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Sample records for bovine blood neutrophils

  1. Effect of Isolation Techniques on Viability of Bovine Blood Neutrophils

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    P. Sláma

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of selected isolation methods on the viability of neutrophil granulocytes (neutrophils from the blood of healthy Holstein x Bohemian Red Pied crossbred heifers was evaluated. Two methods of neutrophil isolation were used: a neutrophil isolation on the basis of hypotonic erythrocyte lysis (in two variants: after the erythrocyte lysis proper, the cells were centrifuged at either 200 g or 1000 g, and b neutrophil isolation with FACS Lysing Solution as the lysing agent. The viability of the isolated neutrophils was evaluated on the basis of apoptosis and necrosis. The results obtained with flow cytometry (FCM suggest that, from the isolation techniques used, the method based on FACS Lysing Solution impaired the neutrophil viability least. After the application of this method, 5.36 ± 2.15% of neutrophils were apoptotic and 0.51 ± 0.12% were necrotic. In contrast, when the hypotonic erythrocyte lysis was used, the proportion of apoptotic neutrophils amounted to 42.14 ± 7.12% and 49.00 ± 14.70%, respectively, and 41.12 ± 5.55% and 36.91 ± 24.38% respectively of necrotic neutrophils (P < 0.01. This was also confirmed by the light microscopy. After the isolation with FASC Lysing Solution, 1.92 ± 1.74% of neutrophils were apoptotic and 1.05 ± 0.76% were necrotic, as distinct from after the hypotonic erythrocyte lysis where 9.43 ± 3.69% of neutrophils were apoptotic and 12.67 ± 4.74% of necrotic after centrifugation at 200 g, while 12.60 ± 4.35 were apoptotic and 14.96 ± 12.64% were necrotic after centrifugation at 1000 g. It follows from the above-mentioned data that hypotonic lysis is not a suitable method for the isolation of neutrophils, as the method itself markedly affects cell viability.

  2. A bovine whey protein extract can enhance innate immunity by priming normal human blood neutrophils.

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    Rusu, Daniel; Drouin, Réjean; Pouliot, Yves; Gauthier, Sylvie; Poubelle, Patrice E

    2009-02-01

    Bovine milk-derived products, in particular whey proteins, exhibit beneficial properties for human health, including the acquired immune response. However, their effects on innate immunity have received little attention. Neutrophils are key cells of innate defenses through their primary functions of chemotaxis, phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and degranulation. A whey protein extract (WPE) purified from bovine lactoserum was evaluated for its direct and indirect effects on these primary functions of normal human blood neutrophils in vitro. Although WPE had no direct effects on primary functions, a 24-h pretreatment of neutrophils with WPE was associated with a significant and dose-dependent increase of their chemotaxis, superoxide production, and degranulation in response to N-formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine, as well as of their phagocytosis of bioparticles. The pretreatment increased the surface expression of CD11b, CD16B, and CD32A receptors. The major WPE protein components beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) and alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA) were the main active fractions having an additive effect on human neutrophils that became more responsive to a subsequent stimulation. This effect on NADPH oxidase activity was associated with translocation of p47(phox) to plasma membrane. Glycomacropeptide, a peptide present in measurable amounts in WPE products, was able to enhance the individual effect of beta-LG or alpha-LA on neutrophils. The present data suggest that WPE, through beta-LG and alpha-LA, has the capacity to enhance or "prime" human neutrophil responses to a subsequent stimulation, an effect that could be associated with increased innate defenses in vivo.

  3. Flow cytometric assessment of myeloperoxidase in bovine blood neutrophils and monocytes.

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    Depreester, Elke; Meyer, Evelyne; Demeyere, Kristel; Van Eetvelde, Mieke; Hostens, Miel; Opsomer, Geert

    2017-09-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a lysosomal peroxidase enzyme mainly stored in the azurophilic granules of neutrophils playing an important role in innate immunity for first-line protection against microorganisms in many species including cattle. As such, determination of MPO has become of great interest for the diagnosis of infectious and inflammatory diseases in multiple species such as humans. In cattle, MPO determination is rarely done because methods to assess MPO in this species are limited: functional assays have been described earlier, but so far, the quantification of MPO at the single cell level has not been done yet. In the present paper, an innovative flow cytometric method to assess MPO in blood leukocytes of dairy cattle is described. A commercial anti-bovine MPO was used following density gradient separation to isolate polymorphonuclear (PMN) and mononuclear (MN) leukocytes from blood. Identification of PMN and MN, subdivided in monocytes and lymphocytes, was based on the expression of the surface markers CH138A and CD172A. The optimized protocol was subsequently evaluated on blood samples of 17 Holstein Friesian heifers. Myeloperoxidase expression was measured flow cytometrically and visualized by fluorescence microscopic imaging of sorted PMN and MN populations. We suggest this innovative method to be useful in the field for early detection of cows at higher risk for inflammatory diseases such as mastitis and metritis during the transition period. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

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    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mycoplasma bovis escapes bovine neutrophil extracellular traps.

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    Gondaira, Satoshi; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Nishi, Koji; Iwano, Hidetomo; Nagahata, Hajime

    2017-02-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a significant pathogen in bovine infections including mastitis, pneumonia, arthritis and otitis media, and is the cause of large economic losses in beef and dairy farms. During infection with M. bovis, recruited neutrophils are not sufficient to eradicate M. bovis from the infection site. The release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is one of the innate immune responses of neutrophils but the effect of M. bovis on NET formation by bovine neutrophils has not yet been clarified. The objective of our research was to examine the effect of M. bovis on NET formation and the killing activity of bovine neutrophils. We showed that NETs were not detected following stimulation of neutrophils by M. bovis alone or with Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetat (PMA). Reactive oxygen species production is essential for NET formation but the levels in neutrophils stimulated with M. bovis at multiplicity of infections of 10, 100, and 1000 were similar to those of unstimulated cells. NET formation induced by PMA stimulated neutrophils disappeared following the addition of M. bovis but this phenomenon was not observed when ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was added. M. bovis colony forming units were significantly decreased by the addition of EDTA in the presence of NETs. Our results suggested that M. bovis infection alone did not induce NETs and that M. bovis nucleases, as hypothesis-based, contributed to resistance against the killing activity of NETs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Enzymatic activities of bovine peripheral blood leukocytes and milk polymorphonuclear neutrophils during intramammary inflammation caused by lipopolysaccharide.

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    Prin-Mathieu, C; Le Roux, Y; Faure, G C; Laurent, F; Béné, M C; Moussaoui, F

    2002-07-01

    Leukocytes are recruited from peripheral blood into milk as part of the inflammatory response to mastitis. However, excessive accumulation of inflammatory cells alters the quality of milk and the proteases produced by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and macrophages may lead to mammary tissue damage. To investigate PMN recruitment and the kinetics of their intracytoplasmic enzymes in inflammation, we generated mastitis in six cows by intramammary infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Clinical signs of acute mastitis were observed in all of the cows, and normal status was resumed by 316 h. Intracytoplasmic elastase, collagenase, and cathepsin activities were measured within live cells by flow cytometry in peripheral blood leukocytes and milk PMNs before and during the inflammatory process (at 10 time points between 4 and 316 h). The proportion of immature PMNs was appreciated by CD33 surface labeling measured in flow cytometry. Leukopenia was observed in the peripheral blood 4 h postinfusion, concomitant to an increase in somatic cell counts in milk. CD33(+) PMNs were preferentially recruited from the peripheral blood to milk. Enzymatic activities were detected in PMNs, lymphocytes, and monocytes at levels depending on the cell type, sample nature, and time of collection. Milk PMNs had lower enzymatic activities than peripheral blood PMNs. This study showed that milk PMNs recruited during LPS-induced experimental mastitis have an immature phenotype and significantly lower enzymatic activities than peripheral blood PMNs. This suggests that CD33, an adhesion molecule, may be involved in the egress from blood to milk and that the enzymatic contents of PMNs are partly used during this process.

  7. Enzymatic Activities of Bovine Peripheral Blood Leukocytes and Milk Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils during Intramammary Inflammation Caused by Lipopolysaccharide

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    Prin-Mathieu, C.; Le Roux, Y.; Faure, G. C.; Laurent, F.; Béné, M. C.; Moussaoui, F.

    2002-01-01

    Leukocytes are recruited from peripheral blood into milk as part of the inflammatory response to mastitis. However, excessive accumulation of inflammatory cells alters the quality of milk and the proteases produced by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and macrophages may lead to mammary tissue damage. To investigate PMN recruitment and the kinetics of their intracytoplasmic enzymes in inflammation, we generated mastitis in six cows by intramammary infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Clinical signs of acute mastitis were observed in all of the cows, and normal status was resumed by 316 h. Intracytoplasmic elastase, collagenase, and cathepsin activities were measured within live cells by flow cytometry in peripheral blood leukocytes and milk PMNs before and during the inflammatory process (at 10 time points between 4 and 316 h). The proportion of immature PMNs was appreciated by CD33 surface labeling measured in flow cytometry. Leukopenia was observed in the peripheral blood 4 h postinfusion, concomitant to an increase in somatic cell counts in milk. CD33+ PMNs were preferentially recruited from the peripheral blood to milk. Enzymatic activities were detected in PMNs, lymphocytes, and monocytes at levels depending on the cell type, sample nature, and time of collection. Milk PMNs had lower enzymatic activities than peripheral blood PMNs. This study showed that milk PMNs recruited during LPS-induced experimental mastitis have an immature phenotype and significantly lower enzymatic activities than peripheral blood PMNs. This suggests that CD33, an adhesion molecule, may be involved in the egress from blood to milk and that the enzymatic contents of PMNs are partly used during this process. PMID:12093678

  8. Heterogeneity of Bovine Peripheral Blood Monocytes

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    Jamal Hussen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood monocytes of several species can be divided into different subpopulations with distinct phenotypic and functional properties. Herein, we aim at reviewing published work regarding the heterogeneity of the recently characterized bovine monocyte subsets. As the heterogeneity of human blood monocytes was widely studied and reviewed, this work focuses on comparing bovine monocyte subsets with their human counterparts regarding their phenotype, adhesion and migration properties, inflammatory and antimicrobial functions, and their ability to interact with neutrophilic granulocytes. In addition, the differentiation of monocyte subsets into functionally polarized macrophages is discussed. Regarding phenotype and distribution in blood, bovine monocyte subsets share similarities with their human counterparts. However, many functional differences exist between monocyte subsets from the two species. In contrast to their pro-inflammatory functions in human, bovine non-classical monocytes show the lowest phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species generation capacity, an absent ability to produce the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β after inflammasome activation, and do not have a role in the early recruitment of neutrophils into inflamed tissues. Classical and intermediate monocytes of both species also differ in their response toward major monocyte-attracting chemokines (CCL2 and CCL5 and neutrophil degranulation products (DGP in vitro. Such differences between homologous monocyte subsets also extend to the development of monocyte-derived macrophages under the influence of chemokines like CCL5 and neutrophil DGP. Whereas the latter induce the differentiation of M1-polarized macrophages in human, bovine monocyte-derived macrophages develop a mixed M1/M2 macrophage phenotype. Although only a few bovine clinical trials analyzed the correlation between changes in monocyte composition and disease, they suggest that functional differences between

  9. Bovine Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils Cast Neutrophil Extracellular Traps against the Abortive Parasite Neospora caninum

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    Villagra-Blanco, Rodolfo; Silva, Liliana M. R.; Muñoz-Caro, Tamara; Yang, Zhengtao; Li, Jianhua; Gärtner, Ulrich; Taubert, Anja; Zhang, Xichen; Hermosilla, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Neospora caninum represents a relevant apicomplexan parasite causing severe reproductive disorders in cattle worldwide. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) generation was recently described as an efficient defense mechanism of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) acting against different parasites. In vitro interactions of bovine PMN with N. caninum were analyzed at different ratios and time spans. Extracellular DNA staining was used to illustrate the typical molecules of NETs [i.e., histones (H3), neutrophil elastase (NE), myeloperoxidase (MPO), pentraxin] via antibody-based immunofluorescence analyses. Functional inhibitor treatments were applied to reveal the role of several enzymes [NADPH oxidase (NOX), NE, MPO, PAD4], ATP-dependent P2Y2 receptor, store-operated Ca++entry (SOCE), CD11b receptor, ERK1/2- and p38 MAPK-mediated signaling pathway in tachyzoite-triggered NETosis. N. caninum tachyzoites triggered NETosis in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Scanning electron microscopy analyses revealed NET structures being released by bovine PMN and entrapping tachyzoites. N. caninum-induced NET formation was found not to be NOX-, NE-, MPO-, PAD4-, ERK1/2-, and p38 MAP kinase-dependent process since inhibition of these enzymes led to a slight decrease of NET formation. CD11b was also identified as a neutrophil receptor being involved in NETosis. Furthermore, N. caninum-triggered NETosis depends on Ca++ influx as well as neutrophil metabolism since both the inhibition of SOCE and of P2Y2-mediated ATP uptake diminished NET formation. Host cell invasion assays indicated that PMN-derived NETosis hampered tachyzoites from active host cell invasion, thereby inhibiting further intracellular replication. NET formation represents an early and effective mechanism of response of the innate immune system, which might reduce initial infection rates during the acute phase of cattle neosporosis. PMID:28611772

  10. Bovine Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils Cast Neutrophil Extracellular Traps against the Abortive Parasite Neospora caninum

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    Rodolfo Villagra-Blanco

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum represents a relevant apicomplexan parasite causing severe reproductive disorders in cattle worldwide. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET generation was recently described as an efficient defense mechanism of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN acting against different parasites. In vitro interactions of bovine PMN with N. caninum were analyzed at different ratios and time spans. Extracellular DNA staining was used to illustrate the typical molecules of NETs [i.e., histones (H3, neutrophil elastase (NE, myeloperoxidase (MPO, pentraxin] via antibody-based immunofluorescence analyses. Functional inhibitor treatments were applied to reveal the role of several enzymes [NADPH oxidase (NOX, NE, MPO, PAD4], ATP-dependent P2Y2 receptor, store-operated Ca++entry (SOCE, CD11b receptor, ERK1/2- and p38 MAPK-mediated signaling pathway in tachyzoite-triggered NETosis. N. caninum tachyzoites triggered NETosis in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Scanning electron microscopy analyses revealed NET structures being released by bovine PMN and entrapping tachyzoites. N. caninum-induced NET formation was found not to be NOX-, NE-, MPO-, PAD4-, ERK1/2-, and p38 MAP kinase-dependent process since inhibition of these enzymes led to a slight decrease of NET formation. CD11b was also identified as a neutrophil receptor being involved in NETosis. Furthermore, N. caninum-triggered NETosis depends on Ca++ influx as well as neutrophil metabolism since both the inhibition of SOCE and of P2Y2-mediated ATP uptake diminished NET formation. Host cell invasion assays indicated that PMN-derived NETosis hampered tachyzoites from active host cell invasion, thereby inhibiting further intracellular replication. NET formation represents an early and effective mechanism of response of the innate immune system, which might reduce initial infection rates during the acute phase of cattle neosporosis.

  11. Morphologic observation of neutrophil diapedesis across bovine mammary gland epithelium in vitro.

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    Lin, Y; Xia, L; Turner, J D; Zhao, X

    1995-02-01

    Neutrophils are present in milk of cows as a means of suppressing invading pathogens during mastitis. However, the manner by which neutrophils traverse the secretory epithelia is still not clear: do they diapedese between epithelial cells or do they kill epithelial cells to gain entry into milk? We investigated the process of bovine neutrophil diapedesis across bovine mammary gland epithelium in vitro. The bovine mammary epithelial cell line MAC-T, grown on collagen-coated filters, formed a confluent monolayer with characteristic tight junctions, basal-apical polarity, and functional barriers to the dye trypan blue. Neutrophils added on the apical surface of the monolayer were stimulated to diapedese across the epithelium by the addition of Staphylococcus aureus (10(7) colony-forming units/ml) to the basal compartment. Light and transmission electron microscopy revealed the series of events for neutrophil transmigration: accumulation of neutrophils on the surface of epithelial monolayer; projection of pseudopods into intercellular junctions and movement of neutrophils between adjacent epithelial cells; and reapproximation of the lateral epithelial cell membranes and reformation of the apical tight junctions after neutrophils crossed the epithelium. Morphologically, epithelial cell damage caused by neutrophil diapedesis was not evident. This in vitro model provides a two-dimensional epithelial sheet by which neutrophil diapedesis can be qualitatively studied under defined conditions. Results of the study suggest a major mode by which bovine neutrophils diapedese across the alveolar epithelia into milk during mastitis.

  12. Arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acid metabolism in bovine neutrophils and platelets: effect of calcium ionophore

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    Taylor, S.M.; Laegreid, W.W.; Heidel, J.R.; Straub, K.M.; Liggitt, H.D.; Silflow, R.M.; Breeze, R.G.; Leid, R.W.

    1987-09-01

    Substitution of dietary fatty acids has potential for altering the inflammatory response. The purpose of the present study was to define the metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) secreted by bovine peripheral blood neutrophils and platelets. High performance liquid chromatography was used to characterize cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase metabolites secreted in response to the calcium ionophore A23187. Cells were prelabelled with /sup 3/H-AA or /sup 3/H-EPA prior to challenge with the calcium ionophore. Bovine neutrophils secreted leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) as the major metabolites of AA, as well as the corresponding leukotriene B5 (LTB5) and 5-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (5-HEPE) metabolites of EPA. Peptidoleukotrienes derived from /sup 3/H-AA or /sup 3/H-EPA were not detected under these conditions. The major tritiated metabolites secreted from bovine platelets were: thromboxane A2, measured as the stable metabolite thromboxane B2 (TXB2); hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid (HHT) and 12-HETE derived from /sup 3/H-AA; and the omega-3 analogs TXB3 and 12-HEPE, derived from /sup 3/H-EPA. Preferred substrate specificities existed amongst the AA- and EPA-derived metabolites for the intermediary enzymes involved in the arachidonic acid cascade. These findings support the hypothesis that substitution of membrane-bound AA by EPA has potential for modulation of the host inflammatory response following cellular phospholipid mobilization.

  13. Differential neutrophil gene expression in early bovine pregnancy

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    Kizaki Keiichiro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In food production animals, especially cattle, the diagnosis of gestation is important because the timing of gestation directly affects the running of farms. Various methods have been used to detect gestation, but none of them are ideal because of problems with the timing of detection or the accuracy, simplicity, or cost of the method. A new method for detecting gestation, which involves assessing interferon-tau (IFNT-stimulated gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL, was recently proposed. PBL fractionation methods were used to examine whether the expression profiles of various PBL populations could be used as reliable diagnostic markers of bovine gestation. Methods PBL were collected on days 0 (just before artificial insemination, 7, 14, 17, 21, and 28 of gestation. The gene expression levels of the PBL were assessed with microarray analysis and/or quantitative real-time reverse transcription (q PCR. PBL fractions were collected by flow cytometry or density gradient cell separation using Histopaque 1083 or Ficoll-Conray solutions. The expression levels of four IFNT-stimulated genes, interferon-stimulated protein 15 kDa (ISG15, myxovirus-resistance (MX 1 and 2, and 2′-5′-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS1, were then analyzed in each fraction through day 28 of gestation using qPCR. Results Microarray analysis detected 72 and 28 genes in whole PBL that were significantly higher on days 14 and 21 of gestation, respectively, than on day 0. The upregulated genes included IFNT-stimulated genes. The expression levels of these genes increased with the progression of gestation until day 21. In flow cytometry experiments, on day 14 the expression levels of all of the genes were significantly higher in the granulocyte fraction than in the other fractions. Their expression gradually decreased through day 28 of gestation. Strong correlations were observed between the expression levels of the four genes in the granulocyte

  14. Differential neutrophil gene expression in early bovine pregnancy.

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    Kizaki, Keiichiro; Shichijo-Kizaki, Ayumi; Furusawa, Tadashi; Takahashi, Toru; Hosoe, Misa; Hashizume, Kazuyoshi

    2013-02-05

    In food production animals, especially cattle, the diagnosis of gestation is important because the timing of gestation directly affects the running of farms. Various methods have been used to detect gestation, but none of them are ideal because of problems with the timing of detection or the accuracy, simplicity, or cost of the method. A new method for detecting gestation, which involves assessing interferon-tau (IFNT)-stimulated gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), was recently proposed. PBL fractionation methods were used to examine whether the expression profiles of various PBL populations could be used as reliable diagnostic markers of bovine gestation. PBL were collected on days 0 (just before artificial insemination), 7, 14, 17, 21, and 28 of gestation. The gene expression levels of the PBL were assessed with microarray analysis and/or quantitative real-time reverse transcription (q) PCR. PBL fractions were collected by flow cytometry or density gradient cell separation using Histopaque 1083 or Ficoll-Conray solutions. The expression levels of four IFNT-stimulated genes, interferon-stimulated protein 15 kDa (ISG15), myxovirus-resistance (MX) 1 and 2, and 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS1), were then analyzed in each fraction through day 28 of gestation using qPCR. Microarray analysis detected 72 and 28 genes in whole PBL that were significantly higher on days 14 and 21 of gestation, respectively, than on day 0. The upregulated genes included IFNT-stimulated genes. The expression levels of these genes increased with the progression of gestation until day 21. In flow cytometry experiments, on day 14 the expression levels of all of the genes were significantly higher in the granulocyte fraction than in the other fractions. Their expression gradually decreased through day 28 of gestation. Strong correlations were observed between the expression levels of the four genes in the granulocyte fractions obtained with flow cytometry and with density

  15. Human neutrophil kinetics: modeling of stable isotope labeling data supports short blood neutrophil half-lives.

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    Lahoz-Beneytez, Julio; Elemans, Marjet; Zhang, Yan; Ahmed, Raya; Salam, Arafa; Block, Michael; Niederalt, Christoph; Asquith, Becca; Macallan, Derek

    2016-06-30

    Human neutrophils have traditionally been thought to have a short half-life in blood; estimates vary from 4 to 18 hours. This dogma was recently challenged by stable isotope labeling studies with heavy water, which yielded estimates in excess of 3 days. To investigate this disparity, we generated new stable isotope labeling data in healthy adult subjects using both heavy water (n = 4) and deuterium-labeled glucose (n = 9), a compound with more rapid labeling kinetics. To interpret results, we developed a novel mechanistic model and applied it to previously published (n = 5) and newly generated data. We initially constrained the ratio of the blood neutrophil pool to the marrow precursor pool (ratio = 0.26; from published values). Analysis of heavy water data sets yielded turnover rates consistent with a short blood half-life, but parameters, particularly marrow transit time, were poorly defined. Analysis of glucose-labeling data yielded more precise estimates of half-life (0.79 ± 0.25 days; 19 hours) and marrow transit time (5.80 ± 0.42 days). Substitution of this marrow transit time in the heavy water analysis gave a better-defined blood half-life of 0.77 ± 0.14 days (18.5 hours), close to glucose-derived values. Allowing the ratio of blood neutrophils to mitotic neutrophil precursors (R) to vary yielded a best-fit value of 0.19. Reanalysis of the previously published model and data also revealed the origin of their long estimates for neutrophil half-life: an implicit assumption that R is very large, which is physiologically untenable. We conclude that stable isotope labeling in healthy humans is consistent with a blood neutrophil half-life of less than 1 day. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  16. DNA damage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and neutrophils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the apoptotic process in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) in dairy cattle during the transition period. Blood samples were collected from 4 dairy cattle at 3 weeks before the expected parturition (wk -3), parturition (wk 0) ...

  17. A monoclonal-antibody-defined adhesion-related antigen on bovine neutrophils is required for neutrophil aggregation.

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    Bochsler, P N; Doré, M; Neilsen, N R; Slauson, D O

    1990-10-01

    Surface adhesion molecules present on human leukocytes are known to regulate certain adhesion-related events, such as adhesion to endothelium, extravasation, and aggregation. We have used a mouse anti-human monoclonal antibody designated 60.3 (MAb 60.3) and indirect immunofluorescence technique to identify an antigen on bovine neutrophils (PMNs). MAb 60.3 bound to resting and stimulated bovine PMN in a surface-oriented pattern. Immunofluorescence flow cytometric analysis indicated that warming the PMNs from 4 degrees C to 37 degrees C slightly increased (13.9%) expression of the antigen recognized by MAb 60.3. Zymosan-activated serum (ZAS, 10%) increased antigen expression by 12.4% over those PMNs in buffer alone, and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA; 100 ng/ml) by 65.6%. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 micrograms/ml) from E. coli 0111:B4 did not enhance antigen expression. The functional nature of this antigen was demonstrated by use of MAb 60.3 and PMN aggregation. Preincubation of bovine PMN with MAb 60.3 for 10 min resulted in nearly complete inhibition of PMN-PMN aggregation upon subsequent stimulation with PMA (100 ng/ml); preincubation with a control antibody did not inhibit aggregation. These results indicate that bovine PMNs possess surface molecule(s) that may function in adhesion-related events, and surface expression may be enhanced by PMN stimulation.

  18. Human neutrophil kinetics: modeling of stable isotope labeling data supports short blood neutrophil half-lives

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    Lahoz-Beneytez, J; Elemans, M; Zhang, Y.; R. Ahmed; Salam, A.; Block, M.; Niederalt, C; Asquith, B; Macallan, D

    2016-01-01

    Human neutrophils have traditionally been thought to have a short half-life in blood; estimates vary from 4-18 hours. This dogma was recently challenged by stable isotope labeling studies with heavy water which yielded estimates in excess of 3 days. To investigate this disparity we generated new stable isotope labeling data in healthy adult subjects using both heavy water (n=4) and deuterium-labeled glucose (n=9), a compound with more rapid labeling kinetics. To interpret results we developed...

  19. Interaction of Bovine Peripheral Blood Polymorphonuclear Cells and Leptospira Species; Innate Responses in the Natural Bovine Reservoir Host

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    Wilson-Welder, Jennifer H.; Frank, Ami T.; Hornsby, Richard L.; Olsen, Steven C.; Alt, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Cattle are the reservoir hosts of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, and can also be reservoir hosts of other Leptospira species such as L. kirschneri, and Leptospira interrogans. As a reservoir host, cattle shed Leptospira, infecting other animals, including humans. Previous studies with human and murine neutrophils have shown activation of neutrophil extracellular trap or NET formation, and upregulation of inflammatory mediators by neutrophils in the presence of Leptospira. Humans, companion animals and most widely studied models of Leptospirosis are of acute infection, hallmarked by systemic inflammatory response, neutrophilia, and septicemia. In contrast, cattle exhibit chronic infection with few outward clinical signs aside from reproductive failure. Taking into consideration that there is host species variation in innate immunity, especially in pathogen recognition and response, the interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) and several Leptospira strains was evaluated. Studies including bovine-adapted strains, human pathogen strains, a saprophyte and inactivated organisms. Incubation of PMNs with Leptospira did induce slight activation of neutrophil NETs, greater than unstimulated cells but less than the quantity from E. coli P4 stimulated PMNs. Very low but significant from non-stimulated, levels of reactive oxygen peroxides were produced in the presence of all Leptospira strains and E. coli P4. Similarly, significant levels of reactive nitrogen intermediaries (NO2) was produced from PMNs when incubated with the Leptospira strains and greater quantities in the presence of E. coli P4. PMNs incubated with Leptospira induced RNA transcripts of IL-1β, MIP-1α, and TNF-α, with greater amounts induced by live organisms when compared to heat-inactivated leptospires. Transcript for inflammatory cytokine IL-8 was also induced, at similar levels regardless of Leptospira strain or viability. However, incubation of Leptospira strains

  20. Interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells and Leptospira species; innate responses in the natural bovine reservoir host.

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    Jennifer H Wilson-Welder

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cattle are the reservoir hosts of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, and can also be reservoir hosts of other Leptospira species such as L. kirschneri, and L. interrogans. As a reservoir host, cattle shed Leptospira, infecting other animals, including humans. Previous studies with human and murine neutrophils have shown activation of neutrophil extracellular trap or NET formation, and upregulation of inflammatory mediators by neutrophils in the presence of Leptospira. Humans, companion animals and most widely studied models of Leptospirosis are of acute infection, hallmarked by systemic inflammatory response, neutrophilia and septicemia. In contrast, cattle exhibit chronic infection with few outward clinical signs aside from reproductive failure. Taking into consideration that there is host species variation in innate immunity, especially in pathogen recognition and response, the interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs and several Leptospira strains was evaluated. Studies including bovine-adapted strains, human pathogen strains, a saprophyte and inactivated organisms. Incubation of PMNs with Leptospira did induce slight activation of neutrophil NETs, greater than unstimulated cells but less than the quantity from E. coli P4 stimulated PMNs. Very low but significant from non-stimulated, levels of reactive oxygen peroxides were produced in the presence of all Leptospira strains and E. coli P4. Similarly, significant levels of reactive nitrogen intermediaries (NO2 was produced from PMNs when incubated with the Leptospira strains and greater quantities in the presence of E. coli P4. PMNs incubated with Leptospira induced RNA transcripts of IL-1β, MIP-1α, and TNF-α, with greater amounts induced by live organisms when compared to heat-inactivated leptospires. Transcript for inflammatory cytokine IL-8 was also induced, at similar levels regardless of Leptospira strain or viability. However, incubation of

  1. A bovine whey protein extract stimulates human neutrophils to generate bioactive IL-1Ra through a NF-kappaB- and MAPK-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Daniel; Drouin, Réjean; Pouliot, Yves; Gauthier, Sylvie; Poubelle, Patrice E

    2010-02-01

    Innate immunity depends on the efficiency of neutrophils to be activated rapidly to restore homeostasis. It can benefit from priming agents that enhance neutrophil capacity to respond more efficiently to a subsequent stimulation. Among natural products, a bovine whey protein extract (WPE) has been shown to prime normal human blood neutrophils by enhancing their chemotaxis, phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and degranulation. These leukocytes are also an important source of cytokines, some of which have antiinflammatory functions. We investigated the role of WPE, as well as its mechanisms of action, on the production of interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) by neutrophils in vitro. WPE dose-dependently stimulated de novo synthesis and release of IL-1Ra by normal human blood neutrophils. Among the major proteins present in WPE, beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) and alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA) were the only active components. They had additive effects that exactly reproduced those of WPE. Similarly to WPE, they also stimulated the accumulation of IL-1beta, IL-8, IL-6, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. However, neutrophils incubated with WPE, beta-LG, and alpha-LA produced IL-1Ra in excess of IL-1beta and the ratio IL-1Ra:IL-1beta increased linearly. The amounts of IL-1Ra stimulated by WPE or beta-LG + alpha-LA significantly reduced the IL-1 activity in EL4 cells. Inhibitors of p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and nuclear factor-kappaB cascades reduced neutrophil production of IL-1Ra. Our data suggest that WPE, through beta-LG + alpha-LA, has immunomodulatory properties and the potential to increase host defenses.

  2. Fibroblast growth factor 23 weakens chemotaxis of human blood neutrophils in microfluidic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ke; Peretz-Soroka, Hagit; Wu, Jiandong; Zhu, Ling; Cui, Xueling; Zhang, Michael; Rigatto, Claudio; Liu, Yong; Lin, Francis

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophil trafficking in tissues critically regulates the body?s immune response. Neutrophil migration can either play a protective role in host defense or cause health problems. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a known biomarker for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and was recently shown to impair neutrophil arrest on endothelium and transendothelial migration. In the present study, we further examined the effect of FGF23 on human blood neutrophil chemotaxis using two new microfluidic dev...

  3. The Effects of Exercise on Judoists’ Circulating Blood Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Type, intensity and duration of exercises exert pivotal effects on athletes’ immune system and probably athletes’ susceptibility to upper respiratory tract infections. In this study we examined the effects of one session of moderate-intensity exercise on male judoists’ circulating blood neutrophil counts (BNC and respiratory burst, and self-reported upper respiratory clinical infections 24 hours after the exercise and during the sport seasons. Methods: Ten male judoists after obtaining informed consent were included in the study. The athletes took part in a session of moderate-intensity exercise (60 minutes running on a treadmill at 60% of maximum heart rate. Blood samples were drawn at rest immediately after the exercise. Blood neutrophil count and percentage of Phorbol Myristate Acetate (PMA stimulated neutrophils in whole blood were assessed [as a marker of oxidative burst (OB quality]. Athletes were asked about any signs of upper respiratory infections 24 hours after the exercise and during sport seasons. Paired-t test was used for statistical analysis and statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: BNC were in normal range at rest, and meaningfully increased immediately after the exercise (p<0.05. At rest, the OB activity was in normal range, and increased immediately after the exercise (not significant. During 24 hours after the exercise, athletes showed no signs of upper respiratory system infections. Also they mentioned no history of increased susceptibility of upper respiratory infections during sport seasons. Conclusion: Continuous judo exercises have no negative effects on BNC and OB activity. This finding is in accordance with the absence of self-reported upper respiratory infections in judoists during sport seasons. Significant increase in BNC after a session of exercise was a

  4. The effects of quercetin on microRNA and inflammatory gene expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated bovine neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phongsakorn Chuammitri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate gene expression of microRNA (miRNA milieus (MIRLET7E, MIR17, MIR24-2, MIR146A, and MIR181C, inflammatory cytokine genes (interleukin 1β [IL1B], IL6, CXCL8, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF], and the pathogen receptor toll-like receptor (TLR4 in bovine neutrophils under quercetin supplementation. Materials and Methods: Isolated bovine neutrophils were incubated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide under quercetin treatment or left untreated. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the expression of the miRNAs and messenger RNA (mRNA transcripts in neutrophils. Results: Quercetin-treated neutrophils exhibited a remarkable suppression in MIR24-2, MIR146A, and MIR181C expression. Similarly, mRNA expression of IL1B, IL6, CXCL8, TLR4, and TNF genes noticeably declined in the quercetin group. Many proinflammatory genes (IL1B, IL6, and CXCL8 and the pathogen receptor TLR4 had a negative correlation with MIR146A and MIR181C as revealed by Pearson correlation. Conclusion: Interaction between cognate mRNAs and miRNAs under quercetin supplementation can be summarized as a positive or negative correlation. This finding may help understand the effects of quercetin either on miRNA or gene expression during inflammation, especially as a potentially applicable indicator in bovine mastitis.

  5. Rheological behaviors of bovine blood forming artificial rouleaux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaibara, M

    1983-01-01

    A purpose of the present study is to make an artificial rouleau of bovine red blood cells which is not capable of rouleau formation under physiological condition. Rheological behaviors of bovine blood forming artificial rouleaux were examined. The modification of cell surface by enzyme trypsin induced rouleau formation, whereas the modification of cell surface by neuraminidase did not cause any aggregate formation. The drastic elevation of the fibrinogen content in bovine red blood cells suspension also brought about the formation of rouleau. The value of dynamic rigidity modulus G' of bovine red blood cells in saline solution containing high concentration of fibrinogen is somewhat smaller than that of trypsin treated bovine red blood cells in plasma. The value of G' of trypsin treated bovine red blood cells in plasma first increased to a maximum value and then decreased with the time. It is supposed that the removal of macro-molecules from the cell surface facilitates the mutual approach of cells and causes the formation of rouleau which seems to be the same as that of human and horse bloods.

  6. Blood Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio as a Predictor of Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Hongmei; Du, Huanmin; Liu, Li; Shi, Hongbin; Wang, Chongjin; Xia, Yang; Guo, Xiaoyan; Li, Chunlei; Bao, Xue; Su, Qian; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Zhao, Honglin; Song, Kun; Niu, Kaijun

    2015-11-01

    Hypertension is a significant global public health challenge. Low-grade inflammation is known to facilitate the development of essential hypertension and target-organ hypertensive damage. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a simple and reliable indicator of inflammation that may also be useful in the prediction of hypertension. Participants were recruited from Tianjin Medical University's General Hospital-Health Management Centre. A total of 28,850 initially hypertension-free subjects were followed from 2007 to 2013. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess relationships between NLR categories and incidence of hypertension. During the ~6-year follow-up period (median duration of follow-up (interquartile range): 2.63 (2.58-2.68)), 1,824 subjects developed hypertension. The hazard ratios of hypertension incidence were evaluated in increasing NLR quintiles. Compared with participants with the lowest NLR levels, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of hypertension were related to increasing NLR quintiles and were as follows: 1.08 (0.92, 1.26), 0.97 (0.83, 1.14), 1.10 (0.94, 1.28), and 1.23 (1.06, 1.43), respectively (P for trend blood cell and neutrophil counts, but not lymphocyte counts. The study is the first to show the elevated NLR levels significantly correlate with an increased risk of developing hypertension. This result may be useful in elucidating the mechanism underlying the development of hypertension. New therapeutic approaches aimed at inflammation might be proposed to control hypertension and hypertensive damage. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Purification of the receptor for the N-acetyl-D-glucosamine specific adhesin of Mannheimia haemolytica from bovine neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Mora, Alfonso; Suárez-Güemes, Francisco; Trigo, Francisco; Gorocica, Patricia; Solórzano, Carlos; Slomianny, Marie-Christine; Agundis, Concepción; Pereyra, M Ali; Zenteno, Edgar

    2007-10-01

    The GlcNAc-specific adhesin from Mannheimia haemolytica (MhA) has been shown to participate in pathogenicity of mannheimiosis due to its capacity to adhere to tracheal epithelial cells and activate the oxidative burst of bovine neutrophils. In this work, we purified the MhA receptor from bovine neutrophils (MhAr) by affinity chromatography on MhA-Sepharose. The MhAr, which corresponded to approximately 2% of the protein from cell lysate, is a glycoprotein mainly composed of Glu, Ala, Ser, Gly, and Asp, without cysteine. The glycan portion, which corresponds to 20% by weight, is composed of GalNAc, GlcNAc, Man, Gal, and NeuAc. The receptor is a 165-kDa glycoprotein, as determined by molecular sieve chromatography under native conditions; SDS-PAGE analysis shows a heterodimer of 83 and 80 kDa subunits. This work suggests that the GlcNAc-containing receptor plays a relevant role by activating bovine neutrophils through non-opsonic mechanisms.

  8. Cathepsin G-dependent modulation of platelet thrombus formation in vivo by blood neutrophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauder Faraday

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are consistently associated with arterial thrombotic morbidity in human clinical studies but the causal basis for this association is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that neutrophils modulate platelet activation and thrombus formation in vivo in a cathepsin G-dependent manner. Neutrophils enhanced aggregation of human platelets in vitro in dose-dependent fashion and this effect was diminished by pharmacologic inhibition of cathepsin G activity and knockdown of cathepsin G expression. Tail bleeding time in the mouse was prolonged by a cathepsin G inhibitor and in cathepsin G knockout mice, and formation of neutrophil-platelet conjugates in blood that was shed from transected tails was reduced in the absence of cathepsin G. Bleeding time was highly correlated with blood neutrophil count in wildtype but not cathepsin G deficient mice. In the presence of elevated blood neutrophil counts, the anti-thrombotic effect of cathepsin G inhibition was greater than that of aspirin and additive to it when administered in combination. Both pharmacologic inhibition of cathepsin G and its congenital absence prolonged the time for platelet thrombus to form in ferric chloride-injured mouse mesenteric arterioles. In a vaso-occlusive model of ischemic stroke, inhibition of cathepsin G and its congenital absence improved cerebral blood flow, reduced histologic brain injury, and improved neurobehavioral outcome. These experiments demonstrate that neutrophil cathepsin G is a physiologic modulator of platelet thrombus formation in vivo and has potential as a target for novel anti-thrombotic therapies.

  9. Leukotriene B4 production by blood neutrophils in allergic rhinitis--effects of cetirizine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheria-Sammari, S; Aloui, R; Gormand, F; Chabannes, B; Gallet, H; Grosclaude, M; Melac, M; Rihoux, J P; Perrin-Fayolle, M; Lagarde, M

    1995-08-01

    Mucosal inflammatory processes in late phase of allergic diseases involve cytokine production, cell adhesion molecule overexpression and release of inflammatory mediators with chemotactic activity, such as leukotriene B4 (LTB4). We had previously observed increased production of LTB4 by neutrophils in patients with allergic rhinitis and discussed the role of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) priming. Some antihistaminic compounds were shown to diminish the production of leukotrienes by neutrophils. In a first step, we evaluated in ex vivo and in vitro studies, the effects of cetirizine on LTB4 production by blood neutrophils from allergic and healthy subjects. In a second step, we studied the in vitro effect of cetirizine on LTB4 production by neutrophils from healthy subjects during GM-CSF priming of these cells. Neutrophils from both populations were purified from venous blood and LTB4 production was measured using high performance liquid cromatography (HPLC) method. In ex vivo studies, cetirizine treatment induced a decreased LTB4 production by neutrophils in allergic rhinitis. This effect of decreased LTB4 production was reproduced in vitro with 10(-8)-10(-6)M cetirizine. Nevertheless, this anti-H1 compound had no effect on neutrophil priming with GM-CSF. As LTB4 is an important chemotactic factor, Cetirizine could act on inflammatory cell recruitment by inhibiting LTB4 production by neutrophils.

  10. FEATURES NEUTROPHIL CHEMILUMINESCENCE OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD IN ONCOUROLOGICAL PATIENTS IN THE DISEASE DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kurtasova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Objectives – the study of indicators and luminol- lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence of peripheral blood neutrophils in patients with renal cell carcinoma and bladder cancer prior to the surgery and 10 days after surgery. Held for observation of renal cell carcinoma and bladder cancer patients prior to the (n = 60 and 10 days after surgery (n = 46, aged 45-55 years. The control group consisted of 56 healthy blood donors. Luminol- and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence of blood neutrophils estimated De Sole et al. (1983.In patients with renal cell carcinoma and bladder cancer in blood neutrophils showed a change of the system of production of reactive oxygen species in the course of the disease. The observed changes depend on the localization of the tumor process. In patients with renal cell carcinoma changes mainly affect the primary production of reactive oxygen species in patients with bladder cancer early stages of oxidative metabolism and secondary reactive oxygen species. Restoring compensatory metabolic capacity of blood neutrophils in the postoperative period will occur in patients with bladder cancer.The findings clarify the features of the chemiluminescence response of peripheral blood neutrophils from oncourological patients that should probably be used in the development of immune rehabilitation programs in this category of patients in the postoperative period.

  11. Neutrophil dynamics in the blood and milk of crossbred cows naturally infected with Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip K. Swain

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was designed to evaluate the neutrophil dynamics in terms of the functional competence during subclinical mastitis (SCM and clinical mastitis (CM. Materials and Methods: A total of 146 Karan fries cows were screened and were divided into three groups as control (n=12, SCM, n=12 and CM, n=12 groups on the basis of California mastitis test scoring, bacteriological evaluation, gross and morphological changes in milk and by counting milk somatic cell count (SCC. Both blood and milk polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs were isolated in the study. Phagocytic activity (PA was studied by spectrophotometrically; neutrophil extracelluar traps (NETs were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM; CD44 was quantified by flow cytometry and apoptosis was studied by fluorescent microscopy. Results: Significantly (p<0.05 higher SCC, PA was found in milk of CM cows as compared to SCM and control cows. Significantly lower (p<0.05 apoptosis was observed in PMNs isolated from both blood and milk of CM group of cows when compared to control and SCM group. The milk neutrophils of CM group of cows formed NETs as evidenced from the SEM images. Surface expression of CD44 revealed a significantly (p<0.05 lower expression in milk neutrophils of CM group of cows when compared to SCM and control group of cows. Conclusion: The study indicated a positive correlation between delayed neutrophil apoptosis, persistent staying of neutrophils at the site of infection along with formation of NETs as the strategies to fight against the pathogens in the udder during Staphylococcal mastitis. The study forms a strong base for future molecular research in terms of neutrophil recruitment and neutrophil removal from the site of infection.

  12. Neutrophils Compromise Retinal Pigment Epithelial Barrier Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiehao Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that neutrophils and their secreted factors mediate breakdown of the integrity of the outer blood-retina-barrier by degrading the apical tight junctions of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. The effect of activated neutrophils or neutrophil cell lysate on apparent permeability of bovine RPE-Choroid explants was evaluated by measuring [H] mannitol flux in a modified Ussing chamber. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP- 9 in murine peritoneal neutrophils, and the effects of neutrophils on RPE tight-junction protein expression were assessed by confocal microscopy and western blot. Our results revealed that basolateral incubation of explants with neutrophils decreased occludin and ZO-1 expression at 1 and 3 hours and increased the permeability of bovine RPE-Choroid explants by >3-fold (P<.05. Similarly, basolateral incubation of explants with neutrophil lysate decreased ZO-1 expression at 1 and 3 hours (P<.05 and increased permeability of explants by 75%. Further, we found that neutrophils prominently express MMP-9 and that incubation of explants with neutrophils in the presence of anti-MMP-9 antibody inhibited the increase in permeability. These data suggest that neutrophil-derived MMP-9 may play an important role in disrupting the integrity of the outer blood-retina barrier.

  13. High glucose impairs superoxide production from isolated blood neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Nielsen, S E; Rask-Madsen, J

    2003-01-01

    Superoxide (O(2)(-)), a key antimicrobial agent in phagocytes, is produced by the activity of NADPH oxidase. High glucose concentrations may, however, impair the production of O(2)(-) through inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), which catalyzes the formation of NADPH. This study...... measured the acute effects of high glucose or the G6PD inhibitor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on the production of O(2)(-) from isolated human neutrophils....

  14. [Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in complete blood count as a mortality predictor in breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimica, Ximena; Acevedo, Francisco; Oddo, David; Ibáñez, Carolina; Medina, Lidia; Kalergis, Alexis; Camus, Mauricio; Sánchez, César

    2016-06-01

    The white blood cell count is one of the most sensitive markers associated with inflammation. The neutrophil/lymphocyte count ratio may be an independent factor for breast cancer mortality. To assess the predictive value of the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio for mortality in breast cancer. Review of the database of a cancer center of a University hospital. Patients with infiltrating breast cancer treated between 1997 and 2012 were selected. The pathology type and lymph node involvement were obtained from the pathology report. The expression of estrogen, progesterone and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) was determined by immunohistochemistry or in situ fluorescent hybridization (FISH). The absolute peripheral neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were obtained from a complete blood count obtained at least three months before treatment. Patients were followed for a median of 61 months (range 1-171). From 323 eligible patients, after excluding those in stage IV and those without an available complete blood count, 131 patients were analyzed (81 with negative receptors and 117 HER2 enriched). The neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio was similar in both types of tumors (2.1 and 1.91 respectively). Twenty two patients died during follow-up. Surviving patients with HER2 enriched tumors had a lower neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio than those who died (1.79 and 3.21 respectively, p < 0.01). In a multivariate analysis, including age, tumor stage and lymph node involvement as confounding factors, the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio was still significantly associated with a risk of death with a hazard ratio of 2.56. A high neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in the complete blood count can be a predictor of death in breast cancer.

  15. Bovine Staphylococcus aureus secretes the leukocidin LukMF′ to kill migrating neutrophils through CCR1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, M.; Koymans, K.J.; Heesterbeek, D.A.C.; Aerts, P.C.; Rutten, V.P.M.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/092848028; de Haas, C.J.C.; van Kessel, K.P.M.; Koets, A.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/194306992; Nijland, R; van Strijp, J.A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Although Staphylococcus aureus is best known for infecting humans, bovine-specific strains are a major cause of mastitis in dairy cattle. The bicomponent leukocidin LukMF′, exclusively harbored by S. aureus of ruminant origin, is a virulence factor associated with bovine infections. In this study,

  16. Comparative Efficiency and Impact on the Activity of Blood Neutrophils Isolated by Percoll, Ficoll and Spontaneous Sedimentation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Tainá; Forte, Wilma C N

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the role of cells in physiological and pathological processes generally require isolation of some populations, such as neutrophils. In the literature, several methods used for isolating neutrophils are described; however, there is no consensus on the best technique to be used in cell functional studies. The present study compares the efficiency and impact on the chemotactic and phagocytic activity of neutrophils isolated from blood by three different methods: Percoll and Ficoll density centrifugation gradients and spontaneous sedimentation technique. The neutrophil chemotaxis, stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), autologous serum or homologous serum, was determined by using Boyden chambers. The phagocytic capacity was assessed by ingestion of zimosan particles, and digestion phase was analyzed by nitroblue tetrazolium test (NBT). The results obtained from neutrophil isolation by Percoll and Ficoll density gradients, as compared to spontaneous sedimentation technique, showed similar degrees of cell yields and higher purity; however, these methods affected neutrophil responsiveness, accompanied by elevated chemotaxis and reduced chemotactic capacity to respond to subsequent stimulation. Neutrophil isolation by spontaneous sedimentation, in contrast, did not affect cellular activity and resulted in cell preparation with high number of neutrophils. Although neutrophil phagocytosis results were similar between the different methods, digestion phase of phagocytosis was significantly enhanced after LPS-stimulation, only in the neutrophils isolated by spontaneous sedimentation technique. In conclusion, the present study shows that isolation of blood neutrophils by the spontaneous sedimentation technique is appropriate for the assessment of cellular activity, since it neither primes or activates the neutrophils nor does it affect their functional responsiveness.

  17. Bovine papillomavirus DNA in milk, blood, urine, semen, and spermatozoa of bovine papillomavirus-infected animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, C L; Almeida, M E; Vicari, C F; Carvalho, C; Yaguiu, A; Freitas, A C; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2009-01-01

    Papillomavirus infection in bovines is associated with cutaneous papillomatosis on the hide, udders and other epithelial tissues, as well as in oral respiratory, alimentary and urinary tract mucosa. Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is also considered the etiological agent of esophageal tumors and the malignant bladder tumors that characterize the clinical condition associated with chronic enzootic hematuria. After infective viral DNA was found in cattle blood and BPV1, 2 and 4 DNA in cattle reproductive and embryonic tissues, we looked for and found BPV DNA in blood, milk, urine, seminal fluid, and spermatozoa of BPV-infected animals. Peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures from BPV-infected animals had high rates of chromosome aberrations, including radial rearrangements that signal oncogenic potential and viral interaction with telomeric regions. The finding of BPV DNA in body fluids and tissues other than the epithelium demonstrates co-infection of other tissues or cell types by papillomavirus and shows the potential role of lymphocytes, seminal fluid and spermatozoa in BPV transmission. Our findings reinforce a peremptory need for prophylactic and therapeutic instruments to curtail this disease in bovine livestock.

  18. The influence of bovine neutrophils on in vitro phagocytosis and killing of Staphylococcus aureus in heifers supplemented with selenium and vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalong Wachirapakorn

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was performed to determine the influence of bovine nutrophils on in vitro phagocytosis and killing of Staphylococcus aureus after selenium (Se, selenium yeast and vitamin E (vit E wassupplemented in heifers. Twelve healthycrossbred 75% Holstein-Friesian x Sahiwal heifers were divided into 4 groups in a 2x2 factorial arrangement in CRD. Heifers were supplemented organic selenium (seleniumyeast and vitamin E powder. The treatments were as follows; treatment 1 3 mg Se 2,000 IU vit E /hd/d (3Se2E, treatment 2 3 mg Se 4,000 IUvit E/hd/d (3Se 4E, treatment 3 6 mg Se 2,000 IU vit E/hd/d (6Se2E,and treatment 4 6 mg Se 4,000 IU vit E/hd/d (6Se 4E. The experiment comprised 3 periods: pre-supplementation (8 days, supplementation (8 days and post-supplementation (8 days periods. All heiferswere offered concentrate (15% CP at 4 kg/hd/d and rice straw hay ad libitum. Blood neutrophils were isolated from each heifer. Phagocytosis was determined by direct ingested count and killing of S. aureus byNBT reducting test. Phagocytosis and killing of S. aureus had a greater non-specific immune response during the supplementation period than in the pre-supplementation period in all treatments (P<0.05. Supplementationof 3Se4E resulted in a greater number of white blood cells (54,900 cells/cu.mm and neutrophils (11,398 cells/cu.mm. and improved phagocytosis (85% and killing of S. aureus (47% as compared to the pre-supplementation period.

  19. Determining bovine viral diarrhea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis infections in dairy cattle using precolostral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillargeon, Paul; Arango-Sabogal, Juan C; Wellemans, Vincent; Fecteau, Gilles

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if precolostral blood samples are useful to detect apparent fetal infections with bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) viruses. A convenience sample of 317 sera from 50 Canadian herds was used in the study. Antibody level was measured using 2 commercial IBR and BVD ELISA kits. Precolostral status of sera was confirmed on 304 samples using serum gamma-glutamyl transferase activity. Postcolostral serum samples yielded a higher proportion of positive results to IBR (OR = 86; 95% CI: 17.8 to 415.7) and BVD (OR = 199.3; 95% CI: 41.7 to 952.3) than did precolostral samples. All positive precolostral serum samples (n = 7 of 304) originated from calves born to vaccinated cows. Postcolostral positive serum samples (n = 11 of 13) originated mostly (60%) from calves born to non-vaccinated cows. Precolostral serum sampling can detect apparent fetal infections in a herd.

  20. Cytogenetic studies in peripheral blood of bovines afflicted by papillomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, T C; Diniz, N; Campos, S R C; Ferraz, O P; Lindsey, C J; Rieger, T T; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2011-12-01

    Ten types of bovine papillomavirus (BPV) have been described and there are reports of viral transmission via blood. The presence of viral DNA in lymphocytes was described to be associated with chromosome instability in these cells. This study presents an evaluation of chromosome instability in short-term peripheral lymphocyte cultures from cows presenting skin papillomatosis, compared with asymptomatic infected animals and non-infected healthy bovines. In a total of 2203 cells, 918 (42%) showed at least one chromosome aberration: 42.7 (± 7.8) in animals with papillomatosis (BPV + W), 40.2 (± 11) in asymptomatic animals (BPV-W) and 4 (± 2) in control animals. Significant differences were found between the infected group (with or without symptoms) and the control group (P < 0.0001). The increased frequencies of chromosome aberrations suggest an interaction between the virus and host cell chromatin. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Aerosolized bovine lactoferrin reduces neutrophils and pro-inflammatory cytokines in mouse models of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Piera; Frioni, Alessandra; Rossi, Alice; Ranucci, Serena; De Fino, Ida; Cutone, Antimo; Rosa, Luigi; Bragonzi, Alessandra; Berlutti, Francesca

    2017-02-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf), an iron-chelating glycoprotein of innate immunity, produced by exocrine glands and neutrophils in infection/inflammation sites, is one of the most abundant defence molecules in airway secretions. Lf, a pleiotropic molecule, exhibits antibacterial and anti-inflammatory functions. These properties may play a relevant role in airway infections characterized by exaggerated inflammatory response, as in Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects. To verify the Lf role in Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection, we evaluated the efficacy of aerosolized bovine Lf (bLf) in mouse models of P. aeruginosa acute and chronic lung infections. C57BL/6NCrl mice were challenged with 106 CFUs of P. aeruginosa PAO1 (acute infection) or MDR-RP73 strain (chronic infection) by intra-tracheal administration. In both acute and chronic infections, aerosolized bLf resulted in nonsignificant reduction of bacterial load but significant decrease of the neutrophil recruitment and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Moreover, in chronic infection the bLf-treated mice recovered body weight faster and to a higher extent than the control mice. These findings add new insights into the benefits of bLf as a mediator of general health and its potential therapeutic applications.

  2. Analytic variability in the enumeration of neutrophil subpopulations in canine blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltrinieri, Saverio; Talon, Elisa

    2017-12-01

    Conventional differential leukocyte counts do not enumerate hyposegmented neutrophils (Hypo-PMN), ie, immature neutrophils that already lost the band morphology but are not yet completely segmented. They may be early indicators of acute inflammation. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the analytic variability of counts of segmented neutrophils (Seg-PMN), band neutrophils (Band), hyposegmented neutrophils (Hypo-PMN), non-Bands (Hypo-PMN + Seg-PMN), and Young-PMN (Bands + Hypo-PMN) assess if Hypo- or Young-PMN identify inflammation better than Bands. Neutrophil subpopulations were counted by 2 observers on 2 sets of 100 cells in 267 blood smears from dogs with changes potentially consistent with inflammation to calculate the intra- and inter-observer variability. Median intra-observer CVs were < 5.0% for Seg-PMN and non-Bands, and 20.0% and 28.0% for Hypo-PMN and Young-PMN for observer 1 and 2, respectively; median inter-observer CVs for Seg-PMN, non-Bands, Hypo-PMN, and Young-PMN were 4.6%, 5.0%, 60.0%, and 47.1%, respectively. Median CV of Band counts in blood smears with bands was 141%. The analytic variability of Hypo- and Young-PMN is lower than that of Bands. This retrospective study did not allow us to investigate the diagnostic potential or the clinical relevance of these cells. However, the low inter- and intra-observer variabilities with these cell populations suggest that the count of Hypo- or Young-PMN may better identify acute inflammation than the count of Bands. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  3. Changes in some Blood Micronutrients, Leukocytes and Neutrophil Expression of Adhesion Molecules in Periparturient Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petersson L

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cows are highly susceptible to infectious diseases, like mastitis, during the period around calving. Although factors contributing to increased susceptibility to infection have not been fully elucidated, impaired neutrophil recruitment to the site of infection and changes in the concentrations of some micronutrients related with the function of the immune defence has been implicated. Most of the current information is based on studies outside the Nordic countries where the conditions for dairy cows are different. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate changes in blood concentrations of the vitamins A and E, the minerals calcium (Ca, phosphorous (P, and magnesium (Mg, the electrolytes potassium (K and sodium (Na and the trace elements selenium (Se, copper (Cu and zinc (Zn, as well as changes in total and differential white blood cell counts (WBC and expression of the adhesion molecules CD62L and CD18 on blood neutrophils in Swedish dairy cows during the period around calving. Blood samples were taken from 10 cows one month before expected calving, at calving and one month after calving. The results were mainly in line with reports from other countries. The concentrations of vitamins A and E, and of Zn, Ca and P decreased significantly at calving, while Se, Cu, and Na increased. Leukocytosis was detected at calving, mainly explained by neutrophilia, but also by monocytosis. The numbers of lymphocytes tended to decrease at the same time. The mean fluorescent intensity (MFI of CD62L and CD18 molecules on blood neutrophils remained constant over time. The proportion of CD62L+ neutrophils decreased significantly at calving. The animals were fed according to, or above, their requirements. Therefore, changes in blood levels of vitamins, minerals and trace elements were mainly in response to colostrum formation, changes in dry matter intake, and ruminal metabolism around calving. Decreased levels of vitamins A and E, and of Zn at calving

  4. Diminished adhesion and activation of platelets and neutrophils with CD47 functionalized blood contacting surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Matthew J; Rauova, Lubica; Alferiev, Ivan S; Weisel, John W; Levy, Robert J; Stachelek, Stanley J

    2012-08-01

    CD47 is a ubiquitously expressed transmembrane protein that, through signaling mechanisms mediated by signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα1), functions as a biological marker of 'self-recognition'. We showed previously that inflammatory cell attachment to polymeric surfaces is inhibited by the attachment of biotinylated recombinant CD47 (CD47B). We test herein the hypothesis that CD47 modified blood conduits can reduce platelet and neutrophil activation under clinically relevant conditions. We appended a poly-lysine tag to the C-terminus of recombinant CD47 (CD47L) allowing for covalent linkage to the polymer. SIRPα1 expression was confirmed in isolated platelets. We then compared biocompatibility between CD47B and CD47L functionalized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) surfaces and unmodified control PVC surfaces. Quantitative and Qualitative analysis of blood cell attachment to CD47B and CD47L surfaces, via scanning electron microscopy, showed strikingly fewer platelets attached to CD47 modified surfaces compared to control. Flow cytometry analysis showed that activation markers for neutrophils (CD62L) and platelets (CD62P) exposed to CD47 modified PVC were equivalent to freshly acquired control blood, while significantly elevated in the unmodified PVC tubing. In addition, ethylene oxide gas sterilization did not inhibit the efficacy of the CD47 modification. In conclusion, CD47 modified PVC inhibits both the adhesion and activation of platelets and neutrophils. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Diminished adhesion and activation of platelets and neutrophils with CD47-functionalized blood contacting surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Matthew J.; Rauova, Lubica; Alferiev, Ivan S.; Weisel, John W.; Levy, Robert J.; Stachelek, Stanley J.

    2012-01-01

    CD47 is a ubiquitously expressed transmembrane protein that, through signaling mechanisms mediated by signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα1), functions as a biological marker of ‘self-recognition’. We showed previously that inflammatory cell attachment to polymeric surfaces is inhibited by the attachment of biotinylated recombinant CD47 (CD47B). We test herein the hypothesis that CD47-modified blood conduits can reduce platelet and neutrophil activation under clinically relevant conditions. We appended a poly-lysine tag to the C-terminus of recombinant CD47 (CD47L) allowing for covalent linkage to the polymer. SIRPα1 expression was confirmed in isolated platelets. We then compared biocompatibility between CD47B and CD47L functionalized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) surfaces and unmodified control PVC surfaces. Quantitative and Qualitative analysis of blood cell attachment to CD47B and CD47L surfaces, via scanning electron microscopy, showed strikingly fewer platelets attached to CD47 modified surfaces compared to control. Flow cytometry analysis showed that activation markers for neutrophils (CD62L) and platelets (CD62P) exposed to CD47 modified PVC were equivalent to freshly acquired control blood, while significantly elevated in the unmodified PVC tubing. In addition, ethylene oxide gas sterilization did not inhibit the efficacy of the CD47 modification. In conclusion, CD47 modified PVC inhibits both the adhesion and activation of platelets and neutrophils. PMID:22613135

  6. Mechanism of the dissolution of enflurane and isoflurane into human, dog and bovine blood

    OpenAIRE

    多田, 恵一

    1987-01-01

    This study was performed to elucidate the difference in the mechanism of the dissolution of enflurane and isoflurane into human, dog and bovine blood in terms of changes in the hematocrit using the highly accurate analytical method of direct gas chromatography. With enflurane, as the hematocrit increased, the blood-gas partition coefficient for human and bovine blood decreased linearly (P < 0.001), and that for dog blood increased linearly (P < 0.001). With isoflurane, as the hematocrit incre...

  7. The effect of manual acupuncture on blood neutrophil counts in moderate intensity exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciang, C. Y.; Simadibrata, C.; Tobing, A.; Srilestari, A.

    2017-08-01

    Exercise, even though it has a beneficial effect, can cause muscle damage and trigger inflammatory responses, as evidenced by increased neutrophils in the blood. Acupuncture is a therapeutic modality that is expected to reduce acute inflammatory responses due to exercise. Thirty untrained men were divided randomly into two groups. The manual acupuncture group (n = 15) received stimulation at acupoints ST36 and SP6 bilateral by needle insertion, while the placebo group (n = 15) received insertion of needles on plaster without penetrating the skin. Therapy was done once for 30 minutes immediately after the subjects completed the exercise. Blood neutrophil counts were assessed before exercise and one hour after exercise ended. The results show there is a statistically significant difference in the number of neutrophils before and after exercise between the manual acupuncture group and the placebo group (0.08±0.91 and 0.97±0.70 p = 0.006). Acupuncture therapy effectively mitigates the acute inflammatory response triggered by exercise.

  8. Suppression of blood monocyte and neutrophil chemotaxis in acute human malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H; Kharazmi, A; Theander, T G

    1986-01-01

    tested monocyte chemotactic responsiveness in 19 patients with acute primary attack malaria. In addition, the neutrophil chemotaxis was measured in 12 patients. Before the initiation of antimalarial treatment a significant depression of monocyte chemotaxis was observed in approximately half...... suppressed. The monocyte chemotaxis was followed in 14 of the patients, during treatment and after complete recovery. After 3 days of treatment the response had improved in most of the patients, and after 7 days all patients had a normal monocyte chemotaxis, which remained normal after one month....... No significant differences between P. falciparum and P. vivax/ovale malaria was observed with respect to blood monocyte chemotactic responsiveness. Neutrophil chemotaxis in patients with P. falciparum infections was similarly suppressed before treatment (54% of controls), was still defective after 3 days...

  9. Proteomic profiling of peripheral blood neutrophils identifies two inflammatory phenotypes in stable COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Adèle Lo Tam; Hoonhorst, Susan; van Aalst, Corneli; Langereis, Jeroen; Kamp, Vera; Sluis-Eising, Simone; Ten Hacken, Nick; Lammers, Jan-Willem; Koenderman, Leo

    2017-05-22

    COPD is a heterogeneous chronic inflammatory disease of the airways and it is well accepted that the GOLD classification does not fully represent the complex clinical manifestations of COPD and this classification therefore is not well suited for phenotyping of individual patients with COPD. Besides the chronic inflammation in the lung compartment, there is also a systemic inflammation present in COPD patients. This systemic inflammation is associated with elevated levels of cytokines in the peripheral blood, but the precise composition is unknown. Therefore, differences in phenotype of peripheral blood neutrophils in vivo could be used as a read out for the overall systemic inflammation in COPD. Our aim was to utilize an unsupervised method to assess the proteomic profile of peripheral neutrophils of stable COPD patients and healthy age matched controls to find potential differences in these profiles as read-out of inflammatory phenotypes. We performed fluorescence two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis with the lysates of peripheral neutrophils of controls and stable COPD patients. We identified two groups of COPD patients based on the differentially regulated proteins and hierarchical clustering whereas there was no difference in lung function between these two COPD groups. The neutrophils from one of the COPD groups were less responsive to bacterial peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLF). This illustrates that systemic inflammatory signals do not necessarily correlate with the GOLD classification and that inflammatory phenotyping can significantly add in an improved diagnosis of single COPD patients. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00807469 registered December 11th 2008.

  10. THE PHENOTYPE AND METABOLISM RELATIONSHIP OF BLOOD NEUTROPHILS IN PATIENTS WITH WIDESPREAD PURULENT PERITONITIS IN THE POSTOPERATIVE PERIOD DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Savchenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the relationship of the phenotype and metabolism of neutrophils in patients with widespread purulent peritonitis (WPP in the dynamics of the postoperative period. The study involved 27 patients with acute surgical diseases and injuries of abdominal organs complicated by WPP. Blood sampling was performed prior to surgery (pre-operative period and at 7, 14 and 24 day post-operative period. As controls 67 respect healthy people were examined. Research blood neutrophilic granulocytes phenotype was performed by f low cytometry using a direct immunof luorescence whole peripheral blood. The levels of surface receptor expression was assessed by the mean f luorescence intensity. The NADand NADP-dependent dehydrogenases activity in the blood neutrophils studied using bioluminescence method. It was found that in patients with WPP in the preoperative period in the peripheral blood increased content of CD62L+-, HLA-DR+and CD64+-neutrophils. High levels of CD62L+-cells stored within 24 postoperative days, whereas the amount of HLA-DR+and CD64+-neutrophils on 24 postoperative day is reduced to the level of controls. The dynamics of changes in the content of CD64+-cells in the peripheral blood of patients with WPP corresponds to the expression level of CD64-receptor on the membrane of neutrophilic granulocytes. The metabolism of blood neutrophils in patients with WPP in the preand postoperative period is characterized by high intensity of the substrate stream on the citric acid cycle, low activity of NADP-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase and aerobic reaction of lactate dehydrogenase. In the preoperative period and within 14 days of the postoperative period in neutrophil granulocytes of the patients revealed high activity of anaerobic lactate dehydrogenase reaction characterized by increased activity of anaerobic glycolysis. In the late postoperative period the intensity of anaerobic energy in the neutrophils of patients with

  11. Sleep restriction increases white blood cells, mainly neutrophil count, in young healthy men: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Zouaoui Boudjeltia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Karim Zouaoui Boudjeltia2, Brice Faraut1,2, Patricia Stenuit1, Maria José Esposito1,2, Michal Dyzma1,2, Dany Brohée2, Jean Ducobu2, Michel Vanhaeverbeek2, Myriam Kerkhofs1,21Sleep Laboratory; 2Laboratory of Experimental Medicine (ULB 222 Unit, CHU de Charleroi Vésale Hospital, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Montigny-le-Tilleul, BelgiumObjectives: This study examines the effects of sleep restricted to four hours for three consecutive nights on blood parameters, known to be associated with cardiovascular risk, in young healthy men.Material and methods: Eight young healthy men (age 24.5 ± 3.3 years were studied in the sleep restricted group. Nine young healthy men (age 24 ± 2 years were included in the control group and spent the days and nights in the sleep lab, while sleeping eight hours/night. One baseline night was followed by three nights of sleep restriction to four hours and by one recovery night of eight hours. Blood samplings were performed after the baseline night and after the third night of sleep restriction or without restriction for the control group.Results: A significant increase in white blood cells (WBC (5.79 ± 1.05 vs. 6.89 ± 1.31 103 cell/µl, p = 0.03, and neutrophils (3.17 ± 0.69 vs 4.24 ± 0.97 103 cell/µl, p = 0.01 was observed after the third night of sleep restriction. Other blood parameters were not affected. No significant variation was observed in the control group.Conclusion: Sleep restriction affected WBC count, mainly neutrophils, considered as risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Stress induced by the short term sleep restriction could be involved in this observation.Keywords: sleep restriction, men, cardiovascular risk, cholesterol, neutrophils

  12. PARTICIPATION OF TLR4 IN ENGULFMENT OF ESCHERICHIA COLI BY HUMAN BLOOD NEUTROPHILS IN PRESENCE OF LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Zubova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. TLR4 is a key player in signaling system of host cells. Possible role of TLR4 is actively discussed, e.g. its significance for phagocytosis. A capacity of neutrophils to engulf FITC-labeled E. coli bacteria upon activation with LPS of different origin was studied in presence of anti-TLR4 Mab’s (HTA125 clone. It was shown that, in whole blood, TLR4 does not play any essential role in engulfment of bacteria by the neutrophils. Phagocytic activity of neutrophils in blood increases increased after their priming with E. coli endotoxins. LPS from Rb. сapsulatus did not affect phagocytosis. In presence of endotoxins, the degree of TLR4 involvement in neutrophil phagocytosis depends on LPS structure.

