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Sample records for bovine adrenal chromaffin

  1. Internal Ca2+ mobilization and secretion in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheek, T R; Thastrup, Ole

    1989-01-01

    Since secretion from intact bovine adrenal chromaffin cells in response to depolarization by nicotine is triggered by a rise in the concentration of intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) to about 200-300 nM above basal, it has been assumed that the failure of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3......+ store. The role of this Ca2+ store in secretion from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells is therefore unclear. In order to investigate in more detail the role of the InsP3-sensitive Ca2+ store in secretion from these cells, we have used a combination of an InsP3-mobilizing muscarinic agonist...

  2. Characterization of a novel, hydrophilic dihydropyridine, NKY-722, as a Ca2+ antagonist in bovine cultured adrenal chromaffin cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohue, T.; Lee, K; Koshimura, K.; Miwa, S

    1991-01-01

    1. To characterize NKY-722, a novel hydrophilic dihydropyridine derivative, as a Ca2+ antagonist, we examined its effects on 45Ca2+ influx, intracellular free Ca2+ concentrations [( Ca2+]i), and release of noradrenaline and adrenaline in bovine cultured adrenal chromaffin cells. 2. NKY-722 had little effect on basal 45Ca2+ influx into the resting cells, but inhibited high K+ (35.9 mM)-evoked 45Ca2+ influx in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 5.2 nM. 3. NKY-722 inhibited h...

  3. Direct visualization of secretion from single bovine adrenal chromaffin cells by laser-induced native fluorescence imaging microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, W.; Yeung, E.S. [Ames Laboratory---USDOE and Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Direct visualization of the secretion process of individual bovine adrenal chromaffin cells was achieved with laser-induced native fluorescence imaging microscopy. By monitoring the native fluorescence of catecholamines excited by the 275 nm laser line with an intensified charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera, we obtained good temporal and spatial resolution simultaneously without using additional fluorescent probes. Large variations were found among individual cells in terms of the amounts of catecholamines secreted and the rates of secretion. Different regions of a cell also behave differently during the secretion process. However, the degree of this local heterogeneity is smaller than in neurons and neuralgia. The influence of deep-ultraviolet (UV) laser excitation on cells is also discussed. This quantitative imaging technique provides a useful noninvasive approach for the study of dynamic cellular changes and the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of secretory processes. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital Society for Applied Spectroscopy}

  4. Nonreutilizaton of adrenal chromaffin granule membranes following secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intracellular postexocytotic fate of the adrenal chromaffin granule membrane (reutilization vs. nonreutilization) was addressed through two experimental approaches. First, (3H) leucine pulse-chase labeling experiments were conducted in two systems - the isolated retrograde perfused cat adrenal gland and cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells to compare chromaffin granule soluble dopamine-B-hydroxylase (DBH) turnover (marker for granule soluble content turnover) to that of membrane-bound DBH (marker for granule membrane turnover). Experiments in cat adrenal glands showed that at all chase periods the granule distribution of radiolabeled DBH was in agreement with the DBH activity distribution (73% membrane-bound/27% soluble) - a result consistent with parallel turnover of soluble and membrane-bound DBH. Experiments in cultured bovine cells showed that labeled soluble and membrane-bound DBH had parallel turnover patterns and at all chase period, the distribution of radiolabeled DBH between the soluble contents and membranes was similar to the DBH activity distribution (50% soluble/50% membrane-bound). The above experiments showed that the soluble contents and membranes turnover in parallel and are consistent with nonreutilization of chromaffin granule membranes following exocytosis. Isolated retrograde perfused bovine adrenal glands were subjected to repetitive acetylcholine stimulation to induce exocytosis and then the dense and less-dense chromaffin granule fractions were isolated. Since both approaches gave results consistent with membrane nonreutilization, the authors conclude that once a chromaffin granule is involved in exocytosis, its membrane is not reutilized for the further synthesis, storage, and secretion of catecholamines

  5. Discrete changes of cell membrane capacitance observed under conditions of enhanced secretion in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Neher, E; Marty, A.

    1982-01-01

    The capacitance of the surface membrane of small adrenal chromaffin cells was measured with patch-clamp pipettes. Continuous and discrete changes of capacitance were observed. They were interpreted as changes of surface area connected to exocytotic or endocytotic processes. Most of the measurements were performed in the "whole-cell" recording configuration [Hamill, O. P., Marty, A., Neher, E., Sakmann, B. & Sigworth, F. J. (1981) Pflügers Arch. 391, 85-100], which allows the intracellular Ca2...

  6. Effects of collagenase on the release of [3H]-noradrenaline from bovine cultured adrenal chromaffin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazan, G.; Aunis, D.; García, A. G.; Montiel, C.; Nicolás, G. P.; Sánchez-García, P.

    1984-01-01

    Bovine isolated adrenal chromaffin cells maintained in culture at 37 degrees C for 1-7 days become polygonal and bipolar, with typical varicosity-like extensions. Catecholamine levels and dopamine beta-hydroxylase activity decreased after 24-48 h of culture, but recovered to normal levels 3-7 days later. Incubation of 1-7 day-old cells in the presence of increasing concentrations of [3H]-noradrenaline (3.91 to 125 nM) resulted in the retention by the cells of amounts of radioactivity directly proportional to the amine present in the media. One day-old cells took up and retained only one third of the radioactivity found in 2-7 day-old cells. The addition of collagenase to cultured cells caused a decrease in the uptake of tritium. However, the enzyme treatment did not affect the amine taken up by the cell before collagenase treatment. Release of tritium from cultured cells evoked by nicotine, acetylcholine (ACh) or 59 mM K+ was very poor in 24 h-old cells; the secretory response to nicotine, ACh or K+ was dramatically increased after 2-7 days of culture. Bethanecol did not cause any secretory response. When treated with collagenase, cultured cells which had recovered fully their secretory response, lost again the ability to release tritium evoked by ACh or nicotine. However, the responses to high K+, veratridine or ionophore X537A were not affected. The nicotinic response was recovered two days after collagenase treatment. The data suggest that the use of collagenase to disperse the adrenomedullary tissue during the isolation procedure might be responsible for the lost secretory response of young cultured chromaffin cells. Since collagenase specifically impairs the nicotinic cholinoceptor-mediated catecholamine release, it seems likely that the enzyme is exerting its action on the ACh receptor complex. It is unlikely that either voltage-sensitive Na+ or Ca2+ channels are affected by collagenase as the responses induced by high K+ or veratridine were unaffected by

  7. Dissociation of Ca sup 2+ entry and Ca sup 2+ mobilization responses to angiotensin II in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

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    Stauderman, K.A.; Pruss, R.M. (Merrell Dow Research Institute, Cincinnati, OH (USA))

    1989-11-05

    In fura-2-loaded bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, 0.5 microM angiotensin II (AII) stimulated a 185 +/- 19 nM increase of intracellular-free calcium (( Ca2+)i) approximately 3 s after addition. The time from the onset of the response until achieving 50% recovery (t 1/2) was 67 +/- 10 s. Concomitantly, AII stimulated both the release of 45Ca2+ from prelabeled cells, and a 4-5-fold increase of (3H)inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (( 3H)Ins(1,4,5)P3) levels. In the presence of 50 microM LaCl3, or when extracellular-free Ca2+ (( Ca2+)o) was less than 100 nM, AII still rapidly increased (Ca2+)i by 95-135 nM, but the t 1/2 for recovery was then only 23-27 s. In medium with 1 mM MnCl2 present, AII also stimulated a small amount of Mn2+ influx, as judged by quenching of the fura-2 signal. When (Ca2+)o was normal (1.1 mM) or low (less than 60 nM), 1-2 microM ionomycin caused (Ca2+)i to increase 204 +/- 26 nM, while also releasing 45-55% of bound 45Ca2+. With low (Ca2+)o, ionomycin pretreatment abolished both the (Ca2+)i increase and 45Ca2+ release stimulated by AII. However, after ionomycin pretreatment in normal medium, AII produced a La3+-inhibitable increase of (Ca2+)i (103 +/- 13 nM) with a t 1/2 of 89 +/- 8 s, but no 45Ca2+ release. No pretreatment condition altered AII-induced formation of (3H)Ins(1,4,5)P3. We conclude that AII increased (Ca2+)i via rapid and transient Ca2+ mobilization from Ins(1,4,5)P3- and ionomycin-sensitive stores, accompanied (and/or followed) by Ca2+ entry through a La3+-inhibitable divalent cation pathway. Furthermore, the ability of AII to activate Ca2+ entry in the absence of Ca2+ mobilization (i.e. after ionomycin pretreatment) suggests a receptor-linked stimulus other than Ca2+ mobilization initiates Ca2+ entry.

  8. Dopamine receptors on adrenal chromaffin cells modulate calcium uptake and catecholamine release

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    Bigornia, L.; Suozzo, M.; Ryan, K.A.; Napp, D.; Schneider, A.S.

    1988-10-01

    The presence of dopamine-containing cells in sympathetic ganglia, i.e., small, intensely fluorescent cells, has been known for some time. However, the role of dopamine as a peripheral neurotransmitter and its mechanism of action are not well understood. Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of D2 dopamine receptors on the surface of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells using radioligand binding methods and dopamine receptor inhibition of catecholamine release from perfused adrenal glands. In the present study, we provide evidence confirming a role of dopamine receptors as inhibitory modulators of adrenal catecholamine release from bovine chromaffin cell cultures and further show that the mechanism of modulation involves inhibition of stimulated calcium uptake. Apomorphine gave a dose-dependent inhibition (IC50 = 1 microM) of 45Ca2+ uptake stimulated by either nicotine (10 microM) or membrane depolarization with an elevated K+ level (60 mM). This inhibition was reversed by a series of specific (including stereospecific) dopamine receptor antagonists: haloperidol, spiperone, sulpiride, and (+)-butaclamol, but not (-)-butaclamol. In addition, the calcium channel agonist Bay K 8644 was used to stimulate uptake of 45Ca2+ into chromaffin cells, and this uptake was also inhibited by the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine. The combined results suggest that dopamine receptors on adrenal chromaffin cells alter Ca2+ channel conductance, which, in turn, modulates catecholamine release.

  9. Uptake of meta-iodobenzylguanidine by bovine chromaffin granule membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    meta-Iodobenzylguanidine, an adrenal imaging agent used for the scintigraphic detection of human pheochromocytoma, is a substrate for the monoamine uptake system of chromaffin granules. It is accumulated by bovine chromaffin granule membrane vesicles in the presence of ATP, and it can be released by an osmotic shock. The uptake is dependent upon the generation of an H+-electrochemical gradient by an ATP-dependent H+ pump since it is blocked by an H+ ionophore and since meta-iodobenzylguanidine uptake can be driven by imposing an artificial pH gradient (inside acidic) on the membrane vesicles. The transport is saturable and its Km value (2.0 microM at pH 8.0) is similar to that of noradrenaline (5.3 microM). Transport occurs through the monoamine transporter since it is blocked by the same inhibitors, tetrabenazine and reserpine, and also by the transporter substrates noradrenaline and serotonin. Noradrenaline inhibits meta-iodobenzylguanidine uptake competitively (Ki = 13 microM). In addition, meta-iodobenzylguanidine displaces dihydrotetrabenazine and reserpine from their binding sites on chromaffin granule membranes. It is thus likely that, after in vivo administration, [131I] meta-iodobenzylguanidine is ultimately stored in chromaffin granules and that it is translocated by the monoamine transporter

  10. Vesicle Pools: Lessons from Adrenal Chromaffin Cells

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    David R Stevens

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The adrenal chromaffin cell serves as a model system to study fast Ca2+-dependent exocytosis. Membrane capacitance measurements in combination with Ca2+ uncaging offers a temporal resolution in the millisecond range and reveals that catecholamine release occurs in three distinct phases. Release of a readily releasable (RRP and a slowly releasable (SRP pool are followed by sustained release, due to maturation and release of vesicles which were not release-ready at the start of the stimulus. Trains of depolarizations, a more physiological stimulus, induce release from a small immediately releasable pool of vesicles residing adjacent to calcium channels, as well as from the RRP. The SRP is poorly activated by depolarization. A sequential model, in which non-releasable docked vesicles are primed to a slowly releasable state, and then further mature to the readily releasable state, has been proposed. The docked state, dependent on membrane proximity, requires SNAP-25, synaptotagmin and syntaxin. The ablation or modification of SNAP-25 and syntaxin, components of the SNARE complex, as well as of synaptotagmin, the calcium sensor, and modulators such complexins and Snapin alter the properties and/or magnitudes of different phases of release, and in particular can ablate the RRP. These results indicate that the composition of the SNARE complex and its interaction with modulatory molecules drives priming and provides a molecular basis for different pools of releasable vesicles.

  11. GPCRs of adrenal chromaffin cells & catecholamines: The plot thickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymperopoulos, Anastasios; Brill, Ava; McCrink, Katie A

    2016-08-01

    The circulating catecholamines (CAs) epinephrine (Epi) and norepinephrine (NE) derive from two major sources in the whole organism: the sympathetic nerve endings, which release NE on effector organs, and the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, which are cells that synthesize, store and release Epi (mainly) and NE. All of the Epi in the body and a significant amount of circulating NE derive from the adrenal medulla. The secretion of CAs from adrenal chromaffin cells is regulated in a complex way by a variety of membrane receptors, the vast majority of which are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including adrenergic receptors (ARs), which act as "presynaptic autoreceptors" in this regard. There is a plethora of CA-secretagogue signals acting on these receptors but some of them, most notably the α2ARs, inhibit CA secretion. Over the past few years, however, a few new proteins present in chromaffin cells have been uncovered to participate in CA secretion regulation. Most prominent among these are GRK2 and β-arrestin1, which are known to interact with GPCRs regulating receptor signaling and function. The present review will discuss the molecular and signaling mechanisms by which adrenal chromaffin cell-residing GPCRs and their regulatory proteins modulate CA synthesis and secretion. Particular emphasis will be given to the newly discovered roles of GRK2 and β-arrestins in these processes and particular points of focus for future research will be highlighted, as well.

  12. GPCRs of adrenal chromaffin cells & catecholamines: The plot thickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymperopoulos, Anastasios; Brill, Ava; McCrink, Katie A

    2016-08-01

    The circulating catecholamines (CAs) epinephrine (Epi) and norepinephrine (NE) derive from two major sources in the whole organism: the sympathetic nerve endings, which release NE on effector organs, and the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, which are cells that synthesize, store and release Epi (mainly) and NE. All of the Epi in the body and a significant amount of circulating NE derive from the adrenal medulla. The secretion of CAs from adrenal chromaffin cells is regulated in a complex way by a variety of membrane receptors, the vast majority of which are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including adrenergic receptors (ARs), which act as "presynaptic autoreceptors" in this regard. There is a plethora of CA-secretagogue signals acting on these receptors but some of them, most notably the α2ARs, inhibit CA secretion. Over the past few years, however, a few new proteins present in chromaffin cells have been uncovered to participate in CA secretion regulation. Most prominent among these are GRK2 and β-arrestin1, which are known to interact with GPCRs regulating receptor signaling and function. The present review will discuss the molecular and signaling mechanisms by which adrenal chromaffin cell-residing GPCRs and their regulatory proteins modulate CA synthesis and secretion. Particular emphasis will be given to the newly discovered roles of GRK2 and β-arrestins in these processes and particular points of focus for future research will be highlighted, as well. PMID:26851510

  13. Subcellular compartmentalization of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium with catecholamines in adrenal medullary chromaffin vesicles may explain the lack of toxicity to adrenal chromaffin cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhard, J.F. Jr.; Diliberto, E.J. Jr.; Viveros, O.H.; Daniels, A.J.

    1987-11-01

    Cultures of bovine adrenomedullary chromaffin cells accumulated 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP/sup +/) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by a process that was prevented by desmethylimipramine. The subcellular localization of the incorporated (methyl-/sup 3/H)MPP/sup +/ was examined by differential centrifugation and sucrose density gradient fractionation and was found to be predominantly colocalized with catecholamines in chromaffin vesicles, and negligible amounts were detected within the mitochondrial fraction. When chromaffin cell membranes were made permeable with the detergent digitonin the absence of calcium, there was no increase in the release of (/sup 3/H)MPP/sup +/, indicating that there is negligible accumulation of the neurotoxin in the cytosol. Simultaneous exposure to digitonin and calcium induced cosecretion of MPP/sup +/ and catecholamines. Stimulation of the cells with nicotine released both catecholamines and MPP/sup +/ at identical rates and percentages of cellular content in a calcium-dependent manner. Last, when cells were incubated with MPP/sup +/ in the presence of tetrabenazine (an inhibitor of vesicular uptake), the chromaffin cell toxicity of MPP/sup +/ was potentiated. The authors submit that the ability of the chromaffin cells to take up and store MPP/sup +/ in the chromaffin vesicle prevents the toxin's interaction with other structures and, thus, prevents cell damage. As an extension of this hypothesis, the relative resistance of some brain monoaminergic neurons to the toxic actions of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine may result from the subcellular sequestration of MPP/sup +/ in the storage vesicle.

  14. Specific insulin binding in bovine chromaffin cells; demonstration of preferential binding to adrenalin-storing cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serck-Hanssen, G.; Soevik, O.

    1987-12-28

    Insulin binding was studied in subpopulations of bovine chromaffin cells enriched in adrenalin-producing cells (A-cells) or noradrenalin-producing cells (NA-cells). Binding of /sup 125/I-insulin was carried out at 15/sup 0/C for 3 hrs in the absence or presence of excess unlabeled hormone. Four fractions of cells were obtained by centrifugation on a stepwise bovine serum albumin gradient. The four fractions were all shown to bind insulin in a specific manner and the highest binding was measured in the cell layers of higher densities, containing mainly A-cells. The difference in binding of insulin to the four subpopulations of chromaffin cells seemed to be related to differences in numbers of receptors as opposed to receptor affinities. The authors conclude that bovine chromaffin cells possess high affinity binding sites for insulin and that these binding sites are mainly confined to A-cells. 24 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  15. Regulation of Calcium Channels and Exocytosis in Mouse Adrenal Chromaffin Cells by Prostaglandin EP3 Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Mark L.; Breyer, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) E2 controls numerous physiological functions through a family of cognate G protein-coupled receptors (EP1–EP4). Targeting specific EP receptors might be therapeutically useful and reduce side effects associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors that block prostanoid synthesis. Systemic immune challenge and inflammatory cytokines have been shown to increase expression of the synthetic enzymes for PGE2 in the adrenal gland. Catecholamines and other hormones, released from adrenal chromaffin cells in response to Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, play central roles in homeostatic function and the coordinated stress response. However, long-term elevation of circulating catecholamines contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertension and heart failure. Here, we investigated the EP receptor(s) and cellular mechanisms by which PGE2 might modulate chromaffin cell function. PGE2 did not alter resting intracellular [Ca2+] or the peak amplitude of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor currents, but it did inhibit CaV2 voltage-gated Ca2+ channel currents (ICa). This inhibition was voltage-dependent and mediated by pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins, consistent with a direct Gβγ subunit-mediated mechanism common to other Gi/o-coupled receptors. mRNA for all four EP receptors was detected, but using selective pharmacological tools and EP receptor knockout mice, we demonstrated that EP3 receptors mediate the inhibition of ICa. Finally, changes in membrane capacitance showed that Ca2+-dependent exocytosis was reduced in parallel with ICa. To our knowledge, this is the first study of EP receptor signaling in mouse chromaffin cells and identifies a molecular mechanism for paracrine regulation of neuroendocrine function by PGE2. PMID:21383044

  16. Membrane toxicity of abnormal prion protein in adrenal chromaffin cells of scrapie infected sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian McGovern

    Full Text Available Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs or prion diseases are associated with accumulations of disease specific PrP (PrP(d in the central nervous system (CNS and often the lymphoreticular system (LRS. Accumulations have additionally been recorded in other tissues including the peripheral nervous system and adrenal gland. Here we investigate the effect of sheep scrapie on the morphology and the accumulation of PrP(d in the adrenal medulla of scrapie affected sheep using light and electron microscopy. Using immunogold electron microscopy, non-fibrillar forms of PrP(d were shown to accumulate mainly in association with chromaffin cells, occasional nerve endings and macrophages. PrP(d accumulation was associated with distinctive membrane changes of chromaffin cells including increased electron density, abnormal linearity and invaginations. Internalisation of PrP(d from the chromaffin cell plasma membrane occurred in association with granule recycling following hormone exocytosis. PrP(d accumulation and internalisation from membranes is similarly associated with perturbations of membrane structure and trafficking in CNS neurons and tingible body macrophages of the LRS. These data suggest that a major toxic effect of PrP(d is at the level of plasma membranes. However, the precise nature of PrP(d-membrane toxicity is tissue and cell specific suggesting that the normal protein may act as a multi-functional scaffolding molecule. We further suggest that the co-localisation of PrP(d with exocytic granules of the hormone trafficking system may provide an additional source of infectivity in blood.

  17. Impaired maturation of large dense-core vesicles in muted-deficient adrenal chromaffin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhenhua; Wei, Lisi; Feng, Yaqin; Chen, Xiaowei; Du, Wen; Ma, Jing; Zhou, Zhuan; Chen, Liangyi; Li, Wei

    2015-04-01

    The large dense-core vesicle (LDCV), a type of lysosome-related organelle, is involved in the secretion of hormones and neuropeptides in specialized secretory cells. The granin family is a driving force in LDCV biogenesis, but the machinery for granin sorting to this biogenesis pathway is largely unknown. The mu mutant mouse, which carries a spontaneous null mutation on the Muted gene (also known as Bloc1s5), which encodes a subunit of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1 (BLOC-1), is a mouse model of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. Here, we found that LDCVs were enlarged in mu adrenal chromaffin cells. Chromogranin A (CgA, also known as CHGA) was increased in mu adrenals and muted-knockdown cells. The increased CgA in mu mice was likely due a failure to export this molecule out of immature LDCVs, which impairs LDCV maturation and docking. In mu chromaffin cells, the size of readily releasable pool and the vesicle release frequency were reduced. Our studies suggest that the muted protein is involved in the selective export of CgA during the biogenesis of LDCVs.

  18. Transformation of adrenal medullary chromaffin cells increases asthmatic susceptibility in pups from allergen-sensitized rats

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    Feng Jun-Tao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that epinephrine release is impaired in patients with asthma. The pregnancy of female rats (dams with asthma promotes in their pups the differentiation of adrenal medulla chromaffin cells (AMCCs into sympathetic neurons, mediated by nerve growth factor, which leads to a reduction in epinephrine secretion. However, the relatedness between the alteration of AMCCs and increased asthma susceptibility in such offspring has not been established. Methods In this study, we observed the effects of allergization via ovalbumin on rat pups born of asthmatic dams. Results Compared to the offspring of untreated controls, bronchial hyperreactivity and airway inflammation were more severe in the pups from sensitized (asthmatic dams. In pups exposed to nerve growth factor (NGF in utero these effects were aggravated further, but the effects were blocked in pups whose dams had been treated with anti-NGF. Furthermore, alterations in AMCC phenotype corresponded to the degree of bronchial hyperreactivity and lung lesions of the different treatment groups. Such AMCC alterations included degranulation of chromaffin granules, reduction of epinephrine and phenylethanolamine-n-methyl transferase, and elevation of NGF and peripherin levels. Conclusions Our results present evidence that asthma during the pregnancy of rat dams promotes asthma susceptibility in their offspring, and that the transformation of AMCCs to neurons induced by NGF plays an important role in this process.

  19. Asthma pregnancy alters postnatal development of chromaffin cells in the rat adrenal medulla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Ming Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adrenal neuroendocrine plays an important role in asthma. The activity of the sympathoadrenal system could be altered by early life events. The effects of maternal asthma during pregnancy on the adrenal medulla of offspring remain unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study aims to explore the influence of maternal asthma during pregnancy on the development and function of adrenal medulla in offspring from postnatal day 3 (P3 to postnatal day 60 (P60. Asthmatic pregnant rats (AP, nerve growth factor (NGF-treated pregnant rats (NP and NGF antibody-treated pregnant rats (ANP were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA; NP and ANP were treated with NGF and NGF antibody respectively. Offspring rats from the maternal group were divided into four groups: offspring from control pregnant rats (OCP, offspring from AP (OAP, offspring from NP (ONP, and offspring from ANP (OANP. The expressions of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT protein in adrenal medulla were analyzed. The concentrations of epinephrine (EPI, corticosterone and NGF in serum were measured. Adrenal medulla chromaffin cells (AMCC were prone to differentiate into sympathetic nerve cells in OAP and ONP. Both EPI and PNMT were decreased in OAP from P3 to P14, and then reached normal level gradually from P30 to P60, which were lower from birth to adulthood in ONP. Corticosterone concentration increased significantly in OAP and ONP. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Asthma pregnancy may promote AMCC to differentiate into sympathetic neurons in offspring rats and inhibit the synthesis of EPI, resulting in dysfunction of bronchial relaxation.

  20. Trichosporin-B-III, an alpha-aminoisobutyric acid-containing peptide, causes Ca(2+)-dependent catecholamine secretion from adrenal medullary chromaffin cells.

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    Tachikawa, E; Takahashi, S; Furumachi, K; Kashimoto, T; Iida, A; Nagaoka, Y; Fujita, T; Takaishi, Y

    1991-11-01

    We examined the effect of trichosporin-B-III, an alpha-aminoisobutyric acid-containing antibiotic peptide consisting of 19 amino acid residues and a phenylalaninol, on catecholamine secretion from cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Incubation of the cells with trichosporin-B-III (3-20 microM) caused an increase in the secretion of catecholamines. The secretion induced by trichosporin-B-III at low concentrations (3 and 5 microM) was completely dependent on external Ca2+, whereas that induced by higher concentrations (10 and 20 microM) was partly independent of Ca2+. Trichosporin-B-III at low concentration (5 microM) did not increase the release of lactate dehydrogenase, a marker enzyme of cytoplasm, from the cells. In contrast, the peptide at higher concentration (10 microM) increased the release of the enzyme. Trichosporin-B-III also caused both 45Ca2+ influx into the cells and an increase in the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration. The increases in catecholamine secretion and 45Ca2+ influx behaved similarly in relation to trichosporin-B-III concentration (3-10 microM). The time courses of the increases in secretion, 45Ca2+ influx, and intracellular free Ca2+ concentration induced by trichosporin-B-III were also quite similar. Trichosporin-B-III-induced (at 5 microM) secretion was not affected by the elimination of Na+ from the incubation medium or by the addition of tetrodotoxin, a blocker of highly selective voltage-dependent Na+ channels, or hexamethonium, a blocker of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. On the other hand, both diltiazem (2-200 microM) and nicardipine (1-200 microM), blockers of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, inhibited the secretion induced by trichosporin-B-III (5 microM) in a concentration-dependent manner. Trichosporin-B-III-induced (at 5 microM) secretion also was suppressed by the addition of Mn2+ (5 mM) to the medium. The diltiazem (20 microM) inhibition of trichosporin-B-III-induced (at 5 microM) secretion was reversed by

  1. The BAR Domain Protein PICK1 Controls Vesicle Number and Size in Adrenal Chromaffin Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva Pinheiro, Paulo César; Jansen, Anna M; de Wit, Heidi;

    2014-01-01

    Protein Interacting with C Kinase 1 (PICK1) is a Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain protein involved in AMPA receptor trafficking. Here, we identify a selective role for PICK1 in the biogenesis of large, dense core vesicles (LDCVs) in mouse chromaffin cells. PICK1 colocalized with syntaxin-6, a mar...

  2. Histologic and Immunohistochemical classification of 41 bovine adrenal gland neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Anette Blak; Leifsson, Páll S.; Jensen, Henrik Elvang;

    2013-01-01

    Tumors of the adrenal glands are among the most frequent tumors in cattle; however, few studies have been conducted to describe their characteristics. The aim of this study was to classify 41 bovine adrenal neoplasms from 40 animals based on macroscopic and histologic examination, including....... An immunohistochemistry panel consisting of antibodies against melan A, synaptophysin, and CNPase was considered most useful to classify bovine adrenal tumors. However, the distinction between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors was based on histologic features as in human medicine....

  3. Xenotransplantation of microencaps bovine chromaffin cells into hemiparkinsonian monkeys:a analyses of behaviour,biochemistry and pathology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Y. L.; WANG L. N.; WANG Z. F.; ZHONG D. G.; LI X. J.; CUI X.; MA X. J.; ZHU Ming-wei; SUN A. M.

    2001-01-01

    @@ This study examines the effects of xenografts of microencapsulated bovine chromaffin cells (BCCs) on the rotational behavior of hemiparkinsonian monkey recipients. In addition, it determines the content of monoamine neurotransmitters and their major metabolites in the neostriatum in hemiparkinsonian monkeys. The hemiparkinsonian model in monkeys was induced by a unilateral intracarotid injection of methyl-phenyl-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Unencapsulated BCCs (n = 2), BCCs microencapsulated (n= 6) in alginate-polylysine-alginate (APA) membranes as well as empty microencapsules (n = 1) were grafted into the neostriatum of the hemiparkinsonian monkeys.

  4. Microelectrode arrays of diamond-insulated graphitic channels for real time detection of exocytotic events from cultured chromaffin cells and slices of adrenal glands

    CERN Document Server

    Picollo, F; Bernardi, E; Marcantoni, A; Pasquarelli, A; Carbone, E; Olivero, P; Carabelli, V

    2016-01-01

    A microstructured graphitic 4x4 multielectrode array was embedded in a single crystal diamond substrate (4x4 {uG-SCD MEA) for real-time monitoring of exocytotic events from cultured chromaffin cells and adrenal slices. The current approach relies on the development of a parallel ion beam lithographic technique, which assures the time effective fabrication of extended arrays with reproducible electrode dimensions. The reported device is suitable for performing amperometric and voltammetric recordings with high sensitivity and temporal resolution, by simultaneously acquiring data from 16 rectangularly shaped microelectrodes (20x3.5 um^2) separated by 200 um gaps. Taking advantage of the array geometry we addressed the following specific issues: i) detect both the spontaneous and KCl-evoked secretion simultaneously from several chromaffin cells directly cultured on the device surface, ii) resolve the waveform of different subsets of exocytotic events, iii) monitoring quantal secretory events from thin slices of ...

  5. Regulation of Calcium Channels and Exocytosis in Mouse Adrenal Chromaffin Cells by Prostaglandin EP3 Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Jewell, Mark L.; Breyer, Richard M.; Currie, Kevin P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) E2 controls numerous physiological functions through a family of cognate G protein-coupled receptors (EP1–EP4). Targeting specific EP receptors might be therapeutically useful and reduce side effects associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors that block prostanoid synthesis. Systemic immune challenge and inflammatory cytokines have been shown to increase expression of the synthetic enzymes for PGE2 in the adrenal gland. Ca...

  6. Effects of inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) on calcium channel currents and catecholamine release from bovine chromaffin cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinsberg, F. [Medical Inst. of Environmental Hygiene, Heinrich Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Bickmeyer, U. [Medical Inst. of Environmental Hygiene, Heinrich Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Wiegand, H. [Medical Inst. of Environmental Hygiene, Heinrich Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1995-01-01

    The effects of Hg{sup 2+} on calcium channel currents and the potassium-evoked catecholamine release of bovine chromaffin cells in culture were examined. The effects of Cd{sup 2+} were studied for comparison. Calcium channel currents were recorded in the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique. In a concentration of 100 {mu}M, Hg{sup 2+} blocked the currents completely; 100 {mu}M Cd{sup 2+} had the same effect. Potassium-evoked catecholamine release from chromaffin cells was measured at different timepoints with HPLC under control conditions and in the presence of different Hg{sup 2+} concentrations. Low Hg{sup 2+} concentrations (0.1 and 1 {mu}M) did not affect the amount of the catecholamines epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) which was released. Under identical conditions 1 {mu}M Cd{sup 2+} also had no effect on release. With 10 {mu}M Hg{sup 2+} there was a time-dependent increase in the potassium-evoked catecholamine release (by 27% after 8 min). The E/NE ratio was not altered. In contrast to this, the release was slightly reduced with 10 {mu}M Cd{sup 2+}. In the presence of 100 {mu}M Hg{sup 2+}, there was a reduction of the release during an early phase, followed by an increase. The calcium channel block by 100 {mu}M Cd{sup 2+} also reduced the release significantly. Catecholamine release of bovine chromaffin cells is driven into two opposite directions by Hg{sup 2+}. On the one hand, a calcium channel block reduces the release, while on the other hand effects occur which can increase the release. Both tendencies occur simultaneously, but have different concentration- and time-dependencies. The catecholamine output at a given timepoint reflects the `sum` of these different effects. (orig.)

  7. Butanol isomers exert distinct effects on voltage-gated calcium channel currents and thus catecholamine secretion in adrenal chromaffin cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah McDavid

    Full Text Available Butanol (C4H10OH has been used both to dissect the molecular targets of alcohols/general anesthetics and to implicate phospholipase D (PLD signaling in a variety of cellular functions including neurotransmitter and hormone exocytosis. Like other primary alcohols, 1-butanol is a substrate for PLD and thereby disrupts formation of the intracellular signaling lipid phosphatidic acid. Because secondary and tertiary butanols do not undergo this transphosphatidylation, they have been used as controls for 1-butanol to implicate PLD signaling. Recently, selective pharmacological inhibitors of PLD have been developed and, in some cases, fail to block cellular functions previously ascribed to PLD using primary alcohols. For example, exocytosis of insulin and degranulation of mast cells are blocked by primary alcohols, but not by the PLD inhibitor FIPI. In this study we show that 1-butanol reduces catecholamine secretion from adrenal chromaffin cells to a much greater extent than tert-butanol, and that the PLD inhibitor VU0155056 has no effect. Using fluorescent imaging we show the effect of these drugs on depolarization-evoked calcium entry parallel those on secretion. Patch-clamp electrophysiology confirmed the peak amplitude of voltage-gated calcium channel currents (I(Ca is inhibited by 1-butanol, with little or no block by secondary or tert-butanol. Detailed comparison shows for the first time that the different butanol isomers exert distinct, and sometimes opposing, effects on the voltage-dependence and gating kinetics of I(Ca. We discuss these data with regard to PLD signaling in cellular physiology and the molecular targets of general anesthetics.

  8. Butanol isomers exert distinct effects on voltage-gated calcium channel currents and thus catecholamine secretion in adrenal chromaffin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDavid, Sarah; Bauer, Mary Beth; Brindley, Rebecca L; Jewell, Mark L; Currie, Kevin P M

    2014-01-01

    Butanol (C4H10OH) has been used both to dissect the molecular targets of alcohols/general anesthetics and to implicate phospholipase D (PLD) signaling in a variety of cellular functions including neurotransmitter and hormone exocytosis. Like other primary alcohols, 1-butanol is a substrate for PLD and thereby disrupts formation of the intracellular signaling lipid phosphatidic acid. Because secondary and tertiary butanols do not undergo this transphosphatidylation, they have been used as controls for 1-butanol to implicate PLD signaling. Recently, selective pharmacological inhibitors of PLD have been developed and, in some cases, fail to block cellular functions previously ascribed to PLD using primary alcohols. For example, exocytosis of insulin and degranulation of mast cells are blocked by primary alcohols, but not by the PLD inhibitor FIPI. In this study we show that 1-butanol reduces catecholamine secretion from adrenal chromaffin cells to a much greater extent than tert-butanol, and that the PLD inhibitor VU0155056 has no effect. Using fluorescent imaging we show the effect of these drugs on depolarization-evoked calcium entry parallel those on secretion. Patch-clamp electrophysiology confirmed the peak amplitude of voltage-gated calcium channel currents (I(Ca)) is inhibited by 1-butanol, with little or no block by secondary or tert-butanol. Detailed comparison shows for the first time that the different butanol isomers exert distinct, and sometimes opposing, effects on the voltage-dependence and gating kinetics of I(Ca). We discuss these data with regard to PLD signaling in cellular physiology and the molecular targets of general anesthetics.

  9. Microelectrode Arrays of Diamond-Insulated Graphitic Channels for Real-Time Detection of Exocytotic Events from Cultured Chromaffin Cells and Slices of Adrenal Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picollo, Federico; Battiato, Alfio; Bernardi, Ettore; Marcantoni, Andrea; Pasquarelli, Alberto; Carbone, Emilio; Olivero, Paolo; Carabelli, Valentina

    2016-08-01

    A microstructured graphitic 4 × 4 multielectrode array was embedded in a single-crystal diamond substrate (4 × 4 μG-SCD MEA) for real-time monitoring of exocytotic events from cultured chromaffin cells and adrenal slices. The current approach relies on the development of a parallel ion beam lithographic technique, which assures the time-effective fabrication of extended arrays with reproducible electrode dimensions. The reported device is suitable for performing amperometric and voltammetric recordings with high sensitivity and temporal resolution, by simultaneously acquiring data from 16 rectangularly shaped microelectrodes (20 × 3.5 μm(2)) separated by 200 μm gaps. Taking advantage of the array geometry we addressed the following specific issues: (i) detect both the spontaneous and KCl-evoked secretion simultaneously from several chromaffin cells directly cultured on the device surface, (ii) resolve the waveform of different subsets of exocytotic events, and (iii) monitoring quantal secretory events from thin slices of the adrenal gland. The frequency of spontaneous release was low (0.12 and 0.3 Hz, respectively, for adrenal slices and cultured cells) and increased up to 0.9 Hz after stimulation with 30 mM KCl in cultured cells. The spike amplitude as well as rise and decay time were comparable with those measured by carbon fiber microelectrodes and allowed to identify three different subsets of secretory events associated with "full fusion" events, "kiss-and-run" and "kiss-and-stay" exocytosis, confirming that the device has adequate sensitivity and time resolution for real-time recordings. The device offers the significant advantage of shortening the time to collect data by allowing simultaneous recordings from cell populations either in primary cell cultures or in intact tissues. PMID:27376596

  10. Brevenal inhibits pacific ciguatoxin-1B-induced neurosecretion from bovine chromaffin cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Mattei

    Full Text Available Ciguatoxins and brevetoxins are neurotoxic cyclic polyether compounds produced by dinoflagellates, which are responsible for ciguatera and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP respectively. Recently, brevenal, a natural compound was found to specifically inhibit brevetoxin action and to have a beneficial effect in NSP. Considering that brevetoxin and ciguatoxin specifically activate voltage-sensitive Na+ channels through the same binding site, brevenal has therefore a good potential for the treatment of ciguatera. Pacific ciguatoxin-1B (P-CTX-1B activates voltage-sensitive Na+ channels and promotes an increase in neurotransmitter release believed to underpin the symptoms associated with ciguatera. However, the mechanism through which slow Na+ influx promotes neurosecretion is not fully understood. In the present study, we used chromaffin cells as a model to reconstitute the sequence of events culminating in ciguatoxin-evoked neurosecretion. We show that P-CTX-1B induces a tetrodotoxin-sensitive rise in intracellular Na+, closely followed by an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ responsible for promoting SNARE-dependent catecholamine secretion. Our results reveal that brevenal and beta-naphtoyl-brevetoxin prevent P-CTX-1B secretagogue activity without affecting nicotine or barium-induced catecholamine secretion. Brevenal is therefore a potent inhibitor of ciguatoxin-induced neurotoxic effect and a potential treatment for ciguatera.

  11. Trifluoperazine reduces inward ionic currents and secretion by separate mechanisms in bovine chromaffin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, D E; Neher, E

    1984-08-01

    Using patch-clamp techniques, excitation and secretion in chromaffin cells were studied by measurement of unitary inward currents and of stimulus-evoked increments in membrane capacitance. The effect of the calmodulin inhibitor trifluoperazine (TFP) on Na, Ca and acetylcholine-induced (ACh) currents as well as on capacitance increments was investigated. TFP in concentrations up to 10 microM had no effect on Na channel currents. TFP was a potent anticholinergic agent. TFP in concentrations of 100 nM-1 microM decreased net ACh-induced currents by a slow block or allosteric modification of the channel. The effect was only partially reversible. Recovery from desensitization was retarded in direct relation to [TFP]. At the single channel level, TFP was found to slightly shorten open times in 0.5 and 20 microM-ACh. As reported previously, desensitization can be modelled by at least two desensitized states, as reflected by the bursting and clustering behaviour of single channels. TFP shortened clusters mainly by reducing the number of bursts per cluster. Whole-cell Ca currents (ICa) were reduced in 10 microM-TFP from an average of 29 microA cm-2-13 microA cm-2. Changes in capacitance of 1-200 fF were elicited in controls by maximal activation of the Ca current. We interpreted these steps to be the summed result of many exocytotic vesicular fusion events. Capacitance steps depended on ICa and were absent when extracellular Ca was removed. Application of 10 microM-TFP inhibited capacitance steps. The block of capacitance steps by TFP was shown to be independent of the reduction of ACh and Ca inward ionic currents. We conclude that the prevention of exocytosis by TFP is not completely described by its inhibition of electrical excitability but also results from intracellular actions. PMID:6090644

  12. Stimulation of catecholamine secretion from cultured chromaffin cells by an ionophore-mediated rise in intracellular sodium

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    The significance of intracellular Na+ concentration in catecholamine secretion of cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells was investigated using the monovalent carboxylic ionophore monensin. This ionophore, which is known to mediate a one-for-one exchange of intracellular K+ for extracellular Na+, induces a slow, prolonged release of catecholamines which, at 6 h, amounts of 75-90% of the total catecholamines; carbachol induces a rapid pulse of catecholamine secretion of 25-35%. Although secr...

  13. Neuronal localization of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38 in the adrenal medulla and growth-inhibitory effect on chromaffin cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frödin, M; Hannibal, J; Wulff, B S;

    1995-01-01

    medulla showed PACAP38 immunoreactivity in a widely distributed network of delicate nerve fibers surrounding the chromaffin cells. In a primary culture system, PACAP38 inhibited growth factor-stimulated DNA synthesis by 90% in neonatal and adult rat chromaffin cells with half-maximal inhibition at 4 and 0...... cells, 100 nM PACAP38 and 1 microM corticosterone added together abolished proliferation completely (99.8% inhibition). Finally, PACAP38 increased cell survival but showed little neurite-promoting activity in the chromaffin cells. Our data suggest that neurally derived PACAP38, in conjunction...

  14. A specific binding site recognizing a fragment of angiotensin II in bovine adrenal cortex membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, S G; Fournier, A; Guillemette, G

    1994-12-12

    We have characterized a specific binding site for angiotensin IV in bovine adrenal cortex membranes. Pseudo-equilibrium studies at 37 degrees C for 2 h have shown that this binding site recognizes angiotensin IV with a high affinity (Kd = 0.24 +/- 0.03 nM). The binding site is saturable and relatively abundant (maximal binding capacity around 0.5 pmol/mg protein). Non-equilibrium kinetic analyses at 37 degrees C revealed a calculated kinetic Kd of 47 pM. The binding site is pharmacologically distinct from the classic angiotensin receptors AT1 or AT2. Competitive binding studies with bovine adrenal cortex membranes demonstrated the following rank order of effectiveness: angiotensin IV (Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe) = angiotensin II-(3-7) (Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro) > angiotensin III (Arg-Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe) > or = angiotensin II-(4-7) (Tyr-Ile-His-Pro) > angiotensin II (Asp-Arg-Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe) > angiotensin II-(1-6) (Asp-Arg-Val-Tyr-Ile-His) > angiotensin II-(4-8) (Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe) > > > angiotensin II-(3-6) (Val-Tyr-Ile-His), angiotensin II-(4-6) (Tyr-Ile-His), L-158,809 (5,7-dimethyl-2-ethyl-3-[(2'(1-H-tetrazol-5-yl)[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-y l) methyl]-3-H-imidazo[4,5-beta]pyridine H2O) and PD 123319 (1-[4-(dimethylamino)3-methylphenyl]methyl-5-(diphenylacetyl)4,5,6 ,7- tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine-6-carboxylic acid). The divalent cations Mg2+ and Ca2+ were shown to diminish the binding of 125I-angiotensioffn IV to bovine adrenal cortex membranes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Inclusões intracitoplasmáticas hialinas na medular da adrenal de bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P Mesquita

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in adrenal medullary chromaffin cells have been described in various species including humans. These inclusions are believed to be related to certain infectious, toxic and neurodegenerative diseases. No reports concerning such adrenal inclusions have been described in bovines. Adrenal glands from twenty bovines were evaluated in a retrospective study. Seven of these exhibited inclusions - three cases of rabies, two cases of chronic suppurative bronchopneumonia, one case of chronic suppurative peritonitis, and one case of gangrenous mastitis. The inclusions were present in higher numbers especially in cases of rabies and also in one case of chronic suppurative bronchopneumonia. The inclusions were intracytoplasmic, eosinophilic, rounded, single or multiple, of various sizes, strongly stained by PAS and were present in higher numbers in the external layer of the adrenal medulla. The inclusions were negative when subjected to immunohistochemistry for detection of viral antigens in the cases of rabies. Although inclusion bodies were present in adrenal glands devoid of other histological alterations, they were more abundant in cases in which the adrenal gland had other alterations. The correlation between certain diseases and the development of inclusion bodies is not known, which highlights the importance of further studies on these inclusions in adrenal glands of bovines.

  16. Uptake of [3H]-nicotine and [3H]-noradrenaline by cultured chromaffin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceña, V.; García, A. G.; Montiel, C.; Sánchez-García, P.

    1984-01-01

    Three day-old cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells incubated at room temperature with Krebs-HEPES solution containing different concentrations of [3H]-nicotine, took up and retained increasing amounts of the drug by a mechanism that did not saturate. Concentrations of cold nicotine as high as 100 microM did not alter the amount of [3H]-nicotine retained by cells. Imipramine, cocaine, tetracaine or mecamylamine, at concentrations (10 microM) that blocked the catecholamine secretory effects of nicotine completely, did not modify the uptake of [3H]-nicotine. Both imipramine and cocaine drastically inhibited [3H]-noradrenaline uptake by cells in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50S of 0.08 and 1 microM, respectively). These data indicate that the secretory effects of nicotine are not coupled to its previous uptake into cells, and are evidence in favour of a site of action for nicotine located in or at the surface of the chromaffin cell membrane. PMID:6704577

  17. Congener specific effects by polychlorinated biphenyls on catecholamine content and release in chromaffin cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messeri, M.D. [Medizinisches Institut fuer Umwelthygiene an der Heinrich-Heine-Univ., Duesseldorf (Germany); Bickmeyer, U. [Medizinisches Institut fuer Umwelthygiene an der Heinrich-Heine-Univ., Duesseldorf (Germany); Weinsberg, F. [Physiologisches Institut, Universitaetskrankenhaus Hamburg Eppendorf, Martinistasse 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Wiegand, H. [Medizinisches Institut fuer Umwelthygiene an der Heinrich-Heine-Univ., Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1997-05-01

    The effects of the non-planar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 2,2`,4,4`-tetrachlorobiphenyl (2,4-TCB) and of the coplanar PCB congener 3,3`,4,4`-tetrachlorobiphenyl (3,4-TCB) were investigated on the catecholamine content and release from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells in culture. Each congener was tested at three concentrations (20, 50 and 100 {mu}M) and two exposure periods (24 h and 5 days). Catecholamine release induced by K{sup +}-stimulation as well as catecholamine content of Triton X-100 treated cell cultures were examined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). 2,4-TCB showed dose- and time-dependent effects. 2,4-TCB at 100 {mu}M reduced the K{sup +}-stimulated catecholamine release after 24 h of exposure. After 5 days of exposure, 2,4 TCB at 50 and 100 {mu}M drastically reduced the K{sup +}-stimulated catecholamine release. 3,4-TCB even at a concentration of 100 {mu}M over exposure of either 24 h or 5 days had no effects on the K{sup +}-stimulated secretion. When chromaffin cells, exposed to 2,4-TCB, were lysed with 0.5% Triton X-100, a dose- and time-dependent reduction of the catecholamine content appeared. The 3,4-TCB did not reduce the catecholamine content. Conversely there seemed to be a trend towards an increase in catecholamine content. Spontaneous release of catecholamines was strongly increased by the non-planar 2,4 TCB, while the coplanar 3,4 TCB showed no effects on this parameter. Furthermore, the effects of 2,4 TCB appeared to be reversible after replacing the highest concentration (100 {mu}M) of the TCB-solution with culture-medium at the end of the 24-h exposure. Thus, K{sup +}-stimulated catecholamine release and the catecholamine content of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells was effectively reduced by the non-planar PCB congener whereas spontaneous catecholamine release was strongly increased. The coplanar PCB congener was ineffective at the same conditions. (orig.). With 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. The chromaffin cells of Siren lacertina (Amphibia, Urodela): cytological characteristics and evidence of exocytosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Accordi, F

    1988-01-01

    In the adrenal gland of Siren lacertina three types of chromaffin cells are described, on the basis of size, shape and electron density of the cytoplasmic granules: adrenaline-secreting cells, noradrenaline-secreting cells and small granulated chromaffin-cells. In A-cells exocytotic profiles are described, in which the granule membrane fuses with the plasma membrane and the granule core is discharged into the intercellular space.

  19. Kinetics of adrenal medullary cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Verhofstad, A A

    1993-01-01

    The adrenal medulla of mammals has a heterogeneous population of cells. In adults most are epithelial cells containing a particular type of cytoplasmic granule. Based on a variety of cytochemical and ultrastructural studies it is now accepted that 2 different adrenal medullary chromaffin cell types can be distinguished, i.e. noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (A) synthesising and storing cells. Other cell types present in the adrenal medulla include neuronal elements comprising either cell bod...

  20. Dynamin-2 regulates fusion pore expansion and quantal release through a mechanism that involves actin dynamics in neuroendocrine chromaffin cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlek M González-Jamett

    Full Text Available Over the past years, dynamin has been implicated in tuning the amount and nature of transmitter released during exocytosis. However, the mechanism involved remains poorly understood. Here, using bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, we investigated whether this mechanism rely on dynamin's ability to remodel actin cytoskeleton. According to this idea, inhibition of dynamin GTPase activity suppressed the calcium-dependent de novo cortical actin and altered the cortical actin network. Similarly, expression of a small interfering RNA directed against dynamin-2, an isoform highly expressed in chromaffin cells, changed the cortical actin network pattern. Disruption of dynamin-2 function, as well as the pharmacological inhibition of actin polymerization with cytochalasine-D, slowed down fusion pore expansion and increased the quantal size of individual exocytotic events. The effects of cytochalasine-D and dynamin-2 disruption were not additive indicating that dynamin-2 and F-actin regulate the late steps of exocytosis by a common mechanism. Together our data support a model in which dynamin-2 directs actin polymerization at the exocytosis site where both, in concert, adjust the hormone quantal release to efficiently respond to physiological demands.

  1. Isolation and characterization of a specific endogenous Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase inhibitor from bovine adrenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, M.; Lam, T.T.; Inagami, T.

    1988-06-14

    In order to identify a specific endogenous Na/sup +/,K/sup +/-ATPase inhibitor which could possibly be related to salt-dependent hypertension, the authors looked for substances in the methanol extract of bovine whole adrenal which show all of the following properties: (i) inhibitory activity for Na/sup +/,K/sup +/-ATPase; (ii) competitive displacing activity against (/sup 3/H)ouabain binding to the enzyme; (iii) inhibitory activity for /sup 86/Rb uptake into intact human erythrocytes; and (iv) cross-reactivity with sheep anti-digoxin-specific antibody. After stepwise fractionation of the methanol extract of bovine adrenal glands by chromatography on a C/sub 18/ open column, a 0-15% acetonitrile fraction was fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography on a Zorbax octadecylsilane column. One of the most active fractions in 0-15% acetonitrile was found to exhibit all of the four types of the activities. It was soluble in water and was distinct from various substances which have been known to inhibit Na/sup +/,K/sup +/-ATPase. These results strongly suggest that this water-soluble nonpeptidic Na/sup +/,K/sup +/-ATPase inhibitor may be a specific endogenous regulator for the ATPase.

  2. Bases fisiológicas para una interacción entre las células cromafines y las endoteliales de la glándula adrenal Physiological bases for an interaction between chromaffin and endothelial cells from the adrenal gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIO LUXORO

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo tratamos de investigar las posibles interacciones entre las células endoteliales de la glándula adrenal y aquellas sustancias relacionadas con la secreción de las células cromafines. Para lo anterior, estudiamos el efecto de acetilcolina (ACh, o de catecolaminas (CA tanto en el nivel de Ca2+ citoplasmático ([Ca2+]i, como en el potencial de membrana de las células endoteliales. Nuestros resultados muestran que tanto la ACh como la nicotina, pero no la muscarina, son capaces de inducir un aumento del [Ca2+]i y una despolarización de la membrana plasmática de las células endoteliales. El antagonista nicotínico, hexametonium, bloquea tanto el efecto de la ACh como de la nicotina lo que sugiere la presencia de receptores nicotínicos. Por otra parte, las CA (tanto adrenalina como noradrenalina o agonistas a1-adrenérgicos también producen un aumento del [Ca2+]i en las células endoteliales aunque no despolarización evidente. En este caso, el aumento es bifásico siendo la primera fase de un pico rápido e independiente del Ca2+ extracelular en tanto que la segunda se presenta con oscilaciones y depende tanto de que los canales de Ca2+ no estén bloqueados como de la presencia de ese ión en el medio externo. Dado que se ha demostrado que el aumento del [Ca2+]i en las células endoteliales desencadena la secreción de sustancias vasodilatadoras (prostaciclina y óxido nítrico, proponemos que éste sería un mecanismo compensatorio del sistema para contrarestar el enorme efecto vasoconstrictor de las CA secretadas por las células cromafinesIn this work we investigated the possible interactions between the endothelial cells from the adrenal gland and the substances related with the secretion from the chromaffin cells. In order to do so, we studied the effect of acetyl-choline (ACh or of catecholamines (CA on the level of the membrane potential and the cytoplasmic concentration of free calcium ([Ca2+]i in the endothelial

  3. Vesicle Motion during Sustained Exocytosis in Chromaffin Cells: Numerical Model Based on Amperometric Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarukanont, Daungruthai; Bonifas Arredondo, Imelda; Femat, Ricardo; Garcia, Martin E

    2015-01-01

    Chromaffin cells release catecholamines by exocytosis, a process that includes vesicle docking, priming and fusion. Although all these steps have been intensively studied, some aspects of their mechanisms, particularly those regarding vesicle transport to the active sites situated at the membrane, are still unclear. In this work, we show that it is possible to extract information on vesicle motion in Chromaffin cells from the combination of Langevin simulations and amperometric measurements. We developed a numerical model based on Langevin simulations of vesicle motion towards the cell membrane and on the statistical analysis of vesicle arrival times. We also performed amperometric experiments in bovine-adrenal Chromaffin cells under Ba2+ stimulation to capture neurotransmitter releases during sustained exocytosis. In the sustained phase, each amperometric peak can be related to a single release from a new vesicle arriving at the active site. The amperometric signal can then be mapped into a spike-series of release events. We normalized the spike-series resulting from the current peaks using a time-rescaling transformation, thus making signals coming from different cells comparable. We discuss why the obtained spike-series may contain information about the motion of all vesicles leading to release of catecholamines. We show that the release statistics in our experiments considerably deviate from Poisson processes. Moreover, the interspike-time probability is reasonably well described by two-parameter gamma distributions. In order to interpret this result we computed the vesicles' arrival statistics from our Langevin simulations. As expected, assuming purely diffusive vesicle motion we obtain Poisson statistics. However, if we assume that all vesicles are guided toward the membrane by an attractive harmonic potential, simulations also lead to gamma distributions of the interspike-time probability, in remarkably good agreement with experiment. We also show that

  4. Vesicle Motion during Sustained Exocytosis in Chromaffin Cells: Numerical Model Based on Amperometric Measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daungruthai Jarukanont

    Full Text Available Chromaffin cells release catecholamines by exocytosis, a process that includes vesicle docking, priming and fusion. Although all these steps have been intensively studied, some aspects of their mechanisms, particularly those regarding vesicle transport to the active sites situated at the membrane, are still unclear. In this work, we show that it is possible to extract information on vesicle motion in Chromaffin cells from the combination of Langevin simulations and amperometric measurements. We developed a numerical model based on Langevin simulations of vesicle motion towards the cell membrane and on the statistical analysis of vesicle arrival times. We also performed amperometric experiments in bovine-adrenal Chromaffin cells under Ba2+ stimulation to capture neurotransmitter releases during sustained exocytosis. In the sustained phase, each amperometric peak can be related to a single release from a new vesicle arriving at the active site. The amperometric signal can then be mapped into a spike-series of release events. We normalized the spike-series resulting from the current peaks using a time-rescaling transformation, thus making signals coming from different cells comparable. We discuss why the obtained spike-series may contain information about the motion of all vesicles leading to release of catecholamines. We show that the release statistics in our experiments considerably deviate from Poisson processes. Moreover, the interspike-time probability is reasonably well described by two-parameter gamma distributions. In order to interpret this result we computed the vesicles' arrival statistics from our Langevin simulations. As expected, assuming purely diffusive vesicle motion we obtain Poisson statistics. However, if we assume that all vesicles are guided toward the membrane by an attractive harmonic potential, simulations also lead to gamma distributions of the interspike-time probability, in remarkably good agreement with experiment. We

  5. Modulation of the kinetics of cholesterol side-chain cleavage by an activator and by an inhibitor isolated from the cytosol of the cortex of bovine adrenals.

