order of importance as follows: clarity, validity, comprehensiveness, responsiveness and dynamics. Further research is needed for developing a model that meets these criteria

  7. Proposed diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, O.R.; Rajshekhar, V.; White, A.C.; Tsang, V.C.W.; Nash, T.E.; Takayanagui, O.M.; Schantz, P.M.; Evans, C.A.W.; Flisser, A.; Correa, D.; Botero, D.; Allan, J.C.; Sart̀i, E.; Gonzalez, A.E.; Gilman, R.H.; García, H.H.

    2010-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is the most common helminthic infection of the CNS but its diagnosis remains difficult. Clinical manifestations are nonspecific, most neuroimaging findings are not pathognomonic, and some serologic tests have low sensitivity and specificity. The authors provide diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis based on objective clinical, imaging, immunologic, and epidemiologic data. These include four categories of criteria stratified on the basis of their diagnostic strength, including the following: 1) absolute—histologic demonstration of the parasite from biopsy of a brain or spinal cord lesion, cystic lesions showing the scolex on CT or MRI, and direct visualization of subretinal parasites by funduscopic examination; 2) major—lesions highly suggestive of neurocysticercosis on neuroimaging studies, positive serum enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot for the detection of anticysticercal antibodies, resolution of intracranial cystic lesions after therapy with albendazole or praziquantel, and spontaneous resolution of small single enhancing lesions; 3) minor—lesions compatible with neurocysticercosis on neuroimaging studies, clinical manifestations suggestive of neurocysticercosis, positive CSF enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of anticysticercal antibodies or cysticercal antigens, and cysticercosis outside the CNS; and 4) epidemiologic—evidence of a household contact with Taenia solium infection, individuals coming from or living in an area where cysticercosis is endemic, and history of frequent travel to disease-endemic areas. Interpretation of these criteria permits two degrees of diagnostic certainty: 1) definitive diagnosis, in patients who have one absolute criterion or in those who have two major plus one minor and one epidemiologic criterion; and 2) probable diagnosis, in patients who have one major plus two minor criteria, in those who have one major plus one minor and one epidemiologic criterion, and in those who

  8. Admission Criteria for MBA Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana Dakduk; José Malavé; Carmen Cecilia Torres; Hugo Montesinos; Laura Michelena

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a review of studies on admission criteria for MBA programs. The method consisted in a literary review based on a systematic search in international databases (Emerald, ABI/INFORM Global, ProQuest Education Journals, ProQuest European Business, ProQuest Science Journal, ProQuest Research Library, ProQuest Psychology Journals, ProQuest Social Science Journals and Business Source Complete) of studies published from January 1990 to December 2013, which explore the academic perf...

  9. Evaluating Dependence Criteria for Caffeine

    OpenAIRE

    Striley, Catherine L.W.; Griffiths, Roland R.; Cottler, Linda B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although caffeine is the most widely used mood-altering drug in the world, few studies have operationalized and characterized Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV) substance dependence criteria applied to caffeine. Methods: As a part of a nosological study of substance use disorders funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, we assessed caffeine use and dependence symptoms among high school and college students, drug treatment patients, and pain clinic patients who re...

  10. New criteria to identify spectrum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    This enables us to give new criteria to identify spectral types of self-adjoint operators on Hilbert spaces, especially those of ... of a self-adjoint operator H on a (separable) Hilbert space H. Associated with H is the spectral measure E(·). ..... Now the spaces Lp((c, d)), 0 < p < 1, are metric spaces with the metric d(f, g) = f − g p p.

  11. Stability criteria for complex ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allesina, Stefano; Tang, Si

    2012-02-19

    Forty years ago, May proved that sufficiently large or complex ecological networks have a probability of persisting that is close to zero, contrary to previous expectations. May analysed large networks in which species interact at random. However, in natural systems pairs of species have well-defined interactions (for example predator-prey, mutualistic or competitive). Here we extend May's results to these relationships and find remarkable differences between predator-prey interactions, which are stabilizing, and mutualistic and competitive interactions, which are destabilizing. We provide analytic stability criteria for all cases. We use the criteria to prove that, counterintuitively, the probability of stability for predator-prey networks decreases when a realistic food web structure is imposed or if there is a large preponderance of weak interactions. Similarly, stability is negatively affected by nestedness in bipartite mutualistic networks. These results are found by separating the contribution of network structure and interaction strengths to stability. Stable predator-prey networks can be arbitrarily large and complex, provided that predator-prey pairs are tightly coupled. The stability criteria are widely applicable, because they hold for any system of differential equations.

  12. Repository operational criteria comparative analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hageman, J.P.; Chowdhury, A.H. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

    1994-06-01

    The objective of the ``Repository Operational Criteria (ROC) Feasibility Studies`` (or ROC task) was to conduct comprehensive and integrated analyses of repository design, construction, and operations criteria in 10 CFR Part 60 regulations considering the interfaces among the components of the regulations and impacts of any potential changes to those regulations. The ROC task addresses regulatory criteria and uncertainties related to the preclosure aspects of the geologic repository. Those parts of 10 CFR Part 60 that require routine guidance or minor changes to the rule were addressed in Hageman and Chowdhury, 1992. The ROC task shows a possible need for further regulatory clarity, by major changes to the rule, related to the design bases and siting of a geologic repository operations area and radiological emergency planning in order to assure defense-in-depth. The analyses, presented in this report, resulted in the development and refinement of regulatory concepts and their supporting rationale for recommendations for potential major changes to 10 CFR Pan 0 regulations.

  13. Homologous recombination in bovine pestiviruses. Phylogenetic and statistic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leandro Roberto; Weber, E Laura

    2004-12-01

    Bovine pestiviruses (Bovine Viral Diarrea Virus 1 (BVDV 1) and Bovine Viral Diarrea Virus 2 (BVDV 2)) belong to the genus Pestivirus (Flaviviridae), which is composed of positive stranded RNA viruses causing significant economic losses world-wide. We used phylogenetic and bootstrap analyses to systematically scan alignments of previously sequenced genomes in order to explore further the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for variation in the virus. Previously published data suggested that homologous crossover might be one of the mechanisms responsible for the genomic rearrangements observed in cytopathic (cp) strains of bovine pestiviruses. Nevertheless, homologous recombination involves not just homologous crossovers, but also replacement of a homologous region of the acceptor RNA. Furthermore, cytopathic strains represent dead paths in evolution, since they are isolated exclusively from the fatal cases of mucosal disease. Herein, we report evidence of homologous inter-genotype recombination in the genome of a non-cytopathic (ncp) strain of Bovine Viral Diarrea Virus 1, the type species of the genus Pestivirus. We also show that intra-genotype homologous recombination might be a common phenomenon in both species of Pestivirus. This evidence demonstrates that homologous recombination contribute to the diversification of bovine pestiviruses in nature. Implications for virus evolution, taxonomy and phylogenetics are discussed.

  14. Rheological behaviors of bovine blood forming artificial rouleaux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaibara, M

    1983-01-01

    A purpose of the present study is to make an artificial rouleau of bovine red blood cells which is not capable of rouleau formation under physiological condition. Rheological behaviors of bovine blood forming artificial rouleaux were examined. The modification of cell surface by enzyme trypsin induced rouleau formation, whereas the modification of cell surface by neuraminidase did not cause any aggregate formation. The drastic elevation of the fibrinogen content in bovine red blood cells suspension also brought about the formation of rouleau. The value of dynamic rigidity modulus G' of bovine red blood cells in saline solution containing high concentration of fibrinogen is somewhat smaller than that of trypsin treated bovine red blood cells in plasma. The value of G' of trypsin treated bovine red blood cells in plasma first increased to a maximum value and then decreased with the time. It is supposed that the removal of macro-molecules from the cell surface facilitates the mutual approach of cells and causes the formation of rouleau which seems to be the same as that of human and horse bloods.

  15. Stability of Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 nucleic acid in fetal bovine samples stored under different conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection of pregnant cattle with bovine viral diarrhea viruses can result in reproductive disease that includes fetal reabsorption, mummification, abortion, still births, congenital defects affecting structural, neural, reproductive and immune systems and the birth of calves persistently infected w...

  16. Bovine coronavirus antibody titers at weaning negatively correlate with incidence of bovine respiratory disease in the feed yard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is a multifactorial disease caused by complex interactions among viral and bacterial pathogens, stressful management practices and host genetic variability. Although vaccines and antibiotic treatments are readily available to prevent and treat infection caus...

  17. Isolation of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in association with the in vitro production of bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielanski, A; Loewen, K S; Del Campo, M R; Sirard, M A; Willadsen, S

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether oocytes obtained from bovine ovaries collected at commercial abattoirs for use in in vitro fertilization programs would be contaminated with bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) and/or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). In total, of 85 samples tested containing 759 embryos produced by in vitro fertilization, 2 (2.4%) were positive for BHV-1 while none were positive for BVDV. The follicular fluid collected during oocyte aspiration tested positive in 11.8% for BVH-1 and in 4.7% for BVDV. Oviductal cells used to co-culture zygotes/embryos tested positive for BHV-1 and BVDV in 6.2% and 1.2% samples respectively.

  18. Preliminary quality assessment of bovine colostrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Taranto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Data on bovine colostrum quality are scarce or absent, although Commission Regulations No 1662/2006 and No 1663/2006 include colostrum in the context of chapters on milk. Thus the aim of the present work is to study some physical, chemical, hygiene and safety quality parameters of bovine colostrum samples collected from Sicily and Calabria dairy herds. Thirty individual samples were sampled after 2-3 days from partum. The laboratory tests included: pH, fat (FT, total nitrogen (TN, lactose (LTS and dry matter (NM percentage (Lactostar and somatic cell count (CCS (DeLaval cell counter DCC. Bacterial counts included: standard plate count (SPC, total psychrophilic aerobic count (PAC, total, fecal coliforms by MPN (Most Probable Number, sulphite-reducing bacteria (SR. Salmonella spp. was determined. Bacteriological examinations were performed according to the American Public Health Association (APHA methods, with some adjustements related to the requirements of the study. Statistical analysis of data was performed by Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. The results showed a low variability of pH values and FT, TN and DM percentage between samples; whereas LTS trend was less noticeable. A significant negative correlation (P<0.01 was observed between pH, TN and LTS amount. The correlation between LTS and TN contents was highly significant (P<0.001. Highly significant and negative was the correlation (P<0.001 between DM, NT and LTS content. SPC mean values were 7.54 x106 CFU/mL; PAC mean values were also high (3.3x106 CFU/mL. Acceptable values of coagulase positive staphylococci were showed; 3 Staphylococcus aureus and 1 Staphylococcus epidermidis strains was isolated. Coagulase negative staphylococci counts were low. A high variability in the number of TC, as for FC was observed; bacterial loads were frequently fairly high. Salmonella spp. and SR bacteria were absent. It was assumed that bacteria from samples had a prevailing environmental origin

  19. [Bovine neonatal pancytopenia in German Holstein calves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Bettina Constanze; Ulrich, Reiner; Kuiper, Heidi; Reinacher, Manfred; Peters, Martin; Heimberg, Peter; Holsteg, Mark; Puff, Christina; Haas, Ludwig; Ganter, Martin; Distl, Ottmar

    2011-01-01

    Profiles of blood cell counts were evaluated for 15 calves from three different farms. These calves showed petechia in the mucous membranes and in the skin and prolonged secondary bleeding after puncture. The clinical course of the disease could be observed in eleven calves. With exception of one case, the blood cell counts indicated a severe anaemia, leukocytopenia and thrombocytopenia. Out of these 15 calves, six calves survived and the other nine calves died or had to be euthanized due to the severity of the disease. Necropsy of these nine calves revealed petechia in the skin, subcutis, muscles, in inner organs and all serous membranes. Pathohistological examination showed a depletion of the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue in eight calves. These findings confirmed the diagnosis of bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP) for eight of these nine calves. Bluetongue virus serotype 8 was tested negatively using PCR. Bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) was negatively tested using immunofluorescence and cell culture and salmonella species were negatively tested in seven dissected calves. A cluster of toxins was negatively tested in one of the dissected calves. All 15 calves had high antibody titres for BVDV. The BVDV-antibody titres from twelve dams with affected calves were positive in six cases and not detectable in the other six cases. In three of the six dams with not detectable BVDV-antibody titres, calves were fed with colostrum of a further dam with high BVDV-antibody titres. In the further three dams without detectable BVDV-antibody titres, we could not ascertain which colostrum has been fed to the calves. BVDV-specific antigen could not be detected in any of the samples from the calves and dams tested. Using the activity of the gamma-glutamyl-transferase, we assumed a sufficient supply with colostrum for the examined calves.The cause for the occurrence of these BNP cases was due to bone marrow depletion.The reason for the bone marrow depletion remained unclear

  20. Nucleolar changes in bovine nucleotransferred embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, V; Vignon, X; LeBourhis, D; Renard, J P; Fléchon, J E

    2002-02-01

    This study focused on nucleolar changes in bovine embryos reconstructed from enucleated mature oocytes fused with blastomeres of morulae or with cultured, serum unstarved bovine fetal skin fibroblasts (embryonic vs. somatic cloning). The nucleotransferred (NT) embryos were collected and fixed at time intervals of 1-2 h (early 1-cell stage), 10-15 h (late 1-cell stage), 22-24 h (2-cell stage), 37-38 h (4-cell stage), 40-41 h (early 8-cell stage), 47-48 h (late 8-cell stage), and 55 h (16-cell stage) after fusion. Immunocytochemistry by light and electron microscopy was used for structure-function characterization of nucleolar components. Antibodies against RNA, protein B23, protein C23, and fibrillarin were applied. In addition, DNA was localized by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) technique, and the functional organization of chromatin was determined with the nick-translation immunogold approach. The results show that fully reticulated (active) nucleoli observed in donor cells immediately before fusion as well as in the early 1-cell stage after fusion were progressively transformed into nucleolar bodies displaying decreasing numbers of vacuoles from the 2- to 4-cell stage in both types of reconstructed embryos. At the late 8-cell stage, morphological signs of resuming nucleolar activity were detected. Numerous new small vacuoles appeared, and chromatin blocks reassociated with the nucleolar body. During this period, nick-translation technique revealed numerous active DNA sites in the periphery of chromatin blocks associated with the nucleolar body. Fully reticulated nucleoli were again observed as early as the 16-cell stage of embryonic cloned embryos. In comparison, the embryos obtained by fetal cloning displayed a lower tendency to develop, mainly during the first cell cycle and during the period of presumed reactivation. Correlatively, the changes in nucleolar morphology (desegregation and rebuilding) were at least delayed in many somatic NT

  1. Increased bovine Tim-3 and its ligand expressions during bovine leukemia virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okagawa Tomohiro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The immunoinhibitory receptor T cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-3 (Tim-3 and its ligand, galectin-9 (Gal-9, are involved in the immune evasion mechanisms for several pathogens causing chronic infections. However, there is no report concerning the role of Tim-3 in diseases of domestic animals. In this study, cDNA encoding for bovine Tim-3 and Gal-9 were cloned and sequenced, and their expression and role in immune reactivation were analyzed in bovine leukemia virus (BLV-infected cattle. Predicted amino acid sequences of Tim-3 and Gal-9 shared high homologies with human and mouse homologues. Functional domains, including tyrosine kinase phosphorylation motif in the intracellular domain of Tim-3 were highly conserved among cattle and other species. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that bovine Tim-3 mRNA is mainly expressed in T cells such as CD4+ and CD8+ cells, while Gal-9 mRNA is mainly expressed in monocyte and T cells. Tim-3 mRNA expression in CD4+ and CD8+ cells was upregulated during disease progression of BLV infection. Interestingly, expression levels for Tim-3 and Gal-9 correlated positively with viral load in infected cattle. Furthermore, Tim-3 expression level closely correlated with up-regulation of IL-10 in infected cattle. The expression of IFN-γ and IL-2 mRNA was upregulated when PBMC from BLV-infected cattle were cultured with Cos-7 cells expressing Tim-3 to inhibit the Tim-3/Gal-9 pathway. Moreover, combined blockade of the Tim-3/Gal-9 and PD-1/PD-L1 pathways significantly promoted IFN-γ mRNA expression compared with blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway alone. These results suggest that Tim-3 is involved in the suppression of T cell function during BLV infection.

  2. Swelling studies of camel and bovine corneal stroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turki Almubrad

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Turki Almubrad, Mohammad Faisal Jamal Khan, Saeed AkhtarCornea Research Chair, Department of Optometry, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: In the present study we investigated the swelling characteristics of fresh camel and bovine cornea in sodium salt solutions. Swelling studies were carried out at 20 minutes, 14 hours, and 46 hours on five fresh camel and 5 five fresh bovine corneas. During the 20-minute hydration of fresh corneal stroma was investigated using sodium chloride (NaCl, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, sodium acetate (CH3COONa, sodium thiocyanate (NaSCN, and sodium floride (NaF at 2-minute time intervals. During a 46-hour time period, the hydration study was carried out using NaCl (150, 300 mM and NaF (150 mM at random intervals. The 14-hour study was carried out to assess the rehydration of corneal stroma after 6 hours of drying. During the 20-minute swelling studies in the first 2 minutes the rate of hydration in both camel and bovine corneas was high but gradually reduced in the 2–20-minute period. The rates and levels of hydration of camel and bovine cornea were not significantly different from each other in all the strengths of solutions. During the 46-hour swelling studies, the initial rate of hydration (0–2 hours of camel and bovine stroma, in all solutions was significantly higher (Z = 0.056 compared to hydration during later hours (2–46 hours. Camel stromal hydration (high in 150 mM NaCl was significantly higher compared to bovine stromal hydration in the same solution during the 10–24, and 24–46-hour time periods. Rehydration in camel stroma was significantly lower than bovine in 150 mM NaF. The 20-minute study showed that there was no selective affinity for particular ions in camel or bovine corneal stroma. Initial swelling in both corneal and bovine stroma is faster and more prominant compared to later swelling. The swelling in camel cornea is more prominant compared

  3. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, E. A.; Bertemes-Filho, P.

    2012-12-01

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  4. Structural characterization of iodinated bovine growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattera, R; Turyn, D; Fernandez, H N; Dellacha, J M

    1982-02-01

    Bovine growth hormone (bGH) was submitted to iodination using limited amounts of oxidizing reagent, yielding a derivative with no more than 1-g-atom of iodine per mole of hormone. Analysis of the hydrolysis products indicated that monoiodotyrosine was almost the only product of substitution. Isolation and identification of the tryptic fragments showed that half of the 125I-labeled bGH molecules were iodinated in Tyr 174, followed by Tyr 158 (16%) and Tyr 42 (14%). Frontal gel chromatography indicated that the preparation did not contain significant amounts of unreacted bGH. Circular dichroism evidenced structural similarity between the native and the iodinated bGH. The iodinated hormone, like the native protein, undergoes self-association. The dissociation constant of the iodo-labeled bGH self-association equilibrium showed a two-fold increase when compared to that corresponding to the unlabeled hormone. At pH 8.5, where the equilibrium constant was estimated, one tenth of the molecules bear a charged iodotyrosyl residue (average pKapp = 9.3), which could account for part, if not all, of the observed difference regarding self-association. By this criterion, the presence of the iodine atom does not disturb the area engaged in dimer formation.