  13. Association of blood neutrophil lymphocyte ratio in the patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chenshu; Li, Shaolin

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between blood neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and postmenopausal osteoporosis in Chinese women without diabetes. Two hundred and thirty three postmenopausal women without diabetes were included in this study. The clinical data of patients including age, and body mass index (BMI) were recorded. Blood samples were obtained to determine Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), Uric acid (UA), Albumin (ALB), Creatinine (CREA), Total Cholesterol(TC), Triglyceride (TG), Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), Glycosylated Hemoglobin (HbAlc), 25-hydroxyitamin D (25-OHD) level. NLR was calculated using the following formulas: NLR = Neutrophil count / lymphocyte count; Bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar vertebrae and the femoral neck was measured. The relationship between NLR and postmenopausal osteoporosis statistical methods was analyzed. Age, BMD, Albumin (ALB), Creatinine(CREA), Triglyceride (TG) and NLR level were different in the three groups (Posteoporosis. NLR level was strongly associated with BMD in the postmenopausal women without diabetes, suggesting that NLR could become a helpful clinical tool in the assessment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  14. The effect of storage on whole blood chemiluminescence measurement of equine neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumrych, Wiesław; Skórzewski, Radosław; Malinowski, Edward

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of duration and temperature of sample storage on whole blood chemiluminescence measurement results. Venous blood from 18 clinically healthy Polish half-bred horses aged 4 to 11 years were used in the study. Luminol dependent chemiluminescence (CL) was used to measure neutrophil oxygen metabolism in whole blood. Blood samples were examined for spontaneous CL and stimulated by a surface receptor stimulus as well as extra-receptor stimulus. The assay was performed in two parallel experimental sets with samples stored at 4 and 22 °C, respectively. Whole blood CL was estimated at 2, 6, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h after collection. The study demonstrated that temperature and duration of sample storage are factors that determine the quality of CL measurements of whole blood in horses. The study concluded that samples should be stored at 4 °C and the assay should be performed as early as possible. It was also shown that the viability period of horse blood for CL assays is relatively long. Material stored at room temperature for 24 h and even up to 48 h at 4 °C did not show any significant decrease in spontaneous or stimulated chemiluminescence. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Molecular detection of bovine leukemia virus in peripheral blood of Iranian cattle, camel and sheep

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nekoei, S; Hafshejani, T Taktaz; Doosti, A; Khamesipour, F

    2015-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a deltaretrovirus which infects and induces proliferation of B-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood circulation and in lymphoid organs primarily of cattle, leading to leukemia/lymphoma...

  16. Simultaneous detection of 15 antibiotic growth promoters in bovine muscle, blood and urine by UPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Shi, Zongwei; Xi, Cunxian; Wang, Guomin; Cao, Shurui; Zhang, Lei; Tang, Bobin; Mu, Zhaode

    2017-12-01

    An analytical method was established for the rapid detection of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in bovine muscle, and bovine blood and bovine urine, using ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). After the addition of an aqueous solution of EDTA-Na2, the pH of bovine urine samples was directly adjusted to 5.2 by acetic acid-ammonium acetate and purified by HLB solid-phase extraction cartridge; bovine muscle and bovine blood samples processing were extracted with acetonitrile (ACN) and ACNwater (90:10; v/v) without any purification step. The samples were then centrifuged, concentrated and analysed by UPLC-MS/MS on an ACQUITY UPLC® BEH C18 column using gradient elution. The developed method was validated and mean recovery percentages at three spiked levels were 74-119%, 76-115% and 76-119%, respectively, in bovine muscle, bovine blood, and bovine urine. The relative standard deviation (RSD) ranged from 1.0% to 14.7% in spiked bovine muscle, bovine blood and bovine urine. The limits of detection (LOD) of all analytes were in the ranges 0.11-3.82 µg kg-1, 0.10-2.49 µg kg-1 and 0.06-4.53 µg kg-1 in bovine muscle, bovine blood, and bovine urine, respectively. The method was sensitive, accurate and was applied to monitor real samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is first method available for simultaneous determination of several classes of APGs in bovine muscle, and bovine blood and bovine urine.

  17. Arbutin and decrease of potentially toxic substances generated in human blood neutrophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pečivová, Jana; Nosál', Radomír; Sviteková, Klára

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils, highly motile phagocytic cells, constitute the first line of host defense and simultaneously they are considered to be central cells of chronic inflammation. In combination with standard therapeutic procedures, natural substances are gaining interest as an option for enhancing the effectiveness of treatment of inflammatory diseases. We investigated the effect of arbutin and carvedilol and of their combination on 4β-phorbol-12β-myristate-13α-acetate- stimulated functions of human isolated neutrophils. Cells were preincubated with the drugs tested and subsequently stimulated. Superoxide (with or without blood platelets, in the rate close to physiological conditions [1:50]) and HOCl generation, elastase and myeloperoxidase release were determined spectrophotometrically and phospholipase D activation spectrofluorometrically. The combined effect of arbutin and carvedilol was found to be more effective than the effect of each compound alone. Our study provided evidence supporting the potential beneficial effect of arbutin alone or in combination with carvedilol in diminishing tissue damage by decreasing phospholipase D, myeloperoxidase and elastase activity and by attenuating the generation of superoxide and the subsequently derived reactive oxygen species. The presented data indicate the ability of arbutin to suppress the onset and progression of inflammation. PMID:26109900

  18. Unsaturated long-chain fatty acids induce the respiratory burst of human neutrophils and monocytes in whole blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osthaus Wilhelm A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is increasingly recognized that infectious complications in patients treated with total parenteral nutrition (TPN may be caused by altered immune responses. Neutrophils and monocytes are the first line of defence against bacterial and fungal infection through superoxide anion production during the respiratory burst. To characterize the impact of three different types of lipid solutions that are applied as part of TPN formulations, we investigated the unstimulated respiratory burst activation of neutrophils and monocytes in whole blood. Methods Whole blood samples were incubated with LCT (Intralipid®, LCT/MCT (Lipofundin® and LCT-MUFA (ClinOleic® in three concentrations (0.06, 0.3 and 0.6 mg ml-1 for time periods up to one hour. Hydrogen peroxide production during the respiratory burst of neutrophils and monocytes was measured by flow cytometry. Results LCT and LCT-MUFA induced a hydrogen peroxide production in neutrophils and monocytes without presence of a physiological stimulus in contrast to LCT/MCT. Conclusion We concluded that parenteral nutrition containing unsaturated oleic (C18:1 and linoleic (C18:2 acid can induce respiratory burst of neutrophils and monocytes, resulting in an elevated risk of tissue damage by the uncontrolled production of reactive oxygen species. Contradictory observations reported in previous studies may in part be the result of different methods used to determine hydrogen peroxide production.

  19. Interleukin 17A controls Interleukin 17F production and maintains blood neutrophil counts in mice

    OpenAIRE

    von Vietinghoff, Sibylle; Ley, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), its receptor and interleukin-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) are all required to maintain baseline neutrophil counts in mice. Here, we tested whether IL-17F could compensate and maintain baseline neutrophil counts in the absence of IL-17A. Unlike the reduced neutrophil counts found in IL-17RA deficient mice, neutrophil counts were mildly increased in IL-17A deficient (Il17a-/-) animals. There was no evidence for infection or altered neutrophil function. ...

  20. Greater expression of TLR2, TLR4, and IL6 due to negative energy balance is associated with lower expression of HLA-DRA and HLA-A in bovine blood neutrophils after intramammary mastitis challenge with Streptococcus uberis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey; Drackley, James K; Morin, Dawn E

    2010-01-01

    Our objectives were to compare gene expression profiles in blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) during a Streptococcus uberis intramammary challenge between lactating cows subjected to feed restriction to induce negative energy balance (NEB; n = 5) and cows fed ad libitum to maintain positive ener...

  1. In vitro shear stress-induced platelet activation: sensitivity of human and bovine blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qijin; Hofferbert, Bryan V; Koo, Grace; Malinauskas, Richard A

    2013-10-01

    As platelet activation plays a critical role in physiological hemostasis and pathological thrombosis, it is important in the overall hemocompatibility evaluation of new medical devices and biomaterials to assess their effects on platelet function. However, there are currently no widely accepted in vitro test methods to perform this assessment. In an effort to develop effective platelet tests for potential use in medical device evaluation, this study compared the sensitivity of platelet responses to shear stress stimulation of human and bovine blood using multiple platelet activation markers. Fresh whole blood samples anticoagulated with heparin or anticoagulant citrate dextrose, solution A (ACDA) were exposed to shear stresses up to 40 Pa for 2 min using a cone-and-plate rheometer model. Platelet activation was characterized by platelet counts, platelet surface P-selectin expression, and serotonin release into blood plasma. The results indicated that exposure to shear stresses above 20 Pa caused significant changes in all three of the platelet markers for human blood and that the changes were usually greater with ACDA anticoagulation than with heparin. In contrast, for bovine blood, the markers did not change with shear stress stimulation except for plasma serotonin in heparin anticoagulated blood. The differences observed between human and bovine platelet responses suggest that the value of using bovine blood for in vitro platelet testing to evaluate devices may be limited. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Interleukin 17 expression in peripheral blood neutrophils from fungal keratitis patients and healthy cohorts in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Rajapandian Sivaganesa; Vareechon, Chairut; Prajna, Namperumalsamy Venkatesh; Dharmalingam, Kuppamuthu; Pearlman, Eric; Lalitha, Prajna

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin 17A (IL-17) production by peripheral blood neutrophils was examined in patients with fungal keratitis and in uninfected individuals in southern India, which has high levels of airborne Aspergillus and Fusarium conidia. Il17a gene expression and intracellular IL-17 were detected in all groups, although levels were significantly elevated in neutrophils from patients with keratitis. There were no significant differences in plasma IL-17 and IL-23 between patients with keratitis and uninfected individuals; however, combined data from all groups showed a correlation between the percentage IL-17 producing neutrophils and plasma IL-23, and between plasma IL-17 and IL-6 and IL-23. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Phospholipase A2 Inhibitor from Crotalus durissus terrificus rattlesnake: Effects on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and human neutrophils cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Caroline V; da S Setúbal, Sulamita; Lacouth-Silva, Fabianne; Pontes, Adriana S; Nery, Neriane M; de Castro, Onassis Boeri; Fernandes, Carla F C; Soares, Andreimar M; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo L; Zuliani, Juliana P

    2017-12-01

    Crotalus Neutralizing Factor (CNF) is an inhibitor of phospholipase A2 (PLA2), present in the blood plasma of Crotalus durissus terrificus snake. This inhibitor neutralizes the lethal and enzymatic activity of crotoxin, the main neurotoxin from this venom. In this study, we investigated the effects of CNF on the functionality of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and human neutrophils. The following parameters were evaluated: viability and proliferation, chemotaxis, cytokines and LTB4 production, cytosolic PLA2s activity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and superoxide anion (O2-) production. CNF showed no toxicity on PBMCs or neutrophils, and acts by stimulating the release of TNF-α and LTB4, but neither stimulates IL-10 and IL-2 nor affects PBMCs proliferation and O2- release. In neutrophils, CNF induces chemotaxis but does not induce the release of both MPO and O2-. However, it induces LTB4 and IL-8 production. These data show the influence of CNF on PBMCs' function by inducing TNF-α and LTB4 production, and on neutrophils, by stimulating chemotaxis and LTB4 production, via cytosolic PLA2 activity, and IL-8 release. The inflammatory profile produced by CNF is shown for the first time. Our present results suggest that CNF has a role in activation of leukocytes and exert proinflammatory effects on these cell. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. β2 integrin-mediated crawling on endothelial ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 is a prerequisite for transcellular neutrophil diapedesis across the inflamed blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorina, Roser; Lyck, Ruth; Vestweber, Dietmar; Engelhardt, Britta

    2014-01-01

    In acute neuroinflammatory states such as meningitis, neutrophils cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and contribute to pathological alterations of cerebral function. The mechanisms that govern neutrophil migration across the BBB are ill defined. Using live-cell imaging, we show that LPS-stimulated BBB endothelium supports neutrophil arrest, crawling, and diapedesis under physiological flow in vitro. Investigating the interactions of neutrophils from wild-type, CD11a(-/-), CD11b(-/-), and CD18(null) mice with wild-type, junctional adhesion molecule-A(-/-), ICAM-1(null), ICAM-2(-/-), or ICAM-1(null)/ICAM-2(-/-) primary mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells, we demonstrate that neutrophil arrest, polarization, and crawling required G-protein-coupled receptor-dependent activation of β2 integrins and binding to endothelial ICAM-1. LFA-1 was the prevailing ligand for endothelial ICAM-1 in mediating neutrophil shear resistant arrest, whereas Mac-1 was dominant over LFA-1 in mediating neutrophil polarization on the BBB in vitro. Neutrophil crawling was mediated by endothelial ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 and neutrophil LFA-1 and Mac-1. In the absence of crawling, few neutrophils maintained adhesive interactions with the BBB endothelium by remaining either stationary on endothelial junctions or displaying transient adhesive interactions characterized by a fast displacement on the endothelium along the direction of flow. Diapedesis of stationary neutrophils was unchanged by the lack of endothelial ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 and occurred exclusively via the paracellular pathway. Crawling neutrophils, although preferentially crossing the BBB through the endothelial junctions, could additionally breach the BBB via the transcellular route. Thus, β2 integrin-mediated neutrophil crawling on endothelial ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 is a prerequisite for transcellular neutrophil diapedesis across the inflamed BBB.

  5. Inflammation biomarkers in blood as mortality predictors in community-acquired pneumonia admitted patients: Importance of comparison with neutrophil count percentage or neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Curbelo

    Full Text Available The increase and persistence of inflammation in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP patients can lead to higher mortality. Biomarkers capable of measuring this inadequate inflammatory response are likely candidates to be related with a bad outcome. We investigated the association between concentrations of several inflammatory markers and mortality of CAP patients.This was a prospective study of hospitalised CAP patients in a Spanish university hospital. Blood tests upon admittance and in the early-stage evolution (72-120 hours were carried out, where C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, proadrenomedullin, copeptin, white blood cell, Lymphocyte Count Percentage (LCP, Neutrophil Count Percentage (NCP and Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR were measured. The outcome variable was mortality at 30 and 90 days. Statistical analysis included logistic regression, ROC analysis and area-under-curve test.154 hospitalised CAP patients were included. Patients who died during follow-up had higher levels of procalcitonin, copeptin, proadrenomedullin, lower levels of LCP, and higher of NCP and NLR. Remarkably, multivariate analysis showed a relationship between NCP and mortality, regardless of age, severity of CAP and comorbidities. AUC analysis showed that NLR and NCP at admittance and during early-stage evolution achieved a good diagnostic power. ROC test for NCP and NLR were similar to those of the novel serum biomarkers analysed.NLR and NCP, are promising candidate predictors of mortality for hospitalised CAP patients, and both are cheaper, easier to perform, and at least as reliable as the new serum biomarkers. Future implementation of new biomarkers would require comparison not only with classic inflammatory parameters like White Blood Cell count but also with NLR and NCP.

  6. bovine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of various breeds under local conditions of management. (Hale, 1974b). AdditionaIly, this procedure has been used to assess the production of LH by the bovine anterior pituitary in vitro and to study the relationships between this production and the activity of the pineal- hypothalamic axis (Hayes, Knight & Symington, 1974;.

  7. Compromised neutrophil function and severe bovine E.coli mastitis: is C5a the missing link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Around the periparturient period and during early lactation dairy cows have an elevated risk for clinical mastitis. The severity of Gram-negative infections during these periods has been correlated with reduced neutrophil functions. In this review we focus on the potential role of C5a in the develop...

  8. Automatic collection of bovine blood samples | Hale | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A technique is described which allows automatic collection of jugular venous blood from tethered cows. In this system, blood is pumped continuously from an intravenous cannula which has a double lumen while an anticoagulant is pumped through the second opening. Diluted blood is collected in a fraction collector which ...

  9. Can a Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio Derived from Preoperative Blood Tests Predict Arteriovenous Fistula Maturation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashar, Khalid; Zafar, Adeel; Ahmed, Khalid; Kheirelseid, Elrasheid A H; Healy, Donagh; Clarke-Moloney, Mary; Burke, Paul E; Kavanagh, Eamon G; Walsh, Stewart R

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the association between inflammatory markers expressed as neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and process of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) maturation. A retrospective review of patients with end-stage renal disease referred for formation of a new AVF in one center. Patients referred to the vascular service in the University Hospital of Limerick for creation of vascular access between 2009 and 2013. The association between NLR, calculated from preoperative blood tests, and functional fistula maturation, as determined by successful use of the AVF for 6 consecutive hemodialysis sessions, was investigated using univariate and logistic regression analyses. A logistic regression analysis was carried out to assess potential influence from other factors related to AVF maturation. Stepwise regression test was performed including the NLR. Overall AVF functional maturation rate in our study was 53.7% (66/123). Patients with matured AVFs had an NLR of 4.850 (1.8-15.7) compared with 3.554 (1.7-15.0); this difference was found to be significant (P = 0.024). Female gender (P = 0.008) and a history of kidney transplant (P = 0.004) were the only independent factors of fistula maturation outcome in a logistic regression model. Increased level of NLR was found to be associated with fistula maturation; however, more studies are needed to validate this finding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. NITRIC OXIDE ACTIVITY OF NEUTROPHIL IN BLOOD AND CEREBROSPINAL FLUID OF THE CHILDREN WITH BACTERIAL AND VIRAL MENINGITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Molochniy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of study of nitric oxide activity of neutrophil leucocytic and freeradical processes in blood and cerebrospinal fluid of the children with bacterial and viral meningitison the acute period diseases. The peculiarities or activity of freeradical processes and nitric oxide of cerebrospinal fluid with bacterial meningitis in acute period diseases and activities of studies of ferments with the health children. 

  11. Role of gastric blood flow, neutrophil infiltration, and mucosal cell proliferation in gastric adaptation to aspirin in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Konturek, S J; Brzozowski, T; Stachura, J.; Dembinski, A; Majka, J

    1994-01-01

    Gastric mucosa exhibits the ability to adapt to ulcerogenic action of aspirin but the mechanism of this phenomenon is unknown. In this study, acute gastric lesions were produced by single or repeated doses of acidified aspirin in rats with intact or resected salivary glands and with intact or suppressed synthase of nitric oxide. A single oral dose of aspirin produced a dose dependent increase in gastric lesions accompanied by considerable blood neutrophilia and mucosal neutrophil infiltration...

  12. Ivermectin-dependent attachment of neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells to Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatta, Adriano F; Dzimianski, Michael; Storey, Bob E; Camus, Melinda S; Moorhead, Andrew R; Kaplan, Ray M; Wolstenholme, Adrian J

    2014-11-15

    The macrocyclic lactones are the only anthelmintics used to prevent heartworm disease, but it is very difficult to reproduce their in vivo efficacy against Dirofilaria immitis larvae in experiments in vitro. These assays typically measure motility, suggesting that paralysis is not the mode of action of the macrocyclic lactones against D. immitis. We isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and neutrophils from uninfected dogs and measured their adherence to D. immitis microfilariae in the presence of varying concentrations of ivermectin. We found that adherence of PBMC to the microfilariae was increased in the presence of ivermectin concentrations ≥100 nM and adherence of neutrophils was increased in drug concentrations ≥10 nM. Up to 50% of microfilariae had adherent PBMC in the presence of the drug, and binding was maximal after 40 h incubation. Neutrophil adherence was maximal after 16 h, with approximately 20% of the microfilariae having at least one cell adhered to them. Adherent neutrophils showed morphological evidence of activation. These results are consistent with a model in which the macrocyclic lactones interfere with the parasites ability to evade the host's innate immune system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Reduced expression of C5a receptors on neutrophils from cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Sørensen, O; Leslie, R

    1998-01-01

    MLP was tested by measuring migration and exocytosis of myeloperoxidase and lactoferrin. RESULTS: C5a mean fluorescence on neutrophils from neonates was significantly lower (22.4 (SD 3.5)) than in adult controls (31.5 (3.1)). Neutrophils from neonates migrated poorly towards both C5a and fMLP compared with those...... from adult controls. Exocytosis of myeloperoxidase, but not lactoferrin from neonatal neutrophils stimulated with C5a, was significantly lower than in adult controls. fMLP stimulation, on the other hand, resulted in significantly higher exocytosis in neonates. CONCLUSION: The lower expression of C5a...... receptors on neutrophils from neonates could be related to reduced C5a mediated exocytosis of myeloperoxidase....

  14. The effect of temperature on apoptosis of bovine blood eosinophil granulocytes in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Sláma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of temperature on apoptosis of bovine blood eosinophil granulocytes in vitro. Heparinised bovine blood was incubated for 1, 4 and 24 h under following temperatures: 4, 23 and 37 °C. UV irradiation was used as positive control of apoptosis. Eosinophil granu­locytes apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry after simultaneous staining with Annexin-V and propidium iodide. From selected temperatures, 4 °C induced the eosinophil granulocytes apoptosis least. The proportion of apoptotic eosinophil granulocytes amounted to (mean ± SD 1.65 ± 0.46%; 1.76 ± 0.36%; 4.78 ± 1.70% after 1, 4 and 24 h incubation, respectively.

  15. The Anti-Apoptotic Effect of Respiratory Syncytial Virus on Human Peripheral Blood Neutrophils is Mediated by a Monocyte Derived Soluble Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Christopher M; Plant, Karen; Newton, Susan; Hobson, Lynsey; Whyte, Moira K B; Everard, Mark L

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) causes annual epidemics of respiratory disease particularly affecting infants. The associated airway inflammation is characterized by an intense neutrophilia. This neutrophilic inflammation appears to be responsible for much of the pathology and symptoms. Previous work from our group had shown that there are factors within the airways of infants with RSV bronchiolitis that inhibit neutrophil apoptosis. This study was undertaken to determine if RSV can directly affect neutrophil survival.NEUTROPHILS WERE ISOLATED FROM CITRATED VENOUS BLOOD (COLLECTED FROM HEALTHY ADULT VOLUNTEERS) BY DISCONTINUOUS PLASMA: Percoll gradient centrifugation and, in some experiments, further purified by negative immunomagnetic bead selection. The effect of RSV on neutrophil survival was measured by Annexin V-PE /To-Pro-3 staining and by morphological changes, using Dif-Quick staining of cytospins.Inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis was observed in neutrophils isolated by standard plasma:Percoll gradient when exposed to RSV but not in ultra pure neutrophil preparations. Adding monocytes back to ultra purified preparations restored the effect. The inhibition of apoptosis was observed with both active and UV inactivated virus. The effect is dependent on a soluble factor and appears to be dependent on CD14 receptors on the monocytes.

  16. Phenotypic, ultra-structural, and functional characterization of bovine peripheral blood dendritic cell subsets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet J Sei

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC are multi-functional cells that bridge the gap between innate and adaptive immune systems. In bovine, significant information is lacking on the precise identity and role of peripheral blood DC subsets. In this study, we identify and characterize bovine peripheral blood DC subsets directly ex vivo, without further in vitro manipulation. Multi-color flow cytometric analysis revealed that three DC subsets could be identified. Bovine plasmacytoid DC were phenotypically identified by a unique pattern of cell surface protein expression including CD4, exhibited an extensive endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, efficiently internalized and degraded exogenous antigen, and were the only peripheral blood cells specialized in the production of type I IFN following activation with Toll-like receptor (TLR agonists. Conventional DC were identified by expression of a different pattern of cell surface proteins including CD11c, MHC class II, and CD80, among others, the display of extensive dendritic protrusions on their plasma membrane, expression of very high levels of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules, efficient internalization and degradation of exogenous antigen, and ready production of detectable levels of TNF-alpha in response to TLR activation. Our investigations also revealed a third novel DC subset that may be a precursor of conventional DC that were MHC class II+ and CD11c-. These cells exhibited a smooth plasma membrane with a rounded nucleus, produced TNF-alpha in response to TLR-activation (albeit lower than CD11c+ DC, and were the least efficient in internalization/degradation of exogenous antigen. These studies define three bovine blood DC subsets with distinct phenotypic and functional characteristics which can be analyzed during immune responses to pathogens and vaccinations of cattle.

  17. Neutrophils at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauseef, William M; Borregaard, Niels

    2014-01-01

    blood to tissues in models of blood-borne infections versus bacterial invasion through epithelial linings. We examine data on novel aspects of the activation of NADPH oxidase and the heterogeneity of phagosomes and, finally, consider the importance of two neutrophil-derived biological agents: neutrophil...

  18. Glucose supplementation has minimal effects on blood neutrophil function and gene expression in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M; Elsasser, T H; Qu, Y; Zhu, X; Moyes, K M

    2015-09-01

    During early lactation, glucose availability is low and the effect of glucose supply on bovine polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) function is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of glucose supplementation on the function and transcriptomic inflammatory response of PMNL from cows in early and mid-lactation in vitro. Twenty Holstein cows in early (n=10; days in milk=17±3.1) and mid-lactation (n=10; days in milk=168±14.8) were used for this study. Jugular blood was analyzed for serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, and glucose. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes were isolated and diluted using RPMI (basal glucose concentration was 7.2 mM) to different concentrations of PMNL/mL for phagocytosis, chemotaxis, gene expression, and medium analyses. Working solutions of glucose (0 or 4 mM of d-glucose) and lipopolysaccharide (0 or 50μg/mL) were added and tubes were incubated for 120 min at 37°C. Media were analyzed for concentrations of glucose and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Data were analyzed in a randomized block (stage of lactation) design. Challenge with lipopolysaccharide increased the expression of the genes encoding for nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB1), IL-10 (IL10), IL1B, IL6, IL8, TNF-α (TNFA), glucose transporter 3 (SLC2A3), and the concentration of TNF-α in medium (147.3 vs. 72.5 pg/mL for lipopolysaccharide and control, respectively). Main effect of stage of lactation was minimal where the expression of IL10 increased for cows in early compared with cows in mid-lactation. After lipopolysaccharide challenge, cows in early lactation experienced more marked increases in the expression of IL6, TNFA, and IL8 when compared with cows in mid-lactation. Glucose supplementation had minimal effects on gene expression where glucose supplementation increased the expression of lysozyme (LYZ). Glucose supplementation increased PMNL phagocytosis but did not alter chemotaxis, morphology, or

  19. [Peripheral blood neutrophil subpopulations and capacities of NBT test in the diagnosis of neonatal diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimov, I G

    2011-04-01

    By analyzing the data available in the literature, the author shows new capacities of the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test in the diagnosis of neonatal diseases and conditions. The findings versus the, data obtained in adult patients are characterized. The NBT test has been used to determine changes in neutrophil subpopulations. The kinetic parameters of the process are analyzed.

  20. Detection and expression of bovine papillomavirus in blood of healthy and papillomatosis-affected cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M A R; De Albuquerque, B M F; Pontes, N E; Coutinho, L C A; Leitão, M C G; Reis, M C; Castro, R S; Freitas, A C

    2013-02-28

    Papillomaviruses (PV) are double-stranded DNA viruses that can cause benignant and malignant tumors in amniotes. There are 13 types of bovine papillomavirus (BPV-1 to -13); they have been found in reproductive tissues and body fluids. Normally these viruses are detected in epithelial tissue. We looked for BPV in the blood of healthy cattle and cattle with papillomatosis, using PCR and RT-PCR. BPV types 1 and 2 were detected in 8/12 blood samples of asymptomatic bovines and in 8/9 samples from cattle with papillomatosis. Six of 8 asymptomatic samples positive for BPV also showed expression for BPV. Five of 6 samples were positive for E2 expression, while 3/6 samples were positive for E5 expression. Five of 8 symptomatic samples positive for BPV also showed BPV expression. Five of 5 were positive for E2 expression, while 1/5 was positive for E5 expression. Two of 6 blood samples of asymptomatic cattle and 1/5 symptomatic blood samples scored positive for both E2 and E5 expression. This is the first study showing expression of BPV genes in the blood of asymptomatic and papillomatosis-affected animals.

  1. [Immunologic indexes, enzyme status of lymphocytes and functional activity of blood neutrophils in children with infectious mononucleosis caused by Epstein-Barr virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtasova, L M; Tolstikova, A E; Savchenko, A A

    2013-01-01

    Explore the immunological parameters, levels of activity of NAD(P)-dependent dehydrogenases lymphocytes, interferon status parameters, phagocytic activity and chemiluminescence response of neutrophils in the blood of children in the acute phase of infectious mononucleosis caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. 65 children at the age of 4-6 years old with infectious mononucleosis caused by EBV in acute phase were observed. Such indexes as cell-mediated, humoral and interferon immunity, NAD(P)-depended dehydrogenases activity in blood lymphocyte, phagocytes activity, levels of spontaneous and induced chemiluminescence ofperipheral blood neutrophils were studied. Children with EVB-infection have immunophenotype spectrum changes and changes of enzymes status of blood lymphocytes against the increasing in leucocytes and the useful increasing in lymphocytes. The useful increasing in IgA, IgM, IgG contenting in serum blood were found. The decreasing of spontaneous production of IFN alpha and the decreasing of induced production of IFNalpha, IFNgamma were determined. The breach of phagocytes activity and chemiluminescent response of blood neutrophils were found. The children in the acute phase of infectious mononucleosis caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, there are changes in the immune status, changes the activity of NAD(P)-dependent dehydrogenases in blood lymphocytes, marked changes in functional and metabolic state of peripheral blood neutrophils.

  2. СHANGES IN PARAMETERS OF LUMINOL-DEPENDENT AND LUCIGENIN-DEPENDENT CHEMILUMINESCENCE OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD NEUTROPHILS IN PATIENTS WITH BLADDER CANCER IN THE DISEASE DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kurtasova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with parameters of luminol-dependent and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence (CL of peripheral blood neutrophils from patients with bladder cancer (BC prior to surgical treatment. We examined sixty patients (45 to 55 years old with advanced bladder cancer (TNM prior to the operation, and forty-six patients at 10 days after surgical treatment. A control group consisted of 56 healthy donors. Luminol-dependent and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence of blood neutrophils was assessed according to De Sole et al. (1983. Chemiluminescence assays of peripheral blood neutrophils from the patients with bladder cancer revealed changes in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, both for initial stage of oxidation reaction, and total level of active oxygen radicals. We have found disturbed values of primary-to-secondary ROS ratio in the cells. In the patients with bladder cancer, some changes in oxidative metabolism of the blood neutrophils have been registered. These alterations may play an important role in promotion of potential effector cell functions, thus, probably, affecting the whole-scale development of a cytopathic effect exerted by neutrophilic granulocytes. 

  3. Establishing presence of antibodies against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, parainfluenza virus 3 (PI3 and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV 1 in blood serum of cattle using indirect immunoenzyme probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šamanc Horea

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 92 samples of bovine blood serum were examined for the presence of antibodies against the bovine respiratory syncytial virus using indirect immunoenzyme probe - iELISA. Specific antibodies against the bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV were established in 46, or 50% blood serum samples. Investigations of the 92 blood serum samples of cattle for the presence of antibodies against the parainfluenza virus 3 (PI 3, revealed their presence in 77, or 83.69% of the samples, and the presence of antibodies against the bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV 1 was established in 19, or 20.65% of the samples.

  4. Bovine lactoferrin enhances proliferation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes and induces cytokine production in whole blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaczyńska, Ewa; Kocięba, Maja; Śliwińska, Ewelina; Zimecki, Michał

    2014-01-01

    Lactoferrin belongs to the immunoregulatory milk proteins involved in iron metabolism as well in providing innate immunity to newborns. The protein has been the subject of numerous clinical studies. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of bovine lactoferrins (bLF), differing in source and iron content, on spontaneous proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and cytokine production by human whole blood cultures. The following bLF preparations were used: partially iron saturated or devoid of iron bLF from milk and bLF from colostrum. The study was conducted on 12 healthy volunteers (men, 20-24 years old). The effects of bLFs on the proliferation of PBMC in four-day cultures was studied at 50-0.6 µg/mL concentration range and the rate of proliferation was determined using the MTT colorimetric method. TNF α and IL-6 levels, induced by the bLFs in 24 h whole blood cultures, were measured by ELISA. The lactoferrins stimulated autologous proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in a dose-dependent manner, with a comparable efficacy. This stimulation occurred both in the constant presence of bLFs in the cultures and also upon preincubation of PBMC with bLFs with subsequent exhaustive wash of cells. Only bLF from colostrum induced production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in cultures of whole blood cells. This phenomenon took place predominantly at concentration of 50 µg/mL. The results showed potent stimulation of the proliferative response of PBMC by bovine lactoferrin, associated with the induction of proinflammatory cytokines only in the case of colostral bLF. This observation may be of importance when high doses of bLF are used in therapy and by designing diet supplementation with this protein.

  5. Effects of red grape juice polyphenols in NADPH oxidase subunit expression in human neutrophils and mononuclear blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávalos, Alberto; de la Peña, Gema; Sánchez-Martín, Carolina C; Teresa Guerra, M; Bartolomé, Begoña; Lasunción, Miguel A

    2009-10-01

    The NADPH oxidase enzyme system is the main source of superoxide anions in phagocytic and vascular cells. NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide generation has been found to be abnormally enhanced in several chronic diseases. Evidence is accumulating that polyphenols may have the potential to improve cardiovascular health, although the mechanism is not fully established. Consumption of concentrated red grape juice, rich in polyphenols, has been recently shown to reduce NADPH oxidase activity in circulating neutrophils from human subjects. In the present work we studied whether red grape juice polyphenols affected NADPH oxidase subunit expression at the transcription level. For this, we used human neutrophils and mononuclear cells from peripheral blood, HL-60-derived neutrophils and the endothelial cell line EA.hy926.Superoxide production was measured with 2'7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate or lucigenin, mRNA expression by real-time RT-PCR and protein expression by Western blot. Each experiment was performed at least three times. In all cell types tested, red grape juice, dealcoholised red wine and pure polyphenols decreased superoxide anion production. Red grape juice and dealcoholised red wine selectively reduced p47phox, p22phox and gp91phox expression at both mRNA and protein levels, without affecting the expression of p67phox. Pure polyphenols, particularly quercetin, also reduced NADPH oxidase subunit expression, especially p47phox, in all cell types tested. The present results showing that red grape juice polyphenols reduce superoxide anion production provide an alternative mechanism by which consumption of grape derivatives may account for a reduction of oxidative stress associated with cardiovascular and/or inflammatory diseases related to NADPH oxidase superoxide overproduction.

  6. Health status of birds fed diets containing three differently processed discarded vegetable-bovine blood-rumen content mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekunseitan, D A; Balogun, O O; Sogunle, O M; Yusuf, A O; Ayoola, A A; Egbeyale, L T; Adeyemi, O A; Allison, I B; Iyanda, A I

    2013-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding three differently processed mixtures on health status of broilers. A total of 1080 day-old Marshal broilers were fed; discarded vegetable-fresh bovine blood-fresh rumen digesta (P1), discarded vegetable-ensiled bovine blood-fresh rumen digesta (P2) and discarded vegetable-fresh bovine blood-ensiled rumen digesta (P3) at three levels of inclusion (0, 3 and 6%). Data on blood parameters was taken and were subjected to 3 x 3 factorial arrangements in a completely randomized design. Birds fed P1 had least values (p cell volume, Haemoglobin, White blood cell and Red blood cell values. However, those fed at 0% level of inclusion recorded the highest albumin value. At finisher phase, birds fed P2 and P3 had the highest glucose, uric acid and creatinine values. 6% level of inclusion significantly (p vegetable-fresh bovine blood-ensiled rumen digesta (P3) up to 6% level of inclusion.

  7. Oral antibiotics increase blood neutrophil maturation and reduce bacteremia and necrotizing enterocolitis in the immediate postnatal period of preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Fuglsang, Eva; Jiang, Pingping

    2016-01-01

    Immature immunity may predispose preterm neonates to infections and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Intravenous antibiotics are frequently given to prevent and treat sepsis, while oral antibiotics are seldom used. We hypothesized that oral antibiotics promote maturation of systemic immunity and ......, high gut permeability, Gram-positive bacteremia and NEC. Neonatal oral antibiotics may benefit mucosal and systemic immunity via delayed gut colonization and enhanced blood neutrophil maturation just after preterm birth.......Immature immunity may predispose preterm neonates to infections and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Intravenous antibiotics are frequently given to prevent and treat sepsis, while oral antibiotics are seldom used. We hypothesized that oral antibiotics promote maturation of systemic immunity...... and delay gut bacterial colonization and thereby protect preterm neonates against both NEC and bacteremia in the immediate postnatal period. Preterm pigs were given formula and administered saline (CON) or broad-spectrum antibiotics orally (ORA) or systemically (SYS) for 5 d after birth. Temporal changes...

  8. Bovine Blood Constituents as Fat Replacers in Ham Pâté

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Ribeiro Viana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Some tests were carried out in this work with the aim of evaluating a partial replacement of fat in the raw batter of ham pâté by using bovine blood constituents, such as globin (GL, plasma (PL or 1:1 globin and plasma (GP. Plasma was separated from red cells by blood centrifugation, and globin was extracted by the carboxymethylcellulose method. The salt-soluble protein content (SSP and the binding properties including water holding capacity (WHC and raw batter stability (RBS were estimated. The results indicated that among the 3 treatments studied, the use of globin showed to be a little more advantageous for the quality of the raw batter of ham pâté, since its incorporation as fat replacer led to an increase in RBS but no change of SSP was observed.

  9. Evaluation of Four Veterinary Hematology Analyzers for Bovine and Ovine Blood Counts for In Vitro Testing of Medical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Ina Laura; Friedmann, Yasmin; Jones, Alyssa; Thornton, Catherine

    2016-11-01

    Small affordable automated hematology analyzers that produce rapid and accurate complete blood cell counts are a valuable tool to researchers developing blood-handling medical devices, such as ventricular assist devices, for in vitro safety assessments. In such studies, it is common to use the blood of large animals such as cattle and sheep. However, the commercially available instruments have not been evaluated for their ability to measure the blood counts of these animals. In this study, we compare, for the first time, four veterinary analyzers for blood counts on bovine and ovine blood samples. We look at ease of use, repeatability and agreement with a view to inform researchers of the benefits of these instruments in routine measurement of ovine and bovine bloods during in vitro testing. Complete blood cell counts and a three-part differential (granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes) were measured by each of the instruments, and the results compared to those obtained from two additional analyzers used in a reference laboratory. Repeatability and agreement were evaluated using the Bland-Altman method; bias and 95% limits of agreement between the instruments, and between the instruments and two reference instruments, were used to evaluate instrument performance. In summary, there are advantages and disadvantages with all instruments. Of the four instruments tested, the repeatability and agreement was fairly similar for all instruments except one instrument which cannot be recommended for bovine or ovine blood counts. Copyright © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Identification of bovine material in porcine spray-dried blood derivatives using the Polymerase Chain Reaction technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the widely supported theory of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE spread in cattle by contaminated animal feeds, screening of feed products has become essential. For many years, manufacturers have used blood and plasma proteins as high quality ingredients of foods for both pets and farm animals. However, in Europe, the Commission Regulation 1234/2003/EC temporally bans the use of processed animal proteins, including blood-derivative products, in feedstuffs for all farm animals which are fattened or bred for the production of food. This regulation has some exceptions, such as the use of non ruminant blood products into the feed of farm fish. Authorization of the re-introduction of these proteins into animal feed formulations, especially non ruminant proteins into the feed for non ruminant farm animals, is expected when adequate control methods to discriminate ruminant proteins exist. Currently, the number of validated methods to differentiate the species of origin for most of the animal by-products is limited. Here we report the development of a rapid and sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based assay, which allows detection of bovine or porcine specific mitochondrial DNAfrom spray-dried blood derivate products (plasma, whole blood and red cells, as a marker for bovine contamination in porcine products. Sample extracts, suitable for PCR, were easily and quickly obtained with the commercial PrepManTM Ultra reagent (Applied Biosystems. To confirm the porcine origin of the samples, primers targeting a specific region of 134 bp of the porcine cytochrome b coding sequence were designed (cytbporc1-F and cytbporc2-R. Previously published PCR primers (L8129 and H8357, specific for a 271 bp fragment of the bovine mitochondrial ATPase 8-ATPase 6 genes, were chosen to accomplish amplification of bovine DNA. The limit of detection (LOD of the bovine PCR assay was at least of 0.05% (v/v of bovine inclusion in spray-dried porcine plasma or red

  11. Flow cytometric analysis of in vitro bluetongue virus infection of bovine blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt-Boyes, S M; Rossitto, P V; Stott, J L; MacLachlan, N J

    1992-08-01

    Cultures of adherent and non-adherent bovine peripheral blood mononuclear (PBM) cells were inoculated with bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 10. Some cultures of non-adherent cells were stimulated with interleukin 2 (IL-2) and concanavalin A for 24 h prior to virus inoculation. Cells were harvested at various intervals up to 72 h after inoculation. A panel of leukocyte differentiation antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), specific for bovine CD2, CD4 or CD8, monocytes and granulocytes, B cells, gamma delta T cells or the IL-2 receptor (IL-2r), was directly conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate, and a MAb specific for the BTV major core protein VP7 was directly conjugated to phycoerythrin. Cells were labelled with conjugated MAbs in single- and double-label immunofluorescence studies to identify specifically the BTV-infected cells in inoculated cultures. The viability of cells was determined by propidium iodide exclusion, and all analyses were done using flow cytometry. Productive infection of cultures of PBM cells was confirmed by virus titration. The data revealed a clear difference between subsets of bovine PBM cells in susceptibility to infection with BTV in vitro. Monocytes were readily infected with BTV, as were stimulated CD4+ cells, and infection was cytopathic to monocytes and stimulated lymphocytes. The proportion of infected cells decreased after 24 h and virus titres dropped markedly by 72 h in all cultures. CD4+ cells in cultures of unstimulated non-adherent cells inoculated with BTV showed increased expression of IL-2r. The possible relevance of these findings to the pathogenesis of BTV infection of cattle is discussed.

  12. Evaluation of Toll-like, chemokine, and integrin receptors on monocytes and neutrophils from peripheral blood of septic patients and their correlation with clinical outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, S.C.; Baggio-Zappia, G.L.; Brunialti, M.K.C. [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Hospital São Paulo, Disciplina de Infectologia, Departamento de Medicina, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Disciplina de Infectologia, Departamento de Medicina, Hospital São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Assunçao, M.S.C. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Azevedo, L.C.P. [Hospital Sírio Libanês, Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, Hospital Sírio Libanês, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Machado, F.R. [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Hospital São Paulo, Disciplina de Anestesiologia, Departamento de Cirurgia, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Disciplina de Anestesiologia, Departamento de Cirurgia, Hospital São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Salomao, R. [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Hospital São Paulo, Disciplina de Infectologia, Departamento de Medicina, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Disciplina de Infectologia, Departamento de Medicina, Hospital São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-04-11

    Recognition of pathogens is performed by specific receptors in cells of the innate immune system, which may undergo modulation during the continuum of clinical manifestations of sepsis. Monocytes and neutrophils play a key role in host defense by sensing and destroying microorganisms. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of CD14 receptors on monocytes; CD66b and CXCR2 receptors on neutrophils; and TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR9, and CD11b receptors on both cell types of septic patients. Seventy-seven septic patients (SP) and 40 healthy volunteers (HV) were included in the study, and blood samples were collected on day zero (D0) and after 7 days of therapy (D7). Evaluation of the cellular receptors was carried out by flow cytometry. Expression of CD14 on monocytes and of CD11b and CXCR2 on neutrophils from SP was lower than that from HV. Conversely, expression of TLR5 on monocytes and neutrophils was higher in SP compared with HV. Expression of TLR2 on the surface of neutrophils and that of TLR5 on monocytes and neutrophils of SP was lower at D7 than at D0. In addition, SP who survived showed reduced expression of TLR2 and TLR4 on the surface of neutrophils at D7 compared to D0. Expression of CXCR2 for surviving patients was higher at follow-up compared to baseline. We conclude that expression of recognition and cell signaling receptors is differentially regulated between SP and HV depending on the receptor being evaluated.

  13. Intravaginal Administration of Sildenafil Citrate Increases Blood Flow in the Bovine Uterus

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    Dzięcioł Michał

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of sildenafil citrate administrated intravaginaly on the blood flow in the bovine uterus during dioestrus. Uterine blood flow was examined in six healthy adult cows. Sildenafil was administrated intravaginaly to each co w between the 6th and 8th d of the ovarian cycle, in the form of vaginal suppositories containing 100 mg of active substance at a dose of 100, 200, or 300 mg per animal. Uterine perfusion was estimated by the colour Doppler examination, and obtained results were analysed with the Pixel Flux Software (Chameleon, Germany. Moreover, cardiovascular parameters were also evaluated. Animals were examined before and five times after drug application (two times at 15 min intervals, and three times at 2 h intervals. A placebo suppository was also given to the cows. The analysis of the intensity and velocity of blood flow in the uterus proved that sildenafil administrated intravaginaly significantly increased blood flow in the uterus and the effect of increased perfusion was observed for 4 h and 30 min after administration. The effect of increased uterine perfusion was observed after low as well as high doses of sildenafil. Significant changes in the cardio-vascular parameters were not detected. There were no changes in the uterine perfusion as well as in cardiovascular parameters after placebo administration.

  14. Expression of Toll-like Receptor 2 and 4 in Peripheral Blood Neutrophil Cells from Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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    Tripathi, Prashant Mani; Kant, Surya; Yadav, Ravi Shanker; Kushwaha, Ram Awadh Singh; Prakash, Ved; Rizvi, Sayed Husian Mustafa; Parveen, Arshiya; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality around the world. Preliminary studies have evaluated the association between innate immunity including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and airway samples of patients with COPD. The role of TLRs in peripheral blood neutrophils is poorly understood. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the role of TLR2 and TLR4 in peripheral blood neutrophils of COPD patients. Methods A total of 101 COPD cases and an equal number of healthy controls participated in this case-control study. Peripheral blood neutrophils were isolated from all participants and cultured for 24 hours through lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. The gene expressions of TLR2 and TLR4 were assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The protein levels of interleukin (IL)-8 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 were measured in neutrophils cell culture supernatants using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results The levels of IL-8 and MMP-9 were significantly higher in patients with COPD compared to healthy controls. Similarly, the gene expression of TLR2 and TLR4 were increased in LPS stimulated peripheral blood neutrophils of patients with COPD. Smoke pack years was positively correlated with IL-8 levels and negatively correlated with forced expiratory volume in the first second % (r = -0.33; p = 0.023) and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) (r = -0.27; p = 0.011). Conclusions The increased expression of TLR2 and TLR4 suggests its role in disease pathogenesis of COPD. Smoke pack years was negatively associated with spirometric parameters in COPD patients. This may help to predict the smokers without COPD who risk developing the condition in the future. PMID:29218124

  15. Profile of peripheral blood neutrophil cytokines in diabetes type 1 pregnant women and its correlation with selected parameters in the newborns.

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    Pertyńska-Marczewska, Magdalena; Głowacka, Ewa; Grodzicka, Alicja; Sobczak, Małgorzata; Cypryk, Katarzyna; Wilczyński, Jacek R; Wilczyński, Jan

    2010-02-01

    Interleukin (IL)-12, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-6 and IL-8 alter as pregnancy progresses, implying continuous immune regulation associated with the maintenance of pregnancy. We aimed to evaluate the peripheral blood neutrophil-derived production of these cytokines in the course of pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes. of study These parameters were measured in samples from healthy non-pregnant (C), diabetic non-pregnant (D), healthy pregnant (P) and pregnant diabetic (PD) women. Neutrophil-derived secretion of TNF-alpha and IL-12 increased along with progression of pregnancy in PD and P groups. The concentration of IL-10 from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated neutrophils increased during the course of uncomplicated pregnancy but decreased in diabetic pregnancy. Concentration of IL-8 decreased with the advancing gestational age in P and PD groups. LPS-stimulated neutrophil-derived IL-6 concentration increased only in PD patients. Our results show that diabetes creates pro-inflammatory environment thus potentially influencing the outcome of pregnancy. We conclude that neutrophil-derived cytokine production could contribute to the complications seen in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes.

  16. Neutrophil chemotaxis in cord blood of term and preterm neonates is reduced in preterm neonates and influenced by the mode of delivery and anaesthesia.

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    Birle, Alexandra; Nebe, C Thomas; Hill, Sandra; Hartmann, Karin; Poeschl, Johannes; Koch, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infections, even without any perinatal risk factors, are common in newborns, especially in preterm neonates. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible impairment of neutrophil chemotaxis in term and preterm neonates compared with adults as well as neonates with different modes of delivery and anaesthesia. We analysed the expression of the adhesion molecule L-Selectin as well as shape change, spontaneous and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced transmigration of neutrophils in a flow cytometric assay of chemotaxis after spontaneous delivery with Cesarian Section (CS) under spinal anaesthesia (mepivacaine, sufentanil), epidural anaesthesia (ropivacaine or bupivacaine, sufentanil) or general anaesthesia (ketamine, thiopental, succinylcholine). Chemokinesis was higher (p=0.008) in cord blood neutrophils than in the adult ones, whereas those could be more stimulated by fMLP (p=0.02). After vaginal delivery neutrophils showed a higher spontaneous and fMLP-stimulated chemotactic response compared to neonates after CS without labor. Comparing different types of anaesthesia for CS, spinal anaesthesia resulted in less impairment on chemotaxis than general anaesthesia or epidural anaesthesia. The new flow cytometric assay of neutrophil chemotaxis is an appropriate and objective method to analyse functional differences even in very small volumes of blood, essential in neonatology. Term neonates do not show reduced chemotaxis compared to adults. Preterm neonates present with reduced chemotaxis and chemokinesis, confirming the well known deficits in their neutrophil function. The side effects of maternal drugs on the neonatal immune system have to be considered especially when the immune response is already impaired, as in preterm infants.

  17. Peripheral venous blood neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio predicts survival in patients with advanced gastric cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy

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    Chen L

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Li Chen,1 Yanjiao Zuo,1 Lihua Zhu,2 Yuxin Zhang,3 Sen Li,1 Fei Ma,4 Yu Han,5 Hongjiang Song,1 Yingwei Xue11Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 2Department of Pathogen Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, North China University of Science and Technology, Tangshan, Hebei, 3Department of General Surgery, Mudanjiang First People’s Hospital, Mudanjiang, 4Department of Breast Surgery, 5Department of Gastrointestinal Oncology, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Accurate and useful predictors of gastric carcinoma treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy are lacking at present. We aim to explore the potential prognostic significance of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR in advanced gastric cancer receiving S-1 plus oxaliplatin (SOX or oxaliplatin and capecitabine (XELOX regimen.Methods: We enrolled 91 patients with advanced gastric cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy from August 2008 to September 2015. The peripheral venous blood samples were collected before neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The NLR was divided into two groups: low NLR <2.17 group and high NLR ≥2.17 group. Univariate analysis on disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS were generated using the Kaplan–Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. Prognostic factors were assessed by univariate analyses, and the independent prognostic factors were evaluated using multivariate analysis (Cox’s proportional-hazards regression model.Results: The univariate analysis showed that median DFS and median OS were worse for high NLR values than low NLR values before neoadjuvant chemotherapy (median DFS: 19.97 and 26.87 months, respectively, P=0.299; median OS: 25.83 and 29.73 months, respectively, P=0.405. Multivariate analysis showed that the NLR before neoadjuvant

  18. Human and murine splenic neutrophils are potent phagocytes of IgG-opsonized red blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinderts, Sanne M.; Oldenborg, Per-Arne; Beuger, Boukje M.; Klei, Thomas R. L.; Johansson, Johanna; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Matozaki, Takashi; Huisman, Elise J.; de Haas, Masja; van den Berg, Timo K.; van Bruggen, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) clearance is known to occur primarily in the spleen, and is presumed to be executed by red pulp macrophages. Erythrophagocytosis in the spleen takes place as part of the homeostatic turnover of RBCs to remove old RBCs. It can be strongly promoted by immunoglobulin G (IgG)

  19. Ex Vivo Mesenchymal Precursor Cell-Expanded Cord Blood Transplantation after Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Regimens Improves Time to Neutrophil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Rohtesh S; Saliba, Rima M; Cao, Kai; Kaur, Indreshpal; Rezvani, Katy; Chen, Julianne; Olson, Amanda; Parmar, Simrit; Shah, Nina; Marin, David; Alousi, Amin; Hosing, Chitra; Popat, Uday; Kebriaei, Partow; Champlin, Richard; de Lima, Marcos; Skerrett, Donna; Burke, Elizabeth; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Oran, Betul

    2017-08-01

    We previously showed the safety of using cord blood (CB) expanded ex vivo in cocultures with allogeneic mesenchymal precursor cells (MPC) after myeloablative conditioning with faster recovery of neutrophils and platelets compared with historical controls. Herein, we report the transplantation outcomes of 27 patients with hematologic cancers who received 1 CB unit expanded ex vivo with MPCs in addition to an unmanipulated CB (MPC group) after reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC). The results in this group were compared with 51 historical controls who received 2 unmanipulated CB units (control group). The analyses were stratified for 2 RIC treatment groups: (1) total body irradiation 200 cGy + cyclophosphamide + fludarabine) (TCF), and (2) fludarabine + melphalan  (FM). Coculture of CB with MPCs led to an expansion of total nucleated cells by a median factor of 12 and of CD34(+) cells by a median factor of 49. In patients in whom engraftment occurred, the median time to neutrophil engraftment was 12 days in the MPC group, as compared with 16 days in controls (P = .02). The faster neutrophil engraftment was observed in both RIC groups. The cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment on day 26 was 75% with expansion versus 50% without expansion in patients who received FM as the RIC regimen (P = .03). Incidence of neutrophil engraftment was comparable in MPC and control groups if treated with TCF (82% versus 79%, P = .40). Transplantation of CB units expanded with MPCs is safe and effective with faster neutrophil engraftment even after RIC regimens. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Transcellular migration of neutrophil granulocytes through the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier after infection with Streptococcus suis

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    Quitsch Ulrike

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A critical point during the course of bacterial meningitis is the excessive influx of polymorphnuclear neutrophils (PMNs from the blood into the brain. Both paracellular and transcellular routes of leukocyte transmigration through the blood-brain barrier have been described in CNS diseases so far. Thus, we investigated the mechanism of PMN transmigration through the blood-CSF barrier under inflammatory conditions. Methods In an "inverted" Transwell culture model of the blood-CSF barrier, the zoonotic agent Streptococcus suis (S. suis was used to stimulate porcine choroid plexus epithelial cells (PCPECs specifically from the physiologically relevant basolateral side. Barrier function was analyzed by measuring TEER and TR-dextran-flux, and tight junction morphology was investigated by immunofluorescence. Route and mechanism of PMN transmigration were determined by immunofluorescence, electron microscopy and FACS analysis. Quantitative real time-PCR was used to determine expression levels of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Results Here, we show that the transmigration of PMNs through PCPECs was significantly higher after stimulation with TNFα or infection with S. suis strain 10 compared to its non-encapsulated mutant. Barrier function was not significantly affected by PMN migration alone, but in combination with S. suis infection. Tight junction and cytoskeletal actin reorganisation were also observed after stimulation with S. suis or TNFα. Most strikingly, PMNs preferentially migrated across PCPECs via the transcellular route. Extensive sequential analyses of the PMN transmigration process with Apotome®-imaging and electron microscopy revealed that paracellular migrating PMNs stop just before tight junctions. Interestingly, PMNs subsequently appeared to proceed by transcellular migration via funnel-like structures developing from the apical membrane. It is noteworthy that some PMNs contained bacteria during the transmigration process

  1. [Preparation of bovine hemoglobin-loaded nanoparticles used as blood substitutes and establishment of reduction system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolan; Yuan, Yuan; Shan, Xiaoqian; Sheng, Yan; Zhao, Jian; Liu, Changsheng

    2008-12-01

    Bovine Hb-loaded nanoparticles with modulated size of pores, for use as blood substitutes, were prepared and a nonenzymatic reduction system including two-step-reduction and process optimization was established to control the metHb level in the present study. After the first-step-reduction procedure was performed, the raw BHb, being oxidized severely, was encapsulated to form nanoparticles by the modified double emulsion method. The binary solvent of dichloromethane (DCM) and acetonitrile (Aci) showed properties such as minimizing Hb oxidation and enlarging the pores of nanopartilces. Based on the size of pores o f nanoparticles evaluated by the diffusion of various substances wi thdifferent molecular weights, reducing agents such as ascorbic acid and glutathione present in the plasma were selected to perform the second-step-reduction, i. e. to further reduce the metHb in nanoparticles. The metHb level was reduced from over 90% in the raw materials to 1.25% by the two-step-reduction and controlled preparation; this is near the level of native blood, possessing the ability of carrying/releasing oxygen.

  2. Gravity sedimentation of granulocytapheresis concentrates with hydroxyethyl starch efficiently removes red blood cells and retains neutrophils

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    Bryant, Barbara J.; Yau, Yu Ying; Byrne, Phyllis J.; Stroncek, David F.; Leitman, Susan F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Transfusion of granulocytapheresis concentrates can be limited by the volume of incompatible donor red blood cells (RBCs) in the component. Efficient reduction of RBCs in granulocyte units would result in safe transfusion of RBC-incompatible units. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Granulocyte concentrates were collected by continuous-flow apheresis from granulocyte–colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and dexamethasone-stimulated volunteer donors, with 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) added continuously during apheresis as a RBC sedimenting agent to enhance granulocyte collection efficiency. After collection, the component was placed in a plasma extractor for 4 hours. A sharp line of demarcation between the starch-sedimented RBCs and the granulocyte-rich supernatant developed, and the supernatant was transferred to a sterilely docked transfer pack. RBC reduction and white blood cell recovery were determined. RESULTS Gravity sedimentation was performed on 165 granulocyte concentrates. Mean sedimentation time was 267 minutes (range, 150–440 min). RBC depletion was 92% (range, 71%–99%) with mean residual RBC content of 3.2 ± 1.4 mL. Twelve percent of components contained less than 2 mL of RBCs. Mean granulocyte and platelet (PLT) recoveries were 80 and 81%, respectively. There were no transfusion reactions or signs of hemolysis after transfusion of 66 RBC-incompatible granulocyte concentrates (RBC volume, 1.6–8.2 mL). The remaining concentrates were used for topical or intrapleural applications. CONCLUSIONS RBCs were significantly reduced and granulocytes and PLTs effectively retained in G-CSF/ steroid–mobilized granulocyte components collected with HES and processed by gravity sedimentation. This procedure allows safe transfusion of RBC-incompatible sedimented granulocyte units and may be used to expand the pool of available granulocyte donors for specific recipients. PMID:20113453

  3. Whole Blood Gene Expression Profiling in Preclinical and Clinical Cattle Infected with Atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy.

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    Elena Xerxa

    Full Text Available Prion diseases, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSE, are transmissible neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and a wide variety of mammals. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD, a prion disease in humans, has been linked to exposure to BSE prions. This classical BSE (cBSE is now rapidly disappearing as a result of appropriate measures to control animal feeding. Besides cBSE, two atypical forms (named H- and L-type BSE have recently been described in Europe, Japan, and North America. Here we describe the first wide-spectrum microarray analysis in whole blood of atypical BSE-infected cattle. Transcriptome changes in infected animals were analyzed prior to and after the onset of clinical signs. The microarray analysis revealed gene expression changes in blood prior to the appearance of the clinical signs and during the progression of the disease. A set of 32 differentially expressed genes was found to be in common between clinical and preclinical stages and showed a very similar expression pattern in the two phases. A 22-gene signature showed an oscillating pattern of expression, being differentially expressed in the preclinical stage and then going back to control levels in the symptomatic phase. One gene, SEL1L3, was downregulated during the progression of the disease. Most of the studies performed up to date utilized various tissues, which are not suitable for a rapid analysis of infected animals and patients. Our findings suggest the intriguing possibility to take advantage of whole blood RNA transcriptional profiling for the preclinical identification of prion infection. Further, this study highlighted several pathways, such as immune response and metabolism that may play an important role in peripheral prion pathogenesis. Finally, the gene expression changes identified in the present study may be further investigated as a fingerprint for monitoring the progression of disease and for developing targeted therapeutic

  4. Intravenous infusion of erythromycin inhibits CXC chemokine production, but augments neutrophil degranulation in whole blood stimulated with Streptococcus pneumoniae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, M. J.; Speelman, P.; Hack, C. E.; Buurman, W. A.; van Deventer, S. J.; van der Poll, T.

    2000-01-01

    Macrolides may influence the inflammatory response to an infection by mechanisms that are unrelated to their antimicrobial effect. Indeed, erythromycin and other macrolides inhibit cytokine production and induce degranulation of neutrophils in vitro. CXC chemokines are small chemotactic cytokines

  5. Evaluation of lactate, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, procalcitonin and immature granulocyte count as biomarkers for sepsis in emergency department patients.

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    Karon, Brad S; Tolan, Nicole V; Wockenfus, Amy M; Block, Darci R; Baumann, Nikola A; Bryant, Sandra C; Clements, Casey M

    2017-11-01

    Lactate, white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil count, procalcitonin and immature granulocyte (IG) count were compared for the prediction of sepsis, and severe sepsis or septic shock, in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). We prospectively enrolled 501 ED patients with a sepsis panel ordered for suspicion of sepsis. WBC, neutrophil, and IG counts were measured on a Sysmex XT-2000i analyzer. Lactate was measured by i-STAT, and procalcitonin by Brahms Kryptor. We classified patients as having sepsis using a simplification of the 1992 consensus conference sepsis definitions. Patients with sepsis were further classified as having severe sepsis or septic shock using established criteria. Univariate receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine odds ratio (OR), area under the ROC curve (AUC), and sensitivity/specificity at optimal cut-off for prediction of sepsis (vs. no sepsis), and prediction of severe sepsis or septic shock (vs. no sepsis). There were 267 patients without sepsis; and 234 with sepsis, including 35 patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Lactate had the highest OR (1.44, 95th% CI 1.20-1.73) for the prediction of sepsis; while WBC, neutrophil count and percent (neutrophil/WBC) had OR>1.00 (psepsis or septic shock, with an odds ratio (95th% CI) of 2.70 (2.02-3.61) and AUC 0.89 (0.82-0.96). Traditional biomarkers (lactate, WBC, neutrophil count, procalcitonin, IG) have limited utility in the prediction of sepsis. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Direct polymerase chain reaction from blood and tissue samples for rapid diagnosis of bovine leukemia virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimori, Asami; Konnai, Satoru; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Nakahara, Ayako; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-06-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection induces bovine leukemia in cattle and causes significant financial harm to farmers and farm management. There is no effective therapy or vaccine; thus, the diagnosis and elimination of BLV-infected cattle are the most effective method to eradicate the infection. Clinical veterinarians need a simpler and more rapid method of diagnosing infection, because both nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR are labor intensive, time-consuming, and require specialized molecular biology techniques and expensive equipment. In this study, we describe a novel PCR method for amplifying the BLV provirus from whole blood, thus eliminating the need for DNA extraction. Although the sensitivity of PCR directly from whole blood (PCR-DB) samples as measured in bovine blood containing BLV-infected cell lines was lower than that of nested PCR, the PCR-DB technique showed high specificity and reproducibility. Among 225 clinical samples, 49 samples were positive by nested PCR, and 37 samples were positive by PCR-DB. There were no false positive samples; thus, PCR-DB sensitivity and specificity were 75.51% and 100%, respectively. However, the provirus loads of the samples detected by nested PCR and not PCR-DB were quite low. Moreover, PCR-DB also stably amplified the BLV provirus from tumor tissue samples. PCR-DB method exhibited good reproducibility and excellent specificity and is suitable for screening of thousands of cattle, thus serving as a viable alternative to nested PCR and real-time PCR.

  7. [Change Trend of Viablity, Apoptosis and ROS Production of Neutrophil in vitro Culture].

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    Li, Hai-Ning; Zhao, Shao-Lin; Yang, Jin; Li, Wei

    2016-10-01

    To explore the change trend of cell viability, apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production of peripheral blood neutrophils in in vitro culture. Neutrophils were isolated by density gradient centrifugation and cultured in medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum for diffentrent times in a fall humidified atmosphere with 5% CO 2 at 37 °C. Cell viability, spontaneous apoptosis and ROS level were detected by flow cytometry at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The cell viability of neutrophils could be maintained above 90% at 24 h in culture in vitro, and there was no significant difference between culture in vitro at 0 h and 24 h (P>0.05), but after culture in vitro at 72 h, the cell viability of neutrophils obviously droped, the count of apoptotic cells increased, and after culture in vitro at 96 h the neutrophils almostly all died and the production of ROS at 12 h significantly decreased as compared with that at 0 h. The cell viability of neutrophils at 24 h cultures in vitro can be maintained relative stable with cell viability above 90% and unobvious change of count of apoptotic cells, but the neutrophil function test of ROS should be carried out immediately after cell separation.

  8. Airborne particulate matter PM2.5 from Mexico City affects the generation of reactive oxygen species by blood neutrophils from asthmatics: an in vitro approach

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    Ceballos Guillermo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mexico City Metropolitan Area is densely populated, and toxic air pollutants are generated and concentrated at a higher rate because of its geographic characteristics. It is well known that exposure to particulate matter, especially to fine and ultra-fine particles, enhances the risk of cardio-respiratory diseases, especially in populations susceptible to oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fine particles on the respiratory burst of circulating neutrophils from asthmatic patients living in Mexico City. Methods In total, 6 subjects diagnosed with mild asthma and 11 healthy volunteers were asked to participate. Neutrophils were isolated from peripheral venous blood and incubated with fine particles, and the generation of reactive oxygen species was recorded by chemiluminescence. We also measured plasma lipoperoxidation susceptibility and plasma myeloperoxidase and paraoxonase activities by spectrophotometry. Results Asthmatic patients showed significantly lower plasma paraoxonase activity, higher susceptibility to plasma lipoperoxidation and an increase in myeloperoxidase activity that differed significantly from the control group. In the presence of fine particles, neutrophils from asthmatic patients showed an increased tendency to generate reactive oxygen species after stimulation with fine particles (PM2.5. Conclusion These findings suggest that asthmatic patients have higher oxidation of plasmatic lipids due to reduced antioxidant defense. Furthermore, fine particles tended to increase the respiratory burst of blood human neutrophils from the asthmatic group. On the whole, increased myeloperoxidase activity and susceptibility to lipoperoxidation with a concomitant decrease in paraoxonase activity in asthmatic patients could favor lung infection and hence disrupt the control of asthmatic crises.

