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Sample records for bovine blood parasite

  1. Emergence of new genotype and diversity of Theileria orientalis parasites from bovines in India.

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    George, Neena; Bhandari, Vasundhra; Reddy, D Peddi; Sharma, Paresh

    2015-12-01

    Bovine theileriosis is a serious threat to livestock worldwide. Uncertainty around species prevalence, antigenic diversity and genotypes of strains make it difficult to assess the impact of this parasite and to provide necessary treatment. We aimed to characterize genotypic diversity, phylogeny and prevalence of Theileria orientalis parasites from the states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, India by collecting bovine blood samples from the major districts of the two states. Bioinformatic analysis identified antigenic diversity among the prevalent parasite strains using major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene. Our study revealed a prevalence rate of 4.8% (n=41/862) of T. orientalis parasites in bovine animals and a new genotype of T. orientalis parasite which was not previously reported in India. The emergence of these new genotypes could be an explanation for the frequent outbreaks of bovine theileriosis. Further, whole genome sequencing of T. orientalis strains will help to elucidate the genetic factors relevant for transmissibility and virulence as well as vaccine and new drug development.

  2. Blood parasites in reptiles imported to Germany.

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    Halla, Ursula; Ursula, Halla; Korbel, Rüdiger; Rüdiger, Korbel; Mutschmann, Frank; Frank, Mutschmann; Rinder, Monika; Monika, Rinder

    2014-12-01

    Though international trade is increasing, the significance of imported reptiles as carriers of pathogens with relevance to animal and human health is largely unknown. Reptiles imported to Germany were therefore investigated for blood parasites using light microscopy, and the detected parasites were morphologically characterized. Four hundred ten reptiles belonging to 17 species originating from 11 Asian, South American and African countries were included. Parasites were detected in 117 (29%) of individual reptiles and in 12 species. Haemococcidea (Haemogregarina, Hepatozoon, Schellackia) were found in 84% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus), 20% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Kinyongia fischeri, Gekko gecko) and 50% of turtles (Pelusios castaneus). Infections with Hematozoea (Plasmodium, Sauroplasma) were detected in 14% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Furcifer pardalis, Xenagama batillifera, Acanthosaura capra, Physignathus cocincinus), while those with Kinetoplastea (Trypanosoma) were found in 9% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus) and 25 % of lizards (K. fischeri, Acanthosaura capra, G. gecko). Nematoda including filarial larvae parasitized in 10% of lizards (Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Fu. pardalis, Physignathus cocincinus). Light microscopy mostly allowed diagnosis of the parasites' genus, while species identification was not possible because of limited morphological characteristics available for parasitic developmental stages. The investigation revealed a high percentage of imported reptiles being carriers of parasites while possible vectors and pathogenicity are largely unknown so far. The spreading of haemoparasites thus represents an incalculable risk for pet reptiles, native herpetofauna and even human beings.

  3. Killing of trypanosomatid parasites by a modified bovine host defense peptide, BMAP-18.

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    Lee R Haines

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tropical diseases caused by parasites continue to cause socioeconomic devastation that reverberates worldwide. There is a growing need for new control measures for many of these diseases due to increasing drug resistance exhibited by the parasites and problems with drug toxicity. One new approach is to apply host defense peptides (HDP; formerly called antimicrobial peptides to disease control, either to treat infected hosts, or to prevent disease transmission by interfering with parasites in their insect vectors. A potent anti-parasite effector is bovine myeloid antimicrobial peptide-27 (BMAP-27, a member of the cathelicidin family. Although BMAP-27 is a potent inhibitor of microbial growth, at higher concentrations it also exhibits cytotoxicity to mammalian cells. We tested the anti-parasite activity of BMAP-18, a truncated peptide that lacks the hydrophobic C-terminal sequence of the BMAP-27 parent molecule, an alteration that confers reduced toxicity to mammalian cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BMAP-18 showed strong growth inhibitory activity against several species and life cycle stages of African trypanosomes, fish trypanosomes and Leishmania parasites in vitro. When compared to native BMAP-27, the truncated BMAP-18 peptide showed reduced cytotoxicity on a wide variety of mammalian and insect cells and on Sodalis glossindius, a bacterial symbiont of the tsetse vector. The fluorescent stain rhodamine 123 was used in immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry experiments to show that BMAP-18 at low concentrations rapidly disrupted mitochondrial potential without obvious alteration of parasite plasma membranes, thus inducing death by apoptosis. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that higher concentrations of BMAP-18 induced membrane lesions in the parasites as early as 15 minutes after exposure, thus killing them by necrosis. In addition to direct killing of parasites, BMAP-18 was shown to inhibit LPS

  4. Other vector-borne parasitic diseases: animal helminthiases, bovine besnoitiosis and malaria.

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    Duvallet, G; Boireau, P

    2015-08-01

    The parasitic diseases discussed elsewhere in this issue of the Scientific and Technical Review are not the only ones to make use of biological vectors (such as mosquitoes or ticks) or mechanical vectors (such as horse flies or Stomoxys flies). The authors discuss two major groups of vector-borne parasitic diseases: firstly, helminthiasis, along with animal filariasis and onchocerciasis, which are parasitic diseases that often take a heavytoll on artiodactylsthroughoutthe world; secondly, parasitic diseases caused by vector-borne protists, foremost of which is bovine besnoitiosis (or anasarca of cattle), which has recently spread through Europe by a dual mode of transmission (direct and by vector). Other protists, such as Plasmodium and Hepatozoon, are also described briefly.

  5. RBCs and Parasites Segmentation from Thin Smear Blood Cell Images

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    Vishal V. Panchbhai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Manually examine the blood smear for the detection of malaria parasite consumes lot of time for trend pathologists. As the computational power increases, the role of automatic visual inspection becomes more important. An automated system is therefore needed to complete as much work as possible for the identification of malaria parasites. The given scheme based on used of RGB color space, G layer processing, and segmentation of Red Blood Cells (RBC as well as cell parasites by auto-thresholding with offset value and use of morphological processing. The work compare with the manual results obtained from the pathology lab, based on total RBC count and cells parasite count. The designed system successfully detects malaria parasites and RBC cells in thin smear image.

  6. Binding and Endocytosis of Bovine Hololactoferrin by the Parasite Entamoeba histolytica

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    Guillermo Ortíz-Estrada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica is a human parasite that requires iron (Fe for its metabolic function and virulence. Bovine lactoferrin (B-Lf and its peptides can be found in the digestive tract after dairy products are ingested. The aim of this study was to compare virulent trophozoites recently isolated from hamster liver abscesses with nonvirulent trophozoites maintained for more than 30 years in cultures in vitro regarding their interaction with iron-charged B-Lf (B-holo-Lf. We performed growth kinetics analyses of trophozoites in B-holo-Lf and throughout several consecutive transfers. The virulent parasites showed higher growth and tolerance to iron than nonvirulent parasites. Both amoeba variants specifically bound B-holo-Lf with a similar Kd. However, averages of 9.45 × 105 and 6.65 × 106 binding sites/cell were found for B-holo-Lf in nonvirulent and virulent amoebae, respectively. Virulent amoebae bound more efficiently to human and bovine holo-Lf, human holo-transferrin, and human and bovine hemoglobin than nonvirulent amoebae. Virulent amoebae showed two types of B-holo-Lf binding proteins. Although both amoebae endocytosed this glycoprotein through clathrin-coated vesicles, the virulent amoebae also endocytosed B-holo-Lf through a cholesterol-dependent mechanism. Both amoeba variants secreted cysteine proteases cleaving B-holo-Lf. These data demonstrate that the B-Lf endocytosis is more efficient in virulent amoebae.

  7. Photosensitized inactivation of infectious blood-borne human parasites

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    Judy, Millard M.; Sogandares-Bernal, Franklin M.; Matthews, James Lester

    1995-05-01

    Blood-borne viruses and protozoan parasites that are infectious to humans pose risk world-wide of infection transmission through blood and blood product transfusion. Blood-borne infectious viruses include human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-I), which causes AIDS; hepatitis C virus, which can cause chronic hepatitis; and cytomegalovirus, which can be dangerous to immunocompromised patients, e.g., the newborn, transplant recipients, and AIDS patients. Infectious blood-borne protozoan parasites include Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes Chagas' disease, endemic throughout Central and South America; the Trypanosoma species causing African sleeping sickness endemic in Central Africa; and Plasmodium falciparum, which causes malignant and increasingly drug- resistant human malaria prevalent throughout the tropics. Some researchers have focused on using photosensitizers to inactivate HIV-I and other viruses in whole blood, packed red cells, and platelet concentrates without compromising blood product function. Our group previously has reported photosensitized in vitro inactivation of P. falciparum and the mouse malaria organism Plasmodium berghei in whole blood using hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) and of T. cruzi using benzoporphyrin derivatives BPDMA and BPDDA, dihematoporphyrin ether (DHE), and hydroxyethylvinyldeuteroporphyrin (HEVD). These results suggest that continued investigation is warranted to evaluate the potential for photosensitized inactivation of blood-borne parasites in blood banking.

  8. Identification of highly active flocculant proteins in bovine blood.

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    Piazza, George J; Nuñez, Alberto; Garcia, Rafael A

    2012-03-01

    Synthetic polymeric flocculants are used extensively for wastewater remediation, soil stabilization, and reduction in water leakage from unlined canals. Sources of highly active, inexpensive, renewable flocculants are needed to replace synthetic flocculants. High kaolin flocculant activity was documented for bovine blood (BB) and blood plasma with several anticoagulant treatments. BB serum also had high flocculant activity. To address the hypothesis that some blood proteins have strong flocculating activity, the BB proteins were separated by SEC. Then, the major proteins of the flocculant-active fractions were separated by SDS-PAGE. Identity of the major protein components was determined by tryptic digestion and peptide analysis by MALDI TOF MS. The sequence of selected peptides was confirmed using TOF/TOF-MS/MS fragmentation. Hemoglobin dimer (subunits α and β) was identified as the major protein component of the active fraction in BB; its high flocculation activity was confirmed by testing a commercial sample of hemoglobin. In the same manner, three proteins from blood plasma (fibrinogen, γ-globulin, α-2-macroglobulin) were found to be highly active flocculants, but bovine serum albumin, α-globulin, and β-globulin were not flocculants. On a mass basis, hemoglobin, γ-globulin, α-2-macroglobulin were as effective as anionic polyacrylamide (PAM), a widely used synthetic flocculant. The blood proteins acted faster than PAM, and unlike PAM, the blood proteins flocculants did not require calcium salts for their activity.

  9. Prevalence of Gastrointestinal and Blood Parasites of Rodents in Tabriz, Iran, with Emphasis on Parasitic Zoonoses

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    Garedaghi Yagoob

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Rodents as reservoirs of many common human diseases (zoonoses are the cause of health and economic problems in society. Because of the prevalence of parasitic infections of mice in different parts of Iran, this study was performed to investigate the gastrointestinal and blood parasitic zoonoses of rodents in Tabriz, Iran, between 2011 and 2012. Materials and Methods: A total of 57 rodents including 36 Rattus norvegicus, 11 Rattus rattus, 8 Mus musculus, and 2 unknown species of rodents were captured alive from different parts of Tabriz city and studied. The rodents were examined for helminth and blood infection. Results: Helminth and blood infection were only observed in Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus species and other species were not contaminated. There was no blood parasite in rodents. Different gastrointestinal worm species identified in Rattus norvegicus consisted of Trichosomoides crassicauda (51.2%, Hymenolepis diminuta (22.3%, Gongylonema pulchrum (12.1%, Hymenolepis Nana (4.31% and Trichocephal Spp. (2.18%. Different gastrointestinal worm species identified in Rattus rattus consisted of Gongylonema pulchrum (21.17%, and Trichosomoides crassicauda (28.24%. Conclusion: Due to the presence of zoonotic parasitic agents in the studied rodents that easily enter human dwellings, controlling these animals and improvement of the sewerage system of the study area are of particular importance.

  10. Theileria parva: effects of irradiation on a culture of parasitized bovine lymphoid cells. [Gamma radiation

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    Irvin, A.D.; Brown, C.G.D.; Stagg, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    Aliquots of a culture of Theileria parva-infected bovine lymphoid cells were irradiated at 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1200 rads. The short-term effects of irradiation were evaluated on examination of Giemsa-stained smears and on autoradiography of cells labeled with (/sup 3/H)thymidine. Irradiation inhibited cell division but parasite division did not appear to be inhibited and macroschizont nuclear particles increased in number, frequently to several hundred per schizont. There was no evidence of an increased percentage switch from macro- to microschizont. Apparently viable cells were still present in all cultures 4 days after irradiation.

  11. Prevalence of blood parasites in seabirds - a review

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    Quillfeldt Petra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction While blood parasites are common in many birds in the wild, some groups seem to be much less affected. Seabirds, in particular, have often been reported free from blood parasites, even in the presence of potential vectors. Results From a literature review of hemosporidian prevalence in seabirds, we collated a dataset of 60 species, in which at least 15 individuals had been examined. These data were included in phylogenetically controlled statistical analyses of hemosporidian prevalence in relation to ecological and life-history parameters. Haemoproteus parasites were common in frigatebirds and gulls, while Hepatozoon occurred in albatrosses and storm petrels, and Plasmodium mainly in penguins. The prevalence of Haemoproteus showed a geographical signal, being lower in species with distribution towards polar environments. Interspecific differences in Plasmodium prevalence were explained by variables that relate to the exposure to parasites, suggesting that prevalence is higher in burrow nesters with long fledgling periods. Measures of Plasmodium, but not Haemoproteus prevalences were influenced by the method, with PCR-based data resulting in higher prevalence estimates. Conclusions Our analyses suggest that, as in other avian taxa, phylogenetic, ecological and life-history parameters determine the prevalence of hemosporidian parasites in seabirds. We discuss how these relationships should be further explored in future studies.

  12. Molecular phylogeny of the filaria genus Onchocerca with special emphasis on Afrotropical human and bovine parasites.

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    Krueger, A; Fischer, P; Morales-Hojas, R

    2007-01-01

    Filarial parasites of the genus Onchocerca are found in a broad spectrum of ungulate hosts. One species, O. volvulus, is a human parasite that can cause severe disease (onchocerciasis or 'river blindness'). The phylogenetic relationships and the bionomics of many of the nearly 30 known species remain dubious. Here, the phylogeny of 11 species representing most major lineages of the genus is investigated by analysing DNA sequences from three mitochondrial genes (ND5, 12S and 16S rRNA) and portions of the intergenic spacer of the nuclear 5s rRNA. Special emphasis is given to a clade containing a yet unassigned specimen from Uganda (O. sp. 'Siisa'), which appears to be intermediate between O. volvulus and O. ochengi. While the latter can be differentiated by the O-150 tandem repeat commonly used for molecular diagnostics, O. volvulus and O. sp.'Siisa' cannot be differentiated by this marker. In addition, a worm specimen from an African bushbuck appears to be closely related to the bovine O. dukei and represents the basal taxon of the human/bovine clade. At the base of the genus, our data suggest O. flexuosa (red deer), O. ramachandrini (warthog) and O. armillata (cow) to be the representatives of ancient lineages. The results provide better insight into the evolution and zoogeography of Onchocerca. They also have epidemiological and taxonomic implications by providing a framework for more accurate molecular diagnosis of filarial larvae in vectors.

  13. Phenotypic, ultra-structural and functional characterization of bovine peripheral blood dendritic cell subsets

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    Dendritic cells (DC) are multifunctional cells that bridge the gap between innate and adaptive immune systems. In bovine, significant information is lacking on the precise identity and role of peripheral blood DC subsets. In this study, we identify and characterize bovine peripheral blood DC subsets...

  14. An epidemiological survey of bovine Babesia and Theileria parasites in cattle, buffaloes, and sheep in Egypt.

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    Elsify, Ahmed; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Nayel, Mohammed; Salama, Akram; Elkhtam, Ahmed; Rizk, Mohamed; Mosaab, Omar; Sultan, Khaled; Elsayed, Shimaa; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2015-02-01

    Cattle, buffaloes, and sheep are the main sources of meat and milk in Egypt, but their productivity is thought to be greatly reduced by hemoprotozoan parasitic diseases. In this study, we analyzed the infection rates of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis, using parasite-specific PCR assays in blood-DNA samples sourced from cattle (n=439), buffaloes (n=50), and sheep (n=105) reared in Menoufia, Behera, Giza, and Sohag provinces of Egypt. In cattle, the positive rates of B. bovis, B. bigemina, T. annulata, and T. orientalis were 3.18%, 7.97%, 9.56%, and 0.68%, respectively. On the other hand, B. bovis and T. orientalis were the only parasites detected in buffaloes and each of these parasites was only found in two individual DNA samples (both 2%), while one (0.95%) and two (1.90%) of the sheep samples were positive for B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively. Sequence analysis showed that the B. bovis Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 and the B. bigemina Apical Membrane Antigen-1 genes were highly conserved among the samples, with 99.3-100% and 95.3-100% sequence identity values, respectively. In contrast, the Egyptian T. annulata merozoite surface antigen-1 gene sequences were relatively diverse (87.8-100% identity values), dispersing themselves across several clades in the phylogenetic tree containing sequences from other countries. Additionally, the T. orientalis Major Piroplasm Surface Protein (MPSP) gene sequences were classified as types 1 and 2. This is the first report of T. orientalis in Egypt, and of type 2 MPSP in buffaloes. Detection of MPSP type 2, which is considered a relatively virulent genotype, suggests that T. orientalis infection may have veterinary and economic significance in Egypt. In conclusion, the present study, which analyzed multiple species of Babesia and Theileria parasites in different livestock animals, may shed an additional light on the epidemiology of hemoprotozoan parasites in Egypt.

  15. Naturally acquired bovine besnoitiosis: Differential distribution of parasites in the skin of chronically infected cattle.

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    Schares, G; Langenmayer, M C; Majzoub-Altweck, M; Scharr, J C; Gentile, A; Maksimov, A; Schares, S; Conraths, F J; Gollnick, N S

    2016-01-30

    Bovine besnoitiosis is caused by Besnoitia besnoiti, an apicomplexan parasite closely related to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. In the acute stage of besnoitiosis, cattle suffer from pyrexia, swollen lymph nodes, anorexia and subcutaneous edema. In the chronic stage, tissue cysts are formed in a variety of tissues including the skin. Knowledge about the distribution of tissue cysts of different parts of the skin of infected animals is scarce. Four chronically infected cattle were euthanized and skin samples were taken from a total of 77 standardized cutaneous locations per animal. Portions of the dermis were taken, from which DNA was extracted and examined by real-time PCR. Cycle of transition (Ct) values reflecting the amount of parasite DNA in the samples were determined. For statistical analysis, samples were attributed to 11 larger skin regions ('OuterHindlegDistal', 'Rump, ForelegMiddle', 'NoseFrontEars', 'CheekEye', 'SideLowerPart', 'ForelegDistal', 'SideUpperPart', 'LegsInner', 'VentralHeadNeck', 'DorsalNeckWithersBackTail'). While all samples revealed a positive result in three female cattle, only 63.6% (49/77) of the samples of a bull showed positive results. For statistical analysis, a Ct value of 45 was assumed for samples with a negative result. The dams showed median Ct values of 16.1, 17.5 and 19.4, while in skin samples of the bull a median Ct value of 37.6 was observed. To determine the differences in DNA concentrations between different locations of the skin of the animals, a relative Ct (relCt) was determined by subtracting for each animal indv the MedianCtindv from each sample Ct. Analyses of the relCt values showed that the highest relative parasite DNA concentrations were observed in the categories 'OuterHindlegDistal', 'Rump', 'ForelegMiddle' and 'NoseFrontEars'. The relCt values in these categories differed statistically significantly from those determined for the categories 'VentralHeadNeck' and 'DorsalNeckWithersBackTail'. The

  16. PCR detection and genetic diversity of bovine hemoprotozoan parasites in Vietnam.

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    Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Lan, Dinh Thi Bich; Long, Phung Thang; Yoshinari, Takeshi; Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Guswanto, Azirwan; Okubo, Kazuhiro; Igarashi, Ikuo; Inoue, Noboru; Xuan, Xuenan; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2013-11-01

    Hemoprotozoan infections often cause serious production losses in livestock. In the present study, we conducted a PCR-based survey of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, Theileria orientalis, Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma theileri, using 423 DNA samples extracted from blood samples of cattle (n=202), water buffaloes (n=43), sheep (n=51) and goats (n=127) bred in the Hue and Hanoi provinces of Vietnam. With the exception of T. annulata and T. evansi, all other parasite species (B. bovis, B. bigemina, T. orientalis and T. theileri) were detected in the cattle populations with B. bovis being the most common among them. Additionally, four water buffaloes and a single goat were infected with B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively. The Hue province had more hemoprotozoan-positive animals than those from the Hanoi region. In the phylogenetic analyses, B. bovis-MSA-2b, B. bigemina-AMA-1 and T. theileri-CATL gene sequences were dispersed across four, one and three different clades in the respective phylograms. This is the first study in which the presence of Babesia, Theileria and Trypanosoma parasites was simultaneously investigated by PCR in Vietnam. The findings suggest that hemoprotozoan parasites, some of which are genetically diverse, continue to be a threat to the livestock industry in this country.

  17. Ontology-based Malaria Parasite Stage and Species Identification from Peripheral Blood Smear Images

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    Makkapati, V.; Rao, R.

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of malaria infection requires detectingthe presence of malaria parasite in the patient as well as identification of the parasite species. We present an image processing-basedapproach to detect parasites in microscope images of blood smear andan ontology-based classificati

  18. Trypanosoma cruzi: blood parasitism kinetics and their correlation with heart parasitism intensity during long-term infection of Beagle dogs

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    Vanja M Veloso

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The goals of the present study were to evaluate the kinetics of blood parasitism by examination of fresh blood, blood culture (BC and PCR assays and their correlation with heart parasitism during two years of infection in Beagle dogs inoculated with the Be-78, Y and ABC Trypanosoma cruzi strains. Our results showed that the parasite or its kDNA is easily detected during the acute phase in all infected animals. On the other hand, a reduced number of positive tests were verified during the chronic phase of the infection. The frequency of positive tests was correlated with T. cruzi strain. The percentage of positive BC and blood PCR performed in samples from animals inoculated with Be-78 and ABC strains were similar and significantly larger in relation to animals infected with the Y strain.Comparison of the positivity of PCR tests performed using blood and heart tissue samples obtained two years after infection showed two different patterns associated with the inoculated T. cruzi strain: (1 high PCR positivity for both blood and tissue was observed in animals infected with Be-78 or ABC strains; (2 lower and higher PCR positivity for the blood and tissue, respectively, was detected in animals infected with Y strains. These data suggest that the sensitivity of BC and blood PCR was T. cruzi strain dependent and, in contrast, the heart tissue PCR revealed higher sensitivity regardless of the parasite stock.

  19. Product characteristics and quality of bovine blood-enriched dried vegetable paste.

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    Faria da Rocha, Silvia; Kappaun Rodrigues, Marla Cristina; Legemann Monte, Micheli; Quites Larrosa, Ana Paula; de Almeida Pinto, Luiz Antonio

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a preparation of vegetable paste with bovine blood in order to maximize the protein content using linear programming, and to analyze the product characteristics and quality of bovine blood-enriched vegetable paste dried in a spouted bed. The drying experiments were performed by evaluating the effects of inlet air temperature, paste flow rate and paste solids concentration on the dried product characteristics and quality (functional and nutritional properties). The vegetable paste enriched with bovine blood was a good source of protein (∼0.20 g g(-1) , dry basis), and the linear programming was adequate to select the constituents (carrot, onion, potato, kale, tomato, soybean oil and bovine blood) and optimize their quantities. The drying conditions of bovine blood-enriched vegetable paste in the spouted bed that gave the best product characteristics were an air temperature of 110 °C and a paste flow rate of 600 mL h(-1) with 0.07 g g(-1) solids concentration. The addition of bovine blood to vegetable paste by linear programming increased the protein content of the paste and improved its functional properties and digestibility. The powder obtained from the spouted bed drier showed suitable functional and nutritional properties and was also a good source of antioxidant compounds. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. INTESTINAL AND BLOOD PARASITES OF MAN IN TIMOR

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    W. Patrick Carney

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Survey tinja dan darah dipulau Timor guna menentukan distribusi dan prevalensi penyakit parasit diantara penduduk telah dilakukan pada bulan Juli dan Agustus tahun 1972 sebagai kelanjutan dari deretan survey yang dilakukan oleh Direktorat Jenderal Pencegahan Pemberantasan Penyakit menular Departemen Kesehatan, Bagian Parasitologi dan Pathologi Umum Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia dan US Namru-2 di Indonesia. Sejumlah 445 sediaan tinja untuk pemeriksaan parasit usus, 581 sediaan darah untuk pemeriksaan parasit malaria dan 663 sediaan darah untuk pemeriksaan parasit filaria telah diambil dari penduduk cara merata di 7 desa pada 3 kabupaten di Timor, Nusa Tenggara Timur. Enam puluh delapan per cent diantara penduduk melihatkan satu atau lebih parasit usus didalam tinjanya dimana cacing tambang merupakan parasit usus yang terbanyak. Ascaris lumbricoides ketemukan jauh lebih kurang daripada di Jawa, Sumatra dan Sulawesi, juga diketemukan perbedaan itara "intestinal parasite rate" di Timor Indonesia dan Timor Portugis. Dua belas percent penduduk yang diperiksa melihatkan parasit malaria didalam darahnya sedangkan parasit filaria ditemukan sebanyak 8 percent. Plasmodium falciparum merupakan parasit malaria yang terbanyak ditemukan, ia jenis parasit fdaria yang ditemukan adalah "Timor microfilaria" dan Wuchereria bancrofti dimana yang pertama merupakan parasit yang terbanyak diantara penduduk yang diperiksa.

  1. Haemosporidian parasite infections in grouse and ptarmigan: Prevalence and genetic diversity of blood parasites in resident Alaskan birds.

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    Smith, Matthew M; Van Hemert, Caroline; Merizon, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Projections related to future climate warming indicate the potential for an increase in the distribution and prevalence of blood parasites in northern regions. However, baseline data are lacking for resident avian host species in Alaska. Grouse and ptarmigan occupy a diverse range of habitat types throughout the northern hemisphere and are among the most well-known and important native game birds in North America. Information regarding the prevalence and diversity of haemosporidian parasites in tetraonid species is limited, with few recent studies and an almost complete lack of genetic data. To better understand the genetic diversity of haemosporidian parasites in Alaskan tetraonids and to determine current patterns of geographic range and host specificity, we used molecular methods to screen 459 tissue samples collected from grouse and ptarmigan species across multiple regions of Alaska for infection by Leucocytozoon, Haemoproteus, and Plasmodium blood parasites. Infections were detected in 342 individuals, with overall apparent prevalence of 53% for Leucocytozoon, 21% for Haemoproteus, and 9% for Plasmodium. Parasite prevalence varied by region, with different patterns observed between species groups (grouse versus ptarmigan). Leucocytozoon was more common in ptarmigan, whereas Haemoproteus was more common in grouse. We detected Plasmodium infections in grouse only. Analysis of haemosporidian mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b sequences revealed 23 unique parasite haplotypes, several of which were identical to lineages previously detected in other avian hosts. Phylogenetic analysis showed close relationships between haplotypes from our study and those identified in Alaskan waterfowl for Haemoproteus and Plasmodium parasites. In contrast, Leucocytozoon lineages were structured strongly by host family. Our results provide some of the first genetic data for haemosporidians in grouse and ptarmigan species, and provide an initial baseline on the prevalence and diversity

  2. Where do Trypanosoma cruzi go? The distribution of parasites in blood components from fractionated infected whole blood.

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    Cancino-Faure, Beatriz; Fisa, Roser; Riera, Cristina; Girona-Llobera, Enrique; Jimenez-Marco, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    Platelets (PLTs) are the blood component most frequently involved in Trypanosoma cruzi transfusion transmission cases reported in the literature, although whole blood (WB) and red blood cells (RBCs) have also been incriminated. However, there is little knowledge of the parasite distribution among blood components. The aim of this study was to investigate in which blood component T. cruzi parasites concentrate the most, after fractionating artificially T. cruzi-infected WB. The T. cruzi parasite load was studied by a specific quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in WB, buffy coat (BC), PLT concentrates, RBCs before and after leukoreduction, and plasma (PL). The parasite load in WB experimentally infected with 1.5 × 10(6) parasites (2.78 × 10(3) parasite equivalents/mL) was unevenly distributed among the separated blood components. The highest level was found in the BC (6.94 × 10(3) parasite equivalents/mL) and RBCs before leukoreduction by filtration (2.51 × 10(3) parasite equivalents/mL), after which RBCs presented a 99.9% reduction in parasite levels. Both PL and PLTs, partially leukoreduced by centrifugation but nonfiltered, had low parasite levels, the lowest concentration being in PL. The highest parasite concentration was detected in the BC, followed by RBCs before leukoreduction. There is a notable risk of transfusion-transmitted Chagas disease associated with nonleukoreduced RBCs. Leukoreduction may be an effective prevention strategy for transfusion-transmitted T. cruzi infection, especially in endemic countries and in nonendemic countries with a high rate of immigration from Latin America. © 2016 AABB.

  3. Serodiagnosis of bovine trypanosomosis caused by non-tsetse transmitted Trypanosoma (Duttonella) vivax parasites using the soluble form of a Trypanozoon variant surface glycoprotein antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzcanga, Graciela L; Pérez-Rojas, Yenis; Camargo, Rocío; Izquier, Adriana; Noda, José A; Chacín, Ronny; Parra, Nereida; Ron, Lenin; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Richar; Bubis, José

    2016-03-15

    Previous studies have shown that a 64-kDa antigen (p64) that was purified from the Venezuelan TeAp-N/D1 isolate of Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) equiperdum corresponds to the soluble form of its predominant variant surface glycoprotein (VSG), and exhibited cross-reactivity with Trypanosoma (Duttonella) vivax. The course of experimental acute infections of bovines with T. vivax were followed by measuring whole anti-p64 antibodies and specific anti-p64 IgG and IgM antibodies in animal sera by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The value of p64 to diagnose bovine trypanosomosis was also examined using 350 sera from healthy and T. vivax-infected cows living in a trypanosomosis-endemic and enzootic stable area, and 48 sera obtained during a trypanosomosis outbreak. Serological assays showed that ∼ 70-80% of the infected sera contained anti-p64 antibodies, based on the comparative immunodetection of the T. equiperdum clarified antigenic fraction used as a reference test. In the absence of a gold standard, Bayesian analysis for multiple testing estimated a sensitivity and specificity of 71.6% and 98.8%, respectively, for the indirect ELISA using p64 as antigen. An apparent prevalence of 37.7% for bovine trypanosomosis infection was also estimated with a Bayesian approach when the p64 ELISA test was used. Employing blood from acute infected cows, the indirect ELISA response against p64 was contrasted with the microhematocrit centrifuge method and analyses by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers targeting the inter-specific length variation of the internal transcribed spacer 1 region of the 18S ribosomal gene. The efficiency of p64 for the detection of anti-trypanosome antibodies in acute infected bovines was also corroborated serologically by comparing its response to that of the Indonesian Trypanosoma evansi Rode Trypanozoon antigen type (RoTat) 1.2 VSG, which possesses high specificity and sensitivity. As expected, PCR was the best

  4. Pathological Study of Blood Parasites in Rice Field Frogs, Hoplobatrachus rugulosus (Wiegmann, 1834)

    OpenAIRE

    Achariya Sailasuta; Jetjun Satetasit; Malinee Chutmongkonkul

    2011-01-01

    One hundred and forty adult rice field frogs, Hoplobatrachus rugulosus (Wiegmann, 1834), were collected in Srakaew province, Thailand. For blood parasite examination, thin blood smears were made and routinely stained with Giemsa. The results showed that 70% of the frogs (98/140) were infected with 5 species of blood parasites, including a Trypanosoma rotatorium-like organism, Trypanosoma chattoni, Hepatozoon sp. a, Hepatozoon sp. b, and Lankesterella minima. Pathological examination of the li...

  5. Prevalence of blood parasites in Japanese wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Koichi

    2002-09-01

    The prevalence of blood parasites was investigated in 701 Japanese wild birds for 13 years from January, 1988 to March, 2001. Most of the injured or sick birds were caught in the suburbs of Kobe City, Hyogo Prefecture and brought to the zoo for clinical care. Among all the birds examined, 10.6% were infected with hematozoa belonging to three genera as Plasmodium (1.7% of the samples), Haemoproteus (5.1% of the samples) and Leucocytozoon (4.6% of the samples), and two birds (0.29% of the samples), a Japanese grosbeak (Coccothraustes personatus) and a dusky thrush (Turdus naumanni), were infected with microfilariae. Mixed infection with Leucocytozoon sp. and Haemoproteus sp. was observed in 6 individuals of 4 species and that with Leucocytozoon sp. and microfilariae was observed in 2 individuals of 2 species of bird. Relatively high positive rates were 75%(3/4) in the scops owl (Otus scops), 71.4% (10/14) in the ural owl (Strix uralensis), 57.7% (15/26) in the jungle crow (Corvus macrorhynchos), 57.1% (4/7) in the black-tailed gull (Larus crassirostris), 55.6% (5/9) in the brown hawk owl (Ninox scutulata), 41% (16/39) in the carrion crow (Corvus corone) and 24.1% (7/29) in the night heron (Nycticorax nicticorax).

  6. Discovering potential sources of emerging pathogens: South America is a reservoir of generalist avian blood parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moens, Michaël A J; Pérez-Tris, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Generalist pathogens are capable of infecting a wide range of host species, and may pose serious disease emergence threats if accidentally moved outside their native areas. To date little effort has been devoted to identifying geographic areas that may act as reservoirs of generalist pathogens. According to current theory, where host diversity is high, parasite specialisation in one host species may be penalised by reduced host availability, while generalist parasites may benefit from the exploitation of various host species. Therefore natural selection could favor generalist parasites where host diversity is high. Here we explored if, in a highly diverse bird community in Ecuador, a generalist strategy is promoted among local Haemoproteus and Plasmodium blood-borne parasites compared with similar parasite communities throughout the world. We reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships of every parasite lineage in order to understand the evolution of host specificity in this megadiverse area. We found high levels of host generalisation for both parasite genera, and the mean host range of the Haemoproteus community in Ecuador was significantly higher than other parasite communities in other areas outside the Neotropics. Generalist Haemoproteus parasites in this bird community had diverse phylogenetic ancestry, were closely related to specialist parasites and were apparently endemic to the Amazon, showing that different parasites have independently evolved into host generalists in this region. Finally we show that Haemoproteus communities in Ecuador and South America are more generalist than in temperate areas, making this continent a hotspot of generalist Haemoproteus parasites for wild birds.

  7. Erythrocyte Features for Malaria Parasite Detection in Microscopic Images of Thin Blood Smear: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Shuleenda Devi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic image analysis of blood smear plays a very important role in characterization of erythrocytes in screening of malaria parasites. The characteristics feature of erythrocyte changes due to malaria parasite infection. The microscopic features of the erythrocyte include morphology, intensity and texture. In this paper, the different features used to differentiate the non- infected and malaria infected erythrocyte have been reviewed.

  8. Reliable enumeration of malaria parasites in thick blood films using digital image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frean John A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitation of malaria parasite density is an important component of laboratory diagnosis of malaria. Microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick blood films is the conventional method for parasite enumeration. Accurate and reproducible parasite counts are difficult to achieve, because of inherent technical limitations and human inconsistency. Inaccurate parasite density estimation may have adverse clinical and therapeutic implications for patients, and for endpoints of clinical trials of anti-malarial vaccines or drugs. Digital image analysis provides an opportunity to improve performance of parasite density quantitation. Methods Accurate manual parasite counts were done on 497 images of a range of thick blood films with varying densities of malaria parasites, to establish a uniformly reliable standard against which to assess the digital technique. By utilizing descriptive statistical parameters of parasite size frequency distributions, particle counting algorithms of the digital image analysis programme were semi-automatically adapted to variations in parasite size, shape and staining characteristics, to produce optimum signal/noise ratios. Results A reliable counting process was developed that requires no operator decisions that might bias the outcome. Digital counts were highly correlated with manual counts for medium to high parasite densities, and slightly less well correlated with conventional counts. At low densities (fewer than 6 parasites per analysed image signal/noise ratios were compromised and correlation between digital and manual counts was poor. Conventional counts were consistently lower than both digital and manual counts. Conclusion Using open-access software and avoiding custom programming or any special operator intervention, accurate digital counts were obtained, particularly at high parasite densities that are difficult to count conventionally. The technique is potentially useful for laboratories that

  9. Digital image analysis and identification of eggs from bovine parasitic nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, C.

    1996-01-01

    Computer-assisted microscopy and multivariate statistics were used to establish and evaluate a procedure for identification of bovine strongylid eggs. Ostertagia ostertagi, Cooperia oncophora, Haemonchus placei, Trichostrongylus axei, and Oesophagostomum radiatum eggs were obtained from faeces vo...

  10. Cellulose filtration of blood from malaria patients for improving ex vivo growth of Plasmodium falciparum parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mkumbaye, Sixbert I; Minja, Daniel T R; Jespersen, Jakob S;

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Establishing in vitro Plasmodium falciparum culture lines from patient parasite isolates can offer deeper understanding of geographic variations of drug sensitivity and mechanisms of malaria pathogenesis and immunity. Cellulose column filtration of blood is an inexpensive, rapid...... and effective method for the removal of host factors, such as leucocytes and platelets, significantly improving the purification of parasite DNA in a blood sample. METHODS: In this study, the effect of cellulose column filtration of venous blood on the initial in vitro growth of P. falciparum parasite isolates....... falciparum merozoite surface protein 2 genotyping was performed using nested PCR on extracted genomic DNA, and the var gene transcript levels were investigated, using quantitative PCR on extracted RNA, at admission and 4 days of culture. RESULTS: The cellulose-filtered parasites grew to higher parasitaemia...

  11. Evaluation of endotoxin (LPS) activity in bovine blood using neutrophil dependent chemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability of a neutrophil chemiluminescence-based assay for the measurement of LPS stimulatory activity in bovine whole blood. The assay is based on the capacity for LPS to trigger the respiratory oxidative burst activity (RBA) of autologous neutroph...

  12. Parasites

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-06

    In this podcast, a listener wants to know what to do if he thinks he has a parasite or parasitic disease.  Created: 5/6/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/6/2010.

  13. Interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells and Leptospira species; innate responses in the natural bovine reservoir host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer H Wilson-Welder

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cattle are the reservoir hosts of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, and can also be reservoir hosts of other Leptospira species such as L. kirschneri, and L. interrogans. As a reservoir host, cattle shed Leptospira, infecting other animals, including humans. Previous studies with human and murine neutrophils have shown activation of neutrophil extracellular trap or NET formation, and upregulation of inflammatory mediators by neutrophils in the presence of Leptospira. Humans, companion animals and most widely studied models of Leptospirosis are of acute infection, hallmarked by systemic inflammatory response, neutrophilia and septicemia. In contrast, cattle exhibit chronic infection with few outward clinical signs aside from reproductive failure. Taking into consideration that there is host species variation in innate immunity, especially in pathogen recognition and response, the interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs and several Leptospira strains was evaluated. Studies including bovine-adapted strains, human pathogen strains, a saprophyte and inactivated organisms. Incubation of PMNs with Leptospira did induce slight activation of neutrophil NETs, greater than unstimulated cells but less than the quantity from E. coli P4 stimulated PMNs. Very low but significant from non-stimulated, levels of reactive oxygen peroxides were produced in the presence of all Leptospira strains and E. coli P4. Similarly, significant levels of reactive nitrogen intermediaries (NO2 was produced from PMNs when incubated with the Leptospira strains and greater quantities in the presence of E. coli P4. PMNs incubated with Leptospira induced RNA transcripts of IL-1β, MIP-1α, and TNF-α, with greater amounts induced by live organisms when compared to heat-inactivated leptospires. Transcript for inflammatory cytokine IL-8 was also induced, at similar levels regardless of Leptospira strain or viability. However, incubation of

  14. [Tissular alterations and defence reactions in cymothoids parasited teleosteans (Crustacea - Isopoda - blood sucking) (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romestand, B; Janicot, M; Trilles, J P

    1977-01-01

    Some tissual alterations of the parasitic microbiotope are shown in fishes harbouring Cymothoidae (blood-sucking Isopods). These alterations consist mainly in a hypertrophied epidermis and a deeply disturbed conjunctive tissue; moreover, it can be observed an important production of mucus on the tegument surface and a rush of blood cells (lymphocytes, eosenophilic granulated cells) and of cells of histiocytary origin (giant multinucleated cells).

  15. Current concepts on the transmission of bacteria and parasites by blood components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano Wendel Neto

    Full Text Available Several bacterial and parasite transfusion-transmitted diseases have been described in the medical literature. This review deals with the main bacterial (Syphilis, Lyme disease, Gram positive and Gram negative agents, parasite (Chagas disease, malaria, leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis and babesiosis and rickettsial diseases that are carried by blood products. Preventional aspects (e.g. storage, screening tests, use of leukocyte-depleted components, diagnosis, geographical distribution and the incidence of these transfusional hazards are also discussed.

  16. Membrane rigidity of red blood cells parasitized by different strains of Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulitschke, M; Nash, G B

    1993-11-01

    Changes in the structure of parasitized red blood cells may influence their ability to circulate. We have used a micropipette technique to examine the effects of invasion and maturation of Plasmodium falciparum on the membrane rigidity of red blood cells. In the presence of immature, ring form parasites from different laboratory strains, membrane rigidity remained unchanged as compared with uninfected red cells. However, development of more mature pigmented trophozoites caused a marked increase in membrane rigidity. Parasites from knobless strains caused a less-pronounced increase than parasites from knob-positive strains. Using closely synchronized cultures, the dependence of membrane rigidity on parasite maturation was studied in more detail for selected knob-positive and knobless strains. Over a period of 12 hours, while trophozoites developed into schizonts, no further rigidification of the red cell membrane occurred. The increase in membrane rigidity, occurring with the initial development of pigmented trophozoites, may be related to insertion of neoantigens into the red cell surface or modification of native membrane proteins that also occur at this time. In contrast to others, we found no effect of parasite-culture supernatant, harvested at different stages, on the rigidity of uninfected cells exposed to it. Interstrain variation of membrane rigidity could influence pathophysiology in several ways: by promoting margination and cytoadherence of knob-positive strains in the microcirculation, by modulating clearance of parasitized cells by the reticuloendothelial system, and by influencing ischemic complications of severe falciparum malaria.

  17. Influence of gastrointestinal parasitism on biochemical variables in blood of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué P Topázio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study describes the influence of endoparasites and diet on biochemical variables in sera of brown laying hens. Materials and methods. Biochemical parameters (seric levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, uric acid, albumin, and alanine aminotransferase activity were assessed in blood samples of poultry. Three populations of laying hens of different properties (n=20 each represented our experimental design, from which blood (serum and feces were collected for biochemical and parasitological analyzes, respectively. Results. From 60 feces samples evaluated 49 were positive for the presence of parasites and 11 were negative. Among the positive samples, 23 had infection with Eimeria spp and the other 26 samples had mixed parasitism with Eimeria spp and Heterakis gallinarum, which influenced (increasing the levels of total protein and globulin. However, when parasites were analyzed separately, it was observed that the infection by Eimeria spp affected parameters such as cholesterol (which increased, p=0.001 and triglycerides, showing lower results than when the hen was parasitized by Eimeria spp. (p=0.01. Significant (p<0.05 difference was observed in all biochemical variables when the three diets were compared. Conclusions. Our results allowed concluding that the parasitic infection and diet in laying hens influenced the results of serum biochemical parameters evaluated. The main conclusion we found that parasitism caused an increase in total protein and globulin (ie immune response, and there was a negative correlation between parasite load and albumin, uric acid and ALT.

  18. Phylogenetic relationship of Hepatozoon blood parasites found in snakes from Africa, America and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haklová, B; Majláthová, V; Majláth, I; Harris, D J; Petrilla, V; Litschka-Koen, T; Oros, M; Peťko, B

    2014-03-01

    The blood parasites from the genus Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 (Apicomplexa: Adeleida: Hepatozoidae) represent the most common intracellular protozoan parasites found in snakes. In the present study, we examined 209 individuals of snakes, from different zoogeographical regions (Africa, America, Asia and Europe), for the occurrence of blood parasites using both molecular and microscopic examination methods, and assess phylogenetic relationships of all Hepatozoon parasites from snakes for the first time. In total, 178 blood smears obtained from 209 individuals, representing 40 species, were examined, from which Hepatozoon unicellular parasites were found in 26 samples (14·6% prevalence). Out of 180 samples tested by molecular method polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the presence of parasites was observed in 21 individuals (prevalence 11·6%): 14 snakes from Africa belonging to six genera (Dendroaspis, Dispholidus, Mehelya, Naja, Philothamnus and Python), five snakes from Asia from the genus Morelia and two snakes from America, from two genera (Coluber and Corallus). The intensity of infection varied from one to 1433 infected cells per 10 000 erythrocytes. Results of phylogenetic analyses (Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood) revealed the existence of five haplotypes divided into four main lineages. The present data also indicate neither geographical pattern of studied Hepatozoon sp., nor congruency in the host association.

  19. Prevalence, transmission, and genetic diversity of blood parasites infecting tundra-nesting geese in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Reed, John A.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Fondell, Tom F.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Hupp, Jerry W.; Ward, David H.; Terenzi, John; Ely, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 842 blood samples collected from five species of tundra-nesting geese in Alaska was screened for haemosporidian parasites using molecular techniques. Parasites of the generaLeucocytozoon Danilewsky, 1890, Haemoproteus Kruse, 1890, and Plasmodium Marchiafava and Celli, 1885 were detected in 169 (20%), 3 (parasites and assess variation relative to species, age, sex, geographic area, year, and decade. Species, age, and decade were identified as important in explaining differences in prevalence of Leucocytozoonparasites. Leucocytozoon parasites were detected in goslings sampled along the Arctic Coastal Plain using both historic and contemporary samples, which provided support for transmission in the North American Arctic. In contrast, lack of detection of Haemoproteus and Plasmodiumparasites in goslings (n = 238) provided evidence to suggest that the transmission of parasites of these genera may not occur among waterfowl using tundra habitats in Alaska, or alternatively, may only occur at low levels. Five haemosporidian genetic lineages shared among different species of geese sampled from two geographic areas were indicative of interspecies parasite transmission and supported broad parasite or vector distributions. However, identicalLeucocytozoon and Haemoproteus lineages on public databases were limited to waterfowl hosts suggesting constraints in the range of parasite hosts.

  20. The impact of conservation-driven translocations on blood parasite prevalence in the Seychelles warbler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfield, Eleanor A.; Hutchings, Kimberly; Gilroy, Danielle L.; Kingma, Sjouke A.; Burke, Terry; Komdeur, Jan; Richardson, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduced populations often lose the parasites they carried in their native range, but little is known about which processes may cause parasite loss during host movement. Conservation-driven translocations could provide an opportunity to identify the mechanisms involved. Using 3,888 blood samples collected over 22 years, we investigated parasite prevalence in populations of Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus sechellensis) after individuals were translocated from Cousin Island to four new islands (Aride, Cousine, Denis and Frégate). Only a single parasite (Haemoproteus nucleocondensus) was detected on Cousin (prevalence = 52%). This parasite persisted on Cousine (prevalence = 41%), but no infection was found in individuals hatched on Aride, Denis or Frégate. It is not known whether the parasite ever arrived on Aride, but it has not been detected there despite 20 years of post-translocation sampling. We confirmed that individuals translocated to Denis and Frégate were infected, with initial prevalence similar to Cousin. Over time, prevalence decreased on Denis and Frégate until the parasite was not found on Denis two years after translocation, and was approaching zero prevalence on Frégate. The loss (Denis) or decline (Frégate) of H. nucleocondensus, despite successful establishment of infected hosts, must be due to factors affecting parasite transmission on these islands. PMID:27405249

  1. Identification and characterization of novel membrane-bound PRL protein tyrosine phosphatases from Setaria cervi, a bovine filarial parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neetu; Yadav, Smita; Rathaur, Sushma

    2015-11-01

    A significant amount of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity was detected in the detergent-soluble membrane-bound fraction of Setaria cervi, a bovine filarial parasite. The membrane-bound PTP activity was significantly inhibited when the adult parasites were exposed to compounds having antifilarial activity like aspirin and SK7 as well as phenylarsine oxide, a specific PTP inhibitor suggesting that this activity is stress regulated. Further, this enzyme was purified as a single protein of apparently 21 kDa using two different chromatographic techniques. The MALDI-MS/MS analysis of its peptides showed closest match with protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL (Aedes aegypti). This purified enzyme (named as PRL) showed maximum activity at pH 5.5/37 °C and hydrolysed para nitro phenyl phosphate (pNPP) at the highest rate followed by O-P-L-tyrosine and O-P-L-threonine. It showed significant inhibition by specific inhibitors of PTP such as sodium orthovanadate, phenylarsine oxide and ammonium molybdate and was activated by dithiothreitol (DTT). The active site modification studies suggested involvement of cysteine, arginine, histidine and aspartic acid in the catalytic activity of PRL. The activity of S. cervi PRL was also found to be resistant towards the external oxidative stress. Thus, S. cervi PRL could be taken as a potential target for the management of human lymphatic filariasis.

  2. Investigations of significance of blood smear results in diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potkonjak Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The microscopic examination of stained smears of peripheral blood is of vital significance in the speedy diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases, in particular during the stage of infection when the cause is present in the blood, or blood cells. It is sometimes possible to make a definitive diagnosis of an infectious or parasitic disease following an examination of a stained smear of the peripheral blood. Since microscopic examinations of a peripheral blood smear are applied increasingly rarely in clinical practice, due to the development of other methods for the diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases in dogs, as well as the lack of knowledge of the morphology of the numerous causes that can be present in the blood, we carried out an investigation into the presence and spread of infections whose causes can be present in dog blood. The investigations covered 100 dogs from which peripheral blood smears were taken and then stained with a Giemsa solution according to the standard protocol and examined under a microscope with an immersion lens. The examination of peripheral blood smears stained according to Giemsa resulted in the identification of the presence of an Ehrlichia spp. morula in a neutrophil granulocyte in one dog. The presence of hemotropic mycoplasmas was established in erythrocytes of eleven dogs, while the presence of the protozoa Babesia canis in erythrocytes was identified in five dogs included in the investigations. A microscopic examination of dog peripheral blood smears stained according to Giemsa was shown as a speedy, practical, simple, and inexpensive method for making a definitive etiological diagnosis of these infections, and it should be included regularly in standard protocols for the diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases.

  3. Vaccination with recombinant aspartic hemoglobinase reduces parasite load and blood loss after hookworm infection in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Loukas

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Hookworms infect 730 million people in developing countries where they are a leading cause of intestinal blood loss and iron-deficiency anemia. At the site of attachment to the host, adult hookworms ingest blood and lyse the erythrocytes to release hemoglobin. The parasites subsequently digest hemoglobin in their intestines using a cascade of proteolysis that begins with the Ancylostoma caninum aspartic protease 1, APR-1.We show that vaccination of dogs with recombinant Ac-APR-1 induced antibody and cellular responses and resulted in significantly reduced hookworm burdens (p = 0.056 and fecal egg counts (p = 0.018 in vaccinated dogs compared to control dogs after challenge with infective larvae of A. caninum. Most importantly, vaccinated dogs were protected against blood loss (p = 0.049 and most did not develop anemia, the major pathologic sequela of hookworm disease. IgG from vaccinated animals decreased the catalytic activity of the recombinant enzyme in vitro and the antibody bound in situ to the intestines of worms recovered from vaccinated dogs, implying that the vaccine interferes with the parasite's ability to digest blood.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a recombinant vaccine from a hematophagous parasite that significantly reduces both parasite load and blood loss, and it supports the development of APR-1 as a human hookworm vaccine.

  4. Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against blood-sucking parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Bagavan, Asokan; Elango, Gandhi; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Marimuthu, Sampath; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram

    2010-05-01

    The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane, and methanol dried leaf, flower, and seed extracts of Cassia auriculata L., Rhinacanthus nasutus KURZ., Solanum torvum Swartz, Terminalia chebula Retz., and Vitex negundo Linn. were tested against larvae of cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae), adult of Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann, 1897 (Acarina: Ixodidae), hematophagous fly Hippobosca maculata Leach (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), nymph of goat-lice Damalinia caprae Gurlt (Trichodectidae), and adult sheep parasite Paramphistomum cervi Zeder, 1790 (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plant extracts showed moderate parasitic effects after 24 h of exposure at 3,000 ppm; however, the highest parasite mortality was found in leaf ethyl acetate, flower methanol of C. auriculata, leaf and seed methanol of S. torvum, seed acetone of T. chebula, and leaf hexane extracts of V. negundo against the larvae of R. microplus (LC(50) = 335.48, 309.21, 297.43, 414.99, 167.20, and 611.67 ppm; LC(90) = 1571.58, 1111.82, 950.98, 1243.64, 595.31, and 1875.50 ppm), the leaf and flower methanol of R. nasutus, leaf and seed methanol of S. torvum, and seed methanol extracts of T. chebula against the nymph of D. caprae (LC(50) = 119.26,143.10,164.93,140.47, and 155.98 ppm; LC(90) = 356.77, 224.08, 546.20, 479.72, and 496.06 ppm), the leaf methanol of R. nasutus, leaf and seed methanol of S.torvum, and seed acetone of T. chebula against the adult of H. bispinosa (LC(50) = 333.15, 328.98, 312.28, and 186.46 ppm; LC(90) = 1056.07, 955.39, 946.63, and 590.76 ppm), the leaf methanol of C. auriculata, the leaf and flower methanol of R. nasutus, the leaf ethyl acetate of S. torvum against the H. maculata (LC(50) = 303.36, 177.21, 204.58, and 211.41 ppm; LC(90) = 939.90, 539.39, 599.43, and 651.90 ppm), and the leaf acetone of C. auriculata, the flower methanol

  5. Prevalence of intestinal and blood parasites among wild rats in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siti Shafiyyah, C O; Jamaiah, I; Rohela, M; Lau, Y L; Siti Aminah, F

    2012-12-01

    A survey was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of intestinal and blood parasites among wild rats in urban area of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of 137 stool and blood samples were collected from wild rats from Sentul and Chow Kit areas. Five species of rats were captured and supplied by Kuala Lumpur City Hall. The most common was Rattus rattus diardii (Malayan Black rat), 67%, followed by Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat), 10%, Rattus argentiventer (rice-field rat), 10%, Rattus tiomanicus (Malaysian field rat), 9% and Rattus exulans (Polynesian rat), 4%. Rattus rattus diardii is commonly known to live in human environment and they are normally identified as pests to human community. More male rats were captured (61%) compared to female (39%). Out of 137 samples, 81.8% samples were positive with intestinal parasites, with 86.2% from Sentul area and 78.5% from Chow Kit area. Six different parasites were detected. The most common intestinal helminth parasite detected was Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (80.3%), followed by Hymenolepis nana (23.4%), Capillaria hepatica (13.9%) and Hymenolepis diminuta (2.9%). Intestinal protozoan detected was Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (8.8%). Trypanosoma lewisi (1.5%) was the only blood parasite detected.

  6. Phenotypic, ultra-structural, and functional characterization of bovine peripheral blood dendritic cell subsets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet J Sei

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC are multi-functional cells that bridge the gap between innate and adaptive immune systems. In bovine, significant information is lacking on the precise identity and role of peripheral blood DC subsets. In this study, we identify and characterize bovine peripheral blood DC subsets directly ex vivo, without further in vitro manipulation. Multi-color flow cytometric analysis revealed that three DC subsets could be identified. Bovine plasmacytoid DC were phenotypically identified by a unique pattern of cell surface protein expression including CD4, exhibited an extensive endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, efficiently internalized and degraded exogenous antigen, and were the only peripheral blood cells specialized in the production of type I IFN following activation with Toll-like receptor (TLR agonists. Conventional DC were identified by expression of a different pattern of cell surface proteins including CD11c, MHC class II, and CD80, among others, the display of extensive dendritic protrusions on their plasma membrane, expression of very high levels of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules, efficient internalization and degradation of exogenous antigen, and ready production of detectable levels of TNF-alpha in response to TLR activation. Our investigations also revealed a third novel DC subset that may be a precursor of conventional DC that were MHC class II+ and CD11c-. These cells exhibited a smooth plasma membrane with a rounded nucleus, produced TNF-alpha in response to TLR-activation (albeit lower than CD11c+ DC, and were the least efficient in internalization/degradation of exogenous antigen. These studies define three bovine blood DC subsets with distinct phenotypic and functional characteristics which can be analyzed during immune responses to pathogens and vaccinations of cattle.

  7. Molecular epidemiology of bovine Babesia spp. and Theileria orientalis parasites in beef cattle from northern and northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk; Adjou Moumouni, Paul Franck; Cao, Shinuo; Iguchi, Aiko; Liu, Mingming; Wang, Guanbo; Zhou, Mo; Vudriko, Patrick; Changbunjong, Tanasak; Sungpradit, Sivapong; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Moonarmart, Walasinee; Sedwisai, Poonyapat; Weluwanarak, Thekhawet; Wongsawang, Witsanu; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2016-02-01

    Beef cattle production represents the largest cattle population in Thailand. Their productivity is constrained by tick-borne diseases such as babesiosis and theileriosis. In this study, we determined the prevalence of Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Theileria orientalis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genetic markers that were used for detection of the above parasites were sequenced to determine identities and similarity for Babesia spp. and genetic diversity of T. orientalis. Furthermore the risk factors for the occurrence of the above protozoan parasites in beef cattle from northern and northeastern parts of Thailand were assessed. A total of 329 blood samples were collected from beef cattle in 6 provinces. The study revealed that T. orientalis was the most prevalent (30.1%) parasite in beef cattle followed by B. bigemina (13.1%) and B. bovis (5.5%). Overall, 78.7% of the cattle screened were infected with at least one of the above parasites. Co-infection with Babesia spp. and T. orientalis was 30.1%. B. bigemina and T. orientalis were the most prevalent (15.1%) co-infection although triple infection with the three parasites was observed in 3.0% of the samples. Sequencing analysis revealed that B. bigemina RAP1 gene and B. bovis SBP2 gene were conserved among the parasites from different cattle samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the T. orientalis MPSP gene from parasites isolated from cattle in north and northeast Thailand was classified into types 5 and 7 as reported previously. Lack of tick control program was the universal risk factor of the occurrence of Babesia spp. and T. orientalis infection in beef cattle in northern and northeastern Thailand. We therefore recommend training of farmers on appropriate tick control strategies and further research on potential vectors for T. orientalis and elucidate the effect of co-infection with Babesia spp. on the pathogenicity of T. orientalis infection on beef in northern and northeastern Thailand

  8. Blood parasite infection data from Blue-winged teal, Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan) and USA (Texas, Louisiana), 2012-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, John

    2017-01-01

    This data set includes age, sex, location, and blood parasite infection data from Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) captured in Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan) and the USA (Texas, Louisiana) in 2012-2013. Infection data for three different genera of blood parasites are given as are GenBank accession numbers for genetic sequences obtained from positive infections.

  9. Bovine Blood Constituents as Fat Replacers in Ham Pâté

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiana Ribeiro Viana; Carolina Schaper Bizzotto; Disney Ribeiro Dias; Oliveira,Afonso L.; Marialice Pinto Coelho Silvestre

    2004-01-01

    Some tests were carried out in this work with the aim of evaluating a partial replacement of fat in the raw batter of ham pâté by using bovine blood constituents, such as globin (GL), plasma (PL) or 1:1 globin and plasma (GP). Plasma was separated from red cells by blood centrifugation, and globin was extracted by the carboxymethylcellulose method. The salt-soluble protein content (SSP) and the binding properties including water holding capacity (WHC) and raw batter stability (RBS) were estim...

  10. Aldehyde dehydrogenase-independent bioactivation of nitroglycerin in porcine and bovine blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Regina; Wölkart, Gerald; Opelt, Marissa; Schwarzenegger, Christine; Hofinger, Marielies; Neubauer, Andrea; Kollau, Alexander; Schmidt, Kurt; Schrammel, Astrid; Mayer, Bernd

    2015-02-15

    The vascular bioactivation of the antianginal drug nitroglycerin (GTN), yielding 1,2-glycerol dinitrate and nitric oxide or a related activator of soluble guanylate cyclase, is catalyzed by aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) in rodent and human blood vessels. The essential role of ALDH2 has been confirmed in many studies and is considered as general principle of GTN-induced vasodilation in mammals. However, this view is challenged by an early report showing that diphenyleneiodonium, which we recently characterized as potent ALDH2 inhibitor, has no effect on GTN-induced relaxation of bovine coronary arteries (De La Lande et al., 1996). We investigated this issue and found that inhibition of ALDH2 attenuates GTN-induced coronary vasodilation in isolated perfused rat hearts but has no effect on relaxation to GTN of bovine and porcine coronary arteries. This observation is explained by low levels of ALDH2 protein expression in bovine coronary arteries and several types of porcine blood vessels. ALDH2 mRNA expression and the rates of GTN denitration were similarly low, excluding a significant contribution of ALDH2 to the bioactivation of GTN in these vessels. Attempts to identify the responsible pathway with enzyme inhibitors did not provide conclusive evidence for the involvement of ALDH3A1, cytochrome P450, or GSH-S-transferase. Thus, the present manuscript describes a hitherto unrecognized pathway of GTN bioactivation in bovine and porcine blood vessels. If present in the human vasculature, this pathway might contribute to the therapeutic effects of organic nitrates that are not metabolized by ALDH2.

  11. Studies on bovine demodecosis in northern Nigeria. Specification and host parasite relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingenbergh, J; Mohammed, A N; Bida, S A

    1980-04-15

    The study reported in the present paper discusses the clinical and histological picture of bovine demodecosis and the morphology of Demodex mites as seen in four cows suffering from generalized demodecosis. There were no clinical signs of other skin affections. Changes in both the number and the appearance of visible skin lesions were seen and related to the level of nutrition and the exposure to sunshine of the cattle. Histological sections of some skin nodules showed the presence of mite colonies in the hair follicles. Only adults were seen in the sebaceous glands. Microscopical study of the morphology of the mites revealed the presence of two types of demodicids in the skin lesions and three types from epilated eyelashes. Morphological criteria are presented to aid in identification of species and of life stages.

  12. Epidemiology of bovine hemoprotozoa parasites in cattle and water buffalo in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    WEERASOORIYA, Gayani; SIVAKUMAR, Thillaiampalam; LAN, Dinh Thi Bich; LONG, Phung Thang; TAKEMAE, Hitoshi; IGARASHI, Ikuo; INOUE, Noboru; YOKOYAMA, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    A PCR-based survey of hemoprotozoa parasites detected Babesia bigemina, Theileria orientalis and Trypanosoma theileri among cattle and water buffalo in Vietnam, and a new Babesia sp. closely related to Babesia ovata was detected in cattle only. In addition, Theileria annulata and Trypanosoma evansi were not detected in both cattle and water buffalo. Phylogenetic analysis detected T. orientalis MPSP genotypes 3, 5, 7 and N3 in cattle and 5, 7, N1 and N2 in water buffalo. Additionally, water buffalo-derived T. theileri CATL sequences clustered together with a previously reported cattle-derived sequence from Vietnam. This is the first report of a new Babesia sp. in cattle, and T. orientalis MPSP genotype 7 and T. theileri in water buffalo in Vietnam. PMID:27149894

  13. Entomological study on transmission of avian malaria parasites in a zoological garden in Japan: bloodmeal identification and detection of avian malaria parasite DNA from blood-fed mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejiri, Hiroko; Sato, Yukita; Kim, Kyeong-Soon; Hara, Tatsuko; Tsuda, Yoshio; Imura, Takayuki; Murata, Koichi; Yukawa, Masayoshi

    2011-05-01

    Several species of captive and wild birds have been found to be infected with various avian blood protozoa in Japan. We investigated the prevalence and transmission of avian malaria parasite and determined the bloodmeal hosts of mosquitoes collected in a zoological garden in Tokyo, Japan, by using the polymerase chain reaction. In total, 310 unfed and 140 blood-fed mosquitoes of seven species were collected by using sweep nets and CDC traps. Bloodmeal identification indicated that mosquitoes had fed on 17 avian and five mammalian species, including captive animals. The results of avian malaria parasite detection from mosquitoes with avian bloodmeals indicated that Culex pipiens pallens Coquillet is a main vector of avian Plasmodium in the current study site and that some captive and wild birds could be infected with avian malaria parasites. Furthermore, the distances between the collection site of blood-fed mosquitoes and the locations of their blood-source captive animals were estimated. Most females with fresh bloodmeals were found within 40 m of caged animals, whereas half-gravid and gravid females were found between 10 and 350 m from caged host animals. We demonstrated that blood-fed mosquitoes can provide useful information regarding the mosquito vector species of avian malaria parasites and allows for noninvasive detection of the presence of avian malaria parasites in bird populations.

  14. Pathological Study of Blood Parasites in Rice Field Frogs, Hoplobatrachus rugulosus (Wiegmann, 1834

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achariya Sailasuta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and forty adult rice field frogs, Hoplobatrachus rugulosus (Wiegmann, 1834, were collected in Srakaew province, Thailand. For blood parasite examination, thin blood smears were made and routinely stained with Giemsa. The results showed that 70% of the frogs (98/140 were infected with 5 species of blood parasites, including a Trypanosoma rotatorium-like organism, Trypanosoma chattoni, Hepatozoon sp. a, Hepatozoon sp. b, and Lankesterella minima. Pathological examination of the liver, lung, spleen, and kidney of the frogs that were apparently infected with one of these blood parasites were collected and processed by routine histology and subsequently stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Histopathological findings associated with the Trypanosoma rotatorium-like organism and Trypanosoma chattoni-infected frogs showed no pathological lesions. Hepatozoon sp. a and Hepatozoon sp. b-infected frogs developed inflammatory lesions predominantly in the liver, demonstrating granuloma-like lesions with Hepatozoon sp. meronts at the centre. Tissue sections of Lankesterella minima-infected frogs also showed lesions. Liver and spleen showed inflammatory lesions with an accumulation of melanomacrophage centres (MMCs surrounding the meronts and merozoites. It is suggested that Hepatozoon sp. a, Hepatozoon sp. b, and Lankesterella minima-infections are capable of producing inflammatory lesions in the visceral organs of rice field frogs, and the severity of lesions is tentatively related to levels of parasitemia.