    OpenAIRE

    Warne, P A; Greenfield, N J; Lieberman, S.

    1983-01-01

    Two modulators of sterol side-chain cleavage activity have been detected in the cytosol from the cortex of bovine adrenals. One is an inhibitor of side-chain cleavage which increases the Km of a purified and reconstituted mitochondrial side-chain cleavage system for both cholesterol and cholesterol sulfate. It also lowers the Vmax of cleavage when cholesterol sulfate is the substrate. The other modulator is a low molecular weight protein which in the reconstituted system increases the Vmax of...

  6. Differences in CART expression and cell cycle behavior discriminate sympathetic neuroblast from chromaffin cell lineages in mouse sympathoadrenal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wing Hei; Gonsalvez, David G; Young, Heather M; Southard-Smith, E Michelle; Cane, Kylie N; Anderson, Colin R

    2016-02-01

    Adrenal medullary chromaffin cells and peripheral sympathetic neurons originate from a common sympathoadrenal (SA) progenitor cell. The timing and phenotypic changes that mark this lineage diversification are not fully understood. The present study investigated the expression patterns of phenotypic markers, and cell cycle dynamics, in the adrenal medulla and the neighboring suprarenal ganglion of embryonic mice. The noradrenergic marker, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), was detected in both presumptive adrenal medulla and sympathetic ganglion cells, but with significantly stronger immunostaining in the former. There was intense cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide immunostaining in most neuroblasts, whereas very few adrenal chromaffin cells showed detectable CART immunostaining. This phenotypic segregation appeared as early as E12.5, before anatomical segregation of the two cell types. Cell cycle dynamics were also examined. Initially, 88% of Sox10 positive (+) neural crest progenitors were proliferating at E10.5. Many SA progenitor cells withdrew from the cell cycle at E11.5 as they started to express TH. Whereas 70% of neuroblasts (TH+/CART+ cells) were back in the cell cycle at E12.5, only around 20% of chromaffin (CART negative) cells were in the cell cycle at E12.5 and subsequent days. Thus, chromaffin cell and neuroblast lineages showed differences in proliferative behavior from their earliest appearance. We conclude that the intensity of TH immunostaining and the expression of CART permit early discrimination of chromaffin cells and sympathetic neuroblasts, and that developing chromaffin cells exhibit significantly lower proliferative activity relative to sympathetic neuroblasts.

  7. Effect of heart failure on catecholamine granule morphology and storage in chromaffin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahata, Sushil K; Zheng, Hong; Mahata, Sumana; Liu, Xuefei; Patel, Kaushik P

    2016-09-01

    One of the key mechanisms involved in sympathoexcitation in chronic heart failure (HF) is the activation of the adrenal glands. Impact of the elevated catecholamines on the hemodynamic parameters has been previously demonstrated. However, studies linking the structural effects of such overactivation with secretory performance and cell metabolism in the adrenomedullary chromaffin cells in vivo have not been previously reported. In this study, HF was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by ligation of the left coronary artery. Five weeks after surgery, cardiac function was assessed by ventricular hemodynamics. HF rats showed increased adrenal weight and adrenal catecholamine levels (norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine) compared with sham-operated rats. Rats with HF demonstrated increased small synaptic and dense core vesicle in splanchnic-adrenal synapses indicating trans-synaptic activation of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes, increased endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi lumen width to meet the demand of increased catecholamine synthesis and release, and more mitochondria with dilated cristae and glycogen to accommodate for the increased energy demand for the increased biogenesis and exocytosis of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla. These findings suggest that increased trans-synaptic activation of the chromaffin cells within the adrenal medulla may lead to increased catecholamines in the circulation which in turn contributes to the enhanced neurohumoral drive, providing a unique mechanistic insight for enhanced catecholamine levels in plasma commonly observed in chronic HF condition. PMID:27402067

  8. Morphological aspects of chromaffin tissue: the differential fixation of adrenaline and noradrenaline.

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, S; Coupland, R. E.

    1993-01-01

    The morphological aspects of chromaffin tissue are reviewed, based mainly on our studies on the mouse adrenal gland. Particular attention was focused on the differential fixation of adrenaline and noradrenaline, and on the uptake and storage of [3H]dopa, [3H]dopamine and related substances in the adrenaline-storing (A) and noradrenaline-storing (NA) cells. Scanning electron microscopy combined with the NaOH-maceration method was useful for demonstrating the 3-dimensional organisation of nerve...

  9. Regulation by L channels of Ca(2+)-evoked secretory responses in ouabain-treated chromaffin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascual, Ricardo; Colmena, Inés; Ruiz-Pascual, Lucía; Baraibar, Andrés Mateo; Egea, Javier; Gandía, Luis; García, Antonio G

    2016-10-01

    It is known that the sustained depolarisation of adrenal medullary bovine chromaffin cells (BCCs) with high K(+) concentrations produces an initial sharp catecholamine release that subsequently fades off in spite depolarisation persists. Here, we have recreated a sustained depolarisation condition of BCCs by treating them with the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase blocker ouabain; in doing so, we searched experimental conditions that permitted the development of a sustained long-term catecholamine release response that could be relevant during prolonged stress. BCCs were perifused with nominal 0Ca(2+) solution, and secretion responses were elicited by intermittent application of short 2Ca(2+) pulses (Krebs-HEPES containing 2 mM Ca(2+)). These pulses elicited a biphasic secretory pattern with an initial 30-min period with secretory responses of increasing amplitude and a second 30-min period with steady-state, non-inactivating responses. The initial phase was not due to gradual depolarisation neither to gradual increases of the cytosolic calcium transients ([Ca(2+)]c) elicited by 2Ca(2+) pulses in BBCs exposed to ouabain; both parameters increased soon after ouabain addition. Νifedipine blocked these responses, and FPL64176 potentiated them, suggesting that they were triggered by Ca(2+) entry through non-inactivating L-type calcium channels. This was corroborated by nifedipine-evoked blockade of the L-type Ca(2+) channel current and the [Ca(2+)]c transients elicited by 2Ca(2+) pulses. Furthermore, the plasmalemmal Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) blocker SEA0400 caused a mild inhibition followed by a large rebound increase of the steady-state secretory responses. We conclude that these two phases of secretion are mostly contributed by Ca(2+) entry through L calcium channels, with a minor contribution of Ca(2+) entry through the reverse mode of the NCX.

  10. Prolonged exposure of chromaffin cells to nitric oxide down-regulates the activity of soluble guanylyl cyclase and corresponding mRNA and protein levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Rut; Torres, Magdalena

    2002-01-01

    Background Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is the main receptor for nitric oxide (NO) when the latter is produced at low concentrations. This enzyme exists mainly as a heterodimer consisting of one α and one β subunit and converts GTP to the second intracellular messenger cGMP. In turn, cGMP plays a key role in regulating several physiological processes in the nervous system. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of a NO donor on sGC activity and its protein and subunit mRNA levels in a neural cell model. Results Continuous exposure of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells in culture to the nitric oxide donor, diethylenetriamine NONOate (DETA/NO), resulted in a lower capacity of the cells to synthesize cGMP in response to a subsequent NO stimulus. This effect was not prevented by an increase of intracellular reduced glutathione level. DETA/NO treatment decreased sGC subunit mRNA and β1 subunit protein levels. Both sGC activity and β1 subunit levels decreased more rapidly in chromaffin cells exposed to NO than in cells exposed to the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, suggesting that NO decreases β1 subunit stability. The presence of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) inhibitors effectively prevented the DETA/NO-induced down regulation of sGC subunit mRNA and partially inhibited the reduction in β1 subunits. Conclusions These results suggest that activation of PKG mediates the drop in sGC subunit mRNA levels, and that NO down-regulates sGC activity by decreasing subunit mRNA levels through a cGMP-dependent mechanism, and by reducing β1 subunit stability. PMID:12350235

  11. Adrenaline-, noradrenaline- and small granule- containing cells in the adrenal gland of Discoglossus pictus (Amphibia, Anura).

    OpenAIRE

    Accordi, F; Gallo, V P

    1982-01-01

    In the adrenal gland of Discoglossus pictus, various types of chromaffin cells are described: noradrenaline cells, adrenaline cells and small granule-containing cells (on the basis of electron density and shape of the granules). The chromaffin cells occur in small groups, and have cytoplasmic processes which may surround them in the form of parallel layers. Their nerve supply is sparse. The possible function of SGC-cells, in relation to those described in other vertebrates, is discussed.

  12. Stimulation of catecholamine secretion from cultured chromaffin cells by an ionophore-mediated rise in intracellular sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchard, S J; Lattanzio, F A; Rubin, R W; Pressman, B C

    1982-09-01

    The significance of intracellular Na+ concentration in catecholamine secretion of cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells was investigated using the monovalent carboxylic ionophore monensin. This ionophore, which is known to mediate a one-for-one exchange of intracellular K+ for extracellular Na+, induces a slow, prolonged release of catecholamines which, at 6 h, amounts of 75-90% of the total catecholamines; carbachol induces a rapid pulse of catecholamine secretion of 25-35%. Although secretory granule numbers appear to be qualitatively reduced after carbachol, multiple carbachol, or Ba2+ stimulation, overall granule distribution remains similar to that in untreated cells. Monensin-stimulated catecholamine release requires extracellular Na+ but not Ca2+ whereas carbachol-stimulated catecholamine release requires extracellular Ca2+ and is partially dependent on extracellular Na+. Despite its high selectivity for monovalent ions, monensin is considerably more effective in promoting catecholamine secretion than the divalent ionophores, A23187 and ionomycin, which mediate a more direct entry of extracellular Ca2+ into the cell. We propose that the monensin-stimulated increase in intracellular Na+ levels causes an increase in the availability of intracellular Ca2+ which, in turn, stimulates exocytosis. This hypothesis is supported by the comparable stimulation of catecholamine release by ouabain which inhibits the outwardly directed Na+ pump and thus permits intracellular Na+ to accumulate. The relative magnitudes of the secretion elicited by monensin, carbachol, and the calcium ionophores, are most consistent with the hypothesis that, under normal physiological conditions, Na+ acts by decreasing the propensity of Ca2+-sequestering sites to bind the Ca2+ that enters the cell as a result of acetylcholine stimulation. PMID:7130269

  13. Functional paraganglioma extra-adrenal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functioning paragangliomas are rare tumours that produce catecholamines.They originate from extra-adrenal chromaffin cells. They are frequently malignant and are associated with high incidence of persistent or recurrent disease after their primary treatment. They are known as glomus, chemodectomas, chromaffin paragangliomas and glomerulocytomas. The location is diverse and reflects the paragangliomar distribution in the body from the base of the skull to the pelvic floor. The paragangliomas are found where there are nodes of the autonomous system, however, approximately 90% of these tumours appear in the adrenal glands (and they constitute the pheochromocytomas) and the remaining 10% is a location extra adrenal, but it has been said that its impact can be underestimated, ranging from 18% to 22% in adults and children up to 30%. The extra-adrenal are originated more frequently in the abdomen (85%), other in the chest (12%) and more rarely in the head and neck (3%). Imaging studies and measurement of non-physiological production of catecholamines may aid in the diagnosis of this entity. Surgery is the treatment of choice. It is presented the case of a primigravidas patient aged 32 with HTAIE requiring caesarean section, who had a postpartum torpid and despite to multiple antihypertensive treatments their pathology was difficult to deal, with ophthalmic complications. Some time later, the patient is studied by hyperhidrosis, laboratory tests and images are requested and it is documented incidentally, a left retroperitoneal tumour, the studies are expanded and reach the correct diagnosis. The tumour required surgical resection. The patient had a satisfactory postoperative period and she discharged with control in the external consultation. (author)

  14. MiR-124 is differentially expressed in derivatives of the sympathoadrenal cell lineage and promotes neurite elongation in chromaffin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtukmaster, Stella; Narasimhan, Priyanka; El Faitwri, Tehani; Stubbusch, Jutta; Ernsberger, Uwe; Rohrer, Hermann; Unsicker, Klaus; Huber, Katrin

    2016-08-01

    The neural-crest-derived sympathoadrenal cell lineage gives rise to sympathetic neurons and to endocrine chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Both cell types express a largely overlapping set of genes, including those coding for the molecular machinery related to the synthesis and exocytotic release of catecholamines. During their early development, sympathetic neurons and chromaffin cells rely on a shared transcription factor network that controls the establishment of these common features. Despite many similarities, mature sympathetic neurons and chromaffin cells significantly differ regarding their morphology and function. Most prominently, sympathetic neurons possess axons that are absent in mammalian adrenal chromaffin cells. The molecular mechanism underlying the divergent development of sympathoadrenal cells into neuronal and endocrine cells remains elusive. Mutational inactivation of the ribonuclease dicer hints at the importance of microRNAs in this diversification. We show here that miR-124 is detectable in developing sympathetic neurons but absent in chromaffin cell precursors. We further demonstrate that miR-124 promotes neurite elongation when transfected into cultured chromaffin cells indicating its capability to support the establishment of a neuronal morphology in non-neuronal sympathoadrenal cells. Our results also show that treatment of PC12 cells with the neurotrophin nerve growth factor leads to an upregulation of miR-124 expression and that inhibition of miR-124 reduces nerve-growth-factor-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Thus, our data indicate that miR-124 contributes to the establishment of specific neuronal features in developing sympathoadrenal cells. PMID:27094431

  15. Insulin-like growth factors act synergistically with basic fibroblast growth factor and nerve growth factor to promote chromaffin cell proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frödin, M; Gammeltoft, S

    1994-01-01

    and immunocytochemical staining of cell nuclei. After 6 days in culture in the absence of growth factors, nuclear BrdUrd incorporation was detected in 30% of fetal chromaffin cells, 1.5% of neonatal cells, and 0.1% of adult cells. Addition of 10 nM IGF-I or IGF-II increased the fraction of BrdUrd-labeled nuclei to 50......% of fetal, 20% of neonatal, and 2% of adult chromaffin cells. The ED50 value of IGF-I- and IGF-II-stimulated BrdUrd labeling in neonatal chromaffin cells was 0.3 nM and 0.8 nM, respectively. In neonatal and adult chromaffin cells, addition of 1 nM bFGF or 2 nM NGF stimulated nuclear BrdUrd incorporation...... was further improved when bFGF or NGF was added together with IGF-II. In conclusion, we propose that IGF-I and IGF-II act in synergy with bFGF and NGF to stimulate proliferation and survival of chromaffin cells during neonatal growth and adult maintenance of the adrenal medulla. Our findings may have...

  16. Primary study on microencapsulated bovine adrena chromaffin cell xenotransplantation for chronic fermial pain%微囊化牛肾上腺嗜铬细胞脊髓蛛网膜下移植治疗慢性疼痛患者的初步观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛毅珑; 朱建华; 罗芸; 钟大光; 李雁凌; 何立敏; 李留树; 王捷; 王振福; 李新建; 张莉; 崔忻

    2000-01-01

    Objective To study the analgesic effect,the effective duration and the toxic-and side-effects of Alginate-Polylysine-Alginate (APA) microencapsulated bovine chromaffin cells (BCC) xenotransplanration on the terminal pain of 20 patients.Methods Sun's microencapsulation method was applied to encapsulate BCC with APA membrane and transplant the microencapsulated BCC(5~7)×106 into the subarachnoid space L3~5 of 20 patients.Results All 20 patients had pain relief rapidly after transplantation.Complete pain relief was shown in 14 cases,dramatic relief in 3 cases,medium relief in 1 case,slight relief in 2 cases.The rate for above medium relief was 90%.Without any immunosuppressants,3 patients remained pain free for over 200 days.Obvious toxic-and side-effects were not found.Conclusions Xenotransplantation of APA microencapsulated BCC into the spinal subarachnoid space of patients with cancer pain can promptly,significantly,safely produce analgesic effect for a long period.Microencapsulated BCC xenotransplantation may provide a unique and effective approach to the treatmerit of intractable chronic pain in human.%目的 观察海藻酸钠-聚赖氨酸-海藻酸钠(APA)微囊化牛肾上腺嗜铬细胞(BCC)异种移植对慢性顽固性疼痛患者的镇痛效应、作用持续时间及毒副作用.方法 用Sun氏微囊制作法将BCC包裹于APA微囊内,用常规腰穿法将5 ml微囊化BCC(5~7)×106悬液注入患者L3~5蛛网膜下.结果 20例中、重度慢性疼痛患者在1或2次注射后,疼痛迅速减轻,疼痛缓解率为90%.在未用任何免疫抑制剂的条件下,其中3例停用镇痛药时间超过200 d.结论 APA微囊化BCC异种移植于慢性疼痛患者脊髓蛛网膜下,可安全、迅速、长时间、有效地发挥镇痛作用.

  17. Composite pheochromocytoma-ganglioneuroma of the adrenal gland: A case report with immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Nawal Rao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite tumors of the adrenal medulla consisting of pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma are rare tumors accounting for less than 3% of all sympathoadrenal tumors. These tumors display more than one line of differentiation in which normal and neoplastic chromaffin cells are capable of differentiating into ganglion cells under the influence of nerve growth factors. To the best of our knowledge, we report the second case with a composite tumor of the adrenal medulla in a normotensive patient from India.

  18. Adrenal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Ng, Melissa; Kennedy, Laurence

    2012-10-01

    Adrenocortical insufficiency may arise through primary failure of the adrenal glands or due to lack of ACTH stimulation as a result of pituitary or hypothalamic dysfunction. Prolonged administration of exogenous steroids will suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and hence cortisol secretion. We review briefly the causes, investigation, and treatment of adrenal insufficiency, and highlight aspects of particular relevance to patients with adrenal tumors.

  19. Chronic cardiac pressure overload induces adrenal medulla hypertrophy and increased catecholamine synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Johanna; Lother, Achim; Hein, Lutz; Gilsbach, Ralf

    2011-06-01

    Increased activity of the sympathetic system is an important feature contributing to the pathogenesis and progression of chronic heart failure. While the mechanisms and consequences of enhanced norepinephrine release from sympathetic nerves have been intensely studied, the role of the adrenal gland in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and progression of heart failure is less well known. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of chronic cardiac pressure overload in mice on adrenal medulla structure and function. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced in wild-type mice by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) for 8 weeks. After TAC, the degree of cardiac hypertrophy correlated significantly with adrenal weight and adrenal catecholamine storage. In the medulla, TAC caused an increase in chromaffin cell size but did not result in chromaffin cell proliferation. Ablation of chromaffin α(2C)-adrenoceptors did not affect adrenal weight or epinephrine synthesis. However, unilateral denervation of the adrenal gland completely prevented adrenal hypertrophy and increased catecholamine synthesis. Transcriptome analysis of microdissected adrenal medulla identified 483 up- and 231 downregulated, well-annotated genes after TAC. Among these genes, G protein-coupled receptor kinases 2 (Grk2) and 6 and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (Pnmt) were significantly upregulated by TAC. In vitro, acetylcholine-induced Pnmt and Grk2 expression as well as enhanced epinephrine content was prevented by inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent signaling. Thus, activation of preganglionic sympathetic nerves innervating the adrenal medulla plays an essential role in inducing adrenal hypertrophy, enhanced catecholamine synthesis and induction of Grk2 expression after cardiac pressure overload.

  20. Adrenal adrenoceptors in heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio ede Lucia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF is a chronic clinical syndrome characterized by the reduction in left ventricular (LV function and it represents one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite considerable advances in pharmacological treatment, HF represents a severe clinical and social burden. Sympathetic outflow, characterized by increased circulating catecholamines (CAs biosynthesis and secretion, is peculiar in HF and sympatholytic treatments (as β-blockers are presently being investigated for the treatment of this disease. Adrenal gland secretes Epinephrine (80% and Norepinephrine (20% in response to acetylcholine stimulation of nicotinic cholinergic receptors on the chromaffin cell membranes. This process is regulated by adrenergic receptors (ARs: α2ARs inhibit CA release through coupling to inhibitory Gi-proteins, and βARs (mainly β2ARs stimulate CA release through coupling to stimulatory Gs-proteins. All ARs are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs and GPCR kinases (GRKs regulate their signaling and function. Adrenal GRK2-mediated α2AR desensitization and downregulation are increased in HF and seem to be a fundamental regulator of CA secretion from the adrenal gland. Consequently, restoration of adrenal a2AR signaling through the inhibition of GRK2 is a fascinating sympatholytic therapeutic strategy for chronic HF. This strategy could have several significant advantages over existing HF pharmacotherapies (antiadrenergic, such as bAR-blockers minimizing side-effects on extra-cardiac tissues and reducing the chronic activation of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone and endothelin systems.The role of adrenal ARs in regulation of sympathetic hyperactivity opens interesting perspectives in understanding pathophysiology of HF and identifying new potential therapeutic targets.

  1. Impaired desensitization of a human polymorphic α2B-adrenergic receptor variant enhances its sympatho-inhibitory activity in chromaffin cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lymperopoulos Anastasios

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background α2-adrenergic receptors (ARs mediate many cellular actions of epinephrine and norepinephrine and inhibit their secretion from adrenal chromaffin cells. Like many other G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs, they undergo agonist-dependent phopshorylation and desensitization by GPCR Kinases (GRKs, a phenomenon recently shown to play a major role in the sympathetic overdrive that accompanies and aggravates chronic heart failure. A deletion polymorphism in the human α2B-AR gene (Glu301-303 causes impaired agonist-promoted receptor phosphorylation and desensitization in heterologous cell lines. Given the importance of α2-ARs in regulation of catecholamine secretion from chromaffin cells, we sought to investigate, in the present study, the desensitization properties and the sympatho-inhibitory activity of this variant in a chromaffin cell line. For this purpose, we expressed this variant and its wild type counterpart in the well-established chromaffin cell line PC12, and performed receptor phosphorylation and desensitization studies, as well as in vitro catecholamine secretion assays. Results Both the agonist-induced phosphorylation and agonist-dependent desensitization of the human Glu301-303 deletion polymorphic α2B-AR are significantly impaired in PC12 cells, resulting in enhanced signaling to inhibition of cholinergic-induced catecholamine secretion in vitro. Conclusion This α2B-AR gene polymorphism (Glu301-303 deletion might confer better protection against conditions characterized and aggravated by sympathetic/catecholaminergic overstimulation in vivo.

  2. Adrenal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exact localization of adrenal lesions can be achieved by noninvasive procedures. Whereas radiological methods reflect morphological changes, scintigraphy of adrenal cortex and medulla depends on function. - Radiolabeled 6β-methyl-19-norcholesterol is used for adrenocortical scintigraphy in primary aldosteronism, Cushing's syndrome and hyperandrogenism. By dexamethasone suppression a correct classification of adrenocortical lesions by scintigraphy can be observed in about 89% with a specificity of 86%. 123-I- and 131-I-metaiodobenzylguanidine is used for specific scintigraphy of the adrenal medulla. This method is a safe and reliable method for localization of adrenal and extraadrenal pheochromocytomas. (orig.)

  3. Adrenal scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, M.; Vetter, H.

    1986-04-01

    The exact localization of adrenal lesions can be achieved by noninvasive procedures. Whereas radiological methods reflect morphological changes, scintigraphy of adrenal cortex and medulla depends on function. - Radiolabeled 6..beta..-methyl-19-norcholesterol is used for adrenocortical scintigraphy in primary aldosteronism, Cushing's syndrome and hyperandrogenism. By dexamethasone suppression a correct classification of adrenocortical lesions by scintigraphy can be observed in about 89% with a specificity of 86%. 123-I- and 131-I-metaiodobenzylguanidine is used for specific scintigraphy of the adrenal medulla. This method is a safe and reliable method for localization of adrenal and extraadrenal pheochromocytomas.

  4. Impact of Chromogranin A deficiency on catecholamine storage, catecholamine granule morphology and chromaffin cell energy metabolism in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqua, Teresa; Mahata, Sumana; Bandyopadhyay, Gautam K; Biswas, Angshuman; Perkins, Guy A; Sinha-Hikim, Amiya P; Goldstein, David S; Eiden, Lee E; Mahata, Sushil K

    2016-03-01

    Chromogranin A (CgA) is a prohormone and granulogenic factor in neuroendocrine tissues with a regulated secretory pathway. The impact of CgA depletion on secretory granule formation has been previously demonstrated in cell culture. However, studies linking the structural effects of CgA deficiency with secretory performance and cell metabolism in the adrenomedullary chromaffin cells in vivo have not previously been reported. Adrenomedullary content of the secreted adrenal catecholamines norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI) was decreased 30-40 % in Chga-KO mice. Quantification of NE and EPI-storing dense core (DC) vesicles (DCV) revealed decreased DCV numbers in chromaffin cells in Chga-KO mice. For both cell types, the DCV diameter in Chga-KO mice was less (100-200 nm) than in WT mice (200-350 nm). The volume density of the vesicle and vesicle number was also lower in Chga-KO mice. Chga-KO mice showed an ~47 % increase in DCV/DC ratio, implying vesicle swelling due to increased osmotically active free catecholamines. Upon challenge with 2 U/kg insulin, there was a diminution in adrenomedullary EPI, no change in NE and a very large increase in the EPI and NE precursor dopamine (DA), consistent with increased catecholamine biosynthesis during prolonged secretion. We found dilated mitochondrial cristae, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex, as well as increased synaptic mitochondria, synaptic vesicles and glycogen granules in Chga-KO mice compared to WT mice, suggesting that decreased granulogenesis and catecholamine storage in CgA-deficient mouse adrenal medulla is compensated by increased VMAT-dependent catecholamine update into storage vesicles, at the expense of enhanced energy expenditure by the chromaffin cell. PMID:26572539

  5. Characterization of the LPS-induced inflammation of the adrenal gland in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanczkowski, Waldemar; Chatzigeorgiou, Antonios; Samus, Maryna; Tran, Nguyen; Zacharowski, Kai; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Bornstein, Stefan R

    2013-05-22

    Systemic administration of endotoxin, which closely mimics the bacteria-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) can ultimately lead to organ failure. Adrenal gland insufficiency is frequently diagnosed in critically ill patients; however, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. In the present study, we studied comprehensively the characteristics of adrenal gland dysregulation, including inflammation, leukocyte infiltration and cell death in the adrenal glands in the course of LPS-induced systemic inflammation in mice. LPS enhanced expression of many proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules, which resulted in rapid recruitment of leukocytes into the adrenal gland. Furthermore, LPS-mediated inflammation was associated with increased apoptosis of adrenocortical and chromaffin cells. Our results performed in mice, suggest that LPS-induced adrenal gland inflammation and cell death might be mechanisms potentially involved in the adrenal gland dysfunction in patients with sepsis.

  6. Adrenal Insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... three types of steroid hormones. In adrenal insufficiency (AI), the cortex does not make enough steroid hormones. ... unlike “adrenal fatigue.” There are two kinds of AI: • Primary AI, also called Addison’s disease. In this ...

  7. Adrenal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following items are discussed:anatomy and physiology of adrenal glands, clinical indications of scintigraphy, radiobiology and radiochemistry, scintigraphic imaging, adrenocortical hyperfunction, aldosteronism and hypertension associated with low renin level, excess of androgen, adrenocortical hyperfunction and future perspectives of adrenal scintigraphy. (M.A.)

  8. Adrenal incidentaloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldi G.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Incidentally discovered adrenal masses, or adrenal incidentalomas, have become a common clinical problem owing to wide application of radiologic imaging techniques. This definition encompasses a heterogeneous spectrum of pathologic entities, including primary adrenocortical and medullary tumors, benign or malignant lesions, hormonally active or inactive lesions, metastases, and infections. Once an adrenal mass is detected, the clinician needs to address two crucial questions: is the mass malignant, and is it hormonally active? This article provides an overview of the diagnostic clinical approach and management of the adrenal incidentaloma. Mass size is the most reliable variable to distinguish benign and malignant adrenal masses. Adrenalectomy should be recommended for masses greater than 4.0 cm because of the increased risk of malignancy. Adrenal scintigraphy has proved useful in discriminating between benign and malignant lesions. Finally, fine-needle aspiration biopsy is an important tool in the evaluation of oncological patients and it may be useful in establishing the presence of metastatic disease. The majority of adrenal incidentalomas are non-hypersecretory cortical adenomas but an endocrine evaluation can lead to the identification of a significant number of cases with subclinical Cushing's syndrome (5-15%, pheochromocytoma (1.5-13% and aldosteronoma (0-7%. The first step of hormonal screening should include an overnight low dose dexamethasone suppression test, the measure of urinary catecholamines or metanephrines, serum potassium and, in hypertensive patients, upright plasma aldosterone/plasma renin activity ratio. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate measurement may show evidence of adrenal androgen excess.

  9. Computing the chromaffin cell: a research-community curator/user approach to biocomputation for chromaffin cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, Lee E; Hirsch, Michael D

    2002-10-01

    Exocytosis, stimulus-secretion coupling, real-time measurements of neurosecretion, and stimulus-secretion-synthesis coupling (stimulus-transcription coupling) were all initially proposed and verified in the chromaffin cell. Detailed analysis of the molecules and pathways responsible for secretion and transsynaptic regulation of gene expression patterns in neuroendoccrine cells have been very fruitfully explored in chromaffin cells and the related PC12 pheochromocytoma cell line, using modern molecular biologcal, cellular imaging, and expression profiling techniques. The time is clearly at hand for a concerted bioinformatics approach to acquiring and synthesizing electrophysiological, biochemical, and proteomic/genomic data on the chromaffin cell. Accelerating this process will fully realize the unique attributes of the chromaffin cell as a homogeneous, accessible, fully functional model of the posttmitotic neuroendocrine cell.

  10. Characterization of the monoamine carrier of chromaffin granule membrane by binding of [2-3H]dihydrotetrabenazine.

    OpenAIRE

    Scherman, D; Jaudon, P; Henry, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    [2-3H]Dihydrotetrabenazine (2-hydroxy-3-isobutyl-9, 10-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4,6,7-hexahydro-11b-H-benzo [a]-quinolizine), a derivative of the neuroleptic tetrabenazine, binds to the membrane of purified bovine chromaffin granules. Specific binding was characterized by Kd and Bmax values of 3.1 nM and 62 pmol/mg of membrane protein, respectively. It was reversible, with association and dissociation rate constants of 0.22 x 10(6) M-1 s-1 and 1.8 x 10(-3) s-1, respectively. Binding sites were present...

  11. The angiotensin hexapeptide 3-8 fragment potently inhibits [125I]angiotensin II binding to non-AT1 or -AT2 recognition sites in bovine adrenal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, M F; Gessner, G W; Ly, C Q

    1992-08-25

    In the present studies, ligand competition experiments were conducted to examine the ability of angiotensin II peptide agonists and nonpeptide AT1- and AT2-selective receptor antagonists to inhibit the binding of [125I]angiotensin II to bovine adrenal cortical membranes. Angiotensin II, angiotensin III, the All-(3-8) hexapeptide fragment of angiotensin II, and the AT1-selective receptor antagonist L-158,809, inhibited [125I]angiotensin II binding in a biphasic fashion indicative of a ligand interaction at more than one recognition site. Approximately 20% of low affinity [125I]angiotensin II binding was inhibited only by high micromolar concentrations of L-158,809. RG 13647 (1(-1,4-benzodioxan-2-methyl)-5-diphenylacetyl-4,5,6,7-tetra hydro-1H-imidazo- [4,5,c]-pyridine-6-carboxylic acid) represents a potent and AT2-selective analog of PD 123177 and showed weak activity in competing for [125I]angiotensin II binding with an IC50 value of 100 microM. When subsequent competition studies were conducted in the presence of 1 microM L-158,809 to block [125I]angiotensin II to the AT1 receptor subtype, the angiotensin II agonists produced monophasic inhibition curves with AII-(3-8) showing the greatest activity (IC50 = 6 nM) followed by angiotensin III (IC50 = 15 nM) much greater than angiotensin II (IC50 = 110 nM). RG 13647 was not found to significantly inhibit this portion of [125I]angiotensin II binding. These data demonstrate that bovine adrenal cortex contains both the AT1 receptor subtype, as well as, a novel class of [125I]angiotensin II recognition sites which may be analogous to the recently described angiotensin IV (AT4) receptor.

  12. Adrenal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The visualization of functioning adrenocortical tissue by scintigraphy became possible with the introduction of radioiodinated cholesterol derivatives. According to the literature, there is evidence that one of these iodinated cholesterols, 6-β-iodomethyl-nor-cholesterol, concentrates in the adrenal cortex to a much greater extent than 131I-19-odocholesterol. Results comparing both radiopharmaceuticals are described. The authors investigated the possibility of increasing the uptake of iodinated cholesterol using simultaneous ACTH and the 'cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzymeblocker': aminoglutethimide. The results of adrenal scintigraphy performed in 37 patients are described. Finally, the literature on adrenal scintigraphy is reviewed, and results reported in various studies are compared. (Auth.)

  13. Estimation of mean exocytic vesicle capacitance in mouse adrenal chromaffin cells

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, Tobias; Neher, Erwin

    1997-01-01

    Whole-cell membrane capacitance measurements are frequently used to monitor neuronal and nonneuronal secretory activity. However, unless individual fusion events can be resolved, the type of the fusing vesicles cannot be identified in these experiments. Here we apply statistical analysis of trial-to-trial variations between depolarization-induced capacitance increases of mouse adrenal chromaffin cells and obtain estimates for the capacitance contribution of individual exocytic vesicles betwee...

  14. Neural plasticity occurs in the adrenal medulla of asthmatic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jun-tao; LI Xiao-zhao; HU Cheng-ping; WANG Jun; NIE Hua-ping

    2010-01-01

    Background Airway symptoms in asthma are related to decrease of epinephrine secretion, which may be ascribed to elevated nerve growth factor (NGF) in the organism.The aim of this study was to monitor the neuroendocrine alteration in the adrenal medulla of asthmatic rats.Methods Sixteen rats were randomly divided into two groups (n=8), control group and asthma group, and the asthmatic rats were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA).The levels of NGF, epinephrine and norepinephrine in serum were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the NGF expression in adrenal medulla was detected by immunohistochemistry, and the changes in the ultrastructure of the adrenal medulla was observed by electron microscopy.Results The NGF expression was increased in asthmatic rats compared with control rats.Compared with control rats,the results indicated that the epinephrine level was decreased in asthmatic rats, but no significant difference was found in norepinephrine levels.We found more ganglion cells in the adrenal medulla of asthmatic rats than in control rats, with NGF immunostaining mainly located in these ganglion cells.Electron microscopic images showed the density of chromaffin granula decreased and there was shrunken nucleolemma in the adrenal medullary cells of asthmatic rats.Conclusion The innervation of the adrenal medulla is changed in asthmatic rats, and it may contribute to the epinephrine decrease in asthma.

  15. [Adrenal mass and adrenal insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Albaladejo, M; García López, B; Serrano Corredor, S; Alguacil García, G

    1996-12-01

    Primary adrenal insufficiency is a non frequent disease, that is declared in young adults and in the most of the cases is produced from an autoimmune mechanism or a tuberculous disease. The incidence of these forms in the different geographic areas is dependent of degree of irradication of the tuberculosis. We report the case of a patient with latent chronic adrenal insufficiency of tuberculous origin who was affected for an addisonian crisis during an intercurrent infectious disease, which permitted the diagnosis of the addisonian crisis, and Mal of Pott was moreover detected. Evolution with corticosteroid and specific treatment was very favorable.

  16. Platelet granule exocytosis: A comparison with chromaffin cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eFitch-Tewfik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid secretion of bioactive amines from chromaffin cells constitutes an important component of the fight or flight response of mammals to stress. Platelets respond to stresses within the vasculature by rapidly secreting cargo at sites of injury, inflammation, or infection. Although chromaffin cells derive from the neural crest and platelets from bone marrow megakaryocytes, both have evolved a heterogeneous assemblage of granule types and a mechanism for efficient release. This article will provide an overview of granule formation and exocytosis in platelets with an emphasis on areas in which the study of chromaffin cells has influenced that of platelets and on similarities between the two secretory systems. Commonalities include the use of transporters to concentrate bioactive amines and other cargos into granules, the role of cytoskeletal remodeling in granule exocytosis, and the use of granules to provide membrane for cytoplasmic projections. The SNAREs and SNARE accessory proteins used by each cell type will also be considered. Finally, we will discuss the newly appreciated role of dynamin family proteins in regulated fusion pore formation. This evaluation of the comparative cell biology of regulated exocytosis in platelets and chromaffin cells demonstrates a convergence of mechanisms between two disparate cell types both tasked with responding rapidly to physiological stimuli.

  17. Composite pheochromocytoma/ganglioneuroma of the adrenal gland associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia 2A: case report with immunohistochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, S; Lechan, R M; Schwaitzberg, S D; Dayal, Y; Ziar, J; Tischler, A S

    1997-01-01

    We report a case of composite pheochromocytoma/ganglioneuroma arising in a background of diffuse and nodular medullary hyperplasia in the adrenal gland of a 34-year-old man with multiple endocrine neoplasia 2a (MEN 2a). Cells were histologically classified as chromaffin or chromaffin-like (small typical-appearing pheochromocytoma cells), neuron-like (possessing ganglion cell morphology), and intermediate. We speculate that these cell types may represent a spectrum of differentiation of a neoplastic clone, with the intermediate cells representing a transitional stage between chromaffin cells and neurons. All three cell types in the composite tumor and all chromaffin cells in both nodular and nonnodular areas of the remaining medulla were strongly immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis. In contrast, neuron-like cells (and to a variable extent intermediate cells) displayed selective loss of expression of phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PNMT), the enzyme that synthesizes epinephrine. Proliferative activity of the composite tumor and both the nodular and nonnodular medulla was studied by staining for the endogenous cell proliferation antigen Ki-67, using monoclonal antibody MIB-1. MIB-1 labeling was highest in Schwann cell areas of the composite tumor, followed by chromaffin-like cells in the composite tumor and in the separate nodules. Labeling was absent in neuron-like cells, consistent with the cells' postulated status as terminally differentiated derivatives of a chromaffin cell precursor, and was highly variable in nonnodular areas of the medulla. The latter observation suggests topographical variation in signals that drive chromaffin cell proliferation in MEN.

  18. The hemodynamically-regulated vascular microenvironment promotes migration of the steroidogenic tissue during its interaction with chromaffin cells in the zebrafish embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Chou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While the endothelium-organ interaction is critical for regulating cellular behaviors during development and disease, the role of blood flow in these processes is only partially understood. The dorsal aorta performs paracrine functions for the timely migration and differentiation of the sympatho-adrenal system. However, it is unclear how the adrenal cortex and medulla achieve and maintain specific integration and whether hemodynamic forces play a role. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, the possible modulation of steroidogenic and chromaffin cell integration by blood flow was investigated in the teleostean counterpart of the adrenal gland, the interrenal gland, in the zebrafish (Danio rerio. Steroidogenic tissue migration and angiogenesis were suppressed by genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of blood flow, and enhanced by acceleration of blood flow upon norepinephrine treatment. Repressed steroidogenic tissue migration and angiogenesis due to flow deficiency were recoverable following restoration of flow. The regulation of interrenal morphogenesis by blood flow was found to be mediated through the vascular microenvironment and the Fibronectin-phosphorylated Focal Adhesion Kinase (Fn-pFak signaling. Moreover, the knockdown of krüppel-like factor 2a (klf2a or matrix metalloproteinase 2 (mmp2, two genes regulated by the hemodynamic force, phenocopied the defects in migration, angiogenesis, the vascular microenvironment, and pFak signaling of the steroidogenic tissue observed in flow-deficient embryos, indicating a direct requirement of mechanotransduction in these processes. Interestingly, epithelial-type steroidogenic cells assumed a mesenchymal-like character and downregulated β-Catenin at cell-cell junctions during interaction with chromaffin cells, which was reversed by inhibiting blood flow or Fn-pFak signaling. Blood flow obstruction also affected the migration of chromaffin cells, but not through

  19. Imaging the primate adrenal medulla with [123I] and [131I] metaiodobenzylguanidine: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of radioiodinated meta-iodobenzylguanidine (m-IBG) as an adrenomedullary imaging agent is reported in 15 rhesus monkeys. Scintiscans of the monkey adrenal medulla have been obtained with [123I]- and [m-131]IBG at 2 to 6 days after injection. The imaging superiority of m-IBG over its positional isomer, para-iodobenzylguanidine (p-IBG), is documented in both dogs and monkeys. Administration of reserpine, a depletor of catecholamine stores, markedly lowers the [m-131I]-IBG content of the dog adrenal medulla, but the adrenergic blocking agents phenoxybenzamine and propanolol have no effect. Subcellular fractionation of the dog's adrenal medullae reveals that m-IBG is sequestered mainly in the chromaffin storage granules. The results of this study suggest that radioiodinated m-IBG, previously reported to image the primate myocardium, also merits evaluation as a clinical radiopharmaceutical for the adrenal medulla

  20. Modulation of adrenal catecholamine secretion by in vivo gene transfer and manipulation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymperopoulos, Anastasios; Rengo, Giuseppe; Zincarelli, Carmela; Soltys, Stephen; Koch, Walter J

    2008-02-01

    We recently reported that the upregulation of adrenal G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK2) causes enhanced catecholamine (CA) secretion by desensitizing sympatho-inhibitory alpha (2)-adrenergic receptors (alpha (2)ARs) of chromaffin cells, and thereby aggravating heart failure (HF). In this study, we sought to develop an efficient and reproducible in vivo adrenal gene transfer method to determine whether manipulation of adrenal GRK2 levels/activity regulates physiological CA secretion in rats. We specifically investigated two different in vivo gene delivery methods: direct injection into the suprarenal glands, and retrograde delivery through the suprarenal veins. We delivered adenoviral (Ad) vectors containing either GRK2 or an inhibitor of GRK2 activity, the beta ARKct. We found both delivery approaches equally effective at supporting robust (>80% of the whole organ) and adrenal-restricted transgene expression, in the cortical region as well as in the medullar region. Additionally, rats with AdGRK2-infected adrenals exhibit enhanced plasma CA levels when compared with control rats (AdGFP-injected adrenals), whereas plasma CA levels after Ad beta ARKct infection were significantly lower. Finally, in isolated chromaffin cells, alpha (2)ARs of AdGRK2-infected cells failed to inhibit CA secretion whereas Ad beta ARKct-infected cells showed normal alpha (2)AR responsiveness. These results not only indicate that in vivo adrenal gene transfer is an effective way of manipulating adrenal gland signalling, but also identify GRK2 as a critically important molecule involved in CA secretion.

  1. Permissive effect of dexamethasone on the increase of proenkephalin mRNA induced by depolarization of chromaffin cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In cultured bovine chromaffin cells, changes in the dynamic state of enkephalin stores elicited experimentally were studied by measuring cellular proenkephalin mRNA, as well as enkephalin precursors and authentic enkephalin content of cells and culture media. In parallel, tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and catecholamine cell content were also determined. Low concentrations (0.5-100 pM) of dexamethasone increased the cell contents of proenkephalin mRNA and enkephalin-containing peptides. High concentrations of the hormone(1 μM) were required to increase the cell contents of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and catecholamines. Depolarization of the cells with 10 μM veratridine resulted in a depletion of enkephalin and catecholamine stores after 24 hr. The enkephalin, but not the catecholamine, content was restored by 48 hr. An increase in proenkephalin mRNA content might account for the recovery; this increase was curtailed by tetrodotoxin and enhanced by 10 pM dexamethasone. Tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA content was not significantly modified by depolarization, even in the presence of 1 μM dexamethasone. Aldosterone, progesterone, testosterone, or estradiol (1 μM) failed to change proenkephalin mRNA. Hence, dexamethasone appears to exert a specific permissive action on the stimulation of the proenkephalin gene elicited by depolarization. Though the catecholamines and enkephalins are localized in the same chromaffin granules and are coreleased by depolarization, the genes coding for the processes that are rate limiting in the production of these neuromodulators can be differentially regulated

  2. Control of adrenal androgen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odell, W D; Parker, L N

    The major adrenal androgens are dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and androstenedione (delta 4). Studies by Cutler et al in 1978 demonstrated that these androgens are detectable in blood of all domestic and laboratory animals studied, but that only 4 species show increase in one or more with sexual maturation: rabbit, dog, chimpanzee and man. Studies by Grover and Odell in 1975 show these androgens do not bind to the androgen receptor obtained from rat prostate and thus probably are androgens only by conversion to an active androgen in vivo. Thomas and Oake in 1974 showed human skin converted DHEA to testosterone. The control of adrenal androgen secretion is in part modulated by ACTH. However, other factors or hormones must exist also, for a variety of clinical observations show dissociation in adrenal androgen versus cortisol secretion. Other substances that have been said to be controllers of adrenal androgen secretion include estrogens, prolactin, growth hormone, gonadotropins and lipotropin. None of these appear to be the usual physiological modulator, although under some circumstances each may increase androgen production. Studies from our laboratory using in vivo experiments in the castrate dog and published in 1979 indicated that crude extracts of bovine pituitary contained a substance that either modified ACTH stimulation of adrenal androgen secretion, or stimulated secretion itself - Cortisol Androgen Stimulating Hormone. Parker et al in 1983 showed a 60,000 MW glycoprotein was extractable from human pituitaries, which stimulated DHA secretion by dispersed canine adrenal cells in vitro, but did not stimulate cortisol secretion. This material contained no ACTH by radioimmunoassay. In 1982 Brubaker et al reported a substance was also present in human fetal pituitaries, which stimulated DHA secretion, but did not effect cortisol. PMID:6100259

  3. Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is adrenal insufficiency? Adrenal insufficiency is an endocrine, or hormonal, disorder that occurs when the adrenal glands do not ... Top ] Points to Remember Adrenal insufficiency is an endocrine, or hormonal, disorder that occurs when the adrenal glands do not ...

  4. Adrenal cysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Ture cysts of the adrenal gland are lined with endothelium or epithe lium.Most lesions are asympomatic and are discovered incidentally.They may produce s ymptoms because of hemorrhage.CT findings of cysts include(Fig 1): ① Cyst are well-marginated, nonenhancing, homogeneous, fluid-cont aining masses; ② The wall may have thin peripheral calcification if previous hemor rhage has occurred.③ Cyst contents have characteristics of simple fluids(<20 HU)unle ss hemorrhage has occurred.

  5. A Rare Adrenal Incidentaloma: Adrenal Schwannoma

    OpenAIRE

    Adas, Mine; Ozulker, Filiz; Adas, Gokhan; Koc, Bora; Ozulker, Tamer; Sahin, Ilknur Mansuroglu

    2013-01-01

    Adrenal schwannoma is an extremely uncommon cause of incidentaloma. It originates from neural sheath Schwann cells of the adrenal gland. We report the case of a left adrenal schwannoma incidentally discovered in a 32-year-old woman during examination of bloated feeling and stomach ache. The patient was incidentally found to have a left adrenal mass of 9 cm on abdominal ultrasonography. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) were...

  6. Identification of a Munc13-sensitive step in chromaffin cell large dense-core vesicle exocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Man, Kwun-Nok Mimi; Imig, Cordelia; Walter, Alexander M;

    2015-01-01

    using chromaffin cells lacking individual isoforms. We show that particularly Munc13-2 plays a fundamental role in LDCV exocytosis, but in contrast to synapses lacking Munc13s, the corresponding chromaffin cells do not exhibit a vesicle docking defect. We further demonstrate that ubMunc13-2 and Munc13...

  7. Role of ACTH in the Interactive/Paracrine Regulation of Adrenal Steroid Secretion in Physiological and Pathophysiological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Hervé; Thomas, Michaël; Duparc, Céline; Bertherat, Jérôme; Louiset, Estelle

    2016-01-01

    In the normal human adrenal gland, steroid secretion is regulated by a complex network of autocrine/paracrine interactions involving bioactive signals released by endothelial cells, nerve terminals, chromaffin cells, immunocompetent cells, and adrenocortical cells themselves. ACTH can be locally produced by medullary chromaffin cells and is, therefore, a major mediator of the corticomedullary functional interplay. Plasma ACTH also triggers the release of angiogenic and vasoactive agents from adrenocortical cells and adrenal mast cells and, thus, indirectly regulates steroid production through modulation of the adrenal blood flow. Adrenocortical neoplasms associated with steroid hypersecretion exhibit molecular and cellular defects that tend to reinforce the influence of paracrine regulatory loops on corticosteroidogenesis. Especially, ACTH has been found to be abnormally synthesized in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia responsible for hypercortisolism. In these tissues, ACTH is detected in a subpopulation of adrenocortical cells that express gonadal markers. This observation suggests that ectopic production of ACTH may result from impaired embryogenesis leading to abnormal maturation of the adrenogonadal primordium. Globally, the current literature indicates that ACTH is a major player in the autocrine/paracrine processes occurring in the adrenal gland in both physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:27489549

  8. Role of ACTH in the Interactive/Paracrine Regulation of Adrenal Steroid Secretion in Physiological and Pathophysiological Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Hervé; Thomas, Michaël; Duparc, Céline; Bertherat, Jérôme; Louiset, Estelle

    2016-01-01

    In the normal human adrenal gland, steroid secretion is regulated by a complex network of autocrine/paracrine interactions involving bioactive signals released by endothelial cells, nerve terminals, chromaffin cells, immunocompetent cells, and adrenocortical cells themselves. ACTH can be locally produced by medullary chromaffin cells and is, therefore, a major mediator of the corticomedullary functional interplay. Plasma ACTH also triggers the release of angiogenic and vasoactive agents from adrenocortical cells and adrenal mast cells and, thus, indirectly regulates steroid production through modulation of the adrenal blood flow. Adrenocortical neoplasms associated with steroid hypersecretion exhibit molecular and cellular defects that tend to reinforce the influence of paracrine regulatory loops on corticosteroidogenesis. Especially, ACTH has been found to be abnormally synthesized in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia responsible for hypercortisolism. In these tissues, ACTH is detected in a subpopulation of adrenocortical cells that express gonadal markers. This observation suggests that ectopic production of ACTH may result from impaired embryogenesis leading to abnormal maturation of the adrenogonadal primordium. Globally, the current literature indicates that ACTH is a major player in the autocrine/paracrine processes occurring in the adrenal gland in both physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:27489549

  9. Spatial distribution and temporal evolution of DRONPA-fused SNAP25 clusters in adrenal chromaffin cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoku, Yasuko; Dedecker, Peter; da Silva Pinheiro, Paulo César;

    2015-01-01

    Sub-diffraction imaging of plasma membrane localized proteins, such as the SNARE (Soluble NSF Attachment Protein Receptor) proteins involved in exocytosis, in fixed cells have resulted in images with high spatial resolution, at the expense of dynamical information. Here, we have imaged localized......, making possible the simultaneous identification of cluster size, location and temporal evolution. The results indicate that the DRONPA-fused SNAP-25 clusters display rich dynamics, going from staying constant to disappearing and reappearing in specific cluster domains within minutes....

  10. CT-guided fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosis of extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangaswamy M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor, accounting for <0.1% of the hypertensive population. Extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas (EAPs are rarer still, accounting for 10% of all pheochromocytomas. Pheochromocytomas are functional catecholamine-secreting tumors of the paraganglionic chromaffin cells found in the adrenal medulla and the extra-adrenal paraganglia cells. EAPs are readily detected by computed tomography (CT as soft tissue masses closely associated with the entire length of the abdominal aorta. Here, we present a rare case of EAP in a 45-year-old male hypertensive patient diagnosed by CT-guided fine needle aspiration cytology. The smears showed loosely cohesive tumor cells with prominent anisokaryosis and abundant eosinophilic, granular cytoplasm. The diagnosis was later confirmed by histopathology. The present case also highlights the fact that fine needle aspiration of pheochromocytoma is not necessarily contraindicated.

  11. Influence of magnetic field onnitric oxide and neuropeptideY in rat adrenal gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of magnetic fields on nitric acid (NO) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) on adrenal glands of the rat using NO nitric acid reductase-spec- trophotometry and histochemistry techniques. We found that all cellular layers of the adrenal cortex, including zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata and zona reticularis were stained by NADPH-d, and some chromaffin cells of the medulla were positive for NPY. Furthermore, magnetic fields increased NO so strongly that high NO levels could be maintained for several hours, as well as some neuroganglion cells in medulla that were double-stained for NPY and NADPH-d. Our data showed that the magnetic field can regulate endocrine and neuroendocrine directly by some action on parenchyma cells, or indirectly by action to NO-ergic, NPY-ergic neurons in the adrenal gland.