  9. Impairment of Several Immune Functions and Redox State in Blood Cells of Alzheimer’s Disease Patients. Relevant Role of Neutrophils in Oxidative Stress

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    Carmen Vida

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since aging is considered the most risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease (AD, the age-related impairment of the immune system (immunosenescence, based on a chronic oxidative-inflammatory stress situation, could play a key role in the development and progression of AD. Although AD is accompanied by systemic disturbance, reflecting the damage in the brain, the changes in immune response and redox-state in different types of blood cells in AD patients have been scarcely studied. The aim was to analyze the variations in several immune functions and oxidative-inflammatory stress and damage parameters in both isolated peripheral neutrophils and mononuclear blood cells, as well as in whole blood cells, from patients diagnosed with mild (mAD and severe AD, and of age-matched controls (elderly healthy subjects as well as of adult controls. The cognitive decline of all subjects was determined by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE test (mAD stage was established at 20 ≤ MMSE ≤ 23 score; AD stage at <18 MMSE; elderly subjects >27 MMSE. The results showed an impairment of the immune functions of human peripheral blood neutrophils and mononuclear cells of mAD and AD patients in relation to healthy elderly subjects, who showed the typical immunosenescence in comparison with the adult individuals. However, several alterations were only observed in severe AD patients (lower chemotaxis, lipopolysaccharide lymphoproliferation, and interleukin (IL-10 release; higher basal proliferation, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α release, and IL-10/TNF-α ratio, others only in mAD subjects (higher adherence, meanwhile others appeared in both mAD and AD patients (lower phytohemaglutinin lymphoproliferation and higher IL-6 release. This impairment of immune functions could be mediated by: (1 the higher oxidative stress and damage also observed in blood cells from mAD and AD patients and in isolated neutrophils [lower glutathione (GSH levels, high oxidized

  10. Impairment of Several Immune Functions and Redox State in Blood Cells of Alzheimer’s Disease Patients. Relevant Role of Neutrophils in Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vida, Carmen; Martinez de Toda, Irene; Garrido, Antonio; Carro, Eva; Molina, José Antonio; De la Fuente, Mónica

    2018-01-01

    Since aging is considered the most risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), the age-related impairment of the immune system (immunosenescence), based on a chronic oxidative-inflammatory stress situation, could play a key role in the development and progression of AD. Although AD is accompanied by systemic disturbance, reflecting the damage in the brain, the changes in immune response and redox-state in different types of blood cells in AD patients have been scarcely studied. The aim was to analyze the variations in several immune functions and oxidative-inflammatory stress and damage parameters in both isolated peripheral neutrophils and mononuclear blood cells, as well as in whole blood cells, from patients diagnosed with mild (mAD) and severe AD, and of age-matched controls (elderly healthy subjects) as well as of adult controls. The cognitive decline of all subjects was determined by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) test (mAD stage was established at 20 ≤ MMSE ≤ 23 score; AD stage at 27 MMSE). The results showed an impairment of the immune functions of human peripheral blood neutrophils and mononuclear cells of mAD and AD patients in relation to healthy elderly subjects, who showed the typical immunosenescence in comparison with the adult individuals. However, several alterations were only observed in severe AD patients (lower chemotaxis, lipopolysaccharide lymphoproliferation, and interleukin (IL)-10 release; higher basal proliferation, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α release, and IL-10/TNF-α ratio), others only in mAD subjects (higher adherence), meanwhile others appeared in both mAD and AD patients (lower phytohemaglutinin lymphoproliferation and higher IL-6 release). This impairment of immune functions could be mediated by: (1) the higher oxidative stress and damage also observed in blood cells from mAD and AD patients and in isolated neutrophils [lower glutathione (GSH) levels, high oxidized glutathione (GSSG)/GSH ratio, and GSSG

  11. Correlation of serum C-reactive protein, white blood count and neutrophil percentage with histopathology findings in acute appendicitis

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    Xharra Shefki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute appendicitis is one of the most common surgical emergencies. Accurate diagnosis of acute appendicitis is based on careful history, physical examination, laboratory and imaging investigation. The aim of the study is to analyze the role of C-reactive protein (CRP, white blood count (WBC and Neutrophil percentage (NP in improving the accuracy of diagnosis of acute appendicitis and to compare it with the intraoperative assessment and histopathology findings. Materials and methods This investigation was a prospective double blinded clinical study. The study was done on 173 patients surgically treated for acute appendicitis. The WBC, NP, and measurement of CRP were randomly collected pre-operatively from all involved patients. Macroscopic assessment was made from the operation. Appendectomy and a histopathology examination were performed on all patients. Gross description was compared with histopathology results and then correlated with CRP, WBC, and NP. Results The observational accuracy was 87,3%, as compared to histopathological accuracy which was 85.5% with a total of 173 patients that were operated on. The histopathology showed 25 (14.5% patients had normal appendices, and 148 (85.5% patients had acutely inflamed, gangrenous, or perforated appendicitis. 52% were male and 48% were female, with the age ranging from 5 to 59 with a median of 19.7. The gangrenous type was the most frequent (52.6%. The WBC was altered in 77.5% of the cases, NP in 72.3%, and C-reactive protein in 76.9% cases. In those with positive appendicitis, the CRP and WBC values were elevated in 126 patients (72.8%, whereas NP was higher than 75% in 117 patients (67.6%. Out of 106 patients with triple positive tests, 101 (95.2% had appendicitis. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values of the 3 tests in combination were 95.3%, 72.2%, and 95.3%, respectively. Conclusion The raised value of the CRP was directly related to the severity of

  12. DNA damage and apoptosis in blood neutrophils of inflammatory bowel disease patients and in Caco-2 cells in vitro exposed to betanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Zielińska-Przyjemska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD are chronic, relapsing, inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and continuing colonic inflammation is considered an important risk factor in the development of colorectal cancer. Our previous studies showed that beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. rubra products and their major component betanin modulate the reactive oxygen species (ROS production and DNA damage in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA stimulated human polymorphonuclear neutrophils of healthy volunteers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of betanin on the oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis in neutrophils isolated from blood of patients with inflammatory bowel disease– ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn’s disease (CD. The results were compared with those obtained in colon carcinoma-derived Caco-2 cells. Betanin treatment at the concentration of 100 μM for 24 h increased DNA damage assessed by comet assay in IBD patients’ neutrophils. A similar effect although less pronounced was observed in Caco-2 cells. Treatment of Caco-2 cells with H2O2 caused a 4-fold increase of DNA strand breaks in comparison to untreated cells, but pre-treatment with betanin reduced DNA damage in these cells. Betanin also induced procaspase-3 cleavage and caspase-3 activity accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, indicating its pro-apoptoticactivity. These results suggest that betanin may support mechanisms that lead to the release of ROS and apoptotic cell death. In this way betanin may exert anti-inflammatory and potentially cancer preventive activity.

  13. Immunomodulatory effects of bovine colostrum in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Biswas, Priscilla; Vecchi, Andrea; Mantegani, Paola; Mantelli, Barbara; Fortis, Claudio; Lazzarin, Adriano

    2007-01-01

    Human and bovine colostrum (BC) contain a remarkable amount of bioactive substances, including antibodies towards many common pathogens of the intestinal and respiratory tract as well as growth factors, vitamins, cytokines...

  14. Analysis of the Fibrinogen and Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Promising Blood Marker of Tumor Progression and Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arigami, Takaaki; Okumura, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Masataka; Uchikado, Yasuto; Uenosono, Yoshikazu; Kita, Yoshiaki; Owaki, Tetsuhiro; Mori, Shinichiro; Kurahara, Hiroshi; Kijima, Yuko; Ishigami, Sumiya; Natsugoe, Shoji

    2015-10-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies in gastrointestinal tract cancers and even patients with early ESCC have a high metastatic potential. Difficulties are associated with clinically predicting tumor progression and prognosis based on conventional tumor markers determined from preoperative blood examinations. The aim of the present study was to measure plasma fibrinogen levels and the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in blood and compare the clinical impacts of their combined values (fibrinogen and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio score-F-NLR score) and the modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS) in patients with ESCC.We classified 238 patients with ESCC based on cut-off values for hyperfibrinogenemia (>400 mg/dL) and high NLR (>3.0) as F-NLR scores of 2 (both of these hematological abnormalities), 1 (one of these abnormalities), or 0 (neither abnormality). We also categorized patients based on cut-off values for high C-reactive protein (CRP) (>0.5 mg/dL) and hypoalbuminemia (analysis identified the depth of tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis, and F-NLR score as independent prognostic factors (P = 0.002, P = 0.007, and P = 0.037, respectively).The results of the present study showed that the F-NLR score is a promising blood predictor for tumor progression and outcomes in patients with ESCC.

  15. Ultrastructural characterization of bovine umbilical cord blood cells Caracterização ultra-estrutural das células sanguíneas do cordão umbilical bovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo C Rodrigues

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The umbilical cord blood (UCB is an important source of pluripotent stem cells, which motivated researches on ontogeny and transplantation. The morphological characterization of umbilical cord cells is the first step to establish subsequent experiments on these areas. Although some information on humans can be found, no data on UCB is available for bovines. Therefore, this work is the first attempt to conduct an ultrastructural characterization of bovine umbilical cord blood. Blood was collected from the umbilical cord of twenty fetuses by punction of the umbilical vein. Samples were processed for whole leucocytes observation by centrifugation and the buffy coat was collected. Cells were washed and pelleted and prepared according to the standard protocol of the transmission electron microscopy. The presence of cells with morphologic characteristics compatible with the precursors from the erythrocytic, neutrophilic, eosinophilic, basophilic, and lymphocytic lineages was observed. Atypical cells with peculiar morphological features, strongly similar to apoptotic cells, were seen. Bovine neutrophils with three types of cytoplasmic granules were also found in the blood. The ultrastructural characteristics of observed bovine UCB cells where similar to those found in other species, suggesting that bovines could possibly constitute an experimental model for approaches on UCB cells research.O sangue de cordão umbilical (SCU é uma importante fonte de células progenitoras pluripotentes, que motiva pesquisas em ontogenia e transplantes. A caracterização morfológica das células de cordão umbilical é o primeiro passo para se estabelecer experimentos subsequentes nessas áreas. Embora algumas informações sobre SCU em humanos possam ser encontradas, não existe nenhuma informação disponível sobre elas em bovinos. Portanto, este trabalho é a primeira tentativa de se conduzir uma caracterização ultra-estrutural do sangue de cordão umbilical

  16. The effect of intensive endurance exercise and probiotic yogurt consumption, on aerobic, anaerobic, white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils in young Football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Jahani ghaeh ghashlagh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intensive endurance exercise and probiotic supplementation on aerobic, anaerobic power, white blood cell (WBC, lymphocytes (LYM, monocytes (MON and neutrophils (NUT in young Football players. This study was semi-experimental, 36 young Football players with height 172± 0.77 cm, weight 66.76±5.87 kg and BMI 21.27±2.09 kg/m2, randomly assigned into control (n=18 and experimental (n=18 groups. Medical examinations and physical fitness tests were performed before and after training done. They performed a training program for 8 weeks, three times a week, every session 90 to 120 min. Experiment group consumed 400 ml probiotic yoghurt one hour before every session of training. Both groups trained aerobic exercise with 60-75% and anaerobic with 80-100% (MHR. To determine the variables blood samples were taken four times. Initially, before the training program, there were not significantly different amounts of variables. After 8 weeks in the experiment group, the levels of lymphocytes and neutrophils significantly increased. Any report about URTI infection was not observed. Eight weeks training improved the aerobic and anaerobic power, meanwhile reduce the incidence of URTI after ingestion of probiotic yoghurt. As a conclusion, it is recommended to the athletes to consume probiotic supplement before intensive endurance exercises.

  17. Simultaneous presence of bovine papillomavirus in blood and in short-term lymphocyte cultures from dairy cattle in Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, N; Melo, T C; Santos, J F; Mori, E; Brandão, P E; Richtzenhain, L J; Freitas, A C; Beçak, W; Carvalho, R F; Stocco, R C

    2009-12-15

    Bovine papillomaviruses (BPV) are the causal agents of benign and malignant lesions; they can cause dramatic economic losses in cattle. Although 10 virus types have been described, three types are most common in tumors, namely BPV-1, -2 and -4. Previous studies have reported BPV in blood cells and the possibility of blood acting as a latent virus site and/or transmission agent of virus dissemination. We studied a Holstein dairy herd in Pernambuco, Brazil, in which several animals showed severe cutaneous papillomatosis, without previous determination of BPV types. Blood samples and short-term lymphocyte cultures were collected from 54 cows. We compared the BPV types detected in peripheral blood to those identified in the respective lymphocyte cultures: BPV-1 was detected in 74% and BPV-2 in 87% of the whole blood samples. Simultaneous virus presence (BPV-1 and BPV-2) was found in 65% of the blood samples. BPV-1 or BPV-2 were detected in the lymphocyte cultures in 93% of the samples, and both in 89%. The detection of viral DNA in whole blood and in lymphocyte cultures is evidence that this virus is carried by lymphocytes.

  18. Technical note: Evaluation of endogenous control gene expression in bovine neutrophils by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR using microfluidics gene expression arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crookenden, M A; Walker, C G; Kuhn-Sherlock, B; Murray, A; Dukkipati, V S R; Heiser, A; Roche, J R

    2017-08-01

    Reverse-transcription quantitative-PCR (RT-qPCR) is commonly used for assessing the cellular response to changes in physiologic and pathologic conditions. The selection of stable endogenous control genes is an important step of any RT-qPCR study, as expression can vary depending on the experimental environment. Our objective was to identify endogenous control genes in circulating neutrophils isolated from cows during the peripartum period. To do this, we used microfluidics gene expression arrays (Fluidigm, San Francisco, CA) for RT-qPCR analysis. Selection of the endogenous control genes was based on previous research investigating gene expression in neutrophils. The selected genes included ACTB, B2M, G6PD, GAPDH, GCH1, GOLGA5, OSBPL2, PGK1, RPL13A, RPL19, RPS9, SDHA, SMUG1, SNRPA, TBP, UXT, and YWHAZ. Four genes (GAPDH, GOLGA5, PGK1, and UXT) did not provide satisfactory quantification results using the selected method and were therefore excluded from the analyses. The suitability of the remaining 13 genes for use as endogenous control genes was assessed using geNorm and Normfinder. The gene pair with the greatest stability using geNorm was RPL13A and RPL19, whereas Normfinder ranked RPL19 and YWHAZ as the most stable pair. The 2 genes deemed most suitable for the experimental design were RPL19 and YWHAZ, which were selected for subsequent gene expression analysis. This study highlights that genes used as endogenous controls for relative quantification should be assessed on an experimental basis, even if the genes have been used in previous research. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Bovine colostrum modulates immune activation cascades in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenny, Marcel; Pedersen, Ninfa R; Hidayat, Budi J

    2010-01-01

    factors and has a long history of use in traditional medicine. In an approach to evaluate the effects of bovine colostrum (BC) on the T-cell/macrophage interplay, we investigated and compared the capacity of BC containing low and high amounts of lactose and lactoferrin to modulate tryptophan degradation...

  20. α-Linoleic acid enhances the capacity of α-1 antitrypsin to inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-1β in human blood neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Nupur; Korenbaum, Elena; Mahadeva, Ravi; Immenschuh, Stephan; Grau, Veronika; Dinarello, Charles A; Welte, Tobias; Janciauskiene, Sabina

    2016-07-13

    Alpha1-antitrypsin (A1AT, SERPINA1), a major circulating inhibitor of neutrophil elastase (NE) and proteinase-3 (PRN3), has been proposed to reduce the processing and release of IL-1β. Since the anti-inflammatory properties of A1AT are influenced by the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids, we compared effects of fatty acid-free (A1AT-0) and α-linoleic acid-bound (A1AT-LA) forms of A1AT on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced synthesis of IL-1β precursor and the release of IL-1β from human blood neutrophils. The presence of A1AT-LA or A1AT-0 significantly reduced LPS-induced release of mature IL-1β. However, only A1A-LA reduced both steady state mRNA levels of IL-1β and the secretion of mature IL-1β. In LPS stimulated neutrophils, mRNA levels of TLR2/4, NFKBIA, P2RX7, NLRP3, and CASP1 decreased significantly in the presence of A1AT-LA but not A1AT-0. A1AT-0 and A1AT-LA did not inhibit the direct enzymatic activity of caspase-1, but we observed complexes of either form of A1AT with NE and PR3. Consistent with the effect on TLR and IL-1β gene expression, only A1AT-LA inhibited LPS-induced gene expression of NE and PR3. Increased gene expression of PPAR-γ was observed in A1AT-LA-treated neutrophils without of LPS stimulation, and the selective PPAR-γ antagonist (GW9662) prevented the reduction in IL-1β by A1AT-LA. We conclude from our data, that the ability of A1AT to reduce TLR and IL-1β gene expression depends on its association with LA. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory properties of A1AT-LA are likely to be mediated by the activation of PPAR-γ.

  1. Hypertonic saline resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock does not decrease in vivo neutrophil interactions with endothelium in the blood-brain microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wanfeng; Marks, Joshua A; Sanati, Paymon; Sims, Carrie; Sarani, Babak; Smith, Douglas H; Pascual, Jose L

    2011-08-01

    Resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock with isotonic crystalloids has been shown to activate polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). Although hypertonic saline (HTS) can reduce PMN activation and interactions with endothelial cells (EC) in systemic microvascular beds, no data exist demonstrating that the same occurs in the unique blood-brain barrier microcirculation. We hypothesized that resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock with HTS would blunt brain in vivo PMN-EC interactions. Wistar rats (250-350 g) underwent craniotomy and placement of a window for live intravital viewing of pial vessels. Twenty animals were bled to a mean arterial pressure of 30 mm Hg to 35 mm Hg for 1 hour and resuscitated with shed blood and either 5% HTS (6 mL/kg) or Ringer's lactate (RL) (2× shed blood volume). Circulating rhodamine-6G-labeled PMN in pial venules were captured by videomicroscopy at baseline (preshock), end of the shock period, after resuscitation, and every 15 minutes to 30 minutes for 2 hours. Hemodynamics and arterial gases were monitored. Off-line footage analysis allowed comparisons of PMN-EC interactions between groups. Animals in both groups developed significant metabolic acidosis (p nature of the blood-brain interface.

  2. Antibiotics commonly used to treat mastitis and respiratory burst of bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeben, Dagmar; Burvenich, Christian; Heyneman, Roger

    1998-01-01

    The in vitro effects of six doses (2 x 10(-3) to 2 x 10(-8) M) of antimicrobial drugs that are frequently used in udder infusions on the capacity of bovine blood polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes to generate reactive oxygen species were studied by the measurement of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence after stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. All drugs, except cloxacillin, significantly decreased chemiluminescence at the highest dose. Doxycyline induced the most severe i...

  3. [Nutritional characteristics of a cookie formulated with bovine blood plasma as a main source of protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez Salas, E; Benitez Payares, B; Méndez Gil, N; Rangel Matos, L; Medrano, I; Venencia, I; Izquierdo, P; Romero, R; Castejón, H V

    1998-09-01

    The nutritional characteristics of a cookie formulated with bovine plasma as main protein source was evaluated. Bovine plasma was mixed with wheat flour, sugar or salt, condiments and vegetable oil. The mix was placed in trays and baking at 120 degrees C during 1 hour. Moisture, fat, protein, carbohydrate, metabolizable energy, ash, iron, essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, apparent digestibility, protein efficiency ratio, acceptability and tolerance of the final product were determined. Results indicated that 100 g of the cookie have 5 g of moisture, 16 g of fat, 16 g of protein, 61.4 g of carbohydrate, 408.2 Kcal of metabolizable energy, 1.59 g of ash, 1.9 mg of iron and 6.59 g of essential amino acids. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are in higher amount than saturated fatty acids. Results also indicated that 100 g of cookie provide at least 20% of the daily energy requirements, 24% of the iron and between 30 to 50% of the daily protein requirements for children at school age. Its digestibility and PER, tested in rats, were of 88.4% and 2.32 respectively. Acceptability and tolerance, both tested in children, were 97% and 100% respectively. The protein cookie could be included as a protein and energy supply in school meals.

  4. Synthesis and evaluation of the potential deleterious effects of ZnO nanomaterials (nanoneedles and nanoflowers) on blood components, including albumin, erythrocytes and human isolated primary neutrophils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastrello, Bruna [São Paulo State University (UNESP), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences (Brazil); Paracatu, Luana Chiquetto [São Paulo State University (UNESP), Department of Clinical Analysis, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Brazil); Carvalho Bertozo, Luiza de [São Paulo State University (UNESP), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences (Brazil); Paino, Iêda Maria Martinez [University of São Paulo (USP), Nanomedicine and Nanotoxicology Group, Physics Institute of São Carlos (IFSC) (Brazil); Lisboa-Filho, Paulo Noronha [São Paulo State University (UNESP), Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences (Brazil); Ximenes, Valdecir Farias, E-mail: vfximenes@fc.unesp.br [São Paulo State University (UNESP), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences (Brazil)

    2016-07-15

    The application of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in biomaterials has increased significantly in the recent years. Here, we aimed to study the potential deleterious effects of ZnO on blood components, including human serum albumin (HSA), erythrocytes and human isolated primary neutrophils. To test the influence of the morphology of the nanomaterials, ZnO nanoneedles (ZnO-nn) and nanoflowers (ZnO-nf) were synthesized. The zeta potential and mean size of ZnO-nf and ZnO-nn suspensions in phosphate-buffered saline were −10.73 mV and 3.81 nm and −5.27 mV and 18.26 nm, respectively. The incubation of ZnO with HSA did not cause its denaturation as verified by the absence of significant alterations in the intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence and in the circular dichroism spectrum of the protein. The capacity of HSA as a drug carrier was not affected as verified by employing site I and II fluorescent markers. Neither type of ZnO was able to provoke the activation of neutrophils, as verified by lucigenin- and luminol-dependent chemiluminescence and by the extracellular release of hydrogen peroxide. ZnO-nf, but not ZnO-nn, induced the haemolysis of erythrocytes. In conclusion, our results reinforce the concept that ZnO nanomaterials are relatively safe for usage in biomaterials. A potential exception is the capacity of ZnO-nf to promote the lysis of erythrocytes, a discovery that shows the importance of the morphology in the toxicity of nanoparticles.

  5. Synthesis and evaluation of the potential deleterious effects of ZnO nanomaterials (nanoneedles and nanoflowers) on blood components, including albumin, erythrocytes and human isolated primary neutrophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastrello, Bruna; Paracatu, Luana Chiquetto; de Carvalho Bertozo, Luiza; Paino, Iêda Maria Martinez; Lisboa-Filho, Paulo Noronha; Ximenes, Valdecir Farias

    2016-07-01

    The application of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in biomaterials has increased significantly in the recent years. Here, we aimed to study the potential deleterious effects of ZnO on blood components, including human serum albumin (HSA), erythrocytes and human isolated primary neutrophils. To test the influence of the morphology of the nanomaterials, ZnO nanoneedles (ZnO-nn) and nanoflowers (ZnO-nf) were synthesized. The zeta potential and mean size of ZnO-nf and ZnO-nn suspensions in phosphate-buffered saline were -10.73 mV and 3.81 nm and -5.27 mV and 18.26 nm, respectively. The incubation of ZnO with HSA did not cause its denaturation as verified by the absence of significant alterations in the intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence and in the circular dichroism spectrum of the protein. The capacity of HSA as a drug carrier was not affected as verified by employing site I and II fluorescent markers. Neither type of ZnO was able to provoke the activation of neutrophils, as verified by lucigenin- and luminol-dependent chemiluminescence and by the extracellular release of hydrogen peroxide. ZnO-nf, but not ZnO-nn, induced the haemolysis of erythrocytes. In conclusion, our results reinforce the concept that ZnO nanomaterials are relatively safe for usage in biomaterials. A potential exception is the capacity of ZnO-nf to promote the lysis of erythrocytes, a discovery that shows the importance of the morphology in the toxicity of nanoparticles.

  6. Prognostic role of pretreatment blood neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in advanced cancer survivors: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 66 cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Zubing; Shi, Lu; Wang, Bo; Yang, Jizhen; Xiao, Zhihong; Du, Peixin; Wang, Qingming; Yang, Wei

    2017-07-01

    Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is crucial for the incidence and mortality of various tumors. However, little is known on NLR and its association with prognosis in advanced tumors. Here we performed a meta-analysis to establish the prognostic significance of pretreatment blood NLR for advanced tumors. A systematic literature search through April 2016 was performed to evaluate the association between pretreatment blood NLR and overall survival (OS) or progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with advanced tumors. Data were extracted from studies reporting hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) and pooled using the Mantel-Haenszel random-effect model. Sixty-six studies with a total of 24536 individuals were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled analyses revealed that elevated pretreatment NLR was associated with worse OS (HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.57-1.84, Panalysis stratified by tumor type demonstrated that pancreatic cancer patients with high pretreatment NLR had the worst OS (HR 1.94, 95% CI 1.55-2.54, Pblood NLR could be an adverse prognostic indicator for advanced tumor. Large-scale prospective studies investigating its survival outcomes in specific cancer type are strongly advocated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gene expression in blood changes rapidly in neutrophils and monocytes after ischemic stroke in humans: a microarray study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yang; Xu, Huichun; Du, XinLi; Lit, Lisa; Walker, Wynn; Lu, Aigang; Ran, Ruiqiong; Gregg, Jeffrey P; Reilly, Melinda; Pancioli, Art; Khoury, Jane C; Sauerbeck, Laura R; Carrozzella, Janice A; Spilker, Judith; Clark, Joseph; Wagner, Kenneth R; Jauch, Edward C; Chang, Dongwoo J; Verro, Piero; Broderick, Joseph P; Sharp, Frank R

    2006-08-01

    Ischemic brain and peripheral white blood cells release cytokines, chemokines and other molecules that activate the peripheral white blood cells after stroke. To assess gene expression in these peripheral white blood cells, whole blood was examined using oligonucleotide microarrays in 15 patients at 2.4+/-0.5, 5 and 24 h after onset of ischemic stroke and compared with control blood samples. The 2.4-h blood samples were drawn before patients were treated either with tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) alone or with tPA plus Eptifibatide (the Combination approach to Lysis utilizing Eptifibatide And Recombinant tPA trial). Most genes induced in whole blood at 2 to 3 h were also induced at 5 and 24 h. Separate studies showed that the genes induced at 2 to 24 h after stroke were expressed mainly by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and to a lesser degree by monocytes. These genes included: matrix metalloproteinase 9; S100 calcium-binding proteins P, A12 and A9; coagulation factor V; arginase I; carbonic anhydrase IV; lymphocyte antigen 96 (cluster of differentiation (CD)96); monocarboxylic acid transporter (6); ets-2 (erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 2); homeobox gene Hox 1.11; cytoskeleton-associated protein 4; N-formylpeptide receptor; ribonuclease-2; N-acetylneuraminate pyruvate lyase; BCL6; glycogen phosphorylase. The fold change of these genes varied from 1.6 to 6.8 and these 18 genes correctly classified 10/15 patients at 2.4 h, 13/15 patients at 5 h and 15/15 patients at 24 h after stroke. These data provide insights into the inflammatory responses after stroke in humans, and should be helpful in diagnosis, understanding etiology and pathogenesis, and guiding acute treatment and development of new treatments for stroke.

  8. Neutrophil Segmentation Index Anomaly in Acquired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neutrophil lobe count was conducted on the blood films of 262 patients with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Virus (AIDS) and 204 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) antibody-negative apparently healthy controls. The count for each group was evaluated for neutrophil segmentation index by standard method.

  9. [The effect of continuous low-intensity laser irradiation of the red spectrum on the changes in the functional activity and speed of NADPH-oxidase response of human peripheral blood neutrophils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizinger, O A; Moskvin, S V; Ziganshin, O R; Shemetova, М А

    Registration of the changes in the functional metabolic status of neutrophils under the influence of low-intensity laser radiation (LILR) can be useful for the choice of the exposure parameters in the studies designed to evaluate immunotropic effects. Such investigations, in their turn, are very promising in clinical terms since their results can be used to optimize the laser therapy techniques. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the degranulation potential of neutrophils and the intensity of their NADPH-oxidase reaction in response to the exposure to laser radiation as exemplified by the release of lysosomal granules in vitro. The source of radiation was the LASMIK device operated in the continuous mode at the following parameters: wavelength 635 nm, power density 0.12 mW/cm2, exposure time 10, 30, 90, 120, 150 s in the case of the automatic timer control and 100 s in the case of manual shutdown. It was shown that the maximum lysosomal activity and release of lysosomal granules took place at a 90-10 s exposure and a wavelength of 635 nm with the appearance of a plateau within 120 and 150 s after the onset of irradiation. In the case of a shorter exposure of neutrophil granulocytes to LILR (10 and 30 s) no pronounced effect was observed. It means that low-intensity laser radiation of the red spectrum with a wavelength of 635 nm is a physical stimulus reinforcing exocytosis of lysosomal granules by neutrophils in vitro. The reliable changes of NADPH-oxidase activity of neutrophil granulocytes isolated from donor peripheral blood are recorded at an optimum exposure time of 90-100 s. It is concluded that the laser therapy techniques, at least those designed to regulate neutrophils should be applied with the optimum exposure time of 90-100 s.

  10. Effect of sevoflurane on human neutrophil apoptosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tyther, R

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Both chronic occupational exposure to volatile anaesthetic agents and acute in vitro exposure of neutrophils to isoflurane have been shown to inhibit the rate of apoptosis of human neutrophils. It is possible that inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis arises through delaying mitochondrial membrane potential collapse. We assessed mitochondrial depolarization and apoptosis in unexposed neutrophils and neutrophils exposed to sevoflurane in vivo. METHODS: A total of 20 mL venous blood was withdrawn pre- and postinduction of anaesthesia, the neutrophils isolated and maintained in culture. At 1, 12 and 24 h in culture, the percentage of neutrophil apoptosis was assessed by dual staining with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide. Mitochondrial depolarization was measured using the dual emission styryl dye JC-1. RESULTS: Apoptosis was significantly inhibited in neutrophils exposed to sevoflurane in vivo at 24 (exposed: 38 (12)% versus control: 28 (11)%, P = 0.001), but not at 1 or 12 h, in culture. Mitochondrial depolarization was not delayed in neutrophils exposed to sevoflurane. CONCLUSIONS: The most important findings are that sevoflurane inhibits neutrophil apoptosis in vivo and that inhibition is not mediated primarily by an effect on mitochondrial depolarization.

  11. Human Neutrophil Lipocalin in Activated Whole Blood Is a Specific and Rapid Diagnostic Biomarker of Bacterial Infections in the Respiratory Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venge, Per; Eriksson, Ann-Katrin; Douhan-Håkansson, Lena; Pauksen, Karlis

    2017-07-01

    The distinction between bacterial and viral causes of infections of the respiratory tract is a major but important clinical challenge. We investigated the diagnostic performance of human neutrophil lipocalin (HNL) in respiratory tract infections compared to those of C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT). Patients were recruited from the emergency department and from a primary care unit (n = 162). The clinical diagnosis with regard to bacterial or viral cause of infection was complemented with objective microbiological/serological testing. HNL was measured in whole blood after preactivation with the neutrophil activator formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine (fMLP) (B-HNL), and CRP and PCT were measured in plasma. Head-to-head comparisons of the three biomarkers showed that B-HNL was a superior diagnostic means to distinguish between causes of infections, with areas under the concentration-time curve (AUCs) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for HNL of 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83 to 0.96) and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.82 to 0.97) for all respiratory infections and for upper respiratory infections, respectively, compared to 0.72 (95% CI, 0.63 to 0.80) and 0.68 (95% CI, 0.56 to 0.79) for CRP, respectively (P = 0.001). In relation to major clinical symptoms of respiratory tract infections (cough, sore throat, stuffy nose, and signs of sinusitis), AUCs varied between 0.88 and 0.93 in those patients with likely etiology (i.e., etiology is likely determined) of infection, compared to 0.63 and 0.71 for CRP, respectively, and nonsignificant AUCs for PCT. The diagnostic performance of B-HNL is superior to that of plasma CRP (P-CRP) and plasma PCT (P-PCT) in respiratory tract infections, and the activity specifically reflects bacterial challenge in the body. The rapid and accurate analysis of HNL by point-of-care technologies should be a major advancement in the diagnosis and management of respiratory infections with respect to antibiotic

  12. Spinal cord injury in rats: inability of nimodipine or anti-neutrophil serum to improve spinal cord blood flow or neurologic status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtz, A.; Nystroem, B. (Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)); Gerdin, B. (Department of General Surgery, University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden))

    1989-01-01

    The role of a calcium-mediated increase in vascular resistance and of vascular damage caused by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) in the development of neurologic deficit and disturbance of spinal cord circulation following spinal cord compression was studied in the rat. Spinal cord injury was induced by 5 min of compression with a load of 35 g on a 2.2 x 5.0 mm compression plate. This caused transient paraparesis. The rats received either the calcium receptor antagonist nimodipine or an anti-rat neutrophil serum (ANS). Nimodipine was infused i.v. for 4 h in an amount of 1.5 {mu}g/kg/min starting 60 min after trauma. The number of circulating PMNLs was depleted by intraperiotoneal injection of an ANS raised in sheep given 12 h before trauma. This caused a reduction to about 2% of the pre-ANS value. Controls received saline or normal sheep serum. The motor performance was assessed daily on the inclined plane. On day one, the day after injury, the capacity angle had decreased from about 63 deg. preoperatively to close to 32 deg. in the experimental groups. There was then a slow improvement in both the control and experimental groups and on day 4 the capacity angle was close to 43 deg. in all 3 groups. Spinal cord blood flow, as measured with the {sup 14}C-iodoantipyrine autoradiography method, was similar in all groups on day 4. As neither the neurologic dysfunction nor the spinal cord blood flow was affected by post-trauma treatment with nimodipine or pretreatment with ANS, the possibility that calcium-mediated vasoconstriction or PMNLs play a role in the development of posttraumatic neuroligic disability was not supported by this study. (author).

  13. Neutrophils in Cancer: Two Sides of the Same Coin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Uribe-Querol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in blood and are considered to be the first line of defense during inflammation and infections. In addition, neutrophils are also found infiltrating many types of tumors. Tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs have relevant roles in malignant disease. Indeed neutrophils may be potent antitumor effector cells. However, increasing clinical evidence shows TANs correlate with poor prognosis. The tumor microenvironment controls neutrophil recruitment and in turn TANs help tumor progression. Hence, TANs can be beneficial or detrimental to the host. It is the purpose of this review to highlight these two sides of the neutrophil coin in cancer and to describe recent studies that provide some light on the mechanisms for neutrophil recruitment to the tumor, for neutrophils supporting tumor progression, and for neutrophil activation to enhance their antitumor functions.

  14. Liver morphometrics and metabolic blood profile across divergent phenotypes for feed efficiency in the bovine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanholi, Yuri Regis; Haas, Livia Sadocco; Swanson, Kendall Carl; Coomber, Brenda Lynn; Yamashiro, Shigeto; Miller, Stephen Paul

    2017-04-26

    Feed costs are a major expense in the production of beef cattle. Individual variation in the efficiency of feed utilization may be evident through feed efficiency-related phenotypes such as those related to major energetic sinks. Our objectives were to assess the relationships between feed efficiency with liver morphometry and metabolic blood profile in feedlot beef cattle. Two populations (A = 112 and B = 45) of steers were tested for feed efficiency. Blood from the 12 most (efficient) and 12 least feed inefficient (inefficient) steers from population A was sampled hourly over the circadian period. Blood plasma samples were submitted for analysis on albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase urea, cholesterol, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, lipase, carbon dioxide, β-hydroxybutyrate, acetate and bile acids. Liver tissue was also harvested from 24 steers that were blood sampled from population A and the 10 steers with divergent feed efficiency in each tail of population B was sampled for microscopy at slaughter. Photomicroscopy images were taken using the portal triad and central vein as landmarks. Histological quantifications included cross-sectional hepatocyte perimeter and area, hepatocyte nuclear area and nuclei area as proportion of the hepatocyte area. The least square means comparison between efficient and inefficient steers for productive performance and liver morphometry and for blood analytes data were analyzed using general linear model and mixed model procedures of SAS, respectively. No differences were observed for liver weight; however, efficient steers had larger hepatocyte (i.e. hepatocyte area at the porta triad 323.31 vs. 286.37 µm2) and nuclei dimensions at portal triad and central vein regions, compared with inefficient steers. The metabolic profile indicated efficient steers had lower albumin (36.18 vs. 37.65 g/l) and cholesterol (2.62 vs. 3.05 mmol/l) and higher creatinine (118.59 vs. 110.50

  15. Short communication: Amino acid supplementation and stage of lactation alter apparent utilization of nutrients by blood neutrophils from lactating dairy cows in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M; Elsasser, T H; Juengst, L; Qu, Y; Bequette, B J; Moyes, K M

    2016-05-01

    , coding for the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase α 1, tended to increase with AA supplementation. Due to the lower concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α in media coupled with a downregulation of several proinflammatory genes, we concluded that AA, rather than Gln, alter the inflammatory response of bovine blood PMN. Independent from Gln, blood PMN from cows in early lactation may use certain AA as their primary carbon source for energy than cows in later lactation. Evaluating cows during the early postpartum period will provide additional information on the effect of stage of lactation and nutrient supplementation on PMN function. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Comparison of human cord blood mesenchymal stem cell culture between using human umbilical cord plasma and using fetal bovine serum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yan; Lu, Zhiyong; Yuan, Yahong; Wang, Xiaoli; Li, Dongsheng; Zeng, Yi

    2013-12-01

    To investigate whether human umbilical cord plasma (HUP) can be used to culture human cord blood mesenchymal stem cells (HUCMSCs), we collected 20 surplus HUP. After being treated with salting out and diasysis, the HUP were used to culture HUCMSCs as 10% volume, and compared with fetal bovine serum (FBS). Morphological characteristics, growth curve and reproductive activity of HUCMSCs cells were observed. The concentration of bFGF and noggin secreted by HUCMSCs cultured with HUP and FBS medium were detected by ELISA. It was found that compared to FBS, the morphology, reproductive activity and characteristic of HUCMSCs cell cultured with HUP were not distinctively different from FBS. The concentration of bFGF in HUP group was significantly higher than that of FBS group, and the concentration of noggin was also different in the two groups. So we concluded that HUP could be used to culture HUCMSCs for a long-time, and the HUP mediumcoild could be more suitable for the culture of human embryonic stem cell (hESC).

  17. Neutrophil alterations in pregnancy-associated malaria and induction of neutrophil chemotaxis by Plasmodium falciparum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boström, S.; Schmiegelow, C; Abu Abed, U

    2017-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) is a severe form of the disease caused by sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (iRBCs) in the developing placenta. Pathogenesis of PAM is partially based on immunopathology, with frequent monocyte infiltration into the placenta....... Neutrophils are abundant blood cells that are essential for immune defence but may also cause inflammatory pathology. Their role in PAM remains unclear. We analysed neutrophil alterations in the context of PAM to better understand their contribution to disease development. Pregnant women exposed to Plasmodium...... falciparum had decreased numbers of circulating neutrophils. Placental-like BeWo cells stimulated with malaria parasites produced the neutrophil chemoattractant IL-8 and recruited neutrophils in a trans-well assay. Finally, immunostaining of a PAM placenta confirmed neutrophil accumulation...

  18. Human umbilical cord blood plasma can replace fetal bovine serum for in vitro expansion of functional human endothelial colony-forming cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lan; Critser, Paul J; Grimes, Brenda R; Yoder, Mervin C

    2011-07-01

    A hierarchy of endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFC) with different levels of proliferative potential has been identified in human circulating blood and blood vessels. ECFC has recently become an attractive target for new vascular regenerative therapies; however, in vitro expansion of ECFC typically depends on the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS) or fetal calf serum (FCS) in the culture medium, which is not appropriate for its therapeutic application. To identify optimal conditions for in vitro expansion of ECFC, the effects of human endothelial serum-free medium (SFM) supplemented with six pro-angiogenic cytokines and human umbilical cord blood plasma (HCP) were investigated. The in vitro morphology, proliferation, surface antigen expression and in vivo vessel-forming ability were utilized for examining the effects of medium on ECFC. This novel formulation of endothelial cell culture medium allows us, for the first time, to isolate and expand human ECFC efficiently in vitro with a low concentration of HCP (1.5%) and without bovine serum additives. In this serum-reduced medium (SRM), human ECFC colony yields remained quantitatively similar to those cultured in a high concentration (10%) of bovine serum-supplemented medium. SRM-cultured ECFC displayed a robust clonal proliferative ability in vitro and human vessel-forming capacity in vivo. The present study provides a novel method for the expansion of human ECFC in vitro and will help to advance approaches for using the cells in human therapeutic trials.

  19. Congenital Defects in Neutrophil Dynamics

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    Marton Keszei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophil granulocytes are key effector cells of the vertebrate immune system. They represent 50–70% of the leukocytes in the human blood and their loss by disease or drug side effect causes devastating bacterial infections. Their high turnover rate, their fine-tuned killing machinery, and their arsenal of toxic vesicles leave them particularly vulnerable to various genetic deficiencies. The aim of this review is to highlight those congenital immunodeficiencies which impede the dynamics of neutrophils, such as migration, cytoskeletal rearrangements, vesicular trafficking, and secretion.

  20. Fuel feeds function: Energy balance and bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarm, A; Viergutz, T; Kuhla, B; Hammon, H M; Schweigel-Röntgen, M

    2013-01-01

    A general phenomenon in peripartum mammals is the breakdown of (acquired) immunity. The incidence of parasite load, disease and inflammation often rise during the specific energetically demanding time of pregnancy and lactation. In this period, blood leukocytes display decreased DNA synthesis in response to mitogens in vitro. Leukocyte activation, the phase of the cell cycle preceding the DNA synthetic phase has hardly been investigated, but the few studies suggest that leukocyte activation may also be impaired by the limited energy/nutrient availability. Leukocyte activation is characterized by manifold processes, thus, we used the cellular oxygen consumption rate (OCR) as a measure of ATP turnover to support all these processes. We hypothesized that the activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) - in terms of oxygen consumed over basal levels after in vitro stimulation - is altered by energy balance around parturition. We studied peripartum high-yielding dairy cows because they undergo substantial fluctuations in energy intake, energy output and body fat mass. We established a fluorescence-based test strategy allowing for long-term (≥24h) quantification of O(2)-consumption and studied the peripartum period from 5 weeks ante partum to 5 weeks postpartum. In addition, we determined cellular lactate production, DNA/RNA synthesis and cell size and zoo-technical parameters such as animal energy intake and milk yield were assessed, as well as selected plasma parameters, e.g. glucose concentration. The basal OCR of PBMC from pregnant, non-lactating cows (n=6, -5 weeks ante partum) was 1.19±0.15 nmol min(-1) (10(7)cells)(-1) and increased to maximum levels of 2.54±0.49 nmol min(-1) (10(7)cells)(-1) in phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated PBMC. The basal OCR did not change over the peripartum period. Whereas the activation indices, herein defined as the PHA-induced 24h-increase of OCR above baseline, amounted to 1.1±0.3, 4.2±0.3, 4.1±1.1, 2.1±0.3, and

  1. Meningitic Escherichia coli K1 penetration and neutrophil transmigration across the blood-brain barrier are modulated by alpha7 nicotinic receptor.

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    Feng Chi

    Full Text Available Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR, an essential regulator of inflammation, is abundantly expressed in hippocampal neurons, which are vulnerable to bacterial meningitis. However, it is unknown whether α7 nAChR contributes to the regulation of these events. In this report, an aggravating role of α7 nAChR in host defense against meningitic E. coli infection was demonstrated by using α7-deficient (α7(-/- mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC and animal model systems. As shown in our in vitro and in vivo studies, E. coli K1 invasion and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN transmigration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB were significantly reduced in α7(-/- BMEC and α7(-/- mice. Stimulation by nicotine was abolished in the α7(-/- cells and animals. The same blocking effect was achieved by methyllycaconitine (α7 antagonist. The tight junction molecules occludin and ZO-1 were significantly reduced in the brain cortex of wildtype mice infected with E. coli and treated with nicotine, compared to α7(-/- cells and animals. Decreased neuronal injury in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was observed in α7(-/- mice with meningitis. Proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, MCP-1, MIP-1alpha, and RANTES and adhesion molecules (CD44 and ICAM-1 were significantly reduced in the cerebrospinal fluids of the α7(-/- mice with E. coli meningitis. Furthermore, α7 nAChR is the major calcium channel for nicotine- and E. coli K1-increased intracellular calcium concentrations of mouse BMEC. Taken together, our data suggest that α7 nAChR plays a detrimental role in the host defense against meningitic infection by modulation of pathogen invasion, PMN recruitment, calcium signaling and neuronal inflammation.

  2. Sepsis affects most routine and cell population data (CPD) obtained using the Sysmex XN-2000 blood cell analyzer: neutrophil-related CPD NE-SFL and NE-WY provide useful information for detecting sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S H; Park, C-J; Lee, B-R; Nam, K-S; Kim, M-J; Han, M-Y; Kim, Y J; Cho, Y-U; Jang, S

    2015-04-01

    The Sysmex XN-2000 analyzer can assess 36 routine and 57 cell population data (CPD) items. In this study, we evaluated these items as sepsis biomarkers. We enrolled 280 normal control (NC) and 130 sepsis patients. The sepsis patients were classified as uncomplicated or complicated sepsis. Routine and CPD items were determined, and the results were compared at between the NC and sepsis groups, uncomplicated and complicated sepsis groups, and survivors and nonsurvivors. For the detection of sepsis, CPD items NE-SFL [defined as the fluorescent light intensity of the neutrophil area on the WDF (white blood cell differential) scattergram] and NE-WY (defined as the fluorescent light distribution width of the neutrophil area on the WDF scattergram) showed comparative or higher AUC of 0.909 and 0.905, respectively, when compared with routine items such as hematocrit, hemoglobin, RBC, RDW, immature granulocytes count, lymphocytes count, and neutrophils count. For the discrimination of sepsis severity, only platelet-related items showed higher AUC (0.723 - 0.748) than lactic acid (0.695). For the prediction of 28-day mortality, only CV and SD of RDW showed higher AUC (0.766 and 0.732 each) than lactic acid (0.712). Sepsis patients demonstrated significant changes in routine and CPD items related to RBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets when compared to NCs. Increase in CPD items NE-SFL and NE-WY, which may indicate neutrophil immaturity or activation, could be useful for the detection of sepsis patients, in conjunction with currently used surrogate sepsis biomarkers. However, these items did not efficiently contribute to the discrimination of sepsis severity or predict mortality. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Lyophilized bovine hemoglobin as a possible reference material for the determination of hemoglobin derivatives in human blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, BHA; Buursma, A; Ernst, RAJ; Maas, AHJ; Zijlstra, WG

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the suitability of a lyophilized bovine hemoglobin (LBH) preparation containing various fractions of oxyhemoglobin (O(2)Hb), carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), and methemoglobin (MetHb) for quality assessment in multicomponent analysis (MCA) of hemoglobin derivatives. It was demonstrated that

  4. The alphaGal epitope of the histo-blood group antigen family is a ligand for bovine norovirus Newbury2 expected to prevent cross-species transmission.

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    Maha Zakhour

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Among Caliciviridae, the norovirus genus encompasses enteric viruses that infect humans as well as several animal species, causing gastroenteritis. Porcine strains are classified together with human strains within genogroup II, whilst bovine norovirus strains represent genogroup III. Various GI and GII human strains bind to carbohydrates of the histo-blood group family which may be shared among mammalian species. Genetic relatedness of human and animal strains as well as the presence of potentially shared ligands raises the possibility of norovirus cross-species transmission. In the present study, we identified a carbohydrate ligand for the prototype bovine norovirus strain Bo/Newbury2/76/UK (NB2. Attachment of virus-like particles (VLPs of the NB2 strain to bovine gut tissue sections showed a complete match with the staining by reagents recognizing the Galalpha1,3 motif. Alpha-galactosidase treatment confirmed involvement of a terminal alpha-linked galactose. Specific binding of VLPs to the alphaGal epitope (Galalpha3Galbeta4GlcNAcbeta-R was observed. The binding of Galalpha3GalalphaOMe to rNB2 VLPs was characterized at atomic resolution employing saturation transfer difference (STD NMR experiments. Transfection of human cells with an alpha1,3galactosyltransferase cDNA allowed binding of NB2 VLPs, whilst inversely, attachment to porcine vascular endothelial cells was lost when the cells originated from an alpha1,3galactosyltransferase KO animal. The alphaGal epitope is expressed in all mammalian species with the exception of the Hominidaea family due to the inactivation of the alpha1,3galactosyltransferase gene (GGTA1. Accordingly, the NB2 carbohydrate ligand is absent from human tissues. Although expressed on porcine vascular endothelial cells, we observed that unlike in cows, it is not present on gut epithelial cells, suggesting that neither man nor pig could be infected by the NB2 bovine strain.

  5. The effect of maternal antibodies on the detection of bovine virus diarrhoea virus in peripheral blood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmer, G.M.; Maanen, van C.; Goey, de I.; Brinkhof, J.; Wentink, G.H.

    2004-01-01

    Persistently infected animals (PI animals), that is those animals born after an intrauterine infection of the dam during the first 120 days of gestation, are the main source of bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVD virus) in a cattle population. The success of any BVD virus eradication programme depends

  6. Innate immune response to a bovine mastitis pathogen profiled in milk and blood monocytes using a systems biology approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine mastitis is an inflammatory condition of the mammary gland which leads to reduced milk yield and increased milk somatic cell counts (SCC) resulting in an estimated annual cost to the dairy industry worldwide of ~ 2 billion euros. Mastitis has a complex etiology, with pathogenic, host and envi...

  7. Olfactomedin 4 defines a subset of human neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Stine N; Bohr, Christina T; Rørvig, Sara

    2012-01-01

    blood neutrophils demonstrated complete colocalization of OLFM4 with the specific granule protein NGAL, and stimulation of neutrophils with PMA resulted in corelease of NGAL and OLFM4, proving that OLFM4 is a genuine constituent of neutrophil-specific granules. In accordance with this, OLFM4 mRNA peaked...... at the MY/MM stage of maturation. OLFM4 was, however, present in only 20-25% of peripheral blood neutrophils, as determined by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry, whereas mRNA for OLFM4 was present in all MY/MM, indicating post-transcriptional regulation as a basis for the heterogeneous expression...... of OLFM4 protein....

  8. Subchondral pre-solidified chitosan/blood implants elicit reproducible early osteochondral wound-repair responses including neutrophil and stromal cell chemotaxis, bone resorption and repair, enhanced repair tissue integration and delayed matrix deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In this study we evaluated a novel approach to guide the bone marrow-driven articular cartilage repair response in skeletally aged rabbits. We hypothesized that dispersed chitosan particles implanted close to the bone marrow degrade in situ in a molecular mass-dependent manner, and attract more stromal cells to the site in aged rabbits compared to the blood clot in untreated controls. Methods Three microdrill hole defects, 1.4 mm diameter and 2 mm deep, were created in both knee trochlea of 30 month-old New Zealand White rabbits. Each of 3 isotonic chitosan solutions (150, 40, 10 kDa, 80% degree of deaceylation, with fluorescent chitosan tracer) was mixed with autologous rabbit whole blood, clotted with Tissue Factor to form cylindrical implants, and press-fit in drill holes in the left knee while contralateral holes received Tissue Factor or no treatment. At day 1 or day 21 post-operative, defects were analyzed by micro-computed tomography, histomorphometry and stereology for bone and soft tissue repair. Results All 3 implants filled the top of defects at day 1 and were partly degraded in situ at 21 days post-operative. All implants attracted neutrophils, osteoclasts and abundant bone marrow-derived stromal cells, stimulated bone resorption followed by new woven bone repair (bone remodeling) and promoted repair tissue-bone integration. 150 kDa chitosan implant was less degraded, and elicited more apoptotic neutrophils and bone resorption than 10 kDa chitosan implant. Drilled controls elicited a poorly integrated fibrous or fibrocartilaginous tissue. Conclusions Pre-solidified implants elicit stromal cells and vigorous bone plate remodeling through a phase involving neutrophil chemotaxis. Pre-solidified chitosan implants are tunable by molecular mass, and could be beneficial for augmented marrow stimulation therapy if the recruited stromal cells can progress to bone and cartilage repair. PMID:23324433

  9. Mycotic bovine nasal granuloma

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    Conti Díaz Ismael Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma in a 10 year-old Jersey cow, produced by Drechslera halodes is presented. Histopathological sections showed abundant hyaline and pigmented extra and intracellular fungal structures together with a polymorphic cellular granuloma formed by neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasmocytes, histiocytes and giant cells of the Langhans type. It is the first case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma recognized in Uruguay although this disease seems to be frequent according to the opinion of veterinarian specialists. Another similar clinical case also in a Jersey cow from the same dairy house with an intense cellular infiltrate rich in eosinophils without granulomatous image, together with extracellular hyaline and fuliginous fungal forms, is also referred for comparative purposes. Geotrichum sp. was isolated. The need of an early diagnosis and treatment of the disease is stressed.

  10. Functional characterization of mitochondria in neutrophils: a role restricted to apoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maianski, N. A.; Geissler, J.; Srinivasula, S. M.; Alnemri, E. S.; Roos, D.; Kuijpers, T. W.

    2004-01-01

    Mitochondria are known to combine life-supporting functions with participation in apoptosis by controlling caspase activity. Here, we report that in human blood neutrophils the mitochondria are different, because they preserve mainly death-mediating abilities. Neutrophil mitochondria hardly

  11. Short communication: amino acid supplementation and stage of lactation alter apparent utilization of nutrients by blood neutrophils from lactating dairy cows in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glutamine is the preferred AA used by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) during the inflammatory response. However, the effect of other AA on bovine PMN response during inflammation and how this is altered by stage of lactation has not been fully elucidated. The objective of this study was to dete...

  12. Propagation of thrombosis by neutrophils and extracellular nucleosome networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiler, Susanne; Stark, Konstantin; Massberg, Steffen; Engelmann, Bernd

    2017-02-01

    Neutrophils, early mediators of the innate immune defense, are recruited to developing thrombi in different types of thrombosis. They amplify intravascular coagulation by stimulating the tissue factor-dependent extrinsic pathway via inactivation of endogenous anticoagulants, enhancing factor XII activation or decreasing plasmin generation. Neutrophil-dependent prothrombotic mechanisms are supported by the externalization of decondensed nucleosomes and granule proteins that together form neutrophil extracellular traps. These traps, either in intact or fragmented form, are causally involved in various forms of experimental thrombosis as first indicated by their role in the enhancement of both microvascular thrombosis during bacterial infection and carotid artery thrombosis. Neutrophil extracellular traps can be induced by interactions of neutrophils with activated platelets; vice versa, these traps enhance adhesion of platelets via von Willebrand factor. Neutrophil-induced microvascular thrombus formation can restrict the dissemination and survival of blood-borne bacteria and thereby sustain intravascular immunity. Dysregulation of this innate immune pathway may support sepsis-associated coagulopathies. Notably, neutrophils and extracellular nucleosomes, together with platelets, critically promote fibrin formation during flow restriction-induced deep vein thrombosis. Neutrophil extracellular traps/extracellular nucleosomes are increased in thrombi and in the blood of patients with different vaso-occlusive pathologies and could be therapeutically targeted for the prevention of thrombosis. Thus, during infections and in response to blood vessel damage, neutrophils and externalized nucleosomes are major promoters of intravascular blood coagulation and thrombosis. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  13. Neutrophil paralysis in Plasmodium vivax malaria.

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    Fabiana Maria de Souza Leoratti

    Full Text Available The activation of innate immune responses by Plasmodium vivax results in activation of effector cells and an excessive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines that may culminate in deleterious effects. Here, we examined the activation and function of neutrophils during acute episodes of malaria.Blood samples were collected from P. vivax-infected patients at admission (day 0 and 30-45 days after treatment with chloroquine and primaquine. Expression of activation markers and cytokine levels produced by highly purified monocytes and neutrophils were measured by the Cytometric Bead Assay. Phagocytic activity, superoxide production, chemotaxis and the presence of G protein-coupled receptor (GRK2 were also evaluated in neutrophils from malaria patients.Both monocytes and neutrophils from P. vivax-infected patients were highly activated. While monocytes were found to be the main source of cytokines in response to TLR ligands, neutrophils showed enhanced phagocytic activity and superoxide production. Interestingly, neutrophils from the malaria patients expressed high levels of GRK2, low levels of CXCR2, and displayed impaired chemotaxis towards IL-8 (CXCL8.Activated neutrophils from malaria patients are a poor source of pro-inflammatory cytokines and display reduced chemotactic activity, suggesting a possible mechanism for an enhanced susceptibility to secondary bacterial infection during malaria.

  14. Down-regulation of selected Blood-brain Barrier Specific Genes from Capillaries to Bovine In Vitro Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldeman, Charlotte; Saaby, Lasse; Brodin, Birger

    the in vivo gene expression of brain capillary endothelial cells. Primary bovine endothelial cells and rat astrocytes were cultured in different culture configurations and the mRNA expression of selected genes (vWF, Glut-1, P-gp, claudin-1,-5, occludin, JAM-1, LAT-1, SLC16A1, MRP-1,-4, BCRP, ZO-1, AP, TPA...... and SLCO4A1) was investigated by qPCR and compared with the expression in freshly isolated bovine capillaries. Occludin was the only tight junction protein where a decrease in mRNA expression from capillaries to culture configurations was observed. JAM-1 and ZO-1 maintained mRNA expression, while...

  15. Transcriptome kinetics of circulating neutrophils during human experimental endotoxemia.

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    Stan de Kleijn

    Full Text Available Polymorphonuclear cells (neutrophils play an important role in the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and the development of sepsis. These cells are essential for the defense against microorganisms, but may also cause tissue damage. Therefore, neutrophil numbers and activity are considered to be tightly regulated. Previous studies have investigated gene transcription during experimental endotoxemia in whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. However, the gene transcription response of the circulating pool of neutrophils to systemic inflammatory stimulation in vivo is currently unclear. We examined neutrophil gene transcription kinetics in healthy human subjects (n = 4 administered a single dose of endotoxin (LPS, 2 ng/kg iv. In addition, freshly isolated neutrophils were stimulated ex vivo with LPS, TNFα, G-CSF and GM-CSF to identify stimulus-specific gene transcription responses. Whole transcriptome microarray analysis of circulating neutrophils at 2, 4 and 6 hours after LPS infusion revealed activation of inflammatory networks which are involved in signaling of TNFα and IL-1α and IL-1β. The transcriptome profile of inflammatory activated neutrophils in vivo reflects extended survival and regulation of inflammatory responses. These changes in neutrophil transcriptome suggest a combination of early activation of circulating neutrophils by TNFα and G-CSF and a mobilization of young neutrophils from the bone marrow.

  16. Mg(II) binding by bovine prothrombin fragment 1 via equilibrium dialysis and the relative roles of Mg(II) and Ca(II) in blood coagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deerfield, D.W. 2d.; Olson, D.L.; Berkowitz, P.; Byrd, P.A.; Koehler, K.A.; Pedersen, L.G.; Hiskey, R.G.

    1987-03-25

    The first direct equilibrium dialysis titration of the blood coagulation protein bovine prothrombin fragment 1 with Mg(II) is presented. Fragment 1 has fewer thermodynamic binding sites for Mg(II) than Ca(II), less overall binding affinity, and significantly less cooperativity. Several nonlinear curve fitting models were tested for describing the binding of fragment 1 with Mg(II), Ca(II), and mixed metal binding data. The Mg(II) data is represented by essentially five equivalent, noninteracting sites; for Ca(II), a model with three tight, cooperative sites and four ''loose'', equal affinity, noninteracting sites provides the best model. Based on the reported equilibrium dialysis data and in conjunction with other experimental data, a model for the binding of Ca(II) and Mg(II) to bovine prothrombin fragment 1 is proposed. The key difference between the binding of these divalent ions is that Ca(II) apparently causes a specific conformational change reflected by the cooperativity observed in the Ca(II) titration. The binding of Ca(II) ions to the three tight, cooperative sites establishes a conformation that is essential for phospholipid X Ca(II) X protein binding. The filling of the loose sites with Ca(II) ions leads to charge reduction and subsequent phospholipid X Ca(II) X protein complex interaction. Binding of Mg(II) to bovine prothrombin fragment 1 does not yield a complex with the necessary phospholipid-binding conformation. However, Mg(II) is apparently capable of stabilizing the Ca(II) conformation as is observed in the mixed metal ion binding data and the synergism in thrombin formation.

  17. TNAP and EHD1 are over-expressed in bovine brain capillary endothelial cells after the re-induction of blood-brain barrier properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Deracinois

    Full Text Available Although the physiological properties of the blood-brain barrier (BBB are relatively well known, the phenotype of the component brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs has yet to be described in detail. Likewise, the molecular mechanisms that govern the establishment and maintenance of the BBB are largely unknown. Proteomics can be used to assess quantitative changes in protein levels and identify proteins involved in the molecular pathways responsible for cellular differentiation. Using the well-established in vitro BBB model developed in our laboratory, we performed a differential nano-LC MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS study of Triton X-100-soluble protein species from bovine BCECs displaying either limited BBB functions or BBB functions re-induced by glial cells. Due to the heterogeneity of the crude extract, we increased identification yields by applying a repeatable, reproducible fractionation process based on the proteins' relative hydrophobicity. We present proteomic and biochemical evidence to show that tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP and Eps15 homology domain-containing protein 1(EDH1 are over-expressed by bovine BCECs after the re-induction of BBB properties. We discuss the impact of these findings on current knowledge of endothelial and BBB permeability.

  18. Comparison of whole body and tissue blood volumes in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) with 125I bovine serum albumin and 51Cr-erythrocyte tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, W.H.; Pityer, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Total, packed cell and, plasma volume estimates were made for the whole body and selected tissues of rainbow trout by the simultaneous injection of radiolabelled trout erythrocyte (51Cr-RBC) and radioiodinated bovine serum albumin (125I-BSA) tracers. Blood volumes were estimated with both markers separately by the tracer-hematocrit method and as the combination of the 51Cr-RBC packed cell and 125I-BSA plasma volumes. Mean whole body blood volume was significantly less when calculated from the 51Cr-RBC tracer data (3.52±0.78 ml/100 g; ±SD) than when calculated with the 125I-BSA tracer (5.06±0.86 ml/100 g) or as the sum of the two volumes combined (4.49±0.60 ml/100 g). The whole body hematocrit (28±5%), estimated as the quotient of the 51Cr-RBC volume divided by the sum of the 125I-BSA and the 51Cr-RBC volumes, also was significantly less than the dorsal aortic microhematocrit (36±4%). Estimates of total blood volumes in most tissues were significantly smaller when calculated from the51Cr-RBC data than when calculated by the other two methods. Tissue blood volumes were greatest in highly vascularized and well perfused tissues and least in poorly vascularized tissues. The relative degree of vascularization among tissues generally remained the same regardless of whether the red cell or the plasma tracer was used to calculated blood volume. It is not clear whether the expanded plasma volume is the result of the distribution of erythrocyte-poor blood into the secondary circulation or the result of extravascular exchange of plasma proteins.

  19. Comparison of bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide concentrations in the blood, ovarian follicular fluid and uterine fluid: a clinical case of bovine metritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAGATA, Fumie; ISHIDA, Yoshikazu; MIYAMOTO, Akio; FURUOKA, Hidefumi; INOKUMA, Hisashi; SHIMIZU, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the concentration of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the blood, ovarian follicular fluid and uterine fluid of a clinical case of bovine metritis. A 2-year-old lactating Holstein cow exhibited continuous fever >39.5°C for more than 2 weeks after normal calving. The cow produced a fetid, watery, red-brown uterine discharge from the vagina and was diagnosed with metritis. The LPS concentrations in plasma and uterine fluid were 0.94 and 6.34 endotoxin units (EU)/ml, respectively. One of seven follicles showed an extremely high level of LPS (12.40 EU/ml) compared to the other follicles (0.62–0.97 EU/ml). These results might suggest the presence of high concentration of LPS in follicles in cows with postpartum metritis. PMID:25223344

  20. Apoptosis of neutrophils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maianski, N. A.; Maianski, A. N.; Kuijpers, T. W.; Roos, D.

    2004-01-01

    Regulation of the neutrophil life span by apoptosis provides a fine balance between their function as effector cells of host defense and a safe turnover of these potentially harmful cells. Alterations of neutrophil apoptosis are associated with a number of diseases. As do other cell types,

  1. Oxygenation to Bovine Blood in Artificial Heart and Lung Using Vibrating Flow Pump: Experiment and Numerical Analysis Based on Non-Newtonian Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintaku, Hirofumi; Yonemura, Tsubasa; Tsuru, Kazuaki; Isoyama, Takashi; Yambe, Tomoyuki; Kawano, Satoyuki

    In this study, we construct an experimental apparatus for a prototype artificial heart and lung (AHL) by installing hollow fibers into the cylindrical tube of the vibrating flow pump (VFP). The oxygenation characteristics are investigated both by experiments using bovine blood and by numerical analyses based on the computational fluid dynamics. The analyses are carried out at the Reynolds numbers Re ranged from O(1) to O(103), which are determined based on the experimental conditions. The blood flow and the diffusion of oxygen gas are analyzed based on the Newtonian/non-Newtonian, unsteady, incompressible and axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations, and the advection-diffusion equation. The results show that the oxygenation rate increases in proportion to Re1/3, where the phenomenon corresponds to the decreasing thickness of the concentration boundary layer with Re. Although the effects of the vibrating flow and the rheology of the blood are clearly appeared on the velocity field, their effects on the gas exchange are relatively small at the ranges of prescribed Reynolds numbers. Furthermore, the numerical results in terms of the oxygenation rate are compared with the experimental ones. The basic design data of VFP were accumulated for the development of AHL in the clinical applications.

  2. File list: His.Bld.10.AllAg.Neutrophils [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. Quantitative proteomics reveals differential biological processes in healthy neonatal cord neutrophils and adult neutrophils

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiang

    2014-06-11

    Neonatal neutrophils are characterized by the immaturity of bactericidal mechanisms that contributes largely to neonatal mortality. However, underlying molecular mechanism associated with the immaturity remains incompletely understood. In this study, we performed comparative proteomic analysis on neonatal neutrophils derived from human cord blood and adult peripheral neutrophils. A total of 1332 proteins were identified and quantified, and 127 proteins were characterized as differentially expressed between adult and cord neutrophils. The differentially expressed proteins are mapped in KEGG pathways into five clusters and indicated impaired functions of neonatal neutrophils in proteasome, lysosome, phagosome, and leukocyte transendothelial migration. In particular, many proteins associated with NETosis, a critical mechanism for antimicrobial process and auto-clearance, were also found to be downregulated in cord neutrophils. This study represents a first comparative proteome profiling of neonatal and adult neutrophils, and provides a global view of differentially expressed proteome for enhancing our understanding of their various functional difference. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Neutrophil subset responses in infants with severe viral respiratory infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortjens, Bart; Ingelse, Sarah A; Calis, Job C; Vlaar, Alexander P; Koenderman, Leo; Bem, Reinout A; van Woensel, Job B

    2017-03-01

    Neutrophils are the predominant inflammatory cells recruited to the respiratory tract as part of the innate immune response to viral infections. Recent reports indicate the existence of distinct functional neutrophil subsets in the circulatory compartment of adults, following severe inflammatory conditions. Here, we evaluated the occurrence of neutrophil subsets in blood and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid during severe viral respiratory infection in infants based on CD16/CD62L expression. We show that during the course of severe respiratory infection infants may develop four heterogeneous neutrophil subsets in blood (mature, immature, progenitor, and suppressive neutrophils), each with distinct activation states. However, while isolated viral respiratory infection was characterized by a relative absence of suppressive neutrophils in both blood and lungs, only patients with bacterial co-infection were shown to produce suppressive neutrophils. These data suggest the occurrence of distinct and unique neutrophil subset responses during severe viral and (secondary) bacterial respiratory infection in infants. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Performance evaluation of the Sysmex pocH-100iV Diff hematology analyzer for analysis of canine, feline, equine, and bovine blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riond, Barbara; Weissenbacher, Stefan; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans

    2011-12-01

    The Sysmex pocH-100iV Diff is an impedance hematology analyzer recently introduced for point-of-care use in veterinary practices in Europe. The purpose of this study was to validate the pocH-100iV Diff for analysis of blood samples from dogs, cats, horses, and cattle. Fresh EDTA-blood samples from healthy and ill dogs (115), cats (94), horses (91), and cattle (78) were analyzed on the pocH-100iV Diff and the Cell-Dyn 3500. Results of the automated WBC differential counts were compared with the manual differential counts for 77 dogs, 65 cats, 40 horses, and 46 cattle. HCT were compared with PCVs obtained by microhematocrit centrifugation. Furthermore, precision, linearity, carry-over, cell aging, and clinical relevance of the pocH-100iV Diff results were assessed. Most of the CBC results obtained by the pocH-100iV Diff correlated well with those of the Cell-Dyn 3500. Slightly low correlation was observed for canine MCV and hemoglobin concentration. Lymphocytes correlated well in horses and cattle, but less well in cats and dogs. The mixed cell population termed "OTHRS" (all granulocytes and monocytes for horses and cattle; neutrophils, monocytes, and basophils for cats and dogs) correlated well in all tested species. The instrument overestimated feline and canine eosinophils. In cats, platelet counts showed a strong negative bias. The overall performance of the pocH-100iV Diff was excellent with the noted limitations. The automated differential count can be used as screening tool in conjunction with evaluation of a blood smear. © 2011 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  13. Ultra-sensitive detection of prion protein fibrils by flow cytometry in blood from cattle affected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maas Elke

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The definite diagnosis of prion diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD in humans or bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE in cattle currently relies on the post mortem detection of the pathological form of the prion protein (PrPSc in brain tissue. Infectivity studies indicate that PrPSc may also be present in body fluids, even at presymptomatic stages of the disease, albeit at concentrations well below the detection limits of currently available analytical methods. Results We developed a highly sensitive method for detecting prion protein aggregates that takes advantage of kinetic differences between seeded and unseeded polymerization of prion protein monomers. Detection of the aggregates was carried out by flow cytometry. In the presence of prion seeds, the association of labelled recombinant PrP monomers in plasma and serum proceeds much more efficiently than in the absence of seeds. In a diagnostic model system, synthetic PrP aggregates were detected down to a concentration of approximately 10-8 nM [0.24 fg/ml]. A specific signal was detected in six out of six available serum samples from BSE-positive cattle. Conclusion We have developed a method based on seed-dependent PrP fibril formation that shows promising results in differentiating a small number of BSE-positive serum samples from healthy controls. This method may provide the basis for an ante mortem diagnostic test for prion diseases.