  5. Treponema denticola in microflora of bovine periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Borsanelli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis in cattle is an infectious purulent progressive disease associated with strict anaerobic subgingival biofilm and is epidemiologically related to soil management at several locations of Brazil. This study aimed to detect Treponema species in periodontal pockets of cattle with lesions deeper than 5mm in the gingival sulcus of 6 to 24-month-old animals considered periodontally healthy. We used paper cones to collect the materials, after removal of supragingival plaques, and kept frozen (at -80°C up to DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR using T. amylovorum, T. denticola, T. maltophilum, T. medium and T. vincentii primers. In periodontal pocket, it was possible to identify by PCR directly, the presence of Treponema amylovorum in 73% of animals (19/26, T. denticola in 42.3% (11/26 and T. maltophilum in 54% (14/26. Among the 25 healthy sites, it was possible to identify T. amylovorum in 18 (72%, T. denticola in two (8% and T. maltophilum in eight (32%. Treponema medium and T. vincentii were not detected over all 51 evaluated samples. The presence of Treponema amylovorum, T. maltophilum and, in particular, the widely recognized T. denticola in subgingival microflora brings an original and potencially important contribution in studies of the bovine periodontitis.

  6. Dynamic compressive response of bovine liver tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervin, Farhana; Chen, Weinong W; Weerasooriya, Tusit

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to experimentally determine the strain rate effects on the compressive stress-strain behavior of bovine liver tissues. Fresh liver tissues were used to make specimens for mechanical loading. Experiments at quasi-static strain rates were conducted at 0.01 and 0.1 s(-1). Intermediate-rate experiments were performed at 1, 10, and 100 s(-1). High strain rate (1000, 2000, and 3000 s(-1)) experiments were conducted using a Kolsky bar modified for soft material characterization. A hollow transmission bar with semi-conductor strain gages was used to sense the weak forces from the soft specimens. Quartz-crystal force transducers were used to monitor valid testing conditions on the tissue specimens. The experiment results show that the compressive stress-strain response of the liver tissue is non-linear and highly rate-sensitive, especially when the strain rate is in the Kolsky bar range. The tissue stiffens significantly with increasing strain rate. The responses from liver tissues along and perpendicular to the liver surface were consistent, indicating isotropic behavior. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Closed system for bovine oocyte vitrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Ševelová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to develop a vitrification carrier for bovine oocyte cryopreservation. The carrier was to be cheap enough, elementary in its construction and meet contemporary requirements for a safe closed system. In a closed system, a cell is prevented from direct exposure to liquid nitrogen, thus minimizing the risk of cross-contamination. Furthermore, two questions regarding the proper vitrification technique were resolved: if it is necessary to partially denude the oocytes before the vitrification process or whether intact cumulus oocyte complexes should be frozen; and if it is more advantageous to preheat the vitrification solutions to female body temperature (39 °C or to keep them at room temperature. Our results show that it is better to partially denude the oocytes prior to vitrification because cryopreserved intact cumulus oocyte complexes often proved dark, non-homogeneous or fragmented cytoplasm after warming, with many of them having visibly widened perivitelline spaces or fractured zonae pellucidae as a result of extensive damage during vitrification. Consequently, intact cumulus oocyte complexes showed significantly lower numbers of cleavage stage embryos on Day 3 compared to partially denuded oocytes (7.4% and 26%, respectively. On the other hand, the survival rate and following development of fertilized oocytes in preheated vitrification solution were equal to results reached at room temperature conditions. In conclusion, results achieved with the newly developed carrier were comparable to previously published studies and therefore they could be recommended for common use.

  8. Advances in lactoferrin research concerning bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Kei-Ichi; Kawai, Kazuhiro

    2017-02-01

    Lactoferrin is a multifunctional, iron-binding glycoprotein found in milk and other exocrine secretions. Lactoferrin in milk plays vital roles in the healthy development of newborn mammals, and is also an innate resistance factor involved in the prevention of mammary gland infection by microorganisms. Inflammation of the udder because of bacterial infection is referred to as mastitis. There have been many investigations into the relationships between lactoferrin and mastitis, which fall into several categories. The main categories are fluctuations in the lactoferrin concentration of milk, lactoferrin activity against mastitis pathogens, elucidation of the processes underlying the onset of mastitis, participation of lactoferrin in the immune system, and utilization of lactoferrin in mastitis treatment and prevention. This minireview describes lactoferrin research concerning bovine mastitis. In the 1970s, many researchers reported that the lactoferrin concentration fluctuates in milk from cows with mastitis. From the late 1980s, many studies clarified the infection-defense mechanism in the udder and the contribution of lactoferrin to the immune system. After the year 2000, the processes underlying the onset of mastitis were elucidated in vivo and in vitro, and lactoferrin was applied for the treatment and prevention of mastitis.

  9. Bovine Serum Albumin: a double allergy risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltolini, S; Spigno, F; Cioè, A; Cagnati, P; Bignardi, D; Minale, P

    2013-08-01

    We analyse two cases of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) allergy. The first regards a female laboratory technician with a history of bronchial asthma due to cat allergy, who developed an exacerbation of bronchial symptoms as a consequence of BSA powder inhalation at work. To date, sensitization to BSA as a cause of occupational asthma has rarely been reported in the scientific literature. The second case concerns a woman with a similar cat sensitivity, who presented an oral allergy syndrome-type clinical reaction, gastric pain and diarrhoea immediately after eating cooked pork meat. Subsequently, she developed the same reaction after eating goat meat and goat cheese, and then also after eating beef. Both patients resulted specifically sensitized to BSA and to other mammalian serum albumins which play a role as panallergens in animals. The two cases show that BSA, a well known cause of food allergy in childhood, may also provoke symptoms of food allergy in adulthood, though in case of powder inhalation, it may provoke respiratory symptoms. Prior animal sensitization appears to represent a risk factor.

  10. Recombinant viral vaccines for enzootic bovine leucosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, R C; Gatei, M H; Good, M F; Boyle, D B; Lavin, M F

    1993-10-01

    Recently published studies on the development and use of recombinant vaccinia virus (VV) vaccines incorporating either the complete envelope (env) gene or only a fragment of the env gene consisting of the coding sequence for the env glycoprotein 51 (gp51) and part of gp30 of the bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) are described. It has been reported that vaccination of sheep with recombinant VV vaccines containing the complete env gene appears to protect sheep against challenge infection with BLV. The evidence for this protection is based on the lack of persistence of high titres of anti-gp51 antibodies compared with unvaccinated BLV infected controls, on the enhanced CD4 proliferative responses to specific BLV gp51 synthetic peptides in the vaccinated sheep, and on the inability to detect BLV pro-virus by polymerase chain reaction in the vaccinated sheep after 4 months following challenge infection compared with continual detection in unvaccinated sheep over a 16 month trial period. It has been suggested that cell-mediated immune responses may be an important aspect of protective immunity against BLV infection and it has been reported that large tracts of amino acid sequences within the env and pol genes are highly conserved in different isolates from different countries which is of importance in designing peptide derived vaccines.

  11. Bilateral cheiloschisis in bovine - A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Andrade Caldas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Caldas S.A., Nogueira V.A., Lima A.E.S., Aragão A.P., d’Avila M.S., Santos A.M., Miranda I.C., Costa S.Z.R. & Peixoto T.C. [Bilateral cheiloschisis in bovine - A case report.] Queilosquise bilateral em bovino - Relato de caso. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(1:55-59, 2014. Departamento de Medicina e Cirurgia Veterinária, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica RJ 23890-000, Brasil. E-mail: saulocaldas@hotmail.com A case of bilateral queilosquise in a cattle two years old was reported. Clinically, there was cachexia, difficulty in grasping food and water intake. The clinical examination revealed that the nasal orifices were discontinuous with the upper lip, which allowed communication between the nostrils and mouth in its rostral portion, crowding of incisors (tweezers, as well as exposure of medium and the 2nd corner and of the tongue. In this case, the bilateral queilosquise was the result of flaws in fusion of the maxillary process and the medial nasal process and its surroundings, probably due to mineral deficiencies of pregnant cow. This pathogenesis was suggested by excluding other possible causes, the knowledge of the existence of mineral deficiencies in the region where the event occurred and bad nutritional status of pregnant female.

  12. Sequence and structural implications of a bovine corneal keratan sulfate proteoglycan core protein. Protein 37B represents bovine lumican and proteins 37A and 25 are unique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funderburgh, J. L.; Funderburgh, M. L.; Brown, S. J.; Vergnes, J. P.; Hassell, J. R.; Mann, M. M.; Conrad, G. W.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Amino acid sequence from tryptic peptides of three different bovine corneal keratan sulfate proteoglycan (KSPG) core proteins (designated 37A, 37B, and 25) showed similarities to the sequence of a chicken KSPG core protein lumican. Bovine lumican cDNA was isolated from a bovine corneal expression library by screening with chicken lumican cDNA. The bovine cDNA codes for a 342-amino acid protein, M(r) 38,712, containing amino acid sequences identified in the 37B KSPG core protein. The bovine lumican is 68% identical to chicken lumican, with an 83% identity excluding the N-terminal 40 amino acids. Location of 6 cysteine and 4 consensus N-glycosylation sites in the bovine sequence were identical to those in chicken lumican. Bovine lumican had about 50% identity to bovine fibromodulin and 20% identity to bovine decorin and biglycan. About two-thirds of the lumican protein consists of a series of 10 amino acid leucine-rich repeats that occur in regions of calculated high beta-hydrophobic moment, suggesting that the leucine-rich repeats contribute to beta-sheet formation in these proteins. Sequences obtained from 37A and 25 core proteins were absent in bovine lumican, thus predicting a unique primary structure and separate mRNA for each of the three bovine KSPG core proteins.

  13. Fraction of bovine leukemia virus-infected dairy cattle developing enzootic bovine leukosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Sota; Hayama, Yoko; Yamamoto, Takehisa

    2016-02-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) is a transmissible disease caused by the bovine leukemia virus that is prevalent in cattle herds in many countries. Only a small fraction of infected animals develops clinical symptoms, such as malignant lymphosarcoma, after a long incubation period. In the present study, we aimed to determine the fraction of EBL-infected dairy cattle that develop lymphosarcoma and the length of the incubation period before clinical symptoms emerge. These parameters were determined by a mathematical modeling approach based on the maximum-likelihood estimation method, using the results of a nationwide serological survey of prevalence in cattle and passive surveillance records. The best-fit distribution to estimate the disease incubation period was determined to be the Weibull distribution, with a median and average incubation period of 7.0 years. The fraction of infected animals developing clinical disease was estimated to be 1.4% with a 95% confidence interval of 1.2-1.6%. The parameters estimated here contribute to an examination of efficient control strategies making quantitative evaluation available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Bovine leucosis virus contamination of a vaccine produced in vivo against bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, R J; Dimmock, C K; de Vos, A J; Rodwell, B J

    1988-09-01

    Contamination of a batch of tick fever (babesiosis and anaplasmosis) vaccine with bovine leucosis virus (BLV) was detected when a herd, in the final stages of an enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) accreditation program, developed a large number of seropositive cattle following use of tick fever vaccine. Investigations incriminated a single calf used to produce Anaplasma centrale vaccine from which 13,959 doses were distributed. The failure of this calf to give a positive agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test before use was not fully explained. A total of 22,627 cattle from 111 herds receiving contaminated vaccine was tested to validate claims for compensation. Results showed infection rates of 62% and 51.8% in vaccinated dairy and beef cattle, respectively, compared with 6.1% and 1.5% in non-vaccinated cattle in the same herds. The results also indicated that infection did not spread from vaccinated to non-vaccinated in-contact cattle. Heavy reliance is now placed on purchase of calves for vaccine production from EBL accredited-free herds and on transmission tests from the calves to sheep to prevent a recurrence of contamination. The need for a BLV antigen detection test, with the sensitivity of the sheep transmission test but simpler and faster to perform, is evident.

  15. Response of cattle persistently infected with bovine virus diarrhoea virus to bovine leukosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D H; Lucas, M H; Wibberley, G; Westcott, D

    1988-03-26

    Six cattle persistently infected with bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and seronegative, and two control, virus negative seropositive cattle were inoculated with lymphocytes infected with bovine leukosis virus (BLV). The two controls produced a normal immune response to BLV, developing antibodies at four and five weeks after inoculation. Two of the six cattle persistently infected with BVDV developed a strong antibody response by six weeks after inoculation with BLV. Four developed a depressed response to BLV, characterised in three by a 'hooking' reaction in the immunodiffusion test which persisted in successive bleedings but was interspersed occasionally by a weak positive reaction. In one of these animals, a series of 'hooking' reactions was followed by a number of negative results. The fourth animal remained serologically negative until 16 weeks after inoculation when a 'hooking' reaction was observed followed by a series of negative results. BLV was isolated from all the cattle persistently infected with BVDV at 42 or 58 weeks after inoculation regardless of whether the serum samples gave negative, 'hooking', weak positive or positive reactions in the immunodiffusion test. BLV was consistently isolated from the nasal secretions of a steer which was BVDV negative but seropositive. The possibility of decreased immune responsiveness to BLV in animals persistently infected with BVDV should be considered when formulating regulations governing the testing of animals for freedom from BLV.

  16. Effect of bovine seminal plasma on bovine endometrial epithelial cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongbua, T; Guo, Y; Edman, A; Humblot, P; Morrell, J M

    2017-11-06

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of seminal plasma (SP) from bulls of known fertility on bovine endometrial epithelial cells (bEEC) in culture. The bEEC from passage 5, approximately 5.0-13 × 10(5)  cells per flask, were challenged with SP from bulls of high or low fertility (n = 3 and 2, respectively) or PBS (control), at 1% (75 μl) or 4% (300 μl) and were incubated for 72 hr (n = 13 per challenge). Total cell number and viability of bEEC after challenge with 1% SP from either high- or low-fertility bulls (75H or 75L, respectively) did not differ from controls. In contrast, challenge with 4% of SP from high- or low-fertility bulls (300H or 300L) negatively affected bEEC cell number and viability. Challenge with 300 L had a greater adverse effect than 300H. These results suggest that the negative effect of bovine SP on bEEC is both dose-dependent and fertility-dependent. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for Smartphone Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Chiang, Chih-Lin; Lin, Po-Hsien; Chang, Li-Ren; Ko, Chih-Hung; Lee, Yang-Han; Lin, Sheng-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Global smartphone penetration has led to unprecedented addictive behaviors. The aims of this study are to develop diagnostic criteria of smartphone addiction and to examine the discriminative ability and the validity of the diagnostic criteria. We developed twelve candidate criteria for characteristic symptoms of smartphone addiction and four criteria for functional impairment caused by excessive smartphone use. The participants consisted of 281 college students. Each participant was systematically assessed for smartphone-using behaviors by psychiatrist's structured diagnostic interview. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of the candidate symptom criteria were analyzed with reference to the psychiatrists' clinical global impression. The optimal model selection with its cutoff point of the diagnostic criteria differentiating the smartphone addicted subjects from non-addicted subjects was then determined by the best diagnostic accuracy. Six symptom criteria model with optimal cutoff point were determined based on the maximal diagnostic accuracy. The proposed smartphone addiction diagnostic criteria consisted of (1) six symptom criteria, (2) four functional impairment criteria and (3) exclusion criteria. Setting three symptom criteria as the cutoff point resulted in the highest diagnostic accuracy (84.3%), while the sensitivity and specificity were 79.4% and 87.5%, respectively. We suggested determining the functional impairment by two or more of the four domains considering the high accessibility and penetration of smartphone use. The diagnostic criteria of smartphone addiction demonstrated the core symptoms "impaired control" paralleled with substance related and addictive disorders. The functional impairment involved multiple domains provide a strict standard for clinical assessment.

  18. Effects of bovine oviduct epithelial cells, fetal calf serum and bovine serum albumin on gene expression in single bovine embryos produced in the synthetic oviduct fluid culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mona E; Øzdas, Øzen Banu; Farstad, Wenche; Tverdal, Aage; Olsaker, Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    In this study the synthetic oviduct fluid (SOF) system with bovine oviduct epithelial cell (BOEC) co-culture is compared with an SOF system with common protein supplements. One thousand six hundred bovine embryos were cultured in SOF media supplemented with BOEC, fetal calf serum (FCS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). Eight different culture groups were assigned according to the different supplementation factors. Developmental competence and the expression levels of five genes, namely glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1), heat shock protein 70 (HSP), connexin43 (Cx43), (2)-actin (ACTB) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), analysed as mRNA by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, were measured on bovine embryos cultured for 9 days. Gene expression of these in vitro-produced embryos was compared with the gene expression of in vivo-produced embryos. There was no significant difference found in embryo developmental competence between the Day 9 embryos in BOEC co-culture, FCS and BSA supplements in SOF media. However, differences in gene expression were observed. With respect to gene expression in in vivo and in vitro embryos, BOEC co-culture affected the same genes as did supplementation with FCS and BSA. HSP was the only gene that differed significantly between in vitro and in vivo embryos. When the different in vitro groups were compared, a significant difference between the BOEC co-culture and the FCS supplementation groups due to Glut-1 expression was observed.

  19. Okra yield fertilized with bovine manure and biofertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar Pereira de Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of bovine manure becomes an useful and economic practice for the small and medium producers of vegetables, and the okra plant normally demands high doses of organic fertilizers. This study was carried out, from January to July 2011, at the Federal University of Paraíba, in Areia city - PB, aiming to evaluate the effect of bovine manure and biofertilizer on the productive behavior of the okra plant. The experimental design used was randomized blocks, with four repetitions in factorial scheme 6 x 2, with the doses factors of bovine manure (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 t ha-1 with and without biofertilizer. The average mass of commercial fruit of okra, with and without biofertilizer was 18 and 16.5 g, respectively, in the doses of 27.5 and 60 t ha-1 of manure. The number of fruit plant-1 without biofertilizer was 30 fruits plant-1 of okra in the dose of 60 t ha-1 and with biofertilizer, the number of fruits plant-1 was 33 fruits in the dose of 28 t ha-1 of bovine manure. The productivity of commercial fruits of okra without biofertilizer was 20.4 t ha-1 and 22 t ha-1 with biofertilizer, respectively, in the doses of 60 and 31 t ha-1 of bovine manure.

  20. Epidemiology of Bovine Mastitis in Cows of Dharwad District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurjogi, Mahantesh M.; Kaliwal, Basappa B.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is very common in cows of both developed and developing countries. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis (SCM) varies from region to region. Hence, the present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of mastitis using three diagnostic tests by considering different risk factors like age, lactation, breed, season, quarters, and herd. The results showed that surf field mastitis test (SFMT) is the most sensitive test for diagnosis of bovine mastitis, the older age and cows with later part of lactation period were more prone to bovine mastitis, and exotic breeds like Holstein freshen (HF) were more susceptible to bovine mastitis. The highest incidence of mastitis was recorded in monsoon season. The prevalence of subclinical and clinical mastitis was more in single and two quarters, respectively, and the rate of bovine mastitis was more in unorganized herds. The study concluded that SCM is directly associated with age, lactation period, and environmental factors of the cow and clinical mastitis is more associated with breed of the cow and environmental conditions. PMID:27382623

  1. SELECTION CRITERIA FOR LIVER DONATION - A REVIEW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PRUIM, J; KLOMPMAKER, IJ; HAAGSMA, EB; BIJLEVELD, CMA; SLOOFF, MJH

    An overview of the criteria that are currently being used for the selection of liver donors is presented. The validity of the different criteria is discussed. The potential benefits of introducing other modalities is dealt with.