  12. Reduction of sympathetic activity via adrenal-targeted GRK2 gene deletion attenuates heart failure progression and improves cardiac function after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymperopoulos, Anastasios; Rengo, Giuseppe; Gao, Erhe; Ebert, Steven N; Dorn, Gerald W; Koch, Walter J

    2010-05-21

    Chronic heart failure (HF) is characterized by sympathetic overactivity and enhanced circulating catecholamines (CAs), which significantly increase HF morbidity and mortality. We recently reported that adrenal G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is up-regulated in chronic HF, leading to enhanced CA release via desensitization/down-regulation of the chromaffin cell alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors that normally inhibit CA secretion. We also showed that adrenal GRK2 inhibition decreases circulating CAs and improves cardiac inotropic reserve and function. Herein, we hypothesized that adrenal-targeted GRK2 gene deletion before the onset of HF might be beneficial by reducing sympathetic activation. To specifically delete GRK2 in the chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland, we crossed PNMTCre mice, expressing Cre recombinase under the chromaffin cell-specific phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) gene promoter, with floxedGRK2 mice. After confirming a significant ( approximately 50%) reduction of adrenal GRK2 mRNA and protein levels, the PNMT-driven GRK2 knock-out (KO) offspring underwent myocardial infarction (MI) to induce HF. At 4 weeks post-MI, plasma levels of both norepinephrine and epinephrine were reduced in PNMT-driven GRK2 KO, compared with control mice, suggesting markedly reduced post-MI sympathetic activation. This translated in PNMT-driven GRK2 KO mice into improved cardiac function and dimensions as well as amelioration of abnormal cardiac beta-adrenergic receptor signaling at 4 weeks post-MI. Thus, adrenal-targeted GRK2 gene KO decreases circulating CAs, leading to improved cardiac function and beta-adrenergic reserve in post-MI HF. GRK2 inhibition in the adrenal gland might represent a novel sympatholytic strategy that can aid in blocking HF progression.

  13. Sustained Exocytosis after Action Potential-Like Stimulation at Low Frequencies in Mouse Chromaffin Cells Depends on a Dynamin-Dependent Fast Endocytotic Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya-Díaz, José; Álvarez, Yanina D.; Montenegro, Mauricio; Bayonés, Lucas; Belingheri, Ana V.; González-Jamett, Arlek M.; Cárdenas, Ana M.; Marengo, Fernando D.

    2016-01-01

    Under basal conditions the action potential firing rate of adrenal chromaffin cells is lower than 0.5 Hz. The maintenance of the secretory response at such frequencies requires a continuous replenishment of releasable vesicles. However, the mechanism that allows such vesicle replenishment remains unclear. Here, using membrane capacitance measurements on mouse chromaffin cells, we studied the mechanism of replenishment of a group of vesicles released by a single action potential-like stimulus (APls). The exocytosis triggered by APls (ETAP) represents a fraction (40%) of the immediately releasable pool, a group of vesicles highly coupled to voltage dependent calcium channels. ETAP was replenished with a time constant of 0.73 ± 0.11 s, fast enough to maintain synchronous exocytosis at 0.2–0.5 Hz stimulation. Regarding the mechanism involved in rapid ETAP replenishment, we found that it depends on the ready releasable pool; indeed depletion of this vesicle pool significantly delays ETAP replenishment. On the other hand, ETAP replenishment also correlates with a dynamin-dependent fast endocytosis process (τ = 0.53 ± 0.01 s). In this regard, disruption of dynamin function markedly inhibits the fast endocytosis and delays ETAP replenishment, but also significantly decreases the synchronous exocytosis during repetitive APls stimulation at low frequencies (0.2 and 0.5 Hz). Considering these findings, we propose a model in where both the transfer of vesicles from ready releasable pool and fast endocytosis allow rapid ETAP replenishment during low stimulation frequencies. PMID:27507935

  14. SUSTAINED EXOCYTOSIS AFTER ACTION POTENTIAL-LIKE STIMULATION AT LOW FREQUENCIES IN MOUSE CHROMAFFIN CELLS DEPENDS ON A DYNAMIN-DEPENDENT FAST ENDOCYTOTIC PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Moya-Díaz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Under basal conditions the action potential firing rate of adrenal chromaffin cells is lower than 0.5 Hz. The maintenance of the secretory response at such frequencies requires a continuous replenishment of releasable vesicles. However, the mechanism that allows such vesicle replenishment remains unclear. Here, using membrane capacitance measurements on mouse chromaffin cells, we studied the mechanism of replenishment of a group of vesicles released by a single action potential-like stimulus (APls. The exocytosis triggered by APls (ETAP represents a fraction (40% of the immediately releasable pool, a group of vesicles highly coupled to voltage dependent calcium channels. ETAP was replenished with a time constant of 0.73 +/- 0.11 s, fast enough to maintain synchronous exocytosis at 0.2-0.5 Hz stimulation. Regarding the mechanism involved in rapid ETAP replenishment, we found that it depends on the ready releasable pool; indeed depletion of this vesicle pool significantly delays ETAP replenishment. On the other hand, ETAP replenishment also correlates with a dynamin-dependent fast endocytosis process (τ=0.53±0.01 s. In this regard, disruption of dynamin function markedly inhibits the fast endocytosis and delays ETAP replenishment, but also significantly decreases the synchronous exocytosis during repetitive APls stimulation at low frequencies (0.2 and 0.5 Hz. Considering these findings, we propose a model in where both the transfer of vesicles from ready releasable pool and fast endocytosis allow rapid ETAP replenishment during low stimulation frequencies.

  15. Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adrenal tumors that appear malignant. What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal? In the past, ... of procedure and the patients overall condition. Common advantages are: Less postoperative pain Shorter hospital stay Quicker ...

  16. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  17. Evolving adrenal insufficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Ajitesh Roy; Rana Bhattacharjee; Soumik Goswami; Anubhav Thukral; S Chitra; Partha Pratim Chakraborty; Dayanidhi Meher; Sujoy Ghosh; Satinath Mukhopadhyay; Subhankar Chowdhury

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tuberculosis is the most common cause of Addison's disease in India. The exact status of adrenal reserve in tuberculosis is still an enigma and recovery of adrenal function is unpredictable. Objective: We report a case with a pre-Addisonian state and unchanged adrenal size after 1 year treatment. Materials and Methods: A 31-year patient with adrenal tuberculosis was diagnosed and treated with anti tubercular drugs (ATDs) and steroid. Results: A 31-year male, presented with fever...

  18. Disorders of adrenal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz-de-Souza, Bruno; Achermann, John C

    2008-01-01

    Human adrenal development is a complex and relatively poorly understood process. However, significant insight into some of the mechanisms regulating adrenal development and function is being obtained through the analysis of individuals and families with adrenal hypoplasia. Adrenal hypoplasia can occur: (1) secondary to defects in pituitary adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) synthesis, processing and release (secondary adrenal hypoplasia; e.g. HESX1, LHX4, SOX3, TPIT, pituitary POMC, PC1); (2) as part of several ACTH resistance syndromes (e.g. MC2R/ACTHR, MRAP, Alacrima, Achalasia, Addison disease), or as (3) a primary defect in the development of the adrenal gland itself (primary adrenal hypoplasia; e.g. DAX1/NR0B1 - dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia congenita critical region on the X chromosome 1). Indeed, the X-linked form of primary adrenal hypoplasia due to deletions or mutations in the orphan nuclear receptor DAX1 occurs in around half of male infants presenting with a salt-losing adrenal crisis, where no obvious steroidogenic defect (e.g. 21-hydroxylase deficiency), metabolic abnormality (e.g. neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy) or physical cause (e.g. adrenal haemorrhage) is found. Establishing the underlying basis of adrenal failure can have important implications for investigating associated features, the likely long-term approach to treatment, and for counselling families about the risk of other children being affected.

  19. Nuclear imaging to characterize adrenal tumors: Comparison with MRI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simone; Maurea; Pier; Paolo; Mainenti; Valeria; Romeo; Carmine; Mollica; Marco; Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To describe the role of nuclear imaging modalities using nor-cholesterol,metaiodobenzylguanidine(MIBG)and fluorine-deoxy-glucose(FDG)in adrenal tumors for lesion characterization in comparison with magnetic resonance(MR).METHODS:Population was classified in group 1 consisting of 30 patients with non-hypersecreting unilateral adrenal masses,in group 2 consisting of 34 patients with hypersecreting(n=19)or non-hypersecreting(n=15)adrenal adenomas and in group 3 consisting of 18 patients with chromaffin-tissue tumors(CTT),of which 14 were pheochromocytomas while 4 were paragangliomas(n=4).All patients underwent MR and nuclear studies(nor-cholesterol,MIBG and FDG).Pathology samples(n=63)or follow-up data in adenomas(n=19)were used as standard of reference forimaging studies interpretation.RESULTS:In group 1,MR findings were not highly accurate for lesion characterization,while the results of nuclear scans showed abnormal nor-cholesterol,MIBG and FDG concentration in all cases of adenomas,pheos and malignant tumors,respectively.In group 2,no differences in MR parameters were found between hyperfunctioning and non-hyperfunctioning adenomas,while nor-cholesterol uptake was significantly higher in hyperfunctioning compared to non-hyperfunctioning lesions.In group 3,no differences in MR parameters were found between benign and malignant CCT,while MIBG uptake was significantly higher in malignant compared to benign tumors.CONCLUSION:On the basis of our findings,nuclear imaging modalities using specific target agents are able to better characterize adrenal tumors,compared with MR.In particular,radionuclide techniques are able to identify the nature of adrenal incidentalomas and to differentiate between hypersecreting and non-hypersecreting adenomas as well as between benign and malignant CTT.

  20. Muted protein is involved in the targeting of CD63 to large dense-core vesicles of chromaffin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenhua, Hao; Wei, Li

    2016-08-01

    Large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs) are characterized as a class of lysosome-related organelles (LROs), which undergo regulated release and play important roles in development, metabolism and homeostasis. The Muted protein is a subunit of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1 (BLOC-1), which functions in the biogenesis of lysosomes and LROs. CD63 is a membrane component of lysosomes and LROs. Whether and how CD63 is sorted into LDCVs is largely unknown. In this study, we aim to identify the localization of CD63 in chromaffin cells by colocalization, living cell imaging and cell fractionation. We found that a proportion of CD63-YFP colocalized with NPY-dsRed labeled LDCVs. By sucrose density gradient fractionation, a proportion of CD63 was found to be highly enriched in LDCVs fractions. The Muted mutant mouse is a model of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS). We also found that the level of CD63 was significantly decreased in Muted-deficient adrenal glands, suggesting that the Muted protein is important for the steady-state level of CD63. Our results suggest that CD63 is a membrane component of LDCVs and the stability of CD63 is dependent on the Muted protein, which provides a clue to the pathogenesis of LRO defects in HPS. PMID:27531610

  1. Arecoline inhibits catecholamine release from perfused rat adrenal gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-yoon LIM; Il-sik KIM

    2006-01-01

    effect of arecoline may be mediated by blocking the calcium influx into the rat adrenal medullary chromaffin cells without the inhibition of Ca2+ release from the cytoplasmic calcium store. There seems to be a difference in the mode of action of nicotine and arecoline in rat adrenomedullary CA secretion.

  2. Myth vs. Fact: Adrenal Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hormones and Health › Myth vs Fact › Adrenal Fatigue Myth vs. Fact Adrenal Fatigue January 2015 Download PDFs ... science. This fact sheet was created to address myths about adrenal fatigue and to provide facts on ...

  3. Cell-to-cell communication in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia causing hypercortisolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herve eLefebvre

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been well established that, in the human adrenal gland, cortisol secretion is not only controlled by circulating corticotropin but is also influenced by a wide variety of bioactive signals, including conventional neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, released within the cortex by various cell types such as chromaffin cells, neurons, cells of the immune system, adipocytes and endothelial cells. These different types of cells are present in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia, a rare etiology of primary adrenal Cushing’s syndrome, where they appear intermingled with adrenocortical cells in the hyperplastic cortex. In addition, the genetic events which cause the disease favor abnormal adrenal differenciation that results in illicit expression of paracrine regulatory factors and their receptors in adrenocortical cells. All these defects constitute the molecular basis for aberrant autocrine/paracrine regulatory mechanisms which are likely to play a role in the pathophysiology of bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia-associated hypercortisolism. The present review summarizes the current knowledge on this topic as well as the therapeutic perspectives offered by this new pathophysiological concept.

  4. A rare adrenal incidentaloma: adrenal schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adas, Mine; Ozulker, Filiz; Adas, Gokhan; Koc, Bora; Ozulker, Tamer; Sahin, Ilknur Mansuroglu

    2013-01-01

    Adrenal schwannoma is an extremely uncommon cause of incidentaloma. It originates from neural sheath Schwann cells of the adrenal gland. We report the case of a left adrenal schwannoma incidentally discovered in a 32-year-old woman during examination of bloated feeling and stomach ache. The patient was incidentally found to have a left adrenal mass of 9 cm on abdominal ultrasonography. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) were also performed. Metabolic evaluation was unremarkable. Due to the large size of the tumor, left adrenalectomy was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful. Histological examination established the diagnosis of schwannoma. This diagnosis was supported by immunohistochemistry of S-100 and vimentin positivity. In conclusion, adrenal schwannoma is an extremely rare entity and can grow considerably in size. The present case report emphasizes that clinicians should be aware of the possibility of retroperitoneal schwannoma. Total excision of benign schwannoma is associated with a favorable outcome. To our knowledge, there are case reports of schwannoma with CT and magnetic resonance imaging findings in the literature, although this is the first schwannoma case with PET-CT imaging. PMID:24403879

  5. A Rare Adrenal Incidentaloma: Adrenal Schwannoma

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    Mine Adas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal schwannoma is an extremely uncommon cause of incidentaloma. It originates from neural sheath Schwann cells of the adrenal gland. We report the case of a left adrenal schwannoma incidentally discovered in a 32-year-old woman during examination of bloated feeling and stomach ache. The patient was incidentally found to have a left adrenal mass of 9 cm on abdominal ultrasonography. Computed tomography (CT of the abdomen and [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET were also performed. Metabolic evaluation was unremarkable. Due to the large size of the tumor, left adrenalectomy was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful. Histological examination established the diagnosis of schwannoma. This diagnosis was supported by immunohistochemistry of S-100 and vimentin positivity. In conclusion, adrenal schwannoma is an extremely rare entity and can grow considerably in size. The present case report emphasizes that clinicians should be aware of the possibility of retroperitoneal schwannoma. Total excision of benign schwannoma is associated with a favorable outcome. To our knowledge, there are case reports of schwannoma with CT and magnetic resonance imaging findings in the literature, although this is the first schwannoma case with PET-CT imaging.

  6. Adrenal insufficiency: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munver, Ravi; Volfson, Ilya A

    2006-01-01

    Adrenal insufficiency is a disorder characterized by hypoactive adrenal glands resulting in insufficient production of the hormones cortisol and aldosterone by the adrenal cortex. This disorder may develop as a primary failure of the adrenal cortex or be secondary to an abnormality of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Patients with adrenal insufficiency often are asymptomatic or they may present with fatigue, muscle weakness, weight loss, low blood pressure, and sometimes darkening of the skin. The presentation of adrenal insufficiency varies dramatically and poses a major diagnostic dilemma. This review focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency.

  7. Managing Adrenal Insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body. • Surgical removal of the adrenals Temporary AI is caused by some medications, infections, and/or surgeries. Causes of temporary AI include the following: • Transsphenoidal surgery for Cushing’s disease ...

  8. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to treat congenital adrenal hyperplasia do not usually cause side effects such as obesity or weak bones, because the doses replace the hormones that the child's body cannot make. It is important for parents ...

  9. Evolving adrenal insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajitesh Roy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tuberculosis is the most common cause of Addison′s disease in India. The exact status of adrenal reserve in tuberculosis is still an enigma and recovery of adrenal function is unpredictable. Objective: We report a case with a pre-Addisonian state and unchanged adrenal size after 1 year treatment. Materials and Methods: A 31-year patient with adrenal tuberculosis was diagnosed and treated with anti tubercular drugs (ATDs and steroid. Results: A 31-year male, presented with fever and weight loss for 3½ months with anorexia, nausea, hyperpigmentation of skin, and buccal mucosa and weakness with past h/o adequately treated pulmonary tuberculosis at 3 years of age. On examination, the patient was anemic. A non-tender, firm right (Rt. submandibular lymphnode was palpable. Investigations revealed: High erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, negative HIV, and sputum for acid fast bacilli (AFB. Initial cortisol was high but subsequently became low with negative short synacthin test (SST. Computed tomography showed bilateral (B/L enlarged hypodense adrenal mass with inconclusive fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC and negative AFB culture. Rt. submandibular lymph node FNAC showed caseating granuloma. ATDs and steroids were started, the lymphadenopathy regressed and symptoms subsided. However, after 1 year of treatment steroid withdrawal failed and adrenal size remained the same. Conclusion: The adrenal has considerable capacity to regenerate during active infection and ultimately become normal or smaller in size. However, in the case reported here, they failed to regress. Reversal of adrenal function following ATD is a controversial issue. Some studies have shown normalization following therapy, while others have contradicted it similar to the finding in our case.

  10. QUANTITATIVE AND HISTOCHEMICAL STUDY ON THE ADRENAL MEDULLA IN POST NATAL PERIOD OF ALBINO RAT

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    Wagieh k.Baiomy; Abdel-mawgood Anas; Mamdooh Ghaly; Ashraf M. Moustafa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present work was based on the evaluation of histological, histochemical, and quantitative study on the adrenal medulla of the white albino rat in the different post natal age period. Material and methods:Sixty male albino rats were used in this study. The rats were classified to 4 main groups as follows: - Group one : One week old albino rats. - Group two: One month old albino rats. - Group three: Three months old albino rats. - Group four: Senile rats. Three main parameters were performed in this study, the first was the study of the morphological changes in the adrenal medulla in the different postnatal age groups. The second was concerned with the histochemical studies while the last parameter was the quantitative studies on the gland volume as well as its cellular count. These three parameters were performed by using different staining techniques. Results: The results showed that medullary cells in the early age groups were arranged in non-differentiated groups and become more differentiated in the older age groups. Both reticular and elastic fibers in the older age groups showed a definite increase especially at the region of corticomedullary zone. The different types of chromaffin cells were more observed at the old age groups. The concentration of ascorbic acid granules was more marked in the senile group. The quantitative changes were in the form of increased medullary volume especially in the old age. The number of chromaffin cells as well as the concentration of ascorbic acid contents was more noticed in the old age group. Conclusions: The differentiation of both divisions of the adrenal gland was not noticed in the early age groups. Cellular and fibrous differentiations were more seen in older age groups which may reflects an idea about the degree of gland maturation

  11. Paraganglioma funcional extra-adrenal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Arroyo-Martínez

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Los paragangliomas funcionales son tumores raros, se originan del tejido cromafín extraadrenal productor de catecolaminas, con frecuencia son malignos y tienen alta incidencia de enfermedad persistente o recurrente¹. Se les conoce como: glomus, quemodectomas, paragangliomas cromafines y glomerulocitomas. La localización es diversa y refleja la distribución paraganglionar en el cuerpo, desde la base del cráneo hasta el piso pélvico. Los paragangliomas se encuentran en donde hay ganglios del sistema autónomo, sin embargo, aproximadamente el 90% de estos tumores aparecen en las glándulas suprarrenales (y constituyen los feocromocitomas y el 10% restante tienen una ubicación extraadrenal, mas se ha dicho que su incidencia puede ser subestimada, variando del 18% al 22% en adultos, y en niños hasta un 30%. Los extra-adrenales se originan con mayor frecuencia en el abdomen (85%, otros en el tórax (12% y más raramente en la cabeza y el cuello (3% ². Los estudios de imágenes y la medición de la producción no fisiológica de catecolaminas pueden ayudar en el diagnóstico de esta entidad. La cirugía es el tratamiento de elección. Presentamos aquí el caso de una paciente de 32 años, primigesta con HTAIE que requirió cesárea, quien tuvo un postparto tórpido y pese a múltiples tratamientos antihipertensivos su patología fue de difícil manejo, con complicaciones oftálmicas. Tiempo después la paciente se estudia por hiperhidrosis, se solicitan exámenes de laboratorio e imágenes y se le documenta incidentalmente, una tumoración retroperitoneal izquierda, se le amplían los estudios, y se llega al diagnóstico correcto. La tumoración requirió resección quirúrgica. Tuvo un postoperatorio satisfactorio y la paciente egresó con control en la Consulta Externa.Functioning paragangliomas are rare tumors that produce catecholamines. They originate from extra-adrenal chromaffin cells. They are frequentIy malignant and are associated

  12. Contemporary adrenal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-resolution computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging have replaced scintigraphy as primary imaging modalities for the evaluation of adrenal diseases. Thin-slice CT, CT contrast washout studies and MR pulse sequences specifically designed to identify adrenal lipid content have radically changed the approach to anatomic imaging and provide unique insight into the physical characteristics of the adrenals. With a confirmed biochemical diagnosis, further evaluation is often unnecessary, especially in diagnostic localization of diseases of the adrenal cortex. However, despite the exquisite detail afforded by anatomy-based imaging, there are not infrequently clinical situations in which the functional insight provided by scintigraphy is crucial to identify adrenal dysfunction and to assist in localization of adrenocortical and adrenomedullary disease. The introduction of hybrid PET/CT and SPECT/CT, modalities that directly integrate anatomic and functional information, redefine the radiotracer principle in the larger context of high-resolution anatomic imaging. Instead of becoming obsolete, scintigraphy is an element of a device that combines it with CT or MR to allow a direct correlation between function and anatomy, whereby the combination creates a more powerful diagnostic tool than the separate component modalities. (orig.)

  13. Inhibin in the testis and adrenal gland of the male lacertid, Podarcis sicula Raf.: a light immunocytochemical study

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    L Varano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Inhibin is a glycoproteic hormone mostly produced by the gonads. Through a feedback at the pituitary level, it selectively inhibits the release of follicle-stimulating hormone. In mammals, inhibin has been found also in some extragonadal tissues such as placenta, pituitary, adrenal, spleen, kidney, brain and spinal cord. At present, no information is available about the existence of inhibin in reptiles. The aim of the present work is to localise, through immunocytochemical methods, the sites of inhibin production in male lizards during the main phases of the reproductive cycle: the culmination phase (April-June, the early regressive phase (early July, the maximal regressive phase (August and the winter stasis (January. In the testis, immunostaining is mainly localised in the Leydig cells during the early regressive phase, while it is observed in the Sertoli cells during the maximal regressive phase. In the epididymis, the immunostaining is present only during the reproductive period at the level of secreting cells and inside its ducts. In the adrenal gland, after immunostaining, both chromaffin and steroidogenetic tissues are inhibin-positive during the whole spermatogenetic cycle, though with variable intensity throughout the year: cross-reaction appears more evident from January to April (winter stasis and culmination phase and weaker in June. However, in captive animals, the reaction persists in chromaffin cells, but disappears in steroidogenetic cells. The functional meaning of the presence of inhibin as a factor in the local regulation of spermatogenesis is discussed.

  14. Genetics of adrenal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opocher, G; Schiavi, F; Cicala, M V; Patalano, A; Mariniello, B; Boaretto, F; Zovato, S; Pignataro, V; Macino, B; Negro, I; Mantero, F

    2009-06-01

    The impact of genetics and genomics on clinical medicine is becoming more and more important. Endocrinology pioneered the development of molecular medicine, but also the study of adrenal tumors had a great impact in this field. Particularly important was the detection of genetics of tumors derived from the adrenal medulla, as well as that of those derived from the sympathetic and parasympathetic paraganglia. The identification of mutations in one of the several pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma susceptibility genes may indicate a specific clinical management drive. Less well understood is the genetics of adrenal cortex tumors, in particular adrenocortical carcinoma, a rare and particularly aggressive disease. There are only a few examples of hereditary transmission of adrenocortical carcinoma, but the analysis of low penetrance genes by genome wide association study may enable us to discover new genetic mechanisms responsible for adrenocortical-derived tumors. PMID:19471236

  15. Nonclassic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Feldman Witchel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH due to P450c21 (21-hydroxylase deficiency is a common autosomal recessive disorder. This disorder is due to mutations in the CYP21A2 gene which is located at chromosome 6p21. The clinical features predominantly reflect androgen excess rather than adrenal insufficiency leading to an ascertainment bias favoring diagnosis in females. Treatment goals include normal linear growth velocity and “on-time” puberty in affected children. For adolescent and adult women, treatment goals include regularization of menses, prevention of progression of hirsutism, and fertility. This paper will review key aspects regarding pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of NCAH.

  16. Adrenal venous sampling in a patient with adrenal Cushing syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Esteban Builes-Montaño

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia or the independent adrenocorticotropic hormone bilateral nodular adrenal hyperplasia is a rare cause hypercortisolism, its diagnosis is challenging and there is no clear way to decide the best therapeutic approach. Adrenal venous sampling is commonly used to distinguish the source of hormonal production in patients with primary hyperaldosteronism. It could be a useful tool in this context because it might provide information to guide the treatment. We report the case of a patient with ACTH independent Cushing syndrome in whom the use of adrenal venous sampling with some modifications radically modified the treatment and allowed the diagnosis of a macronodular adrenal hyperplasia.

  17. Adrenal pseudocyst. Radiological finds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrenal cysts are infrequent, the pseudocysts being those that most often produce clinical symptoms. A case of pseudocyst in right suprarenal gland is presented in a young woman with no clinical history, who was studied by means of ultrasound (US) and computerized tomography (CT). (author)

  18. F-actin cytoskeleton and the fate of organelles in chromaffin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, José; Gimenez-Molina, Yolanda; Viniegra, Salvador; Gutiérrez, Luis M

    2016-06-01

    In addition to playing a fundamental structural role, the F-actin cytoskeleton in neuroendocrine chromaffin cells has a prominent influence on governing the molecular mechanism and regulating the secretory process. Performing such roles, the F-actin network might be essential to first transport, and later locate the cellular organelles participating in the secretory cycle. Chromaffin granules are transported from the internal cytosolic regions to the cell periphery along microtubular and F-actin structures. Once in the cortical region, they are embedded in the F-actin network where these vesicles experience restrictions in motility. Similarly, mitochondria transport is affected by both microtubule and F-actin inhibitors and suffers increasing motion restrictions when they are located in the cortical region. Therefore, the F-actin cortex is a key factor in defining the existence of two populations of cortical and perinuclear granules and mitochondria which could be distinguished by their different location and mobility. Interestingly, other important organelles for controlling intracellular calcium levels, such as the endoplasmic reticulum network, present clear differences in distribution and much lower mobility than chromaffin vesicles and mitochondria. Nevertheless, both mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum appear to distribute in the proximity of secretory sites to fulfill a pivotal role, forming triads with calcium channels ensuring the fine tuning of the secretory response. This review presents the contributions that provide the basis for our current view regarding the influence that F-actin has on the distribution of organelles participating in the release of catecholamines in chromaffin cells, and summarizes this knowledge in simple models. In chromaffin cells, organelles such as granules and mitochondria distribute forming cortical and perinuclear populations whereas others like the ER present homogenous distributions. In the present review we discuss

  19. Spatial and activity-dependent catecholamine release in rat adrenal medulla under native neuronal stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Kyle; Zarkua, Georgy; Chan, Shyue-An; Sridhar, Arun; Smith, Corey

    2016-09-01

    Neuroendocrine chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla in rat receive excitatory synaptic input through anterior and posterior divisions of the sympathetic splanchnic nerve. Upon synaptic stimulation, the adrenal medulla releases the catecholamines, epinephrine, and norepinephrine into the suprarenal vein for circulation throughout the body. Under sympathetic tone, catecholamine release is modest. However, upon activation of the sympathoadrenal stress reflex, and increased splanchnic firing, adrenal catecholamine output increases dramatically. Moreover, specific stressors can preferentially increase release of either epinephrine (i.e., hypoglycemia) or norepinephrine (i.e., cold stress). The mechanism for this stressor-dependent segregated release of catecholamine species is not yet fully understood. We tested the hypothesis that stimulation of either division of the splanchnic selects for epinephrine over norepinephrine release. We introduce an ex vivo rat preparation that maintains native splanchnic innervation of the adrenal gland and we document experimental advantages and limitations of this preparation. We utilize fast scanning cyclic voltammetry to detect release of both epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla, and report that epinephrine and norepinephrine release are regulated spatially and in a frequency-dependent manner. We provide data to show that epinephrine is secreted preferentially from the periphery of the medulla and exhibits a higher threshold and steeper stimulus-secretion function than norepinephrine. Elevated stimulation of the whole nerve specifically enhances epinephrine release from the peripheral medulla. Our data further show that elimination of either division from stimulation greatly attenuated epinephrine release under elevated stimulation, while either division alone can largely support norepinephrine release. PMID:27597763

  20. Genetic disorders involving adrenal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Ferraz-de-Souza, Bruno; Achermann, John C

    2007-01-01

    The past decade has seen significant advances in our understanding of the genetic aetiology of several forms of adrenal failure that present in infancy or childhood. Several of these disorders affect adrenal development and are termed 'adrenal hypoplasia'. These conditions can be broadly divided into: (1) secondary forms of adrenal hypoplasia due to panhypopituitarism (e.g. HESX1, LHX4, SOX3) or abnormalities in ACTH synthesis (TPIT) or processing (e.g. POMC or PC1); (2) adrenal hypoplasia as part of an ACTH resistance syndrome [MC2R/ACTH receptor, MRAP, AAAS (triple A syndrome)], and (3) primary defects in the development of the adrenal gland itself (primary adrenal hypoplasia). Primary adrenal hypoplasia most commonly occurs in an X-linked form due to mutations in the nuclear receptor DAX1 (NR0B1) but can occur in a poorly understood recessive form or as part of the IMAGe (intrauterine growth retardation, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia, genitourinary anomalies) syndrome. Defining the molecular basis of these conditions can have significant clinical implications for management, counselling and presymptomatic diagnosis, as well as providing fascinating insight into normal and abnormal mechanisms of adrenal development in humans.

  1. Cytosolic organelles shape calcium signals and exo-endocytotic responses of chromaffin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Antonio G; Padín, Fernando; Fernández-Morales, José C; Maroto, Marcos; García-Sancho, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The concept of stimulus-secretion coupling was born from experiments performed in chromaffin cells 50 years ago. Stimulation of these cells with acetylcholine enhances calcium (Ca(2+)) entry and this generates a transient elevation of the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](c)) that triggers the exocytotic release of catecholamines. The control of the [Ca(2+)](c) signal is complex and depends on various classes of plasmalemmal calcium channels, cytosolic calcium buffers, the uptake and release of Ca(2+) from cytoplasmic organelles, such as the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, chromaffin vesicles and the nucleus, and Ca(2+) extrusion mechanisms, such as the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-stimulated ATPase, and the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. Computation of the rates of Ca(2+) fluxes between the different cell compartments support the proposal that the chromaffin cell has developed functional calcium tetrads formed by calcium channels, cytosolic calcium buffers, the endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria nearby the exocytotic plasmalemmal sites. These tetrads shape the Ca(2+) transients occurring during cell activation to regulate early and late steps of exocytosis, and the ensuing endocytotic responses. The different patterns of catecholamine secretion in response to stress may thus depend on such local [Ca(2+)](c) transients occurring at different cell compartments, and generated by redistribution and release of Ca(2+) by cytoplasmic organelles. In this manner, the calcium tetrads serve to couple the variable energy demands due to exo-endocytotic activities with energy production and protein synthesis. PMID:22209033

  2. Etiopathogeny of Primary Adrenal Hypercortisolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélayoudom-Céphise, Fritz-Line; Haissaguerre, Magali; Tabarin, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Primary adrenal hypercortisolism is mainly due to cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas, bilateral micronodular or macronodular disease, and adrenal carcinomas. Important advances in the pathophysiology of primary adrenal hypercortisolism have been made in the last few years, partly through the use of new molecular biology tools. Most adrenal abnormalities leading to increased cortisol production involve somatic or germinal mutations of genes encoding elements of the cyclic AMP/protein kinase A signaling pathway, as shown in adrenal adenomas in 2014. One peculiar condition is primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (PMAH), which has given rise to new pathophysiological concepts such as regulation of cortisol secretion by illegitimate ligands through aberrant expression of G protein-coupled transmembrane receptors in adrenal nodules and stimulation of cortisol production by local adrenocorticotropic hormone production through autocrine/paracrine mechanisms. These findings provide a basis for the development of targeted therapies as an alternative to surgery. The recent identification of germinal mutations of ARMC5 in PMAH raises the possibility that this is much more frequently an inherited disease than previously suspected. It also offers the possibility of earlier diagnosis of PMAH by genetic screening and, hopefully, of earlier intervention to prevent the onset of hypercortisolism and its complications. The pathophysiology of Cushing's syndrome associated with a subset of adrenal adenomas, including subclinical cortisol-secreting incidentalomas and adrenal carcinomas, remains to be determined. PMID:27212135

  3. Morphological and microvascular changes of the adrenal glands in streptozotocin-induced long-term diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sricharoenvej, Sirinush; Boonprasop, Surasak; Lanlua, Passara; Piyawinijwong, Sitha; Niyomchan, Apichaya

    2009-01-01

    It has been known that diabetes mellitus is associated with hyperfunction of the adrenal gland. However, the structural changes of adrenal gland in diabetes have rarely been studied. The aims of this study were to investigate the morphological and microvascular alterations in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced long-term diabetic rats. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into diabetic (n=8) and control (n=4) groups. Each diabetic rat was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg) in citrate buffer (pH 4.5). Control rats were intraperitoneally injected with the same amounts of the buffer. These animals were sacrificed at 20 weeks after the injections. The adrenal glands were processed for the morphological and microvascular studies by using conventional light microscopy (LM) and vascular corrosion cast technique combined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. In the diabetic group, the cells in zona glomeruloza (ZG) became atrophied and the thickness of this zone was found to be less than that of the controls. In the zona fasciculata (ZF) and zona reticularis (ZR), the hypertrophic cells were investigated in both layers. The degenerated chromaffin and hypertrophic sympathetic ganglion cells in the adrenal medulla were observed. Also some degenerated ganglion cells were found. Additionally, lymphocyte infiltration, macrophages and amyloidosis were found in the adrenal medulla of long-term diabetic rats with renal failure. Under the SEM observation, the luminal diameters of capillaries in the diabetic group were dilated in all zones. In addition, these capillaries in the ZF and ZR were arranged in tortuous courses. This study demonstrates morphological and microvascular changes in the adrenal gland of diabetic rats which are in accordance with the hormonal changes reported by previous investigators.

  4. Testicular adrenal rest tumours in congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claahsen-van der Grinten, H.L.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Otten, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    In adult patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), the presence of testicular adrenal rest tumours (TART) is an important complication leading to gonadal dysfunction and infertility. These tumours can be already found in childhood and puberty. In this paper, we review the embryological, hi

  5. Adrenal Masses in Infancy and Childhood; A Clinical and Radiological Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mearadji

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available   Adrenal masses derive from the medulla in most cases and rarely from the cortex. Neoplastic medullary tumors often originate from primitive neural crest cells such as neurogenic tumors including neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma and ganglioneurinoma. The adrenal medulla is the most common site of neuroblastoma, namely 35%. These tumors are composed of undifferentiated cells, while ganglioneuroma are composed entirely of mature ganglion and schwancells. Ganglioneuroblastoma include both mature and immature cell types. In addition to imaging, measurement of catecholamine excretion is valuable as an initial diagnostic procedure and for evaluation of therapeutic response. Progress in imaging techniques contributed largely in diagnosis and evaluation of extension of neurogenic adrenal masses, especially in staging of such tumors. Sonography is the first modality of choice in evaluation of neurogenic adrenal tumors and may help to delineate the tumor from adjacent organs such as the kidney and is useful in evaluation of other involved organs. Sonographically these tumors are usually heterogeneously echogenic with signs of necrosis or hemorrhage with or without calcification. The use of MIBG scintigraphy (Meta-IodinBenzylGuanidine is absolutely indicated in diagnosis of neurogenic adrenal masses, staging and evaluation of therapeutic response. CT is the most commonly used modality for assessment of neurogenic tumors and is superior to sonography in the evaluation of tumor extension and metastatic disease. MRI is an adequate modality in the evaluation of masses with extension to the spinal channel. MR imaging of neuroblastoma usually shows a low T1, a high T2, and heterogeneous enhancement. However, the detection of calcification (30% may be difficult. Pheochromocytoma is a secretory tumor arising from neuro-ectodermal chromaffin cells in the medulla of adrenal glands (70% or in extra-adrenal sites. The clinical presentation is usually related to

  6. [Morphometry of the adrenals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumachenko, P A

    1977-05-01

    The authors report on the method of determination of the weight indices of the adrenyl gland glomerular, testicular-reticular and medullar zones with a spheroid shape; it is substantiated by mathematical analysis of a plasticine model of the adrenal gland, whose characteristics approached the actual ones. The method was particularly accurate in determination of the weight of the fascicular-reticular and glomerular zones, and less--in determination of the weight of the medullary layer, the method's error being 0.6-0.9% in the first case, 2.7-3.5% in the second and 5.3-6.4 in the last. PMID:884280

  7. Primary bilateral adrenal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma associated with normal adrenal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Bin; Ding, Qiang; Xia, Guowei; Fang, Zujun; Fang, Jie; Jiang, Haowen; Yao, Mengshu

    2009-04-01

    Primary bilateral adrenal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is rare. Adrenal insufficiency or adrenal failure as a result of tumor destruction is the main pathophysiological change of most cases. Normal adrenal function despite bulky bilateral adrenal masses is extremely rare. We present a case of primary bilateral adrenal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma associated with normal adrenal function. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography is helpful to the diagnosis.

  8. ADRENAL INCIDENTALOMAS: ANALYSIS OF 126 CASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李汉忠; 严维刚; 曾正陪; 肖河; 冯超; 王惠君

    2003-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the diagnosis and treatment of adrenal incidentalomas. Methods. One hundred and twenty-six patients with incidentalomas were analyzed, among them 98 underwent operation. Results. Eighty-eight of the adrenal incidentalomas were discovered by ultrasound. Of all the types of adrenal incidentalomas, 52 (41.3%) of them were adenomas; 43 (34.1%) were hypersecretory adrenal tumors, including 29 pheochromocytomas, 9 primary aldosteronisms, 1 adrenogenitol syndrome combined with adrenal adenoma, 2 Cushing's syndrome combined with adenomas and 2 Cushing's syndrome combined with nodular hyperplasias. All nonhypersecretory adrenal adenomas were under 6 cm, and all adrenal carcinomas were above 6 cm.Conclusions. To search for hypersecretory adrenal tumors and to detect malignant adrenal tumors are quite essential in the process of diagnosing adrenal incidentalomas. For nonhypersecretory adrenal adenomas, the size of tumor is the most important index in determining whether the tumor is benign or malignant and whether the tumor needs to be treated with operation.

  9. A dopaminergic receptor modulates catecholamine release from the cat adrenal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artalejo, A R; García, A G; Montiel, C; Sánchez-García, P

    1985-01-01

    Nicotine evokes the release of catecholamines from perfused cat adrenal glands in a concentration-dependent manner, the median effective concentration for nicotine being 5 microM. Two 2 min pulses of 5 microM-nicotine, 40 min apart (S1 and S2) gave net catecholamine outputs of 7.64 and 3.55 micrograms/8 min, respectively. The ratio S2/S1 in control glands was 0.5. Increasing concentrations of apomorphine (1-10 microM) markedly inhibited catecholamine release during the second nicotine pulse (S2). At 1 microM-apomorphine, the release during S2 was significantly reduced to 16% of S1; with 10 microM-apomorphine, the secretory response was reduced further to only 3% of S1, the ratio S2/S1 being 0.03. The presence of haloperidol, sulpiride or picobenzide (each 0.5 microM) during S2, completely reversed the inhibition of catecholamine release produced by apomorphine. Haloperidol itself increased the nicotinic secretory response during S2; so, while the ratio S2/S1 was 0.5 in control conditions, this ratio increased significantly to 0.95 if haloperidol (0.5 microM) was present during S2, suggesting that the presence of this dopaminergic antagonist removed a negative feed-back mechanism that inhibits nicotine-evoked catecholamine release. If present during S2, dopamine (1 microM) also markedly inhibited catecholamine release evoked by nicotine; this inhibition was again reversed by 0.5 microM-haloperidol. Neither the opiate antagonist naloxone nor the alpha-adrenoceptor blocking agent phentolamine (at concentrations of 0.5-5 microM) affected the inhibition by apomorphine of the secretory response to nicotine. These data strongly suggest that the cat adrenal medulla chromaffin cell membrane contains a dopaminergic receptor which modulates the catecholamine secretory process triggered by stimulation of the nicotinic cholinoceptor. The fact that dopamine is released in measurable amounts, together with adrenaline and noradrenaline, from perfused cat adrenal glands in response

  10. Adrenal Cyst Presenting as Hepatic Hydatid Cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulla Darwish; Veena Nagaraj; Mohmmed B. Mustafa; Ahmed Al Ansari

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Although adrenal cysts are uncommon, the incidence rate is increasing with the advances in radiological technologies. The incidental detection of adrenal cysts nowadays has become more frequent as a result of the increase usage of high quality imaging modalities. Adrenal cysts originate from the adrenal gland and can be classified into either true or pseudocyst. Presentation of Case. In this report, we described an adrenal cyst of endothelial type, in a 30-year-old lady who was ...

  11. Management of adolescents with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Merke, Deborah P.; Poppas, Dix P.

    2013-01-01

    The management of congenital adrenal hyperplasia involves suppression of adrenal androgen production, in addition to treatment of adrenal insufficiency. Management of adolescents with congenital adrenal hyperplasia is especially challenging because changes in the hormonal milieu during puberty can lead to inadequate suppression of adrenal androgens, psychosocial issues often affect adherence to medical therapy, and sexual function plays a major part in adolescence and young adulthood. For the...

  12. Radiological diagnosis of adrenal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among all the radiological examination techniques, CT is today, besides scintigraphy, the method of choice as far as the detection of functional adrenal lesions is concerned. In primary aldosteronism, CT classification of the syndrome is based on the detection of an adenoma which can be reliably detected in adenoma sizes up to 8-10 mm. Thus, 70 to 80% of Conn's syndromes can be classified. In adrenal Cushing's syndrome, the distinction between adenoma and carcinoma of the adrenal gland is up to CT and can usually be easily made due to the characteristic morphology of each type of lesion. In case of a typcial adrenal or juxtaadrenal tumor location, detection of a pheochromocytoma is likewise easy. In ectopic and multiple pheochromocytomas or such as occur as part of a MEN-syndrome, the situation is quite different. If lesions of the adrenal gland are found by accident in examinations otherwise indicated, the question arises whether the process is malignant or benign. In this respect, all the traditional imaging methods, including CT, involve a considerable factor or uncertainity, especially if a malignant tumor is anamnestically known and the question of metastases arises. According to recent information, MR-imaging seems to be advantageous concerning this difficult differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  13. A new diamond biosensor with integrated graphitic microchannels for detecting quantal exocytic events from chromaffin cells

    CERN Document Server

    Picollo, Federico; Vittone, Ettore; Pasquarelli, Alberto; Carbone, Emilio; Olivero, Paolo; Carabelli, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    The quantal release of catecholamines from neuroendocrine cells is a key mechanism which has been investigated with a broad range of materials and devices, among which carbon-based materials such as carbon fibers, diamond-like carbon, carbon nanotubes and nanocrystalline diamond. In the present work we demonstrate that a MeV-ion-microbeam lithographic technique can be successfully employed for the fabrication of an all-carbon miniaturized cellular bio-sensor based on graphitic micro-channels embedded in a single-crystal diamond matrix. The device was functionally characterized for the in vitro recording of quantal exocytic events from single chromaffin cells, with high sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio, opening promising perspectives for the realization of monolithic all-carbon cellular biosensors.

  14. Rab3 proteins involved in vesicle biogenesis and priming in embryonic mouse chromaffin cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schonn, Jean-Sébastien; van Weering, Jan R T; Mohrmann, Ralf;

    2010-01-01

    chromaffin cells by electron microscopy and electrophysiological measurements. We show that in cells from ABCD(-/-) animals large dense core vesicles (LDCVs) are less abundant while the number of morphologically docked granules is normal. By capacitance measurements, we show that deletion of Rab3s reduces...... the size of the releasable vesicle pools but does not alter their fusion kinetics, consistent with an altered function in vesicle priming. The sustained release component has a sigmoid shape in ABCD(-/-) cells when normalized to the releasable pool size, indicating that vesicle priming follows at a higher...... rate after an initial delay. Rescue experiments showed that short-term (4-6 hours) overexpression of Rab3A or Rab3C suffices to rescue vesicle priming and secretion, but it does not restore the number of secretory vesicles. We conclude that Rab3 proteins play two distinct stimulating roles for LDCV...

  15. Adrenal oncoctyoma of uncertain malignant potential: a rare etiology of adrenal incidentaloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Rohit R; Muinov, Lucy; Lele, Subodh M; Shivaswamy, Vijay

    2016-03-01

    A rare cause for rapid adrenal enlargement is adrenal oncocytoma of uncertain malignant potential. A full biochemical evaluation is warranted to screen secreting adrenal adenomas as well as to evaluate adrenal cortical carcinoma. Careful pathologic evaluation is required as the diagnosis of AOC cannot be made by imaging. PMID:27014458

  16. Imaging features of primary adrenal lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun-ping; SUN Hao-ran; LI Ya-jun; BAI Ren-ju; GAO Shuo

    2009-01-01

    @@ Secondary involvement of the adrenal glands with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) has been reported to occur in up to 25% of patients during the course of disease. However, primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL) is very rare.

  17. Cushing syndrome due to adrenal tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrenal tumor - Cushing syndrome ... Cushing syndrome is a disorder that occurs when your body has a higher than normal level of the ... or cancerous (malignant). Noncancerous tumors that can cause ... Adrenal adenomas Micronodular hyperplasia Cancerous tumors that ...

  18. Giant adrenal cyst displacing the right kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodisetti, Subbarao; Boddepalli, Yogesh; Kota, Malakondareddy

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal cysts are rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal cysts. We present a case of a huge adrenal cyst displacing the right kidney anteriorly toward the left side in a young female.

  19. Recurrence of adrenal aldosterone-producing adenoma

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo-Romero, J. M.; Ramos-Salado, J. L.

    2000-01-01

    Conn's syndrome (adrenal aldosterone-producing adenoma) and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia are the most common causes of primary aldosteronism. The treatment of choice for patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma is unilateral total adrenalectomy. Recurrence after adequate surgery is exceptional. We present a patient with recurrence of an aldosterone-producing adenoma in the right adrenal gland 9 years after adenomectomy of a aldosterone-producing adenoma in the same adrenal gland. We concl...

  20. Adrenal regeneration hypertension prevented by thyroidectomy: a quantitative ultrastructural study of the regenerating adrenal cortex.

    OpenAIRE

    Conran, R. M.; Nickerson, P A

    1980-01-01

    Thyroparathyroidectomy (TPX) prevents adrenal regeneration hypertension (ARH) in female rats and concomitantly inhibits regeneration of the adrenal cortex. Removal of the thyroid gland plays the major role in preventing ARH inasmuch as parathyroidectomized adrenal-enucleated (PX-AE) rats became hypertensive, whereas thyroparathyroidectomized adrenal-enucleated rats (TPX-AE + PT) did not. Inhibition of adrenocortical regneration by TPX is reflected by a significant decrease in adrenal weight, ...

  1. Adrenal insufficiency and adrenal replacement therapy. Current status in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulinas, Anna; Casanueva, Felipe; Goñi, Fernando; Monereo, Susana; Moreno, Basilio; Picó, Antonio; Puig-Domingo, Manel; Salvador, Javier; Tinahones, Francisco J; Webb, Susan M

    2013-03-01

    Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is a rare endocrine disease, associated to increased mortality if left untreated. It can be due to a primary failure of the adrenal glands (primary AI) or malfunctioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) (secondary AI). The lack of data on incidence/prevalence of adrenal insufficiency in Spain complicates any evaluation of the magnitude of the problem in our country. Initial symptoms are non-specific, so often there is a delay in diagnosis. Current therapy with available glucocorticoids is associated with decreased quality of life in patients with treated AI, as well as with increased mortality and morbidity, probably related to both over-treatment and lack of hydrocortisone, associated with non-physiological peaks and troughs of the drug over the 24 hours. The availability of a new drug with a modified dual release (immediate and retarded), that requires one only daily dose, improves and simplifies the treatment, increases compliance as well as quality of life, morbidity and possibly mortality. This revision deals with the knowledge on the situation both globally and in Spain, prior to the availability of this new drug.

  2. Adrenal Hypoplasia Congenita Presenting as Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Flint

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a patient with genetically confirmed adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC whose presentation and laboratory abnormalities were consistent with the more common condition, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH. The patient presented with failure to thrive and salt wasting. General appearance showed marked hyperpigmentation and normal male genitalia. He displayed mildly elevated 17-hydroxyprogesterone and markedly elevated 11-deoxycortisol levels at baseline and with ACTH stimulation testing. Results were consistent with 11β-hydroxylase deficiency. He required glucocorticoids and high doses of mineralocorticoids. The marked elevation in 11-deoxycortisol directed our clinical reasoning away from a hypoplastic condition and towards a hyperplasic adrenal condition. Sequencing of the DAX1 gene (named for dosage-sensitive sex reversal (DSS locus and the AHC locus on the X chromosome revealed a missense mutation. A review of the literature revealed that elevated 11-deoxycortisol levels have been noted in kindreds with DAX1 mutations, but only when measured very early in life. A mouse model has recently been described that displays elevated 11-deoxycorticosterone levels and evidence for hyperplasia of the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland. We conclude that DAX1 testing may be considered in patients with laboratory evidence of 11β-hydroxylase deficiency, especially in those with severe salt wasting.

  3. Adrenal pseudocyst. Radiological finds. Pseudoiquiste adrenal. Hallazgos radiologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, E.; Lopez Rasines, G.; Bustos, A.; Otero, M.; Rodriguez, M.I.; Pagola, M.A. (Hospital Nacional Marques de Valdecilla, Santanders (Spain))

    1991-01-01

    Adrenal cysts are infrequent, the pseudocysts being those that most often produce clinical symptoms. A case of pseudocyst in right suprarenal gland is presented in a young woman with no clinical history, who was studied by means of ultrasound (US) and computerized tomography (CT). (author)

  4. Adrenal lymphangioma removed by a retroperitoneoscopic procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ben; Li, Yanyuan; Wang, Shuo

    2013-02-01

    We report a case of an adrenal lymphangioma removed by retroperitoneal laparoscopy. A 45-year-old female was referred to the urological ward for an adrenal mass that was incidentally detected by ultrasound examination one month earlier. An abdominal ultrasonography (US) scan revealed a 3.0 cm anechoic cystic mass, while a computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a 3.0×2.7 cm left adrenal cystic mass, which was suspected to be an adrenal cyst. The patient underwent retroperitoneoscopic removal of the tumor. Pathological evaluation revealed a cystic lymphangioma in the left adrenal gland.

  5. Intraoperative identification of adrenal-renal fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Griffin; Rattan, Rishi; Yilmaz, Osman; Tarnoff, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal - renal fusion is a rare entity defined as incomplete encapsulation of the adrenal gland and kidney with histologically adjacent functional tissue. This report describes the first published intraoperative identification of this anomaly during laparoscopic adrenalectomy. The patient was a 59-year-old man with chronic hypertension refractory to multiple antihypertensives found to be caused by a right-sided aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma in the setting of bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. During laparoscopic adrenalectomy, the normal avascular plane between the kidney and adrenal gland was absent. Pathologic evaluation confirmed adrenal - renal fusion without adrenal heterotopia. Identified intraoperatively, this may be misdiagnosed as invasive malignancy, and thus awareness of this anomaly may help prevent unnecessarily morbid resection. PMID:26195881

  6. [Adrenal injury in blunt abdominal trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abakumov, M M; Smoliar, A N; Barmina, T G; Boĭko, A V; Shalimova, I G

    2009-01-01

    10 patients with adrenal damage were observed during 2.5 years. It amounted 0.93% of all patients with closed abdominal injuries. The right adrenal gland was traumatized in all cases evidently due to it's compression between right lobe of liver and vertebral column. Adrenal damage is observed quite often in combination with injuries of right liver lobe, right kidney and retroperitoneal hematoma formation. 5 patients underwent laparotomy on account of intra-abdominal bleeding, but adrenal damage was never revealed. Ultrasound and tomographic semiotics of adrenal damage was worked out, which allowed ascertaining diagnosis in 80% on application of ultrasound study and in 100% at computer tomography. Injury of one adrenal gland was not accompanied by adrenal failure and did not require hormonal replacement therapy.

  7. Silent intravascular lymphoma initially manifesting as a unilateral adrenal incidentaloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshiko; Iida, Keiji; Hino, Yasuhisa; Ohara, Takeshi; Kurahashi, Toshifumi; Tashiro, Takashi; Chihara, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare subtype of malignant lymphoma. Although the involvement of adrenal glands in IVLBCL is often observed, primary adrenal IVLBCL is rare. Most reported cases of adrenal IVLBCL showed bilateral lesions resulting in rapidly progressive adrenal failure and poor prognosis. Here, we report a case of slowly progressive primary adrenal IVLBCL manifesting initially with unilateral adrenal incidentaloma. This case is a silent IVLBCL and shows that the enlargement of both adrenal glands can be followed.

  8. Primary bilateral adrenal intravascular large B-cell lymphoma associated with adrenal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Ayumi; Okada, Yosuke; Tanikawa, Takahisa; Onaka, Takashi; Tanaka, Aya; Higashi, Takehiro; Tsukada, Junichi; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2003-07-01

    We report a rare case of bilateral primary adrenal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with adrenal failure. A 66-year-old woman developed symptoms of adrenal failure. The cause of adrenal failure was suspected to be malignant lymphoma based on the high levels of serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor and LDH. Bilateral adrenalectomy was performed and pathological examination showed intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVL). Although complete remission was achieved, recurrence occurred three months later with brain metastases. IVL should be suspected in patients with bilateral adrenal tumors who present with rapidly progressive adrenal failure.

  9. Sodium-dependent inhibition by PN200-110 enantiomers of nicotinic adrenal catecholamine release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, A. M.; Montiel, C.; Artalejo, A. R.; Sánchez-García, P.; García, A. G.