  14. Maintenance therapy of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia revisited—Should drug doses be adjusted by white blood cell, neutrophil, or lymphocyte counts?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Nersting, Jacob; Nielsen, Stine Nygaard

    2016-01-01

    adjustment guidelines. PROCEDURE: To identify relapse predictors, we collected 28,255 data sets on drug doses and blood counts (median: 47/patient) and analyzed erythrocyte (Ery) levels of cytotoxic 6MP/MTX metabolites in 9,182 blood samples (median: 14 samples/patient) from 532 children on MTX/6MP...... maintenance therapy targeted to a white blood cell count (WBC) of 1.5-3.5 × 10(9) /l. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 13.8 years for patients in remission, stepwise Cox regression analysis did not find age, average doses of 6MP and MTX, hemoglobin, absolute lymphocyte counts, thrombocyte counts, or Ery...

  15. Epic Immune Battles of History: Neutrophils vs. Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermin E. Guerra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in human blood and the first line of defense after bacteria have breached the epithelial barriers. After migration to a site of infection, neutrophils engage and expose invading microorganisms to antimicrobial peptides and proteins, as well as reactive oxygen species, as part of their bactericidal arsenal. Ideally, neutrophils ingest bacteria to prevent damage to surrounding cells and tissues, kill invading microorganisms with antimicrobial mechanisms, undergo programmed cell death to minimize inflammation, and are cleared away by macrophages. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is a prevalent Gram-positive bacterium that is a common commensal and causes a wide range of diseases from skin infections to endocarditis. Since its discovery, S. aureus has been a formidable neutrophil foe that has challenged the efficacy of this professional assassin. Indeed, proper clearance of S. aureus by neutrophils is essential to positive infection outcome, and S. aureus has developed mechanisms to evade neutrophil killing. Herein, we will review mechanisms used by S. aureus to modulate and evade neutrophil bactericidal mechanisms including priming, activation, chemotaxis, production of reactive oxygen species, and resolution of infection. We will also highlight how S. aureus uses sensory/regulatory systems to tailor production of virulence factors specifically to the triggering signal, e.g., neutrophils and defensins. To conclude, we will provide an overview of therapeutic approaches that may potentially enhance neutrophil antimicrobial functions.

  16. Epic Immune Battles of History: Neutrophils vs. Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Fermin E.; Borgogna, Timothy R.; Patel, Delisha M.; Sward, Eli W.; Voyich, Jovanka M.

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in human blood and the first line of defense after bacteria have breached the epithelial barriers. After migration to a site of infection, neutrophils engage and expose invading microorganisms to antimicrobial peptides and proteins, as well as reactive oxygen species, as part of their bactericidal arsenal. Ideally, neutrophils ingest bacteria to prevent damage to surrounding cells and tissues, kill invading microorganisms with antimicrobial mechanisms, undergo programmed cell death to minimize inflammation, and are cleared away by macrophages. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a prevalent Gram-positive bacterium that is a common commensal and causes a wide range of diseases from skin infections to endocarditis. Since its discovery, S. aureus has been a formidable neutrophil foe that has challenged the efficacy of this professional assassin. Indeed, proper clearance of S. aureus by neutrophils is essential to positive infection outcome, and S. aureus has developed mechanisms to evade neutrophil killing. Herein, we will review mechanisms used by S. aureus to modulate and evade neutrophil bactericidal mechanisms including priming, activation, chemotaxis, production of reactive oxygen species, and resolution of infection. We will also highlight how S. aureus uses sensory/regulatory systems to tailor production of virulence factors specifically to the triggering signal, e.g., neutrophils and defensins. To conclude, we will provide an overview of therapeutic approaches that may potentially enhance neutrophil antimicrobial functions. PMID:28713774

  17. Further studies of oligosaccharide recognition by the soluble 13 kDa lectin of bovine heart muscle. Ability to accommodate the blood-group-H and -B-related sequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, W M; Hounsell, E F; Feizi, T

    1988-01-01

    Oligosaccharide recognition by the 13 kDa soluble lectin from bovine heart muscle has been investigated by inhibition of binding of the 125I-labelled lectin to trypsin-treated rabbit erythrocytes. The results indicate that the Type 1 (Gal beta 1-3GlcNAc) and the Type 2 (Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc) backbone structures are the basic recognition units, and that the blood-group-H structure, the blood-group-B structure, the 'B-like' structure [afucosyl-(blood group B)] and the alpha 2-3 sialylated analogu...

  18. Bayesian estimation of sensitivity and specificity of Coxiella burnetii antibody ELISA tests in bovine blood and milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Suman; Toft, Nils; Agerholm, Jørgen S.

    2013-01-01

    Serological tests for Coxiella burnetii (the causative agent of Q fever) antibodies are usually based on enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) although this method is not thoroughly evaluated. The objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of an ELISA for detection...... of the ELISA methods on milk and blood were equal at 0.99. No conditional dependence was observed between the specificity estimates of the two test methods. However, the sensitivity estimates of both tests were significantly reduced when conditional covariances ≥40 were used. Collection of milk samples from...... to positive (S/P) cut-off of 40 for both blood and milk ELISAs. At this cut-off, sensitivity of milk ELISA was 0.86 (95% posterior credibility interval [PCI] [0.76; 0.96]). This was slightly but insignificantly higher than sensitivity of blood ELISA (0.84; 95% PCI [0.75; 0.93]). The specificity estimates...

  19. Human Umbilical Cord Blood Serum: Effective Substitute of Fetal Bovine Serum for Culturing of Human Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, Yu A; Balashova, E E; Volgina, N E; Kabaeva, N V; Dugina, T N; Sukhikh, G T

    2017-02-01

    Optimal conditions for culturing of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in the presence of pooled umbilical cord blood serum were determined. It was found that umbilical cord blood serum in a concentration range of 1-10% effectively supported high viability and proliferative activity of cells with unaltered phenotype and preserved multilineage differentiation capacity. The proposed approach allows avoiding the use of xenogenic animal sera for culturing of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells and creates prerequisites for designing and manufacturing safe cellular and/or acellular products for medical purposes.

  20. Autophagy Primes Neutrophils for Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation during Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Young; Shrestha, Sanjeeb; Youn, Young-Jin; Kim, Jun-Kyu; Kim, Shin-Yeong; Kim, Hyun Jung; Park, So-Hee; Ahn, Won-Gyun; Kim, Shin; Lee, Myung Goo; Jung, Ki-Suck; Park, Yong Bum; Mo, Eun-Kyung; Ko, Yousang; Lee, Suh-Young; Koh, Younsuck; Park, Myung Jae; Song, Dong-Keun; Hong, Chang-Won

    2017-09-01

    Neutrophils are key effectors in the host's immune response to sepsis. Excessive stimulation or dysregulated neutrophil functions are believed to be responsible for sepsis pathogenesis. However, the mechanisms regulating functional plasticity of neutrophils during sepsis have not been fully determined. We investigated the role of autophagy in neutrophil functions during sepsis in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Neutrophils were isolated from patients with sepsis and stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). The levels of reactive oxygen species generation, neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, and granule release, and the autophagic status were evaluated. The effect of neutrophil autophagy augmentation was further evaluated in a mouse model of sepsis. Neutrophils isolated from patients who survived sepsis showed an increase in autophagy induction, and were primed for NET formation in response to subsequent PMA stimulation. In contrast, neutrophils isolated from patients who did not survive sepsis showed dysregulated autophagy and a decreased response to PMA stimulation. The induction of autophagy primed healthy neutrophils for NET formation and vice versa. In a mouse model of sepsis, the augmentation of autophagy improved survival via a NET-dependent mechanism. These results indicate that neutrophil autophagy primes neutrophils for increased NET formation, which is important for proper neutrophil effector functions during sepsis. Our study provides important insights into the role of autophagy in neutrophils during sepsis.

  1. High affinity capture and concentration of quinacrine in polymorphonuclear neutrophils via vacuolar ATPase-mediated ion trapping: Comparison with other peripheral blood leukocytes and implications for the distribution of cationic drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Caroline; Gagné, Valérie; Fernandes, Maria J.G.; Marceau, François, E-mail: francois.marceau@crchul.ulaval.ca

    2013-07-15

    Many cationic drugs are concentrated in acidic cell compartments due to low retro-diffusion of the protonated molecule (ion trapping), with an ensuing vacuolar and autophagic cytopathology. In solid tissues, there is evidence that phagocytic cells, e.g., histiocytes, preferentially concentrate cationic drugs. We hypothesized that peripheral blood leukocytes could differentially take up a fluorescent model cation, quinacrine, depending on their phagocytic competence. Quinacrine transport parameters were determined in purified or total leukocyte suspensions at 37 °C. Purified polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs, essentially neutrophils) exhibited a quinacrine uptake velocity inferior to that of lymphocytes, but a consistently higher affinity (apparent K{sub M} 1.1 vs. 6.3 μM, respectively). However, the vacuolar (V)-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 prevented quinacrine transport or initiated its release in either cell type. PMNLs capture most of the quinacrine added at low concentrations to fresh peripheral blood leukocytes compared with lymphocytes and monocytes (cytofluorometry). Accumulation of the autophagy marker LC3-II occurred rapidly and at low drug concentrations in quinacrine-treated PMNLs (significant at ≥ 2.5 μM, ≥ 2 h). Lymphocytes contained more LAMP1 than PMNLs, suggesting that the mass of lysosomes and late endosomes is a determinant of quinacrine uptake V{sub max}. PMNLs, however, exhibited the highest capacity for pinocytosis (uptake of fluorescent dextran into endosomes). The selectivity of quinacrine distribution in peripheral blood leukocytes may be determined by the collaboration of a non-concentrating plasma membrane transport mechanism, tentatively identified as pinocytosis in PMNLs, with V-ATPase-mediated concentration. Intracellular reservoirs of cationic drugs are a potential source of toxicity (e.g., loss of lysosomal function in phagocytes). - Highlights: • Quinacrine is concentrated in acidic organelles via V-ATPase-mediated ion

  2. Neutrophils, a candidate biomarker and target for radiation therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schernberg, Antoine; Blanchard, Pierre; Chargari, Cyrus; Deutsch, Eric

    2017-11-01

    Neutrophils are the most abundant blood-circulating white blood cells, continuously generated in the bone marrow. Growing evidence suggests they regulate the innate and adaptive immune system during tumor evolution. This review will first summarize the recent findings on neutrophils as a key player in cancer evolution, then as a potential biomarker, and finally as therapeutic targets, with respective focuses on the interplay with radiation therapy. A complex interplay: Neutrophils have been associated with tumor progression through multiple pathways. Ionizing radiation has cytotoxic effects on cancer cells, but the sensitivity to radiation therapy in vivo differ from isolated cancer cells in vitro, partially due to the tumor microenvironment. Different microenvironmental states, whether baseline or induced, can modulate or even attenuate the effects of radiation, with consequences for therapeutic efficacy. Inflammatory biomarkers: Inflammation-based scores have been widely studied as prognostic biomarkers in cancer patients. We have performed a large retrospective cohort of patients undergoing radiation therapy (1233 patients), with robust relationship between baseline blood neutrophil count and 3-year's patient's overall survival in patients with different cancer histologies. (Pearson's correlation test: p = .001, r = -.93). Therapeutic approaches: Neutrophil-targeting agents are being developed for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Neutrophils either can exert antitumoral (N1 phenotype) or protumoral (N2 phenotype) activity, depending on the Tumor Micro Environment. Tumor associated N2 neutrophils are characterized by high expression of CXCR4, VEGF, and gelatinase B/MMP9. TGF-β within the tumor microenvironment induces a population of TAN with a protumor N2 phenotype. TGF-β blockade slows tumor growth through activation of CD8 + T cells, macrophages, and tumor associated neutrophils with an antitumor N1 phenotype. This supports

  3. Genetic characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus strains in Beijing, China and innate immune responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in persistently infected dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xiao Gang; Song, Quan Jiang; Wu, Qiong; Liu, Ming Chao; Wang, Meng Ling; Wang, Jiu Feng

    2015-01-01

    To acquire epidemiological data on the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and identify cattle persistently infected (PI) with this virus, 4,327 samples from Holstein dairy cows were screened over a four-year period in Beijing, China. Eighteen BVD viruses were isolated, 12 from PI cattle. Based on genetic analysis of their 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR), the 18 isolates were assigned to subgenotype BVDV-1m, 1a, 1d, 1q, and 1b. To investigate the innate immune responses in the peripheral-blood mononuclear cells of PI cattle, the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors, interferon-α (IFN-α), IFN-β, myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance 1 (MX1), and interferon stimulatory gene 15 (ISG15) was assessed by qPCR. When compared with healthy cattle, the expression of TLR-7, IFN-α, and IFN-β mRNA was downregulated, but the expression of MX1 and ISG-15 mRNA was upregulated in PI cattle. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that the expression of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) and IRF-7 was lower in PI cattle than in healthy cattle. Thus, BVDV-1m and 1a are the predominant subgenotypes in the Beijing region, and the strains are highly divergent. Our findings also suggest that the TLR-7/IRF-7 signaling pathway plays a role in evasion of host restriction by BVDV.

  4. Development and validation of a sensitive enzyme immunoassay for surveillance of Cry1Ab toxin in bovine blood plasma of cows fed Bt-maize (MON810).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Vijay; Steinke, Kerstin; Meyer, Heinrich H D

    2008-01-21

    The increasing global adoption of genetically modified (GM) plant derivatives in animal feed has provoked a strong demand for an appropriate detection method to evaluate the existence of transgenic protein in animal tissues and animal by-products derived from GM plant fed animals. A highly specific and sensitive sandwich enzyme immunoassay for the surveillance of transgenic Cry1Ab protein from Bt-maize in the blood plasma of cows fed on Bt-maize was developed and validated according to the criteria of EU-Decision 2002/657/EC. The sandwich assay is based on immuno-affinity purified polyclonal antibody raised against Cry1Ab protein in rabbits. Native and biotinylated forms of this antibody served as capture antibody and detection antibody for the ELISA, respectively. Streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase conjugate and TMB substrate provided the means for enzymatic colour development. The immunoassay allowed Cry1Ab protein determination in bovine blood plasma in an analytical range of 0.4-100 ng mL(-1) with a decision limit (CCalpha) of 1.5 ng mL(-1) and detection capability (CCbeta) of 2.3 ng mL(-1). Recoveries ranged from 89 to 106% (mean value of 98%) in spiked plasma. In total, 20 plasma samples from cows (n=7) fed non-transgenic maize and 24 samples from cows (n=8) fed transgenic maize (collected before and, after 1 and 2 months of feeding) were investigated for the presence of the Cry1Ab protein. There was no difference amongst both groups (all the samples were below 1.5 ng mL(-1); CCalpha). No plasma sample was positive for the presence of the Cry1Ab protein at CCalpha and CCbeta of the assay.

  5. Changes in Neutrophil Functions in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Indreshpal; Simons, Elizabeth R.; Castro, Victoria; Pierson, Duane L.

    2002-01-01

    Neutrophil functions (phagocytosis, oxidative burst, degranulation) and expression of surface markers involved in these functions were studied in 25 astronauts before and after 4 space shuttle missions. Space flight duration ranged from 5 to 11 days. Blood specimens were obtained 10 days before launch (preflight or L-10), immediately after landing (landing or R+0), and again at 3 days after landing (postflight or R+3). Blood samples were also collected from 9 healthy low-stressed subjects at 3 time points simulating a 10-day shuttle mission. The number of neutrophils increased at landing by 85 percent when compared to the preflight numbers. Neutrophil functions were studied in whole blood using flow cytometric methods. Phagocytosis of E.coli-FITC and oxidative burst capacity of the neutrophils following the 9 to 11 day missions were lower at all three sampling points than the mean values for control subjects. Phagocytosis and oxidative burst capacity of the astronauts was decreased even 10-days before space flight. Mission duration appears to be a factor in phagocytic and oxidative functions. In contrast, following the short-duration (5-days) mission, these functions were unchanged from control values. No consistent changes in degranulation were observed following either short or medium length space missions. The expression of CD16, CD32, CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, L-selectin and CD36 was measured and found to be variable. Specifically, CD16 and CD32 did not correlate with the changes in oxidative burst and phagocytosis. We can conclude from this study that the stresses associated with space flight can alter the important functions of neutrophils.

  6. A large-scale electrophoresis- and chromatography-based determination of gene expression profiles in bovine brain capillary endothelial cells after the re-induction of blood-brain barrier properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duban-Deweer Sophie

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs form the physiological basis of the blood-brain barrier (BBB. The barrier function is (at least in part due to well-known proteins such as transporters, tight junctions and metabolic barrier proteins (e.g. monoamine oxidase, gamma glutamyltranspeptidase and P-glycoprotein. Our previous 2-dimensional gel proteome analysis had identified a large number of proteins and revealed the major role of dynamic cytoskeletal remodelling in the differentiation of bovine BCECs. The aim of the present study was to elaborate a reference proteome of Triton X-100-soluble species from bovine BCECs cultured in the well-established in vitro BBB model developed in our laboratory. Results A total of 215 protein spots (corresponding to 130 distinct proteins were identified by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, whereas over 350 proteins were identified by a shotgun approach. We classified around 430 distinct proteins expressed by bovine BCECs. Our large-scale gene expression analysis enabled the correction of mistakes referenced into protein databases (e.g. bovine vinculin and constitutes valuable evidence for predictions based on genome annotation. Conclusions Elaboration of a reference proteome constitutes the first step in creating a gene expression database dedicated to capillary endothelial cells displaying BBB characteristics. It improves of our knowledge of the BBB and the key proteins in cell structures, cytoskeleton organization, metabolism, detoxification and drug resistance. Moreover, our results emphasize the need for both appropriate experimental design and correct interpretation of proteome datasets.

  7. Neutrophils as a prognostic factor in the systemic treatment of Ovarian Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jon Røikjær; Dahl Steffensen, Karina

    research protocol. Performance status (PS), FIGO stage, tumour grade, residual tumour, baseline neutrophils, first nadir neutrophils and LDH were analysed in comparison to overall survival (OS). Results: Patients with low vs medium vs high level of baseline neutrophils (cut-offs: 4.7 and 6.5) showed median...... prognostic marker in multivariate analysis comparing low vs high baseline neutrophils (HR: 1.97) ( 95% CI: 1.18-3.30)(P=0.009). Other independent prognostic markers were FIGO stage, residual tumour and performance status. Conclusions: Baseline neutrophil blood count was found to be an independent prognostic...

  8. Bacterial Siderophores Hijack Neutrophil Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Piu; Yeoh, Beng San; Olvera, Rodrigo A; Xiao, Xia; Singh, Vishal; Awasthi, Deepika; Subramanian, Bhagawat C; Chen, Qiuyan; Dikshit, Madhu; Wang, Yanming; Parent, Carole A; Vijay-Kumar, Matam

    2017-06-01

    Neutrophils are the primary immune cells that respond to inflammation and combat microbial transgression. To thrive, the bacteria residing in their mammalian host have to withstand the antibactericidal responses of neutrophils. We report that enterobactin (Ent), a catecholate siderophore expressed by Escherichia coli, inhibited PMA-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in mouse and human neutrophils. Ent also impaired the degranulation of primary granules and inhibited phagocytosis and bactericidal activity of neutrophils, without affecting their migration and chemotaxis. Molecular analysis revealed that Ent can chelate intracellular labile iron that is required for neutrophil oxidative responses. Other siderophores (pyoverdine, ferrichrome, deferoxamine) likewise inhibited ROS and NETs in neutrophils, thus indicating that the chelation of iron may largely explain their inhibitory effects. To counter iron theft by Ent, neutrophils rely on the siderophore-binding protein lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) in a "tug-of-war" for iron. The inhibition of neutrophil ROS and NETs by Ent was augmented in Lcn2-deficient neutrophils compared with wild-type neutrophils but was rescued by the exogenous addition of recombinant Lcn2. Taken together, our findings illustrate the novel concept that microbial siderophore's iron-scavenging property may serve as an antiradical defense system that neutralizes the immune functions of neutrophils. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  9. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on proliferation and cytokine expression of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells and splenocytes ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Lydia; von Soosten, Dirk; Sipka, Anja; Döll, Susanne; Beineke, Andreas; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim; Dänicke, Sven

    2012-04-01

    Twenty-five primiparous Holstein cows were divided into five experimental groups (five animals per group) by different feeding (control fat preparation [CON] or conjugated linoleic acid [CLA] supplement) and slaughtering times. The daily consumption of CLA was 6.0 g of the trans-10, cis-12 CLA-isomer and 5.7 g cis-9, trans-11 CLA isomer. An initial group (IG) was slaughtered one day post partum (pp) and the remaining 20 animals after 42 and 105 days pp, respectively. Blood for peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) separation was taken seven days ante partum and immediately before slaughter. The spleen was removed during dissection for isolation of splenocytes and samples for histopathological examination. Cell viability and Concanavalin A-stimulated proliferation was analysed by MTT and Alamar Blue assay. Basal expression of cytokines (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-10, IL-12, tumour necrosis factor alpha [TNF-alpha] and interferon gamma [IFN-gamma]) was measured by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in unstimulated PMBC and splenocytes. With PBMC, stimulation indices increased from 1 day pp to 105 days pp with no differences between CLA and CON groups. With splenocytes, the stimulation index of the CLA group was lower compared to CON group 105 days pp. Baseline expression of cytokines was not effected by CLA feeding comparing similar time points. Also, no differences occurred in the expression of IL-4 in PBMC and IL-10 as well as TNF-alpha in both cell populations, when comparing the feeding groups separately with IG. IL-4 was more frequently expressed in CLA group 42 days pp in splenocytes. IFN-gamma expression was increased 105 days pp in CLA group in splenocytes and PBMC. IL-12 was higher expressed 105 days (PBMC) or 42 days pp (splenocytes) when compared to IG. There was no effect of CLA feeding or slaughter time on histopathology of the spleen. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate an inhibiting effect of CLA on the mitogen

  10. Biochemical identification of the bovine blood group M' antigen as a major histocompatibility complex class I-like molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hønberg, L S; Larsen, B; Koch, C

    1995-01-01

    red and white cells isolated from M'-A16 positive animals, whereas no bands were seen in M'-A16 negative animals in precipitations with the same antibody. Precipitation with a crossreacting human beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-m) specific antibody confirmed a class-I-like structure associated with beta...... 2-m on M' positive red cells and the absence of such a structure on M' negative red cells. Sequential precipitations gave analogous results. Proteolytic degradation by papain and V8 protease did not reveal any substantial difference between red and white M'-A16 positive cells, but a slight...... difference in the pI of the immunoprecipitable components of red and white cells was observed. All together, this indicates that either the blood group antigen M' is the BoLA-A16 class I antigen or M' and BoLA-A16 are two different class I polypeptides with the same relative mass, sharing identical epitopes...

  11. Modulation of Mycobacterium bovis-Specific Responses of Bovine Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells by 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, W. R.; Nonnecke, B. J.; Rahner, T. E.; Palmer, M. V.; Whipple, D. L.; Horst, R. L.

    2001-01-01

    Historically, administration of vitamin D has been considered beneficial in the treatment of tuberculosis. The interaction of this vitamin {i.e., 1,25-dihdroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3]} with the antitubercular immune response, however, is not clear. In the present study, in vitro recall responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from cattle infected with Mycobacterium bovis were used to study the immune-modulatory effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on M. bovis-specific responses in vitro. Addition of 1 or 10 nM 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited M. bovis-specific proliferative responses of PBMC from M. bovis-infected cattle, affecting predominately the CD4+ cell subset. In addition, 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited M. bovis-specific gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production yet enhanced M. bovis-specific nitric oxide (NO) production. Lymphocyte apoptosis, measured by flow cytometry using annexin-V staining, was diminished by addition of 1,25(OH)2D3 to PBMC cultures. These findings support the current hypothesis that 1,25(OH)2D3 enhances mycobacterial killing by increasing NO production, a potent antimicrobial mechanism of activated macrophages, and suggest that 1,25(OH)2D3 limits host damage by decreasing M. bovis-induced IFN-γ production. PMID:11687464

  12. Hyperbaric oxygen enhances neutrophil apoptosis and their clearance by monocyte-derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almzaiel, Anwar J; Billington, Richard; Smerdon, Gary; Moody, A John

    2015-08-01

    Neutrophil apoptosis and clearance by macrophages are essential for wound healing. Evidence suggests that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) exposure may enhance neutrophil apoptosis, but HBO effects leading to neutrophil clearance by macrophages are still unclear. In the current study, bovine neutrophils and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMΦ) were co-cultured under HBO (97.9% O2, 2.1% CO2 at 2.4 atm absolute (ATA)) (1 atm = 101.325 kPa), hyperbaric normoxia (8.8% O2 at 2.4 ATA), normobaric hyperoxia (95% O2, 5% CO2), normoxia (air), and normobaric hypoxia (5% O2, 5% CO2). Phagocytosis of fresh and 22 h aged neutrophils by MDMΦ was increased after HBO pre-treatment, assessed using flow cytometry and light microscopy. Enhanced clearance of neutrophils was accompanied by an increase in H2O2 levels following HBO pre-treatment with upregulation of IL-10 (anti-inflammatory cytokine) mRNA expression in LPS-stimulated MDMΦ that had ingested aged neutrophils. TNF-α (pro-inflammatory cytokine) gene expression did not change in LPS-stimulated MDMΦ that had ingested fresh or aged neutrophils after HBO, pressure, and hyperoxia. These findings suggest that HBO-activated MDMΦ participate in the clearance of apoptotic cells. Uptake of neutrophils by MDMΦ exposed to HBO may contribute to resolution of inflammation, because HBO induced up-regulation of IL-10 mRNA expression.

  13. Lactoferrin is a survival factor for neutrophils in rheumatoid synovial fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S. H.; Francis, N.; Chahal, H.; Raza, K.; Salmon, M.; Scheel-Toellner, D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. Lactoferrin is an iron-binding protein that is released from activated neutrophils at sites of inflammation and has anti-microbial as well as anti-inflammatory properties. This study set out to determine whether lactoferrin can delay neutrophil apoptosis and could act as a survival factor for neutrophils in SF. Methods. Human peripheral blood and SF neutrophils were incubated with iron-free lactoferrin and apoptosis determined after 9 h. SF from patients with RA was added to isolated neutrophils, with or without immunodepletion of lactoferrin, and effects on neutrophil apoptosis determined. Levels of lactoferrin in SF were assessed and related to disease duration and markers of disease activity. Results. Iron-free lactoferrin significantly delayed apoptosis of peripheral blood neutrophils, in a concentration-dependent manner after 9 h in culture (P Lactoferrin could also delay apoptosis of neutrophils isolated from SF of patients with RA. SF from patients with established RA delayed apoptosis of peripheral blood neutrophils and this effect was significantly reduced by depletion of lactoferrin (P Lactoferrin levels in SF from patients with established RA did not correlate with disease severity, but did correlate with markers of inflammation (CRP) and with the presence of RF. SF from patients with arthritis of lactoferrin. Conclusion. Lactoferrin contributes to extended neutrophil survival in the rheumatoid joint in the established phase of RA but not in very early arthritis. PMID:19029133

  14. Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 activity regulates neutrophil spontaneous apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keqing Wang

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocyte and play a central role in the immune defense against rapidly dividing bacteria. However, they are also the shortest lived cell in the blood with a lifespan in the circulation of 5.4 days. The mechanisms underlying their short lifespan and spontaneous entry into apoptosis are poorly understood. Recently, the broad range cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK inhibitor R-roscovitine was shown to increase neutrophil apoptosis, implicating CDKs in the regulation of neutrophil lifespan. To determine which CDKs were involved in regulating neutrophil lifespan we first examined CDK expression in human neutrophils and found that only three CDKs: CDK5, CDK7 and CDK9 were expressed in these cells. The use of CDK inhibitors with differing selectivity towards the various CDKs suggested that CDK9 activity regulates neutrophil lifespan. Furthermore CDK9 activity and the expression of its activating partner cyclin T1 both declined as neutrophils aged and entered apoptosis spontaneously. CDK9 is a component of the P-TEFb complex involved in transcriptional regulation and its inhibition will preferentially affect proteins with short half-lives. Treatment of neutrophils with flavopiridol, a potent CDK9 inhibitor, increased apoptosis and caused a rapid decline in the level of the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1, whilst Bcl2A was unaffected. We propose that CDK9 activity is a key regulator of neutrophil lifespan, preventing apoptosis by maintaining levels of short lived anti-apoptotic proteins such as Mcl-1. Furthermore, as inappropriate inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis contributes to chronic inflammatory diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis, CDK9 represents a novel therapeutic target in such diseases.

  15. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 9 Activity Regulates Neutrophil Spontaneous Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazeldine, Jon; Krystof, Vladimir; Strnad, Miroslav; Pechan, Paul; M., Janet

    2012-01-01

    Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocyte and play a central role in the immune defense against rapidly dividing bacteria. However, they are also the shortest lived cell in the blood with a lifespan in the circulation of 5.4 days. The mechanisms underlying their short lifespan and spontaneous entry into apoptosis are poorly understood. Recently, the broad range cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor R-roscovitine was shown to increase neutrophil apoptosis, implicating CDKs in the regulation of neutrophil lifespan. To determine which CDKs were involved in regulating neutrophil lifespan we first examined CDK expression in human neutrophils and found that only three CDKs: CDK5, CDK7 and CDK9 were expressed in these cells. The use of CDK inhibitors with differing selectivity towards the various CDKs suggested that CDK9 activity regulates neutrophil lifespan. Furthermore CDK9 activity and the expression of its activating partner cyclin T1 both declined as neutrophils aged and entered apoptosis spontaneously. CDK9 is a component of the P-TEFb complex involved in transcriptional regulation and its inhibition will preferentially affect proteins with short half-lives. Treatment of neutrophils with flavopiridol, a potent CDK9 inhibitor, increased apoptosis and caused a rapid decline in the level of the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1, whilst Bcl2A was unaffected. We propose that CDK9 activity is a key regulator of neutrophil lifespan, preventing apoptosis by maintaining levels of short lived anti-apoptotic proteins such as Mcl-1. Furthermore, as inappropriate inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis contributes to chronic inflammatory diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis, CDK9 represents a novel therapeutic target in such diseases. PMID:22276149

  16. Comparative evaluation of the role of the adhesion molecule CD177 in neutrophil interactions with platelets and endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliyev, Boris K; Menshikov, Mikhail

    2012-09-01

    Neutrophil-specific glycoprotein CD177 is expressed on a subset of human neutrophils and has been shown to be a counter-receptor for platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1, CD31). Previous studies have demonstrated that the interaction of CD177 with endothelial PECAM-1 supports neutrophil transendothelial migration resulting in preferential transmigration of the CD177-expressing neutrophil subset. As PECAM-1 is also abundantly expressed on platelets, we addressed a follow-up suggestion that CD177/PECAM-1 adhesive interaction may mediate platelet-neutrophil interactions and CD177-positive neutrophils may have a competitive advantage over CD177-negative neutrophils in binding platelets. Here, we report that CD177-positive and CD177-negative neutrophils do not differ significantly in their capacity to form platelet-neutrophil conjugates as assayed in whole blood and in mixed preparations of isolated platelets and neutrophils. Under flow conditions, neither platelet nor neutrophil activation resulted in preferential binding of platelets to CD177-expressing neutrophils. Furthermore, no significant difference was found in the ability of both neutrophil subsets to adhere to and migrate across surface-adherent activated platelets, whereas predominantly CD177-positive neutrophils migrated across HUVEC monolayers. In addition, we demonstrated that S(536) N dimorphism of PECAM-1, which affects CD177/PECAM-1 interaction, did not influence the equal capacity of the two neutrophil subsets to interact with platelets but influenced significantly the transendothelial migration of CD177-expressing neutrophils. Thus, CD177/PECAM-1 adhesive interaction, while contributing to neutrophil-endothelial cell interaction in neutrophil transendothelial migration, does not contribute to or is redundant in platelet-neutrophil interactions. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organs and show how well treatments are working. Problems with your blood may include bleeding disorders, excessive clotting and platelet disorders. If you lose too much blood, you may need a transfusion. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  18. Antimicrobial peptides and nitric oxide production by neutrophils from periodontitis subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Mariano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils play an important role in periodontitis by producing nitric oxide (NO and antimicrobial peptides, molecules with microbicidal activity via oxygen-dependent and -independent mechanisms, respectively. It is unknown whether variation in the production of antimicrobial peptides such as LL-37, human neutrophil peptides (HNP 1-3, and NO by neutrophils influences the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. We compared the production of these peptides and NO by lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated neutrophils isolated from healthy subjects and from patients with periodontitis. Peripheral blood neutrophils were cultured with or without Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-LPS (Aa-LPS, Porphyromonas gingivalis-LPS (Pg-LPS and Escherichia coli-LPS (Ec-LPS. qRT-PCR was used to determine quantities of HNP 1-3 and LL-37 mRNA in neutrophils. Amounts of HNP 1-3 and LL-37 proteins in the cell culture supernatants were also determined by ELISA. In addition, NO levels in neutrophil culture supernatants were quantitated by the Griess reaction. Neutrophils from periodontitis patients cultured with Aa-LPS, Pg-LPS and Ec-LPS expressed higher HNP 1-3 mRNA than neutrophils from healthy subjects. LL-37 mRNA expression was higher in neutrophils from patients stimulated with Aa-LPS. Neutrophils from periodontitis patients produced significantly higher LL-37 protein levels than neutrophils from healthy subjects when stimulated with Pg-LPS and Ec-LPS, but no difference was observed in HNP 1-3 production. Neutrophils from periodontitis patients cultured or not with Pg-LPS and Ec-LPS produced significantly lower NO levels than neutrophils from healthy subjects. The significant differences in the production of LL-37 and NO between neutrophils from healthy and periodontitis subjects indicate that production of these molecules might influence individual susceptibility to important periodontal pathogens.

  19. FHI LFC24, a bovine milk-derived casein hydrolysate, and a reduction of post-prandial blood glucose responses: evaluation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to FHI LFC24, a bovine milk-derived casein hydrolysate, and a reduction of post-prandial blood glucose responses. The food, FHI LFC24, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed...... by the applicant is that FHI LFC24, when co-ingested with carbohydrates, reduces post-prandial blood glucose responses. The target population proposed by the applicant is the healthy adult population. In view of the proposed mechanism by which the food would exert the claimed effect, i.e. ‘by increased post-prandial...... insulin secretion’, the applicant was requested to provide evidence that a reduction of post-prandial blood glucose responses achieved by an increase in insulin secretion is a beneficial physiological effect for the target population, i.e. the healthy adult population. The evidence provided...

  20. Endogenous TNF? orchestrates the trafficking of neutrophils into and within lymphatic vessels during acute inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Arokiasamy, Samantha; Zakian, Christian; Dilliway, Jessica; Wang, Wen; Nourshargh, Sussan; Voisin, Mathieu-Benoit

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils are recognised to play a pivotal role at the interface between innate and acquired immunities following their recruitment to inflamed tissues and lymphoid organs. While neutrophil trafficking through blood vessels has been extensively studied, the molecular mechanisms regulating their migration into the lymphatic system are still poorly understood. Here, we have analysed neutrophil-lymphatic vessel interactions in real time and in vivo using intravital confocal microscopy applied ...

  1. Pediatric central nervous system tumors in the first 3 years of life: pre-operative mean platelet volume, neutrophil/lymphocyte count ratio, and white blood cell count correlate with the presence of a central nervous system tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumturk, Abdulfettah; Ozdemir, Mehmet Akif; Per, Huseyin; Unal, Ekrem; Kucuk, Ahmet; Ulutabanca, Halil; Karakukcu, Musa; Canoz, Ozlem; Gumus, Hakan; Coskun, Abdulhakim; Kurtsoy, Ali

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the relationship of pre-operative complete blood count parameters [mean platelet volume (MPV), neutrophil/lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR), and white blood cell count (WBC)], with the clinical, radiological, and histopathological features and the management options for patients under 3 years of age with a newly diagnosed central nervous system tumors. Children with central nervous system (CNS) tumors in the first 3 years of life admitted in the Erciyes University Hospital between April 2004 and April 2014 were enrolled in this study. The CBC parameters were compared with those of an age- and sex-matched normal control group. In the study group, the means of MPV and WBC were 8.00 ± 1.24 fl, and 10,855 ± 3642/mm(3) respectively; the median (25-75%) of NLCR was 0.98 (0.66-1.46). For the control group, the means of MPV and WBC were 6.8 ± 0.73 fl and 8565 ± 2522/mm(3); the median (25-75%) of NLCR was 0.52 (0.36-0.70). The MPV, WBC, and NLCR were higher in the study group. The median overall survival (OS) of the patients was 60 months (range 0-81.6 months); and median event free survival (EFS) was 24 months (range 0-70.1 months). The formulation of MPV, NLCR, and WBC was found to be predictive for the diagnosis of CNS tumor in children with nonspecific symptoms. The univariate and multiple binary regression analyses showed a positive association of MPV, NLCR, and WBC and the risk of a diagnosis of CNS tumor. There was no relationship between MPV, WBC, NLCR, and histological subgroups. However, there were no associations between CBC parameters and OS or EFS of the patients. By causing suspicion, MPV, NLCR, and WBC may provide both an earlier radiological investigation decision and thereby an early diagnosis of CNS tumor in children with nonspecific symptoms in the first 3 years of life.

  2. Immunoglobulin A: Fc(alpha)RI interactions induce neutrophil migration through release of leukotriene B4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Steen, Lydia; Tuk, Cornelis W; Bakema, Jantine E; Kooij, Gijs; Reijerkerk, Arie; Vidarsson, Gestur; Bouma, Gerd; Kraal, Georg; de Vries, Helga E; Beelen, Robert H J; van Egmond, Marjolein

    2009-12-01

    Exacerbations of ulcerative colitis (UC) are dominated by massive neutrophil influx in the lamina propria with concomitant mucosal ulceration. The prevalent antibody in this area is immunoglobulin A (IgA). Interestingly, the IgA Fc receptor (Fc(alpha)RI) potently activates neutrophils. As such, we investigated whether IgA-Fc(alpha)RI interaction contributes to tissue damage in UC. Response of neutrophils to bovine serum albumin-, IgG-, or IgA-coated beads and Escherichia coli was investigated with 3-dimensional culture systems, real-time video microscopy, and (fluorescence) microscopy. In vivo studies were performed using human Fc(alpha)RI transgenic mice or nontransgenic littermates. Microscopic slides of UC patients were stained for IgA, Fc(alpha)RI, and neutrophils. In vitro and in vivo cross-linking of Fc(alpha)RI on neutrophils by serum IgA or uptake of IgA-coated E coli led to neutrophil migration. The responsible chemotactic factor was identified as leukotriene B4. Moreover, dimeric IgA (dIgA), which is produced in the lamina propria, but neither secretory IgA nor IgG, was equally capable of inducing neutrophil recruitment. We furthermore showed that Fc(alpha)RI(+)-neutrophils in the colon of UC patients had phagocytosed IgA-antigen complexes. Neutrophils are the first cells that arrive at inflammatory sites once pathogens have crossed the epithelial barrier. Fc(alpha)RI-dIgA interactions therefore may constitute an essential activation step to recruit more neutrophils, hereby eradicating impending infections. However, excessive IgA-antigen complexes can sustain a perpetuating inflammatory loop in UC, hereby seriously aggravating morbidity. Novel therapeutic strategies that block dIgA-Fc(alpha)RI interactions, and therefore diminish neutrophil migration and activation, may dampen the uncontrolled inflammatory processes in these patients.

  3. Effect of rare earth elements on beef cattle growth performance, blood clinical chemical parameters and mitogen stimulated proliferation of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro and ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Lydia; Schwabe, Annett; Döll, Susanne; Höltershinken, Martin; Dänicke, Sven

    2011-03-25

    Rare earth elements (REE) are possible performance enhancers in animal production, but little is known about their effects on ruminants. Therefore a feeding trial was conducted with 40 fattening bulls who received 0, 100, 200 or 300mg REE-citrate/kg dry matter (DM), containing 34.30% La, 58.09% Ce and 7.61% other REE. DM intake was measured daily and live weight weekly. Ex vivo ConcanavalinA (ConA)-stimulated cell proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was tested by MTT and alamar blue (AB) assay. Serum was analysed for clinical chemical parameters, ion (Mg, Ca and P) and REE concentrations. The effects of LaCl(3), CeCl(3), NdCl(3) and YCl(3) on ConA-stimulated proliferation of PBMC were tested in vitro, using MTT and AB assay. REE-citrate supplementation did affect DM intake, but not live weight gain, clinical chemical parameters, and ion concentrations significantly. In REE-300 group ex vivo proliferation of PBMC was significantly increased. In vitro ConA-stimulated proliferation decreased with rising REE-chloride concentrations. At least at the highest tested concentration (approximately 290μM) the inhibition reached significance. Proliferation of non-stimulated PBMC was not affected dose-dependently. REE affect the proliferation of PBMC, thus an effect on the bovine immune system is possible. However, the great differences in effective doses in vitro and ex vivo (serum REE concentrations) might explain the different results from the experiments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Human neutrophil alloantigens systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyse Moritz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophil alloantigens are involved in a variety of clinical conditions including immune neutropenias, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI, refractoriness to granulocyte transfusions and febrile transfusion reactions. In the last decade, considerable progress has been made in the characterization of the implicated antigens. Currently, seven antigens are assigned to five human neutrophil antigen (HNA systems. The HNA-1a, HNA-1b and HNA-1c antigens have been identified as polymorphic forms of the neutrophil Fcγ receptor IIIb (CD16b, encoded by three alleles. Recently, the primary structure of the HNA-2a antigen was elucidated and the HNA-2a-bearing glycoprotein was identified as a member of the Ly-6/uPAR superfamily, which has been clustered as CD177. The HNA-3a antigen is located on a 70-95 kDa glycoprotein; however, its molecular basis is still unknown. Finally, the HNA-4a and HNA-5a antigens were found to be caused by single nucleotide mutations in the αM (CD11b and αL (CD11a subunits of the leucocyte adhesion molecules (β2 integrins. Molecular and biochemical characterization of neutrophil antigenshave expanded our diagnostic tools by the introduction of genotyping techniques and immunoassays for antibody identification. Further studies in the field of neutrophil immunology will facilitate the prevention and management of transfusion reactions and immune diseases caused by neutrophil antibodies.Os aloantígenos de neutrófilos estão associados a várias condições clínicas como neutropenias imunes, insuficiência pulmonar relacionada à transfusão (TRALI, refratariedade à transfusão de granulócitos, e reações transfusionais febris. Na última década, foi observado considerável progresso na caracterização dos aloantígenos envolvidos nestas condições clínicas. Atualmente sete antígenos estão incluídos em cinco sistemas de antígenos de neutrófilo humano (HNA. Os antígenos HNA-1a, HNA-1b e HNA-1c foram

  5. Deciphering the key molecular and cellular events in neutrophil transmigration during acute inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Srinivasan Dinesh; Krishnamurthy, Kandamaran; Manikandan, Jayapal; Pakeerappa, Praveen N; Pushparaj, Peter Natesan

    2011-01-01

    Recruitment of leukocytes circulating in our blood to the sites of infection or tissue damage is the key phenomenon in the acute inflammatory response(s). Among the leukocytes, neutrophils are primarily recruited into the areas of acute inflammation. When neutrophils interact with activated endothelium of the blood vessels, they become migratory and cross the endothelial layer of the blood vessel wall in a process called as leukocyte extravasation. Identifying and understanding the gene regul...

  6. Interaction of bovine serum albumin and human blood plasma with PEO-tethered surfaces : influence of PEO chain length, grafting density and temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norde, W.; Gage, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Solid surfaces are modified by grafting poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, to influence their interaction with indwelling particles, in particular molecules of bovine serum albumin and human plasma proteins. As a rule, the grafted PEO layers suppress protein adsorption. The suppression is most effective

  7. Effects of whole-body X-radiation on the neutrophils of the peripheral blood of the primate Cebus apella (weeping capuchin); Acao dos raios X corpo total sobre os neutrofilos do sangue periferico em primata Cebus apella (macaco prego)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egami, Mizue Imoto; Silva, Maria Regina Regis; Paiva, Elias Rodrigues de; Segreto, Camilo [Escola Paulista de Medicina, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Diniz, Lilian Munao [Fundacao Parque Zoologico de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    The effects of ionizing radiation on the neutrophils of Primate Cebus apella were studied after whole-body x-radiation to a single exposure of 25.8 m C/kg (100 R 0), Wright`s stained preparations showed changes in the nucleus and the cytoplasm of neutrophils at 1,3 and 6 days after irradiation. during this period of time, the cytochemical methods revealed a considerable variation in the pattern of distribution of glycogen, sudanophilic and myeloperoxidase positive granules. Under these same experimental conditions the number of caryoschizes increased on the first and third day. On the ninetieth day post exposure, the morphological and cytochemical appearances of neutrophils as well as the number of caryoschized were similar to the controls. (author) 14 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Misoprostol Inhibits Equine Neutrophil Adhesion, Migration, and Respiratory Burst in an In Vitro Model of Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Emily Medlin; Till, Rebecca Louise; Sheats, Mary Katherine; Jones, Samuel L

    2017-01-01

    In many equine inflammatory disease states, neutrophil activities, such as adhesion, migration, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production become dysregulated. Dysregulated neutrophil activation causes tissue damage in horses with asthma, colitis, laminitis, and gastric glandular disease. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs do not adequately inhibit neutrophil inflammatory functions and can lead to dangerous adverse effects. Therefore, novel therapies that target mechanisms of neutrophil-mediated tissue damage are needed. One potential neutrophil-targeting therapeutic is the PGE1 analog, misoprostol. Misoprostol is a gastroprotectant that induces intracellular formation of the secondary messenger molecule cyclic AMP (cAMP), which has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects on neutrophils. Misoprostol is currently used in horses to treat NSAID-induced gastrointestinal injury; however, its effects on equine neutrophils have not been determined. We hypothesized that treatment of equine neutrophils with misoprostol would inhibit equine neutrophil adhesion, migration, and ROS production, in vitro. We tested this hypothesis using isolated equine peripheral blood neutrophils collected from 12 healthy adult teaching/research horses of mixed breed and gender. The effect of misoprostol treatment on adhesion, migration, and respiratory burst of equine neutrophils was evaluated via fluorescence-based adhesion and chemotaxis assays, and luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence, respectively. Neutrophils were pretreated with varying concentrations of misoprostol, vehicle, or appropriate functional inhibitory controls prior to stimulation with LTB4, CXCL8, PAF, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or immune complex (IC). This study revealed that misoprostol pretreatment significantly inhibited LTB4-induced adhesion, LTB4-, CXCL8-, and PAF-induced chemotaxis, and LPS-, IC-, and PMA-induced ROS production in a concentration-dependent manner. This data indicate that misoprostol-targeting of

  9. Immunosenescence of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Wessels

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available All immune cells are affected by aging, contributing to the high susceptibility to infections and increased mortality observed in the elderly. The effect of aging on cells of the adaptive immune system is well documented. In contrast, knowledge concerning age-related defects of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN is limited. During the past decade, it has become evident that in addition to their traditional role as phagocytes, neutrophils are able to secrete a wide array of immunomodulating molecules. Their importance is underlined by the finding that genetic defects that lead to neutropenia increase susceptibility to infections. Whereas there is consistence about the constant circulating number of PMN throughout aging, the abilities of tissue infiltration, phagocytosis, and oxidative burst of PMN from aged donors are discussed controversially. Furthermore, there are numerous discrepancies between in vivo and in vitro results, as well as between results for murine and human PMN. Most of the reported functional changes can be explained by defective signaling pathways, but further research is required to get a detailed insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms. This could form the basis for drug development in order to prevent or treat age-related diseases, and thus to unburden the public health systems.

  10. Clinical symptoms and neutropenia: the balance of neutrophil development, functional activity, and cell death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, Taco W.

    2002-01-01

    Neutrophilic granulocytes form the major type of leukocytes with counts ranging from about 1500-5000 cells/ micro l of blood under normal conditions. Neutrophils protect our body against bacterial and fungal infections. For this purpose, these cells are equipped with a machinery to sense the site of

  11. Extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation enhances neutrophil response to particulate agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasova, Irina I; Mikhalchik, Elena V; Gusev, Alexandr A; Balabushevich, Nadezhda G; Gusev, Sergey A; Kazarinov, Konstantin D

    2018-02-01

    The growing use of extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR) in information and communication technology and in biomedical applications has raised concerns regarding the potential biological impact of millimeter waves (MMWs). Here, we elucidated the effects of MMW radiation on neutrophil activation induced by opsonized zymosan or E. coli in whole blood ex vivo. After agonist addition to blood, two samples were prepared. A control sample was incubated at ambient conditions without any treatment, and a test sample was exposed to EHF EMR (32.9-39.6 GHz, 100 W/m 2 ). We used methods that allowed us to assess the functional status of neutrophils immediately after exposure: oxidant production levels were measured by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence, and morphofunctional changes to neutrophils were observed in blood smears. Results revealed that the response of neutrophils to both agonists was intensified if blood was exposed to MMW radiation for 15 min. Neutrophils were intact in both the control and irradiated samples if no agonist was added to blood before incubation. Similarly, exposing suspensions of isolated neutrophils in plasma to MMW radiation enhanced cell response to both zymosan and E. coli. Heating blood samples was shown to be the primary mechanism underlying enhanced EHF EMR-induced oxidant production by neutrophils in response to particulate agonists. Bioelectromagnetics. 39:144-155, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and can affect people who have a diet ... 2015 More on this topic for: Teens Blood Types Donating Blood Blood Transfusions Anemia Sickle Cell Disease Hemophilia When Cancer Keeps You ...

  13. 77 FR 29914 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products AGENCY... live bovines and products derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This... products to revise the conditions for the importation of live bovines and products derived from bovines...

  14. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps, Antiphospholipid Antibodies and Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jessica Bravo-Barrera; Maria Kourilovitch; Claudio Galarza-Maldonado

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are a network of extracellular fibers, compounds of chromatin, neutrophil DNA and histones, which are covered with antimicrobial enzymes with granular components...

  15. Influence of suspension on the oxidative burst by rat neutrophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E. S.; Koebel, D. A.; Davis, S. A.; Klein, J. B.; McLeish, K. R.; Goldwater, D.; Sonnenfeld, G.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of spaceflight on the oxidative burst of neutrophils is not known. The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of antiorthostatic suspension, a ground-based modeling system designed to simulate certain aspects of weightlessness that occur after spaceflight, on the capacity of rat neutrophils to express the oxidative burst, an important host defense mechanism against microbial pathogens. Rats were suspended in whole body harnesses in the antiorthostatic orientation for a 3- or 7-day period. Control rats were suspended orthostatically or allowed to remain in vivarium cages without the attachment of any suspension materials. After suspension, peripheral blood was harvested and neutrophils were isolated by density gradient centrifugation. The enriched neutrophil preparations were stimulated with N-formyl-methionyl-leucine-phenylalanine and phorbol myristic acid to induce the oxidative burst. It was found that neutrophils isolated from suspended animals released the same levels of superoxide anion as did vivarium control animals that were not suspended, indicating that whole body suspension did not alter this aspect of rat neutrophil function.

  16. Anti-inflammatory sesquiterpene lactones from Tithonia diversifolia trigger different effects on human neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneli E. Abe

    Full Text Available Abstract The tagitinins isolated of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray, Asteraceae, are the most studied sesquiterpene lactones due to their wide spectrum of pharmacologic activities, especially related with nuclear factor-kappa B inhibition. Nevertheless, detailed studies about the mechanism of action of its active compounds are still lacking. Neutrophils perform a fundamental role in the inflammatory response to several etiologic factors. However, the effect of tagitinins on human neutrophil is not yet clearly known. We investigated the role of tagitinin C (1, tagitinin F (2 and tagitinin A (3 in activation and survival of human neutrophils to establish possible effects in their mechanisms of inflammation. Human neutrophils were purified from the peripheral blood and cultivated with tagitinins C (1, F (2 and A (3 in the presence or not of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. The enzymatic activity, apoptosis and secretion of cytokines rate were determined after 18 h. Lipopolysaccharide-induced myeloperoxidase activity of human neutrophils was significantly inhibited only by tagitinin F (2. Apoptosis of neutrophils was increased in the presence of tagitinin C (1, and it occurred independently of the presence of lipopolysaccharide or dexamethasone. Tagitinins C (1, F (2 and A (3 decrease lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and Tumor necrosis factor alpha production by human neutrophils. Together, these results indicate that tagitinins exhibit anti-inflammatory action on human neutrophils. However, tagitinin F (2 was the only sesquiterpene lactone that decreased secretion of inflammatory products by neutrophils without inducing neutrophil apoptosis.

  17. Activation of foal neutrophils at different ages by CpG oligodeoxynucleotides and Rhodococcus equi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei; Liu, Tong; Bordin, Angela; Nerren, Jessica; Cohen, Noah

    2009-12-01

    Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) activation stimulates protective immune responses against intracellular pathogens by phagocytes, including neutrophils. This study examined TLR9-mediated neutrophil activation in neonatal foals. Unmethylated CpGs, ligands for TLR9, were used to stimulate equine neutrophils, either purified or in contact with other peripheral blood leukocytes. Rhodococcus equi was used as another stimulus in parallel. TLR9 mRNA was constitutively expressed at a similar level in purified equine neutrophils across different ages from birth to adulthood, and expression was not affected by either CpG or R. equi. Purified foal neutrophils were directly sensitive to CpG stimulation, reflected by enhanced reactive oxygen species generation following fMLP stimulation, and by expressing significantly (Pfoal neutrophils stimulated by R. equi showed significantly (Pfoal neutrophils were significantly (Pfoal neutrophils at birth, R. equi significantly (Pfoal neutrophils were sensitive to CpG or R. equi activation as early as at birth, and that B-class CpGs enhanced foal neutrophil functions in vitro.

  18. Chemokine receptor Ccr1 drives neutrophil-mediated kidney immunopathology and mortality in invasive candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionakis, Michail S; Fischer, Brett G; Lim, Jean K; Swamydas, Muthulekha; Wan, Wuzhou; Richard Lee, Chyi-Chia; Cohen, Jeffrey I; Scheinberg, Phillip; Gao, Ji-Liang; Murphy, Philip M

    2012-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis is the 4(th) leading cause of nosocomial bloodstream infection in the US with mortality that exceeds 40% despite administration of antifungal therapy; neutropenia is a major risk factor for poor outcome after invasive candidiasis. In a fatal mouse model of invasive candidiasis that mimics human bloodstream-derived invasive candidiasis, the most highly infected organ is the kidney and neutrophils are the major cellular mediators of host defense; however, factors regulating neutrophil recruitment have not been previously defined. Here we show that mice lacking chemokine receptor Ccr1, which is widely expressed on leukocytes, had selectively impaired accumulation of neutrophils in the kidney limited to the late phase of the time course of the model; surprisingly, this was associated with improved renal function and survival without affecting tissue fungal burden. Consistent with this, neutrophils from wild-type mice in blood and kidney switched from Ccr1(lo) to Ccr1(high) at late time-points post-infection, when Ccr1 ligands were produced at high levels in the kidney and were chemotactic for kidney neutrophils ex vivo. Further, when a 1∶1 mixture of Ccr1(+/+) and Ccr1(-/-) donor neutrophils was adoptively transferred intravenously into Candida-infected Ccr1(+/+) recipient mice, neutrophil trafficking into the kidney was significantly skewed toward Ccr1(+/+) cells. Thus, neutrophil Ccr1 amplifies late renal immunopathology and increases mortality in invasive candidiasis by mediating excessive recruitment of neutrophils from the blood to the target organ.

  19. Chemokine receptor Ccr1 drives neutrophil-mediated kidney immunopathology and mortality in invasive candidiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail S Lionakis

    Full Text Available Invasive candidiasis is the 4(th leading cause of nosocomial bloodstream infection in the US with mortality that exceeds 40% despite administration of antifungal therapy; neutropenia is a major risk factor for poor outcome after invasive candidiasis. In a fatal mouse model of invasive candidiasis that mimics human bloodstream-derived invasive candidiasis, the most highly infected organ is the kidney and neutrophils are the major cellular mediators of host defense; however, factors regulating neutrophil recruitment have not been previously defined. Here we show that mice lacking chemokine receptor Ccr1, which is widely expressed on leukocytes, had selectively impaired accumulation of neutrophils in the kidney limited to the late phase of the time course of the model; surprisingly, this was associated with improved renal function and survival without affecting tissue fungal burden. Consistent with this, neutrophils from wild-type mice in blood and kidney switched from Ccr1(lo to Ccr1(high at late time-points post-infection, when Ccr1 ligands were produced at high levels in the kidney and were chemotactic for kidney neutrophils ex vivo. Further, when a 1∶1 mixture of Ccr1(+/+ and Ccr1(-/- donor neutrophils was adoptively transferred intravenously into Candida-infected Ccr1(+/+ recipient mice, neutrophil trafficking into the kidney was significantly skewed toward Ccr1(+/+ cells. Thus, neutrophil Ccr1 amplifies late renal immunopathology and increases mortality in invasive candidiasis by mediating excessive recruitment of neutrophils from the blood to the target organ.

  20. Ranitidine improves postoperative monocyte and neutrophil function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Nielsen, H; Jensen, S

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The histamine H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine hydrochloride has been shown to improve trauma-, blood transfusion-, and sepsis-induced immunosuppression. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of ranitidine on postoperative impairment in monocyte and neutrophil function. METHODS: Twenty......-four patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery were randomized to receive adjuvant treatment with ranitidine hydrochloride (100 mg) administered twice a day intravenously from skin incision for 4 days, followed by oral ranitidine hydrochloride (150 mg) administered twice a day for 5 days (n = 11...

  1. Role of galectin-3 as an adhesion molecule for neutrophil extravasation during streptococcal pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Sachiko; Ouellet, Nathalie; Pelletier, Isabelle; Simard, Marie; Rancourt, Ann; Bergeron, Michel G

    2002-02-15

    Recruitment of neutrophils from blood vessels to sites of infection represents one of the most important elements of innate immunity. Movement of neutrophils across blood vessel walls to the site of infection first requires that the migrating cells firmly attach to the endothelial wall. Generally, neutrophil extravasation is mediated at least in part by two classes of adhesion molecules, beta(2) integrins and selectins. However, in the case of streptococcal pneumonia, recent studies have revealed that a significant proportion of neutrophil diapedesis is not mediated by the beta(2) integrin/selectin paradigm. Galectin-3 is a beta-galactoside-binding lectin implicated in inflammatory responses as well as in cell adhesion. Using an in vivo streptococcal pneumonia mouse model, we found that accumulation of galectin-3 in the alveolar space of streptococcus-infected lungs correlates closely with the onset of neutrophil extravasation. Furthermore, immunohistological analysis of infected lung tissue revealed the presence of galectin-3 in the lung tissue areas composed of epithelial and endothelial cell layers as well as of interstitial spaces. In vitro, galectin-3 was able to promote neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells. Promotion of neutrophil adhesion by galectin-3 appeared to result from direct cross-linking of neutrophils to the endothelium and was dependent on galectin-3 oligomerization. Together, these results suggest that galectin-3 acts as an adhesion molecule that can mediate neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells. However, accumulation of galectin-3 in lung was not observed during neutrophil emigration into alveoli induced by Escherichia coli infection, where the majority of neutrophil emigration is known to be beta(2) integrin dependent. Thus, based on our results, we propose that galectin-3 plays a role in beta(2) integrin-independent neutrophil extravasation, which occurs during alveolar infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae.

  2. C5-derived activity is required for complement neutrophil-mediated lung injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morganroth, M.L.; Till, G.O.; Ward, P.A.

    1986-03-05

    Cobra venom factor (CVF) derived from the cobra species Naja naja (NN) is a complement activator (cleaves C3, C5 and terminal components) which causes neutrophil dependent acute lung injury and pulmonary hypertension in rats. CVF, derived from the cobra species Naja haje (NH), differs from NN-CVF in that only C3 is cleaved. The authors investigated in isolated blood perfused rat lungs if NH-CVF (n=5), a complement activator which does not generate C5 derived peptides, causes pulmonary hypertension and acute lung injury. NN-CVF (n=5) caused a transient increase in mean pulmonary artery pressure (PA) which returned toward baseline by 30 min (Peak ..delta.. PA = 17 +/- 6 mmHg). Lung injury occurred and was quantitated by the leak of /sup 125/I bovine serum albumin (/sup 125/I-BSA added 30 min post CVF) into lung parenchyma (lung/perfusate /sup 125/I-BSA counts: control = .09 +/- .01, NN-CVF = .48 +/- .11, p < .05). NH-CVF, in an amount which caused equipotent in vitro hemolysis of nonsensitized rabbit erythrocytes, did not cause a PA pressor response (3.5 +/- 1.1 mm Hg, p=NS) or acute lung injury (lung/perfusate /sup 125/I-BSA counts .11 +/- .01, p=NS). Similarly, NH-CVF did not appear to cause lung injury in intact rats (lung perfusate /sup 125/I-BSA counts: control .20 +/- .01, n=3; NH-CVF .25 +/- .05, n=3; NN-CVF .83 +/- .27, n=2). Thus, C3 cleavage alone without the generation of C5 derived peptides is an inadequate stimulus to elicit neutrophil-mediated acute lung injury.

  3. Immunophenotype of neutrophils in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Patrícia Carlos; Vieira, Érica Leandro Marciano; Sousa, Alexandre Andrade; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio; Aguiar, Maria Cássia Ferreira

    2017-10-01

    The aim was to explore the immunophenotype of neutrophils and lymphocytes and the inflammatory mediators in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma, comparing with controls; and to associate with clinicopathological data. Blood was collected from 13 patients and 13 controls. The immunophenotype of neutrophils (CD66b, CD16, CD11a, arginase-1), T lymphocytes (CD4, CD8) and the intracellular cytokine production (IL-10, TNF, IFN-γ) was evaluated by flow cytometry. Plasma concentration of sVCAM-1, sTNF-RI, sTNF-RII, and IL-1β was measured by ELISA. MPO, Lipocalin-2/NGAL, sICAM-1, and p-selectin were quantified by Luminex assay. The excised tumors were submitted to immunohistochemistry for neutrophils (CD66b) and lymphocytes (CD3, CD4, CD8). Association with clinical data was explored. P values <.05 were considered significant. Patients presented higher percentage of neutrophils and lower lymphocytes, resulting a higher neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio than controls. They also presented higher percentage of neutrophils expressing CD66b(+) , CD66b(+) Arginase-1(+) , CD66b(+) IL10(+) , CD66b(+) TNF(+) , CD66b(+) Arginase-1(+) IL-10(+) , and lower CD66b(+) CD16(+) CD11a(+) and CD66b(+) Arginase-1(+) TNF(+) . CD66b(+) neutrophils were detected in all tumors, with a CD66b(+) /CD3(+) ratio of 0.40. Patients showed higher concentration of plasmatic sVCAM-1 and lower Lipocalin-2/NGAL. Patients with good outcome presented lower percentage of neutrophils, higher percentage of lymphocytes, and lower NLR than patients who died. The amount and immunophenotype of neutrophils and lymphocytes differ between patients and healthy individuals, with a pro-tumorigenic profile of neutrophils. As these cells also get within tumor microenvironment, they possibly exert systemic and local functions in cancer pathogenesis. The association of neutrophil count with outcome corroborates recent studies and this merits further investigation for applicability as a prognosticator. © 2017 John Wiley

  4. CCR2 Expression in Neutrophils Plays a Critical Role in Their Migration Into the Joints in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Jhimmy; Bianchini, Francine J; Nascimento, Danilele C; Oliveira, Rene D R; Souto, Fabricio O; Pinto, Larissa G; Peres, Raphael S; Silva, Jaqueline R; Almeida, Sergio C L; Louzada-Junior, Paulo; Cunha, Thiago M; Cunha, Fernando Q; Alves-Filho, Jose C

    2015-07-01

    Infiltration of neutrophils into the joints plays an important role in bone erosion and articular destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Neutrophil trafficking during inflammation is a process that involves activation of chemotactic receptors. Recent findings suggest that changes in chemotactic receptor patterns could occur in neutrophils under certain inflammatory conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the gain of responsiveness of neutrophils to CCL2 in RA patients and to assess the role of CCL2 in driving neutrophil infiltration into the joints. Neutrophils were purified from the peripheral blood of patients with RA or from mice with antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). Expression of CCR2 was evaluated using polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence analyses. In vitro chemotaxis to CCL2 was assayed to evaluate the functional significance of de novo CCR2 expression. The murine AIA model was used to evaluate the in vivo role of CCR2 in neutrophil infiltration into the joints. High CCR2 expression and responsiveness to CCL2 were observed in neutrophils from the blood of patients with early RA and in neutrophils from the blood and bone marrow of mice with AIA. Genetic deficiency or pharmacologic inhibition of CCR2 protected against the infiltration of neutrophils into the joints. This protection was not associated with an impairment of the neutrophil chemotactic ability or CXC chemokine production in the joints. Moreover, adoptive transfer of wild-type mouse neutrophils to CCR2-deficient mice restored neutrophil infiltration and the articular mechanical hyperalgesia associated with joint inflammation. These findings suggest that CCR2 is directly involved in the detrimental infiltration of neutrophils into the joints in patients with RA, showing a new inflammatory role of CCR2 during RA flares or active disease. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.

  5. Neutrophil Functions in Periodontal Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricarda Cortés-Vieyra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral tissues are constantly exposed to damage from the mechanical effort of eating and to microorganisms, mostly bacteria. In healthy gingiva tissue remodeling and a balance between bacteria and innate immune cells are maintained. However, excess of bacteria biofilm (plaque creates an inflammation state that recruits more immune cells, mainly neutrophils to the gingiva. Neutrophils create a barrier for bacteria to reach inside tissues. When neutrophils are insufficient, bacteria thrive causing more inflammation that has been associated with systemic effects on other conditions such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. But paradoxically when neutrophils persist, they can also promote a chronic inflammatory state that leads to periodontitis, a condition that leads to damage of the bone-supporting tissues. In periodontitis, bone loss is a serious complication. How a neutrophil balance is needed for maintaining healthy oral tissues is the focus of this review. We present recent evidence on how alterations in neutrophil number and function can lead to inflammatory bone loss, and how some oral bacteria signal neutrophils to block their antimicrobial functions and promote an inflammatory state. Also, based on this new information, novel therapeutic approaches are discussed.

  6. Hidden truth of circulating neutrophils (polymorphonuclear neutrophil function in periodontally healthy smoker subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Tobacco smoking is considered to be a major risk factor associated with periodontal disease. Smoking exerts a major effect on the protective elements of the immune response, resulting in an increase in the extent and severity of periodontal destruction. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess viability and phagocytic function of neutrophils in circulating blood of the smokers and nonsmokers who are periodontally healthy. Settings and Design: Two hundred subjects in the mean range of 20–30 years of age were included in the study population. It was a retrospective study carried out for 6 months. Materials and Methods: Two hundred subjects were divided into four groups: 50 nonsmokers, 50 light smokers (15 cigarettes/day. Full mouth plaque index, sulcus bleeding index, and probing depths were measured. Percentage viability of circulating neutrophils and average number of phagocytosed Candida albicans were recorded. Statistical Analysis Used: Means and standard deviations were calculated from data obtained within the groups. Comparison between the smokers and nonsmokers was performed by Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA analysis. Comparison between smoker groups was performed using Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon test. Results: Percentage viability of neutrophils was significantly less in heavy smokers (66.9 ± 4.0, moderate (76.6 ± 4.2, light smokers (83.1 ± 2.5 as compared to nonsmokers (92.3 ± 2.6 (P < 0.01. The ability of neutrophils to phagocytose, i.e., mean particle number was significantly less in light smokers (3.5 ± 0.5, moderate smokers (2.3 ± 0.5, and heavy smokers (1.4 ± 0.5 compared to nonsmokers (4.9 ± 0.7 (P < 0.01 with evidence of dose-response effect. Conclusions: Smoking significantly affects neutrophils viability and phagocytic function in periodontally healthy population.

  7. Platelet indices and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in adults with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A study was performed in adults with acute appendicitis and matched controls to assess the utility of the platelet indices and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a diagnostic adjunct. Methods: Data were retrospectively collected from a complete blood count test of 155 adult patients (72 men and 83 women) with ...

  8. Increased neutrophil expression of pattern recognition receptors during COPD exacerbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwels, Simon D.; Van Geffen, Wouter H.; Jonker, Marnix R.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; Nawijn, Martijn C.; Heijink, Irene H.