  2. Diagnostic criteria in proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Chías, Begoña; Casado-De La Cruz, Laura; Esparza-Gómez, Germán C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: to evaluate the ability of the diagnostic criteria proposed by Cerero et al in 2010 to perform an early diagnose in patients with proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. Study Design: retrospective study with patients diagnosed with leukoplakia at Oral Medicine Service at Oral Medicine and Surgery Department at Dentistry Faculty at Universidad Complutense of Madrid. Results: the criteria were applied in 116 patients, turning positive in 40 cases. Out of these, 24 (60%) had been previously diagnosed with PVL. Most frequent criteria were major criteria A and E, concerning lesion’s site and histopathology, and minor criteria b and c, concerning sex and smoking habit. Conclusions: diagnostic criteria developed by Cerero et al can be a useful tool for an early diagnose of PVL, as in 60% of the cases, the criteria would have allowed to make an early diagnose of the disease. Key words:Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia, criteria, diagnose, early. PMID:24608210

  3. Design criteria monograph on turbopump inducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    State of the art and design criteria for liquid rocket engine turbopump inducers are summarized for optimal fabrication. Design criteria optimize hydrodynamic parameters to obtain highest suction specific speed without violating structural and mechanical constraints.

  4. Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for Smartphone Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Chiang, Chih-Lin; Lin, Po-Hsien; Chang, Li-Ren; Ko, Chih-Hung; Lee, Yang-Han; Lin, Sheng-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Global smartphone penetration has led to unprecedented addictive behaviors. The aims of this study are to develop diagnostic criteria of smartphone addiction and to examine the discriminative ability and the validity of the diagnostic criteria. Methods We developed twelve candidate criteria for characteristic symptoms of smartphone addiction and four criteria for functional impairment caused by excessive smartphone use. The participants consisted of 281 college students. Each parti...

  5. Kinetic and structural characterization of adsorption-induced unfolding of bovine a-lactalbumin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, M.F.M.; Mierlo, van C.P.M.; Visser, A.J.W.G.

    2002-01-01

    Conformational changes of bovine -lactalbumin induced by adsorption on a hydrophobic interface are studied by fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Adsorption of bovine -lactalbumin on hydrophobic polystyrene nanospheres induces a non-native state of the protein, which is characterized

  6. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kasuga, Fumiko

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a progressive neurological disease of cattle affecting the central nervous system and was first diagnosed in the United Kingdom (UK) in 1986 (Wells et al., 1987). This disease is one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) which includes Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans and scrapie in sheep. The causative agent of TSE is considered to be an abnormal form of prion protein. However, the details of its pathogenic mechanism have not been fully identified. Scrapie, which causes neurological symptoms in sheep and goats, has existed in the UK for 200 years (Hoinville, 1996) and spread across the rest of the world in the 1900s (Detwiler & Baylis, 2003). There has been no report so far that scrapie can be transmitted to humans. Initially, BSE was also considered as a disease affecting only animals. However, a variant type of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) was first reported in the UK, and exposure to a BSE agent was suspected (Collinge, Sidle, Meads, Ironside, & Hill, 1996). vCJD is clinically and pathologically different from the sporadic type of CJD, and age at clinical onset of vCJD is younger than sporadic type (Will et al., 1996). Since the UK government announced the possible association between BSE and vCJD in 1996, BSE has become a huge public health concern all over the world. Of particular concern about vCJD, the fatal disease in younger age, distorted consumer confidence in beef safety, and as a result reduced beef consumption has been seen in many BSE-affected countries.

  7. Evolution of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valarcher, Jean-François; Schelcher, François; Bourhy, Hervé

    2000-01-01

    Until now, the analysis of the genetic diversity of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) has been based on small numbers of field isolates. In this report, we determined the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of regions of the nucleoprotein (N protein), fusion protein (F protein), and glycoprotein (G protein) of 54 European and North American isolates and compared them with the sequences of 33 isolates of BRSV obtained from the databases, together with those of 2 human respiratory syncytial viruses and 1 ovine respiratory syncytial virus. A clustering of BRSV sequences according to geographical origin was observed. We also set out to show that a continuous evolution of the sequences of the N, G, and F proteins of BRSV has been occurring in isolates since 1967 in countries where vaccination was widely used. The exertion of a strong positive selective pressure on the mucin-like region of the G protein and on particular sites of the N and F proteins is also demonstrated. Furthermore, mutations which are located in the conserved central hydrophobic part of the ectodomain of the G protein and which result in the loss of four Cys residues and in the suppression of two disulfide bridges and an α helix critical to the three-dimensional structure of the G protein have been detected in some recent French BRSV isolates. This conserved central region, which is immunodominant in BRSV G protein, thus has been modified in recent isolates. This work demonstrates that the evolution of BRSV should be taken into account in the rational development of future vaccines. PMID:11044116

  8. Hydrophobic binding properties of bovine gallbladder mucin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B F; LaMont, J T

    1984-10-10

    Hydrophobic binding properties of purified bovine gallbladder mucin were studied by fluorescence spectroscopy using 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS) and N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine. The purified glycoprotein contained 75.5%, dry weight, as carbohydrate, 16.3% as protein, and 3.7% as sulfate; Mr = 2.2 X 10(6) was estimated by chromatography on Sephacryl S-500. Mucin contained a large number of low-affinity binding sites for these hydrophobic ligands. The dissociation constant, KD of mucin-ANS binding was 2.7 X 10(-5); each mucin molecule had approximately 42 binding sites for ANS. These binding sites were deduced to be on the unglycosylated portion of the protein core, as Pronase digestion completely eliminated binding. Reduction of mucin with 2-mercaptoethanol increased the fluorescence yield by formation of subunits with increased binding sites for the ligand. Increasing NaCl concentration (0.125 to 2.0 M) and decreasing pH (9 to 3) progressively increased fluorescence with the charged ligand ANS, suggesting that the binding site may have acidic groups which are shielded at high ionic strength or low pH. The fluorescent yield with N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine, an uncharged ligand, was an order of magnitude higher than with ANS. Bilirubin and bromosulfophthalein inhibited mucin-induced ANS fluorescence, but bile acids did not. Gallbladder mucin contains hydrophobic binding domains in the nonglycosylated peptide core that are involved in polymer formation and binding of biliary lipids and pigment.

  9. Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS): Past - Present - Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Valk, Jan; Bieback, Karen; Buta, Christiane; Cochrane, Brett; Dirks, Wilhelm G; Fu, Jianan; Hickman, James J; Hohensee, Christiane; Kolar, Roman; Liebsch, Manfred; Pistollato, Francesca; Schulz, Markus; Thieme, Daniel; Weber, Tilo; Wiest, Joachim; Winkler, Stefan; Gstraunthaler, Gerhard

    2017-08-09

    The supplementation of culture medium with fetal bovine serum (FBS, also referred to as 'fetal calf serum') is still common practice in cell culture applications. Due to a number of disadvantages in terms of quality and reproducibility of in vitro data, animal welfare concerns, and in light of recent cases of fraudulent marketing, the search for alternatives and the development of serum-free medium formulations gained global attention. Here, we report on the 3rd Workshop on FBS, Serum Alternatives and Serum-free Media, where (a) regulatory aspects, (b) the serum dilemma, (c) alternatives to FBS, (d) case-studies of serum-free in vitro applications, and (e) the establishment of serum-free databases, were discussed. The whole process of obtaining blood from a living calf fetus to using the FBS produced from it for scientific purposes is de facto not yet legally regulated, despite the existing EU-Directive 2010/63/EU on the use of animals for scientific purposes. Together with above mentioned challenges, several strategies have been developed to reduce or replace FBS in cell culture media in terms of the 3Rs (Refinement, Reduction, Replacement). Most recently, releasates of activated human donor thrombocytes (human platelet lysates) have been shown to be one of the most promising serum alternatives when chemically defined media are not yet an option. Additionally, new developments in cell-based assay techniques, advanced organ-on-chip and microphysiological systems are covered in this report. Chemically-defined serum-free media are shown to be the ultimate goal for the majority of culture systems, and examples are discussed.

  10. 16 CFR 1105.6 - Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria. 1105.6 Section 1105.6 Commercial... OF PARTICIPANTS IN DEVELOPMENT OF CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY STANDARDS § 1105.6 Criteria. The Commission may authorize a financial contribution only for participants who meet all of the following criteria...

  11. 10 CFR 1017.7 - Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria. 1017.7 Section 1017.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Initially Determining What Information Is Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.7 Criteria. To be identified as UCNI, the information must meet each of the following criteria: (a) The information...

  12. 5 CFR 2424.50 - Illustrative criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illustrative criteria. 2424.50 Section... GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY NEGOTIABILITY PROCEEDINGS Criteria for Determining Compelling Need for Agency Rules and Regulations § 2424.50 Illustrative criteria. A compelling...

  13. MDS clinical diagnostic criteria for Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postuma, R.B.; Berg, D; Stern, M.; Poewe, W.; Olanow, C.W.; Oertel, W.; Obeso, J.; Marek, K.; Litvan, I.; Lang, A.E.; Halliday, G.; Goetz, C.G.; Gasser, T.; Dubois, B.; Chan, P.; Bloem, B.R.; Adler, C.H.; Deuschl, G.

    2015-01-01

    This document presents the Movement Disorder Society Clinical Diagnostic Criteria for Parkinson's disease (PD). The Movement Disorder Society PD Criteria are intended for use in clinical research but also may be used to guide clinical diagnosis. The benchmark for these criteria is expert clinical

  14. 45 CFR 1176.3 - Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criteria. 1176.3 Section 1176.3 Public Welfare... ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES PART-TIME CAREER EMPLOYMENT § 1176.3 Criteria. Positions becoming vacant... to part-time. Among the criteria which may be used when conducting this review are: (a) Mission...

  15. 10 CFR 820.62 - Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria. 820.62 Section 820.62 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES Exemption Relief § 820.62 Criteria. The criteria for granting an exemption to a DOE Nuclear Safety Requirement are determinations that the exemption: (a) Would...

  16. 30 CFR 762.12 - Additional criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional criteria. 762.12 Section 762.12... UNSUITABLE FOR MINING CRITERIA FOR DESIGNATING AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.12 Additional criteria. (a) A State regulatory authority may establish additional or more stringent...

  17. 14 CFR 1240.103 - Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria. 1240.103 Section 1240.103... Scientific and Technical Contributions § 1240.103 Criteria. (a) Only those contributions to NASA which have... this subpart. (b) In determining the amount, terms, and conditions of any award, the following criteria...

  18. 7 CFR 1720.5 - Eligibility criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility criteria. 1720.5 Section 1720.5... Eligibility criteria. (a) To be eligible to participate in the program, a guaranteed lender must be: (1) A... criteria: (1) The guaranteed leader must furnish the Secretary with a certified list of the principal...

  19. 42 CFR 421.120 - Performance criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance criteria. 421.120 Section 421.120... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE CONTRACTING Intermediaries § 421.120 Performance criteria. (a) Application of performance criteria. As part of the intermediary evaluations authorized by section 1816(f) of...

  20. 40 CFR 125.31 - Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria. 125.31 Section 125.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS CRITERIA AND STANDARDS FOR THE NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM Criteria and Standards for Determining...

  1. 44 CFR 206.373 - Eligibility criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility criteria. 206.373... Eligibility criteria. (a) Local government. (1) The local government must be located within the area eligible... government from incurring the indebtedness resulting from a Federal loan. (2) Criteria considered by FEMA in...

  2. 44 CFR 206.363 - Eligibility criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility criteria. 206.363... Eligibility criteria. (a) Local government. (1) The local government must be located within the area... incurring the indebtedness resulting from a Federal loan. (2) Criteria considered by FEMA in determining the...

  3. 42 CFR 456.5 - Evaluation criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation criteria. 456.5 Section 456.5 Public...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL General Provisions § 456.5 Evaluation criteria. The agency must establish and use written criteria for evaluating the appropriateness and quality of Medicaid...

  4. 24 CFR 214.103 - Approval criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval criteria. 214.103 Section... COUNSELING PROGRAM Approval and Disapproval of Housing Counseling Agencies § 214.103 Approval criteria. The following criteria for approval apply to all agencies, MSOs, and intermediaries, including all local housing...

  5. 36 CFR 330.6 - Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria. 330.6 Section 330.6... § 330.6 Criteria. (a) In order to provide reimbursement for law enforcement services supplied by a State... period not to exceed 120-day period in Fiscal Year 1979. Any exceptions to this criteria must be approved...

  6. 12 CFR 741.3 - Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria. 741.3 Section 741.3 Banks and Banking... That Are Not Codified Elsewhere in NCUA's Regulations § 741.3 Criteria. In determining the insurability... accounts pursuant to Title II of the Act, the following criteria shall be applied: (a) Reserves—(1) General...

  7. 29 CFR 1904.4 - Recording criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recording criteria. 1904.4 Section 1904.4 Labor Regulations... AND REPORTING OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES AND ILLNESSES Recordkeeping Forms and Recording Criteria § 1904.4 Recording criteria. (a) Basic requirement. Each employer required by this part to keep records of fatalities...

  8. 15 CFR 296.22 - Award criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Award criteria. 296.22 Section 296.22... Competition Process § 296.22 Award criteria. NIST must determine that a proposal successfully meets all of the Award Criteria set forth in this section for the proposal to receive funding under the Program. The...

  9. 15 CFR 296.21 - Evaluation criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROGRAM The Competition Process § 296.21 Evaluation criteria. A proposal must be determined to be competitive against the Evaluation Criteria set forth in this section to receive funding under the Program... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evaluation criteria. 296.21 Section...

  10. 10 CFR 905.36 - Marketing criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing criteria. 905.36 Section 905.36 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.36 Marketing criteria. Western shall retain applicable provisions of existing marketing criteria for projects where...

  11. Rapid multi-residue method for the quantitative determination and confirmation of glucocorticosteroids in bovine milk using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Mark; Granelli, Kristina; Sjöberg, Pernilla

    2007-04-04

    Dexamethasone, betamethasone and prednisolone are synthetic glucocorticosteroids authorized for therapeutic use in bovine animals within the European Union. Dexamethasone and betamethasone are used mainly for the treatment of metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Prednisolone is used to treat bovine mastitis. Maximum residue limits (MRLs) of 0.3 microg kg(-1) for both dexamethasone and betamethasone and 6.0 microg kg(-1) for prednisolone in bovine milk have been established. 6alpha-Methylprednisolone and flumethasone are not authorized for use in bovine animals and are completely banned in bovine milk. The proposed method is based on deprotenisation of milk using 20% (w/v) trichloroacetic acid. Samples are filtered using glass microfiber filters and subject to clean-up using OASIS HLB solid phase extraction. Separation was achieved on a Hypercarb 100 mm x 2.1 mm x 5 microm column. Mobile phase was: 90/10 acetonitrile/0.1% formic acid in water; flow rate was 600 microL min(-1). The method allowed the rapid identification and confirmation of the five glucocorticosteroids according to the criteria laid down in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Matrix calibration curves for all compounds were linear in the interval 0.0 MRL to 2.0 MRL with a correlation coefficient (r(2)) higher than 0.96. Relative recoveries ranged from 97% for betamethasone to 111% for prednisolone. Precision at the MRL ranged from 3.8% for prednisolone to 13.8% for betamethasone. Decision limits, CCalpha, and detection capability, CCbeta have been calculated for all compounds.

  12. Production effects of pathogens causing bovine leukosis, bovine viral diarrhea, paratuberculosis, and neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A; Vanleeuwen, J A; Dohoo, I R; Keefe, G P; Haddad, J P; Tremblay, R; Scott, H M; Whiting, T

    2007-02-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to determine associations among seropositivity for bovine leukemia virus (BLV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), and Neospora caninum (NC) and each of 3 outcome variables (305-d milk, fat, and protein production) in Canadian dairy cattle. Serum samples from up to 30 randomly selected cows from 342 herds on monthly milk testing were tested for antibodies against BLV (IDEXX ELISA; IDEXX Corporation, Westbrook, ME), MAP (IDEXX or Biocor ELISA; Biocor Animal Health, Inc., Omaha, NE), and NC (IDEXX or Biovet ELISA; Biovet Inc., St. Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada). Up to 5 unvaccinated cattle over 6 mo of age were tested for virus-neutralizing antibodies to the Singer strain of type 1 BVDV. Dairy Herd Improvement records were obtained electronically for all sampled cows. Linear mixed models with herd and cow as random variables were fit, with significant restricted maximum likelihood estimates of outcome effects being obtained, while controlling for potential confounding variables. Bovine leukemia virus seropositivity was not associated with 305-d milk, 305-d fat, or 305-d protein production. Cows in BVDV-seropositive herds (at least one unvaccinated animal with a titer > or =1:64) had reductions in 305-d milk, fat, and protein of 368, 10.2, and 9.5 kg, respectively, compared with cows in BVDV-seronegative herds. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis seropositivity was associated with lower 305-d milk of 212 kg in 4+-lactation cows compared with MAP-seronegative 4+-lactation cows. Neospora caninum seropositivity in primiparous cows was associated with lower 305-d milk, fat, and protein of 158, 5.5, and 3.3 kg, respectively, compared with NC-seronegative primiparous cows. There were no interactions among seropositivity for any of the pathogens and their effects on any of the outcomes examined, although the low MAP seroprevalence limited this analysis. Results from this research

  13. Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of bovine UQCC and its association with body measurement traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yongfeng; Zan, Linsen; Zhao, Shuanping

    2010-01-01

    models of height as well as other stature indexes. We have cloned the cDNA sequence coding UQCC gene in bovine. Genomic structural analysis indicated that bovine UQCC shares a high similarity with human UQCC. Furthermore, Real-Time PCR analysis show that the expression of bovine UQCC is remarkably...... measurement traits in bovine reproduction and breeding, and provide data for establishing of an animal model using cattle to study big animal body type....

  14. Making the switch: alternatives to foetal bovine serum for adipose-derived stromal cell expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Dessels

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs are being used extensively in clinical trials. These trials require that ASCs are prepared using good manufacturing procedures (GMPs and are safe for use in humans. The majority of clinical trials in which ASCs are expanded make use of fetal bovine serum (FBS. While FBS is used traditionally in the research setting for in vitro expansion, it does carry the risk of xenoimmunization and zoonotic transmission when used for expanding cells destined for therapeutic purposes. In order to ensure a GMP quality product for cellular therapy, in vitro expansion of ASCs has been undertaken using xeno-free (XF, chemically-defined, and human blood-derived alternatives. These investigations usually include the criteria proposed by the International Society of Cellular Therapy (ISCT and International Fat Applied Technology Society (IFATS. The majority of studies use these criteria to compare plastic-adherence, morphology, the immunophenotype and the trilineage differentiation of ASCs under the different medium supplemented conditions. Based on these studies, all of the alternatives to FBS seem to be suitable replacements; however, each has its own advantages and drawbacks. Very few studies have investigated the effects of the supplements on the immunomodulation of ASCs; the transcriptome, proteome and secretome; and the ultimate effects in appropriate animal models. The selection of medium supplementation will depend on the downstream application of the ASCs and their efficacy and safety in preclinical studies.

