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Sample records for bovine aortic smooth

  1. Characterization of putative receptors specific for quercetin on bovine aortic smooth-muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S.C.; Becker, C.G.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have reported that tobacco glycoprotein (TGP), rutin-bovine serum albumin conjugates (R-BSA), quercetin, and chlorogenic acid are mitogenic for bovine aortic smooth-muscle cells (SMC). To investigate whether there are binding sites or receptors for these polyphenol-containing molecules on SMC, the authors have synthesized /sup 125/I-labeled rutin-bovine serum albumin ((/sup 125/I)R-BSA) of high specific activity (20 Ci/mmol). SMC were isolated from a bovine thoracic aorta and maintained in Eagle's minimum essential medium with 10% calf serum in culture. These SMC at early subpassages were suspended (3-5 x 10/sup 7/ cells/ml) in phosphate-buffered saline and incubated with (/sup 125/I)R-BSA (10 pmol) in the presence or absence of 200-fold unlabeled R-BSA, TGP, BSA, rutin, quercetin or related polyphenols, and catecholamines. Binding of (/sup 125/I)R-BSA to SMC was found to be reproducible and the radioligand was displaced by R-BSA, and also by TGP, rutin, quercetin, and chlorogenic acid, but not by BSA, ellagic acid, naringin, hesperetin, dopamine, epinephrine, or isoproterenol. The binding was saturable, reversible, and pH-dependent. These results demonstrate the presence of specific binding sites for quercetinon arterial SMC.

  2. Strain activation of bovine aortic smooth muscle cell proliferation and alignment: study of strain dependency and the role of protein kinase A and C signaling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, I.; Cohen, C. R.; Kamal, K.; Li, G.; Shin, T.; Du, W.; Sumpio, B. E.

    1997-01-01

    Smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype can be altered by physical forces as demonstrated by cyclic strain-induced changes in proliferation, orientation, and secretion of macromolecules. However, the magnitude of strain required and the intracellular coupling pathways remain ill defined. To examine the strain requirements for SMC proliferation, we selectively seeded bovine aortic SMC either on the center or periphery of silastic membranes which were deformed with 150 mm Hg vacuum (0-7% center; 7-24% periphery). SMC located in either the center or peripheral regions showed enhanced proliferation compared to cells grown under the absence of cyclic strain. Moreover, SMC located in the center region demonstrated significantly (P cyclic strain on bovine aortic SMC signaling pathways. We observed strain-induced stimulation of the cyclic AMP pathway including adenylate cyclase activity and cyclic AMP accumulation. In addition, exposure of SMC to cyclic strain caused a significant increase in protein kinase C (PKC) activity and enzyme translocation from the cytosol to a particulate fraction. Further study was conducted to examine the effect of strain magnitude on signaling, particularly protein kinase A (PKA) activity as well as cAMP response element (CRE) binding protein levels. We observed significantly (P < 0.05) greater PKA activity and CRE binding protein levels in SMC located in the center as compared to the peripheral region. However, inhibition of PKA (with 10 microM Rp-cAMP) or PKC (with 5-20 ng/ml staurosporine) failed to alter either the strain-induced increase in SMC proliferation or alignment. These data characterize the strain determinants for activation of SMC proliferation and alignment. Although strain activated both the AC/cAMP/PKA and the PKC pathways in SMC, singular inhibition of PKA and PKC failed to prevent strain-induced alignment and proliferation, suggesting either their lack of involvement or the multifactorial nature of these responses.

  3. Strain activation of bovine aortic smooth muscle cell proliferation and alignment: study of strain dependency and the role of protein kinase A and C signaling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, I.; Cohen, C. R.; Kamal, K.; Li, G.; Shin, T.; Du, W.; Sumpio, B. E.

    1997-01-01

    Smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype can be altered by physical forces as demonstrated by cyclic strain-induced changes in proliferation, orientation, and secretion of macromolecules. However, the magnitude of strain required and the intracellular coupling pathways remain ill defined. To examine the strain requirements for SMC proliferation, we selectively seeded bovine aortic SMC either on the center or periphery of silastic membranes which were deformed with 150 mm Hg vacuum (0-7% center; 7-24% periphery). SMC located in either the center or peripheral regions showed enhanced proliferation compared to cells grown under the absence of cyclic strain. Moreover, SMC located in the center region demonstrated significantly (P < 0.005) greater proliferation as compared to those in the periphery. In contrast, SMC exposed to high strain (7-24%) demonstrated alignment perpendicular to the strain gradient, whereas SMC in the center (0-7%) remained aligned randomly. To determine the mechanisms of these phenomena, we examined the effect of cyclic strain on bovine aortic SMC signaling pathways. We observed strain-induced stimulation of the cyclic AMP pathway including adenylate cyclase activity and cyclic AMP accumulation. In addition, exposure of SMC to cyclic strain caused a significant increase in protein kinase C (PKC) activity and enzyme translocation from the cytosol to a particulate fraction. Further study was conducted to examine the effect of strain magnitude on signaling, particularly protein kinase A (PKA) activity as well as cAMP response element (CRE) binding protein levels. We observed significantly (P < 0.05) greater PKA activity and CRE binding protein levels in SMC located in the center as compared to the peripheral region. However, inhibition of PKA (with 10 microM Rp-cAMP) or PKC (with 5-20 ng/ml staurosporine) failed to alter either the strain-induced increase in SMC proliferation or alignment. These data characterize the strain determinants for activation of

  4. Stimulation of aortic smooth muscle cell mitogenesis by serotonin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemecek, G.M.; Coughlin, S.R.; Handley, D.A.; Moskowitz, M.A.

    1986-02-01

    Bovine aortic smooth muscle cells in vitro responded to 1 nM to 10 ..mu..M serotonin with increased incorporation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine into DNA. The mitogenic effect of serotonin was half-maximal at 80 nM and maximal above 1 ..mu..M. At a concentration of 1 ..mu..M, serotonin stimulated smooth muscle cell mitogenesis to the same extent as human platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) at 12 ng/ml. Tryptamine was approx. = 1/10th as potent as serotonin as a mitogen for smooth muscle cells. Other indoles that are structurally related to serotonin (D- and L-tryptophan, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, melatonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and 5-hydroxytryptophol) and quipazine were inactive. The stimulatory effect of serotonin on smooth muscle cell DNA synthesis required prolonged (20-24 hr) exposure to the agonist and was attenuated in the presence of serotonin D receptor antagonists. When smooth muscle cells were incubated with submaximal concentrations of serotonin and PDGF, synergistic rather than additive mitogenic responses were observed. These data indicate that serotonin has a significant mitogenic effect on smooth muscle cells in vitro, which appears to be mediated by specific plasma membrane receptors.

  5. Calcium-antagonist effects of quercetin on aortic smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, M A; Lozoya, X

    1994-08-01

    Relaxation induced by quercetin was studied on aortic rings depolarized with KCl and on Ca2+ dependent aortic contraction. Quercetin's actions as a cyclooxygenase inhibitor were compared with those of indomethacin. To determine the possible effects of quercetin on internal Ca2+ mobilization, it was assayed on aortic muscle contracted with caffeine. Quercetin relaxes aortic smooth muscle contracted with KCl (RC50 = 1.8 x 10(-4) M) and induces a rightward displacement of Ca2+ curves. The relaxation induced by quercetin is higher than that produced by indomethacin, suggesting that its action is independent of cyclooxygenase inhibition. Caffeine-induced aortic contraction was not modified by quercetin, suggesting that its effect should not involve internal calcium modulation. Our results further support the thesis that the spasmolytic action of quercetin arises from its negative modulation of calcium entry to the smooth muscle.

  6. Chlamydia pneumoniae induces aponecrosis in human aortic smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walch Michael

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intracellular bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae is suspected to play a role in formation and progression of atherosclerosis. Many studies investigated cell death initiation versus inhibition by Chlamydia pneumoniae in established cell lines but nothing is known in primary human aortic smooth muscle cells, a cell type among others known to be involved in the formation of the atherosclerotic plaque. Type of cell death was analyzed by various methods in primary aortic smooth muscle cells after infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae to investigate a possible pathogenic link in atherosclerosis. Results Chlamydiae were found to be localized up to 72 h post infection in aortic smooth muscle cells either as single bacteria or inside of large inclusions. Quantification of host cell death by lactate dehydrogenase release assay revealed strictly dose and time dependent lysis for all tested isolates of Chlamydia pneumoniae. Phosphatidylserine exposure was detected by flow cytometry in Chlamydia pneumoniae infected cells. Ultrastructure of Chlamydia pneumoniae infected human aortic smooth muscle cells showed extensive membrane- and organelle damage, chromatin condensation but no nuclear fragmentation. DNA fragmentation as well as cell membrane permeability was analyzed by TUNEL and NHS-biotin staining and occurred exclusively in cells carrying Chlamydia pneumoniae spots but not in smooth muscle cells with inclusions. These morphological features of cell death were not accompanied by an activation of caspase-3 as revealed by analysis of enzyme activity but involved mitochondrial membrane depolarization as shown by TMRE uptake and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Conclusion This study provides evidence that Chlamydia pneumoniae induce a spot like infection in human aortic smooth muscle cells, which results in a chimeric cell death with both apoptotic and necrotic characteristics. This aponecrotic cell death may assist chronic

  7. Mechanism of kolaviron-induced relaxation of rabbit aortic smooth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mechanism of kolaviron-induced relaxation of rabbit aortic smooth muscle. 1Uche O.K.* Baseerah E.B. 2Anukam C.K.. 1Department of Physiology and 2TWAS Genomic Research Unit, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences,. School of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Benin, PMB 1154 Benin City, Nigeria.

  8. Vascular effects of 3-carbomethoxypyridine on rabbit aortic smooth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: 3-Carbomethoxypyridine (3-CMP) is a methyl nicotinate that has been isolated and characterized from one of the alkaloidal fractions of Pyrenacantha staudtii. No literature is available on its vascular action. The goal of this study was to characterize the mechanism of action of 3-CMP on rabbit aortic smooth ...

  9. Uremia modulates the phenotype of aortic smooth muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Marie; Pedersen, Annemarie Aarup; Albinsson, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic kidney disease leads to uremia and markedly accelerates atherosclerosis. Phenotypic modulation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the arterial media plays a key role in accelerating atherogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether uremia per se modulates...... the phenotype of aortic SMCs in vivo. METHODS: Moderate uremia was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) and wildtype C57Bl/6 mice. Plasma analysis, gene expression, histology, and myography were used to determine uremia-mediated changes in the arterial wall. RESULTS: Induction...... in the aortic media. In the aortic arch, mRNA and miRNA expression patterns were consistent with a uremia-mediated phenotypic modulation of SMCs; e.g. downregulation of myocardin, α-smooth muscle actin, and transgelin; and upregulation of miR146a. Notably, these expression patterns were observed after acute (2...

  10. Morphologic and mechanical characteristics of engineered bovine arteries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Niklason, Laura E; Abbott, William; Gao, Jinming; Klagges, Brian; Hirschi, Karen K; Ulubayram, Kezban; Conroy, Nancy; Jones, Rosemary; Vasanawala, Ami; Sanzgiri, Seema; Langer, Robert

    2001-01-01

    .... Engineered vessels were cultured from bovine aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells that were seeded onto biodegradable polymer scaffolds and cultured under physiologically pulsatile conditions...

  11. POSITIVE COOPERATIVE INTERACTION OF QUATERNARY ANTICHOLINERGICS WITH FUNCTIONAL MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS IN BOVINE TRACHEAL SMOOTH-MUSCLE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROFFEL, AF; ELZINGA, CRS; BELTMAN, W; VANTINTELEN, EJJ; ZAAGSMA, J

    The interaction of quaternary anticholinergics with muscarinic receptors in bovine tracheal smooth muscle strips was investigated because some of these compounds have shown anomalous (biphasic) behaviour in radioligand displacement studies, in contrast to their tertiary analogues. It was found that

  12. Vascular effects of 3-carbomethoxypyridine on rabbit aortic smooth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Background: 3-Carbomethoxypyridine (3-CMP) is a methyl nicotinate that has been isolated and characterized from one of the alkaloidal fractions of Pyrenacantha staudtii. No literature is available on its vascular action. The goal of this study was to characterize the mechanism of action of 3-CMP on rabbit aortic ...

  13. Mechanism of kolaviron-induced relaxation of rabbit aortic smooth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    induced relaxation on contractile responses in ring preparations of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) of the rabbit aorta in vitro, in standard laboratory organ bath procedure. Following Phenylephrine (PE) (10-7M), or high-K+ (80 mMK+) PSS induced ...

  14. Thapsigargin induces apoptosis in cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiró, C; Vallejo, S; Cercas, E; Llergo, J L; Lafuente, N; Matesanz, N; Rodríguez-Mañas, L; Sánchez-Ferrer, C F

    2000-11-01

    Vascular remodeling is a key feature of many pathologic states, including atherosclerosis, or hypertension. Vascular smooth muscle cells participate in determining the vessel structure by several mechanisms such as cell migration, cell growth, or cell death (necrosis or apoptosis). Here we report that thapsigargin, an inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), is able to induce apoptosis in human vascular smooth muscle cells (HVSMCs). Apoptosis was assessed by three different methods: differential chromatin binding dye staining. cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragments detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). When HVSMCs were treated for 1 h with thapsigargin (100 nM-10 microM), there was a concentration-dependent increase in both parameters 24 h after the thapsigargin pulse. When a time-course experiment was performed, both parameters were significantly enhanced from 3 to 6 h after the exposure to thapsigargin. We conclude that thapsigargin promotes apoptosis in HVSMCs, providing a useful tool for the study of programmed cell death in human vascular smooth muscle.

  15. Fluid flow releases fibroblast growth factor-2 from human aortic smooth muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, D. N.; Eskin, S. G.; McIntire, L. V.

    2000-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that fluid shear stress regulates the release of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 from human aortic smooth muscle cells. FGF-2 is a potent mitogen that is involved in the response to vascular injury and is expressed in a wide variety of cell types. FGF-2 is found in the cytoplasm of cells and outside cells, where it associates with extracellular proteoglycans. To test the hypothesis that shear stress regulates FGF-2 release, cells were exposed to flow, and FGF-2 amounts were measured from the conditioned medium, pericellular fraction (extracted by heparin treatment), and cell lysate. Results from the present study show that after 15 minutes of shear stress at 25 dyne/cm(2) in a parallel-plate flow system, a small but significant fraction (17%) of the total FGF-2 was released from human aortic smooth muscle cells. FGF-2 levels in the circulating medium increased 10-fold over medium from static controls (Phuman aortic smooth muscle cells is likely due to transient membrane disruption on initiation of flow.

  16. Fluid flow releases fibroblast growth factor-2 from human aortic smooth muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, D. N.; Eskin, S. G.; McIntire, L. V.

    2000-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that fluid shear stress regulates the release of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 from human aortic smooth muscle cells. FGF-2 is a potent mitogen that is involved in the response to vascular injury and is expressed in a wide variety of cell types. FGF-2 is found in the cytoplasm of cells and outside cells, where it associates with extracellular proteoglycans. To test the hypothesis that shear stress regulates FGF-2 release, cells were exposed to flow, and FGF-2 amounts were measured from the conditioned medium, pericellular fraction (extracted by heparin treatment), and cell lysate. Results from the present study show that after 15 minutes of shear stress at 25 dyne/cm(2) in a parallel-plate flow system, a small but significant fraction (17%) of the total FGF-2 was released from human aortic smooth muscle cells. FGF-2 levels in the circulating medium increased 10-fold over medium from static controls (Pcell lysate, indicating that FGF-2 was released from inside the cell. Cell permeability studies with fluorescent dextran were performed to examine whether transient membrane disruption caused FGF-2 release. Flow cytometry detected a 50% increase in mean fluorescence of cells exposed to 25 dyne/cm(2) versus control cells. This indicates that the observed FGF-2 release from human aortic smooth muscle cells is likely due to transient membrane disruption on initiation of flow.

  17. beta-agonist-induced constitutive beta(2)-adrenergic receptor activity in bovine tracheal smooth muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, B; Meurs, H; Roffel, AF; Elzinga, CRS; Hoiting, BH; de Vries, MML; Zaagsma, J

    2000-01-01

    1 According to the two state receptor model, the beta (2)-adrenergic receptor (beta (2)-AR) isomerizes between an inactive state and a constitutively active state, which couples to the stimulatory G-protein in the absence of agonist. In bovine tracheal smooth muscle (BTSM), we investigated the

  18. Overexpression of Catalase in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Prevents the Formation of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parastatidis, Ioannis; Weiss, Daiana; Joseph, Giji; Taylor, W Robert

    2013-01-01

    Objective Elevated levels of oxidative stress have been reported in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), but which reactive oxygen species (ROS) promotes the development of AAA remains unclear. Here we investigate the effect of the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) degrading enzyme catalase on the formation of AAA. Approach and Results AAA were induced with the application of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on mouse infrarenal aortas. The administration of PEG-catalase, but not saline, attenuated the loss of tunica media and protected against AAA formation (0.91±0.1 mm vs. 0.76±0.09 mm). Similarly, in a transgenic mouse model, catalase over-expression in the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) preserved the thickness of tunica media and inhibited aortic dilatation by 50% (0.85±0.14 mm vs. 0.57±0.08 mm). Further studies showed that injury with CaCl2 decreased catalase expression and activity in the aortic wall. Pharmacologic administration or genetic over-expression of catalase restored catalase activity and subsequently decreased matrix metalloproteinase activity. In addition, a profound reduction in inflammatory markers and VSMC apoptosis was evident in aortas of catalase over-expressing mice. Interestingly, as opposed to infusion of PEG-catalase, chronic over-expression of catalase in VSMC did not alter the total aortic H2O2 levels. Conclusions The data suggest that a reduction in aortic wall catalase activity can predispose to AAA formation. Restoration of catalase activity in the vascular wall enhances aortic VSMC survival and prevents AAA formation primarily through modulation of matrix metalloproteinase activity. PMID:23950141

  19. Smooth muscle LDL receptor-related protein-1 deletion induces aortic insufficiency and promotes vascular cardiomyopathy in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua E Basford

    Full Text Available Valvular disease is common in patients with Marfan syndrome and can lead to cardiomyopathy. However, some patients develop cardiomyopathy in the absence of hemodynamically significant valve dysfunction, suggesting alternative mechanisms of disease progression. Disruption of LDL receptor-related protein-1 (Lrp1 in smooth muscle cells has been shown to cause vascular pathologies similar to Marfan syndrome, with activation of smooth muscle cells, vascular dysfunction and aortic aneurysms. This study used echocardiography and blood pressure monitoring in mouse models to determine whether inactivation of Lrp1 in vascular smooth muscle leads to cardiomyopathy, and if so, whether the mechanism is a consequence of valvular disease. Hemodynamic changes during treatment with captopril were also assessed. Dilation of aortic roots was observed in young Lrp1-knockout mice and progressed as they aged, whereas no significant aortic dilation was detected in wild type littermates. Diastolic blood pressure was lower and pulse pressure higher in Lrp1-knockout mice, which was normalized by treatment with captopril. Aortic dilation was followed by development of aortic insufficiency and subsequent dilated cardiomyopathy due to valvular disease. Thus, smooth muscle cell Lrp1 deficiency results in aortic dilation and insufficiency that causes secondary cardiomyopathy that can be improved by captopril. These findings provide novel insights into mechanisms of cardiomyopathy associated with vascular activation and offer a new model of valvular cardiomyopathy.

  20. Atrial natriuretic factor inhibits mitogen-induced growth in aortic smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, P M; De Vito, P; Fraziano, M; Mattioli, P; Luly, P; Di Nardo, P

    2002-10-01

    Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) is a polypeptide able to affect cardiovascular homeostasis exhibiting diuretic, natriuretic, and vasorelaxant activities. ANF shows antimitogenic effects in different cell types acting through R(2) receptor. Excessive proliferation of smooth muscle cells is a common phenomenon in diseases such as atherosclerosis, but the role of growth factors in the mechanism which modulate this process has yet to be clarified. The potential antimitogenic role of ANF on the cell growth induced by growth factors appears very intriguing. Aim of the present study was to investigate the possible involvement of ANF on rat aortic smooth muscle (RASM) cells proliferation induced by known mitogens and the mechanism involved. Our data show that ANF, at physiological concentration range, inhibits RASM cell proliferation induced by known mitogens such as PDGF and insulin, and the effect seems to be elicited through the modulation of phosphatidic acid (PA) production and MAP kinases involvement. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Fracture mechanics of shear crack propagation and dissection in the healthy bovine descending aortic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslach, Henry W; Siddiqui, Ahmed; Weerasooriya, Amanda; Nguyen, Ryan; Roshgadol, Jacob; Monforte, Noel; McMahon, Eileen

    2018-03-01

    This experimental study adopts a fracture mechanics strategy to investigate the mechanical cause of aortic dissection. Inflation of excised healthy bovine aortic rings with a cut longitudinal notch that extends into the media from the intima suggests that an intimal tear may propagate a nearly circumferential-longitudinal rupture surface that is similar to the delamination that occurs in aortic dissection. Radial and 45°-from-radial cut notch orientations, as seen in the thickness surface, produce similar circumferential crack propagation morphologies. Partial cut notches, whose longitudinal length is half the width of the ring, measure the influence of longitudinal material on crack propagation. Such specimens also produce circumferential cracks from the notch root that are visible in the thickness circumferential-radial plane, and often propagate a secondary crack from the base of the notch, visible in the intimal circumferential-longitudinal plane. Inflation of rings with pairs of cut notches demonstrates that a second notch modifies the propagation created in a specimen with a single notch. The circumferential crack propagation is likely a consequence of the laminar medial structure. These fracture surfaces are probably due to non-uniform circumferential shear deformation in the heterogeneous media as the aortic wall expands. The qualitative deformation morphology around the root of the cut notch during inflation is evidence for such shear deformation. The shear apparently results from relative slip in the circumferential direction of collagen fibers. The slip may produce shear in the longitudinal-circumferential plane between medial layers or in the radial-circumferential plane within a medial lamina in an idealized model. Circumferential crack propagation in the media is then a shear mechanical process that might be facilitated by disease of the tissue. An intimal tear of an apparently healthy aortic wall near the aortic arch is life-threatening because it

  2. Fluid flow releases fibroblast growth factor-2 from human aortic smooth muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, D. N.; Eskin, S. G.; McIntire, L. V.

    2000-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that fluid shear stress regulates the release of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 from human aortic smooth muscle cells. FGF-2 is a potent mitogen that is involved in the response to vascular injury and is expressed in a wide variety of cell types. FGF-2 is found in the cytoplasm of cells and outside cells, where it associates with extracellular proteoglycans. To test the hypothesis that shear stress regulates FGF-2 release, cells were exposed to flow, and FGF-2 amounts were measured from the conditioned medium, pericellular fraction (extracted by heparin treatment), and cell lysate. Results from the present study show that after 15 minutes of shear stress at 25 dyne/cm(2) in a parallel-plate flow system, a small but significant fraction (17%) of the total FGF-2 was released from human aortic smooth muscle cells. FGF-2 levels in the circulating medium increased 10-fold over medium from static controls (Pmuscle cells is likely due to transient membrane disruption on initiation of flow.

  3. Right-left propensity of cardiogenic cerebral embolism in standard versus bovine aortic arch variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Menachem; Khamesi, Mojdeh; Sivakumar, Mangaiyarkkarasi; Natarajan, Vijaya; Motahari, Hooman; Caputo, Nicholas

    2018-01-12

    Left-hemispheric ischemic strokes are more frequent overall and often have a worse outcome than their right-hemispheric counterparts. We hypothesized that the right-left propensity of CE cerebral infarcts differs between patients with standard and bovine arch variants. We retrospectively identified all patients with acute stroke of the anterior circulation admitted to our primary stroke center between January 2011 and June 2017 who had moderate- to high-risk cardio-embolic sources according to the SSS-TOAST classification. From amongst these patients, only those with available cross-sectional imaging of the aortic arch were included. Lesion side and patterns on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging were determined blinded to the aortic arch imaging. One hundred and nineteen patients met the TOAST criteria for moderate- or high-risk cardio-embolic source. Of these, 58 (49%) were men and the median age was 71.9 years; 33% of the patients had a bovine arch. The most common etiologies of CE were atrial fibrillation (n = 80 [67%]) and congestive heart failure with ejection fraction right- or left-sided infarct. Although there was a trend towards right-sided lesions in patients with standard arches, this did not reach statistical significance. No statistically significant difference in embolic stroke laterality was demonstrated in our relatively small sample. Bovine arch could be an independent risk factor for cardio-embolic embolism. Clin. Anat., 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of the constitutive bovine aortic endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase.

    OpenAIRE

    Nishida, K; Harrison, D.G.; Navas, J P; Fisher, A.A.; Dockery, S P; Uematsu, M; Nerem, R M; Alexander, R W; Murphy, T. J.

    1992-01-01

    The constitutive endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase (NOS) importantly regulates vascular homeostasis. To gain understanding of this enzyme, a pEF BOS cDNA library of 5 x 10(5) clones was prepared from bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) and screened with a 2.8-kb cDNA BamHI fragment of rat brain NOS. Clone pBOS13 was found to express NO synthase activity when transfected into COS-7 cells. Sequence analysis revealed sequences compatible with binding domains for calcium/calmodulin, flavi...

  5. Vascular smooth muscle cells in Marfan syndrome aneurysm: the broken bricks in the aortic wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrucci, Gianluca L; Rurali, Erica; Gowran, Aoife; Pini, Alessandro; Antona, Carlo; Chiesa, Roberto; Pompilio, Giulio; Nigro, Patrizia

    2017-01-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a connective tissue disorder with multiple organ manifestations. The genetic cause of this syndrome is the mutation of the FBN1 gene, encoding the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein fibrillin-1. This genetic alteration leads to the degeneration of microfibril structures and ECM integrity in the tunica media of the aorta. Indeed, thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection represent the leading cause of death in MFS patients. To date, the most effective treatment option for this pathology is the surgical substitution of the damaged aorta. To highlight novel therapeutic targets, we review the molecular mechanisms related to MFS etiology in vascular smooth muscle cells, the foremost cellular type involved in MFS pathogenesis.

  6. Nitric oxide production by cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells: stimulation by fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, M.; Tilton, R. G.; Eskin, S. G.; McIntire, L. V.

    1998-01-01

    This study demonstrated that exposure of cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC) to fluid flow resulted in nitric oxide (NO) production, monitored by nitrite and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate production. A rapid burst in nitrite production rate was followed by a more gradual increase throughout the period of flow exposure. Neither the initial burst nor the prolonged nitrite production was dependent on the level of shear stress in the range of 1.1-25 dyn/cm2. Repeated exposure to shear stress after a 30-min static period restimulated nitrite production similar to the initial burst. Ca(2+)-calmodulin antagonists blocked the initial burst in nitrite release. An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) blocked nitrite production, indicating that changes in nitrite reflect NO production. Treatment with dexamethasone or cycloheximide had no effect on nitrite production. Monoclonal antibodies directed against the inducible and endothelial NOS isoforms showed no immunoreactivity on Western blots, whereas monoclonal antibodies directed against the neuronal NOS gave specific products. These findings suggest that human aortic SMC express a constitutive neuronal NOS isoform, the enzymatic activity of which is modulated by flow.

  7. Endothelial and smooth muscle cells from abdominal aortic aneurysm have increased oxidative stress and telomere attrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Cafueri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA is a complex multi-factorial disease with life-threatening complications. AAA is typically asymptomatic and its rupture is associated with high mortality rate. Both environmental and genetic risk factors are involved in AAA pathogenesis. Aim of this study was to investigate telomere length (TL and oxidative DNA damage in paired blood lymphocytes, aortic endothelial cells (EC, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC, and epidermal cells from patients with AAA in comparison with matched controls. METHODS: TL was assessed using a modification of quantitative (Q-FISH in combination with immunofluorescence for CD31 or α-smooth muscle actin to detect EC and VSMC, respectively. Oxidative DNA damage was investigated by immunofluorescence staining for 7, 8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Telomeres were found to be significantly shortened in EC, VSMC, keratinocytes and blood lymphocytes from AAA patients compared to matched controls. 8-oxo-dG immunoreactivity, indicative of oxidative DNA damage, was detected at higher levels in all of the above cell types from AAA patients compared to matched controls. Increased DNA double strand breaks were detected in AAA patients vs controls by nuclear staining for γ-H2AX histone. There was statistically significant inverse correlation between TL and accumulation of oxidative DNA damage in blood lymphocytes from AAA patients. This study shows for the first time that EC and VSMC from AAA have shortened telomeres and oxidative DNA damage. Similar findings were obtained with circulating lymphocytes and keratinocytes, indicating the systemic nature of the disease. Potential translational implications of these findings are discussed.

  8. Thrombospondin-2 gene silencing in human aortic smooth muscle cells improves cell attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shunsuke; Nabzdyk, Christoph S; Pradhan, Leena; LoGerfo, Frank W

    2011-11-01

    Despite decades of research, anastomotic intimal hyperplasia remains a major cause of delayed prosthetic arterial graft failure. Previously, we reported profound upregulation of thrombospondin-2 (TSP-2) mRNA in neointimal smooth muscle cells after prosthetic arterial bypass graft placement. TSP-2 is an antiangiogenic matricellular protein with specific functions yet unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that inhibition of TSP-2 in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs) would reduce cell proliferation and migration in vitro, providing a therapeutic target to mitigate intimal hyperplasia. HAoSMCs were transfected with TSP-2 small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) using a commercial transfection reagent. Gene silencing was evaluated using semiquantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. ELISA was used to measure TSP-2 protein levels in cell culture supernatants. Cell migration and proliferation were assessed using scratch wound assays and alamar blue assays, respectively. Attachment assays were performed to assess the effect of TSP-2 silencing on HAoSMC adhesion to fibronectin. TSP-2 siRNA achieved consistent target gene silencing at 48 hours post-transfection in HAoSMCs. This single transfection allowed suppression of TSP-2 protein expression for more than 30 days. TSP-2 gene silencing did not affect HAoSMC migration or proliferation. MMP-2 levels were also unaffected by changes in TSP-2 protein levels. However, HAoSMC attachment to fibronectin improved significantly in cells treated with TSP-2 siRNA. siRNA-mediated TSP-2 silencing of human aortic HAoSMCs improved cell attachment but had no effect on cell migration or proliferation. The effect on cell attachment was unrelated to changes in MMP activity. Copyright © 2011 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase in Smooth Muscle Cells Maintains Genome Integrity, Resists Aortic Medial Degeneration, and Is Suppressed in Human Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Alanna; Nong, Zengxuan; Yin, Hao; O'Neil, Caroline; Fox, Stephanie; Balint, Brittany; Guo, Linrui; Leo, Oberdan; Chu, Michael W A; Gros, Robert; Pickering, J Geoffrey

    2017-06-09

    The thoracic aortic wall can degenerate over time with catastrophic consequences. Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) can resist and repair artery damage, but their capacities decline with age and stress. Recently, cellular production of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) via nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) has emerged as a mediator of cell vitality. However, a role for Nampt in aortic SMCs in vivo is unknown. To determine whether a Nampt-NAD + control system exists within the aortic media and is required for aortic health. Ascending aortas from patients with dilated aortopathy were immunostained for NAMPT, revealing an inverse relationship between SMC NAMPT content and aortic diameter. To determine whether a Nampt-NAD + control system in SMCs impacts aortic integrity, mice with Nampt -deficient SMCs were generated. SMC- Nampt knockout mice were viable but with mildly dilated aortas that had a 43% reduction in NAD + in the media. Infusion of angiotensin II led to aortic medial hemorrhage and dissection. SMCs were not apoptotic but displayed senescence associated-ß-galactosidase activity and upregulated p16, indicating premature senescence. Furthermore, there was evidence for oxidized DNA lesions, double-strand DNA strand breaks, and pronounced susceptibility to single-strand breakage. This was linked to suppressed poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 activity and was reversible on resupplying NAD + with nicotinamide riboside. Remarkably, we discovered unrepaired DNA strand breaks in SMCs within the human ascending aorta, which were specifically enriched in SMCs with low NAMPT. NAMPT promoter analysis revealed CpG hypermethylation within the dilated human thoracic aorta and in SMCs cultured from these tissues, which inversely correlated with NAMPT expression. The aortic media depends on an intrinsic NAD + fueling system to protect against DNA damage and premature SMC senescence, with relevance to human thoracic aortopathy. © 2017 American Heart

  10. Ziziphus nummularia Inhibits Inflammation-Induced Atherogenic Phenotype of Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardoun, Manal; Al-Shehabi, Tuqa; El-Yazbi, Ahmed; Issa, Khodr; Maaliki, Dina; Iratni, Rabah

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues to be the leading cause of death worldwide. Atherosclerosis is a CVD characterized by plaque formation resulting from inflammation-induced insults to endothelial cells, monocytes, and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Despite significant advances, current treatments for atherosclerosis remain insufficient, prompting the search for alternative modalities, including herbal medicine. Ziziphus nummularia is an herb commonly used in the amelioration of symptoms associated with many health conditions such as cold, diarrhea, cancer, and diabetes. However, its effect on the inflammation-induced behavior of VSMCs remains unknown. In this study, we sought to determine the effect of the ethanolic extract of Z. nummularia (ZNE) on TNF-α-induced phenotypic changes of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). The treatment of HASMCs with ZNE decreased cell proliferation, adhesion to fibronectin, migration, and invasion. ZNE treatment also caused a concentration- and time-dependent reduction in the TNF-α-induced expression of matrix metalloproteases MMP-2 and MMP-9, NF-κB, and cell adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Furthermore, ZNE decreased the adhesion of THP-1 monocytes to HASMCs and endothelial cells in a concentration-dependent manner. These data provide evidence for the anti-inflammatory effect of Ziziphus nummularia, along with potential implications for its use as an agent that could ameliorate inflammation-induced atherogenic phenotype of VSMCs in atherosclerosis. PMID:28593025

  11. Visualizing the spatiotemporal map of Rac activation in bovine aortic endothelial cells under laminar and disturbed flows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shuai Shao; Cheng Xiang; Kairong Qin; Aziz Ur Rehman Aziz; Xiaoling Liao; Bo Liu

    ..., and the mechanism of flow-induced cell polarity still needs to be elucidated. In this paper, disturbed flow or laminar flow with 15 dyn/cm2 of average shear stress was applied on bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) for 30 minutes...

  12. BVDV infection alters toll-like and TNF-alpha receptor signalling in bovine aortic endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aim. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) are readily available commercially and are used in many labs in a variety of experiments. However, most lots of BAEC are contaminated with BVDV. It was unknown what effect BVDV had on normal function of BAEC. Here, we examined the effect of BVDV infect...

  13. Mitochondrial oxidative stress in aortic stiffening with age: the role of smooth muscle cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVE: Age-related aortic stiffness is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Although oxidative stress is implicated in aortic stiffness, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unelucidated. Here, we examined the source of oxidative stress in aging and i...

  14. Bioengineering functional human aortic vascular smooth-muscle strips in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Louise; Khait, Luda; Welsh, Michael J; Birla, Ravi

    2008-07-01

    The contraction and relaxation of VSM (vascular smooth muscle) are responsible for the maintenance of vascular tone, which is a major determinant of blood pressure. However, the molecular events leading to the contraction and relaxation of VSM are poorly understood. The development of three-dimensional bioengineered tissues provides an opportunity to investigate the molecular events controlling vascular tone in vitro. In the present study we used fibrin-gel casting to bioengineer functional VSM strips from primary human aortic VSM cells. Our bioengineered VSM strips are functionally similar to VSM in vivo and remained viable in culture for up to 5 weeks. VSM strips demonstrate spontaneous basal tone and can generate an active force (contraction) of up to 85.2 microN on stimulation with phenylephrine. Bioengineered VSM strips exhibited Ca(2+)-dependent contraction and calcium-independent relaxation. The development of functional bioengineered VSM tissue provides a new in vitro model system that can be used to investigate the molecular events controlling vascular tone.

  15. Induction of antioxidant genes by sulforaphane and klotho in human aortic smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Benedetta; Maltese, Giuseppe; Paraskevi, Maria Psefteli; Hrelia, Silvana; Mann, Giovanni; Siow, Richard

    2014-10-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) dysfunction due to enhanced oxidative stress contributes to age-related cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and calcification. Klotho, a protein with multiple pleiotropic effects associated with anti-ageing, can extend lifespan when overexpressed while its deficiencies result in rapid aging. It exists in membrane and secreted forms with distinct pleiotropic functions, with the secreted form regulating ion channels, suppressing growth factor signaling and oxidative stress while the transmembrane protein forms a co-receptor for FGF23, although the mechanisms involved in its actions remain to be fully elucidated. Sulforaphane (SFN) is an isothiocyanate present in cruciferous vegetables that can induce antioxidant defence enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and peroxiredoxin-1 (Prx-1). The present study investigates whether SFN or klotho increases antioxidant defences in cultured human aortic SMC. Cells were treated (0-24h) with either SFN (0-5µM) or klotho (0-1nM) and HO-1, Prx-1 expression determined by western blot analyses and glutathione (GSH) levels measured using the o-phthalaldehyde fluorescence assay. SFN significantly (pMarco Polo' Program, University of Bologna. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Receptor-based differences in human aortic smooth muscle cell membrane stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H.; Kamm, R. D.; So, P. T.; Lee, R. T.

    2001-01-01

    Cells respond to mechanical stimuli with diverse molecular responses. The nature of the sensory mechanism involved in mechanotransduction is not known, but integrins may play an important role. The integrins are linked to both the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix, suggesting that probing cells via integrins should yield different mechanical properties than probing cells via non-cytoskeleton-associated receptors. To test the hypothesis that the mechanical properties of a cell are dependent on the receptor on which the stress is applied, human aortic smooth muscle cells were plated, and magnetic beads, targeted either to the integrins via fibronectin or to the transferrin receptor by use of an IgG antibody, were attached to the cell surface. The resistance of the cell to deformation ("stiffness") was estimated by oscillating the magnetic beads at 1 Hz by use of single-pole magnetic tweezers at 2 different magnitudes. The ratio of bead displacements at different magnitudes was used to explore the mechanical properties of the cells. Cells stressed via the integrins required approximately 10-fold more force to obtain the same bead displacements as the cells stressed via the transferrin receptors. Cells stressed via integrins showed stiffening behavior as the force was increased, whereas this stiffening was significantly less for cells stressed via the transferrin receptor (Pcells depend on the receptor by which the stress is applied, with integrin-based linkages demonstrating cell-stiffening behavior.

  17. Effects of metal ions on proliferation of aortic smooth muscle cells and myoblastic cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorpahl, M.; Wiemann, M.; Bingmann, D. [Essen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physiologie; Brauer, H. [Werkstofftechnik, Univ. Essen (Germany)

    2001-12-01

    Metal ions released from implanted stents into the surrounding tissue may contribute to vascular reactions which cause restenosis in about 30%. This assumption prompted us to investigate short term effects of metal ions (Ag, Al, Cr, Fe, Mo, Ni, V, all applied as chloride salts) on proliferation of swine aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC) and a myoblastic cell line (C2C12). Cell confluence was 30 or 50% when metal ions were added and cell growth was monitored with the MTT-test after 2 days. A clear concentration dependence of acute toxicity of the different metal ions was found for both cell types. The order of toxicity indicated by IC50 values was V > Ni > Fe > Mo > Al > Cr. The nearly insoluble silverchloride exerted unclear effects. In experiments starting at high confluence, the apparent toxicity of Fe, Ni, and V was reduced. Al, which to our knowledge is not a major constituent in medical stents, was the only metal ion found here to cause a slightly increased proliferation, but this effect was restricted to the low concentration range (16-250 {mu}mol/l). In general, results for both cell types, C2C12 and SMC, were very similar. We conclude that short term effects of metal ions, which may be released in the interface of stent and vessel wall tissue, comprise a reduction rather than a stimulation of cell proliferation. However, restenosis may be initiated as a complex tissue reaction to primary toxic metal effects. (orig.)

  18. Receptor-based differences in human aortic smooth muscle cell membrane stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H.; Kamm, R. D.; So, P. T.; Lee, R. T.

    2001-01-01

    Cells respond to mechanical stimuli with diverse molecular responses. The nature of the sensory mechanism involved in mechanotransduction is not known, but integrins may play an important role. The integrins are linked to both the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix, suggesting that probing cells via integrins should yield different mechanical properties than probing cells via non-cytoskeleton-associated receptors. To test the hypothesis that the mechanical properties of a cell are dependent on the receptor on which the stress is applied, human aortic smooth muscle cells were plated, and magnetic beads, targeted either to the integrins via fibronectin or to the transferrin receptor by use of an IgG antibody, were attached to the cell surface. The resistance of the cell to deformation ("stiffness") was estimated by oscillating the magnetic beads at 1 Hz by use of single-pole magnetic tweezers at 2 different magnitudes. The ratio of bead displacements at different magnitudes was used to explore the mechanical properties of the cells. Cells stressed via the integrins required approximately 10-fold more force to obtain the same bead displacements as the cells stressed via the transferrin receptors. Cells stressed via integrins showed stiffening behavior as the force was increased, whereas this stiffening was significantly less for cells stressed via the transferrin receptor (Pmuscle cells depend on the receptor by which the stress is applied, with integrin-based linkages demonstrating cell-stiffening behavior.

  19. Detection of histidine decarboxylase in rat aorta and cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippens, A S; Davis, S V; Hayes, J R; Bryda, E C; Green, T L; Gruetter, C A

    2004-08-01

    Having previously demonstrated release of histamine from mast-cell-deficient rat aorta, the objective of this study was to determine and localize histamine synthesis capability in the aorta by detecting histidine decarboxylase (HDC), the enzyme that catalyzes histamine formation. Experiments were conducted with nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (nRT-PCR) to detect HDC mRNA and with immunofluorescence and western blot analysis to detect HDC protein in rat aorta, cultured rat aortic smooth muscle (RASMC) and endothelial cells (RAEC). Gel electrophoresis of nRT-PCR products indicated HDC mRNA in liver, aorta and RASMC but not in RAEC or kidney. Sequence analysis confirmed that the band observed in RASMC was the target HDC amplicon. Immunofluorescence indicated the presence of HDC protein in RASMC and not in RAEC. Western Blot analysis revealed HDC protein (55 kDa) in liver, aorta, RASMC but not in RAEC or kidney. The results of this study are the first to demonstrate the presence of HDC mRNA and protein in rat aorta and more specifically in RASMC, indicative of their capability to synthesize histamine. Copyright 2004 Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel

  20. Cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells show increased histamine metabolism when exposed to oscillatory shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarlatos, S I; Hollis, T M

    1987-03-01

    Oscillatory shear stress applied to the lining of blood vessels causes endothelial cell injury, one of the essential postulated prerequisites to the development of atherosclerosis. The purpose of this investigation was to study effects of shear stress on bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC), in vitro, for varying lengths of time (6 h, 12 h, 24 h) on BAEC histamine content (HC) and histidine decarboxylase activity (HD). Low intensity stress (1.6 dynes/cm2) as well as intermediate and high intensity shear stresses (3.5 dynes/cm2 and 7.6 dynes/cm2) resulted in an accelerated HD (281%) and elevated HC (144%). These data indicate that oscillatory shear stress produces increases in histamine metabolism.

  1. Maitotoxin-induced membrane blebbing and cell death in bovine aortic endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schilling William P

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maitotoxin, a potent cytolytic agent, causes an increase in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i via activation of Ca2+-permeable, non-selective cation channels (CaNSC. Channel activation is followed by formation of large endogenous pores that allow ethidium and propidium-based vital dyes to enter the cell. Although activation of these cytolytic/oncotic pores, or COP, precedes release of lactate dehydrogenase, an indication of oncotic cell death, the relationship between CaNSC, COP, membrane lysis, and the associated changes in cell morphology has not been clearly defined. In the present study, the effect maitotoxin on [Ca2+]i, vital dye uptake, lactate dehydrogenase release, and membrane blebbing was examined in bovine aortic endothelial cells. Results Maitotoxin produced a concentration-dependent increase in [Ca2+]i followed by a biphasic uptake of ethidium. Comparison of ethidium (Mw 314 Da, YO-PRO-1 (Mw 375 Da, and POPO-3 (Mw 715 Da showed that the rate of dye uptake during the first phase was inversely proportional to molecular weight, whereas the second phase appeared to be all-or-nothing. The second phase of dye uptake correlated in time with the release of lactate dehydrogenase. Uptake of vital dyes at the single cell level, determined by time-lapse videomicroscopy, was also biphasic. The first phase was associated with formation of small membrane blebs, whereas the second phase was associated with dramatic bleb dilation. Conclusions These results suggest that maitotoxin-induced Ca2+ influx in bovine aortic endothelial cells is followed by activation of COP. COP formation is associated with controlled membrane blebbing which ultimately gives rise to uncontrolled bleb dilation, lactate dehydrogenase release, and oncotic cell death.

  2. Fibrillar collagen inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis in human aortic smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Nicola; Roncalli, Elisa; Arnaboldi, Lorenzo; Fenu, Simone; Andrukhova, Olena; Aharinejad, Seyedhossein; Camera, Marina; Tremoli, Elena; Corsini, Alberto

    2009-10-01

    Integrin-mediated cell adhesion to type I fibrillar collagen regulates gene and protein expression, whereas little is known of its effect on lipid metabolism. In the present study, we examined the effect of type I fibrillar collagen on cholesterol biosynthesis in human aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs). SMCs were cultured on either fibrillar or monomer collagen for 48 hours and [(14)C]-acetate incorporation into cholesterol was evaluated. Fibrillar collagen reduced by 72.9+/-2.6% cholesterol biosynthesis without affecting cellular cholesterol levels. Fibrillar collagen also reduced 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA) promoter activity (-72.6+/-7.3%), mRNA (-58.7+/-6.4%), protein levels (-35.5+/-8.5%), and enzyme activity (-37.7+/-2.2%). Intracellular levels of the active form of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBP) 1a was decreased by 60.7+/-21.7% in SMCs cultured on fibrillar collagen, whereas SREBP2 was not significantly affected (+12.1+/-7.1%). The overexpression of the active form of SREBP1a rescued the downregulation of fibrillar collagen on HMG-CoA reductase levels. Blocking antibody to alpha2 integrin partially reversed the downregulation of HMG-CoA reductase mRNA expression. Finally, fibrillar collagen led to an intracellular accumulation of unprenylated Ras. Our study demonstrated that alpha2 beta 1 integrin interaction with fibrillar collagen affected the expression of HMG-CoA reductase, which led to the inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis in human SMCs.

  3. Involvement of Nitric Oxide in the Inhibition of Aortic Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by Calcium Dobesilate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parés-Herbuté; Fliche; Monnier

    1999-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation is a key process in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Numerous factors are involved in the regulation of SMC growth. Nitric oxide (NO) induces the inhibition of SMC proliferation whereas oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDL) have a mitogenic effect. Calcium dobesilate (Doxium) is an angioprotective agent for treating vascular diseases. It has been shown to increase NO production and to have antioxidant properties but its mechanism of action is not yet fully understood. This study investigated the effect of calcium dobesilate on proliferation of rat aortic SMC in culture. Proliferation was evaluated by cell number and DNA synthesis. Orally administered calcium dobesilate (30, 100, or 200 mg/kg/day for 7 days) induced a dose-dependent decrease of proliferation of SMC in primary culture compared with controls. In vitro treatment with calcium dobesilate (0.05-5 mM) inhibited both DNA synthesis and proliferation in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. In both ex vivo and in vitro models, the inhibition was reversible upon removal of the drug. Calcium dobesilate also stimulated NO production and NO synthase activity. Inhibitors of NO synthesis attenuated the inhibitory effect of calcium dobesilate (300 µM) on DNA synthesis. In addition, calcium dobesilate (2.5-40 µM) induced a dose-dependent protection of cooper-induced LDL oxidation. These results showed that calcium dobesilate inhibits SMC proliferation, partly by a NO-dependent mechanism, and suggest that it could be effective in the treatment of pathological disorders associated with vascular SMC proliferation.

  4. Modulation of phosphoinositide metabolism in aortic smooth muscle cells by allylamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, L.R.; Murphy, S.K.; Ramos, K. (Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science, PA (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC) modulate from a contractile to a proliferative phenotype upon subchronic exposure to allylamine. The present studies were designed to determine if this phenotypic modulation is associated with alterations in the metabolism of membrane phosphoinositides. 32P incorporation into phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP), phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), and phosphatidic acid (PA) was lower by 31, 35, and 22%, respectively, in SMC from allylamine-treated animals relative to controls. In contrast, incorporation of (3H)myoinositol into inositol phosphates did not differ in allylamine cells relative to control cells. Exposure to dibutyryl (db) cAMP (0.2 mM) and theophylline (0.1 mM) reduced 32P incorporation into PIP and PIP2 in SMC from both experimental groups. Under these conditions, a decrease in (3H)myoinositol incorporation into inositol 1-phosphate was only observed in allylamine cells. The effects of db cAMP and theophylline in allylamine and control SMC correlated with a marked decrease in cellular proliferation. These results suggest that alterations in phosphoinositide synthesis and/or degradation contribute to the enhanced proliferation of SMC induced by allylamine. To further examine this concept, the effects of agents which modulate protein kinase C (PKC) activity were evaluated. Sphingosine (125-500 ng/ml), a PKC inhibitor, decreased SMC proliferation in allylamine, but not control cells. 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (1-100 ng/ml), a PKC agonist, stimulated proliferation in control cells, but inhibited proliferation in cells from allylamine-treated animals. We conclude that allylamine-induced phenotypic modulation of SMC is associated with alterations in phosphoinositide metabolism.

  5. A new iridoid and effect on the rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation of isolated compounds from Buddleja officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Bui Huu; Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Quang, Tran Hong; Ngan, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Kim, Yohan; Lee, Jung-Jin; Myung, Chang-Seon; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Kim, Young Ho

    2011-06-01

    A new iridoid, named methylscutelloside (1) together with 19 known compounds belonging to the iridoids (2-4), monoterpenoids (5), flavonoids (6-8), triterpenoids (9-14), and phenylethanoids (15-20) were isolated from the flowers of Buddleja officinalis. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties, and by spectroscopic methods including 1D, 2D NMR, and MS. All isolated compounds were tested in vitro for their effects on the proliferation of rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Among them, iridoids were the main active components and showed significant inhibitory effects on PDGF-BB-induced proliferation in rat aortic VSMCs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Interaction between Pasteurella multocida B:2 and its derivatives with bovine aortic endothelial cell (BAEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Nuriqmaliza M; Zamri-Saad, M; Masarudin, Mas Jaffri; Othman, Sarah

    2017-06-19

    Pasteurella multocida B:2 causes bovine haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS), leading to rapid fatalities in cattle and buffaloes. An attenuated derivative of P. multocida B:2 GDH7, was previously constructed through mutation of the gdhA gene and proved to be an effective live attenuated vaccine for HS. Currently, only two potential live attenuated vaccine candidates for HS are being reported; P. multocida B:2 GDH7 and P. multocida B:2 JRMT12. This study primarily aims to investigate the potential of P. multocida B:2 GDH7 strain as a delivery vehicle for DNA vaccine for future multivalent applications. An investigation on the adherence, invasion and intracellular survival of bacterial strains within the bovine aortic endothelial cell line (BAEC) were carried out. The potential vaccine strain, P. multocida B:2 GDH7, was significantly better (p ≤ 0.05) at adhering to and invading BAEC compared to its parent strain and to P. multocida B:2 JRMT12 and survived intracellularly 7 h post treatment, with a steady decline over time. A dual reporter plasmid, pSRGM, which enabled tracking of bacterial movement from the extracellular environment into the intracellular compartment of the mammalian cells, was subsequently transformed into P. multocida B:2 GDH7. Intracellular trafficking of the vaccine strain, P. multocida B:2 GDH7 was subsequently visualized by tracking the reporter proteins via confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The ability of P. multocida B:2 GDH7 to model bactofection represents a possibility for this vaccine strain to be used as a delivery vehicle for DNA vaccine for future multivalent protection in cattle and buffaloes.

  7. Large Negative Stress Phase Angle (SPA) attenuates nitric oxide production in bovine aortic endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancu, Michael B; Tarbell, John M

    2006-06-01

    Hemodynamics plays an important role in cardiovascular physiology and pathology. Pulsatile flow (Q), pressure (P), and diameter (D) waveforms exert wall shear stress (WSS), normal stress, and circumferential strain (CS) on blood vessels. Most in vitro studies to date have focused on either WSS or CS but not their interaction. Recently, we have shown that concomitant WSS and CS affect EC biochemical response modulated by the temporal phase angle between WSS and CS (stress phase angle, SPA). Large negative SPA has been shown to occur in regions of the circulation where atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia are prevalent. Here, we report that nitric oxide (NO) biochemical secretion was significantly decreased in response to a large negative SPA of -180 deg with respect to an SPA of 0 degrees in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) at 5 h. A new hemodynamic simulator for the study of the physiologic SPA was used to provide the hemodynamic conditions of pro-atherogenic (SPA = -180 deg) and normopathic (SPA = 0 deg) states. The role of complex hemodynamics in vascular remodeling, homeostasis, and pathogenesis can be advanced by further assessment of the hypothesis that a large negative SPA is pro-atherogenic.

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of the constitutive bovine aortic endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, K; Harrison, D G; Navas, J P; Fisher, A A; Dockery, S P; Uematsu, M; Nerem, R M; Alexander, R W; Murphy, T J

    1992-11-01

    The constitutive endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase (NOS) importantly regulates vascular homeostasis. To gain understanding of this enzyme, a pEF BOS cDNA library of 5 x 10(5) clones was prepared from bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) and screened with a 2.8-kb cDNA BamHI fragment of rat brain NOS. Clone pBOS13 was found to express NO synthase activity when transfected into COS-7 cells. Sequence analysis revealed sequences compatible with binding domains for calcium/calmodulin, flavin mononucleotide, flavin adenine nucleotide and NADPH. The deduced amino acid sequence revealed a protein with a relative mol mass of 133,286, which is 58% homologous to the rat cerebellar NOS and 51% homologous to the mouse macrophage NOS. The amino-terminal portion of the protein exhibits several characteristics peculiar to the endothelial cell NOS. These include a proline-rich region and several potential sites for proline-directed phosphorylation as well as a potential substrate site for acyl transferase. Northern hybridization to mRNA from cultured BAEC revealed an abundant 4.8-kb message, which was not increased by coincubation with tumor necrosis factor alpha, but was markedly increased by exposure to shear stress for 24 h. The unique features of the endothelial cell NO synthase, particularly in the amino terminal portion of the molecule, may provide for novel regulatory influences of enzyme activity and localization.

  9. Transcriptional Induction of Metallothionein by Tris(pentafluorophenyl)stibane in Cultured Bovine Aortic Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujie, Tomoya; Murakami, Masaki; Yoshida, Eiko; Yasuike, Shuji; Kimura, Tomoki; Fujiwara, Yasuyuki; Yamamoto, Chika; Kaji, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cells cover the luminal surface of blood vessels and contribute to the prevention of vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis. Metallothionein (MT) is a low molecular weight, cysteine-rich, metal-binding, inducible protein, which protects cells from the toxicity of heavy metals and active oxygen species. Endothelial MT is not induced by inorganic zinc. Adequate tools are required to investigate the mechanisms underlying endothelial MT induction. In the present study, we found that an organoantimony compound, tris(pentafluorophenyl)stibane, induces gene expression of MT-1A and MT-2A, which are subisoforms of MT in bovine aortic endothelial cells. The data reveal that MT-1A is induced by activation of both the MTF-1–MRE and Nrf2–ARE pathways, whereas MT-2A expression requires only activation of the MTF-1–MRE pathway. The present data suggest that the original role of MT-1 is to protect cells from heavy metal toxicity and oxidative stress in the biological defense system, while that of MT-2 is to regulate intracellular zinc metabolism. PMID:27563876

  10. Generation and Characterization of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Lines Derived from a Patient with a Bicuspid Aortic Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Lazar-Karsten

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic aortic dilation is the most common malformation of the proximal aorta and is responsible for 1%–2% of all deaths in industrialized countries. In approximately 50% of patients with a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV, dilation of any or all segments of the aorta occurs. BAV patients with aortic dilation show an increased incidence of cultured vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC loss. In this study, VSMC, isolated from the ascending aorta of BAV, was treated with Simian virus 40 to generate a BAV-originated VSMC cell line. To exclude any genomic DNA or cross-contamination, highly polymorphic short tandem repeats of the cells were profiled. The cells were then characterized using flow cytometry and karyotyping. The WG-59 cell line created is the first reported VSMC cell line isolated from a BAV patient. Using an RT2 Profiler PCR Array, genes within the TGFβ/BMP family that are dependent on losartan treatment were identified. Endoglin was found to be among the regulated genes and was downregulated in WG-59 cells following treatment with different losartan concentrations, when compared to untreated WG-59 cells.

  11. Differentiation defect in neural crest-derived smooth muscle cells in patients with aortopathy associated with bicuspid aortic valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Jiao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with bicuspid aortic valves (BAV are at a higher risk of developing thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA than patients with trileaflet aortic valves (TAV. The aneurysms associated with BAV most commonly involve the ascending aorta and spare the descending aorta. Smooth muscle cells (SMCs in the ascending and descending aorta arise from neural crest (NC and paraxial mesoderm (PM, respectively. We hypothesized defective differentiation of the neural crest stem cells (NCSCs-derived SMCs but not paraxial mesoderm cells (PMCs-derived SMCs contributes to the aortopathy associated with BAV. When induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from BAV/TAA patients were differentiated into NCSC-derived SMCs, these cells demonstrated significantly decreased expression of marker of SMC differentiation (MYH11 and impaired contraction compared to normal control. In contrast, the PMC-derived SMCs were similar to control cells in these aspects. The NCSC-SMCs from the BAV/TAA also showed decreased TGF-β signaling based on phosphorylation of SMAD2, and increased mTOR signaling. Inhibition of mTOR pathway using rapamycin rescued the aberrant differentiation. Our data demonstrates that decreased differentiation and contraction of patient's NCSC-derived SMCs may contribute to that aortopathy associated with BAV.

  12. Activation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Parathyroid Hormone Receptor Inhibits Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling and Aortic Fibrosis in Diabetic Arteriosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Su-Li; Shao, Jian-Su; Halstead, Linda R.; Distelhorst, Kathryn; Sierra, Oscar; Towler, Dwight A.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Vascular fibrosis and calcification contribute to diabetic arteriosclerosis, impairing Windkessel physiology necessary for distal tissue perfusion. Wnt family members up-regulated in arteries by the low-grade inflammation of “diabesity” -- stimulate type I collagen expression and osteogenic mineralization of mesenchymal progenitors via β-catenin. Conversely, parathyroid hormone (PTH) inhibits aortic calcification in LDLR (low density lipoprotein receptor)-deficient mice fed high fat diabetogenic diets (HFD). Objective We wished to determine the impact of vascular PTH receptor (PTH1R) activity on arteriosclerotic Wnt/β-catenin signaling in vitro and in vivo. We generated SM-caPTH1R transgenic mice, a model in which the constitutively active PTH1R variant H223R (caPTH1R) is expressed only in the vasculature. Methods and Results The caPTH1R inhibited Wnt/β-catenin signaling, collagen production, and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and calcification in vitro. Transgenic SM-caPTH1R;LDLR+/− mice fed HFD develop “diabesity,” with no improvements in fasting serum glucose, cholesterol, weight, body composition, or bone mass vs. LDLR+/− siblings. SM-caPTH1R down-regulated aortic Col1A1, Runx2, and Nox1 expression without altering TNF, Msx2, Wnt7a/b, or Nox4. The SM-caPTH1R transgene decreased aortic β-catenin protein accumulation and signaling in diabetic LDLR+/− mice. Levels of aortic superoxide -- a precursor of peroxide that activates pro-MMP9 and osteogenic signaling in VSMCs -- were suppressed by the SM-caPTH1R transgene. Aortic calcification, collagen accumulation, and wall thickness were concomitantly reduced, enhancing vessel distensibility. Conclusions Cell-autonomous VSMC PTH1R activity inhibits arteriosclerotic Wnt/β-catenin signaling and reduces vascular oxidative stress, thus limiting aortic type I collagen and calcium accrual in diabetic LDLR-deficient mice. PMID:20489161

  13. Porcine complement regulators protect aortic smooth muscle cells poorly against human complement-induced lysis and proliferation: consequences for xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capey, Steven; van den Berg, Carmen W

    2005-05-01

    Accelerated atherosclerosis after transplantation has been observed and is characterized by smooth muscle cell proliferation in the graft. Porcine cells are frequently used in models of atherosclerosis and porcine organs are considered for use in transplantation. Complement (C) activation is known to play a major role in rejection of xenografts and is also considered to play a role in the development of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and function of membrane bound regulators of complement (CReg) on porcine aortic smooth muscle cells (PASMC). The PASMC were assessed for expression of CReg and susceptibility to lysis by human C by flow-cytometry. The effect of various cytokines on CReg expression and C-susceptibility was investigated. The ability of human C to induce cell proliferation was assessed using the Alamar blue assay. The PASMC only express the CReg membrane cofactor protein (MCP) and CD59 on their cell surface. MCP expression was increased by interleukin (IL)-4. In contrast to porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAEC), PASMC were found to be surprisingly sensitive to C-mediated lysis, mainly due to a low level of expression of CD59. Human C-induced proliferation of PASMC, which was dependent on complete membrane attack complex (MAC) formation. Endogenously expressed CReg on PASMC poorly protect these cells to human C. Human C can induce proliferation of PASMC. In order to prevent accelerated atherosclerosis in porcine xenografts, increased levels of CReg not only have to be obtained on the endothelial cells but also on the smooth muscle cells.

  14. Magnesium reduces calcification in bovine vascular smooth muscle cells in a dose-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Mirjam E.; Sevinc Ok, Ebru; Celenk, Fatma Gul; Yilmaz, Mumtaz; Steppan, Sonja; Asci, Gulay; Ok, Ercan; Passlick-Deetjen, Jutta

    2012-01-01

    Background. Vascular calcification (VC), mainly due to elevated phosphate levels, is one major problem in patients suffering from chronic kidney disease. In clinical studies, an inverse relationship between serum magnesium and VC has been reported. However, there is only few information about the influence of magnesium on calcification on a cellular level available. Therefore, we investigated the effect of magnesium on calcification induced by β-glycerophosphate (BGP) in bovine vascular smooth muscle cells (BVSMCs). Methods. BVSMCs were incubated with calcification media for 14 days while simultaneously increasing the magnesium concentration. Calcium deposition, transdifferentiation of cells and apoptosis were measured applying quantification of calcium, von Kossa and Alizarin red staining, real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and annexin V staining, respectively. Results. Calcium deposition in the cells dramatically increased with addition of BGP and could be mostly prevented by co-incubation with magnesium. Higher magnesium levels led to inhibition of BGP-induced alkaline phosphatase activity as well as to a decreased expression of genes associated with the process of transdifferentiation of BVSMCs into osteoblast-like cells. Furthermore, estimated calcium entry into the cells decreased with increasing magnesium concentrations in the media. In addition, higher magnesium concentrations prevented cell damage (apoptosis) induced by BGP as well as progression of already established calcification. Conclusions. Higher magnesium levels prevented BVSMC calcification, inhibited expression of osteogenic proteins, apoptosis and further progression of already established calcification. Thus, magnesium is influencing molecular processes associated with VC and may have the potential to play a role for VC also in clinical situations. PMID:21750166

  15. Robot-assisted aortic valve replacement using a novel sutureless bovine pericardial prosthesis: proof of concept as an alternative to percutaneous implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Rakesh M; Burkhart, Harold M; Schaff, Hartzell V

    2010-11-01

    : Percutaneous aortic valve implantation within native valve calcium has progressed to clinical use despite the absence of data proving equivalence to complete surgical excision and prosthetic valve replacement. A novel self-expanding sutureless bovine pericardial prosthesis (Sorin Perceval) derived from a proven stented valve has been successfully used in humans recently through an open transaortic approach. We sought to develop a minimally invasive technique for native aortic valve excision and sutureless prosthetic aortic valve replacement using robot assistance. : The da Vinci S-HD system was used to open and suspend the pericardium anterior to the phrenic nerve in cadavers. A transthoracic cross-clamp was placed across the midascending aorta, following which a transverse aortotomy was made. The native aortic valve cusps were excised, and annular calcium was removed with robotic instruments. After placement of three guide sutures, the Perceval self-expanding pericardial prosthesis mounted on a flexible delivery system was inserted through a working port and lowered into the aortic annulus. : Successful implantation of all valves was possible using a 3-cm right second intercostal space working port, along with two additional 1-cm instrument ports. A standard transverse aortotomy was sufficient for examination/debridement of the native aortic valve cusps, sizing of the annulus, and deployment of the nitinol-stented, bovine pericardial prosthesis. Delivery, seating, and stability of the device were easily confirmed above and below the aortic valve annulus using the robotic camera. : Complete excision of diseased native aortic valve cusps with robot assistance facilitates accurate and reproducible aortic valve replacement using a novel self-expanding sutureless version of a proven bovine pericardial prosthesis. This approach is comparable to the current surgical gold standard and is ready for clinical use as an alternative to percutaneous aortic valve implantation.