    Previously, we observed increased serum levels of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) during COPD exacerbations. Here, gene expression of DAMP receptors was measured in peripheral blood neutrophils of COPD patients during stable disease and severe acute exacerbation. The expression of

  9. Antiviral effects of bovine interferons on bovine respiratory tract viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, R W; Downing, M M; Cummins, J M

    1984-01-01

    The antiviral effects of bovine interferons on the replication of bovine respiratory tract viruses were studied. Bovine turbinate monolayer cultures were treated with bovine interferons and challenged with several bovine herpesvirus 1 strains, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, goat respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, or vesicular stomatitis virus. Treatment with bovine interferons reduced viral yield for each of the...

  10. Neutrophilic dermatosis of dorsal hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet′s syndrome is characterized by erythematous tender nodules and plaques over face and extremities. Fever, leukocytosis with neutrophilia, and a neutrophilic infiltrate in the dermis are characteristic features. Neutrophilic dermatosis of dorsal hands is a rare localized variant of Sweet′s syndrome occurring predominantly over dorsa of hands. Various degrees of vascular damage may be observed on histopathology of these lesions. Both Sweet′s syndrome and its dorsal hand variant have been reported in association with malignancies, inflammatory bowel diseases, and drugs. We report a patient with neutrophilic dermatoses of dorsal hands associated with erythema nodosum. He showed an excellent response to corticosteroids and dapsone.

  11. BLOOD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    benefit (altruism). '35 An individual who gives blood in replacement for that which has been given to his relation is referred to as family replacement donor. '2 But when a person donates blood for the purpose of transfusing a. defined patient, such a person is referred to as. AHMED S. G. AND HASSAN A. W. a directed donor.

  12. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies stimulate release of neutrophil microparticles.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hong, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms by which anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) may contribute to the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated vasculitis are not well understood. In this study, both polyclonal ANCAs isolated from patients and chimeric proteinase 3-ANCA induced the release of neutrophil microparticles from primed neutrophils. These microparticles expressed a variety of markers, including the ANCA autoantigens proteinase 3 and myeloperoxidase. They bound endothelial cells via a CD18-mediated mechanism and induced an increase in endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression, production of endothelial reactive oxygen species, and release of endothelial IL-6 and IL-8. Removal of the neutrophil microparticles by filtration or inhibition of reactive oxygen species production with antioxidants abolished microparticle-mediated endothelial activation. In addition, these microparticles promoted the generation of thrombin. In vivo, we detected more neutrophil microparticles in the plasma of children with ANCA-associated vasculitis compared with that in healthy controls or those with inactive vasculitis. Taken together, these results support a role for neutrophil microparticles in the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated vasculitis, potentially providing a target for future therapeutics.

  13. Ability of Staphylococcus aureus coagulase genotypes to resist neutrophil bactericidal activity and phagocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Scott, N. L.; Sordillo, L. M.

    1994-01-01

    genotype. The interaction between bacteria and neutrophils was measured by phagocytosis and bactericidal effect. The average percent killing of bacteria was lowest (40.0%) with strains belonging to the most common genotype, medium (50%) with strains belonging to the intermediate type, and highest (64......; rare type, 10.5/cell). These findings suggest that one of the reasons for the variation in prevalence of different genotypes of S. aureus in the mammary gland is due to the superior ability of some types to resist phagocytosis and/or killing by bovine neutrophils...

  14. Haematological and blood biochemical indices of West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    <0.05) influence on post-vaccination neutrophil (NEU2), while sex and ... Males presented an overall lower number of lymphocyte, higher neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and white blood cells (WBC) than females. Post-vaccination albumin (ALB2)

  15. Antibiotics commonly used to treat mastitis and respiratory burst of bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeben, D; Burvenich, C; Heyneman, R

    1998-02-01

    The in vitro effects of six doses (2 x 10(-3) to 2 x 10(-8) M) of antimicrobial drugs that are frequently used in udder infusions on the capacity of bovine blood polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes to generate reactive oxygen species were studied by the measurement of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence after stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. All drugs, except cloxacillin, significantly decreased chemiluminescence at the highest dose. Doxycyline induced the most severe inhibition, followed by neomycin and dihydrostreptomycin. The effect of ampicillin was due to the scavenging of reactive oxygen species and interactions with luminol. The inhibition observed with oleandomycin, neomycin, lincomycin, and dihydrostreptomycin was not due to direct effects on the production of oxidative metabolites but rather to interference with other components involved in the production of light, such as interference with the interaction between luminol and the myeloper-oxidase-H2O2-halide system. The deleterious effects of doxycycline can be explained by several factors: decreased production of superoxide, yellow color, the scavenging of reactive oxygen species, and Ca2+ chelating effect. In conclusion, the results of this study show that antibiotics may affect neutrophil function at concentrations that are reached in the mammary gland after local and repeated administration.

  16. Neutrophilic dermatosis of dorsal hands

    OpenAIRE

    KAUR, S.; Gupta, D.; Garg, B; Sood, N.

    2015-01-01

    Sweet′s syndrome is characterized by erythematous tender nodules and plaques over face and extremities. Fever, leukocytosis with neutrophilia, and a neutrophilic infiltrate in the dermis are characteristic features. Neutrophilic dermatosis of dorsal hands is a rare localized variant of Sweet′s syndrome occurring predominantly over dorsa of hands. Various degrees of vascular damage may be observed on histopathology of these lesions. Both Sweet′s syndrome and its dorsal hand variant have been r...

  17. Equine sperm-neutrophil binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Abdorrahman S; Madill, Scott; Foster, Douglas N; Troedsson, Mats H T

    2015-04-01

    When mares are inseminated repeatedly, protein molecules from the seminal plasma (SP) prevent sperm-neutrophil binding and reduced fertility. The molecule(s) responsible for sperm-neutrophil binding is not known and the identification of beneficial SP proteins is complicated by their large numbers and abundant variation. We examined several important aspects of sperm-neutrophil binding to ultimately facilitate the identification and isolation of the molecule(s) responsible. First, we raised anti-equine P-selectin antibodies to determine the involvement of this adhesion molecule in sperm-neutrophil binding. While these antibodies identified equine P-selectin, they did not inhibit sperm-neutrophil binding. However, acrosome-reacted equine sperm expressed a molecule similar to the ligand recognition unit of P-selectin. Second, we attempted to characterize SP protein binding to equine sperm and gauge their affinity. Biotinylated SP proteins were incubated with fresh sperm, washed over a viscous medium, electrophoresed, and probed with avidin. Several SP proteins bound to sperm with a strong affinity to withstand these treatments. This finding may prove valuable for future attempts to identify and characterize specific SP molecules. Lastly, we compared the secretions from male sex organs/glands on sperm motility, sperm-neutrophil binding, and their protein profile. We expected fewer proteins from individual organs/glands, which would facilitate isolation and identification of target molecules. While each secretion had a varying effect on motility and sperm-neutrophil binding, the protein profile was as complex as that seen in whole SP, indicating that collection of proteins from individual sources will not facilitate this work. Together, these experiments answer several important questions related to sperm-neutrophil binding, sperm-SP proteins interaction, and the complexity of the SP proteome. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  18. NO signaling in exercise training-induced anti-apoptotic effects in human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shu-Hui; Jen, Chauying J; Chen, Hsiun-ing

    2011-02-04

    Short-lived neutrophils play a predominant role in innate immunity, the effects of exercise training on neutrophil survival is unclear. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms of training effects on human neutrophil apoptosis. Healthy male subjects were trained on a cycling ergometer for 8 weeks and followed by 4 weeks of detraining. Blood neutrophils were collected before exercise, after training, and after detraining. Comparing with pre-exercise specimens, neutrophils collected after training showed reduced apoptosis rate, which partially returned after detraining. Various intracellular proteins, including iNOS, Mcl-1, A1, Grp78, and IL-8, were upregulated by training, and they remained high after detraining. Upregulated iNOS was closely correlated with these anti-apoptotic molecules in neutrophils. Furthermore, the possible mechanism by which iNOS suppressed apoptosis was explored. Neutrophil apoptosis was accelerated by blocking and retarded by stimulating the endogenous iNOS activity. As an anti-apoptosis mediator of NO signaling, the Mcl-1 level dropped by depletion of the major NO downstream molecule cGMP and such loss of Mcl-1 was avoidable when supplying exogenous NO. Upon activation of NO-cGMP signaling, neutrophils held increased Mcl-1 expression and delayed apoptosis. Collectively, our results suggested that exercise training may retard neutrophil apoptosis by upregulating the iNOS-NO-cGMP-Mcl-1 pathway. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Priming of the neutrophil respiratory burst: role in host defense and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Benna, Jamel; Hurtado-Nedelec, Margarita; Marzaioli, Viviana; Marie, Jean-Claude; Gougerot-Pocidalo, Marie-Anne; Dang, Pham My-Chan

    2016-09-01

    Neutrophils are the major circulating white blood cells in humans. They play an essential role in host defense against pathogens. In healthy individuals, circulating neutrophils are in a dormant state with very low efficiency of capture and arrest on the quiescent endothelium. Upon infection and subsequent release of pro-inflammatory mediators, the vascular endothelium signals to circulating neutrophils to roll, adhere, and cross the endothelial barrier. Neutrophils migrate toward the infection site along a gradient of chemo-attractants, then recognize and engulf the pathogen. To kill this pathogen entrapped inside the vacuole, neutrophils produce and release high quantities of antibacterial peptides, proteases, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The robust ROS production is also called 'the respiratory burst', and the NADPH oxidase or NOX2 is the enzyme responsible for the production of superoxide anion, leading to other ROS. In vitro, several soluble and particulate agonists induce neutrophil ROS production. This process can be enhanced by prior neutrophil treatment with 'priming' agents, which alone do not induce a respiratory burst. In this review, we will describe the priming process and discuss the beneficial role of controlled neutrophil priming in host defense and the detrimental effect of excessive neutrophil priming in inflammatory diseases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Expression of genes involved in initiation, regulation, and execution of apoptosis in human neutrophils and during neutrophil differentiation of HL-60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Beneit, A M; Mollinedo, F

    2000-05-01

    Neutrophils possess a very short lifespan, dying by apoptosis. HL-60 cells undergo apoptosis after neutrophil differentiation with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). We have found that the onset of apoptosis in neutrophil-differentiating HL-60 cells correlates with the achievement of an apoptosis-related gene expression pattern similar to that of peripheral blood mature neutrophils. Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, cloning, and sequencing techniques, we have found that HL-60 cells express bak, bik, bax, bad, bcl-2, bcl-xL, bcl-w, bfl-1, fas, and caspases 1-4 and 7-10. After DMSO treatment, bak, bcl-w, bfl-1, fas, and caspases 1 and 9 were up-regulated, whereas bik, bcl-2, and caspases 2, 3, and 10 were down-regulated at different degrees, achieving mRNA expression levels that correlated with those detected in peripheral blood neutrophils. Caspase-2 mRNA and protein expression was drastically reduced after HL-60 cell differentiation, being absent in both HL-60-differentiated neutrophils and mature neutrophils, whereas caspase-3 and -10 mRNA and protein expression were diminished upon HL-60 cell differentiation until achieving the respective levels found in mature neutrophils. Bak and bfl-1 mRNA levels were largely increased during DMSO-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells, and these genes were the bcl-2 family members that were expressed most abundantly in mature neutrophils. Bcl-2 overexpression or caspase inhibition prevented differentiation-induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells, but not their differentiation capability. Neutrophil spontaneous apoptosis was also blocked by the caspase inhibitor z-Asp-2,6-dichlorobenzoyloxymethylketone. Peripheral blood neutrophils expressed bak, bad, bcl-w, bfl-1, fas, and caspases 1, 3, 4, and 7-10, but hardly expressed bcl-2, bcl-xL, bik, bax, and caspase-2. These results suggest that the above gene expression changes in neutrophil-differentiating HL-60 cells may play a role in the acquisition of the neutrophil

  1. Effects of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin on neutrophil migration and extracellular trap formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefine Hirschfeld

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aggressive periodontitis is associated with the presence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a leukotoxin (Ltx-producing periodontal pathogen. Ltx has the ability to lyse white blood cells including neutrophils. Objectives: This study was aimed at investigating the interactions between neutrophils and Ltx with regard to the chemotactic properties of Ltx and the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs. Methods: Neutrophils from healthy blood donors were isolated and incubated for 30 min and 3 h with increasing concentrations of Ltx (1, 10, and 100 ng/mL as well as with A. actinomycetemcomitans strains (NCTC 9710 and HK 1651 producing different levels of Ltx. Formation of NETs and cell lysis were assessed by microscopy, fluorescence-based assays, and measurement of released lactate dehydrogenase. Neutrophil migration in response to different Ltx gradients was monitored by real-time video microscopy, and image analysis was performed using ImageJ software. Results: Although Ltx (10 and 100 ng/mL and the leukotoxic A. actinomycetemcomitans strain HK 1651 lysed some neutrophils, other cells were still capable of performing NETosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Low doses of Ltx and the weakly leukotoxic strain NCTC 9710 did not lead to neutrophil lysis, but did induce some NETosis. Furthermore, all three concentrations of Ltx enhanced random neutrophil movement; however, low directional accuracy was observed compared with the positive control (fMLP. Conclusions: The results indicate that Ltx acts both as a neutrophil activator and also causes cell death. In addition, Ltx directly induces NETosis in neutrophils prior to cell lysis. In future studies, the underlying pathways involved in Ltx-meditated neutrophil activation and NETosis need to be investigated further.

  2. The Effect of Quercetin on the Physiological Funtions of Rats Peripheral Plood Neutrophils in Vitro Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Notaj

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: In traditional medicine, medicinal plants containing flavonoid compounds were used for several years in the treatment of various diseases. Quercetin is one of the flavonoid composition family that has a maximum antioxidant flavonoid content. The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological features of rats peripheral blood neutrophils treated with quercetin.   Methods: In the present experimental study, the rats peripheral blood neutrophils was isolated and then teated with various concentrations of quercetin (0, 5, 10 and 20 µg/ml. The metabolic activity, phagocytosis capabilities, germicidal and respiratory burst of neutrophils were measured. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the analysis.   Results: The results demonestrated that the respiratory burst of neutrophils treated by quercitine was significantly increased at minimum concentrations of 10 micrograms per ml. Simmilary, the phagocytic ability of neutrophils was significantly increased at minimum concentrations of 10 micrograms per ml. Albith, the phagocytic ability of neutrophils was increasesd in 5 micrograms per ml, howevet this finding didn’t show any significant change.Moreover, the application of quercetin at minimum concentrations of 10 micrograms per ml lead to a significant reduction in killing and survival of neutrophils in the treatment group compared to that of the control group (P<0/05.   Conclusion: Quercetin could be considered as a natural immunomodulator of innate responses. This might be due to the inflammation control of neutrophils.    

  3. Effect of anticapsular antibodies on neutrophil phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidry, A J; Oliver, S P; Squiggins, K E; Erbe, E F; Dowlen, H H; Hambleton, C N; Berning, L M

    1991-10-01

    One of the major virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus is development of an exopolysaccharide capsule in vivo, which inhibits recognition of antibodies to highly antigenic cell wall by neutrophils. To circumvent this inhibition, an attempt was made to produce anticapsular antibodies. Three cows per group were immunized in midlactation by injections in the area of the supramammary lymph node and intramuscularly and were boosted on d 14, 42, and 70 with three variants of Smith S. aureus: compact, unencapsulated; diffuse, rigid capsule; and diffuse large clearing, exceptionally large flaccid capsule using dextran sulfate as adjuvant. Serum agglutination and ELISA titers of cows immunized with diffuse and diffuse large clearing increased after immunization and after each boost and remained elevated to the end of the experiment at 112 d. Phagocytosis of diffuse and diffuse large clearing, measured by flow cytometry, was enhanced by immunization with either organism. No antibody response to capsule or enhanced phagocytosis of diffuse developed in cows immunized with compact. However, anticompact antibodies were opsonic for diffuse large clearing. These data show that bovine antibodies to S. aureus capsule are opsonic for bovine neutrophils and that capsule plays a role in inhibition of cell-wall opsonization of S. aureus.

  4. Neutropenia (Low Neutrophil Count)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marx JA, et al., eds. Anemia, polycythemia, and white blood cells disorders. In: Rosen's Emergency Medicine. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2014. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Dec. ...

  5. Obesity is associated with more activated neutrophils in African American male youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Su, S; Wang, X; Barnes, V; De Miguel, C; Ownby, D; Pollock, J; Snieder, H; Chen, W; Wang, X

    2015-01-01

    There is emerging evidence suggesting the role of peripheral blood leukocytes in the pathogenesis of obesity and related diseases. However, few studies have taken a genome-wide approach to investigating gene expression profiles in peripheral leukocytes between obese and lean individuals with the consideration of obesity-related shifts in leukocyte types. We conducted this study in 95 African Americans (AAs) of both genders (age 14-20 years, 46 lean and 49 obese). Complete blood count with differential test (CBC) was performed in whole blood. Genome-wide gene expression analysis was obtained using the Illumina HumanHT-12 V4 Beadchip with RNA extracted from peripheral leukocytes. Out of the 95 participants, 64 had neutrophils stored. The validation study was based on real-time PCR with RNA extracted from purified neutrophils. CBC test suggested that, in males, obesity was associated with increased neutrophil percentage (P=0.03). Genome-wide gene expression analysis showed that, in males, the majority of the most differentially expressed genes were related to neutrophil activation. Validation of the gene expression levels of ELANE (neutrophil elastase) and MPO (myeloperoxidase) in purified neutrophils demonstrated that the expression of these two genes--important biomarkers of neutrophils activation--were significantly elevated in obese males (P=0.01 and P=0.02, respectively). The identification of increased neutrophil percentage and activation in obese AA males suggests that neutrophils have an essential role in the pathogenesis of obesity-related disease. Further functional and mechanistic studies on neutrophils may contribute to the development of novel intervention strategies reducing the burden associated with obesity-related health problems.

  6. Inhibition of neutrophil activity improves cardiac function after cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grünwald Frank

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The arterial in line application of the leukocyte inhibition module (LIM in the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB limits overshooting leukocyte activity during cardiac surgery. We studied in a porcine model whether LIM may have beneficial effects on cardiac function after CPB. Methods German landrace pigs underwent CPB (60 min myocardial ischemia; 30 min reperfusion without (group I; n = 6 or with LIM (group II; n = 6. The cardiac indices (CI and cardiac function were analyzed pre and post CPB with a Swan-Ganz catheter and the cardiac function analyzer. Neutrophil labeling with technetium, scintigraphy, and histological analyses were done to track activated neutrophils within the organs. Results LIM prevented CPB-associated increase of neutrophil counts in peripheral blood. In group I, the CI significantly declined post CPB (post: 3.26 ± 0.31; pre: 4.05 ± 0.45 l/min/m2; p 2; p = 0.23. Post CPB, the intergroup difference showed significantly higher CI values in the LIM group (p Conclusion Our data provides strong evidence that LIM improves perioperative hemodynamics and cardiac function after CPB by limiting neutrophil activity and inducing accelerated sequestration of neutrophils in the spleen.

  7. Cigarette smoke-induced damage-associated molecular pattern release from necrotic neutrophils triggers proinflammatory mediator release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijink, Irene H; Pouwels, Simon D; Leijendekker, Carin; de Bruin, Harold G; Zijlstra, G Jan; van der Vaart, Hester; ten Hacken, Nick H T; van Oosterhout, Antoon J M; Nawijn, Martijn C; van der Toorn, Marco

    2015-05-01

    Cigarette smoking, the major causative factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, is associated with neutrophilic airway inflammation. Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure can induce a switch from apoptotic to necrotic cell death in airway epithelium. Therefore, we hypothesized that CS promotes neutrophil necrosis with subsequent release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), including high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), alarming the innate immune system. We studied the effect of smoking two cigarettes on sputum neutrophils in healthy individuals and of 5-day CS or air exposure on neutrophil counts, myeloperoxidase, and HMGB1 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of BALB/c mice. In human peripheral blood neutrophils, mitochondrial membrane potential, apoptosis/necrosis markers, caspase activity, and DAMP release were studied after CS exposure. Finally, we assessed the effect of neutrophil-derived supernatants on the release of chemoattractant CXCL8 in normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Cigarette smoking caused a significant decrease in sputum neutrophil numbers after 3 hours. In mice, neutrophil counts were significantly increased 16 hours after repeated CS exposure but reduced 2 hours after an additional exposure. In vitro, CS induced necrotic neutrophil cell death, as indicated by mitochondrial dysfunction, inhibition of apoptosis, and DAMP release. Supernatants from CS-treated neutrophils significantly increased the release of CXCL8 in normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Together, these observations show, for the first time, that CS exposure induces neutrophil necrosis, leading to DAMP release, which may amplify CS-induced airway inflammation by promoting airway epithelial proinflammatory responses.

  8. Molecular analysis of neutrophil spontaneous apoptosis reveals a strong role for the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein Noxa

    OpenAIRE

    Kirschnek, Susanne; Vier, Juliane; Gautam, Sanjivan; Frankenberg, Tobias; Rangelova, Svetla; Eitz Ferrer, Pedro; Grespi, Francesca; Ottina, Eleonora; Villunger, Andreas; Haecker, Hans; Hacker, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Neutrophils enter the peripheral blood from the bone marrow and die after a short time. Molecular analysis of spontaneous neutrophil apoptosis is difficult as these cells die rapidly and cannot be easily manipulated. We use conditional Hoxb8-expression to generate mouse neutrophils and test the regulation of apoptosis by extensive manipulation of Bcl-2 family proteins. Spontaneous apoptosis was preceded by down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. Loss of the pro-a...

  9. Proinflammatory mediators stimulate neutrophil-directed angiogenesis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCourt, M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF; vascular permeability factor) is one of the most potent proangiogenic cytokines, and it plays a central role in mediating the process of angiogenesis or new blood vessel formation. Neutrophils (PMNs) recently have been shown to produce VEGF. HYPOTHESIS: The acute inflammatory response is a potent stimulus for PMN-directed angiogenesis. METHODS: Neutrophils were isolated from healthy volunteers and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and anti-human Fas monoclonal antibody. Culture supernatants were assayed for VEGF using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Culture supernatants from LPS- and TNF-alpha-stimulated PMNs were then added to human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human microvessel endothelial cells and assessed for endothelial cell proliferation using 5-bromodeoxyuridine labeling. Tubule formation was also assessed on MATRIGEL basement membrane matrix. Neutrophils were lysed to measure total VEGF release, and VEGF expression was detected using Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Lipopolysaccharide and TNF-alpha stimulation resulted in significantly increased release of PMN VEGF (532+\\/-49 and 484+\\/-80 pg\\/mL, respectively; for all, presented as mean +\\/- SEM) compared with control experiments (32+\\/-4 pg\\/mL). Interleukin 6 and Fas had no effect. Culture supernatants from LPS- and TNF-alpha-stimulated PMNs also resulted in significant increases (P<.005) in macrovascular and microvascular endothelial cell proliferation and tubule formation. Adding anti-human VEGF-neutralizing polyclonal antibody to stimulated PMN supernatant inhibited these effects. Total VEGF release following cell lysis and Western blot analysis suggests that the VEGF is released from an intracellular store. CONCLUSION: Activated human PMNs are directly angiogenic by releasing VEGF, and this has important implications for inflammation, capillary leak syndrome

  10. The junctional adhesion molecule JAM-C regulates polarized transendothelial migration of neutrophils in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodfin, Abigail; Voisin, Mathieu-Benoit; Beyrau, Martina; Colom, Bartomeu; Caille, Dorothée; Diapouli, Frantzeska-Maria; Nash, Gerard B; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Albelda, Steven M; Rainger, G Ed; Meda, Paolo; Imhof, Beat A; Nourshargh, Sussan

    2011-06-26

    The migration of neutrophils into inflamed tissues is a fundamental component of innate immunity. A decisive step in this process is the polarized migration of blood neutrophils through endothelial cells (ECs) lining the venular lumen (transendothelial migration (TEM)) in a luminal-to-abluminal direction. By real-time confocal imaging, we found that neutrophils had disrupted polarized TEM ('hesitant' and 'reverse') in vivo. We noted these events in inflammation after ischemia-reperfusion injury, characterized by lower expression of junctional adhesion molecule C (JAM-C) at EC junctions, and they were enhanced by blockade or genetic deletion of JAM-C in ECs. Our results identify JAM-C as a key regulator of polarized neutrophil TEM in vivo and suggest that reverse TEM of neutrophils can contribute to the dissemination of systemic inflammation.

  11. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is caused by a number of Mycobacterium species, of which Mycobacterium bovis, causing 'bovine tuberculosis' is ... KEY WORDS: Mycobacterium bovis, Zoonosis, Holeta, Ethiopia causing 'bovine tuberculosis ..... isolation of infected animals in which communal grazing and watering practiced.

  12. Formation of neutrophil extracellular traps under low oxygen level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Branitzki-Heinemann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs have been characterized as a fundamental host innate immune defense mechanism. Conversely, excessive NET release may have a variety of detrimental consequences for the host. A fine balance between NET formation and elimination is necessary to sustain a protective effect during an infectious challenge. Our own recently published data revealed that stabilization of hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α by the iron chelating HIF-1α-agonist desferoxamine or AKB-4924 enhanced the release of phagocyte extracellular traps. Since HIF-1α is a global regulator of the cellular response to low oxygen, we hypothesized that NET formation may be similarly increased under low oxygen conditions. Hypoxia occurs in tissues during infection or inflammation, mostly due to overconsumption of oxygen by pathogens and recruited immune cells. Therefore, experiments were performed to characterize the formation of NETs under hypoxic oxygen conditions compared to normoxia. Human blood-derived neutrophils were isolated and incubated under normoxic (21% oxygen level and compared to hypoxic (1% conditions. Dissolved oxygen levels were monitored in the primary cell culture using a Fibox4-PSt3 measurement system. The formation of NETs was quantified by fluorescence microscopy in response to the known NET-inducer phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA or S. aureus wildtype and a nuclease-deficient mutant. In contrast to our hypothesis, spontaneous NET formation of neutrophils incubated under hypoxia was distinctly reduced compared to control neutrophils incubated under normoxia. Furthermore, neutrophils incubated under hypoxia showed significantly reduced formation of NETs in response to PMA. Gene expression analysis revealed that mRNA level of hif-1α as well as hif-1α target genes was not altered. However, in good correlation to the decreased NET formation under hypoxia, the cholesterol content of the neutrophils was

  13. Neutrophils and viral-induced neurologic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grist, Jonathan J; Marro, Brett; Lane, Thomas E

    2016-06-08

    Infection of the central nervous system (CNS) by neurotropic viruses represents an increasing worldwide problem in terms of morbidity and mortality for people of all ages. Although unique structural features of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) provide a physical and physiological barrier, a number of neurotropic viruses are able to enter the CNS resulting in a variety of pathological outcomes. Nonetheless, antigen-specific lymphocytes are ultimately able to accumulate within the CNS and contribute to defense by reducing or eliminating the invading viral pathogen. Alternatively, infiltration of activated cells of the immune system may be detrimental, as these cells can contribute to neuropathology that may result in long-term cellular damage or death. More recently, myeloid cells e.g. neutrophils have been implicated in contributing to both host defense and disease in response to viral infection of the CNS. This review highlights recent studies using coronavirus-induced neurologic disease as a model to determine how neutrophils affect effective control of viral replication as well as demyelination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Neutrophil Depletion Attenuates Placental Ischemia-Induced Hypertension in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regal, Jean F; Lillegard, Kathryn E; Bauer, Ashley J; Elmquist, Barbara J; Loeks-Johnson, Alex C; Gilbert, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia is characterized by reduced placental perfusion with placental ischemia and hypertension during pregnancy. Preeclamptic women also exhibit a heightened inflammatory state and greater number of neutrophils in the vasculature compared to normal pregnancy. Since neutrophils are associated with tissue injury and inflammation, we hypothesized that neutrophils are critical to placental ischemia-induced hypertension and fetal demise. Using the reduced uteroplacental perfusion pressure (RUPP) model of placental ischemia-induced hypertension in the rat, we determined the effect of neutrophil depletion on blood pressure and fetal resorptions. Neutrophils were depleted with repeated injections of polyclonal rabbit anti-rat polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) antibody (antiPMN). Rats received either antiPMN or normal rabbit serum (Control) on 13.5, 15.5, 17.5, and 18.5 days post conception (dpc). On 14.5 dpc, rats underwent either Sham surgery or clip placement on ovarian arteries and abdominal aorta to reduce uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP). On 18.5 dpc, carotid arterial catheters were placed and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured on 19.5 dpc. Neutrophil-depleted rats had reduced circulating neutrophils from 14.5 to 19.5 dpc compared to Control, as well as decreased neutrophils in lung and placenta on 19.5 dpc. MAP increased in RUPP Control vs Sham Control rats, and neutrophil depletion attenuated this increase in MAP in RUPP rats without any effect on Sham rats. The RUPP-induced increase in fetal resorptions and complement activation product C3a were not affected by neutrophil depletion. Thus, these data are the first to indicate that neutrophils play an important role in RUPP hypertension and that cells of the innate immune system may significantly contribute to pregnancy-induced hypertension.

  15. Neutrophil Depletion Attenuates Placental Ischemia-Induced Hypertension in the Rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean F Regal

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is characterized by reduced placental perfusion with placental ischemia and hypertension during pregnancy. Preeclamptic women also exhibit a heightened inflammatory state and greater number of neutrophils in the vasculature compared to normal pregnancy. Since neutrophils are associated with tissue injury and inflammation, we hypothesized that neutrophils are critical to placental ischemia-induced hypertension and fetal demise. Using the reduced uteroplacental perfusion pressure (RUPP model of placental ischemia-induced hypertension in the rat, we determined the effect of neutrophil depletion on blood pressure and fetal resorptions. Neutrophils were depleted with repeated injections of polyclonal rabbit anti-rat polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN antibody (antiPMN. Rats received either antiPMN or normal rabbit serum (Control on 13.5, 15.5, 17.5, and 18.5 days post conception (dpc. On 14.5 dpc, rats underwent either Sham surgery or clip placement on ovarian arteries and abdominal aorta to reduce uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP. On 18.5 dpc, carotid arterial catheters were placed and mean arterial pressure (MAP was measured on 19.5 dpc. Neutrophil-depleted rats had reduced circulating neutrophils from 14.5 to 19.5 dpc compared to Control, as well as decreased neutrophils in lung and placenta on 19.5 dpc. MAP increased in RUPP Control vs Sham Control rats, and neutrophil depletion attenuated this increase in MAP in RUPP rats without any effect on Sham rats. The RUPP-induced increase in fetal resorptions and complement activation product C3a were not affected by neutrophil depletion. Thus, these data are the first to indicate that neutrophils play an important role in RUPP hypertension and that cells of the innate immune system may significantly contribute to pregnancy-induced hypertension.

  16. Mitochondrial membrane potential in human neutrophils is maintained by complex III activity in the absence of supercomplex organisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J. van Raam (Bram); W.J. Sluiter (Wim); F.R.C. de Wit (Frank); D. Roos (Dirk); A.J. Verhoeven (Arthur); T.W. Kuijpers (Taco W.)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Neutrophils depend mainly on glycolysis for their enegry provision. Their mitochondria maintain a membrace potential (ΔΨm), which is usually generated by the repiratory chain complexes. We investigated the source of ΔΨm in neutrophils, as compared to peripheral blood

  17. Ponatinib-induced neutrophilic panniculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, May; Hassan, Khaled M; Musiek, Amy; Rosman, Ilana S

    2014-07-01

    Ponatinib is a bcr-abl tyrosine-kinase inhibitor (TKI) used to treat resistant and refractory chronic myeloid leukemia and Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia that express bcr-abl. Neutrophilic panniculitis has been described in rare cases of patients on other TKIs in the same class as ponatinib. We present the first case of neutrophilic panniculitis following treatment with ponatinib and summarize the other cases of panniculitis caused by TKIs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Avaliação do efeito da hipotermia por crioimersão corporal, nos neutrófilos e linfócitos sanguíneos de ratos submetidos ao exercício físico agudo Evaluation of the effect of hypothermia by cold water immersion on blood neutrophils and lymphocytes of rats submitted to acute exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Bachur

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O estresse sistêmico induzido pelo exercício libera substâncias bioativas determinantes da mobilização neutrofílica. A crioterapia diminui a reação inflamatória e atenua a elevação da perfusão sanguínea induzida pelo exercício. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a influência da hipotermia decorrente da crioimersão corporal (CIC imediata ao esforço físico agudo nas concentrações neutrofílicas e linfocíticas no sangue. Os ratos do grupo controle (AI foram mantidos em repouso enquanto os do grupo AII foram submetidos ao protocolo de CIC a 10ºC por 10 minutos. Enquanto os animais dos grupos BI, BII, BIII e BIV realizaram o esforço físico agudo (EFA em água a 31ºC durante 100 minutos com sobrecarga corpórea de 5% do peso corporal, os dos grupos CI, CII, CIII e CIV foram submetidos ao EFA seguido imediatamente de CIC. Nos grupos B e C, os animais foram sacrificados nos períodos de 06 (I, 12 (II, 24 (III e 48 (IV horas posteriores ao EFA. Através da microscopia óptica realizou-se a contagem dos neutrófilos e linfócitos. Utilizou-se do Teste T Student para análise estatística considerando-se nível de significância p Systemic stress induced by exercise increases bioactive substances in plasma which leads to neutrophilic mobilization. Cryotherapy causes a decrease in the inflammatory reaction and attenuates high blood perfusion after exercise. The objective of this work was to analyze the influence of cold water immersion (CWI after acute exercise on neutrophil and lymphocyte mobilization. A control group of rats (AI was kept at rest and a second group (AII was submitted to CWI at 10º C for 10 minutes. The animals of Groups BI, BII, BIII and BIV were submitted to acute exercise which consisted in swimming in water at 31º C for 100 minutes with a load equivalent to 5% of the body weight. Groups CI, CII, CIII and CIV were submitted to CWI immediately after acute exercise. The animals were sacrificed at 6 (I, 12 (II

  19. Effects of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid, linoleic acid, phytanic acid and the combination of various fatty acids on proliferation and cytokine expression of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Lydia; Kersten, Susanne; Duevel, Anna; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-07-12

    Fatty acids may have an impact on immune functions, which is important in times of increased mobilization of body fat, e.g., around parturition. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the CLA isomers cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12, phytanic acid (PA), linoleic acid (LA) and a fatty acid (FA) mixture (containing 29.8% palmitic acid, 6.7% palmitoleic acid, 17.4% stearic acid and 46.1% oleic acid) on the proliferation of bovine blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro using alamar blue (AB) and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) assay. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction analyses were performed to evaluate the expression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ in response to cis-9,trans-11 and LA. The IC50 values did not differ between the investigated FA, but there were differences within the proliferation in the response of these FA in a concentration range between 20 and 148 µM (e.g., increased proliferation after treatment with lower concentrations of LA). No differences occurred when different FA combinations were tested. ConA stimulation increased the expression of TNF-α and IFN-γ, whereas IL-10 decreased. In general, neither the baseline expression nor the ConA-stimulated mRNA expression of cytokines and PPAR-γ were affected by the FA. In conclusion, all FA inhibit the proliferation of PBMC dose dependently without significantly altering the induced cytokine spectrum of activated bovine PBMC.

  20. Diagnosis of enzootic bovine leucosis in single and pooled samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff-Jørgensen, R

    1990-12-01

    Diagnosis of enzootic bovine leucosis is based on detection of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, BLV. Some ELISA modifications have proved sensitive enough for use in the examination of pooled blood samples from slaughterhouses, milk and pooled milk samples. Suggestions for the standardisation of different ELISA modifications using a common reference serum are presented.

  1. Modulation of human immune responses by bovine interleukin-10

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den C.G.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Schoemaker, R.; Tijhaar, E.; Westphal, A.H.; Ruiter, de T.; Weg-Schrijver, van de Elise; Neerven, van R.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Cytokines can be functionally active across species barriers. Bovine IL-10 has an amino acid sequence identity with human IL-10 of 76.8%. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether bovine IL-10 has immunomodulatory activities on human monocytes and dendritic cells. Peripheral blood

  2. Myeloperoxidase attracts neutrophils by physical forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinke, Anna; Nussbaum, Claudia; Kubala, Lukas; Friedrichs, Kai; Rudolph, Tanja K.; Rudolph, Volker; Paust, Hans-Joachim; Schroeder, Christine; Benten, Daniel; Lau, Denise; Szocs, Katalin; Furtmueller, Paul G.; Heeringa, Peter; Sydow, Karsten; Duchstein, Hans-Juergen; Ehmke, Heimo; Schumacher, Udo; Meinertz, Thomas; Sperandio, Markus; Baldus, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Recruitment of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) remains a paramount prerequisite in innate immune defense and a critical cofounder in inflammatory vascular disease. Neutrophil recruitment comprises a cascade of concerted events allowing for capture, adhesion and extravasation of the leukocyte.

  3. Effects of areca nut extracts on the functions of human neutrophils in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, S L; Chen, Y L; Wan, H C; Liu, T Y; Chen, Y T; Ling, L J

    2000-08-01

    Aqueous extracts of ripe areca nut without husk (ripe ANE) and fresh and tender areca nut with husk (tender ANE) were examined for their effects on the defensive functions of human neutrophils. Exposure of peripheral blood neutrophils to ripe ANE and tender ANE inhibited their bactericidal activity against oral pathogens, including Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Streptococcus mutans, in a dose-dependent manner. At the concentrations tested, ripe and tender ANEs did not significantly affect the viability of neutrophils as verified by their ability to exclude trypan blue dye. However, both ANEs inhibited the production of bactericidal superoxide anion by neutrophils as measured by cytochrome c reduction. Moreover, the ripe ANE inhibited neutrophils more effectively than did tender ANE. Arecoline, a major alkaloid of areca nut, only exhibited an inhibitory effect on the functions of neutrophils when high concentrations were used. Therefore, arecoline could not be used to explain the inhibitory effects observed for ANEs. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that ripe and tender ANEs reduced the antibacterial activity and the superoxide anion production of neutrophils. This effect may contribute to a less efficient elimination of bacteria from the periodontal environment. Inhibition of the antimicrobial functions of neutrophils may alter the microbial ecology of the oral cavity, and this may be one possible mechanism by which areca nut compromises the oral health of users of areca nut products.

  4. Endogenous TNFα orchestrates the trafficking of neutrophils into and within lymphatic vessels during acute inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arokiasamy, Samantha; Zakian, Christian; Dilliway, Jessica; Wang, Wen; Nourshargh, Sussan; Voisin, Mathieu-Benoit

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils are recognised to play a pivotal role at the interface between innate and acquired immunities following their recruitment to inflamed tissues and lymphoid organs. While neutrophil trafficking through blood vessels has been extensively studied, the molecular mechanisms regulating their migration into the lymphatic system are still poorly understood. Here, we have analysed neutrophil-lymphatic vessel interactions in real time and in vivo using intravital confocal microscopy applied to inflamed cremaster muscles. We show that antigen sensitisation of the tissues induces a rapid but transient entry of tissue-infiltrated neutrophils into lymphatic vessels and subsequent crawling along the luminal side of the lymphatic endothelium. Interestingly, using mice deficient in both TNF receptors p55 and p75, chimeric animals and anti-TNFα antibody blockade we demonstrate that tissue-release of TNFα governs both neutrophil migration through the lymphatic endothelium and luminal crawling. Mechanistically, we show that TNFα primes directly the neutrophils to enter the lymphatic vessels in a strictly CCR7-dependent manner; and induces ICAM-1 up-regulation on lymphatic vessels, allowing neutrophils to crawl along the lumen of the lymphatic endothelium in an ICAM-1/MAC-1-dependent manner. Collectively, our findings demonstrate a new role for TNFα as a key regulator of neutrophil trafficking into and within lymphatic system in vivo. PMID:28287124

  5. Oscillatory behavior of neutrophils under opposing chemoattractant gradients supports a winner-take-all mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Byrne

    Full Text Available Neutrophils constitute the largest class of white blood cells and are the first responders in the innate immune response. They are able to sense and migrate up concentration gradients of chemoattractants in search of primary sites of infection and inflammation through a process known as chemotaxis. These chemoattractants include formylated peptides and various chemokines. While much is known about chemotaxis to individual chemoattractants, far less is known about chemotaxis towards many. Previous studies have shown that in opposing gradients of intermediate chemoattractants (interleukin-8 and leukotriene B4, neutrophils preferentially migrate toward the more distant source. In this work, we investigated neutrophil chemotaxis in opposing gradients of chemoattractants using a microfluidic platform. We found that primary neutrophils exhibit oscillatory motion in opposing gradients of intermediate chemoattractants. To understand this behavior, we constructed a mathematical model of neutrophil chemotaxis. Our results suggest that sensory adaptation alone cannot explain the observed oscillatory motion. Rather, our model suggests that neutrophils employ a winner-take-all mechanism that enables them to transiently lock onto sensed targets and continuously switch between the intermediate attractant sources as they are encountered. These findings uncover a previously unseen behavior of neutrophils in opposing gradients of chemoattractants that will further aid in our understanding of neutrophil chemotaxis and the innate immune response. In addition, we propose a winner-take-all mechanism allows the cells to avoid stagnation near local chemical maxima when migrating through a network of chemoattractant sources.

  6. Altered Innate Immune Responses in Neutrophils from Patients with Well- and Suboptimally Controlled Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca S. M. Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Respiratory infections are a major cause of asthma exacerbations where neutrophilic inflammation dominates and is associated with steroid refractory asthma. Structural airway cells in asthma differ from nonasthmatics; however it is unknown if neutrophils differ. We investigated neutrophil immune responses in patients who have good (AGood and suboptimal (ASubopt asthma symptom control. Methods. Peripheral blood neutrophils from AGood (ACQ 0.75, n=7, and healthy controls (HC (n=9 were stimulated with bacterial (LPS (1 μg/mL, fMLF (100 nM, and viral (imiquimod (3 μg/mL, R848 (1.5 μg/mL, and poly I:C (10 μg/mL surrogates or live rhinovirus (RV 16 (MOI1. Cell-free supernatant was collected after 1 h for neutrophil elastase (NE and matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP- 9 measurements or after 24 h for CXCL8 release. Results. Constitutive NE was enhanced in AGood neutrophils compared to HC. fMLF stimulated neutrophils from ASubopt but not AGood produced 50% of HC levels. fMLF induced MMP-9 was impaired in ASubopt and AGood compared to HC. fMLF stimulated CXCL8 but not MMP-9 was positively correlated with FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. ASubopt and AGood responded similarly to other stimuli. Conclusions. Circulating neutrophils are different in asthma; however, this is likely to be related to airflow limitation rather than asthma control.

  7. Neutrophil activation during acetaminophen hepatotoxicity and repair in mice and humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C. David; Bajt, Mary Lynn [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Sharpe, Matthew R. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Hospital, Kansas City, KS (United States); McGill, Mitchell R. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Farhood, Anwar [Department of Pathology, St. David' s North Austin Medical Center, Austin, TX 78756 (United States); Jaeschke, Hartmut, E-mail: hjaeschke@kumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Following acetaminophen (APAP) overdose there is an inflammatory response triggered by the release of cellular contents from necrotic hepatocytes into the systemic circulation which initiates the recruitment of neutrophils into the liver. It has been demonstrated that neutrophils do not contribute to APAP-induced liver injury, but their role and the role of NADPH oxidase in injury resolution are controversial. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to APAP overdose and neutrophil activation status was determined during liver injury and liver regeneration. Additionally, human APAP overdose patients (ALT: > 800 U/L) had serial blood draws during the injury and recovery phases for the determination of neutrophil activation. Neutrophils in the peripheral blood of mice showed an increasing activation status (CD11b expression and ROS priming) during and after the peak of injury but returned to baseline levels prior to complete injury resolution. Hepatic sequestered neutrophils showed an increased and sustained CD11b expression, but no ROS priming was observed. Confirming that NADPH oxidase is not critical to injury resolution, gp91{sup phox}−/− mice following APAP overdose displayed no alteration in injury resolution. Peripheral blood from APAP overdose patients also showed increased neutrophil activation status after the peak of liver injury and remained elevated until discharge from the hospital. In mice and humans, markers of activation, like ROS priming, were increased and sustained well after active liver injury had subsided. The similar findings between surviving patients and mice indicate that neutrophil activation may be a critical event for host defense or injury resolution following APAP overdose, but not a contributing factor to APAP-induced injury. - Highlights: • Neutrophil (PMN) function increases during liver repair after acetaminophen overdose. • Liver repair after acetaminophen (APAP)-overdose is not dependent on NADPH oxidase. • Human PMNs do not appear

  8. Spontaneous neutrophil activation in HTLV-1 infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline B. Guerreiro

    Full Text Available Human T cell lymphotropic Virus type-1 (HTLV-1 induces lymphocyte activation and proliferation, but little is known about the innate immune response due to HTLV-1 infection. We evaluated the percentage of neutrophils that metabolize Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT to formazan in HTLV-1 infected subjects and the association between neutrophil activation and IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha levels. Blood was collected from 35 HTLV-1 carriers, from 8 patients with HAM/TSP (HTLV-1- associated myelopathy; 22 healthy individuals were evaluated for spontaneous and lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated neutrophil activity (reduction of NBT to formazan. The production of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha by unstimulated mononuclear cells was determined by ELISA. Spontaneous NBT levels, as well as spontaneous IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha production, were significantly higher (p<0.001 in HTLV-1 infected subjects than in healthy individuals. A trend towards a positive correlation was noted, with increasing percentage of NBT positive neutrophils and levels of IFN-gamma. The high IFN-gamma producing HTLV-1 patient group had significantly greater NBT than healthy controls, 43±24% and 17±4.8% respectively (p< 0.001, while no significant difference was observed between healthy controls and the low IFN-gamma-producing HTLV-1 patient group (30±20%. Spontaneous neutrophil activation is another marker of immune perturbation resulting from HTLV-1 infection. In vivo activation of neutrophils observed in HTLV-1 infected subjects is likely to be the same process that causes spontaneous IFN-gamma production, or it may partially result from direct IFN-gamma stimulation.

  9. Neutrophil trafficking into inflamed joints in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and the effects of methylprednisolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, P P; Cormack, J; Evill, C A; Peter, D T; Roberts-Thomson, P J; Ahern, M J; Smith, M D

    1996-02-01

    To investigate the trafficking of circulating blood neutrophils and synovial fluid neutrophils in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and the influence of a 1,000-mg intravenous pulse of methylprednisolone succinate (MP). Neutrophils were isolated from the circulation and from the knee synovial compartments of subjects with RA. Circulating neutrophils were labeled with technetium-99 hexametazime (99mTc-HMPAO) and reinjected intravenously. Synovial fluid neutrophils were labeled from indium-111 oxine and reinjected into the knee from which they were isolated. Gamma camera images were obtained at intervals up to 24 hours post MP. Each patient had a baseline study (no MP) and a study in which MP was administered either 4 hours before (2 patients), 10 minutes before (1 patient), or 30 minutes to 1.5 hours after (6 patients) injection of the radiolabeled neutrophils. Subsequent analysis allowed quantitation of the neutrophil uptake into and clearance from the knee as a function of time. Nine patients who had not received glucocorticoids in the previous 3 months were studied. MP significantly decreased neutrophil ingress in 13 of the 16 knees studied (almost total inhibition in 5 knees), and this occurred within 1.5 hours of MP administration in all except 1 knee. At 24 hours after MP administration, there was a significant increase in visual analog scale (VAS) scores for well-being and significant decreases in scores on the modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (PVAS for pain (p<0.005), and generalized stiffness (P<0.005), as well as a decrease in the C-reactive protein level (P<0.05). MP had no effect on neutrophil egress (2 patients). Two additional patients who were receiving oral glucocorticoids were studied. One of them was clinically unresponsive to oral prednisolone, and MP had no effect on neutrophil ingress. The other patient showed no neutrophil ingress during the baseline study. This was confirmed by the presence of a noninflammatory synovial fluid at

  10. [Effects of surfactant and solvent on the encapsulation efficiency and size in using double emulsion method for preparing bovine hemoglobin loaded nanoparticles as blood substitutes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolan; Yuan, Yuan; Shan, Xiaoqian; Sheng, Yan; Xu, Feng; Liu, Changsheng

    2009-02-01

    On the basis of previous researches, we have prepared Bovine hemoglobin-loaded nanoparticles (HbP), using the double emulsion method. More mild dispersing treatment was employed during the primary and secondary emulsion; over 97% encapsulation efficiency (EE%) and an average size about 286 nm were achieved by using surfactants, screening solvents, as well as avoiding the traditional strong dispersing process. The value of Hydrophile-lipophile balance in oil phase exerted a significant effect on EE% and led to higher EE% when matched with the surfactants in outer aqueous phase. When compared with the sole solvent Span80, the mixed surfactants such as Poloxemer188/Span80 stabilized the emulsion more efficiently and increased the EE%. The higher concentration of surfactants resulted in higher EE% and narrower size distribution. But over some amount, the surfactants had no significant effect on EE%, resulting in larger size and polydispersity index (PDI). The appropriate removal rate of solvents contributes to higher EE%, smaller size and PDI.

  11. Identification of a phenotypically and functionally distinct population of long-lived neutrophils in a model of reverse endothelial migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Christopher D; Ross, Ewan A; McGettrick, Helen M; Osborne, Chloe E; Haworth, Oliver; Schmutz, Caroline; Stone, Philip C W; Salmon, Mike; Matharu, Nick M; Vohra, Rajiv K; Nash, Gerard B; Rainger, G Ed

    2006-02-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that neutrophils are not a homogenous population of cells. Here, we have identified a subset of human neutrophils with a distinct profile of cell-surface receptors [CD54(high), CXC chemokine receptor 1(low) (CXCR1(low))], which represent cells that have migrated through an endothelial monolayer and then re-emerged by reverse transmigration (RT). RT neutrophils, when in contact with endothelium, were rescued from apoptosis, demonstrate functional priming, and were rheologically distinct from neutrophils that had not undergone transendothelial migration. In vivo, 1-2% of peripheral blood neutrophils in patients with systemic inflammation exhibit a RT phenotype. A smaller population existed in healthy donors ( approximately 0.25%). RT neutrophils were distinct from naïve circulatory neutrophils (CD54(low), CXCR1(high)) and naïve cells after activation with formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (CD54(low), CXCR1(low)). It is important that the RT phenotype (CD54(high), CXCR1(low)) is also distinct from tissue-resident neutrophils (CD54(low), CXCR1(low)). Our results demonstrate that neutrophils can migrate in a retrograde direction across endothelial cells and suggest that a population of tissue-experienced neutrophils with a distinct phenotype and function are present in the peripheral circulation in humans in vivo.

  12. General versus regional anaesthesia for cataract surgery: effects on neutrophil apoptosis and the postoperative pro-inflammatory state.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Goto, Y

    2012-02-03

    At clinically relevant concentrations, volatile anaesthetic agents influence neutrophil function. Our hypothesis was that sevoflurane would inhibit neutrophil apoptosis and consequently influence the postoperative pro-inflammatory state. In order to identify selectively the effect of the anaesthetic agent sevoflurane, we studied patients undergoing minimally stimulating (cataract) surgery randomly allocated to receive either sevoflurane (n = 11) or local anaesthesia (n = 12). Venous blood samples were taken immediately prior to anaesthesia and at 1, 8 and 24 h thereafter. The rate of neutrophil apoptosis, plasma concentration of cytokines and differential white cell count were measured. The rates of neutrophil apoptosis and plasma concentrations of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and IL-8 at each time point were similar in the two groups. IL-6 concentrations increased significantly and to a similar extent compared to preanaesthetic levels at 8 and 24 h. This study demonstrates that sevoflurane does not influence the rate of neutrophil apoptosis, cytokine concentrations and neutrophil count following cataract surgery.

  13. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in the differential diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentis, A-F A; Kyprianou, M A; Xirogianni, A; Kesanopoulos, K; Tzanakaki, G

    2016-03-01

    The differential diagnosis of acute community-acquired meningitis is of paramount importance in both therapeutic and healthcare-related economic terms. Despite the routinely used markers, novel, easily calculated, and rapidly available biomarkers are needed particularly in resource-poor settings. A promising, exponentially studied inflammatory marker is the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), albeit not assessed in meningitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of the NLR in the differential diagnosis of acute meningitis. Data on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood leukocyte parameters from more than 4,000 patients diagnosed with either bacterial or viral meningitis in Greece during the period 2006-2013 were retrospectively examined. The diagnostic accuracy of the NLR and neutrophil counts in CSF and blood were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curves. The discrimination ability of both the NLR and neutrophil counts was significantly higher in CSF than in blood. The optimal cutoff values of the NLR and neutrophil counts were 2 in CSF vs 8 in blood, and 287 cells in CSF vs 12,100 cells in blood, respectively. For these values, sensitivity, negative predictive value, and odds ratio were statistically significantly higher in CSF than blood for both markers. Logistic regression analysis showed that the CSF NLR carries independent and additive information to neutrophil counts in the differential diagnosis of acute meningitis. This study is the first one to assess NLR in acute meningitis, providing promising results for its differential diagnosis.

  14. Dihydroxyoctadecamonoenoate esters inhibit the neutrophil ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH

    inhibited by methyl 9,10-/12,13-DiHOME. Neutrophil activation is characterized by a wide variety of signal transduction events. Assembly of the multiprotein. NADPH oxidase complex is required for superoxide production and is preceded by the phosphorylation of p47phox and translocation of p47phox to the membrane.

  15. Dihydroxyoctadecamonoenoate esters inhibit the neutrophil ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The leukotoxins [9(10)- and 12(13)-EpOME] are produced by activated inflammatory leukocytes such as neutrophils. High EpOME levels are observed in disorders such as acute respiratory distress syndrome and in patients with extensive burns. Although the physiological significance of the EpOMEs remains poorly ...

  16. Neutrophil Function in 8 Cases of Papillon-Lefevre Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Lotfazar

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Papillon Lefevre syndrome (PLS is a rate autosomal recessive disorder, which is characterized by palmar- plantar hyperkeratosis and rapid periodontal destruction of primary and permanent dentitions.Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the peripheral blood neutrophil function including random locomotion, chemotaxis and oxidative mechanism of killing in a group of patients with PLS.Materials and Methods: Peripheral blood was obtained from 8 PLS patients and 92 healthy control subjects. PMN mobility was measured by a modification of the micromethod of Addison and Babbage. Latex-Stimulated NBT reduction test described by Park et al was followed. Data were analyzed by Mann Whitney U test.Results: The chemotactic activity in the PLS group was significantly lower than control group (89.5±21.6 vs 113±16 mm, P0.05.Conclusion: The present study indicated an impaired neutrophil chemotaxis in PLS patients.

  17. Ensemble models of neutrophil trafficking in severe sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Ok Song

    Full Text Available A hallmark of severe sepsis is systemic inflammation which activates leukocytes and can result in their misdirection. This leads to both impaired migration to the locus of infection and increased infiltration into healthy tissues. In order to better understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved, we developed a coarse-grained phenomenological model of the acute inflammatory response in CLP (cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis in rats. This model incorporates distinct neutrophil kinetic responses to the inflammatory stimulus and the dynamic interactions between components of a compartmentalized inflammatory response. Ensembles of model parameter sets consistent with experimental observations were statistically generated using a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo sampling. Prediction uncertainty in the model states was quantified over the resulting ensemble parameter sets. Forward simulation of the parameter ensembles successfully captured experimental features and predicted that systemically activated circulating neutrophils display impaired migration to the tissue and neutrophil sequestration in the lung, consequently contributing to tissue damage and mortality. Principal component and multiple regression analyses of the parameter ensembles estimated from survivor and non-survivor cohorts provide insight into pathologic mechanisms dictating outcome in sepsis. Furthermore, the model was extended to incorporate hypothetical mechanisms by which immune modulation using extracorporeal blood purification results in improved outcome in septic rats. Simulations identified a sub-population (about 18% of the treated population that benefited from blood purification. Survivors displayed enhanced neutrophil migration to tissue and reduced sequestration of lung neutrophils, contributing to improved outcome. The model ensemble presented herein provides a platform for generating and testing hypotheses in silico, as well as motivating further experimental

  18. Characterization of neutrophil subsets in healthy human pregnancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloysius Ssemaganda

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that in successful pregnancies increased arginase activity is a mechanism that contributes to the suppression of the maternal immune system. We identified the main type of arginase-expressing cells as a population of activated low-density granulocytes (LDGs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in term placentae. In the present study, we analyzed the phenotype of LDGs and compared it to the phenotype of normal density granulocytes (NDGs in maternal peripheral blood, placental biopsies and cord blood. Our data reveal that only LDGs but no NDGs could be detected in placental biopsies. Phenotypically, NDGs and LDGs from both maternal and cord blood expressed different levels of maturation, activation and degranulation markers. NDGs from the maternal and cord blood were phenotypically similar, while maternal, cord and placental LDGs showed different expression levels of CD66b. LDGs present in cord blood expressed higher levels of arginase compared to maternal and placental LDGs. In summary, our results show that in maternal and cord blood, two phenotypically different populations of neutrophils can be identified, whereas in term placentae, only activated neutrophils are present.

  19. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio: A novel and simple prognostic marker for infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozbay, Mehmet; Uyarel, Huseyin

    2015-08-01

    Infective endocarditis is a life-threatining infectious disease characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Leukocytes play a main role in infectious diseases. Neutrophils and lymphocytes are subgroup of leukocytes, and they are routinely measured as a part of automated complete blood count test. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is an independent predictor of unfavorable clinical outcomes in infectious and cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Simultaneous quantification of purine and pyrimidine bases, nucleosides and their degradation products in bovine blood plasma by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Stentoft; Vestergaard, Mogens; Løvendahl, Peter

    2014-01-01

    ), and their degradation products (uric acid, allantoin, β-alanine, β-ureidopropionic acid, β-aminoisobutyric acid) in blood plasma of dairy cows. The high performance liquid chromatography-based technique coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) was combined with individual matrix...

  1. Developing high throughput quantitative PCR assays for diagnosing Ikeda and other Theileria orientalis types common to New Zealand in bovine blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulford, D J; Gias, E; Bueno, I M; McFadden, Amj

    2016-01-01

    To develop rapid, quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays using high resolution melt (HRM) analysis and type-specific TaqMan assays for identifying the prevalent types of Theileria orientalis found in New Zealand cattle; and to evaluate their analytical and diagnostic characteristics compared with other assays for T. orientalis. Nucleotide sequences aligned with T. orientalis Buffeli, Chitose and Ikeda types, obtained from DNA extracted from blood samples from infected cattle, were used to design HRM and type-specific probe-based qPCR assays. The three type-specific assays were also incorporated into a single-tube multiplex qPCR assay. These assays were validated using DNA extracted from blood samples from cattle in herds with or without clinical signs of T. orientalis infection, other veterinary laboratory samples, as well as plasmids containing T. orientalis type-specific sequences. Diagnostic specificity (DSp) and sensitivity (DSe) estimates for the qPCR assays were compared to blood smear piroplasm results, and other PCR assays for T. orientalis. Copy number estimates of Ikeda DNA in blood were determined from cattle exhibiting anaemia using the Ikeda-specific qPCR assay. The T. orientalis type-specific and the HRM qPCR assays displayed 100% analytical specificity. The Ikeda-specific qPCR assay exhibited linearity (R(2) = 0.997) with an efficiency of 94.3%. Intra-assay CV were ≤0.08 and inter-assay CV were ≤0.095. For blood samples from cows with signs of infection with T. orientalis, the DSp and DSe of the multiplex probe qPCR assay were 93 and 96%, respectively compared with blood smears, and 97 and 100%, respectively compared with conventional PCR assays. For the Ikeda-specific qPCR assay, the number of positive samples (n=66) was slightly higher than a conventional PCR assay (n=64). The concentration of Ikeda genomes in blood samples from 41 dairy cows with signs of infection with T. orientalis ranged between 5.6 × 10(4) and 3.3 × 10(6) genomes per

  2. Recruitment of neutrophils across the blood-brain barrier: the role of posttraumatic hepatic ischemia Recrutamento de neutrófilos através da barreira hematoencefálica: importância da isquemia hepática pós-traumática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Mantovani

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the effects of total hepatic ischemia, and reperfusion on the accumulation of neutrophils in the brain of rats submitted to normovolemic conditions as well as to controlled hemorrhagic shock state. METHODS: Thirty two adult male Wistar rats, were divided into four groups: the Control group, was submitted to the standard procedures for a period of 60 min of observation; Shock group, was submitted to controlled hemorrhagic shock (mean arterial blood pressure=40mmHg, 20min followed by volemic resuscitation (lactated Ringer's solution + blood, 3:1 and reperfusion for 60min; Pringle group, was submitted to total hepatic ischemia for 15min and reperfusion for 60min. The total group was submitted to controlled hemorrhagic shock for 20min followed by volemic resuscitation (lactated Ringer's solution + blood, 3:1, total hepatic ischemia for 15min and reperfusion for 60min. Measurements of serum lactate and base excess were used to characterize the hemorrhagic shock state with low tissue perfusion. The counting of neutrophils on the brain was performed after the euthanasia of animals. RESULTS: The values for the counting of neutrophils on the brain indicate that did not occur difference among studied groups (p=0.196 (Control 0.12± 0.11, Shock 0.12± 0.13, Pringle 0.02± 0.04, Total 0.14± 0.16. CONCLUSION: Hemorrhagic shock associated to total hepatic ischemia for 15 minutes, followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion, did not causes significant neutrophils accumulation in the brain of rats.OBJETIVO: estudar o efeito da isquemia e reperfusão hepática total sobre acúmulo de neutrófilos no cérebro de ratos, em condições de normalidade e submetidos ao estado de choque hemorrágico controlado. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 32 ratos Wistar, machos, distribuídos em quatro grupos de oito animais cada: Grupo Controle, submetido aos procedimentos padrões com um período de 60 minutos de observação; Grupo Choque, submetido a choque hemorr

  3. Neutrophils: Cinderella of innate immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Sharma, A

    2010-11-01

    Neutrophils are the first line of innate immune defense against infectious diseases. However, since their discovery by Elie Metchnikoff, they have always been considered tissue-destructive cells responsible for inflammatory tissue damage occurring during acute infections. Now, extensive research in the field of neutrophil cell biology and their role skewing the immune response in various infections or inflammatory disorders revealed their importance in the regulation of immune response. Along with releasing various antimicrobial molecules, neutrophils also release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) for the containment of infection and inflammation. Activated neutrophils provide signals for the activation and maturation of macrophages as well as dendritic cells. Neutrophils are also involved in the regulation of T-cell immune response against various pathogens and tumor antigens. Thus, the present review is intended to highlight the emerging role of neutrophils in the regulation of both innate and adaptive immunity during acute infectious or inflammatory conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Treatment with Rutin - A Therapeutic Strategy for Neutrophil-Mediated Inflammatory and Autoimmune Diseases - Anti-inflammatory Effects of Rutin on Neutrophils -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Abd Nikfarjam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Neutrophils represent the front line of human defense against infections. Immediately after stimulation, neutrophilic enzymes are activated and produce toxic mediators such as pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide (NO and myeloperoxidase (MPO. These mediators can be toxic not only to infectious agents but also to host tissues. Because flavonoids exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, they are subjects of interest for pharmacological modulation of inflammation. In the present study, the effects of rutin on stimulus-induced NO and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α productions and MPO activity in human neutrophils were investigated. Methods: Human peripheral blood neutrophils were isolated using Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient centrifugation coupled with dextran T500 sedimentation. The cell preparations containing > 98% granulocytes were determined by morphological examination through Giemsa staining. Neutrophils were cultured in complete Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI medium, pre-incubated with or without rutin (25 μM for 45 minutes, and stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA. Then, the TNF-α, NO and MPO productions were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Griess Reagent, and MPO assay kits, respectively. Also, the viability of human neutrophils was assessed using tetrazolium salt 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT, and neutrophils were treated with various concentrations of rutin (1 - 100 μM, after which MTT was appended and incubated at 37ºC for 4 hour. Results: Rutin at concentrations up to 100 μM did not affect neutrophil viability during the 4-hour incubation period. Rutin significantly decreased the NO and TNF-α productions in human peripheral blood neutrophils compared to PMA-control cells (P < 0.001. Also, MPO activity was significantly reduced by rutin (P < 0.001. Conclusion: In this in vitro study, rutin had an anti-inflammatory effect

  5. Feeding soybean meal increases the blood level of isoflavones and reduces the steroidogenic capacity in bovine corpora lutea, without affecting peripheral progesterone concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, S; Van den Broeck, W; Vanhaecke, L; Heyerick, A; Bossaert, P; Hostens, M; Opsomer, G

    2014-01-30

    Thirty-three Holstein-Friesian cows were followed from 14 days pre partum until the fourth ovulation post partum. Housing conditions and basic ration were identical for all animals. Concentrates were individually supplemented according to the daily milk production level, using two different types of protein rich concentrates: soybean meal and rapeseed meal. Soybean and rapeseed meal are known to be respectively high and low in isoflavones. Cows were randomly divided into three groups and blocked for parity. Group I (n=11) was supplemented with soybean meal and acted as control group. Groups II (n=11) and III (n=11) were respectively supplemented with soybean and rapeseed meal and were subjected to a biopsy sampling of the corpus luteum at day 9 of the first three postpartal estrous cycles. Soybean meal supplementation to lactating dairy cows (1.72 kg on average) induced an increase in the blood concentration of equol, dihydrodaidzein, o-desmethylangolensin in both soy groups and resulted in a reduced area occupied by steroidogenic (P=0.012) and endothelial cells (P=0.0007) in the luteal biopsies. Blood concentrations of equol and glycitein were negatively correlated with the areas occupied by steroidogenic (r=-0.410 with P=0.0002, respectively r=-0.351 with P=0.008) and endothelial cells (r=-0.337 with P=0.01, respectively r=-0.233 with P=0.085) in the 3 first estrous cycles. The latter however did not affect the diestrous peripheral blood progesterone concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Decreased CXCR1 and CXCR2 expression on neutrophils in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated vasculitides potentially increases neutrophil adhesion and impairs migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Nan; Westra, Johanna; Rutgers, Abraham; Doornbos-Van der Meer, Berber; Huitema, Minke G; Stegeman, Coen A; Abdulahad, Wayel H; Satchell, Simon C; Mathieson, Peter W; Heeringa, Peter; Kallenberg, Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV), persistent inflammation within the vessel wall suggests perturbed neutrophil trafficking leading to accumulation of activated neutrophils in the microvascular compartment. CXCR1 and CXCR2, being major

  7. Toll-Like Receptor-2 and -4 Expression by Maternal Neutrophils in Preterm Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prearo Moço, Natália; Camargo Batista, Renata Aparecida; Fernandes Martin, Laura; de Oliveira, Leandro Gustavo; Garcia de Lima Parada, Cristina Maria; Alarcão Dias-Melicio, Luciane; de Assis Golim, Marjorie; Guimarães da Silva, Márcia

    2018-01-01

    The inflammatory response in preterm parturition is regulated by the innate immune system. Toll-like receptors (TLR)-2 and TLR-4 are innate immune receptors that recognize the microorganisms most frequently involved in amniotic cavity infections, which are associated with activating the inflammatory response at the maternal-fetal interface during preterm labor. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of TLR-2 and TLR-4 in maternal neutrophils in preterm labor. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Obstetrics Care Unit of Botucatu Medical School, UNESP, Brazil. The preterm group was composed of 20 pregnant women who presented preterm labor and preterm delivery. The control group was composed of 20 nonlaboring pregnant women matched to the preterm group by gestational age. Neutrophils were isolated from peripheral blood and TLR expressions were performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry. Gene expressions of TLR-2 and TLR-4 in neutrophils from the preterm group were statistically higher than expressions in neutrophils from the matched control group. The percentage of TLR-4+ neutrophils was higher in the preterm group than the matched control group, while the percentage of TLR-2+ neutrophils did not differ between groups. TLR-4 expression in maternal neutrophils is associated with spontaneous preterm labor. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Role of oncogene 24p3 neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in digestive system cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Łukasz; Bulska, Magdalena; Kudłacz, Katarzyna; Szcześniak, Piotr

    2016-01-04

    Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, known also as 24p3 lipocalin, lipocalin-2 or uterocalin (in mouse), is a small secretory protein binding small molecular weight ligands which takes part in numerous processes including apoptosis induction in leukocytes, iron transport, smell, and prostaglandins and retinol transport [19]. It was discovered in activated neutrophils as a covalent peptide associated with human gelatinase neutrophils [7]. Neutrophil lipocalin is secreted physiologically in the digestive system, respiratory tract, renal tubular cells, liver or immunity system. Systematic (circulated in plasma) neutrophil gelatinase come from multiple sources; it may be synthesized in the liver, secreted from activated neutrophils or macrophages, or derive from atherosclerosis or inflammatory endothelial cells [17]. NGAL is stored secondarily in granulates with lactoferrin, calprotectin or MAC-1, which take part in neutrophils' action and migration [13,19]. NGAL participates in acute and chronic inflammation (production of NGAL is indicated by factors conducive to cancer progression) [13,21]. NGAL levels increase in inflammatory or endothelial damage. NGAL level is measured in blood or urine. It is known as a kidney failure factor [7,20]. NGAL is therefore one of the most promising new generation biomarkers in clinical nephrology [6]. The role of NGAL in digestive system neoplasms has not been explored in detail. However, overexpression of this marker was proved in neoplasms such as esophageal carcinoma, stomach cancer, pancreatic cancer or colon cancer, which may indicate an association between concentration and neoplasm [3].