    1988-01-01

    1. Dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP) or high K concentrations evoke catecholamine release from perfused cat adrenal glands; in both cases the secretory response was significantly enhanced in the absence of Na. Tetrodotoxin did not modify the nicotinic secretory response. 2. The (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of the dihydropyridine Ca channel blocker PN200-110 show a high degree of stereoselectivity in the inhibition of catecholamine secretion evoked by high K or by DMPP in the presence of Na, the (+)-enantiomer being 57 and 80 times more potent, respectively, than the (-)-enantiomer. Both, noradrenaline and adrenaline release were equally depressed by PN200-110. 3. The IC50 values for (+)- and (-)-PN200-110 for blockade of the secretory response induced by K or DMPP in the presence of Na are in the same range. In the absence of Na, (-)-PN200-110 did not affect DMPP-evoked secretion; however, the (+)-enantiomer partially inhibited it. 4. The results suggest that the physiological catecholamine release from chromaffin cells is preceded by Na entry through the nicotinic receptor-associated ionophore; this causes cell depolarization, opening of voltage-dependent, dihydropyridine-sensitive Ca channels and Ca entry into the cell. In the absence of Na, additional Ca influx through an alternative pathway (the nicotinic cholinoceptor ionophore?) might also activate secretion. PMID:2975522

  10. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Avaria E.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH is an autosomal recessive disease whose main cause is the deficiency of 21-hydroxylase, an enzyme involved in the synthesis of cortisol and aldosterone. There are two forms of CAH, a classical and nonclassical form, being the first objective of analysis in the clinical case. Its clinical manifestations vary in severity, depending on the level of hormone deficiency. Within the classic is described the salt-wasting form, whose consequences are androgen excess and insufficiency of cortisol and mineralocorticoids. So this may manifest as a sex differentiation disorder (virilization of the external genitalia if the fetus is female and adrenal insufficiency. For diagnosis are considered the family history, clinical manifestations, measuring 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels and detection of genetic alteration. CASE REPORT: Patient with a family history of a brother with HSC brother, born with a disorder of sexual differentiation and is discharged with legal male sex. After three months develops adrenal insufficiency and was diagnosed with classical HSC salt-wasting form and determined female karyotype. DISCUSSION: The Pillars of the HSC are handling genetic counseling in families at risk, prenatal treatment with dexamethasone, postnatal glucocorticoid therapy and surgical treatment of disorders of the external genitalia, along with new research based therapy gene and the use of stem cells, requiring this way an integral view of HSC.

  11. Laparoscopic Resection of an Adrenal Schwannoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinos, Toutouzas G.; Panagiotis, Kekis B.; Nikolaos, Michalopoulos V.; Ioannis, Flessas; Andreas, Manouras; Geogrios, Zografos

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Schwannomas are tumors originating from Schwann cells of the peripheral nerve sheath (neurilemma) of the neuroectoderm. Rarely, schwannomas can arise from the retroperitoneum and adrenal medulla. We describe a case of a 71-y-old woman who presented with an incidentally discovered adrenal tumor. Methods: Ultrasound and computed tomography scans revealed a lesion with solid and cystic areas originating from the left adrenal gland. The patient underwent complete laparoscopic resection of the tumor and the left adrenal gland. Results: Histopathological examination and immunohistochemical staining of the excised specimen revealed a benign schwannoma measuring 5.5×5×3.7 cm. To our knowledge, few other cases of laparoscopic resection of adrenal schwannomas have been reported. Conclusion: Because preoperative diagnosis of adrenal tumors is inconclusive, complete laparoscopic excision allows for definitive diagnosis with histological evaluation and represents the treatment of choice. PMID:23484583

  12. Laparoscopic Management of a Complex Adrenal Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Kodama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal cysts are rare, and their clinical management remains controversial. We report a case involving an adrenal cyst with a complicated appearance on radiological studies. Unenhanced computed tomography revealed a unilocular, noncalcified, hypoattenuating mass with a thin wall in the left adrenal gland. The lesion gradually increased in size from 10 to 50 mm at two-year follow-up. On contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, a mural nodule with contrast enhancement was observed. The entire adrenal gland was excised en bloc via a lateral transperitoneal laparoscopic approach without violating the principles of surgical oncology. The pathological diagnosis was an adrenal pseudocyst. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a safe option for the treatment of complex adrenal cysts, while maintaining the benefits of minimal invasiveness.

  13. Antiviral effects of bovine interferons on bovine respiratory tract viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, R W; Downing, M M; Cummins, J M

    1984-01-01

    The antiviral effects of bovine interferons on the replication of bovine respiratory tract viruses were studied. Bovine turbinate monolayer cultures were treated with bovine interferons and challenged with several bovine herpesvirus 1 strains, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, goat respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, or vesicular stomatitis virus. Treatment with bovine interferons reduced viral yield for each of the...

  14. Adrenal Failure due to Adrenal Metastasis of Lung Cancer: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulhaber, Gustavo Adolpho Moreira; Borges, Flavia Kessler; Ascoli, Aline Maria; Seligman, Renato; Furlanetto, Tania Weber

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of a patient with adrenal failure due to bilateral adrenal metastasis of lung cancer. This is a rare presentation of lung cancer. We review the differential diagnosis of weight loss and how to make diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency. PMID:22606443

  15. Adrenal Failure due to Adrenal Metastasis of Lung Cancer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Adolpho Moreira Faulhaber

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a patient with adrenal failure due to bilateral adrenal metastasis of lung cancer. This is a rare presentation of lung cancer. We review the differential diagnosis of weight loss and how to make diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency.

  16. Adrenal Myelolipoma- A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalaxmi V. Suranagi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal myelolipoma (AML is a rare benign tumour composed of mature adipose tissue and hematopoietic tissue. Very few cases have been reported. Most of these patients are asymptomatic. We present a rare case of Adrenal Myelolipoma where the patient presented with hypertension and a clinical suspicion of Pheochromocytoma, which turned out to be an Adrenal myelolipoma. Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare entity, not encountered frequently and can occur as an incidental finding. Awareness regarding this entity is very much essential to exclude surgical exploration or extensive surgery.

  17. Intranuclear bundles of microfilaments and microtubules in chromaffin cells of the auricle of the heart of a lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuermann, D W; Adriaensen, D; De Groodt-Lasseel, M H

    1988-01-01

    Intranuclear microtubular-microfilamentous rod-like inclusions were investigated in chromaffin cells of the auricle of the heart of lungfishes. In conventional electron microscopy, these inclusions reveal a wide variety in appearance, depending on their orientation to the plane of sectioning. Whereas originally they were merely interpreted as a bundle of microfilaments, application of a goniometer stage showed the rod- or spindle-shaped intranuclear inclusions to have a basic substructure of parallel arranged microtubules among microfilaments, which are clearly connected to chromatin granules, occasionally penetrating dense areas of chromatin. The chemical nature and biological significance of these structures, which so far remain enigmatic, are discussed. PMID:3227775

  18. Adrenal haemorrhage with cholestasis and adrenal crisis in a newborn of a diabetic mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koklu, Esad; Kurtoglu, Selim; Akcakus, Mustafa; Koklu, Selmin

    2007-03-01

    The large hyperaemic foetal adrenal gland is vulnerable to vascular damage. This may occur in the neonatal period as a consequence of difficult labour, or its aetiology may not be apparent. The spectrum of presentation is considerable, ranging from asymptomatic to severe life-threatening intra-abdominal haemorrhage. The presentation of adrenal insufficiency may be delayed but the regenerative capacity of the adrenal is great, and most adrenal haemorrhage is not associated with significantly impaired function. Some reports showed that cholestatic hepatopathy with congenital hypopituitarism reversed by hydrocortisone treatment is considered in the context of the endocrine syndrome, probably as a consequence of the adrenal failure. We describe a case of bilateral adrenal haemorrhage with hepatitis syndrome and persistent hypoglycaemia in a newborn male with striking features of neonatal cholestasis and adrenal crisis.

  19. Unilateral adrenal hemorrhagic infarction in essential thrombocythemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnet, G; Lambert, M; Annet, L; Lefebvre, C

    2015-12-01

    Adrenal hemorrhage is a rare disease associated with various conditions. We report a case of a 68-year-old woman with abdominal and back pain. The diagnostic work-up showed a left adrenal gland infarction associated with essential thrombocythemia. Treatment consisted in painkillers and treating the underlying condition in order to prevent further thrombotic events.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hormone-producing glands located on top of each kidney. These nodules, which usually are found in both adrenal glands (bilateral) and vary in size, cause adrenal gland enlargement (hyperplasia) and result in the production of higher-than-normal levels of the hormone cortisol. Cortisol is an ...

  1. Bilateral spontaneous adrenal haemorrhage complicating acute pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilateral adrenal haemorrhage is an event that mandates prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent primary adrenocortical insufficiency and potential death. Presentation can be non-specific and incidentally diagnosed with imaging alone, primarily CT. We present a case of acute pancreatitis with spontaneous bilateral adrenal haemorrhage and briefly discuss imaging and treatment implications

  2. Puberty and fertility in congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, B.J.; Stikkelbroeck, M.M.L.; Claahsen-van der Grinten, H.L.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a disorder of adrenal steroid synthesis. The symptoms and signs of CAH depend on the degree of enzyme deficiency; severe salt-wasting (SW) form, less severe simple virilizing (SV) form and mild nonclassic (NC) form. In this paper, puberty and fertility in CAH

  3. Severe Hyperkalemia and Bilateral Adrenal Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Nagler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal metastases are a common finding in metastatic lung and breast cancer. Often there are no clinical symptoms suggesting them. In this paper, we present a case of a 66-year-old man with metastatic lung cancer suffering from severe hyperkaliemia due to hypoaldosteronism as a result of bilateral adrenal metastasis.

  4. Diagnosis and management of adrenal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancos, Irina; Hahner, Stefanie; Tomlinson, Jeremy; Arlt, Wiebke

    2015-03-01

    Adrenal insufficiency continues to be a challenge for patients, their physicians, and researchers. During the past decade, long-term studies have shown increased mortality and morbidity and impaired quality of life in patients with adrenal insufficiency. These findings might, at least partially, be due to the failure of glucocorticoid replacement therapy to closely resemble physiological diurnal secretion of cortisol. The potential effect of newly developed glucocorticoid drugs is a focus of research, as are the mechanisms potentially underlying increased morbidity and mortality. Adrenal crisis remains a threat to lives, and awareness and preventative measures now receive increasing attention. Awareness should be raised in medical teams and patients about adrenal insufficiency and management of adrenal crisis to improve clinical outcome.

  5. A case of human intramuscular adrenal gland transplantation as a cure for chronic adrenal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodstein, E; Hardy, M A; Goldstein, M J

    2010-02-01

    Intramuscular endocrine gland transplantation has been well described as it pertains to parathyroid autotransplantation; however, transplantation of the adrenal gland is less well characterized. While adrenal autotransplantation in the setting of Cushing's disease has been described, intramuscular adrenal allotransplantation as a cure for adrenal insufficiency to our knowledge has not been previously carried out. Current treatment for adrenal insufficiency leaves patients without diurnal variation in cortisol release and susceptible to the detrimental effects of chronic hypercortisolism. We describe here the case of a 5-year-old girl with renal failure who had adrenal insufficiency following fulminant meningococcemia that led to requirements for both stress-dose steroid and mineralocorticoid replacement. Ten months after the onset of her disease, she received a simultaneous renal and adrenal gland transplant from her mother. The adrenal gland allograft was morselized into 1 mm(3) segments and implanted into three 2 cm pockets created in her rectus abdominis muscle. Three years after surgery, her allograft remains fully functional, responding well to adrenocorticotropin hormone stimulation and the patient does not require any steroid or mineral-corticoid supplementation. We believe this case represents the first description of successful functional intramuscular adrenal allograft transplantation with long-term follow up as a cure for adrenal insufficiency.

  6. Diagnosis of adrenal tumors with radionuclide imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of radiolabeled cholesterols in 1969 as precursors of adrenocortical steroid production allowed the first noninvasive imaging of the adrenal cortices. FDA-NDA approval in 1984 should allow routine use of these agents in most hospitals. NP-59 is most commonly used in the diagnosis and management of Cushing syndrome; the second most common use is in the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism. It is also helpful in the differential diagnosis of adrenal and ovarian hyperandrogenism and hirsutism, and is the only noninvasive method of detecting unilateral adrenocortical hypofunction. The newest and most popular use is in the differential diagnosis of asymptomatic masses in the region of the adrenal gland discovered incidentally with CT scan (incidentalomas). In this situation, the NP-59 scan can define whether the tumor is in the adrenal gland and if it is functional or nonfunctional. The authors believe that, in the future, radiolabeled enzyme inhibitors might offer better diagnostic imaging of the adrenal cortex, although these agents will probably not be available for routine use for some time. The development of a radioiodinated guanethidine analog, 131I-MIBG, has allowed differentiation of normal adrenal medullary function from bilateral adrenal medullary hyperplasia before the development of hypertension or tachycardia, diagnostic increases in plasma or urinary catecholamines, or abnormal CT scans. The search for a pheochromocytoma should begin with 131I-MIBG scintigraphy. While over 90% of primary pheochromocytomas occur in the abdomen, neither a survey of the abdomen nor the finding of a single tumor should conclude the search

  7. Therapy of adrenal insufficiency: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falorni, Alberto; Minarelli, Viviana; Morelli, Silvia

    2013-06-01

    Adrenal insufficiency may be caused by the destruction or altered function of the adrenal gland with a primary deficit in cortisol secretion (primary adrenal insufficiency) or by hypothalamic-pituitary pathologies determining a deficit of ACTH (secondary adrenal insufficiency). The clinical picture is determined by the glucocorticoid deficit, which may in some conditions be accompanied by a deficit of mineralcorticoids and adrenal androgens. The substitutive treatment is aimed at reducing the signs and symptoms of the disease as well as at preventing the development of an addisonian crisis, a clinical emergency characterized by hypovolemic shock. The oral substitutive treatment should attempt at mimicking the normal circadian profile of cortisol secretion, by using the lower possible doses able to guarantee an adequate quality of life to patients. The currently available hydrocortisone or cortisone acetate preparations do not allow an accurate reproduction of the physiological secretion pattern of cortisol. A novel dual-release formulation of hydrocortisone, recently approved by EMEA, represents an advancement in the optimization of the clinical management of patients with adrenal insufficiency. Future clinical trials of immunomodulation or immunoprevention will test the possibility to delay (or prevent) the autoimmune destruction of the adrenal gland in autoimmune Addison's disease. PMID:23179775

  8. Clinicopathological correlates of adrenal Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Kai; Gomez Hernandez, Karen; Mete, Ozgur

    2015-03-01

    Endogenous Cushing's syndrome is a rare endocrine disorder that incurs significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, due to glucocorticoid excess. It comprises adrenal (20%) and non-adrenal (80%) aetiologies. While the majority of cases are attributed to pituitary or ectopic corticotropin (ACTH) overproduction, primary cortisol-producing adrenal cortical lesions are increasingly recognised in the pathophysiology of Cushing's syndrome. Our understanding of this disease has progressed substantially over the past decade. Recently, important mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of adrenal hypercortisolism have been elucidated with the discovery of mutations in cyclic AMP signalling (PRKACA, PRKAR1A, GNAS, PDE11A, PDE8B), armadillo repeat containing 5 gene (ARMC5) a putative tumour suppressor gene, aberrant G-protein-coupled receptors, and intra-adrenal secretion of ACTH. Accurate subtyping of Cushing's syndrome is crucial for treatment decision-making and requires a complete integration of clinical, biochemical, imaging and pathology findings. Pathological correlates in the adrenal glands include hyperplasia, adenoma and carcinoma. While the most common presentation is diffuse adrenocortical hyperplasia secondary to excess ACTH production, this entity is usually treated with pituitary or ectopic tumour resection. Therefore, when confronted with adrenalectomy specimens in the setting of Cushing's syndrome, surgical pathologists are most commonly exposed to adrenocortical adenomas, carcinomas and primary macronodular or micronodular hyperplasia. This review provides an update on the rapidly evolving knowledge of adrenal Cushing's syndrome and discusses the clinicopathological correlations of this important disease.

  9. Normal dexamethasone-suppression adrenal scintiscan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To establish the parameters of adrenal imaging under dexamethasone suppression (DS), 18 normotensive, normal male volunteers underwent dexamethasone-suppression adrenal scintiscanning. Five control groups were established and given dexamethasone, either 8 mg for 2 days or 4 mg for 7 days before 6β-[1311]iodomethyl-norcholesterol (NP-59) administration. NP-59 was given in doses of 2, 1, or 0.5 mCi. Early visualization (3-5 days) of the adrenals was noted in the groups on the 8 mg DS regimen with either 1 or 2 mCi of NP-59. Late visualization (5-7 days) was noted in the groups that received 4 mg DS and either 2, 1, or 0.5 mCi of MP-59, respectively. The normal adrenal will demonstrate uptake of NP-59 under DS, and the duration of DS before imaging is the critical factor as to when discernible adrenal visualization will occur. The documentation of the normal suppression interval on these DS regimens provides a basis for the correct diagnostic interpretation of adrenal hyperfunction as seen on the dexamethasone-suppression NP-59 adrenal scan

  10. Silent Intravascular Lymphoma Initially Manifesting as a Unilateral Adrenal Incidentaloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiko Takahashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL is a rare subtype of malignant lymphoma. Although the involvement of adrenal glands in IVLBCL is often observed, primary adrenal IVLBCL is rare. Most reported cases of adrenal IVLBCL showed bilateral lesions resulting in rapidly progressive adrenal failure and poor prognosis. Here, we report a case of slowly progressive primary adrenal IVLBCL manifesting initially with unilateral adrenal incidentaloma. This case is a silent IVLBCL and shows that the enlargement of both adrenal glands can be followed.

  11. Differentiation in neuroblastoma: diffusion-limited hypoxia induces neuro-endocrine secretory protein 55 and other markers of a chromaffin phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Hedborg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma is a childhood malignancy of sympathetic embryonal origin. A high potential for differentiation is a hallmark of neuroblastoma cells. We have previously presented data to suggest that in situ differentiation in tumors frequently proceeds along the chromaffin lineage and that decreased oxygen (hypoxia plays a role in this. Here we explore the utility of Neuro-Endocrine Secretory Protein 55 (NESP55, a novel member of the chromogranin family, as a marker for this process. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Immunohistochemical analyses and in situ hybridizations were performed on human fetal tissues, mouse xenografts of human neuroblastoma cell lines, and on specimens of human neuroblastoma/ganglioneuroma. Effects of anaerobic exposure on gene expression by cultured neuroblastoma cells was analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR. Fetal sympathetic nervous system expression of NESP55 was shown to be specific for chromaffin cell types. In experimental and clinical neuroblastoma NESP55 immunoreactivity was specific for regions of chronic hypoxia. NESP55 expression also correlated strikingly with morphological evidence of differentiation and with other chromaffin-specific patterns of gene expression, including IGF2 and HIF2α. Anaerobic culture of five neuroblastoma cell lines resulted in an 18.9-fold mean up-regulation of NESP55. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data confirms that chronic tumor hypoxia is a key microenvironmental factor for neuroblastoma cell differentiation, causing induction of chromaffin features and NESP55 provides a reliable marker for this neuronal to neuroendocrine transition. The hypoxia-induced phenotype is the predominant form of differentiation in stroma-poor tumors, while in stroma-rich tumors the chromaffin phenotype coexists with ganglion cell-like differentiation. The findings provide new insights into the biological diversity which is a striking feature of this group of tumors.

  12. Adrenal pathology in childhood: a spectrum of disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, Anne [Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children, 180 Falls Road, Belfast BT12 6BE (United Kingdom)

    2002-10-01

    Adrenal lesions in children may present with an asymptomatic adrenal mass lesion, an endocrinopathy, a hypertensive or metabolic crisis or a paraneoplastic syndrome. Some of the underlying disease processes remain localised within the adrenal gland or may develop into disseminated disease. The role of the radiologist is to confirm the adrenal location of a lesion and to document any other foci of disease. Ultrasound, CT, MR imaging and metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy are the most commonly utilised imaging modalities for examining the adrenal glands and their pathologies in children. This paper reviews the spectrum of adrenal disease in childhood and presents the information as a series of radiological appearances: anomalies of adrenal shape, location, number and size, cystic adrenal masses, solid adrenal mass lesions, and adrenal calcifications are all examined. The radiological findings must always be interpreted in conjunction with the patient's age, the clinical history, the findings on physical examination and the available biochemical data. (orig.)

  13. Update on imaging diagnosis of adrenal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging diagnosis of adrenal tumors is increasingly frequent. Characterization and differentiation of benign adenomas and malignant injures is very important, mainly in the patient with malignant or functioning disease. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography/computed tomography allowed greater precision in characterizing and differentiating the adrenal masses in a non-invasive way. This review explained the physiological principles supporting these techniques, its advantages and restrictions. The main characteristics of the most frequent adrenal tumor images were described, in addition to submitting an algorithm for the use of these diagnostic means

  14. Evaluation of primary adrenal insufficiency secondary to tuberculous adrenalitis with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging:Current status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Cheng; Huang; Yu-Lian; Tang; Xiao-Ming; Zhang; Nan-Lin; Zeng; Rui; Li; Tian-Wu; Chen

    2015-01-01

    As one kind of infectious diseases of adrenal gland, adrenal tuberculosis can result in a life-threatening disorder which is called primary adrenal insufficiency(PAI) due to the destruction of adrenal cortex. Computed tomography(CT) and magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) play significant roles in the diagnosis of this etiology of PAI based on the CT and MRI appearances of the adrenal lesions. In this mini-review, we intend to study the CT and MRI features of adrenal tuberculosis, which could be helpful to both endocrinologist and radiologist to establish a definitive diagnosis for adrenal tuberculosis resulting in PAI.

  15. Bilateral adrenal myelolipoma in Cushing's disease: a relook into the role of corticotropin in adrenal tumourigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Partha Pratim; Bhattacharjee, Rana; Mukhopadhyay, Pradip; Chowdhury, Subhankar

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal myelolipomas are infrequently encountered benign tumours of unknown aetiology. In the majority of cases they are unilateral, and clinically and hormonally silent, only requiring periodic follow-up. However, bilateral adrenal myelolipomas are sometimes associated with endocrine disorders and warrant appropriate evaluation. Though the understanding of the pathophysiology of adrenal myelolipomas has long been elusive, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) has been proposed as the main tropic factor in a number of studies. Cushing's disease is rarely associated with bilateral and sometimes giant myelolipomas. In this article, the association of bilateral adrenal myelolipomas with Cushing's disease has been discussed and the role of ACTH in the tumourigenesis has been reviewed.

  16. Bilateral adrenal myelolipoma in Cushing's disease: a relook into the role of corticotropin in adrenal tumourigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Partha Pratim; Bhattacharjee, Rana; Mukhopadhyay, Pradip; Chowdhury, Subhankar

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal myelolipomas are infrequently encountered benign tumours of unknown aetiology. In the majority of cases they are unilateral, and clinically and hormonally silent, only requiring periodic follow-up. However, bilateral adrenal myelolipomas are sometimes associated with endocrine disorders and warrant appropriate evaluation. Though the understanding of the pathophysiology of adrenal myelolipomas has long been elusive, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) has been proposed as the main tropic factor in a number of studies. Cushing's disease is rarely associated with bilateral and sometimes giant myelolipomas. In this article, the association of bilateral adrenal myelolipomas with Cushing's disease has been discussed and the role of ACTH in the tumourigenesis has been reviewed. PMID:27307426

  17. Symptomatic Adrenal Insufficiency due to Bilateral Adrenal Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şafak Akın

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Secondary involvement of the adrenal gland with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma has been reported to occur in up to 25% of patients during the course of the disease. A 45-year-old man presented with a several month history of nausea, fatigue and weight loss. His medical history was unremarkable. Abdominal computed tomography (CT was performed and showed bilateral adrenal massive masses measuring 10x7.5 cm on the left and 4.8x4 cm on the right. He developed adrenal insufficiency in the follow-up period. The patient was started on replacement dose of prednisolone. A positron emission tomography-CT scan was acquired for further staging of the disease and showed intense fluorodeoxyglucose accumulation in both adrenal glands, additionally a slight fluorodeoxyglucose accumulation was observed in the ileocecal site. He did not accept adrenal biopsy or surgery. Histopathological examination of the ileocecal site revealed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. He was administered rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone chemotherapy. Bilateral adrenal lymphoma is a rare entity when compared with the incidence of adenoma and adrenal metastases of other cancers. Adrenal insufficiency may be the primary symptom of presentation, especially with bilateral involvement as in bilateral adrenal lymphoma.

  18. Immunologic, hemodynamic, and adrenal incompetence in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risør, Louise Madeleine; Bendtsen, Flemming; Møller, Søren

    2015-01-01

    dysfunction, but is not responsive to volume expansion. Recent research indicates that development of hepatic nephropathy represents a continuous spectrum of functional and structural dysfunction and may be precipitated by the inherent immunologic, adrenal, and hemodynamic incompetence in cirrhosis. New...... research explores several new markers of renal dysfunction that may replace serum creatinine in the future and give new insight on the hepatic nephropathy. Our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms causing the immunologic, adrenal, and hemodynamic incompetence, and the impact on renal...

  19. Chronic Heroin Dependence Leading to Adrenal Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Opioids have been the mainstay for pain relief and palliation over a long period of time. They are commonly abused by drug addicts and such dependence usually imparts severe physiologic effects on multiple organ systems. The negative impact of opioids on the endocrine system is poorly understood and often underestimated. We describe a patient who developed severe suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA axis leading to secondary adrenal insufficiency due to long standing abuse of opioids.

  20. Hormonal activity in clinically silent adrenal incidentalomas

    OpenAIRE

    Babińska, Anna; Siekierska-Hellmann, Małgorzata; Błaut, Krzysztof; Lewczuk, Anna; Wiśniewski, Piotr; Gnacińska, Maria; Obołończyk, Łukasz; Świątkowska-Stodulska, Renata; Sworczak, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The rapid development of modern imaging techniques, has led to an increase in accidentally discovered adrenal masses without clinically apparent hormonal abnormalities. Such tumours have been termed “incidentalomas”. The diagnostic work-up in patients with adrenal incidentalomas is aimed at the determination of hormonal activity of the tumour and identification of patients with potentially malignant tumours. The aim of our study was a retrospective analysis of selected clinical c...

  1. Ultrasound diagnosis of adrenal hemorrhage in meningococcemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarnaik, A.P.; Sanfilippo, D.J.K.; Slovis, T.L.

    1988-07-01

    Adrenal hemorrhage (AH) is a well-described complication of the neonatal period, anticoagulant therapy, and overwhelming bacterial infection especially with N. meningitis. Until recently the diagnosis of acute AH was based predominantly on autopsy findings. Ultrasound and computed tomography examinations have been successfully used for antemortem detection of AH in neonates and anticoagulated patients. We report two patients with fulminant meningococcal infection who demonstrated bilateral adrenal hemorrhages on ultrasonography.

  2. Giant Adrenal Myelolipoma Masquerading as Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parijat S. Joy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal myelolipomas are rare benign tumors of the adrenal cortex composed of adipose and hematopoietic cells. They have been postulated to arise from repeated stimulation by stress, inflammation and ACTH oversecretion. Myelolipomas are usually detected incidentally on imaging and do not require any active intervention besides regular follow-up by imaging. However, myelolipomas may insidiously grow to large sizes and cause mass effects and hemorrhage. Timely diagnosis and surgical resection are curative and lifesaving.

  3. An in vivo OctreoScan-negative adrenal pheochromocytoma expresses somatostatin receptors and responds to somatostatin analogs treatment in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatelli, M C; Piccin, D; Bondanelli, M; Tagliati, F; De Carlo, E; Culler, M D; Uberti, E C degli

    2003-06-01

    A 52-yr-old woman presented with hypertension, elevated urinary vanillylmandelic acid, metanephrines, normetanephrines, and plasma chromogranin A (CgA), but normal urinary catecholamine levels. Abdominal ultrasonography and subsequent MRI imaging showed a 3 cm nodular lesion of the right adrenal gland also visualized by 123I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy consistent with a pheochromocytoma (PC). Her OctreoScan was negative. The patient underwent right adrenalectomy and histological examination showed a PC. The adrenal medulla tissue was examined for somatostatin (SRIH) receptor subtypes 1 to 5 (SSTR1 to 5) expression by RT-PCR. Cultured tumor cells were treated with either SRIH, Lanreotide (Lan), or an SSTR2 (BIM-23 120) or SSTR5 (BIM-23 206) selective agonist. CgA secretion was measured in the medium by ELISA and catecholamine levels by HPLC after 6h. Cell viability was assessed after 48h. RT-PCR analysis showed that SSTR1, 2, 3 and 4 were expressed. CgA secretion was significantly reduced by SRIH (- 80 %), Lan (- 35 %), and the SSTR2 selective agonist (- 65 %). Norepinephrine secretion was reduced by SRIH (- 66 %), Lan (- 40 %), and BIM-23 120 (- 70 %). Epinephrine and dopamine secretion was also inhibited by treatment with SRIH (- 90 % and - 93 %, respectively) and BIM-23 120 (- 33 % and - 75 %, respectively) but not by Lan. Cell viability was also significantly reduced by SRIH (- 30 %), Lan (- 10 %), and the SSTR2 selective agonist (- 20 %). The SSTR5 selective agonist did not modify either CgA and catecholamine secretion or cell viability. Our data show that SSTRs may be present in a PC although OctreoScan is negative in vivo, and that SRIH and its analogs may reduce both differentiated and proliferative functions in chromaffin cells in vitro. These findings suggest that SRIH analogs with enhanced SSTR2 affinity might be useful in the medical therapy of PC, even when an OctreoScan is negative. PMID:12920656

  4. Idiopathic Adrenal Hematoma Masquerading as Neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Sasaki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We report herein a case of idiopathic adrenal hematoma. A 59-year-old Japanese man was referred to our hospital for evaluation of a 7.0 cm mass in the right upper abdominal cavity. The tumor was suspected to originate from either the posterior segment of the liver or the right adrenal gland. His chief complaint was weight loss of 8 kg over the previous 6 months. He had no past medical history and took no medications, including no anticoagulants. Laboratory data were almost normal except for a slight elevation of PIVKA-II. The origin of the tumor was found to be the adrenal gland, as angiography revealed the blood supply to the mass to derive from the right superior and inferior adrenal arteries. A fine needle biopsy of the lesion was unable to confirm the diagnosis. Open right adrenalectomy was performed. The histopathological findings of the surgical specimen revealed a hematoma with normal adrenal tissue. In the absence of any obvious etiology, the diagnosis was idiopathic adrenal hematoma.

  5. Dopamine receptor expression and function in human normal adrenal gland and adrenal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivonello, Rosario; Ferone, Diego; de Herder, Wouter W; de Krijger, Ronald R; Waaijers, Marlijn; Mooij, Diana M; van Koetsveld, Peter M; Barreca, Antonina; De Caro, Maria Laura del Basso; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria; Lamberts, Steven W J; Hofland, Leo J

    2004-09-01

    Dopamine is known to play a role in the modulation of aldosterone and catecholamine secretion from the adrenal gland, where dopamine receptors (DR), in particular the DR type 2 (D(2)), have been found to be expressed. DR expression has also been demonstrated in some types of benign adrenal tumors. The aims of the current study were to evaluate DR expression and D(2) localization in the normal adrenal gland and in different types of benign and malignant adrenal tumors, as well as to evaluate the in vitro effects of the dopamine agonists bromocriptine and cabergoline on hormone secretion in nontumoral adrenal cells. Adrenal tissues from 25 patients, subjected to adrenal surgery for different diseases, were studied. These included three normal adrenals; five adrenal hyperplasias; four aldosterone-secreting, two cortisol-secreting, and two clinically nonfunctioning adrenal adenomas; two aldosterone-secreting, two cortisol-secreting, and two androgen-secreting adrenal carcinomas; and three pheochromocytomas. In all tissues, DR and D(2) isoform (D(2long) and D(2short)) expression was evaluated by RT-PCR. D(2) localization was also evaluated by immunohistochemistry using a specific polyclonal antibody, whereas D(2)-like receptor expression was evaluated by receptor-ligand binding study, using the radiolabeled D(2) analog (125)I-epidepride. The effects of bromocriptine and cabergoline on baseline and ACTH and/or angiotensin II-stimulated aldosterone, cortisol, and androstenedione secretion were evaluated in cell cultures derived from five different adrenal hyperplasia. At RT-PCR, both D(1)-like and D(2)-like receptors were expressed in all normal and hyperplastic adrenals. D(2) and D(4) were expressed in aldosterone- and cortisol-secreting adenomas, cortisol-secreting carcinomas, and clinically nonfunctioning adenomas, whereas no DR was expressed in aldosterone- and androgen-secreting carcinomas. D(2), D(4), and D(5) were expressed in pheochromocytomas. In all D(2

  6. Ovarian adrenal rest tissue in congenital adrenal hyperplasia--a patient report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claahsen-van der Grinten, H.L.; Hulsbergen- van de Kaa, C.A.; Otten, B.J.

    2006-01-01

    We report a young girl who died in an Addisonian crisis due to previously undiagnosed congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), in whom ovarian adrenal rest tissue was detected at postmortem histopathological examination. This is a very rare complication in female patients with CAH with only two previou

  7. The agonistic adrenal: melatonin elicits female aggression via regulation of adrenal androgens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon, Nikki M; Rudolph, Lauren M; Sengelaub, Dale R; Demas, Gregory E

    2015-11-22

    Classic findings have demonstrated an important role for sex steroids as regulators of aggression, but this relationship is lacking within some environmental contexts. In mammals and birds, the adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a non-gonadal precursor of biologically active steroids, has been linked to aggression. Although females, like males, use aggression when competing for limited resources, the mechanisms underlying female aggression remain understudied. Here, we propose a previously undescribed endocrine mechanism regulating female aggression via direct action of the pineal hormone melatonin on adrenal androgens. We examined this in a solitary hamster species, Phodopus sungorus, in which both sexes are highly territorial across the seasons, and display increased aggression concomitant with decreased serum levels of sex steroids in short 'winter-like' days. Short- but not long-day females had increased adrenal DHEA responsiveness co-occurring with morphological changes in the adrenal gland. Further, serum DHEA and total adrenal DHEA content were elevated in short days. Lastly, melatonin increased DHEA and aggression and stimulated DHEA release from cultured adrenals. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that DHEA is a key peripheral regulator of aggression and that melatonin coordinates a 'seasonal switch' from gonadal to adrenal regulation of aggression by direct action on the adrenal glands.

  8. [Adrenal insufficiency in cirrhotic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Federico; Anders, María; Mella, José; Antinucci, Florencia; Pagano, Patricia; Esteban, Paula; Cartier, Mariano; Romero, Gustavo; Francini, Bettina; Mastai, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Relative adrenal insufficiency (RAI) is a common finding in cirrhotic patients with severe sepsis, and increased mortality. Its significance is unknown in stable conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of RAI in stable cirrhotic patients at different stages of the disease. Also, the impact of RAI on the survival was evaluated and basal cortisol levels between plasma and saliva was correlated in control subjects and cirrhotic patients. Forty seven ambulatory patients and 16 control subjects were studied. RAI was defined as a serum cortisol increase of less than 9 υg/dl from baseline after the stimulation with 250 mg of synthetic ACTH. Twenty two had Child-Pugh = 8 and 25 = 9. The prevalence of RAI in patients with stable cirrhosis was 22%. A higher incidence of RAI was observed in patients with a Child-Pugh = 9 (8/32) than in those with = 8 (3/13, p developed this complication (79% and 51%, p < 0.05, respectively). In summary, the prevalence of RAI is frequent in patients with stable cirrhosis and that it is related to the severity of liver diseaseand increased mortality. PMID:27576278

  9. Benign adrenal hemangiomas may mimic metastases on PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calata, Jed F; Sukerkar, Arun N; August, Carey Z; Maker, Ajay V

    2013-11-01

    CT or MRI are utilized in the initial evaluation of adrenal incidentalomas; however, overlap exists between benign and malignant lesions on these examinations. The American College of Radiology recommends PET scans to complement CT and MRI for patients with adrenal masses and a moderate-to-high likelihood of neoplastic disease. We present images of a PET-avid adrenal lesion in a patient with pulmonary and pancreatic neoplasms that mimicked metastasis, but was found to be a benign adrenal hemangioma on surgical resection. The use of PET for adrenal tumors, specifically adrenal hemangiomas, will be reviewed. PMID:24089061

  10. Diagnosis of adrenal tumors with radionuclide imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beierwaltes, W.H.; Sisson, J.C.; Shapiro, B.

    1984-01-01

    The development of radiolabeled cholesterols in 1969 as precursors of adrenocortical steroid production allowed the first noninvasive imaging of the adrenal cortices. FDA-NDA approval in 1984 should allow routine use of these agents in most hospitals. NP-59 is most commonly used in the diagnosis and management of Cushing syndrome; the second most common use is in the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism. It is also helpful in the differential diagnosis of adrenal and ovarian hyperandrogenism and hirsutism, and is the only noninvasive method of detecting unilateral adrenocortical hypofunction. The newest and most popular use is in the differential diagnosis of asymptomatic masses in the region of the adrenal gland discovered incidentally with CT scan (incidentalomas). In this situation, the NP-59 scan can define whether the tumor is in the adrenal gland and if it is functional or nonfunctional. The authors believe that, in the future, radiolabeled enzyme inhibitors might offer better diagnostic imaging of the adrenal cortex, although these agents will probably not be available for routine use for some time. The development of a radioiodinated guanethidine analog, /sup 131/I-MIBG, has allowed differentiation of normal adrenal medullary function from bilateral adrenal medullary hyperplasia before the development of hypertension or tachycardia, diagnostic increases in plasma or urinary catecholamines, or abnormal CT scans. The search for a pheochromocytoma should begin with /sup 131/I-MIBG scintigraphy. While over 90% of primary pheochromocytomas occur in the abdomen, neither a survey of the abdomen nor the finding of a single tumor should conclude the search.

  11. 78 FR 72979 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... risks of other livestock diseases, such as bovine viral diarrhea, foot-and-mouth disease, infectious... Products Derived from Bovines,'' published in the Federal Register on September 18, 2007 (72 FR 53314-53379... 92, 93, 94, et al. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine...

  12. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro;

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined...... differential scanning calorimetry revealed a slightly higher thermal stability of camel chymosin compared with bovine chymosin. The crystal structure of a doubly glycosylated variant of camel chymosin was determined at a resolution of 1.6 Å and the crystal structure of unglycosylated bovine chymosin...

  13. Contribution of SK and BK channels in the control of catecholamine release by electrical stimulation of the cat adrenal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, C; López, M G; Sánchez-García, P; Maroto, R; Zapater, P; García, A G

    1995-01-01

    1. Transmural electrical stimulation (10 Hz, 1 ms, 40 V for 10 s) of cat adrenal glands perfused at room temperature with Krebs-Hepes solution produced catecholamine secretory responses which were reproducible when stimulations were applied at 5 min intervals. Such responses were inhibited about 20% by atropine (1 microM) and 80% by hexamethonium (30 microM). Apamin (100 nM) increased the secretory response 2.5-fold in the presence of atropine and 8-fold in the presence of hexamethonium. 2. Potentiation by apamin of secretory responses evoked by 100-pulse trains was similar at 5, 10 and 20 Hz (about 2-fold). When glands were continuously stimulated at 3 Hz, apamin increased 4-fold the initial secretion plateau. Continuous stimulation at a higher frequency (20 Hz) produced a sharp secretory peak followed by a small, sustained plateau; apamin did not alter this plateau. Apamin also enhanced the secretory responses obtained with sustained stimulation with acetylcholine (10 or 200 microM). 3. Secretion peaks induced by brief acetylcholine pulses (10 microM for 10 s) applied to isolated and superfused cat adrenal chromaffin cells were enhanced more than 3-fold by 100 nM apamin. Charybdotoxin (10 nM) did not enhance these secretory peaks. 4. In perfused cat adrenal glands, charybdotoxin (10 nM) affected neither the secretion evoked by trains of electrical stimulation applied at different frequencies nor the secretion evoked by acetylcholine pulses. 5. In 0.5 mM [Ca2+]o, apamin enhanced 3-fold the secretion evoked by electrical stimulation trains of 100 pulses (10 Hz, 10 s) and almost 6-fold the acetylcholine (10 microM for 10 s)-induced secretion. In 5 mM Ca2+, apamin enhanced the secretory responses to electrical stimulation and acetylcholine 2- and 10-fold, respectively. Charybdotoxin enhanced 2.5-fold the secretory response to electrical stimulation in 0.5 mM Ca2+, although this effect was not statistically significant. A synergistic interaction between the two toxins

  14. Contribution of SK and BK channels in the control of catecholamine release by electrical stimulation of the cat adrenal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, C; López, M G; Sánchez-García, P; Maroto, R; Zapater, P; García, A G

    1995-07-15

    1. Transmural electrical stimulation (10 Hz, 1 ms, 40 V for 10 s) of cat adrenal glands perfused at room temperature with Krebs-Hepes solution produced catecholamine secretory responses which were reproducible when stimulations were applied at 5 min intervals. Such responses were inhibited about 20% by atropine (1 microM) and 80% by hexamethonium (30 microM). Apamin (100 nM) increased the secretory response 2.5-fold in the presence of atropine and 8-fold in the presence of hexamethonium. 2. Potentiation by apamin of secretory responses evoked by 100-pulse trains was similar at 5, 10 and 20 Hz (about 2-fold). When glands were continuously stimulated at 3 Hz, apamin increased 4-fold the initial secretion plateau. Continuous stimulation at a higher frequency (20 Hz) produced a sharp secretory peak followed by a small, sustained plateau; apamin did not alter this plateau. Apamin also enhanced the secretory responses obtained with sustained stimulation with acetylcholine (10 or 200 microM). 3. Secretion peaks induced by brief acetylcholine pulses (10 microM for 10 s) applied to isolated and superfused cat adrenal chromaffin cells were enhanced more than 3-fold by 100 nM apamin. Charybdotoxin (10 nM) did not enhance these secretory peaks. 4. In perfused cat adrenal glands, charybdotoxin (10 nM) affected neither the secretion evoked by trains of electrical stimulation applied at different frequencies nor the secretion evoked by acetylcholine pulses. 5. In 0.5 mM [Ca2+]o, apamin enhanced 3-fold the secretion evoked by electrical stimulation trains of 100 pulses (10 Hz, 10 s) and almost 6-fold the acetylcholine (10 microM for 10 s)-induced secretion. In 5 mM Ca2+, apamin enhanced the secretory responses to electrical stimulation and acetylcholine 2- and 10-fold, respectively. Charybdotoxin enhanced 2.5-fold the secretory response to electrical stimulation in 0.5 mM Ca2+, although this effect was not statistically significant. A synergistic interaction between the two toxins

  15. Unusual presentation of oesophageal carcinoma with adrenal metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrenal gland is a common site of metastasis in many cancers but it is very rare in oesophageal carcinoma. We report one such case found to have adrenal metastasis on follow-up PET/computed tomography scan

  16. Adrenal hypoplasia congenita: a rare cause of primary adrenal insufficiency and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Loureiro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Primary adrenal insufficiency is defined by the impaired synthesis of adrenocortical hormones due to an intrinsic disease of the adrenal cortex. Determining its etiology is crucial to allow adequate long-term management and genetic counseling. We report the case of a male adolescent that presented in the neonatal period with adrenal crisis and received replacement therapy for primary adrenal insufficiency. During follow-up, adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC was suspected given his persistently raised adrenocorticotropic hormone levels, with markedly low 17-OH progesterone and androstenedione levels. DNA sequence analysis revealed a mutation in NR0B1 gene (c.1292delG, confirming the diagnosis. Delayed puberty and persistent low levels of gonadotropins led to testosterone replacement therapy. X-linked AHC is a rare cause of primary adrenal insufficiency and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, related to mutations in NR0B1 gene. Despite its rarity, AHC should be considered in patients who present with primary adrenal failure, low levels of 17-OH progesterone and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

  17. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing...

  18. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule...

  19. Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage in polycythemia vera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Shruti; Agito, Katrina; Krug, Esther I

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage (BAH) is a rare complication typically seen in critically ill patients, which can lead to acute adrenal insufficiency and death unless it is recognized promptly and treated appropriately. We describe the case of a 64-year-old man with polycythemia vera found to be unresponsive with fever, hypotension, tachycardia, and hypoglycemia. Electrocardiogram showed ST-elevation with elevated troponin, hemoglobin, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time. He required aggressive ventilator and vasopressor support. Despite primary coronary intervention, he remained hypotensive. Random cortisol level was low. He received stress dose hydrocortisone with immediate hemodynamic stability. BAH was highly suspected and was confirmed by non-contrast abdominal computed tomography. Prompt recognition and timely initiated treatment remain crucial to impact the mortality associated with acute adrenal insufficiency. PMID:27609733

  20. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Herr

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or "incidentaloma", has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of malignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed.

  1. Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage in polycythemia vera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Bhandari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage (BAH is a rare complication typically seen in critically ill patients, which can lead to acute adrenal insufficiency and death unless it is recognized promptly and treated appropriately. We describe the case of a 64-year-old man with polycythemia vera found to be unresponsive with fever, hypotension, tachycardia, and hypoglycemia. Electrocardiogram showed ST-elevation with elevated troponin, hemoglobin, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time. He required aggressive ventilator and vasopressor support. Despite primary coronary intervention, he remained hypotensive. Random cortisol level was low. He received stress dose hydrocortisone with immediate hemodynamic stability. BAH was highly suspected and was confirmed by non-contrast abdominal computed tomography. Prompt recognition and timely initiated treatment remain crucial to impact the mortality associated with acute adrenal insufficiency.

  2. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Keith [Department of Radiology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Muglia, Valdair F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Koff, Walter Jose [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Cirurgia; Westphalen, Antonio Carlos, E-mail: antonio.westphalen@ucsf.edu [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging and Urology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or 'incidentaloma', has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of m alignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed. (author)

  3. Spontaneous Idiopathic Unilateral Adrenal Haemorrhage (SIAH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Syed Ali; Zaman, Shamas; Ahmed, Irfan

    2015-04-01

    Spontaneous Idiopathic Adrenal Haemorrhage (SIAH) is an unusual surgical emergency which can present with life threatening massive retroperitoneal bleeding. Most of the cases reported in the literature are associated with use of anticoagulation or underlying adrenal pathology such as tumors or cysts. Since this clinical entity is uncommon and clinical presentation is very indistinct, the diagnosis can be easily missed and can be challenging for the treating physicians. Nevertheless a raised clinical suspicion coupled with advances in radiological imaging have considerably improved the detection of SIAH in recent times. We report an unusual case of a 20 years old healthy female student who presented to our hospital with sudden onset of abdominal pain and shock. She was diagnosed as a case of massive spontaneous idiopathic unilateral adrenal haemorrhage, unaccompanied by any hematologic disorder, trauma or underlying pathology. Although patient was hemodynamically unstable at presentation, she was resuscitated promptly, investigated appropriately, hence recovered uneventfully with conservative management alone.

  4. Experimental infection of eastern cottontail rabbits Sylvilagus floridanus) with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, H W; Reed, D E

    1979-09-01

    Experimental infection of eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus caused acute keratoconjunctivitis and a fatal systemic infection. The clinical syndrome was characterized initially by blepharospasm and ocular discharge. The rabbits were markedly depressed on post-exposure day (PED) 5 and were dead or moribund on PED 6. The virus was readily recovered from liver and adrenal gland tissue on PED 6 and from conjunctival swabs on PED 1 to 6. Histopathologic studies revealed a few necrotic foci in the liver and multiple focal to diffuse necrosis of the adrenal glands. Viral isolation and immunofluorescence tests were used to demonstrate a direct association between infectious bovine rhinotracheitis viral antigens and the lesions. PMID:230773

  5. Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage and primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage is an uncommon entity that is difficult to diagnose given the ambiquity of the clinical signs. Computerized tomography plays a major role in the diagnosis, disclosing enlarged adrenal glands presenting the hyperdense aspect that characterizes this disorders. We present a case of bilateral adrenal hemoorrhage in a patient diagnosed as having primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, which is a less common cause of adrenal hemorrhage than those classically reported, such as anticoagulant therapy, sepsis, shock and abdominal injury. (Author) 8 refs

  6. NonClassic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azziz Ricardo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH due to P450c21 (21-hydroxylase deficiency is a common autosomal recessive disorder. This disorder is due to mutations in the CYP21A2 gene which is located at chromosome 6p21. The clinical features predominantly reflect androgen excess rather than adrenal insufficiency leading to an ascertainment bias favoring diagnosis in females. Treatment goals include normal linear growth velocity and "on-time" puberty in affected children. For adolescent and adult women, treatment goals include regularization of menses, prevention of progression of hirsutism, and fertility. This paper will review key aspects regarding pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of NCAH.

  7. Brain serotonin and pituitary-adrenal functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Berger, P.; Barchas, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    It had been concluded by Scapagnini et al. (1971) that brain serotonin (5-HT) was involved in the regulation of the diurnal rhythm of the pituitary-adrenal system but not in the stress response. A study was conducted to investigate these findings further by evaluating the effects of altering brain 5-HT levels on the daily fluctuation of plasma corticosterone and on the response of the pituitary-adrenal system to a stressful or noxious stimulus in the rat. In a number of experiments brain 5-HT synthesis was inhibited with parachlorophenylalanine. In other tests it was tried to raise the level of brain 5-HT with precursors.

  8. A success story in congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriplani, Alka; Lunkad, Amol; Agarwal, Nutan; Kulshreshtha, Bindu; Ariachery, C Aminni

    2012-12-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of autosomal recessive disorders characterized by enzyme defects in adrenal steroidogenic pathways. CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency accounts for 95 % of cases. This case was diagnosed to have simple virilizing type of CAH and started on dexamethasone, and underwent genitoplasty and clitoroplasty at 25 years of age, then was married 3 years after surgery and conceived spontaneously 2 years after marriage, to deliver a healthy male baby. Thus, proper diagnosis and treatment with steroids and genitoplasty can give females with CAH a normal sexual, normal menstrual, and reproductive function.

  9. A case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma primary arising in both adrenal glands associated with adrenal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiuchi, Takamasa; Imachi, Hitomi; Fujiwara, Mako; Murao, Koji; Onishi, Hiroaki; Kiguchi, Tohru; Takimoto, Hidetaka; Kushida, Yoshio; Haba, Reiji; Ishida, Toshihiko

    2009-02-01

    It is known that adrenal insufficiency is one of the complications in primary adrenal lymphoma, especially those with bilateral adrenal involvement. A 73-year-old man was referred for general fatigue and high fever to the nearest hospital. The patient was transferred to our hospital for evaluation of bilateral adrenal tumors and hyponatremia. He was diagnosed as having non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) with primaries arising in both adrenal glands. Primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL) is a rare extra-nodal NHL. Although an appropriate treatment of this disease has not been established, our case has demonstrated that the combination of rituximab and THP-COP chemotherapy could be administered, and that it improved clinical manifestations. This case raises the suggestion that malignant lymphoma should be suspected in patients with bilateral adrenal tumors that present with progressive adrenal insufficiency.

  10. Radiological findings of congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Jeong; Shin, Joo Yong; Lee, Hee Jung; Lee, Jin Hee; Sohn, Cheol Ho; Lee, Sung Moon; Kim, Hong; Woo, Seong Ku; Suh, Soo Ji [Keimyung Univ. School of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-05-01

    Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (CLAH) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the marked accumulation of lipids and cholesterol in the adrenal cortex, and the failure of adrenal steroids to synthesise. We report the ultrasound (US), computed tomographic (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings in a four-day-old female neonate with CLAH.

  11. Unlocking the bovine genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The draft genome sequence of cattle (Bos taurus) has now been analyzed by the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium and the Bovine HapMap Consortium, which together represent an extensive collaboration involving more than 300 scientists from 25 different countries. ...

  12. Ultrasound follow up of testicular adrenal rest tumors with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Report of three cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jeong Yeon; Kim, Dong Won; Yoon, Seong Kuk; Nam, Kyung Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Dong-A University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    While testicular adrenal rest tumor is generally a rare intratesticular tumor, it is frequent in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The tumors are diagnosed and followed up by ultrasound examination because these tumors are non-palpable and symptomless in most cases and always benign. Ultrasound imaging features change depending on how congenital adrenal hyperplasia is controlled. We herein report three cases of testicular adrenal rest tumors with different usual and unusual imaging findings and follow-up imaging. Patient 1 was a 14-year-old boy who presented with poor compliance to medication. Patient 2 and 3 were a 10-year-old and 13-year-old boy who presented with precocious puberty and short stature, respectively. Ultrasound examinations demonstrated oval hypoechoic masses and irregular speculated hyperechoic masses in the testes and different serial imaging findings.

  13. CT manifestations of adrenal trauma: experience with 73 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinelnikov, Alex O; Abujudeh, Hani H; Chan, David; Novelline, Robert A

    2007-03-01

    Adrenal injuries, although an uncommon consequence of abdominal trauma, are important to recognize. If bilateral, adrenal trauma could result in life-threatening adrenal insufficiency. Furthermore, in the setting of trauma, adrenal injury can point to other concomitant injuries and has been associated with overall increased morbidity and mortality. In the past, before the advent of computed tomography (CT), detection was difficult, and the diagnosis was often made only at surgery or postmortem. Today, the diagnosis of adrenal injuries can be quickly and accurately made with CT. This retrospective review was carried out to identify, describe, and analyze different CT appearances of adrenal injuries and correlated with associated injuries and observed clinical context and outcomes. A patient cohort of CT-detected adrenal injuries was identified through a radiology software research tool by searching for keywords in radiology reports. The identified CT scans were reviewed and correlated with the patients' available clinical chart data and follow-up. Between April 1995 and October 2004, 73 cases of CT-detected adrenal injuries were identified, including 48 men and 25 women, with an age range 6 to 90 years and a mean age of 42.7 years. Of the cases, 77% were right-sided, 15% were left-sided, and 8% were bilateral. The causes of injuries were motor vehicle collisions (75%), falls (14%), sports related (4%), and miscellaneous causes (7%). Associated trauma included injuries of the liver (43%), spleen (23%), lung (19%), and kidney (18%), as well as pneumothoraces/hemothoraces (22%). Skeletal injuries included fractures of the ribs, clavicles, and/or scapulae (39%), pelvis and hips (30%), and the spine (23%). Isolated adrenal trauma was seen in only 4% of the cases. The CT findings of adrenal trauma were focal hematoma (30%), indistinct (27%) or enlarged (18%) adrenal gland, gross (15%) or focal (7%) adrenal hemorrhage, and adrenal mass (11%). Associated CT findings

  14. Bilateral adrenal [corrected] nodules due to histoplasmosis in an elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Flávio Pedreira de Freitas de; Curiati, José Antônio Esper; Mauad, Thaís; Incerti, Milena Mendes; Jacob Filho, Wilson

    2007-02-01

    We report a case history of an 84-year-old elderly male patient that presented with a clinical picture suggestive of adrenal failure and bilateral adrenal nodules detected by abdominal computed tomography. A fine needle-guided biopsy was inconclusive for achieving a final diagnosis. The patient died due to septic shock and the autopsy disclosed histoplasmosis with extensive bilateral necrosis of the adrenal glands. Although the adrenal involvement in chronic disseminated histoplasmosis has been described, there have been few reports of the infection being associated with adrenal insufficiency.