  15. Blood parasites in Owls with conservation implications for the Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, H.D.; Dumbacher, J.P.; Anderson, N.L.; Keane, J.J.; Valkiunas, G.; Haig, S.M.; Tell, L.A.; Sehgal, R.N.M.

    2008-01-01

    The three subspecies of Spotted Owl (Northern, Strix occidentalis courina; California, S. o. occidentalis; and Mexican, S. o. lucida) are all threatened by habitat loss and range expansion of the Barred Owl (S. varia). An unaddressed threat is whether Barred Owls could be a source of novel strains of disease such as avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) or other blood parasites potentially harmful for Spotted Owls. Although Barred Owls commonly harbor Plasmodium infections, these parasites have not been documented in the Spotted Owl. We screened 111 Spotted Owls, 44 Barred Owls, and 387 owls of nine other species for haemosporidian parasites (Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium, and Haemoproteus spp.). California Spotted Owls had the greatest number of simultaneous multi-species infections (44%). Additionally, sequencing results revealed that the Northern and California Spotted Owl subspecies together had the highest number of Leucocytozoon parasite lineages (n=17) and unique lineages (n=12). This high level of sequence diversity is significant because only one leucocytozoon species (L. danilewskyi) has been accepted as valid among all owls, suggesting that L. danilewskyi is a cryptic species. Furthermore, a Plasmodium parasite was documented in a Northern Spotted Owl for the first time. West Coast Barred Owls had a lower prevalence of infection (15%) when compared to sympatric Spotted Owls (S. o. caurina 52%, S. o. occidentalis 79%) and Barred Owls from the historic range (61%). Consequently, Barred Owls on the West Coast may have a competitive advantage over the potentially immune compromised Spotted Owls. ?? 2008 Ishak et al.

  16. Proteins involved in invasion of human red blood cells by malaria parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jaśkiewicz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a disease caused by parasites of Plasmodium species. It is responsible for around 1-2 million deaths annually, mainly children under the age of 5. It occurs mainly in tropical and subtropical areas.Malaria is caused by five Plasmodium species:[i] P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. vivax, P. knowlesi[/i] and [i]P. ovale[/i]. Mosquitoes spread the disease by biting humans. The malaria parasite has two stages of development: the human stage and the mosquito stage. The first stage occurs in the human body and is divided into two phases: the liver phase and the blood phase.The invasion of erythrocytes by [i]Plasmodium[/i] merozoites is a multistep process of specific protein interactions between the parasite and red blood cell. The first step is the reversible merozoite attachment to the erythrocyte followed by its apical reorientation, then formation of an irreversible “tight” junction and finally entry into the red cell in a parasitophorous vacuole.The blood phase is supported by a number of proteins produced by the parasite. The merozoite surface GPI-anchored proteins (MSP-1, 2, 4, 5, 8 and 10 assist in the process of recognition of susceptible erythrocytes, apical membrane antigen (AMA-1 may be directly responsible for apical reorientation of the merozoite and apical proteins which function in tight junction formation. These ligands are members of two families: Duffy binding-like (DBL and reticulocyte binding-like (RBL proteins. In [i]Plasmodium[/i] [i]falciparum[/i] the DBL family includes: EBA-175, EBA-140 (BAEBL, EBA-181 (JESEBL, EBA-165 (PEBL and EBL-1 ligands.To date, no effective antimalarial vaccine has been developed, but there are several studies for this purpose. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the molecular basis of host cells invasion by parasites. Major efforts are focused on developing a multiantigenic and multiepitope vaccine preventing all steps of [i]Plasmodium[/i] invasion.

  17. Blunting the knife: development of vaccines targeting digestive proteases of blood-feeding helminth parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Mark S; Ranjit, Najju; Loukas, Alex

    2010-08-01

    Proteases are pivotal to parasitism, mediating biological processes crucial to worm survival including larval migration through tissue, immune evasion/modulation and nutrient acquisition by the adult parasite. In haematophagous parasites, many of these proteolytic enzymes are secreted from the intestine (nematodes) or gastrodermis (trematodes) where they act to degrade host haemoglobin and serum proteins as part of the feeding process. These proteases are exposed to components of the immune system of the host when the worms ingest blood, and therefore present targets for the development of anti-helminth vaccines. The protective effects of current vaccine antigens against nematodes that infect humans (hookworm) and livestock (barber's pole worm) are based on haemoglobin-degrading intestinal proteases and act largely as a result of the neutralisation of these proteases by antibodies that are ingested with the blood-meal. In this review, we survey the current status of helminth proteases that show promise as vaccines and describe their vital contribution to a parasitic existence.

  18. Blood characteristics, microbial and gastrointestinal parasites of street pigeons (Columba Livia in Owerri Imo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Opara

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the haematological and biochemical indices and the naturally occurring haemo and gastrointestinal microbes of 150 matured street pigeons in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. The PCV, WBC, MCV, MCH and total bilirubin values of the female pigeons were significantly (p0.05 between the two group. Out of 150 street pigeons examined for prevalence of parasites, 70 (46.70% of them were infected with gastro-intestinal parasites of which 30 (42.93% were males and 40 (57.1% were females. Four gastro-intestinal parasites were identified with Trichomonas sp. giving the highest prevalence rate (42%, followed by Eimeria sp. (28%, and whereas Coccidia sp. and Ascaridia sp. returned the least with each having the prevalence rate of (14%. Results of haemo -parasitological examination of thin blood smears revealed haematozoa of two genera: Haemoproteus sp. which was more common gave a prevalence rate of 40 (66% for the male and 70 (87% for the female pigeons. Plasmodium sp. with prevalence of 20 (33% and 10 (12% in male and female pigeons respectively. Fecal cultures recorded high growth of bacterial organisms, of which Proteus sp. returned 50 (83% and Enterococcus sp. returned 10 (16%. In totality, 40% of the pigeons had bacterial infections. In conclusion, the prevalence of gastrointestinal and haemoparasites in street pigeons in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. However, these parasites did not cause any visible deleterious effects in the blood parameters of the pigeons examined.

  19. An innovative shape equation to quantify the morphological characteristics of parasitized red blood cells by Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Motevalli Haghi, Afsaneh; Faghihi, Shahab

    2013-04-01

    The morphology of red blood cells is affected significantly during maturation of malaria parasites, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. A novel shape equation is presented that defines shape of parasitized red blood cells by P. falciparum (Pf-red blood cells) and P. vivax (Pv-red blood cells) at four stages of infection. The Giemsa-stained thin blood films are prepared using blood samples collected from healthy donors, patients having P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria. The diameter and thickness of healthy red blood cells plus Pf-red blood cells and Pv-red blood cells at each stage of infection are measured from their optical images using Olysia and Scanning Probe Image Processor softwares, respectively. Using diameters and thicknesses of parasitized red blood cells, a shape equation is fitted and relative two-dimensional shapes are plotted using MATHEMATICA. The shape of Pf-red blood cell drastically changes at ring stage as its thickness increases by 82%, while Pv-red blood cell remains biconcave (30% increase in thickness). By trophozoite and subsequent schizont stage, the Pf-red blood cell entirely loses its biconcave shape and becomes near spherical (diameter and thickness of ~8 µm). The Pv-red blood cell remains biconcave throughout the parasite development even though its volume increases. These results could have practical use for faster diagnosis, prediction, and treatment of human malaria and sickle-cell diseases.

  20. Glutathione Reductase-null Malaria Parasites Have Normal Blood Stage Growth but Arrest during Development in the Mosquito*

    OpenAIRE

    Pastrana-Mena, Rebecca; Dinglasan, Rhoel R.; Franke-Fayard, Blandine; Vega-Rodríguez, Joel; Fuentes-Caraballo, Mariela; Baerga-Ortiz, Abel; Coppens, Isabelle; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo; Janse, Chris J.; Serrano, Adelfa E.

    2010-01-01

    Malaria parasites contain a complete glutathione (GSH) redox system, and several enzymes of this system are considered potential targets for antimalarial drugs. Through generation of a γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS)-null mutant of the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei, we previously showed that de novo GSH synthesis is not critical for blood stage multiplication but is essential for oocyst development. In this study, phenotype analyses of mutant parasites lacking expression of glutath...

  1. Hierarchical phosphorylation of apical membrane antigen 1 is required for efficient red blood cell invasion by malaria parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Boris Prinz; Katherine L. Harvey; Louisa Wilcke; Ulrike Ruch; Klemens Engelberg; Laura Biller; Isabelle Lucet; Steffen Erkelenz; Dorothee Heincke; Tobias Spielmann; Christian Doerig; Conrad Kunick; Brendan S Crabb; Gilson, Paul R.; Gilberger, Tim W

    2016-01-01

    Central to the pathogenesis of malaria is the proliferation of Plasmodium falciparum parasites within human erythrocytes. Parasites invade erythrocytes via a coordinated sequence of receptor-ligand interactions between the parasite and host cell. One key ligand, Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA1), is a leading blood-stage vaccine and previous work indicates that phosphorylation of its cytoplasmic domain (CPD) is important to its function during invasion. Here we investigate the significance of ...

  2. Simultaneous determination of phagocytosis of Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized and non-parasitized red blood cells by flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallo Valentina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe falciparum malaria anaemia (SMA is a frequent cause of mortality in children and pregnant women. The most important determinant of SMA appears to be the loss of non-parasitized red blood cells (np-RBCs in excess of loss of parasitized (p- RBCs at schizogony. Based on data from acute SMA where excretion of haemoglobin in urine and increased plasma haemoglobin represented respectively less than 1% and 0.5% of total Hb loss, phagocytosis appears to be the predominant mechanism of removal of np- and p-RBC. Estimates indicate that np-RBCs are cleared in approximately 10-fold excess compared to p-RBCs. An even larger removal of np-RBCs has been described in vivax malaria anaemia. Estimates were based on two single studies both performed on neurosyphilitic patients who underwent malaria therapy. As the share of np-RBC removal is likely to vary between wide limits, it is important to assess the contribution of both np- and p-RBC populations to overall RBC loss, and disclose the mechanism of such variability. As available methods do not discriminate between the removal of np- vs p-RBCs, the purpose of this study was to set up a system allowing the simultaneous determination of phagocytosis of p- and np-RBC in the same sample. Methods and Results Phagocytosis of p- and np-RBCs was quantified in the same sample using double-labelled target cells and the human phagocytic cell-line THP-1, pre-activated by TNF and IFNγ to enhance their phagocytic activity. Target RBCs were double-labelled with fluorescent carboxyfluorescein-succinimidyl ester (CF-SE and the DNA label ethidium bromide (EB. EB, a DNA label, allowed to discriminate p-RBCs that contain parasitic DNA from the np-RBCs devoid of DNA. FACS analysis of THP-1 cells fed with double-labelled RBCs showed that p- and np-RBCs were phagocytosed in different proportions in relation to parasitaemia. Conclusions The assay allowed the analysis of phagocytosis rapidly and with low

  3. Analysis of short RNAs in the malaria parasite and its red blood cell host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathjen, Tina; Nicol, Clare; McConkey, Glenn; Dalmay, Tamas

    2006-10-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an RNA degradation process that involves short, double-stranded RNAs (dsRNA) as sequence specificity factors. The natural function of the RNAi machinery is to generate endogenous short double-stranded RNAs to regulate gene expression. It has been shown that treatment of Plasmodium falciparum, the etiologic agent of malaria, with dsRNA induces degradation of the corresponding microRNA (miRNA), yet typical RNAi-associated genes have not been identifiable in the parasite genome. To clarify this discrepancy we set out to clone short RNAs from P. falciparum-infected red blood cells and from purified parasites. We did not find any short RNA that was not a rRNA or tRNA fragment. Indeed, only known human miRNAs were isolated in parasite preparations indicating that very few if any short RNAs exist in P. falciparum. This suggests a different mechanism than classical RNAi in observations of dsRNA-mediated degradation. Of the human miRNAs identified, the human miRNA mir-451 accumulates at a very high level in both infected and healthy red blood cells. Interestingly, mir-451 was not detectable in a series of immortalised cell lines representing progenitor stages of all major blood lineages, suggesting that mir-451 may play a role in the differentiation of erythroid cells.

  4. Health status of birds fed diets containing three differently processed discarded vegetable-bovine blood-rumen content mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekunseitan, D A; Balogun, O O; Sogunle, O M; Yusuf, A O; Ayoola, A A; Egbeyale, L T; Adeyemi, O A; Allison, I B; Iyanda, A I

    2013-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding three differently processed mixtures on health status of broilers. A total of 1080 day-old Marshal broilers were fed; discarded vegetable-fresh bovine blood-fresh rumen digesta (P1), discarded vegetable-ensiled bovine blood-fresh rumen digesta (P2) and discarded vegetable-fresh bovine blood-ensiled rumen digesta (P3) at three levels of inclusion (0, 3 and 6%). Data on blood parameters was taken and were subjected to 3 x 3 factorial arrangements in a completely randomized design. Birds fed P1 had least values (p cell volume, Haemoglobin, White blood cell and Red blood cell values. However, those fed at 0% level of inclusion recorded the highest albumin value. At finisher phase, birds fed P2 and P3 had the highest glucose, uric acid and creatinine values. 6% level of inclusion significantly (p vegetable-fresh bovine blood-ensiled rumen digesta (P3) up to 6% level of inclusion.

  5. Usefulness of quantitative buffy coat blood parasite detection system in diagnosis of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, M J; Rodrigues, S R; Desouza, R; Verenkar, M P

    2001-01-01

    A rapid test for diagnosis of malaria based on acridine orange staining of centrifuged blood samples in a microhematocrit tube (QBC) was compared with thick and thin peripheral blood smears in 2274 samples. Malaria was diagnosed in 239 (10.5%) patients by Leishman's staining technique and QBC method. The QBC method allowed detection of an additional 89 (3.9%) cases. Thus the prevalence rate of malaria during the study was 14.4%. In 1946 patients who were negative by the QBC technique, the Leishman's stained smears did not provide any help in malaria diagnosis. Analysis of the relative quantity of parasites in the specimens, in the QBC method, revealed that 80 out of 89 QBC positive but smear negative cases, had a very low parasite number (less than 10 parasites per QBC field). Although QBC method was superior to the smear for malarial parasite detection, species identification was not possible in 26 (7.9%) cases by this technique. In 95.7% (n = 314) QBC positive cases, the buffy coat in the QBC tube appeared pigmented (gray to black). The colour of the buffy coat was therefore considered by us as a predictor of positivity and could be taken as an indicator for a careful and more prolonged search for the parasites. Thus, the QBC technique has its advantages in terms of speed, sensitivity and ease, especially in an endemic area as ours, where the level of parasitaemia is low and more than 70 to 80 smears need to be examined per day. However, the age old Romanowsky stains still appear superior for species identification.

  6. Usefulness of quantitative buffy coat blood parasite detection system in diagnosis of malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid test for diagnosis of malaria based on acridine orange staining of centrifuged blood samples in a microhematocrit tube (QBC was compared with thick and thin peripheral blood smears in 2274 samples. Malaria was diagnosed in 239 (10.5% patients by Leishman′s staining technique and QBC method. The QBC method allowed detection of an additional 89 (3.9% cases. Thus the prevalence rate of malaria during the study was 14.4%. In 1946 patients who were negative by the QBC technique, the Leishman′s stained smears did not provide any help in malaria diagnosis. Analysis of the relative quantity of parasites in the specimens, in the QBC method, revealed that 80 out of 89 QBC positive but smear negative cases, had a very low parasite number (less than 10 parasites per QBC field. Although QBC method was superior to the smear for malarial parasite detection, species identification was not possible in 26 (7.9% cases by this technique. In 95.7% (n = 314 QBC positive cases, the buffy coat in the QBC tube appeared pigmented (gray to black. The colour of the buffy coat was therefore considered by us as a predictor of positivity and could be taken as an indicator for a careful and more prolonged search for the parasites. Thus, the QBC technique has its advantages in terms of speed, sensitivity and ease, especially in an endemic area as ours, where the level of parasitaemia is low and more than 70 to 80 smears need to be examined per day. However, the age old Romanowsky stains still appear superior for species identification.

  7. Evaluation of a simple Theileria annulata culture protocol from experimentally infected bovine whole blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharbi M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We have evaluated a new simple technique using whole blood from experimentally infected cattle for the isolation and cultivation of Theileria annulata. The study was carried out on 20 Holstein-Frisian bovines that had been experimentally infected with a virulent lethal dose of Theileria annulata. This technique has been compared to the classical peripheral blood monocyte isolation with Ficoll carried out on 22 experimentally infected Holstein-Friesian calves. The effectiveness of the reference technique was estimated to 86.4%, whilst the effectiveness of the new technique was 100%. Moreover, this new technique leads to time and money saving estimated to € 3.06 per sample. It decreases the contamination risks by reducing the steps of sample manipulation.

  8. Evaluation of a simple Theileria annulata culture protocol from experimentally infected bovine whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbi, M; Latrach, R; Sassi, L; Darghouth, M A

    2012-08-01

    We have evaluated a new simple technique using whole blood from experimentally infected cattle for the isolation and cultivation of Theileria annulata. The study was carried out on 20 Holstein-Frisian bovines that had been experimentally infected with a virulent lethal dose of Theileria annulata. This technique has been compared to the classical peripheral blood monocyte isolation with Ficoll carried out on 22 experimentally infected Holstein-Friesian calves. The effectiveness of the reference technique was estimated to 86.4%, whilst the effectiveness of the new technique was 100%. Moreover, this new technique leads to time and money saving estimated to € 3.06 per sample. It decreases the contamination risks by reducing the steps of sample manipulation.

  9. Blood Parasite Infection Data from Blue-winged Teal, Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan) and USA (Texas, Louisiana), 2012-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes age, sex, location, and blood parasite infection data from Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) captured in Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan) and the...

  10. Biochemical identification of the bovine blood group M' antigen as a major histocompatibility complex class I-like molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hønberg, L S; Larsen, B; Koch, C

    1995-01-01

    Absorption and elution experiments showed that it was impossible to separate antibodies against blood group factor M' from antibodies against bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA) A16 in an antiserum showing haemolytic activity against M' as well as lymphocytotoxic activity against BoLA-A16. To elucid......Absorption and elution experiments showed that it was impossible to separate antibodies against blood group factor M' from antibodies against bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA) A16 in an antiserum showing haemolytic activity against M' as well as lymphocytotoxic activity against BoLA-A16...

  11. Engineered stealth porous silicon nanoparticles via surface encapsulation of bovine serum albumin for prolonging blood circulation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bing; Zhang, Wenyi; Shi, Jisen; Xiao, Shou-jun

    2013-11-27

    Luminescent porous silicon nanoparticles (PSiNPs) have been widely used as drug delivery. However, fast biodegradation and short blood circulation have been major challenges for their biomedical applications. Herein, bovine serum albumin was readily encapsulated onto alkyl-terminated PSiNPs surfaces via hydrophobic interaction, which could significantly improve their water-dispersibility and long-term stability under physiological conditions. Furthermore, compared with PSiNPs alone, PSiNPs coated with bovine serum albumin remarkably reduced nonspecific cellular uptake in vitro and prolonged blood circulation in vivo.

  12. Blood parasites of two Costa Rican amphibians with comments on detection and microfilaria density associated with adult filarial worm intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Valerie J; Starks, Hilary A

    2008-08-01

    The 2 objectives of this study were: (1) to compare parasite detectability in blood smears obtained from toe-clips versus the heart from amphibian hosts; and (2) to test whether microfilariae density is correlated with adult filarial worm intensity. We examined blood parasites of 2 species of amphibians, Rana vaillanti (n = 45) and Eleutherodactylus fitzingeri (n = 36), from Costa Rica collected during the summer of 2003. Separate blood smears were obtained from toe-clips and the heart during necrospy. Eight species of blood parasites were identified from R. vaillanti and 1 from E. fitzingeri. Each parasite species was counted in a 2 x 2.2-cm2 area on each blood smear, and the density of host red blood cells (RBCs) was estimated using a sub-sampling approach, allowing parasite infections to be expressed as individuals per RBC. The detection failure rate for toe-cut smears ranged from 71-100% (x = 92.3%) and from 0-9% (x = 2.4%) for heart smears, depending on parasite species. The density of RBCs was significantly higher in smears produced from heart samples and may explain the differences in detectability. Foleyellides striatus microfilariae densities (per RBC) were significantly correlated with adult female worm intensity (R2 = 0.32, P = 0.011).

  13. Identification of bovine material in porcine spray-dried blood derivatives using the Polymerase Chain Reaction technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the widely supported theory of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE spread in cattle by contaminated animal feeds, screening of feed products has become essential. For many years, manufacturers have used blood and plasma proteins as high quality ingredients of foods for both pets and farm animals. However, in Europe, the Commission Regulation 1234/2003/EC temporally bans the use of processed animal proteins, including blood-derivative products, in feedstuffs for all farm animals which are fattened or bred for the production of food. This regulation has some exceptions, such as the use of non ruminant blood products into the feed of farm fish. Authorization of the re-introduction of these proteins into animal feed formulations, especially non ruminant proteins into the feed for non ruminant farm animals, is expected when adequate control methods to discriminate ruminant proteins exist. Currently, the number of validated methods to differentiate the species of origin for most of the animal by-products is limited. Here we report the development of a rapid and sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based assay, which allows detection of bovine or porcine specific mitochondrial DNAfrom spray-dried blood derivate products (plasma, whole blood and red cells, as a marker for bovine contamination in porcine products. Sample extracts, suitable for PCR, were easily and quickly obtained with the commercial PrepManTM Ultra reagent (Applied Biosystems. To confirm the porcine origin of the samples, primers targeting a specific region of 134 bp of the porcine cytochrome b coding sequence were designed (cytbporc1-F and cytbporc2-R. Previously published PCR primers (L8129 and H8357, specific for a 271 bp fragment of the bovine mitochondrial ATPase 8-ATPase 6 genes, were chosen to accomplish amplification of bovine DNA. The limit of detection (LOD of the bovine PCR assay was at least of 0.05% (v/v of bovine inclusion in spray-dried porcine plasma or red

  14. Reciprocal Trophic Interactions and Transmission of Blood Parasites between Mosquitoes and Frogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd G. Smith

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between mosquitoes and their amphibian hosts is a unique, reciprocal trophic interaction. Instead of a one-way, predator-prey relationship, there is a cyclical dance of avoidance and attraction. This has prompted spatial and temporal synchrony between organisms, reflected in emergence time of mosquitoes in the spring and choice of habitat for oviposition. Frog-feeding mosquitoes also possess different sensory apparatuses than do their mammal-feeding counterparts. The reciprocal nature of this relationship is exploited by various blood parasites that use mechanical, salivary or trophic transmission to pass from mosquitoes to frogs. It is important to investigate the involvement of mosquitoes, frogs and parasites in this interaction in order to understand the consequences of anthropogenic actions, such as implementing biocontrol efforts against mosquitoes, and to determine potential causes of the global decline of amphibian species.

  15. Reciprocal Trophic Interactions and Transmission of Blood Parasites between Mosquitoes and Frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Laura V.; Smith, Todd G.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between mosquitoes and their amphibian hosts is a unique, reciprocal trophic interaction. Instead of a one-way, predator-prey relationship, there is a cyclical dance of avoidance and attraction. This has prompted spatial and temporal synchrony between organisms, reflected in emergence time of mosquitoes in the spring and choice of habitat for oviposition. Frog-feeding mosquitoes also possess different sensory apparatuses than do their mammal-feeding counterparts. The reciprocal nature of this relationship is exploited by various blood parasites that use mechanical, salivary or trophic transmission to pass from mosquitoes to frogs. It is important to investigate the involvement of mosquitoes, frogs and parasites in this interaction in order to understand the consequences of anthropogenic actions, such as implementing biocontrol efforts against mosquitoes, and to determine potential causes of the global decline of amphibian species. PMID:26466534

  16. Investigation of some hematological and blood biochemical parameters in cattle spontaneously infected with bovine leukosis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandev Nikolay

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to follow out the alterations in some haematological and blood biochemical parameters in cattle spontaneously infected with enzootic bovine leukosis virus with regard to the invivodifferentiation of bovine leukosis stages. The experiment included 76 cows at various ages and body weight. Serological leukosis tests were done by agar-gel immunodiffusion test with a commercial kit of Synbiotiсs (France, containing standardised gp 51 antigen and positive serum approved by the EU. On the basis of haematological results, the cows were divided into three groups: first group – EBL-seropositive with normal haemogramme; second group – EBL seropositive with altered haemogramme and third group – controls. In cows from the first and the second group, a statistically significantly increased blood cell counts was established compared to healthy controls. The total WBC were increased in the second group (leukocytosis up to 33.21×109/l vs reference range of 5-10×109/l as well as lymphocyte percentages (lymphocytosis – 81.89% (reference 40–63%. A reduction in the proportion of neutrophils to 12.78% (relative neutropenia vs the reference range of 22-49% and monocytes (monocytopenia to 1.78% (reference range 2–6% was observed. A statistically significant reduction in Ca concentrations (4.41 mg/dl and higher inorganic phosphate levels (5.28 mg/dl were established in cows from the second group. Also, ASAT activity was considerably lower – 47.03 U/l, while alkaline phosphatase increased slightly within the reference range up to 167.68 U/l and 165.81 U/l in groups one and two, respectively. The present haematological and whole blood/serum biochemical results in cows spontaneously infected with EBL virus could be used as prognostic markers of the course of the disease, to distinguish the stages of infection with regard to alive diagnostics.

  17. Effect of hemolysis on nonesterified fatty acid and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in bovine blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokol, Tracy; Nydam, Daryl V

    2006-09-01

    Nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) assays are used for evaluating dairy herds for negative energy balance and subclinical ketosis, respectively. Hemolysis is a common artifact in samples submitted to diagnostic laboratories. The effect of hemolysis on NEFA and BHB in bovine serum was determined. Hemolysis was introduced into 26 serum samples by adding serial dilutions of a red cell hemolysate, prepared by repeated freeze-thawing of EDTA-anticoagulated bovine blood. NEFA, BHB, and degree of hemolysis (hemolytic index) were measured by an automated chemistry analyzer. Two endpoint assays that differed by inclusion of a sample blank were used for NEFA measurement. A kinetic enzymatic assay with 2 reagent sources was used for BHB measurement. The assessed methods yielded similar NEFA or BHB results in baseline, nonhemolyzed samples (median NEFA: 0.25 mEq/L, median BHB: 3 mg/dL, median hemolytic index: 8 units). NEFA results were adversely affected by hemolysis, with values increasing significantly with higher degrees of hemolysis. Median values increased above a critical medical decision limit (0.40 mEq/L) at a hemolytic index of 506 units (marked hemolysis). This increase was prevented by inclusion of a sample blank. Result interpretation was affected in individual animals when samples were moderately hemolyzed (median hemolytic index: 258 units). In contrast, BHB results were unaffected by hemolysis with either reagent source. Thus, assays for measuring NEFAs should include a sample blank and NEFA results should not be interpreted in moderately to markedly hemolyzed bovine samples, because result accuracy cannot be assured.

  18. Molecular detection of bovine leukemia virus in peripheral blood of Iranian cattle, camel and sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekoei, S; Hafshejani, T Taktaz; Doosti, A; Khamesipour, F

    2015-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a deltaretrovirus which infects and induces proliferation of B-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood circulation and in lymphoid organs primarily of cattle, leading to leukemia/lymphoma. This study was carried out to investigate the presence of BLV in cattle, sheep and camels from the Chaharmahal va Bakhtiary and Isfahan provinces in Iran. A total of 874 blood samples collected from cattle, sheep and camels were used in this study to detect BLV using a nested-PCR. The results from this study indicated that 17.2% (n=874) of all blood samples collected were positive for BLV. The percentages of blood samples positive for BLV from cattle, sheep and camels were 22.1 (n=657), 5.3 (n=95) and 0 (n=122) respectively. The results from this study showed that BLV infected cattle and sheep. Camels seemed to be resistant to BLV infection. This study contributes to the nationwide effort to obtain baseline information on the prevalence of BLV, which will assist in planning the control strategy for the disease in Iran.

  19. Intravaginal Administration of Sildenafil Citrate Increases Blood Flow in the Bovine Uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzięcioł Michał

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of sildenafil citrate administrated intravaginaly on the blood flow in the bovine uterus during dioestrus. Uterine blood flow was examined in six healthy adult cows. Sildenafil was administrated intravaginaly to each co w between the 6th and 8th d of the ovarian cycle, in the form of vaginal suppositories containing 100 mg of active substance at a dose of 100, 200, or 300 mg per animal. Uterine perfusion was estimated by the colour Doppler examination, and obtained results were analysed with the Pixel Flux Software (Chameleon, Germany. Moreover, cardiovascular parameters were also evaluated. Animals were examined before and five times after drug application (two times at 15 min intervals, and three times at 2 h intervals. A placebo suppository was also given to the cows. The analysis of the intensity and velocity of blood flow in the uterus proved that sildenafil administrated intravaginaly significantly increased blood flow in the uterus and the effect of increased perfusion was observed for 4 h and 30 min after administration. The effect of increased uterine perfusion was observed after low as well as high doses of sildenafil. Significant changes in the cardio-vascular parameters were not detected. There were no changes in the uterine perfusion as well as in cardiovascular parameters after placebo administration.

  20. Blood parasites in noddies and boobies from Brazilian offshore islands - differences between species and influence of nesting habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillfeldt, Petra; Martínez, Javier; Bugoni, Leandro; Mancini, Patrícia L; Merino, Santiago

    2014-03-01

    Seabirds are often free from blood parasites, and a recent review suggested that phylogenetic, ecological and life-history parameters can determine the prevalence of blood parasites in seabirds. However, there is a lack of data available from many seabird groups, and a larger database is needed to understand prevalence patterns of blood parasites. We used a molecular screening approach to detect parasites of the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon and Babesia in five species of two genera of seabirds that breed on Atlantic Ocean islands off Brazil. The observed patterns differed between the two bird genera. Like other Laridae, brown noddy, Anous stolidus adults were infected with Haemoproteus with low prevalence. Masked boobies, Sula dactylatra and brown boobies, Sula leucogaster were infected with Babesia. Of the latter, mainly juveniles were infected. In all species, intensity of infection (i.e. number of infected erythrocytes) was so low that parasites remained undetected in blood smears. This may explain the absence of major effects on the body condition of birds, although infected juvenile masked boobies were lighter than juveniles that were not infected with Babesia. Two tree-nesting species; black noddy, Anous minutus and red-footed booby, Sula sula did not have blood parasites, suggesting that tree-nesting may reduce the exposure to arthropod vectors compared with ground nesting in these species.

  1. Magnetic silica-coated sub-microspheres with immobilized metal ions for the selective removal of bovine hemoglobin from bovine blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Cheng, Dan; He, Xiwen; Chen, Langxing; Zhang, Yukui

    2010-06-01

    Magnetic silica-coated magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) sub-microspheres with immobilized metal-affinity ligands are prepared for protein adsorption. First, magnetite sub-microspheres were synthesized by a hydrothermal method. Then silica was coated on the surface of Fe(3)O(4) particles using a sol-gel method to obtain magnetic silica sub-microspheres with core-shell morphology. Next, the trichloro(4-chloromethylphenyl) silane was immobilized on them, reacted with iminodiacetic acid (IDA), and charged with Cu(2+). The obtained magnetic silica sub-microspheres with immobilized Cu(2+) were applied for the absorption of bovine hemoglobin (BHb) and the removal of BHb from bovine blood. The size, morphology, and magnetic properties of the resulting magnetic micro(nano) spheres were investigated by using scanning microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The measurements showed that the magnetic sub-microspheres are spherical in shape, very uniform in size with a core-shell, and are almost superparamagnetic. The saturation magnetization of silica-coated magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) sub-microspheres reached about 33 emu g(-1). Protein adsorption results showed that the sub-microspheres had a high adsorption capacity for BHb (418.6 mg g(-1)), low nonspecific adsorption, and good removal of BHb from bovine blood. This opens a novel route for future applications in removing abundant proteins in proteomic analysis.

  2. Genetic diversity, temporal dynamics, and host specificity in blood parasites of passerines in north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xi; Dong, Lu; Zhang, Chenglin; Zhang, Yanyun

    2015-12-01

    Avian blood parasites have been preliminarily studied in East Asia, but no data are available from long-term monitoring. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, genetic diversity, and temporal dynamics of Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon in two passerine communities (one forest and one urban) in north China from 2008 to 2013, as well as the association between infected lineages and host specificities. Out of 633 birds from 40 species, 157 individuals (24.8 %) were infected; overall prevalence was 26.7 % and 16.8 % in two sites, respectively. The dominant avian blood parasite genus in the forest park changed yearly between Plasmodium and Haemoproteus, while the Leucocytozoon maintained a low infection level. Forty-four haplotypes were identified by sequencing a 432-bp fragment of the cytochrome b (cyt b) gene; more than 70 % were novel (six Plasmodium lineages, 16 Haemoproteus lineages, and nine Leucocytozoon lineages). Based on our data gathered over consecutive years, we found that the highly observed lineages of Haemoproteus showed higher host diversities than those of Plasmodium, and the most infected lineage EMEL01 (100 % identity with SGS1) take on the highest host diversity but low temporal diversity of the two genera, implying that this lineage infected a great diversity of species in certain years, but maintained a lower infection level or even disappeared in other years. The results suggest that genetic diversity of avian blood parasites in East Asia is high and provides scope for further research. In addition, compared with overall analysis, yearly prevalence monitoring is important in uncovering the temporal dynamic and host specificity variations over time.

  3. A more appropriate white blood cell count for estimating malaria parasite density in Plasmodium vivax patients in northeastern Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huaie; Feng, Guohua; Zeng, Weilin; Li, Xiaomei; Bai, Yao; Deng, Shuang; Ruan, Yonghua; Morris, James; Li, Siman; Yang, Zhaoqing; Cui, Liwang

    2016-04-01

    The conventional method of estimating parasite densities employ an assumption of 8000 white blood cells (WBCs)/μl. However, due to leucopenia in malaria patients, this number appears to overestimate parasite densities. In this study, we assessed the accuracy of parasite density estimated using this assumed WBC count in eastern Myanmar, where Plasmodium vivax has become increasingly prevalent. From 256 patients with uncomplicated P. vivax malaria, we estimated parasite density and counted WBCs by using an automated blood cell counter. It was found that WBC counts were not significantly different between patients of different gender, axillary temperature, and body mass index levels, whereas they were significantly different between age groups of patients and the time points of measurement. The median parasite densities calculated with the actual WBC counts (1903/μl) and the assumed WBC count of 8000/μl (2570/μl) were significantly different. We demonstrated that using the assumed WBC count of 8000 cells/μl to estimate parasite densities of P. vivax malaria patients in this area would lead to an overestimation. For P. vivax patients aged five years and older, an assumed WBC count of 5500/μl best estimated parasite densities. This study provides more realistic assumed WBC counts for estimating parasite densities in P. vivax patients from low-endemicity areas of Southeast Asia.

  4. Environmental temperature affects prevalence of blood parasites of birds on an elevation gradient: implications for disease in a warming climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzel Zamora-Vilchis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The rising global temperature is predicted to expand the distribution of vector-borne diseases both in latitude and altitude. Many host communities could be affected by increased prevalence of disease, heightening the risk of extinction for many already threatened species. To understand how host communities could be affected by changing parasite distributions, we need information on the distribution of parasites in relation to variables like temperature and rainfall that are predicted to be affected by climate change. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We determined relations between prevalence of blood parasites, temperature, and seasonal rainfall in a bird community of the Australian Wet Tropics along an elevation gradient. We used PCR screening to investigate the prevalence and lineage diversity of four genera of blood parasites (Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon and Trypanosoma in 403 birds. The overall prevalence of the four genera of blood parasites was 32.3%, with Haemoproteus the predominant genus. A total of 48 unique lineages were detected. Independent of elevation, parasite prevalence was positively and strongly associated with annual temperature. Parasite prevalence was elevated during the dry season. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Low temperatures of the higher elevations can help to reduce both the development of avian haematozoa and the abundance of parasite vectors, and hence parasite prevalence. In contrast, high temperatures of the lowland areas provide an excellent environment for the development and transmission of haematozoa. We showed that rising temperatures are likely to lead to increased prevalence of parasites in birds, and may force shifts of bird distribution to higher elevations. We found that upland tropical areas are currently a low-disease habitat and their conservation should be given high priority in management plans under climate change.

  5. Glutathione reductase-null malaria parasites have normal blood stage growth but arrest during development in the mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastrana-Mena, Rebecca; Dinglasan, Rhoel R; Franke-Fayard, Blandine; Vega-Rodríguez, Joel; Fuentes-Caraballo, Mariela; Baerga-Ortiz, Abel; Coppens, Isabelle; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo; Janse, Chris J; Serrano, Adelfa E

    2010-08-27

    Malaria parasites contain a complete glutathione (GSH) redox system, and several enzymes of this system are considered potential targets for antimalarial drugs. Through generation of a gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS)-null mutant of the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei, we previously showed that de novo GSH synthesis is not critical for blood stage multiplication but is essential for oocyst development. In this study, phenotype analyses of mutant parasites lacking expression of glutathione reductase (GR) confirmed that GSH metabolism is critical for the mosquito oocyst stage. Similar to what was found for gamma-GCS, GR is not essential for blood stage growth. GR-null parasites showed the same sensitivity to methylene blue and eosin B as wild type parasites, demonstrating that these compounds target molecules other than GR in Plasmodium. Attempts to generate parasites lacking both GR and gamma-GCS by simultaneous disruption of gr and gamma-gcs were unsuccessful. This demonstrates that the maintenance of total GSH levels required for blood stage survival is dependent on either de novo GSH synthesis or glutathione disulfide (GSSG) reduction by Plasmodium GR. Our studies provide new insights into the role of the GSH system in malaria parasites with implications for the development of drugs targeting GSH metabolism.

  6. Characterizations of individual mouse red blood cells parasitized by Babesia microti using 3-D holographic microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Park, HyunJoo; Kim, Kyoohyun; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja; Kim, Youngchan; Lee, SangEun; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    Babesia microti causes emergency human babesiosis. However, little is known about the alterations in B. microti invaded red blood cells (Bm-RBCs) at the individual cell level. Through quantitative phase imaging techniques based on laser interferometry, we present the simultaneous measurements of structural, chemical, and mechanical modifications in individual mouse Bm-RBCs. 3-D refractive index maps of individual RBCs and in situ parasite vacuoles are imaged, from which total contents and concentration of dry mass are also precisely quantified. In addition, we examine the dynamic membrane fluctuation of Bm-RBCs, which provide information on cell membrane deformability.

  7. Protection from experimental cerebral malaria with a single dose of radiation-attenuated, blood-stage Plasmodium berghei parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel J Gerald

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whole malaria parasites are highly effective in inducing immunity against malaria. Due to the limited success of subunit based vaccines in clinical studies, there has been a renewed interest in whole parasite-based malaria vaccines. Apart from attenuated sporozoites, there have also been efforts to use live asexual stage parasites as vaccine immunogens. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: We used radiation exposure to attenuate the highly virulent asexual blood stages of the murine malaria parasite P. berghei to a non-replicable, avirulent form. We tested the ability of the attenuated blood stage parasites to induce immunity to parasitemia and the symptoms of severe malaria disease. Depending on the mouse genetic background, a single high dose immunization without adjuvant protected mice from parasitemia and severe disease (CD1 mice or from experimental cerebral malaria (ECM (C57BL/6 mice. A low dose immunization did not protect against parasitemia or severe disease in either model after one or two immunizations. The protection from ECM was associated with a parasite specific antibody response and also with a lower level of splenic parasite-specific IFN-γ production, which is a mediator of ECM pathology in C57BL/6 mice. Surprisingly, there was no difference in the sequestration of CD8+ T cells and CD45+ CD11b+ macrophages in the brains of immunized, ECM-protected mice. CONCLUSIONS: This report further demonstrates the effectiveness of a whole parasite blood-stage vaccine in inducing immunity to malaria and explicitly demonstrates its effectiveness against ECM, the most pathogenic consequence of malaria infection. This experimental model will be important to explore the formulation of whole parasite blood-stage vaccines against malaria and to investigate the immune mechanisms that mediate protection against parasitemia and cerebral malaria.

  8. Blood parasites in hooded crows (Corvus corone cornix) in Northwest Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglione, Frine Eleonora; Cannizzo, Francesca Tiziana; Pregel, Paola; Perez Rodriguez, Anton David; Bollo, Enrico

    2016-09-30

    Haemoparasites and their effects on hooded crows (Corvus corone cornix) are poorly studied. The aims are to evaluate the prevalence of Haemoproteus spp./Plasmodium spp. or Leucocytozoon spp., to correlate this with gross and histopathological findings, and to investigate the association among infection and geographical origin, age, gender, parasite distribution and prevalence among organs. Hooded crows (n = 47) were collected within a regional culling programme from 3 districts in the province of Turin (Italy) and subjected to necropsy. Histological and molecular analyses were carried out on some tissues. Leucocytozoon spp. was detected in 46 crows (97.9%) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), whereas 28 birds (59.6%) were found to be positive for Haemoproteus spp./Plasmodium spp. The distribution of parasites in several organs varied significantly, showing that Leucocytozoon spp. is ubiquitous in organs in contrast with Haemoproteus spp./Plasmodium spp., which have a specific predilection for spleen and lungs. The prevalence of Haemoproteus spp./Plasmodium spp. also differed significantly among the crows captured in the areas of the study. The high prevalence of haemoparasites emphasizes the success of ornithophilic vectors and the susceptibility of this species to infection. Differences in prevalence among the sites are probably due to orographic features of the areas, variations in vector species and density, or to crow population size or structure. In spite of the high infection rate, no gross and histological lesions were found. This finding further suggests an evolutionary adaptation between crows and avian blood parasites.

  9. Epidemiology of blood parasitic infections in the urban rat population in peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, S N; Sahimin, N; Edah, M A; Mohd-Zain, S N

    2014-06-01

    A total of 719 wild rats were captured from four localities representing the west (Kuala Lumpur), east (Kuantan), north (Georgetown) and south (Malacca) to determine the diversity of blood protozoan from the urban wild rat population in peninsular Malaysia. Five rat species were recovered with Rattus rattus diardii being the most dominant species, followed by Rattus norvegicus, Rattus exulans, Rattus annandalei and Rattus argentiventer. Two blood protozoan species were found infecting the rodent population namely, Plasmodium sp. (42.1%) and Trypanosoma lewisi (25.0%). This study reports the presence of Plasmodium sp. for the first time in the rodent population in Malaysia. Two main intrinsic factors were identified affecting the parasitic infections. Trypanosoma lewisi infections were influenced by host age and sex with infections observed higher in male and juvenile rats meanwhile Plasmodium sp. infections were observed almost similar in both sexes. However, infections were higher in sub-adult rats.

  10. Digital holographic microscopy for detection of Trypanosoma cruzi parasites in fresh blood mounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, G. G.; Monaldi, A. C.; Alanís, E. E.

    2012-03-01

    An off-axis holographic microscope, in a transmission mode, calibrated to automatically detect the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi in blood is developed as an alternative diagnosis tool for Chagas disease. Movements of the microorganisms are detected by measuring the phase shift they produce on the transmitted wave front. A thin layer of blood infected by Trypanosoma cruzi parasites is examined in the holographic microscope, the images of the visual field being registered with a CCD camera. Two consecutive holograms of the same visual field are subtracted point by point and a phase contrast image of the resulting hologram is reconstructed by means of the angular spectrum propagation algorithm. This method enables the measurement of phase distributions corresponding to temporal differences between digital holograms in order to detect whether parasites are present or not. Experimental results obtained using this technique show that it is an efficient alternative that can be incorporated successfully as a part of a fully automatic system for detection and counting of this type of microorganisms.

  11. The Utility of Blood and Bone Marrow Films and Trephine Biopsy Sections in the Diagnosis of Parasitic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Clare E.; Bain, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    The laboratory haematologist has a role in the diagnosis of parasitic infections. Peripheral blood examination is critical in the diagnosis of malaria, babesiosis, filariasis and trypanosomiasis. Bone marrow examination is important in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis and occasionally leads to the diagnosis of other parasitic infections. The detection of eosinophilia or iron deficiency anaemia can alert the laboratory haematologist or physician to the possibility of parasitic infection. In addition to morphological skills, an adequate clinical history is important for speedy and accurate diagnosis, particularly in non-endemic areas. PMID:26075046

  12. THE UTILITY OF BLOOD AND BONE MARROW FILMS AND TREPHINE BIOPSY SECTIONS IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF PARASITIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Miller

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The laboratory haematologist has a role in the diagnosis of parasitic infections. Peripheral blood examination is critical in the diagnosis of malaria, babesiosis, filariasis and trypanosomiasis. Bone marrow examination is important in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis and occasionally leads to the diagnosis of other parasitic infections. The detection of eosinophilia or iron deficiency anaemia can alert the laboratory haematologist or physician to the possibility of parasitic infection. In addition to morphological skills, an adequate clinical history is important for speedy and accurate diagnosis, particularly in non-endemic areas.

  13. Persistent fetal infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus differentially affects maternal blood cell signal transduction pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Natalia P; Ptitsyn, Andrey A; Austin, Kathleen J; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Van Campen, Hana; Han, Hyungchul; van Olphen, Alberto L; Hansen, Thomas R

    2009-02-02

    The consequences of viral infection during pregnancy include impact on fetal and maternal immune responses and on fetal development. Transplacental infection in cattle with noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncpBVDV) during early gestation results in persistently infected (PI) fetuses with life-long viremia and susceptibility to infections. Infection of the fetus during the third trimester or after birth leads to a transient infection cleared by a competent immune system. We hypothesized that ncpBVDV infection and presence of an infected fetus would alter immune response and lead to downregulation of proinflammatory processes in pregnant dams. Naïve pregnant heifers were challenged with ncpBVDV2 on day 75 (PI fetus) and day 175 [transiently infected (TI) fetus] or kept uninfected (healthy control fetus). Maternal blood samples were collected up to day 190 of gestation. Genome-wide microarray analysis of gene expression in maternal peripheral white blood cells, performed on days 160 and 190 of gestation, revealed multiple signal transduction pathways affected by ncpBVDV infection. Acute infection and presence of a TI fetus caused upregulation of the type I interferon (IFN) pathway genes, including dsRNA sensors and IFN-stimulated genes. The presence of a PI fetus caused prolonged downregulation of chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and T cell receptor (TCR) signaling in maternal blood cells. We conclude that: 1) infection with ncpBVDV induces a vigorous type I IFN response, and 2) presence of a PI fetus causes downregulation of important signaling pathways in the blood of the dam, which could have deleterious consequences on fetal development and the immune response.

  14. Interruption of the blood-stage cycle of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi, by protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Gazarini

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a devastating disease caused by a unicellular protozoan, Plasmodium, which affects 3.7 million people every year. Resistance of the parasite to classical treatments such as chloroquine requires the development of new drugs. To gain insight into the mechanisms that control Plasmodium cell cycle, we have examined the effects of kinase inhibitors on the blood-stage cycle of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi. In vitro incubation of red blood cells for 17 h at 37ºC with the inhibitors led to a decrease in the percent of infected cells, compared to control treatment, as follows: genistein (200 µM - 75%, staurosporine (1 µM - 58%, R03 (1 µM - 75%, and tyrphostins B44 (100 µM - 66% and B46 (100 µM - 68%. All these treatments were shown to retard or prevent maturation of the intraerythrocytic parasites. The diverse concentration ranges at which these inhibitors exert their effects give a clue as to the types of signals that initiate the transitions between the different developmental stages of the parasite. The present data support our hypothesis that the maturation of the intraerythrocytic cycle of malaria parasites requires phosphorylation. In this respect, we have recently reported a high Ca2+ microenvironment surrounding the parasite within red blood cells. Several kinase activities are modulated by Ca2+. The molecular identification of the targets of these kinases could provide new strategies against malaria.

  15. Evaluation protocols for the extraction of genomic DNA from Bovine blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crispim Bruno do Amaral

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Basic studies on DNA extraction techniques are very important for the success of scientific papers in the field of molecular biology. The extraction and purification of nucleic acids are critical steps for establishing further genetic analysis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of different protocols for DNA extraction by determining the quantity and quality of extracted genetic material and the possibility of amplification by PCR. We did DNA extraction and PCR of ten bovine blood samples. The test results obtained by spectrophotometry indicated that the quantity and quality of genomic DNA were considered satisfactory in all protocols for PCR. However, there was a statistically significant difference between the parameters measured, both in quantity and in quality (p <0.01. The extraction protocol using whole blood was more efficient in terms of time and quality; there was no degradation in all processes of extraction. It was also demonstrated that the possibility of amplification of the region of exon 2 of the leptin gene in extracted DNA exists.

  16. Biodegradation and bioabsorption innovation of the functionally graded bovine bone-originated apatite with blood permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, Toshiyuki; Murata, Masaru; Sasaki, Tomoya; Tazaki, Junichi; Kobayashi, Masayoshi; Kanno, Tohru; Nakamura, Katsuo; Arisue, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    Bioabsorbable and functionally graded apatite (fg-HAp) ceramics were designed using bovine bone by the calcination and partial dissolution-precipitation methods. The fg-HAp ceramics that were developed had gradual distributions of the degree of crystallinity and the grain size of single-phase hydroxyapatite from the surface layer of the pore wall to the bulk structure region. Calcination at 1073 K gave a specific surface area of 30 m2 x g-1 and porosities of 60-80%. The pore structure of the fg-HAp was classified into two regions: a macro-pore region (100-600 microm) originating from spongy bone and a micro-pore region (10-160 nm) related to body fluid permeation and blood permeability. By implantation in subcutaneous tissue of rat, it was confirmed that body fluid permeated the bulk region of the fg-HAp ceramics through the micro-pores. The volumetric populations occupied by body fluid were 60% at 4 weeks and 68% at 8 weeks in the ceramics explants, indicating drastic bioabsorption, although the body fluid was found to be immunopositive for an albumin as the main serum protein in blood. On the fg-HAp ceramics developed here, the bioabsorption rate could be controlled by careful selection of the calcination temperature. These ceramics can be applied as new biomimetic ceramics exhibiting surface and bulk degradations and cellular absorption by giant cells.

  17. Point-of-care quantification of blood-borne filarial parasites with a mobile phone microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambrosio, Michael V; Bakalar, Matthew; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Reber, Clay; Skandarajah, Arunan; Nilsson, Lina; Switz, Neil; Kamgno, Joseph; Pion, Sébastien; Boussinesq, Michel; Nutman, Thomas B; Fletcher, Daniel A

    2015-05-06

    Parasitic helminths cause debilitating diseases that affect millions of people in primarily low-resource settings. Efforts to eliminate onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis in Central Africa through mass drug administration have been suspended because of ivermectin-associated serious adverse events, including death, in patients infected with the filarial parasite Loa loa. To safely administer ivermectin for onchocerciasis or lymphatic filariasis in regions co-endemic with L. loa, a strategy termed "test and (not) treat" has been proposed whereby those with high levels of L. loa microfilariae (>30,000/ml) that put them at risk for life-threatening serious adverse events are identified and excluded from mass drug administration. To enable this, we developed a mobile phone-based video microscope that automatically quantifies L. loa microfilariae in whole blood loaded directly into a small glass capillary from a fingerprick without the need for conventional sample preparation or staining. This point-of-care device automatically captures and analyzes videos of microfilarial motion in whole blood using motorized sample scanning and onboard motion detection, minimizing input from health care workers and providing a quantification of microfilariae per milliliter of whole blood in under 2 min. To validate performance and usability of the mobile phone microscope, we tested 33 potentially Loa-infected patients in Cameroon and confirmed that automated counts correlated with manual thick smear counts (94% specificity; 100% sensitivity). Use of this technology to exclude patients from ivermectin-based treatment at the point of care in Loa-endemic regions would allow resumption/expansion of mass drug administration programs for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis in Central Africa. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. A new method for isolation of purified genomic DNA from haemosporidian parasites inhabiting nucleated red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinauskas, Vaidas; Križanauskienė, Asta; Iezhova, Tatjana A; Bolshakov, Casimir V; Jönsson, Jane; Bensch, Staffan; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2013-03-01

    During the last 10 years, whole genomes have been sequenced from an increasing number of organisms. However, there is still no data on complete genomes of avian and lizard Plasmodium spp. or other haemosporidian parasites. In contrast to mammals, bird and reptile red blood cells have nuclei and thus blood of these vertebrates contains high amount of host DNA; that complicates preparation of purified template DNA from haemosporidian parasites, which has been the main obstacle for genomic studies of these parasites. In the present study we describe a method that generates large amount of purified avian haemosporidian DNA. The method is based on a unique biological feature of haemosporidian parasites, namely that mature gametocytes in blood can be induced to exflagellate in vitro. This results in the development of numerous microgametes, which can be separated from host blood cells by simple centrifugation. Our results reveal that this straight forward method provides opportunities to collect pure parasite DNA material, which can be used as a template for various genetic analyses including whole genome sequencing of haemosporidians infecting birds and lizards.

  19. Whole Blood Gene Expression Profiling in Preclinical and Clinical Cattle Infected with Atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xerxa, Elena; Barbisin, Maura; Chieppa, Maria Novella; Krmac, Helena; Vallino Costassa, Elena; Vatta, Paolo; Simmons, Marion; Caramelli, Maria; Casalone, Cristina; Corona, Cristiano

    2016-01-01

    Prion diseases, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSE), are transmissible neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and a wide variety of mammals. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), a prion disease in humans, has been linked to exposure to BSE prions. This classical BSE (cBSE) is now rapidly disappearing as a result of appropriate measures to control animal feeding. Besides cBSE, two atypical forms (named H- and L-type BSE) have recently been described in Europe, Japan, and North America. Here we describe the first wide-spectrum microarray analysis in whole blood of atypical BSE-infected cattle. Transcriptome changes in infected animals were analyzed prior to and after the onset of clinical signs. The microarray analysis revealed gene expression changes in blood prior to the appearance of the clinical signs and during the progression of the disease. A set of 32 differentially expressed genes was found to be in common between clinical and preclinical stages and showed a very similar expression pattern in the two phases. A 22-gene signature showed an oscillating pattern of expression, being differentially expressed in the preclinical stage and then going back to control levels in the symptomatic phase. One gene, SEL1L3, was downregulated during the progression of the disease. Most of the studies performed up to date utilized various tissues, which are not suitable for a rapid analysis of infected animals and patients. Our findings suggest the intriguing possibility to take advantage of whole blood RNA transcriptional profiling for the preclinical identification of prion infection. Further, this study highlighted several pathways, such as immune response and metabolism that may play an important role in peripheral prion pathogenesis. Finally, the gene expression changes identified in the present study may be further investigated as a fingerprint for monitoring the progression of disease and for developing targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID

  20. Whole Blood Gene Expression Profiling in Preclinical and Clinical Cattle Infected with Atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xerxa, Elena; Barbisin, Maura; Chieppa, Maria Novella; Krmac, Helena; Vallino Costassa, Elena; Vatta, Paolo; Simmons, Marion; Caramelli, Maria; Casalone, Cristina; Corona, Cristiano; Legname, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Prion diseases, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSE), are transmissible neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and a wide variety of mammals. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), a prion disease in humans, has been linked to exposure to BSE prions. This classical BSE (cBSE) is now rapidly disappearing as a result of appropriate measures to control animal feeding. Besides cBSE, two atypical forms (named H- and L-type BSE) have recently been described in Europe, Japan, and North America. Here we describe the first wide-spectrum microarray analysis in whole blood of atypical BSE-infected cattle. Transcriptome changes in infected animals were analyzed prior to and after the onset of clinical signs. The microarray analysis revealed gene expression changes in blood prior to the appearance of the clinical signs and during the progression of the disease. A set of 32 differentially expressed genes was found to be in common between clinical and preclinical stages and showed a very similar expression pattern in the two phases. A 22-gene signature showed an oscillating pattern of expression, being differentially expressed in the preclinical stage and then going back to control levels in the symptomatic phase. One gene, SEL1L3, was downregulated during the progression of the disease. Most of the studies performed up to date utilized various tissues, which are not suitable for a rapid analysis of infected animals and patients. Our findings suggest the intriguing possibility to take advantage of whole blood RNA transcriptional profiling for the preclinical identification of prion infection. Further, this study highlighted several pathways, such as immune response and metabolism that may play an important role in peripheral prion pathogenesis. Finally, the gene expression changes identified in the present study may be further investigated as a fingerprint for monitoring the progression of disease and for developing targeted therapeutic interventions.

  1. Phylogeny of haemosporidian blood parasites revealed by a multi-gene approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borner, Janus; Pick, Christian; Thiede, Jenny; Kolawole, Olatunji Matthew; Kingsley, Manchang Tanyi; Schulze, Jana; Cottontail, Veronika M; Wellinghausen, Nele; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Bruchhaus, Iris; Burmester, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    The apicomplexan order Haemosporida is a clade of unicellular blood parasites that infect a variety of reptilian, avian and mammalian hosts. Among them are the agents of human malaria, parasites of the genus Plasmodium, which pose a major threat to human health. Illuminating the evolutionary history of Haemosporida may help us in understanding their enormous biological diversity, as well as tracing the multiple host switches and associated acquisitions of novel life-history traits. However, the deep-level phylogenetic relationships among major haemosporidian clades have remained enigmatic because the datasets employed in phylogenetic analyses were severely limited in either gene coverage or taxon sampling. Using a PCR-based approach that employs a novel set of primers, we sequenced fragments of 21 nuclear genes from seven haemosporidian parasites of the genera Leucocytozoon, Haemoproteus, Parahaemoproteus, Polychromophilus and Plasmodium. After addition of genomic data from 25 apicomplexan species, the unreduced alignment comprised 20,580 bp from 32 species. Phylogenetic analyses were performed based on nucleotide, codon and amino acid data employing Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony. All analyses resulted in highly congruent topologies. We found consistent support for a basal position of Leucocytozoon within Haemosporida. In contrast to all previous studies, we recovered a sister group relationship between the genera Polychromophilus and Plasmodium. Within Plasmodium, the sauropsid and mammal-infecting lineages were recovered as sister clades. Support for these relationships was high in nearly all trees, revealing a novel phylogeny of Haemosporida, which is robust to the choice of the outgroup and the method of tree inference.

  2. A whole parasite vaccine to control the blood stages of Plasmodium: the case for lateral thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Michael F

    2011-08-01

    Now, 27 years following the cloning of malaria antigens with the promise of the rapid development of a malaria vaccine, we face significant obstacles that are belatedly being addressed. Poor immunogenicity of subunit vaccine antigens and significant antigenic diversity of target epitopes represent major hurdles for which there are no clear strategies for a way forward within the current paradigm. Thus, a different paradigm - a vaccine that uses the whole organism - is now being examined. Although most advances in this approach relate to a vaccine for the pre-erythrocytic stages (sporozoites, liver stages), this opinion paper will outline the possibilities of developing a whole parasite vaccine for the blood stage and address some of the challenges for this strategy, which are entirely different to the challenges for a subunit vaccine. It is the view of the author that both vaccine paradigms should be pursued, but that success will come more quickly using the paranormal approach of exposing individuals to ultra-low doses of whole attenuated or killed parasites. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Bioinformatic prediction of the exportome of Babesia bovis and identification of novel proteins in parasite-infected red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohil, Sejal; Kats, Lev M; Seemann, Torsten; Fernandez, Kate M; Siddiqui, Ghizal; Cooke, Brian M

    2013-04-01

    Babesia bovis is a pathogen of considerable economic significance to the livestock industry worldwide but the precise mechanisms by which this parasite causes disease in susceptible cattle remain poorly understood. It is clear, however, that alterations to the structure and function of red blood cells in which the parasites reside and replicate play an important role in pathogenesis and that these are secondary to the export of numerous, currently unknown and uncharacterised parasite-encoded proteins. Using a rational bioinformatic approach, we have identified a set of 362 proteins (117 of which are hypothetical) that we predict encompasses the B. bovis exportome. These exported proteins are likely to be trafficked to various cellular locations, with a subset destined for the red blood cell cytosol or the red blood cell cytoskeleton. These proteins are likely to play important roles in mediating the pathogenesis of babesiosis. We have selected three novel proteins and confirmed their predicted export and localisation within the host red blood cell by immunofluorescence using specific antibodies raised against these proteins. Complete characterisation of these novel exported parasite proteins will help elucidate their function within the host red blood cell and assist in identification of new therapeutic targets for babesiosis.

  4. Prevalence of blood parasites in eastern versus Western house finches: are eastern birds resistant to infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew K; Hood, Wendy R; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2013-09-01

    The rapid spread of the bacterial disease, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), throughout the introduced range of house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) in eastern North America, compared to its slower spread through the native western range, has puzzled researchers and highlights the need to understand the relative differences in health state of finches from both populations. We conducted a light-microscope survey of hemoparasites in populations of finches from Arizona (within the western range) and from Alabama (within the eastern range), and compared our estimates of prevalence to published reports from house finches sampled in both ranges. Of the 33 Arizona birds examined, we recorded hematozoan infections in 16 (48.5%) individuals, compared to 1 infected Alabama bird out of 30 birds examined (3.3%). Based on independent surveys of seven western North American and five eastern North American populations of house finches the average prevalence of blood parasites in western populations is 38.8% (±17.9 SD), while the average prevalence within the eastern range is only 5.9% (±6.1 SD). The average rate of infection among all songbirds sampled in the east is 34.2% (±4.8 SD). Thus, our surveys of wild birds as well as previously published observations point to eastern house finches having a much lower prevalence of blood parasite infections than their western counterparts. Combined with the fact that eastern finches also tend to have lower rates of avian pox infections than do western birds (based on a literature review), these observations suggest that eastern birds have either strong resistance to these infections or high susceptibility and associated mortality.

  5. A novel ENU-mutation in ankyrin-1 disrupts malaria parasite maturation in red blood cells of mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Greth

    Full Text Available The blood stage of the plasmodium parasite life cycle is responsible for the clinical symptoms of malaria. Epidemiological studies have identified coincidental malarial endemicity and multiple red blood cell (RBC disorders. Many RBC disorders result from mutations in genes encoding cytoskeletal proteins and these are associated with increased protection against malarial infections. However the mechanisms underpinning these genetic, host responses remain obscure. We have performed an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU mutagenesis screen and have identified a novel dominant (haploinsufficient mutation in the Ank-1 gene (Ank1(MRI23420 of mice displaying hereditary spherocytosis (HS. Female mice, heterozygous for the Ank-1 mutation showed increased survival to infection by Plasmodium chabaudi adami DS with a concomitant 30% decrease in parasitemia compared to wild-type, isogenic mice (wt. A comparative in vivo red cell invasion and parasite growth assay showed a RBC-autonomous effect characterised by decreased proportion of infected heterozygous RBCs. Within approximately 6-8 hours post-invasion, TUNEL staining of intraerythrocytic parasites, showed a significant increase in dead parasites in heterozygotes. This was especially notable at the ring and trophozoite stages in the blood of infected heterozygous mutant mice compared to wt (p<0.05. We conclude that increased malaria resistance due to ankyrin-1 deficiency is caused by the intraerythrocytic death of P. chabaudi parasites.

  6. Melatonin and N-acetyl-serotonin cross the red blood cell membrane and evoke calcium mobilization in malarial parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotta C.T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The duration of the intraerythrocytic cycle of Plasmodium is a key factor in the pathogenicity of this parasite. The simultaneous attack of the host red blood cells by the parasites depends on the synchronicity of their development. Unraveling the signals at the basis of this synchronicity represents a challenging biological question and may be very important to develop alternative strategies for therapeutic approaches. Recently, we reported that the synchrony of Plasmodium is modulated by melatonin, a host hormone that is synthesized only during the dark phases. Here we report that N-acetyl-serotonin, a melatonin precursor, also releases Ca2+ from isolated P. chabaudi parasites at micro- and nanomolar concentrations and that the release is blocked by 250 mM luzindole, an antagonist of melatonin receptors, and 20 mM U73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor. On the basis of confocal microscopy, we also report the ability of 0.1 µM melatonin and 0.1 µM N-acetyl-serotonin to cross the red blood cell membrane and to mobilize intracellular calcium in parasites previously loaded with the fluorescent calcium indicator Fluo-3 AM. The present data represent a step forward into the understanding of the signal transduction process in the host-parasite relationship by supporting the idea that the host hormone melatonin and N-acetyl-serotonin generate IP3 and therefore mobilize intracellular Ca2+ in Plasmodium inside red blood cells.