  15. Immunogenicity of a modified-live virus vaccine against bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 and 2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine parainfluenza-3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus when administered intranasally in young calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wenzhi; Ellis, John; Mattick, Debra; Smith, Linda; Brady, Ryan; Trigo, Emilio

    2010-05-14

    The immunogenicity of an intranasally-administered modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine in 3-8 day old calves was evaluated against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus, parainfluenza-3 (PI-3) virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Calves were intranasally vaccinated with a single dose of a multivalent MLV vaccine and were challenged with one of the respective viruses three to four weeks post-vaccination in five separate studies. There was significant sparing of diseases in calves intranasally vaccinated with the MLV vaccine, as indicated by significantly fewer clinical signs, lower rectal temperatures, reduced viral shedding, greater white blood cell and platelet counts, and less severe pulmonary lesions than control animals. This was the first MLV combination vaccine to demonstrate efficacy against BVDV types 1 and 2, IBR, PI-3 and BRSV in calves 3-8 days of age. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dynamic compressive properties of bovine knee layered tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Masahiro; Hino, Yuki; Todo, Mitsugu

    2015-09-01

    In Japan, the most common articular disease is knee osteoarthritis. Among many treatment methodologies, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have recently received a lot of attention. In this field, cells and scaffolds are important, both ex vivo and in vivo. From the viewpoint of effective treatment, in addition to histological features, the compatibility of mechanical properties is also important. In this study, the dynamic and static compressive properties of bovine articular cartilage-cancellous bone layered tissue were measured using a universal testing machine and a split Hopkinson pressure bar method. The compressive behaviors of bovine articular cartilage-cancellous bone layered tissue were examined. The effects of strain rate on the maximum stress and the slope of stress-strain curves of the bovine articular cartilage-cancellous bone layered tissue were discussed.

  17. Vitrification of early-stage bovine and equine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Chillòn, L F; Suh, T K; Barcelo-Fimbres, M; Seidel, G E; Carnevale, E M

    2009-01-15

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine an optimal method and stage of development for vitrification of bovine zygotes or early embryos; and (2) use the optimal procedure for bovine embryos to establish equine pregnancies after vitrification and warming of early embryos. Initially, bovine embryos produced by in-vitro fertilization (IVF) were frozen and vitrified in 0.25mL straws with minimal success. A subsequent experiment was done using two vitrification methods and super open pulled straws (OPS) with 1- or 8-cell bovine embryos. In Method 1 (EG-O), embryos were exposed to 1.5M ethylene glycol (EG) for 5min, 7M ethylene glycol and 0.6M galactose for 30s, loaded in an OPS, and plunged into liquid nitrogen. In Method 2 (EG-DMSO), embryos were exposed to 1.1M ethylene glycol and 1.1M dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 3min, 2.5M ethylene glycol, 2.5M DMSO and 0.5M galactose for 30s, and loaded and plunged as for EG-O. Cryoprotectants were removed after warming in three steps. One- and eight-cell bovine embryos were cultured for 7 and 4.5 d, respectively, after warming, and control embryos were cultured without vitrification. Cleavage rates of 1-cell embryos were similar (P>0.05) for vitrified and control embryos, although the blastocyst rates for EG-O and control embryos were similar and higher (Pvitrification and warming. In summary, a successful method was established for vitrification of early-stage bovine embryos, and this method was used to establish equine pregnancies after vitrification and warming of 2- to 8-cell embryos produced by ICSI.

  18. The host defense proteome of human and bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettinga, Kasper; van Valenberg, Hein; de Vries, Sacco; Boeren, Sjef; van Hooijdonk, Toon; van Arendonk, Johan; Vervoort, Jacques

    2011-04-27

    Milk is the single source of nutrients for the newborn mammal. The composition of milk of different mammals has been adapted during evolution of the species to fulfill the needs of the offspring. Milk not only provides nutrients, but it also serves as a medium for transfer of host defense components to the offspring. The host defense proteins in the milk of different mammalian species are expected to reveal signatures of evolution. The aim of this study is therefore to study the difference in the host defense proteome of human and bovine milk. We analyzed human and bovine milk using a shot-gun proteomics approach focusing on host defense-related proteins. In total, 268 proteins in human milk and 269 proteins in bovine milk were identified. Of these, 44 from human milk and 51 from bovine milk are related to the host defense system. Of these proteins, 33 were found in both species but with significantly different quantities. High concentrations of proteins involved in the mucosal immune system, immunoglobulin A, CD14, lactoferrin, and lysozyme, were present in human milk. The human newborn is known to be deficient for at least two of these proteins (immunoglobulin A and CD14). On the other hand, antimicrobial proteins (5 cathelicidins and lactoperoxidase) were abundant in bovine milk. The high concentration of lactoperoxidase is probably linked to the high amount of thiocyanate in the plant-based diet of cows. This first detailed analysis of host defense proteins in human and bovine milk is an important step in understanding the function of milk in the development of the immune system of these two mammals.

  19. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be prepared from the first through the fifth passage from... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus Diarrhea...

  20. 76 FR 35185 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Bovine Spongiform...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... Collection; Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Animals and Animal Products AGENCY: Animal and... byproducts to protect against the introduction of bovine spongiform encephalopathy into the United States... animal products and byproducts to prevent the introduction of bovine spongiform encephalopathy into the...

  1. Efficacy and safety of Ban Huang oral liquid for treating bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of laboratory pathogen testing, analysis of clinical symptoms, and analysis of pathological anatomy were combined to diagnose bovine respiratory diseases in 147 Simmental cattle caused by mixed infections of M. bovis, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine parainfluenza virus type 3, and Mannheimia ...

  2. Sequence analysis of a bovine rhinovirus type 1 strain RS3x

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine rhinoviruses, known to cause clinical and subclinical upper respiratory infections in bovines worldwide, include three serotypes. Bovine rhinovirus (BRV) 1, 2 and 3 were originally classified as tentative members of the genus Rhinovirus (family Picornaviridae), however, in 2008 this genus was...

  3. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-Associated Disease in Feedlot Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) is associated with bovine respiratory disease complex and other diseases of feedlot cattle. Although occasionally a primary pathogen, BVDv's impact on cattle health is through the immunosuppressive effects of the virus and its synergism with other pathogens. The simple presence or absence of BVDv does not result in consistent health outcomes because BVDv is only one of many risk factors that contribute to disease syndromes. Current interventions have limitations and the optimum strategy for their uses to limit the health, production, and economic costs associated with BVDv have to be carefully considered for optimum cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. In vitro production of bovine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroebech, L.; Mazzoni, Gianluca; Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard

    2015-01-01

    be improved, and aspects related to the oocyte donor, oocyte maturation and the recipients are addressed in the following. Also, some of the future aspects of genomic selection and systems biology are addressed with particular focus on the Brazilian-Danish collaboration in the so-called GIFT-project.......In vitro production (IVP) of bovine embryos has become a widespread technology implemented in cattle breeding and production. The implementation of genomic selection and systems biology adds great dimensions to the impact of bovine IVP. The physical procedures included in the IVP process can still...

  5. [Culture and control of cells producing bovine leukemia virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granátová, M

    1987-10-01

    In the field surveys of the occurrence of enzootic bovine leucosis caused by the bovine leucosis virus (BLV), the identification of positive animals is based on the detection of specific antiviral antibodies by serological methods. The reliability of these tests (particularly their sensitivity and specificity) depends on the quality of the virus antigen. The preparation of the antigen is based on the cultivation of BLV virus in cultures of the FLS cell line. A modified procedure of preparing the BLV antigen in the FLS cell culture is described, along with the control of its production by the immunoperoxidase test.

  6. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE FACIOLOSIS IN HALABA MUNICIPAL ABATTOR SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA

    OpenAIRE

    Muna Abdella; Wubit Tafese Mhatebu

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2015 to march 2016 on bovine fasciolosis, to assess the abattoir based prevalence, predominant species of bovine fasciolosis and associated risk factors of the disease in cattle slaughtered in Halaba municipal abattoir. A total of 384 cattle were examined using post mortem examination. Infection rates were (3.64%), 2.34%, 2.08%, and 1.82 % F. gigantic, F. hepatica, mixed and immature respectively with the overall prevalence of 9.88 % (38)....

  7. Contamination of milk by enterococci and coliforms from bovine faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagkli, D M; Vancanneyt, M; Vandamme, P; Hill, C; Cogan, T M

    2007-11-01

    To determine the contribution of enterococci and coliforms from bovine faeces and teats to contamination of raw milk. Putative enterococci (n = 301) and coliforms (n = 365) were isolated from bovine faeces (n = 20), cows' teats (n = 20), the raw milk (n = 1) and the milking environment (n = 4) on one farm. The clonal relationships of each bacterial group were investigated using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis of genomic macrorestriction fragments. Representatives of the different clusters of enterococci were identified by molecular techniques including rep-PCR, SDS protein profiling, Fluorescent Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (FAFLP), phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS) sequence analysis and/or 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Coliforms were identified by API 20E strips. The majority of the bovine faecal enterococcal isolates were identified as a potential new species of Aerococcus (100 isolates); E. faecium (28 isolates), and Aerococcus viridans (28 isolates) were also found. All coliform isolates from the bovine faeces were identified as Escherichia coli. The coliforms present in the milk were Hafnia alvei, Serratia liquefaciens, Yersinia enterocolitica and Enterobacter amnigenus. No E. coli, Enterococcus or Aerococcus from the bovine faeces were found in the milk. A single clone of H. alvei was found in the water, the milking equipment and the milk, suggesting that the water was the source of the organism in the milk. No vancomycin-resistant aerococci or enterococci were found while most of the isolates tested showed the presence of at least one virulence gene. The milk-sock retained strains that adhered to particulate faecal material. Coliforms were present at approx. 2 orders of magnitude greater than enterococci in the bovine faeces. The results imply that bovine faeces are not an important source of contamination of raw milk with enterococci or coliforms. The results confirm those of two previous studies (Gelsomino et al. 2001, Int J Food Microbiol71, 177

  8. Ultrasonography as a diagnostic aid in bovine musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Johann

    2009-11-01

    In the last 15 years, ultrasonography of the bovine musculoskeletal system has become an established diagnostic method used routinely in many veterinary teaching hospitals worldwide. Ultrasonography is ideal for the evaluation of musculoskeletal disorders because they are often associated with extensive soft tissue swelling and inflammatory exudation. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. Not only does ultrasonography improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis, added use of the machine helps recoup expenses.

  9. Calf form bovine leukosis with lameness in a Holstein heifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfeeq, Mohammad Monir; Miura, Saori; Nakanishi, Yuuki; Sugimoto, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2012-09-01

    A 12-month-old Holstein heifer with anorexia, lameness, and enlargement of peripheral lymph nodes was suspected of having bovine leukosis. Although lymphocytosis was not observed, cytology of fine needle aspirate from a superficial cervical node, and increased serum lactate dehydrogenase and thymidine kinase activities, strongly suggested lymphosarcoma. Increased numbers of mononuclear cells as well as mitotic cells were observed in synovial fluid collected from swollen joints. Pathological examination confirmed B-cell calf form bovine leukosis and joint swelling related to neoplastic cell infiltration. Both interleukin-2 receptor and thymidine kinase 1 genes were highly expressed in cells from superficial cervical lymph node aspirate.

  10. Preparation and characterization of (125)i labeled bovine serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwitha Rai, K S; Jyothi; Rasmi, R R; Sarnaik, Jayula; Kadwad, V B; Shenoy, K B; Somashekarappa, H M

    2015-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin is a model protein, which has been conventionally used as protein standard and in many areas of biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine. Radioiodination procedure for bovine serum albumin employing chloramine-T as an oxidant with slight modification was evaluated critically to establish the optimal conditions for the preparation of radiolabeled tracer ((125)I-BSA) with required specific activity without impairing the immune reactivity and biological activity. Optimized radioiodination procedure involving 10 µg of chloramine-T along with 20 µg of sodium metabisulphite with 60 seconds incubation at 2° yielded (125)I-BSA with high integrity.

  11. Preparation and Characterization of 125I Labeled Bovine Serum Albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwitha Rai, K. S.; Jyothi; Rasmi, R. R.; Sarnaik, Jayula; Kadwad, V. B.; Shenoy, K. B.; Somashekarappa, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin is a model protein, which has been conventionally used as protein standard and in many areas of biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine. Radioiodination procedure for bovine serum albumin employing chloramine-T as an oxidant with slight modification was evaluated critically to establish the optimal conditions for the preparation of radiolabeled tracer (125I-BSA) with required specific activity without impairing the immune reactivity and biological activity. Optimized radioiodination procedure involving 10 µg of chloramine-T along with 20 µg of sodium metabisulphite with 60 seconds incubation at 2° yielded 125I-BSA with high integrity. PMID:25767326

  12. Criteria for prick test using soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Keiji; Sugiura, Mariko

    2012-05-01

    We previously reported four cases of soy sauce allergy and noted that new criteria are necessary for the prick test. Soy sauce contains histamine and often causes false-positive reactions in the skin tests. It is important to discuss how to interpret the results of prick tests. Eight female patients with soy sauce allergy and four female volunteers as controls were given the prick test using 15 sauces and were evaluated according to nine criteria. The volume of histamine in 15 sauces was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The conventional criteria resulted in nine different reactions. Some of the control subjects showed false-positive reactions according to the conventional criteria. Histamine was detected in 11 sauces and was not detected in four sauces. The positive ratios of these four sauces were low; there were no positive reactions in controls according to the new criteria. Regardless of patients or controls, the positive ratio evaluated using the conventional criteria was higher than that evaluated using the new criteria in the sauces containing histamine. It is difficult to evaluate the results of the prick test using soy sauce with the conventional criteria because the results were different depending on each criterion. Our new criteria are more suitable for evaluating the results of the prick test using soy sauce than the conventional criteria, and they could decrease the number of false-positive reactions. Common diagnostic criteria are needed for prick testing using pseudoallergens. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  13. Diagnostic criteria of vascular dementia in CADASIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benisty, Sarah; Hernandez, Karen; Viswanathan, Anand; Reyes, Sonia; Kurtz, Annie; O'Sullivan, Michael; Bousser, Marie-Germaine; Dichgans, Martin; Chabriat, Hugues

    2008-03-01

    Subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD) is a major subtype of vascular dementia (VaD). Recently, the diagnostic criteria of VaD have been modified to encompass this entity. Application of these criteria in CADASIL, a genetic model of SIVD, may help to better assess their significance. The aim of this study was to compare different sets of diagnostic criteria of VaD in a population of CADASIL patients. Different sets of diagnostic criteria of VaD (DSMIV, ICD10, standard NINDS-AIREN, modified NINDS-AIREN for SIVD) were applied to 115 CADASIL patients. Diagnosis of VaD was made through 2 steps: (1) diagnosis of dementia and (2) association of dementia to lesions of vascular origin. The percentage of patients satisfying the different sets and the concordance between these criteria was analyzed. At least 1 set of criteria was satisfied for diagnosis in 29 subjects with dementia. In this group of patients, the sensitivity of the DSM IV, ICD 10, and standard NINDS-AIREN criteria for VaD was, respectively, 79%, 72%, and 45%. In contrast, the sensitivity of the NINDS-AIREN criteria for SIVD was 90%. The incomplete sensitivity of these last criteria was related to the absence of focal signs in some patients. The neuroimaging criteria were satisfied in all patients with dementia. The modified NINDS-AIREN criteria of SIVD are the most sensitive VaD criteria in CADASIL. Among these criteria, the neuroimaging criteria, although poorly specific to dementia, have a complete sensitivity. In contrast, focal signs were inconstant in CADASIL patients with dementia.

  14. Morphoquantitative description of bovine digital cushion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Borges

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The digital cushion is characterized as a modified subcutaneous tissue that absorbs the shock during gait, assists venous return of the hoof and supports a considerable part of body weight. Digital cushions have particular importance in the pathogenesis of the hoof, since they need to properly work in order to prevent compression and traumas in soft tissues. This study aimed to measure and determine how is the arrangement of these structures, and for this it was established the proportions of connective, adipose, vascular tissues and collagen fibers and collagen types found in palmar and plantar digital cushion of bovine using fore and hindlimbs of twelve adult zebu cattle of both sexes, 11 male and one female, with 269kg average carcass weight and without limb disorders. Fragments of cushions were subjected to conventional histology, cut to a thickness of 4µm and stained with Red Picrosirius. With digital optical microscope, the quantification of the connective tissue and differentiation of types of collagen used the Image Pro Plus® software, and of adipose and vascular tissue, the test point system. The mean and standard error were estimated with the GraphPad Prism 5.0 software, and then data were subjected to Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality test and Student's t-test with significance level set at 5% for determining the amount of different tissues between fore and hindlimbs of studied animals. In forelimbs the mean and standard error of the connective tissue proportion was 50.10%+1.54, of the adipose tissue was 21.34%+1.44, and of vascular tissue was 3.43%+0.28. Hindlimbs presented a proportion of connective tissue of 61.61%+1.47, 20.66%+1.53 of adipose tissue, and 3.06%+0.20 of vascular tissue. A significant difference (p<0.001 was detected in the connective tissue proportion between fore and hindlimbs. Types I and II collagen fibers have presented, respectively, a proportion of 31.89% and 3.9% in forelimbs and 34.05% and 1.78% in

  15. Bovine respiratory disease associated with Histophilus somni and bovine respiratory syncytial virus in a beef cattle feedlot from Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selwyn Arligton Headley

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease (BRD is a complex multifactorial and multi-etiological disease entity that is responsible for the morbidity and mortality particularly in feedlot cattle from North America. Information relative to the occurrence of BRD in Brazil and the associated infectious agents are lacking. This study investigated the participation of infectious agents of BRD in a beef cattle feedlot from Southeastern Brazil. Nasopharyngeal swabs of 11% (10/90 of cattle (n, 450 with clinical manifestations of respiratory distress were analyzed by targeting specific genes of the principal infectious pathogens of BRD. In addition, pulmonary fragments of one the animals that died were collected for histopathological and molecular diagnoses. The nucleic acids of Histophilus somni and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV were identified in 20% (2/10 of the nasopharyngeal swabs of the animals with respiratory distress; another contained only BRSV RNA. Moreover, the nucleic acids of both infectious agents were amplified from the pulmonary fragments of the animal that died with histopathological evidence of bronchopneumonia and interstitial pneumonia; the nasopharyngeal swab of this animal also contained the nucleic acids of both pathogens. Additionally, all PCR and/or RT-PCR assays designed to detect the specific genes of Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma bovis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine herpesvirus -1, bovine parainfluenza virus-3, and bovine coronavirus yielded negative results. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the isolates of H. somni circulating in Brazil are similar to those identified elsewhere, while there seem to be diversity between the isolates of BRSV within cattle herds from different geographical locations of Brazil.