  15. Adrenal incidentaloma in neurofibromatosis type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tančić-Gajić Milina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Neurofibromatosis type 1 is one of the most common genetically transmitted diseases with a high index of spontaneous mutations and extremely varied and unpredictable clinical manifestations. It is diagnosed by the existence of certain clinical criteria. The presence of numerous localised cutaneous neurofibromas or a plexiform neurofibroma is virtually pathognomonic of neurofibromatosis type 1. The incidence of pheochromocytoma in neurofibromatosis type 1 is 0.1-5.7%. CASE OUTLINE A 56-year old female patient was admitted for further evaluation of incidental adrenal tumour previously diagnosed on computerized tomography (CT. She had previously unrecognized neurofibromatosis type 1 and a clinical picture which could remind of pheochromocytoma. None of the catecholamine samples in 24 hr urine indicated functionally active pheochromocytoma. Chromogranin A was moderately increased. Decision for operation was made after performing the image techniques. Adrenal incidentaloma had features of pheochromocytoma on abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, with positive 131I-MIBG (iodine 131-labelled metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy. After being treated with phenoxybenzamine and propranolol, she was operated on. The pathohistological finding showed the case of left adrenal pheochromocytoma. CONCLUSION Detailed diagnostic procedure for pheochromocytoma should be performed with patients having neurofibromatosis type 1 and adrenal incidentaloma. Pheochromocytomas are rare tumours with fatal outcome if not duly recognized and cured.

  16. Adrenal Cushing's syndrome may resemble eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Makiko; Nakagami, Taku; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2014-01-01

    We encountered a patient who presented extreme weight loss and received an eating disorder diagnosis that was later identified as adrenal Cushing's syndrome. A 32-year-old woman with a 2-year history of an eating disorder was admitted to our psychiatric ward due to dehydration, malnutrition and low weight. Her height and body weight were 152.1 cm and 29.8 kg, respectively (body mass index: 12.8). Her other symptoms included a depressed mood, decreased interest, retardation and suicidal ideation. Standard medical cares were prescribed to treat the depressive symptoms and eating disorder, but the depressive episode and low body weight of the patient persisted. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed an unexpected left adrenal gland tumor. Cushing's syndrome was diagnosed based on several endocrinological examinations. After an enucleation of the left adrenal gland tumor, the patient began eating, and her body weight increased gradually. Her body weight increased to 42.0-47.0 kg (body mass index: 18.2-20.3). Her mental and physical conditions had stabilized. This case suggests that adrenal Cushing's syndrome may resemble eating disorders.

  17. Adrenal insufficiency in patients with decompensatedcirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal reserve depletion and overstimulation of thehypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are causesfor adrenal insufficiency (AI) in critically ill individuals.Cirrhosis is a predisposing condition for AI in cirrhotics aswell. Both stable cirrhotics and liver transplant patients(early and later after transplantation) have been reportedto present AI. The mechanisms leading to reducedcortisol production in cirrhotics are the combination oflow cholesterol levels (the primary source of cortisol), theincreased cytokines production that overstimulate andexhaust HPA axis and the destruction of adrenal glandsdue to coagulopathy. AI has been recorded in 10%-82%cirrhotics depending on the test used to evaluate adrenalfunction and in 9%-83% stable cirrhotics. The similarityof those proportions support the assumption that AI isan endogenous characteristic of liver disease. However,the lack of a gold standard method for AI assessmentand the limitation of precise thresholds in cirrhoticsmake difficult the recording of the real prevalence of AI.This review aims to summarize the present data overAI in stable, critically ill cirrhotics and liver transplantrecipients. Moreover, it provides information about thecurrent knowledge in the used diagnostic tools and thepossible effectiveness of corticosteroids administration incritically ill cirrhotics with AI.

  18. Adrenal Insufficiency - Aetiology, Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazma Akter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal insufficiency is caused by either primary adrenal failure or by hypothalamic-pituitary impairment of the corticotropic axis. Adrenal insufficiency, first codified in 1855 by Thomas Addison, remains relevant in 2014 because of its lethal nature. Though, it is a rare disease but is life threatening when overlooked. Main presenting symptoms such as fatigue, anorexia and weight loss are nonspecific, thus diagnosis is often delayed. The diagnostic work-up is well established but some pitfalls remain. The diagnosis is adequately established by the 250 μg ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test in most cases. Glucocorticoids provide life saving treatment but long-term quality of life is impaired, perhaps because therapy is not given in a physiologic way. Dehydroepiandrosterone-replacement therapy has been introduced that could help to restore quality of life. It may be useful in pubertal girls, but not in adults. Monitoring of glucocorticoid-replacement is difficult due to lack of objective methods of assessment and is therefore largely based on clinical grounds. Thus, long-term management of patients with adrenal insufficiency remains a challenge, requiring an experienced specialist.

  19. A case of congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Hashemipour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (lipoid CAH, a rare disorder of steroid biosynthesis, is the most severe form of CAH. In this disorder the synthesis of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and sex steroids is impaired which result in adrenal failure, severe salt wasting crisis and hyperpigmentation in phenotypical female infants irrespective of genetic sex. In this report, we presented a 28-day-old phenotypic female infant, which referred with lethargy, failure to thrive and electrolyte abnormalities. Considering the clinical and biochemical findings, lipoid CAH was diagnosed and replacement therapy with standard doses of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid and sodium chloride was initiated. During follow-up, she had good clinical condition, but at 6 years of age, she refers with hypertension and adrenal insufficiency because of arbitrary drug discontinuation by mother. In ultrasonography an abdominal mass (the testicles was reported. Chromosome study showed 46XY pattern. Orchiectomy was performed. We recommended that in cases with clinical presentation of adrenal insufficiency if there is not the facility to determine the karyotype, repeated ultrasonography perform during follow-up. In addition, investigating the genetic bases of the disorder would help us to determine the pathogenesis of lipoid CAH in our community. It would be helpful in prenatal diagnosis and treatment of the disorder to prevent its related comorbidities.

  20. Delay in Diagnosis of Adrenal Insufficiency Is a Frequent Cause of Adrenal Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Papierska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Delay of diagnosis of primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI leads to adrenal crisis which is potentially lethal complication. The objective of our work was an assessment whether the establishment of diagnosis of adrenocortical insufficiency in Poland is so much delayed as assessed in the past. We have analysed data from 60 patients with diagnosis of PAI established in our department during the past 12 years and who are still under our care. We found that the time to diagnosis of primary adrenal insufficiency in Poland exceeds 3 months in every patient and 6 months in patients admitted with symptoms of adrenal crisis. Forty-four percent of patients were diagnosed only just after the hospitalisation due to crisis, despite the evident signs and symptoms of PAI. Lack of appetite and loss of body weight occurred in all patients and for that reason a diagnosis of chronic gastric and duodenal ulcer disease was the most often incorrect diagnosis. After the proper diagnosis and treatment, in the course of 1–11 years of observation, there was only 6 imminent adrenal crises in 5 patients. Our results indicated that training of primary care physicians in the field of recognising and treatment of adrenal insufficiency is still essential.

  1. Mielolipoma adrenal bilateral em um cão Bilateral adrenal myelolipoma in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia de Araújo França

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente relato descreve um caso de mielolipoma adrenal bilateral em uma cadela Poodle de 13 anos de idade. O cão morreu por peritonite séptica aguda, decorrente de ulceração e perfuração intestinal por corpo estranho linear. O neoplasma foi achado incidentalmente durante a necropsia. Macroscopicamente, as adrenais estavam redondas e com volume e aumentados. Ao corte elas eram friáveis, vermelho-amarronzadas, intercaladas por áreas branco-amareladas levemente proeminentes. Histologicamente, extensas áreas do parênquima continham adipócitos bem diferenciados, células hematopoéticas e macrófagos com hemossiderina, achados característicos de mielolipoma adrenal.A case of bilateral adrenal myelolipoma in a 13-year-old female Poodle is reported. Acute septic peritonitis due to intestinal ulceration and perforation caused by a linear foreign body was the cause of death. The adrenal neoplasm was an incidental necropsy finding. The adrenal glands were grossly rounded, enlarged and friable, and had red-brownish parenchyma interwoven by slightly prominent white-yellowish foci. Histologically, the findings of differentiated adipocytes in large areas of the parenchyma, in association to hematopoietic cells and macrophages with hemosiderin were consistent with the diagnosis of adrenal myelolipoma.

  2. Computed tomography of the adrenals in patients with tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the adrenals of individuals without tuberculosis (group 1 - G1) and with tuberculosis (group 2 - G2) using computed tomography. The antero-posterior length, the thickness, and the longitudinal length of the adrenals were compared in G1 and G2. The duration of the disease, the occurrence of morphologic abnormalities in G2, the distribution according to sex, age and skin color were also studied. There was difference in the antero-posterior length and thickness of right adrenal between G1 and G2. A higher prevalence of white skin male individuals was observed in G2. There was no association between duration of the disease and the occurrence of morphologic abnormalities in G2. A higher occurrence of adrenal enlargement was observed in G2. The main computed tomography findings in patients with tuberculosis were enlargement of the adrenal without calcification, enlargement of the adrenal with punctiform calcifications, and residual calcification of the adrenal. (author)

  3. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown aetiol

  4. Allgrove Syndrome: Adrenal Insufficiency with Hypertensive Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftab, Sommayya; Manzoor, Jaida; Talat, Nabila; Khan, Hafiz Sajid; Subhanie, Maroof; Khalid, Nauman Abbas

    2016-09-01

    Allgrove syndrome or triple-Asyndrome is a rare familial multisystem autosomal recessive disorder. It is characterised by triad of alacrima, achalasia and adrenal insufficiency due to adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) resistance. If it is associated with autonomic dysfunction, it is termed as 4-Asyndrome. This syndrome is caused by a mutation in the Achalasia - Addisonism - Alacrima (AAAS) gene on chromosome 12q13 encoding the nuclear pore protein ALADIN. A5-year boy presented with history of fits and altered sensorium for one day. He also had increased pigmentation of body and persistent vomiting since six months of age. Laboratory investigations and imaging revealed alacrimia, achalasia and adrenal insufficiency due to ACTH resistance. He had episodes of hypertensive crises, for which he was thoroughly investigated and it was found to be due to autonomic instability. Based on clinical findings and investigations he was diagnosed as case of Allgrove syndrome or 4-Asyndrome with autonomic dysfunction. PMID:27671188

  5. Immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide and dopamine beta-hydroxylase in myocytes and chromaffin cells of the heart of the African lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, T H; Helle, K B; Saetersdal, T

    1994-07-01

    The heart of the African lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus, was examined for immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (D beta H) as markers for hormone secreting myocytes and chromaffin cells, respectively. Specific antibodies raised against rat alpha-ANP and rat D beta H were used for immunofluorescence microscopy and immunogold electron microscopy. D beta H-immunoreactive cells were restricted to subendocardial areas of the atrium whereas ANP immunoreactivity occurred throughout both the atrial and the ventricular myocardium, showing particularly strong staining intensity in the atrial myocytes. The granular ANP immunostaining in the atrial myocytes was frequently accumulated in the sarcoplasm. In the ventricular myocytes ANP immunoreactivity occurred as scattered granular staining throughout the sarcoplasm. ANP and D beta H immunofluorescence staining coincided with the presence of immunoreactive specific granules and secretory vesicles in the cardiac myocytes and chromaffin cells, respectively, as revealed by electron microscopy. The number of ANP-containing specific granules was generally high in the atrial myocytes, and they were frequently observed in clusters in subsarcolemmal areas. Granular frequency was considerably lower and the mean granular diameter was smaller (0.142 +/- 0.045 micron versus 0.213 +/- 0.049 micron) in the ventricular than in the atrial myocytes. The present results indicate that ANP and D beta H are phylogenetically highly conserved proteins from the dipnoi to the rat. The large amounts of ANP and of specific granules are consistent with an endocrine myocardium in the Protopterus heart. The presence of D beta H and secretory vesicles in the subendocardial chromaffin cells of the atrium suggests a local production of catecholamines from dopamine in the heart of this dipnoan. PMID:7926645

  6. Renal infarction associated with adrenal pheochromocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thewjitcharoen, Yotsapon; Atikankul, Taywin; Sunthornyothin, Sarat

    2013-09-01

    The coexistence of pheochromocytoma and renal artery stenosis had been reported occasionally from the possible mechanism of catecholoamine-induced vasospasm and extrinsic compression of renal artery in some reported cases. However, renal infarction caused by pheochromocytoma is an uncommon phenomenon. Herein, we report an interesting case of adrenal pheochromocytoma associated with renal artery thrombosis, which should be included in the differential diagnosis of pheochromocytoma patients who present with abdominal pain.

  7. Determination of adrenal volume by MRI in healthy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Annette; Johansen, Marie Lindhardt; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine;

    2014-01-01

    not measurable in 51% of children due to breathing and moving artefacts. The median volume of the right adrenal gland was 0.46 ml in girls and 0.46 ml in boys. The median volume of the left adrenal gland was 0.34 ml in girls and 0.40 ml in boys. Adrenal size was positively associated with body surface area......, to estimate adrenal size in healthy children and to evaluate determinants of adrenal volume such as age, gender, body size, pubic hair stage and serum levels of adrenal androgens. DESIGN: Two hundred and thirty-five healthy children (116 girls and 119 boys) (age range 10.0-14.8 years) were examined by MRI...

  8. Direct methods for dynamic monitoring of secretions from single cells by capillary electrophoresis and microscopy with laser-induced native fluorescence detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, W.

    1997-10-08

    Microscale separation and detection methods for real-time monitoring of dynamic cellular processes (e.g., secretion) by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and microscopic imaging were developed. Ultraviolet laser-induced native fluorescence (LINF) provides simple, sensitive and direct detection of neurotransmitters and proteins without any derivatization. An on-column CE-LINF protocol for quantification of the release from single cell was demonstrated. Quantitative measurements of both the amount of insulin released from and the amount remaining in the cell ({beta}TC3) were achieved simultaneously. Secretion of catecholamines (norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E)) from individual bovine adrenal chromaffin cells was determined using the on-column CE-LINF. Direct visualization of the secretion process of individual bovine adrenal chromaffin cells was achieved by LINF imaging microscopy with high temporal and spatial resolution. The secretion of serotonin from individual leech Retzius neurons was directly characterized by LINF microscopy with high spatial resolution.

  9. Correlation between catecholamine release and sodium pump inhibition in the perfused adrenal gland of the cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A.G.; Garcia-Lopez, E.; Montiel, C.; Nicolas, G.P.; Sanchez-Garcia, P.

    1981-01-01

    1 Ca2+ reintroduction to retrogradely perfused and ouabain (10-4 M)-treated cat adrenal glands caused a catecholamine secretory response which was greater the longer the time of exposure to the cardiac glycoside. Such a response was proportional to the external Na+ concentration [Na+]o. 2 A qualitatively similar, yet smaller response was observed when glands were perfused with Krebs solution lacking K+ ions; thus, K+ deprivation mimicked the secretory effects of ouabain. Catecholamine secretion evoked by Ca2+ reintroduction in K+-free solution (0-K+) was also proportional to [Na+]o and greater the longer the time of exposure of the gland to 0-K+ solution. 3 The ionophore X537A also mimicked the ouabain effects, since Ca2+ reintroduction to glands treated with this agent (25 μM) caused a sharp secretory response. When added together with X537A, ouabain (10-4 M) did not modify the response to the ionophore. 4 N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), another Na+, K+-ATPase inhibitor, did not evoke the release of catecholamines; on the contrary, NEM (10-4 M) inhibited the catecholamine secretory response to high [K+]o, acetylcholine, Ca2+ reintroduction and ouabain. 5 Ouabain (10-4 M) inhibited the uptake of 86Rb into adreno-medullary tissue by 60%. Maximal inhibition had already occurred 2 min after adding the drug, indicating a lack of temporal correlation between ATPase inhibition and the ouabain secretory response, which took longer (about 30-40 min) to reach its peak. NEM (10-4 M) blocked 86Rb uptake in a similar manner. 6 The results are further evidence in favour of the presence of a Na+-Ca2+ exchange system in the chromaffin cell membrane, probably involved in the control of [Ca2+]i and in the modulation of catecholamine secretion. This system is activated by increasing [Na+]i, either directly (ionophore X537A, increased [Na+]o) or indirectly (Na+ pump inhibition). However, the simple inhibition of Na+ pumping does not always lead to a catecholamine secretory response; such is

  10. Differentiation of adrenal tumors in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: Adrenal adenoma versus metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate whether computed tomography (CT) attenuation test for differential diagnosis of adrenal nodule is applicable in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) which shows similar image characteristics to adrenal adenoma. Materials and methods: This retrospective study was approved by our institutional review board, and the requirement for informed consent from study patients was waived. Searching picture archiving and communication system, we identified 3678 patients with HCC who underwent upper abdominal unenhanced CT scans between April 2002 and March 2010, and 114 adrenal nodules (39 adenomas and 75 metastases) were included for analysis. Ten nodules were confirmed pathologically while 104 had imaging diagnosis (enlarged or emerged during the study period). Size, CT number, and the internal characteristics of the lesions were recorded. Results: Mean CT numbers of adrenal adenomas were significantly lower than those of metastases (P < 0.0001, t-test) on unenhanced CT. Thresholds of 17 and 33 Hounsfield units (HU) provided the following sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy: 46.2%, 100%, and 81.6% at 17 HU, and 94.9%, 89.3%, and 91.2% at 33 HU, respectively. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve for the CT number test was 0.96. Metastases were significantly larger than adrenal adenoma (P = 0.009, t-test). However, the accuracy of testing using mass size was 64.0% at most. All adenomas and metastases were depicted as homogeneous masses with the exception of two metastases that presented as heterogeneous masses (necrotic or lipomatous). Conclusion: Adrenal adenomas can be differentiated from HCC metastases using CT number on unenhanced CT

  11. Differentiation of adrenal tumors in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: Adrenal adenoma versus metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasaka, Koichiro, E-mail: koyasaka@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Gonoi, Wataru; Akai, Hiroyuki; Katsura, Masaki; Akahane, Masaaki [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Kiryu, Shigeru [Department of Radiology, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Ohtomo, Kuni [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Objective: To investigate whether computed tomography (CT) attenuation test for differential diagnosis of adrenal nodule is applicable in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) which shows similar image characteristics to adrenal adenoma. Materials and methods: This retrospective study was approved by our institutional review board, and the requirement for informed consent from study patients was waived. Searching picture archiving and communication system, we identified 3678 patients with HCC who underwent upper abdominal unenhanced CT scans between April 2002 and March 2010, and 114 adrenal nodules (39 adenomas and 75 metastases) were included for analysis. Ten nodules were confirmed pathologically while 104 had imaging diagnosis (enlarged or emerged during the study period). Size, CT number, and the internal characteristics of the lesions were recorded. Results: Mean CT numbers of adrenal adenomas were significantly lower than those of metastases (P < 0.0001, t-test) on unenhanced CT. Thresholds of 17 and 33 Hounsfield units (HU) provided the following sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy: 46.2%, 100%, and 81.6% at 17 HU, and 94.9%, 89.3%, and 91.2% at 33 HU, respectively. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve for the CT number test was 0.96. Metastases were significantly larger than adrenal adenoma (P = 0.009, t-test). However, the accuracy of testing using mass size was 64.0% at most. All adenomas and metastases were depicted as homogeneous masses with the exception of two metastases that presented as heterogeneous masses (necrotic or lipomatous). Conclusion: Adrenal adenomas can be differentiated from HCC metastases using CT number on unenhanced CT.

  12. Prolonged adrenal insufficiency after unilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Bindu; Arora, Arpita; Aggarwal, Anshita; Bhardwaj, Minakshi

    2015-01-01

    The contralateral healthy adrenal in patients undergoing unilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing's is known to be suppressed temporarily and forms the basis of peri and postoperative steroids. We present four cases of Cushing's who had prolonged adrenal insufficiency with continued requirement for steroids for periods ranging 1-4 years after unilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing's. We further review literature regarding the recovery of the hypothalamo pituitary adrenal axis postsurgery in patients with Cushing's syndrome.

  13. Idiopathic Spontaneous Adrenal Hemorrhage in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narin Nasiroglu Imga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage (SAH is seen in the absence of trauma or adrenal tumor in adrenal glands. The incidence of SAH has been reported from 0.14% to 1.1% and it usually involves the right gland. During pregnancy, idiopathic unilateral SAH has been reported rarely. We present a case which comes to emergency department with an acute abdominal pain and the test results showed spontaneous left SAH.

  14. Idiopathic Spontaneous Adrenal Hemorrhage in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Narin Nasiroglu Imga; Yasemin Tutuncu; Mazhar Muslum Tuna; Berçem Ayçıçek Doğan; Dilek Berker; Serdar Guler

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage (SAH) is seen in the absence of trauma or adrenal tumor in adrenal glands. The incidence of SAH has been reported from 0.14% to 1.1% and it usually involves the right gland. During pregnancy, idiopathic unilateral SAH has been reported rarely. We present a case which comes to emergency department with an acute abdominal pain and the test results showed spontaneous left SAH.

  15. Spontaneous Bilateral Adrenal Haemorrhage after Duodenopancreatectomy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmo, N; Montalto, G M; Della Pietra, F; Garofalo, M; Mennini, G; Melandro, F; Berloco, P B

    2015-01-01

    it is difficult to diagnose because of its nonspecific presentation. This condition frequently occurs in association with an extreme physical stress and may lead to acute adrenal insufficiency or death if not promptly and properly treated. We report a rare case of acute bilateral adrenal hemorrhage with adrenal insufficiency following duodenopancreatectomy for ampulloma in absence of surgical complications. Early diagnosis and corticosteroid replacement with aggressive management of the precipitating pathology are essential to enable a successful outcome. PMID:25945442

  16. Curative surgical management of isolated adrenal recurrence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, K E

    2013-01-01

    Adrenal metastases of oesophageal adenocarcinoma are rarely detected in the clinical setting, more frequently being found as an incidental postmortem finding in the presence of widespread metastases. With improvements in the sensitivity of radiological diagnostic modalities, the incidence of adrenal tumour detection is on the rise. We report herein a particularly rare case of primary operative management by adrenalectomy for an isolated right-sided adrenal metastasis secondary to oesophageal adenocarcinoma, with a long-term survival.

  17. Atrial natriuretic factor: radioimmunoassay and effects on adrenal and pituitary glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutkowska, J.; Horky, K.; Schiffrin, E.L.; Thibault, G.; Garcia, R.; De Lean, A.; Hamet, P.; Tremblay, J.; Anand-Srivastava, M.B.; Januszewicz, P.

    1986-06-01

    A simple and sensitive radioimmunoassay was developed for measurement of immunoreactive atrial natriuretic factor (IR-ANF) in rat and human plasma and in rat atria. The two atria contain about 20 ..mu..g ANF per rat. The right atrium contained 2.5 times more ANF than did the left. Ether anesthesia and morphine markedly increased IR-ANF in rat plasma. The concentration of IR-ANF in plasma of clinically normal human subjects was 65.3 +/- 2.5 pg/ml. Paroxysmal tachycardia and rapid atrial pacing significantly increased IR-ANF in human plasma. Two- to seven-fold higher concentrations were found in coronary sinus blood than in the peripheral circulation. In the plasma of rats and humans, circulating ANF is probably a small-molecular-weight peptide. ANF acts on the adrenal and the pituitary. ANF inhibits aldosterone secretion from rat zona glomerulosa and steroid secretion by bovine adrenal zona glomerulosa and fasciculata. ANF stimulated the basal secretion of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in vitro and inhibited KCl-stimulated release of AVP.

  18. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®)–Patient Version Overview Go to Health Professional ... 8 ). Questions and Answers About Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) What is cartilage? Cartilage is a type of ...

  19. Are traumatic bilateral adrenal injuries associated with higher morbidity and mortality?-A prospective observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Panda, Ananya; Kumar, Atin; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Bhalla, Ashu Seith; Sharma, Raju; Kumar, Subodh; Mishra, Biplab

    2015-01-01

    Background Traumatic bilateral adrenal injuries are uncommon. Adrenal injuries are overall associated with worse outcome than non-adrenal injuries. However, direct comparative evidence between unilateral and bilateral adrenal injuries is unavailable in literature. This study aims to investigate clinical significance of bilateral adrenal hematomas in terms of injury severity, morbidity and mortality. Methods All blunt trauma abdomen patients with adrenal gland involvement on initial CECT scans...

  20. Adrenal Metastasis from Uterine Papillary Serous Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh Lubana, Sandeep; Singh, Navdeep; Tuli, Sandeep S; Seligman, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) is a highly malignant form of endometrial cancer with a high propensity for metastases and recurrences even when there is minimal or no myometrial invasion. It usually metastasizes to the pelvis, retroperitoneal lymph nodes, upper abdomen, and peritoneum. However, adrenal metastases from UPSC is extremely rare. Here, we present a case of UPSC with adrenal metastasis that occurred 6 years after the initial diagnosis. CASE REPORT A 60-year-old woman previously diagnosed with uterine papillary serous carcinoma at an outside facility presented in September of 2006 with postmenopausal bleeding. She underwent comprehensive surgical staging with FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stage 2. Post-operatively, the patient was treated with radiation and chemotherapy. The treatment was completed in April of 2007. The patient had no evidence of disease until July 2009 when she was found to have a mass highly suspicious for malignancy. Subsequently, she underwent right upper lobectomy. The morphology of the carcinoma was consistent with UPSC. She refused chemotherapy due to a previous history of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. The patient was followed up with regular computed tomography (CT) scans. In October 2012 a new right adrenal nodule was seen on CT, which showed intense metabolic uptake on positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scan. The patient underwent right adrenalectomy. Pathology of the surgical specimen was consistent with UPSC. CONCLUSIONS UPSC is an aggressive variant of endometrial cancer associated with high recurrence rate and poor prognoses. Long-term follow-up is needed because there is a possibility of late metastases, as in this case. PMID:27117594

  1. 77 FR 15847 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ..., ``Analysis of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) Risk to the U.S. Cattle Population from Importation of... final rule did not limit the importation of bovine-derived meat from Canada to that derived from cattle... meat from bovines 30 months of age or older while continuing to prohibit the importation of live...

  2. Extra-adrenal Pheochromocytoma in an Adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah, Ibrahim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A 17-year-old male with symptoms of headache and diaphoresis presented to the emergency department. He had eight months of noted hypertension attributed to medications. On arrival his blood pressure was 229/117mmHg, and he was ill-appearing. His blood pressure was managed aggressively, and he was diagnosed with extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma by computed tomography. He eventually underwent resection of the mass. Children with severe, symptomatic hypertension should be evaluated for pheochromocytoma. Although rare, it is curable. Failure to diagnose carries a high risk of morbidity and mortality. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(2:258-261.

  3. Renal Cell Carcinoma Mimicking Adrenal Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kazem Moslemi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a variety of causes of adrenal pseudotumors on computerized tomography (CT scan, including upper-pole renal mass, gastric diverticulum, prominent splenic lobulation, pancreatic mass, hepatic mass, and periadrenal varices. We present a case of a large subhepatic mass that discrimination of its origin from neighborhood organs was difficult preoperatively. Our patient was a 58 years old man, that three months after an unsuccessful operation in another center for a pseudoadrenal mass underwent a very difficult subcapsular tumorectomy in our center.

  4. Pitfalls of adrenal imaging with chemical shift MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical shift (CS) MRI of the adrenal glands exploits the different precessional frequencies of fat and water protons to differentiate the intracytoplasmic lipid-containing adrenal adenoma from other adrenal lesions. The purpose of this review is to illustrate both technical and interpretive pitfalls of adrenal imaging with CS MRI and emphasize the importance of adherence to strict technical specifications and errors that may occur when other imaging features and clinical factors are not incorporated into the diagnosis. When performed properly, the specificity of CS MRI for the diagnosis of adrenal adenoma is over 90%. Sampling the in-phase and opposed-phase echoes in the correct order and during the same breath-hold are essential requirements, and using the first echo pair is preferred, if possible. CS MRI characterizes more adrenal adenomas then unenhanced CT but may be non-diagnostic in a proportion of lipid-poor adenomas; CT washout studies may be able to diagnose these lipid-poor adenomas. Other primary and secondary adrenal tumours and supra-renal disease entities may contain lipid or gross fat and mimic adenoma or myelolipoma. Heterogeneity within an adrenal lesion that contains intracytoplasmic lipid could be due to myelolipoma, lipomatous metaplasia of adenoma, or collision tumour. Correlation with previous imaging, other imaging features, clinical history, and laboratory investigations can minimize interpretive errors

  5. Early Hormonal Influences on Cognitive Functioning in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Susan M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reports the results of cognitive test performance and early childhood activities in individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, an autosomal recessive disorder associated with elevated prenatal adrenal androgen levels, demonstrating the effects of early exposure to excess androgenizing hormones on sexually dimorphic cognitive functioning.…

  6. Volume of the adrenal and pituitary glands in depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Willer, Inge Stoel; Knorr, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is hyperactive in some depressed patients. It is unclear whether such hyperactivity results in changed volumes of the adrenal glands, pituitary gland and hypothalamus. We systematically reviewed all controlled studies ...

  7. Diagnosis of mediastinal and left adrenal abnormalities with endoscopic ultrasonography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, H; Groen, HJM

    2005-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound with fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is increasingly used for sampling of mediastinal or left adrenal abnormalities. We report two patients in whom EUS-FNA led to the diagnosis of malignancy. In one patient, left adrenal metastasis of a rectal. adenocarcinoma was diagnosed, wh

  8. Incidence and Cause of Hypertension During Adrenal Radiofrequency Ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamakado, Koichiro, E-mail: yama@clin.medic.mie-u.ac.jp; Takaki, Haruyuki [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Interventional Radiology (Japan); Yamada, Tomomi [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Translational Medicine (Japan); Yamanaka, Takashi; Uraki, Junji; Kashima, Masataka; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Takeda, Kan [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Interventional Radiology (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence and cause of hypertension prospectively during adrenal radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Methods: For this study, approved by our institutional review board, written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Patients who received RFA for adrenal tumors (adrenal ablation) and other abdominal tumors (nonadrenal ablation) were included in this prospective study. Blood pressure was monitored during RFA. Serum adrenal hormone levels including epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and cortisol levels were measured before and during RFA. The respective incidences of procedural hypertension (systolic blood pressure >200 mmHg) of the two patient groups were compared. Factors correlating with procedural systolic blood pressure were evaluated by regression analysis.ResultsNine patients underwent adrenal RFA and another 9 patients liver (n = 5) and renal (n = 4) RFA. Asymptomatic procedural hypertension that returned to the baseline by injecting calcium blocker was found in 7 (38.9%) of 18 patients. The incidence of procedural hypertension was significantly higher in the adrenal ablation group (66.7%, 6/9) than in the nonadrenal ablation group (11.1%, 1/9, P < 0.0498). Procedural systolic blood pressure was significantly correlated with serum epinephrine (R{sup 2} = 0.68, P < 0.0001) and norepinephrine (R{sup 2} = 0.72, P < 0.0001) levels during RFA. The other adrenal hormones did not show correlation with procedural systolic blood pressure. Conclusion: Hypertension occurs frequently during adrenal RFA because of the release of catecholamine.

  9. Incidence and Cause of Hypertension During Adrenal Radiofrequency Ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence and cause of hypertension prospectively during adrenal radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Methods: For this study, approved by our institutional review board, written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Patients who received RFA for adrenal tumors (adrenal ablation) and other abdominal tumors (nonadrenal ablation) were included in this prospective study. Blood pressure was monitored during RFA. Serum adrenal hormone levels including epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and cortisol levels were measured before and during RFA. The respective incidences of procedural hypertension (systolic blood pressure >200 mmHg) of the two patient groups were compared. Factors correlating with procedural systolic blood pressure were evaluated by regression analysis.ResultsNine patients underwent adrenal RFA and another 9 patients liver (n = 5) and renal (n = 4) RFA. Asymptomatic procedural hypertension that returned to the baseline by injecting calcium blocker was found in 7 (38.9%) of 18 patients. The incidence of procedural hypertension was significantly higher in the adrenal ablation group (66.7%, 6/9) than in the nonadrenal ablation group (11.1%, 1/9, P 2 = 0.68, P 2 = 0.72, P < 0.0001) levels during RFA. The other adrenal hormones did not show correlation with procedural systolic blood pressure. Conclusion: Hypertension occurs frequently during adrenal RFA because of the release of catecholamine.

  10. EXPRESSION OF ENDOGENOUS OUABAIN IN MULTIPLE ADRENAL TUMORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To explore expression of endogenous ouabain(EO) in multiple adrenal tumors.Methods Thirty-one cases of adrenal tumors and 6 cases of healthy adrenal tissues were selected. The expression of EO in the adrenal tiss ue was detected with immunohistochemical streptavidin peroxadase conjugated(SP) method.Results Most of EO positive products were localized in cy toplasm of the zona reticularis of human adrenal cortex, and positive products s howed to be fine granular. There was no positive signal in the medulla. EO showe d on diffused positive in patients with pheochromocytoma accompanied high blood pressure[SBP:(165.22±7.61) mmHg, DBP:(105.52±4.26) mmHg], but there were neg ative in ones with normative blood pressure[SBP:(118.52±4.58) mmHg, DBP:(83±3.60) m mHg]. The expression of EO was positive in all adrenocortical hyperplasic, aden oma an d carcinoma, no matter its high or normative blood pressure. The degree of expre ssion of EO in adrenal tissues was related to the level of BP.Conclusion Expression of endogenous ouabain(EO) in health y adrenal tissue and adrenal tumors was a valuable morphological and pathophysio logical clue for the research on ouabain.

  11. Laparoscopically Resected Foregut Cyst Adjacent to the Right Adrenal Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yamamoto

    1998-01-01

    with the right adrenal gland by lateral transabdominal approach. Laparoscopic surgery for a retroperitoneal tumor is problematic, however, since benignancy cannot be predicted. In laparoscopic adrenalectomy for non-functioning adrenal tumor, therefore, a differential diagnosis from retroperitoneal tumor should be given serious consideration.

  12. Synchronous Bilateral Adrenal Metastases from Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Gokcen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of synchronous bilateral adrenal metastasis of renal cell carcinoma. The contralateral metastatic adrenal mass was treated by the laparoscopic transperitoneal approach. The renal mass and its huge ipsilateral metastatic adrenal gland were removed en bloc with open procedure. A 54-year-old man presented to our clinic with left-sid renal cell carcinoma synchronously bilateral adrenal metastases. The primary tumor was localized in the upper-mid pole of the kidney. The diagnosis was established preoperatively by computed tomography. The size of the contralateral adrenal mass was 65 x 45 mm, but the ipsilateral metastatic adrenal mass was huge (140 x 65 mm. After all analysis and other scannings for any metastasis, a contralateral lapararoscopic transperitoneal adrenalectomy and a left open nephroadrenalectomy were performed simultaneously. Synchronous bilateral adrenal metastases from primary renal cell carcinoma without another metastasis is very rare. The optimal surgical procedure should be selected according to the metastatic adrenal masses size and the patient%u2019s status.

  13. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. BVDV viruses are further subclassified as cytopathic and noncytopathic based on their activity in cultured epithelial cells. Noncytopathic BVDV p...

  14. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also referred to as “mad cow disease” is a chronic, non-febrile, neuro-degenerative disease affecting the central nervous system. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of domestic animals, of which BSE is a member includes scrapie of sheep...

  15. Bovine milk exosome proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin and are found in blood, urine, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as human and bovine milk. Exosomes are extracellular organelles important in intracellular communication/signaling, immune function, and biomarkers ...

  16. Surgical technique: Retroperitoneoscopic approach for adrenal masses in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankovic, F; Undre, S; Mushtaq, I

    2014-04-01

    Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is considered to be the standard of care for the surgical excision of adrenal masses. The transperitoneal laparoscopic and retroperitoneoscopic approaches are described. Both are safe and as effective as open adrenalectomy, with the added benefit of the minimally invasive approach. It can be utilized for patients requiring surgery for a phaeochromocytoma, adrenal adenoma, adrenal adenocarcinoma, Cushing's syndrome, neuroblastoma, and an incidentaloma. Relative contraindications include previous surgery of the liver or kidney, large tumours (>8-10 cm in diameter) or coagulation disorders. Although the transperitoneal route is used more widely, the retroperitoneal approach provides direct access to the adrenal gland and easy visualization of the adrenal vein. It avoids also colonic mobilization, minimizes the risk of injury to hollow viscera, and the potential risk of adhesion formation. However, the reversed orientation of the kidney and hilum, combined with a significantly smaller working space, may make this approach difficult to master.

  17. Adrenal vein sampling in the diagnosis of aldosteronism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deipolyi AR

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Amy R Deipolyi,1 Rahmi Oklu2 1Vascular and Interventional Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA; 2Interventional Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Primary aldosteronism causes 15%–25% of cases of drug-resistant hypertension. Adrenal vein sampling (AVS is a procedure entailing the measurement of aldosterone from both adrenal veins, to diagnose an adrenal source of excess aldosterone secretion. Because unilateral adrenal etiologies of primary aldosteronism may be surgically resected, identifying these sources by venous sampling is critical. Technical aspects of the procedure are reviewed, with emphasis on strategies to avoid common difficulties during AVS. Keywords: primary aldosteronism, hypertension, venous sampling, adrenal adenoma

  18. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the normal canine adrenal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pey, Pascaline; Vignoli, Massimo; Haers, Hendrik; Duchateau, Luc; Rossi, Federica; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2011-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography is useful in differentiating adrenal gland adenomas from nonadenomatous lesions in human patients. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the feasibility and to describe contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the normal canine adrenal gland. Six healthy female Beagles were injected with an intravenous bolus of a lipid-shelled contrast agent (SonoVue(®) ). The aorta enhanced immediately followed by the renal artery and then the adrenal gland. Adrenal gland enhancement was uniform, centrifugal, and rapid from the medulla to the cortex. When maximum enhancement was reached, a gradual homogeneous decrease in echogenicity of the adrenal gland began and simultaneously enhancement of the phrenicoabdominal vessels was observed. While enhancement kept decreasing in the adrenal parenchyma, the renal vein, caudal vena cava, and phrenicoabdominal vein were characterized by persistent enhancement until the end of the study. A second contrast enhancement was observed, corresponding to the refilling time. Objective measurements were performed storing the images for off-line image analysis using Image J (ImageJ(©) ). The shape of the time-intensity curve reflecting adrenal perfusion was similar in all dogs. Ratios of the values of the cortex and the medulla to the values of the renal artery were characterized by significant differences from initial upslope to the peak allowing differentiation between the cortex and the medulla for both adrenal glands only in this time period. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the adrenal glands is feasible in dogs and the optimal time for adrenal imaging is between 5 and 90 s after injection. PMID:21521396

  19. Giant adrenal cyst - a case report and classification; Cisto gigante da adrenal - relato de caso e classificacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitaki, Sergio Augusto Munhoz; Louveira, Maria Helena [Clinica Radiologica Pitaki, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Alphasonic; Rorato, Luciana; Antonik, Gustavo; Andrade, Andre Luis Lugnani de; Teixeira, Ana Maria Gonzaga [Faculdade Evangelica de Medicina do Parana (FEMPAR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    1999-12-01

    Cystic lesions of the adrenal gland are relatively rare, but they must be considering in the differential diagnosis of abdominal masses. The authors report a case of a giant adrenal cyst assessed by ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and outline their features and classification. (author)

  20. Usefulness of F-18 FDG PET/CT in Adrenal Incidentaloma: Differential Diagnosis of Adrenal Metastasis in Oncologic Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have evaluated characteristics of adrenal masses incidentally observed in nonenhanced F-18 FDG PET/CT of the oncologic patients and the diagnostic ability of F-18 FDG PET/CT to differentiate malignant from benign adrenal masses. Between Mar 2005 and Aug 2008, 75 oncologic patients (46 men, 29 women; mean age, 60.8±10.2 years; range, 35-87 years) with 89 adrenal masses incidentally found in PET/CT were enrolled in this study. For quantitative analysis, size (cm), Hounsfield unit (HU), maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), SUVratio of all 89 adrenal masses were measured. SUVmax of the adrenal mass divided by SUVliver, which is SUVmax of the segment 8, was defined as SUVratio. The final diagnosis of adrenal masses was based on pathologic confirmation, radiologic evaluation (HU<0 : benign), and clinical decision. Size, HU, SUVmax, and SUVratio were all significantly different between benign and malignant adrenal masses.(P < 0.05) And, SUVratio was the most accurate parameter. A cut-off value of 1.0 for SUVratio provided 90.9% sensitivity and 75.6% specificity. In small adrenal masses (1.5 cm or less), only SUVratio had statistically significant difference between benign and malignant adrenal masses. Similarly a cut-off value of 1.0 for SUVratio provided 80.0% sensitivity and 86.4% specificity. F-18 FDG PET/CT can offer more accurate information with quantitative analysis in differentiating malignant from benign adrenal masses incidentally observed in oncologic patients, compared to nonenhanced CT

  1. A case of androgen-secreting adrenal carcinoma with non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Varma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgen excess is one of the most common and disturbing endocrine disorder of reproductive-aged women, affecting approximately 7% of this population Androgen excess results in the development of androgenic features in the women affected, with the development of hirsutism, androgenic alopecia, ovulatory dysfunction, and, if extreme, even virilization and masculinization. Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC is a rare malignancy accounting for 0.02% of all annual cancers reported. About 60% are functional tumors secreting hormones, with its consequent clinical manifestations, the Cushing′s syndrome due to cortisone, virilization due to androgens, feminization due to estrogens, or hypertension due to aldosterone. Adrenal tumors that secrete androgens exclusively are extremely rare. Here, we present a rare case of androgen-secreting adrenocortical carcinoma with non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

  2. A case of androgen-secreting adrenal carcinoma with non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Tarun; Panchani, Roopal; Goyal, Ashutosh; Maskey, Robin

    2013-10-01

    Androgen excess is one of the most common and disturbing endocrine disorder of reproductive-aged women, affecting approximately 7% of this population Androgen excess results in the development of androgenic features in the women affected, with the development of hirsutism, androgenic alopecia, ovulatory dysfunction, and, if extreme, even virilization and masculinization. Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy accounting for 0.02% of all annual cancers reported. About 60% are functional tumors secreting hormones, with its consequent clinical manifestations, the Cushing's syndrome due to cortisone, virilization due to androgens, feminization due to estrogens, or hypertension due to aldosterone. Adrenal tumors that secrete androgens exclusively are extremely rare. Here, we present a rare case of androgen-secreting adrenocortical carcinoma with non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia. PMID:24251173

  3. Bilateral Adrenal Incidentalomas: A Rare Presentation of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halit Diri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal incidentalomas are found incidentally during a radiologic examination performed for indications other than an adrenal disease, and 15% of them are bilateral adrenal masses. This study describes a 51-year-old male smoker patient admitted with diabetes mellitus. An abdominal ultrasonography performed due to his anemia revealed bilateral adrenal masses. His chest X-ray showed abnormal 10 cm opacity at the right upper lung, and brain, thorax, and abdomen CT scans showed multiple lesions compatible with lung cancer metastases. The pathological examination of the transthoracic lung biopsy specimen was consistent with lung adenocarcinoma. Findings in this patient indicate that, in middle aged patients with bilateral adrenal mass and a history or finding of any malignancy, the first diagnosis which should be considered is adrenal metastasis, and confirming the diagnosis by adrenal biopsy may be useless. Furthermore, screening all smoking patients by chest X-ray or thoracic CT for lung cancer may not be accepted as a routine procedure, but in smokers admitted to a hospital due to signs and symptoms attributed to a pulmonary disease, at least a chest X-ray should be requested.

  4. Dexamethasone-suppression adrenal scintigraphy in hyperandrogenism: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the contribution of adrenal-derived androgens in women with hirsutism, adrenal scintigrams under dexamethasone suppression (DS) were performed on 35 women with increasing facial or body hair and irregular or absent menses. Based upon the DS regimen chosen (8 mg/d for 2 days or 4 md/d for 7 days before the injection of 6β-[131I]iodomethylnorcholesterol), three imaging patterns were identified. The first was the absence of uptake before 3 days (8-mg DS) or before 5 days (4-mg DS) after injection. This imaging pattern was seen in 17 of the 35 patients studied and was considered normal. The second pattern was bilateral uptake earlier than 3 days (8-mg DS regimen) or 5 days (4-mg DS) after injection. This was seen in 13 of the 35 patients and was interpreted as bilateral early visualization. Adrenal-vein catheterization performed on six patients with this pattern showed increased adrenal-vein testosterone. The third pattern, observed in five patients, was unilateral early visualization, which in four cases investigated to date was the result of an adrenocortical adenoma. This study confirms the adrenal cortex as a source of androgens in women with hirsutism and hyperandrogenism and demonstrates that DS adrenal scintigraphy can be utilized to identify those women in whom adrenal-derived androgens contribute to their hyperandrogenism

  5. Dexamethasone-suppression adrenal scintigraphy in hyperandrogenism: concise communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, M.D.; Freitas, J.E.; Swanson, D.P.; Woodbury, M.C.; Schteingart, D.E.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    To assess the contribution of adrenal-derived androgens in women with hirsutism, adrenal scintigrams under dexamethasone suppression (DS) were performed on 35 women with increasing facial or body hair and irregular or absent menses. Based upon the DS regimen chosen (8 mg/d for 2 days or 4 md/d for 7 days before the injection of 6..beta..-(/sup 131/I)iodomethylnorcholesterol), three imaging patterns were identified. The first was the absence of uptake before 3 days (8-mg DS) or before 5 days (4-mg DS) after injection. This imaging pattern was seen in 17 of the 35 patients studied and was considered normal. The second pattern was bilateral uptake earlier than 3 days (8-mg DS regimen) or 5 days (4-mg DS) after injection. This was seen in 13 of the 35 patients and was interpreted as bilateral early visualization. Adrenal-vein catheterization performed on six patients with this pattern showed increased adrenal-vein testosterone. The third pattern, observed in five patients, was unilateral early visualization, which in four cases investigated to date was the result of an adrenocortical adenoma. This study confirms the adrenal cortex as a source of androgens in women with hirsutism and hyperandrogenism and demonstrates that DS adrenal scintigraphy can be utilized to identify those women in whom adrenal-derived androgens contribute to their hyperandrogenism.

  6. Adrenal gland infection by serotype 5 adenovirus requires coagulation factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucile Tran

    Full Text Available Recombinant, replication-deficient serotype 5 adenovirus infects the liver upon in vivo, systemic injection in rodents. This infection requires the binding of factor X to the capsid of this adenovirus. Another organ, the adrenal gland is also infected upon systemic administration of Ad, however, whether this infection is dependent on the cocksackie adenovirus receptor (CAR or depends on the binding of factor X to the viral capsid remained to be determined. In the present work, we have used a pharmacological agent (warfarin as well as recombinant adenoviruses lacking the binding site of Factor X to elucidate this mechanism in mice. We demonstrate that, as observed in the liver, adenovirus infection of the adrenal glands in vivo requires Factor X. Considering that the level of transduction of the adrenal glands is well-below that of the liver and that capsid-modified adenoviruses are unlikely to selectively infect the adrenal glands, we have used single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT imaging of gene expression to determine whether local virus administration (direct injection in the kidney could increase gene transfer to the adrenal glands. We demonstrate that direct injection of the virus in the kidney increases gene transfer in the adrenal gland but liver transduction remains important. These observations strongly suggest that serotype 5 adenovirus uses a similar mechanism to infect liver and adrenal gland and that selective transgene expression in the latter is more likely to be achieved through transcriptional targeting.

  7. Testicular adrenal rest tumors in a patient with untreated congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Young Jin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs are considered to be formed from aberrant adrenal tissue that has become hyperplastic because of elevated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH in male patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH. A 6-year-old boy presented with testicular enlargement and pubic hair. He was diagnosed with CAH complicated by precocious puberty. However, he was not followed-up. At the age of 17, he visited the outpatient clinic because of testicular enlargement and short stature. His right and left testicles were 10×6 cm and 7.5×4.5 cm, respectively. His height was 155.1 cm (standard deviation score [SDS], -2.90. The diagnosis of CAH due to 21 hydroxylase deficiency was confirmed by mutation analysis of CYP21A2. Histological examination of the testes showed large, polygonal, eosinophilic cells with round nuclei and prominent nucleoli, which were suggestive of TARTs. He was treated with dexamethasone for 3 weeks and tumors regressed. Subsequently, dexamethasone was replaced by prednisolone and 9?#7014;ludrocortisone; thereafter, the reduced testis size has been maintained.

  8. Paraneoplastic (non-metastatic) adrenal insufficiency preceded the onset of primary lung cancer by 12 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantha, Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash; Kumar, Anita A; Jeyachandran, Vijay; Rajamanickam, Deepan; Bhaskar, Emmanuel; Paniker, Vinod K; Abraham, Georgi

    2009-01-01

    Clinically evident adrenal insufficiency associated with lung cancer is a rare entity. Among reported cases, adrenal insufficiency has occurred with or succeeded the primary lung cancer. Adrenal insufficiency has also been secondary to metastasis to the adrenal gland. The present report concerns a 61-year-old man, a chronic smoker, who presented to us with symptomatic adrenal insufficiency. He had no evidence of lung cancer during this visit. The primary lung cancer was only identified 12 weeks later. Additionally, his adrenals showed no evidence of metastasis. Hence his adrenal insufficiency had been a paraneoplastic manifestation of the lung cancer, and it had also preceded the primary by 12 weeks.

  9. Adrenal pseudomasses due to varices: angiographic-CT-MRI-pathologic correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Periadrenal and adrenal portosystemic collaterals are a recently reported cause of adrenal pseudotumor on computed tomography (CT). Nine patients with this left adrenal pseudotumor illustrate its typical position and appearance on CT, angiography, CT-angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The anatomic basis for variceal adrenal pseudotumors is the left inferior phrenic vein, which passes immediately anterior to the left adrenal gland and which serves as a collateral pathway from splenic to left renal vein in portal hypertension. Thus, unlike previously described adrenal pseudotumors, these venous collaterals are not anatomically distinguishable from the adrenal gland on CT. Bolus dynamic CT is usually diagnostic, but in equivocal cases, MRI may prove useful

  10. [Cystic lymphangioma of the adrenal gland. Three misleading cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthet, B; Christophe, M; Siméoni, J; Jean, F; Le Treut, Y P; Bricot, R; Assadourian, R

    1993-01-23

    Three cases of adrenal cystic lymphangioma are reported. In 1 patient the lesion was complicated by intracystic haemorrhage. The remaining 2 patients had a hepatic lesion which was treated in the same surgical operation as the adrenal cyst. Ultrasonography and computerized tomography play a major role in the exploration of these cysts. Their unexpected discovery has become more frequent since these methods have multiplied, and this raises therapeutic problems. The nature of adrenal cysts is determined at histology. In asymptomatic cysts percutaneous needle aspiration can only have an indicative value. PMID:8493206

  11. Early intervention and management of adrenal insufficiency in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moloney, Sinéad

    2012-09-01

    The endocrine disorder adrenal insufficiency includes inadequate production of the steroid hormone cortisol. This results in poor physiological responses to illness, trauma or other stressors and risk of adrenal crisis. Management is based on administration of hydrocortisone. It is important to avoid under- or over-treatment and increase the dosage during times of physiological stress. To reduce morbidity, hospital admissions and mortality, the education and empowerment of parents and carers, and prompt intervention when necessary are essential. A steroid therapy card for adrenal insufficiency containing personal information on a patient\\'s condition was developed for use by families and their specialist centres.

  12. Right adrenal abscess -- an unusual complication of acute apendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimofte, Gabriel; Dubei, Liviu; Lozneanu, Lili-Gabriela; Ursulescu, Corina; Grigora Scedil, Mihai

    2004-09-01

    Acute appendicitis represents one of the most frequent abdominal emergencies encountered in everyday surgical practice. Local infectious complications are not unusual and retroperitoneal abscesses after acute retrocaecal appendicitis have been previously described. The authors present the case of a 22-years-young female patient, admitted for a right iliac fossa abscess, secondary to gangrenous appendicitis. A right adrenal mass 35/40 mm was revealed during preoperative ultrasound evaluation, which evolved in an adrenal abscess that spontaneously drained 10 days after appendectomy and retrocecal drainage. Adrenal abscesses are exceptionally rare, with only a few cases being reported in the literature, but none of these after acute appendicitis.

  13. Intense Adrenal Enhancement: A CT Feature of Cardiogenic Shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrabak-Paar, Maja, E-mail: maja.hrabak.paar@mef.hr [University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Center Zagreb (Croatia)

    2016-02-15

    In this report, images of intense adrenal enhancement in a 79-year-old female patient with right-sided heart failure and severe tricuspid insufficiency are presented. Only two cases of intense adrenal enhancement as a sign of cardiogenic shock were previously reported in the literature. Intense adrenal enhancement could be one of the earliest CT signs of cardiogenic shock. Its presence should be immediately reported to the referring physician as a sign of significant hemodynamic instability warranting early critical-care management.

  14. Intense Adrenal Enhancement: A CT Feature of Cardiogenic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabak-Paar, Maja

    2016-02-01

    In this report, images of intense adrenal enhancement in a 79-year-old female patient with right-sided heart failure and severe tricuspid insufficiency are presented. Only two cases of intense adrenal enhancement as a sign of cardiogenic shock were previously reported in the literature. Intense adrenal enhancement could be one of the earliest CT signs of cardiogenic shock. Its presence should be immediately reported to the referring physician as a sign of significant hemodynamic instability warranting early critical-care management.

  15. A Post-Docking Role of Synaptotagmin 1-C2B Domain Bottom Residues R398/399 in Mouse Chromaffin Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kedar, Girish H; Munch, Anders S; van Weering, Jan R T;

    2015-01-01

    , Syt1-R398/399Q (RQ), in syt1 null mutant cells. Ultrastructural morphometry revealed that Syt1-RQ fully restored the docking defect observed previously in syt1 null mutant cells, similar to wild type Syt1 (Syt1-wt). Small unilamellar lipid vesicles (SUVs) that contained the v-SNARE Synaptobrevin2...... and Syt1-R398/399Q also docked to t-SNARE-containing giant vesicles (GUVs), similar to Syt1-wt. However, unlike Syt1-wt, Syt1-RQ-induced docking was strictly PI(4,5)P2-dependent. Unlike docking, neither synchronized secretion in chromaffin cells nor Ca2+-triggered SUV–GUV fusion was restored by the Syt1...

  16. Cytochrome P450c17 (steroid 17. cap alpha. -hydroxylase/17,20 lyase): cloning of human adrenal and testis cDNAs indicates the same gene is expressed in both tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, B.; Picado-Leonard, J.; Haniu, M.; Bienkowski, M.; Hall, P.F.; Shively, J.E.; Miller, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    P450c17 is the single enzyme mediating both 17..cap alpha..-hydroxylase (steroid 17..cap alpha..-monooxygenase, EC 1.14.99.9) and 17,20 lyase activities in the synthesis of steroid hormones. It has been suggested that different P450c17 isozymes mediate these activities in the adrenal gland and testis. The authors sequenced 423 of the 509 amino acids (83%) of the porcine adrenal enzyme; based on this partial sequence, a 128-fold degenerate 17-mer was synthesized and used to screen a porcine adrenal cDNA library. This yielded a 380-base cloned cDNA, which in turn was used to isolate several human adrenal cDNAs. The longest of these, lambda hac 17-2, is 1754 base pairs long and includes the full-length coding region, the complete 3'-untranslated region, and 41 bases of the 5'-untranslated region. This cDNA encodes a protein of 508 amino acids having a predicted molecular weight of 57,379.82. High-stringency screening of a human testicular cDNA library yielded a partial clone containing 1303 identical bases. RNA gel blots and nuclease S1-protection experiments confirm that the adrenal and testicular P450c17 mRNAs are indistinguishable. These data indicate that the testis possesses a P450c17 identical to that in the adrenal. The human amino acid sequence is 66.7% homologous to the corresponding regions of the porcine sequence, and the human cDNA and amino acid sequences are 80.1 and 70.3% homologous, respectively, to bovine adrenal P450c17 cDNA. Both comparisons indicate that a central region comprising amino acid residues 160-268 is hypervariable among these species of P450c17.