  7. Real-time PCR strategy for parasite quantification in blood and tissue samples of experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Sérgio; Caldas, Ivo Santana; Diniz, Lívia de Figueiredo; Lima, Wanderson Geraldo de; Oliveira, Riva de Paula; Cecílio, Alzira Batista; Ribeiro, Isabela; Talvani, André; Bahia, Maria Terezinha

    2012-09-01

    The lack of an accurate diagnosis has been a serious obstacle to the advancement of the anti-Trypanosoma cruzi chemotherapy and long-term infection can result in different health risks to human. PCRs are alternative methods, more sensitive than conventional parasitological techniques, which due to their low sensitivities are considered unsuitable for these purposes. The aim of this study was to investigate a sensitive diagnostic strategy to quantify blood and cardiac tissues parasites based on real-time PCR tools during acute and chronic phases of murine Chagas disease, as well as to monitor the evolution of infection in those mice under specific treatment. In parallel, fresh blood examination, immunological analysis and quantification of cardiac inflammation were also performed to confront and improve real-time PCR data. Similar profiles of parasitemia curves were observed in both quantification techniques during the acute phase of the infection. In contrast, parasites could be quantified only by real-time PCR at 60 and 120 days of infection. In cardiac tissue, real-time PCR detected T. cruzi DNA in 100% of infected mice, and using this tool a significant Pearson correlation between parasite load in peripheral blood and in cardiac tissue during acute and chronic phases was observed. Levels of serum CCL2, CCL5 and nitric oxide were coincident with parasite load but focal and diffuse mononuclear infiltrates was observed, even with significant (pblood and cardiac muscle at the treatment period, but after the end of chemotherapy an increase of parasitism was detected. Interestingly, inflammatory mediators levels and heart inflammation intensity had similar evolution to the parasite load, in the group of animals treated. Taken together, our data show that real-time PCR strategy used was suitable for studies of murine T. cruzi infection and may prove useful in investigations involving experimental chemotherapy of the disease and the benefits of treatment in relation to

  8. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M A M L; Ronconi, A; Cordeiro, N; Bossi, D E P; Bergallo, H G; Costa, M C C; Balieiro, J C C; Varzim, F L S B

    2007-08-01

    A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species) were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  9. Genetic parameters of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis and its relationship with weight and parasite infestations in Australian tropical Bos taurus cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, A.; O'Neill, C.J.; Thomson, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or 'pinkeye' is an economically important ocular disease that significantly impacts animal performance. Genetic parameters for IBK infection and its genetic and phenotypic correlations with cattle tick counts, number of helminth (unspecifie...... differ between these two growth phases. This preliminary study provides estimated genetic parameters for IBK incidence, which could be used to design selection and breeding programs for tropical adaptation in beef cattle.......Background: Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or 'pinkeye' is an economically important ocular disease that significantly impacts animal performance. Genetic parameters for IBK infection and its genetic and phenotypic correlations with cattle tick counts, number of helminth (unspecified...... species) eggs per gram of faeces and growth traits in Australian tropically adapted Bos taurus cattle were estimated. Methods: Animals were clinically examined for the presence of IBK infection before and after weaning when the calves were 3 to 6 months and 15 to 18 months old, respectively and were also...

  10. Blood and gastrointestinal parasites of eastern wild turkeys from Kentucky and Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, M D; Christensen, B M

    1984-07-01

    Fifty-nine gastrointestinal tracts and 52 blood samples were collected from eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris Vieillot) during the spring turkey hunts of 1979-1980 from two areas in western Kentucky and Tennessee. Eight species of parasites were recovered, and included (combined prevalence): Haemoproteus meleagridis Levine, 1961 (25%), Hymenolepis carioca (Magalhaes, 1898) (44%), Metroliasthes lucida Ransom, 1900 (25%), Raillietina georgiensis (Reid and Nugara, 1961) (15%), R. williamsi Fuhrmann, 1932 (64%), Ascaridia dissimilis Perez Vigueras, 1931 (83%), Capillaria caudinflata (Molin, 1858) (2%), and Heterakis gallinarum (Schrank, 1788) (27%). A significant difference existed between the intensities of A. dissimilis from the two states. Twenty-two subinoculations of collected blood were made in 1979, but no Plasmodium infections were recovered. Helminths of wild turkeys from 11 southeastern states were compared using similarity and diversity indices. High similarities were observed in helminth populations of two groups of states: 1) Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Virginia, and Tennessee; and 2) Tennessee, Kentucky, and Illinois. Simpson's diversity index indicated helminth populations of wild turkeys in Florida were the most diverse (0.10), while those in Louisiana turkeys were the least diverse (0.33).

  11. In search of the malarial parasite: biographical sketches of the blood stain contributors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafts, Kristine; Hempelmann, Ernst; Oleksyn, Barbara J

    2011-09-01

    Methylene blue was synthesized by Caro in 1876 at BASF, a chemical company. Six years later, Koch employed methylene blue when he discovered the tubercle bacillus. In 1880, Ehrlich described what he termed "neutral" dyes: mixtures of acidic and basic dyes for the differentiation of cells in peripheral blood smears. Bernthsen prepared in 1886 a relatively pure dye, obtained by decomposition of methylene blue, and called it methylene azure. In 1891, Malachowski developed a method which used mixtures of eosin and "ripened" methylene blue that not only differentiated blood cells, but also demonstrated the nuclei of malarial parasites. Romanowsky later performed the same feat with an unrepeatable method. A number of "ripening" (polychroming) techniques were investigated by different groups (Nocht 1899) but the aqueous dye solutions produced were unstable and precipitated rapidly. Subsequently, methanol was introduced as a solvent for the dye precipitate (Jenner 1899) and techniques were developed that utilized the fixative properties of the methanolic solution prior to aqueous dilution for staining (Wright 1902). Giemsa (1902) further improved these techniques by developing more precise methods of methylene blue demethylation and adding glycerol as a stabilizing agent to the methanol solvent. Today, the Malachowski-Wright-Giemsa stain continues to be regarded as the world's standard diagnostic technique for malaria.

  12. In vitro replication activity of bovine viral diarrhea virus in an epithelial cell line and in bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turin, Lauretta; Lucchini, Barbara; Bronzo, Valerio; Luzzago, Camilla

    2012-11-01

    The present study focused on the in vitro infection of Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells and bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from naÏve animals with non-cytopathic (ncp, BVDV-1b NY-1) and cytopathic (cp, BVDV-1a NADL) strains. Infections with 0.1 and 1 multiplicity of infections (MOI) and incubation times of 18 and 36 hr were compared. Twelve BVDV naÏve heifers were enrolled to collect PBMCs. The viral loads in MDBK cells and in PBMCs after in vitro infections were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. The highest viral loads were measured at 1 MOI and 36 hr post infection in both cell systems and the lowest at 0.1 MOI and 18 hr with the exception of the cp strain NADL in PBMCs, for which the highest viral load was observed at 0.1 MOI and 36 hr. Viral load mean values were higher for the cp strain than the ncp strain irrespective of the extent of the infection period and MOI. The models of infection studied uncovered different replication activities respectively according to the biotype of virus, the cell substrate and the duration of infection. Replication tends to be higher in PBMCs, particularly at low MOIs and for the ncp strain.

  13. Identification of malaria parasite-infected red blood cell surface aptamers by inertial microfluidic SELEX (I-SELEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Christina M.; Hou, Han Wei; Han, Jongyoon; Niles, Jacquin C.

    2015-07-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites invade and remodel human red blood cells (RBCs) by trafficking parasite-synthesized proteins to the RBC surface. While these proteins mediate interactions with host cells that contribute to disease pathogenesis, the infected RBC surface proteome remains poorly characterized. Here we use a novel strategy (I-SELEX) to discover high affinity aptamers that selectively recognize distinct epitopes uniquely present on parasite-infected RBCs. Based on inertial focusing in spiral microfluidic channels, I-SELEX enables stringent partitioning of cells (efficiency ≥ 106) from unbound oligonucleotides at high volume throughput (~2 × 106 cells min-1). Using an RBC model displaying a single, non-native antigen and live malaria parasite-infected RBCs as targets, we establish suitability of this strategy for de novo aptamer selections. We demonstrate recovery of a diverse set of aptamers that recognize distinct, surface-displayed epitopes on parasite-infected RBCs with nanomolar affinity, including an aptamer against the protein responsible for placental sequestration, var2CSA. These findings validate I-SELEX as a broadly applicable aptamer discovery platform that enables identification of new reagents for mapping the parasite-infected RBC surface proteome at higher molecular resolution to potentially contribute to malaria diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccine efforts.

  14. Development of lymphatic filarial parasite Wuchereria bancrofti (Spirurida: Onchocercidae) in mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) fed artificially on microfilaremic blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paily, K P; Hoti, S L; Balaraman, K

    2006-11-01

    The efficiency of laboratory colonies of mosquitoes such as Anopheles stephensi Liston, Aedes aegypti (L.) Liverpool strain, Ae. aegypti wild type, Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, Culex sitiens Wiedemann, and Armigeres subalbatus Coquillett in supporting the development of Wuchereria bancrofti (Cobbold) (Spirurida: Onchocercidae) microfilariae to infective larvae was investigated. The mosquitoes were fed on heparinized microfilaremic human blood by using a membrane-feeding unit with Parafilm as membrane. The rate of infection, parasite development, and parasite burden were compared with that in the known vector mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Cx. quinquefasciatus showed the highest percentage of infection, followed by Ae. aegypti Liverpool strain and An. stephensi. The rate of development of the parasite was more or less similar in all the three species, and infective larvae were found on day 13. When the larvae were harvested on day 17, Cx. quinquefasciatus yielded the highest numbers, followed by Ae. aegypti Liverpool strain and An. stephensi. The percentage of infection was low, and the development was slow in Cx. tritaeniorhynchus compared with the other susceptible species. The parasite developed to second-stage larvae only by day 22 and to infective larvae by day 28. When 2-wk-old Cx. tritaeniorhynchus were fed on microfilaremic blood, they could develop the parasite to infective larvae by day 13 postfeeding. All other species of mosquitoes tested were found to be refractory to parasite development. It is shown that Cx. quinquefasciatus is the most suitable mosquito host for the production of infective larvae. However, Ae. aegypti Liverpool strain, which is commonly used for Brugia malayi filarial parasite, also can be used for generation of W. bancrofti infective larvae to circumvent the problem of maintaining two mosquito species.

  15. Evidence for the exchange of blood parasites between North America and the Neotropics in blue-winged teal (Anas discors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Reed, John; Walther, Patrick; Link, Paul; Schmutz, Joel A.; Douglas, David; Stallknecht, David E.; Soos, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) are abundant, small-bodied dabbling ducks that breed throughout the prairies of the northcentral USA and central Canada and that winter in the southern USA and northern Neotropics. Given the migratory tendencies of this species, it is plausible that blue-winged teal may disperse avian pathogens, such as parasites causing avian malaria, between spatially distant areas. To test the hypothesis that blue-winged teal play a role in the exchange of blood parasites between North America and areas further south, we collected information on migratory tendencies of this species and sampled birds at spatially distant areas during breeding and non-breeding periods to diagnose and genetically characterize parasitic infections. Using a combination of band recovery data, satellite telemetry, molecular diagnostics, and genetic analyses, we found evidence for (1) migratory connectivity of blue-winged teal between our sampling locations in the Canadian prairies and along the US Gulf Coast with areas throughout the northern Neotropics, (2) parasite acquisition at both breeding and non-breeding areas, (3) infection of blue-winged teal sampled in Canada and the USA withPlasmodium parasite lineages associated with the Neotropics, and (4) infection of blue-winged teal with parasites that were genetically related to those previously reported in waterfowl in both North America and South America. Collectively, our results suggest that blue-winged teal likely play a role in the dispersal of blood parasites between the Neotropics and North America, and therefore, the targeting of this species in surveillance programs for the early detection of Neotropical-origin avian pathogens in the USA may be informative.

  16. Evidence for the exchange of blood parasites between North America and the Neotropics in blue-winged teal (Anas discors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andrew M; Reed, John A; Walther, Patrick; Link, Paul; Schmutz, Joel A; Douglas, David C; Stallknecht, David E; Soos, Catherine

    2016-10-01

    Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) are abundant, small-bodied dabbling ducks that breed throughout the prairies of the northcentral USA and central Canada and that winter in the southern USA and northern Neotropics. Given the migratory tendencies of this species, it is plausible that blue-winged teal may disperse avian pathogens, such as parasites causing avian malaria, between spatially distant areas. To test the hypothesis that blue-winged teal play a role in the exchange of blood parasites between North America and areas further south, we collected information on migratory tendencies of this species and sampled birds at spatially distant areas during breeding and non-breeding periods to diagnose and genetically characterize parasitic infections. Using a combination of band recovery data, satellite telemetry, molecular diagnostics, and genetic analyses, we found evidence for (1) migratory connectivity of blue-winged teal between our sampling locations in the Canadian prairies and along the US Gulf Coast with areas throughout the northern Neotropics, (2) parasite acquisition at both breeding and non-breeding areas, (3) infection of blue-winged teal sampled in Canada and the USA with Plasmodium parasite lineages associated with the Neotropics, and (4) infection of blue-winged teal with parasites that were genetically related to those previously reported in waterfowl in both North America and South America. Collectively, our results suggest that blue-winged teal likely play a role in the dispersal of blood parasites between the Neotropics and North America, and therefore, the targeting of this species in surveillance programs for the early detection of Neotropical-origin avian pathogens in the USA may be informative.

  17. On the study of the transmission networks of blood parasites from SW Spain: diversity of avian haemosporidians in the biting midge Culicoides circumscriptus and wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraguti, Martina; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2013-07-15

    Blood-sucking flying insects play a key role in the transmission of pathogens of vector-borne diseases. However, at least for the case of avian malaria parasites, the vast majority of studies focus on the interaction between parasites and vertebrate hosts, but there is a lack of information regarding the interaction between the parasites and the insect vectors. Here, we identified the presence of malaria and malaria-like parasite lineages harbored by the potential vector Culicoides circumscriptus (Kieffer). Also, we identified some nodes of the transmission network connecting parasite lineages, potential insect vectors and avian hosts by comparing Haemoproteus and Plasmodium lineages isolated from insects with those infecting wild birds in this and previous studies. Using a molecular approach, we analysed the presence of blood parasites in a total of 97 biting midges trapped in the Doñana National Park (SW Spain) and surrounding areas. Also, 123 blood samples from 11 bird species were analyzed for the presence of blood parasite infections. Blood parasites Haemoproteus and Plasmodium were identified by amplification of a 478 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gen. Thirteen biting midges harboured blood parasites including six Haemoproteus and two Plasmodium lineages, supporting the potential role of these insects on parasite transmission. Moreover, ten (8.1%) birds carried blood parasites. Seven Plasmodium and one Haemoproteus lineages were isolated from birds. Overall, six new Haemoproteus lineages were described in this study. Also, we identified the transmission networks of some blood parasites. Two Haemoproteus lineages, hCIRCUM03 and GAGLA03, were identical to those isolated from Corvus monedula in southern Spain and Garrulus glandarius in Bulgaria, respectively. Furthermore, the new Haemoproteus lineage hCIRCUM05 showed a 99% similarity with a lineage found infecting captive penguins in Japan. The comparison of the parasite lineages isolated in

  18. Investigations of presence of antibodies against bovine herpesvirus-1 in blood serum of calves prior to colostrum diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Sava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of investigations of the presence of the bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1 in samples of blood serum from 106 cows and 107 of their calves (one cow had twins. Blood was sampled from the cows immediately after parturition, and from the calves before feeding on colostrum. The examined cows and their calves originated from 5 herds in which previous investigations had shown infection with the bovine herpesvirus-1. The determination of antibodies against BHV-1 was performed using the method of virus neutralization in culture of MDBK cells with 100 TCID/50 viruses (BHV-1, TN-41 Am. Bio Research, USA. Antibodies against BHV-1 were determined in all blood serum samples of cows and in 16 samples of precolostral blood serums of calves. The antibody titer values in cows ranged from 1:4 to 1:512, and in calves the determined values were from 1:2 to 1:16. The results indicate that cows that are seropositive to BHV-1 can deliver calves seropositive to BHV-1 in about 15% cases. This must be kept in mind in selecting cows for the production of breeding material, in particular bulls for reproduction centers, as well as in making a programme for the immunoprophylaxis of calves against BHV-1. .

  19. Malaria Parasite Proteins and Their Role in Alteration of the Structure and Function of Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proellocks, Nicholas I; Coppel, Ross L; Mohandas, Narla; Cooke, Brian M

    2016-01-01

    Malaria, caused by Plasmodium spp., continues to be a major threat to human health and a significant cause of socioeconomic hardship in many countries. Almost half of the world's population live in malaria-endemic regions and many of them suffer one or more, often life-threatening episodes of malaria every year, the symptoms of which are attributable to replication of the parasite within red blood cells (RBCs). In the case of Plasmodium falciparum, the species responsible for most malaria-related deaths, parasite replication within RBCs is accompanied by striking alterations to the morphological, biochemical and biophysical properties of the host cell that are essential for the parasites' survival. To achieve this, the parasite establishes a unique and extensive protein export network in the infected RBC, dedicating at least 6% of its genome to the process. Understanding the full gamut of proteins involved in this process and the mechanisms by which P. falciparum alters the structure and function of RBCs is important both for a more complete understanding of the pathogenesis of malaria and for development of new therapeutic strategies to prevent or treat this devastating disease. This review focuses on what is currently known about exported parasite proteins, their interactions with the RBC and their likely pathophysiological consequences.

  20. The ultrastructure of camel blood platelets: a comparative study with human, bovine, and equine cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gader, Abdel Galil M Abdel; Ghumlas, Abeer K Al; Hussain, Mansour F; Haidari, Ahmed Al; White, James G

    2008-02-01

    Previous studies indicated that the camel has a very active haemostatic mechanism with a short bleeding time and thrombocytosis. However, platelet function, when tested by agonist-induced aggregation and PFA 100 closure time, showed marked inhibition compared to humans. Since camels are also far more resistant to long exposure to excessive heat and high body temperature than humans, it seemed worthwhile to explore fundamental morphological differences between human and camel platelets and those from other species. The present study has examined the ultrastructure of camel platelets and compared them with the fine structures of human, bovine and equine thrombocytes. Camel platelets, like bovine and equine cells, are discoid in shape and about two-thirds the size of human platelets. A circumferential coil of microtubular supports the disk-like form of camel platelets. Their cytoplasm, like bovine and equine platelets, is filled with alpha granule twice as large as those in human platelets, but lacking the organized matrix of equine alpha granules. Dense bodies are present in camel platelets with whip-like extensions not present on bovine or equine thrombocytes, but found on occasional human platelet dense bodies. Camel platelets, like bovine and equine thrombocytes, lack an open canalicular system (OCS) and must secrete granule products by fusion with the cell wall rather than an OCS. Future studies will determine if the differences in ultrastructural anatomy protect camel platelets from heat more than human thrombocytes.

  1. Development of a preliminary diagnostic measure for bovine leukosis in dairy cows using peripheral white blood cell and lymphocyte counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    NISHIIKE, Masao; HAOKA, Michiyo; DOI, Takashi; KOHDA, Tomoko; MUKAMOTO, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the association between antibodies against bovine leukemia virus (BLV), BLV proviral load, and white blood cell (WBC) and lymphocyte counts was performed with 774 dairy cows. The average age, WBC counts and lymphoid cell counts tended to be higher in BLV antibody-positive cows than in antibody-negative cows. There was a similar trend in levels of proviral DNA. We analyzed age, WBC counts and lymphocyte counts by principal component analyses to create a distribution chart of the principle component scores. Using the chart, we categorized cows into four quadrants based on additional information, such as the presence of antibody and the levels of proviral DNA. Antibody-positive cows and cows with high BLV proviral load were found mostly in one quadrant of the chart, indicating that it is possible to predict the risk of infection without any knowledge on antibody status by using information, such as WBC counts as a biomarker. When only antibody-positive cows were included in the analysis, a characteristic distribution of different levels of proviral DNA was seen in the quadrants, suggesting that it is possible to estimate the extent of bovine leukosis infection by using this analysis. For this analysis and categorization of the cows into quadrants, we computed a mathematical formulation using discriminant analysis based on age and WBC and lymphocyte counts. This mathematical formulation for the hematological preliminary diagnosis of the disease is recommended as a screening tool to monitor bovine leukosis. PMID:27064146

  2. Expression of variant surface antigens by Plasmodium falciparum parasites in the peripheral blood of clinically immune pregnant women indicates ongoing placental infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ofori, Michael F; Staalsoe, Trine; Bam, Victoria

    2003-01-01

    Placenta-sequestered Plasmodium falciparum parasites that cause pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) in otherwise clinically immune women express distinct variant surface antigens (VSA(PAM)) not expressed by parasites in nonpregnant individuals. We report here that parasites from the peripheral blood...... of clinically immune pregnant women also express VSA(PAM), making them a convenient source of VSA(PAM) expressors for PAM vaccine research....

  3. MOLECULAR APPROACH TO THE STUDY OF TREMATODE PARASITES : THE BLOOD FLUKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip T. LoVerde

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available One important aspect of reproductive development in trematode parasites is the formation of a hardened eggshell which allows the zygote to develop into a miracidium in a hostile environment. The miracidium then can transfer the germline from the vertebrate host to snail intermediate host. Schistosome parasites, unlike other trematodes, have separate sexes and female reproductive development is known to depend on the presence of a male parasite. These facts make the blood flukes ideal material to study the mechanisms that underlie female reproductive development and eggshell formatian. We reasoned that the morphological and biochemical differences between the male and female must be reflected at the molecular level in the differential expression of sexually regulated genes. Radioactive single stranded cDNA was first transcribed from female RNA; and then sequences common to both male and female were removed by hybridization to an excess of male RNA. This probe was used to screen a cDNA library made from mRNA of adult worm paris. One hybridizing clone, pSMf 61-46, was shown to correspond to a 0.9 kilobase mRNA that is present only in mature female worms and is not detectable in female schistosomes from single-sex infections, in male worms or in eggs. Thus expression of the gene was female-specific. During normal bisexual infection this mRNA is first detected 28 days after infection (the time of worm pairing and increases to a high level at 35 days postinfection, coinciding with egg production. Thus the temporal expression of the gene was dependent on paining with male worm. The nucleotide sequence of the gene shows an open reading frame that encodes a 16 kDA polypeptide that shows strong homology with eggshell proteins on insects. A second female-specific cDNA clone, F-4, represents a 1.6 kilobase mRNA whose expression is also correlated with worm pairing and subsequent egg production, encodes a different putative eggshell component of 44 kDA. The

  4. MOLECULAR APPROACH TO THE STUDY OF TREMATODE PARASITES : THE BLOOD FLUKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip T. LoVerde

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available One important aspect of reproductive development in trematode parasites is the formation of a hardened eggshell which allows the zygote to develop into a miracidium in a hostile environment. The miracidium then can transfer the germline from the vertebrate host to snail intermediate host. Schistosome parasites, unlike other trematodes, have separate sexes and female reproductive development is known to depend on the presence of a male parasite. These facts make the blood flukes ideal material to study the mechanisms that underlie female reproductive development and eggshell formatian. We reasoned that the morphological and biochemical differences between the male and female must be reflected at the molecular level in the differential expression of sexually regulated genes. Radioactive single stranded cDNA was first transcribed from female RNA; and then sequences common to both male and female were removed by hybridization to an excess of male RNA. This probe was used to screen a cDNA library made from mRNA of adult worm paris. One hybridizing clone, pSMf 61-46, was shown to correspond to a 0.9 kilobase mRNA that is present only in mature female worms and is not detectable in female schistosomes from single-sex infections, in male worms or in eggs. Thus expression of the gene was female-specific. During normal bisexual infection this mRNA is first detected 28 days after infection (the time of worm pairing and increases to a high level at 35 days postinfection, coinciding with egg production. Thus the temporal expression of the gene was dependent on paining with male worm. The nucleotide sequence of the gene shows an open reading frame that encodes a 16 kDA polypeptide that shows strong homology with eggshell proteins on insects. A second female-specific cDNA clone, F-4, represents a 1.6 kilobase mRNA whose expression is also correlated with worm pairing and subsequent egg production, encodes a different putative eggshell component of 44 kDA. The

  5. Carotenoid-based plumage colouration is associated with blood parasite richness and stress protein levels in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Cerro, Sara; Merino, Santiago; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Lobato, Elisa; Ruiz-de-Castañeda, Rafael; Rivero-de Aguilar, Juan; Martínez, Javier; Morales, Judith; Tomás, Gustavo; Moreno, Juan

    2010-04-01

    Carotenoids are molecules that birds are not able to synthesize and therefore, must be acquired through their diet. These pigments, besides their function of giving birds red and yellow colouration when deposited in feathers, seem to act as immune-stimulators and antioxidants in the organism. Hence, only the healthiest individuals would be able to express carotenoid-based ornaments to a larger extent without compromising the physiological functions of carotenoids. Various studies have reported that birds infected by parasites are paler than those uninfected, but, to our knowledge, none of them has assessed the possible effect of multiple infections by blood parasites on plumage colour. By comparing the yellow colour in the breast plumage of blue tits, Cyanistes caeruleus, between birds infected by different numbers of blood parasite genera, we found that those birds infected by more than one genus were paler than those parasitized just by one. In addition, we examined the potential role of carotenoid-based plumage colour of blue tits as a long-term indicator of other parameters of health status, such as body condition and immunoglobulin and heat shock protein (HSP) levels. Our results indicate that more brightly coloured birds had lower HSP70 levels than paler birds, but we did not find any significant association between colour and body condition or immunoglobulin levels. In addition, we found a positive significant association between Haemoproteus density of infection and HSP60 levels. Overall, these results support the role of carotenoid-based colours as indicators of health status in blue tits and show detrimental effects of parasitism on this character.

  6. Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Blood Supply from Parasitized Omental Artery: Angiographic Appearance And Chemoembolization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Gao; Ren-jie Yang; Jia-hong Dong

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To analyze angiographic appearance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with blood supply from parasitized omental artery (POA),and evaluate the technical feasibility,safety and therapeutic efficacy of chemoembolization via the POAs.Methods:A total of 1,221 HCC patients who had undergone chemoembolization procedures were evaluated retrospectively.The evaluated indexes included the incidence rate of POAs,success rate of superselective catheterization,post-reaction after chemoembolization,and the cumulative survival rates.Results:Totally 1,221 HCC patients had undergone 3,639 chemoembolization procedures,and 32 patients with POAs were enrolled,with 97 POAs found in 76 angiography procedures,giving an incidence rate of 2.09%.POA was observed mostly at the right lobe and left medial lobe except the segment Ⅱ,and 62 POAs underwent superselective catheterization with microcatheter,giving a success rate of 63.9%.The angiographic appearance was:(1) hypertrophic POAs participating in tumor staining (n=28); (2) stiff and distorted POA (n=11),displaced due to tumor's oppression (n=8); and (3) defective tumor staining close to either gastrocolic omentum distribution or liver capsule (n=7).In 19 patients,chemoembolization via POAs was performed successfully (A group),while the remaining 13 patients failed (B group).Except 1 acute edema pancreatitis case,no serious complication was recorded.The cumulative survival rates of 6-,12-,18-and 24-month were 78.9%,47.4%,31.6% and 21.1% respectively for A group; correspondingly,61.5%,30.g%,15.4% and 7.7%% for B group,in which 2 patients died of ruptured HCC.Conclusion:Chemoembolization with microcatheter via POAs is a relatively safe,feasible and valuable method.

  7. Advances in Comprehensive Exploitation and Utilization of Bovine Blood%牛血资源综合开发利用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉斌; 曹晖; 郭兆斌; 余群力

    2011-01-01

    介绍了牛血的成分、营养特性及开发利用价值和综合利用现状,同时对牛血资源在食品工业、生化制药工业以及饲料工业的研究进展进行了概述,并讨论了牛血资源综合利用存在的问题和解决措施。%The composition, nutritional characteristics, exploitation value and current utilization situation of bovine blood are introduced in this paper. Meanwhile, the progress of applications of bovine blood in the food, biopharmaceutical and feed industries are overviewed, and problems present in the comprehensive utilization of bovine blood and solutions are explored.

  8. Biochemical identification of the bovine blood group M' antigen as a major histocompatibility complex class I-like molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hønberg, L S; Larsen, B; Koch, C;

    1995-01-01

    . To elucidate the structural relationship between BoLA-A16 and blood group antigen M', immunoprecipitation experiments on red and white cell lysates isolated from M'-A16 positive and negative cattle were carried out. These results showed that M(r) 44,000 and M(r) 12000 polypeptides can be precipitated from both......Absorption and elution experiments showed that it was impossible to separate antibodies against blood group factor M' from antibodies against bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA) A16 in an antiserum showing haemolytic activity against M' as well as lymphocytotoxic activity against BoLA-A16...... red and white cells isolated from M'-A16 positive animals, whereas no bands were seen in M'-A16 negative animals in precipitations with the same antibody. Precipitation with a crossreacting human beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-m) specific antibody confirmed a class-I-like structure associated with beta...

  9. Blood parasites, body condition, and wing length in two subspecies of yellow wagtail (Motacilla flava) during migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurulinkov, Peter; Chakarov, Nayden; Daskalova, Girgina

    2012-05-01

    Blood parasites of migrating yellow wagtails of two subspecies--Motacilla flava feldegg and Motacilla flava flava-were studied on a sample of 473 birds caught in spring and autumn periods in Bulgaria. We controlled eight "migration waves" (flocks captured in different evenings) of yellow wagtails for four parameters--average body mass, average fat level, average wing length, and average prevalence of different hematozoan species. Gametocytes or meronts of a total of six species of hematozoa belonging to three genera were identified-Haemoproteus motacillae, Haemoproteus anthi, Plasmodium relictum, Plasmodium subpraecox, Plasmodium cathemerium, and Tryponosoma avium. Mixed infections were detected in 31 cases, of which 14 were of H. anthi/H. motacillae type. Parasite species composition was similar in the two studied subspecies of M. flava. We did not find any significant differences in the overall infection prevalence or number of infecting parasites between M. f. flava and M. f. feldegg. Parasite prevalence and the number of co-infecting parasites in spring were much higher than in fall. Season had a strong influence on the prevalence of H. anthi and H. motacillae, and for both, there was a marginally significant interaction between subspecies and season, but not a season-independent influence of subspecies. Males of M. f. feldegg had a significantly higher overall blood parasite prevalence and prevalence of H. anthi than females. Sex-related differences in the prevalence of other parasites were not significant. Migration waves of yellow wagtails differed in overall infection status and in H. motacillae prevalence, but not for H. anthi prevalence. We also found significant differences in fat score, weight, and wing length between the studied migration waves of the yellow wagtails. Fat scores of birds infected with different hematozoa were lower compared with those of the non-infected birds. This only marginally was true for body weight and was not the case for wing

  10. Parasitóides de Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae coletados em pupários no substrato rim bovino Parasitoids of Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae collected in pupae in the bovine kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Patrick Bonani

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo, identificar as principais espécies de parasitóides de Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae, em Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brasil, cujas larvas foram alimentadas com rim bovino. As coletas foram realizadas durante o período de agosto de 2003 a março de 2004. Um total de 921 parasitóides foram coletados em 942 pupas dessa mosca. A prevalência natural de parasitismo foi de 97%.The study aimed at identifying the main parasitoids of Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae. The larvae were feed on bovine kidney. Samplings were conducted from August 2003 to March 2004, in Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A total of 921 parasitoids in 942 pupae fly were collected. The prevalence natural parasitism was 97%.

  11. Malaria proteases mediate inside-out egress of gametocytes from red blood cells following parasite transmission to the mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sologub, Ludmilla; Kuehn, Andrea; Kern, Selina; Przyborski, Jude; Schillig, Rebecca; Pradel, Gabriele

    2011-06-01

    Malaria parasites reside in human erythrocytes within a parasitophorous vacuole. The parasites are transmitted from the human to the mosquito by the uptake of intraerythrocytic gametocytes during a blood meal, which in the midgut become activated by external stimuli and subsequently egress from the enveloping erythrocyte. Gametocyte egress is a crucial step for the parasite to prepare for fertilization, but the molecular mechanisms of egress are not well understood. Via electron microscopy, we show that Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes exit the erythrocyte by an inside-out type of egress. The parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM) ruptures at multiple sites within less than a minute following activation, a process that requires a temperature drop and parasite contact with xanthurenic acid. PVM rupture can also be triggered by the ionophore nigericin and is sensitive to the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64d. Following PVM rupture the subpellicular membrane begins to disintegrate. This membrane is specific to malaria gametocytes, and disintegration is impaired by the aspartic protease inhibitor EPNP and the cysteine/serine protease inhibitor TLCK. Approximately 15 min post activation, the erythrocyte membrane ruptures at a single breaking point, which can be inhibited by inhibitors TLCK and TPCK. In all cases inhibitor treatment results in interrupted gametogenesis. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Subcompartmentalisation of proteins in the rhoptries correlates with ordered events of erythrocyte invasion by the blood stage malaria parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth S Zuccala

    Full Text Available Host cell infection by apicomplexan parasites plays an essential role in lifecycle progression for these obligate intracellular pathogens. For most species, including the etiological agents of malaria and toxoplasmosis, infection requires active host-cell invasion dependent on formation of a tight junction - the organising interface between parasite and host cell during entry. Formation of this structure is not, however, shared across all Apicomplexa or indeed all parasite lifecycle stages. Here, using an in silico integrative genomic search and endogenous gene-tagging strategy, we sought to characterise proteins that function specifically during junction-dependent invasion, a class of proteins we term invasins to distinguish them from adhesins that function in species specific host-cell recognition. High-definition imaging of tagged Plasmodium falciparum invasins localised proteins to multiple cellular compartments of the blood stage merozoite. This includes several that localise to distinct subcompartments within the rhoptries. While originating from the same organelle, however, each has very different dynamics during invasion. Apical Sushi Protein and Rhoptry Neck protein 2 release early, following the junction, whilst a novel rhoptry protein PFF0645c releases only after invasion is complete. This supports the idea that organisation of proteins within a secretory organelle determines the order and destination of protein secretion and provides a localisation-based classification strategy for predicting invasin function during apicomplexan parasite invasion.

  13. The Survival Strategies of Malaria Parasite in the Red Blood Cell and Host Cell Polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunanidhi Dhangadamajhi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasite growth within the erythrocyte causes dramatic alterations of host cell which on one hand facilitates nutrients acquisition from extracellular environment and on other hand contributes to the symptoms of severe malaria. The current paper focuses on interactions between the Plasmodium parasite and its metabolically highly reduced host cell, the natural selection of numerous polymorphisms in the genes encoding hemoglobin and other erythrocyte proteins.

  14. Blood parasites in passerine birds from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Hemoparasitos em passeriformes da Mata Atlântica Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Sebaio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Parasites may lead bird species to extinction, affect host temporal and spatial population dynamics, alter community structure and alter individuals’ social status. We evaluated blood parasite prevalence and intensity according to bird families and species, among 925 birds that were caught in 2000 and 2001, in the Atlantic Forest in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We applied Giemsa staining to thin blood smears, to detect blood parasites. The birds (n = 15.8% in 11 families, were infected by at least one parasite genus, especially Muscicapidae (28.3% and Conopophagidae (25%. Among the 146 infected birds, Plasmodium was detected in all bird families and had the highest prevalence (54.8%. Trypanosoma, Haemoproteus and microfilaria had lower prevalence rates (23.3, 23.3 and 2.1%, respectively. Birds caught during the rainy season were more infected than birds caught during the dry season. The overall low prevalence of blood parasites in birds is similar to the patterns found elsewhere in the Neotropical region.Parasitos podem levar espécies de aves à extinção, afetar as dinâmicas temporais e espaciais dos hospedeiros, alterar a estrutura de comunidades e o status social de indivíduos. Avaliou-se a prevalência e a intensidade de parasitos em famílias e espécies de 925 aves capturadas, entre 2000 e 2001, na Mata Atlântica de Minas Gerais. Foram coradas com Giemsa extensões de sangue para detectar parasitos hematozoários. As aves (n= 15,8% 11 famílias estavam infectadas por pelo menos um gênero de parasito, especialmente Muscicapidae (28,3% e Conopophagidae (25%. Entre as 146 aves infectadas, Plasmodium foi detectado em todas as famílias e possuiu a maior prevalência (54,8%. Trypanosoma,Haemoproteus e microfilaria possuíram baixas prevalências (23,3, 23,3 e 2,1%, respectivamente. Aves capturadasdurante a estação chuvosa estavam mais infectadas do que aves capturadas durante a estação seca. A baixa prevalência geral de

  15. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAML. Silva

    Full Text Available A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  16. Analysis of gene expression in white blood cells of cattle orally challenged with bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panelli, Simona; Strozzi, Francesco; Capoferri, Rossana; Barbieri, Ilaria; Martinelli, Nicola; Capucci, Lorenzo; Lombardi, Guerino; Williams, John L

    2011-01-01

    Bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE) is one of the recently discovered atypical forms of BSE, which is transmissible to primates, and may be the bovine equivalent of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD) in humans. Although it is transmissible, it is unknown whether BASE is acquired through infection or arises spontaneously. In the present study, the gene expression of white blood cells (WBCs) from 5 cattle at 1 yr after oral BASE challenge was compared with negative controls using a custom microarray containing 43,768 unique gene probes. In total, 56 genes were found to be differentially expressed between BASE and control animals with a log fold change of 2 or greater. Of these, 39 were upregulated in BASE animals, while 17 were downregulated. The majority of these genes are related to immune function. In particular, BASE animals appeared to have significantly modified expression of genes linked to T- and B-cell development and activation, and to inflammatory responses. The potential impacts of these gene expression changes are described.

  17. A multiscale Cauchy-Born meshfree model for deformability of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L. W.; Ademiloye, A. S.; Liew, K. M.

    In normal physiological and healthy conditions, red blood cells (RBCs) deform readily as they pass through the microcapillaries and the spleen, however, upon invasion by the malaria parasite, the host RBC membrane begins to lose their deformability. In spite of the progress in understanding malaria pathogenesis, the primary mechanism responsible for the loss of deformability remains unclear. In this paper, we examine the effects of Plasmodium falciparum infection and maturation on the deformability of parasitized or infected red blood cells (iRBCs) by means of a three-dimensional (3D) multiscale red blood cell (RBC) framework. This multiscale framework is developed based on the Cauchy-Born rule and the meshfree IMLS-Ritz method. The atomistic scale strain energy density function of the RBC membrane was computed using a selected representative cell based on the membrane spectrin network. The results obtained from our numerical simulations affirm that the presence of malaria infection significantly increases the rigidity of RBC membrane. It was observed that in the trophozoite and schizont infection stages, biconcave cell geometry leads to better prediction than nearly spherical geometry in comparison with experimental studies. Furthermore, we confirm that increase in temperature also results to increased stiffening of the cell membrane. Lastly, the observed decrease in the deformability of iRBC membrane may be primarily due to the structural remodeling and changes in the microstructure of the membrane rather than the change in cell shape.

  18. A distinct peripheral blood monocyte phenotype is associated with parasite inhibitory activity in acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattamawan Chimma

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Monocyte (MO subpopulations display distinct phenotypes and functions which can drastically change during inflammatory states. We hypothesized that discrete MO subpopulations are induced during malaria infection and associated with anti-parasitic activity. We characterized the phenotype of blood MO from healthy malaria-exposed individuals and that of patients with acute uncomplicated malaria by flow cytometry. In addition, MO defense function was evaluated by an in vitro antibody dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI assay. At the time of admission, the percentages and absolute numbers of CD16+ MO, and CCR2+CX3CR1+ MO, were high in a majority of patients. Remarkably, expression of CCR2 and CX3CR1 on the CD14(high (hi MO subset defined two subgroups of patients that also differed significantly in their functional ability to limit the parasite growth, through the ADCI mechanism. In the group of patients with the highest percentages and absolute numbers of CD14(hiCCR2+CX3CR1+ MO and the highest mean levels of ADCI activity, blood parasitemias were lower (0.14+/-0.34% than in the second group (1.30+/-3.34%; p = 0.0053. Data showed that, during a malaria attack, some patients' MO can exert a strong ADCI activity. These results bring new insight into the complex relationships between the phenotype and the functional activity of blood MO from patients and healthy malaria-exposed individuals and suggest discrete MO subpopulations are induced during malaria infection and are associated with anti-parasitic activity.

  19. Bovine colostrum modulates immune activation cascades in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenny, Marcel; Pedersen, Ninfa R; Hidayat, Budi J

    2010-01-01

    factors and has a long history of use in traditional medicine. In an approach to evaluate the effects of bovine colostrum (BC) on the T-cell/macrophage interplay, we investigated and compared the capacity of BC containing low and high amounts of lactose and lactoferrin to modulate tryptophan degradation...... of lactose present in BC seems to diminish the activity of BC in our test system, since BC with higher amounts of lactose attenuated the stimulatory as well as the suppressive activity of BC....

  20. Rearing Larvae of the Avian Nest Parasite, Philornis downsi (Diptera: Muscidae), on Chicken Blood-Based Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahuatte, Paola F.; Lincango, M. P.; Heimpel, G. E.; Causton, C. E.

    2016-01-01

    Captive rearing of insect pests is necessary to understand their biology and to develop control methods. The avian nest fly, Philornis downsi Dodge and Aitken, is a blood-sucking parasite during its larval stage and a serious threat to endemic birds in the Galapagos Islands where it is considered invasive. In order to procure large numbers of flies for biological studies, rearing media and diets were trialed for rearing the larval stage of P. downsi under controlled conditions in the absence of its avian host. P. downsi eggs were obtained from field-caught female flies, and once eggs hatched they were reared on chicken blood for the first 3 d. Following this, three diets were tested on second- and third-instar larvae: 1) chicken blood only; 2) chicken blood, hydrolyzed protein and dried milk powder; and 3) chicken blood, hydrolyzed protein and brewer’s yeast. Out of 385 P. downsi larvae tested, we were able to rear 50 larvae to the adult stage. The highest level of mortality was found in the first-instar larvae. Survivorship of second- and third-instar larvae was similar irrespective of diet and diet did not significantly influence larval or pupal development times; though larvae fed the diet with brewer’s yeast developed marginally faster. Pupal weights were similar to those of larvae that had developed on bird hosts in the field. To our knowledge, this is the first effective protocol for rearing a hematophagous parasitic avian fly from egg to adult in the absence of a living host. PMID:27493240

  1. Malaria and blood transfusion: major issues of blood safety in malaria-endemic countries and strategies for mitigating the risk of Plasmodium parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Saleh; Karunamoorthi, Kaliyaperumal

    2016-01-01

    Malaria inflicts humankind over centuries, and it remains as a major threat to both clinical medicine and public health worldwide. Though hemotherapy is a life-sustaining modality, it continues to be a possible source of disease transmission. Hence, hemovigilance is a matter of grave concern in the malaria-prone third-world countries. In order to pursue an effective research on hemovigilance, a comprehensive search has been conducted by using the premier academic-scientific databases, WHO documents, and English-language search engines. One hundred two appropriate articles were chosen for data extraction, with a particular reference to emerging pathogens transmitted through blood transfusion, specifically malaria. Blood donation screening is done through microscopic examination and immunological assays to improve the safety of blood products by detection major blood-borne pathogens, viz., HIV, HBV, HCV, syphilis, and malarial parasites. Transfusion therapy significantly dwindles the preventable morbidity and mortality attributed to various illnesses and diseases, particularly AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. Examination of thick and thin blood smears are performed to detect positivity and to identify the Plasmodium species, respectively. However, all of these existing diagnostic tools have their own limitations in terms of sensitivity, specificity, cost-effectiveness, and lack of resources and skilled personnel. Globally, despite the mandate need of screening blood and its components according to the blood-establishment protocols, it is seldom practiced in the low-income/poverty-stricken settings. In addition, each and every single phase of transfusion chain carries sizable inherent risks from donors to recipients. Interestingly, opportunities also lie ahead to enhance the safety of blood-supply chain and patients. It can be achieved through sustainable blood-management strategies like (1) appropriate usage of precise diagnostic tools/techniques, (2) promoting

  2. Multiplex screening for blood-borne viral, bacterial, and protozoan parasites using an OpenArray platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorenko, Elena; Fisher, Carolyn; Patel, Sunali; Chancey, Caren; Rios, Maria; Nakhasi, Hira L; Duncan, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    The use of nucleic acid tests for detection of pathogens has improved the safety of blood products. However, ongoing pathogen emergence demonstrates a need for development of devices testing for multiple pathogens simultaneously. One approach combines two proven technologies: Taqman chemistry for target identification and quantification and the OpenArray nanofluidic real-time PCR platform for spatial multiplexing of assays. A panel of Taqman assays was developed to detect nine blood-borne pathogens (BBPs): four viral, two bacterial, and three protozoan parasites. The custom BBP OpenArray plate with 18 assays was tested for specificity and analytical sensitivity for nucleic acid from each purified pathogen and with pathogen-spiked human blood and plasma samples. For most targets, the limits of detection (10 to 10,000 copies/mL) were comparable with existing real-time platforms. The testing of the BBP OpenArray with pathogen-spiked coded human plasma or blood samples and negative control specimens demonstrated no false-positive results among the samples tested and correctly identified pathogens with the lowest concentration detected ranging from 10 cells/mL (Trypanosoma cruzi) to 10,000 cells/mL (Escherichia coli). These results represent a proof of concept that indicated the BBP OpenArray platform in combination with Taqman chemistry may provide a multiplex real-time PCR pathogen detection method that points the way for a next-generation platform for infectious disease testing in blood.

  3. Flow cytometric readout based on Mitotracker Red CMXRos staining of live asexual blood stage malarial parasites reliably assesses antibody dependent cellular inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jogdand Prajakta S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional in vitro assays could provide insights into the efficacy of malaria vaccine candidates. For estimating the anti-parasite effect induced by a vaccine candidate, an accurate determination of live parasite count is an essential component of most in vitro bioassays. Although traditionally parasites are counted microscopically, a faster, more accurate and less subjective method for counting parasites is desirable. In this study mitochondrial dye (Mitotracker Red CMXRos was used for obtaining reliable live parasite counts through flow cytometry. Methods Both asynchronous and tightly synchronized asexual blood stage cultures of Plasmodium falciparum were stained with CMXRos and subjected to detection by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. The parasite counts obtained by flow cytometry were compared to standard microscopic counts obtained through examination of Giemsa-stained thin smears. A comparison of the ability of CMXRos to stain live and compromised parasites (induced by either medium starvation or by anti-malarial drug treatment was carried out. Finally, parasite counts obtained by CMXRos staining through flow cytometry were used to determine specific growth inhibition index (SGI in an antibody-dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI assay. Results Mitotracker Red CMXRos can reliably detect live intra-erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum. Comparison between staining of live with compromised parasites shows that CMXRos predominantly stains live parasites with functional mitochondria. Parasite counts obtained by CMXRos staining and flow cytometry were highly reproducible and can reliably determine the ability of IgG from hyper-immune individuals to inhibit parasite growth in presence of monocytes in ADCI assay. Further, a dose-dependent parasite growth inhibitory effect could be detected for both total IgG purified from hyper-immune sera and affinity purified IgGs against the N-terminal non-repeat region of GLURP

  4. Children and Parasitic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC.gov . Parasites About Parasites Animals Blood Food Insects Water Education and Training CDC Bottle Bioassay References ... flowing water. It can cause itching and impaired vision in children, and lead to blindness in adulthood. ...

  5. Flow cytometric readout based on Mitotracker Red CMXRos staining of live asexual blood stage malarial parasites reliably assesses antibody dependent cellular inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jogdand, Prajakta S; Singh, Susheel K; Christiansen, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Functional in vitro assays could provide insights into the efficacy of malaria vaccine candidates. For estimating the anti-parasite effect induced by a vaccine candidate, an accurate determination of live parasite count is an essential component of most in vitro bioassays...... asynchronous and tightly synchronized asexual blood stage cultures of Plasmodium falciparum were stained with CMXRos and subjected to detection by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. The parasite counts obtained by flow cytometry were compared to standard microscopic counts obtained through examination...

  6. Effect of coumaphos on cholinesterase activity, hematology, and biochemical blood parameters of bovines in tropical regions of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardío, Violeta T; Ibarra, Nelly De J; Waliszewski, Krzysztof N; López, Karla M

    2007-05-01

    To assess the effect of coumaphos [O-(3-chloro-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-1-benzopyran-7-yl) O,O-diethyl phosphorothioate] exposure on physiological responses during bovine production, acetylcolinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activities were measured in whole blood, erythrocytes, and plasma of healthy male steers (Bos Taurus x Bos indicus) sprayed with coumaphos at a non-lethal dose of 1 mg kg(- 1) body weight per day once every 14 (in vivo group) or 21 days (southern and central groups). Coumaphos topically administered at 1 mg/kg body weight per day to cattle under normal management practices in tropical areas produced a significant inhibition in erythrocyte (RBC) AChE and BuAChE activities when compared to baseline levels. RBC-AChE activity for the in vivo group decreased 71.3% (P < 0.05) and BuChE activity 59.1% (P < 0.05); RBC-AChE activity decreased 55.1% (P < 0.05) (southern group) and 43.4% (P < 0.05) (central group). Compared to the control specimens, steers from in vivo, southern, and central groups after 150 days of exposure had lower (P < 0.05) leukocyte count, absolute lymphocyte, erythrocyte, and platelet counts. Decreases in RBC-AChE activities correlated with decreased lymphocyte (r = 1.000, p = 0.01), erythrocyte (r = 1.000, p = 0.003), and platelet counts (r = 0.841, p = 0.036). Significantly increased BUN levels (P < 0.05) correlated with the decrease in RBC-AChE activities (r = - 0.997, p = 0.047) and with the decrease in absolute red blood cell (r = - 0.883, p = 0.020) and lymphocyte (r = - 0.825, p = 0.043) counts; increased (P < 0.05) total plasma protein levels correlated with the decrease in RBC-AChE activities (r = -0.998, p = 0.043), absolute red blood cell (r = - 0.998, p = 0.040), lymphocyte (r = - 0.893, p = 0.017), and platelet (r = -0.855, p = 0.030) counts. The physiological responses correlated with the erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase inhibition could be considered as early indicators or warning responses of bovine

  7. Effect of bovine lactoferrin on functions of activated feline peripheral blood mononuclear cells during chronic feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Saori; Sato, Reeko; Aoki, Takako; Omoe, Katsuhiko; Inanami, Osamu; Hankanga, Careen; Yamada, Yuichi; Tomizawa, Nobuyuki; Yasuda, Jun; Sasaki, Juso

    2008-05-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection is characterized by chronic overactivation of immune and inflammatory system, resulting in anergic state and dysfunction of immune cells. Lactoferrin (LF), a glycoprotein present in exocrine secretions and neutrophils, plays an important role in host defense system. Our previous study showed that oral administration of bovine LF (bLF) suppressed oral inflammation, improved the clinical symptoms and decreased serum gamma-globulin as a marker of inflammation in FIV-infected cats with intractable stomatitis. The anti-inflammatory effect was partly involved in regulation of neutrophil function by bLF. In this study, to clarify the relationship between anti-inflammatory effects of bLF and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), we examined the effect of bLF on proliferation, cell cycle progression and cytokine expression in mitogen-activated PBMC. MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay showed that bLF inhibited the concanavalin A (ConA)-induced cell proliferation in FIV-infected cats with the asymptomatic carrier and AIDS-related complex (ARC) phase. Bovine LF restored ConA-induced cell cycle progression and resulted in suppression of the induced apoptosis in feline PBMC. Real-time RT-PCR showed that bLF suppressed ConA-induced expression of interferon-gamma and interleukin-2 in cells of the ARC group regardless of the time of its addition to the medium. These results suggest the hypothesis that therapy with bLF may have the potential to improve and protect functions of overactivated lymphocytes by modulating the cell proliferation, cell cycle and cytokines expression in cats in terminal stage of FIV infection.

  8. Alcohol consumption as self-medication against blood-borne parasites in the fruit fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Neil F; Kacsoh, Balint Z; Schlenke, Todd A

    2012-03-20

    Plants and fungi often produce toxic secondary metabolites that limit their consumption, but herbivores and fungivores that evolve resistance gain access to these resources and can also gain protection against nonresistant predators and parasites. Given that Drosophila melanogaster fruit fly larvae consume yeasts growing on rotting fruit and have evolved resistance to fermentation products, we decided to test whether alcohol protects flies from one of their common natural parasites, endoparasitoid wasps. Here, we show that exposure to ethanol reduces wasp oviposition into fruit fly larvae. Furthermore, if infected, ethanol consumption by fruit fly larvae causes increased death of wasp larvae growing in the hemocoel and increased fly survival without need of the stereotypical antiwasp immune response. This multifaceted protection afforded to fly larvae by ethanol is significantly more effective against a generalist wasp than a wasp that specializes on D. melanogaster. Finally, fly larvae seek out ethanol-containing food when infected, indicating that they use alcohol as an antiwasp medicine. Although the high resistance of D. melanogaster may make it uniquely suited to exploit curative properties of alcohol, it is possible that alcohol consumption may have similar protective effects in other organisms.

  9. Peripheral blood-derived bovine dendritic cells promote IgG1-restricted B cell responses in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Anna A; Garcia-Tapia, David; Jordan, Kimberly R; Haas, Karen M; Werling, Dirk; Howard, Chris J; Estes, D Mark

    2003-01-01

    Regulation of humoral responses involves multiple cell types including the requirements for cognate interactions between T and B cells to drive CD40-dependent responses to T-dependent antigens. A third cell type has also been shown to play an essential role, the dendritic cell (DC). We demonstrate that bovine peripheral blood-derived (PB)-DC are similar in function to features described for human interstitial DC including the production of signature type 2 cytokines [interleukin (IL)-13, IL-10]. PB-DC express moderate-to-high costimulatory molecule expression, and major histocompatibility complex class II is negative for CD14 expression and has low or no expression of CD11c. Consistent with the interstitial phenotype is the ability of PB-DC to influence B cell activation and differentiation via direct expression of CD40L and type 2 cytokines. Collectively, these results suggest that direct B cell-DC interactions may promote an immunoglobulin-isotype expression pattern consistent with type 2 responses, independent of direct T cell involvement.

  10. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from field cattle immune to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are permissive in vitro to BVDV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, V; Mishra, N; Pateriya, A; Behera, S P; Rajukumar, K

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro permissivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-immune field cattle to homologous and heterologous BVDVs. PBMCs from seventeen BVDV-naïve and sixteen BVDV-immune animals were infected with noncytopathic BVDV-1 or BVDV-2. The immune status of cattle was indicated by the presence of virus neutralizing antibodies, while viral load of PBMCs was determined by real-time RT-PCR. The results revealed that the PBMCs from naïve or immune animals were permissive to either BVDV-1 or BVDV-2, but the viral load was significantly higher for the naïve than for the immune animals. Furthermore, the load of homologous virus in PBMCs from immune animals was lower than that of heterologous virus. Our results provide evidence that the PBMCs from BVDV-immune cattle in field are susceptible to reinfection with homologous or heterologous BVDV, albeit to a lower extent in the former case.

  11. Distinct patterns of blood-stage parasite antigens detected by plasma IgG subclasses from individuals with different level of exposure to Plasmodium falciparum infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Cathrine Holm; Brahimi, Karima; Vandahl, Brian;

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In endemic regions naturally acquired immunity against Plasmodium falciparum develops as a function of age and exposure to parasite infections and is known to be mediated by IgG. The targets of protective antibodies remain to be fully defined. Several immunoepidemiological...... then gradually develop into protective response dominated by cytophilic IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies. METHODS: Naturally occurring IgG antibodies against P. falciparum blood-stage antigens were analysed from plasma samples collected from four groups of individuals differing in age and level of exposure to P....... falciparum infections. Western Blot profiling of blood-stage parasite antigens displaying reactivity with individual plasma samples in terms of their subclass specificities was conducted. Parasite antigens detected by IgG were grouped based on their apparent molecular sizes resolved by SDS-PAGE as high...

  12. 中国北方人初乳、牛初乳、牛常乳、牛血中胰岛素样生长因子-1和神经生长因子含量的比较%Comparison of IGF-1 and NGF in human colostrum, bovine colostrum,bovine milk and bovine blood serum in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洋; 生庆海; 张玉梅; 赵艾; 贾梦; 薛勇; 王培玉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To quantify and compare the levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 ( IGF-1 ) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in human colostrum, bovine colostrum, bovine milk and bovine blood serum. Methods Radioimmunoassay was used in the quantification of IGF-1 and NGF. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 13. 0. Results The levels of IGF-1 in human colostrum, bovine colostrum, bovine milk and bovine blood serum were 26. 91, 38.40, 20. 14 and 37.35 μg/L,respectively. The levels of NGF in human colostrum, bovine colostrum, milk and bovine blood serum were 300. 47,69.82, 110. 37 and 9. 63 ng/L, respectively. The differences between the levels of IGF-1 in human colostrum and bovine colostrum were not significant, but the levels of IGF-1 in bovine colostrum were obviously higher than that in bovine milk (P <0. 05), and there was no significant difference between the levels of IGF-1 in bovine milk and bovine blood serum.The level of NGF in human colostrum was obviously higher than that in bovine colostrum ( P < 0.05 ). There was no significant difference between the levels of NGF in bovine colostrum and bovine milk. The level of NGF in bovine blood serum was obviously lower than that in bovine milk ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion The level of IGF-1 in human colostrum was not significantly different from that in bovine colostrum, but the level of NGF in human colostrum was much higher than that in bovine colostrum.%目的 检测人初乳、集中饲养的新西兰进口荷斯坦乳牛的初乳、常乳和血液中胰岛素样生长因子-1(IGF-1)和神经生长因子(NGF)的含量,比较人初乳和牛初乳、牛初乳和牛常乳以及牛乳和同期采集的血液中IGF-1、NGF的含量.方法 采用放射免疫试剂盒测定人初乳、牛初乳、牛常乳和血中IGF-1、NGF的含量,使用SPSS 13.0进行统计分析.结果 本研究中测定的人初乳中IGF-1的含量是26.91μg/L,荷斯坦乳牛的初乳、常乳和血清中IGF-1的含量分别是38.40、20.14和37.35

  13. Global warming will reshuffle the areas of high prevalence and richness of three genera of avian blood parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Antón; de la Hera, Iván; Fernández-González, Sofía; Pérez-Tris, Javier

    2014-08-01

    The importance of parasitism for host populations depends on local parasite richness and prevalence: usually host individuals face higher infection risk in areas where parasites are most diverse, and host dispersal to or from these areas may have fitness consequences. Knowing how parasites are and will be distributed in space and time (in a context of global change) is thus crucial from both an ecological and a biological conservation perspective. Nevertheless, most research articles focus just on elaborating models of parasite distribution instead of parasite diversity. We produced distribution models of the areas where haemosporidian parasites are currently highly diverse (both at community and at within-host levels) and prevalent among Iberian populations of a model passerine host: the blackcap Sylvia atricapilla; and how these areas are expected to vary according to three scenarios of climate change. On the basis of these models, we analysed whether variation among populations in parasite richness or prevalence are expected to remain the same or change in the future, thereby reshuffling the geographic mosaic of host-parasite interactions as we observe it today. Our models predict a rearrangement of areas of high prevalence and richness of parasites in the future, with Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon parasites (today the most diverse genera in blackcaps) losing areas of high diversity and Plasmodium parasites (the most virulent ones) gaining them. Likewise, the prevalence of multiple infections and parasite infracommunity richness would be reduced. Importantly, differences among populations in the prevalence and richness of parasites are expected to decrease in the future, creating a more homogeneous parasitic landscape. This predicts an altered geographic mosaic of host-parasite relationships, which will modify the interaction arena in which parasite virulence evolves.

  14. Reduced blood parasite prevalence with age in the Seychelles Warbler : selective mortality or suppression of infection?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oers, Kees; Richardson, David S.; Saether, Stein A.; Komdeur, Jan; Guglielmo, C.G.

    Avian malaria can affect survival and reproduction of their hosts. Two patterns commonly observed in birds are that females have a higher prevalence of malaria than do males and that prevalence decreases with age. The mechanisms behind these patterns remain unclear. However, most studies on blood

  15. Parasites and vector-borne pathogens in client-owned dogs in Albania. Blood pathogens and seroprevalences of parasitic and other infectious agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Dietmar; Shukullari, Enstela; Rapti, Dhimitër; Silaghi, Cornelia; Pfister, Kurt; Rehbein, Steffen

    2016-02-01

    Knowledge on the epidemiology of parasitic and vector-borne infections is still very limited for Albania, a country located in the Balkan Peninsula in southeast Europe. Recent publications indicated prevalence rates of up to 52% for vector-borne infections in less-cared dogs in Albania. To provide data on the epidemiological situation in dogs under veterinary care, a total of 602 client-owned dogs presented to four small animal clinics between March 2010 and April 2011 in Tirana, Albania, were screened by examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears, PCR, and serological methods for the presence of arthropod-borne infections, as well as Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii. Eight different pathogens, namely Babesia vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, and Mycoplasma haemocanis, were detected by direct methods with prevalence rates ranging from 1 to 9%. Seroprevalence for Babesia spp., L. infantum, Anaplasma spp., and E. canis were 6.6, 5.1, 24.1, and 20.8%, respectively. Dogs >1 year of age were positive for vector-borne infections significantly more often than younger dogs (p = 0.003). More than half (51.7%) of the dogs were seroreactive to T. gondii and 18.3% to N. caninum. This is the first report on the detection of A. phagocytophilum, A. platys, E. canis, and M. haemocanis by PCR as well as the serological confirmation of exposure of dogs to N. caninum and T. gondii in Albania. The spectrum of pathogens and the seroprevalences for N. caninum and T. gondii in client-owned dogs from Tirana, Albania, are comparable to that reported in other countries in the Mediterranean Basin. The prevalence rates of vector-borne pathogens are at the lower range of that reported in studies from this geographical region. This is probably due to increased awareness of the owners of pet dogs, including better husbandry conditions and ectoparasiticidal treatment, thus limiting exposure

  16. Incorporation of radio-labelled nucleic acid precursors by Theileria parva in bovine blood and salivary glands of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvin, A.D.; Boarer, C.D.H.; Kurtti, T.J.; Ocama, J.G.R. (International Lab. for Research on Animal Diseases, Nairobi (Kenya))

    1981-12-01

    The uptake of radio-labelled nucleic acid precursors by blood and tick salivary gland forms of Theileria parva was studied. Piroplasms took up tritiated purines, particularly hypoxanthine, but not pyrimidines. Similar uptake was recorded by T. parva, both in tick saliva and in salivary glands maintained in vitro. Intermediate parasite stages were those most readily labelled in glands; this reflected active nucleic acid synthesis associated with rapid parasite division. Radio-labelling of T. parva in tick salivary glands could be of value in procedures used for concentrating and purifying theilerial sporozoites.

  17. Habitat fragmentation and ecological traits influence the prevalence of avian blood parasites in a tropical rainforest landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan G W Laurance

    Full Text Available In the tropical rainforests of northern Australia, we investigated the effects of habitat fragmentation and ecological parameters on the prevalence of blood-borne parasites (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus in bird communities. Using mist-nets on forest edges and interiors, we sampled bird communities across six study sites: 3 large fragments (20-85 ha and 3 continuous-forest sites. From 335 mist-net captures, we recorded 28 bird species and screened 299 bird samples with PCR to amplify and detect target DNA. Of the 28 bird species sampled, 19 were infected with Plasmodium and/or Haemoproteus and 9 species were without infection. Over one third of screened birds (99 individuals were positive for Haemoproteus and/or Plasmodium. In forest fragments, bird capture rates were significantly higher than in continuous forests, but bird species richness did not differ. Unexpectedly, we found that the prevalence of the dominant haemosporidian infection, Haemoproteus, was significantly higher in continuous forest than in habitat fragments. Further, we found that ecological traits such as diet, foraging height, habitat specialisation and distributional ranges were significantly associated with blood-borne infections.

  18. Blood Parasites of Blue-winged Teal ( Anas discors ) from Two Migratory Corridors, in the Southern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvon, Jason M; Mott, Joanna B; Jacobs, Sandy Serio; Fedynich, Alan M

    2016-07-01

    We collected 180 Blue-winged Teal ( Anas discors ) in September and October 2002 from Florida, US (n=100, representing the eastern migratory corridor) and the Louisiana-Texas, US, border (n=80, representing the western migratory corridor) and examined for blood parasites using thin heart-blood smears. Leucocytozoon simondi, Haemoproteus nettionis, and microfilariae were found in 16, 23, and 27 birds, respectively. Prevalence of L. simondi and H. nettionis did not vary by migratory corridor, but the prevalence of microfilariae was higher in the western corridor (23%) than the eastern corridor (9%). No differences in prevalence of L. simondi, H. nettionis, and microfilariae were observed by host age or sex. The mean density of L. simondi and H. nettionis averaged 1.5±0.3 and 2.3±0.4 (±SE per 3,000 erythrocytes), respectively. Ranked abundance models for main and interactive effects of corridor, age, and sex were not statistically significant for L. simondi or H. nettionis. Low prevalence and abundance of hematozoa in early autumn migrants reflects the likelihood of low exposure probabilities of Blue-winged Teal on the breeding grounds, compared to their congeners.

  19. Habitat fragmentation and ecological traits influence the prevalence of avian blood parasites in a tropical rainforest landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurance, Susan G W; Jones, Dean; Westcott, David; McKeown, Adam; Harrington, Graham; Hilbert, David W

    2013-01-01

    In the tropical rainforests of northern Australia, we investigated the effects of habitat fragmentation and ecological parameters on the prevalence of blood-borne parasites (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) in bird communities. Using mist-nets on forest edges and interiors, we sampled bird communities across six study sites: 3 large fragments (20-85 ha) and 3 continuous-forest sites. From 335 mist-net captures, we recorded 28 bird species and screened 299 bird samples with PCR to amplify and detect target DNA. Of the 28 bird species sampled, 19 were infected with Plasmodium and/or Haemoproteus and 9 species were without infection. Over one third of screened birds (99 individuals) were positive for Haemoproteus and/or Plasmodium. In forest fragments, bird capture rates were significantly higher than in continuous forests, but bird species richness did not differ. Unexpectedly, we found that the prevalence of the dominant haemosporidian infection, Haemoproteus, was significantly higher in continuous forest than in habitat fragments. Further, we found that ecological traits such as diet, foraging height, habitat specialisation and distributional ranges were significantly associated with blood-borne infections.

  20. First report of blood parasites in fishes from Kashmir and their effect on the haematological profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, N.; Yousuf, A.R.; Rather, M.I.; Ahmad, F.; Yaseen, T.