  16. Admission Criteria for MBA Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Dakduk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a review of studies on admission criteria for MBA programs. The method consisted in a literary review based on a systematic search in international databases (Emerald, ABI/INFORM Global, ProQuest Education Journals, ProQuest European Business, ProQuest Science Journal, ProQuest Research Library, ProQuest Psychology Journals, ProQuest Social Science Journals and Business Source Complete of studies published from January 1990 to December 2013, which explore the academic performance of students or graduates of MBA programs. A quantitative review was performed. Results show that most researchers studied relations between GMAT (Graduate Management Admission Test and UGPA (Undergraduate Grade Point Average as predictors of GGPA (Graduate Grade Point Average. On the other hand, work experience and personal traits (such as personality, motivation, learning strategies, self-efficacy beliefs and achievement expectations and their relation with GGPA had been less studied, and results are not consistent enough to consider them valid predictors of student performance at this time.

  17. Apolipoprotein A-I binds to a family of bovine seminal plasma proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunath, P; Marcel, Y L; Uma, J; Seidah, N G; Chrétien, M; Chapdelaine, A

    1989-10-05

    Bovine seminal plasma contains four similar acidic proteins, previously designated as BSP (bovine seminal plasma)-A1, BSP-A2, BSP-A3, and BSP-30-kDa, that when added to pituitary cell cultures result in the immediate secretion of gonadotropins (follitropin and lutropin). However, when calf or horse serum was included in the culture medium the secretion of gonadotropins was completely prevented. This effect was seen at levels up to 200 micrograms of BSP protein/ml while the presence of more than 200 micrograms of BSP protein/ml in the serum medium continued to release gonadotropins. This could be explained by the presence in the sera of a binding factor to the BSP proteins which prevents their action. This binding factor has been detected in all the sera tested, including human serum, in dot-blot experiments using 125I-labeled BSP-A1, -A2, -A3, or -30-kDa protein. Thus, it was of interest to isolate this binding factor from human serum by affinity chromatography on a column of BSP-A1/-A2-agarose. The purified binding factor was then identified as apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) by the following criteria: (a) it has a molecular mass of 27,000 daltons, (b) the amino acid composition is similar to apoA-I, (c) the first 25 residues at the amino-terminal end of this binding factor are identical to apoA-I, and (d) the binding factor cross-reacts in the radioimmunoassay of apoA-I. Furthermore, BSP proteins also bind to purified plasma apoA-I and apoA-I associated with high density lipoprotein. ApoA-I is the major protein of plasma high density lipoprotein and plays an important role in lipid transport and metabolism. Thus, the binding of bovine seminal plasma proteins to apoA-I suggests some physiological significance in lipoprotein function or vice versa.

  18. Delayed-onset enzootic bovine leukosis possibly caused by superinfection with bovine leukemia virus mutated in the pol gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tadaaki; Inoue, Emi; Mori, Hiroshi; Osawa, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Katsunori

    2015-08-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL), to which animals are most susceptible at 4-8 years of age. In this study, we examined tumor cells associated with EBL in an 18-year-old cow to reveal that the cells carried at least two different copies of the virus, one of which was predicted to encode a reverse transcriptase (RT) lacking ribonuclease H activity and no integrase. Such a deficient enzyme may exhibit a dominant negative effect on the wild-type RT and cause insufficient viral replication, resulting in delayed tumor development in this cow.

  19. Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for Smartphone Addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsuan Lin

    Full Text Available Global smartphone penetration has led to unprecedented addictive behaviors. The aims of this study are to develop diagnostic criteria of smartphone addiction and to examine the discriminative ability and the validity of the diagnostic criteria.We developed twelve candidate criteria for characteristic symptoms of smartphone addiction and four criteria for functional impairment caused by excessive smartphone use. The participants consisted of 281 college students. Each participant was systematically assessed for smartphone-using behaviors by psychiatrist's structured diagnostic interview. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of the candidate symptom criteria were analyzed with reference to the psychiatrists' clinical global impression. The optimal model selection with its cutoff point of the diagnostic criteria differentiating the smartphone addicted subjects from non-addicted subjects was then determined by the best diagnostic accuracy.Six symptom criteria model with optimal cutoff point were determined based on the maximal diagnostic accuracy. The proposed smartphone addiction diagnostic criteria consisted of (1 six symptom criteria, (2 four functional impairment criteria and (3 exclusion criteria. Setting three symptom criteria as the cutoff point resulted in the highest diagnostic accuracy (84.3%, while the sensitivity and specificity were 79.4% and 87.5%, respectively. We suggested determining the functional impairment by two or more of the four domains considering the high accessibility and penetration of smartphone use.The diagnostic criteria of smartphone addiction demonstrated the core symptoms "impaired control" paralleled with substance related and addictive disorders. The functional impairment involved multiple domains provide a strict standard for clinical assessment.

  20. One-step multiplex real time RT-PCR for the detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine parainfluenza virus 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonur, Leenadevi; Maley, Madeleine; Gilray, Janice; Crook, Tara; Laming, Ellie; Turnbull, Dylan; Nath, Mintu; Willoughby, Kim

    2012-03-28

    Detection of respiratory viruses in veterinary species has traditionally relied on virus detection by isolation or immunofluorescence and/or detection of circulating antibody using ELISA or serum neutralising antibody tests. Multiplex real time PCR is increasingly used to diagnose respiratory viruses in humans and has proved to be superior to traditional methods. Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in housed cattle and virus infections can play a major role. We describe here a one step multiplex reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (mRT-qPCR) to detect the viruses commonly implicated in BRD. A mRT-qPCR assay was developed and optimised for the simultaneous detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpes virus type 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPI3 i & ii) nucleic acids in clinical samples from cattle. The assay targets the highly conserved glycoprotein B gene of BoHV-1, nucleocapsid gene of BRSV and nucleoprotein gene of BPI3. This mRT-qPCR assay was assessed for sensitivity, specificity and repeatability using in vitro transcribed RNA and recent field isolates. For clinical validation, 541 samples from clinically affected animals were tested and mRT-qPCR result compared to those obtained by conventional testing using virus isolation (VI) and/or indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). The mRT-qPCR assay was rapid, highly repeatable, specific and had a sensitivity of 97% in detecting 102 copies of BRSV, BoHV-1 and BPI3 i & ii. This is the first mRT-qPCR developed to detect the three primary viral agents of BRD and the first multiplex designed using locked nucleic acid (LNA), minor groove binding (MGB) and TaqMan probes in one reaction mix. This test was more sensitive than both VI and IFAT and can replace the aforesaid methods for virus detection during outbreaks of BRD.

  1. Isolation rates and antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study showed that sensitivity to antimicrobial agents was highest for gentamycin and kanamycin while it was moderate to low for penicillin, ampicillin, tetracycline, ... Bovine mastitis is the most common disease in dairy herds and is responsible ... the main reasons of low efficacy of antibiotic treatment of mastitis cases is.

  2. Sexing bovine pre-implantation embryos using the polymerase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-06

    Mar 6, 2012 ... can also be applied to human embryos, using different primers, designed for human DNA. Key words: sexing, embryo, PCR, bovine. INTRODUCTION. In vitro fertilization represents nowadays a modern assisted reproductive technology that can be applied to couples with fertility problems that make natural ...

  3. Epizootiological Survey of Bovine Brucellosis in Nomadic Pastoral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They called bovine brucellosis (Bakkale) and described it as a cattle disease characterized by standing hair coat, fever, loss of appetite, swollen joints, and abortion and transmitted by ingestion and contact. The high prevalence observed calls for urgent government intervention towards public health enlightenment of ...

  4. Production of Bioactive Recombinant Bovine Chymosin in Tobacco Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Yi Wei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chymosin (also known as rennin plays an essential role in the coagulation of milk in the cheese industry. Chymosin is traditionally extracted from the rumen of calves and is of high cost. Here, we present an alternative method to producing bovine chymosin from transgenic tobacco plants. The CYM gene, which encodes a preprochymosin from bovine, was introduced into the tobacco nuclear genome under control of the viral 35S cauliflower mosaic promoter. The integration and transcription of the foreign gene were confirmed with Southern blotting and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR analyses, respectively. Immunoblotting analyses were performed to demonstrate expression of chymosin, and the expression level was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The results indicated recombinant bovine chymosin was successfully expressed at an average level of 83.5 ng/g fresh weight, which is 0.52% of the total soluble protein. The tobacco-derived chymosin exhibited similar native milk coagulation bioactivity as the commercial product extracted from bovine rumen.

  5. Bovine Serum Albumin Metal Complexes for Mimic of SOD

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    prospect in antioxidant drug field. Keywords. Bovine serum albumin; biopolymer metal complexes; .... cations, such as neoteric hydrophilic and drug delivery carriers.26 In our previous investigations, it was discov- ... monitor the interaction of metal ions with BSA. BSA has a high percentage of α-helical structure which.

  6. Analysis of bovine growth hormone gene polymorphism of local and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of bovine growth hormone gene polymorphism of local and Holstein cattle breeds in Kerman province of Iran using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... RFLPs in this segment were studied using AluI restriction enzyme.

  7. 9 CFR 113.69 - Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be... Master Seed used for vaccine production shall be tested for immunogenicity. The immunogenicity of a... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine...

  8. Incidence and Economic Cost of Bovine Trypanosomosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidence and economic cost of cases of bovine trypanosomosis in nomadic herds at the Jos Plateau from 1997 to 2001 were determined. These were done using records kept at the Plateau State Ministry of Animal and Forest Resources headquarters at Jos, and the model described by Alonge et al. (1984). The incidence ...

  9. Bovine Hydatidosis in Ambo Municipality Abattoir, West Shoa, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study on bovine hydatidosis was conducted in Ambo municipality abattoir from November 2007 to March 2008 with the aim of investigating the prevalence, intensity, fertility and economic losses in cattle slaughtered for human consumption. Stray dogs killed with strychnine baited meat piece were also ...

  10. Prevalence and Risk factors of Bovine Tuberculosis in smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2013 and January 2014 to determine the prevalence and risk factors of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in smallholder dairy farms in Babati town council. Sixty three smallholder dairy farmers were administered with questionnaires to collect information on risk factors for ...

  11. Prevalence of bovine cysticercosis in Ikom abattoir, Nigeria | Bikom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional study was conducted from October, 2015 to March, 2016 to determine the prevalence of bovine cysticercosis in Ikom abattoir of the central senatorial zone of Cross River State. A total of 778 cattle were slaughtered and examined out of which 180 were males and 598 were female. Eight (4.44%) of the ...

  12. Non-specific esterases in partly mineralized bovine enamel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, D; Kirkeby, S

    1990-01-01

    Activity for non-specific esterase was demonstrated in the matrix of developing bovine enamel with alpha-naphthyl acetate and 5-bromoindoxyl acetate as the esterase substrates. By use of high-performance liquid chromatography gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography, and electrophoresis three...

  13. Prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis in Wemberma district of West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional survey of bovine trypanosomosis was carried out in Wemberma district of west Gojjam zone, North West Ethiopia. From three peasant associations in the district (one from the midland and two from lowland), 384 cattle were randomly selected and examined for trypanosomosis. The prevalence of the ...

  14. Applying the Taguchi method for optimized fabrication of bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study was to optimize the fabrication of bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticle by applying the Taguchi method with characterization of the nanoparticle bioproducts. BSA nanoparticles have been extensively studied in our previous works as suitable carrier for drug delivery, since they are ...

  15. Neurogenic vasodilatation in isolated bovine and canine penile arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, A; Gillespie, J S

    1983-01-01

    Field stimulation of isolated, perfused bovine or canine penile arteries produced dilatation, after the adrenergic motor component of the response had been blocked with guanethidine and the vessels had developed a background tone. The vasodilatation was blocked by tetrodotoxin but not by atropine. The vasodilator responses to field stimulation were compared with those produced by ATP, by vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and by the inhibitory factor extracted from the bovine retractor penis muscle. Of the three putative transmitters, the inhibitory factor produced responses that most closely resembled those to field stimulation. Haemoglobin, which blocks non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic inhibitory transmission in the bovine and canine retractor penis muscles, did not impair the vasodilatations produced by ATP or VIP, but slowly reduced or abolished those produced by field stimulation or by the inhibitory factor. Haemoglobin itself produced a powerful constriction of the isolated penile arteries. The results are compatable with the possibility that the inhibitory factor from the bovine retractor penis muscle (which may be the inhibitory transmitter in that muscle) is, or closely resembles, the transmitter of non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic vasodilator fibres in the penile arteries of dog and ox. PMID:6684686

  16. Nuclear maturation of immature bovine oocytes after vitrification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-21

    Mar 21, 2011 ... compared for cryopreservation of immature bovine oocytes. After warming, COCs were cultured in vitro for 24 h. The polar body (PB+) and metaphase-II (MII) stage rates differed significantly among treatment groups. Oocytes vitrified using cryotop solution and device showed higher percentages of PB+ (36 ...

  17. Detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus antibodies in camels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) antibodies in camels presented for slaughter at the Maiduguri abattoir using a BVDV specific indirect enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Ninety (90) serum samples collected from adult male and female camels were ...

  18. Histologic and Immunohistochemical classification of 41 bovine adrenal gland neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Anette Blak; Leifsson, Páll S.; Jensen, Henrik Elvang

    2013-01-01

    Tumors of the adrenal glands are among the most frequent tumors in cattle; however, few studies have been conducted to describe their characteristics. The aim of this study was to classify 41 bovine adrenal neoplasms from 40 animals based on macroscopic and histologic examination, including...

  19. Genetic analysis of protein composition of bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schopen, G.C.B.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is part of the Dutch Milk Genomics Initiative, and the general aim was to obtain more insight into the genetic background of bovine milk protein composition. Morning milk samples from roughly 2000 cows were analyzed for the six major milk proteins (αS1-casein, αS2-casein, β-casein,

  20. Production and purification of polyclonal antibody against bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibodies are important tools in medical researches which have led to many advances in this field. Anti-bovine immunoglobulins and its conjugate with horse radish peroxidase (HRP) is used to diagnose cows' disease by ELISA or western blotting tests. In this study, the production, purification and horse radish peroxidase ...

  1. Optimization of in vitro culture and transfection condition of bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study aimed to optimize the in vitro culture and transfection efficiency of bovine primary spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). To this end, SSCs were obtained from newborn Holstein bull calves by two-step enzymatic digestion. After enrichment and culture, SSCs were characterized by using alkaline phosphatase ...

  2. Development of a Vaccine for Eradicating Contagious Bovine ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) - also known as lung plague - is a highly contagious bacterial disease of cattle that has serious economic and trade consequences. In Africa, CBPP threatens to affect the livelihoods of more than 24 million people in 26 countries, the majority of them small-scale farmers.

  3. Sero-epidemiological survey of bovine brucellosis and reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A sero-epidemiological survey of bovine brucellosis in two selected was conducted from November 2007 to April 2008 in North Gondar Zone. Sera from 780 cattle (571) local and (209) cross breed were screened using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and RBPT positive reactors were further confirmed by Complement ...

  4. Seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in agro pastoral areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was carried out from October 2008- March 2009 to determine the sero-prevalence of bovine brucellosis in four districts of Jijjiga Zone, eastern Ethiopia. Purposive sampling technique was employed to select the four districts and nine peasant associations (PAs). A total of 435 blood samples were ...

  5. Proposals for the Rational Control and Prevention of Bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an earlier presentation and in relevant publications (Esuruoso, 1972; 1974), it was shown that Nigeria could be divided into free, moderately infected and heavily infected areas with regard to bovine brucellosis. In this paper, it is recommended that where there is little or no infection at the moment the disease could be ...

  6. Seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in agro pastoral areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Eth. Vet. J ., 11(2), 59-68. Bekele, A, 1999. Bovine brucellosis sero-epidemiological study in selected farms and ranches in Southeastern Ethiopia. DVM Thesis, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,. Addis Ababa University, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia. Bekele, A., Molla, B., Asfaw, Y., and Yirgu, L., 2000.

  7. Haplotype combination of the bovine PCSK1 gene sequence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prohormone convertase subtilisin/kexin type 1 gene. (PCSK1) plays a role in body mass control. Recent associa- tion studies have shown that three common nonsynonymous. SNPs are linked to increase risk of obesity and therefore it has been the focus of this study. Hence, in this study, polymorphisms of the bovine ...

  8. incidence of bovine cysticercosis in kano state, north- western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    physiological activity and it is believed that these parasites are commonly found in such organs that are constantly in motion (Belino, 1975). CONCLUSION. Investigation on bovine cysticercosis in Kano is a fertile area of scientific investigation. The 2.67% incidence in this investigation is higher than 1.9% and 2.1% in Bauchi ...

  9. A comparative study of lyophilized bovine pericardium and tunica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-15

    Aug 15, 2011 ... The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of lyophilized bovine pericardium and tunica vaginalis in repairing large abdominal wall defect in a rabbit model. Full thickness (all the layers of muscles except the skin) abdominal wall defects (3 x 4 cm) were created in 18 anaesthetized male clinically ...

  10. Effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin application intervals on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB. African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length Research Paper. Effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin application intervals on Girolando cows' milk production and composition. Thiago S. Carvalho, Marco Antônio P. da Silva*, Jakeline F. Cabral, Rafaella B. Brasil, Lígia C. de Moura ...

  11. Crystallization of Bovine Cervical Mucus at Oestrus: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel E. Cortés

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bovine cervical mucus changes its biochemical composition and biophysical properties due to the variations in sex steroid levels during the oestrous cycle. As a consequence of oestrogen rise, cervical mucus is produced in larger amounts at oestrus—a stage also characterized by an increase in mucus crystallization when observed under light microscopy. The objective of this article is to provide an updated review of the main aspects regarding crystallization of bovine cervical mucus. First, it makes reference to the composition of cervical mucus and the critical functions that this secretion exerts on bovine reproductive physiology, as well as in other species. Then, the article deals with the phenomenon of crystallization observed in cervical mucus, describing the main models used to classify the crystalline patterns observable in mucus at oestrus stage (some of them resembling ferns, palm leaves and stellar patterns, among others. Finally, it addresses the importance of the phenomenon of cervical mucus crystallization for the understanding of bovine reproductive physiology.

  12. Production and use of bovine DNA libraries: DNA-sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallmann, H P; Fuhrmann, H; Huttel, K; Geldermann, H

    1990-03-01

    An important part in the use of genomic DNA libraries is the sequencing of identified clones for detailed information. In this study, methods for DNA sequence analysis were elaborated and employed for the k-casein gene, a bovine milk protein. The results encourage further research.

  13. Incidence of bovine cysticercosis in kano state, northwestern, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidence of bovine cysticercosis in kano state, northwestern, Nigeria. B Rabi, O Jegede. Abstract. The incidence of infection due to Cysticercus bovis in Kano abattoir located in Fagge local government area (LGA) of Kano state, Nigeria was studied. Out of the 11,804 cattle which were examined, 315 (2.67%) were found to ...