  17. Paraneoplastic (non-metastatic) adrenal insufficiency preceded the onset of primary lung cancer by 12 weeks

    OpenAIRE

    Shantha, Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash; Kumar, Anita A; Jeyachandran, Vijay; Rajamanickam, Deepan; Bhaskar, Emmanuel; Paniker, Vinod K; Abraham, Georgi

    2009-01-01

    Clinically evident adrenal insufficiency associated with lung cancer is a rare entity. Among reported cases, adrenal insufficiency has occurred with or succeeded the primary lung cancer. Adrenal insufficiency has also been secondary to metastasis to the adrenal gland. The present report concerns a 61-year-old man, a chronic smoker, who presented to us with symptomatic adrenal insufficiency. He had no evidence of lung cancer during this visit. The primary lung cancer was only identified 12 wee...

  18. Expression cloning of a cDNA encoding the bovine histamine H1 receptor.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita, M; Fukui, H; Sugama, K; Horio, Y; Ito, S.; Mizuguchi, H.; Wada, H

    1991-01-01

    A functional cDNA clone for the histamine H1 receptor was isolated from a cDNA library of bovine adrenal medulla by a combination of molecular cloning in an expression vector and electrophysiological assay in Xenopus oocytes. The H1 receptor cDNA encodes a protein of 491 amino acids (Mr 55,954) with seven putative transmembrane domains, illustrating the similarity to other receptors that couple with guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G protein-coupled receptors). The sequence hom...

  19. Testicular adrenal rest tumors in adult males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: evaluation of pituitary-gonadal function before and after successful testis-sparing surgery in eight patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claahsen-van der Grinten, H.L.; Otten, B.J.; Takahashi, S.; Meuleman, E.J.H.; Hulsbergen- van de Kaa, C.A.; Sweep, C.G.J.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: In male patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), testicular adrenal rest tumors (TART) are frequently present. These tumors can interfere with testicular function. Intensifying glucocorticoid therapy does not always lead to tumor regression and improvement of testicular function.

  20. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Adrenal Gland Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visual field (the area visible at a given instant without moving the eyes) or a magnetic resonance ... from http://www.urologyhealth.org/urology/index.cfm?article=89 [top] The Endocrine Society. (2010). Congenital adrenal ...

  1. A Retroperitoneal Bronchogenic Cyst Mimicking a Pancreatic or Adrenal Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Runge

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Retroperitoneal location of bronchogenic cysts is extremely rare. Most commonly they are encountered in the posterior mediastinum. Bronchogenic cysts arise from developmental aberrations of the tracheobronchial tree in the early embryologic period. We report a 42-year-old female patient with a retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst in the left adrenal region. She was admitted to our hospital with epigastric pain and subsequently underwent CT of the abdomen. The examination revealed a mass related to the left adrenal gland. Endocrine tests for adrenal hypersecretion were negative. Because of the uncertain entity, laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed. Pathological examination revealed a bronchogenic cyst in proximity to an inconspicuous left adrenal gland. Although very rare, bronchogenic cysts should be considered in the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal cystic lesions and surgical resection pursued for symptom resolution and to establish a definitive histology.

  2. GATA transcription factors in adrenal development and tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parviainen, Helka; Kiiveri, Sanne; Bielinska, Malgorzata; Rahman, Nafis; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Wilson, David B; Heikinheimo, Markku

    2007-02-01

    Of the six GATA transcription factors, GATA-4 and GATA-6 are expressed in the mouse and human adrenal with distinct developmental profiles. GATA-4 is confined to the fetal cortex, i.e. to the less differentiated proliferating cells, while GATA-6 is expressed both in the fetal and adult adrenal. In vitro, GATA-4 regulates inhibin-alpha and steroidogenic factor-1 implicated in normal adrenal function. GATA-6 probably has roles in the development and differentiation of adrenocortical cells, and in the regulation of steroidogenesis. GATA-4 expression is dramatically upregulated and GATA-6 downregulated in gonadotropin dependent mouse adrenocortical tumors. This is accompanied by the appearance of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR). In vitro, GATA-4 transactivates LHR promoter, and gonadotropins upregulate GATA-4 levels. Human adrenal tumors occasionally express GATA-4, whereas GATA-6 levels are usually lower than normal.

  3. The role of imaging in congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Sara Reis; Andrade, Marco Tulio Soares; Melo, Andrea Farias; Elias Junior, Jorge, E-mail: jejunior@fmrp.usp.br [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Radiology, Clinical Hospital, Ribeirao Preto Medical School, University of Sao Paulo (FMRP-USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Elias, Paula Condé Lamparelli [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Clinical Hospital, FMRP-USP, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2014-10-15

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autossomic recessive disorder caused by impaired steroidogenesis. Patients with CAH may present adrenal insufficiency with or without salt-wasting, as well as various degrees of virilization and fertility impairment, carrying a high incidence of testicular adrenal rest tumors and increased incidence of adrenal tumors. The diagnosis of CAH is made based on the adrenocortical profile hormonal evaluation and genotyping, in selected cases. Follow-up is mainly based on hormonal and clinical evaluation. Utility of imaging in this clinical setting may be helpful for the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of the patients, although recommendations according to most guidelines are weak when present. Thus, the authors aimed to conduct a narrative synthesis of how imaging can help in the management of patients with CAH, especially focused on genitography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. (author)

  4. Development of the adrenal axis in the neonatal rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillet, Ronnie

    1977-01-01

    Plasma corticosterone and ACTH concentrations were determined in neonatal rats 1, 7, 14, and 21 days old, under a variety of experimental conditions, to obtain more information on the postnatal development of the rat hypothalamo-adrenal (HHA) axis. The results indicate that: (1) there is a diminution followed by an increase in responsiveness of the adrenal gland, but the pituitary response to direct hormonal stimulation is unchanged during the first three postnatal weeks; (2) continued stimulation of the adrenal by ACTH or of the central nervous system (CNS) or hypothalamus by corticosterone is necessary during early postnatal development to allow normal maturation of the HHA axis; and (3) feedback inhibition is operative by birth, at least to a moderate degree. Taken together, the studies suggest that both the adrenal and pituitary glands are potentially functional at birth, but that the hypothalamic and CNS mediators of the stress response are not mature until at least the second or third postnatal week. (ERB)

  5. A retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst mimicking a pancreatic or adrenal mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Tina; Blank, Annika; Schäfer, Stephan C; Candinas, Daniel; Gloor, Beat; Angst, Eliane

    2013-01-01

    Retroperitoneal location of bronchogenic cysts is extremely rare. Most commonly they are encountered in the posterior mediastinum. Bronchogenic cysts arise from developmental aberrations of the tracheobronchial tree in the early embryologic period. We report a 42-year-old female patient with a retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst in the left adrenal region. She was admitted to our hospital with epigastric pain and subsequently underwent CT of the abdomen. The examination revealed a mass related to the left adrenal gland. Endocrine tests for adrenal hypersecretion were negative. Because of the uncertain entity, laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed. Pathological examination revealed a bronchogenic cyst in proximity to an inconspicuous left adrenal gland. Although very rare, bronchogenic cysts should be considered in the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal cystic lesions and surgical resection pursued for symptom resolution and to establish a definitive histology.

  6. Adrenal lymphangioma: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of a rare lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Carla L; Banerjee, Priya; Carney, Erin; Sharma, Rajni; Netto, George J

    2011-07-01

    Adrenal lymphangiomas, also known as cystic adrenal lymphangiomas, are rare, benign vascular lesions that usually remain asymptomatic throughout life. Although previously adrenal lymphangioma lesions were primarily found at autopsy, they are currently detected during imaging work-up for unrelated causes and are likely to imitate other adrenocortical or adrenal medullary neoplasms. We aimed to retrospectively review all adrenal lymphangioma cases at our hospital and further document their lymphatic origin by immunohistochemical staining. A search of surgical pathology records (1984-2008) was conducted. All hematoxylin and eosin sections were retrieved from archives and reviewed by 2 pathologists in the study. Clinical information was gathered from electronic medical records. Representative paraffin-embedded sections from each case were selected for immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal antibodies D2-40 and AE1/AE3. A total of 9 adrenal lymphangioma cases were identified (6 women and 3 men). All 9 patients were adults at time of diagnosis with a mean age of 42 years (range, 28-56 years). There were 7 white patients, 1 African American patient, and 1 Asian patient. The average size of an adrenal lymphangioma lesion was 4.9 cm (range, 2.0-13.5 cm). Adrenal lymphangioma was twice more frequently located on the right side (6 right-sided and 3 left-sided). Clinically, 4 (44%) of the 9 lesions presented with abdominal, flank, or back pain. One lymphangioma was found during work-up for labile hypertension. The remaining 4 lesions (44%) were asymptomatic and incidentally found during imaging studies for unrelated causes. Surgical removal was achieved by total adrenalectomy in 8 of the 9 lesions and by partial adrenalectomy in the remaining case. No evidence of recurrence or development of a contralateral lesion was encountered in any of the patients. Histologically, our adrenal lymphangiomas showed a typical multicystic architecture with dilated spaces lined by

  7. A case series of two cases of juxta-adrenal schwannoma presenting as adrenal mass lesion and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Shivashankar Damodaran; Griffin Mahimairaj; Kamaraj Velaichamy

    2015-01-01

    Schwannomas are rare tumors in the retroperitoneal location. They can pose a diagnostic dilemma when presenting as an adrenal mass lesion due to their imaging characteristics. We report two cases of juxta-adrenal schwannomas presenting as symptomatic adrenal mass lesions. In both the cases, the clinical examination and functional evaluation was unremarkable and the radiological examination revealed a mixed intense adrenal mass lesion in one case with predominantly hyperintense areas and a ver...

  8. Stage 4S Bilateral Adrenal Neuroblastoma in a Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Gupta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Stage 4S bilateral adrenal neuroblastoma presenting in the neonatal period is extremely rare. A 1-day-old male with 4S bilateral adrenal neuroblastoma complicated by marked hepatomegaly managed by chemotherapy is being reported. The provisional diagnosis of neuroblastoma was made in the fetal life during the last trimester of pregnancy. Cardiomyopathy due to doxorubicin cytotoxicity developed over ensuing years, which is being treated.

  9. Is Adrenal Exhaustion Synonym of Syndrome Burnout at Workplace?

    OpenAIRE

    Pranjić, Nurka; Nuhbegović, Sabina; Brekalo-Lazarević, Sanja; Kurtić, Azra

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is the assessment of the association of burnout syndrome with adrenal exhaustion specific symptoms and signs among 116 patients who were exposed to violence or mobbing at workplace and who were treated during 2005 to 2008 in Department of Occupational Pathology and Toxicology Tuzla; to detect symptoms and signs of adrenal exhaustion differences between patients who were exposed to act of violence as acute catastrophic event and patients who were long – term exposed...

  10. Bilateral adrenal masses: a single-centre experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandgar, Tushar; Khare, Shruti; Jadhav, Swati; Lila, Anurag; Goroshi, Manjunath; Kasaliwal, Rajeev; Khadilkar, Kranti; Shah, Nalini S

    2016-01-01

    Background Bilateral adrenal masses may have aetiologies like hyperplasia and infiltrative lesions, besides tumours. Hyperplastic and infiltrative lesions may have coexisting hypocortisolism. Bilateral tumours are likely to have hereditary/syndromic associations. The data on clinical profile of bilateral adrenal masses are limited. Aims To analyse clinical, biochemical and radiological features, and management outcomes in patients with bilateral adrenal masses. Methods Retrospective analysis of 70 patients with bilateral adrenal masses presenting to a single tertiary care endocrine centre from western India (2002–2015). Results The most common aetiology was pheochromocytoma (40%), followed by tuberculosis (27.1%), primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL) (10%), metastases (5.7%), non-functioning adenomas (4.3%), primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (4.3%), and others (8.6%). Age at presentation was less in patients with pheochromocytoma (33 years) and tuberculosis (41 years) compared with PAL (48 years) and metastases (61 years) (PAI) (95%). The presenting symptoms for PAL were AI (57%) and abdominal pain (43%), whereas all cases of metastasis had abdominal pain. Mean size of adrenal masses was the largest in lymphoma (5.5cm) followed by pheochromocytoma (4.8cm), metastasis (4cm) and tuberculosis (2.1cm) (P<0.001). Biochemically, most patients with pheochromocytoma (92.8%) had catecholamine excess. Hypocortisolism was common in tuberculosis (100%) and PAL (71.4%) and absent with metastases (P<0.001). Conclusion In evaluation of bilateral adrenal masses, age at presentation, presenting symptoms, lesion size, and biochemical features are helpful in delineating varied underlying aetiologies. PMID:27037294

  11. Giant Mature Adrenal Cystic Teratoma in an Infant

    OpenAIRE

    Ciftci, Ilhan; Cihan, Tugba; Koksal, Yavuz; Ugras, Serdar; Erol, Cengiz

    2013-01-01

    CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED Introduction Teratomas are derived from embryonic tissues that are typically found in the gonadal and sacrococcygeal regions of adults and children. Primary teratomas in the retroperitoneum are very rare in infant and primary adrenal teratomas are extremely rare. Early diagnosis and surgical resection are important for effective treatment. Case report We report here the case of a histologically unusual adrenal teratomas detected on computed tomography durin...

  12. Microscopic anatomy of the baboon (Papio hamadryas) adrenal medulla.

    OpenAIRE

    al-Lami, F; Carmichael, S W

    1991-01-01

    Adrenal medullas of 2 baboons perfused with formaldehyde/glutaraldehyde and tannic acid were studied by light and electron microscopy. Tissues were postfixed in OsO4. This procedure allows identification of noradrenaline cells on the basis of a selective reaction of glutaraldehyde with noradrenaline vesicles. As positive control for noradrenaline cells, similarly treated mouse adrenal medullas were also examined. Light microscopic examination of thick sections of baboon medullas did not show ...

  13. Imaging presentation of adrenal glands in female pseudohermaphroditism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; JIANG Tao; HAN Xi-nian; LIU Guang-hua

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To discuss imaging features of the adrenal glands in female pseudohermaphroditism. Methods: 11 cases of female pseudohermaphroditism (8-27 years old) were analyzed retrospectively. Results: In 9 of the 11 patients with female pseudohermaphroditism who did no receive hormone replacement therapy, both internal and external branches of ilateral adrenal glands were found to be thickened, prolonged and twisted, and in 2 of the 9 patients they were found to be macronodularly hyperplasic. In one of the remaining two patients who had received long-term hormone replacement therapy, the adrenal glands were not thickened or twisted, though prolonged; and in the other patient imaging presentation of the adrenal glands was the same as that of those who did not receive hormone replacement therapy, but with co-existence of adrenal myelolipoma. Among the 11 patients agenesis of the uterus and the vagina was found in 4 cases. Conclusion: Female pseudohermaphroditism is a hereditary disease,where hyperplasia of the adrenal glands and agenesis of the uterus and the vagina were secondary. Early detection of these abnormalities by imageology would prove to be helpful in early detection and treatment of the condition.

  14. Chronic ethanol consumption decreases adrenal responsiveness to adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased alcohol consumption by adolescents and teenagers has heightened awareness of potential endocrine and developmental alterations. The current study was designed to determine whether chronic ethanol intake alters pituitary and adrenal function in the developing rat. One month old male Sprague Dawley rats were administered 6% ethanol in drinking water. After one month of treatment animals were sacrificed and blood, pituitary and adrenal glands collected. Plasma was assayed for ACTH and corticosterone (CS) by radioimmunossay (RIA). Five anterior pituitary glands per group were challenged with 100 μM corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) for 90 min at 37C under 95% air / 5% CO2. Media were analyzed for either ACTH (pituitary) or CS (adrenal) by RIA. Plasma ACTH and CS were unaffected by ethanol consumption. Pituitary response to CRF was not altered by ethanol. The lack of difference in ACTH release was not due to differences in pituitary content of ACTH. However, chronic ethanol consumption did decrease adrenal responsiveness to ACTH stimulation. In vitro corticosterone production was 1.21 ± 0.14 μg/adrenal in controls and 0.70 ± 0.06 μg/adrenal in ethanol consuming rats

  15. Percutaneous interstitial brachytherapy for adrenal metastasis. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed and evaluated the feasibility of a brachytherapy technique as a safe and effective treatment for adrenal metastasis. Adapting a paravertebral insertion technique in radiofrequency ablation of adrenal tumors, we developed an interstitial brachytherapy for adrenal metastasis achievable on an outpatient basis. Under local anesthesia and under X-ray CT guidance, brachytherapy applicator needles were percutaneously inserted into the target. A treatment plan was created to eradicate the tumor while preserving normal organs including the spinal cord and kidney. We applied this interstitial brachytherapy technique to two patients: one who developed adrenal metastasis as the third recurrence of uterine cervical cancer after reirradiation, and one who developed metachronous multiple metastases from malignant melanoma. The whole procedure was completed in 2.5 hours. There were no procedure-related or radiation-related early/late complications. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET)-CT images at two and three months after treatment showed absence of FDG uptake, and no recurrence of the adrenal tumor was observed for over seven months until expiration, and for six months until the present, respectively. This interventional interstitial brachytherapy procedure may be useful as a safe and eradicative treatment for adrenal metastasis. (author)

  16. [Adrenal failure caused by primary adrenal non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a case report and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Marín, B; Díaz Muñoz de la Espada, V M; Alvarez Alvarez, R; Encinas García, S; Khosravi Shahi, P; Pérez Fernández, R; Pérez Manga, G

    2008-03-01

    We report a case of 78-year old man who presented with symptoms of adrenal insufficiency. The computed tomography (CT) scan showed the presence of bilateral adrenal masses. A CT-scan guided needle biopsy revealed diffuse large- B cell lymphoma. The absence of pathological findings in clinical, bone marrow and CT scan examinations supported the diagnosis of primary non-Hodgkin Lymphoma of the adrenal glands. The patient was treated with four cycles of R-CHOP chemotherapy with Rituximab, liposomal Doxorubicin, Cyclophosphamide, Vincristine and Prednisolone. At the end of fourth cycle there was radiological improvement but the chemotherapy was stopped because of IV grade toxicity. He completed treatment with radiotherapy of right adrenal mass. Few days after finishing radiation therapy the patient died due to a disseminated infection. No progressive disease was founded.

  17. Bovine coronavirus hemagglutinin protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, B; Potts, B J; Brian, D A

    1985-02-01

    Treatment of purified bovine coronavirus (Mebus strain) with pronase destroyed the integrity of virion surface glycoproteins gp140, gp120, gp100, reduced the amount of gp26 and destroyed the hemagglutinating activity of the virus. Bromelain, on the other hand, destroyed the integrity of gp120, gp100 and gp26 but failed to remove gp140 and failed to destroy viral hemagglutinating activity. These experiments suggest that gp140 is the virion hemagglutinin. Immunoblotting studies using monospecific antiserum demonstrate that gp140 is a disulfide-linked dimeric structure reducible to monomers of 65 kDa.

  18. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro;

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... chymosin. Both enzymes possess local positively charged patches on their surface that can play a role in interactions with the overall negatively charged C-terminus of κ-casein. Camel chymosin contains two additional positive patches that favour interaction with the substrate. The improved electrostatic...

  19. Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoar, Bruce R.

    2004-01-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...

  20. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Nucleolus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amrutlal K.Patel; Doug Olson; Suresh K. Tikoo

    2010-01-01

    Nucleolus is the most prominent subnuclear structure, which performs a wide variety of functions in the eu-karyotic cellular processes. In order to understand the structural and functional role of the nucleoli in bovine cells,we analyzed the proteomie composition of the bovine nueleoli. The nucleoli were isolated from Madin Darby bo-vine kidney cells and subjected to proteomie analysis by LC-MS/MS after fractionation by SDS-PAGE and strongcation exchange chromatography. Analysis of the data using the Mascot database search and the GPM databasesearch identified 311 proteins in the bovine nucleoli, which contained 22 proteins previously not identified in theproteomic analysis of human nucleoli. Analysis of the identified proteins using the GoMiner software suggestedthat the bovine nueleoli contained proteins involved in ribosomal biogenesis, cell cycle control, transcriptional,translational and post-translational regulation, transport, and structural organization.

  1. Acute adrenal insufficiency: an aide-memoire of the critical importance of its recognition and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargya, A; Chua, E; Hetherington, J; Sommer, K; Cooper, M

    2016-03-01

    Adrenal crisis is a life-threatening emergency that causes significant excess mortality in patients with adrenal insufficiency. Delayed recognition by medical staff of an impending adrenal crisis and failure to give timely hydrocortisone therapy within the emergency department continue to be commonly encountered, even in metropolitan teaching hospitals. Within the authors' institutions, several cases of poorly handled adrenal crises have occurred over the last 2 years. Anecdotal accounts from members of the Addison's support group suggest that these issues are common in Australia. This manuscript is a timely reminder for clinical staff on the critical importance of the recognition, treatment and prevention of adrenal crisis. The manuscript: (i) outlines a case and the clinical outcome of sub-optimally managed adrenal crisis, (ii) summarises the clinical features and acute management of adrenal crisis, (iii) provides recommendations on the prevention of adrenal crisis and (iv) provides guidance on the management of 'sick days' in patients with adrenal insufficiency.

  2. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or para

  3. Adrenal lesions encountered in current medical practice − a review of their radiological imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesha Naidu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern radiological technology has transformed the way that adrenal lesions are currently investigated. The contemporary radiologist has been catapulted to the forefront in the management of adrenal disease. With the increasing use of cross-sectional imaging, adrenal lesions are being serendipitously discovered in radiological studies undertaken for non-adrenal-related conditions – the so-called adrenal ‘incidentaloma’. This review discusses the imaging modalities available for characterising these lesions, highlighting current concepts and controversies in differentiating benign from malignant pathology. The article also provides a brief overview of the spectrum of adrenal pathology commonly encountered in the adult population.

  4. Transrectal ultrasonography of the left adrenal gland in healthy horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durie, Inge; Van Loon, Gunther; Vermeire, Simon; De Clercq, Dominique; Vanschandevijl, Katleen; Deprez, Piet

    2010-01-01

    Little information is available on medical imaging of the adrenal glands in horses. We investigated the feasibility of transrectal ultrasonography to characterize the normal equine adrenal gland. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed in 25 healthy horses using a 7.5 MHz linear array probe at a displayed depth of 8 cm. Transrectal ultrasonography of the right adrenal gland was not feasible. For the left adrenal gland, the left kidney, the abdominal aorta, the left renal artery, the left renal vein, and the cranial mesenteric artery were used as landmarks. The size of the left adrenal gland was variable, but it generally appeared as a long, flat structure with a hyperechoic medulla surrounded by a hypoechoic cortex. The most cranial part of the gland could not be delineated appropriately in 11 horses (44%). The mean (+/-SD) thickness of the gland and medulla was 0.66 +/- 0.15cm (n = 25) and 0.28 +/- 0.09 cm (n = 25) near the caudal pole, 0.87 +/- 0.25 cm (n = 14) and 0.40 +/- 0.18 cm (n = 12) near the cranial pole, and 0.89 +/- 0.18 cm (n = 25) and 0.36 +/- 0.13 cm (n = 25) in the middle of the gland, respectively. The mean (+/-SD) length of the entire adrenal gland and of the medulla was 6.22 +/- 0.77 cm (n = 14) and 5.45 +/- 0.71 cm (n = 6), respectively. Transrectal ultrasonography allowed adequate visualization of the left adrenal gland in horses. PMID:20973389

  5. Evidence of adrenal failure in aging Dax1-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheys, Joshua O; Heaton, Joanne H; Hammer, Gary D

    2011-09-01

    Dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) critical region on the X chromosome, gene 1 (Dax1) is an orphan nuclear receptor essential for development and function of the mammalian adrenal cortex and gonads. DAX1 was cloned as the gene responsible for X-linked AHC, which is characterized by adrenocortical failure necessitating glucocorticoid replacement. Contrary to these human data, young mice with genetic Dax1 knockout (Dax1(-/Y)) exhibit adrenocortical hyperfunction, consistent with the historic description of Dax1 as a transcriptional repressor that inhibits steroidogenic factor 1-dependent steroidogenesis. This paradox of molecular function and two apparently opposite phenotypes associated with Dax1 deficiency in mice and humans is compounded by the recent observations that under certain circumstances, Dax1 can serve as a transcriptional activator of steroidogenic factor 1. The recently revealed role of Dax1 in embryonic stem cell pluripotency, together with the observation that its expression in the adult adrenal is restricted to the subcapsular cortex, where presumptive undifferentiated progenitor cells reside, has led us to reexamine the phenotype of Dax1(-/Y) mice in order to reconcile the conflicting mouse and human data. In this report, we demonstrate that although young Dax1(-/Y) mice have enhanced steroidogenesis and subcapsular adrenocortical proliferation, as these mice age, they exhibit declining adrenal growth, decreasing adrenal steroidogenic capacity, and a reversal of their initial enhanced hormonal sensitivity. Together with a marked adrenal dysplasia in aging mice, these data reveal that both Dax1(-/Y) mice and patients with X-linked AHC exhibit adrenal failure that is consistent with adrenocortical subcapsular progenitor cell depletion and argue for a significant role of Dax1 in maintenance of these cells.

  6. The antimicrobial peptides derived from chromogranin/secretogranin family, new actors of innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooshtarizadeh, Peiman; Zhang, Dan; Chich, Jean-François; Gasnier, Claire; Schneider, Francis; Haïkel, Youssef; Aunis, Dominique; Metz-Boutigue, Marie-Hélène

    2010-11-30

    Chromogranins/secretogranins are members of the granin family present in secretory vesicles of nervous, endocrine and immune cells. In chromaffin cells, activation of nicotinic cholinergic receptors induces the release, with catecholamines, of bioactive peptides resulting from a natural processing. During the past decade, our laboratory has characterized new antimicrobial chromogranin-derived peptides in the secretions of stimulated bovine chromaffin cells. They act at the micromolar range against bacteria, fungi, yeasts, and are non-toxic for the mammalian cells. They are recovered in several biological fluids involved in defence mechanisms (human serum, neutrophil secretions and saliva). These new antimicrobial peptides demonstrate the major role of the adrenal medulla in innate immunity. In this review we focus on the antimicrobial peptides derived from human and bovine chromogranin A (CGA), chromogranin B (CGB) and secretogranin II (SGII) emphasizing their direct action against pathogens and their effects on immune cells.

  7. Adrenal hemorrhage after orthotopic liver transplantation: MR appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the MR imaging findings of right adrenal hemorrhage after orthotopic liver transplantation. Twenty-seven orthotopic liver transplantation patients underwent MR studies of the liver and/or biliary system. Patients were referred to MR examination because of suspected biliary complications (n=22) or for evaluation of mass lesions (n=5). The standard MR protocol included T1-weighted spin-echo (SE) or gradient-recalled echo (GRE) images and T2-weighted turbo SE (TSE) images with fat suppression. In addition, cholangiography pulse sequences and/or contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images were obtained according to specific indications. In 2 patients a right adrenal mass was detected at MR imaging. Three to 4 weeks after transplantation, the lesions were markedly hyperintense on T2-weighted images and showed a hypointense capsule. Follow-up MR examinations revealed a slight decrease in size and a change in morphology. Computed tomography examinations of these 2 patients, obtained 10 weeks after transplantation, showed resolution of the hemorrhage and transformation into a cystic lesion in one case and a complete resolution of the hemorrhage and a normal right adrenal gland in the other case. Adrenal hemorrhage after liver transplantation shows typical MR features and should not be mistaken for an adrenal tumor or a postoperative abscess. (orig.)

  8. Mifepristone Accelerates HPA Axis Recovery in Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Context. Transient secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI) is an expected complication following successful adenomectomy of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas or unilateral adrenalectomy for cortisol-secreting adrenal adenomas. To date, no pharmacological therapy has been shown to hasten recovery of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in this clinical scenario. Case Description. A 33-year-old woman underwent uncomplicated unilateral adrenalectomy for a 3.7 cm cortisol-secreting adrenal adenoma. Postoperatively, she developed SAI and was placed on hydrocortisone 15 mg/day, given in divided doses. In the ensuing six years, the patient's HPA axis failed to recover and she remained corticosteroid-dependent. Quarterly biochemical testing (after withholding hydrocortisone for 18 hours) consistently yielded undetectable serum cortisol and subnormal plasma ACTH levels. While she was on hydrocortisone 15 mg/day, mifepristone was initiated and gradually titrated to a maintenance dose of 600 mg/day after 5 months. Rapid recovery of the HPA axis was subsequently noted with ACTH rising into the supranormal range at 4 months followed by a subsequent rise in cortisol levels into the normal range. After 6 months, the dose of hydrocortisone and mifepristone was lowered and both were ultimately stopped after 8 months. The HPA axis remains normal after an additional 16 months of follow-up. Conclusion. Mifepristone successfully restored the HPA axis in a woman with prolonged secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI) after adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome (CS). PMID:27516913

  9. Clinical value of isotope methods in adrenal morphology investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakubowski, W.; Feltynowski, T.; Graban, W. (Akademia Medyczna, Warsaw (Poland))

    1981-01-01

    In the years 1976-1980 in 105 patients 124 adrenal scintigrams were obtained, including 50 in patients with primary hyperaldosteronism syndrome, 27 with Cushings syndrome, 8 after bilateral total adrenalectomy, 4 with adrenal virilizing tumours, 6 with phaeochromocytoma, 10 with normal adrenal function. The results of scintigraphy were compared with those of arteriography, phlebography, computer tomography and postoperative findings. The clinical value of scintigraphy was found to be greatest in cases of adrenocortical disease. In cases of phaeochromocytoma isotope angioscintigraphy is a useful method for localizing the tumour since it makes possible demonstration of the vascular bed of the tumour. A close correlation was demonstrated between the results of scintigraphy and those of computer tomography. In the group of 27 patients treated surgically for adrenocortical disease in 87% of cases an agreement was found between the results of scintigraphy and the result of the operation. For different adrenocortical diseases this per cent was: 77% for Cushings syndrome, 91% for primary hyperaldosteronism, 100% for adrenal virilizing tumours. The study showed that adrenal scintigraphy is a very valuable diagnostic method of high clinical usefulness in adrenocortical diseases.

  10. Development of automated detection of radiology reports citing adrenal findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zopf, Jason; Langer, Jessica; Boonn, William; Kim, Woojin; Zafar, Hanna

    2011-03-01

    Indeterminate incidental findings pose a challenge to both the radiologist and the ordering physician as their imaging appearance is potentially harmful but their clinical significance and optimal management is unknown. We seek to determine if it is possible to automate detection of adrenal nodules, an indeterminate incidental finding, on imaging examinations at our institution. Using PRESTO (Pathology-Radiology Enterprise Search tool), a newly developed search engine at our institution that mines dictated radiology reports, we searched for phrases used by attendings to describe incidental adrenal findings. Using these phrases as a guide, we designed a query that can be used with the PRESTO index. The results were refined using a modified version of NegEx to eliminate query terms that have been negated within the report text. In order to validate these findings we used an online random date generator to select two random weeks. We queried our RIS database for all reports created on those dates and manually reviewed each report to check for adrenal incidental findings. This survey produced a ground- truth dataset of reports citing adrenal incidental findings against which to compare query performance. We further reviewed the false positives and negatives identified by our validation study, in an attempt to improve the performance query. This algorithm is an important step towards automating the detection of incidental adrenal nodules on cross sectional imaging at our institution. Subsequently, this query can be combined with electronic medical record data searches to determine the clinical significance of these findings through resultant follow-up.

  11. Mifepristone Accelerates HPA Axis Recovery in Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohan, Pejman

    2016-01-01

    Context. Transient secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI) is an expected complication following successful adenomectomy of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas or unilateral adrenalectomy for cortisol-secreting adrenal adenomas. To date, no pharmacological therapy has been shown to hasten recovery of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in this clinical scenario. Case Description. A 33-year-old woman underwent uncomplicated unilateral adrenalectomy for a 3.7 cm cortisol-secreting adrenal adenoma. Postoperatively, she developed SAI and was placed on hydrocortisone 15 mg/day, given in divided doses. In the ensuing six years, the patient's HPA axis failed to recover and she remained corticosteroid-dependent. Quarterly biochemical testing (after withholding hydrocortisone for 18 hours) consistently yielded undetectable serum cortisol and subnormal plasma ACTH levels. While she was on hydrocortisone 15 mg/day, mifepristone was initiated and gradually titrated to a maintenance dose of 600 mg/day after 5 months. Rapid recovery of the HPA axis was subsequently noted with ACTH rising into the supranormal range at 4 months followed by a subsequent rise in cortisol levels into the normal range. After 6 months, the dose of hydrocortisone and mifepristone was lowered and both were ultimately stopped after 8 months. The HPA axis remains normal after an additional 16 months of follow-up. Conclusion. Mifepristone successfully restored the HPA axis in a woman with prolonged secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI) after adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome (CS). PMID:27516913

  12. RETROPERITONEAL LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERY FOR ADRENAL DISEASES (REPORT OF 136 CASES)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To summarize experiences in 136 cases of retroperitoneal laparoscopic surgery. Methods:From April 1997 to May 2002, retroperitoneal laparoscopic surgery were performed for 136 cases of adrenal dis-eases. There were 63 aldosterone- producing adenoma, 22 adrenalcortical adenoma, 39 nonfunctional adrenal tu-mor, 7 adrenal cyst and 5 phenochromocytoma. Results: Except for one case converts to open surgery, success hasbeen achieved in all cases without major complications. Intraoperative blood loss was 76 + 32ml without blood trans-fusion. Postoperative hospital stay was 6 + 3 days. There were statistical differences among these indices when com-paring to those of open surgery for 126 cases with adrenal diseases( P < 0.05). But operative time was little longer inlaparoscopic group than in group of open surgery(P<0.05) ,whereas it has been changed to similar in those recentcases. Conclusion:Retroperitoneal laparoscopic surgery was less traumatic to the patients, with less postoperative dis-comfort and quicker recovery and should be considered the first choice of therapy for adrenal disorders.

  13. Double-hit primary unilateral adrenal lymphoma with good outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Olivera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Primary adrenal non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL is a rare neoplasm with poor prognosis. On the other side, double-hit lymphomas with BCL2 and MYC translocation are characterized by advanced disease stage, extranodal and central nervous system involvements at presentation or disease progression. Case report. We reported a 73-year-old male patient with double-hit primary adrenal lymphoma and preserved adrenal function, showing a favorable clinical course. Computed tomography of abdomen showed a 9 7 cm mass of the left adrenal gland. Laparatomy with left adrenalectomy was done and histological examination revealed diagnosis of a diffuse large B-cell NHL (DLBCL, non-GCB subtype. The patient was treated with 6 cycles of R-CHOP chemotherapy with reduced doses of doxorubicin because of the decreased left verticle ejection fraction. The patient was followed up regularly for 20 months with no evidence of tumor recurrence despite the inherently poor prognostic profile and double-hit phenotype of the disease. Conclusion. R-CHOP chemotherapy in combination with adrenalectomy can be an effective first-line regimen for primary adrenal DLBCL, despite the inherently poor prognostic profile (non-GCB subtype, bulky disease, elevated lactate dehydrogenase and double-hit phenotype of the disease.

  14. Aldo-Keto Reductases 1B in Adrenal Cortex Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastel, Emilie; Pointud, Jean-Christophe; Martinez, Antoine; Lefrançois-Martinez, A Marie

    2016-01-01

    Aldose reductase (AKR1B) proteins are monomeric enzymes, belonging to the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily. They perform oxidoreduction of carbonyl groups from a wide variety of substrates, such as aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes or ketones. Due to the involvement of human aldose reductases in pathologies, such as diabetic complications and cancer, AKR1B subgroup enzymatic properties have been extensively characterized. However, the issue of AKR1B function in non-pathologic conditions remains poorly resolved. Adrenal activities generated large amount of harmful aldehydes from lipid peroxidation and steroidogenesis, including 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and isocaproaldehyde (4-methylpentanal), which can both be reduced by AKR1B proteins. More recently, some AKR1B isoforms have been shown to be endowed with prostaglandin F synthase (PGFS) activity, suggesting that, in addition to possible scavenger function, they could instigate paracrine signals. Interestingly, the adrenal gland is one of the major sites for human and murine AKR1B expression, suggesting that their detoxifying/signaling activity could be specifically required for the correct handling of adrenal function. Moreover, chronic effects of ACTH result in a coordinated regulation of genes encoding the steroidogenic enzymes and some AKR1B isoforms. This review presents the molecular mechanisms accounting for the adrenal-specific expression of some AKR1B genes. Using data from recent mouse genetic models, we will try to connect their enzymatic properties and regulation with adrenal functions.

  15. Mifepristone Accelerates HPA Axis Recovery in Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohan, Pejman

    2016-01-01

    Context. Transient secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI) is an expected complication following successful adenomectomy of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas or unilateral adrenalectomy for cortisol-secreting adrenal adenomas. To date, no pharmacological therapy has been shown to hasten recovery of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in this clinical scenario. Case Description. A 33-year-old woman underwent uncomplicated unilateral adrenalectomy for a 3.7 cm cortisol-secreting adrenal adenoma. Postoperatively, she developed SAI and was placed on hydrocortisone 15 mg/day, given in divided doses. In the ensuing six years, the patient's HPA axis failed to recover and she remained corticosteroid-dependent. Quarterly biochemical testing (after withholding hydrocortisone for 18 hours) consistently yielded undetectable serum cortisol and subnormal plasma ACTH levels. While she was on hydrocortisone 15 mg/day, mifepristone was initiated and gradually titrated to a maintenance dose of 600 mg/day after 5 months. Rapid recovery of the HPA axis was subsequently noted with ACTH rising into the supranormal range at 4 months followed by a subsequent rise in cortisol levels into the normal range. After 6 months, the dose of hydrocortisone and mifepristone was lowered and both were ultimately stopped after 8 months. The HPA axis remains normal after an additional 16 months of follow-up. Conclusion. Mifepristone successfully restored the HPA axis in a woman with prolonged secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI) after adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome (CS).

  16. The prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma in routine clinical practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davenport, Colin

    2011-03-10

    The prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma (AI) on computed tomography (CT) in the general population has been reported to be as high as 4.2%. However, many of the previous studies in this field utilised a prospective approach with analysis of CT scans performed by one or more radiologists with a specialist interest in adrenal tumours and a specific focus on identifying the presence of an adrenal mass. A typical radiology department, with a focus on the patient\\'s presenting complaint as opposed to the adrenal gland, may not be expected to diagnose as many adrenal incidentalomas as would be identified in a dedicated research protocol. We hypothesised that the number of AI reported in routine clinical practice is significantly lower than the published figures would suggest. We retrospectively reviewed the reports of all CT thorax and abdomen scans performed in our hospital over a 2 year period. 3,099 patients underwent imaging, with 3,705 scans performed. The median age was 63 years (range 18-98). Thirty-seven true AI were diagnosed during the time period studied. Twenty-two were diagnosed by CT abdomen (22\\/2,227) and 12 by CT thorax (12\\/1,478), a prevalence of 0.98 and 0.81% with CT abdomen and thorax, respectively, for AI in routine clinical practice.

  17. The prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma in routine clinical practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davenport, Colin

    2012-02-01

    The prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma (AI) on computed tomography (CT) in the general population has been reported to be as high as 4.2%. However, many of the previous studies in this field utilised a prospective approach with analysis of CT scans performed by one or more radiologists with a specialist interest in adrenal tumours and a specific focus on identifying the presence of an adrenal mass. A typical radiology department, with a focus on the patient\\'s presenting complaint as opposed to the adrenal gland, may not be expected to diagnose as many adrenal incidentalomas as would be identified in a dedicated research protocol. We hypothesised that the number of AI reported in routine clinical practice is significantly lower than the published figures would suggest. We retrospectively reviewed the reports of all CT thorax and abdomen scans performed in our hospital over a 2 year period. 3,099 patients underwent imaging, with 3,705 scans performed. The median age was 63 years (range 18-98). Thirty-seven true AI were diagnosed during the time period studied. Twenty-two were diagnosed by CT abdomen (22\\/2,227) and 12 by CT thorax (12\\/1,478), a prevalence of 0.98 and 0.81% with CT abdomen and thorax, respectively, for AI in routine clinical practice.

  18. Role of the adrenal medulla in control of blood pressure and renal function during furosemide-induced volume depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasbak, Philip; Petersen, Jørgen Søberg; Shalmi, Michael;

    1995-01-01

    Farmakologi, furosemide, adrenaline, renal function, adrenal medullectomy, arterial blood pressure......Farmakologi, furosemide, adrenaline, renal function, adrenal medullectomy, arterial blood pressure...

  19. Limited significance of asymmetric adrenal visualization on dexamethasone-suppression scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To access whether a single measurement of the adrenal uptake of 6β-[131I]-iodomethylnorocholesterol (NP-59) on constant dexamethasone suppression would allow discrimination of adenoma from normal and bilateral hyperplasia, the adrenal uptake of 6β-[131I]-iodomethylnorocholesterol (NP-59) was determined in 50 patients with primary aldosteronism (30 adenoma, 20 hyperplasia) and in 13 with hyperandrogenism (six adenoma, seven hyperplasia). Bilateral adrenal NP-59 activity at 5 days was seen in 14 of 36 patients with adenoma whereas marked asymmetric uptake of NP-59 was seen in six of 27 patients with hyperplasia. Thus the level of adrenal NP-59 uptake does not alone serve to distinguish either adenoma from the normal, contralateral adrenal or the adrenal glands in bilateral hyperplasia in all cases. It appears that the pattern of adrenal imaging best serves to separate adrenal adenoma from bilateral hyperplasia

  20. Limited significance of asymmetric adrenal visualization on dexamethasone-suppression scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, M.D.; Shapiro, B.; Freitas, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    To access whether a single measurement of the adrenal uptake of 6..beta..-(/sup 131/I)-iodomethylnorocholesterol (NP-59) on constant dexamethasone suppression would allow discrimination of adenoma from normal and bilateral hyperplasia, the adrenal uptake of 6..beta..-(/sup 131/I)-iodomethylnorocholesterol (NP-59) was determined in 50 patients with primary aldosteronism (30 adenoma, 20 hyperplasia) and in 13 with hyperandrogenism (six adenoma, seven hyperplasia). Bilateral adrenal NP-59 activity at 5 days was seen in 14 of 36 patients with adenoma whereas marked asymmetric uptake of NP-59 was seen in six of 27 patients with hyperplasia. Thus the level of adrenal NP-59 uptake does not alone serve to distinguish either adenoma from the normal, contralateral adrenal or the adrenal glands in bilateral hyperplasia in all cases. It appears that the pattern of adrenal imaging best serves to separate adrenal adenoma from bilateral hyperplasia.

  1. Adrenal Insufficiency Caused by Locally Applied Glucocorticoids-Myth or Fact?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinsen, Stina; Klose, Marianne; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh;

    2015-01-01

    Case-reports have made it evident that both inhaled, percutaneous, intranasal, intraarticular and ophthalmic administered glucocorticoids have the potential to cause life threatening adrenal insufficiency. With few and sometimes conflicting data and study methodology the prevalence of adrenal ins...

  2. Feminizing adrenal tumors: Our experience about three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chentli Farida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Feminizing adrenal tumors (FATs are very rare as they account for less than 2% of all the adrenal neoplasms. Their prognosis is deemed to be very poor. We aimed to present a mono centre (adult and pediatric experience over a long period of time (January 1980 to Jun 2012. During the study period, we observed only three cases in men aged 22 (2 cases and 45 (1 case. They all consulted for a painful gynecomastia, decreased libido and impotency. Estradiol was high in two cases at presentation, and after a relapsing tumor in the third one. All had big adrenal tumors (5.9, 6, and 17 cm, and a mixed secretion composed by high estradiol and cortisol. The pathological study argued for malignancy in two cases. But, only one had diffuse metastasis and died 4 years after diagnosis; the others diagnosed one and three years ago are still alive without any metastasis or relapsing.

  3. Imaging of rare medullary adrenal tumours in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, C A; Tang, Y Z; Coniglio, G; Sahdev, A

    2016-05-01

    Although adrenal medullary tumours are rare, they have important clinical implications. They form a heterogeneous group of tumours, ranging from benign, non-secretory, incidental masses to hormonally active tumours presenting acutely, or malignant tumours with disseminated disease and a poor prognosis. Increasingly, benign masses are incidentally detected due to the widespread use of imaging and routine medical check-ups. This review aims to illustrate the multimodality imaging appearances of rare adrenal medullary tumours, excluding the more common phaeochromocytomas, with clues to the diagnosis and to summarise relevant epidemiological and clinical data. Careful correlation of clinical presentation, hormone profile, and various imaging techniques narrow the differential diagnosis. Image-guided percutaneous adrenal biopsy can provide a definitive diagnosis, allowing for conservative management in selected cases. A close collaboration between the radiologist, endocrinologist, and surgeon is of the utmost importance in the management of these tumours. PMID:26944698

  4. Severe Psychotic Disorder as the Main Manifestation of Adrenal Insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Julia de Lima; Lauand, Carolina Villar; Chequi, Lucas; Fortunato, Enrico; Pasqualino, Felipe; Bignotto, Luis Henrique; Batista, Rafael Loch; Aprahamian, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of severe psychotic disorder as the only manifestation of primary adrenal insufficiency. A 63-year-old man presented with psychotic symptoms without any prior psychiatric history. During the clinical and laboratorial investigation, exams revealed a normovolemic hyponatremia. The patient showed no other clinical signs or symptoms compatible with adrenal insufficiency but displayed very high ACTH and low serum cortisol concentrations. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed no significant changes, including the pituitary gland. The patient was initially treated with intravenous corticosteroids, resulting in rapid remission of the psychotic symptoms. The association between adrenal insufficiency and neuropsychiatric symptoms is rare but these symptoms can often be the first clinical presentation of the disease. PMID:25954562

  5. Severe Psychotic Disorder as the Main Manifestation of Adrenal Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia de Lima Farah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of severe psychotic disorder as the only manifestation of primary adrenal insufficiency. A 63-year-old man presented with psychotic symptoms without any prior psychiatric history. During the clinical and laboratorial investigation, exams revealed a normovolemic hyponatremia. The patient showed no other clinical signs or symptoms compatible with adrenal insufficiency but displayed very high ACTH and low serum cortisol concentrations. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed no significant changes, including the pituitary gland. The patient was initially treated with intravenous corticosteroids, resulting in rapid remission of the psychotic symptoms. The association between adrenal insufficiency and neuropsychiatric symptoms is rare but these symptoms can often be the first clinical presentation of the disease.

  6. Pure Androgen-Secreting Adrenal Adenoma Associated with Resistant Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Rodríguez-Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure androgen-secreting adrenal adenoma is very rare, and its diagnosis remains a clinical challenge. Its association with resistant hypertension is uncommon and not well understood. We present an 18-year-old female with a 10-year history of hirsutism that was accidentally diagnosed with an adrenal mass during the evaluation of a hypertensive crisis. She had a long-standing history of hirsutism, clitorimegaly, deepening of the voice, and primary amenorrhea. She was phenotypically and socially a male. FSH, LH, prolactin, estradiol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and progesterone were normal. Total testosterone and DHEA-S were elevated. Cushing syndrome, primary aldosteronism, pheochromocytoma, and nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia were ruled out. She underwent adrenalectomy and pathology reported an adenoma. At 2-month followup, hirsutism and virilizing symptoms clearly improved and blood pressure normalized without antihypertensive medications, current literature of this unusual illness and it association with hypertension is presented and discussed.

  7. Ganglioneuroma of adrenal gland in a patient with Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamoun, Mahdi; Mnif, Mouna Feki; Rekik, Nabila; Belguith, Neila; Charfi, Nadia; Mnif, Lilia; Elleuch, Mouna; Mnif, Fatma; Kamoun, Thouraya; Mnif, Zeinab; Kamoun, Hassen; Sellami-Boudawara, Tahia; Hachicha, Mongia; Abid, Mohamed

    2010-04-01

    A 15-year-old girl with Turner syndrome was unexpectedly found to have a left suprarenal mass. Extensive investigations showed a clinically and biochemically inapparent mass. Computed tomography disclosed a well-defined solid lesion in the left adrenal measuring 6.5 x 5 cm with minimal contrast enhancement. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was done. Histologic examination revealed an encapsulated mass originated from the left adrenal medulla. Tumor tissue comprised abundant collagen fibers and spindloid cells admixed with mature ganglion cells. The tumor was diagnosed as left adrenal ganglioneuroma. According to literature, we report the eighth case of ganglioneuroma complicating Turner syndrome. Patients with this syndrome are predisposed to the development of neuroblastoma and related tumors. Reasons for this predisposition might relate to genetic and hormonal factors. Given that these tumors are often limited stage and of good prognosis, we recommend their screening in all patients with Turner syndrome.

  8. Primary Adrenal Leiomyosarcoma in an Arab Male: A Rare Case Report with Immunohistochemistry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Veena; Mustafa, Mohammed; Amin, Essa; Ali, Waleed; Naji Sarsam, Shamil

    2015-01-01

    Primary adrenal leiomyosarcoma is a rare form of adrenal mesenchymal tumors. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) together with histology takes a major role in determining the tumor type and predicting their biological behavior and differentiating them from adrenal cortical carcinoma. Appropriate radiological investigation is necessary to rule out metastatic disease from primary tumors elsewhere in the body. In this case, we report a primary leiomyosarcoma of the adrenal gland in a 61-year-old Bahraini male clinically presumed to be a renal neoplasm. PMID:25685588

  9. A giant adrenal pseudocyst presenting with right hypochondralgia and fever: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Akiyama Hirotoshi; Tanaka Kuniya; Yoshida Kenichi; Matsuo Kenichi; Momiyama Masashi; Yamanaka Shoji; Endo Itaru

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Adrenal pseudocysts are rare cystic masses that arise from the adrenal gland and which are usually non-functional and asymptomatic. Adrenal pseudocysts consist of a fibrous wall without an epithelial or endothelial lining. We report the case of a patient with a giant adrenal pseudocyst presenting with right hypochondralgia and high fever. Case presentation A 52-year-old Japanese man was admitted with right hypochondralgia and a chill. Abdominal computed tomography reveal...

  10. Giant secreting adrenal myelolipoma in a man: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrara Rosario

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare, benign neoplasm that is usually asymptomatic, unilateral and nonsecreting. It develops within the adrenal gland and is composed of mature adipose tissue with elements of the hematopoietic series. We describe the case of what is, to the best of our knowledge, one of the largest secreting adrenal myelolipomas reported in the literature. Case presentation A 52-year-old Caucasian man of medium build who had had moderate hypertension for three years presented to our hospital. He had no other significant symptoms. His hypertension was pharmacologically treated. He came to our hospital to undergo abdominal ultrasonography during a clinical checkup. The ultrasound scan showed the presence of a voluminous hyperechoic mass interposed between the spleen and the left kidney. It was reported as a myelolipoma of the left kidney on the basis of its structural characteristics and position. Computed tomography confirmed our diagnosis. All preoperative biochemical tests were normal, with the exception of high serum cortisol, which was being overproduced by the lesion and was probably responsible for the patient's hypertension. He underwent successful surgery, and his postoperative course was uneventful. The pathologic examination of the lesion confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal myelolipoma. The patient's blood pressure returned to within the normal range. Conclusions The "incidental" discovery of an adrenal mass requires careful diagnostic study to plan adequate therapeutic management. Both of the primary investigations at our disposal, ultrasound and blood tests (adrenal hormones, helped in rendering the diagnosis and allowed us to move toward the most appropriate treatment, taking into account the size of the tumor and its probable hormonal production.

  11. A brief history of adrenal research: steroidogenesis - the soul of the adrenal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Walter L

    2013-05-22

    The adrenal is a small gland that escaped anatomic notice until the 16th century, and whose essential role in physiology was not established until the mid 19th century. Early studies were confounded by failure to distinguish the effects of the cortex from those of the medulla, but advances in steroid chemistry permitted the isolation, characterization and synthesis of many steroids by the mid 20th century. Knowledge of steroid structures, radiolabeled steroid conversions, and the identification of accumulated urinary steroids in diseases of steroidogenesis permitted a generally correct description of the steroidogenic pathways, but one confounded by the failure to distinguish species-specific differences. The advent of cloning technologies and molecular genetics rapidly corrected and clarified the understanding of steroidogenic processes. Our laboratory in San Francisco was one of several contributing to this effort, focusing on human steroidogenic enzymes, the genetic disorders in their biosynthesis and the transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms regulating enzyme activity.

  12. The next 150 years of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcu, Adina F; Auchus, Richard J

    2015-09-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasias (CAH) are a group of autosomal recessive defects in cortisol biosynthesis. Substantial progress has been made since the description of the first report, 150 years ago. This article reviews some of the recent advances in the genetics, diagnosis and treatment of CAH. In addition, we underline the aspects where further progress is required, including, among others, better diagnostic modalities for the mild phenotype and for some of the rare forms of disease, elucidation of epigenetic factors that lead to different phenotypes in patients with identical genotype and expending on treatment options for controlling the adrenal androgen excess. PMID:26047556

  13. Unusual Giant Adrenal Myelolipoma with Chronic Mild Postprandial Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk Soylemez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal myelolipomas are rare, small, benign, non-functioning tumors, which must be histopathologically differentiated from other tumors such as lipomas or liposarcomas. They are usually identified incidentally during autopsy, imaging or laparotomy. Occasionally, they may present acutely due to complications such as abdominal pain from retroperitoneal bleeding or systemic symptoms of infection. In differantial diagnosis, Magnetic Resonance Imaging may be useful to show characterize of tissue and relationship with other organs. We report a 66-year-old man with a giant adrenal myelolipoma clinically presenting with chronic mild postprandial pain with a brief review of the literature.

  14. Acute adrenal haemorrhage: diagnosis, treatment and follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, J G; Borri, M L; Menasce, S; Ajzen, S; Kater, C E; Faiçal, S

    1996-01-01

    Acute adrenal haemorrhage (AAH) is a rare disorder with different aetiologies. Aiming to discuss this condition, this report deals with four different cases that will be analysed and examined below, each one of them confirmed by biopsy or surgery and followed clinically and radiologically. In these cases it was found that the patients suffered from localized abdominal pain (4/4) and fever (2/4); one patient had adrenal insufficiency due to bilateral massive AAH. Therefore we concluded that AAH is an uncommon condition with variable clinical manifestations. PMID:9089038

  15. Uncommon Cause of Acute Adrenal Failure - Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Adrenomyeloneuropathy is a rare X-linked inherited disorder of peroxisomes characterized by accumulation of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA in the central and peripheral nervous system, adrenal glands and testes, leading to dysfunction of these organs and systems (1. Here, we report a case of adrenomyeloneuropathy presenting initially as acute adrenal crisis, which progressed rapidly within one year to variant neurological manifestations, dementia, sensory, motor and psycho-intellectual dysfunction, and generalized spasticity. Turk Jem 2010; 14: 103-5

  16. CT in spontaneous adrenal gland rupture. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report on an exceptional case of spontaneous, idiopathic, unilateral adrenal gland rupture that caused massive retroperitoneal hemorrhage. Methods and Results: US and CT were performed in a patient who presented with acute abdominal pain. Urgent adrenalectomy was required to prevent the blood loss from continuing. The CT findings were correlated with the histological findings. Conclusion: CT proved to be an accurate imaging modality by which to diagnose adrenal hemorrhage. The absence of irregular tissue enhancement showed that neoplasia was not the underlying cause of the hematoma. (orig.)