    2013-01-01

    Cyprinus carpio communis Linnaeus, Carassius carassius Linnaeus, Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel and Triplophysa marmorata species of fishes were captured from Anchar Lake and river Jhelum of Kashmir Himalaya for hematological and parasitological analysis. During the investigation haemoflagellates from the genus Babesiosoma and Trypanosoma were recorded in the blood smears. Trypanosomes were present in all the species except C. carpio, whereas Babesiosoma were only found in T. marmorata. Haematological analysis revealed a significant (p<0.01) reduction in red blood cell count in the fishes infected with Babesiosoma and Trypanosoma. A significant decrease (p<0.05) was recorded in haemoglobin value and packed cell volume in the infected fishes in comparison to the non-infected fishes. PMID:26623319

  1. Radiofrequency ablation of the liver: effect of variation of portal venous blood flow on lesion size in an in-vitro perfused bovine liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liping; Dodd, Gerald D; Lanctot, Anthony C

    2012-08-01

    An in vitro perfused bovine liver model was used to evaluate the relationship between the sizes of radiofrequency ablation lesions and variation in portal venous blood flow. Fourteen bovine livers were perfused with autologous heparinized blood at 37°C and 40% to 50% oxygenation via the portal vein. Flow rates were adjusted from 10 to 50 mL/min/100 g tissue. A 480-kHz generator and a 3.0-cm monopolar internally cooled electrode were used to create 57 ablations. The long-axis diameter, short-axis diameter (SAD), and volume of each ablation zone were measured and calculated from the dissected livers. Correlations between SAD, long-axis diameter, and volume versus blood flow were assessed using linear regression analysis. SAD and lesion volume demonstrated inverse linear correlations with blood flow (for SAD, y = -0.044x + 3.925, r = 0.836, P portal venous blood flow, with an average 4.4-mm change in SAD and an average 5.6-cm(3) change in volume for each 10 mL/min/100 g change in flow rate. Copyright © 2012 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficacy of larvicidal activity of green synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Mangifera indica extract against blood-feeding parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Chung, Ill-Min; Anbarasan, Karunanithi; Karthikeyan, Viswanathan

    2015-02-01

    , simple, and eco-friendly approach has been suggested to control blood-feeding parasites.

  3. The transmission potential of malaria-infected mosquitoes (An.gambiae-Keele, An.arabiensis-Ifakara) is altered by the vertebrate blood type they consume during parasite development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, S Noushin; Ranford-Cartwright, Lisa C; Ferguson, Heather M

    2017-01-17

    The efficiency of malaria parasite development within mosquito vectors (sporogony) is a critical determinant of transmission. Sporogony is thought to be controlled by environmental conditions and mosquito/parasite genetic factors, with minimal contribution from mosquito behaviour during the period of parasite development. We tested this assumption by investigating whether successful sporogony of Plasmodium falciparum parasites through to human-infectious transmission stages is influenced by the host species upon which infected mosquitoes feed. Studies were conducted on two major African vector species that generally are found to differ in their innate host preferences: Anopheles arabiensis and An. gambiae sensu stricto. We show that the proportion of vectors developing transmissible infections (sporozoites) was influenced by the source of host blood consumed during sporogony. The direction of this effect was associated with the innate host preference of vectors: higher sporozoite prevalences were generated in the usually human-specialist An. gambiae s.s. feeding on human compared to cow blood, whereas the more zoophilic An. arabiensis had significantly higher prevalences after feeding on cow blood. The potential epidemiological implications of these results are discussed.

  4. The transmission potential of malaria-infected mosquitoes (An.gambiae-Keele, An.arabiensis-Ifakara) is altered by the vertebrate blood type they consume during parasite development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, S. Noushin; Ranford-Cartwright, Lisa C.; Ferguson, Heather M.

    2017-01-01

    The efficiency of malaria parasite development within mosquito vectors (sporogony) is a critical determinant of transmission. Sporogony is thought to be controlled by environmental conditions and mosquito/parasite genetic factors, with minimal contribution from mosquito behaviour during the period of parasite development. We tested this assumption by investigating whether successful sporogony of Plasmodium falciparum parasites through to human-infectious transmission stages is influenced by the host species upon which infected mosquitoes feed. Studies were conducted on two major African vector species that generally are found to differ in their innate host preferences: Anopheles arabiensis and An. gambiae sensu stricto. We show that the proportion of vectors developing transmissible infections (sporozoites) was influenced by the source of host blood consumed during sporogony. The direction of this effect was associated with the innate host preference of vectors: higher sporozoite prevalences were generated in the usually human-specialist An. gambiae s.s. feeding on human compared to cow blood, whereas the more zoophilic An. arabiensis had significantly higher prevalences after feeding on cow blood. The potential epidemiological implications of these results are discussed. PMID:28094293

  5. Effector responses of bovine blood neutrophils against Escherichia coli: Role of NOD1/NF-κB signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xun; Wei, Liang-Jun; Fan, Guo-Juan; Jiang, Ya-Nan; Yu, Xu-Ping

    2015-11-15

    Neutrophils use a broad array of pattern recognition receptors to sense and respond to invading pathogens and are important in the early control of acute bacterial infections. Nucleotide-binding oligomerizing domain-1 (NOD1) is a cytoplasmic receptor involved in recognizing bacterial peptidoglycan. Reduced neutrophil NOD1 expression has been reported in periparturient dairy cows. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of NOD1 signalling in the early responses of bovine neutrophils to bacterial infections. Blood neutrophils from healthy heifers were preincubated for 2h with ML130, a selective inhibitor of NOD1-dependent nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. Thereafter, cells were cultured with live Escherichia coli for additional 30 min or subjected to Boyden chamber cell migration assay with E. coli in the lower chamber. Results showed that ML130 inhibited E. coli-induced NF-κB nuclear translocation. There was an indication, although not significant, that ML130 down-regulated gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, chemokines IL-8 and C-X-C motif ligand 2 (CXCL2), and adhesion molecule CD62L, in E. coli-challenged neutrophils. Flow cytometry-based Annexin V staining revealed a considerable increase in neutrophil survival upon E. coli infection, an effect that was attenuated in the presence of ML130. Additionally, inhibition of NOD1/NF-κB signalling resulted in reduced migration of neutrophils to E. coli, and impaired phagocytosis, intracellular bacterial killing and reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils. These results indicate that NOD1/NF-κB pathway plays a crucial role in modulating neutrophil responses that are important for early control of infections. Approaches aiming at restoring neutrophil NOD1 function could be beneficial for prevention or treatment of coliform mastitis.

  6. Lyophilized bovine hemoglobin as a possible reference material for the determination of hemoglobin derivatives in human blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, BHA; Buursma, A; Ernst, RAJ; Maas, AHJ; Zijlstra, WG

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the suitability of a lyophilized bovine hemoglobin (LBH) preparation containing various fractions of oxyhemoglobin (O(2)Hb), carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), and methemoglobin (MetHb) for quality assessment in multicomponent analysis (MCA) of hemoglobin derivatives. It was demonstrated that

  7. Prepartal dietary energy level affects peripartal bovine blood neutrophil metabolic, antioxidant, and inflammatory gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z; Bu, D P; Vailati Riboni, M; Khan, M J; Graugnard, D E; Luo, J; Cardoso, F C; Loor, J J

    2015-08-01

    During the dry period, cows can easily overconsume higher-grain diets, a scenario that could impair immune function during the peripartal period. Objectives were to investigate the effects of energy overfeeding on expression profile of genes associated with inflammation, lipid metabolism, and neutrophil function, in 12 multiparous Holstein cows (n=6/dietary group) fed control [CON, 1.34 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM)] or higher-energy (HE, 1.62 Mcal/kg of DM) diets during the last 45 d of pregnancy. Blood was collected to evaluate 43 genes in polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMNL) isolated at -14, 7, and 14 d relative to parturition. We detected greater expression of inflammatory-related cytokines (IL1B, STAT3, NFKB1) and eicosanoid synthesis (ALOX5AP and PLA2G4A) in HE cows than in CON cows. Around parturition, all cows had a close balance in mRNA expression of the pro-inflammatory IL1B and the anti-inflammatory IL10, with greater expression of both in cows fed HE than CON. The expression of CCL2, LEPR, TLR4, IL6, and LTC4S was undetectable. Cows in the HE group had greater expression of genes involved in PMNL adhesion, motility, migration, and phagocytosis, which was similar to expression of genes related to the pro-inflammatory cytokine. This response suggests that HE cows experienced a chronic state of inflammation. The greater expression of G6PD in HE cows could have been associated with the greater plasma insulin, which would have diverted glucose to other tissues. Cows fed the HE diet also had greater expression of transcription factors involved in metabolism of long-chain fatty acids (PPARD, RXRA), suggesting that immune cells might be predisposed to use endogenous ligands such as nonesterified fatty acids available in the circulation when glucose is in high demand for milk synthesis. The lower overall expression of SLC2A1 postpartum than prepartum supports this suggestion. Targeting interleukin-1β signaling might be of value in terms of controlling

  8. Calcium and magnesium concentrations in uterine fluid and blood serum during the estrous cycle in the bovine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mortaza Alavi-Shoushtari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate uterine and serum Ca++ and Mg++ variations during the estrous cycle in the bovine, 66 genital tracts and blood samples were collected from Urmia abattoir, Urmia, Iran. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by examination of the structures present on ovaries and uterine tonicity. Of the collected samples, 17 were pro-estrus, 12 estrus, 14 metestrus and 23 diestrus. The uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. The mean ± SEM concentration of serum Ca++ in pro-estrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus was 5.77 ± 0.69, 8.87 ± 1.83, 10.95 ± 1.52, 11.09 ± 1.08 mg dL-1, and the mean concentration of uterine fluid Ca++ was 4.40 ± 0.72, 3.15 ± 0.67, 5.89 ± 0.88, 8.63 ± 0.97 mg dL-1, respectively. The mean concentration of serum Mg++ in pro-estrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus was 3.53 ± 0.30, 4.20 ± 0.52, 3.49 ± 0.38, 3.39 ± 0.29 mg dL-1, and mean concentration of uterine fluid Mg++ was 5.27 ± 0.42, 4.92 ± 0.60, 5.56 ± 0.30, 5.88 ± 0.36 mg dL-1, respectively. The serum and uterine fluid Ca++ in pro-estrus were significantly different from those of the metestrus and diestrus. In all stages of estrous cycle the mean concentration of serum Ca++ was higher than that in the uterine fluid. The difference between serum and uterine fluid Ca++ in estrus, metestrus and diestrus was significant. There was no significant difference between serum Mg++ content nor was it different from uterine fluid Mg++ content at any stages of estrous cycle. In all stages of estrous cycle the uterine fluid Mg++ was higher than that of the serum. These results suggest that during the estrous cycle in the cow, Ca++ is passively secreted in uterine fluids and is mostly dependent on blood serum Ca++ variations but Mg++ is secreted independently and does not follow variations in the serum concentrations.

  9. A comparison of two different techniques for the detection of blood parasite, Theileria annulata, in cattle from two districts in Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa Province (Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khattak R.M.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Theileria annulata in large ruminants from two districts, Peshawar and Kohat, in Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa (Pakistan. Blood samples were collected from 95 cattle. Data on the characteristics of animals and herds were collected through questionnaires. No significant risk factors were found associated with the spread of tropical theileriosis in the study area. Two different parasite detection techniques, PCR amplification and screening of Giemsa stained slides, were compared and it was found that PCR amplification is a more sensitive tool (33.7% parasite detection, as compared to smear scanning (5.2% parasite detection for the detection of Theileria annulata. 32 out of 95 animals, from both districts, produced the 721-bp fragment specific for Theileria annulata.

  10. In vivo assessment of antimicrobial agents against Toxoplasma gondii by quantification of parasites in the blood, lungs, and brain of infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piketty, C; Derouin, F; Rouveix, B; Pocidalo, J J

    1990-01-01

    The in vivo effects of antimicrobial agents against Toxoplasma gondii were evaluated in mice that were infected intraperitoneally with 10(4) tachyzoites of the RH strain by determination of survival rates and study of the kinetics of growth of T. gondii in infected mice. At various intervals after infection, subcultures of serial dilutions of blood, lung, and brain homogenates were performed in fibroblast tissue cultures for determination of parasitic loads. Pyrimethamine (18.5 mg/kg per day), sulfadiazine (375 mg/kg per day), and clindamycin (300 mg/kg per day) were administered for 10 days from day 1 or day 4 after infection. Untreated control mice died within 9 days and showed early and predominant lung involvement. All mice treated with sulfadiazine administered from day 1 survived and were apparently healthy; parasitic loads decreased early after treatment, but a relapse was observed 5 days after the cessation of therapy. When pyrimethamine was administered from day 1, 7 of 11 mice died within 25 days; by determination of parasitic loads, the effect of pyrimethamine was only demonstrable from day 6, and a relapse was constantly observed after the cessation of therapy. When pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine were administered in combination, 100% of mice survived; when therapy was started at day 1, parasites remained undetectable; in mice treated from day 4, parasites were eradicated by day 8 but infection relapsed 8 days after the cessation of therapy. All mice treated with clindamycin from day 1 or day 4 died within 10 days, but parasitemia was always undetectable. These results indicate that study of the kinetics of parasitic loads in blood and organs may provide additional information on the effect of antimicrobial agents against T. gondii in regard to the evolution of the infection and may represent a reliable basis for the determination of therapeutic regimens in humans. PMID:2221854

  11. [Toxinology of bovine paraplegic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevcik, C; Brito, J C; D'Suze, G; Mijares, A J; Domínguez, M G

    1993-01-01

    A clinical entity named "Bovine Paraplegic Syndrome" ("Síndrome Parapléjico de los Bovinos") has spread alarmingly, in the cattle growing areas of the central and eastern plains of Venezuela. Approximately four million cattle are bread in the area were the disease occurs. The mortality index due to the disease ranges 5 to 25% of the animals at risk, mostly cows, pregnant or lactating. The principal characteristic of the bovine paraplegic syndrome is decubitus, ventral or sternal, in animals that make vane efforts to stand when stimulated. The diagnosis is established ruling out, clinically and with laboratory findings, that the animals are suffering known diseases with similar symptoms such as paralytic rabies, botulism and blood parasites such Trypanosoma sp., Babesia sp., and Anaplasma sp.. Death occurs always, usually after few days, and to this date there is no known treatment able to save the sick cows. In this work, we describe results that suggest the presence of a toxin in the cattle suffering and prone to suffer the syndrome; it is a natural toxin produced by ruminal bacteria. In squid giant axons under voltage clamp conditions, this toxin is very specific to block sodium current during nerve electrical activity.

  12. Pelacakan Virus Bovine Viral Diarrhea pada Darah yang Dikoleksi dengan Kertas Saring Flinders Technology AssociatesTM (DETECTION OF BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS FROM BLOOD SAMPLES COLLECTED USING FLINDERS TECHNOLOGY ASSOCIATESTM CARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hastari Wuryastuti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is a common pathogen that causes major economic losses to dairyindustry worldwide. Amplification of 5’-UTR regions of BVDV genome from blood samples usingreversetranscriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR is one of sensitive and accurate techniques forBVDV detection. A common limitation for molecular detection of virus is the ability to obtain high qualityof nucleic acid in the samples. Inappropriate storage conditions will result in a false negative test. FiveEDTA-blood samples collected from BVDV persistently infected cattle were used in the present study.Ten repetitions were done for each sample. The blood were then dripped in the middle part of the FlindersTechnology AssociatesTM (FTA cards and let it dried for approximately 2 hours. The effectiveness of theFTATMcards for storage and retrieval of BVDV RNA from blood samples molecularly using RT-PCRtechnique were tested and evaluated. The results proved that FTATM cards are effective and safe for thestorage of BVDV genome for a long period at room temperature. Based on the result of the present study,it can be concluded that in veterinary medicine field, the application of FTATM technology needs to bedeveloped to various type of samples and should be used routinely for collecting samples containinginfectious agents.

  13. Dogs infected with the blood trypomastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi display an increase expression of cytokines and chemokines plus an intense cardiac parasitism during acute infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Sheler Martins; Vieira, Paula Melo de Abreu; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Reis, Levi Eduardo Soares; da Silva Fonseca, Kátia; Nogueira, Nívia Carolina; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins

    2014-03-01

    The recent increase in immigration of people from areas endemic for Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi) to the United States and Europe has raised concerns about the transmission via blood transfusion and organ transplants in these countries. Infection by these pathways occurs through blood trypomastigotes (BT), and these forms of T. cruzi are completely distinct of metacyclic trypomastigotes (MT), released by triatomine vector, in relation to parasite-host interaction. Thus, research comparing infection with these different infective forms is important for explaining the potential impacts on the disease course. Here, we investigated tissue parasitism and relative mRNA expression of cytokines, chemokines, and chemokine receptors in the heart during acute infection by MT or BT forms in dogs. BT-infected dogs presented a higher cardiac parasitism, increased relative mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokines and of the chemokines CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL5/RANTES, and the chemokine receptor CCR5 during the acute phase of infection, as compared to MT-infected dogs. These results suggest that infection with BT forms may lead to an increased immune response, as revealed by the cytokines ratio, but this kind of immune response was not able to control the cardiac parasitism. Infection with the MT form presented an increase in the relative mRNA expression of IL-12p40 as compared to that of IL-10 or TGF-β1. Correlation analysis showed increased relative mRNA expression of IFN-γ as well as IL-10, which may be an immunomodulatory response, as well as an increase in the correlation of CCL5/RANTES and its CCR5 receptor. Our findings revealed a difference between inoculum sources of T. cruzi, as vectorial or transfusional routes of T. cruzi infection may trigger distinct parasite-host interactions during the acute phase, which may influence immunopathological aspects of Chagas disease.

  14. Down-regulation of selected Blood-brain Barrier Specific Genes from Capillaries to Bovine In Vitro Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte Goldeman; Saaby, Lasse; Brodin, Birger

    the in vivo gene expression of brain capillary endothelial cells. Primary bovine endothelial cells and rat astrocytes were cultured in different culture configurations and the mRNA expression of selected genes (vWF, Glut-1, P-gp, claudin-1,-5, occludin, JAM-1, LAT-1, SLC16A1, MRP-1,-4, BCRP, ZO-1, AP, TPA...

  15. Innate immune response to a bovine mastitis pathogen profiled in milk and blood monocytes using a systems biology approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine mastitis is an inflammatory condition of the mammary gland which leads to reduced milk yield and increased milk somatic cell counts (SCC) resulting in an estimated annual cost to the dairy industry worldwide of ~ 2 billion euros. Mastitis has a complex etiology, with pathogenic, host and envi...

  16. The effect of maternal antibodies on the detection of bovine virus diarrhoea virus in peripheral blood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmer, G.M.; Maanen, van C.; Goey, de I.; Brinkhof, J.; Wentink, G.H.

    2004-01-01

    Persistently infected animals (PI animals), that is those animals born after an intrauterine infection of the dam during the first 120 days of gestation, are the main source of bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVD virus) in a cattle population. The success of any BVD virus eradication programme depends

  17. The effect of maternal antibodies on the detection of bovine virus diarrhoea virus in peripheral blood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmer, G.M.; Maanen, van C.; Goey, de I.; Brinkhof, J.; Wentink, G.H.

    2004-01-01

    Persistently infected animals (PI animals), that is those animals born after an intrauterine infection of the dam during the first 120 days of gestation, are the main source of bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVD virus) in a cattle population. The success of any BVD virus eradication programme depends

  18. Malaria parasite cGMP-dependent protein kinase regulates blood stage merozoite secretory organelle discharge and egress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine R Collins

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The malaria parasite replicates within an intraerythrocytic parasitophorous vacuole (PV. Eventually, in a tightly regulated process called egress, proteins of the PV and intracellular merozoite surface are modified by an essential parasite serine protease called PfSUB1, whilst the enclosing PV and erythrocyte membranes rupture, releasing merozoites to invade fresh erythrocytes. Inhibition of the Plasmodium falciparum cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PfPKG prevents egress, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here we show that PfPKG activity is required for PfSUB1 discharge into the PV, as well as for release of distinct merozoite organelles called micronemes. Stimulation of PfPKG by inhibiting parasite phosphodiesterase activity induces premature PfSUB1 discharge and egress of developmentally immature, non-invasive parasites. Our findings identify the signalling pathway that regulates PfSUB1 function and egress, and raise the possibility of targeting PfPKG or parasite phosphodiesterases in therapeutic approaches to dysregulate critical protease-mediated steps in the parasite life cycle.

  19. Elevated manganese levels in blood and central nervous system occur before onset of clinical signs in scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, S; Sassoon, J; Knight, R; Hopkins, J; Brown, D R

    2007-06-01

    Prion diseases, or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, are neurodegenerative diseases that can only be accurately diagnosed by analysis of central nervous system tissue for the presence of an abnormal isoform of the prion protein known as PrP(Sc). Furthermore, these diseases have long incubation periods during which there are no clear symptoms but where the infectious agent could still be present in the tissues. Therefore, the development of diagnostic assays to detect a surrogate marker for the presence of prion disease is essential. Previous studies on mice experimentally infected with scrapie, an ovine spongiform encephalopathy, suggested that changes in the levels of Mn occur in the blood and brain before the onset of symptoms of the disease. To assess whether these findings have relevance to the animal diseases scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy, tissues from bovine spongiform encephalopathy- and scrapie-infected cattle and sheep were analyzed for their metal content and compared with values for noninfected animals. In field cases and experimentally infected animals, elevated Mn was associated with prion infection. Although some central nervous system regions showed elevated Mn, other regions did not. The most consistent finding was an elevation of Mn in blood. This change was present in experimentally infected animals before the onset of symptoms. In scrapie-infected sheep, elevated Mn levels occurred regardless of the genotype of the sheep and were even detected in scrapie-resistant sheep in which no symptoms of disease were detected. These findings suggest that elevated blood Mn could be a potential diagnostic marker for prion infection even in the absence of apparent clinical disease.

  20. Negative correlation between nuptial throat colour and blood parasite load in male European green lizards supports the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Orsolya; Bajer, Katalin; Mészáros, Boglárka; Török, János; Herczeg, Gábor

    2013-06-01

    During female mate choice, conspicuous male sexual signals are used to infer male quality and choose the best sire for the offspring. The theory of parasite-mediated sexual selection (Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis) presumes that parasite infection can influence the elaboration of sexual signals: resistant individuals can invest more energy into signal expression and thus advertise their individual quality through signal intensity. By preferring these males, females can provide resistance genes for their offspring. Previous research showed that nuptial throat colour of male European green lizard, Lacerta viridis, plays a role in both inter- and intrasexual selections as a condition-dependent multiple signalling system. The aim of this study was to test the predictions of the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis on male European green lizards. By blood sampling 30 adult males during the reproductive season, we found members of the Haemogregarinidae family in all but one individual (prevalence = 96%). The infection intensity showed strong negative correlation with the throat and belly colour brightness in line with the predictions of the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis. In addition, we found other correlations between infection intensity and other fitness-related traits, suggesting that parasite load has a remarkable effect on individual fitness. This study shows that throat patch colour of the European green lizards not only is a multiple signalling system but also possibly acts as an honest sexual signal of health state in accordance with the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis.

  1. The permeation of dynorphin A 1-6 across the blood brain barrier and its effect on bovine brain microvessel endothelial cell monolayer permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Courtney D Kuhnline; Audus, Kenneth L; Aldrich, Jane V; Lunte, Susan M

    2012-12-01

    Dynorphin A 1-17 (Dyn A 1-17) is an endogenous neuropeptide known to act at the kappa opioid receptor; it has been implicated in a number of neurological disorders, including neuropathic pain, stress, depression, and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The investigation of Dyn A 1-17 metabolism at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is important since the metabolites exhibit unique biological functions compared to the parent compound. In this work, Dyn A 1-6 is identified as a metabolite of Dyn A 1-17 in the presence of bovine brain microvessel endhothelial cells (BBMECs), using LC-MS/MS. The transport of Dyn A 1-6 at the BBB was examined using this in vitro cell culture model of the BBB. Furthermore, the permeation of the BBB by the low molecular weight permeability marker fluorescein was characterized in the presence and absences of Dyn A 1-6.

  2. Global distribution of polymorphisms associated with delayed Plasmodium falciparum parasite clearance following artemisinin treatment: genotyping of archive blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Kenji; Culleton, Richard; Hisaoka, Teruhiko; Endo, Hiroyoshi; Mita, Toshihiro

    2015-06-01

    The recent emergence and spread of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum isolates is a growing concern for global malaria-control efforts. A recent genome-wide analysis study identified two SNPs at genomic positions MAL10-688956 and MAL13-1718319, which are linked to delayed clearance of parasites following artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). It is expected that continuous artemisinin pressure will affect the distribution of these SNPs. Here, we investigate the worldwide distribution of these SNPs using a large number of archived samples in order to generate baseline data from the period before the emergence of ACT resistance. The presence of SNPs in MAL10-688956 and MAL13-1718319 was assessed by nested PCR RFLP and direct DNA sequencing using 653 global P. falciparum samples obtained before the reported emergence of ACT resistance. SNPs at MAL10-688956 and MAL13-1718319 associated with delayed parasite clearance following ACT administration were observed in 8% and 3% of parasites, respectively, mostly in Cambodia and Thailand. Parasites harbouring both SNPs were found in only eight (1%) isolates, all of which were from Cambodia and Thailand. Linkage disequilibrium was detected between MAL10-688956 and MAL13-1718319, suggesting that this SNP combination may have been selected by ACT drug pressure. Neither of the SNPs associated with delayed parasite clearance were observed in samples from Africa or South America. Baseline information of the geographical difference of MAL10-688956 and MAL13-1718319 SNPs provides a solid basis for assessing whether these SNPs are selected by artemisinin-based combination therapies.

  3. Parasitic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... water, a bug bite, or sexual contact. Some parasitic diseases are easily treated and some are not. Parasites ... can be seen with the naked eye. Some parasitic diseases occur in the United States. Contaminated water supplies ...

  4. A Lectin Purified from Blood Red Bracket Mushroom, Pycnoporus sanguineus (Agaricomycetidae), Mycelium Displayed Affinity Toward Bovine Transferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albores, Silvana; Moros, Maria; Cerdeiras, Maria Pia; de la Fuente, Jesus Martinez; Grazu, Valeria; Fraguas, Laura Franco

    2016-01-01

    Fungal lectins constitute excellent ligands for development of affinity adsorbents useful in affinity chromatography. In this work, a lectin was purified from Pycnoporus sanguineus (PSL) mycelium using 3 procedures: by affinity chromatography, using magnetic galactosyl-nanoparticles or galactose coupled to Sepharose, and by ionic exchange chromatography (IEC). The highest lectin yield was achieved by IEC (55%); SDS-PAGE of PSL showed 2 bands with molecular mass of 68.7 and 55.2 kDa and IEC displayed 2 bands at pi 5.5 and 5.2. The lectin agglutinates rat erythrocytes, exhibiting broad specificity toward several monosaccharides, including galactose. The agglutination was also inhibited by the glycoproteins fetal calf fetuin, bovine lactoferrin, bovine transferrin, and horseradish peroxidase. The lectin was then used to synthesize an affinity adsorbent (PSL-Sepharose) and the interaction with glycoproteins was evaluated by analyzing their chromatographic behaviors. The strongest interaction with the PSL-derivative was observed with transferrin, although lower interactions were also displayed toward fetuin and lactoferrin. These results indicate that the purified PSL constitutes an interesting ligand for the design of affinity adsorbents to be used (i.e., in glycoprotein purification).

  5. Kinetics of cytokine expression in bovine PBMCs and whole blood after in vitro stimulation with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Pervaiz A; Hajam, Irshad A; Suryanarayana, Velavurthy S; Kishore, Subodh; Kondabattula, Ganesh

    2015-03-01

    The interest in analysing antigen-specific cytokine responses has substantially increased in recent years, in part due to their use in assessing vaccine efficacy. In the present study, the kinetics of IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-γ expression was determined in bovine PBMCs by real-time PCR and in whole blood by cytokine-release assay after in vitro stimulation with recall foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) antigen. The results showed that the cytokine mRNA of IL-2 and IFN-γ in PBMCs were induced early (peak induction at 6 h), whereas the IL-4 mRNA showed delayed induction (peaked at 24 h). In contrast, the kinetics of cytokine proteins in whole blood was different and required the accumulation of the proteins before being optimally detected. The peak accumulation of cytokine protein in whole blood was recorded at 72 h for IL-2 and IL-4, and 96 h for IFN-γ. The findings of this study are of importance when selecting an optimal time points for measuring antigen-specific cytokine expression in cattle.

  6. Oxygenation to Bovine Blood in Artificial Heart and Lung Using Vibrating Flow Pump: Experiment and Numerical Analysis Based on Non-Newtonian Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintaku, Hirofumi; Yonemura, Tsubasa; Tsuru, Kazuaki; Isoyama, Takashi; Yambe, Tomoyuki; Kawano, Satoyuki

    In this study, we construct an experimental apparatus for a prototype artificial heart and lung (AHL) by installing hollow fibers into the cylindrical tube of the vibrating flow pump (VFP). The oxygenation characteristics are investigated both by experiments using bovine blood and by numerical analyses based on the computational fluid dynamics. The analyses are carried out at the Reynolds numbers Re ranged from O(1) to O(103), which are determined based on the experimental conditions. The blood flow and the diffusion of oxygen gas are analyzed based on the Newtonian/non-Newtonian, unsteady, incompressible and axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations, and the advection-diffusion equation. The results show that the oxygenation rate increases in proportion to Re1/3, where the phenomenon corresponds to the decreasing thickness of the concentration boundary layer with Re. Although the effects of the vibrating flow and the rheology of the blood are clearly appeared on the velocity field, their effects on the gas exchange are relatively small at the ranges of prescribed Reynolds numbers. Furthermore, the numerical results in terms of the oxygenation rate are compared with the experimental ones. The basic design data of VFP were accumulated for the development of AHL in the clinical applications.

  7. Influence of management and biological factors on parasitic invasions in the wild – Spread of the blood-sucking nematode Ashworthius sidemi in European bison (Bison bonasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kołodziej-Sobocińska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The full course of new parasite introductions in wild animals is difficult to accurately trace. We documented and analysed the invasive blood-sucking nematode Ashworthius sidemi (Trichostrongylidae introduction and spread in European bison (Bison bonasus from the initial phase of its progression. In the Polish part of the Białowieża Primeval Forest (BPF the parasite was first found in 2000. From 2002 to 2015, 165 culled bison were investigated. The prevalence and intensity of A. sidemi Schulz, 1933 infection increased over the following years, reaching 100% of investigated bison four years after introduction and a maximal median intensity of 8200 nematodes per animal in the winter of 2008/2009. Afterwards, a significant decline of median infection intensity was observed to the minimum value of 410 nematodes per animal. Between 2011 and 2014 prevalence varied from 89 to 100%. Among the factors analysed, the number of years since introduction, herd size, age and sex proved to significantly influence infection intensity. A higher infection intensity was recorded in sub-adults compared to juveniles and adults. Males had significantly lower infection intensity than females, but this was the case for adults only. The highest infection intensities were recorded in the biggest bison herds, where the winter supplementary feeding of bison is intense. Moreover, the longer the parasite was present in the host population, the more important herd size became as a factor. Our study indicates that it is not solely biological factors that determine the spread of a newly detected parasite in wildlife, but that management practices can also have a strong influence. This is especially important in endangered species under intensive human care as the management practices may pose a threat to the species.

  8. Seasonal patterns in growth, blood consumption, and effects on hosts by parasitic-phase sea lampreys in the Great Lakes: an individual-based model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Cochran, Philip A.; Bergstedt, Roger A.

    2003-01-01

    An individual-based model (IBM) was developed for sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes. The IBM was then calibrated to observed growth, by season, for sea lampreys in northern Lake Huron under two different water temperature regimes: a regime experienced by Seneca-strain lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and a regime experienced by Marquettestrain lake trout. Modeling results indicated that seasonal blood consumption under the Seneca regime was very similar to that under the Marquette regime. Simulated mortality of lake trout directly due to blood removal by sea lampreys occurred at nearly twice the rate during August and September under the Marquette regime than under the Seneca regime. However, cumulative sea lamprey-induced mortality on lake trout over the entire duration of the sea lamprey's parasitic phase was only 7% higher for the Marquette regime compared with the Seneca regime. Thus, these modeling results indicated that the strain composition of the host (lake trout) population was not important in determining total number of lake trout deaths or total blood consumption attributable to the sea lamprey population, given the sea lamprey growth pattern. Regardless of water temperature regime, both blood consumption rate by sea lampreys and rate of sea lamprey-induced mortality on lake trout peaked in late October. Elevated blood consumption in late October appeared to be unrelated to changes in water temperature. The IBM approach should prove useful in optimizing control of sea lampreys in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  9. Evaluation of the interferon-γ assay on blood collected at exsanguination of cattle under field conditions for surveillance of bovine tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, C C; Grooms, D L; Bolin, S R; Averill, J J; Kaneene, J B

    2014-12-01

    Development of point of concentration (POC) surveillance strategies for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) would facilitate global efforts to eradicate bTB. The interferon-gamma (IFNγ) assay can detect IFNγ responses to Mycobacterium bovis in blood collected at commencement of exsanguination (COE) of experimentally challenged cattle but has not been evaluated under field conditions. The current study was aimed at determining (i) whether blood collected at COE of cattle at slaughter, under field conditions, is practical to obtain and useful for identifying cattle as IFNγ positive for bTB, (ii) whether the results of the IFNγ assay obtained at COE reliably compare with results obtained from live animals in the field, and (iii) whether the identified animal(s) originated from bTB-infected or bTB-exposed herds. Cattle from three risk groups were used: the highest risk group consisted of 49 cattle from 3 bTB-infected herds; the medium risk group consisted of 24 cattle from a potentially exposed herd; and the lowest risk group consisted of 60 cattle from herds with no known history of bTB exposure. The IFNγ assay was performed on blood collected both before stunning and at COE of cattle at slaughter. An enhanced slaughter inspection for gross lesions consistent with bTB was performed on all cattle. In addition, lymph nodes were cultured for M. bovis for cattle that tested positive for bTB via the IFNγ assay and for most cattle that tested negative for bTB. Cattle, both with and without lesions consistent with bTB, were identified as positive for bTB by the IFNγ assay using blood collected at COE, but none of the positive cattle originated from the lowest risk group. The current study demonstrates that blood collected at COE of cattle is both a practical and moderately reliable sample for accessing bTB infection using the IFNγ assay.

  10. Genetic diversity and host specificity varies across three genera of blood parasites in ducks of the Pacific Americas Flyway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Andrew B.; Smith, Matthew M.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Ramey, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Birds of the order Anseriformes, commonly referred to as waterfowl, are frequently infected by Haemosporidia of the genera Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, and Leucocytozoon via dipteran vectors. We analyzed nucleotide sequences of the Cytochrome b (Cytb) gene from parasites of these genera detected in six species of ducks from Alaska and California, USA to characterize the genetic diversity of Haemosporidia infecting waterfowl at two ends of the Pacific Americas Flyway. In addition, parasite Cytb sequences were compared to those available on a public database to investigate specificity of genetic lineages to hosts of the order Anseriformes. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity of Haemoproteus Cytb sequences was lower than was detected for Plasmodium and Leucocytozoon parasites. Although waterfowl are presumed to be infected by only a single species of Leucocytozoon, L. simondi, diversity indices were highest for haplotypes from this genus and sequences formed five distinct clades separated by genetic distances of 4.9%–7.6%, suggesting potential cryptic speciation. All Haemoproteus andLeucocytozoon haplotypes derived from waterfowl samples formed monophyletic clades in phylogenetic analyses and were unique to the order Anseriformes with few exceptions. In contrast, waterfowl-origin Plasmodium haplotypes were identical or closely related to lineages found in other avian orders. Our results suggest a more generalist strategy for Plasmodiumparasites infecting North American waterfowl as compared to those of the generaHaemoproteus and Leucocytozoon.

  11. Three-dimensional visualisation of developmental stages of an apicomplexan fish blood parasite in its invertebrate host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayes Polly M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although widely used in medicine, the application of three-dimensional (3D imaging to parasitology appears limited to date. In this study, developmental stages of a marine fish haemogregarine, Haemogregarina curvata (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina, were investigated in their leech vector, Zeylanicobdella arugamensis; this involved 3D visualisation of brightfield and confocal microscopy images of histological sections through infected leech salivary gland cells. Findings 3D assessment demonstrated the morphology of the haemogregarine stages, their spatial layout, and their relationship with enlarged host cells showing reduced cellular content. Haemogregarine meronts, located marginally within leech salivary gland cells, had small tail-like connections to the host cell limiting membrane; this parasite-host cell interface was not visible in two-dimensional (2D light micrographs and no records of a similar connection in apicomplexan development have been traced. Conclusions This is likely the first account of the use of 3D visualisation to study developmental stages of an apicomplexan parasite in its invertebrate vector. Elucidation of the extent of development of the haemogregarine within the leech salivary cells, together with the unusual connections between meronts and the host cell membrane, illustrates the future potential of 3D visualisation in parasite-vector biology.

  12. Bovine milk exosome proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin and are found in blood, urine, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as human and bovine milk. Exosomes are extracellular organelles important in intracellular communication/signaling, immune function, and biomarkers ...

  13. Prevalence of Endoglobular Hemotropic Parasites in Pure Gyr Cattle in Córdoba, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Blanco Martínez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine parasitic sadness produces significant losses in Colombia and it is associated with the presence of ticks. It is caused by microscopic endoglobular hemotropic parasites such as Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. In this study, 131 pure Gyr cows were studied from four cattle farms in Córdoba, Colombia. A blood sample of 5 ml was collected from the coccygeal vein for hematocrit determination and for blood smears stained with Wright’s stain, in order to assess intracellular parasitic forms morphologically compatible with Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. Chi-square test was used to determine whether the variables of body condition, mucous color, sex and production system (grazing, semi-confinement, and confinement were independent from the frequency of endoglobular hemotropic parasites. The study found that 24.43% of the sampled animals were positive for endoglobular hemotropic parasites; 20.61% (27/131 of them were positive for Anaplasma spp.; 3.05% (4/131 for Babesia spp., and 0.76% (1/131 for both Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. No significant differences (p > 0.05 were found for variables of mucous color, sex and production system (grazing, semi-confinement, and confinement. This allowed to register for the first time the prevalence of infection by endoglobular hemotropic parasites in Bos indicus cattle, of the Gyr breed specifically.

  14. PREVALENCE OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA AND OTHER INTESTINAL PARASITES IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AND ITS RELATION TO RESIDENCE PLACE, SEX AND BLOOD GROUP IN ILAM COUNTY OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourbabak

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available 1711' object of this study was to determine the prevalence oj asymptomatic infestation with Giardia lamblia lind other intestinal parasites in children of urban anti rural communities oj /lam county and its relation with dwelling place, sex and blood grollp!.. 77w study designed as (l five-month pUTasitoulgica! .m,..£!' oj fecal ami blood specimens from humans anti performed in 10 urban hcalih-trcatmcru clinics of llam city, two urban health treatment clinics of Eyvun city, two rural health-treatment clinics oj Chavar and Sartaf villages, llam province west of fran, 17,e examined population was preschool {, to 7 year-old children without any 'gastrointestinal compliarus. Prevalence oj infestation in subject grOllp W(l."' 32.54% (n=3100. Among intestinal parasites' G. lambliu with 85.43o/c (27.8% oj all, n=JO(JI prevalence rate was the most common. Infestation with 11. nnrm with 1'/.93% and E. coli with 3.07';, were in the second and third ranks, respectively, Infestation shows a distinct relationship with gender (P<0.05 and dwelling place, but it lacks a significant relation with blood groups. This study ."lIOWS that the prevalence of intestinal infestation in 6 to 7 year old child oj llam county hi equivalent to the top oj tile line oj the statistical percentage all over the world. 17,e relation between the severity oj infestation and residence place may arouse the suspicion oj sever contamination oj imbibing water.

  15. Potential of the polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of active Toxoplasma infection by detection of parasite in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, E C; Joynson, D H

    1995-07-01

    Blood samples from 54 patients presenting with acute toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy were tested for the presence of Toxoplasma gondii DNA using a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR test results of a single blood sample obtained 2-23 weeks after onset of illness were positive for 19 (35%) of the 54 patients. Nine (53%) of 17 patients were positive by PCR when the initial blood sample was collected within the first 5 weeks of illness. In 7 of the 19 patients found positive, further blood samples were available, and subsequent clearance of T. gondii DNA from the blood was demonstrated. On the basis of positive findings among patients with acute toxoplasmosis and the absence of positive findings among 10 uninfected persons and 43 with past Toxoplasma infection, a positive PCR result appears to be a helpful indicator of active disease. However, since only 53% of patients with lymphadenopathy persisting < or = 5 weeks were positive, a negative PCR result does not exclude recent infection.

  16. Ultra-sensitive detection of prion protein fibrils by flow cytometry in blood from cattle affected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maas Elke

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The definite diagnosis of prion diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD in humans or bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE in cattle currently relies on the post mortem detection of the pathological form of the prion protein (PrPSc in brain tissue. Infectivity studies indicate that PrPSc may also be present in body fluids, even at presymptomatic stages of the disease, albeit at concentrations well below the detection limits of currently available analytical methods. Results We developed a highly sensitive method for detecting prion protein aggregates that takes advantage of kinetic differences between seeded and unseeded polymerization of prion protein monomers. Detection of the aggregates was carried out by flow cytometry. In the presence of prion seeds, the association of labelled recombinant PrP monomers in plasma and serum proceeds much more efficiently than in the absence of seeds. In a diagnostic model system, synthetic PrP aggregates were detected down to a concentration of approximately 10-8 nM [0.24 fg/ml]. A specific signal was detected in six out of six available serum samples from BSE-positive cattle. Conclusion We have developed a method based on seed-dependent PrP fibril formation that shows promising results in differentiating a small number of BSE-positive serum samples from healthy controls. This method may provide the basis for an ante mortem diagnostic test for prion diseases.

  17. Bayesian estimation of sensitivity and specificity of Coxiella burnetii antibody ELISA tests in bovine blood and milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Suman; Toft, Nils; Agerholm, Jørgen S.;

    2013-01-01

    Serological tests for Coxiella burnetii (the causative agent of Q fever) antibodies are usually based on enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) although this method is not thoroughly evaluated. The objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of an ELISA for detection...... of the ELISA methods on milk and blood were equal at 0.99. No conditional dependence was observed between the specificity estimates of the two test methods. However, the sensitivity estimates of both tests were significantly reduced when conditional covariances ≥40 were used. Collection of milk samples from...... to positive (S/P) cut-off of 40 for both blood and milk ELISAs. At this cut-off, sensitivity of milk ELISA was 0.86 (95% posterior credibility interval [PCI] [0.76; 0.96]). This was slightly but insignificantly higher than sensitivity of blood ELISA (0.84; 95% PCI [0.75; 0.93]). The specificity estimates...

  18. Human Umbilical Cord Blood Serum: Effective Substitute of Fetal Bovine Serum for Culturing of Human Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, Yu A; Balashova, E E; Volgina, N E; Kabaeva, N V; Dugina, T N; Sukhikh, G T

    2017-02-01

    Optimal conditions for culturing of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in the presence of pooled umbilical cord blood serum were determined. It was found that umbilical cord blood serum in a concentration range of 1-10% effectively supported high viability and proliferative activity of cells with unaltered phenotype and preserved multilineage differentiation capacity. The proposed approach allows avoiding the use of xenogenic animal sera for culturing of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells and creates prerequisites for designing and manufacturing safe cellular and/or acellular products for medical purposes.

  19. Toxicology of a bovine paraplegic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevcik, C; Brito, J C; D'Suze, G; Domínguez-Bello, M G; Lovera, M; Mijares, A J; Bónoli, S

    1993-12-01

    A clinical entity named 'bovine paraplegic syndrome' ('síndrome parapléjico de los bovinos') has spread alarmingly in the cattle-growing areas of the central and eastern plains of Venezuela. It is estimated that four million cattle are bred in the area where the disease occurs. The mortality ranges from 5 to 25% of the animals at risk, mostly pregnant or lactating cows. The principal characteristic of the bovine paraplegic syndrome is ventral or sternal decubitus, in animals that make vain efforts to stand when stimulated. The diagnosis is established when all other possible causes (e.g. paralytic rabies, botulism and blood parasites such as Anaplasma marginal, Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, and Trypanosoma vivax) have been ruled out clinically and by laboratory tests. Death always occurs, usually after a few days, and there is no known treatment. In this work, we describe results that show the presence of a toxin in the cattle suffering from, or liable to suffer from the syndrome. The toxin is produced by ruminal bacteria. In squid giant axons under voltage clamp conditions, the toxin blocks the sodium current. We detected the toxin analytically by absorbance measurements at 340 nm after reacting with picrylsulfonic acid. We obtained a good separation of the toxin with isocratic high pressure liquid chromatography, using 40% methanol in water on phenylborasil columns.

  20. USEING OF COMET ASSAY FOR DETECTION OF THE DAMAGE IN DNA DUE TO THE INFECTION BY BLOOD PARASITES IN CYRUS GOAT KIDS

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    Firas R. Al-Samarai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out at the Ruminants Researches Station (20 km west of Baghdad /State Board for Agriculture Researches / Ministry of Agriculture, and Biotechnology Research Center of AL-Nahrain Univ. for the period from 1/8/213 to 1/8/2014. The aim of this study was to identify the damage in DNA according to comet assay procedure, after testing of 50 infected goats with blood parasites. Most of traits affected significantly by infection, as most of traits showed a depression due to infection. Results revealed that the effect of type on the traits of comet assay was significant (P < 0.01 in this study. The infected goat kids were surpassed the corresponding healty goat kids for all measures of comet, whereas, the healty goat kids surpassed the corresponding infected goat kids.

  1. Acaricidal, pediculocidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles using wet chemical route against blood feeding parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Marimuthu, Sampath; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Velayutham, Kanayairam

    2011-08-01

    The present study was based on assessments of the anti-parasitic activities to determine the efficacies of synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) prepared by wet chemical method using zinc nitrate and sodium hydroxide as precursors and soluble starch as stabilizing agent against the larvae of cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Canestrini (Acari: Ixodidae); head louse Pediculus humanus capitis, De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae); larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus, Grassi; and filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, Say (Diptera: Culicidae). R. microplus larvae were exposed to filter paper envelopes impregnated with different ZnO NP concentrations. Direct contact method was conducted to determine the potential of pediculocidal activity. Parasite larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of synthesized ZnO NPs for 24 h. The results suggested that the mortality effects of synthesized ZnO NPs were 43% at 1 h, 64% at 3 h, 78% at 6 h, and 100% after 12 h against R. microplus activity. In pediculocidal activity, the results showed that the optimal times for measuring mortality effects of synthesized ZnO NPs were 38% at 10 min, 71% at 30 min, 83% at 1 h, and 100% after 6 h against P. humanus capitis. One hundred percent lice mortality was observed at 10 mg/L treated for 6 h. The mortality was confirmed after 24 h of observation period. The larval mortality effects of synthesized ZnO NPs were 37%, 72%, 100% and 43%, 78% and 100% at 6, 12, and 24 h against A. subpictus and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. It is apparent that the small size and corresponding large specific surface area of small nanometer-scale ZnO particles impose several effects that govern its parasitic action, which are size dependent. ZnO NPs were synthesized by wet chemical process, and it was characterized with the UV showing peak at 361 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra clearly shows that the diffraction peaks in the pattern indexed as the zinc oxide with

  2. Inefficacy of albendazole sulphoxide and ivermectin for the treatment of bovine parasitic otitis caused by rhabditiform nematodes Ineficácia do sulfóxido de albendazole e da ivermectina no tratamento da otite parasitária bovina causada por nematóides rhabditiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme G. Verocai

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of orally administered albendazole sulphoxide and pour-on ivermectin for the treatment of bovine parasitic otitis caused by rhabditiform nematodes. Eighteen Gyr cows presenting clinical otitis were divided in three groups with six animals each. The first one did not receive any treatment (control group. The second one was treated with 0.5% pour-on ivermectin, 500µg/kg of body weight, and the third group was treated with oral 6% albendazole sulphoxide, at 6.0mg/kg. Both ear canals of each animal were reexamined on days 7 and 21 post treatment. The animals in the control group remained infected throughout the days of observation. Ivermectin treatment did not show effectiveness on days 7 or 21 post treatment. The albendazole sulphoxide treatment had an efficacy of 16.7 and 25% on days 7 and 21, respectively. Further studies are required to assess an effective treatment for this parasitic disease, especially via alternative administration routes, because of its significant impact on Bos taurus indicus cattle breeding in Tropical and Subtropical Regions.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia do sulfóxido de albendazol administrado oralmente e da ivermectina "pour-on" no tratamento da otite parasitária bovina causada por nematóides rhabditiformes. Dezoito vacas Gir apresentando otite clínica foram divididas em três grupos de seis animais cada. O primeiro não recebeu tratamento (grupo controle. O segundo foi tratado com ivermectina "pour-on" a 0,05% na dose de 500µg/kg de peso vivo. O terceiro grupo foi tratado com sulfóxido de albendazol oral a 6% na dose 6,0mg/kg. Os condutos auditivos de todos os animais foram reexaminados nos dias 7 e 21 pós-tratamento. Os animais do grupo controle permaneceram infectados nos dias de observação. O tratamento com ivermectina não demonstrou eficácia alguma para os dias 7 e 21 pós-tratamento. O tratamento com sulfóxido de albendazol obteve

  3. Frequency and phenotype of natural killer cells and natural killer cell subsets in bovine lymphoid compartments and blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Carly A; Mahan, Suman; Bell, Charlotte R; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo; Charleston, Bryan; Entrican, Gary; Hope, Jayne C

    2017-05-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are widely distributed in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues, but little is known about the recirculation of NK cells between blood and tissues. This is relevant to understanding recirculation in the steady-state and also for determining the roles for NK cells in vaccine-induced immunity and responses to infection. Therefore, the percentage of NK cells and their phenotype across peripheral blood, afferent lymph and lymph nodes in steady-state conditions was investigated in cattle using the pseudo-afferent lymphatic cannulation model. CD2(+) CD25(lo) NK cells were the predominant subset of NK cells within the blood. In contrast, CD2(-) CD25(hi) NK cells were the main subset present within the skin-draining afferent lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes, indicating that CD2(-) NK cells are the principal NK cell subset trafficking to lymph nodes via the afferent lymphatic vessel. Furthermore, a low percentage of NK cells were present in efferent lymph, which were predominantly of the CD2(-) subset, indicating that NK cells can egress from lymph nodes and return to circulation in steady-state conditions. These compartmentalization data indicate that NK cells represent a population of recirculating lymphocytes in steady-state conditions and therefore may be important during immune responses to vaccination or infection. © 2017 The Authors. Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Parasites: Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Water Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Parasites can live in natural water sources. When outdoors, treat your water before drinking ...

  5. Genetic characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus strains in Beijing, China and innate immune responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in persistently infected dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xiao Gang; Song, Quan Jiang; Wu, Qiong; Liu, Ming Chao; Wang, Meng Ling; Wang, Jiu Feng

    2015-01-01

    To acquire epidemiological data on the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and identify cattle persistently infected (PI) with this virus, 4,327 samples from Holstein dairy cows were screened over a four-year period in Beijing, China. Eighteen BVD viruses were isolated, 12 from PI cattle. Based on genetic analysis of their 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR), the 18 isolates were assigned to subgenotype BVDV-1m, 1a, 1d, 1q, and 1b. To investigate the innate immune responses in the peripheral-blood mononuclear cells of PI cattle, the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors, interferon-α (IFN-α), IFN-β, myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance 1 (MX1), and interferon stimulatory gene 15 (ISG15) was assessed by qPCR. When compared with healthy cattle, the expression of TLR-7, IFN-α, and IFN-β mRNA was downregulated, but the expression of MX1 and ISG-15 mRNA was upregulated in PI cattle. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that the expression of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) and IRF-7 was lower in PI cattle than in healthy cattle. Thus, BVDV-1m and 1a are the predominant subgenotypes in the Beijing region, and the strains are highly divergent. Our findings also suggest that the TLR-7/IRF-7 signaling pathway plays a role in evasion of host restriction by BVDV.

  6. Species diversity, habitat utilization and blood parasites of amphibians in and around Ndumo Game Reserve / Edward Charles Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Netherlands, Edward Charles

    2014-01-01

    Ndumo Game Reserve is the only officially protected area within the Phongolo Floodplain; an area in the northern parts of KwaZulu-­‐Natal known to boast a rich diversity of amphibians, thus becoming one of the focal areas for this study. The study’s aim was to monitor and record amphibian diversity, as well as associated blood parasi...

  7. The transmission potential of malaria-infected mosquitoes (An.gambiae-Keele, An.arabiensis-Ifakara) is altered by the vertebrate blood type they consume during parasite development

    OpenAIRE

    Emami, S Noushin; Ranford-Cartwright, Lisa C; Ferguson, Heather M

    2017-01-01

    The efficiency of malaria parasite development within mosquito vectors (sporogony) is a critical determinant of transmission. Sporogony is thought to be controlled by environmental conditions and mosquito/parasite genetic factors, with minimal contribution from mosquito behaviour during the period of parasite development. We tested this assumption by investigating whether successful sporogony of Plasmodium falciparum parasites through to human-infectious transmission stages is influenced by t...

  8. In vivo approaches reveal a key role for DCs in CD4+ T cell activation and parasite clearance during the acute phase of experimental blood-stage malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Borges da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are phagocytes that are highly specialized for antigen presentation. Heterogeneous populations of macrophages and DCs form a phagocyte network inside the red pulp (RP of the spleen, which is a major site for the control of blood-borne infections such as malaria. However, the dynamics of splenic DCs during Plasmodium infections are poorly understood, limiting our knowledge regarding their protective role in malaria. Here, we used in vivo experimental approaches that enabled us to deplete or visualize DCs in order to clarify these issues. To elucidate the roles of DCs and marginal zone macrophages in the protection against blood-stage malaria, we infected DTx (diphtheria toxin-treated C57BL/6.CD11c-DTR mice, as well as C57BL/6 mice treated with low doses of clodronate liposomes (ClLip, with Plasmodium chabaudi AS (Pc parasites. The first evidence suggesting that DCs could contribute directly to parasite clearance was an early effect of the DTx treatment, but not of the ClLip treatment, in parasitemia control. DCs were also required for CD4+ T cell responses during infection. The phagocytosis of infected red blood cells (iRBCs by splenic DCs was analyzed by confocal intravital microscopy, as well as by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence, at three distinct phases of Pc malaria: at the first encounter, at pre-crisis concomitant with parasitemia growth and at crisis when the parasitemia decline coincides with spleen closure. In vivo and ex vivo imaging of the spleen revealed that DCs actively phagocytize iRBCs and interact with CD4+ T cells both in T cell-rich areas and in the RP. Subcapsular RP DCs were highly efficient in the recognition and capture of iRBCs during pre-crisis, while complete DC maturation was only achieved during crisis. These findings indicate that, beyond their classical role in antigen presentation, DCs also contribute to the direct elimination of iRBCs during acute Plasmodium infection.

  9. In Vivo Approaches Reveal a Key Role for DCs in CD4+ T Cell Activation and Parasite Clearance during the Acute Phase of Experimental Blood-Stage Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges da Silva, Henrique; Fonseca, Raíssa; Cassado, Alexandra dos Anjos; Machado de Salles, Érika; de Menezes, Maria Nogueira; Langhorne, Jean; Perez, Katia Regina; Cuccovia, Iolanda Midea; Ryffel, Bernhard; Barreto, Vasco M.; Marinho, Cláudio Romero Farias; Boscardin, Silvia Beatriz; Álvarez, José Maria; D’Império-Lima, Maria Regina; Tadokoro, Carlos Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are phagocytes that are highly specialized for antigen presentation. Heterogeneous populations of macrophages and DCs form a phagocyte network inside the red pulp (RP) of the spleen, which is a major site for the control of blood-borne infections such as malaria. However, the dynamics of splenic DCs during Plasmodium infections are poorly understood, limiting our knowledge regarding their protective role in malaria. Here, we used in vivo experimental approaches that enabled us to deplete or visualize DCs in order to clarify these issues. To elucidate the roles of DCs and marginal zone macrophages in the protection against blood-stage malaria, we infected DTx (diphtheria toxin)-treated C57BL/6.CD11c-DTR mice, as well as C57BL/6 mice treated with low doses of clodronate liposomes (ClLip), with Plasmodium chabaudi AS (Pc) parasites. The first evidence suggesting that DCs could contribute directly to parasite clearance was an early effect of the DTx treatment, but not of the ClLip treatment, in parasitemia control. DCs were also required for CD4+ T cell responses during infection. The phagocytosis of infected red blood cells (iRBCs) by splenic DCs was analyzed by confocal intravital microscopy, as well as by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence, at three distinct phases of Pc malaria: at the first encounter, at pre-crisis concomitant with parasitemia growth and at crisis when the parasitemia decline coincides with spleen closure. In vivo and ex vivo imaging of the spleen revealed that DCs actively phagocytize iRBCs and interact with CD4+ T cells both in T cell-rich areas and in the RP. Subcapsular RP DCs were highly efficient in the recognition and capture of iRBCs during pre-crisis, while complete DC maturation was only achieved during crisis. These findings indicate that, beyond their classical role in antigen presentation, DCs also contribute to the direct elimination of iRBCs during acute Plasmodium infection. PMID:25658925

  10. A large-scale electrophoresis- and chromatography-based determination of gene expression profiles in bovine brain capillary endothelial cells after the re-induction of blood-brain barrier properties

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    Duban-Deweer Sophie

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs form the physiological basis of the blood-brain barrier (BBB. The barrier function is (at least in part due to well-known proteins such as transporters, tight junctions and metabolic barrier proteins (e.g. monoamine oxidase, gamma glutamyltranspeptidase and P-glycoprotein. Our previous 2-dimensional gel proteome analysis had identified a large number of proteins and revealed the major role of dynamic cytoskeletal remodelling in the differentiation of bovine BCECs. The aim of the present study was to elaborate a reference proteome of Triton X-100-soluble species from bovine BCECs cultured in the well-established in vitro BBB model developed in our laboratory. Results A total of 215 protein spots (corresponding to 130 distinct proteins were identified by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, whereas over 350 proteins were identified by a shotgun approach. We classified around 430 distinct proteins expressed by bovine BCECs. Our large-scale gene expression analysis enabled the correction of mistakes referenced into protein databases (e.g. bovine vinculin and constitutes valuable evidence for predictions based on genome annotation. Conclusions Elaboration of a reference proteome constitutes the first step in creating a gene expression database dedicated to capillary endothelial cells displaying BBB characteristics. It improves of our knowledge of the BBB and the key proteins in cell structures, cytoskeleton organization, metabolism, detoxification and drug resistance. Moreover, our results emphasize the need for both appropriate experimental design and correct interpretation of proteome datasets.

  11. Perfil fenotípico de linfócitos periféricos de bovinos de raças européias Phenotypic profile of peripheral blood lymphocytes from European bovines

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    J.F.F. Bittar

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The phenotypic profile of bovine lymphocytes was evaluated in 18 bovines (Bos taurus from three different breeds, being nine Holstein, six Hereford, and three Brown Swiss. All animals were free from ticks and hemoparasites, as determined after jugular vein blood sampling. The immunophenotypes of peripheral lymphocytes were evaluated by flow cytometry. Peripheral lymphocytes were exposed to bovine fluorescein-labeled monoclonal antibodies including anti-CD4, anti-CD8, and anti-purified bovine CD21 specificities. After lysing the erythrocytes with a commercial lysing solution (FACS TM , the lymphocytes were washed, fixed, and evaluated by flow cytometry. Significant differences in the phenotypic profiles of peripheral lymphocytes among all breeds were found. Holstein animals showed a lower percentage of total T lymphocytes (CD4 and CD8 and higher percentage of B lymphocytes (CD21. In addition, the lymphocytes from Holstein animals showed a lower T/B ratio than the lymphocytes from Hereford animals. These results suggest the existence of different phenotypic profiles of peripheral lymphocytes from European breeds of cattle. Such differences may be related to the different pattern of immune response described for these breeds in the literature and may account to varying disease resistance among breeds.

  12. Comparison of two real-time PCR assays for the detection of malaria parasites from hemolytic blood samples - Short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Hinz, Rebecca; Tannich, Egbert; Frickmann, Hagen

    2015-06-01

    We compared the performance of an in-house and a commercial malaria polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using freeze-thawed hemolytic blood samples. A total of 116 freeze-thawed ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) blood samples of patients with suspicion of malaria were analyzed by an in-house as well as by a commercially available real-time PCR. Concordant malaria negative PCR results were reported for 39 samples and malaria-positive PCR results for 67 samples. The in-house assay further detected one case of Plasmodium falciparum infection, which was negative in the commercial assay as well as five cases of P. falciparum malaria and three cases of Plasmodium vivax malaria, which showed sample inhibition in the commercial assay. The commercial malaria assay was positive in spite of a negative in-house PCR result in one case. In all concordant results, cycle threshold values of P. falciparum-positive samples were lower in the commercial PCR than in the in-house assay. Although Ct values of the commercial PCR kit suggest higher sensitivity in case of concordant results, it is prone to inhibition if it is applied to hemolytic freeze-thawed blood samples. The number of misidentifications was, however, identical for both real-time PCR assays.

  13. Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Hyalomma dromedarii (Acari: Ixodidae) imbibe bovine blood in vitro by utilizing an artificial feeding system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeri, S; Razmi, G R

    2011-08-25

    Hard ticks have great importance because of blood feeding and transmitting dangerous human and animal diseases. Each year, they cause a lot of economical damage to the livestock industry. Control of ticks and tick-borne diseases is a major priority in most parts of the world and many studies have been done in this field. We know that studying haemoparasites and assessing the effect of different compounds on ticks requires a lot of money, support and sometimes it is time consuming. Considering all of these problems, today, in some research laboratories throughout the world, artificial in vitro feeding of ticks has become common. Development and application of such methods provide a cheap and accessible background for investigating haemoparasitic diseases under controlled conditions. For the first time we report successful in vitro feeding of two important ixodid ticks of the genus Hyalomma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Acaricidal, pediculicidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles using Momordica charantia leaf extract against blood feeding parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, P Rajiv; Jayaseelan, C; Mary, R Regina; Mathivanan, D; Suseem, S R

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acaricidal, pediculicidal and larvicidal effect of synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using Momordica charantia leaf extract against the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, adult of Pediculus humanus capitis, and the larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus. The ZnO NPs were characterized by using UV, XRD, FTIR and SEM-EDX. The SEM image confirms that the synthesized nanoparticles were spherical in shape with a size of 21.32 nm. The results of GC-MS analysis indicates the presence of the major compound of Nonacosane (C29H60) in the M. charantia leaf extract. Cattle tick, head lice and mosquito larvae were exposed to a varying concentrations of the synthesized ZnO NPs and M. charantia leaf extract for 24 h. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, biosynthesized ZnO NPs showed higher toxicity against R. microplus, P. humanus capitis, An. stephensi, and Cx. Quinquefasciatus with the LC50 values of 6.87, 14.38, 5.42, and 4.87 mg/L, respectively. The findings revealed that synthesized ZnO NPs possess excellent anti-parasitic activity. These results suggest that the green synthesized ZnO NPs has the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of R. microplus, P. humanus capitis and the mosquito larvae of An. Stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Blood meal identification and prevalence of avian malaria parasite in mosquitoes collected at Kushiro wetland, a subarctic zone of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejiri, Hiroko; Sato, Yukita; Kim, Kyeong Soon; Tsuda, Yoshio; Murata, Koichi; Saito, Keisuke; Watanabe, Yukiko; Shimura, Yoshiharu; Yukawa, Masayoshi

    2011-07-01

    In Japan, the prevalence of avian Plasmodium in birds and mosquitoes has been partially examined in the temperate and subtropical zones; however, mosquitoes in the Japanese subarctic zone have not been adequately investigated. In this study, mosquito collections and avian Plasmodium detections from the mosquito samples were carried out to demonstrate the avian Plasmodium transmission between vector mosquitoes and birds inhabiting in Kushiro Wetland, subarctic zone of Japan. A total of 5657 unfed mosquitoes from 18 species and 320 blood-fed mosquitoes from eight species was collected in summer 2008, 2009, and 2010. Three Aedes esoensis that fed on Hokkaido Sika Deer and one unfed Culex pipiens group were found to be positive for avian Plasmodium by polymerase chain reaction. This is the first report of the detection of avian Plasmodium DNA from mosquitoes distributing in the subarctic zone of Japan. The blood meals were successfully identified to captive or wild animals, including seven mammalian species, four bird species, and one amphibian species. These results indicated that infected birds with avian Plasmodium inhabited and direct contacts occurred between the infected birds and mosquitoes in Kushiro Wetland, Hokkaido, Japan.

  16. Ultrasensitive detection of PrP(Sc) in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood of macaques infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy prion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Yuichi; Masujin, Kentaro; Imamura, Morikazu; Ono, Fumiko; Shibata, Hiroaki; Tobiume, Minoru; Yamamura, Tomoaki; Shimozaki, Noriko; Terao, Keiji; Yamakawa, Yoshio; Sata, Tetsutaro

    2014-11-01

    Prion diseases are characterized by the prominent accumulation of the misfolded form of a normal cellular protein (PrP(Sc)) in the central nervous system. The pathological features and biochemical properties of PrP(Sc) in macaque monkeys infected with the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prion have been found to be similar to those of human subjects with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). Non-human primate models are thus ideally suited for performing valid diagnostic tests and determining the efficacy of potential therapeutic agents. In the current study, we developed a highly efficient method for in vitro amplification of cynomolgus macaque BSE PrP(Sc). This method involves amplifying PrP(Sc) by protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) using mouse brain homogenate as a PrP(C) substrate in the presence of sulfated dextran compounds. This method is capable of amplifying very small amounts of PrP(Sc) contained in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and white blood cells (WBCs), as well as in the peripheral tissues of macaques that have been intracerebrally inoculated with the BSE prion. After clinical signs of the disease appeared in three macaques, we detected PrP(Sc) in the CSF by serial PMCA, and the CSF levels of PrP(Sc) tended to increase with disease progression. In addition, PrP(Sc) was detectable in WBCs at the clinical phases of the disease in two of the three macaques. Thus, our highly sensitive, novel method may be useful for furthering the understanding of the tissue distribution of PrP(Sc) in non-human primate models of CJD.