  14. The Distribution Of Bovine Leukemia Virus Genotypes In Cattle From ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study to investigate the types and distribution of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) genotypes and to estimate diagnostic test performance of agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) was conducted on 807 cattle drawn from 68 farms found in 16 prefectures in Japan from. June 2002 to December 2003. AGID test on serum samples and ...

  15. Bovine in-vitro embryo production and its contribution towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    ... of the Kenyan livestock farmers and boost food security. It discusses the technical aspects of the procedures involved in the in-vitro production of bovine embryos and embryo transfer, with special reference to the application of the techniques in Kenya. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Production of embryos in the laboratory ...

  16. Interaction of Tannin with Bovine Serum Albumin by Fluorescence Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Il, Kim; Son-Ae, Choe; Kye-Ryong, Sin

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between tannin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was examined by the fluorescent quenching. The process of elimination between BSA and tannin was the one of a stationary state, and the coupling coefficient was one. The working strength between the tannin and the beef serum was hydrophobic one.

  17. Effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin application intervals on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST) application intervals on chemical composition of milk from Girolando cows with productivity below 20 L/milk/day and animals with productivity above 20.1 liters/milk/day. The study included 30 Girolando cows with production ranging ...

  18. Bovine papilloma virus deoxyribonucleic acid: a novel eucaryotic cloning vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarver, N; Gruss, P; Law, M F; Khoury, G; Howley, P M

    1981-01-01

    A novel eucaryotic vector derived from the transforming region of bovine papilloma virus was established and demonstrated to be highly effective for introducing foreign genes into animal cells. The foreign deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is replicated and actively transcribed as an episome, and the transcripts are translated into an authentic gene product. We have constructed a DNA hybrid molecule, BPV69T-rI1, containing the transforming region of bovine papilloma virus DNA and the rat preproinsulin gene I (rI1), and used it to transform susceptible mouse cells. DNA hybridization analysis has demonstrated the presence of multiple unintegrated copies of hybrid DNA molecules, with the bovine papilloma virus 1 DNA segment and the rI1 gene covalently linked in selected transformed cell lines. S1 nuclease analysis revealed the presence of a correctly spliced coding segment of the preproinsulin transcript similar or identical in its electrophoretic mobility to that of messenger ribonucleic acid produced in rat insulinoma cells. Significant levels of a protein immunoreactive with anti-insulin serum were detected by radioimmunoassay in the culture medium of transformed cells. Immunoprecipitation analysis in conjunction with competitive binding to bovine proinsulin established the identity of the protein as that of rat proinsulin. Images PMID:6100967

  19. Identification, localization, and sequencing of fetal bovine VASA homolog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Rachel A; Parks, John E

    2007-10-01

    The vasa gene, first described in Drosophila, is purported to be important in germ cell development. Vasa is present across several invertebrate and vertebrate taxa, including frogs, fish, chickens, and humans. Vasa, a DEAD (asparagine-glutamine-alanine-asparagine) box protein shown to function as an RNA helicase in vitro, has not been investigated previously in fetal stage cattle. Total RNA was extracted from bovine fetal gonads obtained at 35-55 days, 55-80 days, and 80-120 days of gestation to amplify a 296 bp reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) product using primers for human vasa. The complete coding sequence of bovine vasa was cloned with 5' and 3' random amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR) and subsequently identified as bovine vasa homolog (BVH). Northern blot analysis revealed that among the tissues examined (gonad, liver, heart, brain, and femur), the vasa gene was expressed in the gonad. This localization, the conserved pattern of gene expression, and the gene sequence suggests that BVH plays a role in bovine germ cell development as proposed for other mammalian species.

  20. prevalence of bovine fasciolosis in major abattiors of adamawa state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Keywords: Prevalence, Bovine, Fasciolosis, Abattoirs, Adamawa state. INTRODUCTION. Fasciolosis a parasitic disease of cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats horses and human of all ages caused by liver flukes (Armour, 1975; Ramajo et al., 2001). Fasciola a trematode belonging to the sub- class. Digenea, which is commonly ...

  1. Development of a Subunit Vaccine for Contagious Bovine ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-08-11

    This project will allow researchers from Canada and Kenya to field trial a vaccine for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. ... Researchers and practitioners gathered in Montreal on August 11, 2017 to discuss the potential of child care to benefit women through improved economic opportunities and empowerment as part of ...

  2. Retrospective study on bovine whole carcass and liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Limited information exists in literature on the major reasons for whole carcass and organ condemnations in Ghana. A retrospective study spanning January 2002 to December 2013 was conducted at the Kumasi Abattoir to determine the pattern of bovine whole carcass, liver condemnation, and to estimate the direct financial ...

  3. Prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis in Wemberma district of West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional survey of bovine trypanosomosis was carried out in Wemberma district of west Gojjam zone, North West Ethiopia. From three peasant associations in the district (one from the midland and two from lowland), 384 cattle were randomly selected and examined for trypanosomosis. The prevalence of the.

  4. Epidemiology and public health importance of bovine cysticercosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A ten-year (1997 – 2006) retrospective and one-year (2007) cross-sectional study of bovine cysticercosis in Makurdi were conducted using abattoir slaughter records, participatory meat inspection and interviews of abattoir workers. The incidence rates, sex and age of the animals infected and visceral organs affected were ...

  5. Bovine cysticercosis in Ethiopia: A review | Kumar | Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raw or undercooked beef results taeniasis in human population and an important cause of economic loss mainly due to condemnation, refrigeration and downgrading of infected carcasses. Bovine cysticercosis is prevalent in cattle population of various regions of Ethiopia in a range of 2.2% to 26.25%. The reported rates of ...

  6. Bovine Pulmonary Tuberculosis At Bahir Dar Municipality Abattoir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine Pulmonary Tuberculosis At Bahir Dar Municipality Abattoir, Ethiopia. ... About 44.4 % of gross tuberculous lesions were found in the tracheo-bronchial lymph node while 33.4% in the mediastinal lymph node. Analysis of risk factors revealed that cross breed cattle were more likely to have high proportion of reactors ...

  7. Sucrose/bovine serum albumin mediated biomimetic crystallization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    specific morphology by β-cyclodextrin. Glucan. 14 was used as a template to control synthesis of aragonite calcium carbonate. This paper mainly discusses the cooperative influ- ence of the sucrose/bovine serum albumin system which is close to biological organisms on calcium carbonate precipitation. The aim of these ...

  8. Effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin on fatty acid composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    equivalent, recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST), can be used to further enhance· the milk production of wellcmanaged dairy cows. The mechanism of rBST action is not completely understood (e.g. Lough et ai., 1989; Chilliard et ai., 1990), although its overall effect is a redirection of dietary energy to lactogenesis and ...

  9. Bovine Hydatidosis in Eastern Part of Ethiopia | Mulatu | Momona ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on bovine hydatidosis from November 2010 to March 2011 with the aims of investigating its occurrence, risk factors and economic losses in Dire Dawa municipality abattoir. The study revealed 20.05% occurrence of hydatidosis based on the postmortem examination of1536 cattle.

  10. Binding of Staphylococcus aureus onto bovine intestinal mucin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mucins act as protection for the gastrointestinal tract against various invading organisms. They are also crucial in developing drugs against these organisms as well as other therapeutic purposes. This study was carried out to investigate the binding of Staphylococcus aureus onto bovine intestinal mucin in vitro. The isolate ...

  11. Bovine explant model of degeneration of the intervertebral disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivan Sarit

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many new treatments for degeneration of the intervertebral disc are being developed which can be delivered through a needle. These require testing in model systems before being used in human patients. Unfortunately, because of differences in anatomy, there are no ideal animal models of disc degeneration. Bovine explant model systems have many advantages but it is not possible to inject any significant volume into an intact disc. Therefore we have attempted to mimic disc degeneration in an explant bovine model via enzymatic digestion. Methods Bovine coccygeal discs were incubated with different concentrations of the proteolytic enzymes, trypsin and papain, and maintained in culture for up to 3 weeks. A radio-opaque solution was injected to visualise cavities generated. Degenerative features were monitored histologically and biochemically (water and glycosaminoglycan content, via dimethylmethylene blue. Results and Conclusion The central region of both papain and trypsin treated discs was macro- and microscopically fragmented, with severe loss of metachromasia. The integrity of the surrounding tissue was mostly in tact with cells in the outer annulus appearing viable. Biochemical analysis demonstrated greatly reduced glycosaminoglycan content in these compared to untreated discs. We have shown that bovine coccygeal discs, treated with proteolytic enzymes can provide a useful in vitro model system for developing and testing potential new treatments of disc degeneration, such as injectable implants or biological therapies.

  12. Mutational and Evolutionary Analyses of Bovine Reprimo Gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 1230-/T and 1264-/A. The percent identity and similarity between the amino acid sequence of bovine RPRM and RPRM genes of other mammals were higher than 90% (91-100% and 94-100%, respectively), except in the duckbill platypus where percent identity and similarity indices were 78% and 81%, respectively.

  13. Molecular epidemiology and population structure of bovine Streptococcus uberis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rato, M G; Bexiga, R; Nunes, S F

    2008-01-01

    The molecular epidemiology and population structure of 30 bovine subclinical mastitis field isolates of Streptococcus uberis, collected from 6 Portuguese herds (among 12 farms screened) during 2002 and 2003, were examined by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for clustering of the isol...

  14. Prevalence and risk factors of bovine and ovine fasciolosis, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from November, 2010 to March, 2011 to estimate the prevalence of bovine and ovine fasciolosis, to assess risk factors and to estimate direct financial loss due to liver condemnation on cattle and sheep slaughtered at Bahir Dar municipal abattoir. Additionally, the sensitivity of direct ...

  15. Prevalence of Bovine Fasciolosis in major Abattiors of Adamawa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cross sectional epidemiologic studies of bovine Fasciolosis was conducted in some selected abattoirs of Adamawa state (Yola, Mubi and Numan) using postmortem examination from liver of slaughtered animals.A total of 3,015 slaughtered cattled were examined at post mortem and 657 (21.8%) liver fluke cases were ...

  16. Seasonal prevalence of bovine fasciolosis and its direct economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to report the prevalence of bovine fasciolosis and to estimate the direct economic losses (DEL) from condemnation of liver as a result of detection of lesions of fasciolosis in cattle slaughtered in Makurdi abattoirs. Retrospective data were collected from the abattoir records obtained from Ministry of ...

  17. A novel pyrroleninone cross-link from bovine dentine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleter, G.A.; Damen, J.J.M.; Kettenes-Bosch, J.J. van den; Bank, R.A.; Koppele, J.M. te; Veraart, J.R.; Cate, J.M. ten

    1998-01-01

    The aim was to identify suspect collagen cross-links in dentine, eluting close to known cross-links in ion-exchange HPLC. Bovine tooth roots as source of dentine were powdered, demineralised, reduced, and acid-hydrolysed. Cross-linking amino acids were isolated from the acid hydrolysate by size

  18. A comparative study of lyophilized bovine pericardium and tunica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of lyophilized bovine pericardium and tunica vaginalis in repairing large abdominal wall defect in a rabbit model. Full thickness (all the layers of muscles except the skin) abdominal wall defects (3 x 4 cm) were created in 18 anaesthetized male clinically healthy New ...

  19. Isolation of bovine serum albumin from whey using affinity chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) to a chromatography resin with immobilised llama antibody fragments as affinity ligands was investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity of the affinity resin was 21.6 mg mL-1 with a Langmuir equilibrium constant of 20.4 mg mg-1. Using packed bed

  20. A quantitative risk assessment for bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadohira, M.; Stevenson, M.A.; Hogasen, H.R.; Koeijer, de A.A.

    2012-01-01

    A predictive case-cohort model was applied to Japanese data to analyze the interaction between challenge and stability factors for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) for the period 1985–2020. BSE risk in cattle was estimated as the expected number of detectable cases per year. The model was

  1. Pathogen reduction in minimally managed composting of bovine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persistence of pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes in bovine feces and contaminated soils is an important risk factor in perpetuating the initial infection as well as re-infection of cattle and dissemination of pathogens throughout agricultural la...

  2. Preventive effect of ordinary and hyperimmune bovine colostrums ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, the anti-diabetic effect of ordinary and hyperimmune bovine colostrum were evaluated in diabetic mice induced by alloxan. The results indicated that blood glucose levels were significantly decreased after administration of colostrum for 30 d, and the glucose tolerance was strengthened in a ...

  3. Interaction of cyclodextrins with human and bovine serum albumins ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Interaction of cyclodextrins (CDs) with the two most abundant proteins, namely human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), has been investigated using steady-state and time-resolved fluorometric techniques, circular dichroism measurements and molecular docking simulation. The study reveals that the ...

  4. Preventive effect of ordinary and hyperimmune bovine colostrums ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... significantly decreased, and serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) was significantly increased in a .... Preparation of bovine hyperimmune and ordinary colostrum powder .... that received ordinary skim milk powder at the dose of 133.40 mg/kg·bw and served as diabetic control mice, group 3 ...

  5. DNA polymorph isms in the bovine thyroglobulin gene

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disease mutation (Ricketts et ai., 1985a; 1985b; 1987). The bovine thyroglobulin gene has recently been localized to chromosome 14, which makes knowledge of RR.,Ps and their frequencies in this gene particularly useful for linkage analysis studies (Threadgillet aI., 1990). lbe DNA from thirty-two Afrikander cattle (the ...

  6. Genes involved in bovine milk-fat composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schennink, A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research described in this thesis was to identify genes that underlie the genetic variation in bovine milk-fat composition. The fat composition of milk samples from approximately 2,000 Dutch Holstein Friesian cows in their first lactation was measured by gas chromatography.

  7. Risk factors analysis and implications for public health of bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a neglected zoonosis of cattle that is prevalent but under-investigated in Cameroon. Based on epidemiological data of the disease, this study was designed to assess the risks and public health implications for zoonotic M. bovis infection in cattle and humans in the highlands of Cameroon.

  8. Prevalence of clinical bovine dermatophilosis in dairy cattle in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from June, 2013 to October, 2014 to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of clinical bovine dermatophilosis in dairy cattle in selected districttowns of West Shewa Zone. A total of 816 dairy cattle from 60 dairy farms were clinically examined for skin lesion followed by ...

  9. Proteomic analysis of bovine blastocoel fluid and blastocyst cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Linnert; Grøndahl, Marie Louise; Beck, Hans Christian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The understanding of the early mammalian development is a prerequisite for the advancement of in vitro fertilization and improvement of derivation and culturing of embryonic stem cells. While, whole genome transcriptomic analysis on bovine blastocysts has identified genes active in early...

  10. Porcine brain natriuretic peptide receptor in bovine adrenal cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, K.; Hashiguchi, T.; Ohashi, M.; Takayanagi, R.; Haji, M.; Matsuo, H.; Nawata, H.

    1989-01-01

    The action of porcine brain natriuretic peptide (pBNP) on the steroidogenesis was investigated in cultured bovine adrenocortical cells. Porcine BNP induced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of both ACTH- and A II-stimulated aldosterone secretion. 10/sup /minus/8/M and 10/sup /minus/7/M pBNP also significantly inhibited ACTH-stimulated cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretions. Binding studies of (/sup 125/I)-pBNP to bovine adrenocortical membrane fractions showed that adrenal cortex had high-affinity and low-capacity pBNP binding sites, with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 1.70 x 10/sup /minus/10/M and a maximal binding capacity (Bmax) of 19.9 fmol/mg protein. Finally, the 135 Kd radioactive band was specially visualized in the affinity labeling of bovine adrenal cortex with disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS). These results suggest that pBNP may have receptor-mediated suppressive actions on bovine adrenal steroidogenesis, similar to that in atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP).

  11. Prevalence of Bovine Tuberculosis in indigenous cattle in Gairo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis is an important zoonosis that affects uman, wildlife and livestock. A cross sectional study was carried out between December 2012 and January 2013 to establish the prevalence of bTB and the associated risk factors among ive and slaughter indigenous cattle in ...

  12. Detection of bovine tuberculosis in African buffaloes and indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycobacterium bovis is the aetiological agent for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in wildlife and livestock. A study to detect BTB in live buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) and evaluation of diagnostics was conducted in buffaloes and indigenous cattle in Mikumi ecosystem. Gamma interferon (γIFN) and BovidTB Stat-Pak tests were used ...

  13. Diagnosis of mycobacteria in bovine milk: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolaños, Carmen Alicia Daza; Paula, Carolina Lechinski de; Guerra, Simony Trevizan; Franco, Marília Masello Junqueira; Ribeiro, Márcio Garcia

    2017-06-05

    Tuberculosis remains as the world's biggest threat. In 2014, human tuberculosis ranked as a major infectious disease by the first time, overcoming HIV death rates. Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic disease of global distribution that affects animals and can be transmitted to humans by the consumption of raw milk, representing a serious public health concern. Despite the efforts of different countries to control and eradicate bovine tuberculosis, the high negative economic impact on meat and milk production chains remains, given the decreased production efficiency (approximately 25%), the high number of condemned carcasses, and increased animal culling rates. This scenario has motivated the establishment of official programs based on regulations and diagnostic procedures. Although Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis are the major pathogenic species to humans and bovines, respectively, nontuberculous mycobacteria within the Mycobacterium genus have become increasingly important in recent decades due to human infections, including the ones that occur in immunocompetent people. Diagnosis of mycobacteria can be performed by microbiological culture from tissue samples (lymph nodes, lungs) and secretions (sputum, milk). In general, these pathogens demand special nutrient requirements for isolation/growth, and the use of selective and rich culture media. Indeed, within these genera, mycobacteria are classified as either fast- or slow-growth microorganisms. Regarding the latter ones, incubation times can vary from 45 to 90 days. Although microbiological culture is still considered the gold standard method for diagnosis, molecular approaches have been increasingly used. We describe here an overview of the diagnosis of Mycobacterium species in bovine milk.

  14. Epidemiological and biochemical studies on bovine anaplamosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiological and biochemical studies on bovine anaplamosis in dakahlia and demiatta governorates in Egypt. ... Unstable situation of Anaplasma marginale in rural farms, and minimal situation disease in modern farms were recorded. The different Anaplasma marginale situation in the district needs more attentionin ...

  15. Prevalence of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in Borno State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiological situation of contagious bovine pleuropneumoia (CBPP) over a ten (10) year period in Borno State of Nigeria was examined. During this period, 1,178 out of 355,745 cattle examined at postmortem had lesions suggestive of CBPP giving an overall prevalence rate of 0.33%. Highest prevalence rate of 0.77% ...

  16. Bovine trypanosomosis in three districts of Southwest Oromia, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (1.49 fly/trap/day, 18.66 fly/trap/day) than the dry season (0.77 fly/trap/day, 15.04 fly/trap/day) respectively. Poor infrastructure, absence of trypanosomosis and vector control activities in the area have worsen the situation and hence require professional intervention. Keywords: Epidemiology, Bovine, trypanosomosis, tsetse ...

  17. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis at the SODEPA Douala abattoir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews tuberculosis and other pathological cases of slaughtered cattle recorded in “SODEPA” (Société de Développement et d'Exploitations des Productions Animales) Douala abattoir from April 1995 – May 2003 to determine the status of Bovine tuberculosis and other pathological conditions in Zebu cattle.