  16. Receptor-mediated release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor and prostacyclin from bovine aortic endothelial cells is coupled

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Nucci, G.; Gryglewski, R.J.; Warner, T.D.; Vane, J.R. (William Harvey Research Institute, London (England))

    1988-04-01

    Bovine aortic endothelial cells were grown on microcarrier beads and were perfused with Krebs-Ringer solution. Endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) was bioassayed on a cascade of four strips of rabbit aorta, and prostacyclin was analyzed by RIA of 6-oxo-prostaglandin F{sub 1{alpha}}. The endothelial cells released EDRF and prostacyclin when stimulated with bradykinin and its analogues, or with ADP, ATP, arachidonic acid, and phospholipase C. The detection of EDRF was potentiated by superoxide dismutase, and the relaxation of rabbit aortic strips induced by EDRF was antagonized by methylene blue. The release of EDRF and prostacyclin was inhibited by phorbol myristate acetate, R59022 (a diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor), and gentamycin. The authors suggest that the release of EDRF and prostacyclin is coupled and the initial common step is activation of a phospholipase C.

  17. Synchronous Carotid Bifurcation Endarterectomy and Retrograde Kissing Stenting of the Innominate and Left Common Carotid Artery in a Patient with a Bovine Aortic Arch

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Robaldo; Guido Carignano; Alberto Balderi; Claudio Novali

    2017-01-01

    Management of the symptomatic multiple stenosis of supra-aortic vessels (MSSVs) in a “bovine” aortic arch (BAA) configuration is infrequently reported. The optimal treatment choice remains debatable. A successful hybrid treatment for a proximal critical stenosis of the innominate and left common carotid artery was performed in a high-risk patient with a tandem symptomatic lesion in the right carotid bifurcation and a concentric vulnerable plaque in the bovine trunk. This case supports the fea...

  18. Sarcoplasmic reticulum buffering of myoplasmic calcium in bovine coronary artery smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturek, M; Kunda, K; Hu, Q

    1992-01-01

    1. We tested the hypothesis that the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) buffers (attenuates) the increase in averaged myoplasmic free [Ca2+] (Ca(im)) resulting from Ca2+ influx. 2. Fura-2 measurements of Ca(im) were obtained in single smooth muscle cells freshly dispersed from bovine coronary artery. 3. Caffeine (5 x 10(-3) M) elicited a transient increase in Ca(im) and depleted the SR Ca2+ store. In the continued presence of caffeine or 10(-5) M-ryanodine SR buffering of Ca(im) was inhibited. Subsequent exposure to high extracellular [K+] (greater than 30 mM, equimolar Na+ removal) elicited a 2-fold more rapid and 2-fold greater peak increase in Ca(im) than high K+ elicited when SR buffering of Ca(im) was normal. The augmented increase in Ca(im) was inhibited 35% by 10(-5) M-diltiazem, 65% by 2 x 10(-4) M-LaCl3, and 87% in Ca(2+)-free external solution. 4. When Ca(im) buffering capacity was increased by partially depleting the SR with a transient (1 min) exposure to caffeine, subsequent exposure to 80 nM-K+ solution increased Ca(im) almost 2-fold more slowly than 80 mM-K+ before depletion of Ca2+ from the SR. However, the influxing Ca2+ was sequestered by the SR and refilled it, as evident by the subsequent caffeine-induced Ca(im) transient being identical to the first. Increasing extracellular [K+] (thus, increasing depolarization and Na+ removal) caused proportional increases in Ca(im) and the subsequent caffeine-induced Ca(im) transients were proportionally larger, indicating a graded filling of the SR by Ca2+ influx. 5. Diltiazem (10(-5) M) inhibited the refilling of the SR achieved by 80 mM-K+, by 26%. Refilling was inhibited 76% by 80 mM-K+, Ca(2+)-free solution, indicating the fraction of refilling dependent on influx of Ca2+ through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, leak channels, and other influx pathways. Mild depolarization with 35 mM-K+ (no Na+ removal) often caused no increase in Ca(im), but influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels occurred because the SR Ca2

  19. Relaxation of uterine and aortic smooth muscle by glaucolides D and E from Vernonia liatroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, María; Oropeza, Martha; Ponce, Héctor; Fernández, Jaquelina; Jimenez-Estrada, Manuel; Torres, Héctor; Reyes-Chilpa, Ricardo

    2003-01-01

    Vernonia spp. (Asteraceae) are used in herbolaria in Latin America in menstrual and stomach disorders, suggesting smooth muscle relaxing properties of some of their chemical constituents. For pharmacological support for this belief, sesquiterpene lactones glaucolides D and E were assayed on isolated rat smooth muscle. Glaucolide E proved more potent than glaucolide D to relax high KCl- or noradrenaline-induced contractions in aorta and to relax the high KCl-contraction in uterus. Hirsutinolide-type sesquiterpene lactone also was tested but displayed no effect. Relaxation of smooth muscle by structurally related sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide has been attributed mainly to the alpha-methylene gamma-lactone moiety; because glaucolides D and E lack this functional group, their relaxant properties may rely on other alkylating sites such as C10 of the germacra-1(10),4-diene-4-epoxide skeleton.

  20. Glycosylated human oxyhaemoglobin activates nuclear factor-kappaB and activator protein-1 in cultured human aortic smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiro, Concepcion; Matesanz, Nuria; Nevado, Julian; Lafuente, Nuria; Cercas, Elena; Azcutia, Veronica; Vallejo, Susana; Rodriguez-Manas, Leocadio; Sanchez-Ferrer, Carlos F

    2003-10-01

    Diabetic vessels undergo structural changes that are linked to a high incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate cell signalling in the vasculature, where they can promote cell growth and activate redox-regulated transcription factors, like activator protein-1 (AP-1) or nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), which are involved in remodelling and inflammation processes. Amadori adducts, formed through nonenzymatic glycosylation, can contribute to ROS formation in diabetes. In this study, we analysed whether Amadori-modified human oxyhaemoglobin, glycosylated at either normal (N-Hb) or elevated (E-Hb) levels, can induce cell growth and activate AP-1 and NF-kappaB in cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC). E-Hb (1 nm-1 x microm), but not N-Hb, promoted a concentration-dependent increase in cell size from nanomolar concentrations, although it failed to stimulate HASMC proliferation. At 10 nm, E-Hb stimulated both AP-1 and NF-kappaB activity, as assessed by transient transfection, electromobility shift assays or immunofluorescence staining. The effects of E-Hb resembled those of the proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). E-Hb enhanced intracellular superoxide anions content and its effects on HASMC were abolished by different ROS scavengers. In conclusion, E-Hb stimulates growth and activates AP-1 and NF-kappaB in human vascular smooth muscle by redox-sensitive pathways, thus suggesting a possible direct role for Amadori adducts in diabetic vasculopathy.

  1. Genistein suppresses tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced proliferation via the apoptotic signaling pathway in human aortic smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyuck; Lee, Min-Ja; Kim, Jai-Eun; Park, Sun-Dong; Moon, Hyung-In; Park, Won-Hwan

    2010-02-10

    The proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays a key role in the development of atherosclerosis. Abnormal VSMC proliferation induces vascular dysfunction and several other pathological processes. The present study investigated the apoptotic effects of genistein on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced proliferation in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). The apoptotic effects of genistein were assessed to determine the mechanism(s) of its antiproliferative activity, including MTT, LDH assay, morphological change of cell, DNA fragmentation, and expression levels of pro- or anti-apoptotic molecules by RT-PCR and Western blots. The results show that genistein significantly reduced cell proliferation in TNF-alpha-induced HASMCs. Genistein also reduced intracellular nuclei staining with DAPI in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, genistein increased nucleosomal DNA fragmentation, increased the expression levels of Bax and c-Myc, and decreased the expression levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL in TNF-alpha-induced HASMCs. Taken together, these findings indicate that genistein regulates the activation of apoptosis-related molecules in TNF-alpha-induced HASMCs, leading to the suppression of proliferation and induction of apoptosis.

  2. Smooth muscle cells in bovine cervical ripening and dilatation; contractility, degrading enzymes and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Engelen, E.

    2008-01-01

    Cervical ripening is a complex process of modification of cervical tissue that enables dilation of the cervix at parturition. Cervical smooth muscle tissue might play a role by contracting or by secretion of cytokines or MMPs. To assess a contractile role for the cervical smooth muscle cells in

  3. Stereological study of the elastic fiber and smooth muscle cell system in the bovine and buffalo penis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilma C.A. Ribeiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Samples of ten penises of Mediterranean buffaloes and ten penises of Red Sindhi cattle were used. The thickness of the tunica albuginea (TA, distribution of smooth muscle cells (SMC and volume density (Vv of elastic system fibers in TA, corpus cavernosum (CC and corpus spongiosum (CS were evaluated. The Vv of elastic system fibers in buffalo and bovine penis was respectively 4.07% ±0.88% and 3.36% ±1.21% in TA; 17.32% ±2.21% and 13.14% ±1.27% (CC, 26.58% ±4.31% and 31.36% ±3.67% (CS. The CC of buffalo presented higher Vv of elastic fibers than bovine, while in the CS the Vv of elastic fibers in buffaloes was smaller than in cattle. The TA thickness showed a significant difference among the species studied. The arrangement of SMC in the bovine penises and in the water buffalo suggests that this pattern is common to animals that have fibroelastic penises.

  4. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits proliferation of human aortic smooth muscle cells via up-regulating expression of mitofusin 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zhouwu; Yu, Min; Zeng, Guoning; Zhang, Xin; Wu, Libiao; Tan, Xuerui

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) inhibits the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) via the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway. Mitofusin 2 (Mfn-2) also suppresses VSMC proliferation through Ras-Raf-ERK/MAPK, suggesting a possible link between EGCG, Mfn-2 and ERK/MAPK. However, the effect of EGCG on Mfn-2 remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of Mfn-2 in the regulation of VSMC proliferation by EGCG, and assessed the underlying mechanisms. The effects of EGCG on the proliferation of cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) were observed by 5-ethynl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation assay. Mfn-2 gene and protein levels, and Ras, p-c-Raf and p-ERK1/2 protein levels were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. Mfn-2 gene silencing was achieved by RNA interference. EGCG 50 μmol/L profoundly inhibited the proliferation of HASMCs in culture, up-regulated Mfn-2, and down-regulated the expression of p-c-Raf and p-ERK1/2. Furthermore, RNA interference-mediated gene knockdown of Mfn-2 antagonized EGCG-induced anti-proliferation and down-regulation of Ras, p-c-Raf and p-ERK1/2. These results suggest that EGCG inhibits the proliferation of HASMCs in vitro largely via Mfn-2-mediated suppression of the Ras-Raf-ERK/MAPK signaling pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanical stretch modulates microRNA 21 expression, participating in proliferation and apoptosis in cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian tao Song

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Stretch affects vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and apoptosis, and several responsible genes have been proposed. We tested whether the expression of microRNA 21 (miR-21 is modulated by stretch and is involved in stretch-induced proliferation and apoptosis of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs. METHODS AND RESULTS: RT-PCR revealed that elevated stretch (16% elongation, 1 Hz increased miR-21 expression in cultured HASMCs, and moderate stretch (10% elongation, 1 Hz decreased the expression. BrdU incorporation assay and cell counting showed miR-21 involved in the proliferation of HASMCs mediated by stretch, likely by regulating the expression of p27 and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein (p-Rb. FACS analysis revealed that the complex of miR-21 and programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4 participated in regulating apoptosis with stretch. Stretch increased the expression of primary miR-21 and pre-miR-21 in HASMCs. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA demonstrated that stretch increased NF-κB and AP-1 activities in HASMCs, and blockade of AP-1 activity by c-jun siRNA significantly suppressed stretch-induced miR-21 expression. CONCLUSIONS: Cyclic stretch modulates miR-21 expression in cultured HASMCs, and miR-21 plays important roles in regulating proliferation and apoptosis mediated by stretch. Stretch upregulates miR-21 expression at least in part at the transcription level and AP-1 is essential for stretch-induced miR-21 expression.

  6. Glycosylated human oxyhaemoglobin activates nuclear factor-κB and activator protein-1 in cultured human aortic smooth muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiró, Concepción; Matesanz, Nuria; Nevado, Julián; Lafuente, Nuria; Cercas, Elena; Azcutia, Verónica; Vallejo, Susana; Rodríguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Sánchez-Ferrer, Carlos F

    2003-01-01

    Diabetic vessels undergo structural changes that are linked to a high incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate cell signalling in the vasculature, where they can promote cell growth and activate redox-regulated transcription factors, like activator protein-1 (AP-1) or nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which are involved in remodelling and inflammation processes. Amadori adducts, formed through nonenzymatic glycosylation, can contribute to ROS formation in diabetes. In this study, we analysed whether Amadori-modified human oxyhaemoglobin, glycosylated at either normal (N-Hb) or elevated (E-Hb) levels, can induce cell growth and activate AP-1 and NF-κB in cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC). E-Hb (1 nM–1 μM), but not N-Hb, promoted a concentration-dependent increase in cell size from nanomolar concentrations, although it failed to stimulate HASMC proliferation. At 10 nM, E-Hb stimulated both AP-1 and NF-κB activity, as assessed by transient transfection, electromobility shift assays or immunofluorescence staining. The effects of E-Hb resembled those of the proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). E-Hb enhanced intracellular superoxide anions content and its effects on HASMC were abolished by different ROS scavengers. In conclusion, E-Hb stimulates growth and activates AP-1 and NF-κB in human vascular smooth muscle by redox-sensitive pathways, thus suggesting a possible direct role for Amadori adducts in diabetic vasculopathy. PMID:14504138

  7. High glucose induces cell death of cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells through the formation of hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiró, C; Lafuente, N; Matesanz, N; Cercas, E; Llergo, J L; Vallejo, S; Rodríguez-Mañas, L; Sánchez-Ferrer, C F

    2001-08-01

    Alterations of the vessel structure, which is mainly determined by smooth muscle cells through cell growth and/or cell death mechanisms, are characteristic of diabetes complications. We analysed the influence of high glucose (22 mM) on cultured human aortic smooth muscle cell growth and death, as hyperglycaemia is considered one of the main factors involved in diabetic vasculopathy. Growth curves were performed over 96 h in medium containing 0.5% foetal calf serum. Cell number increased by 2 - 4 fold over the culture period in the presence of 5.5 mM (low) glucose, while a 20% reduction in final cell number was observed with high glucose. Under serum-free conditions, cell number remained constant in low glucose cultures, but a 40% decrease was observed in high glucose cultures, suggesting that high glucose may induce increased cell death rather than reduced proliferation. Reduced final cell number induced by high glucose was also observed after stimulation with 5 or 10% foetal calf serum. The possible participation of oxidative stress was investigated by co-incubating high glucose with different reactive oxygen species scavengers. Only catalase reversed the effect of high glucose. Intracellular H(2)O(2) content, visualized with 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein and quantified by flow cytometry, was increased after high glucose treatment. To investigate the cell death mechanism induced by high glucose, apoptosis and necrosis were quantified. No differences were observed regarding the apoptotic index between low and high glucose cultures, but lactate dehydrogenase activity was increased in high glucose cultures. In conclusion, high glucose promotes necrotic cell death through H(2)O(2) formation, which may participate in the development of diabetic vasculopathy.

  8. Intracellular pH changes in human aortic smooth muscle cells in response to fluid shear stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatas, G. N.; Patrick, C. W. Jr; McIntire, L. V.

    1997-01-01

    The smooth muscle cell (SMC) layers of human arteries may be exposed to blood flow after endothelium denudation, for example, following balloon angioplasty treatment. These SMCs are also constantly subjected to pressure driven transmural fluid flow. Flow-induced shear stress can alter SMC growth and metabolism. Signal transduction mechanisms involved in these flow effects on SMCs are still poorly understood. In this work, the hypothesis that shear stress alters the intracellular pH (pHi) of SMC is examined. When exposed to venous and arterial levels of shear stress, human aortic smooth muscle cells (hASMC) undergo alkalinization. The alkalinization plateau persisted even after 20 min of cell exposure to flow. Addition of amiloride (10 micromoles) or its 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl) analog (EIPA, 10 micromoles), both Na+/H+ exchanger inhibitors, attenuated intracellular alkalinization, suggesting the involvement of the Na+/H+ exchanger in this response. The same concentrations of these inhibitors did not show an effect on pHi of hASMCs in static culture. 4-Acetamido-4'-isothio-cyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (SITS, 1 mM), a Cl-/HCO3- exchange inhibitor, affected the pHi of hASMCs both in static and flow conditions. Our results suggest that flow may perturb the Na+/H+ exchanger leading to an alkalinization of hASMCs, a different response from the flow-induced acidification seen with endothelial cells at the same levels of shear stress. Understanding the flow-induced signal transduction pathways in the vascular cells is of great importance in the tissue engineering of vascular grafts. In the case of SMCs, the involvement of pHi changes in nitric oxide production and proliferation regulation highlights further the significance of such studies.

  9. THE PRESENCE OF 5 CYCLIC-NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE ISOENZYME ACTIVITIES IN BOVINE TRACHEAL SMOOTH-MUSCLE AND THE FUNCTIONAL-EFFECTS OF SELECTIVE INHIBITORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANAMSTERDAM, RGM; DEBOER, J; TENBERGE, RE; NICHOLSON, CD; ZAAGSMA, J

    1991-01-01

    1 The profile of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) isoenzymes and the relaxant effects of isoenzyme selective inhibitors were examined in bovine tracheal smooth muscle. The compounds examined were the non-selective inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), zaprinast (PDE V selective),

  10. Theophylline and cAMP inhibit lysophosphatidic acid-induced hyperresponsiveness of bovine tracheal smooth muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Jiro; Oike, Masahiro; Hirakawa, Masakazu; Ito, Yushi

    2003-01-01

    We have established an in vitro model of airway hyperresponsiveness, using a bovine tracheal smooth muscle cell (BTSMC)-embedded collagen gel lattice. When the gel was pretreated with lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which activates the small G protein RhoA, ATP- and high K+ solution-induced gel contraction was significantly augmented. This was not due to the modulation of Ca2+ mobilizing properties, since ATP- and high K+-induced Ca2+ transients were not significantly different between control and LPA-treated BTSMC. Y-27632, an inhibitor of Rho-kinase, suppressed the LPA-induced augmentation of gel contraction, whereas it did not inhibit the contraction of control gels. Theophylline (> 1 μm) reversed the LPA-induced augmentation of gel contraction, whereas it inhibited control gel contraction only with a very high concentration (100 μm). We confirmed that theophylline increased the intracellular concentration of cAMP ([cAMP]i) in BTSMC. Elevation of [cAMP]i with dibutyryl cAMP or forskolin also reversed the LPA-induced augmentation of gel contraction. Furthermore, theophylline, as well as dibutyryl cAMP and forskolin, suppressed the LPA-induced membrane translocation of RhoA, indicating that they prevented airway hyperresponsiveness by inhibiting RhoA. We conclude from these results that theophylline inhibits LPA-induced, RhoA/Rho-kinase-mediated hyperresponsiveness of tracheal smooth muscle cells due to the accumulation of cAMP. PMID:12679373

  11. Role of ERK/MAPK in endothelin receptor signaling in human aortic smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvinsson Lars

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelin-1 (ET-1 is a potent vasoactive peptide, which induces vasoconstriction and proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs through activation of endothelin type A (ETA and type B (ETB receptors. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK are involved in ET-1-induced VSMC contraction and proliferation. This study was designed to investigate the ETA and ETB receptor intracellular signaling in human VSMCs and used phosphorylation (activation of ERK1/2 as a functional signal molecule for endothelin receptor activity. Results Subconfluent human VSMCs were stimulated by ET-1 at different concentrations (1 nM-1 μM. The activation of ERK1/2 was examined by immunofluorescence, Western blot and phosphoELISA using specific antibody against phosphorylated ERK1/2 protein. ET-1 induced a concentration- and time- dependent activation of ERK1/2 with a maximal effect at 10 min. It declined to baseline level at 30 min. The ET-1-induced activation of ERK1/2 was completely abolished by MEK1/2 inhibitors U0126 and SL327, and partially inhibited by the MEK1 inhibitor PD98059. A dual endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan or the ETA antagonist BQ123 blocked the ET-1 effect, while the ETB antagonist BQ788 had no significant effect. However, a selective ETB receptor agonist, Sarafotoxin 6c (S6c caused a time-dependent ERK1/2 activation with a maximal effect by less than 20% of the ET-1-induced activation of ERK1/2. Increase in bosentan concentration up to 10 μM further inhibited ET-1-induced activation of ERK1/2 and had a stronger inhibitory effect than BQ123 or the combined use of BQ123 and BQ788. To further explore ET-1 intracellular signaling, PKC inhibitors (staurosporin and GF109203X, PKC-delta inhibitor (rottlerin, PKA inhibitor (H-89, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin were applied. The inhibitors showed significant inhibitory effects on ET-1

  12. Transitions in cell organization and in expression of contractile and extracellular matrix proteins during development of chicken aortic smooth muscle: evidence for a complex spatial and temporal differentiation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora; Christ, Bodo; Benson, Janice M.

    2014-01-01

    Whereas the understanding of the mechanisms underlying skeletal and cardiac muscle development has been increased dramatically in recent years, the understanding of smooth muscle development is still in its infancy. This paper summarizes studies on the ontogeny of chicken smooth muscle cells in the wall of the aorta and aortic arch-derived arteries. Employing immunocyto-chemistry with antibodies against smooth muscle contractile and extracellular matrix proteins we trace smooth muscle cell patterning from early development throughout adulthood. Comparing late stage embryos to young and adult chickens we demonstrate, for all the stages analyzed, that the cells in the media of aortic arch-derived arteries and of the thoracic aorta are organized in alternating lamellae. The lamellar cells, but not the interlamellar cells, express smooth muscle specific contractile proteins and are surrounded by basement membrane proteins. This smooth muscle cell organization of lamellar and interlamellar cells is fully acquired by embryonic day 11 (ED11). We further show that, during earlier stages of embryogenesis (ED3 through ED7), cells expressing smooth muscle proteins appear only in the peri-endothelial region of the aortic and aortic arch wall and are organized as a narrow band of cells that does not demonstrate the lamellar-interlamellar pattern. On ED9, infrequent cells organized in lamellar-interlamellar organization can be detected and their frequency increases by ED10. In addition to changes in cell organization, we show that there is a characteristic sequence of contractile and extracellular matrix protein expression during development of the aortic wall. At ED3 the peri-endothelial band of differentiated smooth muscle cells is already positive for smooth muscle alpha actin (αSM-actin) and fibronectin. By the next embryonic day the peri-endothelial cell layer is also positive for smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (SM-MLCK). Subsequently, by ED5 this peri

  13. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor increases angiotensin type 1A receptor gene expression in aortic smooth muscle cells of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negoro, N; Kanayama, Y; Iwai, J; Umetani, N; Nishimura, M; Konishi, Y; Okamura, M; Inoue, T; Takeda, T

    1994-04-12

    To examine the regulation of angiotensin receptors in vascular smooth muscle cells, we studied the effects of antihypertensive drugs on angiotensin type 1A (AT1A) receptor gene expression in aortic smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) using both ribonuclease protection assay and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. An increase in AT1A receptor gene expression in ASMCs of SHRs was induced by treatment with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (enalapril) for 2 weeks and 4 weeks, but not by other types of antihypertensive drugs such as alpha-blocker (doxazosin), alpha, beta-blocker (arotinolol), Ca antagonist (nicardipine) or vascular smooth muscle relaxant (hydralazine). Since all antihypertensive drugs lowered the blood pressure of the rats almost equally, our results suggest that AT1A receptor gene expression in ASMCs of SHRs may be regulated by the vascular renin-angiotensin system.

  14. Cyclic Mechanical Stretch Up-regulates Hepatoma-Derived Growth Factor Expression in Cultured Rat Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Ying-Hsien; Chen, Po-Han; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Chang, Yo-Chen; Lin, Yu-Chun; Tsai, Ming-Shian; Lee, Po-Huang; Cheng, Cheng-I

    2018-02-21

    Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is a potent mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) during embryogenesis and injury repair of vessel walls. Whether mechanical stimuli modulate HDGF expression remains unknown. This study aimed at investigating whether cyclic mechanical stretch plays a regulatory role in HDGF expression and regenerative cytokine production in aortic SMCs. A SMC cell line was grown on a silicone-based elastomer chamber with extracellular matrix coatings (either type I collagen or fibronectin) and received cyclic and uni-axial mechanical stretches with 10% deformation at frequency 1 Hz. Morphological observation showed that fibronectin coating provided better cell adhesion and spreading and that consecutive 6 hours of cyclic mechanical stretch remarkably induced reorientation and realignment of SMCs. Western blotting detection demonstrated that continuous mechanical stimuli elicited up-regulation of HDGF and PCNA, a cell proliferative marker. Signal kinetic profiling study indicated that cyclic mechanical stretch induced signaling activity in RhoA/ROCK and PI3K/Akt cascades. Kinase inhibition study further showed that blockade of PI3K activity suppressed the stretch-induced TNF-a, whereas RhoA/ROCK inhibition significantly blunted the IL-6 production and HDGF over-expression. Moreover, siRNA-mediated HDGF gene silencing significantly suppressed constitutive expression of IL-6, but not TNF-α, in SMCs. These findings support the role of HDGF in maintaining vascular expression of IL-6, which has been regarded a crucial regenerative factor for acute vascular injury. In conclusion, cyclic mechanical stretch may maintain constitutive expression of HDGF in vascular walls and be regarded an important biophysical regulator in vascular regeneration. ©2018 The Author(s).

  15. Rock Tea extract (Jasonia glutinosa) relaxes rat aortic smooth muscle by inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Marta Sofía; Oliván-Viguera, Aida; Garrido, Irene; Langa, Elisa; Berzosa, César; López, Víctor; Gómez-Rincón, Carlota; Murillo, María Divina; Köhler, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    In traditional herbal medicine, Rock Tea (Jasonia glutinosa) is known for its prophylactic and therapeutic value in various disorders including arterial hypertension. However, the mechanism by which Rock Tea exerts blood pressure-lowering actions has not been elucidated yet. Our aim was to demonstrate vasorelaxing effects of Rock Tea extract and to reveal its possible action mechanism. Isometric myography was conducted on high-K+-precontracted rings from rat thoracic aorta and tested extracts at concentrations of 0.5-5 mg/ml. Whole-cell patch-clamp experiments were performed in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (line A7r5) to determine blocking effects on L-type Ca(2+) channels. Rock Tea extract relaxed the aorta contracted by high [K+] concentration dependently with an EC50 of ≈2.4 mg/ml and produced ≈75 % relaxation at the highest concentration tested. The L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, verapamil (10(-6) M), had similar effects. Rock Tea extract had no effect in nominally Ca(2+)-free high-K(+) buffer but significantly inhibited contractions to re-addition of Ca(2+). Rock Tea extract inhibited the contractions induced by the L-type Ca(2+) channel activator Bay K 8644 (10(-5) M) and by phenylephrine (10(-6) M). Rock Tea extract and Y-27632 (10(-6) M), Rho-kinase inhibitor, had similar effects and the respective effects were not additive. Patch-clamp experiments demonstrated that Rock Tea extract (2.5 mg/ml) virtually abolished L-type Ca(2+) currents in A7r5. We conclude that Rock Tea extract produced vasorelaxation of rat aorta and that this relaxant effect is mediated by inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channels. Rock Tea extracts may be of phytomedicinal value for prevention and adjuvant treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Histamine induces activation of protein kinase D that mediates tissue factor expression and activity in human aortic smooth muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Feng; Wu, Daniel Dongwei; Xu, Xuemin

    2012-01-01

    Histamine, an inflammatory mediator, has been shown to influence the pathogenesis of vascular wall cells. However, the molecular basis of its influence is not well understood. Our data reveal that histamine markedly induces protein kinase D (PKD) activation in human aortic smooth muscle cells. PKD belongs to a family of serine/threonine protein kinases, and its function in vascular disease is largely unknown. Our data show that histamine-induced PKD phosphorylation is dependent on the activation of histamine receptor 1 and protein kinase C (PKC). To determine the role of PKD in the histamine pathway, we employed a small-interfering RNA approach to downregulate PKD expression and found that PKD1 and PKD2 are key mediators for expression of tissue factor (TF), which is the key initiator of blood coagulation and is important for thrombosis. Our results show that PKD2 predominantly mediates histamine-induced TF expression via the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, whereas PKD1 mediates histamine-induced TF expression through a p38 MAPK-independent pathway. We demonstrate that histamine induces TF expression via the PKC-dependent PKD activation. Our data provide the first evidence that PKD is a new component in histamine signaling in live cells and that PKD has a novel function in the histamine signaling pathway leading to gene expression, as evidenced by TF expression. Importantly, our data reveal a regulatory link from histamine to PKD and TF, providing new insights into the mechanisms of coagulation and the development of atherothrombosis. PMID:23001835

  17. Eptifibatide and abciximab inhibit insulin-induced focal adhesion formation and proliferative responses in human aortic smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Jianhua

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of abciximab (c7E3 Fab or eptifibatide improves clinical outcomes in diabetics undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. These β3 integrin inhibitors antagonize fibrinogen binding to αIIbβ3 integrins on platelets and ligand binding to αvβ3 integrins on vascular cells. αvβ3 integrins influence responses to insulin in various cell types but effects in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC are unknown. Results and discussion Insulin elicited a dose-dependent proliferative response in HASMC. Pretreatment with m7E3 (an anti-β3 integrin monoclonal antibody from which abciximab is derived, c7E3 or LM609 inhibited proliferative responses to insulin by 81%, 59% and 28%, respectively. Eptifibatide or cyclic RGD peptides completely abolished insulin-induced proliferation whereas tirofiban, which binds αIIbβ3 but not αvβ3, had no effect. Insulin-induced increases in c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase-1 (JNK1 activity were partially inhibited by m7E3 and eptifibatide whereas antagonism of αvβ3 integrins had no effect on insulin-induced increases in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK activity. Insulin stimulated a rapid increase in the number of vinculin-containing focal adhesions per cell and treatment with m7E3, c7E3 or eptifibatide inhibited insulin-induced increases in focal adhesions by 100%, 74% and 73%, respectively. Conclusion These results demonstrate that αvβ3 antagonists inhibit signaling, focal adhesion formation and proliferation of insulin-treated HASMC.

  18. Eptifibatide and abciximab inhibit insulin-induced focal adhesion formation and proliferative responses in human aortic smooth muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Alokkumar; Zhao, Renyi; Huang, Jianhua; Stouffer, George A

    2008-01-01

    Background The use of abciximab (c7E3 Fab) or eptifibatide improves clinical outcomes in diabetics undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. These β3 integrin inhibitors antagonize fibrinogen binding to αIIbβ3 integrins on platelets and ligand binding to αvβ3 integrins on vascular cells. αvβ3 integrins influence responses to insulin in various cell types but effects in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC) are unknown. Results and discussion Insulin elicited a dose-dependent proliferative response in HASMC. Pretreatment with m7E3 (an anti-β3 integrin monoclonal antibody from which abciximab is derived), c7E3 or LM609 inhibited proliferative responses to insulin by 81%, 59% and 28%, respectively. Eptifibatide or cyclic RGD peptides completely abolished insulin-induced proliferation whereas tirofiban, which binds αIIbβ3 but not αvβ3, had no effect. Insulin-induced increases in c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase-1 (JNK1) activity were partially inhibited by m7E3 and eptifibatide whereas antagonism of αvβ3 integrins had no effect on insulin-induced increases in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity. Insulin stimulated a rapid increase in the number of vinculin-containing focal adhesions per cell and treatment with m7E3, c7E3 or eptifibatide inhibited insulin-induced increases in focal adhesions by 100%, 74% and 73%, respectively. Conclusion These results demonstrate that αvβ3 antagonists inhibit signaling, focal adhesion formation and proliferation of insulin-treated HASMC. PMID:19108709

  19. Prostacyclin production in rat aortic smooth muscle cells: role of protein kinase C, phospholipase D and cyclooxygenase-2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, Miguel A; Dubouloz, Frédérique; Rebsamen, Michela C; Lang, Ursula

    2003-11-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the role of protein kinase C (PKC) and phospholipase D (PLD) in angiotensin II (AngII)- and phorbol ester (PMA)-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and prostacyclin (PGI(2)) production in rat aortic smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Prostacyclin production in cultured VSMC was determined by radioimmunoassay. PKC activity was examined by measuring the transfer of 32P from (gamma-32P)ATP to histone III-S. COX-2 expression was determined by Western blotting. To measure PLD activity, thin layer chromatography was used. AngII (50 nM) and PMA (100 nM) promoted the translocation of PKC activity from the cytosol to the membranes within 30 min, followed by a strong increase in PLD activity as well as COX-2 expression and PGI(2) production. After 48 h exposure to PMA, PKC was downregulated resulting in a complete suppression of its activity. PKC-downregulation and the PKC inhibitor CGP41251 abolished PMA- and AngII-induced PLD activation, suppressed the stimulatory effect of PMA on COX-2 expression and PGI(2) production and strongly inhibited that of AngII. Furthermore, AngII- and PMA-induced PGI(2) production depended on protein synthesis and COX-2 but not COX-1 activity. Inhibition of PLD-mediated phosphatidic acid (PA) formation by 1% 1-butanol abolished AngII-induced COX-2 expression and PGI(2) secretion, while dioctanoyl PA increased COX-2 expression and PGI(2) production in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Our results indicate that in VSMC, AngII promotes PGI(2) production to a large extent through a rise in COX-2 expression which is mediated by PA generated from increased PKC-dependent PLD activity.

  20. Brahma-related gene 1 inhibits proliferation and migration of human aortic smooth muscle cells by directly up-regulating Ras-related associated with diabetes in the pathophysiologic processes of aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei-Lin; Tan, Meng-Wei; Yuan, Yang; Wang, Guo-Kun; Wang, Chong; Tang, Hao; Xu, Zhi-Yun

    2015-11-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms of Brahma-related gene 1 (Brg1) involvement in the pathophysiologic processes of aortic dissection. Seventeen dissecting, 4 dilated, and 10 healthy human aorta samples were collected. Expression of Brg1 in the medium of aorta was evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemical staining, respectively. The regulation effect of Brg1 on proliferation and migration of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) was analyzed in 3 ways: using cell counting, a migration chamber, and a wound scratch assay. A polymerase chain reaction array was used for screening potential target genes of Brg1. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was adopted for direct deoxyribonucleic acid-protein binding detection. Expression levels of Brg1 were increased in aortic dissection and aortic dilation patients. In vitro results indicated that overexpression of Brg1 inhibited proliferation and migration of HASMCs. The candidate proliferation- and migration-related Brg1 target gene found was Ras-related associated with diabetes (RRAD), expression levels of which were enhanced in dissecting aortic specimens. The direct regulation effect of Brg1 on RRAD was verified by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay results. Furthermore, down-regulating RRAD significantly alleviated the suppression effects of Brg1 on proliferation and migration of HASMCs. Our study illustrated that Brg1 inhibited the proliferation and migration capacity of HASMCs, via the mechanism of direct up-regulation of RRAD, thus playing an important role in the pathophysiologic processes of aortic dissection. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Augmentation of bovine airway smooth muscle responsiveness to carbachol, KCl, and histamine by the isoprostane 8-iso-PGE2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalli, Adriana; Janssen, Luke J

    2004-11-01

    Isoprostanes are generated during periods of oxidative stress, which characterize diseases such as asthma and cystic fibrosis. They also elicit functional responses and may therefore contribute to the pathology of these diseases. We set out to examine the effects of isoprostanes on airway responsiveness to cholinergic stimulation. Muscle bath techniques were employed using isolated bovine tracheal smooth muscle. 8-Isoprostaglandin E2 (8-iso-PGE2) increased tone directly on its own, although the magnitude of this response, even at the highest concentration tested, was only a fraction of that evoked by KCl or carbachol. More importantly, though, pretreatment of the tissues with 8-iso-PGE2 (10 microM) markedly augmented responses to submaximal and even subthreshold concentrations of KCl, carbachol, or histamine, whereas maximal responses to these agents were unaffected by the isoprostane. The augmentative effect on cholinergic responsiveness was mimicked by PGE2 (0.1 microM) and by the FP agonists PGF2 (0.1 microM) and fluprostenol (0.1 microM), but not by the EP3 agonist sulprostone (0.1 microM) or the TP agonist U-46619 (0.1 microM). Antagonists of EP1 receptors (AH-6809 and SC-19920, 10 microM) and TP receptors (ICI-192605, 1 microM) had no effect on 8-iso-PGE2-induced augmentation of cholinergic responsiveness. We conclude that 8-iso-PGE2 induces nonspecific airway smooth muscle hyperresponsiveness through a non-TP non-EP prostanoid receptor.

  2. Clostridium botulinum serotype D neurotoxin and toxin complex bind to bovine aortic endothelial cells via sialic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Tohru; Miyata, Keita; Chikai, Tomoyuki; Mikami, Akifumi; Suzuki, Tomonori; Hasegawa, Kimiko; Ikeda, Toshihiko; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Ohyama, Tohru; Niwa, Koichi

    2008-12-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is produced as a large toxin complex (L-TC) associated with nontoxic nonhemagglutinin (NTNHA) and three hemagglutinin subcomponents (HA-70, -33 and -17). The binding properties of BoNT to neurons and L-TC to intestinal epithelial cells are well documented, while those to other tissues are largely unknown. Here, to obtain novel insights into the pathogenesis of foodborne botulism, we examine whether botulinum toxins bind to vascular endothelial cells. BoNT and 750 kDa L-TC (a complex of BoNT, NTNHA and HAs) of Clostridium botulinum serotype D were incubated with bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs), and binding to the cells was assessed using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot. Both BoNT and L-TC bound to BAECs, with L-TC showing stronger binding. Binding of BoNT and L-TC to BAECs was significantly inhibited by N-acetyl neuraminic acid in the cell culture medium or by treatment of the cells with neuraminidase. However, galactose, lactose or N-acetyl galactosamine did not significantly inhibit toxin binding to the cells. This is the first report demonstrating that BoNT and L-TC bind to BAECs via sialic acid, and this mechanism may be important in the trafficking pathway of BoNT in foodborne botulism.

  3. Involvement of Rho-kinase and tyrosine kinase in hypotonic stress-induced ATP release in bovine aortic endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Tetsuya; Oike, Masahiro; Ito, Yushi

    2001-01-01

    Hypotonic stress induces ATP release followed by Ca2+ oscillations in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). We have investigated the cellular mechanism of the hypotonic stress-induced ATP release. Hypotonic stress induced tyrosine phosphorylation of at least two proteins, of 110 and 150 kDa. Inhibition of tyrosine kinase by the tyrosine kinase inhibitors herbimycin A and tyrphostin 46 prevented ATP release and ATP-mediated Ca2+ oscillations induced by hypotonic stress. ATP release was also inhibited by the pretreatment of the cells with botulinum toxin C3, and augmented by lysophosphatidic acid. Furthermore, pre-treating the cells with Y-27632, a selective inhibitor of Rho-kinase, also suppressed the hypotonic stress-induced ATP release and Ca2+ oscillations, indicating that Rho-mediated activation of Rho-kinase may be involved in the hypotonic ATP release. Hypotonic stress also induced a transient rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton, which was suppressed by the tyrosine kinase inhibitors Y-27632 and cytochalasin B. However, pretreatment of the cell with cytochalasin B inhibited neither the hypotonic stress-induced ATP release nor the Ca2+ oscillations. These results indicate that tyrosine kinase and the Rho-Rho-kinase pathways are involved in hypotonic stress-induced ATP release and actin rearrangement, but actin polymerization is not required for ATP release in BAECs. PMID:11313444

  4. [Effects of ANP upon ion pump activity and gene expression in aortic smooth muscle cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gui-hai; Shang, Qian-hui; Jiang, Qian-feng; Wu, Ze-bing; Liu, Zu-lin; Wan, Wei-hong

    2009-11-03

    To explore the effects of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) upon the activities of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase and mRNA expression levels of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase alpha(1)-subunit and plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase isoform 1 (PMCA1) in cultured thoracic aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) isolated from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). ASMCs isolated from 14-week-old male SHR and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were interference-cultured in different doses of ANP and Angiotensin II (AngII). The contents of ANP and AngII in supernatant from ASMCs were measured by radioimmunoassay. The activities of the above two ATPases were measured by biochemistry and enzymology. RT-PCR assay was employed to determine the relative levels of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase alpha(1)-subunit and PMCA1 mRNA in ASMCs. The ANP level of supernatant in SHR ASMCs was significantly lower than those from WKY control [(7.3 +/- 2.4) pg x 10(-6) cells vs (19.3 +/- 3.3) pg x 10(-6) cells, P ANP improved obviously the activities of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase and expression of alpha(1)-subunit, PMCA1 mRNA in a does-dependent manner (P ANP antagonized the effects of AngII (1 x 10(-7) mol/L) upon the activities of two ATPases and the expression of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase alpha(1)-subunit PMCA1 mRNA (P ANP antagonized the effects of AngII (1 x 10(-7) mol/L) upon the activity of Ca(2+)-ATPase and the expression of PMCA1 mRNA (P 0.05). The decreased activities of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase may be related to the abnormal autocrine of ANP and AngII in ASMC of SHR. ANP can antagonize the effects of AngII upon the activities of two ATPases and the expression of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase alpha(1)-subunit PMCA1 mRNA.

  5. Binding of (/sup 3/H)isradipine (PN 200-110) on smooth muscle cell membranes from different bovine arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinquier, J.L.; Urien, S.; Chaumet-Riffaud, P.; Comte, A.; Tillement, J.P.

    1988-04-01

    The binding of (/sup 3/H)isradipine ((/sup 3/H)PN 200-110), a new dihydropyridine (DHP) calcium blocker on smooth muscle cell (SMC) membranes from different bovine arteries was saturable with comparable high affinities but different binding site densities (Bmax). The data were fitted to a model that provided a common estimation for the dissociation constant (Kd = 0.46 nM, SD = 0.03) but different Bmax values. Two groups of arteries could be distinguished, large-sized with high Bmax (aorta, 149 fmol/mg, SD = 4; intrapulmonary, 134 fmol/mg, SD = 4) and medium-sized with lower Bmax (mesenteric, 67 fmol/mg, SD = 2; internal carotid, 50 fmol/mg, SD = 2; renal artery, 29 fmol/mg, SD = 2). The Kd values were similar to those previously reported, but the Bmax value on aorta SMC was higher than usually reported with other DHPs, showing that isradipine was a high full antagonist of calcium channel. Our results also suggest that the increase in arterial compliance induced by DHPs will probably be more important on large-sized arteries than on medium-sized arteries because of higher DHP binding.

  6. Differences in left ventricular remodelling in patients with aortic stenosis treated with transcatheter aortic valve replacement with corevalve prostheses compared to surgery with porcine or bovine biological prostheses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Thuc Anh; Hassager, Christian; Thyregod, Hans Gustav Hørsted

    2018-01-01

    Aims: Patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) can be considered for treatment with either transcatheter (TAVR) or surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). The purpose of this study was to compare left ventricular (LV) remodeling in patients with AS after treatment with TAVR or SAVR. Methods an...

  7. bovine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of various breeds under local conditions of management. (Hale, 1974b). AdditionaIly, this procedure has been used to assess the production of LH by the bovine anterior pituitary in vitro and to study the relationships between this production and the activity of the pineal- hypothalamic axis (Hayes, Knight & Symington, 1974;.

  8. miR-503 inhibits platelet-derived growth factor-induced human aortic vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration through targeting the insulin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Rui; Ding, Fangbao; He, Yi; Jiang, Lianyong; Jiang, Zhaolei; Mei, Ju; Liu, Hao

    2016-12-01

    Abnormal proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is a common feature of disease progression in atherosclerosis. Here, we investigated the potential role of miR-503 in platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced proliferation and migration of human aortic smooth muscle cells and the underlying mechanisms of action. miR-503 expression was significantly downregulated in a dose- and time-dependent manner following PDGF treatment. Introduction of miR-503 mimics into cultured SMCs significantly attenuated cell proliferation and migration induced by PDGF. Bioinformatics analyses revealed that the insulin receptor (INSR) is a target candidate of miR-503. miR-503 suppressed luciferase activity driven by a vector containing the 3'-untranslated region of INSR in a sequence-specific manner. Downregulation of INSR appeared critical for miR-503-mediated inhibitory effects on PDGF-induced cell proliferation and migration in human aortic SMCs. Based on the collective data, we suggest a novel role of miR-503 as a regulator of VSMC proliferation and migration through modulating INSR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Visualizing the spatiotemporal map of Rac activation in bovine aortic endothelial cells under laminar and disturbed flows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Shao

    Full Text Available Disturbed flow can eliminate the alignment of endothelial cells in the direction of laminar flow, and significantly impacts on atherosclerosis in collateral arteries near the bifurcation and high curvature regions. While shear stress induced Rac polarity has been shown to play crucial roles in cell polarity and migration, little is known about the spatiotemporal map of Rac under disturbed flow, and the mechanism of flow-induced cell polarity still needs to be elucidated. In this paper, disturbed flow or laminar flow with 15 dyn/cm2 of average shear stress was applied on bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs for 30 minutes. A genetically-encoded PAK-PBD-GFP reporter was transfected into BAECs to visualize the real-time activation of Rac in living cell under fluorescence microscope. The imaging of the fluorescence intensity was analyzed by Matlab and the normalized data was converted into 3D spatiotemporal map. Then the changes of data upon chemical interference were fitted with logistic curve to explore the rule and mechanism of Rac polarity under laminar or disturbed flow. A polarized Rac activation was observed at the downstream edge along the laminar flow, which was enhanced by benzol alcohol-enhanced membrane fluidity but inhibited by nocodazole-disrupted microtubules or cholesterol-inhibited membrane fluidity, while no obvious polarized Rac activation could be found upon disturbed flow application. It is concluded that disturbed flow inhibits the flow-induced Rac polarized activation, which is related to the interaction of cell membrane and cytoskeleton, especially the microtubules.

  10. Depletion of endothelial or smooth muscle cell-specific angiotensin II type 1a receptors does not influence aortic aneurysms or atherosclerosis in LDL receptor deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra L Rateri

    Full Text Available Whole body genetic deletion of AT1a receptors in mice uniformly reduces hypercholesterolemia and angiotensin II-(AngII induced atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs. However, the role of AT1a receptor stimulation of principal cell types resident in the arterial wall remains undefined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether deletion of AT1a receptors in either endothelial cells or smooth muscle cells influences the development of atherosclerosis and AAAs.AT1a receptor floxed mice were developed in an LDL receptor -/- background. To generate endothelial or smooth muscle cell specific deficiency, AT1a receptor floxed mice were bred with mice expressing Cre under the control of either Tie2 or SM22, respectively. Groups of males and females were fed a saturated fat-enriched diet for 3 months to determine effects on atherosclerosis. Deletion of AT1a receptors in either endothelial or smooth muscle cells had no discernible effect on the size of atherosclerotic lesions. We also determined the effect of cell-specific AT1a receptor deficiency on atherosclerosis and AAAs using male mice fed a saturated fat-enriched diet and infused with AngII (1,000 ng/kg/min. Again, deletion of AT1a receptors in either endothelial or smooth muscle cells had no discernible effects on either AngII-induced atherosclerotic lesions or AAAs.Although previous studies have demonstrated whole body AT1a receptor deficiency diminishes atherosclerosis and AAAs, depletion of AT1a receptors in either endothelial or smooth muscle cells did not affect either of these vascular pathologies.

  11. Cytoskeleton remodling and alterations in smooth muscle contractility in the bovine jejunum during the early stage of Cooperia oncophora infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastrointestinal nematodes of the genus Cooperia are arguably the most important parasites of cattle. We characterized the bovine jejunal transcriptome in response to C. oncophora infection using RNA-seq technology. Approximately 71% of the 25,670 bovine genes were detected in the jejunal transcript...

  12. Tyrosine kinase is involved in angiotensin II-stimulated phospholipase D activation in aortic smooth muscle cells: function of Ca2+ influx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, A; Shinoda, J; Oiso, Y; Kozawa, O

    1996-03-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of angiotensin II (Ang II) on phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D activity in subcultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC). Ang II dose-dependently stimulated the formation of choline and inositol phosphates. The effect of Ang II on the formation of inositol phosphates (EC50 was 0.249 +/- 0.091 nM) was more potent than that on the formation of choline (EC50 was 2.39 +/- 1.29 nM). A combination of Ang II and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), an activator of protein kinase C, additively stimulated the formation of choline. Staurosporine, an inhibitor of protein kinases, inhibited the TPA-induced formation of choline, but had little effect on the Ang II-induced choline formation. Ang II stimulated Ca2+ influx from extracellular space time- and dose-dependently. The depletion of extracellular Ca2+ by (ethylenebis(oxyethylenenitrilo)) tetraacetic acid (EGTA) significantly reduced the Ang II-induced formation of choline. Genistein and tyrphostin, protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors, significantly suppressed the Ang II-induced Ca2+ influx. Genistein and tyrphostin also suppressed the Ang II-induced formation of choline. These results suggest that Ang II stimulates phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D due to Ca2+ influx from the extracellular space in rat aortic SMC, and that protein tyrosine kinase is involved in the Ang II-induced Ca2+ influx, resulting in the promotion of phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis.

  13. Imatinib inhibits vascular smooth muscle proteoglycan synthesis and reduces LDL binding in vitro and aortic lipid deposition in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Mandy L; Osman, Narin; Hashimura, Kazuhiko; de Haan, Judy B; Jandeleit-Dahm, Karin; Allen, Terri; Tannock, Lisa R; Rutledge, John C; Little, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The ‘response to retention’ hypothesis of atherogenesis proposes that proteoglycans bind and retain low-density lipoproteins (LDL) in the vessel wall. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is strongly implicated in atherosclerosis and stimulates proteoglycan synthesis. Here we investigated the action of the PDGF receptor inhibitor imatinib on PDGF-mediated proteoglycan biosynthesis in vitro, lipid deposition in the aortic wall in vivo and the carotid artery ex vivo. In human vSMCs, imatinib inhibited PDGF mediated 35S-SO4 incorporation into proteoglycans by 31% (P proteoglycans from PDGF stimulated cells in the presence of imatinib was approximately 2.5-fold higher than for PDGF treatment alone. In high fat fed ApoE−/– mice, imatinib reduced total lipid staining area by ∼31% (P proteoglycans and reduces LDL binding in vitro and in vivo and this effect is mediated via the PDGF receptor. These findings validate a novel mechanism to prevent cardiac disease. PMID:19754668

  14. Eupatolide inhibits PDGF-induced proliferation and migration of aortic smooth muscle cells through ROS-dependent heme oxygenase-1 induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Namho; Hwangbo, Cheol; Lee, Suhyun; Lee, Jeong-Hyung

    2013-11-01

    The abnormal proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) contributes importantly to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and restenosis. Here, we investigated the effects of eupatolide (EuTL), a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from the medicinal plant Inula britannica, on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced proliferation and migration of primary rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs), as well as its underlying mechanisms. EuTL remarkably inhibited PDGF-induced proliferation and migration of RASMCs. Treatment of RASMCs with EuTL induced both protein and mRNA expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor), SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor), U0126 (a MEK inhibitor) and LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) did not suppress EuTL-induced HO-1 expression; however, N-acetylcysteine (NAC, an antioxidant) blocked EuTL-induced HO-1 expression. Moreover, treatment of RASMCs with EuTL increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2); however, this translocation was also inhibited by NAC. NAC or inhibition of HO-1 significantly attenuated the inhibitory effects of EuTL on PDGF-induced proliferation and migration of RASMCs. Taken together, these findings suggest that EuTL could suppress PDGF-induced proliferation and migration of VSMCs through HO-1 induction via ROS-Nrf2 pathway and may be a potential HO-1 inducer for preventing or treating vascular diseases. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Anti-atherogenic effect of trivalent chromium-loaded CPMV nanoparticles in human aortic smooth muscle cells under hyperglycemic conditions in vitro

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    Ganguly, Rituparna; Wen, Amy M.; Myer, Ashley B.; Czech, Tori; Sahu, Soumyadip; Steinmetz, Nicole F.; Raman, Priya

    2016-03-01

    Atherosclerosis, a major macrovascular complication associated with diabetes, poses a tremendous burden on national health care expenditure. Despite extensive efforts, cost-effective remedies are unknown. Therapies for atherosclerosis are challenged by a lack of targeted drug delivery approaches. Toward this goal, we turn to a biology-derived drug delivery system utilizing nanoparticles formed by the plant virus, Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV). The aim herein is to investigate the anti-atherogenic potential of the beneficial mineral nutrient, trivalent chromium, loaded CPMV nanoparticles in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC) under hyperglycemic conditions. A non-covalent loading protocol is established yielding CrCl3-loaded CPMV (CPMV-Cr) carrying 2000 drug molecules per particle. Using immunofluorescence microscopy, we show that CPMV-Cr is readily taken up by HASMC in vitro. In glucose (25 mM)-stimulated cells, 100 nM CPMV-Cr inhibits HASMC proliferation concomitant to attenuated proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, proliferation marker) expression. This is accompanied by attenuation in high glucose-induced phospho-p38 and pAkt expression. Moreover, CPMV-Cr inhibits the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), in glucose-stimulated HASMCs. Finally glucose-stimulated lipid uptake is remarkably abrogated by CPMV-Cr, revealed by Oil Red O staining. Together, these data provide key cellular evidence for an atheroprotective effect of CPMV-Cr in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) under hyperglycemic conditions that may promote novel therapeutic ventures for diabetic atherosclerosis.

  16. NAD(P)H Oxidase Nox-4 Mediates 7-Ketocholesterol-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Apoptosis in Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells

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    Pedruzzi, Eric; Guichard, Cécile; Ollivier, Véronique; Driss, Fathi; Fay, Michèle; Prunet, Céline; Marie, Jean-Claude; Pouzet, Cécile; Samadi, Mohammad; Elbim, Carole; O'Dowd, Yvonne; Bens, Marcelle; Vandewalle, Alain; Gougerot-Pocidalo, Marie-Anne; Lizard, Gérard; Ogier-Denis, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in the cytotoxic action of oxysterols in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis still remain poorly understood. Among the major oxysterols present in oxidized low-density lipoprotein, we show here that 7-ketocholesterol (7-Kchol) induces oxidative stress and/or apoptotic events in human aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs). This specific effect of 7-Kchol is mediated by a robust upregulation (threefold from the basal level) of Nox-4, a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating NAD(P)H oxidase homologue. This effect was highlighted by silencing Nox-4 expression with a specific small interfering RNA, which significantly reduced the 7-Kchol-induced production of ROS and abolished apoptotic events. Furthermore, the 7-Kchol activating pathway included an early triggering of endoplasmic reticulum stress, as assessed by transient intracellular Ca2+ oscillations, and the induction of the expression of the cell death effector CHOP and of GRP78/Bip chaperone via the activation of IRE-1, all hallmarks of the unfolded protein response (UPR). We also showed that 7-Kchol activated the IRE-1/Jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK)/AP-1 signaling pathway to promote Nox-4 expression. Silencing of IRE-1 and JNK inhibition downregulated Nox-4 expression and subsequently prevented the UPR-dependent cell death induced by 7-Kchol. These findings demonstrate that Nox-4 plays a key role in 7-Kchol-induced SMC death, which is consistent with the hypothesis that Nox-4/oxysterols are involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. PMID:15572675

  17. Protective effect of the ultra-filtration extract from Xin Mai Jia on human aortic smooth muscle cell injury induced by hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    WAN, JIA; YIN, YALING; SUN, RUILI; PAN, GUOPIN; LI, PENG; JIA, YANLONG; WAN, GUANGRUI; LIU, ZHANG-SUO

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore whether an ultra-filtration extract from Xin Mai Jia (XMJ), a Chinese medicinal formulation, has a protective effect on human aortic smooth muscle cell (HASMC) injury models induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and to consider the mechanism and efficacy of the therapeutic action of XMJ on atherosclerosis. HASMCs were injured by H2O2 and then exposed to various concentrations of XMJ. The morphological changes, growth, proliferation, migration and cytokine release of HASMCs were detected using 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a scratch adhesion test. H2O2 significantly promoted the proliferation of HASMCs. The ultra-filtration extract from XMJ was observed to significantly attenuate the morphological changes of injured HASMCs, reduce the expression levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB, and increase the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP). XMJ has clear anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, and significantly inhibits the proliferation and migration of HASMCs. PMID:24348756

  18. Characterization of angiogenin receptors on bovine brain capillary endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamoux, M; Dehouck, M P; Fruchart, J C; Spik, G; Montreuil, J; Cecchelli, R

    1991-04-30

    The mitogenic effect of bovine milk angiogenin was studied on bovine brain capillary and aortic endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. The proliferation of only bovine brain capillary endothelial cells was detected at concentrations ranging from 10 to 1,000 ng/ml, with a maximum effect at 100 ng/ml. This mitogenic activity may be correlated with a specific binding of angiogenin which was demonstrated only to bovine brain capillary endothelial cells. [125I]-labeled angiogenin binding was time and concentration dependent and saturable. Scatchard analyses of binding data showed evidence of a single class of binding sites with an apparent dissociation constant of 5.10(-10)M. The molecular mass of the angiogenin receptor (49 kDa) was determined by ligand blotting.

  19. Relaxation of rabbit corpus cavernosum smooth muscle and aortic vascular endothelium induced by new nitric oxide donor substances of the nitrosyl-ruthenium complex

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    Joao B. G. Cerqueira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Endothelial dysfunction characterized by endogenous nitric oxide (NO deficiency made 56% of patients affected with erectile dysfunction decline treatment with PDE-5 inhibitors. New forms of treatment are currently being developed for this group of patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study compared the effect of sodium nitroprusside (SNP and two substances of the nitrosyl-ruthenium complex, cis-[Ru(bpy2(SO3(NO]PF-6-9 ("FONO1” and trans-[Ru(NH34(caffeine(NO]C13 ("LLNO1” on relaxation of rabbit corpus cavernosum smooth muscle and aortic vascular endothelium. The samples were immersed in isolated baths and precontracted with 0.1 µM phenylephrine (PE and the corresponding relaxation concentration/response curves were plotted. In order to investigate the relaxation mechanisms involved, 100 µM ODQ (a soluble guanylate cyclase-specific inhibitor, 3 µM or 10 µM oxyhemoglobin (an extracellular NO scavenger or 1 mM L-cysteine (a nitrosyl anion-specific scavenger was added to the samples. RESULTS: All the NO donors tested produced a significant level of relaxation in the vascular endothelium. In corpus cavernosum samples, FONO1 produced no significant effect, but LLNO1 and SNP induced dose-dependent relaxation with comparable potency (pEC50 = 6.14 ± 0.08 and 6.4 ± 0.14, respectively and maximum effect (Emax = 82% vs. 100%, respectively. All NO donors were found to activate soluble guanylate cyclase, since the addition of the corresponding inhibitor (100 µM ODQ completely neutralized the relaxation effect observed. The addition of oxyhemoglobin reduced the relaxation effect, but did not inhibit it completely. In aortic vascular endothelium 3 µM oxyhemoglobin decreased the relaxation effect by 26% on the average, while 10 µM oxyhemoglobin reduced it by over 52%. The addition of 100 µM L-cysteine produced no significant inhibiting effect. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that LLNO1 and FONO1 are potent vasodilators. LLNO1 was

  20. Inhibitory role of reactive oxygen species in the differentiation of multipotent vascular stem cells into vascular smooth muscle cells in rats: a novel aspect of traditional culture of rat aortic smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Haibo; Wang, Hui; Wu, Weiwei; Qi, Lei; Shao, Lei; Wang, Fang; Lai, Yimu; Leach, Desiree; Mathis, Bryan; Janicki, Joseph S; Wang, Xing Li; Tang, Dongqi; Cui, Taixing

    2015-10-01

    Proliferative or synthetic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are widely accepted to be mainly derived from the dedifferentiation or phenotypic modulation of mature contractile VSMCs, i.e., a phenotype switch from a normally quiescent and contractile type into a proliferative or synthetic form. However, this theory has been challenged by recent evidence that synthetic VSMCs predominantly originate instead from media-derived multipotent vascular stem cells (MVSCs). To test these hypotheses further, we re-examine whether the conventional rat aortic SMC (RASMC) culture involves the VSMC differentiation of MVSCs or the dedifferentiation of mature VSMCs and the potential mechanism for controlling the synthetic phenotype of RASMCs. We enzymatically isolated RASMCs and cultured the cells in both a regular growth medium (RGM) and a stem cell growth medium (SCGM). Regardless of culture conditions, only a small portion of freshly isolated RASMCs attaches, survives and grows slowly during the first 7 days of primary culture, while expressing both SMC- and MVSC-specific markers. RGM-cultured cells undergo a process of synthetic SMC differentiation, whereas SCGM-cultured cells can be differentiated into not only synthetic SMCs but also other somatic cells. Notably, compared with the RGM-cultured differentiated RASMCs, the SCGM-cultured undifferentiated cells exhibit the phenotype of MVSCs and generate greater amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that act as a negative regulator of differentiation into synthetic VSMCs. Knockdown of phospholipase A2, group 7 (Pla2g7) suppresses ROS formation in the MVSCs while enhancing SMC differentiation of MVSCs. These results suggest that cultured synthetic VSMCs can be derived from the SMC differentiation of MVSCs with ROS as a negative regulator.

  1. Endothelium-dependent modulation of cGMP levels and intrinsic smooth muscle tone in isolated bovine intrapulmonary artery and vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignarro, L J; Byrns, R E; Wood, K S

    1987-01-01

    The role of the endothelium in modulating cyclic nucleotide levels and intrinsic smooth muscle tone was studied in isolated rings of bovine intrapulmonary artery and vein. Cyclic 3',5'-guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels were threefold to fourfold higher in unrubbed artery and vein than in vessels that had been denuded of endothelium. Cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels were twofold higher in unrubbed than in endothelium-denuded artery, but no differences were observed in veins. Methylene blue, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, decreased cGMP but not cAMP levels, and this was accompanied by increases in smooth muscle tone. M&B 22,948, an inhibitor of cGMP-phosphodiesterase, increased cGMP but not cAMP levels, and this was accompanied by decreases in smooth muscle tone. Unrubbed vessels were more sensitive than endothelium-denuded vessels to the actions of both methylene blue and M&B 22,948, and this may be attributed to endothelium-dependent increases in cGMP turnover. Moreover, unrubbed vessels were more sensitive than endothelium-denuded vessels to contractile responses to phenylephrine and potassium, and these responses were potentiated by methylene blue and attenuated by M&B 22,948. Although indomethacin lowered cAMP levels in unrubbed artery, no changes in tone or contractile responsiveness were observed. A consistent observation was that the smaller branches of unrubbed but not endothelium-denuded intrapulmonary artery and vein had higher levels of cGMP but not cAMP, were sensitive to endothelium-dependent vasodilators, were more sensitive to methylene blue, and would not maintain a steady level of submaximal tone to phenylephrine when compared with larger branches from a common vascular bed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Prostaglandin E2 Inhibits Histamine-Evoked Ca2+ Release in Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells through Hyperactive cAMP Signaling Junctions and Protein Kinase A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Emily J A; Pantazaka, Evangelia; Shelley, Kathryn L; Taylor, Colin W

    2017-11-01

    In human aortic smooth muscle cells, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) stimulates adenylyl cyclase (AC) and attenuates the increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration evoked by activation of histamine H1 receptors. The mechanisms are not resolved. We show that cAMP mediates inhibition of histamine-evoked Ca2+ signals by PGE2 Exchange proteins activated by cAMP were not required, but the effects were attenuated by inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). PGE2 had no effect on the Ca2+ signals evoked by protease-activated receptors, heterologously expressed muscarinic M3 receptors, or by direct activation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors by photolysis of caged IP3 The rate of Ca2+ removal from the cytosol was unaffected by PGE2, but PGE2 attenuated histamine-evoked IP3 accumulation. Substantial inhibition of AC had no effect on the concentration-dependent inhibition of Ca2+ signals by PGE2 or butaprost (to activate EP2 receptors selectively), but it modestly attenuated responses to EP4 receptors, activation of which generated less cAMP than EP2 receptors. We conclude that inhibition of histamine-evoked Ca2+ signals by PGE2 occurs through "hyperactive signaling junctions," wherein cAMP is locally delivered to PKA at supersaturating concentrations to cause uncoupling of H1 receptors from phospholipase C. This sequence allows digital signaling from PGE2 receptors, through cAMP and PKA, to histamine-evoked Ca2+ signals. Copyright © 2017 by The Author(s).