  17. Alteration of the exDNA profile in blood serum of LLC-bearing mice under the decrease of tumour invasion potential by bovine pancreatic DNase I treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Evgenyi V.; Kurilshikov, Alexander M.; Patutina, Olga A.; Zenkova, Marina A.

    2017-01-01

    Taking into account recently obtained data indicating the participation of circulating extracellular DNA (exDNA) in tumorigenesis, enzymes with deoxyribonucleic activity have again been considered as potential antitumour and antimetastatic drugs. Previously, using murine Lewis lung carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma A1 tumour models, we have shown the antimetastatic activity of bovine DNase I, which correlates with an increase of DNase activity and a decrease of exDNA concentration in the blood serum of tumour-bearing mice. In this work, using next-generation sequencing on the ABS SOLiD™ 5.500 platform, we performed a search for molecular targets of DNase I by comparing the exDNA profiles of healthy animals, untreated animals with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) and those with LLC treated with DNase I. We found that upon DNase I treatment of LLC-bearing mice, together with inhibition of metastasis, a number of strong alterations in the patterns of exDNA were observed. The major differences in exDNA profiles between groups were: i) the level of GC-poor sequences increased during tumour development was reduced to that of healthy mice; ii) levels of sequences corresponding to tumour-associated genes Hmga2, Myc and Jun were reduced in the DNase I-treated group in comparison with non-treated mice; iii) 224 types of tandem repeat over-presented in untreated LLC-bearing mice were significantly reduced after DNase I treatment. The most important result obtained in the work is that DNase I decreased the level of B-subfamily repeats having homology to human ALU repeats, known as markers of carcinogenesis, to the level of healthy animals. Thus, the obtained data lead us to suppose that circulating exDNA plays a role in tumour dissemination, and alteration of multiple molecular targets in the bloodstream by DNase I reduces the invasive potential of tumours. PMID:28222152

  18. Changes in some pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines produced by bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells following foot and mouth disease vaccination

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    N. Delirezh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-17 is exclusively produced by CD4 helper T-cells upon activation. It most often acts as a pro-inflammatory cytokine, which stimulates the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF. In this study, we studied the in-vitro IL-17 response to specific antigens and a variety of mitogens and compared the IL-17 response to IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-γ responses. We used a foot and mouth disease (FMD vaccine as specific antigens and mitogens (phytohemagglutinin [PHA], pokeweed mitogen [PWM], and concanavalin A [Con A] to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of vaccinated calves. Cell culture supernatant was harvested and analyzed for cytokines, using commercially available bovine ELISA kits. The mitogens induced a significant increase in IL-17 production. IL-17 was produced at high levels in response to the T cell-stimulated mitogens, PHA, and Con A, and at low levels in response to PWM mitogens. In contrast, level of the produced IL-17 cytokines in response to the FMDV antigens was lower as compared to those produced by mitogens. The FMDV antigens and mitogens significantly increased IL-17 production. There was not a correlation between IL-17 production and type-1 cytokine, IFN-γ, and IL-2, while there was a correlation between type-2 cytokine, IL-4, and IL-5 at either cytokine level produced by PBMCs stimulated by FMDV antigens. Moreover, there was an interaction between IL-17 and IL-6, that is, as IL-6 cytokine level elevated or diminished, IL-17 cytokine level increased or decreased, as well.

  19. Genetic polymorphism of Babesia bovis merozoite surface antigens-2 (MSA-2) isolates from bovine blood and Rhipicephalus annulatus ticks in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molad, T; Fleiderovitz, L; Leibovich, B; Wolkomirsky, R; Erster, O; Roth, A; Mazuz, M L; Markovics, A; Shkap, V

    2014-09-15

    This study demonstrated the genetic diversity among MSA-2c, MSA-2a1 and MSA-2b proteins of Babesia bovis isolates obtained from bovine blood and Rhipicephalus annulatus tick samples. The least identities that were observed among the deduced amino acid sequences of MSA-2c, MSA-2a1 and MSA-2b were 55, 63, and 71%, respectively. During the study four B. bovis calves, aged about 1 month, were found to be infected with virulent field strains and developed babesiosis. Probably, the calves had received insufficient antibodies, or the antibodies raised against the vaccine strain did not cross-protect against virulent field isolates. The complete msa-2 locus from the Israeli B. bovis vaccine strain and two field isolates were characterized. Similarly to the Australian strains and isolates, the msa-2 loci of the examined Israeli strain and isolates had only two msa-2 genes - msa-2c and msa-2a/b - located between msa-2c and orfB. Several of the examined samples, contained different MSA-2 genotypes concurrently. No obvious geographical relationships among isolates from various regions of Israel were established. Moreover, in the phylogenetic analyses, the Israeli deduced MSA-2 amino acid sequences of the three examined genes were clustered together with sequences derived from other countries, proving that the msa-2 gene sequences of B. bovis shared the same genetic characters worldwide. The present study clearly showed that the MSA-2 proteins of B. bovis isolates from Israel were genetically distinct from the vaccine strains. Thus, further research will be needed in order to understand the genetic diversity mechanisms of B. bovis, and the immunological responses of the infected animals.

  20. Parasitic Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechenbleikner, Elizabeth M.; McQuade, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Over one billion people worldwide harbor intestinal parasites. Parasitic intestinal infections have a predilection for developing countries due to overcrowding and poor sanitation but are also found in developed nations, such as the United States, particularly in immigrants or in the setting of sporadic outbreaks. Although the majority of people are asymptomatically colonized with parasites, the clinical presentation can range from mild abdominal discomfort or diarrhea to serious complications, such as perforation or bleeding. Protozoa and helminths (worms) are the two major classes of intestinal parasites. Protozoal intestinal infections include cryptosporidiosis, cystoisosporiasis, cyclosporiasis, balantidiasis, giardiasis, amebiasis, and Chagas disease, while helminth infections include ascariasis, trichuriasis, strongyloidiasis, enterobiasis, and schistosomiasis. Intestinal parasites are predominantly small intestine pathogens but the large intestine is also frequently involved. This article highlights important aspects of parasitic infections of the colon including epidemiology, transmission, symptoms, and diagnostic methods as well as appropriate medical and surgical treatment. PMID:26034403

  1. Parasitic Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Hechenbleikner, Elizabeth M.; McQuade, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Over one billion people worldwide harbor intestinal parasites. Parasitic intestinal infections have a predilection for developing countries due to overcrowding and poor sanitation but are also found in developed nations, such as the United States, particularly in immigrants or in the setting of sporadic outbreaks. Although the majority of people are asymptomatically colonized with parasites, the clinical presentation can range from mild abdominal discomfort or diarrhea to serious complication...

  2. Cat parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Vošická, Kristýna

    2016-01-01

    The content of this bachelor thesis describes a different variety of cat parasites. This study discovers that the most infected group of the outdoor cats due to the fact that these animals are not provided with the same care as the household pets. Those cats are usually not vaccinated, not rid of worms, no one takes care of their fur and so they tend to become a host for the parasites. There are several kinds of parasites which attack cats. Among those belong the skin parasites like a cat fle...

  3. Preliminary application and evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP for detection of bovine theileriosis and trypanosomosis in Tanzania : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M.M. Thekisoe

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of LAMP, PCR and microscopy to detect Theileria spp. and Trypanosoma congolense in field-derived bovine blood samples from Tanzania was evaluated and compared. No parasites were detected by microscopy. Furthermore, no bovine Theileria spp. were detected by LAMP and PCR from all the 24 samples collected from Arusha. Four and one out of 24 samples were positive for Theileria congolense infection by LAMP and PCR respectively while, 18 and nine out of 40 samples from Dar es Salaam were positive by LAMP and PCR for Theileria spp. Infection, respectively. Although all samples from Dar es Salaam were negative for Trypanosoma congolense infections by PCR, 12 out of 40 samples were LAMP positive. Whilst PCR is an established gene amplification method for the detection of Theileria and trypanosome parasites, this study introduces LAMP as an alternative molecular diagnostic tool that could be used in large-scale epidemiological surveys.

  4. Control of bovine gastrointestinal nematode parasites using pellets of the nematode-trapping fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium Controle de nematóides parasitos gastrintestinais de bovinos com pellets do fungo predador de nematóides Monacrosporium thaumasium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Victor de Araújo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The viability of a formulation of the fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium associated with ivermectin was evaluated for the biological control of bovine gastrointestinal nematode parasites. Four groups of five calves each were placed in pastures with a stocking rate of 1.6 animal/hectare. In group 1 (control, the calves did not receive any treatment. In group 2, each animal received 20g of pellets of M. thaumasium orally twice a week during a six-month period that began with the onset of the rainy season (October 23, 2000. In group 3, each animal received 20g of pellets of M. thaumasium orally twice a week during the same period as 2, as well as two strategic treatments with ivermectin (200 mcg/kg on May 10, 2001 and July 5, 2001. In group 4, the animals were treated with ivermectin alone as described for group 3. EPG counts for group 1 were significantly greater (PA viabilidade de uma formulação do fungo Monacrosporium thaumasium associada com ivermectina foi avaliada no controle biológico de nematóides parasitos gastrintestinais de bovinos. Quatro grupos de cinco bezerros foram colocados em pastagens com uma taxa de lotação de 1,6 animal/hectare. No grupo 1 (controle, os bezerros não receberam nenhum tratamento. No grupo 2, cada animal recebeu 20 g de pellets de M. thaumasium, via oral, duas vezes por semana e durante um período de seis meses que começou na estação chuvosa (23 de outubro, 2000. No grupo 3, cada animal recebeu 20g de pellets de M. thaumasium, via oral, duas vezes por semana e durante o mesmo período do grupo 2, assim como dois tratamentos estratégicos com ivermectina (200 mcg/kg em 10 de maio de 2001 e em 5 de julho de 2001. No grupo 4, os animais foram tratados somente com ivermectina como descrito no grupo 3. As contagens de OPG dos animais do grupo 1 foram significativamente maiores (P< 0,01 do que os animais dos grupos 2 e 3 e a diferença no final do experimento foi próxima de 100%. Os OPGs dos animais do grupo 4

  5. Hospedeiros do parasitóide Paraganaspis egeria Díaz, Gallardo & Walsh (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae coletados em fezes bovinas e de búfalos, no sul do estado de Goiás Hosts of the parasitoid Paraganaspis egeria Díaz, Gallardo & Walsh (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae collected in bovine and buffalo dung in southern Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Marchiori

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo verificou as espécies hospedeiros do parasitóideParaganaspis egeria Díaz, Gallardo & Walsh (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae em fezes bovinas e fezes de búfalos, coletados no Sul do Estado de Goiás, de janeiro de 1998 a junho de 2004. As pupas foram obtidas por meio do método de flutuação, indivualizadas em cápsulas de gelatina até a emergência dos adultos de moscas ou de seus parasitóides A porcentagem de parasitismo em fezes bovinas e fezes de búfalos foi de 0,5% e 0,8%, respectivamente.This study verified the host species of the parasitoid Paraganaspis egeria Díaz, Gallardo & Walsh (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae in bovine and buffalo dung collected in southern Goias, from January 1998 to June 2004. The pupae were obtained by the flotation method. They were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergence of adult flies or their parasitoids. The prevalence of parasitism in cow and buffalo dung was 0.5% and 0.8%, respectively.

  6. Humoral and cellular immunity to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 and protection from infection with blood-stage parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moormann, Ann M; Sumba, Peter Odada; Chelimo, Kiprotich; Fang, Hua; Tisch, Daniel J; Dent, Arlene E; John, Chandy C; Long, Carole A; Vulule, John; Kazura, James W

    2013-07-01

     Acquired immunity to malaria develops with increasing age and repeated infections. Understanding immune correlates of protection from malaria would facilitate vaccine development and identification of biomarkers that reflect changes in susceptibility resulting from ongoing malaria control efforts.  The relationship between immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody and both interferon γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) responses to the 42-kD C-terminal fragment of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP142) and the risk of (re)infection were examined following drug-mediated clearance of parasitemia in 94 adults and 95 children in an area of holoendemicity of western Kenya.  Positive IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISPOT) responses to MSP142 3D7 were associated with delayed time to (re)infection, whereas high-titer IgG antibodies to MSP142 3D7 or FVO alleles were not independently predictive of the risk of (re)infection. When IFN-γ and IL-10 responses were both present, the protective effect of IFN-γ was abrogated. A Cox proportional hazard model including IFN-γ, IL-10, MSP142 3D7 IgG antibody responses, hemoglobin S genotype, age, and infection status at baseline showed that the time to blood-stage infection correlated positively with IFN-γ responses and negatively with IL-10 responses, younger age, and asymptomatic parasitemia.  Evaluating combined allele-specific cellular and humoral immunity elicited by malaria provides a more informative measure of protection relative to evaluation of either measure alone.

  7. Fish parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems......This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems...

  8. Malaria parasite-synthesized heme is essential in the mosquito and liver stages and complements host heme in the blood stages of infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanathan Arun Nagaraj

    Full Text Available Heme metabolism is central to malaria parasite biology. The parasite acquires heme from host hemoglobin in the intraerythrocytic stages and stores it as hemozoin to prevent free heme toxicity. The parasite can also synthesize heme de novo, and all the enzymes in the pathway are characterized. To study the role of the dual heme sources in malaria parasite growth and development, we knocked out the first enzyme, δ-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS, and the last enzyme, ferrochelatase (FC, in the heme-biosynthetic pathway of Plasmodium berghei (Pb. The wild-type and knockout (KO parasites had similar intraerythrocytic growth patterns in mice. We carried out in vitro radiolabeling of heme in Pb-infected mouse reticulocytes and Plasmodium falciparum-infected human RBCs using [4-(14C] aminolevulinic acid (ALA. We found that the parasites incorporated both host hemoglobin-heme and parasite-synthesized heme into hemozoin and mitochondrial cytochromes. The similar fates of the two heme sources suggest that they may serve as backup mechanisms to provide heme in the intraerythrocytic stages. Nevertheless, the de novo pathway is absolutely essential for parasite development in the mosquito and liver stages. PbKO parasites formed drastically reduced oocysts and did not form sporozoites in the salivary glands. Oocyst production in PbALASKO parasites recovered when mosquitoes received an ALA supplement. PbALASKO sporozoites could infect mice only when the mice received an ALA supplement. Our results indicate the potential for new therapeutic interventions targeting the heme-biosynthetic pathway in the parasite during the mosquito and liver stages.

  9. Malaria parasite-synthesized heme is essential in the mosquito and liver stages and complements host heme in the blood stages of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Viswanathan Arun; Sundaram, Balamurugan; Varadarajan, Nandan Mysore; Subramani, Pradeep Annamalai; Kalappa, Devaiah Monnanda; Ghosh, Susanta Kumar; Padmanaban, Govindarajan

    2013-01-01

    Heme metabolism is central to malaria parasite biology. The parasite acquires heme from host hemoglobin in the intraerythrocytic stages and stores it as hemozoin to prevent free heme toxicity. The parasite can also synthesize heme de novo, and all the enzymes in the pathway are characterized. To study the role of the dual heme sources in malaria parasite growth and development, we knocked out the first enzyme, δ-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS), and the last enzyme, ferrochelatase (FC), in the heme-biosynthetic pathway of Plasmodium berghei (Pb). The wild-type and knockout (KO) parasites had similar intraerythrocytic growth patterns in mice. We carried out in vitro radiolabeling of heme in Pb-infected mouse reticulocytes and Plasmodium falciparum-infected human RBCs using [4-(14)C] aminolevulinic acid (ALA). We found that the parasites incorporated both host hemoglobin-heme and parasite-synthesized heme into hemozoin and mitochondrial cytochromes. The similar fates of the two heme sources suggest that they may serve as backup mechanisms to provide heme in the intraerythrocytic stages. Nevertheless, the de novo pathway is absolutely essential for parasite development in the mosquito and liver stages. PbKO parasites formed drastically reduced oocysts and did not form sporozoites in the salivary glands. Oocyst production in PbALASKO parasites recovered when mosquitoes received an ALA supplement. PbALASKO sporozoites could infect mice only when the mice received an ALA supplement. Our results indicate the potential for new therapeutic interventions targeting the heme-biosynthetic pathway in the parasite during the mosquito and liver stages.

  10. Vaccines against bovine babesiosis: where we are now and possible roads ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine babesiosis caused by the tick transmitted hemoprotozoan parasites Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, and B. divergens commonly results in considerable cattle morbidity and mortality in vast areas of the world. From a global perspective, Babesia parasites are of arthropod-transmitted parasitic diseas...

  11. Bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis complex: diagnosis and evaluation of the risk factors from Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimar Souza Amorim

    Full Text Available Direct diagnoses were made by using - blood smears and nested PCR (nPCR tests on 309 blood samples from crossbred dairy cattle in the municipality of Ibicaraí, Bahia. From diagnostic blood smear slides, the observed parasitic frequencies were 31.1% for Anaplasma marginale and 20.4% for Babesia sp. From nPCR diagnoses, they were 63% for A. marginale, 34% for Babesia bigemina and 20.4% for Babesia bovis. There were significant differences (P <0.01 between the two diagnostic methods (nPCR and blood smear slides. The compliance obtained from the kappa test was 0.41 and 0.48 for A. marginale and Babesia sp., respectively. The tick samples from the six farms analyzed using nPCR were only positive for A. marginale. Evaluation of the risk factors relating to the presence of ticks and the age of the animals showed that there was a significant association (P <0.01 with the frequency of animals infected with both pathogens. Therefore, under the conditions studied, nPCR proved to be a good tool for diagnosing the agents of the bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis complex because of its sensitivity and specificity in comparison with blood smears. The municipality of Ibicaraí is an area with endemic prevalence of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis confirmed by nPCR and A. marginale is the main agent of the disease.

  12. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also, blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. Which type you are is important if you need a blood transfusion. And your Rh factor could be important ...

  13. Update on Comparative Studies for Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis Using The Interferon Gamma (IFN-gamma) Assay with Tuberculins or Alternative Antigens for Whole Blood Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine Tuberculosis is a respiratory disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis). It is a major infectious disease found worldwide in domestic animals, particularly cattle, as well as in certain wildlife populations. Although the disease has been effectively eliminated in many countries and reg...

  14. Interaction of bovine serum albumin and human blood plasma with PEO-tethered surfaces : influence of PEO chain length, grafting density and temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norde, W.; Gage, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Solid surfaces are modified by grafting poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, to influence their interaction with indwelling particles, in particular molecules of bovine serum albumin and human plasma proteins. As a rule, the grafted PEO layers suppress protein adsorption. The suppression is most effective whe

  15. Ungulate malaria parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Thomas J.; Asada, Masahito; Jiratanh, Montakan; Ishikawa, Sohta A.; Tiawsirisup, Sonthaya; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Namangala, Boniface; Takeda, Mika; Mohkaew, Kingdao; Ngamjituea, Supawan; Inoue, Noboru; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Inagaki, Yuji; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Kaewthamasorn, Morakot; Kaneko, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Haemosporida parasites of even-toed ungulates are diverse and globally distributed, but since their discovery in 1913 their characterization has relied exclusively on microscopy-based descriptions. In order to bring molecular approaches to bear on the identity and evolutionary relationships of ungulate malaria parasites, we conducted Plasmodium cytb-specific nested PCR surveys using blood from water buffalo in Vietnam and Thailand, and goats in Zambia. We found that Plasmodium is readily detectable from water buffalo in these countries, indicating that buffalo Plasmodium is distributed in a wider region than India, which is the only area in which buffalo Plasmodium has been reported. Two types (I and II) of Plasmodium sequences were identified from water buffalo and a third type (III) was isolated from goat. Morphology of the parasite was confirmed in Giemsa-reagent stained blood smears for the Type I sample. Complete mitochondrial DNA sequences were isolated and used to infer a phylogeny in which ungulate malaria parasites form a monophyletic clade within the Haemosporida, and branch prior to the clade containing bird, lizard and other mammalian Plasmodium. Thus it is likely that host switching of Plasmodium from birds to mammals occurred multiple times, with a switch to ungulates independently from other mammalian Plasmodium. PMID:26996979

  16. Development and validation of an inexpensive and efficient method for the extraction of Theileria orientalis DNA from blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogema, D R; Fell, S A; O'Rourke, B A; Collins, D; Eamens, G J; Jenkins, C

    2015-09-15

    Theileria orientalis is an emerging bovine pathogen in Australasia. PCR-based detection methods for this parasite are sensitive but relatively expensive, partly due to costs associated with DNA extraction. An inexpensive and efficient technique was developed for the extraction of T. orientalis DNA from blood based on hypotonic erythrocyte lysis and detergent-proteinase K treatment (DPK method). The DPK method compares favourably to a commercial extraction kit when paired with a T. orientalis multiplex qPCR.

  17. Ultrastructural characterization of bovine umbilical cord blood cells Caracterização ultra-estrutural das células sanguíneas do cordão umbilical bovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo C Rodrigues

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The umbilical cord blood (UCB is an important source of pluripotent stem cells, which motivated researches on ontogeny and transplantation. The morphological characterization of umbilical cord cells is the first step to establish subsequent experiments on these areas. Although some information on humans can be found, no data on UCB is available for bovines. Therefore, this work is the first attempt to conduct an ultrastructural characterization of bovine umbilical cord blood. Blood was collected from the umbilical cord of twenty fetuses by punction of the umbilical vein. Samples were processed for whole leucocytes observation by centrifugation and the buffy coat was collected. Cells were washed and pelleted and prepared according to the standard protocol of the transmission electron microscopy. The presence of cells with morphologic characteristics compatible with the precursors from the erythrocytic, neutrophilic, eosinophilic, basophilic, and lymphocytic lineages was observed. Atypical cells with peculiar morphological features, strongly similar to apoptotic cells, were seen. Bovine neutrophils with three types of cytoplasmic granules were also found in the blood. The ultrastructural characteristics of observed bovine UCB cells where similar to those found in other species, suggesting that bovines could possibly constitute an experimental model for approaches on UCB cells research.O sangue de cordão umbilical (SCU é uma importante fonte de células progenitoras pluripotentes, que motiva pesquisas em ontogenia e transplantes. A caracterização morfológica das células de cordão umbilical é o primeiro passo para se estabelecer experimentos subsequentes nessas áreas. Embora algumas informações sobre SCU em humanos possam ser encontradas, não existe nenhuma informação disponível sobre elas em bovinos. Portanto, este trabalho é a primeira tentativa de se conduzir uma caracterização ultra-estrutural do sangue de cordão umbilical

  18. Parasitism and calfhood diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlich, H; Douvres, F W

    1977-02-01

    That animals can and do acquire an effective immunity against helminth parasites has been demonstrated extensively experimentally, and the fact that domestic animals such as cattle, sheep, and horses become adults while maintaining good health in spite of constant exposure to reinfection long has suggested that immunity must be important to such survival. Although our attempts to date to vaccinate calves against helminth parasites have either failed or been unsatisfactory because of the pathosis induced by the experimental vaccines, the results are not surprising or discouraging. In contrast to the long history of immunization research on bacterial and viral diseases, only within a relatively short time have serious efforts been directed at exploiting hostal immunity for prevention and control of helminthic diseases. Unlike the comparatively simple structures of viruses and bacteria, helminths are complex multicellular animals with vast arrays of antigens and complicated physiological and immunological interactions with their hosts. Much more fundamental information on helminth-bovine interactions, on helminth antigens, and on cattle antibody systems must be developed before progress on control of cattle helminths by vaccination can be meaningful.

  19. Assumed white blood cell count of 8,000 cells/μL overestimates malaria parasite density in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo R Alves-Junior

    Full Text Available Quantification of parasite density is an important component in the diagnosis of malaria infection. The accuracy of this estimation varies according to the method used. The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between the parasite density values obtained with the assumed value of 8,000 cells/μL and the automated WBC count. Moreover, the same comparative analysis was carried out for other assumed values of WBCs. The study was carried out in Brazil with 403 malaria patients who were infected in different endemic areas of the Brazilian Amazon. The use of a fixed WBC count of 8,000 cells/μL to quantify parasite density in malaria patients led to overestimated parasitemia and resulted in low reliability when compared to the automated WBC count. Assumed values ranging between 5,000 and 6,000 cells/μL, and 5,500 cells/μL in particular, showed higher reliability and more similar values of parasite density when compared between the 2 methods. The findings show that assumed WBC count of 5,500 cells/μL could lead to a more accurate estimation of parasite density for malaria patients in this endemic region.

  20. Diagnosis of Parasitic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Diagnosis of Parasitic Diseases Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... the United States cannot diagnose parasites? How are parasitic diseases diagnosed? Many kinds of lab tests are available ...

  1. Two distinct populations of bovine IL-17⁺ T-cells can be induced and WC1⁺IL-17⁺γδ T-cells are effective killers of protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, R K; Brill, R; Foster, D S; Bowen, A L; Leigh, J A; Coffey, T J; Flynn, R J

    2014-06-25

    IL-17 has emerged as a key player in the immune system, exhibiting roles in protection from infectious diseases and promoting inflammation in autoimmunity. Initially thought to be CD4 T-cell-derived, the sources of IL-17 are now known to be varied and belong to both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Mechanisms for inducing IL-17 production in lymphoid cells are thought to rely on appropriate antigenic stimulation in the context of TGF-β1, IL-6 and/or IL-1β. Using culture protocols adapted from human studies, we have effectively induced both bovine CD4(+) and WC1(+) γδ T-cells to produce IL-17 termed Th17 and γδ17 cells, respectively. The negative regulatory effect of IFN-γ on mouse and human IL-17 production can be extended to the bovine model, as addition of IFN-γ decreases IL-17 production in both cell types. Furthermore we show that infection with the protozoan Neospora caninum will induce fibroblasts to secrete pro-IL-17 factors thereby inducing a γδ17 phenotype that preferentially kills infected target cells. Our study identifies two T-cell sources of IL-17, and is the first to demonstrate a protective effect of IL-17(+) T-cells in ruminants. Our findings offer further opportunities for future adjuvants or vaccines which could benefit from inducing these responses.

  2. Voorlopige resultate oor biodiversiteit van Suid-Afrikaanse amfibiese bloedparasiete/Preliminary results on the biodiversity of South African amphibian blood parasites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    E C Netherlands; N J Smit; L H du Preez

    2014-01-01

    ...%) with haemogregarines, 6/14 (43%) with trypanosomes, 1/14 (7%) with babesiasomes, and 1/14 (7%) with microfilaria. It is hoped that these and future results may increase the knowledge of apicomplexan parasites of amphibian hosts in South Africa.

  3. 77 FR 29914 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products AGENCY... live bovines and products derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This... with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Comments on the proposed rule were required to......

  4. Artificial blood.

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    #Blood substitutes have been developed for almost a century. The various type of artificial blood was continuously available on the market. The theme of this report is to identify the best substitute in emergency situation for some patients and science students. The definition of best is given; thus, as the vital part of the report, the comparison between them is described and discussed. Modified hemoglobin, bovine-based hemoglobin and PFCs are three basic types. In terms of the perfor...

  5. Transfer of genetic information between parasite and its host

    OpenAIRE

    Soukal, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is considered a rare evolutionary event. It can take place between unrelated organisms that coexist in an intimate symbiotic relationship. Such relationship have some parasites with its host. HGT between eukaryotic parasite and its host was identified in some holoparazitic and hemiparazitic plants, the most important human protozoan parasites, microsporidias, human blood-flukes, parasitoids and fruit flies.

  6. A description of parasites from Iranian snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Vahid; Mobedi, Iraj; Dalimi, Abdolhossein; Mirakabadi, Abbas Zare; Ghaffarifar, Fatemeh; Teymurzadeh, Shohreh; Karimi, Gholamreza; Abdoli, Amir; Paykari, Habibollah

    2014-12-01

    Little is known of the parasitic fauna of terrestrial snakes in Iran. This study aimed to evaluate the parasitic infection rates of snakes in Iran. A total of 87 snakes belonging to eight different species, that were collected between May 2012 and September 2012 and died after the hold in captivity, under which they were kept for taking poisons, were examined for the presence of gastrointestinal and blood parasites. According to our study 12 different genera of endoparasites in 64 (73.56%) of 87 examined snakes were determined. Forty one snakes (47.12%) had gastrointestinal parasites. In prepared blood smears, it was found that in 23 (26.43%) of 87 examined snakes there are at least one hemoparasite. To our knowledge, these are the first data on the internal parasitic fauna of Iranian terrestrial snakes and our findings show a higher prevalence of these organisms among them.

  7. Standardization and validation of simple PCR, duplex PCR and RAPD in comparison to blood smear examination for diagnosing bovine tropical theileriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudan, Vikrant; Shanker, Daya; Jaiswal, Amit; Singh, Amit; Pandey, Vijay

    2017-03-01

    Bovine Tropical Theileriosis (BTT) is an important vector-borne protozoan disease that imposing serious constraints on the health and productivity of domestic cattle. It is matter of common fact that following recovery from primary infection, cattle become persistent carriers and act as reservoirs of infection thereby, playing a critical role in disease epidemiology. The present study describes the comparative diagnostic efficiency of simplex PCR, duplex PCR and RAPD assays for detection of Theileria annulata in cattle. An optimized simple PCR and duplex PCR assay were established using TAMS F/R as primer sets encoding for 721 bp amplicon alongside a RAPD with arbitrary primer coding for 963 bp product of T. annulata. The simple PCR and duplex PCR detected pathogen with almost same level of sensitivity, irrespective of whether its DNA was amplified in isolation or together with DNA of another pathogen without nonspecific amplifications. RAPD failed to give comparable results and suffered from limitations of sensitivity as well as specificity. The developed assays may be seen as a good tool for epidemiological studies aiming at assessing the burden of chronic infections and improving control of the associated diseases in endemic regions. Copyright © 2017 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Plasmodium bottleneck: malaria parasite losses in the mosquito vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan C; Vega-Rodríguez, Joel; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Nearly one million people are killed every year by the malaria parasite Plasmodium. Although the disease-causing forms of the parasite exist only in the human blood, mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles are the obligate vector for transmission. Here, we review the parasite life cycle in the vector and highlight the human and mosquito contributions that limit malaria parasite development in the mosquito host. We address parasite killing in its mosquito host and bottlenecks in parasite numbers that might guide intervention strategies to prevent transmission. PMID:25185005

  9. The Plasmodium bottleneck: malaria parasite losses in the mosquito vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C Smith

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nearly one million people are killed every year by the malaria parasite Plasmodium. Although the disease-causing forms of the parasite exist only in the human blood, mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles are the obligate vector for transmission. Here, we review the parasite life cycle in the vector and highlight the human and mosquito contributions that limit malaria parasite development in the mosquito host. We address parasite killing in its mosquito host and bottlenecks in parasite numbers that might guide intervention strategies to prevent transmission.

  10. Development of Eimeria bovis in vitro: suitability of several bovine, human and porcine endothelial cell lines, bovine fetal gastrointestinal, Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) and African green monkey kidney (VERO) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosilla, C; Barbisch, B; Heise, A; Kowalik, S; Zahner, H

    2002-04-01

    Several bovine, human and porcine endothelial cell lines, bovine fetal gastrointestinal cells (BFGC), Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) and African green monkey kidney (VERO) cells were exposed in vitro to sporozoites of Eimeria bovis. Parasites invaded all cells used and changed their shape to more stumpy forms within 12 h. Sporozoites left their host cells and invaded new ones frequently within the first 12 h post-infection. Further development took place only in bovine cells, although parasites survived in the other cells for at least 3 weeks. Within the non-bovine cells, conspicuously enlarged parasitophorous vacuoles developed in VERO cells and reached a diameter of 15-20 microm. The best development to first generation schizonts with regard both to time required to mature, to schizont size and to merozoite yields was observed in BFGC, followed by bovine umbilical vein and bovine spleen lymphatic endothelial cells. MDBK cells were less suitable. The life cycle was completed (development of oocysts) only occasionally in BFGC. Results are considered under several aspects. Thus, infected VERO cells may represent a suitable tool for studying the parasitophorous vacuole, while infected endothelial cells represent a system quite narrow to the in vivo situation and should allow basic studies on parasite/host cell interactions and BFGC can be used for the mass production of E. bovis first generation merozoites.

  11. Molecular evidence of tick-borne hemoprotozoan-parasites (Theileria ovis and Babesia ovis) and bacteria in ticks and blood from small ruminants in Northern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouadi, Atef; Leulmi, Hamza; Boucheikhchoukh, Mehdi; Benakhla, Ahmed; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    Using qPCR, standard PCR and/or sequencing, we investigated the presence of tick-associated microorganisms in ticks and blood from sheep and goats from Souk Ahras, Algeria. Borrelia theileri, was detected in (7/120, 5.8%) blood from sheep and (13/120, 10.8%) goats. Anaplasma ovis was screened in (38/73, 52%) Rhipicephalus bursa and (5/22, 22.7%) R. turanicus and in (74/120, 61.7%), (65/120, 54.2%) blood of sheep and goats respectively. Coxiella burnetii tested positive in R. bursa (4/73, 5.5%) and (7/120, 5.8%) blood of sheep and (2/120, 1.7%) goats. Theileria ovis was detected in (50/147, 34%) R. bursa and (3/22, 13.6%) R. turanicus and in (64/120, 53.3%) blood of sheep and (25/120, 20.8%) goats. Babesia ovis was screened positive in (23/147, 15.6%) R. bursa and (7/48, 14.6%) R. turanicus. Our findings expand knowledge about the repertoire of tick-borne microorganisms present in ectoparasites and/or the blood of small ruminants in Algeria.

  12. Transport of monocarboxylic acids at the blood-brain barrier: Studies with monolayers of primary cultured bovine brain capillary endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terasaki, T.; Takakuwa, S.; Moritani, S.; Tsuji, A. (Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kanazawa University (Japan))

    1991-09-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of the transport of monocarboxylic acids (MCAs) were studied by using primary cultured bovine brain capillary endothelial cells. Concentration-dependent uptake of acetic acid was observed, and the kinetic parameters were estimated as follows: the Michaelis constant, Kt, was 3.41 {plus minus} 1.87 mM, the maximum uptake rate, Jmax, was 144.7 {plus minus} 55.7 nmol/mg of protein/min and the nonsaturable first-order rate constant, Kd, was 6.66 {plus minus} 1.98 microliters/mg of protein/min. At medium pH below 7.0, the uptake rate of (3H)acetic acid increased markedly with decreasing medium pH, whereas pH-independent uptake was observed in the presence of 10 mM acetic acid. An energy requirement for (3H)acetic acid uptake was also demonstrated, because metabolic inhibitors (2,4-dinitrophenol and rotenone) reduced significantly the uptake rate (P less than .05). Carbonylcyanide-p-trifluoro-methoxyphenylhydrazone, a protonophore, inhibited significantly the uptake of (3H)acetic acid at medium pH of 5.0 and 6.0, whereas 4,4{prime}-diisothiocyanostilben-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid did not. Several MCAs inhibited significantly the uptake rate of (3H)acetic acid, whereas di- and tricarboxylic acids did not. The uptake of (3H)acetic acid was competitively inhibited by salicylic acid, with an inhibition constant, Ki, of 3.60 mM, suggesting a common transport system between acetic acid and salicylic acid. Moreover, at the medium pH of 7.4, salicylic acid and valproic acid inhibited significantly the uptake of (3H)acetic acid, demonstrating that the transport of MCA drugs could also be ascribed to the MCA transport system at the physiologic pH.

  13. Risk factors against bovine respiratory diseade in suckling calves from Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Arenas-Montes, Antonio José; Perea-Remujo, J.A.; Arenas-Casas, Antonio; Torralbo, A.; Borge-Rodríguez, Carmen; Carbonero-Martínez, Alfonso; Maldonado García, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    An observacional cross-sectional study was performed to determine the risk factors associated to the main viral agents of the bovine respiratory disease: bovine herpesvirus type 1 (HVB1), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (VDVB), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (VRSB) and parainfluenza 3 virus (VPI3). Blood samples from dairy calves in the provinces of Cordova and Santa Fe (Argentina) were obtained, and an epidemiological ques-tionnaire was filled. Antibodies against studied viruses were detect...

  14. Protozoan Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Haidee

    2016-02-01

    • Stool antigen detection for Cryptosporidium sp, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica are now commercially available, have better sensitivity and specificity than the traditional stool microscopy, and are less dependent on personnel skill. Tests employing newer techniques with faster turnaround time are also available for diagnosing trichomoniasis.• Nitazoxanide, the only U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved medication for therapy of cryptosporidiosis, is effective among immunocompetent patients. However, on the basis of strong evidence from multiple clinical trials, nitazoxanide is considered ineffective among immunocompromised patients. (14) • Giardiasis can be asymptomatic or have a chronic course leading to malabsorption and failure to thrive. It can be treated with metronidazole, tinidazole, or nitazoxanide. On the basis of growing observational studies, postinfectious and extraintestinal manifestations of giardiasis occur, but the mechanisms are unclear. Given the high prevalence of giardiasis, public health implications need to be defined. (16) • Eradicating E histolytica from the gastrointestinal tract requires only intraluminal agent therapy. Therapy for invasive illnesses requires use of imidazole followed by intraluminal agents to eliminate persistent intraluminal parasites. • Malaria is considered the most lethal parasitic infection, with Plasmodium falciparum as the predominant cause of mortality. P vivax and P ovale can be dormant in the liver, and primaquine is necessary to resolve infection by P vivax and P ovale. • Among immunocompetent patients, infection with Toxoplasma gondii may be asymptomatic, involve localized lymphadenopathy, or cause ocular infection. In immunocompromised patients, reactivation or severe infection is not uncommon. On the basis of limited observational studies (there are no well-controlled randomized trials), therapy is recommended for acute infection during pregnancy to prevent transmission to the

  15. Carotenoid-based bill colour is an integrative signal of multiple parasite infection in blackbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biard, Clotilde; Saulnier, Nicolas; Gaillard, Maria; Moreau, Jérôme

    2010-11-01

    In the study of parasite-mediated sexual selection, there has been controversial evidence for the prediction that brighter males should have fewer parasites. Most of these studies have focused on one parasite species. Our aim was to investigate the expression of carotenoid-based coloured signals in relation to patterns of multiple parasite infections, to determine whether colour reflects parasite load of all parasite species, or whether different relationships might be found when looking at each parasite species independently. We investigated the relationship between bill colour, body mass and plasma carotenoids and parasite load (feather chewing lice, blood parasite Plasmodium sp., intestinal parasites cestodes and coccidia) in the blackbird ( Turdus merula). Bill colour on its own appeared to be a poor predictor of parasite load when investigating its relationships with individual parasite species. Variation in parasite intensities at the community level was summarised using principal component analysis to derive synthetic indexes of relative parasite species abundance and absolute parasite load. The relative abundance of parasite species was strongly related to bill colour, plasma carotenoid levels and body mass: birds with relatively more cestodes and chewing lice and relatively less Plasmodium and coccidia had a more colourful bill, circulated more carotenoids and were heavier. These results suggest that bill colour more accurately reflects the relative intensities of parasite infection, rather than one-by-one relationships with parasites or absolute parasite burden. Investigating patterns of multiple parasite infection would thus improve our understanding of the information conveyed by coloured signals on parasite load.

  16. Cytoskeleton remodling and alterations in smooth muscle contractility in the bovine jejunum during the early stage of Cooperia oncophora infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastrointestinal nematodes of the genus Cooperia are arguably the most important parasites of cattle. We characterized the bovine jejunal transcriptome in response to C. oncophora infection using RNA-seq technology. Approximately 71% of the 25,670 bovine genes were detected in the jejunal transcript...

  17. 牛病毒性腹泻病毒感染牛外周血单核细胞对CD80和CD86 mRNA转录的影响%Effects of bovine viral diarrhea viruses in vitro on transcription of CD80 and CD86 mRNA in bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩猛立; 黄新; 钟发刚

    2012-01-01

    The clinically healthy Holstein bovine tested negative for bovine viral diarrhea virus(BVDV) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMC) were infected with noncytopathic(NCP) and cytopathic(CP) BVDV.The changes levels of mRNA of CD80 and CD86 genes were analyzed using a real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR(real-time FQ-PCR).The results showed that the transcription of CD80 mRNA exhibited two transcription high at 4 h(P0.05) and 12,24 h(P0.01) post-inoculation(PI),and CD86 mRNA reached the highest level at 6 h(P0.05)PI in NCP BVDV-infected PBMC;then the mRNAs transcriptions of CD80 peaked at 24 h(P0.05)and CD86 peaked at 6 h(P0.05) in CP BVDV-infected PBMC with signifficant differences compared to that of the other PI.While the transcription on CD80 mRNAs witnessed more kinetic changes,it indicats NCP and CP BVDV could significantly supress the transcription of CD80-CD86 genes early during the infection,and the situation might weaken the antigen presentation of PBMC in the inoculated bovine.%用非致细胞病变(noncytopathic,NCP)和致细胞病变(cytopathic,CP)型牛病毒性腹泻病毒(BVDV)感染临床健康BVDV检测阴性的荷斯坦奶牛外周血单核细胞(PBMC),利用实时荧光定量PCR技术对感染后共刺激分子CD80和CD86mRNA转录水平的变化进行定量分析。结果表明,在NCP型BVDV感染牛PBMC后CD80在4h(P〈0.05)和12,24h(P〈0.01)出现2次转录高峰,CD86在6h(P〈0.05)出现转录高峰;CP型BVDV感染后,CD80在24h(P〈0.05)出现转录高峰,CD86在6h(P〈0.05)出现转录高峰。尽管CD80在NCP型BVDV感染后呈现较复杂的动态变化,但结果提示NCP型和CP型BVDV感染均可导致牛PBMC的共刺激分子CD80和CD86基因转录在感染早期明显受到抑制,PBMC的抗原呈递能力受到影响。

  18. Protein Quality of Rice Drinks Fortified with Bovine and Porcine Blood Plasma / Calidad Proteica de Bebidas de Arroz Fortificadas con Plasma Sanguíneo de Bovino y Porcino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piedad Margarita Montero Castillo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The future of nutrition in Colombia, and perhaps inother developing countries, will depend in large part on the abilityof food technology to take full advantage of the food sourcesavailable in the country and to adapt and develop new productsthat will vary and complement the diets of the majority of thepopulation at a low cost. The objective of this study was to evaluatethe protein quality of rice-based drinks fortified with bovine andporcine blood plasma. Six treatments were prepared with differentlevels of fortification (14.5%, 18.5% and 29%. The effects of theplasma type and the addition levels on the protein content, theamino acid profile, and the in vitro digestibility of the drinks wereobserved. The AOAC method was employed for the determinationof the protein content; the amino acid profile was created usingHPLC. The protein digestibility was determined by subjecting adispersion of the drink to the action of a multi-enzymatic solution.The protein content increased with the level of fortification. Thedrinks fortified with bovine plasma (104% and porcine plasma(89% presented a better protein quality index than the unfortifieddrink. The digestibility of the fortified drinks did not demonstratesignificant improvements in comparison with the unfortified drink.The chemical score of the drinks fortified with porcine plasma(71.6 and bovine plasma (78.5 showed that the latter had thebest nutritional quality. / Resumen. El futuro de la alimentación en Colombia y quizás deotros países en desarrollo va a depender en gran parte de quela tecnología de alimentos sea capaz de aprovechar las fuentesdisponibles de alimentos en el país y de adaptar y desarrollarnuevos productos que permitan variar y complementar la dietade la mayoría de la población a bajo costo. El objetivo de estetrabajo fue evaluar la calidad proteica de bebidas a base dearroz fortificadas con plasma sanguíneo de bovino y porcino. Seprepararon seis tratamientos con

  19. Stress-sensitive organs and blood corticosterone after immobilization of active and passive rats immunized with glutamate-bovine serum albumin conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umryukhin, A E; Sotnikov, S V; Chekmareva, N Yu; Vetrile, L A; Zakharova, I A

    2014-12-01

    We studied stress-induced organ and hormonal responses in behaviorally active and passive rats against the background of immunization with glutamate-BSA conjugate. The relative weight of the adrenal glands after immobilization was lower in rats immunized with the conjugate in comparison with non-immunized animals. The weight of the adrenal glands in behaviorally active rats decreased in parallel with the decrease in blood corticosterone. In behaviorally active and passive rats immunized with the conjugate, ulcer formation in the stomach was slightly intensified after immobilization. It was hypothesized that immunization with glutamate-BSA conjugate suppresses activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal feedback mechanism underlying the production of glucocorticoid hormones, which is manifested in slightly increased ulceration due to attenuation of the gastroprotective action of corticosterone under stress.

  20. A refratariedade das aves ao "Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum cruzi" I. ausência de passagem para o sangue; duração da viabilidade e destruição dos parasitos na pele The refractory State of birds toward the "Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum Cruzi": I. Lack of transfer of parasites to the blood. Duration of viability and destruction of the parasites in the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nery-Guimarães

    1972-01-01

    foram negativas. Por outro lado, de 10 xenodiagnósticos feitos nas áreas injetadas, entre 1/2h e 9 h após a inoculação das aves, apenas 2 foram positivos; e de 10 xenodiagnósticos feitos entre 9 e 90 h, todos foram negativos. (Quadro 2. Em 4 frangos (8ª experiência, 10 xenodiagnósticos foram feitos entre 1 e 10 h, sendo 2 positivos (7 h e 8 h. Apesar de dificuldades operacionais na execução dos xenodiagnósticos, nas condições experimentais deste trabalho, eles se mostraram inferiores ás inoculações em camundongos recém-nascidos, como prova diagnóstica laboratorial. Portanto, verificou-se que ainda são encontrados parasitos viáveis nas áreas injetadas, pelo menos até ás 8:30 h depois inoculação. todavia, a partir de 2 h após a inoculação os parasitos diminuem de número progressivamente nas áreas injetadas, ao mesmo tempo que mostram sensíveis alterações morfológicas, encontrando-se também muito deles mortos. Ao exame direto, não mais foram vistos depois das 5:30 h. As inoculações provocam na pele dos frangos...In experiments number one and two, four chickens and three pigeons were not infected when subjected to skin inoculations containing parasites doses of 9.9 X 10*5 and 3.8 X 10*6 both from culture plus blood borne forms. In experiment number 6 the refractory state was not broken when two other chickens received every other day 5 intraperitoneal injections of 2.8 X 10*6 to 6.1 X 10*6 parasites or 5 intraperitoneal injections daily of the parasites from a culture tube suspended in saline plus blood borne forms from 3 infected young mice. The refractory state was not broken also in two chickens from experiment number 7, where dexamethasone was associated to the intraperitoneal parasites doses of 8.1 X 10*6 and 3.5 X 10*7, respectively. This drug was administered either on the first day (0.4 mg/8 doses/10 days or three days prior to the inoculation (0.4 mg/10 doses/12 days. In these 11 birds the refractory state was proven following

  1. Viral and Bacterial Pathogens in Bovine Respiratory Disease in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soveri T

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathogens causing bovine respiratory tract disease in Finland were investigated. Eighteen cattle herds with bovine respiratory disease were included. Five diseased calves from each farm were chosen for closer examination and tracheobronchial lavage. Blood samples were taken from the calves at the time of the investigation and from 86 calves 3–4 weeks later. In addition, 6–10 blood samples from animals of different ages were collected from each herd, resulting in 169 samples. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to bovine parainfluenza virus-3 (PIV-3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, bovine coronavirus (BCV, bovine adenovirus-3 (BAV-3 and bovine adenovirus-7 (BAV-7. About one third of the samples were also tested for antibodies to bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV with negative results. Bacteria were cultured from lavage fluid and in vitro susceptibility to selected antimicrobials was tested. According to serological findings, PIV-3, BAV-7, BAV-3, BCV and BRSV are common pathogens in Finnish cattle with respiratory problems. A titre rise especially for BAV-7 and BAV-3, the dual growth of Mycoplasma dispar and Pasteurella multocida, were typical findings in diseased calves. Pasteurella sp. strains showed no resistance to tested antimicrobials. Mycoplasma bovis and Mannheimia haemolytica were not found.

  2. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule...

  3. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing...

  4. Presence of Gumprecht shadows (smudge cells) in bovine leukemia virus-positive cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panei, Carlos Javier; Larsen, Alejandra; González, Ester Teresa; Echeverría, María Gabriela

    2013-11-01

    Enzootic Bovine Leukosis is a chronic disease caused by the bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Smudge cells, also known as Gumprecht shadows, are not simple artifacts of slide preparation, but ragged lymphoid cells found mainly in peripheral blood smears from human patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. In this study, we report the presence of Gumprecht shadows in peripheral blood from BLV-positive cattle.

  5. No effect of human serum and erythrocytes enriched in n-3 fatty acids by oral intake on Plasmodium falciparum blood stage parasites in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu-Zeid, Y A; Hansen, H S; Jakobsen, P H;

    1993-01-01

    To examine the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on the erythrocytic growth of Plasmodium falciparum, serum and erythrocytes were separated from blood of a healthy donor before and after he had taken fish oil capsules for 8 days. Such intake supplied an amount of eicosapentaenoic...... acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) of 3.5 g/d and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) of 2.5 g/d and 24 mg/d of total tocopherol. Post-intake fish oil serum (post-s) and erythrocytes (post-e) were tested in vitro for inhibitory activity against blood stages of P. falciparum compared with pre-intake serum (pre......-s) and pre-intake erythrocyte (pre-e). Also the effect of EPA and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) on the erythrocytic growth of P. falciparum was tested using in vitro assays. The results show that both post-s and post-e had no antimalarial activity on P. falciparum. No differential antimalarial effect...

  6. Unlocking the bovine genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worley Kim C

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The draft genome sequence of cattle (Bos taurus has now been analyzed by the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium and the Bovine HapMap Consortium, which together represent an extensive collaboration involving more than 300 scientists from 25 different countries.

  7. Composição e propriedades físico-químicas de duas frações do soro de sangue bovino Composition and physicochemical properties of two protein fractions of bovine blood serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Silvia Prata

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O sangue animal de abatedouros representa uma fonte importante de ingrediente alimentício subutilizado. A produção de sangue bovino no Brasil foi aproximadamente 3,6 x 10(6 tons em 2005. Além do desperdício de uma proteína de boa qualidade, a subutilização deste subproduto da indústria animal é uma fonte importante de poluição dos recursos hídricos e do solo. A concentração de proteína albumina (BSA e globulina (BSG bovinas secas em spray ou liofilizadas foi, aproximadamente, 85,0%. O score de aminoácidos (EAAS foi 72,7%, para BSA liofilizada, e 89,3%, para BSG. As propriedades emulsificantes e espumantes de ambas as frações protéicas foram altas, principalmente a pH 5,5. A capacidade emulsificante e espumante foi maior para BSA, no entanto, tanto a estabilidade da emulsão quanto a da espuma formada foram melhores para a BSG. A adição de NaCl apresentou uma tendência de reduzir as duas propriedades surfactantes, independentemente do pH. Considerando a solubilidade, a estabilidade ao calor, propriedades emulsificante e espumante, tanto a BSA quanto a BSG deveriam ser consideradas bons ingredientes funcionais para a manufatura de produtos alimentícios. O estudo não apenas confirmou dados já reportados na literatura, como também explorou novas propriedades, o que amplifica o potencial de aplicações do soro de sangue bovino.Animal blood from slaughterhouses represent an important source of food ingredients which have been so far underutilized. Bovine blood production in Brazil was about 3.6 x 10(6 in the year 2005. Besides wasting a good food quality protein, underutilization of this byproduct from the animal industry is an important cause of soil and water resources pollution. Protein concentration of both freeze-dried and spray-dried bovine albumin (BSA and globulin (BSG was around 85.0%. Essential Amino Acid Scoring (EAAS was 72.7% for freeze-dried BSA and 89.3% for BSG. Emulsifying and foaming properties of both

  8. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langholm Jensen, Jesper; Mølgaard, Anne; Navarro Poulsen, Jens Christian;

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined...... interactions arising from variation in the surface charges and the greater malleability both in domain movements and substrate binding contribute to the better milk-clotting activity of camel chymosin towards bovine milk....

  9. Suppression of parasite-specific response in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. A longitudinal study of blood mononuclear cell proliferation and subset composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theander, T G; Bygbjerg, I C; Andersen, B J

    1986-01-01

    -specific proliferative response. The subset composition of BMNC isolated from non-immune patients was studied in a FACS analyser. The mean cell volumes of both Leu 2+ and Leu 3+ cells were increased during the acute phase of the infection, indicating that malaria infection results in activation of both T-helper and T......The present longitudinal study was designed to characterize immunosuppression during acute Plasmodium falciparum infection, during the treatment and up to 1 month after the acute stage. The proliferative responses of blood mononuclear cells (BMNC) isolated from non-immune and semi-immune malaria......-suppressor cells. There was no overall reduction of the response to mitogens on day 0. However, 3 days after initiation of the treatment the mitogen response was decreased. This finding indicates that it is important to distinguish between the effects of malaria infection and of drug treatment....

  10. Mechanisms of CNS invasion and damage by parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensson, Krister; Masocha, Willias; Bentivoglio, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) is a most devastating complication of a parasitic infection. Several physical and immunological barriers provide obstacles to such an invasion. In this broad overview focus is given to the physical barriers to neuroinvasion of parasites provided at the portal of entry of the parasites, i.e., the skin and epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract, and between the blood and the brain parenchyma, i.e., the blood-brain barrier (BBB). A description is given on how human pathogenic parasites can reach the CNS via the bloodstream either as free-living or extracellular parasites, by embolization of eggs, or within red or white blood cells when adapted to intracellular life. Molecular mechanisms are discussed by which parasites can interact with or pass across the BBB. The possible targeting of the circumventricular organs by parasites, as well as the parasites' direct entry to the brain from the nasal cavity through the olfactory nerve pathway, is also highlighted. Finally, examples are given which illustrate different mechanisms by which parasites can cause dysfunction or damage in the CNS related to toxic effects of parasite-derived molecules or to immune responses to the infection.

  11. Bovine Peripheral Blood Monocyte Derived Dendritic Cell Culture and Identification in Vitro%奶牛外周血树突状细胞体外诱导培养与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹康; 赵倩明; 隋雁南; 封飞飞; 占今舜; 赵国琦

    2016-01-01

    通过粒-巨噬细胞集落刺激因子( GM⁃CSF)和白细胞介素-4( IL⁃4)体外诱导外周血单核细胞为树突状细胞,为利用树突状细胞免疫疗法治疗奶牛乳房炎奠定基础和提供细胞模型。利用淋巴细胞分离液分离获得奶牛外周血单核细胞,在6孔板内培养2h后,弃掉含有大量的T细胞和B细胞上清液,贴壁的基本上是单核细胞,磷酸盐缓冲液清洗5次,加入含有GM⁃CSF和IL⁃4的2 mL培养基进行3 d诱导。之后,从培养基顶部小心吸弃1.4 mL的培养基,然后再补加含有GM⁃CSF和IL⁃4的1.8 mL培养基继续诱导3 d。每天通过显微镜观察细胞形态。第7天经流式检测细胞表面抗原 CD11c、CD14、主要组织相容性复合体Ⅱ( MHCⅡ)、CD40、CD80、CD86的表达。结果表明:1)第2天,一些细胞表面可以生长出刺突并伴随着伪足的生长。第3天,细胞表面的刺突和伪足越来越多。第4、5天,一些带有刺突和伪足的细胞开始聚集和融合。第6天,单核细胞基本被诱导为树突状细胞,细胞表面含有大量清晰可见的刺突和伪足。2)经流式检测,CD14、CD11c、MHCⅡ阳性表达细胞分别占诱导细胞的6.8%、65.0%、75.9%,CD80和CD86阳性表达细胞分别占诱导细胞的2.0%和1.2%。综上所述,采用奶牛外周血单核细胞经体外诱导能够获得一定纯度的奶牛树突状细胞。%This study aimed to induce bovine peripheral blood monocyte derived dendritic cell by granulocyte⁃macrophage colony stimulating factor ( GM⁃CSF) and interleukin⁃4 ( IL⁃4) cytokines, which could lay founda⁃tion and provide cell model for dairy cow mastitis treatment using cell immunotherapy. The bovine peripheral blood monocyte was acquired by lymphocyte separation medium and seeded in 6⁃proe plate to culture for 2 h. Then, suspended cells containing an amount of B and T cells were discarded, and

  12. Parasitic Diseases: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... multicellular organism that is generally visible to the naked eye in its adult stages. Helminths can be ... with parasites such as Cyclospora and Cryptosporidium . (Also see " coccidian " and " sporulation .") Back To Top P Parasite: ...

  13. Women and Parasitic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources How to Find A Physician Diagnosis of Parasitic Diseases Statistics More Information Get Email Updates To receive ... often need special consideration when being treated for parasitic diseases in order to avoid harm to the fetus, ...

  14. Immunity to parasitic infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Tracey J

    2012-01-01

    ... be manipulated to develop therapeutic interventions against parasitic infection. For easy reference, the most commonly studied parasites are examined in individual chapters written by investigators at the forefront of their field...

  15. Blood parasites in birds of the eastern planes of Colombia (Villavicencio y San Miguel, Meta - Colombia Hemoparásitos en aves de los llanos orientales colombianos Villavicencio y San Miguel (Meta - Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matta Camacho Nubia Estela

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in the eastern plains from June to September 1999. The material wascollected in Villavicencio and San Miguel (Meta - Colombia. A total of 315 birds representing74 species of 23 families were examined for haematozoa. 50 birds harboured blood parasites.These included: Microfilariae(8.25%; Haemoproteus(6.67%; Plasmodiumand Trypanosoma(0.95% and Hepatozoon(0.32%. The prevalence of infection is this sample is low in comparisonto that recorded for Neartic birds as reported by Greiner et al. (1975; but higher than therecorded for neotropical region by White and coworkers (1978. The most striking aspect ofthis survey, is the high prevalence of Microfilariaecompared to that recorded elsewhere in theworld, almost 50% of the total infection. We hypothesize that microfilariaeare transmitted bya vector that is not utilized by either the haemoproteids or the plasmodiids. Finally 8 specieswere examined for blood parasites for the first time, 15 new host-parasite records for the worldand 15 new for Colombia were established from this sample. This survey and other similarstudies, clearly indicate that research on this topic is urgently required, particularly since thereare direct correlations between stress (e.g. from habitat destruction and pathogenicity ofhaematozoa to their bird hosts.El estudio se llevó a cabo en los llanos orientales de junio a septiembre de 1999. El materialfue colectado en Villavicencio y San Miguel (Meta: Colombia. Un total de 315 avesrepresentando 75 especies (23 familias fueron examinados para hematozoarios, de las cuales50 aves (15.9% albergaron parásitos sanguíneos. Esto incluyó Microfilaria(8.25%;Haemoproteus(6.67%; Plasmodiumy Trypanosoma(0.95% y Hepatozoon(0.32%. La prevalenciade la infección es baja en comparación con la reportada para el Neártico (1975, pero más altaque la obtenida por White y colaboradores (1978 para el Neotrópico. El aspecto mássorprendente de esta investigación, es la alta

  16. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown

  17. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown aetiol

  18. RT-PCR em pools de soros sangüíneos para o diagnóstico da infecção aguda e de animais persistentemente infectados pelo vírus da diarréia viral bovina RT-PCR in pools of bovine blood serum to detect acute infection and persistently infected animals with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pilz

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Utilizou-se a técnica da RT-PCR para a detecção da região 5' UTR do genoma do vírus da diarréia viral bovina (BVDV em pools de soros sangüíneos provenientes de um rebanho, constituído por 226 animais, que apresentava distúrbios da reprodução. A partir das amostras individuais de soro e de acordo com a categoria dos animais e o número de animais por categoria foram formados 10 pools (A a J de soros. A primeira avaliação revelou a amplificação de um produto com 290pb nas reações referentes aos grupos D (35 vacas e H (25 bezerros lactentes que, após o desmembramento em amostras individuais, resultou na identificação de 11 vacas lactantes e 12 bezerros em amamentação positivos. Para a identificação de animais persistentemente infectados (PI entre os 23 positivos na primeira avaliação, realizou-se a segunda colheita de soros sangüíneos, três meses após. A RT-PCR das amostras individuais de soro revelou resultado positivo em cinco bezerros. Em dois, foi possível isolar o BVDV em cultivo de células MDBK. A especificidade das reações da RT-PCR foi confirmada pelo seqüenciamento dos produtos amplificados a partir do soro de uma vaca com infecção aguda, de um bezerro PI e das duas amostras do BVDV isoladas em cultivo celular. A utilização da RT-PCR em pools de soros sangüíneos demonstrou ser uma estratégia rápida de diagnóstico etiológico e de baixo custo tanto para a detecção de infecção aguda quanto de animais PI.The 5' untranslated region of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV genome was detected by RT-PCR assay in pools of blood sera samples collected from a cattle herd (n=226 animals with reproductive failures. Based on the classes of animal and the number of animals per class, the individual blood serum samples were distributed in 10 sera pools (A to J. During the first evaluation a 290bp amplicon was amplified in reactions from groups D (35 cows and H (25 sucking calves. The individual analysis

  19. Effects of bovine viral diarrhea viruses in vitro on transcription of interferon-al- pha, beta, gamma mRNA in bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells%牛病毒性腹泻病毒感染牛外周血单核细胞对IFN-α、β、γmRNA转录的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩猛立; 黄新; 钟发刚

    2012-01-01

    The study was done to survery the interferon-alpha, beta and gamma mRNA transcription profiles of bovine viral diarrfea viruse(BVDV) infection,and to investigate the host-BVDV interaction. The clinically healthy Holstein cows tested negative for bovine viral diarrhea virus(BVDV) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMC) were in- fected with noncytopathic(NCP) and cytopathic(NCP) BVDV. The mRNA levels of IFN-α,β and γ genes were ana lyzed using a reaPtime fluorescent quantitative PCR(reaPtime FQ-PCR). The results indicated that the transcription of I type(IFN-α,β) mRNA showed a different increasing levels (P〈0.01) ,after infected CP- and NCP BVDV in PBMC;only IFN-α decreased at 4,12 h(P〈0. 05) after infected CP-BVDV. And IFN-γ was increased throughout the infection process of CP and NCP BVDV in PBMC (P〈0. 05). The transcription levels of IFN mRNA were in- creased when two biotype of BVDV infected in PBMC.%为了解牛病毒性腹泻病毒(BVDV)感染对干扰素(IFN)mRNA转录时相的影响,探讨宿主-病毒之间的相互关系,用非致细胞病变(noncytopathic,NCP)和致细胞病变(cytopathic,CP)型BVDV感染临床健康BVDV检测阴性的荷斯坦奶牛外周血单核细胞(PBMC),利用实时荧光定量PCR技术对感染后IFN-α、β、γmRNA转录水平的变化进行定量分析。结果表明,CP型和NCP型BVDV感染PBMC后,Ⅰ型IFN(IFN-α、β)均呈现出不同程度的转录水平上调,且差异极显著(P〈0.01);只有IFN-α在CP型BVDV感染后4,12h(P〈0.5)出现转录下调。IFN-γ在整个感染过程中均呈现出不同程度的转录水平上调,且差异显著(P〈0.05)。这表明2种生物型BVDV感染可引起PBMC中IFN mRNA转录水平升高。

  20. Modulation of human immune responses by bovine interleukin-10.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerco den Hartog

    Full Text Available Cytokines can be functionally active across species barriers. Bovine IL-10 has an amino acid sequence identity with human IL-10 of 76.8%. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether bovine IL-10 has immunomodulatory activities on human monocytes and dendritic cells. Peripheral blood monocytes were isolated from healthy donors, and used directly or allowed to differentiate to dendritic cells under the influence of IL-4 and GM-CSF. Recombinant bovine IL-10 inhibited TLR induced activation of monocytes, and dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced activation of monocyte-derived DCs comparable to human IL-10. By using blocking antibodies to either bovine IL-10 or the human IL-10 receptor it was demonstrated that inhibition of monocyte activation by bovine IL-10 was dependent on binding of bovine IL-10 to the human IL-10R. These data demonstrate that bovine IL-10 potently inhibits the activation of human myeloid cells in response to TLR activation. Bovine IL-10 present in dairy products may thus potentially contribute to the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis and allergy, enhance mucosal tolerance induction and decrease intestinal inflammation and may therefore be applicable in infant foods and in immunomodulatory diets.

  1. Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-3 (PvMSP3: expression of an 11 member multigene family in blood-stage parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianlin Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Three members of the Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-3 (PvMSP3 family (PvMSP3-α, PvMSP3-β and PvMSP3-γ were initially characterized and later shown to be part of a larger highly diverse family, encoded by a cluster of genes arranged head-to-tail in chromosome 10. PvMSP3-α and PvMSP3-β have become genetic markers in epidemiological studies, and are being evaluated as vaccine candidates. This research investigates the gene and protein expression of the entire family and pertinent implications. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A 60 kb multigene locus from chromosome 10 in P. vivax (Salvador 1 strain was studied to classify the number of pvmsp3 genes present, and compare their transcription, translation and protein localization patterns during blood-stage development. Eleven pvmsp3 paralogs encode an N-terminal NLRNG signature motif, a central domain containing repeated variable heptad sequences, and conserved hydrophilic C-terminal features. One additional ORF in the locus lacks these features and was excluded as a member of the family. Transcripts representing all eleven pvmsp3 genes were detected in trophozoite- and schizont-stage RNA. Quantitative immunoblots using schizont-stage extracts and antibodies specific for each PvMSP3 protein demonstrated that all but PvMSP3.11 could be detected. Homologs were also detected by immunoblot in the closely related simian species, P. cynomolgi and P. knowlesi. Immunofluorescence assays confirmed that eight of the PvMSP3s are present in mature schizonts. Uniquely, PvMSP3.7 was expressed exclusively at the apical end of merozoites. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Specific proteins were detected representing the expression of 10 out of 11 genes confirmed as members of the pvmsp3 family. Eight PvMSP3s were visualized surrounding merozoites. In contrast, PvMSP3.7 was detected at the apical end of the merozoites. Pvmsp3.11 transcripts were present, though no corresponding protein was detected

  2. Gene targeting in malaria parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, R; Janse, C

    1997-10-01

    Gene targeting, which permits alteration of a chosen gene in a predetermined way by homologous recombination, is an emerging technology in malaria research. Soon after the development of techniques for stable transformation of red blood cell stages of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei, genes of interest were disrupted in the two species. The main limitations of gene targeting in malaria parasites result from the intracellular growth and slow replication of these parasites. On the other hand, the technology is facilitated by the very high rate of homologous recombination following transformation with targeting constructs (approximately 100%). Here, we describe (i) the vector design and the type of mutation that may be generated in a target locus, (ii) the selection and screening strategies that can be used to identify clones with the desired modification, and (iii) the protocol that was used for disrupting the circumsporozoite protein (CS) and thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) genes of P. berghei.