  18. An immunochemical assay to detect DNA damage in bovine sperm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, G.P. van der; Haring, R.; Dijk- Knijnenburg, H.C.M. van; Bruijnzeel, P.L.B.; Daas, N.H.G. den

    2000-01-01

    An immunochemical assay has been developed to detect oxidative damage in bovine sperm DNA. Sperm DNA contains a large amount of oxidative damage as a result of exposure to exogenous agents, but damage also can caused by normal metabolic processes and the absence of DNA repair in the later stages of

  19. Prevalence of bovine fasciolosis at the Ibadan Municipal Abattoir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the number of cattle slaughtered, prevalence, seasonal variation, and socio-economic consequence of bovine fasciolosis at the Ibadan Municipal abattoir, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria, between 1994 and 2004 based on retrospective abattoir meat inspection records and a perspective ...

  20. Acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity in bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruns, K.; Foster, R.A.; Casillas, E.R.

    1986-05-01

    Recently, the authors identified mM concentrations of acetylcarnitine in epidiymal fluids and have investigated the metabolism of acetylcarnitine by bovine and hamster caudal epididymal spermatozoa. (1-/sup 14/C)acetyl-L-carnitine is oxidized to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ by washed, intact hamster and bovine sperm at maximal rates of 8.4 and 15.2 nmol/hr/10/sup 7/ cells respectively. Conversely, the carnitine moiety of acetyl-L-(/sup 3/H-methyl)carnitine is not accumulated by sperm under similar conditions. Hydrolysis of (/sup 3/H)acetyl-L-carnitine and competition of uptake of (/sup 3/H)acetate by unlabeled acetate was demonstrated in incubations of intact cells of both species. The amount of (/sup 3/H)acetate accumulated in the incubation medium is time-dependent and also depends on the concentration of unlabeled acetate. A partial solubilization of acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity from washed, intact bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa in buffer or 0.01% Triton X-100 is observed. There is an enrichment of acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity in purified plasma membranes from bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa when compared to the activity present in broken cell preparations or other cellular fractions. The results suggest that acetylcarnitine is a substrate for spermatozoa as they traverse the epididymis.

  1. Study on Seroprevalence and Risk Factors Contagious Bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study on Seroprevalence and Risk Factors Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia in Southern Nationand Nationality People of Ethiopia Regional State in Amaro Special ... This warrants the need to institute for appropriate preventive and control measures to stop further spread of this economically devastating disease.

  2. Sero-prevalence of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a disease of cattle caused by. Mycoplasma mycoides ... of Western Oromia Zones as well as to assess the risk factors associated with the occurrence of the disease. ... to stop further spread of the disease and appropriate controlling and prevention should be designed in ...

  3. Sero-prevalence of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sero-prevalence of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and its potential risk factors in selected sites of Western Oromia, Ethiopia. ... was high, This warrants the need of the institute to follow appropriate preventive and control measures to stop further spread of the disease and appropriate controlling and prevention should ...

  4. Bovine coronaviruses from the respiratory tract: Antigenic and genetic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine corona viruses (BoCV) isolated from respiratory tract, nasal swab and broncho alveolar washing fluid samples were evaluated for genetic and antigenic differences. These BoCV from the respiratory tract of healthy and clinically ill cattle with BRD signs were compared to reference and vaccine ...

  5. Nuclear maturation of immature bovine oocytes after vitrification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the second experiment, effectiveness of both vitrification methods was compared for cryopreservation of immature bovine oocytes. After warming, COCs were cultured in vitro for 24 h. The polar body (PB+) and metaphase-II (MII) stage rates differed significantly among treatment groups. Oocytes vitrified using cryotop ...

  6. Seasonal prevalence of bovine fasciolosis and its direct economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2015-06-29

    Jun 29, 2015 ... Relationship between rainfall trends and flooding in the Niger-Benue. River Basin. The Journal of Meteorology,. 13 (132): 318–324. Ibironke AA & Fasina FO (2010). Socio-economic implications of bovine liver rejection in a major abattoir in south western Nigeria. Revista de Ciˆencias Agr´arias, 33(2) 211–.

  7. Structural changes during the unfolding of Bovine serum albumin in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The native form of serum albumin is the most important soluble protein in the body plasma. In order to investigate the structural changes of Bovine serum albumin (BSA) during its unfolding in the presence of urea, a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) study was performed. The scattering curves of dilute solutions of BSA ...

  8. Identifying and Prioritizing Genes involved in Bovine Mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Li

    and integrate different layers of biological data, attempting to make a systematic inference of underlying genes to bovine mastitis. Robust and flexible methods have been implemented in data summarization and integration for gene prioritization, which can be applied to study various complex traits in different...

  9. Bovine Mastitis in Dairy Cows in Mekele, Northern Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2007 to April 2008 on Holstein and Holstein-Zebu cross breds lactating dairy cows in and around Mekele to determine the prevalence, major risk factors and major bacterial pathogens of bovine mastitis in the study area. Simple random sampling of dairy herds, clinical ...

  10. Bovine Streptococcal Mastitis in Southwest and Northern States of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was carried out to identify the streptococci species isolated from clinical cases of bovine mastitis in Kwara, Kaduna and Oyo States of Nigeria. Milk samples from 200 clinically mastitic udders were bacteriological studied. A total of 130 streptococci isolate belonging to six species of streptococci, namely S.

  11. Incidence rate of clinical bovine mastitis in selected smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in Gondar town in six selected smallholder farms from August 2005 to January 2006 for six months to measure incidence rate of clinical bovine mastitis. Monitoring was performed by animal attendants of each farm after training and supervision of the monitoring activities and collection of data was ...

  12. Prevalence and vector distributions of bovine trypanosomosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unicellular parasites found in the blood and other tissues of vertebrates including livestock, wild life and people (Uilenberg, 1998). Bovine trypanosomosis is one of the diseases that are caused by flagellated protozoan parasites belong to the genus Trypanosoma. ... buffalo, bush pig, warthog, crocodile, hyena, snakes, etc.

  13. Control of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is a consensus statement, produced at the request of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine that reflects the opinion of an expert panel regarding the prevalence and host range, clinical manifestations, and the potential for ultimate eradication of bovine viral diarrhea v...

  14. On the possible involvement of bovine serum albumin precursor in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-27

    Jan 27, 2014 ... mass finger printing analysis technique, herein we report the identification of a 70 kDa size protein (bovine serum albumin precursor, BSAP) .... Total cytoplasmic proteins from CHO cells were isolated using conventional cell ..... 2002 HIV-1 integration in the human genome favors active genes and local ...

  15. Bovine response to lipoarabinomannan vaccination and challenge with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Jolly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the immune response in bovines following immunization with a mycobaterial Lipoarabinomannan extract (LAMe and the effect of Map challenge. LAMe vaccine induced specific antibody levels that diminished after the challenge and affected Map excretion at least for 100 days thereafter.

  16. Effect of melatonin on in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-26

    Apr 26, 2010 ... To investigate the effect of different concentrations of melatonin on bovine oocytes in vitro maturation, varying concentrations of melatonin .... solution (30 - 35°C) containing 100 IU/ml penicillin and 100 g/ml streptomycin (15140-122 .... The adverse effect will compromise fertility potential (Peter and Adashi, ...

  17. Bilaterally symmetrical foramina on the parietal bone of the bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different bovine skull developmental defects have been reported with variable frequency of occurrence. We hereby report a bilaterally symmetrical parietal foramina in a processed skull meant for osteological practical at the Department of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Jos, Nigeria. The depths of each of the foramina ...

  18. Prevalence and financial losses associated with Bovine fasciolosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and financial losses of Bovine fasciolosis at SAAFI and Sumbawanga municipal abattoirs. Primary data was collected for one month (November/December 2012) through meat inspection. Secondary data was retrieved from the abattoir records for the period of five years ...

  19. prevalence of bovine fasciolosis in major abattiors of adamawa state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. Cross sectional epidemiologic studies of bovine Fasciolosis was conducted in some selected abattoirs of Adamawa state (Yola, Mubi and Numan) using postmortem examination from liver of slaughtered animals.A total of 3,015 slaughtered cattled were examined at post mortem and 657. (21.8%) liver fluke ...

  20. Criteria for Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartlage, S. Ann; Freels, Sally; Gotman, Nathan; Yonkers, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Context There is substantial information that premenstrual dysphoric disorder(PMDD)is a clinically significant disorder with biological underpinnings that differ from other psychiatric disorders. However, data regarding the symptoms noted in DSM-IV and timing of their expression in the menstrual cycle have had little empirical support. Objective To provide evidence informing the definitional criteria for PMDD. Design Prospective surveys. Setting General community and clinical settings. Participants Two cohorts that included a representative sample and a self-identified treatment-seeking cohort. Main Outcome Measure Daily ratings of perimenstrual symptoms and functioning. Results Mood and physical symptoms were most severe and were accompanied by impairment in the 4 days before through the first 2 days of menses for the self-identified group and in the 3 days before through the first 3 days of menses in the community sample. The most problematic symptoms endorsed were those listed in DSM-IV, but depressed mood was less frequent than other affective symptoms. In the combined sample, 4 or more symptoms was the optimal cutoff point for maximizing both sensitivity and specificity when predicting impairment. Conclusions This is informative for DSM-5 in that the most symptomatic period typically includes the few days before through the first 3 days of menses rather than only the premenstrual phase. Further, we validated the salience of PMDD symptoms included in DSM-IV. Although the number of symptoms most associated with distress and impairment differed between the 2 cohorts, results from the combined cohort suggest that 4 symptoms are linked with impairment from PMDD symptoms. PMID:22393222

  1. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Crohn Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, David H; Carucci, Laura R; Baker, Mark E; Cash, Brooks D; Dillman, Jonathan R; Feig, Barry W; Fowler, Kathryn J; Gage, Kenneth L; Noto, Richard B; Smith, Martin P; Yaghmai, Vahid; Yee, Judy; Lalani, Tasneem

    2015-10-01

    Crohn disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder involving the gastrointestinal tract, characterized by episodic flares and times of remission. Underlying structural damage occurs progressively, with recurrent bouts of inflammation. The diagnosis and management of this disease process is dependent on several clinical, laboratory, imaging, endoscopic, and histologic factors. In recent years, with the maturation of CT enterography, and MR enterography, imaging has played an increasingly important role in relation to Crohn Disease. In addition to these specialized examination modalities, ultrasound and routine CT have potential uses. Fluoroscopy, radiography, and nuclear medicine may be less beneficial depending on the clinical scenario. The imaging modality best suited to evaluating this disease may change, depending on the target population, severity of presentation, and specific clinical situation. This document presents seven clinical scenarios (variants) in both the adult and pediatric populations and rates the appropriateness of the available imaging options. They are summarized in a consolidated table, and the underlying rationale and supporting literature are presented in the accompanying narrative. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2015 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of recombinant camel chymosin reveals superior properties for the coagulation of bovine and camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappeler, Stefan R; van den Brink, Hans J M; Rahbek-Nielsen, Henrik; Farah, Zakaria; Puhan, Zdenko; Hansen, Egon Bech; Johansen, Eric

    2006-04-07

    Enzymatic milk coagulation for cheese manufacturing involves the cleavage of the scissile bond in kappa-casein by an aspartic acid protease. Bovine chymosin is the preferred enzyme, combining a strong clotting activity with a low general proteolytic activity. In the present study, we report expression and enzymatic properties of recombinant camel chymosin expressed in Aspergillus niger. Camel chymosin was shown to have different characteristics than bovine chymosin. Camel chymosin exhibits a 70% higher clotting activity for bovine milk and has only 20% of the unspecific protease activity for bovine chymosin. This results in a sevenfold higher ratio of clotting to general proteolytic activity. The enzyme is more thermostable than bovine chymosin. Kinetic analysis showed that half-saturation is achieved with less than 50% of the substrate required for bovine chymosin and turnover rates are lower. While raw camel milk cannot be clotted with bovine chymosin, a high clotting activity was found with camel chymosin.

  3. The association between serological titers in infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine virus diarrhea virus, parainfluenza-3 virus, respiratory syncytial virus and treatment for respiratory disease in Ontario feedlot calves.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, S W; Bohac, J G

    1986-01-01

    A seroepidemiological study of the association between antibody titers to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3, bovine virus diarrhea and bovine respiratory syncytial viruses, and treatment for bovine respiratory disease was conducted. A total of 322 calves from five different groups were bled on arrival, then one month later all cases (cattle treated for bovine respiratory disease) were rebled together with an equal number of controls (cattle not treated for any disease). Titer...

  4. Acidogenic potential of soy and bovine milk beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashper, S G; Saion, B N; Stacey, M A; Manton, D J; Cochrane, N J; Stanton, D P; Yuan, Y; Reynolds, E C

    2012-09-01

    Soy beverages are water extracts of whole soybeans and are often promoted as a healthy alternative to bovine milk. Little analysis has been carried out to determine the effects of soy beverages on oral health, especially their potential acidogenicity. The aim of this study was to determine the potential acidogenicity of a range of soy and bovine milk beverages. In vitro acid production by Streptococcus mutans was measured in soy and milk beverages at a constant pH of 6.5 or 5.5, as was the fall in pH over a 10 min period. The acid buffering capacity and calcium and phosphate concentrations (total and soluble) of the beverages were also determined. The rate of acid production by S. mutans in the milk beverages was five to six times lower at pH 6.5 than in the soy beverages and three to five times lower at pH 5.5. Whilst the pH fall in the presence of S. mutans over 10 min was negligible in the milk beverages there was a significant decrease in pH in the soy beverages. This was also reflected in the lower buffering capacity of the soy beverages. The levels of soluble calcium in the soy beverages were lower than those in the milk beverages although total calcium contents were similar. Soy beverages have a higher potential acidogenicity than bovine milk beverages. Patients consider soy beverages to be a healthy, low cariogenic alternative to other beverages, including bovine milk. This study shows that soy beverages have a higher potential acidogenicity than bovine milk and therefore may have a greater potential cariogenicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Primary childhood vasculitis new classification criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, T.; Nielsen, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Primary vasculitis is seen in both adults and children, but some of the diseases like Kawasaki disease occur primarily in children. The Chapel Hill Classification Criteria for primary vasculitis refers to the size of vessels but has not been validated in children. Recently, new criteria for the c......Primary vasculitis is seen in both adults and children, but some of the diseases like Kawasaki disease occur primarily in children. The Chapel Hill Classification Criteria for primary vasculitis refers to the size of vessels but has not been validated in children. Recently, new criteria...

  6. Separability criteria via some classes of measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Gao, Ting; Yan, FengLi

    2017-10-01

    Mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) and symmetric informationally complete (SIC) positive operator-valued measurements (POVMs) are two related topics in quantum information theory. They are generalized to mutually unbiased measurements (MUMs) and general symmetric informationally complete (GSIC) measurements, respectively, that are both not necessarily rank 1. We study the quantum separability problem by using these measurements and present separability criteria for bipartite systems with arbitrary dimensions and multipartite systems of multi-level subsystems. These criteria are proved to be more effective than previous criteria especially when the dimensions of the subsystems are different. Furthermore, full quantum state tomography is not needed when these criteria are implemented in experiment.

  7. Criteria for Evaluating Oral History Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonsino, Frank J.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the rationale for establishing criteria for evaluating oral history interviews. Presents seven evaluation categories relating to oral history tapes and three categories relating to typescripts. (CK)

  8. News: Good chemical manufacturing process criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    This news column covers topics relating to manufacturing criteria, machine to machine technology, novel process windows, green chemistry indices, business resilience, immobilized enzymes, and Bt crops.

  9. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine coronavirus in Swedish organic and conventional dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Cecilia; Emanuelson, Ulf; Ohlson, Anna; Alenius, Stefan; Fall, Nils

    2015-01-13

    Infections with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine coronavirus (BoCV) are endemic to the cattle populations in most countries, causing respiratory and/or enteric disease. It has been demonstrated that herds can remain free from these infections for several years also in high prevalence areas. Organically managed (OM) dairy herds have been shown to have lower seroprevalence of both viruses compared to conventionally managed (CM) herds. The objective of this study was to challenge the hypothesis of a lower occurrence of BRSV and BoCV in OM compared to CM dairy herds. In November 2011, May 2012 and May 2013 milk samples from four homebred primiparous cows were collected in 75 to 65 OM and 69 to 62 CM herds. The antibody status regarding BRSV and BoCV was analysed with commercial indirect ELISAs. Herds were classified as positive if at least one individual sample was positive. The prevalence of positive herds ranged from 73.4% to 82.3% for BRSV and from 76.8% to 85.3% for BoCV among OM and CM herds, over the three sampling occasions. There was no statistically significant difference between OM and CM herds at any sampling occasion. The incidence risk of newly infected herds did not differ statistically between OM and CM herds at any sampling occasion, neither for BRSV nor for BoCV. The incidence of herds turning sero-negative between samplings corresponded to the incidence of newly infected. Bulk tank milk (BTM) samples were also sampled in the herds and analysed. Several herds were negative on individual samples but positive in BTM. Herd-level data on production, health and reproduction were retrieved from VÄXA Sweden and the study herds were representative of the source population. There was no difference in prevalence of or incidence risk for BRSV or BoCV between Swedish OM and CM herds. Because the incidence of herds becoming seropositive was balanced by herds becoming seronegative it should be possible to lower the prevalence of these two

  10. Improved detection of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Bovine lymphoid cell lines using PrimeFlow RNA assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections, whether as acute, persistent or contributing to co-infections, result in significant losses for cattle producers. BVDV can be identified by real-time PCR and ELISA, detection and quantification of viral infection at the single cell level is extremely di...

  11. Severe bovine papillomatosis: detection of bovine papillomavirus in tumour tissue and efficacy of treatment using autogenous vaccine and parammunity inducer

    OpenAIRE

    Turk, Nenad; Župančić, Željko; Starešina, Vilim; Kovač, Snježana; Babić, Tomislav; Kreszinger, Mario; Ćurić, Stipica; Barbić, Ljubo; Milas, Zoran

    2005-01-01

    Two cases of severe bovine papillomatosis occurred in northwest Croatia during 2000 are described. Diagnosis was based on presented clinical signs, histopathological findings, and detection of the papillomavirus by transmission electron microscopy. Animals successfully recovered following treatment with the autogenous (non-purified) vaccine and a parammunity inducer. For the first time in Croatia we report the detection of papillomavirus by electron microscopy.