  17. CT in spontaneous adrenal gland rupture. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usamentiaga, E.; Ortiz, A.; Bustamante, M.; Pereda, T.; Pagola, M.A. [Marques de Valdecilla University Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Santander (Spain)

    1998-05-01

    Purpose: To report on an exceptional case of spontaneous, idiopathic, unilateral adrenal gland rupture that caused massive retroperitoneal hemorrhage. Methods and Results: US and CT were performed in a patient who presented with acute abdominal pain. Urgent adrenalectomy was required to prevent the blood loss from continuing. The CT findings were correlated with the histological findings. Conclusion: CT proved to be an accurate imaging modality by which to diagnose adrenal hemorrhage. The absence of irregular tissue enhancement showed that neoplasia was not the underlying cause of the hematoma. (orig.).

  18. Volume of the adrenal and pituitary glands in depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Willer, Inge Stoel; Knorr, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is hyperactive in some depressed patients. It is unclear whether such hyperactivity results in changed volumes of the adrenal glands, pituitary gland and hypothalamus. We systematically reviewed all controlled studies...... identified such as small population samples, different subtypes of depression and insufficient matching of patients and controls. Due to large heterogeneity of study designs and data, it was futile to make a meta-analysis. It is concluded that it remains unclear whether hyperactivity of the HPA axis results...

  19. Xanthogranulomatous adrenalitis in a neonate: CT and US findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinavarat, Panruethai; Sasiwimonphan, Kewalee [Chulalongkorn University, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Bangkok (Thailand); Sansopha, Lalana [Chulalongkorn University, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Bangkok (Thailand); Vejchapipat, Paisarn [Chulalongkorn University, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Bangkok (Thailand); Sosothikul, Darintr [Chulalongkorn University, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2009-03-15

    We report a 46-day-old female infant with xanthogranulomatous adrenalitis. Ultrasonography showed a complex, solid-cystic right suprarenal mass with poorly defined margins. Colour flow Doppler revealed the solid portion of the mass to be vascular. CT demonstrated a heterogeneous cystic and solid mass with some contrast enhancement in the inferior part of the lesion. There was compression of the adjacent upper pole of the right kidney and the lateral aspect of the inferior vena cava. The mass was completely removed; histological examination revealed xanthogranulomatous adrenalitis. At the time of this report she remained well 3 years following surgery. (orig.)

  20. Successful treatment for adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia with laparoscopic adrenalectomy: a case series

    OpenAIRE

    Ito Toshiki; Kurita Yutaka; Shinbo Hitoshi; Otsuka Atsushi; Furuse Hiroshi; Mugiya Soichi; Ushiyama Tomomi; Ozono Seiichiro; Oki Yutaka; Suzuki Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia, characterized by bilateral macronodular adrenal hypertrophy and autonomous cortisol production, is a rare cause of Cushing’s syndrome. Bilateral adrenalectomy is considered the standard treatment for adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia but obliges the patient to receive lifetime steroid replacement therapy subsequently, and may increase the patient’s risk of adr...

  1. Urine Steroid Metabolomics as a Biomarker Tool for Detecting Malignancy in Adrenal Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arlt, Wiebke; Biehl, Michael; Taylor, Angela E.; Hahner, Stefanie; Libe, Rossella; Hughes, Beverly A.; Schneider, Petra; Smith, David J.; Stiekema, Han; Krone, Nils; Porfiri, Emilio; Opocher, Giuseppe; Bertherat, Jerome; Mantero, Franco; Allolio, Bruno; Terzolo, Massimo; Nightingale, Peter; Shackleton, Cedric H. L.; Bertagna, Xavier; Fassnacht, Martin; Stewart, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Adrenal tumors have a prevalence of around 2% in the general population. Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is rare but accounts for 2-11% of incidentally discovered adrenal masses. Differentiating ACC from adrenocortical adenoma (ACA) represents a diagnostic challenge in patients with adrenal

  2. Adrenal Rest Tumor from the Greater Omentum Mimicking Exophytic Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC): A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyung Jo; Kim, Seong Hoon; Shin, Hyun Woong [Daegu Fatima Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Bok [Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Hyun Chul; Son, Mi Young; Kim, Tae Bong [Daegu Veterans Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Adrenal rest tumors are aberrant adrenocortical tissue which has been most commonly described in abdominal and pelvic sites. To our knowledge, there has been no previous description of an adrenal rest tumor of the greater omentum. We present a case of a pathologically confirmed adrenal rest tumor of the greater omentum in a 76-year- old man

  3. File list: DNS.Oth.50.AllAg.Adrenal_Glands [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. A case of bilateral aldosterone-producing adenomas differentiated by segmental adrenal venous sampling for bilateral adrenal sparing surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, R; Satani, N; Iwakura, Y; Ono, Y; Kudo, M; Nezu, M; Omata, K; Tezuka, Y; Seiji, K; Ota, H; Kawasaki, Y; Ishidoya, S; Nakamura, Y; Arai, Y; Takase, K; Sasano, H; Ito, S; Satoh, F

    2016-06-01

    Primary aldosteronism due to unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) is a surgically curable form of hypertension. Bilateral APA can also be surgically curable in theory but few successful cases can be found in the literature. It has been reported that even using successful adrenal venous sampling (AVS) via bilateral adrenal central veins, it is extremely difficult to differentiate bilateral APA from bilateral idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA) harbouring computed tomography (CT)-detectable bilateral adrenocortical nodules. We report a case of bilateral APA diagnosed by segmental AVS (S-AVS) and blood sampling via intra-adrenal first-degree tributary veins to localize the sites of intra-adrenal hormone production. A 36-year-old man with marked long-standing hypertension was referred to us with a clinical diagnosis of bilateral APA. He had typical clinical and laboratory profiles of marked hypertension, hypokalaemia, elevated plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) of 45.1 ng dl(-1) and aldosterone renin activity ratio of 90.2 (ng dl(-1) per ng ml(-1 )h(-1)), which was still high after 50 mg-captopril loading. CT revealed bilateral adrenocortical tumours of 10 and 12 mm in diameter on the right and left sides, respectively. S-AVS confirmed excess aldosterone secretion from a tumour segment vein and suppressed secretion from a non-tumour segment vein bilaterally, leading to the diagnosis of bilateral APA. The patient underwent simultaneous bilateral sparing adrenalectomy. Histopathological analysis of the resected adrenals together with decreased blood pressure and PAC of 5.2 ng dl(-1) confirmed the removal of bilateral APA. S-AVS was reliable to differentiate bilateral APA from IHA by direct evaluation of intra-adrenal hormone production. PMID:26538381

  15. Bovine Tuberculosis, A Zoonotic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarmudji

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is caused by the infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis (M. bovis. This species is one of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, can infect wide range of hosts: cattle and other domesticated animals, wild mammals and humans (zoonotic. M. bovis bacterium from infected hosts can be transmitted to other susceptible animals and humans through respiratory excretes and secretion materials. Humans can be infected with M. bovis by ingested M. bovis contaminated animal products, unpasteurised milk from tuberculosis cows or through respiratory route of contaminated aerosol. Bovine tuberculosis at the first stage does not show any clinical sign but as the disease progress in the next stage which may take several months or years, clinical signs may arise, suh as: fluctuative body temperature, anorexia, lost body weight, coughing, oedema of lymph nodes, increased respiratory frequencies. Pathological lesion of bovine tuberculosis is characterised by the formation of granulomas (tubercles, in which bacterial cells have been localised, most in lymph nodes and pulmonum, but can occur in other organs. The granulomas usually arise in small nodules or tubercles appear yellowish either caseus, caseo-calcareus or calcified. In Indonesia, bovine tuberculosis occurred in dairy cattle since 1905 through the imported dairy cows from Holland and Australian. It was unfortunate that until recently, there were not many research and surveilances of bovine tuberculosis conducted in this country, so the distribution of bovine tuberculosis is unknown. Early serological diagnosis can be done on live cattle by means of tuberculin tests under field conditions. Confirmation can be done by isolation and identification of excreted and secreted samples from the slaughter house. Antibiotic treatment and vaccination were uneffective, therefore the effective control of bovine tuberculosis is suggested by tuberculin tests and by slaughtering the selected

  16. A case series of two cases of juxta-adrenal schwannoma presenting as adrenal mass lesion and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivashankar Damodaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are rare tumors in the retroperitoneal location. They can pose a diagnostic dilemma when presenting as an adrenal mass lesion due to their imaging characteristics. We report two cases of juxta-adrenal schwannomas presenting as symptomatic adrenal mass lesions. In both the cases, the clinical examination and functional evaluation was unremarkable and the radiological examination revealed a mixed intense adrenal mass lesion in one case with predominantly hyperintense areas and a very hyperintense lesion in another, in T2-weighted images, mimicking a adrenocortical malignancy and a pheochromocytoma respectively. Both cases were treated by surgical excision. Histopathological examination established the correct diagnosis of schwannoma, which was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. Juxta-adrenal schwannoma is rare tumors of the retroperitoneum, which should also be borne in mind whenever encountering large nonsecreting adrenal tumors. We report a unique imaging characteristic, which helps in preoperative identification these rare lesions.

  17. A case series of two cases of juxta-adrenal schwannoma presenting as adrenal mass lesion and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaran, Shivashankar; Mahimairaj, Griffin; Velaichamy, Kamaraj

    2015-01-01

    Schwannomas are rare tumors in the retroperitoneal location. They can pose a diagnostic dilemma when presenting as an adrenal mass lesion due to their imaging characteristics. We report two cases of juxta-adrenal schwannomas presenting as symptomatic adrenal mass lesions. In both the cases, the clinical examination and functional evaluation was unremarkable and the radiological examination revealed a mixed intense adrenal mass lesion in one case with predominantly hyperintense areas and a very hyperintense lesion in another, in T2-weighted images, mimicking a adrenocortical malignancy and a pheochromocytoma respectively. Both cases were treated by surgical excision. Histopathological examination established the correct diagnosis of schwannoma, which was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. Juxta-adrenal schwannoma is rare tumors of the retroperitoneum, which should also be borne in mind whenever encountering large nonsecreting adrenal tumors. We report a unique imaging characteristic, which helps in preoperative identification these rare lesions. PMID:25837378

  18. Acute psychosis in the course of treatment of acute adrenal crisis with hydrocortisone in the patient with secondary adrenal insufficiency – a case study.

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Brykalski; Lucyna Papierska; Maria Załuska

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Presentation of the risk of psychosis induced by the treatment of adrenal crisis with high doses of hydrocortisone. Methods A case analysis in the context of the literature Results There are reported psychoses in the patients with adrenal hypofunction and hyperfunction. Psychoses following implementation of substitution with small doses of corticosteroids due to adrenal insufficiency were also observed. The hypereactivity of the glucocorticoid receptor is suppose...

  19. Adrenal scintigraphy in hyperandrogenism with 75Se-Norcholesterol (Scintadren)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    7 hirsute women were investigated using Scintadren under DS. In one of the cases an adenoma of the adrenal was found. In three cases the uptake of cholesterol was not suppressible. In a two-year-old boy with pubertas praecox an adenoma was found. (orig.)

  20. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of adrenal: Clinical presentation and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deep Dutta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET of adrenal is an extremely rare tumor of neural crest origin. A nonfunctional left adrenal mass (14.6 × 10.5 × 10.0 cm on computed tomography (CT was detected in a 40-year-old lady with abdominal pain, swelling, and left pleural effusion. She underwent left adrenalectomy and left nephrectomy with retroperitoneal resection. Histopathology revealed sheets and nest of oval tumor cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, prominent nucleoli, scanty cytoplasm, brisk mitotic activity, necrosis, lymphovascular invasion, capsular invasion, and extension to the surrounding muscles; staining positive for Mic-2 (CD-99 antigen, vimentin, synaptophysin, and Melan-A. Thoracocentesis, pleural fluid study, and pleural biopsy did not show metastasis. She responded well to vincristine, adriamycin, and cyclophosphamide followed by ifosfamide and etoposide (IE. This is the first report of adrenal peripheral PNET (pPNET from India. This report intends to highlight that pPNET should be suspected in a patient presenting with huge nonfunctional adrenal mass which may be confused with adrenocortical carcinoma.

  1. Etiology of common childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: the adrenal hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, K.; Vestergaard, T.; Nielsen, S.M.;

    2008-01-01

    The pattern of infections in the first years of life modulates our immune system, and a low incidence of infections has been linked to an increased risk of common childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We here present a new interpretation of these observations--the adrenal hypothesis...

  2. A Case of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Mimicking Cushing's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Jeong; Kang, Mira; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon; Min, Yong-Ki; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Kim, Kwang-Won

    2012-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is characterized by decreased adrenal hormone production due to enzymatic defects and subsequent rise of adrenocorticotrophic hormone that stimulates the adrenal cortex to become hyperplastic, and sometimes tumorous. As the pathophysiology is basically a defect in the biosynthesis of cortisol, one may not consider CAH in patients with hypercortisolism. We report a case of a 41-yr-old man with a 4 cm-sized left adrenal tumorous lesion mimicking Cushing's syndrome who was diagnosed with CAH. He had central obesity and acanthosis nigricans involving the axillae together with elevated 24-hr urine cortisol level, supporting the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. However, the 24-hr urine cortisol was suppressed by 95% with the low dose dexamethasone suppression test. CAH was suspected based on the history of precocious puberty, short stature and a profound suppression of cortisol production by dexamethasone. CAH was confirmed by a remarkably increased level of serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone level. Gene mutation analysis revealed a compound heterozygote mutation of CYP21A2 (I173N and R357W). PMID:23166432

  3. Response of adrenal gland to whole body 60Co irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whole body of the adult albino rates was exposed to 60Co radiation in a single dose of 600 R. Following irradiation the adrenal serotonin level was found higher till the end of 8th week except a fall on 14th day, whereas the blood 5HT level remained lower than the normal except a slight rise at the end of 1st week and dropped down at 14 days followed by a further rise. The blood catecholamine level was found increased at the end of 14th day followed by a fall at 4th and 8th weeks, but the levels were moving round the normal value. The histological studies of adrenal gland showed degranulation and hypertrophy of adrenal cortex and medullary cells at various intervals of post-irradiation. On the whole it is observed that maximum changes in the level of biogenic amines take place within 14 days after irradiation, and maximum rate of mortality also coincide with this period. Thus bringing out the fact that adrenal bioamines play an important role in the vital activities of the animals. (author)

  4. Adrenal function in preterm infants undergoing patent ductus arteriosus ligation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    El-Khuffash, Afif

    2013-01-01

    Targeted milrinone treatment for low left ventricular output (LVO) reduces the incidence of acute cardiorespiratory instability following ligation of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants. Despite this, some infants continue to experience postoperative deterioration. Adrenal insufficiency related to prematurity has been postulated as a possible mechanism.

  5. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia with localized aggressive periodontitis and amelogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajlan, Sumaiah Abdulbaqi

    2015-11-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an inherited medical condition that implies defects in steroid biosynthesis. The dental findings of a female patient with CAH are reported. The patient suffered from severe periodontal tissue destruction, obvious enamel defects, as well as some occlusal problems. The management approach is presented and the possibility of interrelation of her dental findings with her medical condition is discussed.

  6. Effect of copper deficiency on plasma and adrenal catecholamines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, B.W.; Bhathena, S.J.; Fields, M.; Voyles, N.R.; Timmers, K.I.; Recant, L.

    1986-03-01

    Copper (Cu) ion is an essential component of enzymes involved in catecholamine (CAT) metabolism. Copper deficiency (CuD) has been shown to affect the CAT content of brain (decreased norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA)) and heart (increased DA and decreased NE). It is thus possible that plasma and adrenal CAT could be altered by CuD. The authors, then, investigated the effect of CuD on plasma and adrenal CAT in rats fed copper-deficient (0.6 ..mu..g Cu/g) or copper-supplemented (6.0 ..mu..g Cu/g) diets with either 62% starch (S) or fructose (F) as the carbohydrate source for 7 weeks after weaning. CuD was ascertained by decreased plasma Cu and ceruloplasmin activity. CuD increased the levels of all three CAT (NE, P < 0.001, epinephrine (E), P < 0.0001 and DA, P < 0.01) in plasma, but had no effect on adrenal CAT content. Dietary F had no significant effect on plasma CAT compared to S but did increase E in adrenal tissue (P < 0.001). They have previously demonstrated that CuD is accompanied by increased plasma glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol and decreased insulin. Thus, increased plasma CAT along with decreased plasma insulin may explain, in part, the glucose intolerance and abnormal lipid metabolism observed in CuD.

  7. Adrenal Ganglioneuroma with Multifocal Retroperitoneal Extension: A Challenging Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Oderda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A ganglioneuroma (GN is the rarest and most benign of the neuroblastic tumors and originates from neural crest cells wherever sympathetic nervous tissue exists, such as in the retroperitoneum and adrenal gland. The diagnosis can be very challenging, given the rarity and asymptomatic presentation of this neoplasia, and can be achieved only by means of histological evaluation. Although benign, a few cases of metastatic GNs have been reported in the literature. The prognosis, however, seems to be excellent after surgical resection. We describe a rare case of multifocal retroperitoneal GN, diagnosed incidentally in a 46-year-old woman, with para-aortic and adrenal localizations. After intraoperative pathological diagnosis was made, complete excision of all the visible masses was performed. The postoperative period was uneventful and she was recurrence free 3 months after surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a multifocal retroperitoneal GN. Among the broad differential diagnoses of adrenal incidentalomas, an adrenal location of neuroblastic tumors should not be forgotten.

  8. Adrenal cortex glucocorticoid function at irradiated animals on mumio leading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter author made conclusion that the leading of mumio preparation provide normalizing influence on hypophysis-cortex adrenal system not only at short-term irradiation but and at long-term irradiation that is propitious condition for normalisation exchange processes in the cells

  9. COMPARATIVE MORPHOFUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTIC OF ADRENAL GLANDS IN ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Alyabyeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of morphological changes of the adrenal glands in arterial hyperten-sion. Adrenals investigated persons who do not suffer in life and suffering from hypertension during the life of hypertension and died from various causes – is incompatible with the life of a mechanical trauma, cerebral hemorrhage, and acute left ventricular failure. In each case, each of the adrenal glands were assessed: the presence and severity of focal and diffuse mononuclear infiltration, the number of lympho-cytes, monocytes, plasma cells and fibroblasts arranged in the respective zones of the cortex and medulla, the severity of hyperemia and edema of various structural parts, the number of zones cortex and medulla endocrinocytes with pycnotic nuclei in the reticular zone evaluated the distribution of secretory cells with lipofuscin and the degree of saturation of the cytoplasm of the secretory cells, in secretory cells of medul-la evaluated nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, the severity of vacuolization and basophils cytoplasm revealed a number of regularities of morphological changes depending from the various clinical manifestations of hypertension, defining the ultimate option of dying. At the heart tanatogenesis version are more pro-nounced morphological features hyperfunctions glomerular zone – namely delipidization left and right glands. The beam and netted areas contralateral glands embodiment of dying of a heart compared to the brain, is more pronounced hyperemia. When cardiac variant tanatogenesis more pronounced focal lym-phoid infiltration and vacuolization in secretory cells of left adrenal medulla.

  10. Adrenal GRK2 upregulation mediates sympathetic overdrive in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymperopoulos, Anastasios; Rengo, Giuseppe; Funakoshi, Hajime; Eckhart, Andrea D; Koch, Walter J

    2007-03-01

    Cardiac overstimulation by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is a salient characteristic of heart failure, reflected by elevated circulating levels of catecholamines. The success of beta-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) antagonists in heart failure argues for SNS hyperactivity being pathogenic; however, sympatholytic agents targeting alpha2AR-mediated catecholamine inhibition have been unsuccessful. By investigating adrenal adrenergic receptor signaling in heart failure models, we found molecular mechanisms to explain the failure of sympatholytic agents and discovered a new strategy to lower SNS activity. During heart failure, there is substantial alpha2AR dysregulation in the adrenal gland, triggered by increased expression and activity of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2). Adrenal gland-specific GRK2 inhibition reversed alpha2AR dysregulation in heart failure, resulting in lowered plasma catecholamine levels, improved cardiac betaAR signaling and function, and increased sympatholytic efficacy of a alpha2AR agonist. This is the first demonstration, to our knowledge, of a molecular mechanism for SNS hyperactivity in heart failure, and our study identifies adrenal GRK2 activity as a new sympatholytic target.

  11. What Are the Treatments for Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Treatments for CAH ... medically stable, Parents are fully informed of the risks and benefits, ... find a psychologist, social worker, or other mental health professional to support ...

  12. Adrenal myelolipoma within myxoid cortical adenoma associated with Conn's syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-sheng LU; Mei-fu GAN; Han-song CHEN; Shan-qiang HUANG

    2008-01-01

    The coexistence of myelolipoma within adrenal cortical adenoma is extremely rare, for both tumors present usually as separate entities. There are only 16 such cases reported worldwide. To the best of our knowledge, the case we reported here is the first one of myxoid adrenal cortical adenoma associated with myelolipoma reported. A 32-year-old Chinese woman with 4-year history of hypertension was presented in our study. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed a large heterogeneously-enhancing mass (4.5cm in diameter) in the left suprarenal region. Clinical history and laboratory results suggest a metabolic disorder as Conn's syndrome. The patient underwent a left adrenalectomy, and a histopathological study confirmed the mass to be a myxoid adrenal cortical adenoma containing myelolipoma. The patient was postoperatively well and discharged uneventfully. In the present case report, we also discuss the etiology of simultaneous myelolipoma and adrenal adenoma associated with Conn's syndrome, and the methods of the diagnosis and differential diagnosis.

  13. Mistaken gender identity in non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Kukreti, Prerna; Kandpal, Manish; Jiloha, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Gender identity is the sense of belonging that one feels for a particular sex psychologically and socially, independent of one's biological sex. There is much less systematic data on gender identity in females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We report a case of non-classical CAH presenting as a case of gender identity disorder.

  14. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  15. Aldo-keto reductases 1B in adrenal cortex physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie PASTEL

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aldose reductase proteins are cytosolic monomeric enzymes, belonging to the aldo-keto reductase (AKR superfamily. They perform oxidoreduction of carbonyl groups from a wide variety of substrates such as aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes or ketones. The Aldose reductase subgroup (AKR1B is one of the most characterized because of its involvement in human diseases such as diabetic complications resulting from the ability of its human archetype AKR1B1 to reduce glucose into sorbitol. However the issue of AKR1B function in non pathologic condition remains poorly resolved. Adrenal steroidogenesis is strongly associated with high production of endogenous harmful lipid aldehyde by-products including isocaproaldehyde (4-methylpentanal derived from cholesterol side chain cleavage (the first step of steroid synthesis and 4-hydroxynonenal (4- HNE that can both be reduced by AKR1B proteins. More recently, some AKR1B isoforms have been shown to be endowed with prostaglandin F synthase activity, suggesting that in addition to possible scavenger function, they could instigate paracrine signals. Interestingly, previous studies have established that the adrenal gland is one of the major site for human and murine AKR1B expression suggesting that their detoxifying/signaling activity could be specifically required for the correct handling of adrenal function. Moreover chronic effects of ACTH result in a coordinated regulation of genes encoding the steroidogenic enzymes and some AKR1B isoforms.This review presents the molecular mechanisms accounting for the adrenal specific expression of some AKR1B genes. Using data from recent mouse genetic models, we will try to connect their enzymatic properties and regulation with adrenal functions.

  16. Clinical, chromosomal and endocrine studies for congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severe forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia are potentially fatal if unrecognized and untreated. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical presentation together with the chromosomal and laboratory associations in this syndrome. Twenty four patients diagnosed as congenital adrenal hyperplasia were referred from Children's Hospital, Cairo University, Egypt, for hormonal and chromosomal workup. The age ranged from eight months to 19 years with mean age of 3.18 years. Twenty two patients were diagnosed as classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) syndrome. Severe salt wasting form was present in ten patients whereas simple virilisation was the presenting manifestation in twelve patients. Two patients presented as late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia (LOCAH). The sex of rearing was female in 18 cases and male in six cases. Genitography and sonography confirmed the presence of female internal organs in all cases. Advanced bone age was evident by radiographic studies. Although the karyotyping was 46,XX in all cases, the diagnosed correct sex was delayed in six cases. Serum concentrations of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17.OH.P), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), delta, 4-androstenedione (D4A), testosterone (T) and 11-deoxycortisol were all elevated as compared to controls. It was found that the adrenal androgens DHEAS, D4A and T were more elevated in salt losers when compared to simple virilising patients. However, this difference was statistically non-significant. The present study demonstrates that the clinical examination and laboratory investigations are necessary for the early detection and treatment of these cases to avoid major medical and psychological problems for the patients and their parents

  17. Clinical, Chromosomal and Endocrine Studies for Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia are potentially fatal if unrecognized and untreated. The aim of this study is to throw light on the clinical presentation together with chromosomal and laboratory associations in this syndrome. Twenty four patients diagnosed as congenital adrenal hyperplasia were referred from the Diabetic Endocrine Metabolic Pediatric Unit [DEMPU], Children's Hospital, Cairo University for hormonal and chromosomal workup. Twenty two patients were diagnosed as classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) syndrome. Sever salt wasting form was present in ten patients whereas simple virilization was the presenting manifestation in twelve patients. Two patients presented as late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia (LOCAH). The mean age was 3.18 years, ranging from eight months to 19 years. The sex of rearing was Female in 18 cases and male in six cases. Genitography and sonography confirmed the presence of female internal organs in all cases. Advanced bone age was evident by radiographic studies. Although the karyotyping was (46,XX) in all cases, the correct sex diagnosis was delayed in 6 cases. Serum concentrations of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17.OH.P); Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS); Delta,4-androstenedione (D 4 A); Testosterone and 11-deoxycortisol were all elevated in relation to controls. We found that the adrenal androgens DHEAS, delta 4A, and T were more elevated in salt losers when compared to simple virilizing patients. However, this difference was not of statistical significance. The present study demonstrates that clinical examination and laboratory investigations are necessary for early detection and treatment of hese cases to avoid major medical and psychological problems for the patients and their parents.

  18. Role of toll-like receptors and inflammation in adrenal gland insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanczkowski, Waldemar; Zacharowski, Kai; Bornstein, Stefan R

    2010-01-01

    Adrenal gland insufficiency - the clinical manifestation of deficient production or action of adrenal steroids - is a life-threatening disorder. Among many factors which can predispose to primary adrenal failure, an autoimmune adrenalitis and infectious agents play a major role. The initial host defense against bacterial infections is executed primarily by the pattern recognition receptors, e.g. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), expressed in cells from the innate immune system. Upon activation, TLRs have been found to regulate various levels of innate and adaptive immunity as well as control tissue inflammation. TLRs are implicated in adrenal cell turnover and steroidogenesis during inflammation. Therefore, TLRs play a crucial role in the activation of adrenal inflammation mediating adrenal gland dysfunction during septicemia.

  19. Sry delivery to the adrenal medulla increases blood pressure and adrenal medullary tyrosine hydroxylase of normotensive WKY rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciotti Mat

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our laboratory has shown that a locus on the SHR Y chromosome increases blood pressure (BP in the SHR rat and in WKY rats that had the SHR Y chromosome locus crossed into their genome (SHR/y rat. A potential candidate for this Y chromosome hypertension locus is Sry, a gene that encodes a transcription factor that is responsible for testes development and the Sry protein may affect other target genes. Methods The following study examined if exogenous Sry would elevate adrenal Th, adrenal catecholamines, plasma catecholamines and blood pressure. We delivered 10 μg of either the expression construct, Sry1/pcDNA 3.1, or control vector into the adrenal medulla of WKY rats by electroporation. Blood pressure was measured by the tail cuff technique and Th and catecholamines by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Results In the animals receiving Sry there were significant increases after 3 weeks in resting plasma NE (57% and adrenal Th content (49% compared to vector controls. BP was 30 mmHg higher in Sry injected animals (160 mmHg, p Conclusion These results provide continued support that Sry is a candidate gene for hypertension. Also, these results are consistent with a role for Sry in increasing BP by directly or indirectly activating sympathetic nervous system activity.

  20. Association of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus with Multiple Viral Infections in Bovine Respiratory Disease Outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Richer, Lisette; Marois, Paul; Lamontagne, Lucie

    1988-01-01

    We investigated eleven outbreaks of naturally occurring bovine respiratory diseases in calves and adult animals in the St-Hyacinthe area of Quebec. Specific antibodies to bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, reovirus type 3, and serotypes 1 to 7 of bovine adenovirus were found in paired sera from diseased animals. Several bovine viruses with respiratory tropism were involved concomitantly in herds during an outbreak of bov...

  1. Management of adrenal incidentalomas: European Society of Endocrinology Clinical Practice Guideline in collaboration with the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassnacht, Martin; Arlt, Wiebke; Bancos, Irina; Dralle, Henning; Newell-Price, John; Sahdev, Anju; Tabarin, Antoine; Terzolo, Massimo; Tsagarakis, Stylianos; Dekkers, Olaf M

    2016-08-01

    : By definition, an adrenal incidentaloma is an asymptomatic adrenal mass detected on imaging not performed for suspected adrenal disease. In most cases, adrenal incidentalomas are nonfunctioning adrenocortical adenomas, but may also represent conditions requiring therapeutic intervention (e.g. adrenocortical carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, hormone-producing adenoma or metastasis). The purpose of this guideline is to provide clinicians with best possible evidence-based recommendations for clinical management of patients with adrenal incidentalomas based on the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) system. We predefined four main clinical questions crucial for the management of adrenal incidentaloma patients, addressing these four with systematic literature searches: (A) How to assess risk of malignancy?; (B) How to define and manage low-level autonomous cortisol secretion, formerly called 'subclinical' Cushing's syndrome?; (C) Who should have surgical treatment and how should it be performed?; (D) What follow-up is indicated if the adrenal incidentaloma is not surgically removed? SELECTED RECOMMENDATIONS: (i) At the time of initial detection of an adrenal mass establishing whether the mass is benign or malignant is an important aim to avoid cumbersome and expensive follow-up imaging in those with benign disease. (ii) To exclude cortisol excess, a 1mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test should be performed (applying a cut-off value of serum cortisol ≤50nmol/L (1.8µg/dL)). (iii) For patients without clinical signs of overt Cushing's syndrome but serum cortisol levels post 1mg dexamethasone >138nmol/L (>5µg/dL), we propose the term 'autonomous cortisol secretion'. (iv) All patients with '(possible) autonomous cortisol' secretion should be screened for hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus, to ensure these are appropriately treated. (v) Surgical treatment should be considered in an individualized approach in patients with

  2. Management of adrenal incidentalomas: European Society of Endocrinology Clinical Practice Guideline in collaboration with the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassnacht, Martin; Arlt, Wiebke; Bancos, Irina; Dralle, Henning; Newell-Price, John; Sahdev, Anju; Tabarin, Antoine; Terzolo, Massimo; Tsagarakis, Stylianos; Dekkers, Olaf M

    2016-08-01

    : By definition, an adrenal incidentaloma is an asymptomatic adrenal mass detected on imaging not performed for suspected adrenal disease. In most cases, adrenal incidentalomas are nonfunctioning adrenocortical adenomas, but may also represent conditions requiring therapeutic intervention (e.g. adrenocortical carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, hormone-producing adenoma or metastasis). The purpose of this guideline is to provide clinicians with best possible evidence-based recommendations for clinical management of patients with adrenal incidentalomas based on the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) system. We predefined four main clinical questions crucial for the management of adrenal incidentaloma patients, addressing these four with systematic literature searches: (A) How to assess risk of malignancy?; (B) How to define and manage low-level autonomous cortisol secretion, formerly called 'subclinical' Cushing's syndrome?; (C) Who should have surgical treatment and how should it be performed?; (D) What follow-up is indicated if the adrenal incidentaloma is not surgically removed? SELECTED RECOMMENDATIONS: (i) At the time of initial detection of an adrenal mass establishing whether the mass is benign or malignant is an important aim to avoid cumbersome and expensive follow-up imaging in those with benign disease. (ii) To exclude cortisol excess, a 1mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test should be performed (applying a cut-off value of serum cortisol ≤50nmol/L (1.8µg/dL)). (iii) For patients without clinical signs of overt Cushing's syndrome but serum cortisol levels post 1mg dexamethasone >138nmol/L (>5µg/dL), we propose the term 'autonomous cortisol secretion'. (iv) All patients with '(possible) autonomous cortisol' secretion should be screened for hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus, to ensure these are appropriately treated. (v) Surgical treatment should be considered in an individualized approach in patients with

  3. Material Properties of Inorganic Bovine Cancellous Bovine: Nukbone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña, Cristina; Palma, Benito; Munguía, Nadia

    2006-09-01

    In this work, inorganic cancellous bovine bone implants prepared in the Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales — UNAM were characterized. Elementary chemical analysis was made, toxic elements concentration were measured and the content of organic matter also. These implants fulfill all the requirements of the ASTM standards, and therefore it is possible their use in medical applications.

  4. Prevalence of adrenal masses in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroi Naoki

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction To date, there have been no reports on the prevalence of adrenal masses in type 2 diabetic patients. The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma in type 2 diabetic patients in Japan. Subjects We retrospectively evaluated the presence of adrenal masses using abdominal CT scans in 304 type 2 diabetic patients. In those with adrenal masses, we examined the hormone production capacity of the adrenal mass. Results Fourteen patients (4.6% had an adrenal mass. Hormonal analysis identified one case as having subclinical Cushing's syndrome, two with primary aldosteronism. Eleven cases had non-functioning masses. Discussion The reported prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma in normal subjects is 0.6-4.0% in abdominal CT scan series. Our results show a relatively high prevalence of adrenal tumors in diabetic patients. On the other hand, the frequency of functional adenoma in diabetic patients is 21.4%, which is similar to that of normal subjects. Conclusion Although further studies are needed to evaluate the prevalence of adrenal tumors in diabetic patients, our data suggest that evaluation of the presence of adrenal masses may be needed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  5. The clinical usefulness of NP-59 scintigraphy in adrenal cortical diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Duk Kyu [College of Medicine, Donga Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-03-01

    {sup 131}I-6-{beta}-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol (NP-59) has an advantage to assess adrenal dysfunction caused by adrenal cortical disorders. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical usefulness of NP-59 scintigraphy in each adrenal disease. Ten patients who did eleven NP-59 adrenal scintigraphies at Dong-A University Hospital from March 1990 to December 1996 were selected as the subject. Among the subject there were 5 cases of Cushing's syndrome, 2 cases of incidentaloma, 1 case of metastatic adrenal tumor, liver cirrhosis with hirsutism and hypertension respectively. Among 5 cases of Cushing's syndrome, there were 2 cases of Cushing's disease, 2 cases of adrenal adenoma and 1 case of adrenal carcinoma. There are no disagreement between clinical diagnosis and scan finding in Cushing's syndrome. In 2 incidentaloma cases, even though one is interpretated as a functioning tumor, both of 2 cases could avoid unnecessary biopsy according to scintigraphy result. One case of hirsutism, clinically adrenal originated, revealed the normal scintigraphic finding after dexamethasone suppression scan. It could suggest that the etiology of hirsutism was extra-adrenal origin. One case of hypertension took the study to exclude the possibility of primary aldosteronism. Normal suppression scan finding revealed that primary aldosteronism did not exist in this case. In conclusion, NP-59 scintigraphy was very useful in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome and it could avoid unnecessary biopsy in the incidental adrenal tumor.

  6. Prevalence of ovarian adrenal rest tumours and polycystic ovaries in females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: results of ultrasonography and MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the investigation was to assess the prevalence of ovarian adrenal rest tumours and polycystic ovaries in female patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Thirteen female CAH patients (median age 19.8 years, range 14.8-23.5 years) underwent transvaginal (n=6) or transabdominal (n=7) ultrasonography by a gynaecologist and MR imaging (n=13) of the ovaries (pre and post contrast-enhanced T1- and T2-weighted images). Ovarian adrenal rest tumours were defined as small hypoechoic and multifocal nodules on ultrasound and isointense lesions on T1- and hypointense on T2-weighted MR images (derived from characteristics of testicular adrenal rest tumours). Polycystic ovaries were defined as the presence of ≥10 follicles arranged peripherally around or scattered throughout increased stroma. No ovarian adrenal rest tumours were found either on ultrasound, or by MR imaging. Polycystic ovaries were found in 2 of the 13 patients (15.4%), both with ultrasound and MR. No ovarian adrenal rest tumours were detected in these female CAH patients, which suggests that ovarian adrenal rest tumours in CAH females are rare. The prevalence of polycystic ovaries corresponded to that in the general population. From these results, we would suggest that routine ovarian imaging in CAH females is not indicated. However, when ovarian dysfunction is present, ovarian imaging is advised, first by ultrasonography, to detect ovarian adrenal rest tumours or polycystic ovaries. (orig.)

  7. Asymptomatic testicular adrenal rest tumours in adolescent and adult males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: basal and follow-up investigation after 2.6 years.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stikkelbroeck, N.M.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Suliman, H.M.; Jager, G.J.; Otten, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the course of asymptomatic testicular adrenal rest tumours in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and the association between tumour changes and glucocorticoid therapy adjustments. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifteen male patients with CAH (21-hydroxylase deficiency), in whom

  8. Image Registration of Cone-Beam Computer Tomography and Preprocedural Computer Tomography Aids in Localization of Adrenal Veins and Decreasing Radiation Dose in Adrenal Vein Sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busser, W.M.H.; Arntz, M.; Jenniskens, S.F.M.; Deinum, J.; Hoogeveen, Y.L.; Lange, F. de; Schultze Kool, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed whether image registration of cone-beam computed tomography (CT) (CBCT) and contrast-enhanced CT (CE-CT) images indicating the locations of the adrenal veins can aid in increasing the success rate of first-attempts adrenal vein sampling (AVS) and therefore decreasing patient radiation do

  9. Gastric Metastasis of Lung Cancer Mimicking an Adrenal Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung I Hung

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths worldwide. Metastatic spreads of lung cancer are often found in the adrenal glands, bone, liver, brain and kidneys; the gastrointestinal tract is less commonly involved. However, according to some reports in the literature, the incidence of gastrointestinal metastases, most of them asymptomatic, might be as frequent as 11% in autopsy studies of lung cancer, which suggests that this condition is not as rare as it was previously considered. We report a very rare case of small cell lung cancer with a solitary gastric metastasis mimicking an adrenal tumor which was belatedly diagnosed due to its unusual presentation and treated actively with surgery and chemotherapy, achieving a relatively favorable outcome.

  10. Secondary adrenal insufficiency: an overlooked cause of hyponatremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessani, Naureen; Jehangir, Waqas; Behman, Daisy; Yousif, Abdalla; Spiler, Ira J

    2015-04-01

    Failure to thrive in an elderly patient is often attributed to depression, especially when a patient does not have any chronic diseases or if there is no apparent medical reason to justify poor appetite, cachexia and generalized weakness. Hyponatremia often occurs in such patients and a thorough evaluation as to its etiology should be sought before committing to a premature diagnosis, which at the time may seem more plausible. We report a patient who presented with depression, weight loss and persistent hyponatremia, evaluation of which revealed the cause to be due to secondary adrenal insufficiency, which when treated, resulted in resolution of the symptom complex. Therefore, in our case report, we elucidate the importance of pursuing further evaluation to rule out adrenal insufficiency as a medical cause of depression, especially in the presence of hyponatremia, which is often overlooked and is generally attributed to dehydration in the setting of failure to thrive or SIADH in patients who are on psychotropic medications. PMID:25699130

  11. Megace Mystery: A Case of Central Adrenal Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Kunal; Weiss, Irene; Goldberg, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Megestrol acetate (MA) is a synthetic progestin with both antineoplastic and orexigenic properties. In addition to its effects on the progesterone receptor, MA also binds the glucocorticoid receptor. Some patients receiving MA therapy have been reported to develop clinical features of glucocorticoid excess, while others have experienced the clinical syndrome of cortisol deficiency-either following withdrawal of MA therapy or during active treatment. We describe a patient who presented with clinical and biochemical features of central adrenal insufficiency. Pituitary function was otherwise essentially normal, and the etiology of the isolated ACTH suppression was initially unclear. The use of an exogenous glucocorticoid was suspected but was initially denied by the patient; ultimately, the culprit medication was uncovered when a synthetic steroid screen revealed the presence of MA. The patient's symptoms improved after she was switched to hydrocortisone. Clinicians should be aware of the potential effects of MA on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. PMID:26770843

  12. Megace Mystery: A Case of Central Adrenal Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Mehta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Megestrol acetate (MA is a synthetic progestin with both antineoplastic and orexigenic properties. In addition to its effects on the progesterone receptor, MA also binds the glucocorticoid receptor. Some patients receiving MA therapy have been reported to develop clinical features of glucocorticoid excess, while others have experienced the clinical syndrome of cortisol deficiency—either following withdrawal of MA therapy or during active treatment. We describe a patient who presented with clinical and biochemical features of central adrenal insufficiency. Pituitary function was otherwise essentially normal, and the etiology of the isolated ACTH suppression was initially unclear. The use of an exogenous glucocorticoid was suspected but was initially denied by the patient; ultimately, the culprit medication was uncovered when a synthetic steroid screen revealed the presence of MA. The patient’s symptoms improved after she was switched to hydrocortisone. Clinicians should be aware of the potential effects of MA on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis.

  13. Prenatal treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia: risks outweigh benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Walter L; Witchel, Selma Feldman

    2013-05-01

    Prenatal treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia by administering dexamethasone to a woman presumed to be carrying an at-risk fetus has been described as safe and effective in several reports. A review of data from animal experimentation and human trials indicates that first-trimester dexamethasone decreases birthweight; affects renal, pancreatic beta cell, and brain development; increases anxiety; and predisposes to adult hypertension and hyperglycemia. In human studies, first-trimester dexamethasone is associated with orofacial clefts, decreased birthweight, poorer verbal working memory, and poorer self-perception of scholastic and social competence. Numerous medical societies have cautioned that prenatal treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia with dexamethasone should only be done in prospective clinical research settings with institutional review board approval, and therefore is not appropriate for routine community practice. PMID:23123167

  14. Gonadal steroid hormones and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Robert J; Weiser, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis represents a complex neuroendocrine feedback loop controlling the secretion of adrenal glucocorticoid hormones. Central to its function is the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) where neurons expressing corticotropin releasing factor reside. These HPA motor neurons are a primary site of integration leading to graded endocrine responses to physical and psychological stressors. An important regulatory factor that must be considered, prior to generating an appropriate response is the animal's reproductive status. Thus, PVN neurons express androgen and estrogen receptors and receive input from sites that also express these receptors. Consequently, changes in reproduction and gonadal steroid levels modulate the stress response and this underlies sex differences in HPA axis function. This review examines the make up of the HPA axis and hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and the interactions between the two that should be considered when exploring normal and pathological responses to environmental stressors. PMID:24246855

  15. Adrenal insufficiency in a child with MELAS syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afroze, Bushra; Amjad, Nida; Ibrahim, Shahnaz H; Humayun, Khadija Nuzhat; Yakob, Yusnita

    2014-11-01

    Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) are established subgroups of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. m.3243A>G a common point mutation is detected in tRNA in majority of patients with MELAS phenotype whereas m.8344A>G point mutation in tRNA is observed, in MERRF phenotype. Adrenal insufficiency has not been reported in mitochondrial disease, except in Kearns-Sayre Syndrome (KSS), which is a mitochondrial deletion syndrome. We report an unusual presentation in a five year old boy who presented with clinical phenotype of MELAS and was found to have m.8344A>G mutation in tRNA. Addison disease was identified due to hyperpigmentation of lips and gums present from early childhood. This is the first report describing adrenal insufficiency in a child with MELAS phenotype.

  16. Retroperitoneal extra-adrenal paraganglioma: a rare but important diagnosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ahmad, S

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Extra-adrenal paragangliomas of the retroperitonium are infrequently diagnosed. Their malignant behaviour cannot be predicted on initial clinical and histological assessment. These tumours have higher propensity for subsequent metastasis compared with pargangliomas at other sites. AIM: We aim to describe a case report of an incidental finding of left retroperitoneal paraganglioma in a young man who presented with right flank pain. We also aim to emphasize the importance of diagnosis and the malignant potential of these tumours. METHOD: Patient\\'s clinical notes, operative findings, imaging studies and laboratory investigations including histology results were reviewed. A literature search was done to look into the incidence, presentation, follow-up plan and treatment options for these tumours. CONCLUSION: Surgical resection is the only available curative option for extra-adrenal paragangliomas. Metastasis is observed years after surgery, hence long-term follow-up is required.

  17. "Looks Can Be Deceiving": Adrenal Teratoma Causing Diagnostic Difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Mehwash; Ather, Muhammad Hammad; Sulaiman, M Nasir; Pervez, Shahid

    2015-01-01

    Teratomas are unusual tumours that derived from totipotent cells with their origin from more than one or usually all three germ cells. Here authors are presenting a case of primary retroperitoneal tumour that is a rare clinical entity. A 19-year-old male presented with right lumbar pain and was found to have complex cyst with large calcification in right adrenal gland on imaging. Intraoperatively, he was found to have a solid mass with areas of soft consistency, which was excised en bloc. On gross examination, the cyst contained pieces of bone, few teeth, and hairs entangled in mucinous material. On histological evaluation, it was confirmed to be mature teratoma arising from the right adrenal gland. He made uneventful recovery and was kept well on annual follow-up.

  18. Modern Hydrocortisone Replacement Regimens in Adrenal Insufficiency Patients and the Risk of Adrenal Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushworth, R L; Torpy, D J

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of adrenal crises (AC) and the prescription of short-acting glucocorticoids (GC) in different geographic areas. To do this we conducted a descriptive study of AC hospitalisations and prescriptions for two GCs (hydrocortisone (HC) and cortisone acetate (CA)), and fludrocortisone acetate (FA), in different geographic areas of Australia between 1999/2000 and 2011/2012, using government databases.There were 2,584 hospital admissions for AC in Australia between 1999/00 and 2011/12 and the corresponding admission rates increased significantly from 7.4 to 11.1/10(6)/year (p<0.001). AC admission rates increased in 5 out of 6 geographic areas. Prescription rates for the combined GCs (HC/CA) increased at an annual rate of between 0.2-2.0% in all areas. All areas had significant (p<0.01) increases in HC prescription rates (4.5% to 13.7% annually) and CA prescription rates decreased in 5 out of the 6 regions (3.5% annual decrease to a 0.5% annual increase). When the geographic areas were combined, there was a significant correlation between the AC admission rates and HC/CA prescription rates (r=0.30, p<0.01). Admissions for AC and GC prescriptions increased significantly in Australia after 1999 and these varied significantly by geographic area. These results suggest that modern recommendations for lower dose, short-acting GC replacement may be of concern and further investigation is warranted. PMID:25951324

  19. Biosynthesis and metabolism of steroid hormones by human adrenal carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown J.W.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Over a 15-year period, our university-based laboratory obtained 125 adrenal tumors, of which 15 (12% were adrenal cortical carcinomas. Of these, 6 (40% of the carcinomas occurred in patients with clear clinical manifestations of steroid hormone excess. Adrenal cortical carcinoma cells derived from the surgically resected tumors in 4 of these patients were isolated and established in primary culture. Radiotracer steroid interconversion studies were carried out with these cultures and also on mitochondria isolated from homogenized tissues. Large tumors had the lowest steroidogenic activities per weight, whereas small tumors had more moderately depressed enzyme activities relative to cells from normal glands. In incubations with pregnenolone as substrate, 1 mM metyrapone blocked the synthesis of corticosterone and cortisol and also the formation of aldosterone. Metyrapone inhibition was associated with a concomitant increase in the formation of androgens (androstenedione and testosterone from pregnenolone. Administration of metyrapone in vivo before surgery in one patient resulted in a similar increase in plasma androstenedione, though plasma testosterone levels were not significantly affected. In cultures of two of four tumors examined, dibutyryl cAMP stimulated 11ß-hydroxylase activity modestly; ACTH also had a significant stimulatory effect in one of these tumors. Unlike results obtained with normal or adenomatous adrenal cortical tissues, mitochondria from carcinomatous cells showed a lack of support of either cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme complex or steroid 11ß-hydroxylase activity by Krebs cycle intermediates (10 mM isocitrate, succinate or malate. This finding is consistent with the concept that these carcinomas may tend to function predominantly in an anaerobic manner, rather than through the oxidation of Krebs cycle intermediates.

  20. Quantification of the adrenal cortex hormones with radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badillo A, V.; Carrera D, A. A.; Ibarra M, C. M., E-mail: vbadillocren@hotmail.co [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    The pathologies of the adrenal cortex -adrenal insufficiency and Cushing syndrome- have their origin on the deficit or hypersecretion of some of the hormones that are secreted by the adrenal cortex, which is divided in three zones anatomically defined: the external zone, also called the zona glomerulosa, which is the main production site of aldosterone and mineralocorticoids; the internal zone, or zona reticularis, that produces androgens; and the external zone, or zone 1 orticotrop, which is responsible for producing glucocorticoids. In this work, a quantitative analysis of those hormones and their pathologic trigger was made; the quantification was made in the laboratory by means of highly sensitive and specific techniques, in this case, the radioimmunoassay, in which a radioisotope I-125 is used. This technique is based on the biochemical bond-type reaction, because it requires of a substance called the linker, which bonds to another called ligand. This reaction is also known as antigen-antibody (Ag-Ab), where the results of the reaction will depend on the quantity of antigen in the sample and on its affinity for the antibody. In this work, a 56 patients (of which 13 were men and 43 women) study was made. The cortisol, the ACTH, the androsterone and the DHEA values were very elevated in the majority of the cases corresponding to women, predominating cortisol; while in men, a notorious elevation of the 17 {alpha}-OH-PRG and of the DHEA-SO{sub 4} was observed. Based on that, we can conclude that 51 of them did not have mayor complications, because they just went to the laboratory once, while the remaining 5 had a medical monitoring, and they visited the laboratory more than one occasion, tell about a difficulty on their improvement. According to the results, an approximate relation of 8:2 women:men, respectively, becomes clear to the hormonal pathologies of the adrenal cortex. (Author)

  1. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, CYP21 deficiency, screening and clinical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Nordenström, Anna

    2001-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of recessively inherited disorders. More than 90% of all cases of CAB are caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency. This enzyme deficiency results in reduced ability to synthesize cortisol and aldosterone and at the same time increased secretion of androgens. There is a wide spectrum of severity of the disease. The most severe forms of CAH are life-threatening, with the risk of a salt crisis in the neonatal period. CAH has special i...

  2. Cortisol Secreting Adrenal Adenoma in a 5 Year Old Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gursharan Singh Narang,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal adenoma is a rare endocrinal tumor in children. It can present with features of Cushing's syndrome. We present a case report of five years old female child who came with morbid obesity and hypertension. The patient manifested polyphagia, weight gain, and changes in sleep patterns. During physical examination we found a full-moon face, bulkiness in the cervico-dorsal (buffalo-hump region, high blood pressure.

  3. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Classification of Studies Employing Psychological Endpoints

    OpenAIRE

    Stout, Stephanie A.; Margarita Litvak; Robbins, Natashia M.; Sandberg, David E

    2010-01-01

    Psychological outcomes in persons with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) have received substantial attention. The objectives of this paper were to (1) catalog psychological endpoints assessed in CAH outcome studies and (2) classify the conceptual/theoretical model shaping the research design and interpretation of CAH-related psychological effects. A total of 98 original research studies, published between 1955 and 2009, were categorized based on psychological endpoints examined as well as ...

  4. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Classification of Studies Employing Psychological Endpoints

    OpenAIRE

    Sandberg DavidE; Robbins NatashiaM; Litvak Margarita; Stout StephanieA

    2010-01-01

    Psychological outcomes in persons with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) have received substantial attention. The objectives of this paper were to (1) catalog psychological endpoints assessed in CAH outcome studies and (2) classify the conceptual/theoretical model shaping the research design and interpretation of CAH-related psychological effects. A total of 98 original research studies, published between 1955 and 2009, were categorized based on psychological endpoints examined as well as...

  5. Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia misdiagnosed as Turner syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Vineet V; Kumari Pritti; Rohina Aggarwal; Sumesh Choudhary

    2015-01-01

    We present a patient with nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) misdiagnosed as mosaic Turner syndrome. She presented with complaints of primary infertility. Short stature, the presence of facial hair and hoarse voice was also noted. She had primary amenorrhea and was advised for karyotype at 16 years of age, which was reported as 45, X[20]/46, XX[80], stating her as a case of mosaic Turner syndrome. Clitoroplasty was done at 21 years of age for clitoromegaly, which was noticed dur...

  6. Melanocortin receptor accessory proteins in adrenal disease and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, David S.; Ramachandrappa, Shwetha; Clark, Adrian J; Chan, Li F.

    2015-01-01

    Melanocortin receptor accessory proteins (MRAPs) are regulators of the melanocortin receptor family. MRAP is an essential accessory factor for the functional expression of the MC2R/ACTH receptor. The importance of MRAP in adrenal gland physiology is demonstrated by the clinical condition familial glucocorticoid deficiency type 2. The role of its paralog melanocortin-2-receptor accessory protein 2 (MRAP2), which is predominantly expressed in the hypothalamus including the paraventricular nucle...

  7. Bilateral Adrenal Adenoma Presented As Multiple Metatarsal And Phalangeal Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    LiYeung, L L; Lui, T.H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Symptomatic adrenal adenoma usually presents with systemic symptoms. Depending on the function of the adenoma, the patient can present with pheochromocytoma-like symptoms; primary hyperaldosteronism and Cushing syndrome (weight gain, weakness, depression, and bruising). Case report: A 41 year-old lady presented with multiple metatarsal and phalangeal fractures of the both feet without significant injury. DEXA scan showed evidence of osteoporosis. Investigations showed that the p...