  3. Transfusion-transmitted parasitic infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gagandeep

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of parasitic organisms through transfusion is relatively rare. Of the major transfusion-transmitted diseases, malaria is a major cause of TTIP in tropical countries whereas babesiosis and Chagas′ disease pose the greatest threat to donors in the USA In both cases, this is due to the increased number of potentially infected donors. There are no reliable serologic tests available to screen donors for any of these organisms and the focus for prevention remains on adherence to donor screening guidelines that address travel history and previous infection with the etiologic agent. One goal is the development of tests that are able to screen for and identify donors potentially infectious for parasitic infections without causing the deferral of a large number of non-infectious donors or significantly increasing costs. Ideally, methods to inactivate the infectious organism will provide an element of added safety to the blood supply.

  4. Maximum host survival at intermediate parasite infection intensities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Stjernman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although parasitism has been acknowledged as an important selective force in the evolution of host life histories, studies of fitness effects of parasites in wild populations have yielded mixed results. One reason for this may be that most studies only test for a linear relationship between infection intensity and host fitness. If resistance to parasites is costly, however, fitness may be reduced both for hosts with low infection intensities (cost of resistance and high infection intensities (cost of parasitism, such that individuals with intermediate infection intensities have highest fitness. Under this scenario one would expect a non-linear relationship between infection intensity and fitness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using data from blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus in southern Sweden, we investigated the relationship between the intensity of infection of its blood parasite (Haemoproteus majoris and host survival to the following winter. Presence and intensity of parasite infections were determined by microscopy and confirmed using PCR of a 480 bp section of the cytochrome-b-gene. While a linear model suggested no relationship between parasite intensity and survival (F = 0.01, p = 0.94, a non-linear model showed a significant negative quadratic effect (quadratic parasite intensity: F = 4.65, p = 0.032; linear parasite intensity F = 4.47, p = 0.035. Visualization using the cubic spline technique showed maximum survival at intermediate parasite intensities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that failing to recognize the potential for a non-linear relationship between parasite infection intensity and host fitness may lead to the potentially erroneous conclusion that the parasite is harmless to its host. Here we show that high parasite intensities indeed reduced survival, but this effect was masked by reduced survival for birds heavily suppressing their parasite intensities. Reduced survival among hosts with low

  5. The rediscovery of malaria parasites of ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Thomas J; Martinsen, Ellen; Kaewthamasorn, Morakot; Kaneko, Osamu

    2016-10-01

    Over a hundred years since their first description in 1913, the sparsely described malaria parasites (genus Plasmodium) of ungulates have been rediscovered using molecular typing techniques. In the span of weeks, three studies have appeared describing the genetic characterization and phylogenetic analyses of malaria parasites from African antelope (Cephalophus spp.) and goat (Capra aegagrus hircus), Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), and North American white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Here we unify the contributions from those studies with the literature on pre-molecular characterizations of ungulate malaria parasites, which are largely based on surveys of Giemsa-reagent stained blood smears. We present a phylogenetic tree generated from all available ungulate malaria parasite sequence data, and show that parasites from African duiker antelope and goat, Asian water buffalo and New World white-tailed deer group together in a clade, which branches early in Plasmodium evolution. Anopheline mosquitoes appear to be the dominant, if not sole vectors for parasite transmission. We pose questions for future phylogenetic studies, and discuss topics that we hope will spur further molecular and cellular studies of ungulate malaria parasites.

  6. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  7. Pitting of malaria parasites and spherocyte formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gichuki Charity W

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high prevalence of spherocytes was detected in blood smears of children enrolled in a case control study conducted in the malaria holoendemic Lake Victoria basin. It was speculated that the spherocytes reflect intraerythrocytic removal of malarial parasites with a concurrent removal of RBC membrane through a process analogous to pitting of intraerythrocytic inclusion bodies. Pitting and re-circulation of RBCs devoid of malaria parasites could be a host mechanism for parasite clearance while minimizing the anaemia that would occur were the entire parasitized RBC removed. The prior demonstration of RBCs containing ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (pf 155 or RESA but no intracellular parasites, support the idea of pitting. Methods An in vitro model was developed to examine the phenomenon of pitting and spherocyte formation in Plasmodium falciparum infected RBCs (iRBC co-incubated with human macrophages. In vivo application of this model was evaluated using blood specimens from patients attending Kisumu Ditrict Hospital. RBCs were probed with anti-RESA monoclonal antibody and a DNA stain (propidium iodide. Flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy was used to compare RBCs containing both the antigen and the parasites to those that were only RESA positive. Results Co-incubation of iRBC and tumor necrosis factor-alpha activated macrophages led to pitting (14% ± 1.31% macrophages with engulfed trophozoites as opposed to erythrophagocytosis (5.33% ± 0.95% (P Conclusion It is proposed that in malaria holoendemic areas where prevalence of asexual stage parasites approaches 100% in children, RBCs with pitted parasites are re-circulated and pitting may produce spherocytes.

  8. Utilización del Método de Elisa en la detección directa de antígeno de virus diarrea viral bovina en muestras de suero sanguíneo de bovinos Use of an ELISA test in the direct diagnosis of viral antigens of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV in bovine blood serum samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. REINHARDT

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El virus de la Diarrea Viral Bovina (VDVB es un agente infeccioso importante del ganado bovino y está distribuido ampliamente en el mundo, produciendo pérdidas económicas sustanciales en la producción pecuaria. La principal fuente de contagio de los animales susceptibles está en las secreciones y excreciones de los animales infectados persistentes e inmunotolerantes (PI, condición que se produce en la etapa gestacional, específicamente antes de los 120 días de preñez, período en que el sistema inmune del embrión aún no se desarrolla adecuadamente. El propósito de este estudio fue aplicar la utilización de un método inmunoenzimático (ELISA-antígeno para detectar la presencia de animales PI en planteles lecheros de la Xª Región de Chile, a partir de muestras de suero sanguíneo. Para ello se examinaron 335 sueros de bovinos provenientes de 9 predios. Los resultados obtenidos indican que el 33.3% de los planteles analizados presentaron algún animal PI y que a nivel de prevalencia intrapredial, ella varió entre 0.7 y 1.0%. Se concluyó que el método utilizado permite detectar animales PI en forma rápida y sencilla, pudiendo utilizarse en gran cantidad de muestrasBVDV is an important virus of cattle worldwide that induces to substantial economic losses in dairy farms. The major source of infection are secretions and excretions of immunotolerant and persistent infected cattle. That condition is adquired during the early gestational period. The scope of this communication is to inform the use of an ELISA test to detect BVDV persistent infected bovine using blood serum samples in cattle of 9 dairy farms from the Xth. Region of Chile. The results indicated that 0.3% of the serum samples were positive to the ELISA test, and 33.3% of the dairy herds with persistently infected animals. It is concluded that this method diagnose persistently infected cattle, and is very easy to manipulate therefore, is possible to test many animals in

  9. Sickle cell microRNAs inhibit the malaria parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraisingh, Manoj T; Lodish, Harvey F

    2012-08-16

    Sickle cell hemoglobin conveys resistance to malaria. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, LaMonte et al. (2012) demonstrate a surprising mechanism for this innate immunity. A microRNA enriched in sickle red blood cells is translocated into the parasite, incorporated covalently into P. falciparum mRNAs and inhibits parasite growth.

  10. Malaria parasite epigenetics: when virulence and romance collide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueck, Christian; Baker, David A

    2014-08-13

    Blood-stage malaria parasites evade the immune system by switching the protein exposed at the surface of the infected erythrocyte. A small proportion of these parasites commits to sexual development to mediate mosquito transmission. Two studies in this issue (Brancucci et al., 2014; Coleman et al., 2014) shed light on shared epigenetic machinery underlying both of these events.

  11. Parasites: evolution's neurobiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Shelley Anne

    2013-01-01

    For millions of years, parasites have altered the behaviour of their hosts. Parasites can affect host behaviour by: (1) interfering with the host's normal immune-neural communication, (2) secreting substances that directly alter neuronal activity via non-genomic mechanisms and (3) inducing genomic- and/or proteomic-based changes in the brain of the host. Changes in host behaviour are often restricted to particular behaviours, with many other behaviours remaining unaffected. Neuroscientists can produce this degree of selectivity by targeting specific brain areas. Parasites, however, do not selectively attack discrete brain areas. Parasites typically induce a variety of effects in several parts of the brain. Parasitic manipulation of host behaviour evolved within the context of the manipulation of other host physiological systems (especially the immune system) that was required for a parasite's survival. This starting point, coupled with the fortuitous nature of evolutionary innovation and evolutionary pressures to minimize the costs of parasitic manipulation, likely contributed to the complex and indirect nature of the mechanisms involved in host behavioural control. Because parasites and neuroscientists use different tactics to control behaviour, studying the methods used by parasites can provide novel insights into how nervous systems generate and regulate behaviour. Studying how parasites influence host behaviour will also help us integrate genomic, proteomic and neurophysiological perspectives on behaviour.

  12. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown aetiology. Due to the high number of unknown causes of clinical mastitis, studies were undertaken to gain more insight into the role of viruses in this important disease. For the first time, we found tha...

  13. [Laboratory tests for parasitic diseases in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marva, Esther; Grossman, Tamar

    2010-09-01

    Microscopic examination is still considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of parasitic diseases. In many clinical laboratories in hospitals and in health maintenance organizations ("Kupot Holim"), an excellent microscopic identification of parasites is performed. Microscopic examinations using wet mount preparations are performed for the detection of protozoan trophozoites and helmintic ova or larvae. Specific concentration techniques, including flotation and sedimentation procedures are further performed for the diagnosis of parasitic diseases. However, microscopic examinations are time-consuming, non-sensitive and not always reliable. Furthermore, the diagnosis of certain infections is not always possible by searching for the parasites in host tissues or excreta since risky invasive techniques might be necessary to locate the parasites. Detection of antibodies can be very useful as an indication for infection with a specific parasite, especially in individuals with no exposure to the parasite prior to recent travel in a disease-endemic area. In addition to serology, there are other tests of high sensitivity which can be integrated with microscopy, such as antigen detection in stool and blood samples as well as the use of other molecular diagnosis methods. There are two main laboratories in Israel where parasitic diagnosis is available by integration of microscopy, serology, antigen detection and molecular methods: The Reference Laboratory for Parasitology in Jerusalem at the Central Laboratories of the Ministry of Health (MOH) and the Laboratory of Parasitology at Soroka University Medical Center, Beer Sheva (SOR). There are also two special diagnostic units, one responsible for the identification of toxopLasma: Reference Laboratory for Toxoplasmosis, Public Health Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Tel Aviv (Tox), and the other for the identification of Leishmaniasis: Kuvin Center, Faculty of Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Kuv). This article

  14. Cystatins of parasitic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Christian; Ziegler, Thomas; Daniłowicz-Luebert, Emilia; Hartmann, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    The cystatin superfamily comprises several groups of protease inhibitors. In this chapter we will focus on I25 family members, which consist predominantly of the type 2 cystatins. Recently, a wealth of information on these molecules and their activities has been described. Parasite cystatins are shown to have dual functions via interaction with both parasite and host proteases. Thereby, parasite cystatins are not only essentially involved in the regulation of physiological processes during parasite development, but also represent important pathogenicity factors. Interestingly, some studies indicate that parasite cystatins evolved exceptional immuno-modulatory properties. these capacities could be exploited to interfere with unwanted immune responses in unrelated human inflammatory diseases. We highlight the different biological roles of parasite cystatins and the anticipated future developments.

  15. Schistosoma mansoni and Host-Parasite Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M-C.A. de Walick (Saskia)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Blood-dwelling parasitic trematodes (flatworms) of the genus Schistosoma cause the disease schistosomiasis or Bilharzia. There are 5 different Schistosoma species that infect humans and many other infecting different mammals. Over 200 million people worldwide are infect

  16. Foodborne parasites from wildlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen; Fredensborg, Brian Lund

    2015-01-01

    The majority of wild foods consumed by humans are sourced from intensively managed or semi-farmed populations. Management practices inevitably affect wildlife density and habitat characteristics, which are key elements in the transmission of parasites. We consider the risk of transmission...... of foodborne parasites to humans from wildlife maintained under natural or semi-natural conditions. A deeper understanding will be useful in counteracting foodborne parasites arising from the growing industry of novel and exotic foods....

  17. Parasites, Plants, and People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marion; Moore, Tony

    2016-06-01

    Anthelminthic resistance is acknowledged worldwide and is a major problem in Aotearoa New Zealand, thus alternative parasite management strategies are imperative. One Health is an initiative linking animal, human, and environmental health. Parasites, plants, and people illustrate the possibilities of providing diverse diets for stock thereby lowering parasite burdens, improving the cultural wellbeing of a local community, and protecting the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Neglected Parasitic Infections: Toxocariasis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-05

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. Neglected Parasitic Infections are a group of diseases that afflict vulnerable populations and are often not well studied or diagnosed. A subject matter expert from CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis.  Created: 1/5/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria (DPDM); Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 1/9/2012.

  19. Eosinophilic fasciitis after parasite infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical swelling and skin induration of the distal portions of the arms and/or legs, evolving into a scleroderma-like appearance, accompanied by peripheral blood eosinophilia. It is a rare disease with a poorly understood etiology. Corticosteroid treatment remains the standard therapy, either taken alone or in association with an immunosuppressive drug. This paper presents a case of a male patient with palpebral edema and marked eosinophilia, diagnosed with intestinal parasitic infection in October 2006. He was treated with an antiparasitic drug, but both the swelling and the analytical changes remained. This was followed by a skin and muscle biopsy, which turned out to be compatible with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was progressive worsening of the clinical state, with stiffness of the abdominal wall and elevated inflammatory parameters, and the patient was referred to the Immunology Department, medicated with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Over the years there were therapeutic adjustments and other causes were excluded. Currently the patient continues to be monitored, and there is no evidence of active disease. The case described in this article is interesting because of the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis probably associated/coexisting with a parasite infection. This case report differs from others in that there is an uncommon cause associated with the onset of the disease, instead of the common causes such as trauma, medication, non-parasitic infections or cancer.

  20. Eosinophilic fasciitis after parasite infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marta; Patinha, Fabia; Marinho, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical swelling and skin induration of the distal portions of the arms and/or legs, evolving into a scleroderma-like appearance, accompanied by peripheral blood eosinophilia. It is a rare disease with a poorly understood etiology. Corticosteroid treatment remains the standard therapy, either taken alone or in association with an immunosuppressive drug. This paper presents a case of a male patient with palpebral edema and marked eosinophilia, diagnosed with intestinal parasitic infection in October 2006. He was treated with an antiparasitic drug, but both the swelling and the analytical changes remained. This was followed by a skin and muscle biopsy, which turned out to be compatible with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was progressive worsening of the clinical state, with stiffness of the abdominal wall and elevated inflammatory parameters, and the patient was referred to the Immunology Department, medicated with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Over the years there were therapeutic adjustments and other causes were excluded. Currently the patient continues to be monitored, and there is no evidence of active disease. The case described in this article is interesting because of the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis probably associated/coexisting with a parasite infection. This case report differs from others in that there is an uncommon cause associated with the onset of the disease, instead of the common causes such as trauma, medication, non-parasitic infections or cancer.

  1. The Finding and Phylogenetic Evolution Analysis of Bovine Piroplasms in the Rasŏn Area of North Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Li-jun; ZHANG Shou-fa; CAO Shi-nuo; QIAN Nian-chao; YU Long-zheng; XUAN Xue-nan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of bovine Piroplasms infections in the Rasŏn area of North Korea. The survey was carried out by light microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears, PCR, and phylogenetic evolution analysis of 128 blood samples collected from the Rasŏn area. The results showed that the infection rates of the small and large parasites were about 2.5 and 1.5% on average, respectively, in all Theileria sergenti and Babesia ovata-positive blood smears by microscopic examination of blood smears. The detection rate of T. sergenti Giemsa-stained smears was 43.75%, while that with PCR was 67.97%. The detection rate of B. ovata Giemsa-stained smears was 49.21%, while that with PCR was 71.88%. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis of DNA showed 98.84%homology between the 18S rRNA gene sequences of T. sergenti isolates from North Korean and that of Yanbian state from China, indicating the closest genetic relationship between both of them. Moreover, 100%homology was shown between the 18S rRNA gene sequence of B. ovata isolates from North Korea and the published sequence AY081192 of GenBank, indicating the closest genetic relationship between both of them. This survey confirmed that Rasŏn is the endemic area of T. sergenti and B. ovata in North Korea.

  2. DETECTION OF THE BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA ANTIBODIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Goraichuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea is a widespread infection of cattle that has a wide range of clinical symptoms in domestic and wild ruminants. It is a major problem in cattle and causes significant economic losses in the cattle industry. The virus infects bovines of all ages and causes both immunosuppression and reproductive, respiratory and digestive disorders. Persistently infected cattle are the main factor in transmission of the disease between and among herds. Comparative results of antibodies presence received by two methods of enzymoimmunoassay and virus neutralization test are given in the paper. During the work, 1010 samples of blood serum of cattle from three farms in the Kharkiv region were selected and analyzed. Bovine viral diarrhea virus concerning antibodies were found by enzymoimmunoassay in 704 samples (69.7% using commercial kit and in 690 samples (68.3% using in house method. After results clarification by virus neutralization test, bovine viral diarrhea antibodies were found in 712 samples (70.5%. Immunoenzyme analysis is recommended for mass screening of cattle for viral diarrhea occurrence. The results confirm that the sensitivity immunoenzyme analysis satisfies the requirements of the diagnostic methods. Using the neutralization reaction of viruses as the «gold standard» of serological methods, it is appropriate to clarify the results of immunoenzyme analysis. Since the results contain a signi ficant number of false positive results, it is necessary to carry out comprehensive studies using both serological and molecular genetics methods.

  3. Weaning management of newly received beef calves with or without continuous exposure to a persistently infected bovine viral diarrhea virus pen mate: Effects on rectal temperature, peripheral blood leukocytes and serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to animals persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) results in immunomodulation in cohorts. It is hypothesized that the extent of modulation differs for preconditioned (PC) vs. auction market (AM) cattle. Our objective was to compare immune responses of PC or AM ca...

  4. Sexing Bovine Embryos Using PCR Amplification of Bovine SRY Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾溢滔; 张美兰; 陈美珏; 周霞娣; 黄英; 任兆瑞; 黄淑帧; 胡明信; 吴学清; 高建明; 张斌; 徐慧如

    1994-01-01

    This study analyses the bovine SRY DNA sequence by direct sequencing procedure, followed by the designation of the PCR primers specific for bovine SRY. Using PCR amplification of bovine SRY gene, the embryo sex was determined. The results of the embryo sex identification were confirmed after the embryo transfer and pregnancies.

  5. Local host specialization, host-switching, and dispersal shape the regional distributions of avian haemosporidian parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Vincenzo A; Collins, Michael D; Medeiros, Matthew C I; Sari, Eloisa H R; Coffey, Elyse D; Dickerson, Rebecca C; Lugarini, Camile; Stratford, Jeffrey A; Henry, Donata R; Merrill, Loren; Matthews, Alix E; Hanson, Alison A; Roberts, Jackson R; Joyce, Michael; Kunkel, Melanie R; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2015-09-08

    The drivers of regional parasite distributions are poorly understood, especially in comparison with those of free-living species. For vector-transmitted parasites, in particular, distributions might be influenced by host-switching and by parasite dispersal with primary hosts and vectors. We surveyed haemosporidian blood parasites (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) of small land birds in eastern North America to characterize a regional parasite community. Distributions of parasite populations generally reflected distributions of their hosts across the region. However, when the interdependence between hosts and parasites was controlled statistically, local host assemblages were related to regional climatic gradients, but parasite assemblages were not. Moreover, because parasite assemblage similarity does not decrease with distance when controlling for host assemblages and climate, parasites evidently disperse readily within the distributions of their hosts. The degree of specialization on hosts varied in some parasite lineages over short periods and small geographic distances independently of the diversity of available hosts and potentially competing parasite lineages. Nonrandom spatial turnover was apparent in parasite lineages infecting one host species that was well-sampled within a single year across its range, plausibly reflecting localized adaptations of hosts and parasites. Overall, populations of avian hosts generally determine the geographic distributions of haemosporidian parasites. However, parasites are not dispersal-limited within their host distributions, and they may switch hosts readily.

  6. On the parasitic fauna of two species of anurans collected from Sungai Pinang, Penang Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, A R; Andy Tan, W A; Intan, S

    2008-08-01

    A total of fifty anurans, comprising of Rana limnocharis and Bufo melanostictus were collected from Sungai Pinang, Balik Pulau, Penang. The prevalence, mean intensity and distribution of parasite species along the digestive tract were reported. Seven species of parasites were recorded. Blood parasites recovered were trypansomes and microfilariae.

  7. Parasites and mortality of Sable Hippotragus niger niger (harris, 1838 in the Matopos, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H Grobler

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitism is indicated as the main cause of mortality of sable Hippotragus niger niger in Matopos, Zimbabwe. The main external parasites were Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, R. evertsi and the larvae of Chrysomya bezziana. The main internal parasite was Haemonchus and to a lesser extent Taenia multiceps. Babesia and anaplasmosis were identified in blood smears.

  8. Eimeria tenella: in vitro development in irradiated bovine kidney cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, M.St.J.; Schmatz, D.M.; Stevens, S.; Habbersett, M.C.; Murray, P.K. (Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Labs., Rahway, NJ (USA))

    1984-06-01

    The initial infection and first-generation development of Eimeria tenella was quantified using a cloned MDBK (Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney) cell line, irradiated with gamma radiation prior to infection, as the host cell. Irradiated cell cultures were found to be more susceptible to infection and had a greater capacity to support parasite development than non-irradiated cultures. It was suggested that the larger proportion of cells in the G/sub 2/ phase of the cell cycle, the larger individual cell size and the inhibition of cell division in the irradiated cultures were all factors contributing to the increased susceptibility to infection and capacity to support parasite growth and development. The application of this technique (host cell irradiation) to the cultivation of other intracellular, protozoan parasites is discussed.

  9. Reduced erythrocyte susceptibility and increased host clearance of young parasites slows Plasmodium growth in a murine model of severe malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, David S.; Cromer, Deborah; Best, Shannon E.; James, Kylie R.; Sebina, Ismail; Haque, Ashraful; Davenport, Miles P.

    2015-05-01

    The best correlate of malaria severity in human Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) infection is the total parasite load. Pf-infected humans could control parasite loads by two mechanisms, either decreasing parasite multiplication, or increasing parasite clearance. However, few studies have directly measured these two mechanisms in vivo. Here, we have directly quantified host clearance of parasites during Plasmodium infection in mice. We transferred labelled red blood cells (RBCs) from Plasmodium infected donors into uninfected and infected recipients, and tracked the fate of donor parasites by frequent blood sampling. We then applied age-based mathematical models to characterise parasite clearance in the recipient mice. Our analyses revealed an increased clearance of parasites in infected animals, particularly parasites of a younger developmental stage. However, the major decrease in parasite multiplication in infected mice was not mediated by increased clearance alone, but was accompanied by a significant reduction in the susceptibility of RBCs to parasitisation.

  10. Echinococcus multilocularis phosphoglucose isomerase (EmPGI): a glycolytic enzyme involved in metacestode growth and parasite-host cell interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, Britta; Spiliotis, Markus; Müller, Joachim; Scholl, Sabrina; Müller, Norbert; Gottstein, Bruno; Hemphill, Andrew

    2010-11-01

    In Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes, the surface-associated and highly glycosylated laminated layer, and molecules associated with this structure, is believed to be involved in modulating the host-parasite interface. We report on the molecular and functional characterisation of E. multilocularis phosphoglucose isomerase (EmPGI), which is a component of this laminated layer. The EmPGI amino acid sequence is virtually identical to that of its homologue in Echinococcus granulosus, and shares 64% identity and 86% similarity with human PGI. Mammalian PGI is a multi-functional protein which, besides its glycolytic function, can also act as a cytokine, growth factor and inducer of angiogenesis, and plays a role in tumour growth, development and metastasis formation. Recombinant EmPGI (recEmPGI) is also functionally active as a glycolytic enzyme and was found to be present, besides the laminated layer, in vesicle fluid and in germinal layer cell extracts. EmPGI is released from metacestodes and induces a humoral immune response in experimentally infected mice, and vaccination of mice with recEmPGI renders these mice more resistant towards secondary challenge infection, indicating that EmPGI plays an important role in parasite development and/or in modulating the host-parasite relationship. We show that recEmPGI stimulates the growth of isolated E. multilocularis germinal layer cells in vitro and selectively stimulates the proliferation of bovine adrenal cortex endothelial cells but not of human fibroblasts and rat hepatocytes. Thus, besides its role in glycolysis, EmPGI could also act as a factor that stimulates parasite growth and potentially induces the formation of novel blood vessels around the developing metacestode in vivo.

  11. Enzootic bovine leukosis and Bovine leukemia virus

    OpenAIRE

    Amauri Alcindo Alfieri; Alice Fernandes Alfieri; Luis Álvaro Leuzzi Junior

    2004-01-01

    All over de World the Enzootic Bovine Leukosis is a important viral infection in cattle herds. This revision points out topics relative to the etiological agent, clinical signals, diagnosis methods, control and prophylaxis of the infection.A Leucose Enzoótica Bovina é uma infecção viral amplamente disseminada em rebanhos bovinos de todo o mundo. Esta revisão tem por objetivo apresentar tópicos relacionados ao agente etiológico, à doença clínica e aos métodos de diagnóstico, controle e profila...

  12. Parasites and marine invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchin, M.E.; Lafferty, K.D.; Kuris, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Introduced marine species are a major environmental and economic problem. The rate of these biological invasions has substantially increased in recent years due to the globalization of the world's economies. The damage caused by invasive species is often a result of the higher densities and larger sizes they attain compared to where they are native. A prominent hypothesis explaining the success of introduced species is that they are relatively free of the effects of natural enemies. Most notably, they may encounter fewer parasites in their introduced range compared to their native range. Parasites are ubiquitous and pervasive in marine systems, yet their role in marine invasions is relatively unexplored. Although data on parasites of marine organisms exist, the extent to which parasites can mediate marine invasions, or the extent to which invasive parasites and pathogens are responsible for infecting or potentially decimating native marine species have not been examined. In this review, we present a theoretical framework to model invasion success and examine the evidence for a relationship between parasite presence and the success of introduced marine species. For this, we compare the prevalence and species richness of parasites in several introduced populations of marine species with populations where they are native. We also discuss the potential impacts of introduced marine parasites on native ecosystems.

  13. PARASITES OF FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The intent of this chapter is to describe the parasites of importance to fishes maintained and used in laboratory settings. In contrast to the frist edition, the focus will be only on those parasites that pose a serious threat to or are common in fishes held in these confined en...

  14. Parasites from the Past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Martin Jensen; Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Nejsum, Peter

    will investigate how the diversity of food-borne parasitic infections has changed with cultural and dietary habits, hunting practice and intensity of animal husbandry. This is done by isolating and typing ancient DNA remains from parasite eggs found in archeological samples from across Denmark....

  15. Parasite infections revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegertjes, G.F.; Forlenza, M.; Joerink, M.; Scharsack, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Studying parasites helps reveal basic mechanisms in immunology. For long this has been recognized for studies on the immune system of mice and man. But it is not true for immunological studies on fish. To support this argument we discuss selected examples of parasite infections not only in warm-bloo

  16. A clinical case of bovine trypanosomosis in an endemic farm in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This case report describes the management of a clinical case of trypanosomosis in an adult Friesian Sahiwal cow. Materials and methods: An adult cow aging 3 years was presented with a complain of wound infection, weakness and inappetence. Physical examination was carried out and samples were collected for laboratory investigations. Results: The clinical history revealed generalised enlargements of the pre-scapular and pre-femoral lymph nodes, pale mucous membrane and weight loss. Laboratory investigation showed that the cow had normocytic normochromic anemia with hyperproteinemia. Thin blood smear examination revealed the presence of Trypanosoma evansi. Treatment was instituted with Diminazene aceturate dosed at 3.5 mg/kg bwt through intramuscular (IM route for 3 days, 20 mL of Fercobsang for 3 days, IM, Flunixin meglumine dosed at 1.1 mg/kg bwt, IM, and Oxytetracycline dosed at 20 mg/kg bwt, IM once. The wounds were cleaned daily for one week. Examination of the blood film after therapy showed no parasite. Conclusion: The findings of this case report demonstrate the importance of an effective treatment regimen in managing bovine trypanosomosis in an endemic farm. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(3.000: 286-291

  17. Leishmania development in sand flies: parasite-vector interactions overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dostálová Anna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Leishmaniases are vector-borne parasitic diseases with 0.9 – 1.4 million new human cases each year worldwide. In the vectorial part of the life-cycle, Leishmania development is confined to the digestive tract. During the first few days after blood feeding, natural barriers to Leishmania development include secreted proteolytic enzymes, the peritrophic matrix surrounding the ingested blood meal and sand fly immune reactions. As the blood digestion proceeds, parasites need to bind to the midgut epithelium to avoid being excreted with the blood remnant. This binding is strictly stage-dependent as it is a property of nectomonad and leptomonad forms only. While the attachment in specific vectors (P. papatasi, P. duboscqi and P. sergenti involves lipophosphoglycan (LPG, this Leishmania molecule is not required for parasite attachment in other sand fly species experimentally permissive for various Leishmania. During late-stage infections, large numbers of parasites accumulate in the anterior midgut and produce filamentous proteophosphoglycan creating a gel-like plug physically obstructing the gut. The parasites attached to the stomodeal valve cause damage to the chitin lining and epithelial cells of the valve, interfering with its function and facilitating reflux of parasites from the midgut. Transformation to metacyclic stages highly infective for the vertebrate host is the other prerequisite for effective transmission. Here, we review the current state of knowledge of molecular interactions occurring in all these distinct phases of parasite colonization of the sand fly gut, highlighting recent discoveries in the field.

  18. AIDS - associated parasitic diarrhoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora D

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of human immunodeficiency virus infection, with its profound and progressive effect on the cellular immune system, a group of human opportunistic pathogens has come into prominence. Opportunistic parasitic infection can cause severe morbidity and mortality. Because many of these infections are treatable, an early and accurate diagnosis is important. This can be accomplished by a variety of methods such as direct demonstration of parasites and by serological tests to detect antigen and/or specific antibodies. However, antibody response may be poor in these patients and therefore immunodiagnostic tests have to be interpreted with caution. Cryptosporidium parvum , Isospora belli , Cyclospora cayetanensis , Microsporidia, Entamoeba histolytica and Strongyloides stercoralis are the commonly detected parasites. Detection of these parasites will help in proper management of these patients because drugs are available for most of these parasitic infections.

  19. IL-10 release by bovine epithelial cells cultured with Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Ricardo Chaves; Benchimol, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus are parasitic protists of the human and bovine urogenital tracts, respectively. Several studies have described the cytotoxic effects of trichomonads on urogenital tract epithelial cells. However, little is known about the host cell response against trichomonads. The aim of this study was to determine whether T. foetus and T. vaginalis stimulated the release of the cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 from cultured bovine epithelial cells. To characterise the inflammatory response induced by these parasites, primary cultures of bovine oviduct epithelial cells were exposed to either T. vaginalis or T. foetus. Within 12 h after parasite challenge, supernatants were collected and cytokine production was analysed. Large amounts of IL-10 were detected in the supernatants of cultures that had been stimulated with T. foetus. Interestingly, T. vaginalis induced only a small increase in the release of IL-10 upon exposure to the same bovine cells. Thus, the inflammatory response of the host cell is species-specific. Only T. foetus and not T. vaginalis induced the release of IL-10 by bovine oviduct epithelial cells. PMID:23440124

  20. IL-10 release by bovine epithelial cells cultured with Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Chaves Vilela

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus are parasitic protists of the human and bovine urogenital tracts, respectively. Several studies have described the cytotoxic effects of trichomonads on urogenital tract epithelial cells. However, little is known about the host cell response against trichomonads. The aim of this study was to determine whether T. foetus and T. vaginalis stimulated the release of the cytokine interleukin (IL-10 from cultured bovine epithelial cells. To characterise the inflammatory response induced by these parasites, primary cultures of bovine oviduct epithelial cells were exposed to either T. vaginalis or T. foetus. Within 12 h after parasite challenge, supernatants were collected and cytokine production was analysed. Large amounts of IL-10 were detected in the supernatants of cultures that had been stimulated with T. foetus. Interestingly, T. vaginalis induced only a small increase in the release of IL-10 upon exposure to the same bovine cells. Thus, the inflammatory response of the host cell is species-specific. Only T. foetus and not T. vaginalis induced the release of IL-10 by bovine oviduct epithelial cells.

  1. Haematological and histopathological analysis in South American fish Piaractus mesopotamicus parasitized by monogenean (Dactylogyridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GT Jerônimo

    Full Text Available Monogeneans are the parasites mostly found on the body surface and gills of fish and can cause large losses in farmed fish. Some studies demonstrate elevated parasitic levels causing hematological alterations. But few of them relate the effects of parasitism on the hematology and histopathology of native freshwater farmed fish. This study evaluated the host-parasite relationship in pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus parasitized by the monogenean Anacanthorus penilabiatus. Hematological and parasitological assessments were obtained in 60 fish captured in a fish farm located in Dourados, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Central Brazil. Fish were analyzed in different categories of parasite number: class I (n=13; 0-200 parasites, class II (n=17; 201-1200 parasites; class III (n=7; 1201-2200 parasites; and class IV (n=23; more than 2200 parasites per host. The highest levels of parasitism caused significant decrease (p<0.05 in the hematocrit, red blood cells (RBC, mean hemoglobin concentration (MCHC and basophils number. Thrombocytes, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, monocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils and LG-PAS did not present significant difference among the parasitic levels. In contrast, increased number of total leukocytes and lymphocytes were found in highly-parasitized fish. A positive linear correlation (p<0.01 was found between the amount of parasites and fish weight. Histopathology revealed severe hyperplasia, sub-epithelial edema, fusion of the secondary lamellae, focal and multifocal necrosis in highly parasitized fish.

  2. Intervet Symposium: bovine neosporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schetters, T.; Dubey, J.P.; Adrianarivo, A.; Frankena, K.; Romero, J.J.; Pérez, E.; Heuer, C.; Nicholson, C.; Russell, D.; Weston, J.

    2004-01-01

    This article summarises the most relevant data of presentations delivered at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) held in New Orleans, LA, USA, from 10 to 14 August 2003) in a symposium session on bovine neosporosis. The sy

  3. Intervet Symposium: bovine neosporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schetters, T.; Dubey, J.P.; Adrianarivo, A.; Frankena, K.; Romero, J.J.; Pérez, E.; Heuer, C.; Nicholson, C.; Russell, D.; Weston, J.

    2004-01-01

    This article summarises the most relevant data of presentations delivered at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) held in New Orleans, LA, USA, from 10 to 14 August 2003) in a symposium session on bovine neosporosis. The

  4. Bovine milk glycome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, N; DePeters, E J; Freeman, S; German, J B; Grimm, R; Lebrilla, C B

    2008-10-01

    Bovine milk oligosaccharides have several potentially important biological activities including the prevention of pathogen binding to the intestinal epithelial and as nutrients for beneficial bacteria. It has been suggested that milk oligosaccharides are an important source of complex carbohydrates as supplements for the food and the pharmaceutical industries. However, only a small number of structures of bovine milk oligosaccharides (bMO) are known. There have been no systematic studies on bMO. High-performance mass spectrometry and separation methods are used to evaluate bMO, and nearly 40 oligosaccharides are present in bovine milk. Bovine milk oligosaccharides are composed of shorter oligomeric chains than are those in human milk. They are significantly more anionic with nearly 70%, measured abundances, being sialylated. Additionally, bMO are built not only on the lactose core (as are nearly all human milk oligosaccharides), but also on lactose amines. Sialic acid residues include both N-acetyl and N-glycolylneuraminic acid, although the former is significantly more abundant.

  5. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is caused by a novel contagion, known to as a prion. Prions are proteins capable of converting a normal cellular protein into a prion, thereby propagating an infection. BSE is the first known prion zoonotic. As such it has attracted broad scientific and, to a r...

  6. A review of diseases of parasites of the Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, K J

    1991-10-01

    The diseases of the Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) are reviewed in this paper. Kafue lechwe are an important natural resource for Zambia. Bovine tuberculosis is widespread within the lechwe population and they are host to many parasites, especially the warble Strobiloestrous vanzyli.

  7. [Parasitism and ecological parasitology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashov, Iu S

    2011-01-01

    Parasitism as one of the life modes is a general biological phenomenon and is a characteristic of all viruses, many taxa of bacteria, fungi, protists, metaphytes, and metazoans. Zooparasitology is focused on studies of parasitic animals, particularly, on their taxonomy, anatomy, life cycles, host-parasite relations, biocoenotic connections, and evolution. Ecological parasitology is a component of ecology, as the scientific study of the relation of living organisms with each other and their surroundings. In the present paper, critical analysis of the problems, main postulates, and terminology of the modern ecological parasitology is given.

  8. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen eThompson-Crispi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the High Immune Response (HIR technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+TM sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favourable production levels to feed a growing

  9. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population. PMID

  10. TEMPO DE VIABILIDADE DE AMOSTRAS DE SANGUE VENOSO BOVINO DESTINADAS AO EXAME HEMOGASOMÉTRICO, QUANDO MANTIDAS SOB CONSERVAÇÃO EM ÁGUA GELADA VIABILITY TIME OF BLOOD GAS ANALYSIS IN BOVINE VENOUS BLOOD SAMPLES STORED IN ICE WATER BATH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Augusto Naylor Lisbôa

    2001-04-01

    adequadamente conservadas em banho de água gelada, mantendo, assim, o seu valor diagnóstico.In order to verify the viability of blood gas analysis in bovine venous blood stored on ice water bath, two samples (10ml each were taken from the jugular vein of 14 healthy animals (7 males and 7 females, 1- to 5-year-old, using plastic syringes and attached needles filled with sodium heparin (1,000IU. The blood samples were obtained anaerobically, the air bubbles observed were immediately removed, and the needle was maintened capped with a rubber stopper. Each syringe of the pair was distinctally stored at room temperature (23-30ºC or in ice water bath (0-4ºC during the experimental period. Values of pH, carbon dioxide (PvCO2 and oxigen (PvO2 tensions, bicarbonate (HCO3-, total carbon dioxide (TCO2, base excess (BE, standard bicarbonate (StB, oxigen saturation (SatO2, and oxigen content (O2 were determined soon after sampling and after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 24 hours. According to the type of storage temperature, the results were analysed through repeated measurements ANOVA, considering the contrast between the mean value of each time and the initial one. On the storage at room temperature, the in vitro changes were characterized from continuous decreases in pH, PvO2, BE, StB, SatO2, and O2 values, and gradual increase in PvCO2, starting at 2- or 3-hour after the collection. In the samples stored at 0-4ºC, on the other hand, the changes in pH occurred only at the 4th hour, and the stability of the PvCO2, BE, and StB values were maintened for up to the 6th hour. These results indicated that the diagnostic utility of blood gas analysis is conserved in bovine venous blood samples adequately stored up to 6 hours in ice water bath, at 0-4ºC.

  11. Manejo de Bovinos en Sistemas Productivos: Caracterización de dos estilos de manejo y niveles sanguíneos de cortisol - Productive Systems in Bovine Management. The Characterization in Two Styles and Blood Cortisol Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa, Alejandro

    2007-12-01

    , de que este incremento comparado con el registrado para el tratamiento con pautas de bienestar, no fuesignificativo (P= 0,2603, el valor hallado evidenciaría el modo en el cual los bovinos recuerdan el maltrato.En ambos tratamientos se registraron diferencias en el comportamiento. Con el tratamientosegún pautas de bienestar el manejo se efectuó sin que los animales presentaran signos de intranquilidad, en tanto que en el tratamiento convencional, signos como una marcada polipnea y fuerte excitación, se manifestaron con intensidad.AbstractThe animal welfare problematic, has gained International relevance and in this frame exists recommendations about its significance over de International Commerce. At the same time, in Argentina exists laws about this question; laws that have placed the discussion in theConsorcio de Exportadores de Carnes Argentinas (ABC.The main goal of this paper is the characterization of two different styles of bovine handling: the first one considers that the animals are dominated by force and the other one, based in the knowledge of the bovinebehavior; each of them has its hormonal correspondence which is measured through blood’s cortisol as an indicator of stress.In this research, an 80-young bull share was divided, in a random way, in two sub-shares of same number of animals. Each sub-share was submitted toone of the two different styles. At the same time, 10 young bulls of each sub-share, were selected in a random way. Two blood samples were taken from each animal and the blood cortisol was measured. The first sample informed about the cortisol level under both treatments. The second one, was taken after the animal was calmed, looking forward to clear the sympathetic alarm. It was possible to see the existence of significant differences in the cortisol levels between the two sub-shares (P 0,00413, p<0,01.The second examination,show a significant increase in the level of cortisol (P 0,0017, p<0,001; increase that appears as results of

  12. Metabolomics and protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paget, Timothy; Haroune, Nicolas; Bagchi, Sushmita; Jarroll, Edward

    2013-06-01

    In this review, we examine the state-of-the-art technologies (gas and liquid chromatography, mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance, etc.) in the well-established area of metabolomics especially as they relate to protozoan parasites.

  13. Transfection of malaria parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, A P; Thomas, A W; van Dijk, M R; Janse, C J

    1997-10-01

    The stable genetic transformation of three phylogenetically diverse species of Plasmodium, the parasitic etiological agent of malaria, is now possible. The parasite is haploid throughout the vast majority of its life cycle. Therefore with the single selectable marker activity and protocols currently available, it is possible not only to express introduced transgenes but also to study the effects of site-specific homologous recombination such as gene knockout. Transgene expression will allow the detailed study of many aspects of the cellular biology of malaria parasites, for example, the mechanisms underlying drug resistance and protein trafficking. We describe here the methods for propagation of the two animal models (Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium knowlesi) and for transfection of these two species and the human parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Examples of transgene expression are given.

  14. Pathoecology of Chiribaya parasitism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinson Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The excavations of Chiribaya culture sites in the Osmore drainage of southern Peru focused on the recovery of information about prehistoric disease, including parasitism. The archaeologists excavated human, dog, guinea pig, and llama mummies. These mummies were analyzed for internal and external parasites. The results of the analysis and reconstruction of prehistoric life from the excavations allows us to interpret the pathoecology of the Chiribaya culture.

  15. The immunological balance between host and parasite in malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroost, Katrien; Pham, Thao-Thy; Opdenakker, Ghislain; Van den Steen, Philippe E

    2016-03-01

    Coevolution of humans and malaria parasites has generated an intricate balance between the immune system of the host and virulence factors of the parasite, equilibrating maximal parasite transmission with limited host damage. Focusing on the blood stage of the disease, we discuss how the balance between anti-parasite immunity versus immunomodulatory and evasion mechanisms of the parasite may result in parasite clearance or chronic infection without major symptoms, whereas imbalances characterized by excessive parasite growth, exaggerated immune reactions or a combination of both cause severe pathology and death, which is detrimental for both parasite and host. A thorough understanding of the immunological balance of malaria and its relation to other physiological balances in the body is of crucial importance for developing effective interventions to reduce malaria-related morbidity and to diminish fatal outcomes due to severe complications. Therefore, we discuss in this review the detailed mechanisms of anti-malarial immunity, parasite virulence factors including immune evasion mechanisms and pathogenesis. Furthermore, we propose a comprehensive classification of malaria complications according to the different types of imbalances.

  16. Parasites and human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, George H

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of human evolutionary and population history can be advanced by ecological and evolutionary studies of our parasites. Many parasites flourish only in the presence of very specific human behaviors and in specific habitats, are wholly dependent on us, and have evolved with us for thousands or millions of years. Therefore, by asking when and how we first acquired those parasites, under which environmental and cultural conditions we are the most susceptible, and how the parasites have evolved and adapted to us and we in response to them, we can gain considerable insight into our own evolutionary history. As examples, the tapeworm life cycle is dependent on our consumption of meat, the divergence of body and head lice may have been subsequent to the development of clothing, and malaria hyperendemicity may be associated with agriculture. Thus, the evolutionary and population histories of these parasites are likely intertwined with critical aspects of human biology and culture. Here I review the mechanics of these and multiple other parasite proxies for human evolutionary history and discuss how they currently complement our fossil, archeological, molecular, linguistic, historical, and ethnographic records. I also highlight potential future applications of this promising model for the field of evolutionary anthropology.

  17. Parasites in marine food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Most species interactions probably involve parasites. This review considers the extent to which marine ecologists should consider parasites to fully understand marine communities. Parasites are influential parts of food webs in estuaries, temperate reefs, and coral reefs, but their ecological importance is seldom recognized. Though difficult to observe, parasites can have substantial biomass, and they can be just as common as free-living consumers after controlling for body mass and trophic level. Parasites have direct impacts on the energetics of their hosts and some affect host behaviors, with ecosystem-level consequences. Although they cause disease, parasites are sensitive components of ecosystems. In particular, they suffer secondary extinctions due to biodiversity loss. Some parasites can also return to a system after habitat restoration. For these reasons, parasites can make good indicators of ecosystem integrity. Fishing can indirectly increase or decrease parasite populations and the effects of climate change on parasites are likely to be equally as complex.

  18. New approaches for morphological diagnosis of bovine Eimeria species: a study on a subtropical organic dairy farm in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florião, Mônica Mateus; Lopes, Bruno do Bomfim; Berto, Bruno Pereira; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2016-03-01

    Bovine eimeriosis or coccidiosis is an intestinal disease caused by Eimeria spp. which is related to gastrointestinal disorders and, in some cases, death. The current work aimed to identify and provide detailed morphological characteristic features of the different Eimeria spp. parasites of crossbred cows of a subtropical organic dairy farm in Brazil, offering tools for the diagnosis of bovine eimeriosis. Eimeria auburnensis, Eimeria bovis, Eimeria bukidnonensis, Eimeria canadensis, Eimeria cylindrica, Eimeria ildefonsoi, and Eimeria zuernii were identified. The application of line regressions and ANOVA provided a means for the identification of these species. Finally, the current work proposes a dichotomous key to assist in the morphologic identification of bovine Eimeria spp. oocysts.

  19. Mycotic bovine nasal granuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti Díaz, Ismael Alejandro; Vargas, Roberto; Apolo, Ada; Moraña, José Antonio; Pedrana, Graciela; Cardozo, Elena; Almeida, Edgardo

    2003-01-01

    A case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma in a 10 year-old Jersey cow, produced by Drechslera halodes is presented. Histopathological sections showed abundant hyaline and pigmented extra and intracellular fungal structures together with a polymorphic cellular granuloma formed by neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasmocytes, histiocytes and giant cells of the Langhans type. It is the first case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma recognized in Uruguay although this disease seems to be frequent according to the opinion of veterinarian specialists. Another similar clinical case also in a Jersey cow from the same dairy house with an intense cellular infiltrate rich in eosinophils without granulomatous image, together with extracellular hyaline and fuliginous fungal forms, is also referred for comparative purposes. Geotrichum sp. was isolated. The need of an early diagnosis and treatment of the disease is stressed.

  20. Transmission of Babesia microti Parasites by Solid Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Meghan B; Herwaldt, Barbara L; Kazmierczak, James J; Weiss, John W; Klein, Christina L; Leith, Catherine P; He, Rong; Oberley, Matthew J; Tonnetti, Laura; Wilkins, Patricia P; Gauthier, Gregory M

    2016-11-01

    Babesia microti, an intraerythrocytic parasite, is tickborne in nature. In contrast to transmission by blood transfusion, which has been well documented, transmission associated with solid organ transplantation has not been reported. We describe parasitologically confirmed cases of babesiosis diagnosed ≈8 weeks posttransplantation in 2 recipients of renal allografts from an organ donor who was multiply transfused on the day he died from traumatic injuries. The organ donor and recipients had no identified risk factors for tickborne infection. Antibodies against B. microti parasites were not detected by serologic testing of archived pretransplant specimens. However, 1 of the organ donor's blood donors was seropositive when tested postdonation and had risk factors for tick exposure. The organ donor probably served as a conduit of Babesia parasites from the seropositive blood donor to both kidney recipients. Babesiosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of unexplained fever and hemolytic anemia after blood transfusion or organ transplantation.

  1. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (pinkeye)

    OpenAIRE

    Angelos, JA

    2015-01-01

    Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. As is the case for controlling other infectious livestock diseases, the most successful efforts to control infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) will include consideration of the host, the environment, herd management, and ongoing surveillance even after the immediate crisis has passed. Research over many years has led to the discovery of a variety of antibiotic treatments and antibiotic regimens that can be effective against IBK. The...

  2. Selenium in bovine spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, S M; Kuzan, F B; Senger, P L

    1981-05-01

    This study investigated the association of selenium with ejaculated bovine spermatozoa. Over 75% of the radioactive spermatozoa. Over 75% of the radioactive selenium-75 was released after 30 min of incubation in 2 X 10(-3) dithiothreitol. Of the selenium-75 released by dithiothreitol, 85% was associated with spermatozoal protein. Protein containing selenium-75 was found predominantly in a single band after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Molecular weight was approximately 21,500 daltons.

  3. Diagnostic imaging in bovine orthopedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Johann; Geissbühler, Urs; Steiner, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    Although a radiographic unit is not standard equipment for bovine practitioners in hospital or field situations, ultrasound machines with 7.5-MHz linear transducers have been used in bovine reproduction for many years, and are eminently suitable for evaluation of orthopedic disorders. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use radiology and ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. These diagnostic imaging techniques improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis in every bovine patient but especially in highly valuable cattle, whose owners demand increasingly more diagnostic and surgical interventions that require high-level specialized techniques.

  4. Bovine trypanosomosis and vector density in Omo-Ghibe tsetse belt, South Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Rahmeto; Gute, Solomon; Simon, Ijigu

    2017-03-01

    African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) is a parasitic disease that causes serious economic losses in livestock from anemia, loss of condition, emaciation and death in untreated cases. It is one of the major constraints to improved livestock production and productivity in Ethiopia. Entomological and parasitological surveys were conducted in the Omo-Ghibe tsetse belt of south Ethiopia to estimate the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis and the apparent tsetse density (AD), and identify the potential risk factors. For the parasitological study, blood samples were collected from 1508 cattle sampled from 11 districts and assayed using the buffy coat technique and Giemsa-stained thin smears. For the entomological survey, a total of 216 biconical and NGU traps were deployed in all districts. The overall animal-level prevalence of trypanosomosis was 7.8% (95% CI: 6.5, 9.3). The trypanosome species identified were Trypanosoma congolense (75.4%), T. vivax (20.3%), T. brucei brucei (1.7%) and mixed T. congolense/T. vivax (2.6%). Regarding the entomological survey result, a total of 2243 tsetse flies were captured which identified to be Glossina pallidipes (85.1%) and G. f. fuscipes (14.9%). Besides, other biting flies of the genus Stomoxys (n=146) and Tabanus (n=17) were also trapped. The AD noted in the present study was 3.5 flies/trap/day. Both the prevalence of trypanosomosis and AD of tsetse flies were significantly (pOmo-Ghibe tsetse belt in dry season. The disease is mainly caused by the most pathogenic T. congolense and transmission is predominantly by tsetse flies, particularly G. pallidipes. The study warrants the need for strengthening the vector and parasite control interventions in the area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Diagnosis of parasite infections. Significance of serological examinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, H; Hatz, C F

    2006-08-01

    The attractiveness of tropical and subtropical travel destinations for European tourists as well as the continuous influx of immigrants originating from such areas force the general practitioner to consider the possibility of parasitic infections. Besides the classic microscopic examination for ova and parasites, a serological examination for antibodies has its value especially in the case of an infection with tissue parasites, for an early diagnosis during prepetancy or as a screening test in case of a blood eosinophilia after known exposure risk. The current report highlights possible diagnostic strategies, referring especially to the significance of a serological examination.

  6. Internal parasites of reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raś-Noryńska, Małgorzata; Sokół, Rajmund

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays a growing number of exotic reptiles are kept as pets. The aim of this study was to determine the species of parasites found in reptile patients of veterinary practices in Poland. Fecal samples obtained from 76 lizards, 15 turtles and 10 snakes were examined by flotation method and direct smear stained with Lugol's iodine. In 63 samples (62.4%) the presence of parasite eggs and oocysts was revealed. Oocysts of Isospora spp. (from 33% to 100% of the samples, depending on the reptilian species) and Oxyurids eggs (10% to 75%) were predominant. In addition, isolated Eimeria spp. oocysts and Giardia intestinalis cysts were found, as well as Strongylus spp. and Hymenolepis spp. eggs. Pet reptiles are often infected with parasites, some of which are potentially dangerous to humans. A routine parasitological examination should be done in such animals.

  7. Prevalence Survey of Selected Bovine Pathogens in Water Buffaloes in the North Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the largest buffalo herd in the occident is in the north region of Brazil, few studies have been conducted to assess the prevalence of selected parasitic diseases in buffalo herd. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate the epidemiological of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil. A total of 4796 buffalo blood samples were randomly collected from five provinces and simultaneously analyzed by the IFAT and ELISA. The serological prevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 41.3% and 55.5% in ELISA and 35.7% and 48.8% in IFAT, respectively. The overall prevalence of A. marginale, B. bovis, and B. bigemina was 63%, 25%, and 21% by ELISA and 50.0%, 22.5%, and 18.8% by IFAT, respectively. This study shows valuable information regarding the serological survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil which will likely be very beneficial for the management and control programs of this disease.

  8. Detection of monoclonal integration of bovine leukemia virus proviral DNA as a malignant marker in two enzootic bovine leukosis cases with difficult clinical diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Miura, Saori; HORIUCHI, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Kotaro; KOBAYASHI, Yoshiyasu; Kawazu, Shin-ichiro; INOKUMA, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal integration of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) proviral DNA into bovine genomes was detected in peripheral blood from two clinical cases of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) without enlargement of superficial lymph nodes. A BLV-specific probe hybridized with 1 to 3 EcoRI and HindIII fragments in these 2 atypical EBL cattle by Southern blotting and hybridization, as well as in 3 typical EBL cattle. The probe also hybridized to a large number of EcoRI and HindIII fragments in 5 cattle with ...

  9. Foodborne protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, David

    2005-08-25

    This report addresses Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Cyclospora, and more briefly, Toxoplasma as the main parasitic protozoa of concern to food production worldwide. Other parasitic protozoa may be spread in food or water but are not considered as great a risk to food manufacture. The protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Cyclospora have proven potential to cause waterborne and foodborne disease. Toxoplasma gondii has been considered a risk in specific cases, but humans are not its primary host. Cryptosporidium and Giardia are widespread in the environment, particularly the aquatic environment, and major outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis have occurred as a result of contaminated drinking water. Large outbreaks of waterborne cyclosporiasis have not been identified. Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Cyclospora have potential significance in the preparation and consumption of fresh produce and in catering practice, in which ready-to-eat foods may be served that have not received heat treatment. None of the three organisms Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Cyclospora has been shown to be a problem for heat processed food or tap water that has undergone appropriate treatment at a water treatment works. All three are sensitive to standard pasteurisation techniques. Although humans are not a primary host for T. gondii, the potential exists for both waterborne and foodborne toxoplasmosis. Parasitic protozoa do not multiply in foods, but they may survive in or on moist foods for months in cool, damp environments. Their ecology makes control of these parasites difficult. For general control of parasitic protozoa in the food chain, the following steps are necessary: - Follow good hygienic practice in food service and catering industries.- Minimise dissemination of cysts and oocysts in the farming environment and via human waste management.- Include these microorganisms in Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plans of water suppliers, industries or sectors

  10. Clinical, epidemiological and therapeutic studies on Bovine Papillomatosis in Northern Oases, Egypt in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayez Awadalla Salib 1 and Haithm Ali Farghali 2

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Bovine papillomatosis is a viral disease of cattle characterized clinically by development of multiple benign tumours termed warts. The diagnosis of bovine papillomatosis was confirmed by clinical and pathological examinations of the warts. The prevalence of bovine papillomatosis in Northern Oases was recorded as 4.86%. The prevalence was higher in the females (2.99% than males (1.87%.The prevalence was the highest in cattle less than one year old (2.99%. The infected cattle were examined visually for detection of external parasites and faecal samples were examined for detection of internal parasites. Infestation with ticks was observed in 10 of the 13 confirmed wart infected animals, while fasciola and parasitic gastroenteritis (PGE nematode eggs were demonstrated and quantified in 4 and 5 infected bovids respectively. The statistical correlation between the number of warts and Fasciola eggs, and number of parasitic gastroenteritis (PGE nematode eggs, was 0.6 and 0.89 accordingly. Two therapeutic regimes were evaluated, regimen-I and regimen-II. All cattle treated were completely recovered in days post treatment 15 to 115. We concluded that treatment regimen-I was better than regimen-II when taking into consideration the mean days lapsed for healing and regression of warts of 42 days compared to 83 days for regimen-II. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(2.000: 53-59

  11. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (pinkeye).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelos, John A

    2015-03-01

    As is the case for controlling other infectious livestock diseases, the most successful efforts to control infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) will include consideration of the host, the environment, herd management, and ongoing surveillance even after the immediate crisis has passed. Research over many years has led to the discovery of a variety of antibiotic treatments and antibiotic regimens that can be effective against IBK. The discoveries of Mor bovoculi and reports of IBK associated with Mycoplasma spp without concurrent Mor bovis or Mor bovoculi have raised new questions into the roles that other organisms may play in IBK pathogenesis.

  12. Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoar, Bruce R

    2004-01-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...

  13. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Nucleolus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amrutlal K.Patel; Doug Olson; Suresh K. Tikoo

    2010-01-01

    Nucleolus is the most prominent subnuclear structure, which performs a wide variety of functions in the eu-karyotic cellular processes. In order to understand the structural and functional role of the nucleoli in bovine cells,we analyzed the proteomie composition of the bovine nueleoli. The nucleoli were isolated from Madin Darby bo-vine kidney cells and subjected to proteomie analysis by LC-MS/MS after fractionation by SDS-PAGE and strongcation exchange chromatography. Analysis of the data using the Mascot database search and the GPM databasesearch identified 311 proteins in the bovine nucleoli, which contained 22 proteins previously not identified in theproteomic analysis of human nucleoli. Analysis of the identified proteins using the GoMiner software suggestedthat the bovine nueleoli contained proteins involved in ribosomal biogenesis, cell cycle control, transcriptional,translational and post-translational regulation, transport, and structural organization.

  14. The use of different diagnostic tools for Babesia and Theileria parasites in cattle in Menofia, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayel, Mohamed; El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed; Aboulaila, Mahmoud; Elsify, Ahmed; Hassan, Hany; Ibrahim, Elsayed; Salama, Akram; Yanai, Tokuma

    2012-09-01

    Bovine piroplasmosis is caused by tick-borne hemoprotozoans of the genera Babesia and Theileria and is the most prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries, causing a major economic impact worldwide. In the current study, a total of 405 cattle of different ages, sexes, and breeds were randomly sampled for surveying and diagnosis of babesiosis and theileriosis using three methods: direct microscopy (blood smears), indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed that, out of 405 examined cattle, 33 (8.15 %) were infected with Babesia sp. and 65 (16.05 %) with Theileria sp. (total number of infected cattle was 98). Mixed infection was seen in 11 (2.72 %) animals. Moreover, application of the three diagnostic assays on 158 randomly sampled cattle indicated that 17 (10.76 %) and 33 (20.89 %) were positive for Babesia and Theileria spp. by the direct smear technique, 25 (15.82 %) and 33 (20.89 %) by IFAT (fluorescence was greenish yellow for Babesia and yellowish for Theileria), and 20 (12.66 %) and 38 (24.05 %) by PCR. Using primers specific for Babesia and Theileria spp., we found that diagnostic bands appeared at ~350 and ~370 bp, respectively indicating the presence of these piroplasms. Statistically, there was a non-significant difference of the positivity in response to the three techniques; thus, any of these methods can be described as useful for diagnosing blood parasites in both domesticated animals and birds. On the basis of the obtained results, it could be concluded that direct microscopy can be used in acute infections, whereas IFAT and PCR are useful in chronicity.

  15. Human exposure to bovine polyomavirus: a zoonosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, J.V.; Gardner, S.D.

    1986-01-01

    A competitive-type solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed for the detection of antibody to bovine polyomavirus. Comparison of RIA and counter-immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) results on 273 cattle sera indicated that both techniques were detecting antibody of like specificity. Human sera from 256 blood donors, 219 people recently vaccinated against polio, rubella or rabies, 50 immunosuppressed patients and 472 people with various occupational exposure to cattle were tested for antibody to bovine polyomavirus, the foetal rhesus monkey kidney strain, (anti-FRKV) by RIA. Apart from one blood donor and one of 108 rabies vaccinees only those in close contact with cattle possessed anti-FRKV. Compared with 62 per cent seropositive in the natural hosts, cattle, 71 per cent of veterinary surgeons, 50 per cent of cattle farmers, 40 per cent of abattoir workers, 16 per cent of veterinary institute technical staff and 10 per cent of veterinary students were anti-FRKV positive. Our findings indicate that the theoretical hazard of FRKV infection from undetected contamination of current tissue culture derived vaccines may, in practice, be remote. Proposed wider use of primate kidney cells as substrates for new vaccines may increase this risk.

  16. On biomass of parasitic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, J H [Modern Textile Institute, Donghua University, 1882 Yan' an Xilu Road, Shanghai 200051 (China); Mo, L-F [School of Information Engineering, Zhejiang Forestry College, Lin' an 311300, Zhejiang (China)], E-mail: jhhe@dhu.edu.cn

    2008-02-15

    An extremely simple and elementary but rigorous derivation of maximal biomass of parasitic plants is given using an assumption that metabolic rate of the parasite should not be larger than that of its host organ.

  17. On biomass of parasitic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J. H.; Mo, L.-F.

    2008-02-01

    An extremely simple and elementary but rigorous derivation of maximal biomass of parasitic plants is given using an assumption that metabolic rate of the parasite should not be larger than that of its host organ

  18. Enteric parasites and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Cimerman

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report on the importance of intestinal parasites in patients with AIDS, showing relevant data in the medical literature, with special emphasis on epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of enteroparasitosis, especially cryptosporidiasis, isosporiasis, microsporidiasis and strongyloidiasis. DESIGN: Narrative review.

  19. Parasites and the skin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-06-11

    Jun 11, 2009 ... remind you of those rare and wonderful infestations that you might never see. ... from a burrow, mounted on a glass slide. The findings are ... Parasitic infections may be confined to the skin or may have skin involvement as part ...

  20. Parasites and Foodborne Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called "Crypto", is a one-celled, microscopic shelled parasite and a significant cause of waterborne and foodborne illness worldwide. It is found in the intestines of many herd animals including cows, sheep, goats, deer, and elk. The illness could be intestinal, ...

  1. Parasitic Diseases With Cutaneous Manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Mark M; Phillips, Charles M

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic diseases result in a significant global health burden. While often thought to be isolated to returning travelers, parasitic diseases can also be acquired locally in the United States. Therefore, clinicians must be aware of the cutaneous manifestations of parasitic diseases to allow for prompt recognition, effective management, and subsequent mitigation of complications. This commentary also reviews pharmacologic treatment options for several common diseases.

  2. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or

  3. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or para

  4. microRNAs in parasites and parasite infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yadong; Cai, Xuepeng; Bradley, Janette E

    2013-03-01

    miRNAs, a subclass of small regulatory RNAs, are present from ancient unicellular protozoans to parasitic helminths and parasitic arthropods. The miRNA-silencing mechanism appears, however, to be absent in a number of protozoan parasites. Protozoan miRNAs and components of their silencing machinery possess features different from other eukaryotes, providing some clues on the evolution of the RNA-induced silencing machinery. miRNA functions possibly associate with neoblast biology, development, physiology, infection and immunity of parasites. Parasite infection can alter host miRNA expression that can favor both parasite clearance and infection. miRNA pathways are, thus, a potential target for the therapeutic control of parasitic diseases.

  5. Role of parasites in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandong, B M; Ngbea, J A; Raymond, Vhriterhire

    2013-01-01

    In areas of parasitic endemicity, the occurrence of cancer that is not frequent may be linked with parasitic infection. Epidemiological correlates between some parasitic infections and cancer is strong, suggesting a strong aetiological association. The common parasites associated with human cancers are schistosomiasis, malaria, liver flukes (Clonorchis sinenses, Opistorchis viverrini). To review the pathology, literature and methods of diagnosis. Literature review from peer reviewed Journals cited in PubMed and local journals. Parasites may serve as promoters of cancer in endemic areas of infection.

  6. Metazoan Parasites of Antarctic Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oğuz, Mehmet Cemal; Tepe, Yahya; Belk, Mark C; Heckmann, Richard A; Aslan, Burçak; Gürgen, Meryem; Bray, Rodney A; Akgül, Ülker

    2015-06-01

    To date, there have been nearly 100 papers published on metazoan parasites of Antarctic fishes, but there has not yet been any compilation of a species list of fish parasites for this large geographic area. Herein, we provide a list of all documented occurrences of monogenean, cestode, digenean, acanthocephalan, nematode, and hirudinean parasites of Antarctic fishes. The list includes nearly 250 parasite species found in 142 species of host fishes. It is likely that there are more species of fish parasites, which are yet to be documented from Antarctic waters.