  9. Rapid and label-free microfluidic neutrophil purification and phenotyping in diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Han Wei; Petchakup, Chayakorn; Tay, Hui Min; Tam, Zhi Yang; Dalan, Rinkoo; Chew, Daniel Ek Kwang; Li, King Ho Holden; Boehm, Bernhard O.

    2016-07-01

    Advanced management of dysmetabolic syndromes such as diabetes will benefit from a timely mechanistic insight enabling personalized medicine approaches. Herein, we present a rapid microfluidic neutrophil sorting and functional phenotyping strategy for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients using small blood volumes (fingerprick ~100 μL). The developed inertial microfluidics technology enables single-step neutrophil isolation (>90% purity) without immuno-labeling and sorted neutrophils are used to characterize their rolling behavior on E-selectin, a critical step in leukocyte recruitment during inflammation. The integrated microfluidics testing methodology facilitates high throughput single-cell quantification of neutrophil rolling to detect subtle differences in speed distribution. Higher rolling speed was observed in T2DM patients (P < 0.01) which strongly correlated with neutrophil activation, rolling ligand P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1) expression, as well as established cardiovascular risk factors (cholesterol, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) and HbA1c). Rolling phenotype can be modulated by common disease risk modifiers (metformin and pravastatin). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and principal component analysis (PCA) revealed neutrophil rolling as an important functional phenotype in T2DM diagnostics. These results suggest a new point-of-care testing methodology, and neutrophil rolling speed as a functional biomarker for rapid profiling of dysmetabolic subjects in clinical and patient-oriented settings.

  10. Prevention of both neutrophil and monocyte recruitment promotes recovery after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Mi; Rosen, Steven; Weinstein, Philip; van Rooijen, Nico; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J

    2011-09-01

    Strategies that block infiltration of leukocytes into the injured spinal cord improve sparing of white matter and neurological recovery. In this article, we examine the dependency of recovery on hematogenous depletion of neutrophils and monocytes. Mice were depleted of neutrophils or monocytes by systemic administration of anti-Ly6G or clodronate-liposomes. A third group was depleted of both subsets. Neurological improvement, based on a battery of tests of performance, and white matter sparing, occurred only in animals depleted of both neutrophils and monocytes. We also attempted to define the nature of the environment that was favorable to recovery. Hemeoxygenase-1 and malondialdehyde, markers of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, respectively, were reduced to similar levels in animals depleted of both neutrophils and monocytes, or only monocytes, but remained elevated in the group only depleted of neutrophils. Matrix metalloproteinase-9, a protease involved in early damage, was most strongly reduced in animals depleted of both leukocyte subsets. Finally, disruption of the blood-spinal cord barrier and abnormal nonheme iron accumulation were reduced only in animals depleted of both neutrophils and monocytes. Together, these findings indicate cooperation between neutrophils and monocytes in mediating early pathogenesis in the contused spinal cord and defining long-term neurological recovery.

  11. Effects of chronic occupational exposure to anaesthetic gases on the rate of neutrophil apoptosis among anaesthetists.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tyther, R

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Volatile anaesthetic agents are known to influence neutrophil function. The aim was to determine the effect of chronic occupational exposure to volatile anaesthetic agents on the rate of neutrophil apoptosis among anaesthetists. To test this hypothesis, we compared the rate of neutrophil apoptosis in anaesthetists who had been chronically exposed to volatile anaesthetic agents with that in unexposed volunteers. METHODS: Venous blood (20 mL) was withdrawn from 24 ASA I-II volunteers, from which neutrophils were isolated, and maintained in culture. At 1, 12 and 24 h in culture, the percentage of neutrophil apoptosis was assessed by dual staining with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide. RESULTS: At 1 h (but not at 12 and 24 h) in culture, the rate of neutrophil apoptosis was significantly less in the anaesthetists--13.8 (12.9%) versus 34.4 (12.1%) (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Chronic occupational exposure to volatile anaesthetic agents may inhibit neutrophil apoptosis. This may have implications for anaesthetists and similarly exposed healthcare workers in terms of the adequacy of their inflammatory response.

  12. In vitro effects of bisphosphonates on chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and oxidative burst of neutrophil granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagelauer, Nadine; Pabst, Andreas Max; Ziebart, Thomas; Ulbrich, Holger; Walter, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaws is a serious side effect that mainly occurs in patients receiving highly potent, nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates. Usually the diagnosis is made due to exposed bone and a nonhealing wound. Neutrophil granulocytes are essential for sufficient wound healing; therefore, the influence of different bisphosphonates on neutrophil granulocytes was the focus of this study. The effect of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (ibandronate, pamidronate, and zoledronate) and one non-nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate (clodronate) on chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and oxidative burst of neutrophil granulocytes in human whole blood was analyzed using standard cytometric flow assays. Chemotaxis of neutrophils was reduced by almost 50 % when cells were treated with ibandronate and zoledronate. All tested nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates moderately increased the percentage of phagocytizing neutrophils, whereas the percentage of oxidizing cells was extremely affected. Zoledronate increased the oxidative burst activity even at low concentrations. Treatment with ibandronate and pamidronate reached the same level, but only in at least 10 times the higher concentrations. The maximal burst activity of a single cell reached nearly 150 % compared to control. In this case, zoledronate also caused maximal effects even at low concentrations. Clodronate did not show any effects. The results show a proinflammatory effect of the nitrogen-containing effect on neutrophil granulocytes which might contribute to the development of osteonecrosis. The altered neutrophil defense might play a key role in the pathogenesis of bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaws, although the underlying causation between inflammatory reaction and the development of necrosis is yet unknown.

  13. Bromelain treatment decreases neutrophil migration to sites of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzhugh, David J; Shan, Siqing; Dewhirst, Mark W; Hale, Laura P

    2008-07-01

    Bromelain, a mixture of proteases derived from pineapple stem, has been reported to have therapeutic benefits in a variety of inflammatory diseases, including murine inflammatory bowel disease. The purpose of this work was to understand potential mechanisms for this anti-inflammatory activity. Exposure to bromelain in vitro has been shown to remove a number of cell surface molecules that are vital to leukocyte trafficking, including CD128a/CXCR1 and CD128b/CXCR2 that serve as receptors for the neutrophil chemoattractant IL-8 and its murine homologues. We hypothesized that specific proteolytic removal of CD128 molecules by bromelain would inhibit neutrophil migration to IL-8 and thus decrease acute responses to inflammatory stimuli. Using an in vitro chemotaxis assay, we demonstrated a 40% reduction in migration of bromelain- vs. sham-treated human neutrophils in response to rhIL-8. Migration to the bacterial peptide analog fMLP was unaffected, indicating that bromelain does not induce a global defect in leukocyte migration. In vivo bromelain treatment generated a 50-85% reduction in neutrophil migration in 3 different murine models of leukocyte migration into the inflamed peritoneal cavity. Intravital microscopy demonstrated that although in vivo bromelain treatment transiently decreased leukocyte rolling, its primary long-term effect was abrogation of firm adhesion of leukocytes to blood vessels at the site of inflammation. These changes in adhesion were correlated with rapid re-expression of the bromelain-sensitive CD62L/L-selectin molecules that mediate rolling following in vivo bromelain treatment and minimal re-expression of CD128 over the time period studied. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that bromelain can effectively decrease neutrophil migration to sites of acute inflammation and support the specific removal of the CD128 chemokine receptor as a potential mechanism of action.

  14. Neutrophil proteinase 3 and dipeptidyl peptidase I (cathepsin C) as pharmacological targets in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener granulomatosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Brice; Lesner, Adam; Letast, Stephanie; Mahdi, Yassir K; Jourdan, Marie-Lise; Dallet-Choisy, Sandrine; Marchand-Adam, Sylvain; Kellenberger, Christine; Viaud-Massuard, Marie-Claude; Jenne, Dieter E; Gauthier, Francis

    2013-07-01

    Neutrophils are among the first cells implicated in acute inflammation. Leaving the blood circulation, they quickly migrate through the interstitial space of tissues and liberate oxidants and other antimicrobial proteins together with serine proteinases. Neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G, proteinase 3 (PR3), and neutrophil serine protease 4 are four hematopoietic serine proteases activated by dipeptidyl peptidase I during neutrophil maturation and are mainly stored in cytoplasmic azurophilic granules. They regulate inflammatory and immune responses after their release from activated neutrophils at inflammatory sites. Membrane-bound PR3 (mbPR3) at the neutrophil surface is the prime antigenic target of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA) in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), a vasculitis of small blood vessels and granulomatous inflammation of the upper and/or lower respiratory tracts. The interaction of ANCA with mbPR3 results in excessive activation of neutrophils to produce reactive oxygen species and liberation of granular proteinases to the pericellular environment. In this review, we focus on PR3 and dipeptidyl peptidase I as attractive pharmacological targets whose inhibition is expected to attenuate autoimmune activation of neutrophils in GPA.

  15. The paradox of the neutrophil's role in tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segel, George B; Halterman, Marc W; Lichtman, Marshall A

    2011-03-01

    The neutrophil is an essential component of the innate immune system, and its function is vital to human life. Its production increases in response to virtually all forms of inflammation, and subsequently, it can accumulate in blood and tissue to varying degrees. Although its participation in the inflammatory response is often salutary by nature of its normal interaction with vascular endothelium and its capability to enter tissues and respond to chemotactic gradients and to phagocytize and kill microrganisms, it can contribute to processes that impair vascular integrity and blood flow. The mechanisms that the neutrophil uses to kill microorganisms also have the potential to injure normal tissue under special circumstances. Its paradoxical role in the pathophysiology of disease is particularly, but not exclusively, notable in seven circumstances: 1) diabetic retinopathy, 2) sickle cell disease, 3) TRALI, 4) ARDS, 5) renal microvasculopathy, 6) stroke, and 7) acute coronary artery syndrome. The activated neutrophil's capability to become adhesive to endothelium, to generate highly ROS, and to secrete proteases gives it the potential to induce local vascular and tissue injury. In this review, we summarize the evidence for its role as a mediator of tissue injury in these seven conditions, making it or its products potential therapeutic targets.

  16. Viral and Bacterial Pathogens in Bovine Respiratory Disease in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soveri T

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathogens causing bovine respiratory tract disease in Finland were investigated. Eighteen cattle herds with bovine respiratory disease were included. Five diseased calves from each farm were chosen for closer examination and tracheobronchial lavage. Blood samples were taken from the calves at the time of the investigation and from 86 calves 3–4 weeks later. In addition, 6–10 blood samples from animals of different ages were collected from each herd, resulting in 169 samples. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to bovine parainfluenza virus-3 (PIV-3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, bovine coronavirus (BCV, bovine adenovirus-3 (BAV-3 and bovine adenovirus-7 (BAV-7. About one third of the samples were also tested for antibodies to bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV with negative results. Bacteria were cultured from lavage fluid and in vitro susceptibility to selected antimicrobials was tested. According to serological findings, PIV-3, BAV-7, BAV-3, BCV and BRSV are common pathogens in Finnish cattle with respiratory problems. A titre rise especially for BAV-7 and BAV-3, the dual growth of Mycoplasma dispar and Pasteurella multocida, were typical findings in diseased calves. Pasteurella sp. strains showed no resistance to tested antimicrobials. Mycoplasma bovis and Mannheimia haemolytica were not found.

  17. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing on...

  18. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule document...

  19. Protein Quality of Rice Drinks Fortified with Bovine and Porcine Blood Plasma / Calidad Proteica de Bebidas de Arroz Fortificadas con Plasma Sanguíneo de Bovino y Porcino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piedad Margarita Montero Castillo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The future of nutrition in Colombia, and perhaps inother developing countries, will depend in large part on the abilityof food technology to take full advantage of the food sourcesavailable in the country and to adapt and develop new productsthat will vary and complement the diets of the majority of thepopulation at a low cost. The objective of this study was to evaluatethe protein quality of rice-based drinks fortified with bovine andporcine blood plasma. Six treatments were prepared with differentlevels of fortification (14.5%, 18.5% and 29%. The effects of theplasma type and the addition levels on the protein content, theamino acid profile, and the in vitro digestibility of the drinks wereobserved. The AOAC method was employed for the determinationof the protein content; the amino acid profile was created usingHPLC. The protein digestibility was determined by subjecting adispersion of the drink to the action of a multi-enzymatic solution.The protein content increased with the level of fortification. Thedrinks fortified with bovine plasma (104% and porcine plasma(89% presented a better protein quality index than the unfortifieddrink. The digestibility of the fortified drinks did not demonstratesignificant improvements in comparison with the unfortified drink.The chemical score of the drinks fortified with porcine plasma(71.6 and bovine plasma (78.5 showed that the latter had thebest nutritional quality. / Resumen. El futuro de la alimentación en Colombia y quizás deotros países en desarrollo va a depender en gran parte de quela tecnología de alimentos sea capaz de aprovechar las fuentesdisponibles de alimentos en el país y de adaptar y desarrollarnuevos productos que permitan variar y complementar la dietade la mayoría de la población a bajo costo. El objetivo de estetrabajo fue evaluar la calidad proteica de bebidas a base dearroz fortificadas con plasma sanguíneo de bovino y porcino. Seprepararon seis tratamientos con

  20. Diagnostic utility of neutrophil CD64 as a marker for early-onset sepsis in preterm neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jikun Du

    Full Text Available Neutrophil CD64 has been proposed as an early marker of sepsis. This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic utility of neutrophil CD64 for identification of early-onset sepsis in preterm neonates.The prospective study was conducted in a neonatal intensive care unit between November 2010 and June 2011. Preterm neonates in whom infection was suspected when they were <12 hours of age were enrolled. Complete blood count with differential, blood culture, neutrophil CD11b and CD64 measurement were performed. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to evaluate the performance of neutrophil CD64 as biomarker of sepsis.A total of 158 preterm neonates was enrolled, 88 of whom were suspected infection. The suspected sepsis group was of lesser gestational age (P<0.001 and lower birth weight (P<0.001, compared with controls. The hematologic profiles of the suspected sepsis group were characterized by higher white blood cell count, neutrophil counts and C-reactive protein. The suspected sepsis neonates had significantly higher neutrophil CD64 expression compared with controls. Neutrophil CD64 had an area value under the curve of 0.869 with an optimal cutoff values of 1010 phycoerythrin molecules bound/cell and it had a high sensitivity (81.82% and negative predictive value (77.4%. The level of neutrophil CD64 was independent of antibiotic therapy within 24 hours after the onset of sepsis in preterm neonates.Neutrophil CD64 is a highly sensitive marker for suspected early-onset sepsis in preterm neonates. Our study suggests that neutrophil CD64 may be incorporated as a valuable marker to diagnose infection.

  1. Selective and direct activation of human neutrophils but not eosinophils by Toll-like receptor 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Markus; Poth, Jens; Wimmenauer, Vera; Giese, Thomas; Coch, Christoph; Barchet, Winfried; Schlee, Martin; Hartmann, Gunther

    2009-05-01

    Granulocytes represent the largest fraction of immune cells in peripheral blood and are directly exposed to circulating Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. Although highly relevant for TLR-based therapies, because of the technical challenge, activation of the granulocyte subsets of neutrophils and eosinophils by TLR ligands is less well studied than activation of other immune cell subsets. The aim of this work was to study direct versus indirect neutrophil and eosinophil activation by TLR7 and TLR8 ligands. We used a new whole-blood assay, single cell-based cytokine detection, and highly purified primary human neutrophils and eosinophils to separate direct and indirect effects on these blood cell subsets. We found indirect but not direct activation of neutrophils but not eosinophils in whole blood by using unmodified immunostimulatory RNA (isRNA; TLR7/8 ligand). In contrast, direct activation and stimulation of the respiratory burst and degranulation was seen with nuclease-stable isRNA and with the small-molecule TLR8 agonist 3M002 but not 3M001 (TLR7). Neutrophils expressed TLR8 but none of the other 2 RNA-detecting TLRs (TLR3 and TLR7). Together, these results demonstrate that neutrophils are directly and fully activated through TLR8 but not TLR7. Furthermore, the results predict that the clinical utility of small-molecule TLR8 ligands or nuclease-stable RNA ligands for TLR8 might be limited because of neutrophil-mediated toxicity and that no such limitation applies for unmodified isRNA, which is known to induce desired T(H)1 activities in other immune cell subsets.

  2. Tumor-Derived CXCL1 Promotes Lung Cancer Growth via Recruitment of Tumor-Associated Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils have a traditional role in inflammatory process and act as the first line of defense against infections. Although their contribution to tumorigenesis and progression is still controversial, accumulating evidence recently has demonstrated that tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs play a key role in multiple aspects of cancer biology. Here, we detected that chemokine CXCL1 was dramatically elevated in serum from 3LL tumor-bearing mice. In vitro, 3LL cells constitutively expressed and secreted higher level of CXCL1. Furthermore, knocking down CXCL1 expression in 3LL cells significantly hindered tumor growth by inhibiting recruitment of neutrophils from peripheral blood into tumor tissues. Additionally, tumor-infiltrated neutrophils expressed higher levels of MPO and Fas/FasL, which may be involved in TAN-mediated inhibition of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. These results demonstrate that tumor-derived CXCL1 contributes to TANs infiltration in lung cancer which promotes tumor growth.

  3. Neutrophil Responses to Sterile Implant Materials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Jhunjhunwala

    Full Text Available In vivo implantation of sterile materials and devices results in a foreign body immune response leading to fibrosis of implanted material. Neutrophils, one of the first immune cells to be recruited to implantation sites, have been suggested to contribute to the establishment of the inflammatory microenvironment that initiates the fibrotic response. However, the precise numbers and roles of neutrophils in response to implanted devices remains unclear. Using a mouse model of peritoneal microcapsule implantation, we show 30-500 fold increased neutrophil presence in the peritoneal exudates in response to implants. We demonstrate that these neutrophils secrete increased amounts of a variety of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Further, we observe that they participate in the foreign body response through the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs on implant surfaces. Our results provide new insight into neutrophil function during a foreign body response to peritoneal implants which has implications for the development of biologically compatible medical devices.

  4. Neutrophil NETs in reproduction: from infertility to preeclampsia and the possibility of fetal loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinuhe eHahn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this review is to provide an overview of the potential role of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs in mammalian reproduction. Neutrophil NETs appear to be involved in various stages of the reproductive cycle, starting with fertility and possibly ending with fetal loss. The first suggestion that NETs may play a role in pregnancy-related disorders was in preeclampsia, where vast numbers were detected in the intervillous space of affected placentae. The induction of NETosis involved an auto-inflammatory component, mediated by the increased release of placental micro-debris in preeclampsia. This report was the first indicating that NETs may be associated with a human pathology not involving infection.Subsequently, NETs have since then been implicated in bovine or equine infertility, in that semen may become entrapped in the female reproductive during their passage to the oocyte. In this instance interesting species-specific differences are apparent, in that equine sperm evade entrapment via expression of a DNAse-like molecule, whereas highly motile bovine sperm, once free from seminal plasma that promotes interaction with neutrophils, appear impervious to NETs entrapment.Although still in the realm of speculation it is plausible that NETs may be involved in recurrent fetal loss mediated by anti-phospholipid antibodies, or perhaps even in fetal abortion triggered by infections with microorganisms such as L. monocytogenes or B. abortus.

  5. Involvement of intraplaque hemorrhage in atherothrombosis evolution via neutrophil protease enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Anne; Houard, Xavier; Philippe, Monique; Ollivier, Véronique; Sebbag, Uriel; Meilhac, Olivier; Michel, Jean-Baptiste

    2007-12-01

    The pathological remodeling of the arterial wall in atherosclerosis involves protease activities, which play a major role in complications via plaque rupture. Circulating leukocytes and particularly neutrophils have been shown to be an independent predictor of recurrent ischemic events. However, neutrophils are poorly documented within atherosclerotic plaques. We hypothesized that intraplaque hemorrhage could convey neutrophils into the lesion, spreading into the necrotic core, thus participating in its protease enrichment. One hundred human carotid endarterectomy specimens were dissected into culprit-stenosing plaques (CPs) and adjacent noncomplicated plaques. Half of CPs exhibited hemorrhage, which was confirmed by the release of hemoglobin. Pro- and active forms of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were increased in media conditioned by hemorrhagic plaques. Higher levels of lipocalin [neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL)]/MMP-9 complexes, specifically released by neutrophils, were also found in conditioned media from plaques with hemorrhage. Immunohistochemical analysis of the corresponding carotid samples showed that neutrophil markers such as elastase, NGAL/MMP-9, CD66b, and proteinase 3 colocalized with blood constituents (i.e., hemoglobin, plasminogen). All markers of neutrophil degranulation were positively correlated in CP-conditioned media (alpha1-antitrypsin/elastase complexes, myeloperoxidase, and alpha-defensins), and higher levels came from CPs containing intraplaque hemorrhages. Addition of an elastase inhibitor at the time of incubation led to a decrease in the proMMP-9 activation in CPs, suggesting cross-talk between proteases released by neutrophils. Finally, we found that neovessels observed at the interface between cap and core exhibit an activated endothelium, which may favor leukocyte diapedesis. Our study thus provides evidence for the involvement of neutrophils in plaque vulnerability.

  6. Diagnosis of bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Schares, G

    2006-08-31

    The protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle. The diagnosis of neosporosis-associated mortality and abortion in cattle is difficult. In the present paper we review histologic, serologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular methods for dignosis of bovine neosporosis. Although not a routine method of diagnosis, methods to isolate viable N. caninum from bovine tissues are also reviewed.

  7. Infectivity of enzootic bovine leukosis infected animals during the incubation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D H; Lucas, M H; Wibberley, G; Swallow, C

    1985-03-23

    Steers and calves were experimentally infected with bovine leukosis virus. The virus was isolated from the blood and from the tracheal and bronchoalveolar washings before antibodies could be detected in the serum. Bovine leukosis virus was not detected during any period in the blood plasma.

  8. Anti-Bovine Programmed Death-1 Rat-Bovine Chimeric Antibody for Immunotherapy of Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection in Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagawa, Tomohiro; Konnai, Satoru; Nishimori, Asami; Maekawa, Naoya; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Goto, Shinya; Nakajima, Chie; Kohara, Junko; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Kato, Yukinari; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Blockade of immunoinhibitory molecules, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1), is a promising strategy for reinvigorating exhausted T cells and preventing disease progression in a variety of chronic infections. Application of this therapeutic strategy to cattle requires bovinized chimeric antibody targeting immunoinhibitory molecules. In this study, anti-bovine PD-1 rat-bovine chimeric monoclonal antibody 5D2 (Boch5D2) was constructed with mammalian expression systems, and its biochemical function and antiviral effect were characterized in vitro and in vivo using cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Purified Boch5D2 was capable of detecting bovine PD-1 molecules expressed on cell membranes in flow cytometric analysis. In particular, Biacore analysis determined that the binding affinity of Boch5D2 to bovine PD-1 protein was similar to that of the original anti-bovine PD-1 rat monoclonal antibody 5D2. Boch5D2 was also capable of blocking PD-1/PD-L1 binding at the same level as 5D2. The immunomodulatory and therapeutic effects of Boch5D2 were evaluated by in vivo administration of the antibody to a BLV-infected calf. Inoculated Boch5D2 was sustained in the serum for a longer period. Boch5D2 inoculation resulted in activation of the proliferation of BLV-specific CD4+ T cells and decrease in the proviral load of BLV in the peripheral blood. This study demonstrates that Boch5D2 retains an equivalent biochemical function to that of the original antibody 5D2 and is a candidate therapeutic agent for regulating antiviral immune response in vivo. Clinical efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade awaits further experimentation with a large number of animals.

  9. Anti-Bovine Programmed Death-1 Rat–Bovine Chimeric Antibody for Immunotherapy of Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagawa, Tomohiro; Konnai, Satoru; Nishimori, Asami; Maekawa, Naoya; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Goto, Shinya; Nakajima, Chie; Kohara, Junko; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Kato, Yukinari; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Blockade of immunoinhibitory molecules, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1), is a promising strategy for reinvigorating exhausted T cells and preventing disease progression in a variety of chronic infections. Application of this therapeutic strategy to cattle requires bovinized chimeric antibody targeting immunoinhibitory molecules. In this study, anti-bovine PD-1 rat–bovine chimeric monoclonal antibody 5D2 (Boch5D2) was constructed with mammalian expression systems, and its biochemical function and antiviral effect were characterized in vitro and in vivo using cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Purified Boch5D2 was capable of detecting bovine PD-1 molecules expressed on cell membranes in flow cytometric analysis. In particular, Biacore analysis determined that the binding affinity of Boch5D2 to bovine PD-1 protein was similar to that of the original anti-bovine PD-1 rat monoclonal antibody 5D2. Boch5D2 was also capable of blocking PD-1/PD-L1 binding at the same level as 5D2. The immunomodulatory and therapeutic effects of Boch5D2 were evaluated by in vivo administration of the antibody to a BLV-infected calf. Inoculated Boch5D2 was sustained in the serum for a longer period. Boch5D2 inoculation resulted in activation of the proliferation of BLV-specific CD4+ T cells and decrease in the proviral load of BLV in the peripheral blood. This study demonstrates that Boch5D2 retains an equivalent biochemical function to that of the original antibody 5D2 and is a candidate therapeutic agent for regulating antiviral immune response in vivo. Clinical efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade awaits further experimentation with a large number of animals. PMID:28638381

  10. Anti-Bovine Programmed Death-1 Rat–Bovine Chimeric Antibody for Immunotherapy of Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Okagawa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Blockade of immunoinhibitory molecules, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1, is a promising strategy for reinvigorating exhausted T cells and preventing disease progression in a variety of chronic infections. Application of this therapeutic strategy to cattle requires bovinized chimeric antibody targeting immunoinhibitory molecules. In this study, anti-bovine PD-1 rat–bovine chimeric monoclonal antibody 5D2 (Boch5D2 was constructed with mammalian expression systems, and its biochemical function and antiviral effect were characterized in vitro and in vivo using cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV. Purified Boch5D2 was capable of detecting bovine PD-1 molecules expressed on cell membranes in flow cytometric analysis. In particular, Biacore analysis determined that the binding affinity of Boch5D2 to bovine PD-1 protein was similar to that of the original anti-bovine PD-1 rat monoclonal antibody 5D2. Boch5D2 was also capable of blocking PD-1/PD-L1 binding at the same level as 5D2. The immunomodulatory and therapeutic effects of Boch5D2 were evaluated by in vivo administration of the antibody to a BLV-infected calf. Inoculated Boch5D2 was sustained in the serum for a longer period. Boch5D2 inoculation resulted in activation of the proliferation of BLV-specific CD4+ T cells and decrease in the proviral load of BLV in the peripheral blood. This study demonstrates that Boch5D2 retains an equivalent biochemical function to that of the original antibody 5D2 and is a candidate therapeutic agent for regulating antiviral immune response in vivo. Clinical efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade awaits further experimentation with a large number of animals.

  11. Cross-talk between cell adhesion molecules regulates the migration velocity of neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainger, G E; Buckley, C; Simmons, D L; Nash, G B

    1997-05-01

    Although the adhesive mechanisms underlying the capture and immobilization of circulating neutrophils in inflamed blood vessels have been well described, factors controlling the subsequent migration of neutrophils over and through the blood vessel endothelium are poorly understood. Directional rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton within the neutrophil, along with modulation of integrin-mediated adhesion, are necessary for neutrophil migration. Signals from chemotactic agents and from the adhesive substrate may regulate these processes, but little is known about their relative importance or their mode of integration. We examined the kinetics of neutrophil migration after formyl tripeptide or platelet-activating factor was perfused over neutrophils that were already rolling on the adhesion molecule P-selectin, which was presented either on the surface of immobilized platelets or in purified form coated on glass capillaries. Upon activation, neutrophils stopped rolling, spread and began to migrate; each of these processes was dependent on beta2 integrin (CD11b/CD18). The rate of migration increased over a period of about 8 minutes and was modulated directly by both the P-selectin and the CD31 surface receptors. Antibody blockade of either CD31 or P-selectin on platelets resulted in a reduction in the velocity of migration, and simultaneous blockade of both receptors reduced velocity further. Purified CD31 and P-selectin (but not a control adhesion molecule, ICAM-1) increased migration velocity in a concentration-dependent and additive manner that reconstituted the migratory behaviour observed on platelets. These studies show that binding of ligands to CD31 and/or P-selectin modifies the rate of integrin-supported neutrophil migration. This novel example of 'cross-talk' between surface receptors suggests that cell adhesion molecules might generally transduce accessory signals between adjacent cells to modify their migratory responses to chemotactic signals.

  12. Neutrophil beta-2 microglobulin: an inflammatory mediator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, O W; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Borregaard, N

    1990-01-01

    vesicles, and plasma membrane. Beta 2m was released in the native form from neutrophils in response to stimulation with chemotactic stimuli and phorbol ester. The results of experiments designed to study the modification of native beta 2m by neutrophils indicated that neutrophils do not participate...... in the proteolysis of beta 2m. However, we demonstrated that native beta 2m following degranulation may be transformed to Des-Lys58-beta 2m by lymphocytes. We suggest that neutrophil beta 2m following exocytosis may be transformed to Des-Lys58-beta 2m, acting as an extracellular messenger between granulocytes...

  13. Soluble CD40 ligand accumulates in stored blood components, primes neutrophils through CD40, and is a potential cofactor in the development of transfusion-related acute lung injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Samina Yasmin; Kelher, Marguerite R.; Heal, Joanna M.; Blumberg, Neil; Boshkov, Lynn K.; Phipps, Richard; Gettings, Kelly F.; McLaughlin, Nathan J.; Silliman, Christopher C.

    2006-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a form of posttransfusion acute pulmonary insufficiency that has been linked to the infusion of biologic response modifiers (BRMs), including antileukocyte antibodies and lipids. Soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) is a platelet-derived proinflammatory mediator that accumulates during platelet storage. We hypothesized that human polymorpho-nuclear leukocytes (PMNs) express CD40, CD40 ligation rapidly primes PMNs, and sCD40L induces PMN-mediated cytotoxicity of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs). Levels of sCD40L were measured in blood components and in platelet concentrates (PCs) implicated in TRALI or control PCs that did not elicit a transfusion reaction. All blood components contained higher levels of sCD40L than fresh plasma, with apheresis PCs evidencing the highest concentration of sCD40L followed by PCs from whole blood, whole blood, and packed red blood cells (PRBCs). PCs implicated in TRALI reactions contained significantly higher sCD40L levels than control PCs. PMNs express functional CD40 on the plasma membrane, and recombinant sCD40L (10 ng/mL-1 μg/mL) rapidly (5 minutes) primed the PMN oxidase. Soluble CD40L promoted PMN-mediated cytotoxicity of HMVECs as the second event in a 2-event in vitro model of TRALI. We concluded that sCD40L, which accumulates during blood component storage, has the capacity to activate adherent PMNs, causing endothelial damage and possibly TRALI in predisposed patients. PMID:16772606

  14. [Evaluation of functional correlations of intracellular defense factors of neutrophils in children during postnatal ontogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osin, A Ia

    1989-01-01

    A total of 310 children aged 1 month to 15 years were examined for functional interrelations between components of the intracellular system of blood neutrophil defence based on the use of a discrete-dynamic analysis. The ontogenetic characteristics and regularities in the development of functional relations of intracellular defence factors were established. The periods of physiologic deficiency in children aged 1 month to 2 years and in those aged 2 to 15 years were defined. A screening scale was suggested for tracing the function of blood neutrophils and for identifying unbalances of intracellular defence factors in the course of the ontogenetic development of children.

  15. Human anti-neutrophil cytoplasm autoantibodies to proteinase 3 (PR3-ANCA) bind to neutrophils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rossum, AP; van der Geld, YM; Limburg, PC; Kallenberg, CGM

    Human anti-neutrophil cytoplasm autoantibodies to proteinase 3 (PR3-ANCA) bind to neutrophils. Background. Recently, the in vivo pathogenic role of anti-neutrophil cytoplasm autoantibodies (ANCA) in ANCA-associated vasculitis has been challenged by Abdel-Salam et al. In their report, they observed

  16. Composição e propriedades físico-químicas de duas frações do soro de sangue bovino Composition and physicochemical properties of two protein fractions of bovine blood serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Silvia Prata

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O sangue animal de abatedouros representa uma fonte importante de ingrediente alimentício subutilizado. A produção de sangue bovino no Brasil foi aproximadamente 3,6 x 10(6 tons em 2005. Além do desperdício de uma proteína de boa qualidade, a subutilização deste subproduto da indústria animal é uma fonte importante de poluição dos recursos hídricos e do solo. A concentração de proteína albumina (BSA e globulina (BSG bovinas secas em spray ou liofilizadas foi, aproximadamente, 85,0%. O score de aminoácidos (EAAS foi 72,7%, para BSA liofilizada, e 89,3%, para BSG. As propriedades emulsificantes e espumantes de ambas as frações protéicas foram altas, principalmente a pH 5,5. A capacidade emulsificante e espumante foi maior para BSA, no entanto, tanto a estabilidade da emulsão quanto a da espuma formada foram melhores para a BSG. A adição de NaCl apresentou uma tendência de reduzir as duas propriedades surfactantes, independentemente do pH. Considerando a solubilidade, a estabilidade ao calor, propriedades emulsificante e espumante, tanto a BSA quanto a BSG deveriam ser consideradas bons ingredientes funcionais para a manufatura de produtos alimentícios. O estudo não apenas confirmou dados já reportados na literatura, como também explorou novas propriedades, o que amplifica o potencial de aplicações do soro de sangue bovino.Animal blood from slaughterhouses represent an important source of food ingredients which have been so far underutilized. Bovine blood production in Brazil was about 3.6 x 10(6 in the year 2005. Besides wasting a good food quality protein, underutilization of this byproduct from the animal industry is an important cause of soil and water resources pollution. Protein concentration of both freeze-dried and spray-dried bovine albumin (BSA and globulin (BSG was around 85.0%. Essential Amino Acid Scoring (EAAS was 72.7% for freeze-dried BSA and 89.3% for BSG. Emulsifying and foaming properties of both

  17. Neonatal Sepsis and Neutrophil Insufficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvan, John Nicholas; Bagby, Gregory J.; Welsh, David A.; Nelson, Steve; Zhang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Sepsis has continuously been a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality despite current advances in chemotherapy and patient intensive care facilities. Neonates are at high risk for developing bacterial infections due to quantitative and qualitative insufficiencies of innate immunity, particularly granulocyte lineage development and response to infection. Although antibiotics remain the mainstay of treatment, adjuvant therapies enhancing immune function have shown promise in treating sepsis in neonates. This chapter reviews current strategies for the clinical management of neonatal sepsis and analyzes mechanisms underlying insufficiencies of neutrophil defense in neonates with emphasis on new directions for adjuvant therapy development. PMID:20521927

  18. A systematic study of neutrophil degranulation and respiratory burst in vitro by defined immune complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W; Voice, J; Lachmann, P J

    1995-01-01

    Defined immune complexes (IC) were used to compare the effect of antibodies of different classes and subclasses on neutrophil respiratory burst and degranulation. IC were made from 5-iodo-4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenacetyl (NIP) conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and chimaeric mouse-human anti-NIP monoclonal antibodies including IgA2, IgE and all four IgG subclasses. The activation of neutrophils by IC depended on antibody class and subclass, on antigen epitope density, on antigen: antibody ratio and on the medium used. The ability to generate the respiratory burst showed a different pattern to the ability to give rise to degranulation. Compared with other IC, IgA2 IC provided the strongest stimulus for neutrophil activation. IgG1 IC, IgG2 IC and IgG4 IC activated neutrophils moderately or weakly IgG3 IC were unable to stimulate the respiratory burst, but could cause strong degranulation. IgE IC could hardly cause any neutrophil response. Neutrophil degranulation in response to IgG3 IC in serum-free medium or heat-inactivated serum was fast, and it quickly reached maximum. Degranulation caused by IgA IC was relatively slow, but gradually increased during incubation. The activity of IgG1 IC, IgG2 IC and IgG4 IC generated a respiratory burst increased with antibody excess and decreased with antigen excess. The activity of IgA2 IC, however, was not affected by change of antigen and antibody ratio. A specific role of serum, possibly due to complement, was found in enhancing degranulation, both temporally and quantitatively, by IgA2 IC. PMID:7664498

  19. Streptococcus sanguinis induces neutrophil cell death by production of hydrogen peroxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Sumioka

    Full Text Available Streptococcus is the dominant bacterial genus in the human oral cavity and a leading cause of infective endocarditis. Streptococcus sanguinis belongs to the mitis group of streptococci and produces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 by the action of SpxB, a pyruvate oxidase. In this study, we investigated the involvement of SpxB in survival of S. sanguinis in human blood and whether bacterial H2O2 exhibits cytotoxicity against human neutrophils. Results of a bactericidal test with human whole blood revealed that the spxB mutation in S. sanguinis is detrimental to its survival in blood. When S. sanguinis strains were exposed to isolated neutrophils, the bacterial survival rate was significantly decreased by spxB deletion. Furthermore, human neutrophils exposed to the S. sanguinis wild-type strain, in contrast to those exposed to an spxB mutant strain, underwent cell death with chromatin de-condensation and release of web-like extracellular DNA, reflecting induction of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs. Since reactive oxygen species-mediated NET induction requires citrullination of arginine residues in histone proteins and subsequent chromatin de-condensation, we examined citrullination levels of histone in infected neutrophils. It is important to note that the citrullinated histone H3 was readily detected in neutrophils infected with the wild-type strain, as compared to infection with the spxB mutant strain. Moreover, decomposition of streptococcal H2O2 with catalase reduced NET induction. These results suggest that H2O2 produced by S. sanguinis provokes cell death of neutrophils and NET formation, thus potentially affecting bacterial survival in the bloodstream.

  20. Streptococcus sanguinis induces neutrophil cell death by production of hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumioka, Ryuichi; Nakata, Masanobu; Okahashi, Nobuo; Li, Yixuan; Wada, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Masaya; Sumitomo, Tomoko; Hayashi, Mikako; Kawabata, Shigetada

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus is the dominant bacterial genus in the human oral cavity and a leading cause of infective endocarditis. Streptococcus sanguinis belongs to the mitis group of streptococci and produces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by the action of SpxB, a pyruvate oxidase. In this study, we investigated the involvement of SpxB in survival of S. sanguinis in human blood and whether bacterial H2O2 exhibits cytotoxicity against human neutrophils. Results of a bactericidal test with human whole blood revealed that the spxB mutation in S. sanguinis is detrimental to its survival in blood. When S. sanguinis strains were exposed to isolated neutrophils, the bacterial survival rate was significantly decreased by spxB deletion. Furthermore, human neutrophils exposed to the S. sanguinis wild-type strain, in contrast to those exposed to an spxB mutant strain, underwent cell death with chromatin de-condensation and release of web-like extracellular DNA, reflecting induction of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Since reactive oxygen species-mediated NET induction requires citrullination of arginine residues in histone proteins and subsequent chromatin de-condensation, we examined citrullination levels of histone in infected neutrophils. It is important to note that the citrullinated histone H3 was readily detected in neutrophils infected with the wild-type strain, as compared to infection with the spxB mutant strain. Moreover, decomposition of streptococcal H2O2 with catalase reduced NET induction. These results suggest that H2O2 produced by S. sanguinis provokes cell death of neutrophils and NET formation, thus potentially affecting bacterial survival in the bloodstream.

  1. Neutrophils are immuno-modulatory in rhinovirus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Francesca; Hansbro, Philip; Burgess, Janette; Baines, Katherine; Oliver, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neutrophils are important in controlling bacterial infections however; their role in viral infections remains unclear. Previously, we found that neutrophils respond to viral mimetics but not replication competent rhinovirus (RV). Aim: To investigate if neutrophils are activated when

  2. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown

  3. Targeting neutrophils in ischemic stroke: translational insights from experimental studies

    OpenAIRE

    Jickling, Glen C; Liu, DaZhi; Ander, Bradley P; Stamova, Boryana; Zhan, Xinhua; Sharp, Frank R

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils have key roles in ischemic brain injury, thrombosis, and atherosclerosis. As such, neutrophils are of great interest as targets to treat and prevent ischemic stroke. After stroke, neutrophils respond rapidly promoting blood–brain barrier disruption, cerebral edema, and brain injury. A surge of neutrophil-derived reactive oxygen species, proteases, and cytokines are released as neutrophils interact with cerebral endothelium. Neutrophils also are linked to the major processes that c...

  4. Mechanotransduction in neutrophil activation and deactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpenyong, Andrew E; Toepfner, Nicole; Chilvers, Edwin R; Guck, Jochen

    2015-11-01

    Mechanotransduction refers to the processes through which cells sense mechanical stimuli by converting them to biochemical signals and, thus, eliciting specific cellular responses. Cells sense mechanical stimuli from their 3D environment, including the extracellular matrix, neighboring cells and other mechanical forces. Incidentally, the emerging concept of mechanical homeostasis,long term or chronic regulation of mechanical properties, seems to apply to neutrophils in a peculiar manner, owing to neutrophils' ability to dynamically switch between the activated/primed and deactivated/deprimed states. While neutrophil activation has been known for over a century, its deactivation is a relatively recent discovery. Even more intriguing is the reversibility of neutrophil activation and deactivation. We review and critically evaluate recent findings that suggest physiological roles for neutrophil activation and deactivation and discuss possible mechanisms by which mechanical stimuli can drive the oscillation of neutrophils between the activated and resting states. We highlight several molecules that have been identified in neutrophil mechanotransduction, including cell adhesion and transmembrane receptors, cytoskeletal and ion channel molecules. The physiological and pathophysiological implications of such mechanically induced signal transduction in neutrophils are highlighted as a basis for future work. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mechanobiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Developing Neutrophils Must Eat…Themselves!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhichao; Ley, Klaus

    2017-09-19

    In this issue of Immunity, Riffelmacher et al. (2017) show that autophagy is necessary for the release of free fatty acids from intracellular stores within neutrophil precursor cells. This limits glycolysis, increases oxidative phosphorylation, and is essential for neutrophil maturation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cortisol inhibits apoptosis in carp neutrophilic granulocytes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weyts, F.A.A.; Flik, G.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.

    1998-01-01

    The direct effect of cortisol treatment on carp neutrophil viability was examined in vitro. Cortisol treatment caused an inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis. The effect was blocked by glucocorticoid receptor blocker RU486, showing that rescue from apoptosis was receptor mediated. Using binding

  7. Neutrophils: potential therapeutic targets in tularemia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Ann H Allen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The central role of neutrophils in innate immunity and host defense has long been recognized, and the ability of these cells to efficiently engulf and kill invading bacteria has been extensively studied, as has the role of neutrophil apoptosis in resolution of the inflammatory response. In the past few years additional immunoregulatory properties of neutrophils were discovered, and it is now clear that these cells play a much greater role in control of the immune response than was previously appreciated. In this regard, it is noteworthy that Francisella tularensis is one of relatively few pathogens that can successfully parasitize neutrophils as well as macrophages, DC and epithelial cells. Herein we will review the mechanisms used by F. tularensis to evade elimination by neutrophils. We will also reprise effects of this pathogen on neutrophil migration and lifespan as compared with other infectious and inflammatory disease states. In addition, we will discuss the evidence which suggests that neutrophils contribute to disease progression rather than effective defense during tularemia, and consider whether manipulation of neutrophil migration or turnover may be suitable adjunctive therapeutic strategies.

  8. Neutrophil heterogeneity: implications for homeostasis and pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvestre-Roig, Carlos; Hidalgo, Andres; Soehnlein, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils are polymorphonuclear leukocytes of the phagocytic system that act as first line of host defense against invading pathogens but are also important mediators of inflammation-induced injury. In contrast to other members of the innate immune system, neutrophils are classically considered a

  9. Neutrophil Evolution and Their Diseases in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer W. Leiding

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Granulocytes have been preserved and have evolved across species, developing into cells that provide one of the first lines of host defense against pathogens. In humans, neutrophils are involved in early recognition and killing of infectious pathogens. Disruption in neutrophil production, emigration, chemotaxis, and function cause a spectrum of primary immune defects characterized by host susceptibility to invasive infections.

  10. Neutrophils cross the BBB primarily on transcellular pathways: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wedel-Parlow, Magdalena; Schrot, Sebastian; Lemmen, Julia; Treeratanapiboon, Lertyot; Wegener, Joachim; Galla, Hans-Joachim

    2011-01-07

    The cerebral microcapillary endothelium forms a highly important barrier between the blood and the interstitial fluid of the brain (blood-brain barrier) that controls the passage of molecules and cells in and out of the CNS. Several CNS diseases include leukocyte extravasation through the endothelium via two mechanistically distinct routes, the paracellular and the transcellular pathway. We established a new in vitro model of the inflamed blood-brain barrier consisting of primary cultured porcine brain capillary endothelial cells which express a tight endothelial barrier even under inflammatory conditions. By means of this specialized blood-brain barrier model we extensively studied the transmigration of neutrophils. Electron and scanning force microscopy as well as immunofluorescence imaging captured the penetrating neutrophil on the endothelial cellular body in between the junctions clearly suggesting a transcellular migration pathway. Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing and transendothelial electrical resistance measurements in combination with expression analysis of tight junction proteins demonstrate that the neutrophil-endothelial interaction does not disrupt the barrier. In conclusion, this study, based on an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier under inflammatory conditions, evidently implicates that neutrophils preferentially migrate across the BBB via the transcellular route without impairing endothelial barrier function whereas paracellular transmigration plays only a minor role if the barrier is strongly expressed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. RT-PCR em pools de soros sangüíneos para o diagnóstico da infecção aguda e de animais persistentemente infectados pelo vírus da diarréia viral bovina RT-PCR in pools of bovine blood serum to detect acute infection and persistently infected animals with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pilz

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Utilizou-se a técnica da RT-PCR para a detecção da região 5' UTR do genoma do vírus da diarréia viral bovina (BVDV em pools de soros sangüíneos provenientes de um rebanho, constituído por 226 animais, que apresentava distúrbios da reprodução. A partir das amostras individuais de soro e de acordo com a categoria dos animais e o número de animais por categoria foram formados 10 pools (A a J de soros. A primeira avaliação revelou a amplificação de um produto com 290pb nas reações referentes aos grupos D (35 vacas e H (25 bezerros lactentes que, após o desmembramento em amostras individuais, resultou na identificação de 11 vacas lactantes e 12 bezerros em amamentação positivos. Para a identificação de animais persistentemente infectados (PI entre os 23 positivos na primeira avaliação, realizou-se a segunda colheita de soros sangüíneos, três meses após. A RT-PCR das amostras individuais de soro revelou resultado positivo em cinco bezerros. Em dois, foi possível isolar o BVDV em cultivo de células MDBK. A especificidade das reações da RT-PCR foi confirmada pelo seqüenciamento dos produtos amplificados a partir do soro de uma vaca com infecção aguda, de um bezerro PI e das duas amostras do BVDV isoladas em cultivo celular. A utilização da RT-PCR em pools de soros sangüíneos demonstrou ser uma estratégia rápida de diagnóstico etiológico e de baixo custo tanto para a detecção de infecção aguda quanto de animais PI.The 5' untranslated region of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV genome was detected by RT-PCR assay in pools of blood sera samples collected from a cattle herd (n=226 animals with reproductive failures. Based on the classes of animal and the number of animals per class, the individual blood serum samples were distributed in 10 sera pools (A to J. During the first evaluation a 290bp amplicon was amplified in reactions from groups D (35 cows and H (25 sucking calves. The individual analysis

  12. Contribution of neutrophils to acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grommes, Jochen; Soehnlein, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of acute lung injury (ALI) and its most severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), remain unsolved problems of intensive care medicine. ALI/ARDS are characterized by lung edema due to increased permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier and subsequent impairment of arterial oxygenation. Lung edema, endothelial and epithelial injury are accompanied by an influx of neutrophils into the interstitium and broncheoalveolar space. Hence, activation and recruitment of neutrophils are regarded to play a key role in progression of ALI/ARDS. Neutrophils are the first cells to be recruited to the site of inflammation and have a potent antimicrobial armour that includes oxidants, proteinases and cationic peptides. Under pathological circumstances, however, unregulated release of these microbicidal compounds into the extracellular space paradoxically can damage host tissues. This review focuses on the mechanisms of neutrophil recruitment into the lung and on the contribution of neutrophils to tissue damage in ALI.

  13. Impaired innate immunity in the newborn: newborn neutrophils are deficient in bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, O; Martin, S; Eichenwald, E; Ganz, T; Valore, E; Carroll, S F; Lee, K; Goldmann, D; Thorne, G M

    1999-12-01

    The mechanisms by which newborns are at increased risk for invasive bacterial infections have been incompletely defined. A central element of innate immunity to bacterial infection is the neutrophil-a cell that contains cytoplasmic granules replete with antibiotic proteins and peptides. The activity of adult neutrophils against gram-negative bacteria is believed to depend to a significant degree on the presence in neutrophil primary (azurophilic) granules of the 55-kDa bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), which binds with high affinity to bacterial lipopolysaccharides and kills gram-negative bacteria. In light of the importance of BPI to antibacterial host defense and to investigate possible factors underlying the risk of neonatal bacterial infections, we determined the relative content of BPI in the neutrophils of adults and newborns. The cellular content of BPI was determined by Western blotting of neutrophils derived from full-term newborn cord blood (n = 21; mean gestational age: 38.6 weeks) and from adult peripheral blood (n = 22; mean age: 29 years). Extracellular levels of BPI in adult and newborn plasma were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Neutrophil content of other azurophil granule markers also was assessed: myeloperoxidase by Western blotting and defensin peptides by acid-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Coomassie staining. Acid extracts of newborn and adult neutrophils were analyzed for antibacterial activity against serum-resistant encapsulated isolate Escherichia coli K1/r. The neutrophils of newborns contain at least threefold to fourfold less BPI per cell than adult neutrophils (67 +/- 13 ng per 10(6) cells vs 234 +/- 27 ng per 10(6) cells). The relative BPI-deficiency of newborn neutrophils apparently was not attributable to perinatal stress-related degranulation of intracellular BPI stores because: 1) newborn and adult neutrophils contained nearly identical amounts of 2 microbicidal constituents derived

  14. Elevated Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio in Recurrent Optic Neuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Guclu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To demonstrate the relation between optic neuritis (ON and systemic inflammation markers as neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (N/L ratio, platelet count, mean platelet volume (MPV, and red cell distribution width (RDW and furthermore to evaluate the utilization of these markers to predict the frequency of the ON episodes. Methods. Forty-two patients with acute ON and forty healthy subjects were enrolled into the study. The medical records were reviewed for age, sex, hemoglobin (Hb, Haematocrit (Htc, RDW, platelet count, MPV, white blood cell count (WBC, neutrophil and lymphocyte count, and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (N/L ratio. Results. The mean N/L ratio, platelet counts, and RDW were significantly higher in ON group (p=0.000, p=0.048, and p=0.002. There was a significant relation between N/L ratio and number of episodes (r=0.492, p=0.001. There was a statistically significant difference for MPV between one episode group and recurrent ON group (p=0.035. Conclusions. Simple and inexpensive laboratory methods could help us show systemic inflammation and monitor ON patients. Higher N/L ratio can be a useful marker for predicting recurrent attacks.

  15. Modulation of human immune responses by bovine interleukin-10.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerco den Hartog

    Full Text Available Cytokines can be functionally active across species barriers. Bovine IL-10 has an amino acid sequence identity with human IL-10 of 76.8%. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether bovine IL-10 has immunomodulatory activities on human monocytes and dendritic cells. Peripheral blood monocytes were isolated from healthy donors, and used directly or allowed to differentiate to dendritic cells under the influence of IL-4 and GM-CSF. Recombinant bovine IL-10 inhibited TLR induced activation of monocytes, and dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced activation of monocyte-derived DCs comparable to human IL-10. By using blocking antibodies to either bovine IL-10 or the human IL-10 receptor it was demonstrated that inhibition of monocyte activation by bovine IL-10 was dependent on binding of bovine IL-10 to the human IL-10R. These data demonstrate that bovine IL-10 potently inhibits the activation of human myeloid cells in response to TLR activation. Bovine IL-10 present in dairy products may thus potentially contribute to the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis and allergy, enhance mucosal tolerance induction and decrease intestinal inflammation and may therefore be applicable in infant foods and in immunomodulatory diets.

  16. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan-dependent neutrophil chemotaxis toward PR-39 cathelicidin

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    Patsch Josef R

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cathelicidins are mammalian proteins containing a C-terminal cationic antimicrobial domain. Porcine PR-39 cathelicidin affects leukocyte biology. Mechanisms of action may involve alteration of heparan sulfate proteoglycan-dependent functions in inflammatory cells. It was tested whether PR-39 affects human neutrophil migration and if such effects involve heparan sulphate proteoglycans. Neutrophils were from forearm venous blood of healthy donors. Migration was tested in modified Boyden chamber assays. Involvement of heparan sulfate proteoglycans was tested by their chemical modification and by the use of specific antibodies. PR-39 induced migration in neutrophils in a concentration dependent manner. Modification of heparan sulfate proteoglycans with sodium chlorate inhibited migration whereas chemotaxis toward the chemoattractant formyl-Met-Leu-Phe was not affected. Removal of heparan sulfates or chondroitin sulfates from the surface of neutrophils by heparinase or chondroitinase inhibited migration toward PR-39. In conclusion, antimicrobial PR-39 stimulates human neutrophil chemotaxis in a heparan sulfate proteoglycan-dependent manner. Involvment of syndecans is likely as both heparinase and chondroitinase were abrogating. Data suggest active participation of heparan sulfate proteoglycans of neutrophils in cathelicidin peptide-mediated regulation of the antimicrobial host defense.

  17. Neutrophil influx into an inflammatory site inhibited by a soluble homing receptor-IgG chimaera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, S R; Fennie, C; Lasky, L A

    1991-01-10

    Neutrophil-mediated inflammation is involved in a number of human clinical manifestations, including the adult respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure and reperfusion injury. One way of inhibiting this type of inflammatory response would be to block competitively the adhesive interactions between neutrophils and the endothelium adjacent to the inflamed region. The lectin-containing murine adhesion molecule gp90MEL, the homing receptor, is found on all leukocytic cells, including neutrophils. MEL 14, a monoclonal antibody directed against this adhesion molecule, blocks lymphocyte traffic to lymph nodes and extravasation of neutrophils from blood to inflammatory sites. Here we show that administration to mice of a soluble immunoglobulin chimaera containing the murine homing receptor extracellular domain significantly decreases the number of neutrophils that migrate to the peritoneum in response to the inflammatory irritant thioglycollate. These results indicate that soluble forms of a single type of adhesion molecule, the homing receptor, could be clinically effective compounds for the inhibition of neutrophil-mediated inflammation.

  18. Dynamic interactions of neutrophils and biofilms

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    Josefine Hirschfeld

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The majority of microbial infections in humans are biofilm-associated and difficult to treat, as biofilms are highly resistant to antimicrobial agents and protect themselves from external threats in various ways. Biofilms are tenaciously attached to surfaces and impede the ability of host defense molecules and cells to penetrate them. On the other hand, some biofilms are beneficial for the host and contain protective microorganisms. Microbes in biofilms express pathogen-associated molecular patterns and epitopes that can be recognized by innate immune cells and opsonins, leading to activation of neutrophils and other leukocytes. Neutrophils are part of the first line of defense and have multiple antimicrobial strategies allowing them to attack pathogenic biofilms. Objective/design: In this paper, interaction modes of neutrophils with biofilms are reviewed. Antimicrobial strategies of neutrophils and the counteractions of the biofilm communities, with special attention to oral biofilms, are presented. Moreover, possible adverse effects of neutrophil activity and their biofilm-promoting side effects are discussed. Results/conclusion: Biofilms are partially, but not entirely, protected against neutrophil assault, which include the processes of phagocytosis, degranulation, and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps. However, virulence factors of microorganisms, microbial composition, and properties of the extracellular matrix determine whether a biofilm and subsequent microbial spread can be controlled by neutrophils and other host defense factors. Besides, neutrophils may inadvertently contribute to the physical and ecological stability of biofilms by promoting selection of more resistant strains. Moreover, neutrophil enzymes can degrade collagen and other proteins and, as a result, cause harm to the host tissues. These parameters could be crucial factors in the onset of periodontal inflammation and the subsequent tissue breakdown.

  19. Influence of age, past smoking, and disease severity on TLR2, neutrophilic inflammation, and MMP-9 levels in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jodie L; McDonald, Vanessa M; Baines, Katherine J; Oreo, Kevin M; Wang, Fang; Hansbro, Philip M; Gibson, Peter G

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common and serious respiratory disease, particularly in older individuals, characterised by fixed airway obstruction and persistent airway neutrophilia. The mechanisms that lead to these features are not well established. We investigated the contribution of age, prior smoking, and fixed airflow obstruction on sputum neutrophils, TLR2 expression, and markers of neutrophilic inflammation. Induced sputum from adults with COPD (n = 69) and healthy controls (n = 51) was examined. A sputum portion was dispersed, total, differential cell count and viability recorded, and supernatant assayed for CXCL8, matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 9, neutrophil elastase, and soluble TLR2. Peripheral blood cells (n = 7) were stimulated and TLR2 activation examined. TLR2 levels were increased with ageing, while sputum neutrophils and total sputum MMP-9 levels increased with age, previous smoking, and COPD. In multivariate regression, TLR2 gene expression and MMP-9 levels were significant independent contributors to the proportion of sputum neutrophils after adjustment for age, prior smoking, and the presence of airflow obstruction. TLR2 stimulation led to enhanced release of MMP-9 from peripheral blood granulocytes. TLR2 stimulation activates neutrophils for MMP-9 release. Efforts to understand the mechanisms of TLR2 signalling and subsequent MMP-9 production in COPD may assist in understanding neutrophilic inflammation in COPD.

  20. Leishmania major surface protease Gp63 interferes with the function of human monocytes and neutrophils in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A L; Hey, A S; Kharazmi, A

    1994-01-01

    In the present study the effect of Leishmania major surface protease Gp63 on the chemotaxis and oxidative burst response of human peripheral blood monocytes and neutrophils was investigated. It was shown that prior incubation of cells with Gp63 inhibited chemotaxis of neutrophils but not monocytes...... by heat inactivation of the protease at 70 degrees C for 15 min. Neither neutrophil nor monocyte chemiluminescence was inhibited by Gp63 when cells were stimulated with PMA. Our data suggest that the major surface protease Gp63 might play an important role in the initial stages of Leishmania...

  1. Neutrophil depletion reduces edema formation and tissue loss following traumatic brain injury in mice

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    Kenne Ellinor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain edema as a result of secondary injury following traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major clinical concern. Neutrophils are known to cause increased vascular permeability leading to edema formation in peripheral tissue, but their role in the pathology following TBI remains unclear. Methods In this study we used controlled cortical impact (CCI as a model for TBI and investigated the role of neutrophils in the response to injury. The outcome of mice that were depleted of neutrophils using an anti-Gr-1 antibody was compared to that in mice with intact neutrophil count. The effect of neutrophil depletion on blood-brain barrier function was assessed by Evan's blue dye extravasation, and analysis of brain water content was used as a measurement of brain edema formation (24 and 48 hours after CCI. Lesion volume was measured 7 and 14 days after CCI. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess cell death, using a marker for cleaved caspase-3 at 24 hours after injury, and microglial/macrophage activation 7 days after CCI. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney test for non-parametric data. Results Neutrophil depletion did not significantly affect Evan's blue extravasation at any time-point after CCI. However, neutrophil-depleted mice exhibited a decreased water content both at 24 and 48 hours after CCI indicating reduced edema formation. Furthermore, brain tissue loss was attenuated in neutropenic mice at 7 and 14 days after injury. Additionally, these mice had a significantly reduced number of activated microglia/macrophages 7 days after CCI, and of cleaved caspase-3 positive cells 24 h after injury. Conclusion Our results suggest that neutrophils are involved in the edema formation, but not the extravasation of large proteins, as well as contributing to cell death and tissue loss following TBI in mice.

  2. Trace of antibody to myeloperoxidase with nanocrystal quantum dot labeled antibody recognizing activating neutrophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Nagao, Tomokazu; Yamamoto, Kenji; Suzuki, Kazuo

    2006-02-01

    It is assumed that activated neutrophils contribute to the development of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic auto-antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis due to the association of myelopeoxidase(MPO)-ANCA with MPO expressed on the surface of activated neutrophils. FITC-labeled antibody (Ab) used widely are not suitable for neutrophil examination because of the labile fluorescence emission of FITC. Therefore, it is necessary to develop specific fluorescent probes for MPO detection in neutrophils in vivo. Recently, fluorescent nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs) have been used for biotechnological and medical applications because of their greater and far longer fluorescence in. QDs have several advantages over organic fluorophores: high luminescence, far longer stability against photobleaching, and a range of fluorescence wavelengths from blue to infrared, depending on particle size. Thus, we examined the role of MPO and the Ab to MPO in the pathogenesis of glomerulonephritis associated with MPO-ANCA in experimental glomerulonephritis mice using QDs. We demonstrated the QD-conjugated anti-MPO Ab visualized the expression of MPO on the neutrophil surface after stimulation with proinflammatory cytokines. In addition, QD immuno-conjugates with anti-recombinant murine MPO (rmMPO) Ab revealed the trafficking of MPO-ANCA in vivo. Deceleration of blood flow in kidney vessels occurred in model mice, in which serum proteins including anti-rmMPO Ab were leaked out from collapsed glomeruli into the proximal tubule. Thus, sustained MPO expression on the neutrophil surface was significantly related to glomerulonephritis. These results indicate that the expressed MPO on the activated neutrophils with anti-MPO Ab may coordinately play essential roles in the initial steps for the development of glomerulonephritis.

  3. Biomarker Surrogates Do Not Accurately Predict Sputum Eosinophils and Neutrophils in Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Annette T.; Moore, Wendy C.; Li, Huashi; Rector, Brian M.; Ortega, Victor E.; Pascual, Rodolfo M.; Peters, Stephen P.; Meyers, Deborah A.; Bleecker, Eugene R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Sputum eosinophils (Eos) are a strong predictor of airway inflammation, exacerbations, and aid asthma management, whereas sputum neutrophils (Neu) indicate a different severe asthma phenotype, potentially less responsive to TH2-targeted therapy. Variables such as blood Eos, total IgE, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) or FEV1% predicted, may predict airway Eos, while age, FEV1%predicted, or blood Neu may predict sputum Neu. Availability and ease of measurement are useful characteristics, but accuracy in predicting airway Eos and Neu, individually or combined, is not established. Objectives To determine whether blood Eos, FeNO, and IgE accurately predict sputum eosinophils, and age, FEV1% predicted, and blood Neu accurately predict sputum neutrophils (Neu). Methods Subjects in the Wake Forest Severe Asthma Research Program (N=328) were characterized by blood and sputum cells, healthcare utilization, lung function, FeNO, and IgE. Multiple analytical techniques were utilized. Results Despite significant association with sputum Eos, blood Eos, FeNO and total IgE did not accurately predict sputum Eos, and combinations of these variables failed to improve prediction. Age, FEV1%predicted and blood Neu were similarly unsatisfactory for prediction of sputum Neu. Factor analysis and stepwise selection found FeNO, IgE and FEV1% predicted, but not blood Eos, correctly predicted 69% of sputum Eosblood neutrophils correctly predicted 64% of sputum Neublood Eos and Neu, FEV1%predicted, and age are poor surrogates, separately and combined, for accurately predicting sputum eosinophils and neutrophils. PMID:23706399

  4. Breast cancer associated a2 isoform vacuolar ATPase immunomodulates neutrophils: potential role in tumor progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Safaa A.; Katara, Gajendra K.; Kulshrestha, Arpita; Jaiswal, Mukesh K.; Amin, Magdy A.; Beaman, Kenneth D.

    2015-01-01

    In invasive breast cancer, tumor associated neutrophils (TAN) represent a significant portion of the tumor mass and are associated with increased angiogenesis and metastasis. Identifying the regulatory factors that control TAN behavior will help in developing ideal immunotherapies. Vacuolar ATPases (V-ATPases), multi-subunit proton pumps, are highly expressed in metastatic breast cancer cells. A cleaved peptide from a2 isoform V-ATPase (a2NTD) has immunomodulatory role in tumor microenvironment. Here, we report for the first time the role of V-ATPase in neutrophils modulation. In invasive breast cancer cells, a2NTD was detected and a2V was highly expressed on the surface. Immunohistochemical analysis of invasive breast cancer tissues revealed that increased neutrophil recruitment and blood vessel density correlated with increased a2NTD levels. In order to determine the direct regulatory role of a2NTD on neutrophils, recombinant a2NTD was used for the treatment of neutrophils isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. Neutrophils treated with a2NTD (a2Neuɸ) showed increased secretion of IL-1RA, IL-10, CCL-2 and IL-6 that are important mediators in cancer related inflammation. Moreover, a2Neuɸ exhibited an increased production of protumorigenic factors including IL-8, matrix metaloprotinase-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor. Further, functional characterization of a2Neuɸ revealed that a2Neuɸ derived products induce in vitro angiogenesis as well as increase the invasiveness of breast cancer cells. This study establishes the modulatory effect of breast cancer associated a2V on neutrophils, by the action of a2NTD, which has a positive impact on tumor progression, supporting that a2V can be a potential selective target for breast cancer therapy. PMID:26460736

  5. Cellular and humoral factors involvement in the enhanced NBT reduction by neutrophil leucocytes of newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovo, P A; Ponzone, A

    1977-09-01

    The histochemical NBT test was performed on blood samples from ten healthy newborn infants. High spontaneous NBT reduction has been confirmed for neutrophils and assessed for monocytes. The stimulation of both neutrophils and monocytes with Escherichia coli endotoxin induces a statistically significant increase of NBT positive cells. The reason for the false positive test results in neonates was investigated by incubating neutrophils from adult donors and for different time periods in either neonatal or adult plasma before the addition of NBT. NBT reduction by adult neutrophils was increased after incubation in neonatal plasma, and this increase was related to the concentration of the plasma used. Maximum NBT reduction was observed after 90 min of incubation, at which time the NBT scores of adult cells incubated in neonatal plasma were similar to the results of tests performed on whole neonatal blood. It is concluded that neonatal leucocytes demonstrate efficient spontaneous and stimulated phagocytosis, and that there are, in the plasma of neonates, humoral factors which stimulated phagocytosis by neutrophils and are thus responsible for the false positive NBT test results observed in these subjects.

  6. Neutrophil function and periodontitis in alcohol-dependent males without medical disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khocht, Ahmed; Schleifer, Steven; Janal, Malvin; Keller, Steven

    2013-07-01

    Periodontitis and immune dysfunction are often reported in alcohol-dependent patients. Our objectives were to investigate the effects of alcohol exposure on neutrophil function and the associated consequential effects on the periodontium in a group of African American (AA) males with documented history of alcohol use without medical complications. Thirty-three AA males with documented history of alcohol use were included in this analysis. All subjects were free from systemic illness. Blood levels of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP) were determined and used as a measure of alcohol consumption. Periodontal evaluations including attachment levels (AL) were recorded on 6 sites per tooth. Enumerative and functional neutrophil measures were obtained. GGTP blood levels inversely associated with neutrophil bacterial killing (NBK) (p = 0.04). Regression analysis, adjusting for risk factors associated with periodontitis, showed an inverse association between NBK and percent of sites with AL > or = 5 mm (p 51 international units) and increasing NBK activity on percent of sites with AL > or = 5 mm (p alcohol use, neutrophils show depressed NBK. Depressed NBK was not associated with loss of periodontal attachment in this population. Furthermore, AA males with excessive alcohol use and uncompromised neutrophil function are at greater risk of periodontal tissue damage.

  7. Comparison of the neutrophil proteome in trauma patients and normal controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teles, Liz M B; Aquino, Elaine N; Neves, Anne C D

    2012-01-01

    Neutrophils have an impressive array of microbicidal weapons, and in the presence of a pathogen, progress from a quiescent state in the bloodstream to a completely activated state. Failure to regulate this activation, for example, when the blood is flooded with cytokines after severe trauma, causes...