  3. Molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-proliferative and anti-migratory effects of folate on homocysteinechallenged rat aortic smooth muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ying; Lin, Hui-Chen; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Chang, Chi-Cheng; Lee, Wen-Sen; Juan, Shu-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Homocysteine is an intermediate product formed during the metabolism of methionine, and is increased in cells with folate deficiency. Patients with hyperhomocysteinemia tend to develop cardiovascular disease. Here, we have examined the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-proliferative and anti-migratory effects of folate on homocysteine-challenged rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs). Experimental Approach Cultures of RASMC were challenged with homocysteine and then incubated with folate added. Changes in p21/p27, AKT and RhoA were followed by RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunocytochemistry. Transfection and anti-sense techniques were also used. Cell viability, growth and migration were measured. Key Results Folate up-regulated p21/p27 through a Src/ERK-dependent mechanism that accounted for its anti-proliferative effects on RASMC. Folate protected RASMC from the effects of homocysteine by reducing AKT1, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), paxillin, and p190RhoGAP activation/phosphorylation, along with cytosolic levels of p21 and p27, and increasing RhoA activation. Overexpression of AKT1, but not of AKT2, induced p21/p27 phosphorylation and increased cytosolic p21/p27 levels, as did homocysteine treatment. By contrast, and similarly to folate treatment, transfection with dominant negative (DN) AKT1 counteracted these effects. Additionally, AKT was shown to be an upstream target of FAK activation. In RASMC overexpressing constitutively active RhoA, activation of RhoA mediated the anti-migratory effects of folate. Addition of Y27632 (a RhoA inhibitor) and DNRhoA counteracted the anti-migratory effects, confirming RhoA involvement. Conclusion and implications Folate was anti-proliferative and anti-migratory in homocysteine-challenged RASMC. Mechanisms underlying folate-mediated protection against the proatherosclerotic effects of homocysteine have been delineated. PMID:23424995

  4. Gingipains from the Periodontal Pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis Play a Significant Role in Regulation of Angiopoietin 1 and Angiopoietin 2 in Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Hazem; Sirsjö, Allan; Bengtsson, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    Angiopoietin 1 (Angpt1) and angiopoietin 2 (Angpt2) are the ligands of tyrosine kinase (Tie) receptors, and they play important roles in vessel formation and the development of inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis. Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative periodontal bacterium that is thought to contribute to the progression of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of P. gingivalis infection in the modulation of Angpt1 and Angpt2 in human aortic smooth muscle cells (AoSMCs). We exposed AoSMCs to wild-type (W50 and 381), gingipain mutant (E8 and K1A), and fimbrial mutant (DPG-3 and KRX-178) P. gingivalis strains and to different concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). The atherosclerosis risk factor TNF was used as a positive control in this study. We found that P. gingivalis (wild type, K1A, DPG3, and KRX178) and TNF upregulated the expression of Angpt2 and its transcription factor ETS1, respectively, in AoSMCs. In contrast, Angpt1 was inhibited by P. gingivalis and TNF. However, the RgpAB mutant E8 had no effect on the expression of Angpt1, Angpt2, or ETS1 in AoSMCs. The results also showed that ETS1 is critical for P. gingivalis induction of Angpt2. Exposure to Angpt2 protein enhanced the migration of AoSMCs but had no effect on proliferation. This study demonstrates that gingipains are crucial to the ability of P. gingivalis to markedly increase the expressed Angpt2/Angpt1 ratio in AoSMCs, which determines the regulatory role of angiopoietins in angiogenesis and their involvement in the development of atherosclerosis. These findings further support the association between periodontitis and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26283334

  5. Transcriptional regulation of NADPH oxidase isoforms, Nox1 and Nox4, by nuclear factor-{kappa}B in human aortic smooth muscle cells

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    Manea, Adrian, E-mail: adrian.manea@icbp.ro [Institute of Cellular Biology and Pathology ' Nicolae Simionescu' , 8, B.P. Hasdeu Street, Bucharest, P.O. Box 35-14 (Romania); Tanase, Laurentia I.; Raicu, Monica; Simionescu, Maya [Institute of Cellular Biology and Pathology ' Nicolae Simionescu' , 8, B.P. Hasdeu Street, Bucharest, P.O. Box 35-14 (Romania)

    2010-06-11

    Inflammation-induced changes in the activity and expression of NADPH oxidases (Nox) play a key role in atherogenesis. The molecular mechanisms of Nox regulation are scantily elucidated. Since nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) controls the expression of many genes associated to inflammation-related diseases, in this study we have investigated the role of NF-{kappa}B signaling in the regulation of Nox1 and Nox4 transcription in human aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Cultured cells were exposed to tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF{alpha}), a potent inducer of both Nox and NF-{kappa}B, up to 24 h. Lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence and dichlorofluorescein assays, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot analysis showed that inhibition of NF-{kappa}B pathway reduced significantly the TNF{alpha}-dependent up-regulation of Nox-derived reactive oxygen species production, Nox1 and Nox4 expression. In silico analysis indicated the existence of typical NF-{kappa}B elements in the promoters of Nox1 and Nox4. Transient overexpression of p65/NF-{kappa}B significantly increased the promoter activities of both isoforms. Physical interaction of p65/NF-{kappa}B proteins with the predicted sites was demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. These findings demonstrate that NF-{kappa}B is an essential regulator of Nox1- and Nox4-containing NADPH oxidase in SMCs. Elucidation of the complex relationships between NF-{kappa}B and Nox enzymes may lead to a novel pharmacological strategy to reduce both inflammation and oxidative stress in atherosclerosis and its associated complications.

  6. Effects of High Glucose on Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Synthesis and Secretion in Aortic Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells from Obese and Lean Zucker Rats

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    Mariella Trovati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes is characterized by insulin deficiency, type 2 by both insulin deficiency and insulin resistance: in both conditions, hyperglycaemia is accompanied by an increased cardiovascular risk, due to increased atherosclerotic plaque formation/instabilization and impaired collateral vessel formation. An important factor in these phenomena is the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF, a molecule produced also by Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells (VSMC. We aimed at evaluating the role of high glucose on VEGF-A164 synthesis and secretion in VSMC from lean insulin-sensitive and obese insulin-resistant Zucker rats (LZR and OZR. In cultured aortic VSMC from LZR and OZR incubated for 24 h with D-glucose (5.5, 15 and 25 mM or with the osmotic controls L-glucose and mannitol, we measured VEGF-A164 synthesis (western, blotting and secretion (western blotting and ELISA. We observed that: (i D-glucose dose-dependently increases VEGF-A164 synthesis and secretion in VSMC from LZR and OZR (n = 6, ANOVA p = 0.002–0.0001; (ii all the effects of 15 and 25 mM D-glucose are attenuated in VSMC from OZR vs. LZR (p = 0.0001; (iii L-glucose and mannitol reproduce the VEGF-A164 modulation induced by D-glucose in VSMC from both LZR and OZR. Thus, glucose increases via an osmotic mechanism VEGF synthesis and secretion in VSMC, an effect attenuated in the presence of insulin resistance.

  7. Cell patterning without chemical surface modification: Cell cell interactions between printed bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) on a homogeneous cell-adherent hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. Y.; Barron, J. A.; Ringeisen, B. R.

    2006-10-01

    Cell printing offers the unique ability to directly deposit one or multiple cell types directly onto a surface without the need to chemically pre-treat the surface with lithographic methods. We utilize biological laser printing (BioLP ™) to form patterns of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) onto a homogeneous cell adherent hydrogel surface. These normal cells are shown to retain near-100% viability post-printing. In order to determine whether BAECs encountered shear and/or heat stress during printing, immunocytochemical staining experiments were performed to detect potential expression of heat shock proteins (HSP) by the deposited cells. Printed BAECs expressed HSP at levels similar to negative control cells, indicating that the BioLP process does not expose cells to damaging levels of stress. However, HSP expression was slightly higher at the highest laser energy studied, suggesting more stress was present under these extreme conditions. Printed BAECs also showed preferential asymmetric growth and migration towards each other and away from the originally printed pattern, demonstrating a retained ability for the cells to communicate post-printing.

  8. STIM1 positively regulates the Ca2+ release activity of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor in bovine aortic endothelial cells.

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    Éric Béliveau

    Full Text Available The endothelium is actively involved in many functions of the cardiovascular system, such as the modulation of arterial pressure and the maintenance of blood flow. These functions require a great versatility of the intracellular Ca2+ signaling that resides in the fact that different signals can be encoded by varying the frequency and the amplitude of the Ca2+ response. Cells use both extracellular and intracellular Ca2+ pools to modulate the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. In non-excitable cells, the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R, located on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, is responsible for the release of Ca2+ from the intracellular store. The proteins STIM1 and STIM2 are also located on the ER and they are involved in the activation of a store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE. Due to their Ca2+ sensor property and their close proximity with IP3Rs on the ER, STIMs could modulate the activity of IP3R. In this study, we showed that STIM1 and STIM2 are expressed in bovine aortic endothelial cells and they both interact with IP3R. While STIM2 appears to play a minor role, STIM1 plays an important role in the regulation of agonist-induced Ca2+ mobilization in BAECs by a positive effect on both the SOCE and the IP3R-dependent Ca2+ release.

  9. STIM1 positively regulates the Ca2+ release activity of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor in bovine aortic endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béliveau, Éric; Lessard, Vincent; Guillemette, Gaétan

    2014-01-01

    The endothelium is actively involved in many functions of the cardiovascular system, such as the modulation of arterial pressure and the maintenance of blood flow. These functions require a great versatility of the intracellular Ca2+ signaling that resides in the fact that different signals can be encoded by varying the frequency and the amplitude of the Ca2+ response. Cells use both extracellular and intracellular Ca2+ pools to modulate the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. In non-excitable cells, the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), located on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is responsible for the release of Ca2+ from the intracellular store. The proteins STIM1 and STIM2 are also located on the ER and they are involved in the activation of a store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). Due to their Ca2+ sensor property and their close proximity with IP3Rs on the ER, STIMs could modulate the activity of IP3R. In this study, we showed that STIM1 and STIM2 are expressed in bovine aortic endothelial cells and they both interact with IP3R. While STIM2 appears to play a minor role, STIM1 plays an important role in the regulation of agonist-induced Ca2+ mobilization in BAECs by a positive effect on both the SOCE and the IP3R-dependent Ca2+ release.

  10. Carbachol induces a rapid and sustained hydrolysis of polyphosphoinositide in bovine tracheal smooth muscle measurements of the mass of polyphosphoinositides, 1,2-diacylglycerol, and phosphatidic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takuwa, Y; Takuwa, N; Rasmussen, H

    1986-11-05

    The effects of carbachol on polyphosphoinositides and 1,2-diacylglycerol metabolism were investigated in bovine tracheal smooth muscle by measuring both lipid mass and the turnover of [3H]inositol-labeled phosphoinositides. Carbachol induces a rapid reduction in the mass of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate and a rapid increase in the mass of 1,2-diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid. These changes in lipid mass are sustained for at least 60 min. The level of phosphatidylinositol shows a delayed and progressive decrease during a 60-min period of carbachol stimulation. The addition of atropine reverses these responses completely. Carbachol stimulates a rapid loss in [3H]inositol radioactivity from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate associated with production of [3H]inositol trisphosphate. The carbachol-induced change in the mass of phosphoinositides and phosphatidic acid is not affected by removal of extracellular Ca2+ and does not appear to be secondary to an increase in intracellular Ca2+. These results indicate that carbachol causes phospholipase C-mediated polyphosphoinositide breakdown, resulting in the production of inositol trisphosphate and a sustained increase in the actual content of 1,2-diacylglycerol. These results strongly suggest that carbachol-induced contraction is mediated by the hydrolysis of polyphosphoinositides with the resulting generation of two messengers: inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and 1,2-diacylglycerol.

  11. Carbachol induces a rapid and sustained hydrolysis of polyphosphoinositide in bovine tracheal smooth muscle measurements of the mass of polyphosphoinositides, 1,2-diacylglycerol, and phosphatidic acid

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    Takuwa, Y.; Takuwa, N.; Rasmussen, H.

    1986-11-05

    The effects of carbachol on polyphosphoinositides and 1,2-diacylglycerol metabolism were investigated in bovine tracheal smooth muscle by measuring both lipid mass and the turnover of (/sup 3/H)inositol-labeled phosphoinositides. Carbachol induces a rapid reduction in the mass of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate and a rapid increase in the mass of 1,2-diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid. These changes in lipid mass are sustained for at least 60 min. The level of phosphatidylinositol shows a delayed and progressive decrease during a 60-min period of carbachol stimulation. The addition of atropine reverses these responses completely. Carbachol stimulates a rapid loss in (/sup 3/H)inositol radioactivity from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate associated with production of (/sup 3/H)inositol trisphosphate. The carbachol-induced change in the mass of phosphoinositides and phosphatidic acid is not affected by removal of extracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ and does not appear to be secondary to an increase in intracellular Ca/sup 2 +/. These results indicate that carbachol causes phospholipase C-mediated polyphosphoinositide breakdown, resulting in the production of inositol trisphosphate and a sustained increase in the actual content of 1,2-diacylglycerol. These results strongly suggest that carbachol-induced contraction is mediated by the hydrolysis of polyphosphoinositides with the resulting generation of two messengers: inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and 1,2-diacylglycerol.

  12. O-GlcNAc modification of NFκB p65 inhibits TNF-α-induced inflammatory mediator expression in rat aortic smooth muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqi Xing

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have shown that glucosamine (GlcN or O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranosylideneamino-N-phenylcarbamate (PUGNAc treatment augments O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc protein modification and attenuates inflammatory mediator expression, leukocyte infiltration and neointima formation in balloon injured rat carotid arteries and have identified the arterial smooth muscle cell (SMC as the target cell in the injury response. NFκB signaling has been shown to mediate the expression of inflammatory genes and neointima formation in injured arteries. Phosphorylation of the p65 subunit of NFκB is required for the transcriptional activation of NFκB. This study tested the hypothesis that GlcN or PUGNAc treatment protects vascular SMCs against tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α induced inflammatory stress by enhancing O-GlcNAcylation and inhibiting TNF-α induced phosphorylation of NFκB p65, thus inhibiting NFκB signaling. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quiescent rat aortic SMCs were pretreated with GlcN (5 mM, PUGNAc (10(-4 M or vehicle and then stimulated with TNF-α (10 ng/ml. Both treatments inhibited TNF-α-induced expression of chemokines [cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC-2β and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1] and adhesion molecules [vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1 and P-Selectin]. Both treatments inhibited TNF-α induced NFκB p65 activation and promoter activity, increased NFκB p65 O-GlcNAcylation and inhibited NFκB p65 phosphorylation at Serine 536, thus promoting IκBα binding to NFκB p65. CONCLUSIONS: There is a reciprocal relationship between O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation of NFκB p65, such that increased NFκB p65 O-GlcNAc modification inhibits TNF-α-Induced expression of inflammatory mediators through inhibition of NFκB p65 signaling. These findings provide a mechanistic basis for our previous observations that GlcN and PUGNAc treatments inhibit inflammation and remodeling induced by

  13. The effects of transfection reagent polyethyleneimine (PEI) and non-targeting control siRNAs on global gene expression in human aortic smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raof, Nurazhani A; Rajamani, Deepa; Chu, Hsun-Chieh; Gurav, Aniket; Johnson, Joel M; LoGerfo, Frank W; Pradhan-Nabzdyk, Leena; Bhasin, Manoj

    2016-01-05

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful platform utilized to target transcription of specific genes and downregulate the protein product. To achieve effective silencing, RNAi is usually applied to cells or tissue with a transfection reagent to enhance entry into cells. A commonly used control is the same transfection reagent plus a "noncoding RNAi". However, this does not control for the genomic response to the transfection reagent alone or in combination with the noncoding RNAi. These control effects while not directly targeting the gene in question may influence expression of other genes that in turn alter expression of the target. The current study was prompted by our work focused on prevention of vascular bypass graft failure and our experience with gene silencing in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs) where we suspected that off target effects through this mechanism might be substantial. We have used Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology and bioinformatics analysis to examine the genomic response of HAoSMCs to the transfection reagent alone (polyethyleneimine (PEI)) or in combination with commercially obtained control small interfering RNA (siRNAs) (Dharmacon and Invitrogen). Compared to untreated cells, global gene expression of HAoSMcs after transfection either with PEI or in combination with control siRNAs displayed significant alterations in gene transcriptome after 24 h. HAoSMCs transfected by PEI alone revealed alterations of 213 genes mainly involved in inflammatory and immune responses. HAoSMCs transfected by PEI complexed with siRNA from either Dharmacon or Invitrogen showed substantial gene variation of 113 and 85 genes respectively. Transfection of cells with only PEI or with PEI and control siRNAs resulted in identification of 20 set of overlapping altered genes. Further, systems biology analysis revealed key master regulators in cells transfected with control siRNAs including the cytokine, Interleukin (IL)-1, transcription factor GATA

  14. Aortic dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... made in the chest or abdomen. Endovascular aortic repair. This surgery is done without any major surgical ... needed. If the heart arteries are involved, a coronary bypass is also performed. Outlook ... aneurysm - dissecting; Chest pain - aortic dissection; Thoracic aortic aneurysm - ...

  15. Aortic stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... but most often it develops later in life. Children with aortic stenosis may have other conditions present from birth. Aortic ... children may need aortic valve repair or replacement. Children with mild aortic stenosis may be able to take part in most ...

  16. Sulforaphane inhibits PDGF-induced proliferation of rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cell by up-regulation of p53 leading to G1/S cell cycle arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Su-Hyang; Lim, Yong; Kim, Seung-Jung; Yoo, Kyu-Dong; Yoo, Hwan-Soo; Hong, Jin-Tae; Lee, Mi-Yea; Yun, Yeo-Pyo

    2013-01-01

    Vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and restenosis artery angioplasty are associated with vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and intimal thickening arterial walls. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of sulforaphane, an isothiocyanate produced in cruciferous vegetables, on VSMC proliferation and neointimal formation in a rat carotid artery injury model. Sulforaphane at the concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 μM significantly inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced VSMC proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner, determined by cell count. The IC50 value of sulforaphane-inhibited VSMC proliferation was 0.8 μM. Sulforaphane increased the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 and p53 levels, while it decreased CDK2 and cyclin E expression. The effects of sulforaphane on vascular thickening were determined 14 days after the injury to the rat carotid artery. The angiographic mean luminary diameters of the group treated with 2 and 4 μM sulforaphane were 0.25±0.1 and 0.09±0.1 mm², respectively, while the value of the control groups was 0.40±0.1 mm², indicating that sulforaphane may inhibit neointimal formation. The expression of PCNA, maker for cell cycle arrest, was decreased, while that of p53 and p21 was increased, which showed the same pattern as one in in-vitro study. These results suggest that sulforaphane-inhibited VSMC proliferation may occur through the G1/S cell cycle arrest by up-regulation of p53 signaling pathway, and then lead to the decreased neointimal hyperplasia thickening. Thus, sulforaphane may be a promising candidate for the therapy of atherosclerosis and post-angiography restenosis. © 2013.

  17. 2′,3′-cAMP, 3′-AMP, and 2′-AMP inhibit human aortic and coronary vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation via A2B receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jin; Gillespie, Delbert G.

    2011-01-01

    Rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from renal microvessels metabolize 2′,3′-cAMP to 2′-AMP and 3′-AMP, and these AMPs are converted to adenosine that inhibits microvascular VSMC proliferation via A2B receptors. The goal of this study was to test whether this mechanism also exists in VSMCs from conduit arteries and whether it is similarly expressed in human vs. rat VSMCs. Incubation of rat and human aortic VSMCs with 2′,3′-cAMP concentration-dependently increased levels of 2′-AMP and 3′-AMP in the medium, with a similar absolute increase in 2′-AMP vs. 3′-AMP. In contrast, in human coronary VSMCs, 2′,3′-cAMP increased 2′-AMP levels yet had little effect on 3′-AMP levels. In all cell types, 2′,3′-cAMP increased levels of adenosine, but not 5′-AMP, and 2′,3′-AMP inhibited cell proliferation. Antagonism of A2B receptors (MRS-1754), but not A1 (1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine), A2A (SCH-58261), or A3 (VUF-5574) receptors, attenuated the antiproliferative effects of 2′,3′-cAMP. In all cell types, 2′-AMP, 3′-AMP, and 5′-AMP increased adenosine levels, and inhibition of ecto-5′-nucleotidase blocked this effect of 5′-AMP but not that of 2′-AMP nor 3′-AMP. Also, 2′-AMP, 3′-AMP, and 5′-AMP, like 2′,3′-cAMP, exerted antiproliferative effects that were abolished by antagonism of A2B receptors with MRS-1754. In conclusion, VSMCs from conduit arteries metabolize 2′,3′-cAMP to AMPs, which are metabolized to adenosine. In rat and human aortic VSMCs, both 2′-AMP and 3′-AMP are involved in this process, whereas, in human coronary VSMCs, 2′,3′-cAMP is mainly converted to 2′-AMP. Because adenosine inhibits VSMC proliferation via A2B receptors, local vascular production of 2′,3′-cAMP may protect conduit arteries from atherosclerosis. PMID:21622827

  18. Camptothecin inhibits platelet-derived growth factor-BB-induced proliferation of rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells through inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eun-Seok [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Division of Life Science, College of Health and Biomedical Science, Konkuk University, Chungju, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Shin-il [College of Pharmacy Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Kyu-dong [Hazardous Substances Analysis Division, Gwangju Regional Food and Drug Administration, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mi-Yea [Department of Nursing Kyungbok University, Pocheon (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Hwan-Soo; Hong, Jin-Tae [College of Pharmacy Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hwa-Sup [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Division of Life Science, College of Health and Biomedical Science, Konkuk University, Chungju, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bokyung [Department of Physiology, Konkuk Medical School, Konkuk University, Chungju, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Yeo-Pyo, E-mail: ypyun@chungbuk.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    The abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in arterial wall is a major cause of vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty. In this study, we investigated not only the inhibitory effects of camptothecin (CPT) on PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation, but also its molecular mechanism of this inhibition. CPT significantly inhibited proliferation with IC50 value of 0.58 μM and the DNA synthesis of PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner (0.5–2 μM ) without any cytotoxicity. CPT induced the cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. Also, CPT decreased the expressions of G0/G1-specific regulatory proteins including cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2, cyclin D1 and PCNA in PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMCs. Pre-incubation of VSMCs with CPT significantly inhibited PDGF-BB-induced Akt activation, whereas CPT did not affect PDGF-receptor beta phosphorylation, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation and phospholipase C (PLC)-γ1 phosphorylation in PDGF-BB signaling pathway. Our data showed that CPT pre-treatment inhibited VSMC proliferation, and that the inhibitory effect of CPT was enhanced by LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, on PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation. In addition, inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway by LY294002 significantly enhanced the suppression of PCNA expression and Akt activation by CPT. These results suggest that the anti-proliferative activity of CPT is mediated in part by downregulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. - Highlights: ► CPT inhibits proliferation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMC without cytotoxicity. ► CPT arrests the cell cycle in G0/G1 phase by downregulation of cyclin D1 and CDK2. ► CPT significantly attenuates Akt phosphorylation in PDGF-BB signaling pathway. ► LY294002 enhanced the inhibitory effect of CPT on VSMC proliferation. ► Thus, CPT is mediated by downregulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  19. Characterization of an atypical lipoprotein-binding protein in human aortic media membranes by ligand blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmenko, Y S; Bochkov, V N; Philippova, M P; Tkachuk, V A; Resink, T J

    1994-01-01

    By use of ligand-blotting techniques, this study investigated lipoprotein-binding proteins in human aortic smooth muscle. PAGE was performed under non-reducing conditions, and, using low-density lipoprotein (LDL) as ligand, with rabbit anti-apolipoprotein (apo) B and 125I-labelled goat anti-rabbit IgG as primary and secondary antibodies respectively, we demonstrate that membranes from human aortic media (and cultured human smooth-muscle cells) contain a major lipoprotein-binding protein with an apparent molecular mass of 105 kDa. Anionized preparations (carbamoyl- and acetyl-) of LDL, which did not displace 125I-LDL bound to the apo B,E receptor of cultured fibroblasts, were also recognized as ligands for the 105 kDa protein in aortic media membranes. LDL binding to 105 kDa protein was decreased in the presence of high density lipoprotein (HDL), although more than 100-fold molar excess of HDL was required to achieve 50% displacement of bound LDL. The LDL-binding activity of 105 kDa protein was inhibited by EDTA, and was also significantly decreased when samples were reduced by beta-mercaptoethanol before electrophoresis. Monoclonal antibodies against apo B,E receptor reacted with partially purified bovine adrenal apo B,E receptor, but not with 105 kDa protein of human aortic media membranes. The spectrum of properties of this vascular smooth-muscle lipoprotein-binding protein binding are clearly distinct from those of other previously characterized lipoprotein-binding molecules. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 PMID:7945254

  20. The effect of DDT and its metabolite (DDE) on prostaglandin secretion from epithelial cells and on contractions of the smooth muscle of the bovine oviduct in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrobel, Michal H.; Mlynarczuk, Jaroslaw; Kotwica, Jan, E-mail: janko@pan.olsztyn.pl

    2012-03-01

    The insecticide DDT and its metabolite (DDE), due to their lipolytic nature and resistance to biodegradation, are accumulated in the living tissues. In cows, DDT and DDE were found to affect prostaglandin (PG) secretion from the endometrium and contractions of the myometrium. In this study, the impact of both xenobiotics (0.1, 1, 10 or 100 ng/ml) on the function of epithelial cells and muscle strips of bovine oviducts from 1 to 5 day of the oestrous cycle was examined. Therefore the concentration of PGE2 and PGFM (a metabolite of PGF2α) in culture media, mRNA expression of genes involved in PGs synthesis in epithelial cells and the force and amplitude of strips contractions were measured after 2 and 24 or 48 h of incubation. Neither DDT nor DDE affected the viability of cells after 48 h (P > 0.05). Both DDT and DDE increased the concentrations of PGFM in culture medium and secretion of PGE2 after only 2 h of cell culture (P < 0.05). Similar effects were seen for the influence of DDE on amount of PGFM after 48 h, while DDT decreased secretion of PGE2 (P < 0.05). DDT after 2 h increased (P < 0.05) mRNA expression of PGF2α synthase (PGFS), while both xenobiotics decreased (P < 0.05) mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) after 24 h. DTT also increased the force of isthmus contractions after 2 h, as did both xenobiotics after 48 h (P < 0.05). Moreover, after 2 and 48 h, DDE stimulated the amplitude of contractions of the isthmus as well as the ampulla, (P < 0.05). The effect of both compounds on oviduct contractions was diminished by indomethacin, which blocks PG synthesis. We conclude that oviductal secretion of prostaglandins is affected, by DDT and DDE. The influence of these xenobiotics on PGF2α and PGE2 secretion and ratio may be part of the mechanism by which both DDT and its metabolite disturb the contractions of oviductal muscle. -- Highlights: ► DDT and its metabolite – DDE are accumulated in the living tissues. ► The insecticides affected PGF2

  1. Smooth manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, Rajnikant

    2014-01-01

    This book offers an introduction to the theory of smooth manifolds, helping students to familiarize themselves with the tools they will need for mathematical research on smooth manifolds and differential geometry. The book primarily focuses on topics concerning differential manifolds, tangent spaces, multivariable differential calculus, topological properties of smooth manifolds, embedded submanifolds, Sard’s theorem and Whitney embedding theorem. It is clearly structured, amply illustrated and includes solved examples for all concepts discussed. Several difficult theorems have been broken into many lemmas and notes (equivalent to sub-lemmas) to enhance the readability of the book. Further, once a concept has been introduced, it reoccurs throughout the book to ensure comprehension. Rank theorem, a vital aspect of smooth manifolds theory, occurs in many manifestations, including rank theorem for Euclidean space and global rank theorem. Though primarily intended for graduate students of mathematics, the book ...

  2. Distribution of a 69-kD laminin-binding protein in aortic and microvascular endothelial cells: modulation during cell attachment, spreading, and migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yannariello-Brown, J; Wewer, U; Liotta, L

    1988-01-01

    Affinity chromatography and immunolocalization techniques were used to investigate the mechanism(s) by which endothelial cells interact with the basement membrane component laminin. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) membranes were solubilized and incubated with a laminin-Sepharose affinity...... column. SDS-PAGE analysis of the eluted proteins identified a 69-kD band as the major binding protein, along with minor components migrating at 125, 110, 92, 85, 75, 55, and 30 kD. Polyclonal antibodies directed against a peptide sequence of the 69-kD laminin-binding protein isolated from human tumor...... cells identified this protein in BAEC lysates. In frozen sections, these polyclonal antibodies and monoclonal antibodies raised against human tumor 69-kD stained the endothelium of bovine aorta and the medial smooth muscle cells, but not surrounding connective tissue or elastin fibers. When...

  3. Solubilization, purification and reconstitution of Ca(2+)-ATPase from bovine pulmonary artery smooth muscle microsomes by different detergents: preservation of native structure and function of the enzyme by DHPC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Amritlal; Das, Sudip; Chakraborti, Tapati; Kar, Pulak; Ghosh, Biswarup; Chakraborti, Sajal

    2006-01-01

    The properties of Ca(2+)-ATPase purified and reconstituted from bovine pulmonary artery smooth muscle microsomes {enriched with endoplasmic reticulum (ER)} were studied using the detergents 1,2-diheptanoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine (DHPC), poly(oxy-ethylene)8-lauryl ether (C(12)E(8)) and Triton X-100 as the solubilizing agents. Solubilization with DHPC consistently gave higher yields of purified Ca(2+)-ATPase with a greater specific activity than solubilization with C(12)E(8) or Triton X-100. DHPC was determined to be superior to C(12)E(8); while that the C(12)E(8) was determined to be better than Triton X-100 in active enzyme yields and specific activity. DHPC solubilized and purified Ca(2+)-ATPase retained the E1Ca-E1*Ca conformational transition as that observed for native microsomes; whereas the C(12)E(8) and Triton X-100 solubilized preparations did not fully retain this transition. The coupling of Ca(2+) transported to ATP hydrolyzed in the DHPC purified enzyme reconstituted in liposomes was similar to that of the native micosomes, whereas that the coupling was much lower for the C(12)E(8) and Triton X-100 purified enzyme reconstituted in liposomes. The specific activity of Ca(2+)-ATPase reconstituted into dioleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) vesicles with DHPC was 2.5-fold and 3-fold greater than that achieved with C(12)E(8) and Triton X-100, respectively. Addition of the protonophore, FCCP caused a marked increase in Ca(2+) uptake in the reconstituted proteoliposomes compared with the untreated liposomes. Circular dichroism analysis of the three detergents solubilized and purified enzyme preparations showed that the increased negative ellipticity at 223 nm is well correlated with decreased specific activity. It, therefore, appears that the DHPC purified Ca(2+)-ATPase retained more organized and native secondary conformation compared to C(12)E(8) and Triton X-100 solubilized and purified preparations. The size distribution of the reconstituted liposomes measured

  4. Aortic Valve Stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rapid, fluttering heartbeat Not eating enough (mainly in children with aortic valve stenosis) Not gaining enough weight (mainly in children with aortic valve stenosis) The heart-weakening effects of aortic valve stenosis ...

  5. Bicuspid Aortic Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    aortic valvular disease, endocarditis, ascending aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection.1-4 There is also an association of BAV with coarctation of...for aortic aneurysm , patients with BAV appear to have additional risks for aortic disease. Nistri et al.12 reported significant aortic root...Congenital heart disease in patients with Turner’s syndrome. Italian study group for Turner syndrome (ISGTS). J Pediatr 1998; 133:688-692. 7. Schmid

  6. Aortic valve bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens T; Jensen, Maiken Brit; Arendrup, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    In aortic valve bypass (AVB) a valve-containing conduit is connecting the apex of the left ventricle to the descending aorta. Candidates are patients with symptomatic aortic valve stenosis rejected for conventional aortic valve replacement (AVR) or transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI...

  7. Osteoprotegerin deficiency limits angiotensin II-induced aortic dilatation and rupture in the apolipoprotein E-knockout mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Corey S; Jose, Roby J; Biros, Erik; Golledge, Jonathan

    2014-12-01

    Mounting evidence links osteoprotegerin with cardiovascular disease. Elevated serum and aortic tissue osteoprotegerin are associated with the presence and growth of abdominal aortic aneurysm in humans; however, a role for osteoprotegerin in abdominal aortic aneurysm pathogenesis remains to be shown. We examined the functional significance of osteoprotegerin in aortic aneurysm using an Opg-deficient mouse model and in vitro investigations. Homozygous deletion of Opg in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (ApoE(-/-)Opg(-/-)) inhibited angiotensin II-induced aortic dilatation. Survival free from aortic rupture was increased from 67% in ApoE(-/-)Opg(+/+) controls to 94% in ApoE(-/-)Opg(-/-) mice (P=0.040). Serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines, and aortic expression for cathepsin S (CTSS), matrix metalloproteinase 2, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 after 7 days (early-phase) of angiotensin II infusion were significantly reduced in ApoE(-/-)Opg(-/-) mice compared with ApoE(-/-)Opg(+/+) controls. In addition, aortic expression of markers for an inflammatory phenotype in aortic vascular smooth muscle cells in response to early-phase of angiotensin II infusion was significantly lower in Opg-deficient mice. In vitro, human abdominal aortic aneurysm vascular smooth muscle cells produced more CTSS and exhibited increased CTSS-derived elastolytic activity than healthy aortic vascular smooth muscle cells, whereas recombinant human osteoprotegerin stimulated CTSS-dependent elastase activity in aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. These findings support a role for osteoprotegerin in aortic aneurysm through upregulation of CTSS, matrix metalloproteinase 2, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 within the aorta, promoting an inflammatory phenotype in aortic vascular smooth muscle cells in response to angiotensin II. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. FOXE3 mutations predispose to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Shao-Qing; Medina-Martinez, Olga; Guo, Dong-chuan; Gong, Limin; Regalado, Ellen S.; Reynolds, Corey L.; Boileau, Catherine; Jondeau, Guillaume; Prakash, Siddharth K.; Kwartler, Callie S.; Zhu, Lawrence Yang; Peters, Andrew M.; Duan, Xue-Yan; Bamshad, Michael J.; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Debbie A.; Santos-Cortez, Regie L.; Dong, Xiurong; Leal, Suzanne M.; Majesky, Mark W.; Swindell, Eric C.; Jamrich, Milan; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2016-01-01

    The ascending thoracic aorta is designed to withstand biomechanical forces from pulsatile blood. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and acute aortic dissections (TAADs) occur as a result of genetically triggered defects in aortic structure and a dysfunctional response to these forces. Here, we describe mutations in the forkhead transcription factor FOXE3 that predispose mutation-bearing individuals to TAAD. We performed exome sequencing of a large family with multiple members with TAADs and identified a rare variant in FOXE3 with an altered amino acid in the DNA-binding domain (p.Asp153His) that segregated with disease in this family. Additional pathogenic FOXE3 variants were identified in unrelated TAAD families. In mice, Foxe3 deficiency reduced smooth muscle cell (SMC) density and impaired SMC differentiation in the ascending aorta. Foxe3 expression was induced in aortic SMCs after transverse aortic constriction, and Foxe3 deficiency increased SMC apoptosis and ascending aortic rupture with increased aortic pressure. These phenotypes were rescued by inhibiting p53 activity, either by administration of a p53 inhibitor (pifithrin-α), or by crossing Foxe3–/– mice with p53–/– mice. Our data demonstrate that FOXE3 mutations lead to a reduced number of aortic SMCs during development and increased SMC apoptosis in the ascending aorta in response to increased biomechanical forces, thus defining an additional molecular pathway that leads to familial thoracic aortic disease. PMID:26854927

  9. Aortic Annular Enlargement during Aortic Valve Replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Selman Dumani; Ermal Likaj; Laureta Dibra; Stavri Llazo; Ali Refatllari

    2016-01-01

    In the surgery of aortic valve replacement is always attempted, as much as possible, to implant the larger prosthesis with the mains goals to enhance the potential benefits, to minimise transvalvular gradient, decrease left ventricular size and avoid the phenomenon of patient-prosthesis mismatch. Implantation of an ideal prosthesis often it is not possible, due to a small aortic annulus. A variety of aortic annulus enlargement techniques is reported to avoid patient-prosthesis mismatch. We pr...

  10. SELECTIVITY PROFILE OF SOME RECENT MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS IN BOVINE AND GUINEA-PIG TRACHEA AND HEART

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROFFEL, AF; HAMSTRA, JJ; ELZINGA, CRS; ZAAGSMA, J

    1994-01-01

    The functional affinities of some recently developed subtype-selective muscarinic antagonists towards bovine tracheal smooth muscle muscarinic M(3) receptors were established and compared to binding affinities for bovine cardiac M(2) and functional affinities for guinea-pig tracheal smooth muscle

  11. Aortic Annular Enlargement during Aortic Valve Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selman Dumani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the surgery of aortic valve replacement is always attempted, as much as possible, to implant the larger prosthesis with the mains goals to enhance the potential benefits, to minimise transvalvular gradient, decrease left ventricular size and avoid the phenomenon of patient-prosthesis mismatch. Implantation of an ideal prosthesis often it is not possible, due to a small aortic annulus. A variety of aortic annulus enlargement techniques is reported to avoid patient-prosthesis mismatch. We present the case that has submitted four three times open heart surgery. We used Manouguian technique to enlarge aortic anulus with excellent results during the fourth time of surgery.

  12. Aortic Annular Enlargement during Aortic Valve Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumani, Selman; Likaj, Ermal; Dibra, Laureta; Llazo, Stavri; Refatllari, Ali

    2016-09-15

    In the surgery of aortic valve replacement is always attempted, as much as possible, to implant the larger prosthesis with the mains goals to enhance the potential benefits, to minimise transvalvular gradient, decrease left ventricular size and avoid the phenomenon of patient-prosthesis mismatch. Implantation of an ideal prosthesis often it is not possible, due to a small aortic annulus. A variety of aortic annulus enlargement techniques is reported to avoid patient-prosthesis mismatch. We present the case that has submitted four three times open heart surgery. We used Manouguian technique to enlarge aortic anulus with excellent results during the fourth time of surgery.

  13. Adventitial vasa vasorum arteriosclerosis in abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Tanaka

    Full Text Available Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA is a common disease among elderly individuals. However, the precise pathophysiology of AAA remains unknown. In AAA, an intraluminal thrombus prevents luminal perfusion of oxygen, allowing only the adventitial vaso vasorum (VV to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the aortic wall. In this study, we examined changes in the adventitial VV wall in AAA to clarify the histopathological mechanisms underlying AAA. We found marked intimal hyperplasia of the adventitial VV in the AAA sac; further, immunohistological studies revealed proliferation of smooth muscle cells, which caused luminal stenosis of the VV. We also found decreased HemeB signals in the aortic wall of the sac as compared with those in the aortic wall of the neck region in AAA. The stenosis of adventitial VV in the AAA sac and the malperfusion of the aortic wall observed in the present study are new aspects of AAA pathology that are expected to enhance our understanding of this disease.

  14. Aortic Aneurysm Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... connective tissue disorders, such as Marfan syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, get thoracic aortic aneurysms. Signs and symptoms ... connective tissue disorders, such as Marfan syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, can also increase your risk for aortic ...

  15. 77 FR 29914 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products AGENCY... live bovines and products derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This... products to revise the conditions for the importation of live bovines and products derived from bovines...

  16. Análise do comportamento hemodinâmico de conduto valvado de pericárdio bovino, implantado em posição aórtica de ovinos Analysis of hemodynamic performance of the bovine pericardium valved conduit, implanted in the aortic position in ovines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josalmir José Melo do Amaral

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: A necessidade de substituição da valva, aorta ascendente e reimplante coronariano em pacientes onde a anticoagulação é indesejável, é crescente. Avaliamos em animais o comportamento hemodinâmico de um conduto valvado aórtico feito com pericárdio bovino tratado pelo glutaraldeído (CVAP. MÉTODOS: Para isto, implantamos CVAPs em oito ovinos e os explantamos após 150 dias de pós-operatório. Realizouse estudo angiográfico e hemodinâmico no pré-operatório e antes do explante. EcoDopplercardiogramas foram realizados nos dias 30 e 150 de pós-operatório (teste e também em cinco ovinos não operados. Após explantados, submetemos os CVAPs à avaliação macroscópica, radiológica e histológica por microscopia óptica. RESULTADOS: Na análise hemodinâmica, as pressões arterial e capilar pulmonar aumentaram (POBJECTIVE: The necessity for replacement of the valve, ascending aorta and aortic with coronary reimplantation in patients where anti-coagulation is undesirable, is increasing. We evaluated the hemodynamic performance of an aortic valved conduit made with glutaraldehyde treated bovine pericardium (AVCP in animals. METHODS: Therefore, AVCPs were implanted in eight young ovine and explanted after 150 days. Angiographic and hemodynamic study was performed at pre-operative and prior the explant. EchoDopplercardiograms were performed at day 30 and 150 of post-operative (test and also in five nonoperated ovines. After explanted, AVCPs were submitted to a macroscopical, radiological and histological evaluation by optic microscopy. RESULTS: In the hemodynamic analysis the arterial and pulmonary capillary pressure increased (P<0.05 between day 0 and 150. In the echoDoppercardiographic analysis, the test group presented higher values in the diastolic and systolic diameters of the left ventricle (P<0.05. In the test group, between day 30 and 150, occurred an increase of weight, thickness of the left ventricle walls, maximum

  17. Vascular effect of lead on rabbit aortic smooth muscle | Inneh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several reports have demonstrated a positive link between lead exposure and hypertension (Navas et al., 2007 and Heydari et al., 2006). It has also been suggested that alterations in vascular reactivity is one of several mechanisms by which lead induces hypertension (Webb et al., 1981). There are conflicting reports ...

  18. Death from ascending aortic aneurysm secondary to quadricuspid aortic valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoni, Francesco; Ricci, Serafino

    2014-12-01

    Quadricuspid aortic valve is a very rare cardiac malformation (<1.46%) that is very rarely associated with other diseases, such as ascending aortic aneurysm.The authors present a case of cardiac tamponade from a rupture of the ascending aortic aneurysm that may have been caused, as shown by a review of the literature, by the quadricuspid aortic valve.

  19. Insulin-Induced Laminin Expression Promotes a Hypercontractile Airway Smooth Muscle Phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, Bart G. J.; Schaafsma, Dedmer; Tran, Thai; Zaagsma, Johan; Meurs, Herman

    2009-01-01

    Airway smooth muscle (ASM) plays a key role in the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling in asthma, which may involve maturation of ASM cells to a hypercontractile phenotype. In vitro studies have indicated that long-term exposure of bovine tracheal smooth muscle (BTSM) to insulin

  20. Antiviral effects of bovine interferons on bovine respiratory tract viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, R W; Downing, M M; Cummins, J M

    1984-01-01

    The antiviral effects of bovine interferons on the replication of bovine respiratory tract viruses were studied. Bovine turbinate monolayer cultures were treated with bovine interferons and challenged with several bovine herpesvirus 1 strains, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, goat respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, or vesicular stomatitis virus. Treatment with bovine interferons reduced viral yield for each of the...

  1. Aortic microcalcification is associated with elastin fragmentation in Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanga, Shaynah; Hibender, Stijntje; Ridwan, Yanto; van Roomen, Cindy; Vos, Mariska; van der Made, Ingeborg; van Vliet, Nicole; Franken, Romy; van Riel, Luigi Amjg; Groenink, Maarten; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Mulder, Barbara Jm; de Vries, Carlie Jm; Essers, Jeroen; de Waard, Vivian

    2017-11-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a connective tissue disorder in which aortic rupture is the major cause of death. MFS patients with an aortic diameter below the advised limit for prophylactic surgery (MFS, and that microcalcification serves as a marker for aortic disease severity. To address this hypothesis, we analysed MFS patient and mouse aortas. MFS patient aortic tissue showed enhanced microcalcification in areas with extensive elastic lamina fragmentation in the media. A causal relationship between medial injury and microcalcification was revealed by studies in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs); elastin peptides were shown to increase the activity of the calcification marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and reduce the expression of the calcification inhibitor matrix GLA protein in human SMCs. In murine Fbn1(C1039G/+) MFS aortic SMCs, Alpl mRNA and activity were upregulated as compared with wild-type SMCs. The elastin peptide-induced ALP activity was prevented by incubation with lactose or a neuraminidase inhibitor, which inhibit the elastin receptor complex, and a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1/2 inhibitor, indicating downstream involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation. Histological analyses in MFS mice revealed macrocalcification in the aortic root, whereas the ascending aorta contained microcalcification, as identified with the near-infrared fluorescent bisphosphonate probe OsteoSense-800. Significantly, microcalcification correlated strongly with aortic diameter, distensibility, elastin breaks, and phosphorylated ERK1/2. In conclusion, microcalcification co-localizes with aortic elastin degradation in MFS aortas of humans and mice, where elastin-derived peptides induce a calcification process in SMCs via the elastin receptor complex and ERK1/2 activation. We propose microcalcification as a novel imaging marker to monitor local elastin degradation and thus predict aortic events in MFS patients. Copyright © 2017

  2. Sex, pregnancy and aortic disease in Marfan syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolijn Renard

    Full Text Available Sex-related differences as well as the adverse effect of pregnancy on aortic disease outcome are well-established phenomena in humans with Marfan syndrome (MFS. The underlying mechanisms of these observations are largely unknown.In an initial (pilot step we aimed to confirm the differences between male and female MFS patients as well as between females with and without previous pregnancy. We then sought to evaluate whether these findings are recapitulated in a pre-clinical model and performed in-depth cardiovascular phenotyping of mutant male and both nulliparous and multiparous female Marfan mice. The effect of 17β-estradiol on fibrillin-1 protein synthesis was compared in vitro using human aortic smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts.Our small retrospective study of aortic dimensions in a cohort of 10 men and 20 women with MFS (10 pregnant and 10 non-pregnant confirmed that aortic root growth was significantly increased in the pregnant group compared to the non-pregnant group (0.64mm/year vs. 0.12mm/year, p = 0.018. Male MFS patients had significantly larger aortic root diameters compared to the non-pregnant and pregnant females at baseline and follow-up (p = 0.002 and p = 0.007, respectively, but no significant increase in aortic root growth was observed compared to the females after follow-up (p = 0.559 and p = 0.352. In the GT-8/+ MFS mouse model, multiparous female Marfan mice showed increased aortic diameters when compared to nulliparous females. Aortic dilatation in multiparous females was comparable to Marfan male mice. Moreover, increased aortic diameters were associated with more severe fragmentation of the elastic lamellae. In addition, 17β-estradiol was found to promote fibrillin-1 production by human aortic smooth muscle cells.Pregnancy-related changes influence aortic disease severity in otherwise protected female MFS mice and patients. There may be a role for estrogen in the female sex protective effect.

  3. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection of lungs and macrophages indirectly stimulates the phenotypic conversion of smooth muscle cells and mesenchymal stem cells: potential roles in vascular calcification and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabbage, Sarah; Ieronimakis, Nicholas; Preusch, Michael; Lee, Amy; Ricks, Jerry; Janebodin, Kajohnkiart; Hays, Aislinn; Wijelath, Errol S; Reyes, Morayma; Campbell, Lee Ann; Rosenfeld, Michael E

    2014-10-01

    Two hallmarks of advanced atherosclerosis are calcification and fibrosis. We hypothesized that Chlamydia pneumoniae infection may contribute to atherosclerosis by inducing the conversion of vascular smooth muscle cells to calcifying cells or by converting mesenchymal stem cells to osteochondrocytic or fibroblastic phenotypes. In this study, direct infection of bovine aortic smooth muscle cells (BSMCs) did not induce the expression of alkaline phosphatase or the deposition of extracellular calcium phosphate. However, conditioned media from C. pneumoniae-infected macrophages accelerated conversion of BSMCs to a calcifying phenotype. Treatment of the conditioned media with an anti-TNF-alpha blocking antibody abrogated this stimulatory effect. Treatment of perivascular Sca-1+, CD31-, CD45- cells from apoE-/- mouse aortas with the conditioned media from infected macrophages induced the Sca-1+ cells to produce collagen II, an additional marker of an osteochondrocytic phenotype. Treatment of mouse coronary perivascular Sca-1+, CD31-, CD45- cells with the supernatant from homogenates of C. pneumoniae-infected mouse lungs as compared to noninfected lungs induced expression of the Collagen 1α1 gene and deposition of collagen. Therefore, an increase in plasma cytokines or other factors in response to respiratory infection with C. pneumoniae or infection of macrophages within the blood vessel could contribute to both calcification and fibrosis of advanced atherosclerotic lesions. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Smooth polyhedral surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Günther, Felix

    2017-03-15

    Polyhedral surfaces are fundamental objects in architectural geometry and industrial design. Whereas closeness of a given mesh to a smooth reference surface and its suitability for numerical simulations were already studied extensively, the aim of our work is to find and to discuss suitable assessments of smoothness of polyhedral surfaces that only take the geometry of the polyhedral surface itself into account. Motivated by analogies to classical differential geometry, we propose a theory of smoothness of polyhedral surfaces including suitable notions of normal vectors, tangent planes, asymptotic directions, and parabolic curves that are invariant under projective transformations. It is remarkable that seemingly mild conditions significantly limit the shapes of faces of a smooth polyhedral surface. Besides being of theoretical interest, we believe that smoothness of polyhedral surfaces is of interest in the architectural context, where vertices and edges of polyhedral surfaces are highly visible.

  6. [Acute aortic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienaber, Christoph A

    2016-06-01

    Acute aortic syndrome is the common denominator for acute events to the aortic wall and encompasses dissection of the aorta, intramural hematoma, formation of aortic ulcers and trauma to the aorta with an annual incidence of up to 35 cases/100.000 between 65 and 75 years of age. Both, inflammation and/or microtrauma at the level of the aortic media layer, and a genetic disposition are promoting elements of AAS, while the extent and anatomic involvement of the ascending aorta call for either surgical resection/repair in the proximal part of the aorta, or an endovascular solution for pathologies in the distal aorta; in all cases of dissection (regardless of location) reconstruction/realignment has been proven to portend better long-term outcomes (in addition to medical management of blood pressure). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Traumatic Aortic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna Miner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 48-year-old male with unknown past medical history presents as a trauma after being hit by a car traveling approximately 25 miles per hour. On initial presentation, the patient is confused, combative, and not answering questions appropriately. The patient is hypotensive with a blood pressure of 68/40 and a heart rate of 50 beats per minute, with oxygen saturation at 96% on room air. FAST scan is positive for fluid in Morrison’s pouch, splenorenal space, and pericardial space. Significant findings: The initial chest x-ray showed an abnormal superior mediastinal contour (blue line, suggestive of a possible aortic injury. The CT angiogram showed extensive circumferential irregularity and outpouching of the distal aortic arch (red arrows compatible with aortic transection. In addition, there was a circumferential intramural hematoma, which extended through the descending aorta to the proximal infrarenal abdominal aorta (green arrow. There was also an extensive surrounding mediastinal hematoma extending around the descending aorta and supraaortic branches (purple arrows. Discussion: Traumatic aortic injury is a life-threatening event. The incidence of blunt thoracic aortic injury is low, between 1 to 2 percent of those patients with blunt thoracic trauma.1 However, approximately 80% of patients with traumatic aortic injury die at the scene.2 Therefore it is imperative to diagnose traumatic aortic injury in a timely fashion. The diagnosis can be difficult due to the non-specific signs and symptoms and other distracting injuries. Clinical suspicion should be based on the mechanism of the injury and the hemodynamic status of the patient. In any patient with blunt or penetrating trauma to the chest that is hemodynamically unstable, traumatic aortic injury should be on the differential. Chest x-ray can be used as a screening tool. A normal chest x-ray has a negative predictive value of approximately 97%. CTA chest is the

  8. Targeting vascular remodeling in abdominal aortic aneurysm : To identify novel treatment strategies and drug candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Vorkapić, Emina

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a degenerative weakening of the aortic wall, mainly affecting elderly men with a prevalence of 4.4-7.7 %. AAA is characterized by medial and adventitial inflammatory cell infiltration associated with vascular remodeling of the extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen and elastin and with phenotypic modulation and loss of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Although much research has been performed, the precise cellular and molecular pathways behind t...

  9. Smooth Muscle-Targeted Overexpression of Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor-γ Disrupts Vascular Wall Structure and Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Kleinhenz

    Full Text Available Activation of the nuclear hormone receptor, PPARγ, with pharmacological agonists promotes a contractile vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype and reduces oxidative stress and cell proliferation, particularly under pathological conditions including vascular injury, restenosis, and atherosclerosis. However, pharmacological agonists activate both PPARγ-dependent and -independent mechanisms in multiple cell types confounding efforts to clarify the precise role of PPARγ in smooth muscle cell structure and function in vivo. We, therefore, designed and characterized a mouse model with smooth muscle cell-targeted PPARγ overexpression (smPPARγOE. Our results demonstrate that smPPARγOE attenuated contractile responses in aortic rings, increased aortic compliance, caused aortic dilatation, and reduced mean arterial pressure. Molecular characterization revealed that compared to littermate control mice, aortas from smPPARγOE mice expressed lower levels of contractile proteins and increased levels of adipocyte-specific transcripts. Morphological analysis demonstrated increased lipid deposition in the vascular media and in smooth muscle of extravascular tissues. In vitro adenoviral-mediated PPARγ overexpression in human aortic smooth muscle cells similarly increased adipocyte markers and lipid uptake. The findings demonstrate that smooth muscle PPARγ overexpression disrupts vascular wall structure and function, emphasizing that balanced PPARγ activity is essential for vascular smooth muscle homeostasis.

  10. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is caused by a number of Mycobacterium species, of which Mycobacterium bovis, causing 'bovine tuberculosis' is ... KEY WORDS: Mycobacterium bovis, Zoonosis, Holeta, Ethiopia causing 'bovine tuberculosis ..... isolation of infected animals in which communal grazing and watering practiced.

  11. Human airway smooth muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. de Jongste (Johan)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe function of airway smooth muscle in normal subjects is not evident. Possible physiological roles include maintenance of optimal regional ventilation/perfusion ratios, reduction of anatomic dead space, stabilisation of cartilaginous bronchi, defense against impurities and, less

  12. Laplacians on smooth distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordyukov, Yu. A.

    2017-10-01

    Let M be a compact smooth manifold equipped with a positive smooth density μ and let H be a smooth distribution endowed with a fibrewise inner product g. We define the Laplacian Δ_H associated with (H,μ,g) and prove that it gives rise to an unbounded self-adjoint operator in L^2(M,μ). Then, assuming that H generates a singular foliation \\mathscr F, we prove that, for any function \\varphi in the Schwartz space \\mathscr S( R), the operator \\varphi(Δ_H) is a smoothing operator in the scale of longitudinal Sobolev spaces associated with \\mathscr F. The proofs are based on pseudodifferential calculus on singular foliations, which was developed by Androulidakis and Skandalis, and on subelliptic estimates for Δ_H. Bibliography: 35 titles.

  13. smoothG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-12-12

    smoothG is a collection of parallel C++ classes/functions that algebraically constructs reduced models of different resolutions from a given high-fidelity graph model. In addition, smoothG also provides efficient linear solvers for the reduced models. Other than pure graph problem, the software finds its application in subsurface flow and power grid simulations in which graph Laplacians are found

  14. Human airway smooth muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Jongste, Johan

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe function of airway smooth muscle in normal subjects is not evident. Possible physiological roles include maintenance of optimal regional ventilation/perfusion ratios, reduction of anatomic dead space, stabilisation of cartilaginous bronchi, defense against impurities and, less likely, squeezing mucus out of mucous glands and pulling open the alveoli next to the airways1 . Any role of airway smooth muscle is necessarily limited, because an important degree of contraction will l...

  15. Aortic Diameter Growth in Children With a Bicuspid Aortic Valve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkx, R.; Duijnhouwer, A.L.; Vink, E. de; Roos-Hesselink, J.W.; Schokking, M.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of aortic growth in patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is essential to identify patients at risk for dissection, but data on children remain unclear. We retrospectively evaluated the aortic diameters of all pediatric BAV patients, identified through an echocardiographic database

  16. Aortic Diameter Growth in Children With a Bicuspid Aortic Valve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkx, R. (Remy); A.L. Duijnhouwer (Anthonie L.); Vink, E. (Evelien); J.W. Roos-Hesselink (Jolien); M. Schokking (Michiel)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractKnowledge of aortic growth in patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is essential to identify patients at risk for dissection, but data on children remain unclear. We retrospectively evaluated the aortic diameters of all pediatric BAV patients, identified through an echocardiographic

  17. Thoracic aortic rupture and aortopulmonary fistulation in the Friesian horse: histomorphologic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploeg, M; Saey, V; Delesalle, C; Gröne, A; Ducatelle, R; de Bruijn, M; Back, W; van Weeren, P R; van Loon, G; Chiers, K

    2015-01-01

    Aortic rupture in horses is a rare condition. Although it is relatively common in the Friesian breed, only limited histopathologic information is available. Twenty Friesian horses (1-10 years old) were diagnosed with aortic rupture by postmortem examination. Ruptured aortic walls were analyzed with histology and immunohistochemistry. Based on the histologic and immunohistochemical findings, these cases were divided into 3 groups: acute (n = 4, 20%), subacute (n = 8, 40%), and chronic (n = 8, 40%). Features common to samples from horses in all groups included accumulation of mucoid material; disorganization and fragmentation of the elastic laminae; aortic medial smooth muscle hypertrophy; and medial necrosis of varying degrees, ranging from mild and patchy in the acute cases to severe midzonal necrosis in the chronic cases. Inflammation, most likely secondary to medial necrosis, varied from predominantly neutrophilic infiltrates in the media and periadventitial tissue in the acute group to the presence of mainly hemosiderophages in the periadventitial tissue in the chronic group. Medial fibrosis with aberrant collagen morphology was seen in the subacute group and, more commonly, in the chronic group. Only minimal changes were seen in the aortic vasa vasorum. Smooth muscle hypertrophy and accumulation of mucoid material were not related to the age of the lesions. The findings of this study suggest that a connective tissue disorder affecting elastin or collagen in the aortic media is potentially the underlying cause of aortic rupture in Friesian horses. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Pathogenetic Basis of Aortopathy and Aortic Valve Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-19

    Aortopathies; Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm; Aortic Valve Disease; Thoracic Aortic Disease; Thoracic Aortic Dissection; Thoracic Aortic Rupture; Ascending Aortic Disease; Descending Aortic Disease; Ascending Aortic Aneurysm; Descending Aortic Aneurysm; Marfan Syndrome; Loeys-Dietz Syndrome; Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome; Shprintzen-Goldberg Syndrome; Turner Syndrome; PHACE Syndrome; Autosomal Recessive Cutis Laxa; Congenital Contractural Arachnodactyly; Arterial Tortuosity Syndrome

  19. Traumatic aortic ruptures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balm, R.; Hoornweg, L. L.

    2005-01-01

    Most patients with a traumatic aortic rupture (TAR) were involved in high velocity motor vehicle accidents. initial management of these patients should be according to the guidelines of the advanced trauma life support group (ATLS). Patients with a suspected TAR are preferably managed by controlled

  20. Unoperated aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perko, M J; Nørgaard, M; Herzog, T M

    1995-01-01

    From 1984 to 1993, 1,053 patients were admitted with aortic aneurysm (AA) and 170 (15%) were not operated on. The most frequent reason for nonoperative management was presumed technical inoperability. Survivals for patients with thoracic, thoracoabdominal, and abdominal AA were comparable. No sig...

  1. Tissue engineered aortic valve

    OpenAIRE

    Dohmen, P M

    2012-01-01

    Several prostheses are available to replace degenerative diseased aortic valves with unique advantages and disadvantages. Bioprotheses show excellent hemodynamic behavior and low risk of thromboembolic complications, but are limited by tissue deterioration. Mechanical heart valves have extended durability, but permanent anticoagulation is mandatory. Tissue engineering created a new generation heart valve, which overcome limitations of biological and mechanical heart valves due to remodelling,...

  2. Smoothness of limit functors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annual Meetings · Mid Year Meetings · Discussion Meetings · Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 125; Issue 2. Smoothness of limit functors. Benedictus Margaux. Volume 125 Issue 2 May 2015 pp 161-165 ...

  3. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-10-05

    This code is a highly modular framework for developing smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations running on parallel platforms. The compartmentalization of the code allows for rapid development of new SPH applications and modifications of existing algorithms. The compartmentalization also allows changes in one part of the code used by many applications to instantly be made available to all applications.

  4. Generalizing smooth transition autoregressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chini, Emilio Zanetti

    We introduce a variant of the smooth transition autoregression - the GSTAR model - capable to parametrize the asymmetry in the tails of the transition equation by using a particular generalization of the logistic function. A General-to-Specific modelling strategy is discussed in detail...

  5. The focal adhesion: a regulated component of aortic stiffness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Saphirstein

    Full Text Available Increased aortic stiffness is an acknowledged predictor and cause of cardiovascular disease. The sources and mechanisms of vascular stiffness are not well understood, although the extracellular matrix (ECM has been assumed to be a major component. We tested here the hypothesis that the focal adhesions (FAs connecting the cortical cytoskeleton of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs to the matrix in the aortic wall are a component of aortic stiffness and that this component is dynamically regulated. First, we examined a model system in which magnetic tweezers could be used to monitor cellular cortical stiffness, serum-starved A7r5 aortic smooth muscle cells. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, an activator of myosin that increases cell contractility, increased cortical stiffness. A small molecule inhibitor of Src-dependent FA recycling, PP2, was found to significantly inhibit LPA-induced increases in cortical stiffness, as well as tension-induced increases in FA size. To directly test the applicability of these results to force and stiffness development at the level of vascular tissue, we monitored mouse aorta ring stiffness with small sinusoidal length oscillations during agonist-induced contraction. The alpha-agonist phenylephrine, which also increases myosin activation and contractility, increased tissue stress and stiffness in a PP2- and FAK inhibitor 14-attenuated manner. Subsequent phosphotyrosine screening and follow-up with phosphosite-specific antibodies confirmed that the effects of PP2 and FAK inhibitor 14 in vascular tissue involve FA proteins, including FAK, CAS, and paxillin. Thus, in the present study we identify, for the first time, the FA of the VSMC, in particular the FAK-Src signaling complex, as a significant subcellular regulator of aortic stiffness and stress.

  6. Aortic arch repair after Norwood procedure in children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г. В. Павличев

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze the impact of aortic arch repair on the development of aortic obstruction when using a Norwood procedure. Patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 included patients who underwent neoaortic plasty performed by using bovine pericardial patches (group 1, n = 6. Group 2 consisted of patients, whose arch was repaired with autologous tissues only, without using bovine pericardial (group 2, n = 12. The groups were comparable by demographic data. To measure the aorta, we used cardiac catheterization data obtained before stage 2 of hemodynamic correction. Angiographic measurements were carried out at the level of distal anastomosis and descending aorta. Coarctation index (CI was calculated as the ratio between distal anastomosis on neoaorta and descending aorta. Occurrence of aortic obstruction in groups 1 and 2 was 50% (n = 3 and 16.7% (n = 2 respectively (p = 0.137. The aorta at the level of distal anastomosis was greater in group 2 if compared with group 1. Differences between the two groups were not statistically significant. CI for groups 1 and 2 were 0.730.16 and 0.90.18 respectively (p = 0.08. When comparing patients with the obstruction of the aortic arch and without it, the presence of ductus arteriosus tissue was found out to be associated with stenosis (p = 0.019. The authors believe that the complete excision of coarctation tissue is one of the keys to prevention of postoperative aortic arch obstruction.

  7. Morphometric changes in the aortic arch with advancing age in fetal to mature thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endoh, Chihiro; Matsuda, Kazuya; Okamoto, Minoru; Tsunoda, Nobuo; Taniyama, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-28

    Aortic rupture is a well recognized cause of sudden death in thoroughbred horses. Some microscopic lesions, such as those caused by cystic medial necrosis and medionecrosis, can lead to aortic rupture. However, these microscopic lesions are also observed in normal horses. On the other hand, a previous study of aortic rupture suggested that underlying elastin and collagen deposition disorders might be associated with aortic rupture. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the structural components of the tunica media of the aortic arch, which is composed of elastin, collagen, smooth muscle cells and mucopolysaccharides (MPS), in fetal to mature thoroughbred horses. The percentage area of elastin was greatest in the young horses and subsequently decreased with aging. The percentage area of collagen increased with aging, and the elderly horses (aged ≥20) exhibited significantly higher percentage areas of collagen than the young horses. The percentage area of smooth muscle cells did not change with age. The percentage area of MPS was inversely proportional to the percentage area of elastin. The fetuses exhibited a markedly larger percentage area of MPS than the mature horses. We concluded that the medial changes seen in the aortic arch, which included a reduction in the amount of elastin and increases in the amounts of collagen and MPS, were age-related variations.