  7. Caution on the assessment of intestinal parasitic load in studying parasite-mediated sexual selection: the case of Blackbirds coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipiak, L; Mathieu, F; Moreau, J

    2009-05-01

    The parasite-mediated sexual selection (PMSS) theory has led to an increasing number of experimental studies essentially focussed on blood parasites. Currently, more research is being carried out on intestinal parasites in relationship to this theory. Before testing the theory with gastrointestinal parasites, it is important: (i) to determine an optimal research methodology to obtain an accurate assessment of parasite burden and (ii) to have information about life-history traits of the parasite to interpret data appropriately. In this study, we present data on oocyst output of Isosporaturdi in the faeces of blackbirds (Turdus merula) that illustrate the importance of developing methods that are relevant for a particular model system, instead of relying on existing methods that may work in other systems. Our results show that: (i) a single droplet of faeces will accurately indicate the parasitic load in blackbirds, (ii) oocyst shedding varies greatly within and between days, (iii) the course of infection is characterised with two successive peaks of oocyst shedding, (iv) infection lasts approximately 1 month and (iv) there is no effect of sex, size of infective dose or re-infection on the course of infection. We discuss the practical implications of these results in determining the reliability of, and in avoiding erroneous conclusions about, PMSS when using intestinal parasites as models. In particular, we emphasise that numerous measurements must be performed on different days. In addition, faeces must be collected at a particular time of day because there is a strong temporal variation in oocyst shedding. Finally, a standardised methodology that has been developed for a particular host-parasite assemblage does not necessarily work with other biological models. Together, our results should encourage future investigators to identify an accurate methodology for assessing parasitic load as a first step before testing hypotheses associated with the PMSS theory.

  8. Chloroquine neither eliminates liver stage parasites nor delays their development in a murine Chemoprophylaxis Vaccination model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejram eSahu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemoprophylaxis Vaccination (CVac confers long lasting sterile protection against homologous parasite strains in humans, and involves inoculation of infectious sporozoites under drug cover. CVac using the drug chloroquine (CQ induces pre-erythrocytic immunity in humans that includes antibody to sporozoites and T-cell responses to liver stage parasites. The mechanism by which CVac with CQ induces strong protective immunity is not understood as untreated infections do not confer protection. CQ kills blood stage parasites, but its effect on liver stage parasites is poorly studied. Here we hypothesized that CQ may prolong or perturb liver stage development of Plasmodium, as a potential explanation for enhanced pre-erythrocytic immune responses. Balb/c mice with or without CQ prophylaxis were infected with sporozoite forms of a luciferase-expressing rodent parasite, Plasmodium yoelii-Luc (Py-Luc. Mice that received primaquine (PQ, a drug that kills liver stage parasites, served as a positive control of drug effect. Parasite burden in liver was measured both by bioluminescence and by qRT-PCR quantification of parasite transcript. Time to appearance of parasites in the blood was monitored by microscopic analysis of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood smears. The parasite load in livers of CQ-treated and untreated mice did not significantly differ at any of the time points studied. Parasites appeared in the blood smears of both CQ-treated and untreated mice 3 days after infection. Taken together, our findings confirm that CQ neither eliminates liver stage parasites nor delays their development. Further investigations into the mechanism of CQ-induced protection after CVac are required, and may give insights relevant to drug and vaccine development.

  9. Intervet symposium: bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetters, T; Dubey, J P; Adrianarivo, A; Frankena, K; Romero, J J; Pérez, E; Heuer, C; Nicholson, C; Russell, D; Weston, J

    2004-10-28

    This article summarises the most relevant data of presentations delivered at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP)held in New Orleans, LA, USA, from 10 to 14 August 2003) in a symposium session on bovine neosporosis. The symposium was organised by Juan Muñoz-Bielsa,Wicher Holland, Enzo Foccoliand Theo Schetters (chairman). The focus was on the present state of knowledge of the biology, epidemiology(presented by J.P. Dubey) and immunology of Neospora infection (presented by A. Adrianarivo),with special emphasis on the prospects of vaccination of cattle against Neospora-induced abortion (presentations of K. Frankena (Costa Rican trial) and C. Heuer (New Zealand trial)).

  10. Bovine herpesvirus 1 infection and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), classified as an alphaherpesvirus, is a major pathogen of cattle. Primary infection is accompanied by various clinical manifestations such as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, abortion, infectious pustular vulvovaginitis, and systemic infection in neonates. When animals survive, a life-long latent infection is established in nervous sensory ganglia. Several reactivation stimuli can lead to viral re-excretion, which is responsible for the...

  11. INTESTINAL PARASITES IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohammad

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the status and epidemiology of Intestinal Parasites in Iran. The information was driven from an extensive Health Survey which was done by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, deputy of Research Affairs in 1990-92. Sampling fraction was 1 per 1000 of individuals aged between 2 and 69, the sampling method was cluster sampling and each cluster consisted of 7 families. Formal-ether was the method of finding parasites which included: Oxior, Ascariasis, Giardiasis, Entamoeba-histolytica, Tinea, Strongyloidiasis, Ancylostoma, and Trichocephaliasis. The highest prevalence rate belonged to Giardiasis with 14.4% and the lowest one belonged to Tinea and Ancylostoma with 0.2%. The prevalence rate in rural area was significantly lower than urban area (p<0.0001.

  12. Fast detection and determination of bovine viral diarrhea virus in blood samples%进口奶牛病毒性腹泻病毒快速检测鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀玲; 闻伟刚; 黄素文; 张吉红; 杜华宏

    2007-01-01

    采用ELISA方法对3 073头奶牛全血进行牛病毒性腹泻病毒(Bovine viral diarrhea virus,BVDV)检测,结果发现编号a889的血样呈阳性反应,另外有3份血样(a126、a803、b1277)呈可疑反应;进一步的白细胞抽提物ELISA反应表明,a889血样呈阳性反应,其余呈阴性反应.对a889血样进行RT-PCR扩增,得到1条310 bp大小的特异性条带,与预期片段大小吻合;经序列同源性比较分析,确定a889血样中存在牛病毒性腹泻病毒.

  13. Susceptibility to infection by a haemogregarine parasite and the impact of infection in the Australian sleepy lizard Tiliqua rugosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Menno J.; Smallridge, Catherine J.; Bull, C. Michael; Komdeur, Jan

    2007-01-01

    The Hamilton and Zuk hypothesis on haemoparasite-mediated sexual selection and certain studies of fitness are based on the assumption that blood parasite infections are detrimental to their hosts. However, there are few reports that have demonstrated harmful effects of endemic blood parasites on fit

  14. Frequency of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in bovines in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neurisvan Ramos Guerra

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii that affects homeothermic animals, including humans. Felines are considered the definitive host of this parasite, while other animals act as intermediate hosts. The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies in bovines in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Serum samples (n = 427 from animals in 13 municipalities of the coastal forest/plantation region of the state were analyzed using the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT. The overall results revealed a prevalence rate of 16.63% (27/427. High percentages of positivity were found among animals aged 25 to 36 months (28.57%; 30/42 and in males (22.22%; 2/9. The present findings suggest that bovine toxoplasmosis is endemic in the area under study.

  15. An outbreak of bovine trypanosomiasis in the Blue Nile State, Sudan

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    Nakamura Ichiro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper, we report an outbreak of bovine trypanosomiasis in Kurmuk District, Blue Nile State, Sudan that involved an infection with four Trypanosoma species in cattle. The outbreak occurred in June 2010 when indigenous cattle, mainly Kenana and Fulani breed types, crossed the national Sudanese border to Ethiopia and returned. A veterinarian was notified of massive deaths in the cattle populations that recently came from Ethiopia. All animals involved in the outbreak were from the nomadic Fulani group and resident local cattle were not infected and no death has been reported among them. A total of 210 blood samples were collected from the ear vein of cattle. A few samples were also collected from other domestic animals species. Parasitological examinations including hematocrit centrifugation techniques (HCT and Giemsa-stained thin blood films were carried out. ITS1-PCR, which provides a multi-species-specific diagnosis in a single PCR, was performed. Findings Parasitological examinations revealed that 43% (91/210 of the affected cattle population was infected with two morphologically distinct trypanosomes. Seventy animals (33.3% were infected with T. vivax and twenty one (10% with T. congolense. In contrast, ITS1-PCR was able to identify four Trypanosoma species namely T. vivax, T. congolense, T. simiae and T. brucei in 56.7% (80/141. T. brucei showed the highest prevalence of 36.9% (52/141 and the lowest 19% (27/141 was displayed by T. congolense. Furthermore, and because ITS1-PCR could not differentiate between T. brucei subspecies, serum resistance-associated (SRA gene based PCR was used to detect the human T. brucei rhodesiense in T. brucei positive samples. None of the samples was shown positive for T. b. rhodesiense. The identity of the 400 bp PCR product originating from T. simiae, was further confirmed by sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic analysis. Conclusions The outbreak of bovine trypanosomiasis occurred

  16. Diagnostics of parasitic diseases. Myths of the present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Kozlov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostics of parasitic diseases in many medical laboratories is carried out with a bad quality. Principal causes are the low level of qualification of laboratorians and a small amount of laboratory methods which are used. The majority of practising doctors has bad knowledge about diseases. All this serves as base for occurrence in the market of medical services of various pseudoscientific methods of diagnostics of parasitic diseases, such as Voll-method and its analogues, including a method of bioresonant diagnostics, scanning of the crushed drop of blood, including a dark field method, diagnostics on pulse, detection of toxins of parasites in salivaric crystal amilase and others. These methods cannot be scientific to be the methods of demonstrative medicine often lead to development of parasitic phobias of patients.

  17. Prevention and control of bovine cysticercosis: a Delphi study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizandro Pruence Nickele

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonotic parasitic infection caused by the larval stage (Cysticercus bovis of Taenia saginata. This study aimed to identify prevention and control measures for bovine cysticercosis indicated by experts in the fields of public and animal health. The study was conducted through three rounds of the Delphi method and had the participation of 44 experts from 13 Brazilian states in 30 educational institutions, research institutions, and sanitary inspection services. The first round comprised an open question, the answers to which formed the basis for structuring the second and third questionnaire. To reach a consensus in the second and third rounds, experts were asked to express their agreement or disagreement of each proposition on the questionnaire using a five-point Likert scale. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed at the end of each round. Twenty-three specialists (52.27% participated in all three rounds. The first round resulted in 28 proposals categorized into six areas: health education, methods of diagnosis and treatment, sanitation measures, epidemiological studies, legislation and sanitary supervision, and intersectorality. In the second round, the experts reached a consensus on 16 propositions (57.14%. This percentage increased by 3.54% during the third round. At the end of the third round, the experts had reached a consensus on 17 of the 28 initial propositions (60.71%. The highest percentage of agreement (29.4% was observed in the category of health education. This study allowed us to identify 17 recommendations pertaining to the prevention and control of bovine cysticercosis. These measures are not mutually exclusive, and require an integrated approach to the establishment of intervention actions at various points in the life cycle of the parasite.

  18. P. berghei telomerase subunit TERT is essential for parasite survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Religa, Agnieszka A; Ramesar, Jai; Janse, Chris J; Scherf, Artur; Waters, Andrew P

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres define the ends of chromosomes protecting eukaryotic cells from chromosome instability and eventual cell death. The complex regulation of telomeres involves various proteins including telomerase, which is a specialized ribonucleoprotein responsible for telomere maintenance. Telomeres of chromosomes of malaria parasites are kept at a constant length during blood stage proliferation. The 7-bp telomere repeat sequence is universal across different Plasmodium species (GGGTTT/CA), though the average telomere length varies. The catalytic subunit of telomerase, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), is present in all sequenced Plasmodium species and is approximately three times larger than other eukaryotic TERTs. The Plasmodium RNA component of TERT has recently been identified in silico. A strategy to delete the gene encoding TERT via double cross-over (DXO) homologous recombination was undertaken to study the telomerase function in P. berghei. Expression of both TERT and the RNA component (TR) in P. berghei blood stages was analysed by Western blotting and Northern analysis. Average telomere length was measured in several Plasmodium species using Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) analysis. TERT and TR were detected in blood stages and an average telomere length of ∼ 950 bp established. Deletion of the tert gene was performed using standard transfection methodologies and we show the presence of tert- mutants in the transfected parasite populations. Cloning of tert- mutants has been attempted multiple times without success. Thorough analysis of the transfected parasite populations and the parasite obtained from extensive parasite cloning from these populations provide evidence for a so called delayed death phenotype as observed in different organisms lacking TERT. The findings indicate that TERT is essential for P. berghei cell survival. The study extends our current knowledge on telomere biology in malaria parasites and validates further investigations to

  19. P. berghei telomerase subunit TERT is essential for parasite survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka A Religa

    Full Text Available Telomeres define the ends of chromosomes protecting eukaryotic cells from chromosome instability and eventual cell death. The complex regulation of telomeres involves various proteins including telomerase, which is a specialized ribonucleoprotein responsible for telomere maintenance. Telomeres of chromosomes of malaria parasites are kept at a constant length during blood stage proliferation. The 7-bp telomere repeat sequence is universal across different Plasmodium species (GGGTTT/CA, though the average telomere length varies. The catalytic subunit of telomerase, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT, is present in all sequenced Plasmodium species and is approximately three times larger than other eukaryotic TERTs. The Plasmodium RNA component of TERT has recently been identified in silico. A strategy to delete the gene encoding TERT via double cross-over (DXO homologous recombination was undertaken to study the telomerase function in P. berghei. Expression of both TERT and the RNA component (TR in P. berghei blood stages was analysed by Western blotting and Northern analysis. Average telomere length was measured in several Plasmodium species using Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF analysis. TERT and TR were detected in blood stages and an average telomere length of ∼ 950 bp established. Deletion of the tert gene was performed using standard transfection methodologies and we show the presence of tert- mutants in the transfected parasite populations. Cloning of tert- mutants has been attempted multiple times without success. Thorough analysis of the transfected parasite populations and the parasite obtained from extensive parasite cloning from these populations provide evidence for a so called delayed death phenotype as observed in different organisms lacking TERT. The findings indicate that TERT is essential for P. berghei cell survival. The study extends our current knowledge on telomere biology in malaria parasites and validates further

  20. Espectrofotometria de proteínas totais em plasma de sangue bovino por análise em fluxo Spectrophotometry of total protein in bovine blood plasma by flow analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmara Caseri de Luca

    2002-06-01

    handling during operation. In this work an automated flow procedure for total protein determination in bovine serum samples, employing the Biuret method, was developed. The system, including an automatic injector commutator and a three way solenoid valve computer controlled, was designed in order to permit on line sample dilution. Since protein standard solutions were introduced with and without dilution. A dilution factor was estimated and used to calculate protein concentration obtained after on-line dilution of the samples. Solutions samples were inserted through a three way solenoid valve that allows precise dilution minimizing hand operations. The analytical range for total protein determination was 2.5 to 20.0 g L-1, and considering the dilution employed, bovine plasma samples with 12.5 to 100.0 g L-1 of total protein were analysed. The procedure presented a 2.8% rsd and analytical frequency of 76 determinations per hour. Results were in good agreement with the traditional method (Biuret and no significant difference was verified at 95%.

  1. Neospora caninum in Estonian dairy herds in relation to herd size, reproduction parameters, bovine virus diarrhoea virus, and bovine herpes virus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Brian; Orro, Toomas; Aleksejev, Annely; Raaperi, Kerli; Järvis, Toivo; Viltrop, Arvo

    2012-11-23

    Cows infected with the tissue parasite Neospora caninum (Nc) are more likely to abort or give birth to calves with neurological disorders. The known infection routes are transplacentally and by consumption of oocysts shed by the definitive host, the dog. It has been hypothesised, that dormant stages of persistent Nc infection may be reactivated by immunosuppression mechanisms such as pathogenic invasions as bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV1) and bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV). The study was set to give the first prevalence data on Nc from Estonian dairy herds in both animal as well as herd level. In addition, association between herd size and Nc, and association of Nc with abortion incidence (Ab), stillbirth incidence (Sb), insemination index (II), and calving interval (CaI) in the presence of BHV1 and BVDV was studied. Blood samples from 1973 animals from 100 herds were collected in 2006-2008, and 320 bulk tank milk (BTM) samples were collected in 2007. Antibodies against Nc was found in 2.5 ± 0.4% (95% CI) of the animals and at least one positive animal was found in 37.0 ± 4.7% (95% CI) of the herds. In addition, Nc antibodies were detected in 16.3 ± 2.0% (95% CI) of the tested BTM. Large herds (≥ 200 animals) were less likely to have seropositive animals for Nc. Logistic regression models showed that herds with more than one animal seropositive for Nc had significantly higher odds ratio of abortion incidence (OR: 11.92, 1.18-120.18 95% CI, p=0.036) and tendency of having more stillbirths (OR: 5.52, 0.87-35.02 95% CI, p=0.07). On the other hand one Nc seropostive cow in the herd was associated with lower odds ratio (OR: 0.22, 0.05-0.91 95% CI, p=0.04) of higher calving intervals. Estonian prevalence results reflect observations in the region. No evidence was found of the pathogens were affecting fertility variables through interactions but independently BHV1 and Nc had an impact on the abortion.

  2. Platelets kill intraerythrocytic malarial parasites and mediate survival to infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorran, Brendan J; Marshall, Vikki M; de Graaf, Carolyn; Drysdale, Karen E; Shabbar, Meriam; Smyth, Gordon K; Corbin, Jason E; Alexander, Warren S; Foote, Simon J

    2009-02-01

    Platelets play a critical role in the pathogenesis of malarial infections by encouraging the sequestration of infected red blood cells within the cerebral vasculature. But platelets also have well-established roles in innate protection against microbial infections. We found that purified human platelets killed Plasmodium falciparum parasites cultured in red blood cells. Inhibition of platelet function by aspirin and other platelet inhibitors abrogated the lethal effect human platelets exert on P. falciparum parasites. Likewise, platelet-deficient and aspirin-treated mice were more susceptible to death during erythrocytic infection with Plasmodium chabaudi. Both mouse and human platelets bind malarial-infected red cells and kill the parasite within. These results indicate a protective function for platelets in the early stages of erythrocytic infection distinct from their role in cerebral malaria.

  3. A PCR-based survey of selected Babesia and Theileria parasites in cattle in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Kothalawala, Hemal; Abeyratne, Sembukutti Arachchige Eranga; Vimalakumar, Singarayar Caniciyas; Meewewa, Asela Sanjeewa; Hadirampela, Dilhani Thilanka; Puvirajan, Thamotharampillai; Sukumar, Subramaniyam; Kuleswarakumar, Kulanayagam; Chandrasiri, Alawattage Don Nimal; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2012-11-23

    Hemoprotozoan parasites are responsible for significant economic losses in cattle. We screened Sri Lankan cattle populations for the presence of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis, using species-specific PCR assays. Out of 316 samples collected from animals in four different districts of Sri Lanka (Nuwara Eliya, Polonnaruwa, Ampara, and Jaffna), 231 (73.1%) were positive for at least one parasite species. All four parasite species were detected among the study groups from all of the districts surveyed. The first and second commonest hemoprotozoan parasites identified were T. orientalis (53.5%) and B. bigemina (30.1%), respectively. We found that the dry zones (Polonnaruwa, Ampara, and Jaffna) had more Babesia-positive animals than the hill country wet zone (Nuwara Eliya). In contrast, T. orientalis was the predominant species detected in Nuwara Eliya, while infection with T. annulata was more common in the dry zones. In addition, 81 (35.1%) of the 231 positive samples were infected with more than one parasite species. The presence of multiple parasite species among the different cattle populations is of clinical and economic significance. Therefore, island-wide control and prevention programs against bovine babesiosis and theileriosis are needed to minimize the financial burden caused by these parasites.

  4. Innate immune receptors in carp: recognition of protozoan parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, C.M.S.

    2010-01-01

    This PhD thesis reports on pattern recognition receptors involved in the immune responses of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to two protozoan parasites Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii. The immune responses of carp are fundamentally different when comparing these two extracellular blood

  5. Survival strategies of the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    OpenAIRE

    Ramya, TNC; Surolia, Namita; Surolia, Avadhesha

    2002-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, the protozoan parasite causing falciparum malaria, is undoubtedly highly versatile when it comes to survival and defence strategies. Strategies adopted by the asexual blood stages of Plasmodium range from unique pathways of nutrient uptake to immune evasion strategies and multiple drug resistance. Studying the survival strategies of Plasmodium could help us envisage strategies of tackling one of the worst scourges of mankind.

  6. Nutrition and parasite interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coop, R L; Holmes, P H

    1996-01-01

    This overview focuses on the interaction between nutritional status and gastrointestinal nematode infection in ruminants and considers: (i) the influence of the parasite on host metabolism; and (ii) the effect of host nutrition on the establishment and survival of parasite populations, the development of the host-immune response and the pathophysiology of infection. Gastrointestinal nematodes reduce voluntary feed intake and efficiency of feed utilisation, a key feature being an increased endogenous loss of protein into the gastrointestinal tract. Overall there is movement of protein from productive processes into repair of the gastrointestinal tract, synthesis of plasma proteins and mucoprotein production. Although reduction in feed intake is a major factor contributing to the reduced performance of parasitised ruminants, the underlying mechanisms of the anorexia are poorly understood. Supplementation of the diet with additional protein does not appear to affect initial establishment of nematode infections but the pathophysiological consequences are generally more severe on lower planes of protein nutrition. The main effect of protein supplementation is to increase the rate of acquisition of immunity and increase resistance to reinfection and this has been associated with an enhanced cellular immune response in the gastrointestinal mucosa. The unresponsiveness of the young lamb can be improved by dietary protein supplementation. Recent trials have shown that growing sheep offered a free choice between a low and a high protein ration are able to modify their diet selection in order to alleviate the increase in protein requirements which result from gastrointestinal nematode infection. Studies on the influence of nutrition on the expression of genotype have shown that the benefits of a superior genotype are not lost on a low protein diet whereas a high protein diet can partially emeliorate the disadvantages of an inferior genotype. In addition to dietary protein

  7. A rapid and robust tri-color flow cytometry assay for monitoring malaria parasite development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malleret, Benoît; Claser, Carla; Ong, Alice Soh Meoy; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Sriprawat, Kanlaya; Howland, Shanshan Wu; Russell, Bruce; Nosten, Francois; Rénia, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thin blood smears remains the gold standard method used to quantify and stage malaria parasites. However, this technique is tedious, and requires trained microscopists. We have developed a fast and simple flow cytometry method to quantify and stage, various malaria parasites in red blood cells in whole blood or in vitro cultured Plasmodium falciparum. The parasites were stained with dihydroethidium and Hoechst 33342 or SYBR Green I and leukocytes were identified with an antibody against CD45. Depending on the DNA stains used, samples were analyzed using different models of flow cytometers. This protocol, which does not require any washing steps, allows infected red blood cells to be distinguished from leukocytes, as well as allowing non-infected reticulocytes and normocytes to be identified. It also allows assessing the proportion of parasites at different developmental stages. Lastly, we demonstrate how this technique can be applied to antimalarial drug testing.

  8. [Emerging parasitic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel Galluzzo, C; Wagner, N; Michel, Y; Jackson, Y; Chappuis, F

    2014-05-07

    Travels, migration and circulation of goods facilitate the emergence of new infectious diseases often unrecognized outside endemic areas. Most of emerging infections are of viral origin. Muscular Sarcocystis infection, an acute illness acquired during short trips to Malaysia, and Chagas disease, a chronic illness with long incubation period found among Latin American migrants, are two very different examples of emerging parasitic diseases. The former requires a preventive approach for travelers going to Malaysia and must be brought forth when they return with fever, myalgia and eosinophilia, while the latter requires a proactive attitude to screen Latin American migrant populations that may face difficulties in accessing care.

  9. Greater expression of TLR2, TLR4, and IL6 due to negative energy balance is associated with lower expression of HLA-DRA and HLA-A in bovine blood neutrophils after intramammary mastitis challenge with Streptococcus uberis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Kasey M; Drackley, James K; Morin, Dawn E; Loor, Juan J

    2010-03-01

    Our objectives were to compare gene expression profiles in blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) during a Streptococcus uberis intramammary challenge between lactating cows subjected to feed restriction to induce negative energy balance (NEB; n=5) and cows fed ad libitum to maintain positive energy balance (PEB; n=5). After 5 days of feed restriction, one rear mammary quarter of each cow was inoculated with 5,000 cfu of S. uberis. Blood PMN were isolated at 24 h post-inoculation from all cows for mRNA expression via quantitative polymerase chain reaction for 20 genes associated with immune response and metabolism. A total of 12 genes were differentially expressed in blood PMN in NEB versus PEB cows. Upregulated genes by NEB were ALOX5AP, CPNE3, IL1R2, IL6, TLR2, TLR4, and THY1, and downregulated genes were HLA-DRA, HLA-A, IRAK1, SOD1, and TNF. Network analysis revealed that TNF was associated with several of the affected genes in NEB cows compared with PEB cows. Results showed that 24 h after intramammary challenge with S. uberis, cows in NEB had altered PMN expression of genes involved with immune response. Our data provide new information on transcriptomic mechanisms associated with NEB and the corresponding inhibition of immune response in lactating dairy cows.

  10. Infections Transmitted By the Transfusion of Blood and Blood Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekin A.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Especially viral hepatitis viruses and human immunodeficiency virus(HIV which were transmitted by the transfusion of blood and blood products have been an important public health problem for a long time on the world. Transfusion of blood and blood products is an ideal and an easiest and a simplest route for transmission of infectious diseases. It is known that many infectious agents, either bacterial, viral, parasitic and fungal agents may be transmitted by the transfusion of blood and blood products. In present study, we reviewed infection diseases that transmitted by the transfusion of blood and blood products.Additionally, we were aimed to emphasize a rare but a very important complication of transfusion of blood and blood products.

  11. Blood parameters of the wild chacma baboon, Papio ursinus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    some differences are noted, particularly in serum lipid levels. The effects on blood ... parasites and the dominance status of an individual had no effect. The importance of ...... VAN ZYL, A. 1955. The lipid and iodine content in blood and milk.

  12. Desempenho da tilápia-do-Nilo arraçoada com dietas contendo farinha de sangue bovino atomizado ou convencional = Performance of nile tilapia fed with spray-dried or vat-dries bovine blood meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Vicente Narváez-Solarte

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o desempenho e os índices de rendimento da tilápia-do-Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus alimentada com níveis crescentes de farinha de sangue atomizado (FSA ou de farinha de sangue convencional (FSC em dietas formuladas com base em aminoácidos digestíveis. Foram utilizados 252 alevinos, distribuídos num delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial (2 x 4 + 1, duas classes de farinha de sangue com quatro níveis de inclusão de cada farinha na dieta, e uma dieta-controle, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram em uma dieta-controle à base de farelo de soja, contendo 34% de proteína digestível (PD e 3.200 kcal de energia digestível kg-1 (ED, mais quatro rações formuladas com FSA e quatro rações com FSC, com inclusões de 5, 10, 15 e 20% de cada farinha na ração, mantendo-se os níveis de PD, ED, fósforo, cálcio, lisina, metionina, treonina e triptofano idênticos aos da dieta-controle. Concluiu-se que é possível utilizar até 15% da FSC em rações para tilápia-do-Nilo na fase de 5 a 150 g de peso vivo.The study evaluated the performance and carcass composition index of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fed with diets containing increasing levels of spray-dried blood meal (SDBM and vat-dried blood meal (VDBM and formulated based on digestible amino acids. Two hundred and fifty-two fingerlings were distributed in a completelyrandomized design, in a (2 x 4 + 1 factorial model, two types of blood meal with four levels of each blood meal in the diet, and a control diet (without blood meal, with four replications. The treatments consisted of soybean meal-based control diet, with 34%digestible protein (DP and 3,200 kcal of digestible energy kg-1 (DE, plus four diets formulated with SDBM and four diets with VDBM, containing 5, 10, 15 and 20% of each meal in feed, maintaining identical DP, DE, phosphorus, calcium, lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan levels as those of the control diet. The

  13. Unexpected hosts: imaging parasitic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Carnero, Pablo; Hernández Mateo, Paula; Martín-Garre, Susana; García Pérez, Ángela; Del Campo, Lourdes

    2017-02-01

    Radiologists seldom encounter parasitic diseases in their daily practice in most of Europe, although the incidence of these diseases is increasing due to migration and tourism from/to endemic areas. Moreover, some parasitic diseases are still endemic in certain European regions, and immunocompromised individuals also pose a higher risk of developing these conditions. This article reviews and summarises the imaging findings of some of the most important and frequent human parasitic diseases, including information about the parasite's life cycle, pathophysiology, clinical findings, diagnosis, and treatment. We include malaria, amoebiasis, toxoplasmosis, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, echinococcosis, cysticercosis, clonorchiasis, schistosomiasis, fascioliasis, ascariasis, anisakiasis, dracunculiasis, and strongyloidiasis. The aim of this review is to help radiologists when dealing with these diseases or in cases where they are suspected. Teaching Points • Incidence of parasitic diseases is increasing due to migratory movements and travelling. • Some parasitic diseases are still endemic in certain regions in Europe. • Parasitic diseases can have complex life cycles often involving different hosts. • Prompt diagnosis and treatment is essential for patient management in parasitic diseases. • Radiologists should be able to recognise and suspect the most relevant parasitic diseases.

  14. Epidemiological survey of Theileria parasite infection of cattle in Northeast China by allele-specific PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Longzheng; Zhang, Shoufa; Liang, Wanfeng; Jin, Chunmei; Jia, Lijun; Luo, Yuzi; Li, Yan; Cao, Shinuo; Yamagishi, Junya; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Kawano, Suguru; Fujisaki, Kozo; Xuan, Xuenan

    2011-11-01

    An epidemiological survey on a Theileria parasite infection of cattle in Northeast China was carried out using allele-specific PCR and DNA sequence analysis of the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene. The results showed that 14 of 104 blood samples were positive for Theileria by PCR. Among the positive cases, co-infection with various combinations of C- and I-type parasites was detected in 12 samples; no B- and Thai-type parasites were detected by allele-specific PCR. Phylogenetic analysis based on the MPSP gene sequences revealed that Theileria parasites with the MPSP types 1, 2, and 4 were distributed in Northeast China.

  15. Babesia bovis: expression of adhesion molecules in bovine umbilical endothelial cells stimulated with plasma from infected cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene I. Vargas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ten male, 12-month-old Jersey with intact spleens, serologically and parasitologically free from Babesia were housed individually in an arthropod-free isolation system from birth and throughout entire experiment. The animals were randomly divided into two groups. Five animals (group A were intravenously inoculated with 6.6 X10(7 red blood cells parasitized with pathogenic sample of Babesia bovis (passage 7 BboUFV-1, for the subsequent "ex vivo" determination of the expression of adhesion molecules. Five non-inoculated animals (group B were used as the negative control. The expression of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM, PECAM-1 E-selectin and thrombospondin (TSP was measured in bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells (BUVECs. The endothelial cells stimulated with a pool of plasma from animals infected with the BboUFV-1 7th passage sample had a much more intense immunostaining of ICAM-1, VCAM, PECAM-1 E-selectin and TSP, compared to the cells which did not received the stimulus. The results suggest that proinflammatory cytokines released in the acute phase of babesiosis may be involved in the expression of adhesion molecules thereby implicating them in the pathophysiology of babesiosis caused by B. bovis.

  16. Emerging food-borne parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorny, P; Praet, N; Deckers, N; Gabriel, S

    2009-08-07

    Parasitic food-borne diseases are generally underrecognised, however they are becoming more common. Globalization of the food supply, increased international travel, increase of the population of highly susceptible persons, change in culinary habits, but also improved diagnostic tools and communication are some factors associated with the increased diagnosis of food-borne parasitic diseases worldwide. This paper reviews the most important emerging food-borne parasites, with emphasis on transmission routes. In a first part, waterborne parasites transmitted by contaminated food such as Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cryptosporidium and Giardia are discussed. Also human fasciolosis, of which the importance has only been recognised in the last decades, with total numbers of reported cases increasing from less than 3000 to 17 million, is looked at. Furthermore, fasciolopsiosis, an intestinal trematode of humans and pigs belongs to the waterborne parasites as well. A few parasites that may be transmitted through faecal contamination of foods and that have received renewed attention, such as Toxoplasma gondii, or that are (re-)emerging, such as Trypanosoma cruzi and Echinococcus spp., are briefly reviewed. In a second part, meat-borne parasite infections are reviewed. Humans get infected by eating raw or undercooked meat infected with cyst stages of these parasites. Meat inspection is the principal method applied in the control of Taenia spp. and Trichinella spp. However, it is often not very sensitive, frequently not practised, and not done for T. gondii and Sarcocystis spp. Meat of reptiles, amphibians and fish can be infected with a variety of parasites, including trematodes (Opisthorchis spp., Clonorchis sinensis, minute intestinal flukes), cestodes (Diphyllobothrium spp., Spirometra), nematodes (Gnathostoma, spp., anisakine parasites), and pentastomids that can cause zoonotic infections in humans when consumed raw or not properly cooked. Another important zoonotic food

  17. Bovine trophectoderm cell lines induced from bovine fibroblasts with reprogramming factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine trophectoderm (TE) cells were induced [induced bovine trophectoderm-like (iBT)] from bovine fetal liver-derived fibroblasts, and other bovine fetal fibroblasts, after viral-vector transduction with either four or six reprogramming factors (RF), including POU5F1, KLF4, SOX2, C-MYC, SV40 large ...

  18. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  19. Transfusions of blood and blood products and viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Wróblewska

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Transfusions of blood and blood products are commonly used in medicine, but being biological materials they carry a risk of transmitting infections--viral, bacterial, parasitic, as well as prions. Laboratory tests used for screening of donated blood for viral infections at present cannot detect all infectious units. Criteria for selection of blood donors therefore must be very strict, while methods of inactivation of viruses and laboratory assays for detection of their presence must be improved. Indications for blood transfusion should be restricted.

  20. Blood sugar test - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood glucose level ( hypoglycemia ) may be due to: Hypopituitarism (a pituitary gland disorder) Underactive thyroid gland or ... tonic-clonic seizure Glucagon blood test Glucagonoma Hyperthyroidism Hypopituitarism Hypothyroidism Insulinoma Low blood sugar Multiple endocrine neoplasia ( ...

  1. Parasites resistant to the antimalarial atovaquone fail to transmit by mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Christopher D; Siregar, Josephine E; Mollard, Vanessa; Vega-Rodríguez, Joel; Syafruddin, Din; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki; Matsuzaki, Motomichi; Toyama, Tomoko; Sturm, Angelika; Cozijnsen, Anton; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo; Kita, Kiyoshi; Marzuki, Sangkot; McFadden, Geoffrey I

    2016-04-15

    Drug resistance compromises control of malaria. Here, we show that resistance to a commonly used antimalarial medication, atovaquone, is apparently unable to spread. Atovaquone pressure selects parasites with mutations in cytochrome b, a respiratory protein with low but essential activity in the mammalian blood phase of the parasite life cycle. Resistance mutations rescue parasites from the drug but later prove lethal in the mosquito phase, where parasites require full respiration. Unable to respire efficiently, resistant parasites fail to complete mosquito development, arresting their life cycle. Because cytochrome b is encoded by the maternally inherited parasite mitochondrion, even outcrossing with wild-type strains cannot facilitate spread of resistance. Lack of transmission suggests that resistance will be unable to spread in the field, greatly enhancing the utility of atovaquone in malaria control. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Repetitive elements in parasitic protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Christine

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent paper published in BMC Genomics suggests that retrotransposition may be active in the human gut parasite Entamoeba histolytica. This adds to our knowledge of the various types of repetitive elements in parasitic protists and the potential influence of such elements on pathogenicity. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/11/321

  3. Two types of parasitic assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jurgec

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that consonant harmony and parasitic vowel harmony are more similar than previously assumed. I provide a unified and restrictive analysis of parasitic assimilation using feature spreading constraints. In particular, I attribute the differences between the attested and unattested patterns to two types of markedness constraints—alignment and agreement.

  4. Detection of Babesia bovis in blood samples and its effect on the hematological and serum biochemical profile in large ruminants from Southern Punjab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samreen Zulfiqar; Ali Saeed; Furhan Iqbal; Sadia Shahnawaz; Muhammad Ali; Arif Mahmood Bhutta; Shahid Iqbal; Sikandar Hayat; Shazia Qadir; Muhammad Latif; Nazia Kiran

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To determine the presence of Babesia bovis (B. bovis) in large ruminants in southern Punjab and its effect on hematological and serum biochemical profile of host animals. Methods:Blood samples were collected from 144 large ruminants, including 105 cattle and 39 buffaloes, from six districts in southern Punjab including Multan, Layyah, Muzaffar Garh, Bhakar, Bahawalnagar and Vehari. Data on the characteristics of animals and herds were collected through questionnaires. Different blood (hemoglobin, glucose) and serum (ALT, AST, LDH, cholesterol) parameters of calves and cattle were measured and compared between parasite positive and negative samples to demonstrate the effect of B. bovis on the blood and serological profile of infected animals. Results:27 out of 144 animals, from 5 out of 6 sampling districts, produced the 541-bp fragment specific for B. bovis. Age of animals (P=0.02), presence of ticks on animals (P=0.04) and presence of ticks on dogs associated with herds (P=0.5) were among the major risk factors involved in the spread of bovine babesiosis in the study area. ALT concentrations were the only serum biochemical values that significantly varied between parasite positive and negative cattle. Conclusions:This study has reported for the first time the presence of B. bovis in large ruminant and the results can lead to the prevention of babesiosis in the region to increase the livestock output.

  5. In vitro permissivity of bovine cells for wild-type and vaccinal myxoma virus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignolet, Béatrice; Duteyrat, Jean-Luc; Allemandou, Aude; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Foucras, Gilles; Bertagnoli, Stéphane

    2007-09-27

    Myxoma virus (MYXV), a leporide-specific poxvirus, represents an attractive candidate for the generation of safe, non-replicative vaccine vector for non-host species. However, there is very little information concerning infection of non-laboratory animals species cells with MYXV. In this study, we investigated interactions between bovine cells and respectively a wild type strain (T1) and a vaccinal strain (SG33) of MYXV. We showed that bovine KOP-R, BT and MDBK cell lines do not support MYXV production. Electron microscopy observations of BT-infected cells revealed the low efficiency of viral entry and the production of defective virions. In addition, infection of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) occurred at a very low level, even following non-specific activation, and was always abortive. We did not observe significant differences between the wild type strain and the vaccinal strain of MYXV, indicating that SG33 could be used for new bovine vaccination strategies.

  6. Parasitic zoonotic diseases in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmiye Altintas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Zoonoses and zoonotic diseases are becoming more common and they are now receiving increased attention across the world. Zoonotic parasites are found in a wide variety of protozoa, cestodes, nematodes, trematodes and arthropods worldwide and many zoonotic parasites have assumed an important role. The importance of some parasitic zoonoses has increased in recent years due to the fact that they can be agents of opportunistic infections. Although a number of zoonotic parasites are often found and do cause serious illnesses in Turkey, some are more common and these diseases are more important as they cause serious public health problems, such as leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, echinococcosis, trichinellosis and toxocariasis. Information on these zoonotic diseases is provided here as these are the most important zoonotic parasitic diseases in Turkey.

  7. Regulatory T Cells and Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TP. Velavan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human host encounters a wide array of parasites; however, the crucial aspect is the failure of the host immune system to clear these parasites despite antigen recognition. In the recent past, a new immunological concept has emerged, which provides a framework to better understand several aspects of host susceptibility to parasitic infection. It is widely believed that parasites are able to modulate the magnitude of effector responses by inducing regulatory T cell (Tregs population and several studies have investigated whether this cell population plays a role in balancing protective immunity and pathogenesis during parasite infection. This review discusses the several mechanism of Treg-mediated immunosuppression in the human host and focuses on the functional role of Tregs and regulatory gene polymorphisms in infectious diseases.

  8. Navigating parasite webs and parasite flow: emerging and re-emerging parasitic zoonoses of wildlife origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polley, Lydden

    2005-10-01

    Wildlife are now recognised as an important source of emerging human pathogens, including parasites. This paper discusses the linkages between wildlife, people, zoonotic parasites and the ecosystems in which they co-exist, revisits definitions for 'emerging' and 're-emerging', and lists zoonotic parasites that can be acquired from wildlife including, for some, estimates of the associated global human health burdens. The paper also introduces the concepts of 'parasite webs' and 'parasite flow', provides a context for parasites, relative to other infectious agents, as causes of emerging human disease, and discusses drivers of disease emergence and re-emergence, especially changes in biodiversity and climate. Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the Caribbean and the southern United States, Baylisascaris procyonis in California and Georgia, Plasmodium knowlesi in Sarawak, Malaysia, Human African Trypanosomiasis, Sarcoptes scabiei in carnivores, and Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Toxoplasma in marine ecosystems are presented as examples of wildlife-derived zoonotic parasites of particular recent interest. An ecological approach to disease is promoted, as is a need for an increased profile for this approach in undergraduate and graduate education in the health sciences. Synergy among scientists and disciplines is identified as critical for the study of parasites and parasitic disease in wildlife populations. Recent advances in techniques for the investigation of parasite fauna of wildlife are presented and monitoring and surveillance systems for wildlife disease are discussed. Some of the limitations inherent in predictions for the emergence and re-emergence of infection and disease associated with zoonotic parasites of wildlife are identified. The importance of public awareness and public education in the prevention and control of emerging and re-emerging zoonotic infection and disease are emphasised. Finally, some thoughts for the future are presented.

  9. [Parasitic factor and cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamidullin, R I; Aglullin, I R; Rakhmanin, Iu A; Pogorel'tsev, V I; Khamidullin, A R; Galkina, I V; Khamidullin, I R; Sultanaeva, E G

    2011-01-01

    There is opinion in the literature as to that liver trematode infections, such as opisthorchiasis, clonorchiasis, fascioliasis, and metorchiasis, can induce cancer of the liver pancreas, intestine - this all is clinically observed. The authors were the first in world practice to show the development of a hepatic blastomatous process in animals (albino rats, cats) with opisthorchiasis in 13%; cancer developed in 28 and 56% with the use of a hepatotropic carcinogen and combined (opisthorchiasis + a carcinogen) exposure, respectively. Throughout his life, a human being can easily catch these trematodes that have carcinogenic activity and these diseases concurrent with household and food carcinogens can give rise to tumors in the liver pancreas and intestine. Timely diagnosis and specific anthelmintic therapy are necessary to prevent parasitic cancer.

  10. Integrated parasite management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard; Madsen, Henry; Van, Phan Thi

    2015-01-01

    Fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are an emerging problem and there is now a consensus that, in addition to wild-caught fish, fish produced in aquaculture present a major food safety risk, especially in Southeast Asia where aquaculture is important economically. Current control programs target ...... that target critical control points in the aquaculture production cycle identified from a thorough understanding of FZT and host biology and epidemiology. We present recommendations for an integrated parasite management (IPM) program for aquaculture farms.......Fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are an emerging problem and there is now a consensus that, in addition to wild-caught fish, fish produced in aquaculture present a major food safety risk, especially in Southeast Asia where aquaculture is important economically. Current control programs target...

  11. Avaliação nutricional, em tilápias-do-nilo, de farinhas de sangue bovino obtidas por três métodos de processamento Nutritional evaluation, in Nile-tilapia, of bovine blood meals obtained by three processing methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Celso Pezzato

    2012-03-01

    were performed in each blood meal type to determine the molecular weight profile, which was compared with standard bovine blood in natura. In vitro digestibility analyses of the protein in the diets were carried out in samples, which underwent defattening process or not. The apparent digestibility coefficients of the blood meal in vivo nutrients was determined with the creation of four diets; one of them did not have blood meal, called purified reference diet. For this stage, Nile-tilapia juveniles, with 100.00±5.0 g/fish of average weight were stocked in tanks of 250 liters in a completely randomized blocks design with four replicates and 10 fish per experimental unit. The test diets were obtained with the introduction of 30% of the blood meals in the study. The protein structure of the blood in natura is affected by high temperature and length of time of processing, resulting in an increase in the amount of low molecular weight peptides, and free amino acids, corresponding to low values of blood meal protein digestibility, both in- vivo and in-vitro tests. Spray-dried blood meal and drum-dried blood meal are efficiently used by the Nile-tilapia. In the regular blood meal, protein has lower value than the two other blood meal types. At the development of diets containing blood meal for Nile-tilapia, isoleucine must be the first limiting amino acid, followed by methionine + cystine, arginine, and threonine, which were found in critical levels for this specie, mainly in the conventional blood meal.

  12. Cerebral malaria: insights from host-parasite protein-protein interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulusu Gopalakrishnan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral malaria is a form of human malaria wherein Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells adhere to the blood capillaries in the brain, potentially leading to coma and death. Interactions between parasite and host proteins are important in understanding the pathogenesis of this deadly form of malaria. It is, therefore, necessary to study available protein-protein interactions to identify lesser known interactions that could throw light on key events of cerebral malaria. Methods Sequestration, haemostasis dysfunction, systemic inflammation and neuronal damage are key processes of cerebral malaria. Key events were identified from literature as being crucial to these processes. An integrated interactome was created using available experimental and predicted datasets as well as from literature. Interactions from this interactome were filtered based on Gene Ontology and tissue-specific annotations, and further analysed for relevance to the key events. Results PfEMP1 presentation, platelet activation and astrocyte dysfunction were identified as the key events influencing the disease. 48896 host-parasite along with other host-parasite, host-host and parasite-parasite protein-protein interactions obtained from a disease-specific corpus were combined to form an integrated interactome. Filtering of the interactome resulted in five host-parasite PPI, six parasite-parasite and two host-host PPI. The analysis of these interactions revealed the potential significance of apolipoproteins and temperature/Hsp expression on efficient PfEMP1 presentation; role of MSP-1 in platelet activation; effect of parasite proteins in TGF-β regulation and the role of albumin in astrocyte dysfunction. Conclusions This work links key host-parasite, parasite-parasite and host-host protein-protein interactions to key processes of cerebral malaria and generates hypotheses for disease pathogenesis based on a filtered interaction dataset. These

  13. Material Properties of Inorganic Bovine Cancellous Bovine: Nukbone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña, Cristina; Palma, Benito; Munguía, Nadia

    2006-09-01

    In this work, inorganic cancellous bovine bone implants prepared in the Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales — UNAM were characterized. Elementary chemical analysis was made, toxic elements concentration were measured and the content of organic matter also. These implants fulfill all the requirements of the ASTM standards, and therefore it is possible their use in medical applications.

  14. Bovine natural killer cells are present in Escherichia coli infected mammary gland tissue and show antimicrobial activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipka, Anja; Pomeroy, Brianna; Klaessig, Suzanne; Schukken, Ynte

    2016-10-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are early responders in bacterial infections but their role in bovine mastitis has not been characterized. For the first time, we show the presence of NK cells (NKp46(+)/CD3(-)) in bovine mammary gland tissue after an intramammary challenge with Escherichia (E.) coli. A small number of NK cells was detected in milk from quarters before and during an E. coli challenge. In vitro cultures of primary bovine mammary gland epithelial cells stimulated with UV irradiated E. coli induced significant migration of peripheral blood NK cells (pbNK) within 2h. Furthermore, pbNK cells significantly reduced counts of live E. coli in vitro within 2h of culture. The results show that bovine NK cells have the capacity to migrate to the site of infection and produce antibacterial mediators. These findings introduce NK cells as a leukocyte population in the mammary gland with potential functions in the innate immune response in bovine mastitis.

  15. Evaluacion del comportamiento leucocitario en ovejas a pastoreo como un criterio para determinar la susceptibilidad a la infección con estróngilos digestivos (Evaluation to use the white blood cells in grazing sheep as a criteria for determine susceptibility to infection with strongilyds parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espartaco, Sandoval

    2007-09-01

    African flock. The faeces sampling was carried out every 15 days during 04 months and the coproscopical technique of Mc Master was used to obtain quantitative diagnosis in order to establish the individual degree of infection. Samples of blood for determination of the haematocric value (%, total number of leukocytes, differential count and absolute eosinophils were taken during the third faeces sampling. Similar blood evaluation was carried out at the end of the trial. To determine the influence of the parasitic infection on the variables, the animals were drenched during the fourth sampling, simultaneously the sheep received an antianemic/anabolism. The high counts of eosinophils during the pre-treatment period suggests that this type of cells was associated with the protective response of immune type, because of when the parasite egg counts (epg diminished the percentage of eosinophils diminished too. The increase in the total leukocyte counts is consequence of the eosinophiles rise. The relations between the variations in the haemogram and the high epg counts, suggest that this approach can be used as pathological criteria to determine resistance condition or parasitism susceptibility, when these responses can be associated with the degree of immune reaction.

  16. How have fisheries affected parasite communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chelsea L.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    To understand how fisheries affect parasites, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies that contrasted parasite assemblages in fished and unfished areas. Parasite diversity was lower in hosts from fished areas. Larger hosts had a greater abundance of parasites, suggesting that fishing might reduce the abundance of parasites by selectively removing the largest, most heavily parasitized individuals. After controlling for size, the effect of fishing on parasite abundance varied according to whether the host was fished and the parasite's life cycle. Parasites of unfished hosts were more likely to increase in abundance in response to fishing than were parasites of fished hosts, possibly due to compensatory increases in the abundance of unfished hosts. While complex life cycle parasites tended to decline in abundance in response to fishing, directly transmitted parasites tended to increase. Among complex life cycle parasites, those with fished hosts tended to decline in abundance in response to fishing, while those with unfished hosts tended to increase. However, among directly transmitted parasites, responses did not differ between parasites with and without fished hosts. This work suggests that parasite assemblages are likely to change substantially in composition in increasingly fished ecosystems, and that parasite life history and fishing status of the host are important in predicting the response of individual parasite species or groups to fishing.

  17. Sex determination of bovine preimplantation embryos by oligonucleotide microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Zhong, Fagang; Yang, Yonglin; Wang, Xinhua; Liu, Shouren; Zhu, Bin

    2013-06-01

    The aim has been to set up a rapid and accurate microarray assay using sandwich mode for sex determination of bovine preimplantation embryos. Twelve sequence-specific oligonucleotide capture probes used to discriminate 12 samples were spotted onto the aldehyde-modified glass slides by Arrayer. The 2 recognition probes used to identify coding regions of the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome gene (SRY) and β-casein (CSN2) reference gene were coupled with biotin. The assay was optimized by using genomic DNA extracted from blood samples of known sex individuals. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify the fragments in the HMG box region of SRY gene and CSN2 gene with sequence-specific primers. The sex of samples was identified by detecting both the SRY and CSN2 genes simultaneously in 2 reaction cells of microarrays, with the male having SRY and CSN2 signals and the female only CSN2. The sex of 20 bovine preimplantation embryos was determined by oligonucleotide microarray. The protocol was run with a blind test that showed a 100% (82/82) specificity and accuracy in sexing of leukocytes. The bovine embryos were transferred into 20 bovine recipients, with a pregnant rate of 40% (8/20). Three calves were born at term, and 5 fetuses were miscarried. Their sexes were fully in accordance with the embryonic sex predetermination predicted by oligonucleotide microarray. This suggests that the oligonucleotide microarray method of SRY gene analysis can be used in early sex prediction of bovine embryos in breeding programs.

  18. Parasites in algae mass culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd William Lane

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasites are now known to be ubiquitous across biological systems and can play an important role in modulating algal populations. However, there is a lack of extensive information on their role in artificial ecosystems such as algal production ponds and photobioreactors. Parasites have been implicated in the demise of algal blooms. Because individual mass culture systems often tend to be unialgal and a select few algal species are in wide scale application, there is an increased potential for parasites to have a devastating effect on commercial scale monoculture. As commercial algal production continues to expand with a widening variety of applications, including biofuel, food and pharmaceuticals, the parasites associated with algae will become of greater interest and potential economic impact. A number of important algal parasites have been identified in algal mass culture systems in the last few years and this number is sure to grow as the number of commercial algae ventures increases. Here, we review the research that has identified and characterized parasites infecting mass cultivated algae, the techniques being proposed and or developed to control them, and the potential impact of parasites on the future of the algal biomass industry.

  19. Experimental infection of reindeer with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Morton

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available Two 8-month reindeer (Rangifer tarandus and a 1-month-old Hereford-Holstein calf (Bos taurus were inoculated intranasally with the Singer (cytopathogenic strain of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD virus. Clinical signs in reindeer included loose stools containing blood and mucus, and transient laminitis or coronitis. Signs in the calf were limited to bloody mucus in the stool and lesions in the nasal mucosa. Antibody titers to BVD virus in the reindeer were intermittent, and titers in the calf persisted from days 14 to 63 post-inoculation (PI. Viremia was detected on PI day 4 in one reindeer, days 3-7 in the other, and days 2-7 in the calf. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was isolated from the lung of the calf at necropsy (PI day 63.

  20. Current trend of drug sensitivity in bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Ranjan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on 190 milk samples of bovine mastitis and 138 samples were confirmed positives for microorganisms. All the 138 samples were subjected to drug sensitivity test. The most effective antibiotic was enrofloxacin (91.67% followed by ciprofloxacin (90.15%, amikacin (87.12%, ceftriaxone (84.10%, chloramphenicol (80.31%, cefotaxime (79.55% and gentamicin (77.27%. Microorganisms were mostly resistant to drugs like streptomycin, penicillinG, ampicillin, cloxacillin, amoxycillin and neomycin in increasing order of resistance. Hence, it is suggested that the line of treatment should be based on antibiogram study of various isolates from bovine mastitis. Further, the selection of drugs after culture and sensitivity test should be based on their ability to cross blood tissue barrier or mammary parenchyma, lipophilicity and ability to work in alkaline pH. [Vet. World 2010; 3(1.000: 17-20

  1. ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME ACTIVITY AMONG ORPHANS INFECTED WITH INTESTINAL PARASITES IN PATHUM THANI PROVINCE, THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahittikorn, Aongart; Prasertbun, Rapeepan; Mori, Hirotake; Popruk, Supaluk

    2014-11-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections can negatively impact growth and nutrition in children. The infections can induce oxidative stress, resulting in a variety of illnesses. We measured antioxidant enzyme levels in orphan children infected with intestinal parasites to investigate the influence of nutritional status on antioxidant enzymes. This cross sectional study was conducted at an orphanage in Thailand. Stool samples were obtained from each subject and examined for intestinal parasites. Anthropometric measurements, complete blood count and biochemical parameters, including serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels, were obtained from studied subjects. One hundred twenty-eight children were included in the study. Intestinal parasites were found on microscopic examination of the stools in 36.7% (47/128); 18% (23/128) had a mixed parasite infection. Intestinal protozoa were found in 34.4% of subjects and intestinal helminthes were found in 2.3%. The median GPx level in children infected with intestinal parasites (2.3 ng/ml) was significantly lower than in non-infected children (7.7 ng/ml) (p parasites, 2) non-pathogenic parasites and 3) no intestinal parasite infection, GPx levels differed significantly among three groups (2.2 ng/ml, 2.4 ng/ml and 7.7 ng/ml, respectively) (p parasites (107.2 ng/ml) was significantly higher than in underweight children infected with non-pathogenic parasites (68.6 ng/ml) and without intestinal parasite infections (72.2 ng/ml). The present study identified two key findings: low GPx levels in children with intestinal parasitic infections, and the potential impact of malnutrition on some antioxidants.

  2. Diprosopia em bovino Bovine diprosopus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.T. Rotta

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a malformation in one newborn female bovine, with two faces and two skull fused, showing one single head. Duplications of the nasal and oral structures, tetraofthalmy, two brains, one single cerebellum, and pons were observed. The right thyroid was hypertrophic and the other organs had normal morphology. Every change observed in this case was compatibles with diprosopus.

  3. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, B.E.C.; Somerville, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep has not been identified under natural conditions at the time of writing and remains a hypothetical issue. However, rumours about the possible finding of a BSE-like isolate in sheep have led to great unrest within the sheep industry, among the general p

  4. Parasites on parasites: coupled fluctuations in stacked contact processes

    CERN Document Server

    Court, Steven J; Allen, Rosalind J

    2012-01-01

    We present a model for host-parasite dynamics which incorporates both vertical and horizontal transmission as well as spatial structure. Our model consists of stacked contact processes (CP), where the dynamics of the host is a simple CP on a lattice while the dynamics of the parasite is a secondary CP which sits on top of the host-occupied sites. In the simplest case, where infection does not incur any cost, we uncover a novel effect: a nonmonotonic dependence of parasite prevalence on host turnover. Inspired by natural examples of hyperparasitism, we extend our model to multiple levels of parasites and identify a transition between the maintenance of a finite and infinite number of levels, which we conjecture is connected to a roughening transition in models of surface-growth.

  5. Parasitic infections in travelers and immigrants: part I protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Francesca F; Monge-Maillo, Begoña; Martínez-Pérez, Ángela; Perez-Molina, Jose A; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2015-01-01

    The growth in international commerce, travel and migration contribute to the global emergence of certain parasitic infections. Importation of vectors and food products may contribute to the emergence of protozoan infections in nonendemic countries. Infections such as malaria are potentially fatal, especially in nonimmune patients, and outcome depends largely on timely diagnosis and treatment. Diagnosis/management of imported parasitic infections may be complex especially as some patients may have underlying immunosuppressive conditions such as HIV infection. Major challenges concern the development of improved diagnostic techniques, safer/more effective drug therapies and identification of biological markers of progression and response to treatment. Imported parasitic diseases which may be transmitted vertically or through blood transfusion/organ donation could become a public health priority in the near future. Climate change may affect arthropod distribution and facilitate the spread of protozoan vector-borne diseases. The first part of this review focuses on protozoan infections in travelers and immigrants.

  6. Eosinophilia and thrombosis in parasitic diseases: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Paul R J; Aloj, Giuseppina; Gentile, Fabrizio

    2011-02-01

    It is known that peripheral blood eosinophilia (PBE) is a normal hematopoietic response to several parasitic diseases, but it is less known that PBE promotes a hypercoagulable state that may favor thrombosis. Scope of this article is to explore which parasitic infestations are most likely to be complicated by thrombosis and to highlight the pathogenetic contribution of PBE to vascular occlusions in this setting. A review of the world literature revealed 18 cases in which PBE was associated with vascular occlusion though no specific surveys were dedicated to this topic. The eosinophil exerts its thrombogenic potential by inhibition of the natural anticoagulant pathways and release of tissue factor with enhanced coagulation activation leading to vascular occlusion. It is hoped that this review contributes to the awareness of the link between PBE and thrombosis in parasitic disorders to foster research in this area.

  7. Evaluation of the NOW Malaria Immunochromatographic Test for Quantitative Diagnosis of Falciparum and Vivax Malaria Parasite Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katakai, Yuko; Komaki-Yasuda, Kanako; Tangpukdee, Noppadon; Wilairatana, Polrat; Krudsood, Srivicha; Kano, Shigeyuki

    2011-12-01

    The NOW® Malaria Test, an immunochromatographic test (ICT), was evaluated to determine its ability to quantitatively detect malaria parasites using 100 blood samples from Thailand, including 50 Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) infections and 50 P. vivax (Pv) infections. Intensities of the thickness of the visible bands of the positive ICT were compared with the parasite densities. In cases of Pf infection, the intensities of both HRP-2 bands (T1 bands: Pf specific bands) and aldolase bands (T2 bands: pan-Plasmodium bands) correlated with the parasite densities. The intensities of T2 bands in Pf positive samples showed better correlation with the parasite densities than the T1 bands. In the cases of Pv infection, the intensities of T2 bands were also well correlated with parasite density. These results suggest that the ICT is useful not only for rapid detection of malaria parasites but also for estimating parasite density.

  8. Colonization of Rhodnius prolixus gut by Trypanosoma cruzi involves an extensive parasite killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Roberta Carvalho; Kessler, Rafael Luis; Lorenzo, Marcelo Gustavo; Paim, Rafaela Magalhães Macedo; Ferreira, Luciana De Lima; Probst, Christian Macagnan; Alves-Silva, Juliana; Guarneri, Alessandra Aparecida

    2016-04-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, is ingested by triatomines during their bloodmeal on an infected mammal. Aiming to investigate the development and differentiation of T. cruzi inside the intestinal tract of Rhodnius prolixus at the beginning of infection we fed insects with cultured epimastigotes and blood trypomastigotes from infected mice to determine the amount of recovered parasites after ingestion. Approximately 20% of the ingested parasites was found in the insect anterior midgut (AM) 3 h after feeding. Interestingly, a significant reduction (80%) in the numbers of trypomastigotes was observed after 24 h of infection suggesting that parasites were killed in the AM. Moreover, few parasites were found in that intestinal portion after 96 h of infection. The evaluation of the numbers of parasites in the posterior midgut (PM) at the same periods showed a reduced parasite load, indicating that parasites were not moving from the AM. Additionally, incubation of blood trypomastigotes with extracts from R. prolixus AMs revealed that components of this tissue could induce significant death of T. cruzi. Finally, we observed that differentiation from trypomastigotes to epimastigotes is not completed in the AM; instead we suggest that trypomastigotes change to intermediary forms before their migration to the PM, where differentiation to epimastigotes takes place. The present work clarifies controversial points concerning T. cruzi development in insect vector, showing that parasite suffers a drastic decrease in population size before epimastigonesis accomplishment in PM.

  9. Synanthropic birds and parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, Ludovico; Borrelli, Luca; Pepe, Paola; Fioretti, Alessandro; Caputo, Vincenzo; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the parasitologic findings for 60 synanthropic bird carcasses recovered in the Campania region of southern Italy. Birds consisted of 20 yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis), 15 rock pigeons (Columba livia), 15 common kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), and 10 carrion crows (Corvus corone). Each carcass was examined to detect the presence of ectoparasites and then necropsied to detect helminths. Ectoparasites occurred in 100% of the birds examined. In particular, chewing lice were recovered with a prevalence of 100%, whereas Pseudolynchia canariensis (Hippoboscidae) were found only in pigeons with a prevalence of 80%. Regarding endoparasites, a total of seven helminth species were identified: three nematodes (Ascaridia columbae, Capillaria columbae, Physaloptera alata), one cestoda (Raillietina tetragona), one trematoda (Cardiocephalus longicollis), and two acanthocephalans (Centrorhynchus globocaudatus and Centrorhynchus buteonis). The findings of the present study add data to the parasitologic scenario of synanthropic birds. This is important because parasitic infection can lead to serious health problems when combined with other factors and may affect flying performance and predatory effectiveness.

  10. Parasites in pet reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Exotic reptiles originating from the wild can be carriers of many different pathogens and some of them can infect humans. Reptiles imported into Slovenia from 2000 to 2005, specimens of native species taken from the wild and captive bred species were investigated. A total of 949 reptiles (55 snakes, 331 lizards and 563 turtles), belonging to 68 different species, were examined for the presence of endoparasites and ectoparasites. Twelve different groups (Nematoda (5), Trematoda (1), Acanthocephala (1), Pentastomida (1) and Protozoa (4)) of endoparasites were determined in 26 (47.3%) of 55 examined snakes. In snakes two different species of ectoparasites were also found. Among the tested lizards eighteen different groups (Nematoda (8), Cestoda (1), Trematoda (1), Acanthocephala (1), Pentastomida (1) and Protozoa (6)) of endoparasites in 252 (76.1%) of 331 examined animals were found. One Trombiculid ectoparasite was determined. In 563 of examined turtles eight different groups (Nematoda (4), Cestoda (1), Trematoda (1) and Protozoa (2)) of endoparasites were determined in 498 (88.5%) animals. In examined turtles three different species of ectoparasites were seen. The established prevalence of various parasites in reptiles used as pet animals indicates the need for examination on specific pathogens prior to introduction to owners. PMID:21624124

  11. MENGENAL PARASIT FILARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Ramadhani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Filariasis atau kaki gajah adalah penyakit menular yang disebabkan karena infeksi cacing filaria yang hidup disaluran dan kelenjar getah bening (limfe serta menyebabkan gejala akut, kronis. Filariasis mulai dikenal di Indonesia tahun 1889 sejak Haga dan Van Eecke menemukan kasus pembesaran scrotum di Jakarta. Penyakit tersebut dapat menular kepada orang lain dengan perantara gigitan nyamuk. Seluruh wilayah Indonesia berpotensi untuk terjangkitnya penyakit tersebut, hal ini mengingat cacing sebagai penyebabnya dan nyamuk penularnya tersebar luas. Keadaan ini didukung oleh kerusakan lingkungan, seperti banjir, penebangan hutan dan lainnya yang memperluas tempat berkembangbiaknya nyamuk. Meskipun filariasis tidak mematikan secara langsung, dengan adanya demam dan bisul-bisul (abses yang hilang timbul, dan gejala menahun berupa pembesaran/elefantiasis yang merupakan cacat menetap akan sangat mengganggu. Secara ekonomis keadaan tersebut sangat merugikan, karena mengurangi produktivitas masyarakat, serta diperlukan biaya pengobatan dan perawatan yang tidak mudah dan tidak murah.Di Indonesia filariasis limfatik di sebabkan oleh tiga spesies cacing filaria yaitu Brugia malayi,B.timori dan Wuchereria bancrofti, yang terbagi lagi menjadi 6 tipe secara epidemiologi.Tiap parasit mempunyai siklus hidup yang kompleks dan infeksi pada manusia tidak akan berhasil kecuali jika terjadi pemaparan larva infektif untuk waktu yang lama. Setelah terjadi pemaparan, dibutuhkan waktu bertahun-tahun sebelum timbulnya perubahan patologis yang nyata pada manusia. Periodisitas dalam sirkulasi setiap mikrofilaria akan berbeda, tergantung dari spesiesnya.

  12. 77 FR 15847 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... more than 150 tissue and bodily fluid samples are collected from each animal and analyzed by... been fed ruminant protein, other than milk protein, during their lifetime; The bovines from which the... from animals that are not known to have been fed ruminant protein, other than milk protein,...

  13. Tropical parasitic diseases and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwa, O O

    2007-12-01

    Tropical parasitic diseases constitute the greatest threat to the health and socio-economic status of women as a gender and social group. There are some gender specific ways in which parasitic diseases affect women in contrast to men due to differences in exposure, occupational risk, sociocultural behavior, gender roles and practices. These parasitic diseases confer some social stigma, which affects the health seeking behavior of women. Women are therefore important in the control of these parasitic diseases and they are key agents of change, if they are included in community control programs. Women need more attention in endemic areas as a group that had been neglected. This deprived and excluded group have got vital role to play, as discussed in this review.