  8. Neutrophil extracellular traps in ischemic stroke thrombi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laridan, Elodie; Denorme, Frederik; Desender, Linda; François, Olivier; Andersson, Tommy; Deckmyn, Hans; Vanhoorelbeke, Karen; De Meyer, Simon F

    2017-08-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been shown to promote thrombus formation. Little is known about the exact composition of thrombi that cause ischemic stroke. In particular, no information is yet available on the presence of NETs in cerebral occlusions. Such information is, however, essential to improve current thrombolytic therapy with tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). This study aimed at investigating the presence of neutrophils and more specifically NETs in ischemic stroke thrombi. Sixty-eight thrombi retrieved from ischemic stroke patients undergoing endovascular treatment were characterized by immunostaining using neutrophil markers (CD66b and neutrophil elastase) and NET markers (citrullinated histone H3 [H3Cit] and extracellular DNA). Neutrophils and NETs were quantified. In addition, extracellular DNA was targeted by performing ex vivo lysis of retrieved thrombi with DNase 1 and t-PA. Neutrophils were detected extensively throughout all thrombi. H3Cit, a hallmark of NETs, was observed in almost all thrombi. H3Cit-positive area varied up to 13.45% of total thrombus area. Colocalization of H3Cit with extracellular DNA released from neutrophils confirmed the specific presence of NETs. H3Cit was more abundant in thrombi of cardioembolic origin compared to other etiologies. Older thrombi contained significantly more neutrophils and H3Cit compared to fresh thrombi. Interestingly, ex vivo lysis of patient thrombi was more successful when adding DNase 1 to standard t-PA. Neutrophils and NETs form important constituents of cerebral thrombi. Targeting of NETs with DNase 1 might have prothrombolytic potential in treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Ann Neurol 2017;82:223-232. © 2017 American Neurological Association.

  9. TLR2 Elicits IL-17-Mediated RANKL Expression, IL-17, and OPG Production in Neutrophils from Arthritic Mice

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    Viktoriya Milanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the ability of neutrophils to express receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL, to secrete osteoprotegerin (OPG, and to produce IL-17. Arthritis was induced by intra-articular injection of zymosan, a ligand for Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2. Frequencies of neutrophils in bone marrow (BM, blood and synovial fluid (SF, receptor expression, and cytokine production were evaluated by flow cytometry. 1A8 antibody (1A8 Ab was used to deplete neutrophils in zymosan-injected SCID mice. IL-17, RANKL, and OPG amounts in SF, serum, or cell cultures were determined by ELISA. The development of arthritis was associated with increased secretion of IL-17, RANKL, and OPG in serum and SF, elevated frequencies of Ly6G+CD11b+ cells in BM, blood, and SF and upregulated RANKL expression. Both IL-17 and OPG were absent in serum and SF after neutrophil depletion; therefore we assume that they were released by neutrophils. In vitro blood Ly6G+CD11b+ cells from arthritic mice produced spontaneously IL-17, IFN-γ, and OPG and expressed RANKL. This phenotype was sustained by IL-17. TLR2 engagement increased IL-17 and IFN-γ production, potentiated IL-17-mediated RANKL expression, and inhibited OPG secretion. We conclude that TLR2 regulates the destructive potential of neutrophils and its targeting might limit joint alterations in arthritis.

  10. Emerging mechanisms of neutrophil recruitment across endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Marcie R; Azcutia, Verónica; Newton, Gail; Alcaide, Pilar; Luscinskas, Francis W

    2011-10-01

    Neutrophils are the all-terrain vehicle of the innate immune system because of their ability to gain entry into tissues and organs, and thus, play an essential role in host defense. Exactly how this marvel of nature works is still incompletely understood. In the past 2-3 years, new players and processes have been identified in the endothelial-leukocyte adhesion cascade. Novel signaling pathways have been discovered in both the endothelium and the neutrophils that regulate various steps in the recruitment process. This review focuses on these emerging pathways and the mechanisms that regulate neutrophil recruitment across endothelium. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Th-17 regulatory cytokines IL-21, IL-23, and IL-6 enhance neutrophil production of IL-17 cytokines during asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halwani, Rabih; Sultana, Asma; Vazquez-Tello, Alejandro; Jamhawi, Amer; Al-Masri, Abeer A; Al-Muhsen, Saleh

    2017-11-01

    In a subset of severe asthma patients, chronic airway inflammation is associated with infiltration of neutrophils, Th-17 cells and elevated expression of Th-17-derived cytokines (e.g., interleukin [IL]-17, IL-21, IL-22). Peripheral neutrophils from allergic asthmatics are known to express higher IL-17 cytokine levels than those from healthy subjects, but the regulatory mechanisms involved are not well understood. We hypothesize that Th-17 regulatory cytokines could modulate IL-17 expression in neutrophils. Peripheral blood neutrophils isolated from asthmatics were stimulated with IL-21, IL-23, and IL-6 cytokines and their ability to produce IL-17A and IL-17F was determined relative to healthy controls. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation levels were measured in stimulated neutrophil using flow cytometry. The requirement for STAT3 phosphorylation was determined by blocking its activation using a specific chemical inhibitor. Stimulating asthmatic neutrophils with IL-21, 23, and 6 enhanced the production of IL-17A and IL-17F at significantly higher levels comparatively to healthy controls. Stimulating neutrophils with IL-21, IL-23, and IL-6 cytokines enhanced STAT3 phosphorylation, in all cases. Interestingly, inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation using a specific chemical inhibitor dramatically blocked the ability of neutrophils to produce IL-17, demonstrating that STAT3 activation is the major factor mediating IL-17 gene expression. These findings suggest that neutrophil infiltration in lungs of severe asthmatics may represent an important source of pro-inflammatory IL-17A and -F cytokines, a production enhanced by Th-17 regulatory cytokines, and thus providing a feedback mechanism that sustains inflammation. Our results suggest that STAT3 pathway could be a potential target for regulating neutrophilic inflammation during severe asthma.

  12. Neutrophil accumulation in ischemic canine myocardium. Insights into time course, distribution, and mechanism of localization during early reperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyer, W.J.; Michael, L.H.; West, M.S.; Smith, C.W.; Rothlein, R.; Rossen, R.D.; Anderson, D.C.; Entman, M.L. (Section of Cardiovascular Sciences, Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX (USA))

    1991-07-01

    The authors have previously demonstrated that chemotactic factors released from the ischemic canine myocardium peak early during reperfusion and that they elicit neutrophil adherence reactions in vitro that are dependent on the CD18 glycoprotein family. In this study they investigated the hypothesis that neutrophil localization in ischemic canine myocardium in vivo occurs over a similar time course during early reperfusion and involves a CD18-dependent mechanism. they concluded the circumflex coronary artery for 1 hour in acute, open-chest dogs, followed by reperfusion for 1, 2, 3, or 4 hours. Regional myocardial blood flow was determined using radiolabeled microspheres, and localization was traced using technetium-99m-labeled autologous neutrophils. In the first hour of reperfusion, neutrophil localization occurred preferentially within the subendocardial region and was inversely related to flow. Neutrophil localization diminished across the ischemic myocardium from endocardium to epicardium but remained negatively related to flow in the midmyocardial region. Regardless of flow, little neutrophil localization occurred in the subepicardial region. Neutrophil localization was greatest in the first hour of reperfusion and diminished thereafter. By 4 hours of reperfusion, the rate of localization was markedly attenuated relative to 1 hour. Dogs given anti-CD18 monoclonal antibody R15.7 (1 mg/kg i.v.) before occlusion underwent 1 hour of occlusion followed by 1 hour of reperfusion. When compared with 1-hour reperfusion controls, the R15.7-treated dogs demonstrated significant attenuation of neutrophil localization in the subendocardial region. These data support the concepts that rapid neutrophil localization during reperfusion occurs within regions of previous myocardial ischemia and that neutrophils preferentially localize within the subendocardial region.

  13. Evidence of early systemic activation and transendothelial migration of neutrophils in neonates with severe respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafidis, K; Drossou-Agakidou, V; Kanakoudi-Tsakalidou, F; Taparkou, A; Tsakalidis, C; Tsandali, C; Kremenopoulos, G

    2001-03-01

    Several observations imply that the early inflammatory response involving activated neutrophils, tissue macrophages, and cytokines plays an important role in the pathogenesis of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and progression to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that changes in circulating neutrophil number and function and plasma levels of cytokines, consistent with neutrophil activation and migration to the tissues, occur during the early stages of neonatal RDS. For this purpose we measured peripheral blood levels of certain immunological parameters that promote neutrophil activation and transendothelial migration. Twenty preterm neonates with severe RDS and 20 healthy infants matched for gestational age were the subjects. The absolute neutrophil count (ANC), and plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and sL-selectin using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), neutrophil CD11b expression, and respiratory burst activity (RBA) using flow cytometry, were measured within 24 h after birth. The two groups were comparable regarding perinatal characteristics. None of the neonates studied had any clinical or laboratory evidence of infection by the time of blood sampling. The immunological investigation showed that the RDS neonates had significantly lower ANC (P = 0.032), higher expression of the CD11b on neutrophils (P = 0.0065), and higher G-CSF and IL-6 plasma levels (P = 0.0047 and P RBA and plasma sL-selectin levels did not differ significantly between the two groups. We conclude that in neonates with severe RDS, there is evidence of a systemic neutrophil activation early in the course of the disease, supporting the view of a contributing role of activated neutrophils in the pathogenesis of RDS. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Combined treatment with MSC transplantation and neutrophil depletion ameliorates D-GalN/LPS-induced acute liver failure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Shi, Xiaolei; Zhang, Zhiheng; Ma, Hucheng; Yuan, Xianwen; Ding, Yitao

    2016-12-01

    The imbalance of immunity is an important pathogenesis of acute liver failure (ALF). Neutrophils are the hallmark of acute inflammation, which have an essential role in immune regulation. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation is a promising therapy in ALF treatment. Recent studies indicated a considerable connection between MSCs and neutrophils in immune regulation. To investigate changes in neutrophils in ALF rats after MSC transplantation, and to explore the therapeutic effect and mechanism of the combined treatment with MSC transplantation and neutrophil depletion in ALF. We employed monotherapy and the combination therapy with MSCs and anti-PMN serum in D-galactosamine (D-GalN)/lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced ALF rats. Rats were sacrificed at 6, 12 and 24h, respectively. Blood samples and liver tissues were collected. Hepatic injury, inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10), chemokines (CXCL1 and CXCL2), the number and activity of neutrophils and animal survival were assessed at fixed times. MSC transplantation can effectively improve the liver function of ALF rats and reduce the number and activity of neutrophils in both peripheral blood and liver. Compared with MSC transplantation alone, anti-PMN treatment and co-treatment had a better result in diminishing neutrophils. The co-treatment also exhibited a better therapeutical effect in ALF rats compared with monotherapy. In this process, the expressions of inflammatory cytokines in the liver were consistent with liver function. The regulation of the neutrophil-related microenvironment is affected in D-GalN/LPS-induced ALF rats after MSC transplantation. The combined treatment with MSC transplantation and neutrophil depletion may have a better therapeutic effect in ALF rats. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Neutrophils recruited to sites of infection protect from virus challenge by releasing neutrophil extracellular traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenne, Craig N; Wong, Connie H Y; Zemp, Franz J; McDonald, Braedon; Rahman, Masmudur M; Forsyth, Peter A; McFadden, Grant; Kubes, Paul

    2013-02-13

    Neutrophils mediate bacterial clearance through various mechanisms, including the release of mesh-like DNA structures or neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) that capture bacteria. Although neutrophils are also recruited to sites of viral infection, their role in antiviral innate immunity is less clear. We show that systemic administration of virus analogs or poxvirus infection induces neutrophil recruitment to the liver microvasculature and the release of NETs that protect host cells from virus infection. After systemic intravenous poxvirus challenge, mice exhibit thrombocytopenia and the recruitment of both neutrophils and platelets to the liver vasculature. Circulating platelets interact with, roll along, and adhere to the surface of adherent neutrophils, forming large, dynamic aggregates. These interactions facilitate the release of NETs within the liver vasculature that are able to protect host cells from poxvirus infection. These findings highlight the role of NETs and early tissue-wide responses in preventing viral infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effectivity of PCR and AGID methods to detect of enzootic bovine leukosis in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Saepulloh M; Sendow I

    2015-01-01

    Enzootic Bovine Leucosis (EBL) is one of viral diseases in cattle caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV), from Retroviridae. The virus can be detected using severals methods such as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), while antibody can be detected using Agar Gel Immunodifussion (AGID). The aim of this experiment was to study the effectivity of PCR and AGID methods to detect enzootic bovine leukosis virus in Indonesia. Samples of peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) were collected from cattles those ...

  17. Innate immunity in free-ranging African buffalo (Syncerus caffer): associations with parasite infection and white blood cell counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beechler, Brianna R; Broughton, Heather; Bell, Austin; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Jolles, Anna E

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian immunology has been studied in great detail in laboratory animals, but few of the tools and less of the insight derived from these studies have been placed in the context of natural, outbred wildlife populations subject to variable environments. We investigated patterns of innate immunity in free-ranging African buffalo in relation to host traits (age, reproductive status, body condition, white blood cell counts) and disease status (bovine tuberculosis [BTB], gastrointestinal nematodes, coccidia, ticks). We evaluated and used an in vitro assay measuring bactericidal competence of blood to assess a component of innate immunity in 200 female buffalo captured at Kruger National Park, South Africa, in June/July and October 2008. Animals with BTB had higher bactericidal competence of blood. Animals with higher neutrophil counts had higher bactericidal competence, whereas animals with lower lymphocyte counts had higher bactericidal competence. This pattern was driven by animals captured at the end of the dry season (October) and may be evidence of immune polarization, whereby individuals are unable to upregulate multiple components of immunity simultaneously. Bactericidal competence did not vary with host pregnancy status, body condition, age, lactation, tick infestation, nematode egg count, or coccidia oocyst count. Overall, we demonstrate that the bactericidal competence assay is practical and informative for field-based studies in wild bovids. Our results also show a correlation between bactericidal competence and bovine tuberculosis infection and reveal possible functional polarizations between different types of immune response in a free-ranging mammal.

  18. Combining immature and total neutrophil counts to predict early onset sepsis in term and late preterm newborns: use of the I/T2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Thomas B; Draper, David; Puopolo, Karen M; Wi, Soora; Escobar, Gabriel J

    2014-08-01

    The absolute neutrophil count and the immature/total neutrophil ratio (I/T) provide information about the risk of early onset sepsis in newborns. However, it is not clear how to combine their potentially overlapping information into a single likelihood ratio. We obtained electronic records of blood cultures and of complete blood counts with manual differentials drawn 4 hours of age and when the pretest probability of infection is close to the treatment threshold.

  19. Detection of Antineutrophil Autoantibodies by Flow Cytometry: Use of Unfixed Neutrophils as Antigenic Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Spack T: Neonatal neutropenia be limited by the low number of neutrophils available for har- due to maternal isoimmunization . Blood 15:236-243. 1960...numerical comparisons of study samples. with 2% fetal calf serum and 0.1% sodium azide (PBS/FCS buffer) to a final cell concentration of 10 x 106 cells per... maternal antibodies. Vox Sang 36:1-8. 1979. 124- 132, 1982. 19. Glassman A. Fundenberg H: Role of neutrophil antigen NA I in an in- 10. McAllister IA

  20. Chemiluminescence response of human neutrophils to He-Ne laser irradiation (in vivo and in vitro)

    OpenAIRE

    Schepetkin, I.; Udut, V.; Karpov, A.

    1994-01-01

    He-Ne laser irradiation (0.01-6 J/cm3) of the blood and neutrophile suspension in vitrowas shown to modulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in healthy donors. Intravascular laser irradiation of the blood (5 mW, 30 minutes, daily) of the patients with chronic gastric ulcer during first 5 days resulted in increasing stimul-induced ROS production in patients with the low initial chemiluminescence response and its decreasing in patients with the high initial chemiluminescence response.

  1. Emerging mechanisms of neutrophil recruitment across endothelium

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Marcie; Azcutia, Veronica; Newton, Gail; Alcaide, Pilar; Luscinskas, Francis W.

    2011-01-01

    Neutrophils are the all-terrain vehicle of the innate immune system because of their ability to gain entry into tissues and organs, and thus, play an essential role in host defense. Exactly how this marvel of nature works is still incompletely understood. In the last two to three years, new players and processes have been identified in the endothelial - leukocyte adhesion cascade. Novel signaling pathways have been discovered in both the endothelium and the neutrophil that regulate various st...

  2. Interaction of bovine serum albumin and human blood plasma with PEO-tethered surfaces: Influence of PEO chain length, grafting density, and temperature : Influence of PEO chain length, grafting density, and temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norde, Willem; Gage, D.

    2004-01-01

    Solid surfaces are modified by grafting poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, to influence their interaction with indwelling particles, in particular molecules of bovine serum albumin and human plasma proteins. As a rule, the grafted PEO layers suppress protein adsorption. The suppression is most effective

  3. Weaning management of newly received beef calves with or without continuous exposure to a persistently infected bovine viral diarrhea virus pen mate: Effects on rectal temperature, peripheral blood leukocytes and serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to animals persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) results in immunomodulation in cohorts. It is hypothesized that the extent of modulation differs for preconditioned (PC) vs. auction market (AM) cattle. Our objective was to compare immune responses of PC or AM ca...

  4. Enzootic bovine leucosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, L

    1978-09-02

    Enzootic bovine leucosis is associated with infection by bovine leucosis virus. The incubation period is measured in years and a minority of infected animals develop clinical signs. The disease is widespread in Europe and elsewhere and can cause significant economic loss. The epidemiology is incompletely understood and findings from one cattle production system may not be directly applicable to another. Major control programmes exist in Denmark and West Germany and control schemes are being developed elsewhere. Eradication of enzootic bovine leucosis has been established as a goal in the EEC and research is revealing the ways in which this goal may be attained. To be effective, control and epidemiological monitoring must be interactive. Recently introduced serological tests, of improved sensitivity, provide a valuable tool.

  5. Regulation of neutrophil function by adenosine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, Kathryn E.; Ley, Klaus; Mehrad, Borna

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine is an endogenously released purine nucleoside that signals via four widely expressed G-protein coupled receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. In the setting of inflammation, the generation and release of adenosine is greatly enhanced. Neutrophils play an important role in host defense against invading pathogens and are the cellular hallmark of acute inflammation. Neutrophils both release adenosine and can respond to it via expression of all four adenosine receptor subtypes. At low concentrations, adenosine can act via the A1 and A3 adenosine receptor subtypes to promote neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. At higher concentrations, adenosine acts at the lower-affinity A2A and A2B receptors to inhibit neutrophil trafficking and effector functions such as oxidative burst, inflammatory mediator production, and granule release. Modulation of neutrophil function by adenosine is relevant in a broad array of disease models, including ischemia reperfusion injury, sepsis, and non-infectious acute lung injury. This review will summarize relevant research in order to provide a framework for understanding how adenosine directly regulates various elements of neutrophil function. PMID:22423037

  6. Flow Cytometric Evaluation of Human Neutrophil Apoptosis During Nitric Oxide Generation In Vitro: The Role of Exogenous Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Sulowska

    2005-01-01

    in vitro. The effect of exogenous supply of NO donors such as SNP, SIN-1, and GEA-3162 on the course of human neutrophil apoptosis and the role of extracellular antioxidants in this process was investigated. Isolated from peripheral blood, neutrophils were cultured in the presence or absence of NO donor compounds and antioxidants for 8, 12, and 20 hours. Apoptosis of neutrophils was determined in vitro by flow cytometric analysis of cellular DNA content and Annexin V protein binding to the cell surface. Exposure of human neutrophils to GEA-3162 and SIN-1 significantly accelerates and enhances their apoptosis in vitro in a time-dependent fashion. In the presence of SNP, intensification of apoptosis has not been revealed until 12 hours after the culture. The inhibition of GEA-3162- and SIN-1-mediated neutrophil apoptosis by superoxide dismutase (SOD but not by catalase (CAT was observed. Our results show that SOD and CAT can protect neutrophils against NO-donors-induced apoptosis and suggest that the interaction of NO and oxygen metabolites signals may determine the destructive or protective role of NO donor compounds during apoptotic neutrophil death.

  7. Omega-3 Fatty acids and inflammation: novel interactions reveal a new step in neutrophil recruitment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha P Tull

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a physiological response to tissue trauma or infection, but leukocytes, which are the effector cells of the inflammatory process, have powerful tissue remodelling capabilities. Thus, to ensure their precise localisation, passage of leukocytes from the blood into inflamed tissue is tightly regulated. Recruitment of blood borne neutrophils to the tissue stroma occurs during early inflammation. In this process, peptide agonists of the chemokine family are assumed to provide a chemotactic stimulus capable of supporting the migration of neutrophils across vascular endothelial cells, through the basement membrane of the vessel wall, and out into the tissue stroma. Here, we show that, although an initial chemokine stimulus is essential for the recruitment of flowing neutrophils by endothelial cells stimulated with the inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha, transit of the endothelial monolayer is regulated by an additional and downstream stimulus. This signal is supplied by the metabolism of the omega-6-polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6-PUFA, arachidonic acid, into the eicosanoid prostaglandin-D(2 (PGD(2 by cyclooxygenase (COX enzymes. This new step in the neutrophil recruitment process was revealed when the dietary n-3-PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, was utilised as an alternative substrate for COX enzymes, leading to the generation of PGD(3. This alternative series eicosanoid inhibited the migration of neutrophils across endothelial cells by antagonising the PGD(2 receptor. Here, we describe a new step in the neutrophil recruitment process that relies upon a lipid-mediated signal to regulate the migration of neutrophils across endothelial cells. PGD(2 signalling is subordinate to the chemokine-mediated activation of neutrophils, but without the sequential delivery of this signal, neutrophils fail to penetrate the endothelial cell monolayer. Importantly, the ability of the dietary n-3-PUFA, EPA, to inhibit this process not

  8. Omega-3 Fatty acids and inflammation: novel interactions reveal a new step in neutrophil recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tull, Samantha P; Yates, Clara M; Maskrey, Benjamin H; O'Donnell, Valerie B; Madden, Jackie; Grimble, Robert F; Calder, Philip C; Nash, Gerard B; Rainger, G Ed

    2009-08-01

    Inflammation is a physiological response to tissue trauma or infection, but leukocytes, which are the effector cells of the inflammatory process, have powerful tissue remodelling capabilities. Thus, to ensure their precise localisation, passage of leukocytes from the blood into inflamed tissue is tightly regulated. Recruitment of blood borne neutrophils to the tissue stroma occurs during early inflammation. In this process, peptide agonists of the chemokine family are assumed to provide a chemotactic stimulus capable of supporting the migration of neutrophils across vascular endothelial cells, through the basement membrane of the vessel wall, and out into the tissue stroma. Here, we show that, although an initial chemokine stimulus is essential for the recruitment of flowing neutrophils by endothelial cells stimulated with the inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha, transit of the endothelial monolayer is regulated by an additional and downstream stimulus. This signal is supplied by the metabolism of the omega-6-polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6-PUFA), arachidonic acid, into the eicosanoid prostaglandin-D(2) (PGD(2)) by cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes. This new step in the neutrophil recruitment process was revealed when the dietary n-3-PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), was utilised as an alternative substrate for COX enzymes, leading to the generation of PGD(3). This alternative series eicosanoid inhibited the migration of neutrophils across endothelial cells by antagonising the PGD(2) receptor. Here, we describe a new step in the neutrophil recruitment process that relies upon a lipid-mediated signal to regulate the migration of neutrophils across endothelial cells. PGD(2) signalling is subordinate to the chemokine-mediated activation of neutrophils, but without the sequential delivery of this signal, neutrophils fail to penetrate the endothelial cell monolayer. Importantly, the ability of the dietary n-3-PUFA, EPA, to inhibit this process not only

  9. Neutrophil Phenotype Correlates With Postoperative Inflammatory Outcomes in Infants Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Jody N; Hilkin, Brieanna M; Hook, Jessica S; Brophy, Patrick D; Davenport, Tina L; Davis, James E; Colaizy, Tarah T; Moreland, Jessica G

    2017-12-01

    Infants with congenital heart disease frequently require cardiopulmonary bypass, which causes systemic inflammation. The goal of this study was to determine if neutrophil phenotype and activation status predicts the development of inflammatory complications following cardiopulmonary bypass. Prospective cohort study. Tertiary care PICU with postoperative cardiac care. Thirty-seven patients 5 days to 10 months old with congenital heart disease requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. None. Laboratory and clinical data collected included length of mechanical ventilation, acute kidney injury, and fluid overload. Neutrophils were isolated from whole blood at three time points surrounding cardiopulmonary bypass. Functional analyses included measurement of cell surface protein expression and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity. Of all patients studied, 40.5% displayed priming of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity in response to N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe stimulation 24 hours post cardiopulmonary bypass as compared to pre bypass. Neonates who received steroids prior to bypass demonstrated enhanced priming of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity at 48 hours. Patients who displayed priming post cardiopulmonary bypass were 8.8 times more likely to develop severe acute kidney injury as compared to nonprimers. Up-regulation of neutrophil surface CD11b levels pre- to postbypass occurred in 51.4% of patients, but this measure of neutrophil priming was not associated with acute kidney injury. Subsequent analyses of the basal neutrophil phenotype revealed that those with higher basal CD11b expression were significantly less likely to develop acute kidney injury. Neutrophil priming occurs in a subset of infants undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Acute kidney injury was more frequent in those patients who displayed priming of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity after cardiopulmonary bypass. This

  10. Aqueous extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. inhibits neutrophil influx and cytokine secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana Mara de Oliveira E; Machado, Isabel Daufenback; Santin, José Roberto; de Melo, Illana Louise Pereira; Pedrosa, Gabriela Vieira; Genovese, Maria Ines; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis L. phenolic compounds have attracted considerable attention because of their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, including its ability to treat inflammatory disorders. In this work, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro effects of R. officinalis aqueous extract on neutrophil trafficking from the blood into an inflamed tissue, on cell-derived secretion of chemical mediators, and on oxidative stress. Anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carrageenan-induced inflammation in the subcutaneous tissue of male Wistar rats orally treated with the R. officinalis extract (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg). The leukocyte influx (optical microscopy), secretion of chemical mediators (prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL-6), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and the anti-oxidative profile (super oxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) spectrophotometry) were quantified in the inflamed exudate. N-Formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine-induced chemotaxis, lipopolysaccharide-induced NO2 (-) production (Greiss reaction), and adhesion molecule expression (flow cytometry) were in vitro quantified using oyster glycogen recruited peritoneal neutrophils previous treated with the extract (1, 10, or 100 µg/mL). Animals orally treated with phosphate-buffered saline and neutrophils incubated with Hank's balanced salt solution were used as control. R. officinalis extract oral treatment caused a dose-dependent reduction in the neutrophil migration as well as decreased SOD, TBARS, LTB4, PGE2, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in the inflamed exudate. In vitro treatment with R. officinalis decreased neutrophil chemotaxis, NO2 (-) production, and shedding of L-selectin and β2 integrin expressions. Results here presented show that R. officinalis aqueous extract displays important in vivo and in vitro anti

  11. [The effect of chronic stress on neutrophil function in tumor-inoculated rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Naomi; Fujioka, Yosei; Midorikawa, Taishi; Ishizaki, Kaori; Machida, Kazuhiko

    2003-01-01

    In order to clarify the relation between stress load and inoculated tumor growth in conjunction with neutrophil functions, several kinds of stress such as physical (Ph) and psychological (Ps) stress were loaded on rats either SST-2 tumor cell inoculated or control, and the functions of their peripheral neutrophils were determined. A communication box was used for stress load on rats. SST-2 cells were inoculated in to rats in the tumor-inoculation groups. Two weeks after inoculation, the tumors were removed from the backs of the rats and weighed. The functions of neutrophils in the peripheral blood collected from the tail vein, were determined by the NBT deoxidization method. Tumor growth was enhanced when rats were loaded with either Ph or Ps stresses, but was inhibited when tumor cells were inoculated following either Ph or Ps stresses. These results show that chronological differences of loaded stresses influence immunological functions differently. The O2- production from the neutrophils stimulated by NBT-treated Staphilococcus aureus was suppressed in tumor-inoculated Ph and Ps groups, more markedly in the tumor-inoculated Ph group. It is logically relevant that the size of tumors increased in these groups, predominantly in the tumor-inoculated Ph group. On the other hand, O2- production from the neutrophils was enhanced and tumor growth decreased in tumor-inoculated animals following either Ph or Ps stresses. Our experiments, it revealed that the function of neutrophils is strongly enhanced by stress load and O2- production is inhibited by the tumor inoculation as shown in stimulation tests. Therefore, our findings suggested that neutrophils may participate in the inhibition of tumor growth.

  12. Longitudinal analysis of neutrophil superoxide anion generation in patients with septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespasiano, M C; Lewandoski, J R; Zimmerman, J J

    1993-05-01

    To examine polymorphonuclear leukocyte respiratory burst function serially in patients with septic shock. Prospective, longitudinal, descriptive study. Adult and pediatric (university hospital) intensive care units. Eight critically ill patients, with septic shock and eight critically ill patients without evidence of infection or sepsis. Severity of patient illness was estimated serially using the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) scoring system. For each patient, neutrophil superoxide anion synthesis was assayed spectrophotometrically in multiple blood samples over a period of 7 to 12 days after clinical identification of septic shock. The initial sample was obtained < 12 hrs after admission. Reaction velocities initially, at 2 to 3 mins, and at 4 to 5 mins (nmol superoxide anion/min/10(6) neutrophils), and extent of reaction at 5 mins (nmol superoxide anion/5 mins/10(6) neutrophils) were determined for each assay. On the day of admission, the mean APACHE II score and initial velocity for the septic shock group were 21.5 +/- 10 and 4.6 +/- 2 nmol superoxide anion/min/10(6) neutrophils, respectively. Over the next 7 to 12 days, as the patients recovered, there was a significant (paired t-test) decrease in APACHE II scores (p < .005) and increase in initial velocity (p < .0005). The increase in initial velocity correlated with the accompanying decrease in APACHE II scores (r2 = .46). Neutrophil superoxide anion generation in the critically ill group was not suppressed compared with the septic shock group and remained normal throughout the evaluation period. In vitro neutrophil respiratory burst function is significantly depressed during early septic shock. As patients improve clinically, as quantitated by decreasing APACHE II scores, neutrophil respiratory burst function recovers, approaching normal values.

  13. Identification of Neutrophil Exocytosis Inhibitors (Nexinhibs), Small Molecule Inhibitors of Neutrophil Exocytosis and Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jennifer L.; Ramadass, Mahalakshmi; He, Jing; Brown, Steven J.; Zhang, Jinzhong; Abgaryan, Lusine; Biris, Nikolaos; Gavathiotis, Evripidis; Rosen, Hugh; Catz, Sergio D.

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils constitute the first line of cellular defense in response to bacterial and fungal infections and rely on granular proteins to kill microorganisms, but uncontrolled secretion of neutrophil cargos is injurious to the host and should be closely regulated. Thus, increased plasma levels of neutrophil secretory proteins, including myeloperoxidase and elastase, are associated with tissue damage and are hallmarks of systemic inflammation. Here, we describe a novel high-throughput screening approach to identify small molecule inhibitors of the interaction between the small GTPase Rab27a and its effector JFC1, two central regulators of neutrophil exocytosis. Using this assay, we have identified small molecule inhibitors of Rab27a-JFC1 binding that were also active in cell-based neutrophil-specific exocytosis assays, demonstrating the druggability of Rab GTPases and their effectors. These compounds, named Nexinhibs (neutrophil exocytosis inhibitors), inhibit exocytosis of azurophilic granules in human neutrophils without affecting other important innate immune responses, including phagocytosis and neutrophil extracellular trap production. Furthermore, the compounds are reversible and potent inhibitors of the extracellular production of superoxide anion by preventing the up-regulation of the granule membrane-associated subunit of the NADPH oxidase at the plasma membrane. Nexinhibs also inhibit the up-regulation of activation signature molecules, including the adhesion molecules CD11b and CD66b. Importantly, by using a mouse model of endotoxin-induced systemic inflammation, we show that these inhibitors have significant activity in vivo manifested by decreased plasma levels of neutrophil secretory proteins and significantly decreased tissue infiltration by inflammatory neutrophils. Altogether, our data present the first neutrophil exocytosis-specific inhibitor with in vivo anti-inflammatory activity, supporting its potential use as an inhibitor of systemic

  14. Aspiration lung disorders in bovines: A case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony S. Shakespeare

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Lung aspiration disorders in bovines are invariably diagnosed as infectious aspiration pneumonias. There is a distinct differentiation between aspiration pneumonia and aspiration pneumonitis in humans that can be applied to bovines. The nature and quantity of the aspirate can result in differing pathogeneses which can require differing therapeutic approaches. Whilst blood gases were important in detecting and prognosticating lung problems, changes in barometric pressure with altitude have to be considered when interpreting partial pressures of oxygen. Anatomical differences in the lungs of bovines can explain why this species is more prone to certain pneumonic problems. Pulmonary physiotherapy is important in treating lung disorders in humans and should be considered as an adjunct therapy in bovine respiratory conditions. A case work-up was used to highlight some of the points discussed in this article.

  15. Aberrant “Barbed-Wire” Nuclear Projections of Neutrophils in Trisomy 18 (Edwards Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basil M. Kahwash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the significance of neutrophils with increased, aberrant nuclear projections mimicking “barbed-wire” in a newborn child with trisomy 18 (T18. Increased, aberrant nuclear projections have been previously reported in trisomy of the D group of chromosomes (chromosomes 13, 14, and 15, and we report similar findings in a patient with T18. The peripheral blood smear showed relative neutrophilia with the majority (37% of neutrophils showing two or more thin, rod-shaped or spike-shaped, and often pedunculated aberrant nuclear projections. The number of projections ranged from 2 to 6 per cell, averaged 2 per affected neutrophil, and ranged in length from 0.22 μm to 0.83 μm. This case confirms that the morphologic finding described is not restricted to trisomy of one of the chromosomes in group D, as implied in the literature.

  16. Counts of bovine monocyte subsets prior to calving are predictive for postpartum occurrence of mastitis and metritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Brianna; Sipka, Anja; Hussen, Jamal; Eger, Melanie; Schukken, Ynte; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim

    2017-02-21

    The heightened susceptibility to infectious diseases in postpartum dairy cows is often attributed to immune dysfunction associated with the transition period. However, the cell populations involved in this immune dysfunction and the dynamics between those populations are not well defined. Monocytes play a crucial role in governing initial immune response in bacterial infections. Bovine monocytes are subdivided in classical (CD14+/CD16-), intermediate (CD14+/CD16+) and non-classical monocytes (CD14-/CD16+) with distinct phenotypic and functional differences. This study investigated the relationship of monocyte subsets counts in blood at 42 and 14 days prior to expected calving date to occurrence of metritis and mastitis within 2 weeks postpartum. In the enrolled prospective cohort of 27 German Holstein cows, housed at the Institute of Animal Nutrition of the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute Braunschweig, Germany, n = 13 developed metritis and/or mastitis postpartum. A multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between prepartum cell counts of monocyte subsets and neutrophils with postpartum disease. Our model revealed that higher counts of the two CD14+ monocyte subsets were predictive of disease. In contrast, higher numbers of the CD14- monocyte subset were negatively associated with disease. Interestingly, the neutrophil count, a common hallmark for inflammatory response, was not associated with the outcome variable at either time point. The results indicate that the number and composition of monocyte subsets before calving are related to the susceptibility to infectious disease within 2 weeks postpartum. Furthermore the oppositional effect of CD14+ and CD14- subsets strengthens the hypothesis that these subsets have different functional roles in the inflammatory response in dairy cows.

  17. Ectodomain Shedding by ADAM17: Its Role in Neutrophil Recruitment and the Impairment of This Process during Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Walcheck

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are specialized at killing bacteria and are recruited from the blood in a rapid and robust manner during infection. A cascade of adhesion events direct their attachment to the vascular endothelium and migration into the underlying tissue. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17 functions in the cell membrane of neutrophils and endothelial cells by cleaving its substrates, typically in a cis manner, at an extracellular site proximal to the cell membrane. This process is referred to as ectodomain shedding and it results in the downregulation of various adhesion molecules and receptors, and the release of immune regulating factors. ADAM17 sheddase activity is induced upon cell activation and rapidly modulates intravascular adhesion events in response to diverse environmental stimuli. During sepsis, an excessive systemic inflammatory response against infection, neutrophil migration becomes severely impaired. This involves ADAM17 as indicated by increased levels of its cleaved substrates in the blood of septic patients, and that ADAM17 inactivation improves neutrophil recruitment and bacterial clearance in animal models of sepsis. Excessive ADAM17 sheddase activity during sepsis thus appears to undermine in a direct and indirect manner the necessary balance between intravascular adhesion and de-adhesion events that regulate neutrophil migration into sites of infection. This review provides an overview of ADAM17 function and regulation and its potential contribution to neutrophil dysfunction during sepsis.

  18. Supraceliac, but not infrarenal, aortic cross-clamping upregulates neutrophil integrin CD11b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, G E; Mihalakakos, P J; Spurzem, J R; Baxter, T B

    1995-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of supraceliac and infrarenal aortic cross-clamping on the expression of neutrophil integrin in CD11b (a marker of systemic cytokine release). Two groups, determined by anatomic placement of aortic cross-clamp. Laboratory personnel were blinded as to group assignment. University teaching and community hospitals. Laboratory facilities used were university and Veteran's Affairs medical centers. Patients scheduled for aortic surgery. Blood sampling was performed at baseline, after 30 minutes of aortic cross-clamp duration, 30 and 90 minutes after reperfusion (for tumor necrosis factor-alpha plasma levels in infrarenal cross-clamp group), and at baseline and 90 minutes reperfusion (for neutrophil CD11b expression quantification) in both groups. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha measured by ELISA technique did not change at any time period in the infrarenal clamping group. Neutrophil CD11b expression, measured by double antibody staining and FACScan analysis, did not change significantly at 90 minutes of reperfusion in the infrarenal group, but increased significantly (p entrapment and subsequent neutrophil-mediated reperfusion injury. These results suggest that upregulation of neutrophil integrin CD11b after supraceliac aortic clamping may in part be responsible for the higher incidence of acute lung injury after thoracic aortic aneurysm repair requiring supraceliac clamping when compared with infrarenal aneurysm surgery.

  19. A3R Phage and Staphylococcus aureus Lysate Do Not Induce Neutrophil Degranulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Borysowski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of A3R phage and Staphylococcus aureus lysate obtained after phage infection on neutrophil degranulation. The exocytosis of primary and secondary granules from neutrophils was investigated in vitro in whole blood specimens by flow cytometry based on the expression of specific markers of exocytosis (CD63 for primary granules and CD66b for secondary granules. We found that both A3R and S. aureus lysate had no significant effect on the exocytosis of primary and secondary granules. These data suggest that neither A3R virions nor any products of phage-induced lysis of S. aureus are likely to induce neutrophil degranulation in patients who are treated with phage preparations. Since neutrophil granules contain some potentially toxic proteins, our results provide an important argument for the safety of phage therapy. Moreover, these data indicate that the induction of neutrophil degranulation is not likely to contribute to antibacterial effects of phages.

  20. Mononuclear-macrophages but not neutrophils act as major infiltrating anti-leptospiral phagocytes during leptospirosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chen

    Full Text Available To identify the major infiltrating phagocytes during leptospirosis and examine the killing mechanism used by the host to eliminate Leptospira interrogans.Major infiltrating phagocytes in Leptospira-infected C3H/HeJ mice were detected by immunohistochemistry. Chemokines and vascular endothelial cell adhesion molecules (VECAMs of Leptospira-infected mice and leptospirosis patients were detected by microarray and immunohistochemistry. Leptospira-phagocytosing and -killing abilities of human or mouse macrophages and neutrophils, and the roles of intracellular ROS, NO and [Ca2+]i in Leptospira-killing process were evaluated by confocal microscopy and spectrofluorimetry.Peripheral blood mononuclear-macrophages rather than neutrophils were the main infiltrating phagocytes in the lungs, liver and kidneys of infected mice. Levels of macrophage- but not neutrophil-specific chemokines and VECAMs were significantly increased in the samples from infected mice and patients. All macrophages tested had a higher ability than neutrophils to phagocytose and kill leptospires. Higher ROS and NO levels and [Ca2+]i in the macrophages were involved in killing leptospires. Human macrophages displayed more phagolysosome formation and a stronger leptospire-killing ability to than mouse macrophages.Mononuclear-macrophages but not neutrophils represent the main infiltrating and anti-leptospiral phagocytes during leptospirosis. A lower level of phagosome-lysosome fusion may be responsible for the lower Leptospira-killing ability of human macrophages.

  1. Equol Effectively Inhibits Toxic Activity of Human Neutrophils without Influencing Their Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pažoureková, Silvia; Lucová, Marianna; Nosál, Radomír; Drábiková, Katarína; Harmatha, Juraj; Šmidrkal, Ján; Jančinová, Viera

    2016-01-01

    Equol (7,4'-dihydroxy-isoflavan, or 4',7-isoflavandiol) is a chroman derivative produced by intestinal bacteria in response to soy isoflavone intake in some, but not in all, humans. Equol shows strong anti-oxidant, anti-estrogenic, anti-cancerous and anti-inflammatory properties. The antioxidative capacity of equol has recently received considerable attention, and it has been used for preventing and treating several diseases. We investigated the effect of equol on human neutrophils, extra- and intracellular formation of oxidants, the phosphorylation of protein regulating NADPH oxidase and its effect on apoptosis. Neutrophils, isolated from blood from healthy subjects, were tested upon activation with various stimulants, proper for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and treated by equol. Equol has the ability to reduce the toxic action of neutrophils. With increasing concentrations, equol decreased the amount of oxidants produced by neutrophils both extra- and intracellularly. The phosphorylation of p40(phox) (a component of NADPH oxidase, responsible for the assembly of functional oxidase in intracellular membranes) was reduced in the presence of equol. The experiments showed that equol did not change the number of viable, apoptotic or dead neutrophils significantly in all concentrations used. These results indicate the promising effect of equol in the operation of ROS in different mechanisms in the model of inflammation. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Altered neutrophil immunophenotypes in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Elen; Bacelar, Thiago S.; Ciudad, Juana; Ribeiro, Maria Cecília M.; Garcia, Daniela R.N.; Sedek, Lukasz; Maia, Simone F.; Aranha, Daniel B.; Machado, Indyara C.; Ikeda, Arissa; Baglioli, Bianca F.; Lopez-Duarte, Nathalia; Teixeira, Lisandra A. C.; Szczepanski, Tomasz; Silva, Maria Luiza M.; Land, Marcelo G.P.

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of evidences suggest a genetic predisposition in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) that might favor the occurrence of the driver genetic alterations. Such genetic background might also translate into phenotypic alterations of residual hematopoietic cells. Whether such phenotypic alterations are present in bone marrow (BM) cells from childhood B-cell precursor (BCP)-ALL remains to be investigated. Here we analyzed the immunophenotypic profile of BM and peripheral blood (PB) maturing/matured neutrophils from 118 children with BCP-ALL and their relationship with the features of the disease. Our results showed altered neutrophil phenotypes in most (77%) BCP-ALL cases. The most frequently altered marker was CD10 (53%), followed by CD33 (34%), CD13 (15%), CD15/CD65 (10%) and CD123 (7%). Of note, patients with altered neutrophil phenotypes had younger age (p = 0.03) and lower percentages of BM maturing neutrophils (p = 0.004) together with greater BM lymphocyte (p = 0.04), and mature B-cell (p = 0.03) counts. No significant association was found between an altered neutrophil phenotype and other disease features. These findings point out the potential existence of an altered residual hematopoiesis in most childhood BCP-ALL cases. PMID:27028865

  3. Monocytes, neutrophils, and platelets cooperate to initiate and propagate venous thrombosis in mice in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Brühl, Marie-Luise; Stark, Konstantin; Steinhart, Alexander; Chandraratne, Sue; Konrad, Ildiko; Lorenz, Michael; Khandoga, Alexander; Tirniceriu, Anca; Coletti, Raffaele; Köllnberger, Maria; Byrne, Robert A; Laitinen, Iina; Walch, Axel; Brill, Alexander; Pfeiler, Susanne; Manukyan, Davit; Braun, Siegmund; Lange, Philipp; Riegger, Julia; Ware, Jerry; Eckart, Annekathrin; Haidari, Selgai; Rudelius, Martina; Schulz, Christian; Echtler, Katrin; Brinkmann, Volker; Schwaiger, Markus; Preissner, Klaus T; Wagner, Denisa D; Mackman, Nigel; Engelmann, Bernd; Massberg, Steffen

    2012-04-09

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a major cause of cardiovascular death. The sequence of events that promote DVT remains obscure, largely as a result of the lack of an appropriate rodent model. We describe a novel mouse model of DVT which reproduces a frequent trigger and resembles the time course, histological features, and clinical presentation of DVT in humans. We demonstrate by intravital two-photon and epifluorescence microscopy that blood monocytes and neutrophils crawling along and adhering to the venous endothelium provide the initiating stimulus for DVT development. Using conditional mutants and bone marrow chimeras, we show that intravascular activation of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation via tissue factor (TF) derived from myeloid leukocytes causes the extensive intraluminal fibrin formation characteristic of DVT. We demonstrate that thrombus-resident neutrophils are indispensable for subsequent DVT propagation by binding factor XII (FXII) and by supporting its activation through the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Correspondingly, neutropenia, genetic ablation of FXII, or disintegration of NETs each confers protection against DVT amplification. Platelets associate with innate immune cells via glycoprotein Ibα and contribute to DVT progression by promoting leukocyte recruitment and stimulating neutrophil-dependent coagulation. Hence, we identified a cross talk between monocytes, neutrophils, and platelets responsible for the initiation and amplification of DVT and for inducing its unique clinical features.

  4. Microbiota signalling through MyD88 is necessary for a systemic neutrophilic inflammatory response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmarkar, Dipti; Rock, Kenneth L

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we have found that intestinal flora strongly influence peritoneal neutrophilic inflammatory responses to diverse stimuli, including pathogen-derived particles like zymosan and sterile irritant particles like crystals. When germ-free and flora-deficient (antibiotic-treated) mice are challenged with zymosan intraperitoneally, neutrophils are markedly impaired in their ability to extravasate from blood into the peritoneum. In contrast, in these animals, neutrophils can extravasate in response to an intraperitoneal injection of the chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein 2. Neutrophil recruitment upon inflammatory challenge requires stimulation by microbiota through a myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88) (MyD88) -dependent pathway. MyD88 signalling is crucial during the development of the immune system but depending upon the ligand it may be dispensable at the time of the actual inflammatory challenge. Furthermore, pre-treatment of flora-deficient mice with a purified MyD88-pathway agonist is sufficient to restore neutrophil migration. In summary, this study provides insight into the role of gut microbiota in influencing acute inflammation at sites outside the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23909393

  5. Probing Intracellular Element Concentration Changes during Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation Using Synchrotron Radiation Based X-Ray Fluorescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn De Samber

    Full Text Available High pressure frozen (HPF, cryo-substituted microtome sections of 2 μm thickness containing human neutrophils (white blood cells were analyzed using synchrotron radiation based X-ray fluorescence (SR nano-XRF at a spatial resolution of 50 nm. Besides neutrophils from a control culture, we also analyzed neutrophils stimulated for 1-2 h with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA, a substance inducing the formation of so-called Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (or NETs, a defense system again pathogens possibly involving proteins with metal chelating properties. In order to gain insight in metal transport during this process, precise local evaluation of elemental content was performed reaching limits of detection (LODs of 1 ppb. Mean weight fractions within entire neutrophils, their nuclei and cytoplasms were determined for the three main elements P, S and Cl, but also for the 12 following trace elements: K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Sr and Pb. Statistical analysis, including linear regression provided objective analysis and a measure for concentration changes. The nearly linear Ca and Cl concentration changes in neutrophils could be explained by already known phenomena such as the induction of Ca channels and the uptake of Cl under activation of NET forming neutrophils. Linear concentration changes were also found for P, S, K, Mn, Fe, Co and Se. The observed linear concentration increase for Mn could be related to scavenging of this metal from the pathogen by means of the neutrophil protein calprotectin, whereas the concentration increase of Se may be related to its antioxidant function protecting neutrophils from the reactive oxygen species they produce against pathogens. We emphasize synchrotron radiation based nanoscopic X-ray fluorescence as an enabling analytical technique to study changing (trace element concentrations throughout cellular processes, provided accurate sample preparation and data-analysis.

  6. Modulation and Apoptosis of Neutrophil Granulocytes by Extracorporeal Photopheresis in the Treatment of Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Franklin

    Full Text Available Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD is a common side effect of allogeneic stem cell transplantation and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in affected patients. Especially skin, eyes and oral mucosa are affected. This can lead to pain and functional impairment. Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP is an effective immunomodulatory therapy with minimal side effects but its mode of action is still largely unknown. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of ECP on neutrophil granulocytes in patients with cGVHD. Analysis of leukocytes from cGVHD patients obtained from the ECP device during treatment showed that neutrophil granulocytes account for the majority of cells treated during ECP. Neutrophils from healthy donors treated in vitro with 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA light as well as neutrophils from buffy coats of patients with cGVHD treated by ECP showed increased apoptosis and decreased half-life. In remaining non-apoptotic cells chemoirradiation resulted in loss of activation markers and reduced effector functions. This was accompanied by an increase in extracellular arginase-1 activity. Additional comparison of neutrophils isolated from blood of cGVHD patients before and 24h after ECP revealed a decreased half-life and reduction of effector functions of post-ECP neutrophils ex vivo. These observations strongly suggest that ECP induces both apoptosis and physiological changes in neutrophils and that these changes also take place in vivo. This study is the first to show that ECP modulates apoptosis and inflammatory activity in neutrophil granulocytes, indicating that neutrophils may significantly contribute to the overall immunomodulatory effects attributed to this treatment.

  7. Superoxide anion production by human neutrophils activated by Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Ouk; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2013-08-01

    Neutrophils are the predominant inflammatory cells found in vaginal discharges of patients infected with Trichomonas vaginalis. In this study, we examined superoxide anion (O2 (.-)) production by neutrophils activated by T. vaginalis. Human neutrophils produced superoxide anions when stimulated with either a lysate of T. vaginalis, its membrane component (MC), or excretory-secretory product (ESP). To assess the role of trichomonad protease in production of superoxide anions by neutrophils, T. vaginalis lysate, ESP, and MC were each pretreated with a protease inhibitor cocktail before incubation with neutrophils. Superoxide anion production was significantly decreased by this treatment. Trichomonad growth was inhibited by preincubation with supernatants of neutrophils incubated for 3 hr with T. vaginalis lysate. Furthermore, myeloperoxidase (MPO) production by neutrophils was stimulated by live trichomonads. These results indicate that the production of superoxide anions and MPO by neutrophils stimulated with T. vaginalis may be a part of defense mechanisms of neutrophils in trichomoniasis.

  8. Intervet Symposium: bovine neosporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schetters, T.; Dubey, J.P.; Adrianarivo, A.; Frankena, K.; Romero, J.J.; Pérez, E.; Heuer, C.; Nicholson, C.; Russell, D.; Weston, J.

    2004-01-01

    This article summarises the most relevant data of presentations delivered at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) held in New Orleans, LA, USA, from 10 to 14 August 2003) in a symposium session on bovine neosporosis. The

  9. Genotyping bovine coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses of the Coronaviridae family. Infection is associated with enteritis and pneumonia in calves and Winter Dysentery in adult cattle. Strains, isolated more than 50 years ago, are used in vaccines and as laboratory ...

  10. Yersinia enterocolitica YopH-Deficient Strain Activates Neutrophil Recruitment to Peyer's Patches and Promotes Clearance of the Virulent Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Mabel N; Silva, Juan E; Eliçabe, Ricardo J; Jeréz, María B; Filippa, Verónica P; Gorlino, Carolina V; Autenrieth, Stella; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Di Genaro, María S

    2016-11-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica evades the immune response by injecting Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) into the cytosol of host cells. YopH is a tyrosine phosphatase critical for Yersinia virulence. However, the mucosal immune mechanisms subverted by YopH during in vivo orogastric infection with Y. enterocolitica remain elusive. The results of this study revealed neutrophil recruitment to Peyer's patches (PP) after infection with a YopH-deficient mutant strain (Y. enterocolitica ΔyopH). While the Y. enterocolitica wild-type (WT) strain in PP induced the major neutrophil chemoattractant CXCL1 mRNA and protein levels, infection with the Y. enterocolitica ΔyopH mutant strain exhibited a higher expression of the CXCL1 receptor, CXCR2, in blood neutrophils, leading to efficient neutrophil recruitment to the PP. In contrast, migration of neutrophils into PP was impaired upon infection with Y. enterocolitica WT strain. In vitro infection of blood neutrophils revealed the involvement of YopH in CXCR2 expression. Depletion of neutrophils during Y. enterocolitica ΔyopH infection raised the bacterial load in PP. Moreover, the clearance of WT Y. enterocolitica was improved when an equal mixture of Y. enterocolitica WT and Y. enterocolitica ΔyopH strains was used in infecting the mice. This study indicates that Y. enterocolitica prevents early neutrophil recruitment in the intestine and that the effector protein YopH plays an important role in the immune evasion mechanism. The findings highlight the potential use of the Y. enterocolitica YopH-deficient strain as an oral vaccine carrier. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Thirty-minutes' exposure to smartphone call triggers neutrophil activation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Danese, Elisa; Brocco, Giorgio; Benati, Marco; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina; Franchini, Massimo

    2016-09-01

    Despite accumulating evidence about the negative health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones, no information is available on the potential impact of radiofrequency (RF) waves on polymorphonuclear leukocytes biology. Two sequential whole blood tubes were collected from 16 ostensibly healthy volunteers. After placing the former tube of each subject in a plastic rack, 1 cm from a commercial smartphone (carrier frequency, 900 MHz), a call was placed on the smartphone and a communication lasting 30 min was manually activated. The latter blood tube of each volunteer was placed in another plastic rack, for an identical period of time, avoiding close contact with sources of RF waves. A complete blood count was then assessed in all whole blood samples, using Advia 2120. The 30-min exposure of blood to RF waves did not induce significant variations of total and differential leukocyte counts. A significant decrease was however observed for many neutrophils parameters, with median percentage variation of -3.9% for the lobularity index (LI), -29.8% for the myeloperoxidase index (MPXI), -0.6% for the neutrophil cluster mean x (NEUTx) and -0.7% for the neutrophil cluster mean y (NEUTy), respectively. The percentage of blood samples with reduced values after exposure to RF waves was 81% for LI, 88% for NEUTx and 100% for both MPXI and NEUTy. The results of this study show that exposure to smartphone RF waves triggers activation of neutrophils in vitro, as mirrored by the significant variations observed in many activation parameters in Advia 2120.

  12. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen eThompson-Crispi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the High Immune Response (HIR technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+TM sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favourable production levels to feed a growing

  13. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population. PMID

  14. Are amniotic fluid neutrophils in women with intraamniotic infection and/or inflammation of fetal or maternal origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy; Romero, Roberto; Xu, Yi; Leng, Yaozhu; Garcia-Flores, Valeria; Miller, Derek; Jacques, Suzanne M; Hassan, Sonia S; Faro, Jonathan; Alsamsam, Adham; Alhousseini, Ali; Gomez-Roberts, Hunter; Panaitescu, Bogdan; Yeo, Lami; Maymon, Eli

    2017-09-28

    Neutrophils are the most abundant white blood cells found in the amniotic cavity of women with intraamniotic infection and/or inflammation. The current belief is that these neutrophils are of fetal origin. However, abundant neutrophils have been found in the amniotic fluid of women with a severe acute maternal inflammatory response but without a fetal inflammatory response in the placenta, suggesting that these innate immune cells can also be of maternal origin or a mixture of both fetal and maternal neutrophils. We sought to investigate the origin of amniotic fluid neutrophils from women with intraamniotic infection and/or inflammation, and to correlate these findings with acute histologic maternal and fetal inflammatory responses in the placenta. Amniotic fluid was collected from 15 women with suspected intraamniotic infection and/or inflammation (positive microbiological cultures and/or interleukin-6 concentrations ≥2.6 ng/mL). Amniotic fluid neutrophils were purified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, DNA was extracted, and DNA fingerprinting was performed. DNA fingerprinting was also performed in the umbilical cord and maternal blood DNA. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was assayed in women with male neonates. Blinded placental histopathological evaluations were conducted. First, DNA fingerprinting revealed that 42.8% (6/14) of women who underwent a single amniocentesis had mostly fetal neutrophils in the amniotic fluid. Second, DNA fingerprinting showed that 35.7% (5/14) of the women who underwent a single amniocentesis had predominantly maternal neutrophils in the amniotic fluid. Third, DNA fingerprinting indicated that 21.4% (3/14) of the women who underwent a single amniocentesis had an evident mixture of fetal and maternal neutrophils in the amniotic fluid. Fourth, DNA fingerprinting revealed that a woman who underwent 2 amniocenteses (patient 15) had fetal neutrophils first, and as infection progressed, abundant maternal neutrophils invaded the

  15. Alveolar macrophage-stimulated neutrophil and monocyte migration: effects of in vitro ozone exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, K.E.; Schlesinger, R.B.

    1988-04-01

    The ability of rabbit alveolar macrophages (AM) to release factors which stimulate the migration of peripheral blood neutrophils and monocytes was examined, and the influence of in vitro ozone exposure on this secretory activity was investigated. To evaluate the ability of AM to release leukocyte chemotactic activity, AM obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage were established in monolayer or suspension culture, with and without added zymosan, for 2 and 6 hr. The resulting macrophage-conditioned medium was tested for chemotactic activity using modified Boyden-type chambers and rabbit peripheral blood neutrophils or monocytes as the responding cells. The results demonstrate that substrate attachment (monolayer culture) and/or zymosan phagocytosis can stimulate AM to release chemoattractants for monocytes and neutrophils. Additionally, the results suggest that AM are constitutively producing low levels of monocyte chemotactic factors. The effects of in vitro ozone exposure on the secretion of chemotactic activity was investigated by exposing monolayer cultures of AM to air, 0.1, 0.3, or 1.2 ppm ozone for 2 hr. Macrophage-conditioned medium was harvested immediately, 2 and 6 hr postexposure, and tested for chemotactic activity. Exposure to 0.3 and 1.2 ppm ozone significantly increased the AM secretion of factors which stimulated neutrophil migration; additionally, the results strongly suggest that ozone can augment the ability of AM to stimulate monocyte migration. These results imply a role for the AM in the recruitment of inflammatory cells after ozone inhalation.

  16. High glucose impairs superoxide production from isolated blood neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Nielsen, S E; Rask-Madsen, J

    2003-01-01

    Superoxide (O(2)(-)), a key antimicrobial agent in phagocytes, is produced by the activity of NADPH oxidase. High glucose concentrations may, however, impair the production of O(2)(-) through inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), which catalyzes the formation of NADPH. This study...

  17. Absolute counting of neutrophils in whole blood using flow cytometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brunck, Marion E. G; Andersen, Stacey B; Timmins, Nicholas E; Osborne, Geoffrey W; Nielsen, Lars K

    2014-01-01

    .... Here we combine the 1A8 antibody, specific for the mouse granulocyte protein Ly6G, with flow cytometric counting in straightforward FCM assays for mouse ANC, easily implementable in the research laboratory...

  18. Major neutrophil functions subverted by Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingar Olsen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils constitute an integrated component of the innate host defense in the gingival sulcus/periodontal pocket. However, the keystone periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis has in the course of evolution developed a number of capacities to subvert this defense to its own advantage. The present review describes the major mechanisms that P. gingivalis uses to subvert neutrophil homeostasis, such as impaired recruitment and chemotaxis, resistance to granule-derived antimicrobial agents and to the oxidative burst, inhibition of phagocytic killing while promoting a nutritionally favorable inflammatory response, and delay of neutrophil apoptosis. Studies in animal models have shown that at least some of these mechanisms promote the dysbiotic transformation of the periodontal polymicrobial community, thereby leading to inflammation and bone loss. It is apparent that neutrophil–P. gingivalis interactions and subversion of innate immunity are key contributing factors to the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.

  19. Major neutrophil functions subverted by Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Ingar; Hajishengallis, George

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils) constitute an integrated component of the innate host defense in the gingival sulcus/periodontal pocket. However, the keystone periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis has in the course of evolution developed a number of capacities to subvert this defense to its own advantage. The present review describes the major mechanisms that P. gingivalis uses to subvert neutrophil homeostasis, such as impaired recruitment and chemotaxis, resistance to granule-derived antimicrobial agents and to the oxidative burst, inhibition of phagocytic killing while promoting a nutritionally favorable inflammatory response, and delay of neutrophil apoptosis. Studies in animal models have shown that at least some of these mechanisms promote the dysbiotic transformation of the periodontal polymicrobial community, thereby leading to inflammation and bone loss. It is apparent that neutrophil–P. gingivalis interactions and subversion of innate immunity are key contributing factors to the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. PMID:26993626

  20. Neutrophil granules in health and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häger, M; Cowland, J B; Borregaard, N

    2010-01-01

    Neutrophil granules store proteins that are critically important for the neutrophil to move from the vascular bed to tissues and to kill microorganisms. This is illustrated in nature when individual proteins are deleted due to inherited mutations of their cognate genes, and such deficiencies result...... in the conditions leucocyte adhesion deficiency and chronic granulomatous disease. The granules of the neutrophil have traditionally been divided into two or three major types but are instead a continuum where several subtypes can be identified with differences in protein content and propensity for mobilization....... This is explained by the 'targeting by timing hypothesis' which states that granules are filled with granule proteins that are synthesized at the time the granule is formed. The heterogeneity of granules arises because the synthesis of granule proteins is individually controlled and major differences exist...

  1. Neutrophils and inflammatory resolution in the mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Sean P

    2015-05-01

    Inflammatory diseases in mucosal organs as diverse as the lung, liver and intestine inevitably require the intimate interactions between neutrophils and epithelia. The physiologic consequences of such interactions often determine endpoint organ function, and for this reason, much recent interest has developed in identifying mechanisms and novel targets to promote the resolution of mucosal inflammation. Physiologically-relevant in vitro and in vivo model systems have aided in discovery of novel pathways to define basic inflammatory mechanisms and approaches to defining the concepts of inflammatory resolution. Here, we will review the recent literature regarding the contribution of neutrophils to inflammatory resolution, with an emphasis on the role of the tissue microenvironment, endogenous pathways for promoting resolution and the molecular determinants of neutrophil-epithelial cell interactions during ongoing inflammation. These recent studies highlight the dynamic nature of pro-resolving pathways and lend insight into the complexity of treating mucosal inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bluetongue virus infection of bovine monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetter, L E; Maclachlan, N J; Gebhard, D H; Heidner, H W; Moore, P F

    1989-07-01

    Cultures of adherent and non-adherent bovine blood mononuclear cells were infected with bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 10. Production of BTV proteins in mononuclear cell cultures was detected by immune precipitation of viral proteins from [35S]methionine-labelled extracts of these cells, by immunofluorescence staining of cells using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to BTV proteins VP7 and NS2, and by flow cytometry with MAbs to VP2, VP7, NS1 and NS2. BTV-infected cells were most numerous in cultures of adherent mononuclear cells; infected cells were initially identified as monocytes on the basis of their morphology, and size and scatter characteristics as determined by analysis with a fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). The majority of adherent mononuclear cells with these scatter characteristics were confirmed to be monocytes by FACS analysis with a MAb specific for bovine monocytes. Identification of BTV-infected adherent mononuclear cells as monocytes was further established by double immunofluorescent labelling, as infected adherent cells reacted with the MAb specific for bovine monocytes, and with another MAb specific for class II antigen. Infection of adherent mononuclear cells was also confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, as BTV virions and tubules were present in lysates of cultures of BTV-infected adherent mononuclear cells and within the cytoplasm of adherent cells. In contrast, BTV proteins were detected in few cells identified as lymphocytes on the basis of their scatter characteristics, and mean fluorescence of such cells was considerably less than that of BTV-infected monocytes. Viraemia persisted until 35 days after inoculation of a colostrum-deprived calf inoculated with BTV. Virus was isolated from blood mononuclear cells at 1 week after infection of the calf, but not thereafter. BTV infection of blood mononuclear cells was demonstrated until 9 days after inoculation by indirect immunofluorescence staining of mononuclear cells. In

  3. MicroRNA-223 ameliorates alcoholic liver injury by inhibiting the IL-6–p47phox–oxidative stress pathway in neutrophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Man; He, Yong; Zhou, Zhou; Ramirez, Teresa; Gao, Yueqiu; Gao, Yanhang; Ross, Ruth A; Cao, Haixia; Cai, Yan; Xu, Mingjiang; Feng, Dechun; Zhang, Ping; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Gao, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Chronic-plus-binge ethanol feeding activates neutrophils and exacerbates liver injury in mice. This study investigates how recent excessive drinking affects peripheral neutrophils and liver injury in alcoholics, and how miR-223, one of the most abundant microRNAs (miRNAs) in neutrophils, modulates neutrophil function and liver injury in ethanol-fed mice. Designs Three hundred alcoholics with (n=140) or without (n=160) recent excessive drinking and 45 healthy controls were enrolled. Mice were fed an ethanol diet for 10 days followed by a single binge of ethanol. Results Compared with healthy controls or alcoholics without recent drinking, alcoholics with recent excessive drinking had higher levels of circulating neutrophils, which correlated with serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). miRNA array analysis revealed that alcoholics had elevated serum miR-223 levels compared with healthy controls. In chronic-plus-binge ethanol feeding mouse model, the levels of miR-223 were increased in both serum and neutrophils. Genetic deletion of the miR-223 gene exacerbated ethanol-induced hepatic injury, neutrophil infiltration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and upregulated hepatic expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and phagocytic oxidase (phox) p47phox. Mechanistic studies revealed that miR-223 directly inhibited IL-6 expression and subsequently inhibited p47phox expression in neutrophils. Deletion of the p47phox gene ameliorated ethanol-induced liver injury and ROS production by neutrophils. Finally, miR-223 expression was downregulated, while IL-6 and p47phox expression were upregulated in peripheral blood neutrophils from alcoholics compared with healthy controls. Conclusions miR-223 is an important regulator to block neutrophil infiltration in alcoholic liver disease and could be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of this malady. PMID:27679493

  4. TEMPO DE VIABILIDADE DE AMOSTRAS DE SANGUE VENOSO BOVINO DESTINADAS AO EXAME HEMOGASOMÉTRICO, QUANDO MANTIDAS SOB CONSERVAÇÃO EM ÁGUA GELADA VIABILITY TIME OF BLOOD GAS ANALYSIS IN BOVINE VENOUS BLOOD SAMPLES STORED IN ICE WATER BATH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Augusto Naylor Lisbôa

    2001-04-01

    adequadamente conservadas em banho de água gelada, mantendo, assim, o seu valor diagnóstico.In order to verify the viability of blood gas analysis in bovine venous blood stored on ice water bath, two samples (10ml each were taken from the jugular vein of 14 healthy animals (7 males and 7 females, 1- to 5-year-old, using plastic syringes and attached needles filled with sodium heparin (1,000IU. The blood samples were obtained anaerobically, the air bubbles observed were immediately removed, and the needle was maintened capped with a rubber stopper. Each syringe of the pair was distinctally stored at room temperature (23-30ºC or in ice water bath (0-4ºC during the experimental period. Values of pH, carbon dioxide (PvCO2 and oxigen (PvO2 tensions, bicarbonate (HCO3-, total carbon dioxide (TCO2, base excess (BE, standard bicarbonate (StB, oxigen saturation (SatO2, and oxigen content (O2 were determined soon after sampling and after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 24 hours. According to the type of storage temperature, the results were analysed through repeated measurements ANOVA, considering the contrast between the mean value of each time and the initial one. On the storage at room temperature, the in vitro changes were characterized from continuous decreases in pH, PvO2, BE, StB, SatO2, and O2 values, and gradual increase in PvCO2, starting at 2- or 3-hour after the collection. In the samples stored at 0-4ºC, on the other hand, the changes in pH occurred only at the 4th hour, and the stability of the PvCO2, BE, and StB values were maintened for up to the 6th hour. These results indicated that the diagnostic utility of blood gas analysis is conserved in bovine venous blood samples adequately stored up to 6 hours in ice water bath, at 0-4ºC.