  12. Sheep-passaged bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent exhibits altered pathobiological properties in bovine-PrP transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinosa, J.C.; Andreoletti, O.; Castilla, J.; Herva, M.E.; Morales, M.; Alamillo, E.; San-Segundo, F.D.; Lacroux, C.; Lugan, S.; Salguero, F.J.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Torres, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Sheep can be experimentally infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), and the ensuing disease is similar to scrapie in terms of pathogenesis and clinical signs. BSE infection in sheep is an animal and human health concern. In this study, the transmission in BoPrP-Tg110 mice of prions

  13. Molecular characterization of the diversity of Clostridium chauvoei isolates collected from two bovine slaughterhouses: analysis of cross-contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathish, S; Swaminathan, K

    2008-06-01

    Clostridium chauvoei is the etiologic agent of blackleg, a high mortality rate disease affecting mainly cattle and sheep. Carcasses of animals affected by the disease are the chief source of soil infection and considered as an ever-present threat to livestock health. A study was undertaken to examine the cross-contamination of C. chauvoei in two different bovine slaughterhouses using restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) and protein analysis. Samples from various sites of two different bovine slaughterhouses were screened and 34 isolates were identified by conventional techniques and 16S rRNA gene (rrs) sequencing. C. chauvoei were isolated from carcass, soil, and sewage from slaughterhouses examined. The isolates were differentiated using REA and whole-cell and excretory protein pattern analysis combined with numerical analysis and cluster formation. The alpha and beta toxins produced by the strains were characterized. Our preliminary results suggest that REA combined with numerical analysis provides additional criteria and characteristic banding patterns for the study of the cross-contamination and characterization of C. chauvoei. The effects of temperature, oxygen tension, and enzymes on C. chauvoei hemolysin activity were also discussed. These microorganisms may be a potential contaminant of carcasses and widespread in soil of abattoir environments. The information of area-specific distribution of C. chauvoei strains and its toxin characteristics may give an efficient program in protecting cattle and other ruminants.

  14. Diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia and physical performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, A.Y.; Meskers, C.G.M.; van den Eshof, N.; Westendorp, R.G.; Sipila, S.; Stenroth, L.; Sillanpaa, E.; McPhee, J.S.; Jones, D.A.; Narici, M.V.; Gapeyeva, H.; Paasuke, M.; Voit, T.; Barnouin, Y.; Hogrel, J.Y.; Butler-Browne, G.; Maier, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Relative and absolute muscle mass and muscle strength are used as diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia.We aimed to assess which diagnostic criteria are most associated with physical performance in 180 young (18-30 years) and 281 healthy old participants (69-81 years) of the European study MYOAGE.

  15. Criteria for Producing CLIL Learning Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehisto, Peeter

    2012-01-01

    This article first describes some general criteria that can be applied to the development of any type of learning materials. Second, the article lists criteria for creating CLIL (content and language integrated learning)-specific learning materials, and provides examples of how to apply each proposed criterion whilst also providing a corresponding…

  16. 40 CFR 75.42 - Reliability criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reliability criteria. 75.42 Section 75.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Alternative Monitoring Systems § 75.42 Reliability criteria. To demonstrate...

  17. 32 CFR 525.3 - Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Criteria. 525.3 Section 525.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS ENTRY AUTHORIZATION REGULATION FOR KWAJALEIN MISSILE RANGE § 525.3 Criteria. (a) General. (1) Entry authorizations may...

  18. 7 CFR 1735.61 - Approval criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval criteria. 1735.61 Section 1735.61 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... on Acquisitions and Mergers § 1735.61 Approval criteria. (a) If a borrower is required by the terms...

  19. 46 CFR 154.466 - Design criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design criteria. 154.466 Section 154.466 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.466 Design criteria. (a) The insulation for a cargo tank without a secondary barrier must be...

  20. 48 CFR 932.7004-2 - Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criteria. 932.7004-2 Section 932.7004-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING DOE Loan Guarantee Authority 932.7004-2 Criteria. (a) The materials or services...

  1. 30 CFR 56.19024 - Retirement criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retirement criteria. 56.19024 Section 56.19024 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Ropes § 56.19024 Retirement criteria. Unless damage or deterioration is removed by cutoff, wire ropes...

  2. 40 CFR 75.43 - Accessibility criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accessibility criteria. 75.43 Section 75.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Alternative Monitoring Systems § 75.43 Accessibility criteria. To demonstrate...

  3. 6 CFR 17.505 - Employment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment criteria. 17.505 Section 17.505... criteria. A recipient shall not administer or operate any test or other criterion for any employment... such test or other criterion is shown to predict validly successful performance in the position in...

  4. 24 CFR 214.303 - Performance criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Performance criteria. 214.303 Section 214.303 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... HOUSING COUNSELING PROGRAM Program Administration § 214.303 Performance criteria. To maintain HUD-approved...

  5. 36 CFR 401.11 - Demolition criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Demolition criteria. 401.11 Section 401.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property AMERICAN BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION MONUMENTS AND MEMORIALS § 401.11 Demolition criteria. As authorized by the provisions of 36 U.S.C. 2106(e), the Commission...

  6. 40 CFR 75.44 - Timeliness criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timeliness criteria. 75.44 Section 75.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Alternative Monitoring Systems § 75.44 Timeliness criteria. To demonstrate...

  7. 18 CFR 1317.505 - Employment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment criteria... Employment criteria. A recipient shall not administer or operate any test or other criterion for any...) Use of such test or other criterion is shown to predict validly successful performance in the position...

  8. Revised response criteria for malignant lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheson, Bruce D; Pfistner, Beate; Juweid, Malik E

    2007-01-01

    Standardized response criteria are needed to interpret and compare clinical trials and for approval of new therapeutic agents by regulatory agencies.......Standardized response criteria are needed to interpret and compare clinical trials and for approval of new therapeutic agents by regulatory agencies....

  9. 34 CFR 106.52 - Employment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment criteria. 106.52 Section 106.52 Education... Employment criteria. A recipient shall not administer or operate any test or other criterion for any...: (a) Use of such test or other criterion is shown to predict validly successful performance in the...

  10. 45 CFR 9.4 - Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criteria. 9.4 Section 9.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION USE OF HHS RESEARCH FACILITIES BY ACADEMIC SCIENTISTS, ENGINEERS, AND STUDENTS § 9.4 Criteria. (a) The official permitting use of Department facilities...

  11. 45 CFR 618.505 - Employment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment criteria. 618.505 Section 618.505... Employment criteria. A recipient shall not administer or operate any test or other criterion for any...) Use of such test or other criterion is shown to predict validly successful performance in the position...

  12. 30 CFR 57.19024 - Retirement criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retirement criteria. 57.19024 Section 57.19024 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Wire Ropes § 57.19024 Retirement criteria. Unless damage or deterioration is removed by cutoff, wire...

  13. 30 CFR 77.1434 - Retirement criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retirement criteria. 77.1434 Section 77.1434 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1434 Retirement criteria. Unless damage or deterioration is removed by cutoff...

  14. 40 CFR 75.41 - Precision criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Precision criteria. 75.41 Section 75.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Alternative Monitoring Systems § 75.41 Precision criteria. (a) Data collection...

  15. 14 CFR 1245.303 - Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria. 1245.303 Section 1245.303 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PATENTS AND OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS NASA Foreign Patent Program § 1245.303 Criteria. The following categories of inventions will be...

  16. 28 CFR 54.505 - Employment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment criteria. 54.505 Section 54... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.505 Employment criteria. A recipient shall not administer or operate any test or other criterion for any employment opportunity that...

  17. 46 CFR 154.471 - Design criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design criteria. 154.471 Section 154.471 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.471 Design criteria. (a) The cargo tank support system must be designed: (1) For the loads in...

  18. 7 CFR 15a.52 - Employment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment criteria. 15a.52 Section 15a.52 Agriculture... Activities Prohibited § 15a.52 Employment criteria. A recipient shall not administer or operate any test or other criterion for any employment opportunity which has a disproportionately adverse effect on persons...

  19. 10 CFR 5.505 - Employment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment criteria. 5.505 Section 5.505 Energy NUCLEAR... Activities Prohibited § 5.505 Employment criteria. A recipient shall not administer or operate any test or other criterion for any employment opportunity that has a disproportionately adverse effect on persons...

  20. 45 CFR 12a.6 - Suitability criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suitability criteria. 12a.6 Section 12a.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION USE OF FEDERAL REAL PROPERTY TO ASSIST THE HOMELESS § 12a.6 Suitability criteria. (a) All properties, buildings and land will be...

  1. 49 CFR 1105.5 - Determinative criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determinative criteria. 1105.5 Section 1105.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... Determinative criteria. (a) In determining whether a “major Federal action” (as that term is defined by the...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1434 - Retirement criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retirement criteria. 75.1434 Section 75.1434 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... criteria. Unless damage or deterioration is removed by cutoff, wire ropes shall be removed from service...

  3. 31 CFR 28.505 - Employment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment criteria. 28.505 Section... criteria. A recipient shall not administer or operate any test or other criterion for any employment... such test or other criterion is shown to predict validly successful performance in the position in...

  4. Aspirational Model Teaching Criteria for Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Aaron S.; Boysen, Guy A.; Gurung, Regan A. R.; Tazeau, Yvette N.; Meyers, Steven A.; Sciutto, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, the Society for the Teaching of Psychology commissioned a presidential task force to document teaching criteria for model psychology teachers in undergraduate education. The resulting list of criteria reflects activities related to face-to-face course interaction and online teaching, training, and education; course design; implementation…

  5. Morphological Analysis and Vocabulary Development: Critical Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomo, Tom S.

    2009-01-01

    Morphological Analysis as a vocabulary acquisition strategy has both its advocates and antagonists. Criticism from opponents is often warranted when programs omit one or more of the three critical criteria that establish the framework behind a successful curriculum. The intent behind this paper is to disseminate and explicate these three criteria,…

  6. 45 CFR 1801.21 - Evaluation criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation criteria. 1801.21 Section 1801.21 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM The Competition § 1801.21 Evaluation criteria. (a) The Foundation...

  7. 7 CRITERIA FOR INTEGER SEQUENCES BEING GRAPHIC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SIERKSMA, G

    Seven criteria for integer sequences being graphic are listed. Being graphic means that there is a simple graph with the given integer sequence as degree sequence. One of the criteria leads to a new and constructive proof of the well-known criterion of Erdos-Gallai.

  8. Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy: Medical Diagnostic Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Donna Andrea

    2003-01-01

    Medical diagnostic criteria for Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (a persistent fabrication by one individual of illness in another) are presented. Since the strength of the known facts may vary from case to case, diagnostic criteria are given for a definitive diagnosis, a possible diagnosis, an inconclusive determination, and the definitely excluded…

  9. On approximating multi-criteria TSP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Bodo; Albers, S.; Marion, J.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    We present approximation algorithms for almost all variants of the multi-criteria traveling salesman problem (TSP), whose performances are independent of the number $k$ of criteria and come close to the approximation ratios obtained for TSP with a single objective function. We present randomized

  10. Deterministic algorithms for multi-criteria TSP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Bodo; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Tarui, Jun

    2011-01-01

    We present deterministic approximation algorithms for the multi-criteria traveling salesman problem (TSP). Our algorithms are faster and simpler than the existing randomized algorithms. First, we devise algorithms for the symmetric and asymmetric multi-criteria Max-TSP that achieve ratios of

  11. Proposed diagnostic criteria for internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ran; Huang, Xiuqin; Wang, Jinan; Zhang, Huimin; Zhang, Ying; Li, Mengchen

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop diagnostic criteria for internet addiction disorder (IAD) and to evaluate the validity of our proposed diagnostic criteria for discriminating non-dependent from dependent internet use in the general population. This study was conducted in three stages: the developmental stage (110 subjects in the survey group; 408 subjects in the training group), where items of the proposed diagnostic criteria were developed and tested; the validation stage (n = 405), where the proposed criteria were evaluated for criterion-related validity; and the clinical stage (n = 150), where the criteria and the global clinical impression of IAD were evaluated by more than one psychiatrist to determine inter-rater reliability. The proposed internet addiction diagnostic criteria consisted of symptom criterion (seven clinical symptoms of IAD), clinically significant impairment criterion (functional and psychosocial impairments), course criterion (duration of addiction lasting at least 3 months, with at least 6 hours of non-essential internet usage per day) and exclusion criterion (exclusion of dependency attributed to psychotic disorders). A diagnostic score of 2 + 1, where the first two symptoms (preoccupation and withdrawal symptoms) and at least one of the five other symptoms (tolerance, lack of control, continued excessive use despite knowledge of negative effects/affects, loss of interests excluding internet, and use of the internet to escape or relieve a dysphoric mood) was established. Inter-rater reliability was 98%. Our findings suggest that the proposed diagnostic criteria may be useful for the standardization of diagnostic criteria for IAD.

  12. 32 CFR 203.8 - Evaluation criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evaluation criteria. 203.8 Section 203.8...) MISCELLANEOUS TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE FOR PUBLIC PARTICIPATION (TAPP) IN DEFENSE ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION ACTIVITIES § 203.8 Evaluation criteria. The Department of Defense will begin the TAPP procurement process...

  13. Criteria for Environmentally Associated Autoimmune Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, K. Michael; Parks, Christine G.; Germolec, Dori R.; Leung, Patrick S.C.; Selmi, Carlo; Humble, Michael C.; Rose, Noel R.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports a role for the environment in the development of autoimmune diseases, as reviewed in the accompanying three papers from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Expert Panel Workshop. An important unresolved issue, however, is the development of criteria for identifying autoimmune disease phenotypes for which the environment plays a causative role, herein referred to as environmentally associated autoimmune diseases. There are several different areas in which such criteria need to be developed, including: 1) identifying the necessary and sufficient data to define environmental risk factors for autoimmune diseases meeting current classification criteria; 2) establishing the existence of and criteria for new environmentally associated autoimmune disorders that do not meet current disease classification criteria; and 3) identifying in clinical practice specific environmental agents that induce autoimmune disease in individual patients. Here we discuss approaches that could be useful for developing criteria in these three areas, as well as factors that should be considered in evaluating the evidence for criteria that can distinguish individuals with such disorders from individuals without such disorders with high sensitivity and specificity. Current studies suggest that multiple lines of complementary evidence will be important and that in many cases there will be clinical, serologic, genetic, epigenetic, and/or other laboratory features that could be incorporated as criteria for environmentally associated autoimmune diseases to improve diagnosis and treatment and possibly allow for preventative strategies in the future. PMID:22771005

  14. Genetic Algorithms to Optimizatize Lecturer Assessment's Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jollyta, Deny; Johan; Hajjah, Alyauma

    2017-12-01

    The lecturer assessment criteria is used as a measurement of the lecturer's performance in a college environment. To determine the value for a criteriais complicated and often leads to doubt. The absence of a standard valuefor each assessment criteria will affect the final results of the assessment and become less presentational data for the leader of college in taking various policies relate to reward and punishment. The Genetic Algorithm comes as an algorithm capable of solving non-linear problems. Using chromosomes in the random initial population, one of the presentations is binary, evaluates the fitness function and uses crossover genetic operator and mutation to obtain the desired crossbreed. It aims to obtain the most optimum criteria values in terms of the fitness function of each chromosome. The training results show that Genetic Algorithm able to produce the optimal values of lecturer assessment criteria so that can be usedby the college as a standard value for lecturer assessment criteria.

  15. Criteria voor het beoordelen van tentamenuitwerkingen in het vak Programmeren [Assessment Criteria in Computer Programming Courses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Klaas; van Diepen, N.M.; van Dijk, H.W.; Koppelman, Hermannus; Moerkerke, G.; Roossink, H.J.

    Bij het beoordelen is het belangrijk te weten welke criteria gehanteerd moeten worden. Met behulp van een vragenlijstonderzoek onder de docenten is een beperkt aantal criteria geselecteerd die gehanteerd moeten worden bij de cursus Inleiding in het Programmeren.

  16. A retrospective analysis of the infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (bovine herpes virus-1) surveillance program in Norway using Monte Carlo simulation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paisley, Larry; Tharaldsen, J.; Jarp, J.

    2001-01-01

    Serological surveillance for antibodies against bovine herpes virus type I (BHV-1) which causes infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and infectious pustular vulvovaginitis has been carried out since 1992 in Norway. Since 1993 (when a single infected herd was detected) all bulk-milk and pooled...

  17. Vaccination with a gE-negative bovine herpesvirus type 1 vaccine confers insufficient protection to a bovine herpesvirus type 5 challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, A.D.; Spilki, F.R.; Franco, A.C.; Esteves, P.A.; Hubner, S.O.; Driemeier, D.; Oliveira, A.P.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Roehe, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, cross-protection to bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BHV-5) induced by bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) vaccination was examined following inoculation of rabbits and calves with a glycoprotein E (gE)-negative BHV-1 vaccine and subsequent challenge with BHV-5. Rabbits (n = 5) and

  18. Fukuoka and AGA Criteria Have Superior Diagnostic Accuracy for Advanced Cystic Neoplasms than Sendai Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sighinolfi, Michael; Quan, Susan Y; Lee, Yvonne; Ibaseta, Alvaro; Pham, Kimberly; Dua, Monica M; Poultsides, George A; Visser, Brendan C; Norton, Jeffery A; Park, Walter G

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the American Gastroenterological Association guidelines (AGA criteria), the 2012 (Fukuoka criteria), and 2006 (Sendai criteria) International Consensus Guidelines for the diagnosis of advanced pancreatic cystic neoplasms. All patients who underwent surgical resection of a pancreatic cyst from August 2007 through January 2016 were retrospectively analyzed at a single tertiary academic center. Relevant clinical and imaging variables along with pathology results were collected to determine appropriate classification for each guideline. Advanced pancreatic cystic neoplasms were defined by the presence of either high-grade dysplasia or cystic adenocarcinoma. Diagnostic accuracy was measured by ROC analysis. A total of 209 patients were included. Both the AGA and Fukuoka criteria had a higher diagnostic accuracy for advanced neoplastic cysts than the Sendai criteria: AGA ROC 0.76 (95% CI 0.69-0.81), Fukuoka ROC 0.78 (95% CI 0.74-0.82), and Sendai ROC 0.65 (95% CI 0.61-0.69) (p criteria. While the sensitivity was higher in the Fukuoka criteria compared to the AGA criteria (97.7 vs. 88.6%), the specificity was higher in the AGA criteria compared to the Fukuoka criteria (62.4 vs. 58.2%). In a surgical series of patients with pancreatic cysts, the AGA and Fukuoka criteria had superior diagnostic accuracy for advanced neoplastic cysts compared to the original Sendai criteria.

  19. 78 FR 38091 - Airworthiness Criteria: Proposed Airship Design Criteria for Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Model...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ...] Airworthiness Criteria: Proposed Airship Design Criteria for Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Model LMZ1M Airship... on the proposed design criteria for the Lockheed Martin Aeronautics model LMZ1M airship. On March 12, 2012 Lockheed Martin Aeronautics submitted an application for type certification for the model LMZ1M...

  20. Bioelectrical impedance analysis for bovine milk: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertemes-Filho, P.; Valicheski, R.; Pereira, R. M.; Paterno, A. S.

    2010-04-01

    This work reports the investigation and analysis of bovine milk quality by using biological impedance measurements using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The samples were distinguished by a first chemical analysis using Fourier transform midinfrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and flow citometry. A set of milk samples (100ml each) obtained from 17 different cows in lactation with and without mastitis were analyzed with the proposed technique using EIS. The samples were adulterated by adding distilled water and hydrogen peroxide in a controlled manner. FTIR spectroscopy and flow cytometry were performed, and impedance measurements were made in a frequency range from 500Hz up to 1MHz with an implemented EIS system. The system's phase shift was compensated by measuring saline solutions. It was possible to show that the results obtained with the Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) technique may detect changes in the milk caused by mastitis and the presence of water and hydrogen peroxide in the bovine milk.