  8. [Aortic aneurysm in Erdheim's idiopathic cystic medial necrosis in autopsy and forensic medical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolzhansky, O V; Shilova, M A; Paltseva, E M; Fedorov, D N; Kocharyan, E Z; Pigolkin, Yu I

    2016-01-01

    To date, the modern Russian literature has not covered morphological studies of aortic aneurysm in Erdheim's idiopathic cystic medial necrosis on autopsy and surgical materials, by using immunohistochemical studies, and it has not estimated the magnitude of pathohistochemical changes in the aortic media either. to conduct a morphological examination of aortic aneurysm in Erdheim's idiopathic cystic medial necrosis, by using the material of pathology and forensic medical departments. 41 surgical samples from patients with idiopathic cystic medial necrosis of the ascending aorta and autopsy samples from 17 sudden deaths from aortic rupture were examined. The aortic wall was histologically and histochemically studied. Immunohistochemical examination was done using antibodies to smooth muscle actin, collagens types I and III, elastin, CD3 (T lymphocytes), CD20 (B lymphocytes), CD45 (leukocyte common antigen), CD68 (macrophages), apoptotic marker p53, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Morphological examination showed lamellar unit destruction, fibrosis, medial necrosis, and elastic fiber fragmentation. These signs were assessed by their degree. The immunohistochemical examination of collagens types I and III determined fascicles of randomly positioned fibers. The multidirectional orientation of smooth muscle cells was confirmed by the expression of smooth muscle actin. There was an obvious expression of the apoptotic marker p53 in the smooth muscle cells of the aortic media and in the aortic adventitia. The expression of TNF-α was revealed in the cells of an inflammatory infiltrate in the aneurysm wall and that of ICAM-1 was found in the aortic endothelium, vasa vasorum, and in the cells of an inflammatory infiltrate in the media and adventitia. The paper proposes a design of postmortem and forensic medical diagnosis, which reflects the components of pathogenesis and tanatogenesis in Erdheim's idiopathic cystic medial

  9. Impact of current cryopreservation procedures on mechanical and functional properties of human aortic homografts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langerak, S. E.; Groenink, M.; van der Wall, E. E.; Wassenaar, C.; VanBavel, E.; van Baal, M. C.; Spaan, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the impact f standard cryopreservation on mechanical and functional properties of human aortic homografts. From 14 human heart-valve donors, the thoracic descending aorta was obtained. Effects of cryopreservation on mechanical (elastic properties and breaking stress) and smooth muscle

  10. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing on...

  11. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule document...

  12. Smoothness of limit functors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indian Acad. Sci. (Math. Sci.) Vol. 125, No. 2, May 2015, pp. 161–165. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Smoothness of limit functors. BENEDICTUS MARGAUX. Laboratoire de Recherche “Princess .... On the same vein, the coaction cλ : A[X] → A[X][t±1] is defined 'at a finite level', that is, there exists α1 ≥ α0 and a Aα1 ...

  13. Smoothed Cox regression

    OpenAIRE

    Dabrowska, Dorota M.

    1997-01-01

    Nonparametric regression was shown by Beran and McKeague and Utikal to provide a flexible method for analysis of censored failure times and more general counting processes models in the presence of covariates. We discuss application of kernel smoothing towards estimation in a generalized Cox regression model with baseline intensity dependent on a covariate. Under regularity conditions we show that estimates of the regression parameters are asymptotically normal at rate root-n, and we also dis...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: supravalvular aortic stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Supravalvular aortic stenosis Supravalvular aortic stenosis Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) is a heart defect that develops before ...

  15. Mast Cells in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Guo-Ping; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal

    2013-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are proinflammatory cells that play important roles in allergic responses, tumor growth, obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Although the presence and function of MCs in atherosclerotic lesions have been thoroughly studied in human specimens......, in primary cultured vascular cells, and in atherosclerosis in animals, their role in AAA was recognized only recently. Via multiple activation pathways, MCs release a spectrum of mediators � including histamine, inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, proteoglycans, and proteases � to activate...... neighboring cells, degrade extracellular matrix proteins, process latent bioactive molecules, promote angiogenesis, recruit additional inflammatory cells, and stimulate vascular cell apoptosis. These activities associate closely with medial elastica breakdown, medial smooth-muscle cell loss and thinning...

  16. Neonatal aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, K; Bove, E L; Amato, J J; Iannettoni, M; Yeh, J; Cotroneo, J V; Galdieri, R J

    1990-04-01

    Aortic stenosis in the neonate has been associated in the past with a high operative mortality. As a result, in the current era of percutaneous balloon dilatation, the optimal mode of therapy remains controversial. An approach of stabilization with cardiopulmonary bypass, followed by relief of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, was used at three institutions, and the results are presented. During the period 1983 to 1989, 40 neonates with isolated aortic stenosis and patent ductus arteriosus or coarctation of the aorta, or both, underwent operative therapy. Ages ranged from 1 to 30 days, median of 12 days, including 17 patients in the first week of life. There were 30 boys and 10 girls; weights ranged from 2.5 to 5.5 kg with a mean of 3.6 kg. Perioperative conditions included congestive heart failure in 38 and mitral regurgitation in 16; left ventricular-aortic gradients ranged from 15 to 130 mm Hg, with a mean of 67 mm Hg. There were 30 open valvotomies and 10 transventricular dilatations. The hospital survival rate was 87.5% (35/40) with no significant difference between the methods of valvotomy (9/10 in the transventricular dilatation group, 90%; 26/30 in the open valvotomy group, 87%). Although multiple methods of perfusion and valvotomy were used, the single unifying factor of cardiopulmonary bypass stabilization was present in all 40 patients. No significant difference in survival was noted between institutions, methods of cardiopulmonary bypass, cardiopulmonary bypass times, crossclamp times, or method of valvotomy. There have been five reoperations, with one late death in a patient requiring mitral valve replacement and an apical-aortic conduit. One sudden death occurred; autopsy revealed endocardial fibroelastosis. Results demonstrate that in the three institutions using the methods described, a high operative and late survival rate is possible. The results of this technique, against which percutaneous dilatation should be compared, are standard in

  17. Diagnosis of bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Schares, G

    2006-08-31

    The protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle. The diagnosis of neosporosis-associated mortality and abortion in cattle is difficult. In the present paper we review histologic, serologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular methods for dignosis of bovine neosporosis. Although not a routine method of diagnosis, methods to isolate viable N. caninum from bovine tissues are also reviewed.

  18. Management of acute aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienaber, Christoph A; Clough, Rachel E

    2015-02-28

    A new appraisal of the management of acute aortic dissection is timely because of recent developments in diagnostic strategies (including biomarkers and imaging), endograft design, and surgical treatment, which have led to a better understanding of the epidemiology, risk factors, and molecular nature of aortic dissection. Although open surgery is the main treatment for proximal aortic repair, use of endovascular management is now established for complicated distal dissection and distal arch repair, and has recently been discussed as a pre-emptive measure to avoid late complications by inducing aortic remodelling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Neonatal aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Nigel E; Veldtman, Gruschen R; Benson, Lee N

    2005-09-01

    Neonatal aortic stenosis is a complex and heterogeneous condition, defined as left ventricular outflow tract obstruction at valvular level, presenting and often requiring treatment in the first month of life. Initial presentation may be catastrophic, necessitating hemodynamic, respiratory and metabolic resuscitation. Subsequent management is focused on maintaining systemic blood flow, either via a univentricular Norwood palliation or a biventricular route, in which the effective aortic valve area is increased by balloon dilation or surgical valvotomy. In infants with aortic annular hypoplasia but adequately sized left ventricle, the Ross-Konno procedure is also an attractive option. Outcomes after biventricular management have improved in recent years as a consequence of better patient selection, perioperative management and advances in catheter technology. Exciting new developments are likely to significantly modify the natural history of this disorder, including fetal intervention for the salvage of the hypoplastic left ventricle; 3D echocardiography providing better definition of valve morphology and aiding patient selection for a surgical or catheter-based intervention; and new transcutaneous approaches, such as duel beam echo, to perforate the valve.

  20. Gingerol Inhibits Serum-Induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Injury-Induced Neointimal Hyperplasia by Suppressing p38 MAPK Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Manish; Singh, Ankita; Singh, Vishal; Maurya, Preeti; Barthwal, Manoj Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Gingerol inhibits growth of cancerous cells; however, its role in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is not known. The present study investigated the effect of gingerol on VSMC proliferation in cell culture and during neointima formation after balloon injury. Rat VSMCs or carotid arteries were harvested at 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 1, 6, 12, and 24 hours of fetal bovine serum (FBS; 10%) stimulation or balloon injury, respectively. Gingerol prevented FBS (10%)-induced proliferation of VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner (50 μmol/L-400 μmol/L). The FBS-induced proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) upregulation and p27(Kip1) downregulation were also attenuated in gingerol (200 μmol/L) pretreated cells. Fetal bovine serum-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, PCNA upregulation, and p27(Kip1) downregulation were abrogated in gingerol (200 μmol/L) and p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580, 10 μmol/L) pretreated cells. Balloon injury induced time-dependent p38 MAPK activation in the carotid artery. Pretreatment with gingerol (200 μmol/L) significantly attenuated injury-induced p38 MAPK activation, PCNA upregulation, and p27(Kip1) downregulation. After 14 days of balloon injury, intimal thickening, neointimal proliferation, and endothelial dysfunction were significantly prevented in gingerol pretreated arteries. In isolated organ bath studies, gingerol (30 nmol/L-300 μmol/L) inhibited phenylephrine-induced contractions and induced dose-dependent relaxation of rat thoracic aortic rings in a partially endothelium-dependent manner. Gingerol prevented FBS-induced VSMC proliferation and balloon injury-induced neointima formation by regulating p38 MAPK. Vasodilator effect of gingerol observed in the thoracic aorta was partially endothelium dependent. Gingerol is thus proposed as an attractive agent for modulating VSMC proliferation, vascular reactivity, and progression of vascular proliferative diseases. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Burro aortic collagen: composition and characteristics of interaction with platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M.D. (Comparative Animal Research Lab., Oak Ridge, TN); Huang, W.O.W.; Cross, F.H.; Lin, K.T.D.

    1979-03-01

    A collagenous protein(s) from the aortas of three aged burros (Equus asinus) was isolated, using an acid (83.5 mM glacial acetic acid) extraction technique and subsequent pepsin digestion of the extracts with extensive dialysis. This protein(s) was then precipitated by adding solid NaCl (w/v, 9.45 g/100 ml) to the dialyzed aortic tissue extracts. The precipitate was collected by ultracentrifugation, concentrated by dissolving in one-fourth the original volume of acetic acid, and again extensively dialyzed. Values for amino acids in residues/1,000 indicated that the extractable aortic material(s) contained substantial amounts of proline, hydroxyproline, lysine, hydroxylysine, cysteine, and all other amino acid residues usually found in collagen. Examination by electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide-gel indicated the presence of 5 major polypeptide subunits of the molecular weight range of 116,000 to 300,000. A powerful inducer of platelet aggregation was found in the acid solubilized, pepsin-digested aortic extracts. Human platelets were sensitive to the agent(s) down to 0.1 to 0.2 ..mu..g of aortic solids added to 0.45 ml of platelet-rich plasma. Platelets from goats and sheep were sensitive down to additions of 0.2 ..mu..g of solids, burro platelets to 0.5 to 1 ..mu..g, bovine platelets to 1 to 2 ..mu..g, and swine platelets to 2 to 3 ..mu..g. Thus, this powerful burro aortic collagen-containing material(s) may help to distinguish minor modifications in functional characteristics of platelets from persons or animals suffering from hemostatic or thrombotic disorders.

  2. Aortic stentgrafts and en dovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-07-19

    Jul 19, 2007 ... 4). Calibrating angiography, transoesophageal echo and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) are useful adjuncts only for thoracic aortic pathology. The stentgraft should generally be oversized by 15 - 20% (10 -. 15% for connective tissue disorders, aortic dissections, etc.). EVAR is performed with local, regional.

  3. Smoothly Varying Bright Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Alfen, Nicholas; Hindman, Lauren; Moody, Joseph Ward; Biancardi, Rochelle; Whipple, Parkes; Gaunt, Caleb

    2018-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that blazar light can vary sinusoidally with periods of hundreds of days to tens of years. Such behavior is expected of, among other things, jets coming from binary black holes. To look for general variability in lesser-known blazars and AGN, in 2015-2016 we monitored 182 objects with Johnson V-band magnitudes reported as being < 16. In all, this campaign generated 22,000 frames from 2,000 unique pointings. We find that approximately one dozen of these objects show evidence of smooth variability consistent with sinusoidal periods. We report on the entire survey sample, highlighting those that show sinusoidal variations.

  4. Aortic Diameter Growth in Children With a Bicuspid Aortic Valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkx, Remy; Duijnhouwer, Anthonie L; Vink, Evelien; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Schokking, Michiel

    2017-07-01

    Knowledge of aortic growth in patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is essential to identify patients at risk for dissection, but data on children remain unclear. We retrospectively evaluated the aortic diameters of all pediatric BAV patients, identified through an echocardiographic database (2005 to 2013). Medical records were reviewed and aortic diameters re-measured on echocardiographic images at diagnosis and if available on variable mid- and endpoints follow-up. Dilatation (z-score >2) was based on 2 different z-score equation methods (Gautier/Campens). In 234 of the total 250 BAV patients, aortic diameters were analyzed; median age was 6.1 years (interquartile range 1.7 to 10), of which 63% were male. Aortic coarctation was present in 81 (36%) patients, 23% had a ventricular septal defect. BAV morphology according to Sievers was as follows: type 0 in 128 patients (55%), type 1 in 96 (41%), and type 2 in 10 (4%). Ascending aortic (AA) dilatation was present in 24% (Gautier) and 36% (Campens) at inclusion. Median follow-up was 4.7 years. The AA was the only location where mean z-scores progressed significantly with age: 0.06 (Gautier) and 0.09 (Campens) units per year between ages 5 and 15 years. Associations for higher AA z-scores at older age were an initial z-score >2 (p aortic valve stenosis (p aortic surgery occurred. In conclusion, only the AA seems at risk for complication, although no aortic complications occurred in this pediatric BAV cohort. BAV morphology seems associated with larger AA z-scores and valvular dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown

  6. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghsgaard, Signe; Schmidt, Thomas Andersen; Kjaergard, Henrik K

    2009-01-01

    In this descriptive prospective study, we evaluate the outcomes of surgery in 98 patients who were scheduled to undergo minimally invasive aortic valve replacement. These patients were compared with a group of 50 patients who underwent scheduled aortic valve replacement through a full sternotomy...

  7. Abdominal Aortic Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Christie; Swaminathan, Anand

    2017-11-01

    This article discusses abdominal aortic emergencies. There is a common thread of risk factors and causes of these diseases, including age, male gender, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and connective tissue disorders. The most common presenting symptom of these disorders is pain, usually in the chest, flank, abdomen, or back. Computed tomography scan is the gold standard for diagnosis of pathologic conditions of the aorta in the hemodynamically stable patient. Treatment consists of a combination of blood pressure and heart rate control and, in many cases, emergent surgical intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gefke, K; Schroeder, T V; Thisted, B

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify patients who need longer care in the ICU (more than 48 hours) following abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery and to evaluate the influence of perioperative complications on short- and long-term survival and quality of life. AAA surgery was performed in 553......, 78% stated that their quality of life had improved or was unchanged after surgery and had resumed working. These data justify a therapeutically aggressive approach, including ICU therapy following AAA surgery, despite failure of one or more organ systems....

  9. Leptin promotes osteoblast differentiation and mineralization of primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3{beta}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeadin, Melec G.; Butcher, Martin K.; Shaughnessy, Stephen G. [Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Thrombosis and Atherosclerosis Research Institute, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Werstuck, Geoff H., E-mail: Geoff.Werstuck@taari.ca [Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Thrombosis and Atherosclerosis Research Institute, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Leptin promotes osteoblast differentiation of primary smooth muscle cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Leptin regulates the expression of genes involved in osteoblast differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Constitutively active GSK-3{beta} attenuates leptin-induced osteoblast differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This suggests that leptin signals through GSK-3{beta} to promote osteoblast differentiation. -- Abstract: In this study, we begin to investigate the underlying mechanism of leptin-induced vascular calcification. We found that treatment of cultured bovine aortic smooth muscle cells (BASMCs) with leptin (0.5-4 {mu}g/ml) induced osteoblast differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that leptin significantly increased the mRNA expression of osteopontin and bone sialoprotein, while down-regulating matrix gla protein (MGP) expression in BASMCs. Key factors implicated in osteoblast differentiation, including members of the Wnt signaling pathway, were examined. Exposure to leptin enhanced phosphorylation of GSK-3{beta} on serine-9 thereby inhibiting activity and promoting the nuclear accumulation of {beta}-catenin. Transfection of BASMCs with an adenovirus that expressed constitutively active GSK-3{beta} (Ad-GSK-3{beta} S9A) resulted in a >2-fold increase in GSK-3{beta} activity and a significant decrease in leptin-induced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. In addition, qRT-PCR analysis showed that GSK-3{beta} activation resulted in a significant decrease in the expression of osteopontin and bone sialoprotein, but a marked increase in MGP mRNA expression. When taken together, our results suggest a mechanism by which leptin promotes osteoblast differentiation and vascular calcification in vivo.

  10. 3D bioprinting of heterogeneous aortic valve conduits with alginate/gelatin hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Bin; Hockaday, Laura A; Kang, Kevin H; Butcher, Jonathan T

    2013-05-01

    Heart valve disease is a serious and growing public health problem for which prosthetic replacement is most commonly indicated. Current prosthetic devices are inadequate for younger adults and growing children. Tissue engineered living aortic valve conduits have potential for remodeling, regeneration, and growth, but fabricating natural anatomical complexity with cellular heterogeneity remain challenging. In the current study, we implement 3D bioprinting to fabricate living alginate/gelatin hydrogel valve conduits with anatomical architecture and direct incorporation of dual cell types in a regionally constrained manner. Encapsulated aortic root sinus smooth muscle cells (SMC) and aortic valve leaflet interstitial cells (VIC) were viable within alginate/gelatin hydrogel discs over 7 days in culture. Acellular 3D printed hydrogels exhibited reduced modulus, ultimate strength, and peak strain reducing slightly over 7-day culture, while the tensile biomechanics of cell-laden hydrogels were maintained. Aortic valve conduits were successfully bioprinted with direct encapsulation of SMC in the valve root and VIC in the leaflets. Both cell types were viable (81.4 ± 3.4% for SMC and 83.2 ± 4.0% for VIC) within 3D printed tissues. Encapsulated SMC expressed elevated alpha-smooth muscle actin, while VIC expressed elevated vimentin. These results demonstrate that anatomically complex, heterogeneously encapsulated aortic valve hydrogel conduits can be fabricated with 3D bioprinting. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Twins with progressive thoracic aortic aneurysm, recurrent dissection and ACTA2 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Stephanie M; Shikany, Amy; Landis, Benjamin J; James, Jeanne F; Hinton, Robert B

    2014-10-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is a genetically mediated disease with variable age of onset. In the pediatric age range, nonsyndromic TAA frequently has a milder course than syndromic forms of TAA, such as Marfan syndrome or Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Herein, we describe 17-year-old identical twin brothers with severe progressive TAA due to a novel de novo ACTA2 mutation. Interestingly, both boys were diagnosed at age 11 with congenital mydriasis, a recently recognized manifestation of some ACTA2 mutations due to smooth muscle dysfunction. One of the brothers presented with acute-onset lower back pain that was identified as dissection of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. Imaging of the chest at this time showed severe fusiform TAA. Cardiac imaging in his twin showed similar TAA, but no abdominal aortic aneurysm. Both brothers underwent valve-sparing aortic root replacement, but have had progressive aortic disease with recurrent dissection requiring multiple surgeries. This case emphasizes the importance of identifying physical stigmata of smooth muscle dysfunction, such as mydriasis, as potential markers for associated aortopathy and vascular diseases. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. [Paravalvular aortic regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buğan, Barış; Tuzcu, Emin Murat

    2014-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a rapidly evolving technology that has been accepted as a treatment option in patients with severe aortic stenosis who are not suitable for or are at high risk for conventional surgery. Randomized trials have shown that TAVR decreases mortality and improves quality of life in patients who are not suitable for conventional surgery and that TAVR is not inferior to standard surgery in operable but high- risk patients. However, TAVR has several important limitations, the most prominent of which is residual paravalvular aortic regurgitation (PAR). The purpose of this review is to present the mechanism, incidence, assessment, and treatment of PAR after TAVR.

  13. Classification of smooth Fano polytopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øbro, Mikkel

    A simplicial lattice polytope containing the origin in the interior is called a smooth Fano polytope, if the vertices of every facet is a basis of the lattice. The study of smooth Fano polytopes is motivated by their connection to toric varieties. The thesis concerns the classification of smooth...... Fano polytopes up to isomorphism. A smooth Fano -polytope can have at most vertices. In case of vertices an explicit classification is known. The thesis contains the classification in case of vertices. Classifications of smooth Fano -polytopes for fixed exist only for . In the thesis an algorithm...... for the classification of smooth Fano -polytopes for any given is presented. The algorithm has been implemented and used to obtain the complete classification for ....

  14. Reinforced aortic root reconstruction for acute type A aortic dissection involving the aortic root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Qing-qi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There are debates regarding the optimal approach for AAAD involving the aortic root. We described a modified reinforced aortic root reconstruction approach for treating AAAD involving the aortic root. METHODS: A total of 161 patients with AAAD involving the aortic root were treated by our modified reinforced aortic root reconstruction approach from January 1998 to December 2008. Key features of our modified approach were placement of an autologous pericardial patch in the false lumen, lining of the sinotubular junction lumen with a polyester vascular ring, and wrapping of the vessel with Teflon strips. Outcome measures included post-operative mortality, survival, complications, and level of aortic regurgitation. RESULTS: A total of 161 patients were included in the study (mean age: 43.3 1 15.5 years. The mean duration of follow-up was 5.1 1 2.96 years (2-12 years. A total of 10 (6.2% and 11 (6.8% patients died during hospitalization and during follow-up, respectively. Thirty-one (19.3% patients experienced postoperative complications. The 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year survival rates were 99.3%, 98%, 93.8%, and 75.5%, respectively. There were no instances of recurrent aortic dissection, aortic aneurysm, or pseudoaneurysm during the entire study period. The severity of aortic regurgitation dramatically decreased immediately after surgery (from 28.6% to 0% grade 3-4 and thereafter slightly increased (from 0% to 7.2% at 5 years and 9.1% at 10 years. CONCLUSION: This modified reinforced aortic root reconstruction was feasible, safe and durable/effective, as indicated by its low mortality, low postoperative complications and high survival rate.

  15. In-vitro analysis of normal and aneurismal human ascending aortic tissues using FT-IR microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnier, F; Rubin, S; Ventéo, L; Krishna, C M; Pluot, M; Baehrel, B; Manfait, M; Sockalingum, G D

    2006-07-01

    FTIR microspectroscopy has shown to be a proven tool in the investigation of many tissue types. We have used this spectroscopic approach to analyse structural differences between normal and aneurismal aortic tissues and also aortas from patients with congenital anomalies like aortic bicuspid valves. Spectral analysis showed important variations in amide I and II regions, related to changes in alpha-helix and beta-sheet secondary structure of proteins that seem to be correlated to structural modifications of collagen and elastin. These proteins are the major constituents of the aortic wall associated to smooth muscular cells. The amide regions have thus been identified as a marker of structural modifications related to these proteins whose modifications can be associated to a given aortic pathological situation. Both univariate (total absorbance image and band ratio) and multivariate (principal components analysis) analyses of the spectral information contained in the infrared images have been performed. Differences between tissues have been identified by these two approaches and allowed to separate each group of aortic tissues. However, with univariate band ratio analysis, the pathological group was found to be composed of samples from aneurismal aortas associated or not with an aortic bicuspid valve. In contrast, PCA was able to separate these two types of aortic pathologies. For other groups, PCA and band ratio analysis can differentiate between normal, aneurismal, and none dilated aortas from patients with a bicuspid aortic valve.

  16. Ceruloplasmin enhances smooth muscle cell- and endothelial cell-mediated low density lipoprotein oxidation by a superoxide-dependent mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, C. K.; Ehrenwald, E.; Fox, P. L.

    1996-01-01

    Cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) and endothelial cells (EC) stimulate low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation by free radical-mediated, transition metal-dependent mechanisms. The physiological source(s) of metal ions is not known; however, purified ceruloplasmin, a plasma protein containing 7 coppers, oxidizes LDL in vitro. We now show that ceruloplasmin also increases LDL oxidation by vascular cells. In metal ion-free medium, human ceruloplasmin increased bovine aortic SMC- and EC-mediated LDL oxidation by up to 30- and 15-fold, respectively. The maximal response was at 100-300 microg ceruloplasmin/ml, a level at or below the unevoked physiological plasma concentration. Oxidant activity was dependent on protein structure as a specific proteolytic cleavage or removal of one of the seven ceruloplasmin copper atoms inhibited activity. Three lines of evidence indicated a critical role for cellular superoxide (O2.) in ceruloplasmin-stimulated oxidation. First, the rate of production of O2. by cells correlated with their rates of LDL oxidation. Second, superoxide dismutase effectively blocked ceruloplasmin-stimulated oxidation by both cell types. Finally, O2. production by SMC quantitatively accounted for the observed rate of LDL oxidation. To show this, the course of O2. production by SMC was simulated by repeated addition of xanthine and xanthine oxidase to culture medium under cell-free conditions. Neither ceruloplasmin nor O2. alone increased LDL oxidation, but together they completely reconstituted the oxidation rate of ceruloplasmin-stimulated SMC. These results are the first to show that ceruloplasmin stimulates EC- and SMC-mediated oxidation of LDL and that cell-derived O2. accounts quantitatively for metal-dependent, free radical-initiated oxidation of LDL by these cells.

  17. Role of Microvascular Tone and Extracellular Matrix Contraction in the Regulation of Interstitial Fluid: Implications for Aortic Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallat, Ziad; Tedgui, Alain; Henrion, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    The pathophysiology of aortic dissection is poorly understood, and its risk is resistant to medical treatment. Most studies have focused on a proposed pathogenic role of transforming growth factor-β in Marfan disease and related thoracic aortic aneurysms and aortic dissections. However, clinical testing of this concept using angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists to block transforming growth factor-β signaling fell short of promise. Genetic mutations that predispose to thoracic aortic aneurysms and aortic dissections affect components of the extracellular matrix and proteins involved in cellular force generation. Thus, a role for dysfunctional mechanosensing in abnormal aortic wall remodeling is emerging. However, how abnormal mechanosensing leads to aortic dissection remains a mystery. Here, we review current knowledge about the regulation of interstitial fluid dynamics and myogenic tone and propose that alteration in contractile force reduces vascular tone in the microcirculation (here, aortic vasa vasorum) and leads to elevations of blood flow, transmural pressure, and fluid flux into the surrounding aortic media. Furthermore, reduced contractile force in medial smooth muscle cells coupled with alteration of structural components of the extracellular matrix limits extracellular matrix contraction, further promoting the formation of intramural edema, a critical step in the initiation of aortic dissection. The concept is supported by several pathophysiological and clinical observations. A direct implication of this concept is that drugs that lower blood pressure and limit interstitial fluid accumulation while preserving or increasing microvascular tone would limit the risk of dissection. In contrast, drugs that substantially lower microvascular tone would be ineffective or may accelerate the disease and precipitate aortic dissection. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Tobacco smoking and aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sode, Birgitte F; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Grønbæk, Morten

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We determined the predictive power of tobacco smoking on aortic aneurysm as opposed to other risk factors in the general population. METHODS: We recorded tobacco smoking and other risk factors at baseline, and assessed hospitalization and death from aortic aneurysm in 15,072 individuals...... aneurysm in males and females consuming above 20g tobacco daily was 3.5% and 1.3%, among those >60years with plasma cholesterol >5mmol/L and a systolic blood pressure >140mmHg. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking is the most important predictor of future aortic aneurysm outcomes in the general population...

  19. Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Andrusaitis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 69-year-old male with poorly controlled hypertension presented with 1 hour of severe low back pain that radiated to his abdomen. The patient was tachycardic and had an initial blood pressure of 70/40. He had a rigid and severely tender abdomen. The patient’s history of hypertension, abnormal vital signs, severity and location of his pain were suspicious for a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA. Therefore, a computed tomography angiogram (CTA was ordered. Significant findings: CTA demonstrated a ruptured 7.4 cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm with a large left retroperitoneal hematoma. Discussion: True abdominal aortic aneurysm is defined as at least a 3cm dilatation of all three layers of the arterial wall of the abdominal aorta.1 An estimated 15,000 people die per year in the US of this condition.2 Risk factors for AAA include males older than 65, tobacco use, and hypertension.1,3,4 There are also congenital, mechanical, traumatic, inflammatory, and infectious causes of AAA.3 Rupture is often the first manifestation of the disease. The classic triad of abdominal pain, pulsatile mass, and hypotension is seen in only 50% of ruptured AAAs.5 Pain (abdominal, groin, or back is the most common symptom. The most common misdiagnoses of ruptured AAAs are renal colic, diverticulitis, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage.6 Bedside ultrasonography is the fastest way to detect this condition and is nearly 100% sensitive.1 One study showed that bedside ultrasounds performed by emergency physicians had a sensitivity of .94 [95% CI = .86-1.0] and specificity of 1 [95% CI = .98-1.0] for detecting AAAs.7 CTA has excellent sensitivity (approximately 100% and yields the added benefit of facilitating surgical planning and management.1 Without surgical treatment, a ruptured AAA is almost uniformly fatal, and 50% of those who undergo surgery do not survive.1 Early resuscitation and coordination with vascular surgery should be

  20. Bicuspid Aortic Valve and Aortic Root Morphology in Hispanic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Sofia A; Mihos, Christos G; Rodriguez-Escudero, Juan P; Elmahdy, Hany M; Pineda, Andres M; Rosen, Gerald P; Carlos Brenes, Juan; Santana, Orlando

    2015-11-01

    The study aim was to evaluate the aortic valve and aortic root morphology in Hispanic patients with a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). BAV disease is one of the most common congenital anomaly of the heart, and is associated with abnormalities of the aorta. Interracial differences have been described between Caucasian and African-American patients with BAV, which may have clinical and therapeutic implications. The clinical and anatomical spectrum of BAV disease in Hispanic patients has not been well established. A retrospective review was conducted of all heart operations performed at the authors' institution between April 2008 and June 2013. Patients with BAV who underwent aortic valve replacement (AVR) were identified. All echocardiograms available were reviewed in order to compare cusp morphology, valvular function, and ascending aorta dimensions between Hispanic and non-Hispanic individuals. A total of 291 patients (159 Hispanic, 132 non-Hispanic) with a mean age of 62 ± 13 years were identified. The baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups. In both Hispanics and non-Hispanics, the most prevalent cusp morphology was fusion of the right and left coronary cusps (82% for both groups). The most common indication for surgery was aortic stenosis. Hispanic patients had a larger aortic annulus diameter (2.58 ± 0.32 cm versus 2.39 ± 0.39 cm, p = 0.04). However, this difference was not significant after adjusting for age, gender, body surface area, and the presence of moderate-to-severe aortic insufficiency. Ascending aortopathy was present in 42.7% of the total study population. Regardless of ethnicity, the most common pattern of aortopathy involved the tubular ascending aorta with mild to moderate root enlargement (type 1). Compared with other ethnic groups, Hispanics with BAVs have similar aortic valve morphology and function, as well as comparable aortopathy.

  1. Advanced atherosclerosis is associated with increased medial degeneration in sporadic ascending aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albini, Paul T; Segura, Ana Maria; Liu, Guanghui; Minard, Charles G; Coselli, Joseph S; Milewicz, Dianna M; Shen, Ying H; LeMaire, Scott A

    2014-02-01

    The pathogenesis of non-familial, sporadic ascending aortic aneurysms (SAAA) is poorly understood, and the relationship between ascending aortic atherosclerosis and medial degeneration is unclear. We evaluated the prevalence and severity of aortic atherosclerosis and its association with medial degeneration in SAAA. Atherosclerosis was characterized in ascending aortic tissues collected from 68 SAAA patients (mean age, 62.9 ± 12.0 years) and 15 controls (mean age, 56.6 ± 11.4 years [P = 0.07]) by using a modified American Heart Association classification system. Upon histologic examination, 97% of SAAA patients and 73% of controls showed atherosclerotic changes. Most SAAA samples had intermediate (types 2 and 3, 35%) or advanced atherosclerosis (types ≥ 4; 40%), whereas most control samples showed minimal atherosclerosis (none or type 1, 80%; P atherosclerosis grade. Advanced atherosclerosis was associated with higher grades of smooth muscle cell depletion (P atherosclerosis than in patients with minimal (P = 0.04) or intermediate atherosclerosis (P = 0.04). Immunostaining showed marked CD3+ T-cell and CD68+ macrophage infiltration, MMP-2 and MMP-9 production, and cryopyrin expression in the medial layer adjacent to atherosclerotic plaque. SAAA tissues exhibited advanced atherosclerosis that was associated with severe medial degeneration and increased aortic diameter. Our findings suggest a role for atherosclerosis in the progression of sporadic ascending aortic aneurysms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. MicroRNA-124 controls human vascular smooth muscle cell phenotypic switch via Sp1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yangfeng; Yu, Shangyi; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jiajun; Han, Lin; Xu, Zhiyun

    2017-09-01

    Phenotypic switch of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and aortic dissection. However, the mechanisms of phenotypic modulation are still unclear. MicroRNAs have emerged as important regulators of VSMC function. We recently found that microRNA-124 (miR-124) was downregulated in proliferative vascular diseases that were characterized by a VSMC phenotypic switch. Therefore, we speculated that the aberrant expression of miR-124 might play a critical role in human aortic VSMC phenotypic switch. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we found that miR-124 was dramatically downregulated in the aortic media of clinical specimens of the dissected aorta and correlated with molecular markers of the contractile VSMC phenotype. Overexpression of miR-124 by mimicking transfection significantly attenuated platelet-derived growth factor-BB-induced human aortic VSMC proliferation and phenotypic switch. Furthermore, we identified specificity protein 1 (Sp1) as the downstream target of miR-124. A luciferase reporter assay was used to confirm direct miR-124 targeting of the 3'-untranslated region of the Sp1 gene and repression of Sp1 expression in human aortic VSMCs. Furthermore, constitutively active Sp1 in miR-124-overexpressing VSMCs reversed the antiproliferative effects of miR-124. These results demonstrated a novel mechanism of miR-124 modulation of VSMC phenotypic switch by targeting Sp1 expression.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Previous studies have demonstrated that miR-124 is involved in the proliferation of a variety of cell types. However, miRNAs are expressed in a tissue-specific manner. We first identified miR-124 as a critical regulator in human aortic vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation, proliferation, and phenotype switch by targeting the 3'-untranslated region of specificity protein 1. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Reoperative Aortic Root Replacement in Patients with Previous Aortic Root or Aortic Valve Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Kwon Chong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Generalization of standardized surgical techniques to treat aortic valve (AV and aortic root diseases has benefited large numbers of patients. As a consequence of the proliferation of patients receiving aortic root surgeries, surgeons are more frequently challenged by reoperative aortic root procedures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of redo-aortic root replacement (ARR. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 66 patients (36 male; mean age, 44.5±9.5 years who underwent redo-ARR following AV or aortic root procedures between April 1995 and June 2015. Results: Emergency surgeries comprised 43.9% (n=29. Indications for the redo-ARR were aneurysm (n=12, pseudoaneurysm (n=1, or dissection (n=6 of the residual native aortic sinus in 19 patients (28.8%, native AV dysfunction in 8 patients (12.1%, structural dysfunction of an implanted bioprosthetic AV in 19 patients (28.8%, and infection of previously replaced AV or proximal aortic grafts in 30 patients (45.5%. There were 3 early deaths (4.5%. During follow- up (median, 54.65 months; quartile 1–3, 17.93 to 95.71 months, there were 14 late deaths (21.2%, and 9 valve-related complications including reoperation of the aortic root in 1 patient, infective endocarditis in 3 patients, and hemorrhagic events in 5 patients. Overall survival and event-free survival rates at 5 years were 81.5%±5.1% and 76.4%±5.4%, respectively. Conclusion: Despite technical challenges and a high rate of emergency conditions in patients requiring redo-ARR, early and late outcomes were acceptable in these patients.

  4. Abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes Sanddal

    2010-01-01

    Although the number of elective operations for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is increasing, the sex- and age-standardised mortality rate of AAAs continues to rise, especially among men aged 65 years or more. The lethality of ruptured AAA continues to be 80-95%, compared with 5-7% by elective...... surgery of symptomfree AAA. In order to fulfil all WHO, European, and Danish criteria for screening, a randomised hospitalbased screening trial of 12,639 65-73 year old men in Viborg County (Denmark) was initiated in 1994. It seemed that US screening is a valid, suitable and acceptable method of screening...... intervals. Two large RCTs have given clear indications of operation. Survivors of surgery enjoy the same quality of life as the background population, and only 2-5% of patients refuse an offer of surgery. Early detection seems relevant since the cardiovascular mortality is more than 4 times higher in AAA...

  5. Dynamics of smooth muscle contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. van Kloeveringe (Gommert)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractSmooth muscle can economically maintain tonus for a long time and in many organs, its purpose is to maintain organ dimensions. It is however relatively slow and also inefficient as far as mechanical work is concerned. Smooth muscle is found in the majority of organs in the human body. It

  6. Management of acute aortic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Rachel E; Nienaber, Christoph A

    2015-02-01

    Acute aortic syndrome (AAS) encompasses a group of severe, life-threatening disorders of the aorta, including acute aortic dissection, intramural haematoma (IMH), and penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU). The concept of AAS was developed to enable the early identification and definitive treatment of patients with chest pain from an aortic origin. Aortic dissection is the most common form of AAS, followed by IMH and PAU. Congenital cardiovascular defects, genetic syndromes, and nonsyndromic genetic variants have all been linked with the development of AAS. The diagnosis of AAS in the clinic can be made using imaging modalities such as CT, echocardiography, and MRI. The initial management of patients with AAS is focussed on the control of blood pressure to reduce aortic wall stress. A multidisciplinary team is required to assess each patient and decide whether endovascular or open surgical treatment, or further medical management is indicated. The optimal treatment of patients with AAS remains a challenging clinical dilemma, and further studies are required to fully characterize conditions within the AAS spectrum and to design individualized, patient-centred treatment plans.

  7. Enzootic bovine leucosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, L

    1978-09-02

    Enzootic bovine leucosis is associated with infection by bovine leucosis virus. The incubation period is measured in years and a minority of infected animals develop clinical signs. The disease is widespread in Europe and elsewhere and can cause significant economic loss. The epidemiology is incompletely understood and findings from one cattle production system may not be directly applicable to another. Major control programmes exist in Denmark and West Germany and control schemes are being developed elsewhere. Eradication of enzootic bovine leucosis has been established as a goal in the EEC and research is revealing the ways in which this goal may be attained. To be effective, control and epidemiological monitoring must be interactive. Recently introduced serological tests, of improved sensitivity, provide a valuable tool.

  8. Multimorbidity in Older Adults with Aortic Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindman, Brian R; Patel, Jay N

    2016-05-01

    Aortic stenosis is a disease of older adults; many have associated comorbidities. With the aging of the population and the emergence of transcatheter aortic valve replacement as a treatment, clinicians will increasingly be confronted with aortic stenosis and multimorbidity, making the evaluation, management, and treatment of aortic stenosis more complex. To optimize patient-centered clinical outcomes, new treatment paradigms are needed that recognize the import and influence of multimorbidity on patients with aortic stenosis. The authors review the prevalence of medical and aging-related comorbidities in patients with aortic stenosis, their impact on outcomes, and discuss how they influence management and treatment decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Smooth analysis in Banach spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Hájek, Petr

    2014-01-01

    This bookis aboutthe subject of higher smoothness in separable real Banach spaces.It brings together several angles of view on polynomials, both in finite and infinite setting.Also a rather thorough and systematic view of the more recent results, and the authors work is given. The book revolves around two main broad questions: What is the best smoothness of a given Banach space, and its structural consequences? How large is a supply of smooth functions in the sense of approximating continuous functions in the uniform topology, i.e. how does the Stone-Weierstrass theorem generalize into in

  10. Thoracic aortic aneurysm: A rare cause of elevated hemidiaphragm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Arshad Ejazi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phrenic nerve palsy causing hemidiaphragm paralysis is a very uncommon feature of thoracic aortic aneurysm. In one case, a 30 year male complained of chronic dull aching chest pain, and hoarseness of voice; posteroanterior view chest radiograph revealed large spherical radiopacity on the left upper lung zone with smooth lobulated margin with elevated left hemidiaphragm. On Colour Doppler sonography, lesion was anechoic on gray scale sonography but on Doppler analysis revealed intense internal vascularity within it with characteristic "Ying Yang" sign. The finding favor the vascular origin of the lesion and a diagnosis of an arterial aneurysm was made Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT of the thorax revealed a large well defined spherical lesion of 8 × 10 cm size with smooth well defined margin arising from the aortic arch and attenuation of impending rupture or dissection were lesion on immediate post contrast and delayed scan was similar to that of aorta. Left hemidiaphragm elevation was explained by the gross mass effect of the aneurysm causing right phrenic nerve palsy.

  11. Endoluminal treatment of aortic dissection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavan, Ajay; Lotz, Joachim; Galanski, Michael [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Carl Neuberg Strasse 1, 30625, Hannover (Germany); Oelert, Frank; Haverich, Axel; Karck, Matthias [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Carl Neuberg Strasse 1, 30625, Hannover (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    Aortic dissection is most often a catastrophic medical emergency which, if untreated, can be potentially fatal. The intention of therapy in patients with aortic dissection is to prevent aortic rupture or aneurysm formation as well as to relieve branch vessel ischaemia. Patients with aortic dissection are often poor candidates for anaesthesia and surgery and the surgical procedure itself is challenging requiring thoracotomy, aortic cross clamping, blood transfusion as well as prolonged hospital stay in some cases. Operative mortality is especially high in patients with critical mesenteric or renal ischaemia. The past decade has experienced the emergence of a number of interventional radiological or minimally invasive techniques which have significantly improved the management of patients with aortic dissection. These include stent grafting for entry site closure to prevent aneurysmatic widening of the false lumen as well as percutaneous techniques such as balloon fenestration of the intimal flap and aortic true lumen stenting to alleviate branch vessel ischaemia. False lumen thrombosis following entry closure with stent grafts has been observed in 86-100% of patients, whereas percutaneous interventions are able to effectively relieve organ ischaemia in approximately 90% of the cases. In the years to come, it is to be expected that these endoluminal techniques will become the method of choice for treating most type-B dissections and will assist in significantly reducing the number of open surgical procedures required for type-A dissections. The intention of this article is to provide an overview of the current status of these endoluminal techniques based on our own experience as well as on a review of the relevant literature. (orig.)

  12. Traumatic aortic transection with intraluminal aortic fat: transesophageal echocardiographic characteristics and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Andrew D; Bobin, John J; Mehta, Sanjay; Stephenson, Edward R

    2003-11-01

    Aortic transection can be a catastrophic complication of blunt chest trauma. Transesophageal echocardiography is a useful tool for assessing aortic pathology. Presented is a case of traumatic aortic transection in which periaortic fat was found within the aortic lumen. Transesophageal echocardiographic characteristics are reviewed and clinical implications discussed.

  13. Smooth Sailing with Contract Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickes, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how to make the contract services relationship work smoothly for educational facilities. Covers topics of food, child care, and transportation services, along with a brief explanation of the benefits of outsourcing on-campus amenities. (GR)

  14. on gastro intestinal smooth muscle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    , Kaduna State. Correspondence author: am.huguma@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. The effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Combretum micranthum were studied on gastro intestinal smooth muscle of rodents. The extract was screened using ...

  15. Aging and gastrointestinal smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, Khalil N; Patil, Suresh B

    2004-12-01

    The present review is an attempt to put into perspective the available information on the putative changes in cellular mechanisms of the contractile properties of the aging gastrointestinal (GI) smooth muscle. Information on smooth muscle of the GI tract is scanty. Smooth muscle cells from old rats (32 months old) exhibit limited cell length distribution and diminished contractility. The observed reduced contractile response may be due to the effect of aging on signal transduction pathways, especially an inhibition of the tyrosine kinase-Src kinase pathway, a reduced activation of the PKCalpha pathway, a reduced association of contractile proteins (HSP27-tropomyosin, HSP27-actin, and actin-myosin). Levels of HSP27-phosphorylation are also reduced compared to adult rats. Regulation of GI motility is a complex mechanism of signal transduction and interaction of signaling and contractile proteins. It is suggested that further studies to elucidate the role of HSP27 in aging smooth muscle of the GI tract are needed.

  16. Intervet Symposium: bovine neosporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schetters, T.; Dubey, J.P.; Adrianarivo, A.; Frankena, K.; Romero, J.J.; Pérez, E.; Heuer, C.; Nicholson, C.; Russell, D.; Weston, J.

    2004-01-01

    This article summarises the most relevant data of presentations delivered at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) held in New Orleans, LA, USA, from 10 to 14 August 2003) in a symposium session on bovine neosporosis. The

  17. Genotyping bovine coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses of the Coronaviridae family. Infection is associated with enteritis and pneumonia in calves and Winter Dysentery in adult cattle. Strains, isolated more than 50 years ago, are used in vaccines and as laboratory ...

  18. Abdominal aortic feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Alice Emily

    2014-11-14

    A 79-year-old woman presented to a private medical practice 2 years previously for an elective ultrasound screening scan. This imaging provided the evidence for a diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to be made. Despite having a number of recognised risk factors for an AAA, her general practitioner at the time did not follow the guidance set out by the private medical professional, that is, to refer the patient to a vascular specialist to be entered into a surveillance programme and surgically evaluated. The patient became symptomatic with her AAA, was admitted to hospital and found to have a tender, symptomatic, 6 cm leaking AAA. She consented for an emergency open AAA repair within a few hours of being admitted to hospital, despite the 50% perioperative mortality risk. The patient spent 4 days in intensive care where she recovered well. She was discharged after a 12 day hospital stay but unfortunately passed away shortly after her discharge from a previously undiagnosed gastric cancer. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  19. Smooth Nonparametric Bernstein Vine Copulas

    OpenAIRE

    Weiß, Gregor; Scheffer, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    We propose to use nonparametric Bernstein copulas as bivariate pair-copulas in high-dimensional vine models. The resulting smooth and nonparametric vine copulas completely obviate the error-prone need for choosing the pair-copulas from parametric copula families. By means of a simulation study and an empirical analysis of financial market data, we show that our proposed smooth nonparametric vine copula model is superior to competing parametric vine models calibrated via Akaike's Information C...

  20. Radar data smoothing filter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J. V.

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of the current Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) data smoothing techniques for a variety of radars and payloads is examined. Alternative data reduction techniques are given and recommendations are made for improving radar data processing at WFF. A data adaptive algorithm, based on Kalman filtering and smoothing techniques, is also developed for estimating payload trajectories above the atmosphere from noisy time varying radar data. This algorithm is tested and verified using radar tracking data from WFF.

  1. NO EVIDENCE FOR A ROLE OF MUSCARINIC M(2) RECEPTORS IN FUNCTIONAL ANTAGONISM IN BOVINE TRACHEA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROFFEL, AF; MEURS, H; ELZINGA, CRS; ZAAGSMA, J

    1 The functional antagonism between methacholine- or histamine-induced contraction and beta-adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation was evaluated in bovine tracheal smooth muscle in vitro. In addition, the putative contribution of muscarinic M(2) receptors mediating inhibition of beta-adrenoceptor-induced

  2. Exotic smoothness and quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asselmeyer-Maluga, T, E-mail: torsten.asselmeyer-maluga@dlr.d [German Aerospace Center, Berlin, Germany and Loyola University, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2010-08-21

    Since the first work on exotic smoothness in physics, it was folklore to assume a direct influence of exotic smoothness to quantum gravity. Thus, the negative result of Duston (2009 arXiv:0911.4068) was a surprise. A closer look into the semi-classical approach uncovered the implicit assumption of a close connection between geometry and smoothness structure. But both structures, geometry and smoothness, are independent of each other. In this paper we calculate the 'smoothness structure' part of the path integral in quantum gravity assuming that the 'sum over geometries' is already given. For that purpose we use the knot surgery of Fintushel and Stern applied to the class E(n) of elliptic surfaces. We mainly focus our attention to the K3 surfaces E(2). Then we assume that every exotic smoothness structure of the K3 surface can be generated by knot or link surgery in the manner of Fintushel and Stern. The results are applied to the calculation of expectation values. Here we discuss the two observables, volume and Wilson loop, for the construction of an exotic 4-manifold using the knot 5{sub 2} and the Whitehead link Wh. By using Mostow rigidity, we obtain a topological contribution to the expectation value of the volume. Furthermore, we obtain a justification of area quantization.

  3. Hybrid Palliation for Interrupted Aortic Arch With Small Aortic Valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Yoshimasa; Masuoka, Ayumu; Hotoda, Kentarou; Katogi, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Takaaki

    2017-05-01

    Open heart surgery for interrupted aortic arch in the neonatal period is still a high-risk procedure related in part to patient factors such as low birth weight, other morphologic anomalies, and, especially, small aortic valve size. Recently, we performed hybrid palliation with bilateral pulmonary artery banding and ductal stenting as the first-stage palliation for such cases. In this study, the outcomes of this procedure were examined. Six cases of interrupted aortic arch with a small aortic valve underwent the hybrid procedure in the neonatal period in our institute from 2010 to 2015 (mean age: 6.8 days, mean body weight: 3.2 kg, mean z score of the aortic valve annulus: -8.3). Their postoperative clinical courses and results of the second-stage surgery were evaluated. No mortality or severe morbidity was seen in association with initial hybrid palliation. Five of six patients were discharged from the hospital; the one exception had a significant urinary tract anomaly. None needed an additional catheter intervention or surgical procedure postoperatively. All surviving patients underwent second-stage surgery; three had biventricular repair by the conventional method or Damus-Kaye-Stansel anastomosis with the Rastelli procedure and the other three proceeded toward staged Fontan reconstruction. Growth of the aortic valve was seen in four patients, and increased indexed left ventricle volume was recognized in one after the palliation. Hybrid palliation could be useful not only to avoid high-risk neonatal surgery but also to allow for eventual selection of the second-stage surgery based on the observations of potential interval development of left ventricular structures.

  4. A History of Thoracic Aortic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Paul Michael; Wiggins, Luke M; Boys, Joshua A

    2017-08-01

    Ancient historical texts describe the presence of aortic pathology conditions, although the surgical treatment of thoracic aortic disease remained insurmountable until the 19th century. Surgical treatment of thoracic aortic disease then progressed along with advances in surgical technique, conduit production, cardiopulmonary bypass, and endovascular technology. Despite radical advances in aortic surgery, principles established by surgical pioneers of the 19th century hold firm to this day. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nanostructure of Human Aortic Intima in Atherosclerosis (A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Golubev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the nanostructure of human aortic intima in atherosclerosis and demonstrate the poten tial effect of Niodex on cholesterol plaques.Materials and methods. Samples of intima were taken from those parts of aorta, where different stages of atherosclerotic chages were obvious. Aortic samples were incubated in a solution containing cyclodextrins. A solution of NIODEX, a propylene glycol ester of betacyclodextrin, was used in the study. A layer of aortic intima was formed on the glass slide surface with polylysine. The samples were placed into the working area of an atomicforce microscope (Integra Prima, NTMDT, Russian Federation, and their surfaces were scanned. The number of imaging points was 512; and the imaging regions were as follows: 100100 μm, 20002000 nm.Results. Classification of nanosurface objects was performed and typical fragments (craters, ridges, and trabecular fibers were identified, and quantitative assessment of their sizes was carried out. 27 fragments were identified as growing cholesterol plaques. 16 of them measuring 900—1200 nm were identified near ridges, and 11 near craters (600—1050 nm. Niodex caused destruction of lipid spots and smoothing of the intima surface. More than a half of the 27 identified objects (15 demostrated a 30% and more decrease in size (median 340—400 nm. A 10—15% decrease was registered in 7 fragments; in the remaining 5 fragments, the decrease in the lesion size was less than 10%.Conclusion. Raw data permit to suppose that the effect of Niodex on the aortic intima results in decceleartion and decreased intensity of atherosclerotic plaque growth on the intima fragments.

  6. Aortic root replacement with a pulmonary autograft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B. Hokken (Raymond)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAortic valve disease in the pediatric age group is usually a consequence of congenital aortic stenosis, which may be isolated or may be a part of an anomaly of the left ventricular outflow tract or the aortic root. Management of these patients is difficult. Neonates and infants

  7. Osteoprotegerin Prevents Development of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batmunkh Bumdelger

    Full Text Available Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs, which commonly occur among elderly individuals, are accompanied by a risk of rupture and subsequent high mortality. Establishment of medical therapies for the prevention of AAAs requires further understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of this condition. This report details the possible involvement of Osteoprotegerin (OPG in the prevention of AAAs through inhibition of Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL. In CaCl2-induced AAA models, both internal and external diameters were significantly increased with destruction of elastic fibers in the media in Opg knockout (KO mice, as compared to wild-type mice. Moreover, up-regulation of TRAIL expression was observed in the media by immunohistochemical analyses. Using a culture system, both the TRAIL-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in smooth muscle cells (SMCs and the chemoattractive effect of TRAIL on SMCs were inhibited by OPG. These data suggest that Opg may play a preventive role in the development of AAA through its antagonistic effect on Trail.

  8. [MINIMALLY INVASIVE AORTIC VALVE REPLACEMENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Minoru

    2016-03-01

    Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) is defined as aortic valve replacement avoiding full sternotomy. Common approaches include a partial sternotomy right thoracotomy, and a parasternal approach. MIAVR has been shown to have advantages over conventional AVR such as shorter length of stay and smaller amount of blood transfusion and better cosmesis. However, it is also known to have disadvantages such as longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times and potential complications related to peripheral cannulation. Appropriate patient selection is very important. Since the procedure is more complex than conventional AVR, more intensive teamwork in the operating room is essential. Additionally, a team approach during postoperative management is critical to maximize the benefits of MIAVR.

  9. Aortic valve dysfunction and aortic dilation in adults with coarctation of the aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clair, Mathieu; Fernandes, Susan M; Khairy, Paul; Graham, Dionne A; Krieger, Eric V; Opotowsky, Alexander R; Singh, Michael N; Colan, Steven D; Meijboom, Erik J; Landzberg, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of aortic valve dysfunction, aortic dilation, and aortic valve and ascending aortic intervention in adults with coarctation of the aorta (CoA). Aortic valve dysfunction and aortic dilation are rare among children and adolescents with CoA. With longer follow-up, adults may be more likely to have progressive disease. We retrospectively reviewed all adults with CoA, repaired or unrepaired, seen at our center between 2004 and 2010. Two hundred sixteen adults (56.0% male) with CoA were identified. Median age at last evaluation was 28.3 (range 18.0 to 75.3) years. Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) was present in 65.7%. At last follow-up, 3.2% had moderate or severe aortic stenosis, and 3.7% had moderate or severe aortic regurgitation. Dilation of the aortic root or ascending aorta was present in 28.0% and 41.6% of patients, respectively. Moderate or severe aortic root or ascending aortic dilation (z-score > 4) was present in 8.2% and 13.7%, respectively. Patients with BAV were more likely to have moderate or severe ascending aortic dilation compared with those without BAV (19.5% vs. 0%; P aortic dilation (P = 0.04). At most recent follow-up, 5.6% had undergone aortic valve intervention, and 3.2% had aortic root or ascending aortic replacement. In adults with CoA, significant aortic valve dysfunction and interventions during early adulthood were uncommon. However, aortic dilation was prevalent, especially of the ascending aorta, in patients with BAV. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation for bicuspid aortic valve stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Ashraf; Kornowski, Ran

    2015-08-01

    In Preprocedural CT, patients with BAV have larger aortic annulus perimeters, and more calcified valves compared with TAV. In patients with BAV, self-expandable valves were under-expand and balloon-expandable valves have a trend toward increased rates of postimplantation AR grade. Self-expandable valves have higher postprocedural gradient in BAV compared with TAV. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Bovine parainfluenza-3 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John A

    2010-11-01

    Bovine parainfluenza-3 virus (bPI(3)V) is a long-recognized, currently underappreciated, endemic infection in cattle populations. Clinical disease is most common in calves with poor passive transfer or decayed maternal antibodies. It is usually mild, consisting of fever, nasal discharge, and dry cough. Caused at least partly by local immunosuppressive effects, bPI(3)V infection is often complicated by coinfection with other respiratory viruses and bacteria, and is therefore an important component of enzootic pneumonia in calves and bovine respiratory disease complex in feedlot cattle. Active infection can be diagnosed by virus isolation from nasal swabs, or IF testing on smears made from nasal swabs. Timing of sampling is critical in obtaining definitive diagnostic test results. Parenteral and intranasal modified live vaccine combination vaccines are available. Priming early in calfhood with intranasal vaccine, followed by boosting with parenteral vaccine, may be the best immunoprophylactic approach. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... chymosin. Both enzymes possess local positively charged patches on their surface that can play a role in interactions with the overall negatively charged C-terminus of κ-casein. Camel chymosin contains two additional positive patches that favour interaction with the substrate. The improved electrostatic...... interactions arising from variation in the surface charges and the greater malleability both in domain movements and substrate binding contribute to the better milk-clotting activity of camel chymosin towards bovine milk....

  13. Mycotic bovine nasal granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conti Díaz Ismael Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma in a 10 year-old Jersey cow, produced by Drechslera halodes is presented. Histopathological sections showed abundant hyaline and pigmented extra and intracellular fungal structures together with a polymorphic cellular granuloma formed by neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasmocytes, histiocytes and giant cells of the Langhans type. It is the first case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma recognized in Uruguay although this disease seems to be frequent according to the opinion of veterinarian specialists. Another similar clinical case also in a Jersey cow from the same dairy house with an intense cellular infiltrate rich in eosinophils without granulomatous image, together with extracellular hyaline and fuliginous fungal forms, is also referred for comparative purposes. Geotrichum sp. was isolated. The need of an early diagnosis and treatment of the disease is stressed.

  14. Aortic remodelling in aortic dissection after frozen elephant trunk†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohle, Daniel-Sebastian; Tsagakis, Konstantinos; Janosi, Rolf Alexander; Benedik, Jaroslav; Kühl, Hilmar; Penkova, Liuba; Stebner, Ferdinand; Wendt, Daniel; Jakob, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Frozen elephant trunk (FET) can be used for continuous downstream aorta treatment in acute aortic dissection (AAD) and chronic aortic dissection (CAD). The study reports the changes in the lumen volumes along the downstream aorta towards remodelling. In 70 patients (22 CAD, 48 AAD), pre-, postoperative and at least the 1-year follow-up aortic imaging was available. Volume changes of aortic lumen (AL) and true lumen (TL) between examinations along the stent graft aortic segment (A), downstream to coeliac trunk (B) and distally to bifurcation (C) were used for quantification. TL increase >10% with stable AL or AL decrease >10% with stable TL were classified as positive, changes within a 10% threshold as stable, and all other changes as negative remodelling. In AAD, positive or stable remodelling occurred in A (90%), B (65%), C (58%) within 1 year, thereafter in 26 patients (follow-up: 47 ± 21 months) in A (92%), B (65%), C (62%). Negative remodelling in ≥2 segments was found in 5/26 (19%) patients. In CAD, positive or stable remodelling occurred in A (100%), B (86%), C (77%) within 1 year, thereafter in 16 patients (follow-up: 46 ± 20 months) in A (75%), B (44%), C (38%). Negative remodelling in ≥2 segments was found in 7/16 (43%) patients, 5 underwent reintervention, and stabilized thereafter. FET facilitates positive remodelling in AAD and CAD down to stent graft level. Distally, 20% AAD and 40% CAD patients remain at risk for secondary reintervention, and can be identified by negative remodelling in ≥2 segments in the follow-up examinations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  15. Transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation in a patient with a severe aortic stenosis and cardiogenic shock requiring intra-aortic balloon pump support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodór, Piotr; Wilczek, Krzysztof; Przybylski, Roman; Świątkowski, Andrzej; Głowacki, Jan; Kalarus, Zbigniew; Zembala, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The following paper presents a patient with severe aortic stenosis and severely reduced left ventricular ejection fraction with intra-aortic balloon pump counterpulsation support, who underwent transfemoral aortic valve implantation of a CoreValve prosthesis.

  16. Genetic and Epigenetic Regulation of Aortic Aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Won Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aneurysms are characterized by structural deterioration of the vascular wall leading to progressive dilatation and, potentially, rupture of the aorta. While aortic aneurysms often remain clinically silent, the morbidity and mortality associated with aneurysm expansion and rupture are considerable. Over 13,000 deaths annually in the United States are attributable to aortic aneurysm rupture with less than 1 in 3 persons with aortic aneurysm rupture surviving to surgical intervention. Environmental and epidemiologic risk factors including smoking, male gender, hypertension, older age, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and family history are highly associated with abdominal aortic aneurysms, while heritable genetic mutations are commonly associated with aneurysms of the thoracic aorta. Similar to other forms of cardiovascular disease, family history, genetic variation, and heritable mutations modify the risk of aortic aneurysm formation and provide mechanistic insight into the pathogenesis of human aortic aneurysms. This review will examine the relationship between heritable genetic and epigenetic influences on thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysm formation and rupture.

  17. Genetic and Epigenetic Regulation of Aortic Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha Won; Stansfield, Brian K

    2017-01-01

    Aneurysms are characterized by structural deterioration of the vascular wall leading to progressive dilatation and, potentially, rupture of the aorta. While aortic aneurysms often remain clinically silent, the morbidity and mortality associated with aneurysm expansion and rupture are considerable. Over 13,000 deaths annually in the United States are attributable to aortic aneurysm rupture with less than 1 in 3 persons with aortic aneurysm rupture surviving to surgical intervention. Environmental and epidemiologic risk factors including smoking, male gender, hypertension, older age, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and family history are highly associated with abdominal aortic aneurysms, while heritable genetic mutations are commonly associated with aneurysms of the thoracic aorta. Similar to other forms of cardiovascular disease, family history, genetic variation, and heritable mutations modify the risk of aortic aneurysm formation and provide mechanistic insight into the pathogenesis of human aortic aneurysms. This review will examine the relationship between heritable genetic and epigenetic influences on thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysm formation and rupture.

  18. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenberg, G J; van der Poel, W H M; Van Oirschot, J T

    2002-08-02

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or parainfluenza 3 virus-induced clinical mastitis, while an intramammary inoculation of foot-and-mouth disease virus resulted in necrosis of the mammary gland. Subclinical mastitis has been induced after a simultaneous intramammary and intranasal inoculation of lactating cows with bovine herpesvirus 4. Bovine leukaemia virus has been detected in mammary tissue of cows with subclinical mastitis, but whether this virus was able to induce bovine mastitis has not been reported. Bovine herpesvirus 2, vaccinia, cowpox, pseudocowpox, vesicular stomatitis, foot-and-mouth disease viruses, and bovine papillomaviruses can play an indirect role in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. These viruses can induce teat lesions, for instance in the ductus papillaris, which result in a reduction of the natural defence mechanisms of the udder and indirectly in bovine mastitis due to bacterial pathogens. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bovine immunodeficiency virus, and bovine leukaemia virus infections may play an indirect role in bovine mastitis, due to their immunosuppressive properties. But, more research is warranted to underline their indirect role in bovine mastitis. We conclude that viral infections can play a direct or indirect role in the aetiology of bovine mastitis; therefore, their importance in the aetiology of bovine mastitis and their economical impact needs further attention.