  14. Molecular and Parasitological Survey of Bovine Piroplasms in the Black Sea Region, Including the First Report of Babesiosis Associated with Babesia divergens in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, M; Ozubek, S

    2015-11-01

    Clinical cases of babesiosis were evaluated, and the frequency of bovine Babesia and Theileria parasites was determined in cattle. Blood samples and thin blood smears were collected from 23 cattle exhibiting clinical signs of babesiosis. In addition, tick and blood samples were collected from 100 apparently healthy cattle cograzing from the same area. Egg masses obtained from fully engorged female ticks were included. DNA isolated from blood and tick samples was screened for Babesia and Theileria by reverse line blot assay. Piroplasms compatible with Babesia spp. were observed microscopically for symptomatic cattle as circular, oval, elongated, or pear-shaped bodies. Parasitemia ranged from 0.08 to 0.9% for Babesia bovis, 2.5 to 15.4% for Babesia bigemina, and 7.4% for Babesia divergens. Reverse line blot showed positivity in 13 (13%) of the sampled clinically normal cattle and revealed the presence of three Babesia species. Babesia bovis was the most prevalent (9/100, 9%), followed by Babesia occultans (3/100, 3%) and B. bigemina (1/100, 1%). One animal infected with B. bigemina was also infected with B. bovis. The single animal infected with B. divergens showed symptoms of babesiosis. Ticks were identified as Rhipicephalus annulatus, Rhipicephalus turanicus, and Ixodes ricinus. One female R. annulatus and its egg mass were infected with B. bigemina. Neither Theileria annulata nor Theileria buffeli/orientalis infections were observed in cattle or ticks. This is the first report of clinical babesiosis caused by B. divergens in cattle from Turkey. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. IL-4 gene expression in adventitial layer (fibrous layer) of hepatic ovine and bovine hydatid cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorosti, Zahra; Tolouei, Sepideh; Khanahmad, Hossein; Jafari, Rasool; Jafaee, Fereshteh; Sharafi, Seyedeh Marayam; Darani, Hossein Yousofi

    2016-09-01

    Cystic Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease with cosmopolitan distribution caused by the tape worm Echinococcus granulosus. Fibrous layer is developed around the cyst as a host immune response reaction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of IL-4 gene expression in fibrous layer of bovine and ovine hepatic hydatid cysts using quantitative technique of Real-Time PCR. In this descriptive study the samples of hydatid cyst fibrous layer were taken from 6 bovine and 6 ovine hepatic hydatid cysts. Samples of normal liver tissue close to the cyst were also taken as controls. Total RNA from each sample was extracted and then converted to cDNA. Afterward, the rate of IL-4 gene expression for each sample was evaluated using real-time PCR technique. Data were analyzed by REST software (version 2.0.13, 2009). In sheep the rate of IL-4 gene expression in the fibrous layer of hepatic hydatid cysts was 1.98 times more than the rate of IL4 gene expression in control samples, but the difference was not significant (P = 0.561). In cattle the rate of IL-4 gene expression in the fibrous layer of hepatic hydatid cysts was 9.84 times more than that of control samples which was statistically significant (P layer of bovine hydatid cyst, it can be concluded that this interleukin may play an important role in host parasite relationship.

  16. Pervasiveness of parasites in pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evison, Sophie E F; Roberts, Katherine E; Laurenson, Lynn; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Hui, Jeffrey; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C; Smith, Judith E; Budge, Giles; Hughes, William O H

    2012-01-01

    Many pollinator populations are declining, with large economic and ecological implications. Parasites are known to be an important factor in the some of the population declines of honey bees and bumblebees, but little is known about the parasites afflicting most other pollinators, or the extent of interspecific transmission or vectoring of parasites. Here we carry out a preliminary screening of pollinators (honey bees, five species of bumblebee, three species of wasp, four species of hoverfly and three genera of other bees) in the UK for parasites. We used molecular methods to screen for six honey bee viruses, Ascosphaera fungi, Microsporidia, and Wolbachia intracellular bacteria. We aimed simply to detect the presence of the parasites, encompassing vectoring as well as actual infections. Many pollinators of all types were positive for Ascosphaera fungi, while Microsporidia were rarer, being most frequently found in bumblebees. We also detected that most pollinators were positive for Wolbachia, most probably indicating infection with this intracellular symbiont, and raising the possibility that it may be an important factor in influencing host sex ratios or fitness in a diversity of pollinators. Importantly, we found that about a third of bumblebees (Bombus pascuorum and Bombus terrestris) and a third of wasps (Vespula vulgaris), as well as all honey bees, were positive for deformed wing virus, but that this virus was not present in other pollinators. Deformed wing virus therefore does not appear to be a general parasite of pollinators, but does interact significantly with at least three species of bumblebee and wasp. Further work is needed to establish the identity of some of the parasites, their spatiotemporal variation, and whether they are infecting the various pollinator species or being vectored. However, these results provide a first insight into the diversity, and potential exchange, of parasites in pollinator communities.

  17. Molecular diagnostics and parasitic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasoo, Shawn; Pritt, Bobbi S

    2013-09-01

    Molecular parasitology represents an emerging field in microbiology diagnostics. Although most assays use nonstandardized, laboratory-developed methods, a few commercial systems have recently become available and are slowly being introduced into larger laboratories. In addition, a few methodologies show promise for use in field settings in which parasitic infections are endemic. This article reviews the available techniques and their applications to major parasitic diseases such as malaria, leishmaniasis, and trichomoniasis.

  18. Parasites and altruism: converging roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuk, Marlene; Borrello, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    W.D. Hamilton was most known for his work on two topics: social evolution and parasites. Although at first glance these seem to be disparate interests, they share many attributes and have logical connections within evolutionary biology. Nevertheless, Hamilton's contributions in these areas met with very different receptions, with his place in the field of social evolution assured, but his work on the role of parasites perceived as more specialized. We take an historical approach to examine the reasons for this difference.

  19. Pervasiveness of parasites in pollinators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie E F Evison

    Full Text Available Many pollinator populations are declining, with large economic and ecological implications. Parasites are known to be an important factor in the some of the population declines of honey bees and bumblebees, but little is known about the parasites afflicting most other pollinators, or the extent of interspecific transmission or vectoring of parasites. Here we carry out a preliminary screening of pollinators (honey bees, five species of bumblebee, three species of wasp, four species of hoverfly and three genera of other bees in the UK for parasites. We used molecular methods to screen for six honey bee viruses, Ascosphaera fungi, Microsporidia, and Wolbachia intracellular bacteria. We aimed simply to detect the presence of the parasites, encompassing vectoring as well as actual infections. Many pollinators of all types were positive for Ascosphaera fungi, while Microsporidia were rarer, being most frequently found in bumblebees. We also detected that most pollinators were positive for Wolbachia, most probably indicating infection with this intracellular symbiont, and raising the possibility that it may be an important factor in influencing host sex ratios or fitness in a diversity of pollinators. Importantly, we found that about a third of bumblebees (Bombus pascuorum and Bombus terrestris and a third of wasps (Vespula vulgaris, as well as all honey bees, were positive for deformed wing virus, but that this virus was not present in other pollinators. Deformed wing virus therefore does not appear to be a general parasite of pollinators, but does interact significantly with at least three species of bumblebee and wasp. Further work is needed to establish the identity of some of the parasites, their spatiotemporal variation, and whether they are infecting the various pollinator species or being vectored. However, these results provide a first insight into the diversity, and potential exchange, of parasites in pollinator communities.

  20. Parasitic Effects on Memristor Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Makoto; Chua, Leon O.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we show that parasitic elements have a significant effect on the dynamics of memristor circuits. We first show that certain 2-terminal elements such as memristors, memcapacitors, and meminductors can be used as nonvolatile memories, if the principle of conservation of state variables hold by open-circuiting, or short-circuiting, their terminals. We also show that a passive memristor with a strictly-increasing constitutive relation will eventually lose its stored flux when we switch off the power if there is a parasitic capacitance across the memristor. Similarly, a memcapacitor (resp., meminductor) with a positive memcapacitance (resp., meminductance) will eventually lose their stored physical states when we switch off the power, if it is connected to a parasitic resistance. We then show that the discontinuous jump that circuit engineers assumed to occur at impasse points of memristor circuits contradicts the principles of conservation of charge and flux at the time of the discontinuous jump. A parasitic element can be used to break an impasse point, resulting in the emergence of a continuous oscillation in the circuit. We also define a distance, a diameter, and a dimension, for each circuit element in order to measure the complexity order of the parasitic elements. They can be used to find higher-order parasitic elements which can break impasse points. Furthermore, we derived a memristor-based Chua’s circuit from a three-element circuit containing a memristor by connecting two parasitic memcapacitances to break the impasse points. We finally show that a higher-order parasitic element can be used for breaking the impasse points on two-dimensional and three-dimensional constrained spaces.

  1. Construction of standardized surveillance indicators for bovine cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Céline; Morlot, Claire; Demont, Pierre; Ducrot, Christian; Calavas, Didier; Callait-Cardinal, Marie-Pierre; Gay, Emilie

    2014-08-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease due to Cysticercus bovis. This study aimed to identify factors that could have an impact on the prevalence of cysticercosis and to use them to build standardized indicators of prevalence. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed on data from 4,564,065 cattle (91.3% of the cattle population slaughtered in France in 2010) among which 6491 cattle (0.14%) were found to harbor at least one lesion of cysticercosis (including 611 cattle harboring viable cysts, 0.01%). Two multivariate logistic models were fit to the data using as outcome variables either the presence or absence of viable cysts and the presence or absence of cysts whatever their level of development. Age and sex were identified as the main factors influencing bovine cysticercosis prevalence and were used for the construction of standardized prevalence and standardized cysticercosis rate. To illustrate the use of such indicators, they were calculated for the first and second semester of 2010 and for two different areas in France. The differences between raw prevalence and standardized prevalence highlight the use of standardized indicators for comparisons of prevalence between different areas and time periods as the structure of the slaughtered populations differ considerably from one to another.

  2. [Bovine neosporosis: general concepts, immunity and perspectives for vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D P; Odeón, A C; Venturini, M C; Campero, C M

    2005-01-01

    Neospora caninum causes abortions in cattle worldwide. The Neospora-cycle of life is heteroxenous. Dogs (Canis familiaris) and coyotes (Canis latrans) are the definitive hosts known at present. Although, transplacental infection is an efficiently mode of transmission in cattle; there are also experimental and field data that prove horizontal transmission. Several techniques are available for diagnosis since neosporosis is recognized as a disease that causes economic losses in cattle. The mechanisms that produce the abortion are not completely understood. The immunomodulation observed during the pregnancy, is associated with a susceptible period where Neospora-abortion can occur. Resistance to the parasite is dependent on T helper cell 1 cytokine responses. This has important repercussions for pregnant female bovine because strong T helper cell 1 cytokine responses are incompatible with successful pregnancy. However, it was demonstrated that chronically infected cows develop immune mechanisms against the abortion caused by a second Neospora-exposure. The comprehension of those mechanisms is needed for the formulation of Neospora-vaccines that prevent bovine neosporosis. General concepts about neosporosis with emphasis in the immune response and perspectives for vaccination are mentioned in the present review.

  3. Adaptations in the energy metabolism of parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Grinsven, K.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    For this thesis fundamental research was performed on the metabolic adaptations found in parasites. Studying the adaptations in parasite metabolisms leads to a better understanding of parasite bioenergetics and can also result in the identification of new anti-parasitic drug targets. We focussed on

  4. Adaptations in the energy metabolism of parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Grinsven, K.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    For this thesis fundamental research was performed on the metabolic adaptations found in parasites. Studying the adaptations in parasite metabolisms leads to a better understanding of parasite bioenergetics and can also result in the identification of new anti-parasitic drug targets. We focussed on

  5. Tachinidae Parasitic on the Lymantriidae in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Paul W., Schaefer; Hiroshi, SHIMA; Asian Parasite Laboratory, Agricultural Research, Science and Education Administration, U.S. Department of Agriculture:(Present address)Beneficial Insects Research Laboratory; Biological Laboratory, College of General Education, Kyushu University

    1981-01-01

    Recorded tachinid parasites and 23 new host records are listed for 15 lymantriid species in Japan. A parasite-host list is included and a new species of Carcelia parasitic on Leucoma candida in Hokkaido is described and illustrated. A key to adult tachinid parasites of the Lymantriidae in Japan is provided.

  6. Targeting NAD+ metabolism in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K O'Hara

    Full Text Available Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ is an essential metabolite utilized as a redox cofactor and enzyme substrate in numerous cellular processes. Elevated NAD+ levels have been observed in red blood cells infected with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, but little is known regarding how the parasite generates NAD+. Here, we employed a mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approach to confirm that P. falciparum lacks the ability to synthesize NAD+ de novo and is reliant on the uptake of exogenous niacin. We characterized several enzymes in the NAD+ pathway and demonstrate cytoplasmic localization for all except the parasite nicotinamidase, which concentrates in the nucleus. One of these enzymes, the P. falciparum nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (PfNMNAT, is essential for NAD+ metabolism and is highly diverged from the human homolog, but genetically similar to bacterial NMNATs. Our results demonstrate the enzymatic activity of PfNMNAT in vitro and demonstrate its ability to genetically complement the closely related Escherichia coli NMNAT. Due to the similarity of PfNMNAT to the bacterial enzyme, we tested a panel of previously identified bacterial NMNAT inhibitors and synthesized and screened twenty new derivatives, which demonstrate a range of potency against live parasite culture. These results highlight the importance of the parasite NAD+ metabolic pathway and provide both novel therapeutic targets and promising lead antimalarial compounds.

  7. Blastocystis sp. and other intestinal parasites in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Anne Kulik

    Full Text Available Chronic renal insufficiency disease (CRI leads to uremia in hemodialysis patients and induces a state of immunodepression that results in higher frequencies of infections and diarrhea. Hemodialysis patients resident in the city of Campo Mourão, Paraná, Brazil were analyzed from April 2006 through September 2007 for Blastocystis sp. and other intestinal parasites and for associated diarrhea. Fecal samples from 86 hemodialysis patients and 146 healthy (reference persons were examined by standard methods for detecting ova, larvae and cysts, which included preservation in 10% formalin and the Kinyoun method. Thirty-three hemodialysis patients (45.1% and 36 reference individuals (25.7% were found to be parasitized. The differences in the percentages of parasitism and polyparasitism between the reference group and the chronic renal patients was significant (p= 0.0318 and 0.0019, respectively. Blastocystis sp. (18%-20.1%, Endolimax nana (14%-16.3%, Cryptosporidium sp. (4%-4.7% and Entamoeba coli (4%-4.7% were the most frequent protozoa found in the hemodialysis patients. Parasitism was not significantly associated with diarrhea (p=0.9947 or with decreased white blood cell counts (p=0.7046 in these individuals. Because parasitic infections may be an important comorbidity factor in hemodialysis patients, we suggest that parasitological stool examinations, especially for Blastocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium sp., be included in routine medical follow-up examinations of these patients.

  8. Parasitic Infections among Restaurant Workers in Mukalla (Hadhramout/Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM AL-Haddad

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: To identify intestinal parasites among restaurant workers in Mukalla, Yemen in 2007."nMethods: Stool specimens were collected and examined from a total of 500 restaurant workers at Hadhramout University Health Center .Three types of techniques were used: direct examination, saline sedimentation and formol-ether concentration."nResults:  The positivity in majority of them was single infection whereas 6 cases were double infection that constituted 1.3% of the prevalence. The prevalence was 14.8 % for Entamoeba histolytica/dispor, and 5.2 % for Giardia lamblia, while it was 4.4% for Hymenolepis nana. Other intestinal parasites including Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodinale were also detected. Additionally, the blood parasite Schistosoma mansoni was also detected in 4 cases. The double infection was only with E. histolytica/dispor and Giardia. The infection with these parasites was also accompanied by abdominal troubles "diarrhea, constipation", nausea and vomiting."nConclusion:  These results lead to understand that sanitary measurements are not effective, and this hazardous situation facilitate parasitic agents' distribution among clients. The effectiveness of current pre-employment screening policy must be annual and systematic surveillance is needed in addition to health education.

  9. Blastocystis sp. and other intestinal parasites in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Anne Kulik

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic renal insufficiency disease (CRI leads to uremia in hemodialysis patients and induces a state of immunodepression that results in higher frequencies of infections and diarrhea. Hemodialysis patients resident in the city of Campo Mourão, Paraná, Brazil were analyzed from April 2006 through September 2007 for Blastocystis sp. and other intestinal parasites and for associated diarrhea. Fecal samples from 86 hemodialysis patients and 146 healthy (reference persons were examined by standard methods for detecting ova, larvae and cysts, which included preservation in 10% formalin and the Kinyoun method. Thirty-three hemodialysis patients (45.1% and 36 reference individuals (25.7% were found to be parasitized. The differences in the percentages of parasitism and polyparasitism between the reference group and the chronic renal patients was significant (p= 0.0318 and 0.0019, respectively. Blastocystis sp. (18%-20.1%, Endolimax nana (14%-16.3%, Cryptosporidium sp. (4%-4.7% and Entamoeba coli (4%-4.7% were the most frequent protozoa found in the hemodialysis patients. Parasitism was not significantly associated with diarrhea (p=0.9947 or with decreased white blood cell counts (p=0.7046 in these individuals. Because parasitic infections may be an important comorbidity factor in hemodialysis patients, we suggest that parasitological stool examinations, especially for Blastocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium sp., be included in routine medical follow-up examinations of these patients.

  10. Parasitic Pneumonia and Lung Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attapon Cheepsattayakorn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infestations demonstrated a decline in the past decade as a result of better hygiene practices and improved socioeconomic conditions. Nevertheless, global immigration, increased numbers of the immunocompromised people, international traveling, global warming, and rapid urbanization of the cities have increased the susceptibility of the world population to parasitic diseases. A number of new human parasites, such as Plasmodium knowlesi, in addition to many potential parasites, have urged the interest of scientific community. A broad spectrum of protozoal parasites frequently affects the respiratory system, particularly the lungs. The diagnosis of parasitic diseases of airway is challenging due to their wide varieties of clinical and roentgenographic presentations. So detailed interrogations of travel history to endemic areas are critical for clinicians or pulmonologists to manage this entity. The migrating adult worms can cause mechanical airway obstruction, while the larvae can cause airway inflammation. This paper provides a comprehensive review of both protozoal and helminthic infestations that affect the airway system, particularly the lungs, including clinical and roentgenographic presentations, diagnostic tests, and therapeutic approaches.

  11. A simple trapping method to estimate abundances of blood-sucking flying insects in avian nests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomás, G.; Merino, S.; Martínez-de la Puente, J.; Moreno, J.; Morales, J.; Lobato, E.

    2008-01-01

    [KEYWORDS: birds; biting midges; blackflies; blood parasite-insect vector-vertebrate host relationships; Ceratopogonidae; Culicoides; distance to water sources; insecticide treatment; sampling methods; Simuliidae

  12. Paleoparasitology: the origin of human parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Adauto Araujo; Karl Reinhard; Luiz Fernando Ferreira; Elisa Pucu; Pedro Paulo Chieffi

    2013-01-01

    Parasitism is composed by three subsystems: the parasite, the host, and the environment. There are no organisms that cannot be parasitized. The relationship between a parasite and its host species most of the time do not result in damage or disease to the host. However, in a parasitic disease the presence of a given parasite is always necessary, at least in a given moment of the infection. Some parasite species that infect humans were inherited from pre-hominids, and were shared with other ph...

  13. Clinical features of human salmonellosis caused by bovine-associated subtypes in New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Kevin J; Warnick, Lorin D; Gröhn, Yrjö T; Hoelzer, Karin; Root, Timothy P; Siler, Julie D; McGuire, Suzanne M; Wright, Emily M; Zansky, Shelley M; Wiedmann, Martin

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to identify patient symptoms and case outcomes that were more likely to occur as a result of Salmonella infections caused by bovine-associated subtypes (isolates that matched contemporary bovine isolates from New York by serovar and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern), as compared to salmonellosis caused by non-bovine-associated subtypes. Data were collected in 34 counties of New York that comprise the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) catchment area of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Emerging Infections Program. Patients with specimen collection dates between March 1, 2008 and March 1, 2010 were included. Symptoms and outcomes of 40 cases infected with bovine-associated Salmonella subtypes were compared to those of 379 control-cases infected with Salmonella isolates that were not bovine-associated. Cases were significantly more likely to have invasive salmonellosis (odds ratio, 3.8; p-value=0.02), after adjusting for age group, gender, and race. In addition, there was a marginal association between case status and the presence of blood in the stool (p-value=0.1) while ill. These findings might have implications for patient management, as a history of consuming undercooked foods of bovine origin or having direct contact with cattle in the few days prior to illness could be useful for suggesting a more proactive diagnostic approach as well as close monitoring for the need to implement more aggressive therapy.

  14. Preparation of Cu(2+)-mediated magnetic imprinted polymers for the selective sorption of bovine hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruixia; Cui, Xihui; Hao, Yi; He, Gaiyan; Zhang, Min; Tang, Yuhai

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a novel Cu(2+)-mediated core-shell bovine hemoglobin imprinted superparamagnetic polymers were synthesized. First, carboxyl group directly-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles were produced by a facile one-pot hydrothermal method. Next, copper ions were introduced to chelate with carboxyl groups and further bonded with template bovine hemoglobin as co-functional monomer. Then, functional monomers 3-aminopropyltriethoxylsilane and octyltrimethoxysilane were adopted to form the thin polymer layers. Finally, after removal of the templates, the imprinting shells with specific recognition cavities for bovine hemoglobin were obtained on Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The resultant molecularly imprinted polymers have high adsorption capacity and satisfactory selectivity for bovine hemoglobin with the help of copper ions. The obtained magnetic nanomaterials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectra, X-ray diffraction, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The measurements demonstrated that the as-synthesized nanomaterials exhibited good dispersion, high crystallinity, and satisfactory superparamagnetic properties. The feasibility of this method was further confirmed by using the imprinted nanomaterials to specifically extract bovine hemoglobin from real bovine blood samples.

  15. Paleoparasitology: the origin of human parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Adauto; Reinhard, Karl; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Pucu, Elisa; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo

    2013-09-01

    Parasitism is composed by three subsystems: the parasite, the host, and the environment. There are no organisms that cannot be parasitized. The relationship between a parasite and its host species most of the time do not result in damage or disease to the host. However, in a parasitic disease the presence of a given parasite is always necessary, at least in a given moment of the infection. Some parasite species that infect humans were inherited from pre-hominids, and were shared with other phylogenetically close host species, but other parasite species were acquired from the environment as humans evolved. Human migration spread inherited parasites throughout the globe. To recover and trace the origin and evolution of infectious diseases, paleoparasitology was created. Paleoparasitology is the study of parasites in ancient material, which provided new information on the evolution, paleoepidemiology, ecology and phylogenetics of infectious diseases.

  16. Paleoparasitology: the origin of human parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto Araujo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Parasitism is composed by three subsystems: the parasite, the host, and the environment. There are no organisms that cannot be parasitized. The relationship between a parasite and its host species most of the time do not result in damage or disease to the host. However, in a parasitic disease the presence of a given parasite is always necessary, at least in a given moment of the infection. Some parasite species that infect humans were inherited from pre-hominids, and were shared with other phylogenetically close host species, but other parasite species were acquired from the environment as humans evolved. Human migration spread inherited parasites throughout the globe. To recover and trace the origin and evolution of infectious diseases, paleoparasitology was created. Paleoparasitology is the study of parasites in ancient material, which provided new information on the evolution, paleoepidemiology, ecology and phylogenetics of infectious diseases.

  17. Comparison of Tuberculin Activity in the Interferon-gamma Assay for the Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle infected with bovine tuberculosis still represent a serious regulatory and health concern in a variety of countries. Early diagnosis using the in vitro interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) assay has been applied for more than a decade. Briefly, IFN-gamma responses in whole blood cultures stimulated w...

  18. Effectivity of PCR and AGID methods to detect of enzootic bovine leukosis in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saepulloh M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Enzootic Bovine Leucosis (EBL is one of viral diseases in cattle caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV, from Retroviridae. The virus can be detected using severals methods such as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR, while antibody can be detected using Agar Gel Immunodifussion (AGID. The aim of this experiment was to study the effectivity of PCR and AGID methods to detect enzootic bovine leukosis virus in Indonesia. Samples of peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL were collected from cattles those with and without showing clinical signs. A total of 307 blood and serum samples were tested against BLV using PCR and AGID tests, while 21 semen samples which were from similar animals for blood collection were collected only for PCR test. The results indicated that twelve cattles have positive results with PCR test in PBL, but from those cattles only seven were positive with AGID. On the other hand, the PCR did not detect EBL in 21 bovine semen samples tested, although one sample gave positive result with PCR in PBL. This results indicated that PCR method from blood samples was more sensitive than that AGID method. The PCR detection was also more sensitive for PBL than that for semen samples

  19. Parasites as prey in aquatic food webs: implications for predator infection and parasite transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thieltges, D.W.; Amundsen, P.-A.; Hechinger, R.F.; Johnson, P.T.J.; Lafferty, K.D.; Mouritsen, K.N.; Preston, D.L.; Reise, K.; Zander, C.D.; Poulin, R.

    2013-01-01

    While the recent inclusion of parasites into food-web studies has highlighted the role of parasites as consumers, there is accumulating evidence that parasites can also serve as prey for predators. Here we investigated empirical patterns of predation on parasites and their relationships with parasit

  20. Parasites as prey in aquatic food webs: implications for predator infection and parasite transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thieltges, D.W.; Amundsen, P.-A.; Hechinger, R.F.; Johnson, P.T.J.; Lafferty, K.D.; Mouritsen, K.N.; Preston, D.L.; Reise, K.; Zander, C.D.; Poulin, R.

    2013-01-01

    While the recent inclusion of parasites into food-web studies has highlighted the role of parasites as consumers, there is accumulating evidence that parasites can also serve as prey for predators. Here we investigated empirical patterns of predation on parasites and their relationships with parasit

  1. Detection of monoclonal integration of bovine leukemia virus proviral DNA as a malignant marker in two enzootic bovine leukosis cases with difficult clinical diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Saori; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Kawazu, Shin-Ichiro; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2015-07-01

    Monoclonal integration of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) proviral DNA into bovine genomes was detected in peripheral blood from two clinical cases of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) without enlargement of superficial lymph nodes. A BLV-specific probe hybridized with 1 to 3 EcoRI and HindIII fragments in these 2 atypical EBL cattle by Southern blotting and hybridization, as well as in 3 typical EBL cattle. The probe also hybridized to a large number of EcoRI and HindIII fragments in 5 cattle with persistent leukosis. These results suggest that the detection of monoclonal integration of BLV provirus into the host genome may serve as a marker of monoclonal proliferation and malignancy in difficult to diagnose EBL cattle.

  2. Update on pathology of ocular parasitic disease

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Parasites are a group of eukaryotic organisms that may be free-living or form a symbiotic or parasitic relationship with the hosts. Consisting of over 800,000 recognized species, parasites may be unicellular (Protozoa) or multicellular (helminths and arthropods). The association of parasites with human population started long before the emergence of civilization. Parasitic zoonotic diseases are prevalent worldwide including India. Appropriate epidemiological data are lacking on existing zoono...

  3. Parasites, diseases, and health status of sympatric populations of sika deer and white-tailed deer in Maryland and Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, W R; Crow, C B

    1983-10-01

    In July 1981, investigations on parasites, diseases, and herd health status were conducted on sympatric populations of sika deer (Cervus nippon) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge (Maryland) and Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge (Virginia) on the Delmarva Peninsula. Five adult deer of each species were collected from each location and subjected to thorough necropsy examinations and laboratory tests. White-tailed deer at both locations harbored protozoan, helminth, and arthropod parasites typically associated with this species throughout the southeastern United States. In contrast, sika deer at both locations harbored only light burdens of ticks, chiggers, and sarcocysts. Serologic tests for antibodies to seven infectious disease agents revealed evidence of exposure to bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, and parainfluenza3 virus in white-tailed deer, but only BVD virus in sika deer. At both locations the general health status of sika deer was superior to that of white-tailed deer.

  4. Immunoprophylaxis of bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Vojislav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis poses a major economic and health problem in herds of dairy cows. The many years of taking different approaches to treating mastitis have not resulted in an adequate solution, so that the problem of mastitis is still present and acute. The treatment of mastitis using antibiotics yields satisfactory results, but it implies substantial costs for treatment and losses in rejecting milk. Due to the above reasons, a new area of scientific research offers possibilities for finding new solutions to the ever present problem of mastitis - immunoprophylaxis. Vaccines against mastitis available at this time are still not sufficiently effective in general practice, and they are at the level of experimental vaccines. All barn vaccines which have been worked on so far have been significantly experimentally successful. The success is in a significant increase in the antibody titer in serum (but not in milk, as well as in reducing the incidence of clinical and subclinical mastitis cases among experimental and control animals. Nevertheless, it is still believed that immunoprophylaxis, as a method for preventing inflammation of the udder and the occurrence of mastitis, is still an insufficiently investigated field of scientific research. Many scientists are engaged on the problem of finding a vaccine against mastitis, but the coplexity of the mammary gland and the specific permeability of the blood-milk barrier do not permit these efforts to be as successful as they might be if this were not the case.

  5. Bovine cysticercosis situation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Augusto Marques Rossi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is a long known zoonotic parasitosis characteristic of underdeveloped countries. In addition to its public health significance, this parasitosis is cause of economic losses to the beef production chain, and synonymous of technical inadequacy in relation to the adoption of Good Agricultural Practices. The occurrences of both human teniasis and bovine cysticercosis could and should be controlled with basic sanitary measures. However, there is much variation in the occurrence of the disease in cattle, characterizing a low rate of technical development as well as problems related to the adoption of basic sanitation measures. This review describes, in details, the causative agent and its epidemiological chain, besides raising current information about the occurrence of bovine cysticercosis in different regions of Brazil, aiming at the adoption of prophylactic measures by different segments responsible.

  6. Immune Evasion Strategies of Pre-Erythrocytic Malaria Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans. It begins with a bite from an infected female Anopheles mosquito and leads to the development of the pre-erythrocytic and blood stages. Blood-stage infection is the exclusive cause of clinical symptoms of malaria. In contrast, the pre-erythrocytic stage is clinically asymptomatic and could be an excellent target for preventive therapies. Although the robust host immune responses limit the development of the liver stage, malaria parasites have also evolved strategies to suppress host defenses at the pre-erythrocytic stage. This paper reviews the immune evasion strategies of malaria parasites at the pre-erythrocytic stage, which could provide us with potential targets to design prophylactic strategies against malaria.

  7. Genetic diversity of bovine Neospora caninum determined by microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, N; Gottstein, B; Haddadzadeh, H R

    2015-10-01

    Neospora caninum is one of the most significant parasitic organisms causing bovine abortion worldwide. Despite the economic impact of this infection, relatively little is known about the genetic diversity of this parasite. In this study, using Nc5 and ITS1 nested PCR, N. caninum has been detected in 12 brain samples of aborted fetuses from 298 seropositive dairy cattle collected from four different regions in Tehran, Iran. These specimen (Nc-Iran) were genotyped in multilocus using 9 different microsatellite markers previously described (MS4, MS5, MS6A, MS6B, MS7, MS8, MS10, MS12 and MS21). Microsatellite amplification was completely feasible in 2 samples, semi-completely in 8 samples, and failed in 2 samples. Within the two completely performed allelic profiles of Nc-Iran strains, unique multilocus profiles were obtained for both and novel allelic patterns were found in the MS8 and MS10 microsatellite markers. The Jaccard's similarity index showed significant difference between these two strains and from other standard isolates derived from GenBank such as Nc-Liv, Nc-SweB1, Nc-GER1, KBA1, and KBA2. All samples originating from the same area showed identical allelic numbers and a correlation between the number of repeats and geographic districts was observed.

  8. [Advances in the development of vaccines for bovine neosporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Yanina P; Venturini, María C; Campero, Carlos M; Odeón, Anselmo C; Moore, Dadín P

    2012-01-01

    Neosporosis, a disease caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan Neospora caninum, produces abortions in cattle. The severe economic losses in cattle industry justify the need to develop control measures for preventing bovine abortion. Apicomplexan parasitic resistance is associated with T helper 1 immune response mediated by CD4 cytotoxic T lymphocytes, the production of interferon-gamma, interleukin-12, tumor necrosis factor and immunoglobulin G2. The reduction of vertical transmission in subsequent pregnancies and the low levels of abortion repetition suggests the existence of protective immune mechanisms. Inoculation with live tachyzoites before mating protects against infection and abortion. Antecedents of the development of live vaccines against other protozoa stimulate research to develop a live vaccine against N. caninum. On the other hand, an inactivated vaccine with low efficacy against neosporosis is useful in the prevention of abortion in farms with epizootic disease. A neosporosis vaccine should avoid abortion, transplacental transmission and infection persistence. In the present work, advances in vaccine development including lysate of tachyzoites, live parasites, recombinant antigens and vaccine vectors are reviewed.

  9. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M H; Brightman, A H; Fenwick, B W; Rider, M A

    1998-01-01

    The economic impact of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) warrants continued investigation of the mechanisms by which Moraxella bovis survives on and colonizes the corneal surface. Virulent strains of M bovis produce hemolysin and exhibit different plasmid profiles than nonvirulent strains. Interactions among host, environment, vector, season, and concurrent infection influence the prevalence of IBK. Mycoplasma sp. or infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus may enhance or hasten the disease process. The manifestations of IBK may range from mild conjunctivitis to severe ulceration, corneal perforation, and blindness. Treatment of IBK is dictated by economic considerations, intended animal use, and feasibility of administration. Antibiotic therapy is aimed at achieving drug concentrations in tears to meet or exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration for prolonged periods. At present, IBK is not a preventable disease. Affected animals must be separated from the herd and vector control vigorously instituted. Carrier animals must be identified and removed from the herd. Vaccination trials have been unsuccessful because of pili antigen cross-reactivity, variable strains, and uncontrolled environmental factors. Recent investigations have determined that M bovis may utilize host iron sources via iron-repressible outer membrane proteins and siderophores for growth. Elucidation of normal defense mechanisms of the bovine eye may lead to new strategies to enhance the immune response against M bovis.

  10. Comparison of levels and duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 in calves fed maternal colostrum or a colostrum-replacement product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Manuel F; Walz, Paul H; Haines, Deborah M; Passler, Thomas; Earleywine, Thomas; Palomares, Roberto A; Riddell, Kay P; Galik, Patricia; Zhang, Yijing; Givens, M Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Colostrum-replacement products are an alternative to provide passive immunity to neonatal calves; however, their ability to provide adequate levels of antibodies recognizing respiratory viruses has not been described. The objective of this study was to compare the serum levels of IgG at 2 d of age and the duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3) in calves fed maternal colostrum (MC) or a colostrum replacement (CR) at birth. Forty newborn male Holstein calves were assigned to the CR or the MC group. Group CR (n = 20) received 2 packets of colostrum replacement (100 g of IgG per 470-g packet), while group MC (n = 20) received 3.8 L of maternal colostrum. Blood samples for detection of IgG and virus antibodies were collected from each calf at birth, at 2 and 7 d, and monthly until the calves became seronegative. Calves in the MC group had greater IgG concentrations at 2 d of age. The apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG was greater in the MC group than in the CR group, although the difference was not significant. Calves in the CR group had greater concentrations of BVDV neutralizing antibodies during the first 4 mo of life. The levels of antibodies to BRSV, BHV-1, and BPIV-3 were similar in the 2 groups. The mean time to seronegativity was similar for each virus in the 2 groups; however, greater variation was observed in the antibody levels and in the duration of detection of immunity in the MC group than in the CR group. Thus, the CR product provided calves with more uniform levels and duration of antibodies to common bovine respiratory viruses.

  11. Clinicopathological evaluation of non-parasitic dermatoses in canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Sindha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study has been carried out to detect non-parasitic dermatoses in canines brought at the Nandini Veterinary Hospital, Surat. Materials and Methods: The current investigation was carried out on skin scrapping, skin biopsy specimens, blood, and serum samples of 210 freshly registered cases of dogs with dermatological afflictions. Dogs found healthy on clinical examination were used as control animals (n=15. The incidence of non-parasitic dermatoses has been recorded as per age, breed, and sex of dogs. For bacterial isolation, the pus/exudates samples were collected from 40 cases of pyoderma and streaked onto brain-heart infusion agar while 13 skin scrapping samples were inoculated on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar with chloramphenicol for isolation of fungi. The organisms were identified on the basis of gross and microscopic observation of cultural growth on media. The blood and sera samples were also collected to note alteration in hematology and biochemical parameters, respectively. Tissue samples from lesions were collected and subsequently preserved in 10% neutral buffered formalin for histopathology. Results: Out of 210 cases of dermatoses, 60 cases were of non-parasitic dermatoses, i.e., 28.57%. Of these, bacterial skin infections (pyoderma were found to be the predominant at 80.00%, followed by other non-parasitic dermatological disorders, i.e., 11.67% and fungal skin infection, i.e., 8.33%. The dogs belonging to age group 1-3 years showed greater susceptibility to non-parasitic dermatological conditions. Breed wise incidence of pyoderma was found more in the Pomeranian breed (20.83%, whereas fungal skin affections were found to be higher in mongrel breed (60.00% and 42.86%, respectively. Male dogs showed greater involvement in bacterial, fungal, and other non-parasitic dermatoses. Bacteriological culture examination of 40 pus swabs resulted in the growth of 39 bacterial isolates. Mycological culture of skin scrapings from 13

  12. Bovine placental lactogen: isolation purification and measurement in biological fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    Studies were conducted to isolate and purify bovine placental lactogen (bPL) and to develop a radioimmunoassay to this protein. Bovine placental lactogen was isolated from culture medium after a 24 hr culture of fetal cotyledonary tissue. Cotyledonary explants were stimulated to secrete bPL by either addition of bovine growth hormone (NIH-B8) to the medium or co-culture of cotyledon and caruncular tissue. Production of bPL was greatly affected by explant size and 70% of that produced in a 48 hr culture was released in the first 12 hr. Purification of bPL was accomplished using a column chromatographic scheme that involved gel filtration, ion exchange and chromatofocusing chromatography. A radioimmunoassay to bPL was developed using an antibody raised at the USDA Beltsville (F56). Dose response curves of amniotic or allantoic fluid or fetal and maternal serum were parallel to the standard curve and bPL was quantitatively recovered at from 82-125%. Using the radioimmunoassay, samples of amniotic and allantoic fluids and fetal and maternal serum were measured for bPL. Concentrations of bPL ranged from undetectable to 50 ng/ml, with fetal blood having the highest concentrations and amniotic fluid the lowest.

  13. Prostaglandinsvis-à-vis bovine embryonic mortality:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jerome A; Srivastava N

    2012-01-01

    Decline in fertility in bovines is attributed to various reproductive problems viz. anoestrus, repeat breeding, abortions and post parturient disorders.Among these, repeat breeding has been an important cause for reducing the animals’ fertility and life-time productivity.Many researchers have reported embryonic mortality as a major cause of repeat breeding arising due to premature corpus luteumlysis.ProstaglandinF2α released from the uterus causes alterations in luteal blood flow, induces luteal lysis, and hence reduces progesterone secretion from the bovine corpus luteum.Therefore various strategies have been tried to modulate prostaglandinF2α synthesis and secretion in order to prolong the lifespan ofCL.Administration of cyclooxygenase inhibitors which include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs acting by competitive inhibition of key enzymes of prostaglandin synthesis is one such method.Feeding of diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids during critical period significantly reduces prostaglandin synthesis.Other drugs, which are potential candidates for reducing prostaglandin synthesis, include oxytocin receptor antagonist, recombinant bovine somatotropin, lysophosphatidic acid and prostaglandinF synthase inhibitors. To conclude, there is much scope of using various compounds to reduce prostaglandins synthesis during the critical period of pregnancy for improving the embryo survival rate.

  14. Generation of primary cultures of bovine brain endothelial cells and setup of cocultures with rat astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Hans C; Brodin, Birger

    2014-01-01

    In vitro models of the blood-brain barrier are useful tools to study blood-brain barrier function as well as drug permeation from the systemic circulation to the brain parenchyma. However, a large number of the available in vitro models fail to reflect the tightness of the in vivo blood-brain...... barrier. The present protocol describes the setup of an in vitro coculture model based on primary cultures of endothelial cells from bovine brain microvessels and primary cultures of rat astrocytes. The model displays a high electrical tightness and expresses blood-brain barrier marker proteins....

  15. Parasites, pets, and people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, M B

    1991-03-01

    It is important for the family physician to understand that patients' relationships with their pets play an important role in helping maintain mental and physical health yet provide the potential for causing illness in the patient. Toxocara canis (dog roundworm) and Toxocara cati (cat roundworm) are the ascarids most commonly responsible for VLM and ocular larva migrans in humans. These roundworms live in their adult stage in the small intestine of the dog and cat where their eggs are passed in the feces. The eggs containing the infective larva are very sticky, thus an infant crawling around on the floor can easily pick these up on fingers that almost invariably end up in the mouth. Infections are usually mild and asymptomatic but with a persistent eosinophilia. Ocular larva migrans is the form usually occurring in older children and adults. Some public health veterinarians recommend that a puppy or kitten should not be obtained as a companion for a child who is not old enough to read, thus bypassing the crawling and toddler stages. Hookworm eggs, shed in the feces of infected dogs or cats, develop into the infective second stage within a week. Humans are usually infected when bare areas of skin such as bare feet or the torso come in contact with soil contaminated with the larvae. The second-stage larvae are able to penetrate the intact skin of humans and the foot pads of dogs and cats. In the United States, the common dog hookworm, A. caninum, is a widespread parasite. Human intestinal ancylostomiasis caused by this species is rare, with only six cases recorded in the literature. Infection in humans or animals by the common tapeworm of dogs and cats (Dipylidium caninum) requires ingestion of the intermediate host, the dog or cat flea containing the larva (cysticercoids) of the agent. Many cases in humans are asymptomatic. Dipylidiasis affects mainly infants and young children who may swallow a flea that hops up while the infant is crawling on the floor or fondling

  16. Valores hematológicos e identificação morfo-citoquímica de células sangüíneas de capivaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochoeris parasitadas por carrapatos e capivaras livres de infestação - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2116 Hematological values and morpho-cytochemical blood cells identification of tick parasited capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochoeris and capybaras free of parasitism - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2116

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antenor Aguiar Santos

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Amostras de sangue foram colhidas de 37 capivaras parasitadas por carrapatos e de 21 capivaras livres de infestação para a identificação dos diferentes tipos celulares circulantes e para realização de hemograma. Após análise morfológica, as células sangüíneas foram identificadas como heterófilos, eosinófilos, basófilos, linfócitos, monócitos e plaquetas. A reação de PAS demonstrou glicogênio no citoplasma dos heterófilos e plaquetas. Reação positiva para mieloperoxidase e lipídeos foi demonstrada apenas nos grânulos citoplasmáticos esféricos dos heterófilos e em todos os grânulos citoplasmáticos dos eosinófilos. O método do azul de bromofenol revelou reação fortemente positiva nos grânulos de heterófilos, eosinófilos, basófilos e nas hemácias. Reação positiva para fosfatase alcalina foi observada nos heterófilos e eosinófilos. Os valores hematimétricos que mostraram diferenças estatisticamente significantes (p6/µL e 2,81±0,62 x 106/µL, hematócrito (48.14±4.75% e 41,22±6.21%, e, na contagem diferencial, os heterófilos (39,38±11,02% e 16,14±7,13% e, eosinófilos (8,57±3,78% and 21,92±10,24%. Os carrapatos foram identificados como Amblyomma cajenense and Amblyomma cooperi. As capivaras altamente infestadas por esses carrapatos apresentaram anemia e uma eosinofilia marcante.Blood samples were collected from thirty seven adult parasited capybaras and twenty one free of parasitism aiming the characterization of different circulating cell types and complete hemogram. After a morphological analysis, the blood cells were identified as heterophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and platelets. The PAS reaction revealed glycogen in heterophils and platelets cytoplasm. A positive reaction was found only in heterophils round granules and in all cytoplasmic granules of eosinophils for the demonstration of myeloperoxidase activity and lipids. The bromofenol blue method revealed strong

  17. Bovine Chymosin: A Computational Study of Recognition and Binding of Bovine κ-Casein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, David S.; Christensen, Anders Uhrenholt; Sørensen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Bovine chymosin is an aspartic protease that selectively cleaves the milk protein κ-casein. The enzyme is widely used to promote milk clotting in cheese manufacturing. We have developed models of residues 97-112 of bovine κ-casein complexed with bovine chymosin, using ligand docking, conformational...

  18. Prevalence of intestinal and haemoprotozoan parasites of small ruminants in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velusamy, R; Rani, N; Ponnudurai, G; Anbarasi, P

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess the prevalence of intestinal and haemoprotozoan parasites of small ruminants (Sheep and Goats) in North Western part of Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 630 faecal samples (251-sheep, 379-goats) and 554 blood smears (242-sheep, 312-goats) were examined, for the presence of eggs of intestinal and haemoprotozoan parasites, respectively. The samples were received from the Veterinary college hospital and Veterinary dispensaries in North Western part of Tamil Nadu. Faecal samples were processed by sedimentation technique and examined under low power objective (×10), and blood smears were stained using Giemsa's technique and examined under oil immersion (×100). The analysis of data on the prevalence of intestinal and haemoprotozoan parasites of sheep and goats in North Western part of Tamil Nadu for the period from 2004 to 2013, showed an overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was found to be 67% and 35% in sheep and goats, respectively, whereas only 11% of sheep and 3% of goats had the haemoprotozoan parasitic infection. Highly, significant difference (pparasitism was observed between sheep and goats. Intestinal parasites such as strongyles, Trichuris, Moniezia, amphistome, and coccidia were identified in which the highest prevalence was observed with coccidia, followed by strongyles, Monezia, Trichuris, and least with amphistome in both the sheep and goats. The haemoprotozoan parasites recorded were Theileria and Anaplasma species, of which, Anaplasma spp. being the highest and Theileria spp. the least prevalent in both the sheep and goats. The seasonal prevalence of intestinal parasites showed highest in rainy season, followed by moderate in winter and least with summer in both the sheep and goats, whereas the haemoprotozoan parasites recorded were the highest in summer followed by winter and least with rainy season. The present study suggests that North Western part of Tamil Nadu is highly endemic for intestinal parasites

  19. Bovine theileriosis--an emerging problem in south-eastern Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Khyrul; Jabbar, Abdul; Campbell, Bronwyn E; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Gasser, Robin B

    2011-12-01

    Bovine theileriosis is an arthropod-borne disease caused by one or more haemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Theileria. Traditionally, Theileria infection in cattle in Australia was largely asymptomatic and recognized to be associated with Theileria buffeli, now assigned to the Theileria orientalis-group. There have been some recent outbreaks of theileriosis in dairy and beef cattle, mainly in subtropical climatic zone (New South Wales) of Australia. Here, we provide the first published evidence of an outbreak of bovine theileriosis in the south-eastern Australia (state of Victoria) linked to the ikeda and chitose genotypes of T. orientalis. Future investigations should focus sharply on the elucidating the epidemiology and ecology of Theileria in this region to subvert the possible impact on the cattle industry.

  20. Protein palmitoylation in protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvi, Maria Martha; Berthiaume, Luc Gerard; De Napoli, Maximiliano Gabriel

    2011-06-01

    Palmitoylation plays an important role in the regulation of the localization and function of the modified protein. Although many aspects of protein palmitoylation have been identified in mammalian and yeast cells, little information is available of this modification in protozoan parasites. Protein palmitoylation has been described for a few set of proteins in E.tenella, P. falciparum, T. gondii, G. lamblia and T. cruzi. Interestingly, in all these parasites palmitoylated proteins appears to be involved in vital processes such as invasion and motility. In addition, most of these parasites contain in their genomes genes that encode for putative palmitoyl-acyl transferases, the enzymes catalyzing the palmitoylation reaction. Although protein palmitoylation could be playing key roles in invasion and motility in a variety of parasites, little is known about this important reversible modification of proteins that typically plays a role in membrane tethering. As such, this review will focus on the main features of protein palmitoylation as well as provide an overview of the state of knowledge of this modification in protozoan parasites.

  1. Enrichment of malaria parasites by antibody immobilized magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangchaikeeree, Tienrat; Jangpatarapongsa, Kulachart; Polpanich, Duangporn; Thiramanas, Raweewan; Pornjarone, Atcharavalai; Udnaen, Somkiat; Udomsangpetch, Rachanee; Tangboriboonrat, Pramuan

    2013-10-01

    The simple and less expensive technique based on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) was developed for separation of malaria parasites containing specific antigens. The carboxylated MNPs were chemically bound with anti-P. falciparum IgG antibodies (Ab-MNPs) purified from the plasma of malaria patients and then used for removal of P. falciparum malaria-infected erythrocytes from other non-infected blood cells in malaria culture at a given percent parasitemia. The results from optical microscope showed that all blood stages parasites, i.e., ring, trophozoite and schizont, could be separated from other blood components with high purity (> or = 95%) and yield of 33.5% (the early stages of ring and trophozoite:the schizont stage were 1:1.34). Highly specific interaction between Ab-MNPs and the P. falciparum malaria infected erythrocytes was confirmed by scanning electron microscope. When compared to the centrifugation with Percoll gradient and depletion by sorbitol lysis which are specific to the mature and the ring stages, respectively, our technique would be more useful for production of high quality of parasites to use in malaria pathogenesis or immunological studies, and in detection techniques.

  2. Gene Silencing and Antigenic Variation in Malaria Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk W. Deitsch

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains one of the most important infectious diseases in the world today, infecting 300 to 500 million people yearly and resulting in 1 to 2 million deaths, primarily of young African children[1]. The most severe form of this disease is caused by infection with the mosquito borne protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. This parasite lives by invading and multiplying within the red blood cells of its host, causing disease through anemia resulting from red cell destruction, and also through modifications made to the surface of infected red cells. These modifications make infected cells cytoadherent or “sticky”, allowing them to adhere to the walls of blood vessels, leading to obstruction of blood flow and such clinical manifestations as the often fatal syndrome of cerebral malaria[2]. In addition, parasites are capable of undergoing antigenic variation, a process of continually changing the identity of proteins on the surface of infected cells and thus avoiding the immune response mounted by the host[3]. This process promotes a long term, persistent infection that is difficult to clear.

  3. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood, safe blood transfusions depend on careful blood typing and cross-matching. The ABO Blood Group System ... that provided by the ABO positive/negative blood typing. For example, sometimes if the donor and recipient ...

  4. Type II fatty acid synthesis is essential only for malaria parasite late liver stage development

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan, Ashley M.; O'Neill, Matthew T.; Tarun, Alice S.; Camargo, Nelly; Phuong, Thuan M; Aly, Ahmed S I; Cowman, Alan F.; Kappe, Stefan H. I.

    2008-01-01

    Intracellular malaria parasites require lipids for growth and replication. They possess a prokaryotic type II fatty acid synthesis (FAS II) pathway that localizes to the apicoplast plastid organelle and is assumed to be necessary for pathogenic blood stage replication. However, the importance of FAS II throughout the complex parasite life cycle remains unknown. We show in a rodent malaria model that FAS II enzymes localize to the sporozoite and liver stage apicoplast. Targeted deletion of Fab...

  5. Efficient Editing of Malaria Parasite Genome Using the CRISPR/Cas9 System

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Malaria parasites are unicellular organisms residing inside the red blood cells, and current methods for editing the parasite genes have been inefficient. The CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and Cas9 endonuclease-mediated genome editing) system is a new powerful technique for genome editing and has been widely employed to study gene function in various organisms. However, whether this technique can be applied to modify the genomes of malaria par...

  6. Host-parasite interactions: Marine bivalve molluscs and protozoan parasites, Perkinsus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudant, Philippe; E Chu, Fu-Lin; Volety, Aswani

    2013-10-01

    This review assesses and examines the work conducted to date concerning host and parasite interactions between marine bivalve molluscs and protozoan parasites, belonging to Perkinsus species. The review focuses on two well-studied host-parasite interaction models: the two clam species, Ruditapes philippinarum and R. decussatus, and the parasite Perkinsus olseni, and the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, and the parasite Perkinsus marinus. Cellular and humoral defense responses of the host in combating parasitic infection, the mechanisms (e.g., antioxidant enzymes, extracellular products) employed by the parasite in evading host defenses as well as the role of environmental factors in modulating the host-parasite interactions are described.

  7. Expression of the CTCF gene in bovine oocytes and preimplantation embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro F.L. Rios

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The CCCTC - binding factor (CTCF is a protein involved in repression, activation, hormone-inducible gene silencing, functional reading of imprinted genes and X-chromosome inactivation. We analyzed CTCF gene expression in bovine peripheral blood, oocytes and in different cellular stages (2-4 cells, 8-16 cells, 16-32 cells, morulae, and blastocysts of in vitro fertilized embryos. This is the first report of CTCF expression in oocytes and preimplantation bovine embryos and has implications for the production of embryonic stem cells and the development of novel medical technologies for humans.

  8. Taming Parasites by Tailoring Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingjian Ren

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The next-generation gene editing based on CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats has been successfully implemented in a wide range of organisms including some protozoan parasites. However, application of such a versatile game-changing technology in molecular parasitology remains fairly underexplored. Here, we briefly introduce state-of-the-art in human and mouse research and usher new directions to drive the parasitology research in the years to come. In precise, we outline contemporary ways to embolden existing apicomplexan and kinetoplastid parasite models by commissioning front-line gene-tailoring methods, and illustrate how we can break the enduring gridlock of gene manipulation in non-model parasitic protists to tackle intriguing questions that remain long unresolved otherwise. We show how a judicious solicitation of the CRISPR technology can eventually balance out the two facets of pathogen-host interplay.

  9. Parasitic diseases of the pleura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Chitra; Huggins, John Terrill; Sahn, Steven A

    2013-05-01

    Parasitic infections are prevalent in certain parts of the world and may cause pleural involvement, which often goes unrecognized. Common parasites involving the pleura include Entamoeba histolytica, Echinococcus granulosus and Paragonimus westermani. Amebiasis can cause empyema with "anchovy sauce" pus, reactive pleural effusions and bronchopleural fistula with hydropneumothorax. Echinococcosis may result in pleural thickening, pneumothorax, secondary pleural hydatidosis and pleural effusions. Paragonimiasis may cause chylous and cholesterol pleural effusions, pleural thickening and pneumothorax. Less commonly, pulmonary eosinophilia, or Loeffler's syndrome, caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus and tropical pulmonary eosinophilia caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi may involve the pleura. This article provides a comprehensive review of parasitic infections involving the pleura. A high index of suspicion in the appropriate clinical setting is required to facilitate prompt diagnosis and treatment of these diseases.

  10. Parasites and immunotherapy: with or against?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousofi Darani, Hossein; Yousefi, Morteza; Safari, Marzieh; Jafari, Rasool

    2016-06-01

    Immunotherapy is a sort of therapy in which antibody or antigen administrates to the patient in order to treat or reduce the severity of complications of disease. This kind of treatment practiced in a wide variety of diseases including infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, cancers and allergy. Successful and unsuccessful immunotherapeutic strategies have been practiced in variety of parasitic infections. On the other hand parasites or parasite antigens have also been considered for immunotherapy against other diseases such as cancer, asthma and multiple sclerosis. In this paper immunotherapy against common parasitic infections, and also immunotherapy of cancer, asthma and multiple sclerosis with parasites or parasite antigens have been reviewed.

  11. Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; Xu, Min-Jun; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Song, Hui-Qun; Wang, Chun-Ren; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-07-28

    Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses have not been given high priority in China, although the role of companion animals as reservoirs for zoonotic parasitic diseases has been recognized worldwide. With an increasing number of dogs and cats under unregulated conditions in China, the canine and feline parasitic zoonoses are showing a trend towards being gradually uncontrolled. Currently, canine and feline parasitic zoonoses threaten human health, and cause death and serious diseases in China. This article comprehensively reviews the current status of major canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in mainland China, discusses the risks dogs and cats pose with regard to zoonotic transmission of canine and feline parasites, and proposes control strategies and measures.

  12. The Geological Record of Parasitic Nematode Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinar, George O

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses the evolutionary history of nematode parasites of invertebrates, vertebrates and plants based on fossil remains in amber, stone and coprolites dating from the Palaeozoic to the Holocene. The earliest parasitic nematode is a primitive plant parasite from the Devonian. Fossil invertebrate-parasitic nematodes first appeared in the Early Cretaceous, while the earliest fossil vertebrate-parasitic nematodes are from Upper Triassic coprolites. Specific examples of fossil nematode parasites over time are presented, along with views on the origin and evolution of nematodes and their hosts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Parasites, emerging disease and wildlife conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R C A; Lymbery, A J; Smith, A

    2010-08-15

    In this review some emerging issues of parasite infections in wildlife, particularly in Australia, are considered. We discuss the importance of understanding parasite biodiversity in wildlife in terms of conservation, the role of wildlife as reservoirs of parasite infection, and the role of parasites within the broader context of the ecosystem. Using a number of parasite species, the value of undertaking longitudinal surveillance in natural systems using non-invasive sampling and molecular tools to characterise infectious agents is illustrated in terms of wildlife health, parasite biodiversity and ecology.

  14. Functional characterization of malaria parasites deficient in the K(+) channel Kch2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellekvist, Peter; Mlambo, Godfree; Kumar, Nirbhay; Klaerke, Dan A

    2017-08-29

    K(+) channels are integral membrane proteins, which contribute to maintain vital parameters such as the cellular membrane potential and cell volume. Malaria parasites encode two K(+) channel homologues, Kch1 and Kch2, which are well-conserved among members of the Plasmodium genus. In the rodent malaria parasite P. berghei, the functional significance of K(+) channel homologue PbKch2 was studied using targeted gene knock-out. The knockout parasites were characterized in a mouse model in terms of growth-kinetics and infectivity in the mosquito vector. Furthermore, using a tracer-uptake technique with (86)Rb(+) as a K(+) congener, the K(+) transporting properties of the knockout parasites were assessed. Genetic disruption of Kch2 did not grossly affect the phenotype in terms of asexual replication and pathogenicity in a mouse model. In contrast to Kch1-null parasites, Kch2-null parasites were fully capable of forming oocysts in female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. (86)Rb(+) uptake in Kch2-deficient blood-stage P. berghei parasites (Kch2-null) did not differ from that of wild-type (WT) parasites. About two-third of the (86)Rb(+) uptake in WT and in Kch2-null parasites could be inhibited by K(+) channel blockers and could be inferred to the presence of functional Kch1 in Kch2 knockout parasites. Kch2 is therefore not required for transport of K(+) in P. berghei and is not essential to mosquito-stage sporogonic development of the parasite. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Oncogenic Brain Metazoan Parasite Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela N. Spurgeon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple observations suggest that certain parasitic infections can be oncogenic. Among these, neurocysticercosis is associated with increased risk for gliomas and hematologic malignancies. We report the case of a 71-year-old woman with colocalization of a metazoan parasite, possibly cysticercosis, and a WHO grade IV neuroepithelial tumor with exclusively neuronal differentiation by immunohistochemical stains (immunopositive for synaptophysin, neurofilament protein, and Neu-N and not for GFAP, vimentin, or S100. The colocalization and temporal relationship of these two entities suggest a causal relationship.

  16. Leishmania tropica experimental infection in the rat using luciferase-transfected parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Jaffe, Charles L; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Baneth, Gad

    2012-06-08

    Leishmania tropica is the causative agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in different parts of the Old World. Although it is a common cause of disease in some areas of the world, there is insufficient knowledge on the pathogenicity of this parasite in mammalian hosts and animal models. L. tropica luciferase-transfected metacyclic-stage promastigotes were inoculated into the footpad or ear of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Parasite DNA was detected by kDNA real time PCR in the blood at varying levels from 2 days to 5 weeks post infection (PI) in the absence of clinical signs. Parasite DNA was found in the spleen of all rats at the end of the study, and the parasitic load was up to 40 times higher in the spleen when compared with inoculation sites. Parasites were cultured from the spleen, and skin inoculation sites 5 weeks PI. Bioluminescent parasites were observed by in vivo imaging at one day PI, but the technique was not sufficiently sensitive to follow parasite spread after this time. This study provides new evidence for the viscerotropic spread of L. tropica in the rat and demonstrates that the rat can serve as a model for persistent visceralizing infection with this parasite.

  17. In vitro culture of Babesia bovis in a bovine serum-free culture medium supplemented with insulin, transferrin, and selenite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Martínez, C; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Figueroa Millán, J V; Acosta Viana, K Y; Gutiérrez Ruiz, E J; Álvarez Martínez, J A

    2016-11-01

    Bovine serum is an important factor for the optimal growth of Babesia bovis in vitro. This protozoan can be cultured in M-199 with Earle's salts medium (M-199) supplemented with 40% bovine serum (BS). In the present study, four media were assessed along with the control medium M-199. The effect on the proliferation of B. bovis in vitro was tested when these media were combined with insulin (Ins), transferrin (Trans) and selenite (Sel) in the absence of bovine serum. Treatment with Advanced DMEM/F12 medium (A-DMEM/F12) achieved the highest percentage of parasitized erythrocytes (PPE), reaching a maximum value of 9.59%. A-DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with a mixture of Ins (2000 mg/L), Trans (1100 mg/L), and Sel (1.34 mg/L) allowed for the adaptation and proliferation of B. bovis without bovine serum, showed a constant increase in PPE, and reached a maximum value of 9.7% during seven cycles of in vitro culture. It was concluded that continuous proliferation of B. bovis in vitro could be achieved using A-DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with Ins-Trans-Sel, without bovine serum. After adaptation for proliferation in serum-free medium, the B. bovis strain of parasites could have future use in the study of this economically important protozoan species that affects cattle.

  18. Flocculation of kaolin and lignin by bovine blood and hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymeric flocculants are used extensively for water purification, inhibition of soil erosion, and reduction in water leakage from unlined canals. Production of highly active, renewable polymeric flocculants to replace synthetic flocculants is a priority. Using suspensions of kaolin, flocculation ...

  19. Parasite meningomyelitis in cats in Uruguay Meningomielites parasitária em gatos no Uruguai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Rivero

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Two outbreaks of progressive hind limb paresis in cats (Felis catus caused by parasitic meningomyelitis in Uruguay are reported. The case studies occurred in 2008 and 2009 respectively, in the rural areas of Fray Bentos (33º 07' 40.39" S and were characterized by hindquarter paralysis. This paralysis was progressive and had a chronic progression of approximately 12 months until the death or euthanasia of the animals. Clinical symptoms started with ataxia of the hindquarters with lateral side-to-side swaying and culminated in total paralysis. Two animals were sent for necropsy in 2009. The main histopathological findings were severe myelitis in the lumbar spinal cord with perivascular cuffing and white matter necrosis, severe nonsuppurative meningitis with thrombi in subarachnoid blood vessels, and intravascular presence of multiple adult parasites. From the morphological characteristics of the parasites and location in the leptomeninges, the parasite was identified as the nematode Gurltia paralysans.São relatados dois surtos de paralisia progressiva dos membros posteriores em gatos (Felis catus, causada por meningomielite parasitária no Uruguai. Os estudos de casos ocorreram entre os anos 2008 e 2009, respectivamente, nas zonas rurais de Fray Bentos (33º 07' 40,39" S e foram caracterizados por paralisia dos membros posteriores. Esta paralisia era progressiva e tinha evolução crônica de aproximadamente 12 meses, até que os animais vinham a óbito ou eram eutanasiados. Os sintomas clínicos começaram com ataxia dos membros posteriores, com movimentos laterais, terminado em paralisia total. Em 2009, dois animais foram encaminhados para necropsia. Os achados histopatológicos foram caracterizados por severa mielite na medula espinhal lombar com manguitos perivasculares linfocitarios e necrose da substância branca, severa meningite não supurativa com trombos nos vasos sanguíneos subaracnóideos, e presença intravascular de m

  20. Investigation of bovine haemoplasmas and their association with anaemia in New Zealand cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Amj; Ha, H J; Donald, J J; Bueno, I M; van Andel, M; Thompson, J C; Tisdall, D J; Pulford, D J

    2016-01-01

    A dairy cow, from a herd in the Waikato region of New Zealand, was reported with regenerative anaemia on 12 September 2014. Testing of blood from the animal using PCR assays for Theileria orientalis produced a negative result for both Chitose and Ikeda types. Using PCR and DNA sequencing, blood from the cow was positive for Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos. Further testing of another 12 animals from the case herd, 27 days after the affected cow was first reported, showed 11 animals were positive for Candidatus M. haemobos or Mycoplasma wenyonii in the PCR. None of these cattle were clinically anaemic or positive for T. orientalis Ikeda type using PCR. A convenience sample of 47 blood samples from cattle throughout New Zealand, submitted to the Investigation and Diagnostic Centre (Ministry for Primary Industries) for surveillance testing for T. orientalis Ikeda, was selected for further testing for bovine haemoplasmas. Of these samples, 6/47 (13%) and 13/47(28%) were positive for M. wenyonii and Candidatus M. haemobos, respectively. There was no difference in the proportion of samples positive for the bovine haemaplasmas between cattle with anaemia that were negative for T. orientalis (6/20, 33%), or without anaemia or T. orientalis (10/18, 56%), or from cattle herds experiencing anaemia and infection with T. orientalis Ikeda type (3/9, 33%). Bovine haemoplasmosis. The presence of bovine haemoplasmas in blood does not establish causality for anaemia in cattle. Diagnosis of anaemia associated with haemoplasmosis would require exclusion of other causes of regenerative anaemia and an association of the agent with anaemia in affected cattle herds. The data collected in this study did not provide evidence that bovine haemoplasmas were associated with a large number of outbreaks of anaemia in cattle in New Zealand.