  5. Neutrophil extracellular traps cause airway obstruction during respiratory syncytial virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortjens, Bart; de Boer, Onno J; de Jong, Rineke; Antonis, Adriaan Fg; Sabogal Piñeros, Yanaika S; Lutter, René; van Woensel, Job Bm; Bem, Reinout A

    2016-02-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of severe lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD) in young children worldwide. Extensive neutrophil accumulation in the lungs and occlusion of small airways by DNA-rich mucus plugs are characteristic features of severe RSV-LRTD. Activated neutrophils can release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), extracellular networks of DNA covered with antimicrobial proteins, as part of the first-line defence against pathogens. NETs can trap and eliminate microbes; however, abundant NET formation may also contribute to airway occlusion. In this study, we investigated whether NETs are induced by RSV and explored their potential anti-viral effect in vitro. Second, we studied NET formation in vivo during severe RSV-LRTD in infants and bovine RSV-LRTD in calves, by examining bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue sections, respectively. NETs were visualized in lung cytology and tissue samples by DNA and immunostaining, using antibodies against citrullinated histone H3, elastase and myeloperoxidase. RSV was able to induce NET formation by human neutrophils in vitro. Furthermore, NETs were able to capture RSV, thereby precluding binding of viral particles to target cells and preventing infection. Evidence for the formation of NETs in the airways and lungs was confirmed in children with severe RSV-LRTD. Detailed histopathological examination of calves with RSV-LRTD showed extensive NET formation in dense plugs occluding the airways, either with or without captured viral antigen. Together, these results suggest that, although NETs trap viral particles, their exaggerated formation during severe RSV-LRTD contributes to airway obstruction. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Pathogenic Bacterium Acinetobacter baumannii Inhibits the Formation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps by Suppressing Neutrophil Adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Kamoshida

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hospital-acquired infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii have become problematic because of high rates of drug resistance. A. baumannii is usually harmless, but it may cause infectious diseases in an immunocompromised host. Although neutrophils are the key players of the initial immune response against bacterial infection, their interactions with A. baumannii remain largely unknown. A new biological defense mechanism, termed neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs, has been attracting attention. NETs play a critical role in bacterial killing by bacterial trapping and inactivation. Many pathogenic bacteria have been reported to induce NET formation, while an inhibitory effect on NET formation is rarely reported. In the present study, to assess the inhibition of NET formation by A. baumannii, bacteria and human neutrophils were cocultured in the presence of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, and NET formation was evaluated. NETs were rarely observed during the coculture despite neutrophil PMA stimulation. Furthermore, A. baumannii prolonged the lifespan of neutrophils by inhibiting NET formation. The inhibition of NET formation by other bacteria was also investigated. The inhibitory effect was only apparent with live A. baumannii cells. Finally, to elucidate the mechanism of this inhibition, neutrophil adhesion was examined. A. baumannii suppressed the adhesion ability of neutrophils, thereby inhibiting PMA-induced NET formation. This suppression of cell adhesion was partly due to suppression of the surface expression of CD11a in neutrophils. The current study constitutes the first report on the inhibition of NET formation by a pathogenic bacterium, A. baumannii, and prolonging the neutrophil lifespan. This novel pathogenicity to inhibit NET formation, thereby escaping host immune responses might contribute to a development of new treatment strategies for A. baumannii infections.

  7. Prophylactic nitric oxide treatment reduces incidence of bovine respiratory disease complex in beef cattle arriving at a feedlot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev-Shoshani, G; Church, J S; Cook, N J; Schaefer, A L; Miller, C

    2013-10-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDc), is a challenging multi-factorial health issue caused by viral/bacterial pathogens and stressors linked with the transport and mixing of cattle, negatively impacting the cattle feedlot industry. Nitric oxide (NO) is a naturally occurring molecule with antimicrobial attributes. This study tests whether NO can prevent the symptoms associated with BRDc. Eighty-five, crossbred, multiple-sourced, commingled commercial weaned beef calves were monitored and scored for temperature, white blood count, clinical score, hematology, cortisol levels and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio. NO treatment or placebo were given once on arrival to the stockyard. After one week 87.5% of sick animals were from the control while 12.5% from treatment groups and after two weeks 72% and 28% respectively. Treatment was shown to be safe, causing neither distress nor adverse effects on the animals. These data show that NO treatment on arrival to the feedlot significantly decreased the incidence of BRDc in this study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in agro pastoral areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was carried out from October 2008- March 2009 to determine the sero-prevalence of bovine brucellosis in four districts of Jijjiga Zone, eastern Ethiopia. Purposive sampling technique was employed to select the four districts and nine peasant associations (PAs). A total of 435 blood samples were ...

  9. Preventive effect of ordinary and hyperimmune bovine colostrums ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, the anti-diabetic effect of ordinary and hyperimmune bovine colostrum were evaluated in diabetic mice induced by alloxan. The results indicated that blood glucose levels were significantly decreased after administration of colostrum for 30 d, and the glucose tolerance was strengthened in a ...

  10. Prevalence and vector distributions of bovine trypanosomosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unicellular parasites found in the blood and other tissues of vertebrates including livestock, wild life and people (Uilenberg, 1998). Bovine trypanosomosis is one of the diseases that are caused by flagellated protozoan parasites belong to the genus Trypanosoma. ... buffalo, bush pig, warthog, crocodile, hyena, snakes, etc.

  11. Bovine parainfluenza-3 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John A

    2010-11-01

    Bovine parainfluenza-3 virus (bPI(3)V) is a long-recognized, currently underappreciated, endemic infection in cattle populations. Clinical disease is most common in calves with poor passive transfer or decayed maternal antibodies. It is usually mild, consisting of fever, nasal discharge, and dry cough. Caused at least partly by local immunosuppressive effects, bPI(3)V infection is often complicated by coinfection with other respiratory viruses and bacteria, and is therefore an important component of enzootic pneumonia in calves and bovine respiratory disease complex in feedlot cattle. Active infection can be diagnosed by virus isolation from nasal swabs, or IF testing on smears made from nasal swabs. Timing of sampling is critical in obtaining definitive diagnostic test results. Parenteral and intranasal modified live vaccine combination vaccines are available. Priming early in calfhood with intranasal vaccine, followed by boosting with parenteral vaccine, may be the best immunoprophylactic approach. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... chymosin. Both enzymes possess local positively charged patches on their surface that can play a role in interactions with the overall negatively charged C-terminus of κ-casein. Camel chymosin contains two additional positive patches that favour interaction with the substrate. The improved electrostatic...... interactions arising from variation in the surface charges and the greater malleability both in domain movements and substrate binding contribute to the better milk-clotting activity of camel chymosin towards bovine milk....

  13. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasm autoantibodies (ANCA) in autoimmune liver diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, C.; Kallenberg, Cees

    1999-01-01

    Anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA) are autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of neutrophil granulocytes and monocytes. ANCA have been detected in serum from patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (mainly ulcerative colitis) and autoimmune mediated liver diseases

  14. Phenotypic and functional characteristics of HLA-DR+neutrophils in Brazilians with cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Richard E; Sharma, Smriti; Conceição, Jacilara; Carneiro, Pedro; Novais, Fernanda; Scott, Phillip; Sundar, Shyam; Bacellar, Olivia; Carvalho, Edgar M; Wilson, Mary E

    2017-03-01

    The protozoan Leishmania braziliensis causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in endemic regions. In murine models, neutrophils (PMNs) are recruited to the site of infection soon after parasite inoculation. However, the roles of neutrophils during chronic infection and in human disease remain undefined. We hypothesized that neutrophils help maintain a systemic inflammatory state in subjects with CL. Lesion biopsies from all patients with CL tested contained neutrophils expressing HLA-DR, a molecule thought to be restricted to professional antigen-presenting cells. Although CL is a localized disease, a subset of patients with CL also had circulating neutrophils expressing HLA-DR and the costimulatory molecules CD80, CD86, and CD40. PMNs isolated from a low-density leukocyte blood fraction (LD-PMNs) contained a higher percentage of HLA-DR + PMNs than did normal-density PMNs. In vitro coculture experiments suggested LD-PMNs do not suppress T cell responses, differentiating them from MDSCs. Flow-sorted HLA-DR + PMNs morphologically resembled conventional PMNs, and they exhibited functional properties of PMNs. Compared with conventional PMNs, HLA-DR + PMNs showed increased activation, degranulation, DHR123 oxidation, and phagocytic capacity. A few HLA-DR + PMNs were observed in healthy subjects, and that proportion could be increased by incubation in either inflammatory cytokines or in plasma from a patient with CL. This was accompanied by an increase in PMN hladrb1 mRNA, suggesting a possible connection between neutrophil "priming" and up-regulation of HLA-DR. These data suggest that PMNs that are primed for activation and that also express surface markers of antigen-presenting cells emerge in the circulation and infected tissue lesions of patients with CL. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  15. Asymmetric Localization of Calpain 2 during Neutrophil Chemotaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Nuzzi, Paul A.; Senetar, Melissa A.; Huttenlocher, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Chemoattractants induce neutrophil polarization through localized polymerization of F-actin at the leading edge. The suppression of rear and lateral protrusions is required for efficient chemotaxis and involves the temporal and spatial segregation of signaling molecules. We have previously shown that the intracellular calcium-dependent protease calpain is required for cell migration and is involved in regulating neutrophil chemotaxis. Here, we show that primary neutrophils and neutrophil-like...

  16. Ultraviolet light A irradiation induces immunosuppression associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species in human neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunbo Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet blood irradiation has been used as a physical therapy to treat many nonspecific diseases in clinics; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. Neutrophils, the first line of host defense, play a crucial role in a variety of inflammatory responses. In the present work, we investigated the effects of ultraviolet light A (UVA on the immune functions of human neutrophils at the single-cell level by using an inverted fluorescence microscope. N-Formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP, a classic physiological chemotactic peptide, was used to induce a series of immune responses in neutrophils in vitro. FMLP-induced calcium mobilization, migration, and phagocytosis in human neutrophils was significantly blocked after treatment with 365nm UVA irradiation, demonstrating the immunosuppressive effects of UVA irradiation on neutrophils. Similar responses were also observed when the cells were pretreated with H2O2, a type of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Furthermore, UVA irradiation resulted in an increase in NAD(PH, a member of host oxidative stress in cells. Taken together, our data indicate that UVA irradiation results in immunosuppression associated with the production of ROS in human neutrophils.

  17. Platelets augment respiratory burst in neutrophils activated by selected species of gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Pytel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils and platelets circulate in blood system and play important physiological roles as part of immunological system. Neutrophils are the first line of host defense against various intruders, and platelets are satellite cells cooperating with other components of defense system. Recent studies report about the cooperation among these types of cells. We analyzed the effect of platelets on oxygen burst in neutrophils triggered by Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria in vitro. The effect of platelets on oxygen burst in neutrophils was measured by luminol enhanced chemiluminescence. Opsonized and non-opsonized bacteria were used as activators. Activation of neutrophils with live non-opsonized and opsonized bacteria in the presence of platelets increased the oxygen burst as compared to the same system without platelets. The gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus were causing higher activation than gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli. This work demonstrate that platelets potentate the response of neutrophils augmenting their respiratory burst in vitro when triggered by bacteria.

  18. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenberg, G J; van der Poel, W H M; Van Oirschot, J T

    2002-08-02

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or parainfluenza 3 virus-induced clinical mastitis, while an intramammary inoculation of foot-and-mouth disease virus resulted in necrosis of the mammary gland. Subclinical mastitis has been induced after a simultaneous intramammary and intranasal inoculation of lactating cows with bovine herpesvirus 4. Bovine leukaemia virus has been detected in mammary tissue of cows with subclinical mastitis, but whether this virus was able to induce bovine mastitis has not been reported. Bovine herpesvirus 2, vaccinia, cowpox, pseudocowpox, vesicular stomatitis, foot-and-mouth disease viruses, and bovine papillomaviruses can play an indirect role in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. These viruses can induce teat lesions, for instance in the ductus papillaris, which result in a reduction of the natural defence mechanisms of the udder and indirectly in bovine mastitis due to bacterial pathogens. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bovine immunodeficiency virus, and bovine leukaemia virus infections may play an indirect role in bovine mastitis, due to their immunosuppressive properties. But, more research is warranted to underline their indirect role in bovine mastitis. We conclude that viral infections can play a direct or indirect role in the aetiology of bovine mastitis; therefore, their importance in the aetiology of bovine mastitis and their economical impact needs further attention.

  19. CD47 overexpression is associated with decreased neutrophil apoptosis/phagocytosis and poor prognosis in non-small-cell lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Lourdes; Montes-Servín, Edgar; Hernandez-Martinez, Juan-Manuel; García-Vicente, María de Los Ángeles; Montes-Servín, Elizabeth; Herrera-Martínez, Marytere; Crispín, José C; Borbolla-Escoboza, José Rafael; Arrieta, Oscar

    2017-07-25

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients often exhibit neutrophilia, which has been associated with poor clinical outcomes. However, the mechanisms that lead to neutrophilia have not been fully established. CD47 is an antiphagocytic molecule that promotes neutrophil recruitment. Blood was collected from 50 treatment-naive patients with advanced NSCLC and from 25 healthy subjects. The frequency of CD66b+ cells and the expression of CD47 were determined by flow cytometry. Neutrophil apoptosis was determined by 7-amino-actinomycin D/Annexin V-APC staining. Phagocytosis was assessed by flow cytometry. Reactive oxygen species production after phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate treatment was quantified by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein fluorescence. Pro-inflammatory plasma cytokines were quantified using a cytometric bead array assay. The percentage of circulating neutrophils was significantly higher in patients than in controls (PCD47 expression in whole-blood samples and in the neutrophil fraction was higher in NSCLC patients than in controls (P=0.0408 and PCD47 expression in neutrophils negatively correlated with their ingestion by macrophages (P=0.0039). High CD47 expression was associated with a lower overall survival. Increased CD47 expression on the surface of neutrophils was associated with a delay in neutrophil apoptosis and with an impairment in their phagocytic clearance by macrophages, suggesting that CD47 overexpression may be one of the underlying mechanisms leading to neutrophilia in NSCLC patients.

  20. Exposure to Leishmania braziliensis triggers neutrophil activation and apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A C Falcão

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neutrophils are the first line of defense against invading pathogens and are rapidly recruited to the sites of Leishmania inoculation. During Leishmania braziliensis infection, depletion of inflammatory cells significantly increases the parasite load whereas co-inoculation of neutrophils plus L. braziliensis had an opposite effect. Moreover, the co-culture of infected macrophages and neutrophils also induced parasite killing leading us to ask how neutrophils alone respond to an L. braziliensis exposure. Herein we focused on understanding the interaction between neutrophils and L. braziliensis, exploring cell activation and apoptotic fate. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Inoculation of serum-opsonized L. braziliensis promastigotes in mice induced neutrophil accumulation in vivo, peaking at 24 h. In vitro, exposure of thyoglycollate-elicited inflammatory or bone marrow neutrophils to L. braziliensis modulated the expression of surface molecules such as CD18 and CD62L, and induced the oxidative burst. Using mCherry-expressing L. braziliensis, we determined that such effects were mainly observed in infected and not in bystander cells. Neutrophil activation following contact with L. braziliensis was also confirmed by the release of TNF-α and neutrophil elastase. Lastly, neutrophils infected with L. braziliensis but not with L. major displayed markers of early apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: We show that L. braziliensis induces neutrophil recruitment in vivo and that neutrophils exposed to the parasite in vitro respond through activation and release of inflammatory mediators. This outcome may impact on parasite elimination, particularly at the early stages of infection.

  1. Impact of maternal gestational diabetes on neutrophil functions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    Impact of maternal gestational diabetes on neutrophil functions of full term neonates. INTRODUCTION. Neutrophils play a ... Objectives: Our objective was to study neutrophil number and function in neonates born to mothers with gestational diabetes. .... which is highly green fluorescent when exposed to the 488-nm laser.

  2. Characterization of neutrophil adhesion to different titanium surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 37; Issue 1. Characterization of neutrophil adhesion to different titanium surfaces ... The aim of the present study is to compare the behaviours of neutrophils in direct contact with different Ti surfaces. Isolated human neutrophils were placed into contact with Ti discs, ...

  3. Diagnostic imaging in bovine orthopedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Johann; Geissbühler, Urs; Steiner, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    Although a radiographic unit is not standard equipment for bovine practitioners in hospital or field situations, ultrasound machines with 7.5-MHz linear transducers have been used in bovine reproduction for many years, and are eminently suitable for evaluation of orthopedic disorders. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use radiology and ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. These diagnostic imaging techniques improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis in every bovine patient but especially in highly valuable cattle, whose owners demand increasingly more diagnostic and surgical interventions that require high-level specialized techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. PEGylated single-walled carbon nanotubes activate neutrophils to increase production of hypochlorous acid, the oxidant capable of degrading nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasova, Irina I; Vakhrusheva, Tatyana V; Sokolov, Alexey V; Kostevich, Valeria A; Gusev, Alexandr A; Gusev, Sergey A; Melnikova, Viktoriya I; Lobach, Anatolii S

    2012-10-01

    Perspectives for the use of carbon nanotubes in biomedical applications depend largely on their ability to degrade in the body into products that can be easily cleared out. Carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes (c-SWCNTs) were shown to be degraded by oxidants generated by peroxidases in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. In the present study we demonstrated that conjugation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to c-SWCNTs does not interfere with their degradation by peroxidase/H(2)O(2) system or by hypochlorite. Comparison of different heme-containing proteins for their ability to degrade PEG-SWCNTs has led us to conclude that the myeloperoxidase (MPO) product hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is the major oxidant that may be responsible for biodegradation of PEG-SWCNTs in vivo. MPO is secreted mainly by neutrophils upon activation. We hypothesize that SWCNTs may enhance neutrophil activation and therefore stimulate their own biodegradation due to MPO-generated HOCl. PEG-SWCNTs at concentrations similar to those commonly used in in vivo studies were found to activate isolated human neutrophils to produce HOCl. Both PEG-SWCNTs and c-SWCNTs enhanced HOCl generation from isolated neutrophils upon serum-opsonized zymosan stimulation. Both types of nanotubes were also found to activate neutrophils in whole blood samples. Intraperitoneal injection of a low dose of PEG-SWCNTs into mice induced an increase in percentage of circulating neutrophils and activation of neutrophils and macrophages in the peritoneal cavity, suggesting the evolution of an inflammatory response. Activated neutrophils can produce high local concentrations of HOCl, thereby creating the conditions favorable for degradation of the nanotubes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Contributions of Neutrophils to Resolution of Mucosal Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Sean P.; Ehrentraut, Stefan F.; Glover, Louise E.; Kominsky, Douglas J.; Campbell, Eric L.

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophil (PMN) recruitment from the blood stream into surrounding tissues involves a regulated series of events central to acute responses in host defense. Accumulation of PMN within mucosal tissues have historically been considered pathognomonic features of both acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. Historically PMNs have been deemed necessary but detrimental when recruited, given the potential for tissue damage that results from a variety of mechanisms. Recent work, however, has altered our preconcieved notions of PMN contributions to inflammatory processes. In particular, significant evidence implicates a central role for the PMN in triggering inflammatory resolution. Such mechanisms involve both metabolic and biochemical crosstalk pathways during the intimate interactions of PMN with other cell types at inflammatory sites. Here, we highlight several recent examples of how PMN coordinate the resolution of ongoing inflammation, with a particular focus on the gastrointestinal mucosa. PMID:22968707

  6. Rat Neutrophil Phagocytosis Following Feed Restriction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slapničková, Martina; Berger, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2002), s. 172-177 ISSN 0938-7714 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : circulating neutrophil * diet restriction * phagocytosis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.167, year: 2001

  7. Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Postoperative Pain after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... patients' pain perceptions.[2]. Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is relatively new recognized inflammation marker and significant relationship between NLR and outcomes and/or prognosis of many clinical situations including different types of cancers. (colorectal, gastric, pancreatic, esophageal, lung, etc.),.

  8. Investigation of urinary neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M. MohamadiSichani

    2017-07-27

    Jul 27, 2017 ... Kidney stones. Abstract. Introduction: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) could be mentioned as the most important treatment of choice for kidney staghorn stones. Previous publications reported that the novel biomarker urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) activity significantly ...

  9. expression on polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reading 5

    To establish a foundation for further researches on the improvement of polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) functions in dairy cow during perinatal period, the counting of PMN, as well as the. mRNA and protein expression of toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) on PMN was studied during this critical period.

  10. (TLR-4) expression on polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To establish a foundation for further researches on the improvement of polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) functions in dairy cow during perinatal period, the counting of PMN, as well as the mRNA and protein expression of toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) on PMN was studied during this critical period.

  11. Antithrombin inactivation by neutrophil elastase requires heparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, R E; Nelson, R M; Kilpatrick, J; Newgren, J O; Esmon, P C; Fournel, M A

    1989-09-11

    In certain thrombotic states, large declines in the levels of functional circulating antithrombin occur, which may reflect the highly active nature of the endothelial surface in suppressing excessive amounts of activated coagulation enzymes. Alternatively, we have recently observed an unexpected and paradoxical in vitro functioning of heparin that could result in the inactivation of antithrombin in pathologic conditions. Specifically, antithrombin was rendered nonfunctional as an inhibitor of clotting enzymes as a result of a limited, heparin-dependent cleavage by neutrophil elastase. This inactivation occurred only in the presence of the active anticoagulant heparin fraction, which suggested that the heparin-antithrombin complex was the substrate for elastase attack. Interestingly, neutrophil elastase was found to bind tightly to heparin and heparin-like materials. Neutrophil elastase has been previously linked to nonspecific proteinolysis occurring in inflammatory thrombotic reactions. This affinity of both antithrombin and elastase for heparin suggests a novel mechanism of potential specificity. An important component of this hypothesis is the localization of the elastase/antithrombin reaction away from the high circulating levels of elastase inhibitors. The proposed inactivation of antithrombin on the vascular surface would likely occur only in pathologic states associated with neutrophil sequestration and activation. Nevertheless, this mechanism could lead to a localized reversal of the nonthrombogenic nature of the endothelium and potentially lead to significant reductions of functional antithrombin in certain disease states.

  12. Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Postoperative Pain after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... Background and Aim: Postoperative pain is well known and usually disturbing complication of surgery. Inflammation plays an important role in the development and progression of postoperative pain. We aimed to investigate possible relationship between preoperatively measured neutrophil-lymphocyte ...

  13. A unique elastase in human blood platelets.

    OpenAIRE

    James, H L; Wachtfogel, Y T; James, P L; Zimmerman, M; Colman, R W; Cohen, A. B.

    1985-01-01

    Previous investigations suggested that elastolytic activity found in platelets could be due to contamination by neutrophil elastase. In the present study, the lysate of blood platelets free of detectable neutrophils was examined for elastase-like activity using tertiary-butyloxycarbonyl (tBOC)-ala-ala-pro-ala-aminomethyl coumarin (I), tBOC-ala-ala-pro-val-aminomethyl coumarin (II), and succinyl-tri-ala-rho-nitroanilide (SAPNA), and for elastolytic activity using 3H-labeled dog and human lung ...

  14. Quantifying oral inflammatory load: oral neutrophil counts in periodontal health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landzberg, M; Doering, H; Aboodi, G M; Tenenbaum, H C; Glogauer, M

    2015-06-01

    Neutrophils are the primary white blood cells that are recruited to fight the initial phases of microbial infections. While healthy norms have been determined for circulating blood neutrophil counts in order to identify patients with suspected systemic infections, the levels of oral neutrophils (oPMNs) in oral health and in the presence of periodontal diseases have not been described. It is important to address this deficiency in our knowledge as neutrophils are the primary immune cell present in the crevicular fluid and oral environment and previous work has suggested that they may be good indicators of overall oral inflammation and periodontal disease severity. The objective of this study was to measure oPMN counts obtained in a standardized oral rinse from healthy patients and from those with chronic periodontal disease in order to determine if oPMN levels have clinical relevance as markers of periodontal inflammation. A parallel goal of this investigation was to introduce the concept of 'oral inflammatory load', which constitutes the inflammatory burden experienced by the body as a consequence of oral inflammatory disease. Periodontal examinations of patients with a healthy periodontium and chronic periodontal disease were performed (n = 124). Two standardized consecutive saline rinses of 30 s each were collected before patient examination and instrumentation. Neutrophils were quantified in the rinse samples and correlated with the clinical parameters and periodontal diagnosis. Average oPMN counts were determined for healthy patients and for those with mild, moderate and severe chronic periodontal diseases. A statistically significant correlation was found between oPMN counts and deep periodontal probing, sites with bleeding on probing and overall severity of periodontal disease. oPMN counts obtained through a 30-s oral rinse are a good marker of oral inflammatory load and correlate with measures of periodontal disease severity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A

  15. The role of neutrophils in autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Tamás; Mócsai, Attila

    2012-03-30

    Though chronic autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus affect a significant percentage of the human population and strongly diminish the quality of life and life expectancy in Western societies, the molecular pathomechanisms of those diseases are still poorly understood, hindering the development of novel treatment strategies. Autoimmune diseases are thought to be caused by disturbed recognition of foreign and self antigens, leading to the emergence of autoreactive T-cells (so-called immunization phase). Those autoreactive T-cells then trigger the second (so-called effector) phase of the disease which is characterized by immune-mediated damage to host tissues. For a long time, neutrophils have mainly been neglected as potential players of the development of autoimmune diseases. However, a significant amount of new experimental data now indicates that neutrophils likely play an important role in both the immunization and the effector phase of autoimmune diseases. Here we review the current literature on the role of neutrophils in autoimmune diseases with special emphasis on rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, autoimmune vasculitides and blistering skin diseases. We also discuss the role of neutrophil cell surface receptors (e.g. integrins, Fc-receptors or chemokine receptors) and intracellular signal transduction pathways (e.g. Syk and other tyrosine kinases) in the pathogenesis of autoimmune inflammation. Though many of the results discussed in this review were obtained using animal models, additional data indicate that those mechanisms likely also contribute to human pathology. Taken together, neutrophils should be considered as one of the important cell types in autoimmune disease pathogenesis and they may also prove to be suitable targets of the pharmacological control of those diseases in the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Neutrophil CD64 expression is a predictor of mortality for patients in the intensive care unit

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qiqi; Shi, Junfeng; Fei, Aihua; Wang, Feilong; Pan, Shuming; Wang, Weiwei

    2014-01-01

    Background: Neutrophil CD64 has been shown to be a promising biomarker for bacterial infection and sepsis identification. However, the prognostic value of CD64 in predicting the likelihood of survival for patients in intensive care unit (ICU) is unclear. Methods: A total of 797 patients in the ICU of Xin-Hua Hospital, Shanghai, China were enrolled. We determined the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores from these patients and collected blood samples to measure ...

  17. Neutrophil Elastase Activity is Associated with Exacerbations and Lung Function Decline in Bronchiectasis

    OpenAIRE

    Chalmers, James D.; Moffitt, Kelly L.; Suarez-Cuartin, Guillermo; Sibila, Oriol; Finch, Simon; Furrie, Elizabeth; Dicker, Alison; Wrobel, Karolina; Elborn, J Stuart; Walker, Brian,; Martin, S. Lorraine; Marshall, Sara E; Huang, Jeffrey T-J; Fardon, Thomas C.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Sputum neutrophil elastase and serum desmosine, a linked marker of endogenous elastindegradation, are possible biomarkers of disease severity and progression in bronchiectasis. This study aimed to determine the association of elastase activity and desmosine with exacerbations and lung function decline in bronchiectasis.Methods: This was a single-centre prospective cohort study using the TAYBRIDGE registry in Dundee, UK. 433 patients with HRCT-confirmed bronchiectasis provided blood...

  18. Monocytes, neutrophils, and platelets cooperate to initiate and propagate venous thrombosis in mice in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    von Brühl, Marie-Luise; Stark, Konstantin; Steinhart, Alexander; Chandraratne, Sue; Konrad, Ildiko; Lorenz, Michael; Khandoga, Alexander; Tirniceriu, Anca; Coletti, Raffaele; Köllnberger, Maria; Byrne, Robert A.; Laitinen, Iina; Walch, Axel; Brill, Alexander; Pfeiler, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a major cause of cardiovascular death. The sequence of events that promote DVT remains obscure, largely as a result of the lack of an appropriate rodent model. We describe a novel mouse model of DVT which reproduces a frequent trigger and resembles the time course, histological features, and clinical presentation of DVT in humans. We demonstrate by intravital two-photon and epifluorescence microscopy that blood monocytes and neutrophils crawling along and adherin...

  19. Endothelial cell-surface tissue transglutaminase inhibits neutrophil adhesion by binding and releasing nitric oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Thung-S.; Lindberg, Robert A.; Zhou, Hua-Lin; Haroon, Zishan A.; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Hausladen, Alfred; Juang, Y.-L.; Stamler, Jonathan S.; Greenberg, Charles S.

    2017-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) produced by endothelial cells in response to cytokines displays anti-inflammatory activity by preventing the adherence, migration and activation of neutrophils. The molecular mechanism by which NO operates at the blood-endothelium interface to exert anti-inflammatory properties is largely unknown. Here we show that on endothelial surfaces, NO is associated with the sulfhydryl-rich protein tissue transglutaminase (TG2), thereby endowing the membrane surfaces with anti-inflamm...

  20. Expression of CD11c and EMR2 on neutrophils: potential diagnostic biomarkers for sepsis and systemic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, S M; Treacher, D F; Edgeworth, J; Mahalingam, G; Brown, C S; Mare, T A; Stacey, M; Beale, R; Brown, K A

    2015-11-01

    There is a need for cellular biomarkers to differentiate patients with sepsis from those with the non-infectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). In this double-blind study we determined whether the expression of known (CD11a/b/c, CD62L) and putative adhesion molecules [CD64, CD97 and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like molecule containing mucin-like hormone receptor (EMR2)] on blood neutrophils could serve as useful biomarkers of infection and of non-infectious SIRS in critically ill patients. We studied 103 patients with SIRS, 83 of whom had sepsis, and 50 healthy normal subjects, using flow cytometry to characterize neutrophils phenotypically in whole blood samples. Patients with SIRS had an increased prevalence of neutrophils expressing CD11c, CD64 and EMR2 in comparison with healthy subjects (P sepsis, EMR2 with SIRS and CD64 with sepsis and SIRS. Neutrophils expressing CD11c had the highest sensitivity (81%) and specificity (80%) for the detection of sepsis, and there was an association between the percentage of neutrophils expressing EMR2 and the extent of organ failure (P sepsis and SIRS, respectively. © 2015 British Society for Immunology.

  1. Extracellular lipase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: biochemical characterization and effect on human neutrophil and monocyte function in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, K E; Kharazmi, A; Høiby, N

    1991-01-01

    concentrations of this lipase preparation were preincubated with human peripheral blood neutrophils and monocytes. The chemotaxis and chemiluminescence of these cells were then determined. It was shown that lipase inhibited the monocyte chemotaxis and chemiluminescence, whereas it had no or very little effect...

  2. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Contact Lens Care Solutions Against Neutrophil-Enhanced Bacterial Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, Jorge A; Patel, Naiya B; Zhu, Meifang; Robertson, Danielle M

    2017-04-01

    Neutrophil-derived extracellular debris has been shown to accelerate bacterial biofilm formation on hydrogel and silicone hydrogel contact lens surfaces compared to lenses inoculated with bacteria alone. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the disinfection efficacy of four standard commercial contact lens cleaning regimens against neutrophil-enhanced bacterial biofilms formed on silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Four reference strains were used: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Staphylococcus aureus. Human neutrophils were isolated from peripheral blood by venipuncture. Unworn Lotrafilcon B lenses were incubated overnight in each respective strain with stimulated neutrophils. Contact lenses were then cleaned using one of four contact lens care solutions according to manufacturer instructions. Bacterial viability was assessed by colony counts and confocal microscopy. Volume of residual debris on lens surfaces after cleaning was quantified using IMARIS software. All four solutions tested showed effective antimicrobial activity against each bacterial strain; however, substantial amounts of nonviable bacteria and cellular debris remained on the lens surface despite concomitant digital cleaning. Necrotic cellular debris that accumulates under the posterior lens surface during wear of an inoculated contact lens is not fully removed during routine cleaning and disinfection. The accumulation of residual cellular debris on the contact lens surface may contribute to new colonization of the lens and represents a significant risk factor for a contact lens-related adverse event. Additional studies are needed to correlate these findings with risk for corneal infiltrative and/or infectious events in a standard animal model.

  3. The effect of the anaesthetic agent isoflurane on the rate of neutrophil apoptosis in vitro.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tyther, R

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Volatile anaesthetic agents influence neutrophil function, and potentially, the inflammatory response to surgery. AIM: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of isoflurane (1-4%) on human polymorphonuclear neutrophil apoptosis in vitro. METHODS: Venous blood from 12 healthy volunteers was exposed to 0, 1, and 4% isoflurane delivered via a 14G Wallace flexihub internal jugular cannula, at a fresh gas flow of 0.51\\/min for 5 minutes. Isolated neutrophils were assessed for apoptosis at 1, 12, and 24 hours in culture using dual staining with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide (Annexin-V FITC assay). Data were analysed using paired, one-tailed Student\\'s t-tests. p<0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: At 1 hour apoptosis was inhibited in the 1% (5.1 [6.8]%; p=0.017) and 4% (4.8 [4.5]%; p=0.008) isoflurane groups compared to control (11.3 [6.9]%). At 12 and 24 hours, a dose-dependent inhibition of apoptosis was demonstrated, i.e. 4% > 1% > 0%. CONCLUSION: Human neutrophil apoptosis is inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro by isoflurane in clinical concentrations.

  4. Biologic therapy improves psoriasis by decreasing the activity of monocytes and neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Keiichi; Umezawa, Yoshinori; Yamagiwa, Akisa; Saeki, Hidehisa; Kondo, Makoto; Gabazza, Esteban C; Nakagawa, Hidemi; Mizutani, Hitoshi

    2014-08-01

    Therapy with monoclonal antibodies to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the interleukin (IL)-12/23 p40 subunit has significantly improved the clinical outcome of patients with psoriasis. These antibodies inhibit the effects of the target cytokines and thus the major concern during their use is the induction of excessive immunosuppression. Recent studies evaluating the long-term efficacy and safety of biologic therapy in psoriasis have shown no significant appearance of serious adverse effects including infections and malignancies. However, the immunological consequence and the mechanism by which the blockade of a single cytokine by biologics can successfully control the activity of psoriasis remain unclear. In the current study, we investigated the effect of biologic therapy on cytokine production of various lymphocytes and on the activity of monocytes and neutrophils in psoriatic patients. Neutrophils, monocytes and T cells were purified from heparinized peripheral venous blood by Ficoll density gradient centrifugation, and γ-interferon, TNF-α and IL-17 production from lymphocytes was measured by flow cytometer. The activation maker of neutrophils and the activated subsets of monocytes were also analyzed. Biologic therapy induced no significant changes in the cytokine production by lymphocytes from the skin and gut-homing T cells. However, neutrophil activity and the ratio of activated monocyte population increased in severely psoriatic patients were normalized in psoriatic patients receiving biologic therapy. The present study showed that biologic therapy ameliorates clinical symptoms and controls the immune response in patients with psoriasis. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  5. The cystic fibrosis neutrophil: a specialized yet potentially defective cell.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayes, Elaine

    2011-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the commonest genetically inherited diseases in the world. It is characterized by recurrent respiratory tract infections eventually leading to respiratory failure. One of the hallmarks of this disease is a persistent and predominantly neutrophil driven inflammation. Neutrophils provide the first line of defence by killing and digesting phagocytosed bacteria and fungi, yet despite advances in our understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of CF, there remains a paradox of why recruited CF neutrophils fail to eradicate bacterial infections in the lung. This review describes mechanisms involved in neutrophil migration, microbial killing and apoptosis leading to inflammatory resolution. We discuss dysregulated neutrophil activity and consider genetic versus inflammatory neutrophil reprogramming in CF and ultimately pharmacological modulation of the CF neutrophil for therapeutic intervention.

  6. The cystic fibrosis neutrophil: a specialized yet potentially defective cell.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayes, Elaine

    2012-02-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the commonest genetically inherited diseases in the world. It is characterized by recurrent respiratory tract infections eventually leading to respiratory failure. One of the hallmarks of this disease is a persistent and predominantly neutrophil driven inflammation. Neutrophils provide the first line of defence by killing and digesting phagocytosed bacteria and fungi, yet despite advances in our understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of CF, there remains a paradox of why recruited CF neutrophils fail to eradicate bacterial infections in the lung. This review describes mechanisms involved in neutrophil migration, microbial killing and apoptosis leading to inflammatory resolution. We discuss dysregulated neutrophil activity and consider genetic versus inflammatory neutrophil reprogramming in CF and ultimately pharmacological modulation of the CF neutrophil for therapeutic intervention.

  7. Thrombin contributes to protective immunity in pneumonia-derived sepsis via fibrin polymerization and platelet-neutrophil interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claushuis, T A M; de Stoppelaar, S F; Stroo, I; Roelofs, J J T H; Ottenhoff, R; van der Poll, T; Van't Veer, C

    2017-04-01

    Essentials Immunity and coagulation are linked during sepsis but the role of thrombin is not fully elucidated. We investigated the effect of thrombin inhibition on murine Klebsiella pneumosepsis outcome. Thrombin is crucial for survival and limiting bacterial growth in pneumonia derived sepsis. Thrombin improves host defense via fibrin and enhancement of platelet-neutrophil interactions. Background Innate immunity and coagulation are closely linked during sepsis. Their interaction can be detrimental to the outcome because of microvascular failure but can also enhance host defense. The role of thrombin therein has not been fully elucidated. Objective We aimed to investigate the contribution of thrombin to the host response during pneumonia-derived sepsis. Methods Mice treated with the specific thrombin inhibitor dabigatran or control chow were infected with the common human sepsis pathogen Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae via the airways. In subsequent infection experiments, mice were additionally treated with ancrod to deplete fibrinogen. Ex vivo Klebsiella growth was assessed by incubating human whole blood or specific blood components in various conditions with Klebsiella. Results Thrombin inhibition by dabigatran enhanced bacterial outgrowth and spreading, and accelerated mortality. Thrombin inhibition did not influence neutrophil recruitment to the lung or activation or neutrophil extracellular trap formation. Dabigatran reduced D-dimer formation and fibrin deposition in the lung. Fibrin depletion also enhanced bacterial outgrowth and spreading, and thrombin inhibition had no additional effect. Both thrombin and fibrin polymerization inhibited ex vivo Klebsiella outgrowth in human whole blood, which was neutrophil dependent, and the effect of thrombin required the presence of platelets and platelet protease activated receptor-1. In vivo thrombin inhibition reduced platelet-neutrophil complex formation and endothelial cell activation, but did not prevent sepsis

  8. Immunogenicity of a modified-live virus vaccine against bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 and 2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine parainfluenza-3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus when administered intranasally in young calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wenzhi; Ellis, John; Mattick, Debra; Smith, Linda; Brady, Ryan; Trigo, Emilio

    2010-05-14

    The immunogenicity of an intranasally-administered modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine in 3-8 day old calves was evaluated against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus, parainfluenza-3 (PI-3) virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Calves were intranasally vaccinated with a single dose of a multivalent MLV vaccine and were challenged with one of the respective viruses three to four weeks post-vaccination in five separate studies. There was significant sparing of diseases in calves intranasally vaccinated with the MLV vaccine, as indicated by significantly fewer clinical signs, lower rectal temperatures, reduced viral shedding, greater white blood cell and platelet counts, and less severe pulmonary lesions than control animals. This was the first MLV combination vaccine to demonstrate efficacy against BVDV types 1 and 2, IBR, PI-3 and BRSV in calves 3-8 days of age. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Human exposure to bovine polyomavirus: a zoonosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, J.V.; Gardner, S.D.

    1986-01-01

    A competitive-type solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed for the detection of antibody to bovine polyomavirus. Comparison of RIA and counter-immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) results on 273 cattle sera indicated that both techniques were detecting antibody of like specificity. Human sera from 256 blood donors, 219 people recently vaccinated against polio, rubella or rabies, 50 immunosuppressed patients and 472 people with various occupational exposure to cattle were tested for antibody to bovine polyomavirus, the foetal rhesus monkey kidney strain, (anti-FRKV) by RIA. Apart from one blood donor and one of 108 rabies vaccinees only those in close contact with cattle possessed anti-FRKV. Compared with 62 per cent seropositive in the natural hosts, cattle, 71 per cent of veterinary surgeons, 50 per cent of cattle farmers, 40 per cent of abattoir workers, 16 per cent of veterinary institute technical staff and 10 per cent of veterinary students were anti-FRKV positive. Our findings indicate that the theoretical hazard of FRKV infection from undetected contamination of current tissue culture derived vaccines may, in practice, be remote. Proposed wider use of primate kidney cells as substrates for new vaccines may increase this risk.

  10. Multiple Phenotypic Changes Define Neutrophil Priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralda, Irina; Uriarte, Silvia M; McLeish, Kenneth R

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, mitochondrial contents, and bacterial and viral products induces neutrophils to transition from a basal state into a primed one, which is currently defined as an enhanced response to activating stimuli. Although, typically associated with enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the NADPH oxidase, primed neutrophils show enhanced responsiveness of exocytosis, NET formation, and chemotaxis. Phenotypic changes associated with priming also include activation of a subset of functions, including adhesion, transcription, metabolism, and rate of apoptosis. This review summarizes the breadth of phenotypic changes associated with priming and reviews current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms behind those changes. We conclude that the current definition of priming is too restrictive. Priming represents a combination of enhanced responsiveness and activated functions that regulate both adaptive and innate immune responses.

  11. Multiple Phenotypic Changes Define Neutrophil Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Miralda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, mitochondrial contents, and bacterial and viral products induces neutrophils to transition from a basal state into a primed one, which is currently defined as an enhanced response to activating stimuli. Although, typically associated with enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS by the NADPH oxidase, primed neutrophils show enhanced responsiveness of exocytosis, NET formation, and chemotaxis. Phenotypic changes associated with priming also include activation of a subset of functions, including adhesion, transcription, metabolism, and rate of apoptosis. This review summarizes the breadth of phenotypic changes associated with priming and reviews current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms behind those changes. We conclude that the current definition of priming is too restrictive. Priming represents a combination of enhanced responsiveness and activated functions that regulate both adaptive and innate immune responses.

  12. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... maternity. Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  13. Autophagy is induced by anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic Abs and promotes neutrophil extracellular traps formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Li-Li; Wang, Huan; Wang, Chen; Peng, Hong-Ying; Chen, Min; Zhao, Ming-Hui

    2016-11-01

    Dysregulated neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation contributes to the pathogenesis of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic Ab (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). Increasing evidence indicates that autophagy is involved in the process of NETs formation. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether ANCA could induce autophagy in the process of NETs formation. Autophagy was detected using live cell imaging, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3B (LC3B) accumulation and Western blotting. The results showed that autophagy vacuolization was detected in neutrophils treated with ANCA-positive IgG by live cell imaging. This effect was enhanced by rapamycin, the autophagy inducer, and weakened by 3-methyladenine (3-MA), the autophagy inhibitor. In line with these results, the autophagy marker, LC3B, showed a punctate distribution pattern in the neutrophils stimulated with ANCA-positive IgG. In the presence of rapamycin, LC3B accumulation was further increased; however, this effect was attenuated by 3-MA. Moreover, incubated with ANCA-positive IgG, the NETosis rate significantly increased compared with the unstimulated group. And, the rate significantly increased or decreased in the neutrophils pretreated with rapamycin or 3-MA, respectively, as compared with the cells incubated with ANCA-positive IgG. Overall, this study demonstrates that autophagy is induced by ANCA and promotes ANCA-induced NETs formation.

  14. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or

  15. Sexy again: the renaissance of neutrophils in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schön, Michael P; Broekaert, Sigrid M C; Erpenbeck, Luise

    2017-04-01

    Notwithstanding their prominent presence in psoriatic skin, the functional role of neutrophilic granulocytes still remains somewhat enigmatic. Sparked by exciting scientific discoveries regarding neutrophil functions within the last years, the interest in these short-lived cells of the innate immune system has been boosted recently. While it had been known for some time that neutrophils produce and respond to a number of inflammatory mediators, recent research has linked neutrophils with the pathogenic functions of IL-17, possibly in conjunction with the formation of NETs (neutrophil extracellular traps). Antipsoriatic therapies exert their effects, at least in part, through interference with neutrophils. Neutrophils also appear to connect psoriasis with comorbid diseases. However, directly tampering with neutrophil functions is not trivial as evinced by the failure of therapeutic approaches targeting redundantly regulated cellular communication networks. It has also become apparent that neutrophils link important pathogenic functions of the innate and the adaptive immune system and that they are intricately involved in regulatory networks underlying the pathophysiology of psoriasis. In order to advocate intensified research into the role of this interesting cell population, we here highlight some features of neutrophils and put them into perspective with our current view of the pathophysiology of psoriasis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Neutrophil perversion in demyelinating autoimmune diseases: Mechanisms to medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casserly, Courtney S; Nantes, Julia C; Whittaker Hawkins, Ryder F; Vallières, Luc

    2017-03-01

    Neutrophils are essential to a healthy life, yet pose a threat if improperly controlled. Neutrophil perversion is well documented in a variety of inflammatory disorders (e.g. arthritis, lupus, psoriasis), but is only beginning to be demystified in autoimmune demyelination, the most common cause of neurological disability in young adults. Using the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), several molecules that help neutrophils invade the central nervous system (CNS) have been identified. Mechanisms by which neutrophils may contribute to demyelination have also been proposed (e.g. secretion of endothelial/leukocytic modulators, antigen presentation to T cells, myelin degradation and phagocytosis). In human, neutrophils are seen in the CNS of people with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder and other severe variants of autoimmune demyelinating diseases. At the time of autopsy for multiple sclerosis (MS) - often many years after its onset - neutrophils appear to have escaped the scene of the crime. However, new clues implicate neutrophils in MS relapses and progression. This warrants further investigating 1) the differential importance of neutrophils among demyelinating diseases, 2) the largely unknown effects of current MS therapies on neutrophils, and 3) the potential of neutrophil proteins as clinical biomarkers or therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The multitasking neutrophils and their involvement in angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seignez, Cédric; Phillipson, Mia

    2017-01-01

    This review describes the mechanisms by which neutrophils contribute to angiogenesis in hypoxic tissues during different conditions and diseases (e.g., menstrual cycle, wound healing, ischemic diseases, cancers), with particular focus on the recently described proangiogenic neutrophil subpopulation. The importance of neutrophils in initiation of angiogenesis has been described during the past decade, and is believed to occur through release of the well-known proangiogenic factors Bv8, vascular endothelial growth factor A, and matrix metalloproteinase 9. However, additional proangiogenic actions of neutrophils have been outlined this year, mediated through for example pyruvate kinase M2, 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid, and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps, although their distinct mechanisms of action remain partly unknown. Neutrophils can also limit angiogenesis by secreting for example neutrophil elastase and α-defensins, which generate angiostatic molecules and proteolytically inactivate proangiogenic factors, respectively. These opposing neutrophil actions can be the consequence of on-site education or recruitment of distinct subpopulations from circulation. Indeed, a circulating proangiogenic neutrophil subpopulation was recently described in mice and men, which was rapidly recruited to hypoxic tissues by vascular endothelial growth factor A. These recent findings have highlighted the diversity of actions performed by neutrophils in the angiogenic process and identified new opportunities to regulate angiogenesis.

  18. NEUTROPHILIC LYMPHOCYTIC RATIO AS A PROGNOSTIC INDICATOR IN ACUTE PANCREATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakumar K. Karikkili

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In India, pancreatitis seems to be more common among alcoholics. Being a developing nation, most of the affected families live in poverty. So, the hospital expenses in treatment of pancreatitis are a burden to them. Many investigations are required for calculating the severity scoring systems will increase the patient's cost. In order to predict the severity of the disease earlier, a simple scoring system is evaluated using routine blood count which will enable us to provide aggressive treatment for those progressing to severe pancreatitis and lower the morbidity and mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective collection of data among 100 sequential patients admitted with a diagnosis of pancreatitis based on Atlanta criteria are enrolled and data collected for severity, amylase, lipase, CECT, serum creatinine, and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio, at the time of admission, 24 hours, 48 hours and analyzed using independent variable t test. RESULTS Out of 100 patients 96% were males, alcohol was the leading cause 98%, severe pancreatitis was noted in 20% mortality was 4%, NLR was progressively increasing from 12 to 15 in severe group compared to 4 to 6 in mild group the difference was significant (p value – 0.004. CONCLUSION The overall mortality due to acute pancreatitis has remained 10-15% in the past 20 years. Accurate predictors of the severity of acute pancreatitis are important because they influence clinical decision making. Neutrophilic Lymphocytic Ratio (NLR was calculated among these patients and was found to be increased in acute pancreatitis. It was significantly higher in severe pancreatitis patients than the mild pancreatitis patients. It is thus a cost effective tool. NL R is a simple indicator of the prognosis of pancreatitis which would help in providing aggressive treatment to those patients progressing to severe pancreatitis.

  19. Severe exercise and exercise training exert opposite effects on human neutrophil apoptosis via altering the redox status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Da Syu

    Full Text Available Neutrophil spontaneous apoptosis, a process crucial for immune regulation, is mainly controlled by alterations in reactive oxygen species (ROS and mitochondria integrity. Exercise has been proposed to be a physiological way to modulate immunity; while acute severe exercise (ASE usually impedes immunity, chronic moderate exercise (CME improves it. This study aimed to investigate whether and how ASE and CME oppositely regulate human neutrophil apoptosis. Thirteen sedentary young males underwent an initial ASE and were subsequently divided into exercise and control groups. The exercise group (n = 8 underwent 2 months of CME followed by 2 months of detraining. Additional ASE paradigms were performed at the end of each month. Neutrophils were isolated from blood specimens drawn at rest and immediately after each ASE for assaying neutrophil spontaneous apoptosis (annexin-V binding on the outer surface along with redox-related parameters and mitochondria-related parameters. Our results showed that i the initial ASE immediately increased the oxidative stress (cytosolic ROS and glutathione oxidation, and sequentially accelerated the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, the surface binding of annexin-V, and the generation of mitochondrial ROS; ii CME upregulated glutathione level, retarded spontaneous apoptosis and delayed mitochondria deterioration; iii most effects of CME were unchanged after detraining; and iv CME blocked ASE effects and this capability remained intact even after detraining. Furthermore, the ASE effects on neutrophil spontaneous apoptosis were mimicked by adding exogenous H(2O(2, but not by suppressing mitochondrial membrane potential. In conclusion, while ASE induced an oxidative state and resulted in acceleration of human neutrophil apoptosis, CME delayed neutrophil apoptosis by maintaining a reduced state for long periods of time even after detraining.

  20. Duffy-Null–Associated Low Neutrophil Counts Influence HIV-1 Susceptibility in High-Risk South African Black Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsuran, Veron; Kulkarni, Hemant; He, Weijing; Mlisana, Koleka; Wright, Edwina J.; Werner, Lise; Castiblanco, John; Dhanda, Rahul; Le, Tuan; Dolan, Matthew J.; Guan, Weihua; Weiss, Robin A.; Clark, Robert A.; Abdool Karim, Salim S.; Ndung'u, Thumbi

    2011-01-01

    Background. The Duffy-null trait and ethnic netropenia are both highly prevalent in Africa. The influence of pre-seroconversion levels of peripheral blood cell counts (PBCs) on the risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–1 infection among Africans is unknown. Methods. The triangular relationship among pre-seroconversion PBC counts, host genotypes, and risk of HIV acquisition was determined in a prospective cohort of black South African high-risk female sex workers. Twenty-seven women had seroconversion during follow-up, and 115 remained HIV negative for 2 years, despite engaging in high-risk activity. Results. Pre-seroconversion neutrophil counts in women who subsequently had seroconversion were significantly lower, whereas platelet counts were higher, compared with those who remained HIV negative. Comprising 27% of the cohort, subjects with pre-seroconversion neutrophil counts of C) was significantly associated with neutrophil counts (P = 7.9 × 10−11). DARC −46C/C results in loss of DARC expression on erthyrocytes (Duffy-null) and resistance to Plasmodium vivax malaria, and in our cohort, only subjects with this genotype had pre-seroconversion neutrophil counts of <2500 cells/mm3. The risk of acquiring HIV infection was ∼3-fold greater in those with the trait of Duffy-null–associated low neutrophil counts, compared with all other study participants. Conclusions. Pre-seroconversion neutrophil and platelet counts influence risk of HIV infection. The trait of Duffy-null–associated low neutrophil counts influences HIV susceptibility. Because of the high prevalence of this trait among persons of African ancestry, it may contribute to the dynamics of the HIV epidemic in Africa. PMID:21507922

  1. [Isolation and physico-chemical properties of lactoferrin from swine neutrophils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotova, G M; Kokriakov, V N; Slepenkov, S V; Mazing, Iu A; Pigarevskiĭ, V E

    1985-09-01

    Lactoferrin, a non-heme iron-binding protein was isolated from pig neutrophils. The purification procedure included initial extraction of the protein in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide followed by chromatography on carboxymethyl-cellulose and Sephadex G-100. The thus obtained protein was found to be homogeneous on polyacrylamide gel (PAAG) electrophoresis at acidic values of pH. PAAG electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate revealed a single component with a molecular weight of 75 000-80 000. The resulting protein is capable of binding two atoms of iron molecule. The absorbance spectra for the pig neutrophil lactoferrin are identical to those for cow milk lactoferrin in the visible region and have a maximum at 465 nm. The amino acid composition of pig lactoferrin was determined. Isoelectric focusing of the protein obtained in a PAAG stabilized pH gradient revealed a component with pI of about 6.8. A single precipitin line was observed with rabbit antipig lactoferrin when examined by immunodiffusion. No immunological cross-reactions were observed between pig lactoferrin and bovine lactoferrin.

  2. Ratios of CD64 expressed on neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes may be a novel method for diagnosis of neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Dai-Hua; Fan, Cong-Hai; Li, Juan; An, Qi; Yao, Hong; Ji, Qiang; Niu, Gao

    2015-02-19

    Neutrophil CD64 expression has been demonstrated as an improved diagnostic marker of infection and sepsis. The purpose of this study was to develop a new method to evaluate neutrophil CD64 expression for diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. Eighty neonates with neonatal sepsis (21 culture positive, 59 negative) were enrolled in this prospective study along with 19 neonates with no symptoms or signs of infection as controls. Expressions of CD64 on monocytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils were evaluated with flow cytometry (FCM). Ratios were calculated with these levels of CD64 expression. Blood culture and other laboratory exams were done at the same time for the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. Results were compared between the neonatal sepsis and control groups. CD64 ratios showed significant difference between the groups (p neonatal sepsis identification. The novel CD64 evaluation method, CD64 ratio, can be used as a supplementary method for diagnosis of neonatal sepsis.

  3. Imaging early pathogenesis of bubonic plague: are neutrophils commandeered for lymphatic transport of bacteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, David M; Anderson, Deborah M

    2013-11-05

    Vector-borne infections begin in the dermis when a pathogen is introduced by an arthropod during a blood meal. Several barriers separate an invading pathogen from its replicative niche, including phagocytic cells in the dermis that activate immunity by engulfing would-be pathogens and migrating to the lymph node. In addition, neutrophils circulating in the blood are rapidly recruited when the dermal barriers are penetrated. For flea-borne disease, no insect-encoded immune-suppressive molecules have yet been described that might influence the establishment of infection, leaving the bacteria on their own to defend against the mammalian immune system. Shortly after a flea transmits Yersinia pestis to a mammalian host, the bacteria are transported to the lymph node, where they grow logarithmically and later spread systemically. Even a single cell of Y. pestis can initiate a lethal case of plague. In their article, J. G. Shannon et al. [mBio 4(5):e00170-13, 2013, doi:10.1128/mBio.00170-13] used intravital microscopy to visualize trafficking of Y. pestis in transgenic mice in vivo, which allowed them to examine interactions between bacteria and specific immune cells. Bacteria appeared to preferentially interact with neutrophils but had no detectable interactions with dendritic cells. These findings suggest that Y. pestis infection of neutrophils not only prevents their activation but may even result in their return to circulation and migration to distal sites.

  4. Characterization of Yersinia pestis Interactions with Human Neutrophils In vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia C. Dudte

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis is a gram-negative, zoonotic, bacterial pathogen, and the causative agent of plague. The bubonic form of plague occurs subsequent to deposition of bacteria in the skin by the bite of an infected flea. Neutrophils are recruited to the site of infection within the first few hours and interactions between neutrophils and Y. pestis have been demonstrated in vivo. In contrast to macrophages, neutrophils have been considered non-permissive to Y. pestis intracellular survival. Several studies have shown killing of the vast majority of Y. pestis ingested by human neutrophils. However, survival of 10–15% of Y. pestis after phagocytosis by neutrophils is consistently observed. Furthermore, these surviving bacteria eventually replicate within and escape from the neutrophils. We set out to further characterize the interactions between Y. pestis and human neutrophils by (1 determining the effects of known Y. pestis virulence factors on bacterial survival after uptake by neutrophils, (2 examining the mechanisms employed by the neutrophil to kill the majority of intracellular Y. pestis, (3 determining the activation phenotype of Y. pestis-infected neutrophils, and (4 characterizing the Y. pestis-containing phagosome in neutrophils. We infected human neutrophils in vitro with Y. pestis and assayed bacterial survival and uptake. Deletion of the caf1 gene responsible for F1 capsule production resulted in significantly increased uptake of Y. pestis. Surprisingly, while the two-component regulator PhoPQ system is important for survival of Y. pestis within neutrophils, pre-induction of this system prior to infection did not increase bacterial survival. We used an IPTG-inducible mCherry construct to distinguish viable from non-viable intracellular bacteria and determined the association of the Y. pestis-containing phagosome with neutrophil NADPH-oxidase and markers of primary, secondary and tertiary granules. Additionally, we show that inhibition of

  5. Pathogenesis of bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Buxton, D; Wouda, W

    2006-05-01

    The protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is a major pathogen of cattle and dogs, being a significant cause of abortion in cattle in many countries. It is one of the most efficiently transmitted parasites, with up to 90% of cattle infected in some herds. The pathogenesis of abortion due to Neospora is complex and only partially understood. Losses occur after a primary infection during pregnancy but more commonly as the result of recrudescence of a persistent infection during pregnancy. Parasitaemia is followed by invasion of the placenta and fetus. It is suggested that abortion occurs when primary parasite-induced placental damage jeopardises fetal survival directly or causes release of maternal prostaglandins that in turn cause luteolysis and abortion. Fetal damage may also occur due to primary tissue damage caused by the multiplication of N. caninum in the fetus or due to insufficient oxygen/nutrition, secondary to placental damage. In addition, maternal immune expulsion of the fetus may occur associated with maternal placental inflammation and the release of maternal pro-inflammatory cytokines in the placenta. Thus N. caninum is a primary pathogen capable of causing abortion either through maternal placental inflammation, maternal and fetal placental necrosis, fetal damage, or a combination of all three. The question of how N. caninum kills the fetus exposes the complex and finely balanced biological processes that have evolved to permit bovine and other mammalian pregnancies to occur. Defining these immunological mechanisms will shed light on potential methods of control of bovine neosporosis and enrich our understanding of the continuity of mammalian and protozoal survival.

  6. Detection of bovine herpesvirus type 4 antibodies and bovine lymphotropic herpesvirus in New Zealand dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, M W; Zheng, T; Buddle, B M; McDougall, S

    2014-11-01

    To detect the presence of bovine herpesvirus (BoHV) type 4 in New Zealand dairy cows with clinical metritis. Serum samples taken from 92 dairy cows with clinical metritis, each from a different farm, were tested for the presence of antibodies against BoHV-4 using a commercially available, indirect ELISA. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were collected from 10 BoHV-4 seropositive cows, and PBMC were examined by a pan-herpesvirus nested PCR to detect herpesvirus. PCR products were sequenced directly and a proportion of the PCR products were cloned and sequenced to identify the virus present. Antibodies to BoHV-4 were detected in 23/92 (25%) serum samples. The pan-herpesvirus PCR was positive in 8/10 PBMC samples. Cloning and sequencing identified that all of the eight PCR-positive PBMC contained bovine lymphotropic herpesvirus (BLHV); no BoHV-4 DNA was detected. This study reports the finding of the presence of apparent antibodies to BoHV-4, and BLHV DNA in New Zealand dairy cows affected by metritis. Bovine herpesvirus type 4 and BLHV are reported to have the potential to cause reproduction failure in cows. This is the first report of apparent BoHV-4 antibodies, and BLHV in New Zealand. The importance and epidemiology of these viruses in cattle in New Zealand requires further investigation.

  7. Effect of academic psychological stress in post-graduate students: the modulatory role of cortisol on superoxide release by neutrophils.

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    Ignacchiti, M D C; Sesti-Costa, R; Marchi, L F; Chedraoui-Silva, S; Mantovani, B

    2011-05-01

    Experimental and clinical evidence shows that neutrophils play an important role in the mechanism of tissue injury in immune complex diseases through the generation of reactive oxygen species. In this study, we examined the influence of academic psychological stress in post-graduate students on the capacity of their blood neutrophils to release superoxide when stimulated by immune complexes bound to nonphagocytosable surfaces and investigated the modulatory effect of cortisol on this immune function. The tests were performed on the day before the final examination. The state-trait anxiety inventory questionnaire was used to examine whether this stressful event caused emotional distress. In our study, the psychological stress not only increased plasma cortisol concentration, but it also provoked a reduction in superoxide release by neutrophils. This decrease in superoxide release was accompanied by diminished mRNA expression for subunit p47(phox) of the phagocyte superoxide-generating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase. These inhibitory effects were also observed by in vitro exposure of neutrophils from control volunteers to 10(- 7) M hydrocortisone, and could be prevented by the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU-486. These results show that in a situation of psychological stress, the increased levels of cortisol could inhibit superoxide release by neutrophils stimulated by IgG immune complexes bound to nonphagocytosable surfaces, which could attenuate the inflammatory state.

  8. Treadmill exercise induces neutrophil recruitment into muscle tissue in a reactive oxygen species-dependent manner. An intravital microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes-Silva, Albená; Bernardes, Priscila T T; Rezende, Bárbara M; Lopes, Fernando; Gomes, Elisa C; Marques, Pedro E; Lima, Paulo M A; Coimbra, Cândido C; Menezes, Gustavo B; Teixeira, Mauro M; Pinho, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Intense exercise is a physiological stress capable of inducing the interaction of neutrophils with muscle endothelial cells and their transmigration into tissue. Mechanisms driving this physiological inflammatory response are not known. Here, we investigate whether production of reactive oxygen species is relevant for neutrophil interaction with endothelial cells and recruitment into the quadriceps muscle in mice subjected to the treadmill fatiguing exercise protocol. Mice exercised until fatigue by running for 56.3±6.8 min on an electric treadmill. Skeletal muscle was evaluated by intravital microscopy at different time points after exercise, and then removed to assess local oxidative stress and histopathological analysis. We observed an increase in plasma lactate and creatine kinase (CK) concentrations after exercise. The numbers of monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in blood increased 12 and 24 hours after the exercise. Numbers of rolling and adherent leukocytes increased 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours post-exercise, as assessed by intravital microscopy. Using LysM-eGFP mice and confocal intravital microscopy technology, we show that the number of transmigrating neutrophils increased 12 hours post-exercise. Mutant gp91phox-/- (non-functional NADPH oxidase) mice and mice treated with apocynin showed diminished neutrophil recruitment. SOD treatment promoted further adhesion and transmigration of leukocytes 12 hours after the exercise. These findings confirm our hypothesis that treadmill exercise increases the recruitment of leukocytes to the postcapillary venules, and NADPH oxidase-induced ROS plays an important role in this process.

  9. Treadmill exercise induces neutrophil recruitment into muscle tissue in a reactive oxygen species-dependent manner. An intravital microscopy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albená Nunes-Silva

    Full Text Available Intense exercise is a physiological stress capable of inducing the interaction of neutrophils with muscle endothelial cells and their transmigration into tissue. Mechanisms driving this physiological inflammatory response are not known. Here, we investigate whether production of reactive oxygen species is relevant for neutrophil interaction with endothelial cells and recruitment into the quadriceps muscle in mice subjected to the treadmill fatiguing exercise protocol. Mice exercised until fatigue by running for 56.3±6.8 min on an electric treadmill. Skeletal muscle was evaluated by intravital microscopy at different time points after exercise, and then removed to assess local oxidative stress and histopathological analysis. We observed an increase in plasma lactate and creatine kinase (CK concentrations after exercise. The numbers of monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in blood increased 12 and 24 hours after the exercise. Numbers of rolling and adherent leukocytes increased 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours post-exercise, as assessed by intravital microscopy. Using LysM-eGFP mice and confocal intravital microscopy technology, we show that the number of transmigrating neutrophils increased 12 hours post-exercise. Mutant gp91phox-/- (non-functional NADPH oxidase mice and mice treated with apocynin showed diminished neutrophil recruitment. SOD treatment promoted further adhesion and transmigration of leukocytes 12 hours after the exercise. These findings confirm our hypothesis that treadmill exercise increases the recruitment of leukocytes to the postcapillary venules, and NADPH oxidase-induced ROS plays an important role in this process.

  10. Specificity and Effector Functions of Human RSV-Specific IgG from Bovine Milk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerco den Hartog

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV infection is the second most important cause of death in the first year of life, and early RSV infections are associated with the development of asthma. Breastfeeding and serum IgG have been shown to protect against RSV infection. Yet, many infants depend on bovine milk-based nutrition, which at present lacks intact immunoglobulins. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether IgG purified from bovine milk (bIgG can modulate immune responses against human RSV. METHODS: ELISAs were performed to analyse binding of bIgG to human respiratory pathogens. bIgG or hRSV was coated to plates to assess dose-dependent binding of bIgG to human Fcγ receptors (FcγR or bIgG-mediated binding of myeloid cells to hRSV respectively. S. Epidermidis and RSV were used to test bIgG-mediated binding and internalisation of pathogens by myeloid cells. Finally, the ability of bIgG to neutralise infection of HEp2 cells by hRSV was evaluated. RESULTS: bIgG recognised human RSV, influenza haemagglutinin and Haemophilus influenza. bIgG bound to FcγRII on neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages, but not to FcγRI and FcγRIII, and could bind simultaneously to hRSV and human FcγRII on neutrophils. In addition, human neutrophils and dendritic cells internalised pathogens that were opsonised with bIgG. Finally, bIgG could prevent infection of HEp2 cells by hRSV. CONCLUSIONS: The data presented here show that bIgG binds to hRSV and other human respiratory pathogens and induces effector functions through binding to human FcγRII on phagocytes. Thus bovine IgG may contribute to immune protection against RSV.

  11. [Neutrophils' contribution to ischaemia and reperfusion injury in liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helewski, Krzysztof J; Kowalczyk-Ziomek, Grazyna I; Konecki, Janusz

    2007-01-01

    Neutrophils are cells which induce liver injury due to ischaemia and reperfusion. They are active especially in the later phase of reperfusion (> 6 hrs) since they gather in the liver and release mediators damaging hepatocytes directly. Inflow ofneutrophils into the liver is possible due to chemotaxia which involves, among others, chemokines CXC (interleukin-8 and its counterparts). Neutrophils' ability to induce chemotaxia is determined by their specific glycoprotein receptors in cell membranes. Neutrophils contribute to ischaemia/reperfusion liver injury because they adhere to vessel endothelium, cross the wall of hepatic microcirculation vessels and adhere to hepatocytes. Selectins play a crucial role in neutrophils' contact with endothelial cells, and ICAM-1, predominantly in their adhesion to hepatocytes. Also beta2-integrin and Mac-1 play essential role. Neutrophils damage hepatocytes by realising proteases, free radicals, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta and leucotrien. Neutrophils together with endothelial cells also disturb the hepatic microcirculation.

  12. Regulation of Neutrophil Survival/Apoptosis by Mcl-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Milot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophil granulocytes have the shortest lifespan among leukocytes in the circulation and die via apoptosis. At sites of infection or tissue injury, prolongation of neutrophil lifespan is critical for effective host defense. Apoptosis of inflammatory neutrophils and their clearance are critical control points for termination of the inflammatory response. Evasion of neutrophil apoptosis aggravates local injury and leads to persistent tissue damage. The short-lived prosurvival Bcl-2 family protein, Mcl-1 (myeloid cell leukemia-1, is instrumental in controlling apoptosis and consequently neutrophil lifespan in response to rapidly changing environmental cues during inflammation. This paper will focus on multiple levels of control of Mcl-1 expression and function and will discuss targeting Mcl-1 as a potential therapeutic strategy to enhance the resolution of inflammation through accelerating neutrophil apoptosis.

  13. Bovine peripheral blood WC1+ and WC1neg γδ T lymphocytes modulate monocyte-derived macrophage effector functions during in vitro Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero, Monica M; Plattner, Brandon L

    2017-05-01

    The importance of bovine γδ T lymphocytes during anti-mycobacterial immunity is recognized; however, the role of major subsets of γδ T lymphocytes (WC1+ and WC1neg) in this process remains unclear. We investigated how WC1+ and WC1neg γδ T lymphocyte subsets of calves modulate monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM) functions during Map infection in vitro. To achieve this, Map-infected or uninfected MDMs from young calves were co-cultured with autologous WC1+ or WC1neg γδ T lymphocytes. Our data indicate that WC1+ and WC1neg γδ T lymphocytes of young calves modulate effector functions of MDMs with respect to Map killing, CD11b and MHC-II expression. We observed differences in IFN-γ production and CD25 expression on γδ T lymphocyte subsets, as well as MDM expression of CD1b when in contact with WC1neg γδ T lymphocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Low density granulocytes: a distinct class of neutrophils in systemic autoimmunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Rivera, Carmelo; Kaplan, Mariana J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have renewed the interest on the potential role that