  19. Impaired vascular contractility and aortic wall degeneration in fibulin-4 deficient mice: effect of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1 receptor blockade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Els Moltzer

    Full Text Available Medial degeneration is a key feature of aneurysm disease and aortic dissection. In a murine aneurysm model we investigated the structural and functional characteristics of aortic wall degeneration in adult fibulin-4 deficient mice and the potential therapeutic role of the angiotensin (Ang II type 1 (AT(1 receptor antagonist losartan in preventing aortic media degeneration. Adult mice with 2-fold (heterozygous Fibulin-4(+/R and 4-fold (homozygous Fibulin-4(R/R reduced expression of fibulin-4 displayed the histological features of cystic media degeneration as found in patients with aneurysm or dissection, including elastin fiber fragmentation, loss of smooth muscle cells, and deposition of ground substance in the extracellular matrix of the aortic media. The aortic contractile capacity, determined by isometric force measurements, was diminished, and was associated with dysregulation of contractile genes as shown by aortic transcriptome analysis. These structural and functional alterations were accompanied by upregulation of TGF-β signaling in aortas from fibulin-4 deficient mice, as identified by genome-scaled network analysis as well as by immunohistochemical staining for phosphorylated Smad2, an intracellular mediator of TGF-β. Tissue levels of Ang II, a regulator of TGF-β signaling, were increased. Prenatal treatment with the AT(1 receptor antagonist losartan, which blunts TGF-β signaling, prevented elastic fiber fragmentation in the aortic media of newborn Fibulin-4(R/R mice. Postnatal losartan treatment reduced haemodynamic stress and improved lifespan of homozygous knockdown fibulin-4 animals, but did not affect aortic vessel wall structure. In conclusion, the AT(1 receptor blocker losartan can prevent aortic media degeneration in a non-Marfan syndrome aneurysm mouse model. In established aortic aneurysms, losartan does not affect aortic architecture, but does improve survival. These findings may extend the potential therapeutic

  20. Diagnostic imaging in bovine orthopedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Johann; Geissbühler, Urs; Steiner, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    Although a radiographic unit is not standard equipment for bovine practitioners in hospital or field situations, ultrasound machines with 7.5-MHz linear transducers have been used in bovine reproduction for many years, and are eminently suitable for evaluation of orthopedic disorders. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use radiology and ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. These diagnostic imaging techniques improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis in every bovine patient but especially in highly valuable cattle, whose owners demand increasingly more diagnostic and surgical interventions that require high-level specialized techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Aortic biomechanics by magnetic resonance: early markers of aortic disease in Marfan syndrome regardless of aortic dilatation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixido-Tura, Gisela; Redheuil, Alban; Rodríguez-Palomares, Jose; Gutiérrez, Laura; Sánchez, Violeta; Forteza, Alberto; Lima, Joao A C; García-Dorado, David; Evangelista, Artur

    2014-01-15

    Previous studies demonstrated the usefulness of MRI in the evaluation of aortic biomechanics in Marfan patients with aortic dilatation. However, these parameters have not been well studied in earlier stages of aortic disease. The present work aimed to study aortic biomechanics: aortic distensibility (AD) and pulse wave velocity (PWV), by MRI in Marfan patients without advanced aortic disease. Eighty consecutive Marfan patients were compared with 36 age- and sex-matched controls. MRI images at the level of ascending, descending and abdominal aorta were used to determine AD and PWV. Marfan patients (27 men; age: 32.0 ± 10.5 years; mean aortic root diameter: 37.2 ± 4.6mm) had lower AD at all levels (ascending 2.6 ± 2.1 vs. 6.2 ± 3.7 mm Hg(-1)·10(-3), pbiomechanics compared with controls. Z-score for ascending ADbiomechanics by MRI were abnormal in the entire aorta in Marfan patients. Moreover, Marfan patients without dilated aortic root showed clear impairment of aortic biomechanics, which suggests that they may be used as early markers of aortic involvement in these patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. HIV infection and aortic stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Luisa Helena Maia; Cohen, Ariel; Boccara, Franck

    People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and receiving antiretroviral therapy now have the same life expectancy as the general population. However, they have a higher risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular events because of a complex and polyfactorial vasculopathy, combining the effects of antiretroviral therapy, the HIV virus itself, immune activation, chronic inflammation and metabolic disturbances. Whether people living with HIV infection experience increased vascular aging compared with the general population remains controversial. To summarize current knowledge of the association between HIV infection and aortic stiffness as a marker of vascular aging. This review included 18 clinical studies in adult populations, published between 2009 and 2016, and identified on PubMed/MEDLINE or other databases. Search terms were aortic stiffness, arterial stiffness, vascular aging, pulse wave velocity and HIV. All 18 studies were observational, and compared groups infected (HIV+) and not infected (HIV-) with HIV. Ten studies (55%) reported no significant differences in aortic stiffness between HIV+ groups and age-matched HIV- control groups. The main reported determinants of aortic stiffness were age, blood pressure, smoking, metabolic syndrome and HIV-related variables, including CD4/CD8 ratio, current T-CD4 count < 200/mm 3 and nadir T-CD4+ count < 200/mm 3 . We found discordant results regarding whether HIV+ patients had increased aortic stiffness compared with HIV- controls. However, HIV-related conditions were associated with vascular health. This association has been confirmed in recent prospective studies. There is emerging evidence that HIV itself and immune activity affect vascular health and the large arteries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Cyclic Stretch Alters Vascular Reactivity of Mouse Aortic Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Leloup

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Large, elastic arteries buffer the pressure wave originating in the left ventricle and are constantly exposed to higher amplitudes of cyclic stretch (10% than muscular arteries (2%. As a crucial factor for endothelial and smooth muscle cell function, cyclic stretch has, however, never been studied in ex vivo aortic segments of mice. To investigate the effects of cyclic stretch on vaso-reactivity of mouse aortic segments, we used the Rodent Oscillatory Tension Set-up to study Arterial Compliance (ROTSAC. The aortic segments were clamped at frequencies of 6–600 bpm between two variable preloads, thereby mimicking dilation as upon left ventricular systole and recoiling as during diastole. The preloads corresponding to different transmural pressures were chosen to correspond to a low, normal or high amplitude of cyclic stretch. At different time intervals, cyclic stretch was interrupted, the segments were afterloaded and isometric contractions by α1-adrenergic stimulation with 2 μM phenylephrine in the absence and presence of 300 μM L-NAME (eNOS inhibitor and/or 35 μM diltiazem (blocker of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels were measured. As compared with static or cyclic stretch at low amplitude (<10 mN or low frequency (0.1 Hz, cyclic stretch at physiological amplitude (>10 mN and frequency (1–10 Hz caused better ex vivo conservation of basal NO release with time after mounting. The relaxation of PE-precontracted segments by addition of ACh to stimulate NO release was unaffected by cyclic stretch. In the absence of basal NO release (hence, presence of L-NAME, physiological in comparison with aberrant cyclic stretch decreased the baseline tension, attenuated the phasic contraction by phenylephrine in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ and shifted the smaller tonic contraction more from a voltage-gated Ca2+ channel-mediated to a non-selective cation channel-mediated. Data highlight the need of sufficient mechanical activation of endothelial and

  4. Decellularized aortic homografts for aortic valve and aorta ascendens replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudorache, Igor; Horke, Alexander; Cebotari, Serghei; Sarikouch, Samir; Boethig, Dietmar; Breymann, Thomas; Beerbaum, Philipp; Bertram, Harald; Westhoff-Bleck, Mechthild; Theodoridis, Karolina; Bobylev, Dmitry; Cheptanaru, Eduard; Ciubotaru, Anatol; Haverich, Axel

    2016-07-01

    The choice of valve prosthesis for aortic valve replacement (AVR) in young patients is challenging. Decellularized pulmonary homografts (DPHs) have shown excellent results in pulmonary position. Here, we report our early clinical results using decellularized aortic valve homografts (DAHs) for AVR in children and mainly young adults. This prospective observational study included all 69 patients (44 males) operated from February 2008 to September 2015, with a mean age of 19.7 ± 14.6 years (range 0.2-65.3 years). In 18 patients, a long DAH was used for simultaneous replacement of a dilated ascending aorta as an extended aortic root replacement (EARR). Four patients received simultaneous pulmonary valve replacement with DPH. Thirty-nine patients (57%) had a total of 62 previous operations. The mean aortic cross-clamp time in isolated cases was 129 ± 41 min. There was 1 conduit-unrelated death. The mean DAH diameter was 22.4 ± 3.7 mm (range, 10-29 mm), the average peak gradient was 14 ± 15 mmHg and the mean aortic regurgitation grade (0.5 = trace, 1 = mild) was 0.6 ± 0.5. The mean effective orifice area (EOA) of 25 mm diameter DAH was 3.07 ± 0.7 cm(2). DAH annulus z-values were 1.1 ± 1.1 at implantation and 0.7 ± 1.3 at the last follow-up. The last mean left ventricle ejection fraction and left ventricle end diastolic volume index was 63 ± 7% and 78 ± 16 ml/m(2) body surface area, respectively. To date, no dilatation has been observed at any level of the graft during follow-up; however, the observational time is short (140.4 years in total, mean 2.0 ± 1.8 years, maximum 7.6 years). One small DAH (10 mm at implantation) had to be explanted due to subvalvular stenosis and developing regurgitation after 4.5 years and was replaced with a 17 mm DAH without complication. No calcification of the explanted graft was noticed intraoperatively and after histological analysis, which revealed extensive recellularization without inflammation. DAHs withstand systemic

  5. Non-smooth dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    The book provides a self-contained introduction to the mathematical theory of non-smooth dynamical problems, as they frequently arise from mechanical systems with friction and/or impacts. It is aimed at applied mathematicians, engineers, and applied scientists in general who wish to learn the subject.

  6. Income smoothing by Dutch hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boterenbrood, D.R.

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that hospitals manage their earnings. However, these findings might be influenced by methodological issues. In this study, I exploit specific features of Dutch hospitals to study income smoothing while limiting these methodological issues. The managers of Dutch hospitals have the

  7. Panel Smooth Transition Regression Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González, Andrés; Terasvirta, Timo; Dijk, Dick van

    We introduce the panel smooth transition regression model. This new model is intended for characterizing heterogeneous panels, allowing the regression coefficients to vary both across individuals and over time. Specifically, heterogeneity is allowed for by assuming that these coefficients are bou...

  8. Mesenchymal stem cells-derived vascular smooth muscle cells release abundant levels of osteoprotegerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Vaccarezza

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Although several studies have shown that the serum levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG are significantly elevated in patients affected with atherosclerotic lesions in coronary and peripheral arteries, the cellular source and the role of OPG in the physiopathology of atherosclerosis are not completely defined. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the potential contribution of mesenchymal stem cells in the production/release of OPG. OPG was detectable by immunohistochemistry in aortic and coronary atherosclerotic plaques, within or in proximity of intimal vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC. In addition, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC-derived vascular SMC as well as primary aortic SMC released in the culture supernatant significantly higher levels of OPG with respect to MSCderived endothelial cells (EC or primary aortic EC. On the other hand, in vitro exposure to full-length human recombinant OPG significantly increased the proliferation rate of aortic SMC cultures, as monitored by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Taken together, these data suggest that OPG acts as an autocrine/paracrine growth factor for vascular SMC, which might contribute to the progression of atherosclerotic lesions.

  9. Transapical implantation of a novel self-expanding sutureless aortic valve prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Mario; Suri, Rakesh M; Kraehenbuehl, Eva S; Hellige, Gerrit; Wenaweser, Peter; Zobrist, Claudia; Schaff, Harzell V; Carrel, Thierry P

    2010-03-01

    To date, transapical aortic valve implantation has required a balloon-expandable stented valve prosthesis. More recently, a novel self-expanding sutureless stented bovine pericardial prosthesis has been developed which allows rapid aortic valve replacement via an open transaortic approach in humans. The aim of this animal study was to develop a reliable protocol to facilitate the transapical implantation of this self-expanding valve in a porcine model. Off-pump transapical aortic valve implantation was performed through a left mini-thoracotomy using a bovine pericardial valve mounted on a self-expandable nitinol stent of size 21 mm and 23 mm in 11 pigs (average weight 60 kg). The crimped valve was introduced through the left ventricular apex using a flexible and steerable delivery sheath, using a three-step technique. Biplane fluoroscopy and transesophageal echocardiography were simultaneously used for guidance. Successful adjustment of alignment along three axes prior to deployment of the valve was accomplished in each animal. Deployments were performed during a period of rapid pacing. All valves were successfully deployed and functioned normally following transapical removal of the delivery system. Paravalvular leak was documented in one case (9.1%) due to prosthetic misalignment. There was no evidence of valve migration. Correct anatomic seating was confirmed during post-procedure necropsy. Successful transapical implantation of a novel self-expandable bovine pericardial valve was accomplished in 11 animals, without cardiopulmonary bypass. A flexible, steerable delivery system with a three-step release mechanism allowed precise positioning of the valve with a low rate of paravalvular leakage, and excellent device stability.

  10. Preliminary Evidence for Aortopathy and an X-Linked Parent-of-Origin Effect on Aortic Valve Malformation in a Mouse Model of Turner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Hinton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Turner syndrome (TS, most frequently caused by X-monosomy (45,X, is characterized in part by cardiovascular abnormalities, including aortopathy and bicuspid aortic valve (BAV. There is a need for animal models that recapitulate the cardiovascular manifestations of TS. Extracellular matrix (ECM organization and morphometrics of the aortic valve and proximal aorta were examined in adult 39,XO mice (where the parental origin of the single X was paternal (39,XPO or maternal (39,XMO and 40,XX controls. Aortic valve morphology was normal (tricuspid in all of the 39,XPO and 40,XX mice studied, but abnormal (bicuspid or quadricuspid in 15% of 39,XMO mice. Smooth muscle cell orientation in the ascending aorta was abnormal in all 39,XPO and 39,XMO mice examined, but smooth muscle actin was decreased in 39,XMO mice only. Aortic dilation was present with reduced penetrance in 39,XO mice. The 39,XO mouse demonstrates aortopathy and an X-linked parent-of-origin effect on aortic valve malformation, and the candidate gene FAM9B is polymorphically expressed in control and diseased human aortic valves. The 39,XO mouse model may be valuable for examining the mechanisms underlying the cardiovascular findings in TS, and suggest there are important genetic modifiers on the X chromosome that modulate risk for nonsyndromic BAV and aortopathy.

  11. Aortic root geometry in aortic stenosis patients (a SEAS substudy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahlmann, Edda; Nienaber, Christoph A; Cramariuc, Dana

    2011-01-01

    -specified requirements for the aortic root geometry for current available prostheses, CoreValve and Edwards-Sapien. The ratio of sinus of Valsalva height to sinus width was 1:2. In multivariate linear regression analysis, larger sinus of Valsalva height was associated with older age, larger sinus of Valsalva diameter...... with asymptomatic AS (mean age 67 years, 39% women) in the Simvastatin Ezetimibe in AS study were used. The inner aortic diameter was measured at four levels: annulus, sinus of Valsalva, sinotubular junction and supracoronary, and sinus height as the annulo-junctional distance. Analyses were based on vendor......, lower ejection fraction and smaller supracoronary diameter (multiple R(2) = 0.19, P

  12. Biophysical induction of vascular smooth muscle cell podosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Young Kim

    Full Text Available Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC migration and matrix degradation occurs with intimal hyperplasia associated with atherosclerosis, vascular injury, and restenosis. One proposed mechanism by which VSMCs degrade matrix is through the use of podosomes, transient actin-based structures that are thought to play a role in extracellular matrix degradation by creating localized sites of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP secretion. To date, podosomes in VSMCs have largely been studied by stimulating cells with phorbol esters, such as phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu, however little is known about the physiological cues that drive podosome formation. We present the first evidence that physiological, physical stimuli mimicking cues present within the microenvironment of diseased arteries can induce podosome formation in VSMCs. Both microtopographical cues and imposed pressure mimicking stage II hypertension induce podosome formation in A7R5 rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Moreover, wounding using a scratch assay induces podosomes at the leading edge of VSMCs. Notably the effect of each of these biophysical stimuli on podosome stimulation can be inhibited using a Src inhibitor. Together, these data indicate that physical cues can induce podosome formation in VSMCs.

  13. Measurement of effective aortic valve area using three-dimensional echocardiography in children undergoing aortic balloon valvuloplasty for aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharucha, Tara; Fernandes, Fernanda; Slorach, Cameron; Mertens, Luc; Friedberg, Mark Kevin

    2012-04-01

    Pressure gradient is used for timing of balloon aortic valvuloplasty for aortic stenosis (AS) in children, but does not correlate well with outcome and is limited if ventricular function is poor. In adults, effective orifice area (EOA) is used to assess AS severity, but EOA by continuity equation or 2D echo is unreliable in children. Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) may reliably assess EOA but has not been studied in children. We assessed measurement of aortic valve EOA by 3DE in children with AS before and after balloon aortic valvuloplasty and compared results with change in aortic valve gradient. 3DE was performed at time of catheterization before and after balloon aortic valvuloplasty. Using 3DE multiplanar review mode, valve annulus diameter, area, and EOA were measured and compared with change in aortic gradient and degree of aortic insufficiency. Twenty-four 3DE studies in 12 children (mean age 4.4 ± 5.0 years) were analyzed. EOA was measurable in all. Catheter peak gradient decreased from 45 ± 10 to 26 ± 17 mmHg (P = 0.0018). 3DE EOA increased after balloon aortic valvuloplasty (0.59 ± 0.52 cm(2) vs 0.80 ± 0.70 cm(2) ; P = 0.03), without change in valve diameter. EOA change correlated with change in peak (r = 0.77; P = 0.005) and mean (r = 0.60; P = 0.03) aortic valve gradient post balloon aortic valvuloplasty. 3DE facilitates EOA measurement in pediatric AS and correlates with change in aortic valve gradient after balloon valvuloplasty. © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Indexing aortic valve area by body surface area increases the prevalence of severe aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jander, Nikolaus; Gohlke-Bärwolf, Christa; Bahlmann, Edda

    2014-01-01

    To account for differences in body size in patients with aortic stenosis, aortic valve area (AVA) is divided by body surface area (BSA) to calculate indexed AVA (AVAindex). Cut-off values for severe stenosis are...

  15. Interruption of the aortic arch, ventricular septal defect, aortic atresia and aortopulmonary fistulous communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caro, E; Pongiglione, G; Ribaldone, D

    1998-06-01

    Interruption of the aortic arch in association with aortic atresia is a rare condition. We report the second case in literature in which survival was provided by an aortopulmonary fistulous communication.

  16. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation in degenerative sutureless perceval aortic bioprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landes, Uri; Sagie, Alexander; Kornowski, Ran

    2016-10-03

    Sutureless aortic bioprostheses (SAB) are increasingly being used to provide shorter cross-clamp time. Valve-in-valve transcatheter aortic valve replacement (VIV-A) is shown to be effective and safe in the vast majority of patients with degenerated bioprosthetics, yet its' use in SAB failure is infrequent. We present a case of balloon-expandable VIV-A in an 80-year-old woman who suffered severe symptomatic aortic regurgitation in a failed Perceval S 21-mm valve. Computed tomography scan demonstrated a deformed valve. Our heart team favored a percutaneous VIV-A over reoperation due to the patients' high surgical risk. An Edwards-Sapien XT 23 mm was successfully deployed with excellent results. The patient remained asymptomatic following 6 months. As other bioprosthesis, some sutureless valves are condemned to structural valve degeneration. Because VIV-A is being established for managing degenerative bioprosthesis in high risk patients, it is cardinal to identify its role in novel degenerative sutureless valves. SAB were introduced to the clinical market only 5-7 years ago. The absence of sutures may theoretically impose risk for valve instability when adding a transcatheter sutureless valve inside the first one. Our successful experience was very reassuring. We report its feasibility because we believe it should provide support for further investigation on VIV-A within novel SAV. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Cinematographic analysis of vascular smooth muscle cell interactions with extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absher, M; Baldor, L

    1991-01-01

    The interactions of vascular smooth muscle cells with growth modulators and extracellular matrix molecules may play a role in the proliferation and migration of these cells after vascular injury and during the development of atherosclerosis. Time-lapse cinematographic techniques have been used to study cell division and migration of bovine carotid artery smooth muscle cells in response to matrix molecules consisting of solubilized basement membrane (Matrigel) and type I collagen. When cells were grown adjacent to Matrigel, both migration and cell proliferation were increased and interdivision time was shortened. Cells grown in Matrigel or in type I collagen had markedly reduced migration rates but interdivision time was not altered. Further, diffusible components of the Matrigel were found to stimulate proliferation of the smooth muscle cells.

  18. Detection of histidine decarboxylase mRNA in human vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippens, A S; Gruetter, C A

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate histamine synthesis capability of human vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells by detecting histidine decarboxylase (HDC) mRNA. HDC catalyzes exclusively the formation of histamine in mammalian cells. Experiments utilizing nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (nRT-PCR) were conducted to detect the presence of HDC mRNA. Human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMC) and human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) were cultured and RNA was extracted and amplified using two sets of HDC-specific primers. Rat liver and kidney RNA were isolated and amplified to serve as positive and negative controls, respectively. Gel electrophoresis of HAoSMC, HAEC and liver mRNA revealed bands coinciding with an expected product size of 440 base pairs. Sequence analysis revealed that the observed bands were the appropriate HDC amplicons. These findings are the first to indicate the presence of HDC mRNA in vascular smooth muscle cells and confirm the presence of HDC mRNA in endothelial cells which is consistent with an ability of these cell types to synthesize histamine in the vascular wall.

  19. Aortic Calcification: An Early Sign of Heart Valve Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the aortic valve — a condition called aortic valve stenosis. Aortic valve calcification may be an early sign ... have any other heart disease symptoms. Calcification and stenosis generally affects people older than age 65. When ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: familial thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a bulge in the blood vessel wall (an aneurysm ). Aortic dilatation may also lead to a sudden tearing of the layers in the aorta wall ( aortic dissection ), allowing blood to flow abnormally between the layers. These aortic abnormalities are ...

  1. Nondiabetic Glucometabolic Status and Progression of Aortic Stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEniery, Carmel M; Wilkinson, Ian B; Johansen, Nanna B

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Aortic stiffness is an important predictor of futuremorbidity andmortality. Diabetes is associated with increased aortic stiffness, but the importance of nondiabetic glucometabolic status for accelerated aortic stiffening is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that adverse glucometabolic ...

  2. Endovascular "neobranching" to manage acute aortic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandormael, Isabelle L; Salmasi, Mohammad Y; Yeh, James S-M; Nienaber, Christoph A

    2017-08-01

    Acute aortic syndrome was coined in 2001 to describe a spectrum of acute aortic wall pathologies. The syndrome represents a cluster of aortic conditions such as aortic dissection, intramural hematoma and penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer. Acute aortic dissection is more common than the latter two pathologies with an incidence of up to 6 cases per 100,000 per year. The following report focuses on an unusual case presentation emphasizing the newest management techniques including "neobranching" whilst dealing with challenging patient anatomy and refractory hypertension. We believe this case report eventually broadens our understanding of acute aortic syndrome whilst addressing an entry tear outside the aorta by placing "neobranches". © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Tumor necrosis factor-α accelerates the calcification of human aortic valve interstitial cells obtained from patients with calcific aortic valve stenosis via the BMP2-Dlx5 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zaiqiang; Seya, Kazuhiko; Daitoku, Kazuyuki; Motomura, Shigeru; Fukuda, Ikuo; Furukawa, Ken-Ichi

    2011-04-01

    Calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAS) is the most frequent heart valve disease in the elderly, accompanied by valve calcification. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a pleiotropic cytokine secreted mainly from macrophages, has been detected in human calcified valves. However, the role of TNF-α in valve calcification remains unclear. To clarify whether TNF-α accelerates the calcification of aortic valves, we investigated the effect of TNF-α on human aortic valve interstitial cells (HAVICs) obtained from patients with CAS (CAS group) and with aortic regurgitation or aortic dissection having a noncalcified aortic valve (control group). HAVICs (2 × 10(4)) were cultured in a 12-well dish in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium with 10% fetal bovine serum. The medium containing TNF-α (30 ng/ml) was replenished every 3 days after the cells reached confluence. TNF-α significantly accelerated the calcification and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of HAVICs from CAS but not the control group after 12 days of culture. Furthermore, gene expression of calcigenic markers, ALP, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), and distal-less homeobox 5 (Dlx5) were significantly increased after 6 days of TNF-α treatment in the CAS group but not the control group. Dorsomorphin, an inhibitor of mothers against decapentaplegic homologs (Smads) 1/5/8 phosphorylation, significantly inhibited the enhancement of TNF-α-induced calcification, ALP activity, Smad phosphorylation, and Dlx5 gene expression of HAVICs from the CAS group. These results suggest that HAVICs from the CAS group have greater sensitivity to TNF-α, which accelerates the calcification of aortic valves via the BMP2-Dlx5 pathway.

  4. Hyperphosphatemia induces cellular senescence in human aorta smooth muscle cells through integrin linked kinase (ILK) up-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyano, Nuria; Nogal, María Del; Mora, Inés; Diaz-Naves, Manuel; Lopez-Carrillo, Natalia; Sosa, Patricia; Rodriguez-Puyol, Diego; Olmos, Gemma; Ruiz-Torres, María P

    2015-12-01

    Aging is conditioned by genetic and environmental factors. Hyperphosphatemia is related to some pathologies, affecting to vascular cells behavior. This work analyze whether high concentration of extracellular phosphate induces vascular smooth muscle cells senescence, exploring the intracellular mechanisms and highlighting the in vivo relevance of this phenomenon. Human aortic smooth muscle cells treated with β-Glycerophosphate (BGP, 10mM) suffered cellular senescence by increasing p53, p21 and p16 expression and the senescence associated β-galactosidase activity. In parallel, BGP induced ILK overexpression, dependent on the IGF-1 receptor activation, and oxidative stress. Down-regulating ILK expression prevented BGP-induced senescence and oxidative stress. Aortic rings from young rats treated with 10mM BGP for 48h, showed increased p53, p16 and ILK expression and SA-β-gal activity. Seven/eight nephrectomized rats feeding a hyperphosphatemic diet and fifteenth- month old mice showed hyperphosphatemia and aortic ILK, p53 and p16 expression. In conclusion, we demonstrated that high extracellular concentration of phosphate induced senescence in cultured smooth muscle through the activation of IGF-1 receptor and ILK overexpression and provided solid evidences for the in vivo relevance of these results since aged animals showed high levels of serum phosphate linked to increased expression of ILK and senescence genes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The future of aortic surgery in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czerny, Martin; Bachet, Jean; Bavaria, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    the interested reader with an overview of how aortic surgery and (perhaps more accurately) aortic medicine has evolved in Europe, and its present standing; also to provide a glimpse into the future, trying to disseminate the thoughts of a group of people actively involved in the development of aortic medicine...... in Europe, namely the Vascular Domain of the European Association of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS)....

  6. Cordyceps sinensis extracts attenuate aortic transplant arteriosclerosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Yang, Mei; Gong, Shuwen; Yang, Yu; Chen, Bicheng; Cai, Yong; Zheng, Shaoling; Yang, Yirong; Xia, Peng

    2012-06-01

    Transplant arteriosclerosis is a hallmark of chronic rejection and is still the major limiting factor affecting the success of long-term organ transplants. Development of transplant arteriosclerosis is refractory to conventional immunosuppressive drugs, and adequate therapy is not yet available. The aim of this study was to determine the role of Cordyceps sinensis extracts in reducing the formation of transplant arteriosclerosis in a rat aortic transplant model. Lewis rat aortic allografts were transplanted into Brown-Norway recipient rats. Recipients received 0.5, 1, 2, and 5 mg/kg of Cordyceps sinensis extracts (or control saline) daily via intragastric injection for 60 d. Grafts were harvested 60 d post-transplantation and intimal thickness determined microscopically following hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining and abdominal aorta protein profiles determined by Western blot analysis. Cellular localization was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry and the serum analyzed for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). C. sinensis administration resulted in a significant reduction in neointimal formation (neointimal thickness 8.27 ± 1.95 μm [0.5 mg/kg], 3.69 ± 1.43 μm [1 mg/kg], 3.69 ± 1.43 μm [1 mg/kg], 3.69 ± 1.43 μm [1 mg/kg] versus 11.42 ± 2.67 μm [control]) and in the proliferative activity of vascular smooth muscle cells. In addition, localized expression of TNF-α and ICAM-1 in transplant aortas was characterized by immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analyses demonstrating that C. sinensis treatment significantly reduced TNF-α and ICAM-1 levels compared with levels observed in controls (P arteriosclerosis in a rat aortic transplant model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Efficacy of Autologous Femoropopliteal Vein Reconstruction for Primary Aortic and Aortic Graft Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirven, M.; Jagt, M.F.P. van der; Barendregt, W.B.; Vliet, D. van der

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of our study was to analyze the efficacy of autologous superficial femoropopliteal vein reconstruction for primary aortic or aortic graft infection. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 14 patients treated for an infected aortic prosthesis or primary infected

  8. Transcatheter valve-in-valve implantation due to severe aortic regurgitation in a degenerated aortic homograft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lene Kjaer; Engstrøm, Thomas; Søndergaard, Lars

    2009-01-01

    a successful valve-in-valve implantation of a CoreValve aortic valve prosthesis through the right subclavian artery in a case of severe aortic regurgitation within a degenerated aortic homograft. The case exemplifies the possibilities of expanding the indications for TAVI, as well as other vascular access...

  9. Cervical aortic arch and a new type of double aortic arch. Report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornali, M; Reginato, E; Azzolina, G

    1976-09-01

    A case of cervical aortic arch is reported. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first to be associated with a serious intracardiac anomaly. In addition, it is part of a new type of double aortic arch, caused by failure of reabsorption of both dorsal aortic roots and persistence of the fourth right and second (or third) left branchial arches.

  10. Histopathology of aortic complications in bicuspid aortic valve versus Marfan syndrome: relevance for therapy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Grewal (Nimrat); R. Franken (Romy); B.J.M. Mulder (Barbara); M.-J. Goumans (Marie-José); J.H.N. Lindeman (Johannes); M.R.M. Jongbloed (Monique); M.C. DeRuiter (Marco); R.J.M. Klautz (Robert); A.J.J.C. Bogers (Ad); R.E. Poelmann (Robert); A.C.G.-D. Groot (Adriana C. Gittenberger-de)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPatients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) are more prone to develop aortic dilation and dissection compared to persons with a tricuspid aortic valve (TAV). To elucidate potential common and distinct pathways of clinical relevance, we compared the

  11. Increased aortic tortuosity indicates a more severe aortic phenotype in adults with Marfan syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, R.; Morabit, A. El; Waard, V. de; Timmermans, J.; Scholte, A.J.; Berg, M.P.; Marquering, H.; Planken, N.R.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Mulder, B.J.; Groenink, M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) have a highly variable occurrence of aortic complications. Aortic tortuosity is often present in MFS and may help to identify patients at risk for aortic complications. METHODS: 3D-visualization of the total aorta by MR imaging was performed in 211

  12. Possible dual role of decorin in abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshiro Ueda

    Full Text Available Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA is characterized by chronic inflammation, which leads to pathological remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Decorin, a small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan, has been suggested to regulate inflammation and stabilize the extracellular matrix. Therefore, the present study investigated the role of decorin in the pathogenesis of AAA. Decorin was localized in the aortic adventitia under normal conditions in both mice and humans. AAA was induced in mice using CaCl2 treatment. Initially, decorin protein levels decreased, but as AAA progressed decorin levels increased in all layers. Local administration of exogenous decorin prevented the development of CaCl2-induced AAA. However, decorin was highly expressed in the degenerative lesions of human AAA walls, and this expression positively correlated with matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9 expression. In cell culture experiments, the addition of decorin inhibited secretion of MMP-9 in vascular smooth muscle cells, but had the opposite effect in macrophages. The results suggest that decorin plays a dual role in AAA. Adventitial decorin in normal aorta may protect against the development of AAA, but macrophages expressing decorin in AAA walls may facilitate the progression of AAA by up-regulating MMP-9 secretion.

  13. Periostin links mechanical strain to inflammation in abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Yamashita

    Full Text Available AIMS: Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs are characterized by chronic inflammation, which contributes to the pathological remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Although mechanical stress has been suggested to promote inflammation in AAA, the molecular mechanism remains uncertain. Periostin is a matricellular protein known to respond to mechanical strain. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of periostin in mechanotransduction in the pathogenesis of AAA. METHODS AND RESULTS: We found significant increases in periostin protein levels in the walls of human AAA specimens. Tissue localization of periostin was associated with inflammatory cell infiltration and destruction of elastic fibers. We examined whether mechanical strain could stimulate periostin expression in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Cells subjected to 20% uniaxial cyclic strains showed significant increases in periostin protein expression, focal adhesion kinase (FAK activation, and secretions of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and the active form of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2. These changes were largely abolished by a periostin-neutralizing antibody and by the FAK inhibitor, PF573228. Interestingly, inhibition of either periostin or FAK caused suppression of the other, indicating a positive feedback loop. In human AAA tissues in ex vivo culture, MCP-1 secretion was dramatically suppressed by PF573228. Moreover, in vivo, periaortic application of recombinant periostin in mice led to FAK activation and MCP-1 upregulation in the aortic walls, which resulted in marked cellular infiltration. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicated that periostin plays an important role in mechanotransduction that maintains inflammation via FAK activation in AAA.

  14. MicroRNA expression signature in human abdominal aortic aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pahl Matthew C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA is a dilatation of the aorta affecting most frequently elderly men. Histologically AAAs are characterized by inflammation, vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis, and extracellular matrix degradation. The mechanisms of AAA formation, progression, and rupture are currently poorly understood. A previous mRNA expression study revealed a large number of differentially expressed genes between AAA and non-aneurysmal control aortas. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, small non-coding RNAs that are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, could provide a mechanism for the differential expression of genes in AAA. Methods To determine differences in miRNA levels between AAA (n = 5 and control (n = 5 infrarenal aortic tissues, a microarray study was carried out. Results were adjusted using Benjamini-Hochberg correction (adjusted p  Results A microarray study identified eight miRNAs with significantly different expression levels between AAA and controls (adjusted p  Conclusions Our genome-wide approach revealed several differentially expressed miRNAs in human AAA tissue suggesting that miRNAs play a role in AAA pathogenesis.

  15. Hybrid treatment of penetrating aortic ulcer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, Juan Antonio Herrero; Martins-Romeo, Daniela de Araujo; Escudero, Carlos Caparros; Falcon, Maria del Carmen Prieto; Batista, Vinicius Bianchi, E-mail: jaherrero5@hotmail.com [Unidade de Gestao Clinica (UGC) de Diagnostico por Imagem - Hosppital Universitario Virgen Macarena, Sevilha (Spain); Vazquez, Rosa Maria Lepe [Unit of Radiodiagnosis - Hospital Nuestra Senora de la Merced, Osuna, Sevilha (Spain)

    2015-05-15

    Penetrating atherosclerotic aortic ulcer is a rare entity with poor prognosis in the setting of acute aortic syndrome. In the literature, cases like the present one, located in the aortic arch, starting with chest pain and evolving with dysphonia, are even rarer. The present report emphasizes the role played by computed tomography in the diagnosis of penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer as well as in the differentiation of this condition from other acute aortic syndromes. Additionally, the authors describe a new therapeutic approach represented by a hybrid endovascular surgical procedure for treatment of the disease. (author)

  16. [Double aortic arch: prenatal case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budziszewska, Patrycja; Kuka, Dorota; Sodowski, Marcin; Sodowski, Krzysztof; Jeanty, Philippe; Skrzypulec, Violetta

    2009-09-01

    We have presented a case of prenatal double aortic arch, diagnosed by ultrasound, to demonstrate the importance of 3-vessel view by detecting aortic arch abnormalities. Double aortic arch is one the most common types of the vascular ring. The suspicion of a double aortic arch is raised by detecting the U-sign which is formed by the combination of both aortic arches and the left ductus arteriosus. In the 3-vessel view the ascending aorta and aortic arch are pointing to the right, whereas the left arch points to the left, and the trachea is seen between. The 4-chamber view appears normal, but the descending aorta is deviated medially. Literature review revealed an association between double aortic arch and congenital heart diseases in approximately 20% of cases; most often tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of great vessels, ventricular septal defects. Rarely there can be atresia of the segment of the aortic arch, which can be difficult to differentiate from other aortic arch anomalies associated with chromosomal abnormalities such as microdeletion of chromosome 22q11.

  17. Modification of an endovascular stent graft for abdominal aortic aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloye, Olajompo Busola

    Endovascular surgery is currently used to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). A stent graft is deployed to exclude blood flow from the aneurysm sac. It is an effective procedure used in preventing aneurysm rupture, with reduced patient morbidity and mortality compared to open surgical repair. Migration and leakage around the device ("endoleak") due to poor sealing of the stent graft to the aorta have raised concerns about the long-term durability of endovascular repair. A preliminary study of cell migration and proliferation is presented as a prelude to a more extensive in vivo testing. A method to enhance the biological seal between the stent graft and the aorta is proposed to eliminate this problem. This can be achieved by impregnating the stent graft with 50/50 poly (DL-lactide co glycolic acid) (PLGA) and growth factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), at the proximal and distal ends. It is hypothesized that as PLGA degrades it will release the growth factors that will promote proliferation and migration of aortic smooth muscle cells to the coated site, leading to a natural seal between the aorta and the stent graft. In addition, growth factor release should promote smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction that will help keep the stent graft in place at the proximal and distal ends. It is shown that a statistically significant effect of increased cell proliferation and migration is observed for CTGF release. Less of an effect is noted for bFGF or just the PLGA. The effect is estimated to be large enough to be clinically significant in a future animal study. The long term goal of this study is to reduce migration encounter after graft deployment and to reduce secondary interventions of EVAR especially for older patients who are unfit for open surgical treatment.

  18. Smooth paths of conditional expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Andruchow, Esteban; Larotonda, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Let A be a von Neumann algebra with a finite trace $\\tau$, represented in $H=L^2(A,\\tau)$, and let $B_t\\subset A$ be sub-algebras, for $t$ in an interval $I$. Let $E_t:A\\to B_t$ be the unique $\\tau$-preserving conditional expectation. We say that the path $t\\mapsto E_t$ is smooth if for every $a\\in A$ and $v \\in H$, the map $$ I\

  19. Beam smoothing and temporal effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hora, H.; Aydin, M.; Eliezer, S.; Goldsworthy, M.P.; Min, G.; Gahatak, A.K.; Lalousis, P.; Stening, R.J.; Szichman, H. [University of Technology, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Boreham, B.W. [Queensland Inst. of Tech., Gardens Point, QLD (Australia). Dept. of Physics; Luther-Davies, B.; Baldwin, K.G.H.; Rode, A.V. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    1995-05-01

    Until recently, and in spite of the introduction of smoothing methods, direct drive laser fusion received lots of setbacks from experiments, this being due to nonlinear and anomalous phenomena. This report deals with a method of analysis which, as self-generated von-Laue gratings, preventing the propagation of laser radiation through the outermost plasma corona, and preventing energy deposition. (TEC). 36 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or

  1. Vascular smooth muscle cell phenotypic changes in patients with Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosas-Molist, Eva; Meirelles, Thayna; López-Luque, Judit; Serra-Peinado, Carla; Selva, Javier; Caja, Laia; Gorbenko Del Blanco, Darya; Uriarte, Juan José; Bertran, Esther; Mendizábal, Yolanda; Hernández, Vanessa; García-Calero, Carolina; Busnadiego, Oscar; Condom, Enric; Toral, David; Castellà, Manel; Forteza, Alberto; Navajas, Daniel; Sarri, Elisabet; Rodríguez-Pascual, Fernando; Dietz, Harry C; Fabregat, Isabel; Egea, Gustavo

    2015-04-01

    Marfan's syndrome is characterized by the formation of ascending aortic aneurysms resulting from altered assembly of extracellular matrix microfibrils and chronic tissue growth factor (TGF)-β signaling. TGF-β is a potent regulator of the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype. We hypothesized that as a result of the chronic TGF-β signaling, VSMC would alter their basal differentiation phenotype, which could facilitate the formation of aneurysms. This study explores whether Marfan's syndrome entails phenotypic alterations of VSMC and possible mechanisms at the subcellular level. Immunohistochemical and Western blotting analyses of dilated aortas from Marfan patients showed overexpression of contractile protein markers (α-smooth muscle actin, smoothelin, smooth muscle protein 22 alpha, and calponin-1) and collagen I in comparison with healthy aortas. VSMC explanted from Marfan aortic aneurysms showed increased in vitro expression of these phenotypic markers and also of myocardin, a transcription factor essential for VSMC-specific differentiation. These alterations were generally reduced after pharmacological inhibition of the TGF-β pathway. Marfan VSMC in culture showed more robust actin stress fibers and enhanced RhoA-GTP levels, which was accompanied by increased focal adhesion components and higher nuclear localization of myosin-related transcription factor A. Marfan VSMC and extracellular matrix measured by atomic force microscopy were both stiffer than their respective controls. In Marfan VSMC, both in tissue and in culture, there are variable TGF-β-dependent phenotypic changes affecting contractile proteins and collagen I, leading to greater cellular and extracellular matrix stiffness. Altogether, these alterations may contribute to the known aortic rigidity that precedes or accompanies Marfan's syndrome aneurysm formation. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Aortic root disease in athletes: aortic root dilation, anomalous coronary artery, bicuspid aortic valve, and Marfan's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Eugene Sun

    2013-08-01

    Two professional athletes in the U.S. National Basketball Association required surgery for aortic root dilation in 2012. These cases have attracted attention in sports medicine to the importance of aortic root disease in athletes. In addition to aortic root dilation, other forms of aortic disease include anomalous coronary artery, bicuspid aortic valve, and Marfan's syndrome. In this review, electronic database literature searches were performed using the terms "aortic root" and "athletes." The literature search produced 122 manuscripts. Of these, 22 were on aortic root dilation, 21 on anomalous coronary arteries, 12 on bicuspid aortic valves, and 8 on Marfan's syndrome. Aortic root dilation is a condition involving pathologic dilation of the aortic root, which can lead to life-threatening sequelae. Prevalence of the condition among athletes and higher risk athletes in particular sports needs to be better delineated. Normative parameters for aortic root diameter in the general population are proportionate to anthropomorphic variables, but this has not been validated for athletes at the extremes of anthropomorphic indices. Although echocardiography is the favored screening modality, computed tomography (CT) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are also used for diagnosis and surgical planning. Medical management has utilized beta-blockers, with more recent use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), and statins. Indications for surgery are based on comorbidities, degree of dilation, and rate of progression. Management decisions for aortic root dilation in athletes are nuanced and will benefit from the development of evidence-based guidelines. Anomalous coronary artery is another form of aortic disease with relevance in athletes. Diagnosis has traditionally been through cardiac catheterization, but more recently has included evaluation with echocardiography, multislice CT, and MRI. Athletes with this

  3. Early results of valve-sparing ascending aortic replacement in type A aortic dissection and aortic insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. Л. Гордеев

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was designed to investigate predictors of effective valve-sparing ascending aortic replacement in patients with Stanford type A aortic dissection combined with aortic insufficiency and to analyze efficacy and safety of this kind of surgery.Methods: From January 2010 to December 2015, 49 patients with Stanford type A aortic dissection combined with aortic insufficiency underwent ascending aortic replacement. All patients were divided into 3 groups: valve-sparing procedures (group 1, n = 11, combined aortic valve and supracoronary ascending aortic replacement (group 2, n = 12, and Bentall procedure (group 3, n = 26. We assessed the initial status of patients, incidence of complications and efficacy of valve-sparing ascending aortic replacement.Results: The hospital mortality rate was 8.2% (4/49 patients. The amount of surgical correction correlated with the initial diameter of the aorta at the level of the sinuses of Valsalva. During the hospital period, none of patients from group 1 developed aortic insufficiency exceeding Grade 2 and the vast majority of patients had trivial aortic regurgitation. The parameters of cardiopulmonary bypass, cross-clamp time and circulatory arrest time did not correlate with the initial size of the ascending aorta and aortic valve blood flow impairment, neither did they influence significantly the incidence and severity of neurological complications. The baseline size of the ascending aorta and degree of aortic regurgitation did not impact the course of the early hospital period.Conclusions: Supracoronary ascending aortic replacement combined with aortic valve repair in ascending aortic dissection and aortic regurgitation is effective and safe. The initial size of the ascending aorta and aortic arch do not influence immediate results. The diameter of the aorta at the level of the sinuses of Valsalva and the condition of aortic valve leaflets could be considered as the limiting factors. Further long

  4. Full metal jacket: transfemoral aortic valve implantation for regurgitant valve after endovascular aortic repair†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanyeli, Omer; Dereli, Yuksel; Gormus, Niyazi; Duzenli, Mehmet Akif

    2017-07-25

    Transfemoral aortic valve implantation has become an almost routine interventional procedure for severe aortic stenosis in high-risk patients. Over time an increased number of experiences has led to unusual procedures. In this report, we present a successful valve-in-valve transfemoral aortic valve implantation in a patient with aortic regurgitation, who previously had debranching and thoracic endovascular aortic repair operations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  5. Redox stress in Marfan syndrome: Dissecting the role of the NADPH oxidase NOX4 in aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Altayó, Francesc; Meirelles, Thayna; Crosas-Molist, Eva; Sorolla, M Alba; Del Blanco, Darya Gorbenko; López-Luque, Judit; Mas-Stachurska, Aleksandra; Siegert, Ana-Maria; Bonorino, Fabio; Barberà, Laura; García, Carolina; Condom, Enric; Sitges, Marta; Rodríguez-Pascual, Fernando; Laurindo, Francisco; Schröder, Katrin; Ros, Joaquim; Fabregat, Isabel; Egea, Gustavo

    2018-02-20

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is characterized by the formation of ascending aortic aneurysms resulting from altered assembly of extracellular matrix fibrillin-containing microfibrils and dysfunction of TGF-β signaling. Here we identify the molecular targets of redox stress in aortic aneurysms from MFS patients, and investigate the role of NOX4, whose expression is strongly induced by TGF-β, in aneurysm formation and progression in a murine model of MFS. Working models included aortae and cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from MFS patients, and a NOX4-deficient Marfan mouse model (Fbn1 C1039G/+ -Nox4 -/- ). Increased S-nitrosylation and reactive oxygen species levels were found in the tunica media of human aortic aneurysms and in cultured VSMC. Proteomic analysis identified nitrated and carbonylated proteins, which included smooth muscle α-actin (αSMA) and annexin A2. NOX4 immunostaining increased in the tunica media of human Marfan aorta and was transcriptionally overexpressed in VSMC. Fbn1 C1039G/+ -Nox4 -/- mice aortas showed a reduction of fragmented elastic fibers, which was accompanied by an amelioration in the Marfan-associated enlargement of the aortic root. Increase in the contractile phenotype marker calponin in the tunica media of MFS mice aortas was abrogated in Fbn1 C1039G/+ -Nox4 -/- mice. Endothelial dysfunction evaluated by myography in the Marfan ascending aorta was prevented by the absence of Nox4 or catalase-induced H 2 O 2 decomposition. We conclude that redox stress occurs in MFS, whose targets are actin-based cytoskeleton members and regulators of extracellular matrix homeostasis. Likewise, NOX4 have an impact in the progression of the aortic dilation in MFS and in the structural organization of the aortic tunica media, the VSMC phenotypic modulation, and endothelial function. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pregnancy after aortic root replacement in Loeys-Dietz syndrome: High risk of aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Alan C; Moon, Marc R; Geraghty, Patrick; Willing, Marcia; Bach, Christopher; Kouchoukos, Nicholas T

    2016-08-01

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome due to mutations in TGFBR1 and 2 is associated with early and aggressive aortic aneurysm and branch vessel disease. There are reports of uncomplicated pregnancy in this condition, but there is an increased risk of aortic dissection and uterine rupture. Women with underlying aortic root aneurysm are cautioned about the risk of pregnancy-related aortic dissection. Prophylactic aortic root replacement is recommended in women with aortopathy and aortic root dilatation to lessen the risk of pregnancy. There is limited information in the literature about the outcomes of pregnancy after root replacement in Loeys-Dietz syndrome. We present a case series of three women with Loeys-Dietz syndrome who underwent elective aortic root replacement for aneurysm disease and subsequently became pregnant and underwent Cesarean section delivery. Each of these women were treated with beta blockers throughout pregnancy. Surveillance echocardiograms and noncontrast MRA studies during pregnancy remained stable demonstrating no evidence for aortic enlargement. Despite the normal aortic imaging and careful observation, two of the three women suffered acute aortic dissection in the postpartum period. These cases highlight the high risk of pregnancy following aortic root replacement in Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Women with this disorder are recommended to be counseled accordingly. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Mitral and aortic regurgitation following transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymański, Piotr; Hryniewiecki, Tomasz; Dąbrowski, Maciej; Sorysz, Danuta; Kochman, Janusz; Jastrzębski, Jan; Kukulski, Tomasz; Zembala, Marian

    2016-05-01

    To analyse the impact of postprocedural mitral regurgitation (MR), in an interaction with aortic regurgitation (AR), on mortality following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). To assess the interaction between MR and AR, we compared the survival rate of patients (i) without both significant MR and AR versus (ii) those with either significant MR or significant AR versus (iii) with significant MR and AR, all postprocedure. 381 participants of the Polish Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Registry (166 males (43.6%) and 215 females (56.4%), age 78.8±7.4 years) were analysed. Follow-up was 94.1±96.5 days. In-hospital and midterm mortality were 6.6% and 10.2%, respectively. Significant MR and AR were present in 16% and 8.1% patients, including 3.1% patients with both significant MR and AR. Patients with significant versus insignificant AR differed with respect to mortality (log rank p=0.009). This difference was not apparent in a subgroup of patients without significant MR (log rank p=0.80). In a subgroup of patients without significant AR, there were no significant differences in mortality between individuals with versus without significant MR (log rank p=0.44). Significant MR and AR had a significant impact on mortality only when associated with each other (log rank p<0.0001). At multivariate Cox regression modelling concomitant significant MR and AR were independently associated with mortality (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.54 to 5.71, p=0.002). Significant MR or AR postprocedure, when isolated, had no impact on survival. Combined MR and AR had a significant impact on a patient's prognosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Three novel mutations in the ACTA2 gene in German patients with thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffjan, Sabine; Waldmüller, Stephan; Blankenfeldt, Wulf; Kötting, Judith; Gehle, Petra; Binner, Priska; Epplen, Jörg T; Scheffold, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Mutations in the gene encoding smooth muscle cell alpha actin (ACTA2) have recently been shown to cause familial thoracic aortic aneurysms leading to type A dissections (TAAD) and predispose to premature stroke and coronary artery disease. In order to further explore the role of ACTA2 variations in the pathogenesis of TAAD, we sequenced the coding regions of this gene in 40 unrelated German patients with TAAD (with [n=21] or without [n=19] clinical features suggestive of M...

  9. Pathogenesis of bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Buxton, D; Wouda, W

    2006-05-01

    The protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is a major pathogen of cattle and dogs, being a significant cause of abortion in cattle in many countries. It is one of the most efficiently transmitted parasites, with up to 90% of cattle infected in some herds. The pathogenesis of abortion due to Neospora is complex and only partially understood. Losses occur after a primary infection during pregnancy but more commonly as the result of recrudescence of a persistent infection during pregnancy. Parasitaemia is followed by invasion of the placenta and fetus. It is suggested that abortion occurs when primary parasite-induced placental damage jeopardises fetal survival directly or causes release of maternal prostaglandins that in turn cause luteolysis and abortion. Fetal damage may also occur due to primary tissue damage caused by the multiplication of N. caninum in the fetus or due to insufficient oxygen/nutrition, secondary to placental damage. In addition, maternal immune expulsion of the fetus may occur associated with maternal placental inflammation and the release of maternal pro-inflammatory cytokines in the placenta. Thus N. caninum is a primary pathogen capable of causing abortion either through maternal placental inflammation, maternal and fetal placental necrosis, fetal damage, or a combination of all three. The question of how N. caninum kills the fetus exposes the complex and finely balanced biological processes that have evolved to permit bovine and other mammalian pregnancies to occur. Defining these immunological mechanisms will shed light on potential methods of control of bovine neosporosis and enrich our understanding of the continuity of mammalian and protozoal survival.

  10. When does the H∞ fixed-lag smoothing saturate for finite smoothing lag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirkin, Leonid; Meinsma, Gjerrit

    2004-01-01

    A notable difference between the H∞ smoothing is that the achievable performance in the latter problem might "saturate" as the function of the smoothing lag in the sense that there might exist a finite smoothing lag for which the achievable performance level is the same as for the infinite smoothing

  11. Graft infections after surgical aortic reconstructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, P.

    2015-01-01

    Prosthetic vascular grafts are frequently used to reconstruct (part) of the aorta. Every surgical procedure caries a certain risk for infection and when a prosthetic aortic graft is implanted, this may lead to an aortic graft infection (AGI). Endovascular techniques have gradually replaced open

  12. Spontaneous resolution late after aortic dissection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeebregts, CJAM; Schepens, MAAM; Vermeulen, FEE

    A 50-year-old man was operated on for acute type I (DeBakey classification) aortic dissection. The supracoronary ascending aorta was replaced with an interposition graft. Postoperative computed tomography and angiography clearly revealed a double-barrelled aortic arch, left common carotid artery and

  13. Abdominal aortic aneurysm and diastasis recti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Ian

    Midline abdominal incisional hernias are common following open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms. These may be caused by the weakness of connective tissue. This study sought to determine the prevalence of diastasis recti among unoperated Caucasian males with abdominal aortic aneurysm compared to a control group with atherosclerotic lower extremity peripheral arterial disease. Forty-two consecutive white males referred for evaluation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (n = 18) or peripheral arterial disease (n = 24) were examined by a single examiner at the Mayo Clinic. Both groups were similar in terms of age and smoking history, 2 major risk factors for both abdominal aortic aneurysm and peripheral arterial disease. Abdominal aortic aneurysm patients ranged in age from 59 to 89 (mean, 73.2) years. Seventeen of 18 (94.4%) had a history of smoking. Peripheral arterial disease patients ranged in age from 52 to 93 (mean, 70.8) years. Twenty-one of 24 (87.5%) had a history of smoking. Diastasis recti were present in 12 of 18 (66.7%) subjects with abdominal aortic aneurysm versus 4 of 24 (16.7%) subjects with peripheral arterial disease (P = .001, 2-tailed Fisher exact test). Diastasis recti are significantly more common in males with abdominal aortic aneurysm than peripheral arterial disease and may provide an important clue to screen for abdominal aortic aneurysm in those at risk.

  14. Valve-sparing aortic root replacement†

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolbergen, David R.; Manshanden, Johan S. J.; Bouma, Berto J.; Blom, Nico A.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.; de Mol, Bas A. J. M.; Hazekamp, Mark G.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate our results of valve-sparing aortic root replacement and associated (multiple) valve repair. From September 2003 to September 2013, 97 patients had valve-sparing aortic root replacement procedures. Patient records and preoperative, postoperative and recent echocardiograms were reviewed.

  15. Thoracic aortic catastrophes : towards the endovascular solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, F.H.W.

    2010-01-01

    Descending thoracic aortic catastrophes include a variety of acute pathologies of the descending thoracic aorta, which are all associated with high morbidity and mortality rates, requiring immediate intervention. For this thesis, we explored the management and outcomes of several thoracic aortic

  16. Alterations in /sup 28/Mg binding in rabbit aortic smooth muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, G.B.; Shetty, S.S.

    1986-03-01

    The effects of various cations and drugs on /sup 28/Mg movements in the media-intimal layer of rabbit aorta were measured. Muscles were incubated with /sup 28/Mg for at least 90 min to assure sufficient accumulation. The /sup 28/Mg tissue/medium ratio was reduced by two-thirds in the presence of 1.5 mM (added) Mg/sup + +/. The rate of efflux of /sup 28/Mg was not altered by addition of non-radioactive Mg/sup + +/, Ca/sup + +/, Ga/sup + +/ or La/sup + + +/ during washout, but was increased by 0.5 mM EDTA. Uptake of /sup 28/Mg was inhibited substantially by added K/sup +/ (60 mM), neomycin (7 mM), genamicin (4.08 mg/ml), lidocaine (1 mM), Tris (substituted for Na/sup +/) and La/sup + + +/ (1.5 and 15 mM). Substitution of up to 75% of the NaCl present with sucrose resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in /sup 28/Mg uptake (up to more than 7-fold). A transient increase in /sup 28/Mg efflux rate was observed when muscles incubated in sucrose-substituted (for NaCl) Tris solution were exposed to Na/sup +/ (but not when Mg/sup + +/, Ca/sup + +/ or Ga/sup + +/ were added). The results indicate that cellular /sup 28/Mg is slowly accumulated and not readily exchanged. The interactions between NaCl and /sup 28/Mg may involve either an inhibition of Mg/sup + +/ uptake or an enhancement of Mg/sup + +/ efflux in the presence of extracellular NaCl.

  17. Role of ERK/MAPK in endothelin receptor signaling in human aortic smooth muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Qing-wen; Edvinsson, Lars; Xu, Cang-Bao

    2009-01-01

    muscle cells (VSMCs) through activation of endothelin type A (ETA) and type B (ETB) receptors. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are involved in ET-1-induced VSMC contraction and proliferation. This study was designed to investigate...

  18. Role of ERK/MAPK in endothelin receptor signaling in human aortic smooth muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Qing-wen; Edvinsson, Lars; Xu, Cang-Bao

    2009-01-01

    the ETA and ETB receptor intracellular signaling in human VSMCs and used phosphorylation (activation) of ERK1/2 as a functional signal molecule for endothelin receptor activity. RESULTS: Subconfluent human VSMCs were stimulated by ET-1 at different concentrations (1 nM-1 microM). The activation of ERK1....../2 was examined by immunofluorescence, Western blot and phosphoELISA using specific antibody against phosphorylated ERK1/2 protein. ET-1 induced a concentration- and time- dependent activation of ERK1/2 with a maximal effect at 10 min. It declined to baseline level at 30 min. The ET-1-induced activation of ERK1....../2 was completely abolished by MEK1/2 inhibitors U0126 and SL327, and partially inhibited by the MEK1 inhibitor PD98059. A dual endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan or the ETA antagonist BQ123 blocked the ET-1 effect, while the ETB antagonist BQ788 had no significant effect. However, a selective ETB receptor...

  19. Relaxant effect of oxime derivatives in isolated rat aorta: role of nitric oxide (NO) formation in smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupsky, Karel; Lobysheva, Irina; Nepveu, Françoise; Gadea, Irina; Beranova, Petra; Entlicher, Gustav; Stoclet, Jean-Claude; Muller, Bernard

    2004-03-15

    Various oxime derivatives were evaluated as nitric oxide (NO) donors in arteries. Relaxation of rat aortic rings was used for bioassay of NO production, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy for demonstration of NO elevation. In rings with or without endothelium or adventitia, hydroxyguanidine and hydroxyurea were almost inactive, whereas formamidoxime, acetaldoxime, acetone oxime, acetohydroxamic acid and formaldoxime elicited relaxation. Active compounds increased NO levels in endothelium-denuded rings. Formaldoxime was the most potent agent for both relaxation and NO elevation in aortic rings, and it also increased NO in human aortic smooth muscle cells. In endothelium-denuded rings, relaxation was inhibited by a NO scavenger (2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide) and by inhibitors of soluble guanylyl-cyclase (1H[1,2,4,]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one) or cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases (Rp-8-bromo cyclic GMP monophosphorothioate). Neither N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methylester (a NO synthases inhibitor) nor proadifen (a cytochrome P450 inhibitor) decreased the effect of oxime derivatives. However, 7-ethoxyresorufin (7-ER, an inhibitor of P4501A(1) which can also inhibit various NADPH-dependent reductases) abolished the relaxant effect of these compounds, without affecting the one of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) or 2-(N,N-diethylamino)-diazenolate-2-oxide. 7-ER also abolished formaldoxime-induced NO increase in aortic rings. In rings tolerant to GTN, formaldoxime-induced relaxation and NO elevation were not different from those obtained in control rings. In conclusion, some oxime derivatives release NO by 7-ER-sensitive pathways in aortic smooth muscle, thus eliciting vasorelaxation. Pathways of NO formation are likely distinct from NO synthases and from those responsible for GTN biotransformation. Oxime derivatives could be useful for NO delivery in arteries in which endothelial NO synthase activity is impaired.

  20. Hypoplastic right cervical aortic arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrah, Rabin; Shah, Amee; Langley, Stephen M; Quaegebeur, Jan M

    2012-12-01

    We describe a neonate with a rare congenital anomaly of the aorta. The anomaly included a hypoplastic aortic arch that was cervical and right sided. This complex combination was treated by a Norwood type procedure reconstructing a right-sided arch and, in a later stage, a Rastelli procedure. These 2 procedures achieved a 2 ventricular repair. The diagnostic and surgical challenges of this rare anomaly are described in this case report. Copyright © 2012 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The progression of aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastracci, Tara M

    2016-04-01

    Aortic aneurysm is a progressive disease that can involve any territory of the aorta. This has ramifications on endovascular repair, because progressive dilation of sealing zones can compromise the integrity of the repair and lead to long term failure. This article describes the evidence behind and some of the predictors of progressive disease of the aorta. Knowledge of predictors of progressive disease may help prevent it from causing failure in the longterm by helping to tailor surveillance routines or have influence on initial graft design.

  2. FELINE AORTIC THROMBOEMBOLISM: CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Figueroa A., Lizbeth; Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.; Paz M., Ricardo; Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.; Díaz C., Diego; Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.; Dávila F., Roberto; Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.

    2014-01-01

    Se presenta el caso de un felino Siamés de 13 años con tromboembolismo aórtico. Esta es una complicación asociada a una cardiomiopatía hipertrófica (CMH), enfermedad cardiaca más común del gato y que se caracteriza por la hipertrofia concéntrica ventricular izquierda. A case of a 13 year old Siamese cat whit feline aortic thromboembolism is presented. This is a devastating complication associated to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), one of the most common heart disease in cats characteriz...

  3. Pathogenic Mechanisms of Bicuspid Aortic Valve Aortopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassine, Noor M.; Shahram, Jasmine T.; Body, Simon C.

    2017-01-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common congenital valvular defect and is associated with ascending aortic dilation (AAD) in a quarter of patients. AAD has been ascribed both to the hemodynamic consequences of normally functioning and abnormal BAV morphology, and to the effect of rare and common genetic variation upon function of the ascending aortic media. AAD manifests in two overall and sometimes overlapping phenotypes: that of aortic root aneurysm, similar to the AAD of Marfan syndrome; and that of tubular AAD, similar to the AAD seen with tricuspid aortic valves (TAVs). These aortic phenotypes appear to be independent of BAV phenotype, have different embryologic origins and have unique etiologic factors, notably, regarding the role of hemodynamic changes inherent to the BAV phenotype. Further, in contrast to Marfan syndrome, the AAD seen with BAV is infrequently present as a strongly inherited syndromic phenotype; rather, it appears to be a less-penetrant, milder phenotype. Both reduced levels of normally functioning transcriptional proteins and structurally abnormal proteins have been observed in aneurysmal aortic media. We provide evidence that aortic root AAD has a stronger genetic etiology, sometimes related to identified common non-coding fibrillin-1 (FBN1) variants and other aortic wall protein variants in patients with BAV. In patients with BAV having tubular AAD, we propose a stronger hemodynamic influence, but with pathology still based on a functional deficit of the aortic media, of genetic or epigenetic etiology. Although it is an attractive hypothesis to ascribe common mechanisms to BAV and AAD, thus far the genetic etiologies of AAD have not been associated to the genetic etiologies of BAV, notably, not including BAV variants in NOTCH1 and GATA4. PMID:28993736

  4. s-SMOOTH: Sparsity and Smoothness Enhanced EEG Brain Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available EEG source imaging enables us to reconstruct current density in the brain from the electrical measurements with excellent temporal resolution (~ms. The corresponding EEG inverse problem is an ill-posed one that has infinitely many solutions. This is due to the fact that the number of EEG sensors is usually much smaller than that of the potential dipole locations, as well as noise contamination in the recorded signals. To obtain a unique solution, regularizations can be incorporated to impose additional constraints on the solution. An appropriate choice of regularization is critically important for the reconstruction accuracy of the brain image. In this paper, we propose a novel Sparsity and SMOOthness enhanced brain TomograpHy (s-SMOOTH method to improve the reconstruction accuracy by integrating two recently proposed regularization techniques: Total Generalized Variation (TGV regularization and l_(1-2 regularization. TGV is able to preserve the source edge and recover the spatial distribution of the source intensity with high accuracy. Compared to the relevant total variation (TV regularization, TGV enhances the smoothness of the image and reduces staircasing artifacts. The traditional TGV defined on a 2D image has been widely used in image processing field. In order to handle 3D EEG source images, we propose a voxel-based TGV (vTGV regularization that extends the definition of second-order TGV from 2D planar image to 3D irregular surfaces such as cortex surface. In addition, the l_(1-2 regularization is utilized to promote sparsity on the current density itself. We demonstrate that l_(1-2 regularization is able to enhance sparsity and accelerate computations than l_1 regularization. The proposed model is solved by an efficient and robust algorithm based on the difference of convex functions algorithm (DCA and the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM. Numerical experiments using synthetic data demonstrate the advantages of the

  5. s-SMOOTH: Sparsity and Smoothness Enhanced EEG Brain Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Qin, Jing; Hsin, Yue-Loong; Osher, Stanley; Liu, Wentai

    2016-01-01

    EEG source imaging enables us to reconstruct current density in the brain from the electrical measurements with excellent temporal resolution (~ ms). The corresponding EEG inverse problem is an ill-posed one that has infinitely many solutions. This is due to the fact that the number of EEG sensors is usually much smaller than that of the potential dipole locations, as well as noise contamination in the recorded signals. To obtain a unique solution, regularizations can be incorporated to impose additional constraints on the solution. An appropriate choice of regularization is critically important for the reconstruction accuracy of a brain image. In this paper, we propose a novel Sparsity and SMOOthness enhanced brain TomograpHy (s-SMOOTH) method to improve the reconstruction accuracy by integrating two recently proposed regularization techniques: Total Generalized Variation (TGV) regularization and ℓ1-2 regularization. TGV is able to preserve the source edge and recover the spatial distribution of the source intensity with high accuracy. Compared to the relevant total variation (TV) regularization, TGV enhances the smoothness of the image and reduces staircasing artifacts. The traditional TGV defined on a 2D image has been widely used in the image processing field. In order to handle 3D EEG source images, we propose a voxel-based Total Generalized Variation (vTGV) regularization that extends the definition of second-order TGV from 2D planar images to 3D irregular surfaces such as cortex surface. In addition, the ℓ1-2 regularization is utilized to promote sparsity on the current density itself. We demonstrate that ℓ1-2 regularization is able to enhance sparsity and accelerate computations than ℓ1 regularization. The proposed model is solved by an efficient and robust algorithm based on the difference of convex functions algorithm (DCA) and the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). Numerical experiments using synthetic data demonstrate the

  6. Controlled release of ascorbic acid from gelatin hydrogel attenuates abdominal aortic aneurysm formation in rat experimental abdominal aortic aneurysm model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akiko; Hasegawa, Tomomi; Morimoto, Keisuke; Bao, Wulan; Yu, Jie; Okita, Yutaka; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Okada, Kenji

    2014-09-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are associated with oxidative stress and inflammatory response. We investigated the hypothesis that the known antioxidant ascorbic acid, which can also promote elastin and collagen production by smooth muscle cells, would prevent AAA formation in a rat model. An intraluminal elastase and extraluminal calcium chloride-induced rat AAA model was used, and the animals were divided into three groups: control (group C, n = 18), the aorta wrapped with a saline-impregnated gelatin hydrogel sheet (group G, n = 18), and the aorta wrapped with a gelatin hydrogel sheet incorporating ascorbic acid (group A, n = 18). Wrapping of the sheet was completed at the end of treatment for AAA creation. The aortic dilatation ratio was measured, and aortic tissues were further examined for oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage using biochemical and histologic techniques. Aortic dilatation at both 4 and 8 weeks was inhibited in group A (dilatation ratio [%] at 4 weeks: 186.2 ± 21.8 in group C, 152.3 ± 10.2 in group G, 126.8 ± 11.6 in group A; P < .0001; dilatation ratio [%] at 8 weeks: 219.3 ± 37.5 in group C, 194.0 ± 11.6 in group G, 145.7 ± 8.3 in group A; P = .0002). Elastin and collagen content were significantly preserved in group A (elastin, P = .0015; collagen, P < .0001). The messenger RNA expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin-1β, and tissue necrosis factor-α (P = .0024, P < .0001, P < .0001, and P < .0001, respectively) were downregulated in group A (P = .0024), whereas tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 were both upregulated in group A (TIMP-1, P = .0014; TIMP-2, P < .0001). Gelatin zymography showed activities of pro-MMP-2, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were significantly suppressed in group C (P < .0001 for each). Reactive oxygen species expression and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and cluster of differentiation 68 staining were significantly suppressed in group A (reactive

  7. Smooth Adaptation by Sigmoid Shrinkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atto AbdourrahmaneM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the properties of a subclass of sigmoid-based shrinkage functions: the non zeroforcing smooth sigmoid-based shrinkage functions or SigShrink functions. It provides a SURE optimization for the parameters of the SigShrink functions. The optimization is performed on an unbiased estimation risk obtained by using the functions of this subclass. The SURE SigShrink performance measurements are compared to those of the SURELET (SURE linear expansion of thresholds parameterization. It is shown that the SURE SigShrink performs well in comparison to the SURELET parameterization. The relevance of SigShrink is the physical meaning and the flexibility of its parameters. The SigShrink functions performweak attenuation of data with large amplitudes and stronger attenuation of data with small amplitudes, the shrinkage process introducing little variability among data with close amplitudes. In the wavelet domain, SigShrink is particularly suitable for reducing noise without impacting significantly the signal to recover. A remarkable property for this class of sigmoid-based functions is the invertibility of its elements. This propertymakes it possible to smoothly tune contrast (enhancement, reduction.

  8. Calcification or Not. This Is the Question. A 1-Year Study of Bovine Pericardial Vascular Patches (CardioCel) in Minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Aida; Greimann, Wiebke; Vondrys, David; Kostelka, Martin

    2017-10-09

    A main problem with bioprosthesis used for surgical correction of congenital cardiac malformation is its tendency to shrink and to calcify. Recently, a new material, that is, decellularized bovine pericardium (CardioCel), was introduced in clinics. It was proposed that this new patch material should not calcify and should be particularly suitable for the correction of vascular defects in inborn cardiac diseases. The aim of our chronic minipig study was to evaluate the performance of CardioCel patches implanted in aortic and pulmonary artery position, respectively. Ten minipigs aged 3 months were operated on. A CardioCel patch was implanted in the aorta ascendens and arteria pulmonalis, respectively. Seven minipigs completed the 12 months' follow-up. Angiography of both vessels, measurement of pressure gradients, and histologic evaluation of the implanted patches were carried out. Angiography of both great vessels revealed a good clinical outcome without stenosis. However, histologic examination of the patches showed calcification and neo-formation of hyaline cartilage in both vessel types. Staining of collagen and elastic fibers as well as α-smooth muscle actin demonstrated that the patches did not remodel into an anatomic vascular structure during the 1 year of implantation. In our chronic piglet model, CardioCel patches, when implanted in the ascending aorta and the pulmonary artery, led to calcification and neo-formation of hyaline cartilage in both vessel types 1 year after implantation. The present study indicates that the ideal patch biomaterial for repair of inborn cardiac diseases is still a goal not achieved yet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Ascending Aorta Replacement and Extended Myectomy for Acute Aortic Dissection and Coexistent Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy;Report of a Case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Hata, Masaki; Yamaya, Kazuhiro; Saitou, Takeshi; Haba, Fumiya; Matsuno, Masahiro

    2017-12-01

    Emergent ascending aortic replacement and extended myectomy were performed in a woman with acute aortic dissection who was aged 63 years. Preoperative transthoracic echocardiography performed in the intensive care unit showed only slight left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction, but intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography after induction of anesthesia revealed pericardial effusion, systolic anterior motion(SAM), and associated mitral regurgitation(MR). Perioperative SAM and MR are sometimes facilitated under various hemodynamic conditions, but in this case, the left ventricular wall was thick and LVOT appeared to be obstructive by a hypertrophied septum. Structural hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) was diagnosed, and septal myectomy and aortic replacement were performed. After ascending aortic replacement and simultaneous extended myectomy with resection of abnormal band, weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass was smooth without SAM and MR. The patient was discharged from hospital 24 days postoperatively with no major complications. Extended myectomy should be considered if structural HOCM is diagnosed, even when aortic replacement for the dissected aorta is the primary procedure.

  10. Normative Values of Aortic Arch Structures in Premature Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkema, Elles J; Molenschot, Mirella C; Breur, JMPJ; de Vries, WB; Slieker, Martijn G

    BACKGROUND: Aortic arch abnormalities represent 5% to 8% of all congenital heart disease. Measurements of the aortic arch dimensions on two-dimensional echocardiographic images remain of critical importance in the diagnosis of aortic arch pathology. To define aortic hypoplasia or coarctation,

  11. Quantitative image analysis for planning of aortic valve replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elattar, M.A.I.M.

    2016-01-01

    Aortic stenosis is the most common and frequent cause of sudden death among all valvular heart diseases. Symptomatic aortic stenosis is considered to be a fatal disease if left untreated. Aortic valve replacement is the mainstay of treatment of symptomatic aortic stenosis. Traditional treatment of

  12. Evaluation of aortic regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve implantation: aortic root angiography in comparison to cardiac magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Michael; Meyer, Christian G; Kirschfink, Annemarie; Altiok, Ertunc; Lehrke, Michael; Brehmer, Kathrin; Lotfi, Shahram; Hoffmann, Rainer

    2016-03-01

    Aortic regurgitation (AR) is common after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Intraprocedural assessment of AR relies on aortic root angiography. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) phase-contrast mapping of the ascending aorta provides accurate AR quantification. This study evaluated the accuracy of AR grading by aortic root angiography after TAVI in comparison to CMR phase-contrast velocity mapping. In 69 patients with TAVI for severe aortic stenosis, post-procedural AR was determined by aortic root angiography with visual assessment according to the Sellers classification and by CMR using phase-contrast velocity mapping for analysis of AR volume and fraction. Spearman's correlation coefficient showed a moderate correlation between angiographic analysis of AR grade and CMR-derived AR volume (r=0.41; pangiography with cut-off Sellers grade ≥2 had a sensitivity of 71% and a specificity of 98% to detect AR graded as moderate to severe or severe as defined by CMR. There is only a moderate correlation between aortic root angiography and CMR in the classification of AR severity after TAVI. Alternative imaging including multimodality imaging as well as haemodynamic analysis should therefore be considered for intraprocedural AR assessment and guidance of TAVI procedure in cases of uncertainty in AR grading.

  13. Small aortic root in aortic valve stenosis: clinical characteristics and prognostic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlmann, Edda; Cramariuc, Dana; Minners, Jan; Lønnebakken, Mai Tone; Ray, Simon; Gohlke-Baerwolf, Christa; Nienaber, Christoph A; Jander, Nikolaus; Seifert, Reinhard; Chambers, John B; Kuck, Karl Heinz; Gerdts, Eva

    2017-04-01

    In aortic valve stenosis (AS), having a small aortic root may influence both the assessment of AS severity and the treatment strategy. The aim was to test the prognostic implications of having a small aortic root in AS within a large prospective study. We used data from 4.3-year follow-up of 1560 patients with asymptomatic, initially mostly moderate AS enrolled in the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis study. A small aortic root was defined as inner aortic sinotubular junction diameter indexed for body height <1.4 cm/m in women and <1.5 cm/m in men. A small aortic root was found in 270 patients (17.3%) at baseline. Having a small aortic root was associated with larger aortic root wall thickness, higher pressure recovery, lower systemic arterial compliance, left ventricular mass index, and female sex in a multivariable logistic regression analysis (all P < 0.05). In the Cox regression analysis, having a small aortic root at baseline was associated with higher hazard rates of ischaemic cardiovascular events (n = 268; HR 1.55, 95% CI 1.16-2.06), non-haemorrhagic stroke (n = 55; HR 1.88, 95% CI 1.04-3.41), and cardiovascular death (n = 81; HR 2.08, 95% CI 1.28-3.39) (all P < 0.05) after adjusting for confounders, including randomized study treatment, sex, hypertension, AS severity, and aortic valve replacement. In AS patients without known cardiovascular disease or diabetes, having a small aortic root was associated with increased ischaemic cardiovascular events and mortality. The results suggest a relation between the presence of a small aortic root and that of subclinical atherosclerosis. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00092677.

  14. The porcine valve type predicts obstructive thrombosis beyond the first three postoperative months in bioprostheses in the aortic position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jander, Nikolaus; Sommer, Harriet; Pingpoh, Clarence; Kienzle, Rolf-Peter; Martin, Gabriele; Zeh, Wolfgang; Pache, Gregor; Siepe, Matthias; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Schumacher, Martin; Neumann, Franz-Josef; Minners, Jan

    2015-11-15

    Obstructive thrombosis of bioprosthetic valves is considered rare but may have dramatic consequences for the individual patient including repeat valve replacement, thrombolysis, or long-term anticoagulation. Whether the risk of obstructive thrombosis is dependent on the type of bioprosthesis (porcine versus bovine pericardial) is uncertain. Between 2007 and 2012 a total of 1751 patients received a single stented bioprosthesis in the aortic valve position, 749 (43%) were porcine and 1002 (57%) bovine. During a mean follow-up of 3.4±1.9years, obstructive thrombosis (identified by an increase in mean pressure gradient≥20mm Hg or a decrease in velocity ratio≥0.05 and confirmed by either ECG-gated computer tomography, a return to baseline of stenosis parameters under treatment with a vitamin K antagonist, or histology in case of reoperation) was diagnosed in 17 patients with a porcine (2.3%) and none with a bovine valve (pporcine valve (pporcine valves. These findings were further confirmed in a Poisson model and a competing risk model including all-cause mortality. Treatment of obstructive thrombosis with a vitamin K antagonist was safe and effective in 15/17 patients. The porcine valve type is an independent predictor of obstructive thrombosis in bioprostheses in the aortic position. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental Model of Saccular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Swines with Pericardium Sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício de Amorim Aquino

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To consider modifications in an experimental model of saccular aortic aneurysm, aiming at better reproducibility, to be used in the development of vascular prostheses. Methods: Experimental study in two phases, developed in the Center of Experimental Surgery and Bioterium (CCEB of the University of Health Sciences of Alagoas (UNCISAL, with 11 hybrid swine, female, mean weight of 20 ± 5 kg, according to modifications in the Perini technique was performed. In the first phase, the aneurysm was confectioned with bovine pericardial patch. In the second phase, fifteen days later, the patency of the aneurysms was confirmed by Doppler ultrasonography. The described variables were aortic and aneurysm sac patency, incidence of rupture, morbidity and mortality. The statistical analysis program used was STATA v.8. Results: All animals survived to the procedures. Surgical mean time was 73 minutes. Aneurysm rupture, proximal or distal aortic thrombosis, visceral or legs ischemia weren't observed. Parietal thrombus formation was observed in all of the aneurysms, two of which (18%; IC 95% = 3.98 - 48.84 were occluded and nine (82%; IC 95% = 51.15 - 96.01 were patent. Conclusion: In this series, the modifications carried out in the technique related to the surgical approach, race, anesthesia, and imaging exams reproduced the experimental model, reducing its costs, without hindering the analysis of the variables. The satisfactory patency ratio allows the method to be used in experimental models for the development of vascular prostheses.

  16. Factors Affecting Optimal Aortic Remodeling After Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair of Type B (IIIb) Aortic Dissection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, I-Ming [National Yang Ming University, Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine (China); Chen, Po-Lin; Huang, Chun-Yang [National Yang Ming University, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine (China); Weng, Shih-Hsien; Chen, Wei-Yuan; Shih, Chun-Che, E-mail: ccshih@vghtpe.gov.tw [National Yang Ming University, Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine (China)

    2017-05-15

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to determine factors associated with entire aortic remodeling after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in patients with type B dissection.Materials and MethodsThe patients with type B (IIIb) dissections who underwent TEVAR from 2006 to 2013 with minimum of 2 years of follow-up computed tomography data were retrospectively reviewed. Based on the status of false lumen remodeling of entire aorta, patients were divided into three groups: complete regression, total thrombosis, and inadequate regression with patent abdominal false lumen.ResultsA total of 90 patients (72 males, 18 females; mean age 56.6 ± 16.4 years) were included and divided into the complete regression (n = 22), total thrombosis (n = 18), and inadequate regression (n = 50) groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that dissection extension to iliac arteries, increased preoperative number of dissection tear over abdominal aorta, and decreased preoperative abdominal aorta bifurcation true lumen ratio, as compared between the inadequate and complete regression groups, were associated with a persistent false lumen (odds ratio = 33.33, 2.304, and 0.021; all, p ≤ 0.012). Comparison of 6, 12, and 24 months postoperative data revealed no significant differences at any level, suggesting that the true lumen area ratio might not change after 6 months postoperatively.ConclusionsIncreased preoperative numbers of dissection tear around the abdominal visceral branches, dissection extension to the iliac arteries, and decreased preoperative true lumen area ratio of abdominal aorta are predictive of entire aortic remodeling after TEVAR in patients with type B dissection.Level of EvidenceIII.

  17. Two-Year Outcomes in Patients With Severe Aortic Valve Stenosis Randomized to Transcatheter Versus Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Lars; Steinbrüchel, Daniel Andreas; Ihlemann, Nikolaj

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Nordic Aortic Valve Intervention (NOTION) trial was the first to randomize all-comers with severe native aortic valve stenosis to either transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with the CoreValve self-expanding bioprosthesis or surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR), inclu...... population. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01057173....

  18. Age and Aortic Diameters in Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akın, Ahmet; Ozturk, Cengiz; Aparci, Mustafa; Cakmak, Tolga; Metin, Suleyman; Balta, Sevket; Sen, Ahmet

    2015-12-01

    Pilots are exposed to various physical and hemodynamic stresses during flight. Aortic dilatation may be one of the important consequences of flight-related stress. In this study, we evaluated whether or not variation in aortic diameter was associated with the type of aircraft and the age of pilots. Medical records of 87 jet aircraft pilots (JP) (mean age = 30.0 ± 7.0 years) and 65 non-jet aircraft pilots (NJP) (mean age = 32.63 ± 5.7) were reviewed. Echocardiographic diameters of the aortic sinus (AoS) and ascending aorta (AoAsc) were measured using standard echo probe positions. Aortic diameters were not statistically different between JP and NJP. Regression analysis revealed that the diameters of the AoS (R = 0.484, R(2) = 0.234, p age in the JP group. Whereas, there was not any relationship found between age and the diameters of the AoS and AoAsc in the NJP group. Jet pilots had aortic enlargement as they became older in contrast to the NJP group. Although the aortic diameters were not within the critical ranges in the JP group, these results could suggest that flight-related stresses might result in acute aortic syndromes in the long term. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  19. Ascending aortic injuries following blunt trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiumei; Hong, Jenny; Lowery, Robert; Goldstein, Steven; Wang, Zuyue; Lindsay, Joseph; Hill, Peter C; Corso, Paul J

    2013-11-01

    The diagnosis and the management of traumatic thoracic aortic injuries have undergone significant changes due to new technology and improved prehospital care. Most of the discussions have focused on descending aortic injuries. In this review, we discuss the recent management of ascending aortic injuries. We found 5 cohort studies on traumatic aortic injuries and 11 case reports describing ascending aortic injuries between 1998 to the present through Medline research. Among case reports, 78.9% of cases were caused by motor vehicle accidents (MVA). 42.1% of patients underwent emergent open repair and the operative mortality was 12.5%. 36.8% underwent delayed repair. Associated injuries occurred in 84.2% of patients. Aortic valve injury was concurrent in 26.3% of patients. The incidence of ascending aortic injury ranged 1.9-20% in cohort studies. Traumatic injuries to the ascending aorta are relatively uncommon among survivors following blunt trauma. Aortography has been replaced by computed tomography and echocardiography as a diagnostic tool. Open repair, either emergent or delayed, remains the treatment of choice. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Efficacy and mechanism of angiotensin II receptor blocker treatment in experimental abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunori Iida

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of the renin-angiotensin (Ang system in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA pathogenesis, strategies targeting this system to prevent clinical aneurysm progression remain controversial and unproven. We compared the relative efficacy of two Ang II type 1 receptor blockers, telmisartan and irbesartan, in limiting experimental AAAs in distinct mouse models of aneurysm disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: AAAs were induced using either 1 Ang II subcutaneous infusion (1000 ng/kg/min for 28 days in male ApoE(-/- mice, or 2 transient intra-aortic porcine pancreatic elastase infusion in male C57BL/6 mice. One week prior to AAA creation, mice started to daily receive irbesartan (50 mg/kg, telmisartan (10 mg/kg, fluvastatin (40 mg/kg, bosentan (100 mg/kg, doxycycline (100 mg/kg or vehicle alone. Efficacy was determined via serial in vivo aortic diameter measurements, histopathology and gene expression analysis at sacrifice. Aortic aneurysms developed in 67% of Ang II-infused ApoE(-/- mice fed with standard chow and water alone (n = 15, and 40% died of rupture. Strikingly, no telmisartan-treated mouse developed an AAA (n = 14. Both telmisartan and irbesartan limited aneurysm enlargement, medial elastolysis, smooth muscle attenuation, macrophage infiltration, adventitial neocapillary formation, and the expression of proteinases and proinflammatory mediators. Doxycycline, fluvastatin and bosentan did not influence aneurysm progression. Telmisartan was also highly effective in intra-aortic porcine pancreatic elastase infusion-induced AAAs, a second AAA model that did not require exogenous Ang II infusion. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Telmisartan suppresses experimental aneurysms in a model-independent manner and may prove valuable in limiting clinical disease progression.

  1. Origin of neointimal endothelium and α-actin–positive smooth muscle cells in transplant arteriosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Klatter, Flip A.; van den Hurk, Bart M.H.; Popa, Eliane R.; Nieuwenhuis, Paul; Rozing, Jan

    2001-01-01

    The development of transplant arteriosclerosis (TA) is today’s most important problem in clinical organ transplantation. Histologically, TA is characterized by perivascular inflammation and progressive intimal thickening. Current thought on this process of vascular remodeling assumes that neointimal vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells and endothelium in TA are graft-derived, holding that medial VSM cells proliferate and migrate into the subendothelial space in response to signals from inflammatory cells and damaged graft endothelium. Using MHC class I haplotype-specific immunohistochemical staining and single-cell PCR analyses, we show that the neointimal α-actin–positive VSM cells in rat aortic or cardiac allografts are of recipient and not of donor origin. In aortic but not in cardiac allografts, recipient-derived endothelial cells (ECs) replaced donor endothelium. Cyclosporine treatment prevents neointima formation and preserves the vascular media in aortic allografts. Recipient-derived ECs do not replace graft endothelium after cyclosporine treatment. We propose that, although it progresses beyond the needs of functional repair, TA reflects the activity of a normal healing process that restores vascular wall function following allograft-induced immunological injury. PMID:11390423

  2. Isolation and characterization of coronary endothelial and smooth muscle cells from A1 adenosine receptor-knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Bunyen; Ansari, Habib R; Oldenburg, Peter J; Schnermann, J; Mustafa, S Jamal

    2006-04-01

    Mice have been used widely in in vivo and in vitro cardiovascular research. The availability of knockout mice provides further clues to the physiological significance of specific receptor subtypes. Adenosine A(1) receptor (A(1)AR)-knockout (A(1)KO) mice and their wild-type (A(1)WT) controls were employed in this investigation. The heart and aortic arch were carefully removed and retroinfused with enzyme solution (1 mg/ml collagenase type I, 0.5 mg/ml soybean trypsin inhibitor, 3% BSA, and 2% antibiotics) through the aortic arch. The efflux was collected at 30-, 60-, and 90-min intervals. The cells were centrifuged, and the pellets were mixed with medium [medium 199-F-12 medium with 10% FBS and 2% antibiotics (for endothelial cells) and advanced DMEM with 10% FBS, 10% mouse serum, 2% GlutaMax, and 2% antibiotics (for smooth muscle cells)] and plated. Endothelial cells were characterized by a cobblestone appearance and positive staining with acetylated LDL labeled with 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate. Smooth muscle cells were characterized by positive staining of smooth muscle alpha-actin and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain. Homogeneity of the smooth muscle cells was approximately 91%. Western blot analysis showed expression of smoothelin in the cells from passages 3, 7, and 11 in A(1)WT and A(1)KO mice. Furthermore, the A(1)AR was characterized by Western blot analysis using an A(1)AR-specific antibody. To our knowledge, this is the first isolation and successful characterization of smooth muscle cells from the mouse coronary system.

  3. Wall-crossing made smooth

    CERN Document Server

    Pioline, Boris

    2015-01-01

    In $D=4,N=2$ theories on $R^{3,1}$, the index receives contributions not only from single-particle BPS states, counted by the BPS indices, but also from multi-particle states made of BPS constituents. In a recent work [arXiv:1406.2360], a general formula expressing the index in terms of the BPS indices was proposed, which is smooth across walls of marginal stability and reproduces the expected single-particle contributions. In this note, I analyze the two-particle contributions predicted by this formula, and show agreement with the spectral asymmetry of the continuum of scattering states in the supersymmetric quantum mechanics of two non-relativistic, mutually non-local dyons. This provides a physical justification for the error function profile used in the mathematics literature on indefinite theta series, and in the physics literature on black hole partition functions.

  4. Smooth ergodic theory for endomorphisms

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, Min; Zhu, Shu

    2009-01-01

    This volume presents a general smooth ergodic theory for deterministic dynamical systems generated by non-invertible endomorphisms, mainly concerning the relations between entropy, Lyapunov exponents and dimensions. The authors make extensive use of the combination of the inverse limit space technique and the techniques developed to tackle random dynamical systems. The most interesting results in this book are (1) the equivalence between the SRB property and Pesin’s entropy formula; (2) the generalized Ledrappier-Young entropy formula; (3) exact-dimensionality for weakly hyperbolic diffeomorphisms and for expanding maps. The proof of the exact-dimensionality for weakly hyperbolic diffeomorphisms seems more accessible than that of Barreira et al. It also inspires the authors to argue to what extent the famous Eckmann-Ruelle conjecture and many other classical results for diffeomorphisms and for flows hold true. After a careful reading of the book, one can systematically learn the Pesin theory for endomorphis...

  5. Autoregressive smoothing of GOMOS transmittances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussen, D.; Vanhellemont, F.; Bingen, C.; Kyrölä, B.; Tamminen, J.; Sofieva, V.; Hassinen, S.; Seppälä, A.; Verronen, P. T.; Bertaux, J. L.; Hauchecorne, A.; Dalaudier, F.; d'Andon, O. Fanton; Barrot, G.; Mangin, A.; Theodore, B.; Guirlet, M.; Renard, J. B.; Fraisse, R.; Snoeij, P.; Koopman, R.; Saavedra, L.

    GOMOS is a stellar occultation instrument onboard ENVISAT. It has already measured several hundreds of thousands occultations since March 2002. In some circumstances, the obliqueness of the star setting causes the remote sounding of possible horizontal turbulence that cannot be adequately corrected by using the fast photometer signals, leading to the presence of residual scintillation in the atmospheric transmittance. We investigate the mechanism that produces this spurious signal that may cause the retrieval of wavy constituent profiles. A special algorithm of vertical autoregressive smoothing (VAS) is proposed that takes into account the physical correlation between adjacent measurements at different tangent altitudes. A regularization parameter of the method may be optimized on basis of the minimal correlation between the residuals as prescribed by the Durbin-Watson statistics. The improvements obtained in the retrieval of both O 3 and NO 2 number density profiles is presented and discussed with respect to the results of the official data processing model.

  6. Urotensin II-induced signaling involved in proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Iglewski

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Myriam Iglewski, Stephen R GrantDepartment of Integrative Physiology, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, Texas, USAAbstract: The urotensin II receptor, bound by the ligand urotensin II, generates second ­messengers, ie, inositol triphosphate and diacylglycerol, which stimulate the subsequent release of calcium (Ca2+ in vascular smooth muscle cells. Ca2+ influx leads to the activation of Ca2+-dependent kinases (CaMK via calmodulin binding, resulting in cellular proliferation. We hypothesize that urotensin II signaling in pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle cells (Pac1 and primary aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (PAVSMC results in phosphorylation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinases leading to cellular proliferation. Exposure of Pac1 cultures to urotensin II increased intracellular Ca2+, subsequently activating Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase (CaMKK, and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase Type I (CaMKI, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2, and protein kinase D. Treatment of Pac1 and PAVSMC with urotensin II increased proliferation as measured by 3H-thymidine uptake. The urotensin II-induced increase in 3H-thymidine incorporation was inhibited by a CaMKK inhibitor. Taken together, our results demonstrate that urotensin II stimulation of smooth muscle cells leads to a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase-mediated increase in cellular proliferation.Keywords: urotensin II receptor, CaMKI, hypertrophy, CaMKK, protein kinase D

  7. siRNA-mediated knockdown of endogenously expressed bestrophin in smooth muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Per; Matchkov, Vladimir; Nilsson, Holger

     We have recently characterized in smooth muscle cells a unique cGMP-dependent Ca2+-activated Cl- current (ICl(cGMP-Ca)) that co-exists with a "classical" Ca2+-activated Cl- current. We hypothesized that bestrophin-4 (a product of the VMD2-like 3 gene) could be responsible for the ICl(cGMP-Ca) ba...... We have recently characterized in smooth muscle cells a unique cGMP-dependent Ca2+-activated Cl- current (ICl(cGMP-Ca)) that co-exists with a "classical" Ca2+-activated Cl- current. We hypothesized that bestrophin-4 (a product of the VMD2-like 3 gene) could be responsible for the ICl...... was used. Cultured aortic smooth muscle cells (A7r5) were transfected with siRNA directed against bestrophin-4 and cultured for 3 days. The efficiency of transfection was demonstrated by specific perinuclear fluorescence of Cy3-labelled siRNA. The downregulation of targeted protein expression...... is responsible for the ICl(cGMP-Ca) in smooth muscle cells. This study presents a novel efficient technique for specific downregulation of gene expression in blood vessels, much needed in studies of vascular function....

  8. Aortic stenosis: From diagnosis to optimal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavčiovski Dragan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aortic stenosis is the most frequent valvular heart disease. Aortic sclerosis is the first characteristic lesion of the cusps, which is considered today as the process similar to atherosclerosis. Progression of the disease is an active process leading to forming of bone matrix and heavily calcified stiff cusps by inflammatory cells and osteopontin. It is a chronic, progressive disease which can remain asymptomatic for a long time even in the presence of severe aortic stenosis. Proper physical examination remains an essential diagnostic tool in aortic stenosis. Recognition of characteristic systolic murmur draws attention and guides further diagnosis in the right direction. Doppler echocardiography is an ideal tool to confirm diagnosis. It is well known that exercise tests help in stratification risk of asymptomatic aortic stenosis. Serial measurements of brain natriuretic peptide during a follow-up period may help to identify the optimal time for surgery. Heart catheterization is mostly restricted to preoperative evaluation of coronary arteries rather than to evaluation of the valve lesion itself. Currently, there is no ideal medical treatment for slowing down the disease progression. The first results about the effect of ACE inhibitors and statins in aortic sclerosis and stenosis are encouraging, but there is still not enough evidence. Onset symptoms based on current ACC/AHA/ESC recommendations are I class indication for aortic valve replacement. Aortic valve can be replaced with a biological or prosthetic valve. There is a possibility of percutaneous aortic valve implantation and transapical operation for patients that are contraindicated for standard cardiac surgery.

  9. Vascular smooth muscle cells express the alpha(1A) subunit of a P-/Q-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+)Channel, and It is functionally important in renal afferent arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pernille B. Lærkegaard; Jensen, Boye L.; Andreasen, D

    2000-01-01

    in rat aorta, brain, aortic smooth muscle cells (A7r5), VSMCs, and mesangial cells. Immunolabeling with an anti-alpha(1A) antibody was positive in acid-macerated, microdissected preglomerular vessels and in A7r5 cells. Patch-clamp experiments on aortic A7r5 cells showed 22+/-4% (n=6) inhibition of inward...... and Southern blotting analysis, mRNA encoding the alpha(1A) subunit was detected in microdissected rat preglomerular vessels and vasa recta, in cultures of rat preglomerular vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and in cultured rat mesangial cells. With immunoblots, alpha(1A) subunit protein was demonstrated...... preglomerular resistance vessels and aorta, as well as mesangial cells, and that P-type VDCCs contribute to Ca(2+) influx in aortic and renal VSMCs and are involved in depolarization-mediated contraction in renal afferent arterioles....

  10. Mycotic Aneurysm of the Aortic Arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hye Seo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A mycotic aneurysm of the thoracic aorta is rare. We report a case of mycotic aneurysm that developed in the aortic arch. An 86-year-old man was admitted with fever and general weakness. Blood culture yielded methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Chest X-ray showed an enlarged aortic arch, and computed tomography scan revealed an aneurysm in the aortic arch. The patient was treated only with antibiotics and not surgically. The size of the aneurysm increased rapidly, resulting in bronchial obstruction and superimposed pneumonia. The patient died of respiratory failure.

  11. Aortic histomine syntesis in experimental neurogenic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolitho, G A; Hollis, T M

    1975-04-01

    Aortic histamine synthesis of normotensive rats has been compared to that of rats rendered hypertensive via production carotid sinus ischemia and to animals additionally subjected to bilateral adrenalectomy. Results indicate that the aortic histamine-forming capacities (HFC's) of rats sacrificed 24 hr after surgical treatment were elevated 83% and 103% for hypertensive rats and those additionally subjected to adrenalectomy, respectively. At an 8-day postoperative interval, the respective aortic HFC's were elevated over control by 33% and 45%, although at this time interval animals were not considered hypertensive. This study thus offers suggestive evidence that hypertension causes increased vascular permeability by increasing the histamine-forming capacity of the vessel wall.

  12. Properties of the extremal infinite smooth words

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    Srecko Brlek

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Smooth words are connected to the Kolakoski sequence. We construct the maximal and the minimal infinite smooth words, with respect to the lexicographical order. The naive algorithm generating them is improved by using a reduction of the De Bruijn graph of their factors. We also study their Lyndon factorizations. Finally, we show that the minimal smooth word over the alphabet {1,3} belongs to the orbit of the Fibonacci word.

  13. Smoothed analysis of complex conic condition numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Buergisser, Peter; Cucker, Felipe; Lotz, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Smoothed analysis of complexity bounds and condition numbers has been done, so far, on a case by case basis. In this paper we consider a reasonably large class of condition numbers for problems over the complex numbers and we obtain smoothed analysis estimates for elements in this class depending only on geometric invariants of the corresponding sets of ill-posed inputs. These estimates are for a version of smoothed analysis proposed in this paper which, to the best of our knowledge, appears ...

  14. Aortic Valve Morphology Correlates With Left Ventricular Systolic Function and Outcome in Children With Congenital Aortic Stenosis Prior to Balloon Aortic Valvuloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kevin; Sachdeva, Ritu; Goldstein, Bryan H; Lang, Sean; Petit, Christopher J

    2016-09-01

    We sought to determine the relationship between aortic valve morphology and left ventricular (LV) systolic function in children with aortic stenosis (AS) prior to balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV). Both aortic valve morphology and LV systolic function have been linked with outcomes in children with congenital AS undergoing BAV. The relationship between aortic valve morphology and LV function is poorly defined despite their importance in regard to outcomes. We performed a retrospective multicenter cohort study of 89 AS patients who underwent BAV between 2007-2013. Pre-BAV echocardiograms were analyzed for: aortic valve opening (AVO); aortic valve type (true bicuspid, functionally bicuspid, or unicuspid); maximal raphe length; aortic valve leaflet symmetry; and valve angle of excursion. The primary endpoint was low function, defined as LV shortening fraction (LVSF) aortic valve mean gradient was 47.00 mm Hg (IQR, 36.75-56.00 mm Hg). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that low AVO (P=.03) was associated with reduced LV function, independent of age or aortic valve gradient (R² = .652). Bicuspid aortic valve (P=.07) was associated with improved LV function compared with functionally unicuspid aortic valve. Low AVO stenosis. Qualitative aspects such as valve type may also affect LV systolic function. Further study may elucidate whether aortic valve morphology or LV function is the principal predictor of response to BAV and of late outcomes after BAV.

  15. The role of aortic wall CT attenuation measurements for the diagnosis of acute aortic syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knollmann, Friedrich D., E-mail: friedrich.knollmann@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiology, University of California, Davis, 4860 Y Street, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Departments of Radiology and Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, 200 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Lacomis, Joan M.; Ocak, Iclal; Gleason, Thomas [Department of Radiology, University of California, Davis, 4860 Y Street, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Departments of Radiology and Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, 200 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Objectives: To determine if measurements of aortic wall attenuation can improve the CT diagnosis of acute aortic syndromes. Methods: CT reports from a ten year period were searched for acute aortic syndromes (AAS). Studies with both an unenhanced and a contrast enhanced (CTA) series that had resulted in the diagnosis of intramural hematoma (IMH) were reviewed. Diagnoses were confirmed by medical records. The attenuation of aortic wall abnormalities was measured. The observed attenuation threshold was validated using studies from 39 new subjects with a variety of aortic conditions. Results: The term “aortic dissection” was identified in 1206, and IMH in 124 patients’ reports. IMH was confirmed in 31 patients, 21 of whom had both unenhanced and contrast enhanced images. All 21 had pathologic CTA findings, and no CTA with IMH was normal. Attenuation of the aortic wall was greater than 45 HUs on the CTA images in all patients with IMH. When this threshold was applied to the new group, sensitivity for diagnosing AAS was 100% (19/19), and specificity 94% (16/17). Addition of unenhanced images did not improve accuracy. Conclusions: Measurements of aortic wall attenuation in CTA have a high negative predictive value for the diagnosis of acute aortic syndromes.

  16. Aortic root reimplantation procedure: a new milestone in aortic valve-sparing operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Чернявский

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Emphasis in this study was placed on clinical and functional assessment of a modified "Florida Sleeve" procedure during surgical correction of ascending aorta aneurysms with concomitant aortic insufficiency.Methods: 32 patients with an aneurysm of the ascending aorta and aortic insufficiency underwent a modified "Florida Sleeve" procedure. The average follow-up was 17 (0-60 months. The average age of patients was 57±13 (23-73 years 56±13 years.Results: The expected 4-year cumulative survival rate was 84.3%. Overall freedom from aortic insufficiency in the late period was 88.9%. Median aortic regurgitation was 1+ (1; 2. Long-term follow-up revealed no valve-associated complications.Conclusion: The aortic root reimplantation procedure enables optimal correction of the existing lesions of the aortic root without performing aortic valve replacement and demonstrates stable clinical and functional outcomes in the long-term period.Key words: aortic aneurysm; aortic valve; valve-sparing operations.FundingThe study had no sponsorship.Conflict of interestThe authors declare no conflict of interest.

  17. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  18. Circulating matrix metalloproteinase patterns in association with aortic dilatation in bicuspid aortic valve patients with isolated severe aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongshi; Wu, Boting; Dong, Lili; Wang, Chunsheng; Wang, Xiaolin; Shu, Xianhong

    2016-02-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) exhibits a clinical incline toward aortopathy, in which aberrant tensile and shear stress generated by BAV can induce differential expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their endogenous tissue inhibitors (TIMPs). Whether stenotic BAV, which exhibits additional eccentric high-velocity flow jet upon ascending aorta and further worsens circumferential systolic wall shear stress than BAV with echocardiographically normal aortic valve, can lead to unique plasma MMP/TIMP patterns is still unknown. According to their valvulopathy and aortic dilatation status, 93 BAV patients were included in the present study. Group A (n = 37) and B (n = 28) comprised severely stenotic patients with or without ascending aorta dilatation; Group C (n = 12) and D (n = 16) comprised echocardiographically normal BAV patients with or without ascending aorta dilatation. Plasma MMP/TIMP levels (MMP-1, -2, -3, -8, -9, -10, -13 and TIMP-1, -2, -4) were determined via a multiplex ELISA detection system in a single procedure. Among patients with isolated severe aortic stenosis, plasma levels of MMP-2 and -9 were significantly elevated when ascending aortic dilatation was present (p = 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). MMP-2, however, remained as the single elevated plasma component among echocardiographically normal BAV patients with dilated ascending aorta (p = 0.027). Multivariate analysis revealed that MMP-2 and MMP-9 could both serve as independent risk factor for aortic dilatation in the case of isolated severe stenosis (p = 0.003 and p = 0.001, respectively), and MMP-2 in echocardiographically normal patients (p = 0.002). In conclusion, BAV patients with isolated severe aortic stenosis demonstrated a distinct plasma MMP/TIMP pattern, which might be utilized as circulating biomarkers for early detection of aortic dilatation.

  19. Acute aortic dissection: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Alejandro De León Ayala

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aorta, which has a complex intrinsic biology and sophisticated mechanical properties for conducting the blood ejected from the left ventricle to the rest of the systemic arterial bed, is the largest and strongest artery in the body. It carries roughly 200 million liters of blood in an average lifetime. Any process that undermines the architecture threatens the structure, stability, and functionality of the aorta. In this regard, acute aortic dissection (AAD requires special attention because it is the most catastrophic acute illness of the aorta; it has high morbidity and mortality because of potentially fatal complications. AAD has, therefore, become an important topic of recent research, and knowledge about this disease has improved during the past few years. Up-to-date knowledge about the natural history, epidemiology, presentation, physiopathology, evolution, management, follow-up, and long-term outcomes of AAD are summarized in this review.

  20. Inhibition of tracheal smooth muscle cell proliferation by phosphodiesterase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuko Masu

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Agents that increase intracellular cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, such as forskolin, prostaglandin (PGE2, salbutamol and 8-bromo-cAMP, have been shownto inhibit the proliferation of airway smooth-muscle (ASM cells in vitro. However, it has not yet been determined whether selective inhibitors of phosphodiesterase (PDE isoenzymes III and IV that catalyze cAMPto 5'-adenosine monophosphate have the ability to inhibit ASM cell proliferation. To evaluate the effectsof PDE inhibitors on ASM cell proliferation, ASM cells isolated from bovine tracheae were cultured in the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS, with or without a non-selective PDE inhibitor (theophylline, a selective PDE III inhibitor (cilostazol, and a selective PDE IV inhibitor (rolipram. The number of ASM cells cultured with 5% FBS was significantly reduced by the presence of theophylline at 10−3 and 3 × 10−4 mol/L, cilostazol at 10−5, 10−6 and 10−7 mol/L, and rolipram at 10−4 and 10−5 mol/L. The release of lactic dehydrogenase from ASM cells cultured with any concentration of these agents was not significantly different from that with medium alone. Inhibitors of PDE III and IV were demonstrated to have an inhibitory effect on ASM cell proliferation induced by FBS. Our results suggest the value of the further development of PDE inhibitors for the treatment of hyperplasia of ASM cells characteristic of airway remodeling, in addition to bronchospasm and airway inflammation, in bronchial asthma.

  1. Effects of Hyperglycemia on Vascular Smooth Muscle Ca2+ Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Najjar, Nahed; Kulkarni, Rashmi P.; Nader, Nancy; Hodeify, Rawad

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is a complex disease that is characterized with hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. These pathologies are associated with significant cardiovascular implications that affect both the macro- and microvasculature. It is therefore important to understand the effects of various pathologies associated with diabetes on the vasculature. Here we directly test the effects of hyperglycemia on vascular smooth muscle (VSM) Ca2+ signaling in an isolated in vitro system using the A7r5 rat aortic cell line as a model. We find that prolonged exposure of A7r5 cells to hyperglycemia (weeks) is associated with changes to Ca2+ signaling, including most prominently an inhibition of the passive ER Ca2+ leak and the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA). To translate these findings to the in vivo condition, we used primary VSM cells from normal and diabetic subjects and find that only the inhibition of the ER Ca2+ leaks replicates in cells from diabetic donors. These results show that prolonged hyperglycemia in isolation alters the Ca2+ signaling machinery in VSM cells. However, these alterations are not readily translatable to the whole organism situation where alterations to the Ca2+ signaling machinery are different. PMID:28713824

  2. Aortic root reoperations after pulmonary autograft implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Bekkers (Jos); L.M.A. Klieverik (Loes Maria Anne); G. Bol-Raap (Goris); J.J.M. Takkenberg (Hanneke); A.J.J.C. Bogers (Ad)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To report the results of aortic root reoperations after pulmonary autograft implantation. Methods: All consecutive patients in our prospective Ross research database were selected for analysis, and additional information for patients requiring reoperation was obtained from the

  3. Aortic Distensibility in β-Thalassemia Major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Aslani

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Any unfavorable effect of β-Thalassemia major on aortic distensibility will contribute to the adverseeffects of β-Thalassemia major on the cardiovascular system. To evaluated aortic distensibility in patients with β-Thalassemia major. Patients and Methods: The study comprised eighty (46 males consecutive β-Thalassemia major patients and 80 control subjects matched for age and gender were selected. Results: Aortic distensibility was approximately two-fold lower in patients compared with control subjects [aorticdistensibility: 1.4 ± 0.8 vs 3.6 ± 1.2, cm2 dyn-1 10-6, P = 0.01. Conclusion: β-Thalassemia major causes significant decrease in aortic distensibility.

  4. Minimally Invasive Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Watch a Broward Health surgeon perform a minimally invasive Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR) Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2017 BroadcastMed, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Traumatic aortic dissection presenting with respiratory arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Meyer

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Blunt aortic injury is a major cause of death in blunt chest trauma. Signs and symptoms of this injury are nonspecific and other injuries often take precedence, which makes a relatively difficult diagnosis even more challenging.

  6. Endoluminal treatment of thoracic aortic lesions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    20 The predominant predictors ... age, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and an elevated mean blood pressure increase the risk of ... disease, dissection or aortic rupture require immediate diagnostic evalua- tion and pre-procedural ...

  7. Dissecting aortic aneurysm in maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ounissi M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The dissecting aortic aneurysm (DAA is a rare pathology that may result in fatal outcome. We report follow up of three cases of DAA patients undergoing maintenance hemo-dialysis who were managed conservatively.

  8. [Asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis: a reopened debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urso, Stefano; Sadaba, Rafael; de la Cruz, Elena

    2014-05-06

    Aortic stenosis is a complex disease. About 2-7% of the population over 65 years of age is affected by its degenerative form. In patients with severe aortic stenosis presenting with symptoms or left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF)debate. Recent published data show that about one third of these patients present with low left ventricle stroke volume, which may affect survival. For this reason, and considering that aortic valve replacement is in most cases a low risk procedure, early surgery in this subgroup is a strategy that deserves to be taken into account. In this review we report on these recent findings, which allow understanding why patients with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis should not be considered and treated as a homogenous population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Minimally Invasive Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Watch a Broward Health surgeon perform a minimally invasive Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR) Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2017 BroadcastMed, Inc. ...

  10. Management of acute type B aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, G Chad; Andersen, Nicholas D; McCann, Richard L

    2013-03-01

    Acute type B aortic dissection (identified within 2 weeks of symptom onset), as described using the Stanford classification, involves the aorta distal to the left subclavian artery and accounts for 25%-40% of all aortic dissections. The traditional treatment paradigm of medical management for uncomplicated acute type B dissection and open surgical intervention for early or late complications of type B dissection is currently undergoing a period of evolution as a result of the influence of minimally invasive thoracic endovascular aortic repair options. Thoracic endovascular repair has replaced open surgical repair as the preferred treatment for complicated acute type B dissection, and may also prove beneficial for prophylactic repair of uncomplicated acute type B dissection for high-risk patients. This review discusses the management of acute type B aortic dissection and long-term treatment considerations. Copyright © 2013 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Successful Thrombolysis of Aortic Prosthetic Valve Thrombosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    threatening. Standard surgical treatment using cardiopulmonary bypass carries high maternal and fetal complications. Here we report a case of an antenatal female in first trimester with aortic prosthetic valve thrombosis (PVT), who was successfully ...

  12. Infective endocarditis following transcatheter aortic valve replacement-

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, Poay Huan; Bundgaard, Henning; S�ndergaard, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) can improve the symptoms and prognosis of patients with severe aortic stenosis who, due to a high expected operative risk, would not have otherwise been treated surgically. If these patients develop prosthetic valve endocarditis, their presentations m...... treated medically, discuss the challenges in the diagnosis and management of such patients, and review available literature on the incidence and outcome of the condition. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  13. Smooth horizons and quantum ripples

    CERN Document Server

    Golovnev, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    Black Holes are unique objects which allow for meaningful theoretical studies of strong gravity and even quantum gravity effects. An infalling and a distant observer would have very different views on the structure of the world. However, a careful analysis has shown that it entails no genuine contradictions for physics, and the paradigm of observer complementarity has been coined. Recently this picture was put into doubt. In particular, it was argued that in old Black Holes a firewall must form in order to protect the basic principles of quantum mechanics. This AMPS paradox has already been discussed in a vast number of papers with different attitudes and conclusions. Here we want to argue that a possible source of confusion is neglection of quantum gravity effects. Contrary to widespread perception, it does not necessarily mean that effective field theory is inapplicable in rather smooth neighbourhoods of large Black Hole horizons. The real offender might be an attempt to consistently use it over the huge di...

  14. Local Transfer Coefficient, Smooth Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Kukreja

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Naphthalene sublimation technique and the heat/mass transfer analogy are used to determine the detailed local heat/mass transfer distributions on the leading and trailing walls of a twopass square channel with smooth walls that rotates about a perpendicular axis. Since the variation of density is small in the flow through the channel, buoyancy effect is negligible. Results show that, in both the stationary and rotating channel cases, very large spanwise variations of the mass transfer exist in he turn and in the region immediately downstream of the turn in the second straight pass. In the first straight pass, the rotation-induced Coriolis forces reduce the mass transfer on the leading wall and increase the mass transfer on the trailing wall. In the turn, rotation significantly increases the mass transfer on the leading wall, especially in the upstream half of the turn. Rotation also increases the mass transfer on the trailing wall, more in the downstream half of the turn than in the upstream half of the turn. Immediately downstream of the turn, rotation causes the mass transfer to be much higher on the trailing wall near the downstream corner of the tip of the inner wall than on the opposite leading wall. The mass transfer in the second pass is higher on the leading wall than on the trailing wall. A slower flow causes higher mass transfer enhancement in the turn on both the leading and trailing walls.

  15. Aortic Dissection Type A in Alpine Skiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Schachner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients and Methods. 140 patients with aortic dissection type A were admitted for cardiac surgery. Seventy-seven patients experienced their dissection in the winter season (from November to April. We analyzed cases of ascending aortic dissection associated with alpine skiing. Results. In 17 patients we found skiing-related aortic dissections. Skiers were taller (180 (172–200 cm versus 175 (157–191 cm, and heavier (90 (68–125 kg versus 80 (45–110 kg, than nonskiers. An extension of aortic dissection into the aortic arch, the descending thoracic aorta, and the abdominal aorta was found in 91%, 74%, and 69%, respectively, with no significant difference between skiers and nonskiers. Skiers experienced RCA ostium dissection requiring CABG in 17.6% while this was true for 5% of nonskiers (. Hospital mortality of skiers was 6% versus 13% in nonskiers (. The skiers live at an altitude of 170 (0–853 m.a.s.l. and experience their dissection at 1602 (1185–3105; m.a.s.l. In 82% symptom start was during recreational skiing without any trauma. Conclusion. Skiing associated aortic dissection type A is usually nontraumatic. The persons affected live at low altitudes and practice an outdoor sport at unusual high altitude at cold temperatures. Postoperative outcome is good.

  16. Aortic Dissection Type A in Alpine Skiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Thomas; Fischler, Nikolaus; Dumfarth, Julia; Bonaros, Nikolaos; Krapf, Christoph; Schobersberger, Wolfgang; Grimm, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Patients and Methods. 140 patients with aortic dissection type A were admitted for cardiac surgery. Seventy-seven patients experienced their dissection in the winter season (from November to April). We analyzed cases of ascending aortic dissection associated with alpine skiing. Results. In 17 patients we found skiing-related aortic dissections. Skiers were taller (180 (172–200) cm versus 175 (157–191) cm, P = 0.008) and heavier (90 (68–125) kg versus 80 (45–110) kg, P = 0.002) than nonskiers. An extension of aortic dissection into the aortic arch, the descending thoracic aorta, and the abdominal aorta was found in 91%, 74%, and 69%, respectively, with no significant difference between skiers and nonskiers. Skiers experienced RCA ostium dissection requiring CABG in 17.6% while this was true for 5% of nonskiers (P = 0.086). Hospital mortality of skiers was 6% versus 13% in nonskiers (P = 0.399). The skiers live at an altitude of 170 (0–853) m.a.s.l. and experience their dissection at 1602 (1185–3105; P skiing without any trauma. Conclusion. Skiing associated aortic dissection type A is usually nontraumatic. The persons affected live at low altitudes and practice an outdoor sport at unusual high altitude at cold temperatures. Postoperative outcome is good. PMID:23971024

  17. Smoothing a Piecewise-Smooth: An Example from Plankton Population Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piltz, Sofia Helena

    2016-01-01

    In this work we discuss a piecewise-smooth dynamical system inspired by plankton observations and constructed for one predator switching its diet between two different types of prey. We then discuss two smooth formulations of the piecewise-smooth model obtained by using a hyperbolic tangent...

  18. The smoothness criterion as a trend diagnostic

    OpenAIRE

    P. Fogarty; Weber, N.C.

    2006-01-01

    The smoothness criterion is used in the design of symmetric moving average trend filters in time series and in graduation in actuarial studies. This measure of smoothness is used to motivate a diagnostic for determining the order of local polynomial trend.

  19. Very smooth points of spaces of operators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 113; Issue 1 ... We show that when the space of compact operators is an -ideal in the space of bounded operators, a very smooth operator attains its norm at a unique vector (up to a constant multiple) and ( ) is a very smooth point of the range space.

  20. Smoothed Analysis of Local Search Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Bodo; Dehne, Frank; Sack, Jörg-Rüdiger; Stege, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Smoothed analysis is a method for analyzing the performance of algorithms for which classical worst-case analysis fails to explain the performance observed in practice. Smoothed analysis has been applied to explain the performance of a variety of algorithms in the last years. One particular class of

  1. Income and Consumption Smoothing among US States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent; Yosha, Oved

    within regions but not between regions. This suggests that capital markets transcend regional barriers while credit markets are regional in their nature. Smoothing within the club of rich states is accomplished mainly via capital markets whereas consumption smoothing is dominant within the club of poor...

  2. The smoothness criterion as a trend diagnostic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The smoothness criterion is used in the design of symmetric moving average trend filters in time series and in graduation in actuarial studies. This measure of smoothness is used to motivate a diagnostic for determining the order of local polynomial trend.

  3. The smoothness criterion as a trend diagnostic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Weber

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The smoothness criterion is used in the design of symmetric moving average trend filters in time series and in graduation in actuarial studies. This measure of smoothness is used to motivate a diagnostic for determining the order of local polynomial trend.

  4. Very smooth points of spaces of operators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    or Y has the compact metric approximation property (CMAP), then it is easy to see that K (X, Y ) ⊂ L(X, Y ) satisfies the above condition (see [R6]). Thus for a compact operator that is a very smooth point, directional derivatives exist in the direction of all bounded operators. Smooth points of operator spaces has been ...

  5. Application of the CardioCel bovine pericardial patch - a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieraj, Michał; Cudak, Edyta; Mrówczyński, Wojciech; Nałęcz, Tomasz K; Westerski, Przemysław; Wojtalik, Michał

    2016-09-01

    Animal pericardial patches are widely used in adult and pediatric cardiac surgery. A search is ongoing for a new material with optimal surgical properties that will reduce intraoperative bleeding and the occurrence of restenosis, calcification, and pseudoaneurysms in long-term observation. One product of interest is the CardioCel bovine pericardial patch. Evaluation of the short-term results of CardioCel bovine pericardial patch implantation during pediatric cardiac surgery. The study included 8 patients who underwent surgical correction of congenital cardiac defects between January 2015 and February 2016. Pericardial patches were used to repair supravalvular aortic stenosis and reconstruct the aortic arch and pulmonary arteries. The age of the patients ranged from 10 days to 14 years. There were no hospital deaths. The new material exhibited satisfactory durability and elasticity during surgery, facilitating optimal adaptation of the patch to the patient's tissues. No significant bleeding was reported from the suture site. The median duration of follow-up was 58 days. During the follow-up, there were no symptoms of pseudoaneurysm formation, patch thickening, or calcification in the areas where the pericardial patches were implanted. No clinical or laboratory symptoms of infection were observed in locations where the new material was applied. Satisfactory surgical properties of the patch were observed intraoperatively. Positive results using the new pericardial patch were obtained in short-term follow-up.

  6. Application of the CardioCel bovine pericardial patch – a preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudak, Edyta; Mrówczyński, Wojciech; Nałęcz, Tomasz K.; Westerski, Przemysław; Wojtalik, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Animal pericardial patches are widely used in adult and pediatric cardiac surgery. A search is ongoing for a new material with optimal surgical properties that will reduce intraoperative bleeding and the occurrence of restenosis, calcification, and pseudoaneurysms in long-term observation. One product of interest is the CardioCel bovine pericardial patch. Aim Evaluation of the short-term results of CardioCel bovine pericardial patch implantation during pediatric cardiac surgery. Material and methods The study included 8 patients who underwent surgical correction of congenital cardiac defects between January 2015 and February 2016. Pericardial patches were used to repair supravalvular aortic stenosis and reconstruct the aortic arch and pulmonary arteries. The age of the patients ranged from 10 days to 14 years. Results There were no hospital deaths. The new material exhibited satisfactory durability and elasticity during surgery, facilitating optimal adaptation of the patch to the patient's tissues. No significant bleeding was reported from the suture site. The median duration of follow-up was 58 days. During the follow-up, there were no symptoms of pseudoaneurysm formation, patch thickening, or calcification in the areas where the pericardial patches were implanted. No clinical or laboratory symptoms of infection were observed in locations where the new material was applied. Conclusions Satisfactory surgical properties of the patch were observed intraoperatively. Positive results using the new pericardial patch were obtained in short-term follow-up. PMID:27785133

  7. Infantile Aortic Coarctation in an Adult with Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumiz, Eva; Valero, Ernesto; Vilar, Juan Vicente; Santas, Enrique; Haba, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this case report is to highlight the importance of excluding aortic coarctation in a patient with a bicuspid aortic valve. A 56-year-old woman with hypertension was admitted complaining of progressive dyspnea. Transthoracic echocardiography showed a calcified, bicuspid aortic valve with severe stenosis. Aortography revealed the presence of severe narrowing of the aorta between the carotid and subclavian arteries. The patient was referred for cardiovascular surgery in which successful aortic valve replacement and aortic correction were performed. This case report shows an uncommon finding of infantile aortic coarctation in an adult patient admitted with heart failure. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Molecular Regulation of Arterial Aneurysms: Role of Actin Dynamics and microRNAs in Vascular Smooth Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra Alajbegovic

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aortic aneurysms are defined as an irreversible increase in arterial diameter by more than 50% relative to the normal vessel diameter. The incidence of aneurysm rupture is about 10 in 100,000 persons per year and ruptured arterial aneurysms inevitably results in serious complications, which are fatal in about 40% of cases. There is also a hereditary component of the disease and dilation of the ascending thoracic aorta is often associated with congenital heart disease such as bicuspid aortic valves (BAV. Furthermore, specific mutations that have been linked to aneurysm affect polymerization of actin filaments. Polymerization of actin is important to maintain a contractile phenotype of smooth muscle cells enabling these cells to resist mechanical stress on the vascular wall caused by the blood pressure according to the law of Laplace. Interestingly, polymerization of actin also promotes smooth muscle specific gene expression via the transcriptional co-activator MRTF, which is translocated to the nucleus when released from monomeric actin. In addition to genes encoding for proteins involved in the contractile machinery, recent studies have revealed that several non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs are regulated by this mechanism. The importance of these miRNAs for aneurysm development is only beginning to be understood. This review will summarize our current understanding about the influence of smooth muscle miRNAs and actin polymerization for the development of arterial aneurysms.

  9. Aortic Valve and Thoracic Aortic Calcification Measurements : How Low Can We Go in Radiation Dose?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hamersvelt, Robbert Willem; den Harder, Annemarie M; Willemink, Martin J; Schilham, Arnold M R|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/239678605; Lammers, Jan-Willem J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071697624; Nathoe, Hendrik M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/267961472; Budde, Ricardo P J; Leiner, Tim; de Jong, Pim A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/287955672

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the lowest radiation dose and iterative reconstruction level(s) at which computed tomography (CT)-based quantification of aortic valve calcification (AVC) and thoracic aortic calcification (TAC) is still feasible. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients underwent a

  10. General Considerations of Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chung Won; Bae, Miju; Chung, Sung Woon

    2015-01-01

    Although development of surgical technique and critical care, ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm still carries a high mortality. In order to obtain good results, various efforts have been attempted. This paper reviews initial management of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm and discuss the key point open surgical repair and endovascular aneurysm repair.

  11. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement With Early- and New-Generation Devices in Bicuspid Aortic Valve Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoon, Sung Han; Lefèvre, Thierry; Ahn, Jung Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies have evaluated the clinical outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in patients with bicuspid aortic valve stenosis (AS). Particularly, limited data exist comparing the results of TAVR with new-generation devices versus early-generation devices.  Objective...

  12. Aortic root surgery improves long-term survival after acute type A aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysi, Ilir; Juthier, Francis; Fabre, Olivier; Fouquet, Olivier; Rousse, Natacha; Banfi, Carlo; Pinçon, Claire; Prat, Alain; Vincentelli, André

    2015-04-01

    Our objective was to analyze the long term survival of patient operated on for acute type A aortic dissection. Between 1990 and 2010, 226 patients underwent emergency surgical operation for acute type A aortic dissection. We have followed the long-term outcomes. 144 patients were operated on with a supracommissural replacement of the ascending aorta (SCR) and 82 with an aortic root surgery (ARS, including 77 Bentall procedures and 5 Tirone David operations). Aortic cross-clamp was longer in ARS group (150.8 vs. 103.6 min, p<0.0001). Overall in-hospital mortality was lower in ARS group (20% vs. 34%, p 0.03). Median follow-up was 11.6 years. 10-year survival was higher in ARS group (85.7% vs. 65.9%, p 0.03) and 10-year freedom from aortic root reoperation was significantly lower in ARS group (93.4% vs. 82.9%, p 0.02). In a multivariate analysis aortic root surgery was an independent protective factor for proximal reoperations OR 0.393, CI 95% [0.206-0.748], p=0.005. Our study suggests that complete aortic root replacement in type A aortic dissection does not burden short-term outcomes, improves long-term survivals and decreases the rate of late reoperation. Whether this approach has to be preferred in younger patient has to be demonstrated in further studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype in long-term culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absher, M; Woodcock-Mitchell, J; Mitchell, J; Baldor, L; Low, R; Warshaw, D

    1989-02-01

    Studies of bovine carotid artery smooth muscle cells, during long-term in vitro subcultivation (up to 100 population doublings), have revealed phenotypic heterogeneity among cells, as characterized by differences in proliferative behavior, cell morphology, and contractile-cytoskeletal protein profiles. In vivo, smooth muscle cells were spindle-shaped and expressed desmin and alpha-smooth muscle actin (50% of total actin) as their predominant cytoskeletal and contractile proteins. Within 24 h of culture, vimentin rather than desmin was the predominant intermediate filament protein, with little change in alpha-actin content. Upon initial subcultivation, all cells were flattened and fibroblastic in appearance with a concomitant fivefold reduction in alpha-actin content, whereas the beta and gamma nonmuscle actins predominated. In three out of four cell lines studied, fluctuations in proliferative activity were observed during the life span of the culture. These spontaneous fluctuations in proliferation were accompanied by coordinated changes in morphology and contractile-cytoskeletal protein profiles. During periods of enhanced proliferation a significant proportion of cells reverted to their original spindle-shaped morphology with a simultaneous increase in alpha-actin content (20 to 30% of total actin). These results suggest that in long-term culture smooth muscle cells undergo spontaneous modulations in cell phenotype and may serve as a useful model for studying the regulation of intracellular protein expression.

  14. Optical coherence tomography assessment of vessel wall degradation in thoracic aortic aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Eusebio; Eguizabal, Alma; Pontón, Alejandro; Díez, Marta Calvo; Fernando Val-Bernal, José; Mayorga, Marta; Revuelta, José M.; López-Higuera, José M.; Conde, Olga M.

    2013-12-01

    Optical coherence tomography images of human thoracic aorta from aneurysms reveal elastin disorders and smooth muscle cell alterations when visualizing the media layer of the aortic wall. These disorders can be employed as indicators for wall degradation and, therefore, become a hallmark for diagnosis of risk of aneurysm under intraoperative conditions. Two approaches are followed to evaluate this risk: the analysis of the reflectivity decay along the penetration depth and the textural analysis of a two-dimensional spatial distribution of the aortic wall backscattering. Both techniques require preprocessing stages for the identification of the air-sample interface and for the segmentation of the media layer. Results show that the alterations in the media layer of the aortic wall are better highlighted when the textural approach is considered and also agree with a semiquantitative histopathological grading that assesses the degree of wall degradation. The correlation of the co-occurrence matrix attains a sensitivity of 0.906 and specificity of 0.864 when aneurysm automatic diagnosis is evaluated with a receiver operating characteristic curve.

  15. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition attenuates abdominal aortic aneurysm progression in hyperlipidemic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbani Ghoshal

    Full Text Available Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs are a chronic inflammatory disease that increase the risk of life-threatening aortic rupture. In humans, AAAs have been characterized by increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and the inactivation of COX-2 prior to disease initiation reduces AAA incidence in a mouse model of the disease. The current study examined the effectiveness of selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibition on reducing AAA progression when administered after the initiation of AAA formation. AAAs were induced in hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice by chronic angiotensin II (AngII infusion and the effect of treatment with the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib was examined when initiated at different stages of the disease. Celecoxib treatment that was started 1 week after initiating AngII infusion reduced AAA incidence by 61% and significantly decreased AAA severity. Mice treated with celecoxib also showed significantly reduced aortic rupture and mortality. Treatment with celecoxib that was started at a late stage of AAA development also significantly reduced AAA incidence and severity. Celecoxib treatment significantly increased smooth muscle alpha-actin expression in the abdominal aorta and did not reduce expression of markers of macrophage-dependent inflammation. These findings indicate that COX-2 inhibitor treatment initiated after formation of AngII-induced AAAs effectively reduces progression of the disease in hyperlipidemic mice.

  16. Vascular dysfunctions in the isolated aorta of double-transgenic hypertensive mice developing aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waeckel, Ludovic; Badier-Commander, Cécile; Damery, Thibaut; Köhler, Ralf; Sansilvestri-Morel, Patricia; Simonet, Serge; Vayssettes-Courchay, Christine; Wulff, Heike; Félétou, Michel

    2015-09-01

    Angiotensin-II and oxidative stress are involved in the genesis of aortic aneurysms, a phenomenon exacerbated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) deletion or uncoupling. The purpose of this work was to study the endothelial function in wild-type C57BL/6 (BL) and transgenic mice expressing the h-angiotensinogen and h-renin genes (AR) subjected to either a control, or a high-salt diet plus a treatment with a NO-synthase inhibitor, N-ω-nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester (L-NAME; BLSL and ARSL). BLSL showed a moderate increase in blood pressure, while ARSL became severely hypertensive. Seventy-five percent of ARSL developed aortic aneurysms, characterized by major histo-morphological changes and associated with an increase in NADP(H) oxidase-2 (NOX2) expression. Contractile responses (KCl, norepinephrine, U-46619) were similar in the four groups of mice, and relaxations were not affected in BLSL and AR. However, in ARSL, endothelium-dependent relaxations (acetylcholine, UK-14304) were significantly reduced, and this dysfunction was similar in aortae without or with aneurysms. The endothelial impairment was unaffected by catalase, superoxide-dismutase mimetic, radical scavengers, cyclooxygenase inhibition, or TP-receptor blockade and could not be attributed to sGC oxidation. Thus, ARSL is a severe hypertension model developing aortic aneurysm. A vascular dysfunction, involving both endothelial (reduced role of NO) and smooth muscle cells, precedes aneurysms formation and, paradoxically, does not appear to involve oxidative stress.

  17. Isolation and characterization of smooth muscle cells from rat corpus cavernosum tissue for the study of erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hong; Jung, Seung-Hyo; Ryu, Ji-Kan; Kim, Bokyung; Kim, Hong Sup; Yang, Sang-Kuk

    2012-08-01

    Primary culture of the cavernous smooth muscle cells from corpus cavernous tissues is known to be difficult, mainly because of contamination with fibroblasts. We applied a new method for better isolation of rat penile smooth muscle cells (RPSMCs) from rat corpus cavernosum tissue for reliable ex vivo research on erectile dysfunction. With the use of 8-week-old adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, ex vivo migrations of rat cavernous tissue were measured by penis and aortic ring assay by use of a Matrigel-based D-valine-modified culture method. The expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1 in the RPSMCs was determined by standard immunofluorescent staining and immunoblotting. The expression patterns of phosphodiesterase (PDE) family mRNA in RPSMCs were compared with patterns in rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs) by use of quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Immunocytochemical staining showed greater α-SMA-positive and PCAM-1-negative fluorescence. Moreover, whereas the expression of α-SMA was detected in the RPSMCs, that of PECAM-1 was not. The levels of PDE1A, PDE1B, PDE1C, PDE2A, PDE3A, PDE4A, PDE4B, PDE4C, PDE4D, and PDE5A mRNA in the RPSMCs were about 3.2-, 4.4-, 3.4-, 29.0-, 3.5-, 2.8-, 2.9-, 6.1-, 45.0-, and 6.0-fold the corresponding expression in RASMCs. We developed a two-stage tissue culture method utilizing a Matrigel-based sprouting culture system to facilitate stromal cell sprouting and an adherent culture system using D-valine to eliminate the contamination of fibroblasts into the smooth muscle cells.

  18. Diprosopia em bovino Bovine diprosopus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.T. Rotta

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a malformation in one newborn female bovine, with two faces and two skull fused, showing one single head. Duplications of the nasal and oral structures, tetraofthalmy, two brains, one single cerebellum, and pons were observed. The right thyroid was hypertrophic and the other organs had normal morphology. Every change observed in this case was compatibles with diprosopus.

  19. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, B.E.C.; Somerville, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep has not been identified under natural conditions at the time of writing and remains a hypothetical issue. However, rumours about the possible finding of a BSE-like isolate in sheep have led to great unrest within the sheep industry, among the general

  20. Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-14

    A cattle dashboard has recently been developed to share surveillance information gathered from submissions to the Great Britain veterinary diagnostic network. Data relating to Scotland come from the SAC C VS. This article, by Tim Geraghty, relates to cases of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis in Scotland, as summarised on the APHA Cattle Dashboard. British Veterinary Association.

  1. Abdominal Aortic Diameter Is Increased in Males with a Family History of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejnert Jørgensen, Trine; Houlind, K; Green, A

    2014-01-01

    measurement of maximum antero-posterior aortic diameter. Family history obtained by questionnaire. Multivariate regression analysis was used to test for confounders: age, sex, smoking, comorbidity and medication. RESULTS: From the screened cohort, 569 participants had at least one first degree relative......OBJECTIVE: To investigate, at a population level, whether a family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is independently related to increased aortic diameter and prevalence of AAA in men, and to elucidate whether the mean aortic diameter and the prevalence of AAA are different between...... participants with male and female relatives with AAA. DESIGN: Observational population-based cross-sectional study. MATERIALS: 18,614 male participants screened for AAA in the VIVA-trial 2008-2011 with information on both family history of AAA and maximal aortic diameter. METHODS: Standardized ultrasound scan...

  2. Combined surgical and catheter-based treatment of extensive thoracic aortic aneurysm and aortic valve stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Backer, Ole; Lönn, Lars; Søndergaard, Lars

    2015-01-01

    valve stenosis (AS) who are considered at high risk for surgical aortic valve replacement. In this report, we describe the combined surgical and catheter-based treatment of an extensive TAA and AS. To our knowledge, this is the first report of hybrid TAA repair combined with TAVR.......An extensive thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is a potentially life-threatening condition and remains a technical challenge to surgeons. Over the past decade, repair of aortic arch aneurysms has been accomplished using both hybrid (open and endovascular) and totally endovascular techniques. Thoracic...... endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) has changed and extended management options in thoracic aorta disease, including in those patients deemed unfit or unsuitable for open surgery. Accordingly, transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is increasingly used to treat patients with symptomatic severe aortic...

  3. Spline-Based Smoothing of Airfoil Curvatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Krist, S.

    2008-01-01

    Constrained fitting for airfoil curvature smoothing (CFACS) is a splinebased method of interpolating airfoil surface coordinates (and, concomitantly, airfoil thicknesses) between specified discrete design points so as to obtain smoothing of surface-curvature profiles in addition to basic smoothing of surfaces. CFACS was developed in recognition of the fact that the performance of a transonic airfoil is directly related to both the curvature profile and the smoothness of the airfoil surface. Older methods of interpolation of airfoil surfaces involve various compromises between smoothing of surfaces and exact fitting of surfaces to specified discrete design points. While some of the older methods take curvature profiles into account, they nevertheless sometimes yield unfavorable results, including curvature oscillations near end points and substantial deviations from desired leading-edge shapes. In CFACS as in most of the older methods, one seeks a compromise between smoothing and exact fitting. Unlike in the older methods, the airfoil surface is modified as little as possible from its original specified form and, instead, is smoothed in such a way that the curvature profile becomes a smooth fit of the curvature profile of the original airfoil specification. CFACS involves a combination of rigorous mathematical modeling and knowledge-based heuristics. Rigorous mathematical formulation provides assurance of removal of undesirable curvature oscillations with minimum modification of the airfoil geometry. Knowledge-based heuristics bridge the gap between theory and designers best practices. In CFACS, one of the measures of the deviation of an airfoil surface from smoothness is the sum of squares of the jumps in the third derivatives of a cubicspline interpolation of the airfoil data. This measure is incorporated into a formulation for minimizing an overall deviation- from-smoothness measure of the airfoil data within a specified fitting error tolerance. CFACS has been

  4. Lunar Smooth Plains Identification and Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, A. K.; Robinson, M. S.; Mahanti, P.; Lawrence, S. J.; Spudis, P.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2012-12-01

    Smooth plains are widespread on the Moon and have diverse origins. The maria comprise the majority of the smooth plains and are volcanic in origin. Highland smooth plains are patchy, and tend to fill large craters and basins; their origins have eluded unambiguous classification. Prior to the Apollo 16 mission, many workers thought that highland plains were volcanic, possibly more silicic than the maria. However, as the Apollo 16 samples are mostly impact breccias, the highland smooth plains were re-interpreted basin impact ejecta, most likely from the Imbrium and possibly Orientale basins. Conversely, some known non-mare volcanic units, such as the Apennine Bench Formation, contain light plains. These interpretations do not rule out alternate origins for a subset of highland smooth plains, including impact melt or volcanic origins (effusive or pyroclastic). We developed an algorithm to identify smooth plains using topographic parameters from the WAC Global Lunar Digital Terrain Model (DTM) (GLD100), sampled at 333 m/pixel. We classify the smooth plains using the Clementine UVVIS FeO map and photometrically corrected Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) images. Terrain with slopes less than 2° (1 km baseline) and standard deviation of slope less than 0.75° (1 km x 1 km box, n=9) are defined as smooth plains. Highland smooth plains are distinguished from basaltic smooth plains using the following criteria: LROC WAC 643 nm normalized reflectance > 0.056, LROC WAC 321 nm / 415 nm ratio 0.77 is termed blue maria and a ratio ≤ 0.77 is termed red maria. The automatic classification was limited to the 87% of the Moon covered by photometrically normalized WAC data (60°S to 60°N). The differences between the maria and highland smooth plains deposits were more ambiguous in regions where the Clementine data had gores and albedo of the maria was elevated (i.e. Mare Frigoris and eastern Imbrium basin). For example, Schickard crater hosts a

  5. Identification of lactoferrin in bovine tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M H; Brightman, A H; Fenwick, B W; Rider, M A

    1996-09-01

    To determine whether bovine tear film contains the iron-binding glycoprotein, lactoferrin. 40 Adult Hereford, Angus, and Simmental cattle. Protein analysis: pooled bovine tears were used for protein analysis (size exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography [HPLC] fractionation). HPLC was used for tear analysis. A diode array detector was used (215 and 280 microns) for chromatogram analysis and comparisons. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE): protein electrophoresis was performed, using 7.5% running gels with 4% stacking gels. Molecular weight of proteins in the unknown samples was determined as recommended by the manufacturer of the standards. Protein sequencing: amino acid sequencing, using automated Edman degradation of HPLC purified protein, was performed. The sequence obtained was compared with the known protein sequence of bovine lactoferrin. HPLC analysis of whole bovine tears resulted in a consistent chromatogram. Peak collection was performed to recover a protein from the bovine tear film with chromatogram characteristics nearly identical to purified bovine lactoferrin. Silver-stained SDS-PAGE of this peak revealed a band with molecular mass consistent with bovine lactoferrin (estimated mass of 78 kd). The first 13 amino acid residues of this protein were identical to the amino acid sequence of bovine lactoferrin. Analysis of whole bovine tears, using size exclusion HPLC, SDS-PAGE, and amino acid sequencing, provided evidence that bovine tears contain lactoferrin. Lactoferrin probably exerts a bacteriostatic effect in bovine tear film. Locally produced lactoferrin may bathe the ocular surface and sequester iron from potential pathogens.

  6. Morphometric Properties of the Thoracic Aorta of Warmblood and Friesian Horses with and without Aortic Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saey, V; Ploeg, M; Delesalle, C; van Loon, G; Gröne, A; Ducatelle, R; Duchateau, L; Chiers, K

    2016-01-01

    Rupture of the aorta is much more common in Friesians compared with other breeds of horse. Rupture always occurs adjacent to the scar of the ligamentum arteriosum. Previous histological examination of ruptured aortic walls suggested the presence of an underlying connective tissue disorder. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the structural characteristics of the tunica media of the mid-thoracic aorta, distant to the lesion, in warmblood and Friesian horses with and without thoracic aortic rupture. In unaffected Friesian horses, the thickness of the tunica media, as well as the percentage area comprised of collagen type I, were significantly higher compared with the warmblood horses, supporting the hypothesis of a primary collagen disorder in the Friesian horse breed. However, in the tunica media of the affected Friesian horses there was no significant wall thickening. Moreover, the percentage area comprised of elastin was significantly lower, while the percentage area comprised of smooth muscle was higher, compared with unaffected Friesian and warmblood horses. These lesions are suggestive of an additional mild elastin deficiency with compensatory smooth muscle cell hypertrophy in affected Friesians. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Bovine leukemia virus: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliarena MA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Marcela Alicia Juliarena,1 Clarisa Natalia Barrios,1 Claudia María Lützelschwab,1 Eduardo Néstor Esteban,2 Silvina Elena Gutiérrez1 1Department of Animal Health and Preventive Medicine, Veterinary Research Center of Tandil (CIVETAN, CIC-CONICET, Faculty of Veterinary Science, National University of the Center of Buenos Aires Province, Tandil, Argentina; 2BIOALPINA Program (GENIAL/COTANA, Colonia Alpina, Argentina Abstract: Enzootic bovine leukosis, caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV, is the most common neoplasm of dairy cattle. Although beef and dairy cattle are susceptible to BLV infection and BLV-associated lymphosarcoma, the disease is more commonly detected in dairy herds, mostly because of the management practices in dairy farms. The pathogenicity of BLV in its natural host, the bovine, depends mainly on the resistance/susceptibility genetics of the animal. The majority of infected cattle are asymptomatic, promoting the extremely high dissemination rate of BLV in many bovine populations. The important productive losses caused by the BLV, added to the health risk of maintaining populations with a high prevalence of infection with a retrovirus, generates the need to implement control measures. Different strategies to control the virus have been attempted. The most effective approach is to identify and cull the totality of infected cattle in the herd. However, this approach is not suitable for herds with high prevalence of infection. At present, no treatment or vaccine has proven effective for the control of BLV. Thus far, the genetic selection of resistant animals emerges as a natural strategy for the containment of the BLV dissemination. In natural conditions, most of the infected, resistant cattle can control the infection, and therefore do not pass the virus to other animals, gradually decreasing the prevalence of the herd. Keywords: bovine leukemia virus, control, genetic resistance, BoLA-DRB3

  8. Vasopressor mechanisms in acute aortic coarctation hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salgado H.C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin II (ANG II and vasopressin (AVP act together with the mechanical effect of aortic constriction in the onset of acute aortic coarctation hypertension. Blockade of ANG II and AVP V1 receptors demonstrated that ANG II acts on the prompt (5 min rise in pressure whereas AVP is responsible for the maintenance (30-45 min of the arterial pressure elevation during aortic coarctation. Hormone assays carried out on blood collected from conscious rats submitted to aortic constriction supported a role for ANG II in the early stage and a combined role for both ANG II and AVP in the maintenance of proximal hypertension. As expected, a role for catecholamines was ruled out in this model of hypertension, presumably due to the inhibitory effect of the sinoaortic baroreceptors. The lack of afferent feedback from the kidneys for AVP release from the central nervous system in rats with previous renal denervation allowed ANG II to play the major role in the onset of the hypertensive response. Median eminence-lesioned rats exhibited a prompt increase in proximal pressure followed by a progressive decline to lower hypertensive levels, revealing a significant role for the integrity of the neuroaxis in the maintenance of the aortic coarctation hypertension through the release of AVP. In conclusion, the important issue raised by this model of hypertension is the likelihood of a link between some vascular territory - probably renal - below the coarctation triggering the release of AVP, with this vasoconstrictor hormone participating with Ang II and the mechanical effect of aortic constriction in the acute aortic coarctation hypertension

  9. Toll-like receptor 2 activation and serum amyloid A regulate smooth muscle cell extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Stephanie E; Pessolano, Lawrence G; Bishop, Christopher A; Best, Michael; Rich, Celeste B; Stone, Phillip J; Schreiber, Barbara M

    2017-01-01

    Smooth muscle cells contribute to extracellular matrix remodeling during atherogenesis. De-differentiated, synthetic smooth muscle cells are involved in processes of migration, proliferation and changes in expression of extracellular matrix components, all of which contribute to loss of homeostasis accompanying atherogenesis. Elevated levels of acute phase proteins, including serum amyloid A (SAA), are associated with an increased risk for atherosclerosis. Although infection with periodontal and respiratory pathogens via activation of inflammatory cell Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 has been linked to vascular disease, little is known about smooth muscle cell TLR2 in atherosclerosis. This study addresses the role of SAA and TLR2 activation on smooth muscle cell matrix gene expression and insoluble elastin accumulation. Cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells were treated with SAA or TLR2 agonists and the effect on expression of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9) and tropoelastin studied. SAA up-regulated MMP9 expression. Tropoelastin is an MMP9 substrate and decreased tropoelastin levels in SAA-treated cells supported the concept of extracellular matrix remodeling. Interestingly, SAA-induced down-regulation of tropoelastin was not only evident at the protein level but at the level of gene transcription as well. Contributions of proteasomes, nuclear factor κ B and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β on regulation of MMP9 vs. tropoleastin expression were revealed. Effects on Mmp9 and Eln mRNA expression persisted with long-term SAA treatment, resulting in decreased insoluble elastin accumulation. Interestingly, the SAA effects were TLR2-dependent and TLR2 activation by bacterial ligands also induced MMP9 expression and decreased tropoelastin expression. These data reveal a novel mechanism whereby SAA and/or infection induce changes in vascular elastin consistent with atherosclerosis.

  10. Progress in smooth particle hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingate, C.A.; Dilts, G.A.; Mandell, D.A.; Crotzer, L.A.; Knapp, C.E.

    1998-07-01

    Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is a meshless, Lagrangian numerical method for hydrodynamics calculations where calculational elements are fuzzy particles which move according to the hydrodynamic equations of motion. Each particle carries local values of density, temperature, pressure and other hydrodynamic parameters. A major advantage of SPH is that it is meshless, thus large deformation calculations can be easily done with no connectivity complications. Interface positions are known and there are no problems with advecting quantities through a mesh that typical Eulerian codes have. These underlying SPH features make fracture physics easy and natural and in fact, much of the applications work revolves around simulating fracture. Debris particles from impacts can be easily transported across large voids with SPH. While SPH has considerable promise, there are some problems inherent in the technique that have so far limited its usefulness. The most serious problem is the well known instability in tension leading to particle clumping and numerical fracture. Another problem is that the SPH interpolation is only correct when particles are uniformly spaced a half particle apart leading to incorrect strain rates, accelerations and other quantities for general particle distributions. SPH calculations are also sensitive to particle locations. The standard artificial viscosity treatment in SPH leads to spurious viscosity in shear flows. This paper will demonstrate solutions for these problems that they and others have been developing. The most promising is to replace the SPH interpolant with the moving least squares (MLS) interpolant invented by Lancaster and Salkauskas in 1981. SPH and MLS are closely related with MLS being essentially SPH with corrected particle volumes. When formulated correctly, JLS is conservative, stable in both compression and tension, does not have the SPH boundary problems and is not sensitive to particle placement. The other approach to

  11. Moisture sorption isotherms and thermodynamic properties of bovine leather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhfakh, Rihab; Mihoubi, Daoued; Kechaou, Nabil

    2017-11-01

    This study was aimed at the determination of bovine leather moisture sorption characteristics using a static gravimetric method at 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C. The curves exhibit type II behaviour according to the BET classification. The sorption isotherms fitting by seven equations shows that GAB model is able to reproduce the equilibrium moisture content evolution with water activity for moisture range varying from 0.02 to 0.83 kg/kg d.b (0.9898 content, and then decrease sharply with rising moisture content. Adsorption enthalpy decreases with increasing moisture content. Whereas, adsorption entropy increases smoothly with increasing moisture content to a maximum of 6.29 J/K.mol. Spreading pressure increases with rising water activity. The net integral enthalpy seemed to decrease and then increase to become asymptotic. The net integral entropy decreased with moisture content increase.

  12. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy and spatial analysis of the feed industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Mathilde; Abrial, David; Jarrige, Nathalie; Rican, Stéphane; Garrido, Myriam; Calavas, Didier; Ducrot, Christian

    2007-06-01

    In France, despite the ban of meat-and-bone meal (MBM) in cattle feed, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was detected in hundreds of cattle born after the ban. To study the role of MBM, animal fat, and dicalcium phosphate on the risk for BSE after the feed ban, we conducted a spatial analysis of the feed industry. We used data from 629 BSE cases as well as data on use of each byproduct and market area of the feed factories. We mapped risk for BSE in 951 areas supplied by the same factories and connection with use of byproducts. A disease map of BSE with covariates was built with the hierarchical Bayesian modeling methods, based on Poisson distribution with spatial smoothing. Only use of MBM was spatially linked to risk for BSE, which highlights cross-contamination as the most probable source of infection after the feed ban.

  13. Aortic Stenosis in Adults: natural history, treatment and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Heuvelman (Helena )

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis concerns aortic stenosis (AS) in contemporary clinical practice. First, an introduction will be given to provide background information on the normal aortic valve, and thereafter on the incidence, disease spectrum, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of

  14. Airway smooth muscle, tidal stretches, and dynamically determined contractile states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredberg, J J; Inouye, D; Miller, B; Nathan, M; Jafari, S; Raboudi, S H; Butler, J P; Shore, S A

    1997-12-01

    In the classic theory of airway lumen narrowing in asthma, active force in airway smooth muscle is presumed to be in static mechanical equilibrium with the external load against which the muscle has shortened. This theory is useful because it identifies the static equilibrium length toward which activated airway smooth muscle would tend if given enough time. The corresponding state toward which myosin-actin interactions would tend is called the latch state. But are the concepts of a static mechanical equilibrium and the latch state applicable in the setting of tidal loading, as occurs during breathing? To address this question, we have studied isolated, maximally contracted bovine tracheal smooth muscle subjected to tidal stretches imposed at 0.33 Hz. We measured the active force (F) and stiffness (E), which reflect numbers of actin-myosin interactions, and hysteresivity (eta) which reflects the rate of turnover of those interactions. When the amplitude of imposed tidal stretch (epsilon) was very small, 0.25% of muscle optimal length, the steady-state value of F approximated the isometric force, E was large, and eta was small. When epsilon was increased beyond 1%, however, F and E promptly decreased and eta promptly increased. The muscle could be maintained in these steady, dynamically determined contractile states for as long as the tidal stretches were sustained; when epsilon subsequently decreased back to 0.25%, F, E, and eta returned slowly toward their previous values. The provocative stretch amplitude required to cause active force or muscle stiffness to fall by half, or hysteresivity to double, was slightly greater than 2%. These observations are consistent with a direct effect of stretch upon bridge dynamics in which, with increasing tidal stretch amplitude, the number of actin-myosin interactions decreases and their rate of turnover increases. We conclude that the interactions of myosin with actin are at every instant tending toward those that would

  15. Rapid prototyping in aortic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangeas, Petros; Voulalas, Grigorios; Ktenidis, Kiriakos

    2016-04-01

    3D printing provides the sequential addition of material layers and, thus, the opportunity to print parts and components made of different materials with variable mechanical and physical properties. It helps us create 3D anatomical models for the better planning of surgical procedures when needed, since it can reveal any complex anatomical feature. Images of abdominal aortic aneurysms received by computed tomographic angiography were converted into 3D images using a Google SketchUp free software and saved in stereolithography format. Using a 3D printer (Makerbot), a model made of polylactic acid material (thermoplastic filament) was printed. A 3D model of an abdominal aorta aneurysm was created in 138 min, while the model was a precise copy of the aorta visualized in the computed tomographic images. The total cost (including the initial cost of the printer) reached 1303.00 euros. 3D imaging and modelling using different materials can be very useful in cases when anatomical difficulties are recognized through the computed tomographic images and a tactile approach is demanded preoperatively. In this way, major complications during abdominal aorta aneurysm management can be predicted and prevented. Furthermore, the model can be used as a mould; the development of new, more biocompatible, less antigenic and individualized can become a challenge in the future. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  16. Hybrid treatment of aortic arch disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Patrick Bastos; Rossi, Fabio Henrique; Moreira, Samuel Martins; Issa, Mario; Izukawa, Nilo Mitsuru; Dinkhuysen, Jarbas J.; Spina Neto, Domingos; Kambara, Antônio Massamitsu

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The management of thoracic aortic disease involving the ascending aorta, aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta are technically challenging and is an area in constant development and innovation. Objective To analyze early and midterm results of hybrid treatment of arch aortic disease. Methods Retrospective study of procedures performed from January 2010 to December 2012. The end points were the technical success, therapeutic success, morbidity and mortality, neurologic outcomes, the rate of endoleaks and reinterventions. Results A total of 95 patients treated for thoracic aortic diseases in this period, 18 underwent hybrid treatment and entered in this study. The average ages were 62.3 years. The male was present in 66.7%. The technical and therapeutic success was 94.5% e 83.3%. The perioperative mortality rate of 11.1%. There is any death during one-year follow- up. The reoperation rates were 16.6% due 2 cases of endoleak Ia and one case of endoleak II. There is any occlusion of anatomic or extra anatomic bypass during follow up. Conclusion In our study, the hybrid treatment of aortic arch disease proved to be a feasible alternative of conventional surgery. The therapeutic success rates and re- interventions obtained demonstrate the necessity of thorough clinical follow-up of these patients in a long time. PMID:25714205

  17. Research of Customized Aortic Stent Graft Manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Chen, Xin; Liu, Muhan

    2017-03-01

    Thoracic descending aorta diseases include aortic dissection and aortic aneurysm, of which the natural mortality rate is extremely high. At present, endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has been widely used as an effective means for the treatment of descending aortic disease. Most of the existing coating stents are standard design, which are unable to meet the size or structure of different patients. As a result, failure of treatment would be caused by dimensional discrepancy between stent and vessels, which could lead to internal leakage or rupture of blood vessels. Therefore, based on rapid prototyping sacrificial core - coating forming (RPSC-CF), a customized aortic stent graft manufactured technique has been proposed in this study. The aortic stent graft consists of film and metallic stent, so polyether polyurethane (PU) and nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy with good biocompatibility were chosen. To minimum film thickness without degrading performance, effect of different dip coating conditions on the thickness of film were studied. To make the NiTi alloy exhibit super-elasticity at body temperature (37°C), influence of different heat treatment conditions on austenite transformation temperature (Af) and mechanical properties were studied. The results show that the customized stent grafts could meet the demand of personalized therapy, and have good performance in blasting pressure and radial support force, laying the foundation for further animal experiment and clinical experiment.

  18. Quantification of aortic regurgitation by magnetic resonance velocity mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Lise; Lindvig, K; Hildebrandt, P

    1993-01-01

    The use of magnetic resonance (MR) velocity mapping in the quantification of aortic valvular blood flow was examined in 10 patients with angiographically verified aortic regurgitation. MR velocity mapping succeeded in identifying and quantifying the regurgitation in all patients, and the regurgit......The use of magnetic resonance (MR) velocity mapping in the quantification of aortic valvular blood flow was examined in 10 patients with angiographically verified aortic regurgitation. MR velocity mapping succeeded in identifying and quantifying the regurgitation in all patients...

  19. Smoothing properties for Hirota-Satsuma systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jimenez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We study local existence and smoothing properties for the initial value problem associated to Hirota-Satsuma systems that describes an interaction of two long waves with different dispersion relations.

  20. Smooth surfaces from rational bilinear patches

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Smooth freeform skins from simple panels constitute a challenging topic arising in contemporary architecture. We contribute to this problem area by showing how to approximate a negatively curved surface by smoothly joined rational bilinear patches. The approximation problem is solved with help of a new computational approach to the hyperbolic nets of Huhnen-Venedey and Rörig and optimization algorithms based on it. We also discuss its limits which lie in the topology of the input surface. Finally, freeform deformations based on Darboux transformations are used to generate smooth surfaces from smoothly joined Darboux cyclide patches; in this way we eliminate the restriction to surfaces with negative Gaussian curvature. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Smoothed generalized free energies for thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Remco; Ng, Nelly Huei Ying; Wehner, Stephanie

    2017-12-01

    In the study of thermodynamics for nanoscale quantum systems, a family of quantities known as generalized free energies have been derived as necessary and sufficient conditions that govern state transitions. These free energies become important especially in the regime where the system of interest consists of only a few (quantum) particles. In this work, we introduce a family of smoothed generalized free energies, by constructing explicit smoothing procedures that maximize or minimize the free energy over an ɛ ball of quantum states. In contrast to previously known smoothed free energies, these quantities now allow us to make an operational statement for approximate thermodynamic state transitions. We show that these smoothed quantities converge to the standard free energy in the thermodynamic limit.

  2. Ascending aortic curvature as an independent risk factor for type A dissection, and ascending aortic aneurysm formation: a mathematical model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poullis, Michael P; Warwick, Richard; Oo, Aung; Poole, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To develop a mathematical model to demonstrate that ascending aortic curvature is an independent risk factor for type A dissections, in addition to hypertension, bicuspid aortic valve, aneurysm...

  3. Towards new therapies for calcific aortic valve disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riem Vis, P.W.

    2011-01-01

    Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is characterized by progressive calcification of the aortic valve cusps. The end-stage (stenosis), can lead to heart failure and death. Approximately 2-3% of adults over 65 years of age are thought to suffer from valve stenosis, requiring aortic valve

  4. Pre-Interventional Assessment and Calcification Score of the Aortic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) provides an acceptable alternative for aortic valve replacement in the elderly, but needs accurate pre procedural imaging to optimise intervention. Objectives: To evaluate an alternative manual aortic valve calcification scoring system with computed tomography, ...

  5. Update in the management of type B aortic dissection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Foeke J. H.; Trimarchi, Santi; Kamman, Arnoud V.; Moll, Frans L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070246882; van Herwaarden, Joost A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304814733; Patel, Himanshu J.; Figueroa, C. Alberto; Eagle, Kim A.; Froehlich, James B.

    Stanford type B aortic dissection (TBAD) is a life-threatening aortic disease. The initial management goal is to prevent aortic rupture, propagation of the dissection, and symptoms by reducing the heart rate and blood pressure. Uncomplicated TBAD patients require prompt medical management to prevent

  6. Outcome of pregnancy in patients after repair of aortic coarctation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, JWJ; Drenthen, W; Pieper, PG; Roos-Hesselink, JW; Zwinderman, AH; van Veldhuisen, DJ; Mulder, BJM

    2005-01-01

    Aims Nowadays, most women born with aortic coarctation reach childbearing age. However, data on outcome of pregnancy in women after repair of aortic coarctation are scarce. The aim of this study was to report on maternal and neonatal outcome of pregnancy in women after aortic coarctation repair.

  7. Local repair of distal thoracal aortic dissections (Locus minoris resistencia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Iu V; Komarov, R N; Stepanenko, A B; Gens, A P; Charchian, E R

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents the method of local repair of distal aortic dissections. Local aortic grafting for surgical correction of type B dissecting aortic aneurysms helped to decrease hospital mortality up to 15.4%, the rate of paraparesis and multiorgan failure - up to 11.5%.

  8. Challenging Friesian horse diseases : aortic rupture and megaesophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aortic rupture is quite rare in Warmblood horses and is best known as an acute and fatal rupture of the aortic root in older breeding stallions. It has now become clear that aortic rupture, which is diagnosed around an age of 4 years, is more frequent in the Friesian breed than in others. The high

  9. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in proximal (type A) aortic dissection: Ready for a broader application?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienaber, Christoph A; Sakalihasan, Natzi; Clough, Rachel E; Aboukoura, Mohamed; Mancuso, Enrico; Yeh, James S M; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Cheshire, Nick; Rosendahl, Ulrich Peter; Quarto, Cesare; Pepper, John

    2017-02-01

    Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has demonstrated encouraging results and is gaining increasing acceptance as a treatment option for aortic aneurysms and dissections. Yet, its role in managing proximal aortic pathologies is unknown-this is important because in proximal (Stanford type A) aortic dissections, 10% to 30% are not accepted for surgery and 30% to 50% are technically amenable for TEVAR. We describe our case series of type A aortic dissections treated by using TEVAR. Between year 2009 and 2016, 12 patients with acute, subacute, or chronic type A aortic dissection with the proximal entry tear located between the coronaries and brachiocephalic artery were treated with TEVAR at 3 centers. Various stent-graft configurations were used to seal the proximal entry tear in the ascending aorta under rapid pacing. A total of 12 patients (9 male, 3 female), mean age 81 ± 7 years, EuroSCORE II 9.1 ± 4.5, underwent TEVAR for the treatment of type A aortic dissection. Procedural success was achieved in 11 of 12 patients (91.7%). There was 1 minor stroke and 1 intraprocedural death. No additional deaths were reported at 30 days. At 36 months, there were 4 further deaths (all from nonaortic causes). The mean survival of these 4 deceased was 23 months (range 15-36 months). Follow-up computed tomography demonstrated favorable aortic remodeling. TEVAR is feasible and reveals promising early results in selected patients with type A aortic dissection who are poor candidates for surgical repair. The current iteration of stent-graft technology, however, needs to be adapted to features specific to the ascending aorta. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. In situ total aortic arch replacement for infected distal aortic arch aneurysms with penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Kenji; Yamanaka, Katsuhiro; Sakamoto, Toshihito; Inoue, Takeshi; Matsumori, Masamichi; Kawakami, Fumi; Okita, Yutaka

    2014-11-01

    We present a series of patients who underwent in situ total aortic arch replacement for infected distal aortic arch aneurysms. Between 2002 and 2013, 9 patients with infected distal aortic arch aneurysms underwent total aortic arch replacement using antegrade selective cerebral perfusion. There were 4 male and 5 female patients with a mean age of 72.7±9.0 years. All patients had penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer in the distal aortic arch, which formed saccular aneurysms. Four patients had preoperative hoarseness. Maximum preoperative white blood cell count was 10,211±4375/μL, and mean serum C-reactive protein concentration was 12.7±7.2 mg/dL. Causative microorganisms were identified by blood culture or aortic wall culture and were as follows: Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (2 cases), and unknown (2 cases). Radical debridement with in situ total aortic arch replacement was performed in all patients, followed by the omental flap grafting in 7 patients. All surgery was performed on an urgent or emergency basis. Average cardiopulmonary bypass time and lower body circulatory arrest time were 199.7±50.7 minutes and 66.6±13.8 minutes, respectively. There was no in-hospital mortality, but 1 patient died of asphyxia 5 months after hospital discharge. Freedom from recurrence of infection was 100%. Surgical treatment with the combination of radical debridement with in situ total aortic arch replacement using antegrade selective cerebral perfusion and omental flap grafting was a reliable procedure for the treatment of infected distal aortic arch aneurysms. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Blunt traumatic aortic injuries of the ascending aorta and aortic arch: a clinical multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, Victor X; Marini, Milagros; Muñiz, Javier; Gulias, Daniel; Asorey-Veiga, Vanesa; Adrio-Nazar, Belen; Herrera, José M; Pradas-Montilla, Gonzalo; Cuenca, José J

    2013-09-01

    To report the clinical and radiological characteristics, management and outcomes of traumatic ascending aorta and aortic arch injuries. Historic cohort multicentre study including 17 major trauma patients with traumatic aortic injury from January 2000 to January 2011. The most common mechanism of blunt trauma was motor-vehicle crash (47%) followed by motorcycle crash (41%). Patients sustaining traumatic ascending aorta or aortic arch injuries presented a high proportion of myocardial contusion (41%); moderate or greater aortic valve regurgitation (12%); haemopericardium (35%); severe head injuries (65%) and spinal cord injury (23%). The 58.8% of the patients presented a high degree aortic injury (types III and IV). Expected in-hospital mortality was over 50% as defined by mean TRISS 59.7 (SD 38.6) and mean ISS 48.2 (SD 21.6) on admission. Observed in-hospital mortality was 53%. The cause of death was directly related to the ATAI in 45% of cases, head and abdominal injuries being the cause of death in the remaining 55% cases. Long-term survival was 46% at 1 year, 39% at 5 years, and 19% at 10 years. Traumatic aortic injuries of the ascending aorta/arch should be considered in any major thoracic trauma patient presenting cardiac tamponade, aortic valve regurgitation and/or myocardial contusion. These aortic injuries are also associated with a high incidence of neurological injuries, which can be just as lethal as the aortic injury, so treatment priorities should be modulated on an individual basis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Doing smooth pursuit paradigms in Windows 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda

    Smooth pursuit eye movements are interesting to study as they reflect the subject’s ability to predict movement of external targets, keep focus and move the eyes appropriately. The process of smooth pursuit requires collaboration between several systems in the brain and the resulting action may p...... in Windows 7 with live capturing of eye movements using a Tobii TX300 eye tracker. In particular, the poster describes the challenges and limitations created by the hardware and the software...

  13. Kalman Filter Desing, Smoothing and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cederkvist, Henrik Rene

    2001-01-01

    Thesis is based on three different aspects of Kalman filtering. >Kalman filters for navigation. Investigate the difference between a Extended Kalman Filter and a Linearized Kalman Filter with feedback. And show how different system models relate to these Kalman Filters when implemented in a filter. >Smoothing. Investigate how much there is to be gained from smoothing. We will only look at the fixed-interval smoother, using the method of forward and backward filtering. ...

  14. Smooth embeddings with Stein surface images

    OpenAIRE

    Gompf, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    A simple characterization is given of open subsets of a complex surface that smoothly perturb to Stein open subsets. As applications, complex 2-space C^2 contains domains of holomorphy (Stein open subsets) that are exotic R^4's, and others homotopy equivalent to the 2-sphere but cut out by smooth, compact 3-manifolds. Pseudoconvex embeddings of Brieskorn spheres and other 3-manifolds into complex surfaces are constructed, as are pseudoconcave holomorphic fillings (with disagreeing contact and...

  15. Some splines produced by smooth interpolation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Segeth, Karel

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 319, 15 February (2018), s. 387-394 ISSN 0096-3003 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : smooth data approximation * smooth data interpolation * cubic spline Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.738, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0096300317302746?via%3Dihub

  16. Altered catecholamine receptor affinity in rabbit aortic intimal hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Malley, M.K.; Cotecchia, S.; Hagen, P.O. (Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (USA))

    1991-08-01

    Intimal thickening is a universal response to endothelial denudation and is also thought to be a precursor of atherosclerosis. The authors have demonstrated selective supersensitivity in arterial intimal hyperplasia to norepinephrine and they now report a possible mechanism for this. Binding studies in rabbit aorta with the selective alpha 1-adrenergic radioligand 125I-HEAT demonstrated that there was no change in receptor density (20 {plus minus} 4 fmole/10(6) cells) in intact vascular smooth muscle cells at either 5 or 14 days after denudation. However, competition studies showed a 2.6-fold increase in alpha 1-adrenergic receptor affinity for norepinephrine in intimal hyperplastic tissue (P less than 0.05). This increased affinity for norepinephrine was associated with a greater increase in 32P-labeled phosphatidylinositol (148% intimal thickening versus 76% control) and phosphatidic acid (151% intimal thickening versus 56% control) following norepinephrine stimulation of free floating rings of intimal hyperplastic aorta. These data suggest that the catecholamine supersensitivity in rabbit aortic intimal hyperplasia is receptor mediated and may be linked to the phosphatidylinositol cycle.

  17. Fabrication of a compliant phantom of the human aortic arch for use in Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hütter Larissa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Compliant phantoms of the human aortic arch can mimic patient specific cardiovascular dysfunctions in vitro. Hence, phantoms may enable elucidation of haemodynamic disturbances caused by aortic dysfunction. This paper describes the fabrication of a thin-walled silicone phantom of the human ascending aorta and brachiocephalic artery. The model geometry was determined via a meta-analysis and modelled in SolidWorks before 3D printing. The solid model surface was smoothed and scanned with a 3D scanner. An offset outer mould was milled from Ebalta S-Model board. The final phantom indicated that ABS was a suitable material for the internal model, the Ebalta S-Model board yielded a rough external surface. Co-location of the moulds during silicone pour was insufficient to enable consistent wall thickness. The resulting phantom was free of air bubbles but did not have the desired wall thickness consistency.

  18. Beam-smoothing investigation on Heaven I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yi-huai; Gao, Zhi-xing; Tong, Xiao-hui; Dai, Hui; Tang, Xiu-zhang; Shan, Yu-sheng

    2007-01-01

    Directly driven targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) require laser beams with extremely smooth irradiance profiles to prevent hydrodynamic instabilities that destroy the spherical symmetry of the target during implosion. Such instabilities can break up and mix together the target's wall and fuel material, preventing it from reaching the density and temperature required for fusion ignition. 1,2 Measurements in the equation of state (EOS) experiments require laser beams with flat-roofed profiles to generate uniform shockwave 3. Some method for beam smooth, is thus needed. A technique called echelon-free induced spatial incoherence (EFISI) is proposed for producing smooth target beam profiles with large KrF lasers. The idea is basically an image projection technique that projects the desired time-averaged spatial profile onto the target via the laser system, using partially coherent broadband lighe. Utilize the technique, we developing beam- smoothing investigation on "Heaven I". At China Institute of Atomic Energy , a new angular multiplexing providing with beam-smoothing function has been developed, the total energy is 158J, the stability of energy is 4%, the pulse duration is 25ns, the effective diameter of focusing spot is 400um, and the ununiformity is about 1.6%, the power density on the target is about 3.7×10 12W/cm2. At present, the system have provided steady and smooth laser irradiation for EOS experiments.

  19. The Genetic Basis of Aortic Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Mark E.; Dietz, Harry C.

    2014-01-01

    Gene identification in human aortic aneurysm conditions is proceeding at a rapid pace and the integration of pathogenesis-based management strategies in clinical practice is an emerging reality. Human genetic alterations causing aneurysm involve diverse gene products including constituents of the extracellular matrix, cell surface receptors, intracellular signaling molecules, and elements of the contractile cytoskeleton. Animal modeling experiments and human genetic discoveries have extensively implicated the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) cytokine-signaling cascade in aneurysm progression, but mechanistic links between many gene products remain obscure. This chapter will integrate human genetic alterations associated with aortic aneurysm with current basic research findings in an attempt to form a reconciling if not unifying model for hereditary aortic aneurysm. PMID:25183854

  20. Abdominal aortic aneurysms: an autoimmune disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadesham, Vamshi P; Scott, D Julian A; Carding, Simon R

    2008-12-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a multifactorial degenerative vascular disorder. One of the defining features of the pathophysiology of aneurysmal disease is inflammation. Recent developments in vascular and molecular cell biology have increased our knowledge on the role of the adaptive and innate immune systems in the initiation and propagation of the inflammatory response in aortic tissue. AAAs share many features of autoimmune disease, including genetic predisposition, organ specificity and chronic inflammation. Here, this evidence is used to propose that the chronic inflammation observed in AAAs is a consequence of a dysregulated autoimmune response against autologous components of the aortic wall that persists inappropriately. Identification of the molecular and cellular targets involved in AAA formation will allow the development of therapeutic agents for the treatment of AAA.

  1. Bovine cysticercosis situation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Augusto Marques Rossi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is a long known zoonotic parasitosis characteristic of underdeveloped countries. In addition to its public health significance, this parasitosis is cause of economic losses to the beef production chain, and synonymous of technical inadequacy in relation to the adoption of Good Agricultural Practices. The occurrences of both human teniasis and bovine cysticercosis could and should be controlled with basic sanitary measures. However, there is much variation in the occurrence of the disease in cattle, characterizing a low rate of technical development as well as problems related to the adoption of basic sanitation measures. This review describes, in details, the causative agent and its epidemiological chain, besides raising current information about the occurrence of bovine cysticercosis in different regions of Brazil, aiming at the adoption of prophylactic measures by different segments responsible.

  2. [Thoracic aortic aneurysm complicating pseudo-coarctation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frikha, I; Masmoudi, S; Hadjkacem, A; Ghemissou, N; Kolsi, K; Khannous, M; Karoui, A; Sahnoun, Y

    2000-02-01

    The aneurysm of the descending aorta complicating a pseudocoarctation, itself due to a congenital elongation with kinking of the aorta is a rare entity. We report a case of aortic aneurysm discovered in a 72 years old woman without notable antecedents, which was referred for recurrent bronchitis. The X-ray showed a calcified opacity of the upper mediastinum, 5 cm of large. A thoracic CT-scan evoked the presence of a circulating sacciform aneurysm with calcified walls, developing on the final part of the aortic arch, which was with abnormally ascending way going up to the cervico-thoracic orifice and carrying out an aspect of aortic kinking. The assessment was complemented by a RMI as well as an aortic opacification. A thoracic scintigraphy showed an hypoperfusion of the left lung. The remainder of the cardiac assessment was normal. The patient was operated under femoro-femoral extracorporeal circulation through a left posterolateral thoracotomy of the 4th intercostal space. The examination showed a 7 cm diameter calcified aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta complicating a tight stenosis in connection with an elongation and a kinking. The upper section of the aorta was shifted towards the pleural dome. The aortic section above aneurism was of normal size whereas the lower section was dilated. The aneurism was excised and a prosthetic graft was carried out. The surgery follow-up was marked by an hemodynamic stability, without neurological deficit. A ventilatory assistance was necessary during 5 days. Currently with 8 months follow-up, the patient goes well. A prosthetic replacement in front of this type of aneurism is legitimate given the risk of the occurrence of complications secondary to the pseudocoarctation (arterial hypertension, aortic insufficiency) or to the aneurism itself, dissection or compression of vicinity (pulmonary artery).

  3. Anesthesia Approach in Endovascular Aortic Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşin Alagöl

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We have analyzed our initial results of our anesthesia techniques in our new-onset endovascular aortic reconstruction cases.Patients and Methods: The perioperative data of 15 elective and emergent endovascular aortic reconstruction cases that were operated in 2010-2011 were collected in a database. The choice of anesthesia was made by the risk factors, surgical team’s preferences, type and location of the aortic pathology and by the predicted operation duration. The data of local and general anesthesia cases were compared.Results: Thirteen (86.7% cases were male and 2 (13.3% female. Eleven patients were in ASA Class III. The demographic parameters, ASA classifications, concurrent diseases were similar in both groups. Thirteen (86.7% cases had infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm and 2 (13.3% had Type III aortic dissection. The diastolic arterial pressures were lower in general anesthesia group in 20th and 40th minutes’ measurements just like the mean arterial pressure measurements at the 40th, 100th minutes and during the deployment of the graft. Postoperative mortality occurred in 3 (20.0% patients and they all had general anesthesia and they were operated on emergency basis. Postoperative morbidity occurred in four patients that had general anesthesia (acute renal failure, multi-organ failure and pneumonia. The other patient had atrial fibrillation on the 1st postoperative day and was converted to sinus rhythm with amiodarone infusion.Conclusion: Edovascular aortic reconstruction procedures can safely be performed with both general and local anesthesia less invasively compared to open surgery. General anesthesia may be preferred for the better hemodynamic control.

  4. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Siordia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR is a novel therapeutic intervention for the replacement of severely stenotic aortic valves in high-risk patients for standard surgical procedures. Since the initial PARTNER trial results, use of TAVR has been on the rise each year. New delivery methods and different valves have been developed and modified in order to promote the minimally invasive procedure and reduce common complications, such as stroke. This review article focuses on the current data on the indications, risks, benefits, and future directions of TAVR. Recently, TAVR has been considered as a standard-of-care procedure. While this technique is used frequently in high-risk surgical candidates, studies have been focusing on the application of this method for younger patients with lower surgical risk. Moreover, several studies have proposed promising results regarding the use of valve-in-valve technique or the procedure in which the valve is placed within a previously implemented bioprosthetic valve. However, ischemic strokes and paravalvular leak remain a matter of debate in these surgeries. New methods and devices have been developed to reduce the incidence of post-procedural stroke. While the third generation of TAVR valves (i.e., Edwards Sapien 3 and Medtronic Evolut R addresses the issue of paravalvular leak structurally, results on their efficacy in reducing the risk of paravalvular leak are yet to be obtained. Furthermore, TAVR enters the field of hybrid methods in the treatment of cardiac issues via both surgical and catheter-based approaches. Finally, while TAVR is primarily performed on cases with aortic stenosis, new valves and methods have been proposed regarding the application of this technique in aortic regurgitation, as well as other aortic pathologies. TAVR is a suitable therapeutic approach for the treatment of aortic stenosis in high-risk patients. Considering the promising results in the current patient population

  5. Aortic injuries in newer vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryb, Gabriel E; Dischinger, Patricia C; Kleinberger, Michael; McGwin, Gerald; Griffin, Russell L

    2013-10-01

    The occurrence of AI was studied in relation to vehicle model year (MY) among front seat vehicular occupants, age≥16 in vehicles MY≥1994, entered in the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System between 1997 and 2010 to determine whether newer vehicles, due to their crashworthiness improvements, are linked to a lower risk of aortic injuries (AI). MY was categorized as 1994-1997, 1998-2004, or 2005-2010 reflecting the introduction of newer occupant protection technology. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for the association between AI and MY independent of possible confounders. Analysis was repeated, stratified by frontal and near lateral impacts. AI occurred in 19,187 (0.06%) of the 31,221,007 (weighted) cases, and contributed to 11% of all deaths. AIs were associated with advanced age, male gender, high BMI, near-side impact, rollover, ejection, collision against a fixed object, high ΔV, vehicle mismatch, unrestrained status, and forward track position. Among frontal crashes, MY 98-04 and MY 05-10 showed increased adjusted odds of AI when compared to MY 94-97 [OR 1.84 (1.02-3.32) and 1.99 (0.93-4.26), respectively]. In contrast, among near-side impact crashes, MY 98-04 and MY 05-10 showed decreased adjusted odds of AI [OR 0.50 (0.25-0.99) and 0.27 (0.06-1.31), respectively]. While occupants of newer vehicles experience lower odds of AI in near side impact crashes, a higher AI risk is present in frontal crashes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Changes in aortic pulse wave velocity of four thoracic aortic stent grafts in an ex vivo porcine model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beaufort, Hector W L; Coda, Margherita; Conti, Michele; van Bakel, Theodorus M J; Nauta, Foeke J H; Lanzarone, Ettore; Moll, Frans L|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070246882; van Herwaarden, Joost A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304814733; Auricchio, Ferdinando; Trimarchi, Santi

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has been shown to lead to increased aortic stiffness. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of stent graft type and stent graft length on aortic stiffness in a controlled, experimental setting. METHODS: Twenty porcine thoracic

  7. Supravalvular aortic stenosis with sudden cardiac death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Vaideeswar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death (SCD most commonly results from previously undiagnosed congenital, acquired, or hereditary cardiac diseases. Congenital aortic valvular, subvalvular, and supravalvular disease with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is an important preventable cause of sudden death. This report documents sudden death presumably due to acute myocardial ischemia in a young male with an undiagnosed supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS due to a rare association of isolation of coronary sinuses of Valsalva. Congenital supravalvular pulmonary stenosis and mitral valvular dysplasia were also present.

  8. Idiopathic thoracic aortic aneurysm at pediatric age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Manzano, E; González-de-Olano, D; Haurie-Girelli, J; Herráiz-Sarachaga, J I; Bermúdez-Cañete, R; Tamariz-Martel, A; Cuesta-Gimeno, C; Pérez-de-León, J

    2009-03-01

    A 6-year-old-boy presented with epigastric pain and vomiting over 1 year. Chest X-ray and esophagogastric transit showed a mediastinal mass. A chest computerized tomography angiogram demonstrated a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm. Analytical determinations carried out were all negative. The aneurysm was surgically repaired using a Dacron patch. The anatomopathological study described atherosclerotic lesions with calcifications, compatible with an atherosclerotic aneurysm wall. Aneurysms are uncommon in the pediatric population. Usually, no pathogenesis can be determined, and thus, such cases are grouped as idiopathic. Direct repair with or without patch is a therapeutic alternative in pediatric aneurysms and can allow the growth of the aortic circumference.

  9. Flow measurement at the aortic root

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Litten; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Køber, Lars

    2016-01-01

    theoretically be equal to flow measurements, SVV and SVST were compared to SVref. RESULTS: Initially, 152 patients were included. 22 were excluded because of arrhythmias during scans and 9 were excluded for aortic stenosis. Accordingly, data from 121 patients were analysed and of these 63 had visually evident...... measurements. The mean difference between SVref-SVV (6.4 mL) and SVref-SVST (18.2 mL) showed similar variances (SD 7.4 vs. 8.1 respectively) and hence equal accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: Aortic flow measured at valve level corresponded best with volumetric measurements and on average flow measured at the sinotubular...

  10. Neutrophil mediated smooth muscle cell loss precedes allograft vasculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Timothy DG

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (AV is a pathological process of vascular remodeling leading to late graft loss following cardiac transplantation. While there is consensus that AV is alloimmune mediated, and evidence that the most important alloimmune target is medial smooth muscle cells (SMC, the role of the innate immune response in the initiation of this disease is still being elucidated. As ischemia reperfusion (IR injury plays a pivotal role in the initiation of AV, we hypothesize that IR enhances the early innate response to cardiac allografts. Methods Aortic transplants were performed between fully disparate mouse strains (C3H/HeJ and C57BL/6, in the presence of therapeutic levels of Cyclosporine A, as a model for cardiac AV. Neutrophils were depleted from some recipients using anti-PMN serum. Grafts were harvested at 1,2,3,5d and 1,2wk post-transplant. Ultrastructural integrity was examined by transmission electron microscopy. SMC and neutrophils were quantified from histological sections in a blinded manner. Results Grafts exposed to cold ischemia, but not transplanted, showed no medial SMC loss and normal ultrastructural integrity. In comparison, allografts harvested 1d post-transplant exhibited > 90% loss of SMC (p Conclusions These novel data show that there is extensive damage to medial SMC at 1d post-transplant. By depleting neutrophils from recipients it was demonstrated that a portion of the SMC loss was mediated by neutrophils. These results provide evidence that IR activation of early innate events contributes to the etiology of AV.

  11. Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans What is Mycobacterium bovis ? In the United States, the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in people are caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( ...

  12. Nonequilibrium flows with smooth particle applied mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kum, Oyeon [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Smooth particle methods are relatively new methods for simulating solid and fluid flows through they have a 20-year history of solving complex hydrodynamic problems in astrophysics, such as colliding planets and stars, for which correct answers are unknown. The results presented in this thesis evaluate the adaptability or fitness of the method for typical hydrocode production problems. For finite hydrodynamic systems, boundary conditions are important. A reflective boundary condition with image particles is a good way to prevent a density anomaly at the boundary and to keep the fluxes continuous there. Boundary values of temperature and velocity can be separately controlled. The gradient algorithm, based on differentiating the smooth particle expression for (uρ) and (Tρ), does not show numerical instabilities for the stress tensor and heat flux vector quantities which require second derivatives in space when Fourier`s heat-flow law and Newton`s viscous force law are used. Smooth particle methods show an interesting parallel linking to them to molecular dynamics. For the inviscid Euler equation, with an isentropic ideal gas equation of state, the smooth particle algorithm generates trajectories isomorphic to those generated by molecular dynamics. The shear moduli were evaluated based on molecular dynamics calculations for the three weighting functions, B spline, Lucy, and Cusp functions. The accuracy and applicability of the methods were estimated by comparing a set of smooth particle Rayleigh-Benard problems, all in the laminar regime, to corresponding highly-accurate grid-based numerical solutions of continuum equations. Both transient and stationary smooth particle solutions reproduce the grid-based data with velocity errors on the order of 5%. The smooth particle method still provides robust solutions at high Rayleigh number where grid-based methods fails.

  13. The role of balloon aortic valvuloplasty in the era of transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacławski, Jacek; Wilczek, Krzysztof; Pres, Damian; Krajewski, Adam; Poloński, Lech; Zembala, Marian; Gąsior, Mariusz

    2015-03-01

    Balloon aortic valvuloplasty is recommended in patients not suitable for transcatheter aortic valve implantation/aortic valve replacement (TAVI/AVR) or when such interventions are temporarily contraindicated. The number of performed balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) procedures has been increasing in recent years. Valvuloplasty enables the selection of individuals with severe left ventricular dysfunction or with symptoms of uncertain origin resulting from concomitant disorders (including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD]) who can benefit from destination therapy (AVR/TAVI). Thanks to improved equipment, the number of adverse effects is now lower than it was in the first years after the advent of BAV. Valvuloplasty can be safely performed even in unstable patients, but long-term results remain poor. In view of the limited availability of TAVI in Poland, it is reasonable to qualify patients for BAV more often, as it is a relatively safe procedure improving the clinical condition of patients awaiting AVR/TAVI.

  14. Aortic root and ascending aortic aneurysm in an adult with a repaired tetralogy of fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Sik; Na, Chan-Young; Baek, Jong Hyun; Yang, Jin Sung

    2011-08-01

    Surgical repair of the tetralogy of Fallot is one of the most successful operations in the treatment of congenital heart diseases. We report the case of a 65-year-old man who had an aortic valve replacement at the time of complete repair of the tetralogy of Fallot at the age of forty-three. He subsequently had progressive aortic root and ascending aorta dilation to 9 cm. The aortic root and ascending aorta replacement was done using a composite valve-graft and was performed along with other procedures. Thus, meticulous follow-up of aortic root and ascending aorta after corrective surgery for tetralogy of Fallot is recommended following initial curative surgery.

  15. An expanded polytetrafluoroethylene-autologous aortic hybrid valve for right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction in the Ross procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takako; Yamagishi, Masaaki; Shuntoh, Keisuke; Yaku, Hitoshi

    2007-04-01

    Although the Ross procedure is a well-established approach to aortic valve disease in pediatric patients and young adults, there still is no ideal method of right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) reconstruction, especially in children. To achieve improved RVOT reconstruction with long-term valve function and growth potential, we have developed a hybrid valve which combines the autologous aortic valve and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) valves. The posterior wall of RVOT was reconstructed using the autologous aortic wall with a noncoronary cusp, and the anterior wall was reconstructed using a patch made of bovine pericardium or ePTFE with bicuspid ePTFE valves. We implanted hybrid valves in 14 patients (age 5-18 years). During the follow-up period (2.4-8.8 years), there were no mortalities or morbidities, and no patients required reoperation. Echocardiography showed no significant stenosis and regurgitation, and preserved valve motion in all patients. The z-value of the diameters of the pulmonary annulus in early and late follow-up was -1.4 and -1.8, respectively, the difference not being significant. Creation of a hybrid valve was associated with excellent mid- to long-term results. Given its theoretical growth potential, we speculate that this valve could be a good choice for RVOT reconstruction in the Ross procedure, especially for young children.

  16. Direct Aortic CoreValve implantation via right anterior thoracotomy in a patient with patent bilateral mammary artery grafts and aortic arch chronic dissection

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    Giuseppe Bruschi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct aortic trans-catheter aortic valve implantation is an alternative approach to treat high risk for surgery patients affected by severe aortic stenosis and concomitant peripheral vascular disease. We describe a case of direct aortic CoreValve implantation made via a right anterior thoracotomy in a 78-year-old male affected by severe aortic stenosis and severe peripheral vasculopathy, who previously underwent coronary artery bypass grafting, with patent bilateral mammary artery grafts and chronic aortic arch dissection.

  17. Influence of distal entry tears in acute type B aortic dissection after thoracic endovascular aortic repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenmou; Huang, Bin; Zhao, Jichun; Ma, Yukui; Yuan, Ding; Yang, Yi; Xiong, Fei; Wang, Tiehao

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the clinical influence of distal entry tears in acute type B aortic dissection (ATBAD) after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). From August 2009 to December 2014, the clinical outcomes of 130 patients who underwent TEVAR for ATBAD were retrospectively analyzed. According to whether distal entry tears existed after TEVAR, patients were divided into group A (n = 25, absence of distal entry tears) and group B (n = 105, presence of distal entry tears). We evaluated clinical outcomes, including mortality and morbidity in early and late follow-up, as well as aortic remolding. Late aortic events were defined as aortic dissection-related events occurring >30 days from the initial TEVAR procedures, which consisted of endoleak, retrograde type A aortic dissection, aortic enlargement, late rupture, repeat dissection, and stent-induced new entry tear. The study comprised 130 patients (114 men [87.7%] and 16 women [12.3%)] with a mean age of 53.71 years. The 30-day mortality was 3.1%, and early morbidity included type I endoleak, 3.1%, organ failure, 3.8%; stroke, 3.1%; spinal cord ischemia, 0%; and early rupture 1.5%. The overall survival rate by Kaplan-Meier analysis at 1, 3, and 5 years was 93.8%, 89.5%, and 79.2%, respectively. There were no significant differences in early morbidity and 30-day mortality and late survival between group A and group B. However, group A had a significantly lower rate of late aortic events than group B (P = .028 by log-rank test). Meanwhile, group A had better aortic remolding than group B in complete thrombosis of the thoracic aorta at 12 months postoperatively (100% vs 83.5%; P = .029). This study demonstrated that TEVAR for ATBAD had low perioperative morbidity and mortality and satisfactory midterm outcome. Distal entry tears increase the occurrence of late aortic events and inhibit aortic remolding but do not have a significantly negative effect on late survival. Repairing all entry tears to restore

  18. Photobiomodulation of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells in vitro with red laser light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipshidze, Nicholas; Keelan, Michael H., Jr.; Horn, Joseph B.; Nikolaychik, Victor

    1996-12-01

    Numerous reports suggest that low power red laser light (LPRLL) is capable of affecting cellular processes in the absence of significant thermal effect. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of LPRLL on viability, growth, and attachment characteristics of rabbit and human aortic endothelial cells (EC) and smooth muscle cells (SMC) in vitro. All cell cultures were irradiated with single dose LPRLL using a He-Ne continuous wave laser with different energy densities. Assessment of effect on cell viability, growth, and attachment was performed utilizing Alamar Blue assay. Based upon our experiments, we conclude that: 1) stimulation and/or inhibition of cell growth and death can be obtained with LPRLL by varying the energy level, 2) LPRLL increases EC attachment, and 3) EC are more sensitive to photobiomodulation with LPRLL than SMC. These data may have significant importance leading to the establishment of new methods for phototherapy of atherosclerosis and restenosis.

  19. Tissue-Engineered Vascular Rings from Human iPSC-Derived Smooth Muscle Cells

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    Biraja C. Dash

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need for an efficient approach to obtain a large-scale and renewable source of functional human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs to establish robust, patient-specific tissue model systems for studying the pathogenesis of vascular disease, and for developing novel therapeutic interventions. Here, we have derived a large quantity of highly enriched functional VSMCs from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-VSMCs. Furthermore, we have engineered 3D tissue rings from hiPSC-VSMCs using a facile one-step cellular self-assembly approach. The tissue rings are mechanically robust and can be used for vascular tissue engineering and disease modeling of supravalvular aortic stenosis syndrome. Our method may serve as a model system, extendable to study other vascular proliferative diseases for drug screening. Thus, this report describes an exciting platform technology with broad utility for manufacturing cell-based tissues and materials for various biomedical applications.

  20. Off-Pump Debranching and Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair for Aortic Arch Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazy, Tamer; Mashhour, Ahmed; Schmidt, Torsten; Mahlmann, Adrian; Ouda, Ahmed; Florek, Hans-Joachim; Matschke, Klaus; Kappert, Utz

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to simplify an until-now complex procedure for the treatment of proximal aortic arch pathology (zones 0 and 1), where a deep hypothermic circulatory arrest even with selective cerebral perfusion is still a high-risk procedure with accompanying splanchnic and spinal cord ischemia. From June 2012 until March 2013, 106 patients underwent aortic surgery in our institution, of whom, 20 patients underwent aortic arch surgery. Of the 20 patients, 7 with multiple comorbidities and a high operative risk and no other indication for a cardiopulmonary bypass were selected to undergo an off-pump aortic arch debranching and thoracic endovascular aortic repair: 4 patients had chronic dissections, and 3 patients had arch aneurysms. The procedure was performed through median sternotomy. The supraaortic branches were rerouted to the ascending aorta, and this process was followed by thoracic endovascular aortic repair of the aortic arch and proximal descending aorta. Transaortic antegrade stenting was performed in 5 cases. Cerebral protection and perfusion monitoring were achieved by biradial pressure monitoring, electroencephalogram, and online transcranial duplex sonography. The preoperative, operative, and postoperative data were collected and analyzed retrospectively. All procedures were successful. There were no conversions to cardiopulmonary bypass support. The mean operative time was 184 ± 24 minutes. Postoperatively, there was 1 rethoracotomy for bleeding and 1 cerebrovascular insult. The 30-day mortality was 1 patient. Off-pump aortic debranching with arch stenting is a reproducible procedure that could be favorable in certain situations, such as in patients with a higher operative risk profile, thereby reducing the risks associated with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and also yielding favorable outcomes, even in an older patient cohort with more comorbidities.

  1. Progression of Aortic Regurgitation After Different Repair Techniques for Congenital Aortic Valve Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, Fabian A; Kroll, Johannes; Kiss, Jan; Hess, Carolin; Stiller, Brigitte; Siepe, Matthias; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm

    2016-01-01

    We sought to characterize the incidence of AR progression and determine risk factors for AR progression in a consecutive series of infants and children after surgical correction of congenital aortic valvular and supravalvular stenosis. N = 30 patients underwent repair of the aortic valve for isolated congenital aortic valve stenosis (n = 14, 47 %) or combined with aortic regurgitation (AR, n = 16, 53%). N = 27 (90%) had a valvular and n = 3 patients (10%) presented with supravalvular pathology of their aortic valve. In n = 16 patients (53%) a bicuspid and in n = 2 (6%) patients, a unicuspid valve was present. Comparative survival was analyzed using the Cox model and log-rank calculations. Log-rank calculations were performed for variables reaching statistical significance in order to identify differences in survival between groups. Commissurotomy was performed in n = 20 patients, patch implantation in n = 4, cusp shaving in n = 8, cusp prolapse correction in n = 3, and cusp augmentation in n = 4 patients. In patients with combined dysfunction and preoperative AR, AR was successfully reduced by the initial procedure, and postoperatively the overall median AR grade was 1+ (range 0-2.5+, p = 0.001, for AR reduction among patients with any grade of preoperative AR). By the time of follow-up echocardiography, the median AR grade had significantly progressed toward 1.5+ (p = 0.004). At the time of mid-term follow-up at 3.2 years, none of the patients had moderate or severe AR grades >2.5+. Patients with a monocuspid aortic valve and patients who had some kind of patch implantation into their cusps or commissures or shaving of thickened cusps were more likely to present with progression of aortic regurgitation. Monocuspid aortic valve and patch implantation, as well as cusp shaving, are probably linked to AR progression. The standard procedure of commissurotomy results in an absolute rate of AR progression of 40 % over a medium-term follow-up period.

  2. Discrete supravalvular aortic stenosis in children: Is it necessary to reconstruct the whole aortic root?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçyildirim, Ergin; Ozkan, Süleyman; Karadağ, Demet; Köse, S Kenan; Ekici, Enver; Ikizler, Coşkun

    2009-08-01

    Discrete supravalvular aortic stenosis (SAS) is known to involve the whole aortic root. Some surgeons have therefore changed their approach from relief of obstruction using a single-patch to symmetric reconstruction of the whole aortic root - three-patch technique. The advantages are said to be preserved long-term aortic valve function and allowance for growth. This is unproven. We compare growth and aortic root geometry in patients who have undergone relief of discrete SAS using either single-or three-patch technique. Twenty-five patients (14 male, 11 female, mean age of 11+/-4 years, range 4-18) underwent surgery for discrete SAS. No patients with diffuse SAS were included in this retrospective analysis. Twelve patients had features of Williams syndrome. Five patients had other concomitant procedures. A single-patch was inserted into the longitudinal incision, which passed across the stenosis into the non-coronary sinus in 14. A three-patch technique was used in 11 patients. Changes in aortic root following repair were documented in patients using both echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There were no operative deaths. The mean preoperative gradient was 66+/-17 mmHg (range 50-100 mmHg), which decreased to 14+/-7 mmHg (range 4-18 mmHg) early postoperatively. The late mean gradient was 15+/-5 mmHg. There was no significant difference in the incidence of postoperative aortic regurgitation or gradient across the repair between two techniques according to the echocardiograms and MRI findings. According to our study, we cannot demonstrate any benefit in reconstructing the whole aortic root for discrete SAS. A single-patch technique is easy, safe and appears durable.

  3. Modelling of aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection through 3D printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Daniel; Squelch, Andrew; Sun, Zhonghua

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess if the complex anatomy of aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection can be accurately reproduced from a contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan into a three-dimensional (3D) printed model. Contrast-enhanced cardiac CT scans from two patients were post-processed and produced as 3D printed thoracic aorta models of aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection. The transverse diameter was measured at five anatomical landmarks for both models, compared across three stages: the original contrast-enhanced CT images, the stereolithography (STL) format computerised model prepared for 3D printing and the contrast-enhanced CT of the 3D printed model. For the model with aortic dissection, measurements of the true and false lumen were taken and compared at two points on the descending aorta. Three-dimensional printed models were generated with strong and flexible plastic material with successful replication of anatomical details of aortic structures and pathologies. The mean difference in transverse vessel diameter between the contrast-enhanced CT images before and after 3D printing was 1.0 and 1.2 mm, for the first and second models respectively (standard deviation: 1.0 mm and 0.9 mm). Additionally, for the second model, the mean luminal diameter difference between the 3D printed model and CT images was 0.5 mm. Encouraging results were achieved with regards to reproducing 3D models depicting aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection. Variances in vessel diameter measurement outside a standard deviation of 1 mm tolerance indicate further work is required into the assessment and accuracy of 3D model reproduction. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology.

  4. Impact of aortic root geometry on hydrody-namic performance of transcatheter aortic valve prostheses

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    Kaule Sebastian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of hydrodynamic performance of transcatheter aortic valve prostheses (TAVP in vitro is es-sentially in the fields of development and approval of novel implants. For the prediction of clinical performance, in vitro testing of TAVP allows for benchmarking of different devic-es, likewise. In addition to the implant itself, also the testing environment has a crucial influence on leaflet dynamics and quantitative test results like effective orifice area (EOA or aortic regurgitation.

  5. New predictor of aortic enlargement in uncomplicated type B aortic dissection based on elliptic Fourier analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Ito, Toshiro; Kuroda, Yosuke; Uchiyama, Hiroki; Watanabe, Toshitaka; Yasuda, Naomi; Nakazawa, Junji; Harada, Ryo; Kawaharada, Nobuyoshi

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to re-examine the conventional predictive factors for dissected aortic enlargement, such as the aortic and false lumen diameter and to consider whether the morphological elements of the dissected aorta could be predictors by quantifying the 'shape' of the true lumen based on elliptic Fourier analysis. A total of 80 patients with uncomplicated type B aortic dissection were included. The patients were divided into 'Enlargement group' and 'No Change group.' Between the 2 groups, the mean systolic blood pressure during follow-up, aortic and false lumen maximum diameters, and analysed morphological data were compared using each statistical method. The maximum aortic and false lumen diameters were significantly larger in the Enlargement group than in the No Change group (39.3 vs 35.9 mm; P = 0.0058) (23.5 vs 18.2 mm; P = 0.000095). The principal component 1, which is the data calculated by elliptic Fourier analysis, was significantly lower in the Enlargement group than in the No Change group (0.020 vs - 0.072; P = 0.000049). The mean systolic blood pressure ≥130 mmHg, aortic diameter, false lumen diameter and principal component 1 were included in the Cox proportional hazard model as covariates to determine the significant predictive variable. Principal component 1 demonstrated the only significance with aortic enlargement on multivariate analysis (odds ratio = 0.32; P = 0.048). The analysed and calculated morphological data of the shape of the true lumen can be more effective predictive factors of aortic enlargement of type B dissection than the conventional factors.

  6. FATAL HEMORRHAGE DUE TO TRACHEAL-ESOPHAGEAL-AORTIC FISTULA IN A PATIENT WITH DOUBLE AORTIC ARCH

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    Casimiro Giorgetta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 18-year-old male with double aortic arch who underwent surgery for bleeding from a left bulbar cavernous angioma of the medulla oblongata. A tracheostomy tube was positioned but after several days the patient died because of a tracheo-esophageal fistula with left aortic arch erosion due to the decubitus of the tube cuff.

  7. FATAL HEMORRHAGE DUE TO TRACHEAL-ESOPHAGEAL-AORTIC FISTULA IN A PATIENT WITH DOUBLE AORTIC ARCH

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    Casimiro Giorgetta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a18-year-old male with double aortic arch who underwent surgery for bleeding from a left bulbar cavernous angioma of the medulla oblongata. A tracheostomy tube was positioned but after several days the patient died because of a tracheo-esophageal fistula with left aortic arch erosion due to the decubitus of the tube cuff

  8. Vitamins and abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hisato; Umemoto, Takuya

    2017-02-01

    To summarize the association of vitamins (B6, B12, C, D, and E) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), we reviewed clinical studies with a comprehensive literature research and meta-analytic estimates. To identify all clinical studies evaluating the association of vitamins B6/B12/C/D/E and AAA, databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched through April 2015, using Web-based search engines (PubMed and OVID). For each case-control study, data regarding vitamin levels in both the AAA and control groups were used to generate standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Pooled analyses of the 4 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower circulating vitamin B6 levels (SMD, -0.33; 95% CI, -0.55 to -0.11; P=0.003) but non-significantly lower vitamin B12 levels (SMD, -0.42; 95% CI, -1.09 to 0.25; P=0.22) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. Pooled analyses of the 2 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower levels of circulating vitamins C (SMD, -0.71; 95% CI, -1.23 to -0.19; P=0.007) and E (SMD, -1.76; 95% CI, -2.93 to 0.60; P=0.003) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. Another pooled analysis of the 3 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower circulating vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) levels (SMD, -0.25; 95% CI, -0.50 to -0.01; P=0.04) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. In a double-blind controlled trial, 4.0-year treatment with a high-dose folic acid and vitamin B6/B12 multivitamin in kidney transplant recipients did not reduce a rate of AAA repair despite significant reduction in homocysteine level. In another randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 5.8-year supplementation with α-tocopherol (vitamin E) had no preventive effect on large AAA among male smokers. In clinical setting, although low circulating vitamins B6/C/D/E (not B12) levels are associated with AAA presence, vitamins B6/B12/E

  9. Manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehorster, Diederick C; Siu, Wilfred W F; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that concurrent manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit eye movements only when tracking a self-driven or a predictable moving target. Here, we used a control-theoretic approach to examine whether concurrent manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit of an unpredictable moving target. In the eye-hand tracking condition, participants used their eyes to track a Gaussian target that moved randomly along a horizontal axis. In the meantime, they used their dominant hand to move a mouse to control the horizontal movement of a Gaussian cursor to vertically align it with the target. In the eye-alone tracking condition, the target and cursor positions recorded in the eye-hand tracking condition were replayed, and participants only performed eye tracking of the target. Catch-up saccades were identified and removed from the recorded eye movements, allowing for a frequency-response analysis of the smooth pursuit response to unpredictable target motion. We found that the overall smooth pursuit gain was higher and the number of catch-up saccades made was less when eye tracking was accompanied by manual tracking than when not. We conclude that concurrent manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit. This enhancement is a fundamental property of eye-hand coordination that occurs regardless of the predictability of the target motion.

  10. Interstitial Cells: Regulators of Smooth Muscle Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Kenton M.; Ward, Sean M.; Koh, Sang Don

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscles are complex tissues containing a variety of cells in addition to muscle cells. Interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin interact with and form electrical connectivity with smooth muscle cells in many organs, and these cells provide important regulatory functions. For example, in the gastrointestinal tract, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and PDGFRα+ cells have been described, in detail, and represent distinct classes of cells with unique ultrastructure, molecular phenotypes, and functions. Smooth muscle cells are electrically coupled to ICC and PDGFRα+ cells, forming an integrated unit called the SIP syncytium. SIP cells express a variety of receptors and ion channels, and conductance changes in any type of SIP cell affect the excitability and responses of the syncytium. SIP cells are known to provide pacemaker activity, propagation pathways for slow waves, transduction of inputs from motor neurons, and mechanosensitivity. Loss of interstitial cells has been associated with motor disorders of the gut. Interstitial cells are also found in a variety of other smooth muscles; however, in most cases, the physiological and pathophysiological roles for these cells have not been clearly defined. This review describes structural, functional, and molecular features of interstitial cells and discusses their contributions in determining the behaviors of smooth muscle tissues. PMID:24987007

  11. Bilirubin inhibits neointima formation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration

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    Kelly J. Peyton

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bilirubin is a heme metabolite generated by the concerted action of the enzymes heme oxygenase and biliverdin reductase. Although long considered a toxic byproduct of heme catabolism, recent preclinical and clinical studies indicate the bilirubin exerts beneficial effects in the circulation. In the present study, we determined whether local administration of bilirubin attenuates neointima formation following injury of rat carotid arteries. In addition, the ability of bilirubin to regulate the proliferation and migration of human arterial smooth muscle cells was investigated. Local perivascular administration of bilirubin immediately following balloon injury of rat carotid arteries significantly attenuated neointima formation. Bilirubin-mediated inhibition of neointimal thickening was associated with a significant decrease in ERK activity and cyclin D1 and A protein expression, and an increase in p21 and p53 protein expression in injured blood vessels. Treatment of human aortic smooth muscle cells with bilirubin inhibited proliferation and migration in a concentration-dependent manner without affecting cell viability. In addition, bilirubin resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and this was paralleled by a decrease in the fraction of cells in the S and G2M phases of the cell cycle. Finally, bilirubin had no effect on mitochondrial function and ATP content of vascular SMCs. In conclusion, these studies demonstrate that bilirubin inhibits neointima formation after arterial injury and this is associated with alterations in the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins. Furthermore bilirubin blocks proliferation and migration of human arterial smooth muscle cells and arrests smooth muscle cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Bilirubin represents an attractive therapeutic agent in treating occlusive vascular disease.

  12. Medtronic Freestyle Aortic Root Bioprosthesis Implantation for the Infective Endocarditis on Aortic Root

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    Zekeriya Arslan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available    Infective endocarditis and periannular abscess formation are serious problems in cardiac valve surgery, requiring extensive surgical debridement and reconstruction of the aortic annulus. We aimed to report two cases which were successfully treated with bioprosthetic valve implantation for infective endocarditis. Transosephageal echocardiography were performed for the diagnosis of one prosthetic and one native destructive aortic valve endocarditis in association with congestive heart failure (NYHA class-VI and abscess formation. Medtronic Freestyle stentless aortic root bioprosthesis was implanted into the left ventricular outflow tract after surgical radical aortic root debridement for each patient followed with medical treatment, which was extended to six weeks. Neither early nor late mortality was detected. One patient required prolonged ventilatory support (two days and permanent DDD-R pacing. Echocardiography showed no signs of valve dysfunction or recurrent endocarditis for both patients in 10 months follow up.Medtronic Freestyle stentless aortic root bioprosthesis may be a good alternative way of treatment to aortic valve and root endocarditis instead of homograft.

  13. Hybrid Strategy for Residual Arch and Thoracic Aortic Dissection following Acute Type A Aortic Dissection Repair

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    Sidharth Viswanathan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive dilatation of the false lumen in the arch and descending aorta has been encountered in one-third of survivors as a late sequelae following repair of ascending aortic dissection. Conventional treatment for the same requiring cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest is associated with high morbidity and mortality especially in the elderly cohort of patients. Herein we report a case of symptomatic progressive aneurysmal dilatation of residual arch and descending thoracic aortic dissection following repair of type A aortic dissection, successfully treated by total arch debranching and ascending aortic prosthesis to bicarotid and left subclavian bypass followed by staged retrograde aortic stent-graft deployment. This case report with relevant review of the literature highlights this clinical entity and the present evidence on its appropriate management strategies. Close surveillance is mandatory following surgical repair of type A aortic dissection and hybrid endovascular procedures seem to be the most dependable modality for salvage of patients detected to have progression of residual arch dissection.

  14. Quantitative Aortic Distensibility Measurement Using CT in Patients with Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Reproducibility and Clinical Relevance

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    Yunfei Zha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the reproducibility of aortic distensibility (D measurement using CT and assess its clinical relevance in patients with infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA. Methods. 54 patients with infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm were studied to determine their distensibility by using 64-MDCT. Aortic cross-sectional area changes were determined at two positions of the aorta, immediately below the lowest renal artery (level 1. and at the level of its maximal diameter (level 2. by semiautomatic segmentation. Measurement reproducibility was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and Bland-Altman analyses. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to assess linear associations between aortic D and anthropometric and biochemical parameters. Results. A mean distensibility of Dlevel  1.=(1.05±0.22×10-5  Pa-1 and Dlevel  2.=(0.49±0.18×10-5  Pa-1 was found. ICC proved excellent consistency between readers over two locations: 0.92 for intraobserver and 0.89 for interobserver difference in level 1. and 0.85 and 0.79 in level 2. Multivariate analysis of all these variables showed sac distensibility to be independently related (R2=0.68 to BMI, diastolic blood pressure, and AAA diameter. Conclusions. Aortic distensibility measurement in patients with AAA demonstrated high inter- and intraobserver agreement and may be valuable when choosing the optimal dimensions graft for AAA before endovascular aneurysm repair.

  15. Vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis promotes transplant arteriosclerosis through inducing the production of SDF-1α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Liu, S; Li, W; Hu, S; Xiong, J; Shu, X; Hu, Q; Zheng, Q; Song, Z

    2012-08-01

    Transplant arteriosclerosis is a leading cause of late allograft loss. Medial smooth muscle cell (SMC) apoptosis is considered to be an important event in transplant arteriosclerosis. However, the precise contribution of medial SMC apoptosis to transplant arteriosclerosis and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We transferred wild-type p53 to induce apoptosis of cultured SMCs. We found that apoptosis induces the production of SDF-1α from apoptotic and neighboring viable cells, resulting in increased SDF-1α in the culture media. Conditioned media from Ltv-p53-transferred SMCs activated PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK/Erk signaling in a SDF-1α-dependent manner and thereby promoted mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) migration and proliferation. In a rat aorta transplantation model, lentivirus-mediated BclxL transfer selectively inhibits medial SMC apoptosis in aortic allografts, resulting in a remarkable decrease of SDF-1α both in allograft media and in blood plasma, associated with diminished recruitment of CD90(+)CD105(+) double-positive cells and impaired neointimal formation. Systemic administration of rapamycin or PD98059 also attenuated MSC recruitment and neointimal formation in the aortic allografts. These results suggest that medial SMC apoptosis is critical for the development of transplant arteriosclerosis through inducing SDF-1α production and that MSC recruitment represents a major component of vascular remodeling, constituting a relevant target and mechanism for therapeutic interventions. © Copyright 2012 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  16. COMPARISON OF PREOPERATIVE NONINVASIVE AND INTRAOPERATIVE MEASUREMENTS OF AORTIC ANNULUS

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    Manish Hinduja

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Precise preoperative assessment of aortic annulus diameter is essential for sizing of aortic valve especially in patients planned for transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Computed Tomographic (CT and echocardiographic measurements of the aortic annulus vary because of elliptical shape of aortic annulus. This study was undertaken to compare the measurement of aortic annulus intraoperatively with preoperative noninvasive methods in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement. MATERIALS AND METHODS Aortic annulus diameter was measured with cardiac CT and Transesophageal Echocardiography (TEE prior to open aortic valve replacement in 30 patients with aortic valve stenosis. In CT, aortic annulus dimensions were measured in coronal plane, sagittal oblique plane and by planimetry. Both 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional TEE were used. These were compared with intraoperative measurements done by valve sizers and Hegar dilators. Pearson analysis was applied to test for degree of correlation. RESULTS CT in coronal and sagittal oblique plane tends to overestimate the diameter of aortic annulus when compared with intraoperative measurements (coefficient of relation, r = 0.798 and 0.749, respectively. CT measurements in single oblique plane showed a weaker correlation with intraoperative measurements than 3D TEE and 2D TEE (r = 0.917 and 0.898, respectively. However, CT measurements by planimetry method were most correlating with the intraoperative measurements (r = 0.951. CONCLUSION Noninvasive investigations with 3-dimensional views (CT-based measurement employing calculated average diameter assessment by planimetry and 3-dimensional TEE showed better correlation with intraoperative measurement of aortic annulus. CT-based aortic annulus measurement by planimetry seems to provide adequate dimensions most similar to operative measurements.

  17. Ivabradine on aortic stiffness in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nar, Gokay; Inci, Sinan; Aksan, Gokhan; Demirelli, Selami; Soylu, Korhan; Yuksel, Serkan; Gulel, Okan; Icli, Atilla

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ivabradine treatment on aortic stiffness by measuring aortic elastic parameters in patients with heart failure (HF) receiving ivabradine treatment. The study included clinical patients who were diagnosed with HF (ejection fraction, <35%), had sinus rhythm and persistent symptoms despite full medical treatment. The study group consisted of patients with a heart rate greater than 70 beats per minute and the control group consisted of patients with a heart rate less than 70 beats per minute. Echocardiographic measurements were conducted and aortic strain, aortic distensibility, and aortic stiffness index were calculated. By the end of the twelfth month, a decrease was observed in the left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes, whereas ejection fraction was increased (P < 0.001). When aortic elastic parameters were evaluated between the 2 groups, there was no significant difference regarding aortic strain, aortic distensibility, and aortic stiffness index at the time of enrollment and during the visit at 3 months. At the twelfth month visit, aortic strain (P < 0.001) and distensibility (P < 0.001) were significantly increased, whereas there was a significant decrease in the aortic stiffness index (P < 0.001). During the follow-up at 12 months, significant improvements were observed in the left ventricular functions and aortic elastic parameters along with decreased heart rate in patients with HF receiving ivabradine treatment. This outcome may indicate that ivabradine treatment may correct aortic stiffness and may reduce aortic stiffness after 1 year of follow-up.

  18. [Albert Einstein and his abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes Castro, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The interesting case of Albert Einstein's abdominal aortic aneurysm is presented. He was operated on at age 69 and, finding that the large aneurysm could not be removed, the surgeon elected to wrap it with cellophane to prevent its growth. However, seven years later the aneurysm ruptured and caused the death of the famous scientist.

  19. Autopsy after transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Kesteren, F; Wiegerinck, E M A; Rizzo, S

    2017-01-01

    Autopsy after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a new field of interest in cardiovascular pathology. To identify the cause of death, it is important to be familiar with specific findings related to the time interval between the procedure and death. We aimed to provide an overview ...

  20. Variants of the left aortic arch branches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Variants of the left aortic arch branches. N Z Makhanya. MB ChB. R T Mamogale. MB 0113. N Khan. FCRaD (0). Department of Diagnostic Radiology. Medical University of Southern Africa. Abstract. The normal aorta has three branches from its arch, but variations in this pattern are not uncommon. Our.

  1. Endovascular aortic repair: First twenty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Končar Igor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Endovascular aortic/aneurysm repair (EVAR was introduced into clinical practice at the beginning of the nineties. Its fast development had a great influence on clinicians, vascular surgeons and interventional radiologists, educational curriculums, patients, industry and medical insurance. The aim of this paper is to present the contribution of clinicians and industry to the development and advancement of endovascular aortic repair over the last 20 years. This review article presents the development of EVAR by focusing on the contribution of physicians, surgeons and interventional radiologists in the creation of the new field of vascular surgery termed hybrid vascular surgery, and also the contribution of technological advancement by a significant help of industrial representatives – engineers and their counselors. This article also analyzes studies conducted in order to compare the successfulness of EVAR with up-to-now applied open surgical repair of aortic aneurysms, and some treatment techniques of other aortic diseases. During the first two decades of its development the EVAR method was rapidly progressing and was adopted concurrently with the expansion of technology. Owing to large randomized studies, early and long-term results indicate specific complications of this method, thus influencing further technological improvement and defining risk patients groups in whom the use of the technique should be avoided. Good results are insured only in centers, specialized in vascular surgery, which have on their disposal adequate conditions for solving all complications associated with this method.

  2. Endovascular management of traumatic thoracic aortic transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmat, Atasha; Tan, Lenny; Caleb, Michael George; Lee, Chuen-Neng; Robless, Peter Ashley

    2009-10-01

    The conventional treatment of traumatic thoracic aortic transection is open surgical repair but it is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, particularly in patients with multiple injuries. We reviewed our experience of endovascular repair of traumatic thoracic aortic transection. Between March 2002 and December 2007, 7 patients (male 6, female 1; mean age 40 years) with multiple injuries secondary to blunt trauma underwent endovascular stenting. One patient required adjunctive surgery to facilitate endovascular stenting. Mean intensive care unit stay was 8.6 days (range, 3-16 days). Arterial access in all patients was obtained by femoral cut-down. The mean operating time was 122 min. Technical success was achieved in all cases. There was no mortality. One patient suffered a right parietal stroke, but none developed procedure-related paralysis. The mean follow-up period was 18.6 months (range, 6-48 months). There was no evidence of endoleak, stent migration, or late pseudoaneurysm formation on follow-up computed tomography. Endovascular stents can be used to treat traumatic thoracic aortic transection, with low rates of morbidity and mortality. Although early and midterm results are promising, the long-term durability of endovascular stenting for traumatic thoracic aortic transection remains unknown.

  3. Natural history of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perko, M J; Schroeder, T V; Olsen, P S

    1993-01-01

    During a 10-year period in which 735 patients presented with abdominal aortic aneurysms to our clinic, 63 were not offered operative treatment. The primary reason for choosing conservative treatment was concomitant diseases that increased the risk of operation. After 2 years of followup, half...

  4. Antithrombotic therapy after bioprosthetic aortic valve implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafiq, Sulman; Steinbrüchel, Daniel Andreas; Lilleør, Nikolaj Bang

    2017-01-01

    Background The optimal medical strategy for prevention of thromboembolic events after surgical bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement (BAVR) is still debated. The objective of this study was to compare warfarin therapy (target INR of 2.0 to 3.0) with aspirin 150 mg daily as antithrombotic therapy...

  5. Fatal Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Aortic Graft Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor); Smith, Davey; Metzgar, David; Wills, Christopher; Fierer, Joshua

    2002-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a yeast commonly used in baking and a frequent colonizer of human mucosal surfaces. It is considered relatively nonpathogenic in immunocompetent adults. We present a case of S. cerevisiae fungemia and aortic graft infection in an immunocompetent adult. This is the first reported case of S. cerevisiue fungemia where the identity of the pathogen was confirmed by rRNA sequencing.

  6. Global Strain in Severe Aortic Valve Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jordi S; Videbæk, Lars; Poulsen, Mikael K

    2012-01-01

    Score, history with ischemic heart disease and ejection fraction. CONCLUSIONS: -In patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis undergoing AVR reduced GLS provides important prognostic information beyond standard risk factors. Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrial.gov. Unique identifier...

  7. Aortic mismatch in heart transplantation: readaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, A

    1997-10-01

    Great vessel mismatch between donor and recipient is very usual in heart transplantation. Different procedures have been used to manage this situation. A tailoring aortoplasty is described, as a technical alternative, in cases of considerable size incongruence between donor and recipient aortic diameters.

  8. Painless aortic dissection presenting as paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Necmettin; Nazli, Yunus; Alpay, Mehmet Fatih; Akkaya, Ismail Olgun; Cakir, Omer

    2012-01-01

    Acute dissection of the aorta can be life-threatening. As a presenting manifestation of aortic dissection, neurologic complications such as paraplegia are rare. Herein, we report the case of a 51-year-old man who presented with sudden-onset paraplegia and ischemia of the legs, with no chest or back pain. His medical history included coronary artery bypass grafting. Physical examination revealed pulseless lower extremities, and computed tomography showed aortic dissection from the ascending aorta to the common iliac arteries bilaterally. A lumbar catheter was inserted for cerebrospinal fluid drainage, and axillary arterial cannulation was established. With the use of cardiopulmonary bypass, the aortic dissection was corrected, and the previous coronary artery grafts were reattached. The surgery restored spinal and lower-extremity perfusion, and the patient walked unaided from the hospital upon his discharge 5 days later. Although acute aortic dissection presenting as paraplegia is rare, it should be considered in patients who have pulseless femoral arteries bilaterally and sudden-onset paraplegia, despite no pain in the chest or back. Prompt diagnosis and intervention can prevent morbidity and death.

  9. Inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by Gentiana lutea root extracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rushendhiran Kesavan

    Full Text Available Gentiana lutea belonging to the Gentianaceae family of flowering plants are routinely used in traditional Serbian medicine for their beneficial gastro-intestinal and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the study was to determine whether aqueous root extracts of Gentiana lutea consisting of gentiopicroside, gentisin, bellidifolin-8-O-glucoside, demethylbellidifolin-8-O-glucoside, isovitexin, swertiamarin and amarogentin prevents proliferation of aortic smooth muscle cells in response to PDGF-BB. Cell proliferation and cell cycle analysis were performed based on alamar blue assay and propidium iodide labeling respectively. In primary cultures of rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs, PDGF-BB (20 ng/ml induced a two-fold increase in cell proliferation which was significantly blocked by the root extract (1 mg/ml. The root extract also prevented the S-phase entry of synchronized cells in response to PDGF. Furthermore, PDGF-BB induced ERK1/2 activation and consequent increase in cellular nitric oxide (NO levels were also blocked by the extract. These effects of extract were due to blockade of PDGF-BB induced expression of iNOS, cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA. Docking analysis of the extract components on MEK1, the upstream ERK1/2 activating kinase using AutoDock4, indicated a likely binding of isovitexin to the inhibitor binding site of MEK1. Experiments performed with purified isovitexin demonstrated that it successfully blocks PDGF-induced ERK1/2 activation and proliferation of RASMCs in cell culture. Thus, Gentiana lutea can provide novel candidates for prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis.

  10. Inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by Gentiana lutea root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, Rushendhiran; Potunuru, Uma Rani; Nastasijević, Branislav; T, Avaneesh; Joksić, Gordana; Dixit, Madhulika

    2013-01-01

    Gentiana lutea belonging to the Gentianaceae family of flowering plants are routinely used in traditional Serbian medicine for their beneficial gastro-intestinal and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the study was to determine whether aqueous root extracts of Gentiana lutea consisting of gentiopicroside, gentisin, bellidifolin-8-O-glucoside, demethylbellidifolin-8-O-glucoside, isovitexin, swertiamarin and amarogentin prevents proliferation of aortic smooth muscle cells in response to PDGF-BB. Cell proliferation and cell cycle analysis were performed based on alamar blue assay and propidium iodide labeling respectively. In primary cultures of rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs), PDGF-BB (20 ng/ml) induced a two-fold increase in cell proliferation which was significantly blocked by the root extract (1 mg/ml). The root extract also prevented the S-phase entry of synchronized cells in response to PDGF. Furthermore, PDGF-BB induced ERK1/2 activation and consequent increase in cellular nitric oxide (NO) levels were also blocked by the extract. These effects of extract were due to blockade of PDGF-BB induced expression of iNOS, cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Docking analysis of the extract components on MEK1, the upstream ERK1/2 activating kinase using AutoDock4, indicated a likely binding of isovitexin to the inhibitor binding site of MEK1. Experiments performed with purified isovitexin demonstrated that it successfully blocks PDGF-induced ERK1/2 activation and proliferation of RASMCs in cell culture. Thus, Gentiana lutea can provide novel candidates for prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis.

  11. Smooth muscle actin and myosin expression in cultured airway smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J Z; Woodcock-Mitchell, J; Mitchell, J; Rippetoe, P; White, S; Absher, M; Baldor, L; Evans, J; McHugh, K M; Low, R B

    1998-05-01

    In this study, the expression of smooth muscle actin and myosin was examined in cultures of rat tracheal smooth muscle cells. Protein and mRNA analyses demonstrated that these cells express alpha- and gamma-smooth muscle actin and smooth muscle myosin and nonmuscle myosin-B heavy chains. The expression of the smooth muscle specific actin and myosin isoforms was regulated in the same direction when growth conditions were changed. Thus, at confluency in 1 or 10% serum-containing medium as well as for low-density cells (50-60% confluent) deprived of serum, the expression of the smooth muscle forms of actin and myosin was relatively high. Conversely, in rapidly proliferating cultures at low density in 10% serum, smooth muscle contractile protein expression was low. The expression of nonmuscle myosin-B mRNA and protein was more stable and was upregulated only to a small degree in growing cells. Our results provide new insight into the molecular basis of differentiation and contractile function in airway smooth muscle cells.

  12. Endovascular treatment of thoracic aortic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidović Lazar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Endovascular treatment of thoracic aortic diseases is an adequate alternative to open surgery. This method was firstly performed in Serbia in 2004, while routine usage started in 2007. Aim of this study was to analyse initial experience in endovacular treatment of thoracic aortic diseses of three main vascular hospitals in Belgrade - Clinic for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery of the Clinical Center of Serbia, Clinic for Vascular Surgery of the Military Medical Academy, and Clinic for Vascular Surgery of the Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases “Dedinje”. Methods. Between March 2004. and November 2010. 41 patients were treated in these three hospitals due to different diseases of the thoracic aorta. A total of 21 patients had degenerative atherosclerotic aneurysm, 6 patients had penetrating aortic ulcer, 6 had posttraumatic aneurysm, 4 patients had ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysm, 1 had false anastomotic aneurysm after open repair, and 3 patients had dissected thoracic aneurysm of the thoracoabdominal aorta. In 15 cases the endovascular procedure was performed as a part of the hybrid procedure, after carotidsubclavian bypass in 4 patients and subclavian artery transposition in 1 patient due to the short aneurysmatic neck; in 2 patients iliac conduit was used due to hypoplastic or stenotic iliac artery; in 5 patients previous reconstruction of abdominal aorta was performed; in 1 patient complete debranching of the aortic arch, and in 2 patients visceral abdominal debranching were performed. Results. The intrahospital mortality rate (30 days was 7.26% (3 patients with ruptured thoracic aneurysms died. Endoleak type II in the first control exam was revealed in 3 patients (7. 26%. The patients were followed up in a period of 1-72 months, on average 29 months. The most devastating complication during a followup period was aortoesofageal fistula in 1 patient a year after the treatment of posttraumatic aneurysm. Conversion was

  13. Multimodality Imaging Approach towards Primary Aortic Sarcomas Arising after Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair: Case Series Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamran, Mudassar, E-mail: kamranm@mir.wustl.edu; Fowler, Kathryn J., E-mail: fowlerk@mir.wustl.edu; Mellnick, Vincent M., E-mail: mellnickv@mir.wustl.edu [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (United States); Sicard, Gregorio A., E-mail: sicard@wudosis.wustl.edu [Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery (United States); Narra, Vamsi R., E-mail: narrav@mir.wustl.edu [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Primary aortic neoplasms are rare. Aortic sarcoma arising after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is a scarce subset of primary aortic malignancies, reports of which are infrequent in the published literature. The diagnosis of aortic sarcoma is challenging due to its non-specific clinical presentation, and the prognosis is poor due to delayed diagnosis, rapid proliferation, and propensity for metastasis. Post-EVAR, aortic sarcomas may mimic other more common aortic processes on surveillance imaging. Radiologists are rarely knowledgeable about this rare entity for which multimodality imaging and awareness are invaluable in early diagnosis. A series of three pathologically confirmed cases are presented to display the multimodality imaging features and clinical presentations of aortic sarcoma arising after EVAR.

  14. Aortic aneurysm disease vs. aortic occlusive disease - differences in outcome and intensive care resource utilisation after elective surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Jannie; Gilsaa, Torben; Rønholm, Ebbe

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT: Abdominal aortic surgery is a high-risk procedure, with aortic aneurysm and aortic occlusive diseases being the main indications. These groups are often regarded as having equal perioperative risk profiles. Previous reports suggest that the haemodynamic and inflammatory response to aortic...... clamping is more pronounced in patients with aortic aneurysm disease, which may affect outcome. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this observational cohort study was to evaluate outcome after open elective abdominal aortic surgery, hypothesising a higher 30-day mortality, a higher incidence of postoperative organ...... January 2007 to 1 March 2010. PATIENTS: One thousand two hundred and ninety-three patients scheduled for primary open elective, aortoiliac bypass or aortofemoral bypass procedures or abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mechanical ventilation, acute dialysis, use of vasopressors...

  15. Operative Strategies and Outcomes in Type A Aortic Dissection After the Enactment of a Multidisciplinary Aortic Surgery Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, Jared P; Scheinerman, Joshua A; Balsam, Leora B; Ursomanno, Patricia; DeAnda, Abe

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare operative strategies and patient outcomes in acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) repairs before and after the implementation of a multidisciplinary aortic surgery team. Between May 2005 and July 2014, 101 patients underwent ATAAD repair at our institution. A dedicated multidisciplinary aortic surgery team (experienced aortic surgeon, perfusionists, cardiac anesthesiologists, nurses, and radiologists) was formed in 2010. We retrospectively compared ATAAD repair outcomes in patients before (2005-2009, N = 39) and after (2010-2014, N = 62) implementation of our program. Expected operative mortality was calculated using the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection preoperative predictive model. This study demonstrated a significant reduction in operative mortality after implementation of the aortic surgery program (30.8% vs. 9.7%; P = 0.014). There was also an increase in the complexity of surgical technique and perfusion strategies with fewer postoperative complications related to respiratory (P multidisciplinary aortic surgery team.

  16. Cryopreserved human aortic root allografts arterial wall: Structural changes occurring during thawing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Novotny

    Full Text Available The aim of our experimental work was to assess morphological changes of arterial wall that arise during different thawing protocols of a cryopreserved human aortic root allograft (CHARA arterial wall.The experiment was performed on CHARAs. Two thawing protocols were tested: 1, CHARAs were thawed at a room temperature at +23°C; 2, CHARAs were placed directly into a water bath at +37°C.After fixation, all samples were washed in distilled water for 5 min, and dehydrated in a graded ethanol series (70, 85, 95, and 100% for 5 min at each level. The tissue samples were then immersed in 100% hexamethyldisilazane for 10 minutes and air dried in an exhaust hood at room temperature. Processed samples were mounted on stainless steel stubs, coated with gold.Thawing protocol 1: All 6 (100% samples showed loss of the endothelium and damage to the subendothelial layers with randomly dispersed circular defects and micro-fractures without smooth muscle cells contractions in the tunica media. Thawing protocol 2: All 6 (100% samples showed loss of endothelium from the luminal surface, longitudinal corrugations in the direction of blood flow caused by smooth muscle cells contractions in the tunica media with frequent fractures in the subendothelial layer.All the samples thawed at the room temperature showed smaller structural damage to the CHARA arterial wall with no smooth muscle cell contraction in tunica media when compared to the samples thawed in a water bath.

  17. Cardiac, Skeletal, and smooth muscle mitochondrial respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Song-Young; Gifford, Jayson R; Andtbacka, Robert H I

    2014-01-01

    , skeletal, and smooth muscle was harvested from a total of 22 subjects (53±6 yrs) and mitochondrial respiration assessed in permeabilized fibers. Complex I+II, state 3 respiration, an index of oxidative phosphorylation capacity, fell progressively from cardiac, skeletal, to smooth muscle (54±1; 39±4; 15......±1 pmol•s(-1)•mg (-1), pindex of mitochondrial density, also fell progressively from cardiac, skeletal, to smooth muscle (222±13; 115±2; 48±2 umol•g(-1)•min(-1), p... per mitochondrial content), oxidative phosphorylation capacity was no longer different between the three muscle types. Interestingly, Complex I state 2 normalized for CS activity, an index of non-phosphorylating respiration per mitochondrial content, increased progressively from cardiac, skeletal...

  18. Smoothing of Fused Spectral Consistent Satellite Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsson, Johannes; Aanæs, Henrik; Benediktsson, Jon Atli

    2006-01-01

    Several widely used methods have been proposed for fusing high resolution panchromatic data and lower resolution multi-channel data. However, many of these methods fail to maintain spectral consistency of the fused high resolution image, which is of high importance to many of the applications based...... in a statistically meaningful way. The fusion method was called spectral consistent panshapen- ing (SC) and it was shown that spectral consistency was a direct consequence of imaging physics and hence guaranteed by the SCP. In this paper exploit this framework and investigate two smoothing methods of the fused image...... obtain by SCP. The first smoothing method is based on Markov random field (MRF) model, while the second method uses wavelet domain hidden Markov models (HMM) for smoothing of the SCP fused image....

  19. Multiple predictor smoothing methods for sensitivity analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, Jon Craig; Storlie, Curtis B.

    2006-08-01

    The use of multiple predictor smoothing methods in sampling-based sensitivity analyses of complex models is investigated. Specifically, sensitivity analysis procedures based on smoothing methods employing the stepwise application of the following nonparametric regression techniques are described: (1) locally weighted regression (LOESS), (2) additive models, (3) projection pursuit regression, and (4) recursive partitioning regression. The indicated procedures are illustrated with both simple test problems and results from a performance assessment for a radioactive waste disposal facility (i.e., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). As shown by the example illustrations, the use of smoothing procedures based on nonparametric regression techniques can yield more informative sensitivity analysis results than can be obtained with more traditional sensitivity analysis procedures based on linear regression, rank regression or quadratic regression when nonlinear relationships between model inputs and model predictions are present.

  20. Smooth muscle cells can express cytokeratins of "simple" epithelium. Immunocytochemical and biochemical studies in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gown, A M; Boyd, H C; Chang, Y; Ferguson, M; Reichler, B; Tippens, D

    1988-08-01

    Cytokeratins are a set of 19 proteins that together constitute the class of intermediate filament protein expressed by epithelial cells and tumors. Using a panel of 9 different monoclonal anti-cytokeratin antibodies, the authors have performed immunocytochemistry on methanol-fixed, frozen sections and methacarn-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue of human myometrial specimens. Anomalous cytokeratin expression (ACE) by smooth muscle cells was found in all specimens. Immunoblots of this tissue confirmed the presence of cytokeratin 19, and possibly 8. In addition, immunocytochemical studies demonstrated ACE in human fetal tissues within the intestinal muscularis and the heart, especially in the region of the aortic outflow tract, and in 8 of 19 cases of leiomyosarcoma from adults. Indirect immunofluorescence studies were also performed on cells explanted from myometrial tissue; the overwhelming majority of cells derived from these cultures were smooth muscle cells as verified by expression of muscle actins, and a subpopulation of these cells was found to be cytokeratin-positive. ACE was confirmed in vitro by double labeling experiments demonstrating simultaneous expression of muscle actins and cytokeratins within the same cell. The significance of this smooth muscle cell ACE is unknown, but it may be a phenotypic marker of smooth muscle in a proliferative state. ACE could be a source of confusion in the immunocytochemical analysis of poorly differentiated malignancies if a complete panel of antibodies is not employed.

  1. Pilot licensing after aortic valve surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syburra, Thomas; Schnüriger, Hans; Kwiatkowski, Barbara; Graves, Kirk; Reuthebuch, Oliver; Genoni, Michele

    2010-05-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve is the most common congenital heart malformation, and a high percentage of patients with this condition will develop complications over time. It is rare that pilots undergo aortic valve surgery, and the confirmation of flight-licensing requirements after aortic valve replacement (AVR) is a challenge for the patient's cardiac surgeon and, particularly, for the Aeromedical Examiner (AME). Only AMEs are able to determine the flight status of pilots. Furthermore, in military and in civil aviation (e.g., Red Bull Air Race), the high G-load environment experienced by pilots is an exceptional physiological parameter, which must be considered postoperatively. A review was conducted of the aeronautical, surgical and medical literature, and of European pilot-licensing regulations. Case studies are also reported for two Swiss Air Force pilots. According to European legislation, pilots can return to flight duty from the sixth postoperative month, with the following limitations: that an aortic bioprosthesis presents no restrictions in cardiac function, requires no cardioactive medications, yet requires a flight operation with co-pilot, the avoidance of accelerations over +3 Gz and, in military aviation, restricts the pilot to non-ejection-seat aircraft. The patient follow up must include both echocardiographic and rhythm assessments every six months. Mechanical prostheses cannot be certified because the required anticoagulation therapy is a disqualifying condition for pilot licensing. Pilot licensing after aortic valve surgery is possible, but with restrictions. The +Gz exposition is of concern in both military and civilian aviation (aerobatics). The choice of bioprosthesis type and size is determinant. Pericardial and stentless valves seem to show better flow characteristics under high-output conditions. Repetitive cardiological controls are mandatory for the early assessment of structural valve disease and rhythm disturbances. A pre-emptive timing is

  2. Spatiotemporal complexity of the aortic sinus vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brandon; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad

    2014-07-01

    The aortic sinus vortex is a classical flow structure of significant importance to aortic valve dynamics and the initiation and progression of calcific aortic valve disease. We characterize the spatiotemporal characteristics of aortic sinus vortex dynamics in relation to the viscosity of blood analog solution as well as heart rate. High-resolution time-resolved (2 kHz) particle image velocimetry was conducted to capture 2D particle streak videos and 2D instantaneous velocity and streamlines along the sinus midplane using a physiological but rigid aorta model fitted with a porcine bioprosthetic heart valve. Blood analog fluids used include a water-glycerin mixture and saline to elucidate the sensitivity of vortex dynamics to viscosity. Experiments were conducted to record 10 heart beats for each combination of blood analog and heart rate condition. Results show that the topological characteristics of the velocity field vary in timescales as revealed using time bin-averaged vectors and corresponding instantaneous streamlines. There exist small timescale vortices and a large timescale main vortex. A key flow structure observed is the counter vortex at the upstream end of the sinus adjacent to the base (lower half) of the leaflet. The spatiotemporal complexity of vortex dynamics is shown to be profoundly influenced by strong leaflet flutter during systole with a peak frequency of 200 Hz and peak amplitude of 4 mm observed in the saline case. While fluid viscosity influences the length and timescales as well as the introduction of leaflet flutter, heart rate influences the formation of counter vortex at the upstream end of the sinus. Higher heart rates are shown to reduce the strength of the counter vortex that can greatly influence the directionality and strength of shear stresses along the base of the leaflet. This study demonstrates the impact of heart rate and blood analog viscosity on aortic sinus hemodynamics.

  3. Ceramide 1-phosphate induces neointimal formation via cell proliferation and cell cycle progression upstream of ERK1/2 in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tack-Joong, E-mail: ktj@yonsei.ac.kr [Division of Biological Science and Technology, College of Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Wonju 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yeo-Jin [Division of Biological Science and Technology, College of Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Wonju 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Yong [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyoung-Woo [Division of Biological Science and Technology, College of Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Wonju 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Kiho [Division of Biological Science and Technology, College of Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Wonju 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Youn-Sun; Yoo, Jae-Myung; Yoo, Hwan-Soo; Yun, Yeo-Pyo [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) is a novel bioactive sphingolipid formed by ceramide kinase (CERK)-catalyzed phosphorylation of ceramide. It has been implicated in the regulation of such vital pathophysiological functions as phagocytosis and inflammation, but there have been no reports ascribing a biological function to CERK in vascular disorders. Here the potential role of CERK/C1P in neointimal formation was investigated using rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in primary culture and a rat carotid injury model. Exogenous C8-C1P stimulated cell proliferation, DNA synthesis, and cell cycle progression of rat aortic VSMCs in primary culture. In addition, wild-type CERK-transfected rat aortic VSMCs induced a marked increase in rat aortic VSMC proliferation and [{sup 3}H]-thymidine incorporation when compared to empty vector transfectant. C8-C1P markedly activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) within 5 min, and the activation could be prevented by U0126, a MEK inhibitor. Also, K1, a CERK inhibitor, decreased the ERK1/2 phosphorylation and cell proliferation on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-stimulated rat aortic VSMCs. CERK expression and C1P levels were found to be potently increased during neointimal formation using a rat carotid injury model. However, ceramide levels decreased during the neointimal formation process. These findings suggest that C1P can induce neointimal formation via cell proliferation through the regulation of the ERK1/2 protein in rat aortic VSMCs and that CERK/C1P may regulate VSMC proliferation as an important pathogenic marker in the development of cardiovascular disorders.

  4. ibr: Iterative bias reduction multivariate smoothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengartner, Nicholas W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cornillon, Pierre-andre [AGRO-SUP, FRANCE; Matzner - Lober, Eric [RENNES 2, FRANCE

    2009-01-01

    Regression is a fundamental data analysis tool for relating a univariate response variable Y to a multivariate predictor X {element_of} E R{sup d} from the observations (X{sub i}, Y{sub i}), i = 1,...,n. Traditional nonparametric regression use the assumption that the regression function varies smoothly in the independent variable x to locally estimate the conditional expectation m(x) = E[Y|X = x]. The resulting vector of predicted values {cflx Y}{sub i} at the observed covariates X{sub i} is called a regression smoother, or simply a smoother, because the predicted values {cflx Y}{sub i} are less variable than the original observations Y{sub i}. Linear smoothers are linear in the response variable Y and are operationally written as {cflx m} = X{sub {lambda}}Y, where S{sub {lambda}} is a n x n smoothing matrix. The smoothing matrix S{sub {lambda}} typically depends on a tuning parameter which we denote by {lambda}, and that governs the tradeoff between the smoothness of the estimate and the goodness-of-fit of the smoother to the data by controlling the effective size of the local neighborhood over which the responses are averaged. We parameterize the smoothing matrix such that large values of {lambda} are associated to smoothers that averages over larger neighborhood and produce very smooth curves, while small {lambda} are associated to smoothers that average over smaller neighborhood to produce a more wiggly curve that wants to interpolate the data. The parameter {lambda} is the bandwidth for kernel smoother, the span size for running-mean smoother, bin smoother, and the penalty factor {lambda} for spline smoother.

  5. Women with abdominal aortic aneurysms have more extensive aortic neck pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultgren, Rebecka; Vishnevskaya, Liya; Wahlgren, Carl Magnus

    2013-07-01

    The proportion of women with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) treated with endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) is lower than for open repair (OR). Unfavorable morphologic features for EVAR in women with AAA may explain this disproportion. The objective of this study was to identify morphologic features in AAA patients undergoing elective repair with special emphasis on gender differences. Patients undergoing elective repair from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2008 at our university's vascular unit were included in this study. Computed tomography (CT) angiograms were analyzed. Morphologic features considered unfavorable for EVAR rather than open repair (OR) included: infrarenal aortic neck 60°; circumferential neck thrombus; neck width >32 mm; iliac arteries more of the other aortic neck exclusion criteria. One hundred seventy-two patients, including 140 men and 32 women, were treated during the study period, which included 99 with OR (21 women, 78 men) and 73 with EVAR (11 women, 62 men). Morphologic unsuitability for EVAR was 44% (75 of 172) and was not statistically different between women and men [47% (15 of 32) vs. 43% (60 of 140), P = 0.70]. Aortic neck pathology was the dominating feature for unsuitability for EVAR (69 of 75, 92%), and 85 of 172 patients had an unsuitable aortic neck. This rate was not different between women and men [19 of 32 (59%) vs. 66 of 140 (47%), P = 0.24]. Iliac unsuitability rates were 11% (19 of 172) and were not different between women and men [4 of 32 (12%) vs. 15 of 140 (11%), P = 0.76]. In patients unsuitable for EVAR, the proximal aortic necks showed more extensive aortic neck pathology in women than in men [8 of 15 (53%) vs. 13 of 60 (22%), P = 0.02]. More men had only short neck pathology [22 of 60 (37%) vs. 1 of 15 (7%), P = 0.03]. Aortic neck pathology is the dominating cause of EVAR exclusion in both genders. A higher proportion of women have more pathologic neck anatomy. Future development of EVAR devices should focus on

  6. Local smoothness for global optical flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakêt, Lars Lau

    2012-01-01

    by this technique and work on local-global optical flow we propose a simple method for fusing optical flow estimates of different smoothness by evaluating interpolation quality locally by means of L1 block match on the corresponding set of gradient images. We illustrate the method in a setting where optical flows...... are estimated by a TV-L1 energy. On average this procedure reduces the average endpoint error by 15% over flows estimated using the OPP, and gives flow fields that are consistently better than the single best flows with a fixed smoothness parameter....

  7. Production of super-smooth articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchane, D.V.

    1981-05-29

    Super-smooth rounded or formed articles made of thermoplastic materials including various poly(methyl methacrylate) or acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers are produced by immersing the articles into a bath, the composition of which is slowly changed with time. The starting composition of the bath is made up of at least one solvent for the polymer and a diluent made up of at least one nonsolvent for the polymer and optional materials which are soluble in the bath. The resulting extremely smooth articles are useful as mandrels for laser fusion and should be useful for a wide variety of other purposes, for example lenses.

  8. Analysis of Two Advanced Smoothing Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    equations 1.3 19 - and 1.4. The problem with this method is that the smoothing program may have to be run several times with each run containing a...uruie 48iOsragtln thog pont in wido Fi I ..ea .n to enpont an eta on :7-" - - . . . .I SUNIXY NC.1.XSZ O (3.10) For each I=1, ., (MNWNSZ-1), the right...smoothed point values were plotted, the plot would show too many peaks and would appear very jagged. In order to alleviate this problem , these

  9. (Npro) protein of bovine viral d

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle and sheep, and causes significant respiratory and reproductive disease worldwide. Bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 (BVDV-1), BVDV-2 along with the border disease virus (BDV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) belong to the genus ...

  10. Bovine cysticercosis in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blagojevic, Bojan; Robertson, Lucy J.; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

    2017-01-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of Taenia saginata and has a global distribution. This zoonosis usually causes only mild disease in humans, but has an important economic impact on the meat sector as bovine carcasses that are found to be infected are either condemned or undergo ...

  11. [Reconstruction of the aortic bifurcation: endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) and alternatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürmann, K

    2013-06-01

    Diseases of the aortic bifurcation, whether stenotic or dilating, are mostly a manifestation of arteriosclerosis. If only stenosis is present aortic bifurcation disease is equivalent to a certain form of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) characterized by the specific anatomical location. Aneurysmal disease and PAOD of the aortic bifurcation may occur together and men older than 60 years are particularly affected. The main symptom of aortic bifurcation PAOD is bilateral claudication whereas aneurysmal disease of the aortic bifurcation is frequently asymptomatic. Therapy of stenotic and aneurysmal disease of the aortic bifurcation depends on the degree of the disease. Simple lesions, such as isolated stenoses of the aortic bifurcation or unilateral occlusions of the common iliac artery extending to the aortic bifurcation have been treated endoluminally for many years. Current standard treatment of complex aortic bifurcation disease is open surgery with implantation of an aortobifemoral bypass graft. However, recent developments in less invasive endoluminal methods have shifted the indications more towards endoluminal therapy. This development is mirrored by the international TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) II recommendations from 2007 and even more clearly by the current national S3 guidelines on PAOD (http://www.degir.de/site/leitlinien). It is stated that in complex aortic bifurcation disease, such as bilateral occlusions of the common iliac arteries (TASC C lesions) or diffuse aortobiiliac stenoses and occlusions (TASC D lesions), endoluminal therapy may be considered as an alternative to open surgery. Therapy of aneurysmal disease of the aortic bifurcation depends on the pathoanatomical conditions. Prerequisite for endoluminal therapy is a sufficient landing zone for the prostheses. If this prerequisite is fulfilled endoluminal therapy is very likely comparable to open surgery with regard to technical and clinical success. Long

  12. Inhibitory role of Notch1 in calcific aortic valve disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Acharya

    Full Text Available Aortic valve calcification is the most common form of valvular heart disease, but the mechanisms of calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD are unknown. NOTCH1 mutations are associated with aortic valve malformations and adult-onset calcification in families with inherited disease. The Notch signaling pathway is critical for multiple cell differentiation processes, but its role in the development of CAVD is not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular changes that occur with inhibition of Notch signaling in the aortic valve. Notch signaling pathway members are expressed in adult aortic valve cusps, and examination of diseased human aortic valves revealed decreased expression of NOTCH1 in areas of calcium deposition. To identify downstream mediators of Notch1, we examined gene expression changes that occur with chemical inhibition of Notch signaling in rat aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs. We found significant downregulation of Sox9 along with several cartilage-specific genes that were direct targets of the transcription factor, Sox9. Loss of Sox9 expression has been published to be associated with aortic valve calcification. Utilizing an in vitro porcine aortic valve calcification model system, inhibition of Notch activity resulted in accelerated calcification while stimulation of Notch signaling attenuated the calcific process. Finally, the addition of Sox9 was able to prevent the calcification of porcine AVICs that occurs with Notch inhibition. In conclusion, loss of Notch signaling contributes to aortic valve calcification via a Sox9-dependent mechanism.

  13. Percutaneous balloon aortic valvuloplasty in different age groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojnarska, Olga; Grygier, Marek; Lesiak, Maciej; Grajek, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Aortic stenosis is a congenital or acquired reduction in the area of the aortic valve, resulting in obstruction of the blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta. Aortic stenosis accounts for 2-5% of all congenital heart defects and is a potentially life-threatening disorder. In adults aortic stenosis represents 34% of all valvular heart diseases. Degenerative etiology is present in 80% of cases. Patients with mild aortic stenosis are usually asymptomatic. Symptoms of the disease occur along with the disappearance of effective compensatory mechanisms. These are symptoms of low cardiac output syndrome manifested as fainting, dizziness, ischemic pains, exercise intolerance, arrhythmias with the risk of sudden cardiac death, and heart failure. As soon as the symptoms occur the prognosis significantly worsens, which is associated with a high risk of death. Percutaneous aortic valvuloplasty is a palliative method of treatment of aortic stenosis. The aim of the procedure is to relieve left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, thereby improving cardiac output. The etiology, course of the aortic stenosis and treatment methods, including invasive procedures, vary depending on the patients’ age. The purpose of this paper is to present the characteristics of the aortic valve disease and the strategy of aortic balloon valvuloplasty in different age groups. PMID:24570692

  14. Models of bovine babesiosis including juvenile cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad-Roy, C M; Shuai, Zhisheng; van den Driessche, P

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Babesiosis in cattle is caused by the transmission of protozoa of Babesia spp. by ticks as vectors. Juvenile cattle (Bovine Babesiosis, rarely show symptoms, and acquire immunity upon recovery. Susceptibility to the disease varies between breeds of cattle. Models of the dynamics of Bovine Babesiosis transmitted by the cattle tick that include these factors are formulated as systems of ordinary differential equations. Basic reproduction numbers are calculated, and it is proved that if these numbers are below the threshold value of one, then Bovine Babesiosis dies out. However, above the threshold number of one, the disease may approach an endemic state. In this case, control measures are suggested by determining target reproduction numbers. The percentage of a particular population (for example, the adult bovine population) needed to be controlled to eradicate the disease is evaluated numerically using Columbia data from the literature.

  15. Aortic event rate in the Marfan population: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jondeau, Guillaume; Detaint, Delphine; Tubach, Florence; Arnoult, Florence; Milleron, Olivier; Raoux, Francois; Delorme, Gabriel; Mimoun, Lea; Krapf, Laura; Hamroun, Dalil; Beroud, Christophe; Roy, Carine; Vahanian, Alec; Boileau, Catherine

    2012-01-17

    Optimal management, including timing of surgery, remains debated in Marfan syndrome because of a lack of data on aortic risk associated with this disease. We used our database to evaluate aortic risk associated with standardized care. Patients who fulfilled the international criteria, had not had previous aortic surgery or dissection, and came to our center at least twice were included. Aortic measurements were made with echocardiography (every 2 years); patients were given systematic β-blockade and advice about sports activities. Prophylactic aortic surgery was proposed when the maximal aortic diameter reached 50 mm. Seven hundred thirty-two patients with Marfan syndrome were followed up for a mean of 6.6 years. Five deaths and 2 dissections of the ascending aorta occurred during follow-up. Event rate (death/aortic dissection) was 0.17%/y. Risk rose with increasing aortic diameter measured within 2 years of the event: from 0.09%/y per year (95% confidence interval, 0.00-0.20) when the aortic diameter was <40 mm to 0.3% (95% confidence interval, 0.00-0.71) with diameters of 45 to 49 mm and 1.33% (95% confidence interval, 0.00-3.93) with diameters of 50 to 54 mm. The risk increased 4 times at diameters ≥50 mm. The annual risk dropped below 0.05% when the aortic diameter was <50 mm after exclusion of a neonatal patient, a woman who became pregnant against our recommendation, and a 72-year-old woman with previous myocardial infarction. Risk of sudden death or aortic dissection remains low in patients with Marfan syndrome and aortic diameter between 45 and 49 mm. Aortic diameter of 50 mm appears to be a reasonable threshold for prophylactic surgery. © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Updating of the bovine neosporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Martínez Contreras

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the fields of Medicine and bovine production, there is a wide variety of diseases affecting reproduction, in relation to the number of live births, the interval between births and open days, among others. Some of these diseases produce abortions and embryonic death, which explain the alteration of reproductive parameters. Many of these diseases have an infectious origin, such as parasites, bacteria, viruses and fungi, which are transmitted among animals. Besides, some of them have zoonotic features that generate problems to human health. Among these agents, the Neospora caninum, protozoan stands out. Its life cycle is fulfilled in several species of animals like the dog and the coyote. These two act as its definitive hosts and the cattle as its intermediary host. The Neospora caninum causes in the infected animals, reproductive disorders, clinical manifestations and decreased production which affects productivity of small, medium and large producers. Because of this, diagnostic techniques that allow understanding the epidemiological behavior of this disease have been developed. However in spite of being a major agent in the bovine reproductive health, few studies have been undertaken to determine the prevalence of this agent around the world. Therefore, the objective of this review was to collect updated information on the behavior of this parasite, targeting its epidemiology, its symptoms, its impact on production and the methods of its control and prevention.

  17. Bovine papillomavirus isolation by ultracentrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araldi, R P; Giovanni, D N S; Melo, T C; Diniz, N; Mazzuchelli-de-Souza, J; Sant'Ana, T A; Carvalho, R F; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2014-11-01

    The bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is the etiological agent of bovine papillomatosis, which causes significant economic losses to livestock, characterized by the presence of papillomas that regress spontaneously or persist and progress to malignancy. Currently, there are 13 types of BPVs described in the literature as well as 32 putative new types. This study aimed to isolate viral particles of BPV from skin papillomas, using a novel viral isolation method. The virus types were previously identified with new primers designed. 77 cutaneous papilloma samples of 27 animals, Simmental breed, were surgically removed. The DNA was extracted and subjected to PCR using Delta-Epsilon and Xi primers. The bands were purified and sequenced. The sequences were analyzed using software and compared to the GenBank database, by BLAST tool. The viral typing showed a prevalence of BPV-2 in 81.81% of samples. It was also detected the presence of the putative new virus type BR/UEL2 in one sample. Virus isolation was performed by ultracentrifugation in a single density of cesium chloride. The method of virus isolation is less laborious than those previously described, allowing the isolation of complete virus particles of BPV-2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Autophagic regulation of smooth muscle cell biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua K. Salabei

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy regulates the metabolism, survival, and function of numerous cell types, including those comprising the cardiovascular system. In the vasculature, changes in autophagy have been documented in atherosclerotic and restenotic lesions and in hypertensive vessels. The biology of vascular smooth muscle cells appears particularly sensitive to changes in the autophagic program. Recent evidence indicates that stimuli or stressors evoked during the course of vascular disease can regulate autophagic activity, resulting in modulation of VSMC phenotype and viability. In particular, certain growth factors and cytokines, oxygen tension, and pharmacological drugs have been shown to trigger autophagy in smooth muscle cells. Importantly, each of these stimuli has a redox component, typically associated with changes in the abundance of reactive oxygen, nitrogen, or lipid species. Collective findings support the hypothesis that autophagy plays a critical role in vascular remodeling by regulating smooth muscle cell phenotype transitions and by influencing the cellular response to stress. In this graphical review, we summarize current knowledge on the role of autophagy in the biology of the smooth muscle cell in (pathophysiology.

  19. Interval Forecast for Smooth Transition Autoregressive Model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we propose a simple method for constructing interval forecast for smooth transition autoregressive (STAR) model. This interval forecast is based on bootstrapping the residual error of the estimated STAR model for each forecast horizon and computing various Akaike information criterion (AIC) function. This new ...

  20. Full Waveform Inversion Using Nonlinearly Smoothed Wavefields

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Y.

    2017-05-26

    The lack of low frequency information in the acquired data makes full waveform inversion (FWI) conditionally converge to the accurate solution. An initial velocity model that results in data with events within a half cycle of their location in the observed data was required to converge. The multiplication of wavefields with slightly different frequencies generates artificial low frequency components. This can be effectively utilized by multiplying the wavefield with itself, which is nonlinear operation, followed by a smoothing operator to extract the artificially produced low frequency information. We construct the objective function using the nonlinearly smoothed wavefields with a global-correlation norm to properly handle the energy imbalance in the nonlinearly smoothed wavefield. Similar to the multi-scale strategy, we progressively reduce the smoothing width applied to the multiplied wavefield to welcome higher resolution. We calculate the gradient of the objective function using the adjoint-state technique, which is similar to the conventional FWI except for the adjoint source. Examples on the Marmousi 2 model demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed FWI method to mitigate the cycle-skipping problem in the case of a lack of low frequency information.