  8. Adrenal incidentaloma imaging – the first steps in therapeutic management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term “adrenal incidentaloma” refers to clinically unapparent adrenal mass detected during imaging examination performed for reasons other than the evaluation of adrenal glands. These tumors must be carefully examined in order to assess the indications for surgical treatment. The main method of finding evidence of potential malignancy in these lesions is computed tomography (CT), before and after i.v. contrast media enhancement. Density of a malignant lesion is higher than 10 HU and the relative percentage washout is less than 40% at 10 min. Other useful methods utilized in tumor assessment, include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), scintigraphy techniques (SPECT) and PET. Basal hormonal investigations include urine and plasma catecholamines with their metabolites, plasma cortisol before and after dexamethasone administration, plasma renin activity and aldosterone level. Cases not suitable for surgery should be followed with repeat imaging techniques and hormonal testing at the recommended 6, 12, and 24 months. Surgery should be performed when tumor growth rate exceeds 0,8 cm per year

  9. Arteries of the adrenal glands in ostriches (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita das Graças de Oliveira Honorato

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The growth of rational ostrich breeding and their byproducts has attracted interest from researchers to increase the studies in this animal. Thus, basic research areas, such as morphology, become necessary to provide the applied areas with knowledge. Aiming to contribute to the knowledge on the vascular arrangements of the adrenal glands, 30 ostriches (Struthio camelus were used, four days old, who had their arterial components marked with a 50% stained aqueous solution of Neoprene Latex ¨ 450 ¨ and fixed in a 10% diluted solution of formaldehyde. The coelomic cavity was exposed for identifying these glands, which are paired organs that are covered by loose connective tissue, symmetrically arranged in the two antimeres, laterally to the descending aorta, caudally to the lungs, and cranio-medially to the cranial lobes of the kidneys. The arterial blood supply, in both antimeres, is derived from the right and left adrenal arteries, the right and left cranial renal artery branches, and the right branches of the descending aorta. Regardless of the origin, the number of branches going to the adrenal glands ranged from one to two and one to three respectively, in the left and right antimeres.

  10. Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Adrenal Gland Metastases: University of Florence Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casamassima, Franco, E-mail: f.casamassima@dfc.unifi.it [Clinical Radiobiological Institute, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Livi, Lorenzo [Department of Radiation-Oncology, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Masciullo, Stefano; Menichelli, Claudia; Masi, Laura [Clinical Radiobiological Institute, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Meattini, Icro [Department of Radiation-Oncology, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Bonucci, Ivano [Clinical Radiobiological Institute, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Agresti, Benedetta; Simontacchi, Gabriele [Department of Radiation-Oncology, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Doro, Raffaela [Clinical Radiobiological Institute, University of Florence, Florence (Italy)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a retrospective single-institution outcome after hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for adrenal metastases. Methods and Materials: Between February 2002 and December 2009, we treated 48 patients with SBRT for adrenal metastases. The median age of the patient population was 62.7 years (range, 43-77 years). In the majority of patients, the prescription dose was 36 Gy in 3 fractions (70% isodose, 17.14 Gy per fraction at the isocenter). Eight patients were treated with single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery and forty patients with multi-fraction stereotactic radiotherapy. Results: Overall, the series of patients was followed up for a median of 16.2 months (range, 3-63 months). At the time of analysis, 20 patients were alive and 28 patients were dead. The 1- and 2-year actuarial overall survival rates were 39.7% and 14.5%, respectively. We recorded 48 distant failures and 2 local failures, with a median interval to local failure of 4.9 months. The actuarial 1-year disease control rate was 9%; the actuarial 1- and 2-year local control rate was 90%. Conclusion: Our retrospective study indicated that SBRT for the treatment of adrenal metastases represents a safe and effective option with a control rate of 90% at 2 years.

  11. Feminizing Adrenal Carcinoma Presenting with Heart Failure and Ventricular Tachycardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjana Harnoor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of feminizing adrenal carcinoma with severe elevation in serum estradiol and otherwise unexplained congestive heart failure with ventricular arrhythmia and review the literature on feminizing adrenal tumors and the potential relationship between estrogen and cardiac problems. A 54-year-old man presented with congestive heart failure and ventricular arrhythmia. Imaging revealed a large adrenal mass. Hormonal evaluation revealed a very high serum level of estradiol, elevated DHEA-sulfate and androstenedione, and lack of cortisol suppression on a low-dose overnight dexamethasone suppression test. The patient underwent a left adrenalectomy with subsequent normalization of serum estradiol. Surgical pathology examination established adrenocortical carcinoma MacFarlane stage II. Upon 15-month followup, the patient continued to have a normal serum estradiol level, his cardiac function was significantly improved, and he had no further episodes of ventricular arrhythmia. To the best of our knowledge, the serum estradiol level that was detected in our case is the highest that has been reported. Further, we hypothesize that the very high serum concentration of estradiol in our case may have played a role in his cardiac presentation with congestive heart failure and arrhythmia, particularly as these problems resolved with normalization of his serum estradiol level.

  12. Adrenal Pathology in the Adult: A Urological Pathologist's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, Donna E; Reuter, Victor E

    2016-09-01

    Adrenal gland diagnostics can pose significant challenges. In most academic and community practice settings, adrenal gland resections are encountered less frequently than other endocrine or genitourinary specimens, leading to less familiarity with evolving classifications and criteria. The unique dichotomy between cortical and medullary lesions reflects the developmental evolution of these functionally independent components. Adrenal cortical lesions at resection include hyperplasia, adenoma, and carcinoma, with some cases straddling the boundary between these distinct clinical classifications. The lack of immunohistochemical or molecular markers to definitively categorize these intermediate lesions enhances the diagnostic challenge. In addition, modified terminology for oncocytic and myxoid cortical lesions has been proposed. Medullary lesions are somewhat easier to categorize; however, the prediction of aggressive behavior in pheochromocytomas remains a challenge due to a lack of reliable prognostic biomarkers. Recent work by the Cancer Genome Atlas Project and other research groups has identified a limited subset of molecular and signaling pathway alterations in these 2 major neoplastic categories. Ongoing research to better define prognostic and predictive biomarkers in cortical and medullary lesions has the potential to enhance both pathologic diagnosis and patient therapy. PMID:27438375

  13. A new pathological scoring method for adrenal injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wenhong; Hui, Yuanjian; Yu, Jia; Wang, Weixing; Xu, Sheng; Chen, Chen; Xiong, Xincheng

    2014-12-01

    These studies investigated the appearance and function of adrenal glands in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and established a new histopathological score to evaluate adrenal histopathological changes. Severe acute pancreatitis relied on retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurocholate into the bile-pancreatic duct. The damage of SAP was estimated by serum amylase, secretory phospholipase A2 and pancreatic histopathology. Light and electron microscopy of adrenal gland, and the levels of serum corticosterone were investigated. These results showed that the generally ascending trend of adrenal pathological score was inversely proportional to the generally descending trend of serum corticosterone levels, but parallel with the changes of pancreatic histopathology. Herein, the new adrenal histopathological score was effective in the evaluation of adrenal injury following SAP. It may indirectly reflect the variation of serum cortisol levels and the severity of pancreatitis to a certain extent.

  14. Primary Epithelioid Angiosarcoma of the Adrenal Gland: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Mohamed Ayadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Primary mesenchymal neoplasms of the adrenal gland are extremely rare. The most common primary sarcoma is adrenal angiosarcoma. We report the case of a 51-year-old patient who presented with left flank pain. After ultrasound investigations, the patient underwent surgical removal of an adrenal tumor. The gross adrenal specimen showed extensive cystic changes with old hemorrhage and necrosis. Histologically, irregular branching vascular channels were seen intermixed with solid areas of epithelioid cells. Immunohistochemical staining of tumor cells was positive with antibodies to cytokeratin and CD31. After a 12 months follow-up, the patient is still well with no sign of a relapse. Because of the epithelioid appearance and frequent expression of epithelial immunohistochemical markers, primary epithelioid angiosarcoma of the adrenal gland can be confounded with adrenal carcinomatous metastases. We report our findings with a brief literature review and discussion of differential diagnosis. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2016; 4(3.000: 67-69

  15. Clinical Application of {sup 18}F-FDG PET and PET-CT in Adrenal Tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Choi, Duck Joo; Lee, Min Kyung; Choe, Won Sick [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Adrenal tumors are increasingly detected by widespread use of anatomical imaging such as CT, MRI, etc. For these adrenal tumors, differentiation between malignancy and benignancy is very important. In diagnostic assessment of adrenal tumor, {sup 18}F-FDG PET and PET-CT have been reported to have high diagnostic performance, especially, very excellent performance in evaluation of adrenal metastasis in the oncologic patient. In cases of adrenal incidentalomas, {sup 18}F-FDG PET or PET-CT is helpful if CT or chemical-shift MRI is inconclusive. {sup 18}F-FDG PET and PET-CT may be applied to the patients with MIBG-negative pheochromocytomas. In summary, {sup 18}F-FDG PET and PET-CT are expected to be effective diagnostic tools in the management of adrenal tumor.

  16. Metachronous Bilateral Isolated Adrenal Metastasis from Rectal Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jabir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of adrenal metastasis from colorectal cancer in a 54-year-old woman. Nine months after resection for advanced rectal carcinoma, a computed tomography scan revealed bilateral adrenal metastasis. The level of serum carcinoembryonic antigen was normal. A bilateral adrenalectomy was performed after chemotherapy. Histopathological examination showed adenocarcinoma, compatible with metastasis from the rectal cancer. Adrenal metastasis should be considered in the patients’ follow-up for colorectal cancer.

  17. An Adrenal Incidentaloma: How Often Is It Detected and What Are the Consequences?

    OpenAIRE

    Minnaar, E. M.; Human, K. E.; Henneman, D.; Nio, C.Y.; Bisschop, P. H.; Nieveen van Dijkum, E.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate the detection rate of adrenal incidentalomas and subsequent workup. Design. Retrospective cohort study. Methods. Two investigators evaluated the adrenals on abdominal CT scans. Abnormalities were compared to the original radiology reports and an experienced abdominal radiologist reviewed the CT scans. All additional imaging and laboratory tests were assessed. Results. The investigators detected 44/356 adrenal incidentalomas (12%). In 25 pat...

  18. Hypothalamo-pituitary and immune-dependent adrenal regulation during systemic inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Kanczkowski, Waldemar; Alexaki, Vasileia-Ismini; Tran, Nguyen; Großklaus, Sylvia; Zacharowski, Kai; Martinez, Antoine; Popovics, Petra; Norman L Block; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Schally, Andrew V.; Stefan R Bornstein

    2013-01-01

    In several critically ill patients the homeostatic regulation of adrenocortical hormone secretion is impaired. Toll-like receptors (TLR) play a substantial role in HPA axis activation in the course of systemic inflammation. Here, using mice with conditional deletion of a crucial TLR adapter protein, MyD88, we investigated the role of systemic and local adrenal TLR signaling in the activation of adrenal glucocorticoid responses to stress and regulation of immune-adrenal crosstalk during system...

  19. Non-Functional Adrenal Gland Ganglioneuroma Masquerading as Chronic Calculus Cholecystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rashmi D; Vanikar, Aruna V; Trivedi, H L

    2015-09-01

    Adrenal ganglioneuromas in young adults are rare and ill-understood. We report an incidentally detected adrenal gland tumor diagnosed as ganglioneuroma (mature type) in 33 years old man who presented with vomiting and epigastric pain for 2 months. Histopathology examination revealed a well-encapsulated benign tumor of mature ganglion cells and Schwann-like cells arranged in fascicles, staining strongly with NSE and s-100 proteins, with adjacent unremarkable adrenal cortex and medulla. PMID:27608876

  20. The biology and clinical relevance of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in adrenal tumor management.

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, J.W.; Dluhy, R G

    1997-01-01

    Somatostatin receptors are present in the normal adrenal cortex and medulla. These receptors are also expressed by tumors that cause Cushing's syndrome and by pheochromocytomas. Somatostatin analogues such as octreotide have been developed to target somatostatin receptors for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This article reviews the current knowledge of the biology of somatostatin receptors in the normal adrenal gland and in adrenal tumors and defines the current role of the somatostatin ...

  1. Guidelines regarding management of adrenal insufficiency in the Holy month of Ramadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheelu S Siddiqi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal insufficiency is a life-threatening event, so it is recommended for patients with known adrenal insufficiency to be properly educated regarding sick-day management. In the month of Ramadan, people refrain from eating and drinking during daylight hours. It is very important for patients with adrenal insufficiency, who wish to keep a fast, to be well aware of the disease, the suitable drug to be used for that particular period, warning signs, sick-day management, physical activity, and dietary limits. This article describes guidelines for the sick-day management of patients with adrenal insufficiency, in the month of Ramadan.

  2. A giant adrenal pseudocyst presenting with right hypochondralgia and fever: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyama Hirotoshi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Adrenal pseudocysts are rare cystic masses that arise from the adrenal gland and which are usually non-functional and asymptomatic. Adrenal pseudocysts consist of a fibrous wall without an epithelial or endothelial lining. We report the case of a patient with a giant adrenal pseudocyst presenting with right hypochondralgia and high fever. Case presentation A 52-year-old Japanese man was admitted with right hypochondralgia and a chill. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a well-defined cystic mass measuring 19 cm which was located in the right adrenal region and the contents of which were not enhanced with contrast medium. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a heterogeneously hypo-echoic lesion with a peripheral high-echoic rim. Serum hormonal levels were almost normal. Despite treatment with antibiotics, the high fever persisted. Based on these findings, we made a preoperative diagnosis of a right adrenal cyst with infection. However, the possibility of malignancy still remained. The patient underwent laparotomy and right adrenal cyst excision with partial hepatectomy in order to relieve the symptoms and to confirm an accurate diagnosis. Histological examination revealed an adrenal pseudocyst with infection. His condition improved soon after the operation. Conclusion We report a case of a giant adrenal pseudocyst with infection. Surgery is required for symptomatic cases in order to relieve the symptoms and in cases of uncertain diagnosis.

  3. Adipose Tissue and Adrenal Glands: Novel Pathophysiological Mechanisms and Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atil Y. Kargi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormones produced by the adrenal glands and adipose tissues have important roles in normal physiology and are altered in many disease states. Obesity is associated with changes in adrenal function, including increase in adrenal medullary catecholamine output, alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, elevations in circulating aldosterone together with changes in adipose tissue glucocorticoid metabolism, and enhanced adipocyte mineralocorticoid receptor activity. It is unknown whether these changes in adrenal endocrine function are in part responsible for the pathogenesis of obesity and related comorbidities or represent an adaptive response. In turn, adipose tissue hormones or “adipokines” have direct effects on the adrenal glands and interact with adrenal hormones at several levels. Here we review the emerging evidence supporting the existence of “cross talk” between the adrenal gland and adipose tissue, focusing on the relevance and roles of their respective hormones in health and disease states including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and primary disorders of the adrenals.

  4. A review of the anatomy and clinical significance of adrenal veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesmebasi, Alper; Du Plessis, Maira; Iannatuono, Mark; Shah, Sameer; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2014-11-01

    The adrenal veins may present with a multitude of anatomical variants, which surgeons must be aware of when performing adrenalectomies. The adrenal veins originate during the formation of the prerenal inferior vena cava (IVC) and are remnants of the caudal portion of the subcardinal veins, cranial to the subcardinal sinus in the embryo. The many communications between the posterior cardinal, supracardinal, and subcardinal veins of the primordial venous system provide an explanation for the variable anatomy. Most commonly, one central vein drains each adrenal gland. The long left adrenal vein joins the inferior phrenic vein and drains into the left renal vein, while the short right adrenal vein drains immediately into the IVC. Multiple variations exist bilaterally and may pose the risk of surgical complications. Due to the potential for collaterals and accessory adrenal vessels, great caution must be taken during an adrenalectomy. Adrenal venous sampling, the gold standard in diagnosing primary hyperaldosteronism, also requires the clinician to have a thorough knowledge of the adrenal vein anatomy to avoid iatrogenic injury. The adrenal vein acts as an important conduit in portosystemic shunts, thus the nature of the anatomy and hypercoagulable states pose the risk of thrombosis.

  5. Can single-phase dual-energy CT reliably identify adrenal adenomas?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helck, A.; Hummel, N.; Meinel, F.G.; Johnson, T.; Nikolaou, K.; Graser, A. [University of Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    To evaluate whether single-phase dual-energy-CT-based attenuation measurements can reliably differentiate lipid-rich adrenal adenomas from malignant adrenal lesions. We retrospectively identified 51 patients with adrenal masses who had undergone contrast-enhanced dual-energy-CT (140/100 or 140/80 kVp). Virtual non-contrast and colour-coded iodine images were generated, allowing for measurement of pre- and post-contrast density on a single-phase acquisition. Adrenal adenoma was diagnosed if density on virtual non-contrast images was ≤10 HU. Clinical follow-up, true non-contrast CT, PET/CT, in- and opposed-phase MRI, and histopathology served as the standard of reference. Based on the standard of reference, 46/57 (80.7 %) adrenal masses were characterised as adenomas or other benign lesions; 9 malignant lesions were detected. Based on a cutoff value of 10 HU, virtual non-contrast images allowed for correct identification of adrenal adenomas in 33 of 46 (71 %), whereas 13/46 (28 %) adrenal adenomas were lipid poor with a density ≥10 HU. Based on the threshold of 10 HU on the virtual non-contrast images, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for detection of benign adrenal lesions was 73 %, 100 %, and 81 % respectively. Virtual non-contrast images derived from dual-energy-CT allow for accurate characterisation of lipid-rich adrenal adenomas and can help to avoid additional follow-up imaging. (orig.)

  6. Can single-phase dual-energy CT reliably identify adrenal adenomas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate whether single-phase dual-energy-CT-based attenuation measurements can reliably differentiate lipid-rich adrenal adenomas from malignant adrenal lesions. We retrospectively identified 51 patients with adrenal masses who had undergone contrast-enhanced dual-energy-CT (140/100 or 140/80 kVp). Virtual non-contrast and colour-coded iodine images were generated, allowing for measurement of pre- and post-contrast density on a single-phase acquisition. Adrenal adenoma was diagnosed if density on virtual non-contrast images was ≤10 HU. Clinical follow-up, true non-contrast CT, PET/CT, in- and opposed-phase MRI, and histopathology served as the standard of reference. Based on the standard of reference, 46/57 (80.7 %) adrenal masses were characterised as adenomas or other benign lesions; 9 malignant lesions were detected. Based on a cutoff value of 10 HU, virtual non-contrast images allowed for correct identification of adrenal adenomas in 33 of 46 (71 %), whereas 13/46 (28 %) adrenal adenomas were lipid poor with a density ≥10 HU. Based on the threshold of 10 HU on the virtual non-contrast images, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for detection of benign adrenal lesions was 73 %, 100 %, and 81 % respectively. Virtual non-contrast images derived from dual-energy-CT allow for accurate characterisation of lipid-rich adrenal adenomas and can help to avoid additional follow-up imaging. (orig.)

  7. Aberrant expression of glucagon receptors in adrenal glands of a patient with Cushing's syndrome and ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria de Miguel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH independent bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH is a rare cause of Cushing´s syndrome, characterized by bilateral adrenal lesions and excess cortisol production despite ACTH suppression. Cortisol synthesis is produced in response to abnormal activation of G-protein- coupled receptors, such as gastric inhibitory peptide, vasopressin, beta adrenergic agonists, LH/hCG and serotonin receptors. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of glucagon receptors in adrenal glands from an AIMAH patient. A patient with ACTH-independent Cushing´s syndrome and bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia was screened for altered activation of adrenal receptors by physiological (mixed meal and pharmacological (gonadotrophin releasing hormone, ACTH and glucagon tests. The results showed abnormally high levels of serum cortisol after stimulation with glucagon. Hypercortisolism was successfully managed with ketoconazole treatment. Interestingly, a 4-month treatment with a somatostatin analogue (octreotide was also able to reduce cortisol secretion. Finally, Cushing's syndrome was cured after bilateral adrenalectomy. Abnormal mRNA expression for glucagon receptor in the patient´s adrenal glands was observed by Real-Time PCR procedure. These results strongly suggest that the mechanism of AIMAH causing Cushing´s syndrome in this case involves the illicit activation of adrenal glucagon receptors. This is the first case reported of AIMAH associated with ectopic glucagon receptors.

  8. Detection of a Novel Bovine Lymphotropic Herpesvirus

    OpenAIRE

    Rovnak, Joel; Quackenbush, Sandra L.; Reyes, Richard A.; Baines, Joel D.; Parrish, Colin R.; Casey, James W.

    1998-01-01

    Degenerate PCR primers which amplify a conserved region of the DNA polymerase genes of the herpesvirus family were used to provide sequence evidence for a new bovine herpesvirus in bovine B-lymphoma cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The sequence of the resultant amplicon was found to be distinct from those of known herpesvirus isolates. Alignment of amino acid sequences demonstrated 70% identity with ovine herpesvirus 2, 69% with alcelaphine herpesvirus 1, 65% with bovine h...

  9. Bovine Chymosin: A Computational Study of Recognition and Binding of Bovine κ-Casein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, David S.; Christensen, Anders Uhrenholt; Sørensen, Jesper;

    2010-01-01

    Bovine chymosin is an aspartic protease that selectively cleaves the milk protein κ-casein. The enzyme is widely used to promote milk clotting in cheese manufacturing. We have developed models of residues 97-112 of bovine κ-casein complexed with bovine chymosin, using ligand docking, conformation...

  10. Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans What is Mycobacterium bovis ? In the United States, the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in people are caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( ...

  11. Effects of Carbenoxolone on the Canine Pituitary-Adrenal Axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Teshima

    Full Text Available Cushing's disease caused by pituitary corticotroph adenoma is a common endocrine disease in dogs. A characteristic biochemical feature of corticotroph adenomas is their relative resistance to suppressive negative feedback by glucocorticoids. The abnormal expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11HSD, which is a cortisol metabolic enzyme, is found in human and murine corticotroph adenomas. Our recent studies demonstrated that canine corticotroph adenomas also have abnormal expression of 11HSD. 11HSD has two isoforms in dogs, 11HSD type1 (HSD11B1, which converts cortisone into active cortisol, and 11HSD type2 (HSD11B2, which converts cortisol into inactive cortisone. It has been suggested that glucocorticoid resistance in corticotroph tumors is related to the overexpression of HSD11B2. Therefore it was our aim to investigate the effects of carbenoxolone (CBX, an 11HSD inhibitor, on the healthy dog's pituitary-adrenal axis. Dogs were administered 50 mg/kg of CBX twice each day for 15 days. During CBX administration, no adverse effects were observed in any dogs. The plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, and serum cortisol and cortisone concentrations were significantly lower at day 7 and 15 following corticotropin releasing hormone stimulation. After completion of CBX administration, the HSD11B1 mRNA expression was higher, and HSD11B2 mRNA expression was significantly lower in the pituitaries. Moreover, proopiomelanocortin mRNA expression was lower, and the ratio of ACTH-positive cells in the anterior pituitary was also significantly lower after CBX treatment. In adrenal glands treated with CBX, HSD11B1 and HSD11B2 mRNA expression were both lower compared to normal canine adrenal glands. The results of this study suggested that CBX inhibits ACTH secretion from pituitary due to altered 11HSD expressions, and is potentially useful for the treatment of canine Cushing's disease.

  12. Update on adrenal insufficiency in patients with liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifan, Anca; Chiriac, Stefan; Stanciu, Carol

    2013-01-28

    Liver cirrhosis is a major cause of mortality worldwide, often with severe sepsis as the terminal event. Over the last two decades, several studies have reported that in septic patients the adrenal glands respond inappropriately to stimulation, and that the treatment with corticosteroids decreases mortality in such patients. Both cirrhosis and septic shock share many hemodynamic abnormalities such as hyperdynamic circulatory failure, decreased peripheral vascular resistance, increased cardiac output, hypo-responsiveness to vasopressors, increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines [interleukine(IL)-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha] and it has, consequently, been reported that adrenal insufficiency (AI) is common in critically ill cirrhotic patients. AI may also be present in patients with stable cirrhosis without sepsis and in those undergoing liver transplantation. The term hepato-adrenal syndrome defines AI in patients with advanced liver disease with sepsis and/or other complications, and it suggests that it could be a feature of liver disease per se, with a different pathogenesis from that of septic shock. Relative AI is the term given to inadequate cortisol response to stress. More recently, another term is used, namely "critical illness related corticosteroid insufficiency" to define "an inadequate cellular corticosteroid activity for the severity of the patient's illness". The mechanisms of AI in liver cirrhosis are not completely understood, although decreased levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high levels of proinflammatory cytokines and circulatory endotoxin have been suggested. The prevalence of AI in cirrhotic patients varies widely according to the stage of the liver disease (compensated or decompensated, with or without sepsis), the diagnostic criteria defining AI and the methodology used. The effects of corticosteroid therapy on cirrhotic patients with septic shock and AI are controversial. This review aims to summarize the

  13. Localization of a pheochromocytoma using I-123 MIBG adrenal scintigraphy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirkare S

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available In a patient with the clinical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma, the localization of the tumor is essential for planning treatment. Recently, we have performed I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG adrenal scintigraphy in a patient presenting with a history of paroxysmal hypertension. Scintigraphy accurately located an ectopic unilateral pheochromocytoma. The scintigraphic diagnosis was confirmed by surgery and a diagnosis of ectopic unilateral pheochromocytoma was made by histopathological examination. This case report illustrates the specific diagnosis of pheochromocytoma by I-123 MIBG scintigraphy which is especially useful when other diagnostic procedures are equivocal.

  14. Adrenal function in asthmatic children treated with inhaled budesonide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Pedersen, S; Damkjaer Nielsen, M;

    1991-01-01

    The effect of the inhaled topical steroid budesonide on adrenal function was evaluated in 33 children (aged 7-15 years) with moderate bronchial asthma. The trial was designed as a prospective single-blind study of the effect of budesonide in daily doses of 200 microgram through 400 microgram to 800...... significantly during treatment with 800 microgram budesonide as compared to treatment with 200 microgram budesonide (95% confidence interval: 74%-112%). It is concluded, that budesonide is a topical steroid with a favourable ratio between topical and systemic effects in asthmatic children....

  15. Effects of DDT on bobwhite quail adrenal gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, J.W.; Peterle, T.J.; Mulls, C.M.

    1974-01-01

    A wide range of responses to sublethal levels of DDT exist, many of which are species specific and vary within each species depending upon age, sex, and physiological state. Sublethal levels of DDT do cause an increase in the adrenal cortical tissue of bobwhite quail, which may cause increased secretion of corticosteroids, and in turn affect reproduction. A delicate homeostatic balance exists within the avian endocrine system which may be disturbed by feeding sublethal levels of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides. This adverse effect on the endocrine system may cause subtle reproductive failures which go unnoticed until the population is greatly reduced.

  16. Serotonergic stimulation of the rat hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Jens D; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Kiss, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Acute stimulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is mediated by several postsynaptic 5-HT receptor subtypes. Activation of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors increases plasma corticosterone levels, and it is likely that these receptor...... that the two serotonin receptor subtypes affect the HPA axis via a central target. In conclusion, 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors regulate corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons via distinct but strongly interacting pathways, probably converging on the same neurons in the hypothalamus....

  17. Adrenal-mediated endogenous metabolites inhibit puberty in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, M; Jemiolo, B; Harvey, S; Wiesler, D; Marchlewska-Koj, A

    1986-02-14

    While assessing a potential role of adrenal glands in the production of the hitherto unidentified puberty-delaying pheromone of female mice, the urinary volatile profiles of normal and adrenalectomized animals were quantitatively compared. Six components, whose concentrations were depressed after adrenalectomy, were identified: 2-heptanone, trans-5-hepten-2-one, trans-4-hepten-2-one, n-pentyl acetate, cis-2-penten-1-yl acetate, and 2,5-dimethylpyrazine. When these laboratory-synthesized chemicals were added (in their natural concentrations) to either previously inactive urine from adrenalectomized females or plain water, the biological activity was fully restored. PMID:3945805

  18. Duration of adrenal insufficiency during treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Therese Risom; Juul, Anders; Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik;

    2011-01-01

    Children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) recive high doses of glucocorticosteroid as part of their treatment. This may lead to suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, acute adrenal insufficiency, and ultimately to life-threatening conditions. This study explores the adrena...

  19. Microfilaria in Association with Adrenal Lymphoma Diagnosed on Cytology: An Extremely Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushila JAISWAL

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Filariasis is a common public health problem in Asian countries. In this report, the authors have described detection of microfilaria in the cytological specimen of adrenal lymphoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case in the literature where microfilaria was seen in an adrenal gland involved by lymphoma. The literature is briefly reviewed.

  20. The diversity of abnormal hormone receptors in adrenal Cushing's syndrome allows novel pharmacological therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacroix A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies from several groups have indicated that abnormal or ectopic expression and function of adrenal receptors for various hormones may regulate cortisol production in ACTH-independent hypercortisolism. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP-dependent Cushing's syndrome has been described in patients with either unilateral adenoma or bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia; this syndrome results from the large adrenal overexpression of the GIP receptor without any activating mutation. We have conducted a systematic in vivo evaluation of patients with adrenal Cushing's syndrome in order to identify the presence of abnormal hormone receptors. In macronodular adrenal hyperplasia, we have identified, in addition to GIP-dependent Cushing's syndrome, other patients in whom cortisol production was regulated abnormally by vasopressin, ß-adrenergic receptor agonists, hCG/LH, or serotonin 5HT-4 receptor agonists. In patients with unilateral adrenal adenoma, the abnormal expression or function of GIP or vasopressin receptor has been found, but the presence of ectopic or abnormal hormone receptors appears to be less prevalent than in macronodular adrenal hyperplasia. The identification of the presence of an abnormal adrenal receptor offers the possibility of a new pharmacological approach to control hypercortisolism by suppressing the endogenous ligands or by using specific antagonists for the abnormal receptors.

  1. Significant growth of adrenal lymphangioma: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Ho Kim

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Lymphangiomas are most commonly located in the neck, axillary region and mediastinum, which are rare at adrenal gland. Transperitoneal laparoscopic removal of the adrenal lymphangiomas is regarded as a safe, effective and minimally invasive approach. In our case, laparoscopic removal of the tumor was successfully performed via a transperitoneal approach.

  2. Hepatic lipase gene is transcribed in rat adrenals into a truncated mRNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.M. Verhoeven (Adrie); D. Carling; H. Jansen (Hans)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractRat adrenals contain a lipase activity that is indistinguishable from hepatic lipase (HL) present in liver. Expression of HL mRNA in adrenals was studied using the method of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A 596-bp fragment of HL cD

  3. LCAT deficiency in mice is associated with a diminished adrenal glucocorticoid function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Menno; Korporaal, Suzanne J. A.; van der Sluis, Ronald J.; Hirsch-Reinshagen, Veronica; Bochem, Andrea E.; Wellington, Cheryl L.; Van Berkel, Theo J. C.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Van Eck, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    containing lipoproteins can provide cholesterol for synthesis of glucocorticoids. Here we assessed adrenal glucocorticoid function in LCAT knockout (KO) mice to determine the specific contribution of HDL-cholesteryl esters to adrenal glucocorticoid output in vivo. LCAT KO mice exhibit an 8-fold high

  4. 131I-6β-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol scintigraphy in a patient with incidentally discovered adrenal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrenal tuberculosis is rare and usually diagnosed on clinical signs of adrenal deficiency. We report here the uncommon incidental finding of an adrenal tuberculosis which was investigated in this context by radionuclide imaging with 131I-6β-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol. Absence of adrenal uptake which has not yet been reported is discussed in terms of differential diagnosis with the CT scan results. (authors). 10 refs., 2 figs

  5. Incidentally Detected Kaposi Sarcoma of Adrenal Gland with Anaplastic Features in an HIV Negative Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Murat; Sen, Erdem; Cebeci, Hakan; Ata, Ozlem; Yavas, Cagdas

    2016-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma (KS), a vascular tumor caused by infection with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8), is a systemic disease that can present with cutaneous lesions with or without visceral involvement. Very few cases of KS, most of which were associated with AIDS, have been reported in the adrenal gland. Anaplastic transformation of KS is a rare clinical presentation known as an aggressive disease with local recurrence and metastatic potential. We report here a 47-year-old HIV negative male presented with extra-adrenal symptoms and had an incidentally detected anaplastic adrenal KS exhibited aggressive clinical course. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of anaplastic primary adrenal KS without mucocutaneous involvement but subsequently developed other side adrenal metastases in an HIV negative patient.

  6. [Hyperprogesteronism due to bilateral adrenal carcinomas in a cat with diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quante, S; Sieber-Ruckstuhl, N; Wilhelm, S; Favrot, C; Dennler, M; Reusch, C

    2009-09-01

    An 8 year old male castrated Russian Blue cat with polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, abdominal enlargement, unkempt and easily epilated hair coat and abdominal alopecia is described. As a first step diabetes mellitus was diagnosed. Further work-up by ultrasonography revealed severe bilateral enlargement of the adrenal glands. Hypercortisolism was suspected and therefore ACTH stimulation test and dexamethasone suppression test were performed. In all samples cortisol concentrations were below the detection limit of the assay used. Various precursor hormones were measured and high progesterone concentrations were found. Histologically, the adrenal masses were characterised as bilateral adrenal carcinomas of the adrenal cortex. The case report demonstrates that adrenal gland tumors are also capable to secrete sex hormones instead of cortisol. Clinical signs of hyperprogesteronism are identical to those of hypercortisolism.

  7. Adrenal failure followed by status epilepticus and hemolytic anemia in primary antiphospholipid syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bures Vladimir

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on a 14 year old boy who presented with the symptoms abdominal pain, fever and proteinuria. A hematoma in the region of the right pararenal space was diagnosed. Prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were prolonged, lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies were positive and serum cortisol was normal. Ten days after admission the boy suddenly suffered generalized seizures due to low serum sodium. As well, the patient developed hemolytic anemia, acute elevated liver enzymes, hematuria and increased proteinuria. At this time a second hemorrhage of the left adrenal gland was documented. Adrenal function tests revealed adrenal insufficiency. We suspected microthromboses in the adrenals and secondary bleeding and treated the boy with hydrocortisone, fludrocortisone and phenprocoumon. Conclusion Adrenal failure is a rare complication of APS in children with only five cases reported to date. As shown in our patient, this syndrome can manifest in a diverse set of simultaneously occurring symptoms.

  8. [Maternal adrenal necrosis in the third trimester of pregnancy: a rare complication of antiphospholipid syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, G; Vauthier-Brouzes, D; Cornet, A; Al Hawari, M; Renard-Penna, R; Piette, J-C; Dommergues, M

    2008-04-01

    Adrenal necrosis, a rare life threatening complication of antiphospholipid syndrome, is difficult to diagnose during pregnancy. We report the case of a 33-year-old woman with bilateral adrenal necrosis which started during the third trimester of her second pregnancy. Antiphospholipid syndrome had been diagnosed few years ago, after a thrombotic event. The pregnancy was uneventful until 36 weeks plus five days, when the patient was admitted for bilateral back ache, initially considered as uterine contractions. Labour was induced because pain persisted and was associated with major thrombocytopenia. A healthy infant was delivered vaginally on the second day, adrenal failure was diagnosed based on intense asthenia, persistent severe lumbar pain, low blood sodium and cortisol. Bilateral adrenal oedema was documented by CT scan and MRI. Symptoms resolved following administration of hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone. This case illustrates the difficulty to diagnose adrenal necrosis in the third trimester of pregnancy.

  9. Ovarian thecal metaplasia of the adrenal gland in association with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eslam; Y; Wassal; Mouhammed; Amir; Habra; Rafael; Vicens; Priya; Rao; Khaled; M; Elsayes

    2014-01-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome(BWS) is an overgrowth syndrome associated with increased risk to develop malignancies including adrenocortical carcinoma. Ovarian thecal metaplasia of the adrenal gland is a rare tumorlike mesenchymal lesion in BWS patients that lacks detailed radiological description. We report a 17-yearold female patient with BWS, associated with bilateral Wilms tumor, hepatic hemangiomatosis, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, and a phyllodes tumor of the right breast. Surveillance abdominal ultrasound identified a right adrenal mass that was further characterized by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Radiologically, this mass displayed features that overlap with adrenocortical carcinoma and pheochromocytoma but after pathological examination this proved to be an ovarian thecal metaplasia of the adrenal gland. Adrenal masses in BWS should raise the suspicion for adrenocortical carcinoma though other adrenal tumors including ovarian thecal metaplasia can be seen in these patients.

  10. Bovine Necrotic Vulvovaginitis Associated with Porphyromonas levii

    OpenAIRE

    Elad, Daniel; Friedgut, Orly; Alpert, Nir; Stram, Yehuda; Lahav, Dan; Tiomkin, Doron; Avramson, Miriam; Grinberg, Kalia; Bernstein, Michael

    2004-01-01

    An outbreak of bovine necrotic vulvovaginitis associated with Porphyromonas levii, an emerging animal and human pathogen, affected 32 cows on a dairy farm in the northeast of Israel. Five animals had to be culled. This report appears to be the first that associates P. levii with bovine necrotic vulvovagnitis.

  11. In vitro production of bovine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroebech, L.; Mazzoni, Gianluca; Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard;

    2015-01-01

    In vitro production (IVP) of bovine embryos has become a widespread technology implemented in cattle breeding and production. The implementation of genomic selection and systems biology adds great dimensions to the impact of bovine IVP. The physical procedures included in the IVP process can still...

  12. Scientific Opinion on bovine lactoferrin

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA)

    2012-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to carry out the additional assessment for ‘lactoferrin’ as a food ingredient in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97 taking into account the comments and objections of a scientific nature raised by Member States. Bovine lactoferrin (bLF) is a protein that occurs naturally in cow’s milk. The applicant intends to market bLF that is isolated from cheese whe...

  13. Impact of molecular genetics on congenital adrenal hyperplasia management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, A; Baldazzi, L; Menabò, S; Cicognani, A

    2010-09-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a family of autosomal recessive disorders caused by mutations in genes encoding the enzymes involved in one of the 5 steps of adrenal steroid synthesis or the electron donor P450 oxidoreductase (POR) enzyme. Steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD), the principal focus of this review, accounts for about 90-95% of all CAH cases, and its biochemical and clinical severity depends on the underlying CYP21A2 gene disruption. Molecular genetic advancements have been achieved in recent years, and the aim of this review is to attempt to highlight its contribution to the comprehension and management of the disease. When possible, we will try to achieve this goal also by providing some results from our personal experience regarding: some aspects of CYP21A2 gene analysis, with basic genotype/phenotype relationships; its crucial role in both genetic counselling and in prenatal diagnosis and treatment in families at risk for 21-OHD; its help in the comprehension of the severity of the disease in patients diagnosed by neonatal screening and possibly treated before an evident salt-loss crisis or before performing adequate blood sampling; its usefulness in the definition of post ACTH 17-hydroxyprogesterone values, discriminating between non-classic, heterozygote and normal subjects; and finally the contribution of genes other than CYP21A2 whose function or dysfunction could influence 21-hydroxylase activity and modify the presentation or management of the disease.

  14. Models of bovine babesiosis including juvenile cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad-Roy, C M; Shuai, Zhisheng; van den Driessche, P

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Babesiosis in cattle is caused by the transmission of protozoa of Babesia spp. by ticks as vectors. Juvenile cattle (resistance to Bovine Babesiosis, rarely show symptoms, and acquire immunity upon recovery. Susceptibility to the disease varies between breeds of cattle. Models of the dynamics of Bovine Babesiosis transmitted by the cattle tick that include these factors are formulated as systems of ordinary differential equations. Basic reproduction numbers are calculated, and it is proved that if these numbers are below the threshold value of one, then Bovine Babesiosis dies out. However, above the threshold number of one, the disease may approach an endemic state. In this case, control measures are suggested by determining target reproduction numbers. The percentage of a particular population (for example, the adult bovine population) needed to be controlled to eradicate the disease is evaluated numerically using Columbia data from the literature. PMID:25715822

  15. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp;

    2014-01-01

    Bovine colostrum, the first milk that cows produce after parturition, contains high levels of growth factors and immunomodulatory components. Some healthy and diseased individuals may gain health benefits by consuming bovine colostrum as a food supplement. This review provides a systematic...... to populations, outcomes, and methodological quality, as judged by the Jadad assessment tool. Many studies used surrogate markers to study the effects of bovine colostrum. Studies suggesting clinical benefits of colostrum supplementation were generally of poor methodological quality, and results could...... not be confirmed by other investigators. Bovine colostrum may provide gastrointestinal and immunological benefits, but further studies are required before recommendations can be made for clinical application. Animal models may help researchers to better understand the mechanisms of bovine colostrum supplementation...

  16. Updating of the bovine neosporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Martínez Contreras

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the fields of Medicine and bovine production, there is a wide variety of diseases affecting reproduction, in relation to the number of live births, the interval between births and open days, among others. Some of these diseases produce abortions and embryonic death, which explain the alteration of reproductive parameters. Many of these diseases have an infectious origin, such as parasites, bacteria, viruses and fungi, which are transmitted among animals. Besides, some of them have zoonotic features that generate problems to human health. Among these agents, the Neospora caninum, protozoan stands out. Its life cycle is fulfilled in several species of animals like the dog and the coyote. These two act as its definitive hosts and the cattle as its intermediary host. The Neospora caninum causes in the infected animals, reproductive disorders, clinical manifestations and decreased production which affects productivity of small, medium and large producers. Because of this, diagnostic techniques that allow understanding the epidemiological behavior of this disease have been developed. However in spite of being a major agent in the bovine reproductive health, few studies have been undertaken to determine the prevalence of this agent around the world. Therefore, the objective of this review was to collect updated information on the behavior of this parasite, targeting its epidemiology, its symptoms, its impact on production and the methods of its control and prevention.

  17. Adipogenesis of bovine perimuscular preadipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, non-transformed progeny adipofibroblasts, derived from mature adipocyte dedifferentiation, was used as a novel in vitro model to study adipogenic gene expression in cattle. Adipofibroblasts from dedifferentiated mature perimuscular fat (PMF) tissue were cultured with differentiation stimulants until the cells exhibited morphological differentiation. Treated cells were harvested from day 2 to 16 for RNA extraction, whereas control cells were cultured without addition of stimulants. Results from time course gene expression assays by quantitative real-time PCR revealed that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) and their six down-stream genes were co-expressed at day 2 post-differentiation induction. When compared to other adipogenesis culture systems, the adipogenic gene expression of bovine PMF adipofibroblasts culture was different, especially to the rodent model. Collectively, these results demonstrated PPAR-γ and SREBP-1 cooperatively play a key role to regulate the re-differentiation of bovine adipofibroblasts, during early conversion stages in vitro

  18. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ENDOGENOUS OUABAIN SECRETIONFROM CULTURED BOVINE ADRENOCORTICAL CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To compare the characteristics of endogenous ouabain(EO) secretion with the other adrenocortical hormones and determine the effects of angiotensin Ⅰ (Ang Ⅰ ), and adrenocorticotrophin(ACTH) on the secretion of EO. Methods EO was measured by radioimmunoassay from primary cultured bovine adrenocotical cells (BAC). Results ①Ouabain was determined in the media of cultured BAC. Both EO and aldosterone secretion were decreased from the outer to inner layer of the cultured adrenal cortex, and the responses to Ang Ⅰ and ACTH were higher than that in the mid layer (P <0. 05) and inner layer (P <0. 01). Cortisol secretion was activated by Ang Ⅱ or ACTH was significantly higher in the mid layer and in the inner layer than that in the outer layer. ②The time-course experiment showed that the gradually rising amounts of aldosterone and cortisol could be determined dur ing the continuous incubation to 48h with or without Ang Ⅰ or ACTH. However, EO did not increase continuously af ter 24h of incubation in the basal secreting situation and after 12h of incubation in the stimulating situation by Ang Ⅱ or ACTH. ③There were obvious drops in aldosterone and cortisol secretion from 3rd day during a 21 day-period cell culture, but the peak secretion of ouabain was in 7th day. Conclusion It suggests that the secretory mechanism might be different between EO and aldosterone or cortisol. Also, Ang Ⅱ and ACTH might be involved in the regulation of EO secretion.

  19. Survival and Diversity of Human Homologous Dietary MicroRNAs in Conventionally Cooked Top Sirloin and Dried Bovine Tissue Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amber L.; Keller, Hana G. K.; Waksmonski, James C.; Scholl, Chris D.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary microRNAs (miRNAs), notably those found in milk, are currently being investigated for their potential to elicit biological effects via canonical binding to human messenger RNA targets once ingested. Besides milk, beef and other bovine tissue-derived ingredients could also be a relevant source of potentially bioactive dietary miRNAs. In this study, we characterized the human homologous miRNA profiles in food-grade, bovine-sourced sirloin, heart and adrenal tissue (raw, cooked, and pasteurized, freeze-dried extracts) via deep-sequencing and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). A total of 198 human homologous miRNAs were detected at 10 or more normalized reads in all replicates (n = 3) of at least one preparation method. Tissue origin rather than preparation method was the major differentiating factor of miRNA profiles, and adrenal-based miRNA profiles were the most distinct. The ten most prevalent miRNAs in each tissue represented 71–93% of the total normalized counts for all annotated miRNAs. In cooked sirloin, the most abundant miRNAs were miR-10b-5p, (48.8% of total annotated miRNA reads) along with the muscle-specific miR-1 (24.1%) and miR-206 (4.8%). In dried heart extracts, miR-1 (17.0%), miR-100-5p (16.1%) and miR-99a-5p (11.0%) gave the highest normalized read counts. In dried adrenal extracts, miR-10b-5p (71.2%) was the most prominent followed by miR-143-3p (7.1%) and 146b-5p (3.7%). Sequencing results for five detected and two undetected miRNAs were successfully validated by RT-qPCR. We conclude that edible, bovine tissues contain unique profiles of human homologous dietary miRNAs that survive heat-based preparation methods. PMID:26394052

  20. Atypical imaging features of adrenal gland lesions in children – report of three cases and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The differential diagnosis of adrenal pathology depends on the child’s age and imaging findings. Three children without clinical symptoms of neoplasm, with an adrenal lesion discovered on diagnostic ultrasound imaging. Laboratory tests for neoplasm were negative. The final diagnosis was based on histopathological examinations after surgical resection. 1. The value of diagnostic imaging and laboratory tests in differential diagnosis of adrenal gland lesions is limited. 2. Malignant tumors of adrenal glands should be taken into account in children. 3. Surgical resection should be considered in diagnostic algorithm of adrenal gland masses. 4. The final diagnosis is always based on histopathological examination

  1. Insuficiência adrenal na criança com choque séptico Adrenal insufficiency in children with septic shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H. Casartelli

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar os critérios para o diagnóstico e o tratamento da insuficiência adrenal nos pacientes com choque séptico. FONTES DOS DADOS: Artigos publicados em revistas nacionais e internacionais, selecionados nas suas páginas eletrônicas e através do Medline, bem como referências citadas em artigos chaves. SÍNTESES DOS DADOS: Nos trabalhos publicados na literatura, o achado de insuficiência adrenal em pacientes com choque séptico tem variado entre 17% a 54%. Os dados publicados até a presente data, na literatura consultada, revelam a inexistência de um consenso para o diagnóstico da insuficiência adrenal em pacientes com doenças críticas, particularmente naqueles com choque séptico. A presença de choque refratário a volume e resistente a catecolaminas pode ser aceito como sugestivo, enquanto que um cortisol basal inferior a 25 µg/dl é um critério diagnóstico indicativo de insuficiência adrenal. O teste de estimulação adrenal é um recurso útil na identificação dos pacientes com insuficiência adrenal relativa. Nossa opção de teste para estimulação adrenal em pediatria é a utilização de corticotropina em baixas doses (0,5 µg/ 1,73 m². Um aumento inferior a 9 µg/dl no valor do cortisol pós-teste sugere a presença de insuficiência adrenal oculta (relativa. Nos pacientes com choque séptico apresentando insuficiência adrenal, suspeita ou confirmada, a utilização de hidrocortisona em dose de choque ou de estresse pode ser vital na sua evolução favorável. CONCLUSÕES: Os dados existentes na literatura, embora controversos, já nos permitem especular sobre quando iniciar o tratamento de reposição hormonal, sobre qual o nível sérico de cortisol aceito como adequado e em relação à escolha da dose de corticotropina, para a realização do teste de estimulação adrenal e diagnóstico de insuficiência adrenal oculta ou relativa nos pacientes com choque séptico.OBJECTIVE: To review the criteria

  2. Adrenal gland volume measurement in septic shock and control patients: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nougaret, Stephanie; Aufort, S.; Gallix, B. [Hopital Saint Eloi, Department of Abdominal Imaging, CHU Montpellier, Montpellier, Cedex 5 (France); Jung, B.; Chanques, G.; Jaber, S. [Hopital Saint Eloi, Intensive Care Unit, Department of Critical Care and Anesthesiology: DAR B, CHU Montpellier, Montpellier, Cedex 5 (France)

    2010-10-15

    To compare adrenal gland volume in septic shock patients and control patients by using semi-automated volumetry. Adrenal gland volume and its inter-observer variability were measured with tomodensitometry using semi-automated software in 104 septic shock patients and in 40 control patients. The volumes of control and septic shock patients were compared and the relationship between volume and outcome in intensive care was studied. The mean total volume of both adrenal glands was 7.2 {+-} 2.0 cm{sup 3} in control subjects and 13.3 {+-} 4.7 cm{sup 3} for total adrenal gland volume in septic shock patients (p < 0.0001). Measurement reproducibility was excellent with a concordance correlation coefficient value of 0.87. The increasing adrenal gland volume was associated with a higher rate of survival in intensive care. The present study reports that with semi-automated software, adrenal gland volume can be measured easily and reproducibly. Adrenal gland volume was found to be nearly double in sepsis compared with control patients. The absence of increased volume during sepsis would appear to be associated with a higher rate of mortality and may represent a prognosis factor which may help the clinician to guide their strategy. (orig.)

  3. Immunohistochemical detection of angiotensin receptors AT1 and AT2 in adrenal tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Pawlikowski

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin II is well known to affect the adrenal cell growth and function. Angiotensin receptors AT1 and AT2 were found to be present in the normal adrenal gland. However, the data on the expression of the angiotensin receptors in the adrenal tumors are very scarce. To overcome this gap, the paraffin sections of the adrenal cortical tumors and of pheochromocytomas from the archival material were immunostained with antibodies raised against AT1 (sc-1173 and AT2 (sc-9040 receptor proteins. In hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex and in benign adrenocortical adenomas, both functioning and non-functioning, the AT1 immunostaining was present mainly in the cell membranes. A positive immunoreaction was also found in the subpopulation of cell nuclei and within the cytoplasm. In the adrenal cancer, as well as in pheochromocytomas, neither cell membranes nor cell nuclei were immunostained with anti-AT1 antibody. However, a weak AT1 immunostaining was present within the cytoplasm of tumoral cells. With anti-AT2 antibody, in all tumors investigated, the tumoral cells were immunonegative but moderate to strong AT2 immunostaining was observed in the walls of intratumoral blood vessels and in the interstitial tissue. Our data indicates that the expression of AT1 receptors is altered in adrenal cancer and in pheochromocytomas. The expression of AT2 receptors, in turn, may be connected with the process of tumoral neo-angiogenesis.

  4. Large bilateral adrenal metastases in non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanikiotis Charisios

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adrenal gland is one of the common sites of metastasis from primary lung cancer. Adrenal metastases are usually unilateral however bilateral adrenal metastases are seen in 10% of all lung cancer patients; of these 2–3% occurs at the initial presentation of non-small cell lung cancer. Secondary tumors can disrupt the structure and function of the adrenal. This can lead to adrenal hemorrhage, which constitutes a life threatening hazard for the patient. Case presentation A 59-year-old male presented with persisting abdominal pain. His initial work-up revealed significant anemia, an invasive process in the right upper lobe of the lung and large masses of heterogeneous texture, with hemorrhagic and necrotic elements in both adrenal glands. A biopsy confirmed it to be a large-cell carcinoma of the lungs. The patient developed severe leukocytosis akin to the paraneoplastic syndrome and died suddenly five days after the administration of chemotherapy. Conclusion Intratumoral hemorrhage is a rare but life threatening complication of adrenal metastases and should be treated as soon as it has been diagnosed. If adrenalectomy is not feasible, combination chemotherapy should be applied as in metastatic disease. For choosing the appropriate chemotherapeutic regimen it is important to accurately achieve the diagnosis.

  5. Adrenal glands in beta-thalassemia major: magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features and correlation with iron stores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drakonaki, Eleni; Papakonstantinou, Olympia; Maris, Thomas; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas [University Hospital of Heraklion, Department of Radiology, Heraklion (Greece); Vasiliadou, Artemis [Aghios Georgios Hospital of Chania, Thalassemia Unit, Chania (Greece); Papadakis, Alex [Venizelion Hospital of Heraklion, Thalassemia Unit, Heraklion (Greece)

    2005-12-01

    This study aimed at describing the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of the adrenal glands in beta-thalassemic patients and at investigating the relation between adrenal and hepatic siderosis. Adrenal signal intensity (SI) was retrospectively assessed on abdominal MR studies of 35 patients with beta-thalassemia major undergoing quantification of hepatic siderosis and 12 healthy controls, using T1- (120/4/90), intermediate - (120/4/20), and T2*- (120/15/20) weighted GRE sequences. Adrenal SI was graded as grade 0 (normal SI on all sequences), grade 1 (hypointensity on T2* alone), or grade 2 (hypointensity on at least T2*). Adrenal size was measured in the thalassemic patients and compared with normative data. Liver-to-muscle (L/M) SI ratios, expressing hepatic siderosis, were estimated on each sequence. Serum ferritin levels were recorded. Adrenal hypointensity (grades 1 and 2) was noted in 24/35 (68.6%) patients. L/M ratios correlated significantly with adrenal SI in all sequences. Patients with grade 1 and grade 2 adrenal SI had significantly decreased L/M ratios compared with grade 0. Serum ferritin correlated significantly with L/M values but not with adrenal SI. Adrenal size was within normal limits. Diffuse hypointensity in normal-sized adrenals is a common MR finding in beta-thalassemic patients and correlates with the degree of hepatic siderosis. (orig.)

  6. Horseshoe adrenal gland in association with asplenia: presentation of six new cases and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asplenia syndrome is a form of heterotaxy characterized by bilateral right-sidedness. Congenital fusion of the adrenal glands (''horseshoe adrenal gland'') is a less common feature of asplenia syndrome, most instances of which have been found at autopsy.Purpose. To present clinical and imaging features of infants diagnosed with asplenia syndrome and horseshoe adrenal gland.Materials and methods. Six infants with asplenia syndrome were identified as having a horseshoe adrenal gland. Medical records and imaging studies were reviewed to determine clinical presentation, associated anomalies, and outcome. The literature was reviewed for prior reports of horseshoe adrenal gland.Results. Horseshoe adrenal gland was identified in five infants by sonography and one by CT, the latter confirmed by autopsy. In all cases, the horseshoe adrenal gland was pre-aortic. Besides features of asplenia syndrome, one infant also had associated vertebral anomalies and bilateral renal agenesis. Including the current cases, of 65 reported cases of horseshoe adrenal gland 34 (52%) were associated with asplenia, 24 (37%) with neural tube defects, 19 (29%) with renal anomalies, and 2 (3%) with Cornelia de Lange syndrome. Horseshoe adrenal gland has not been reported with polysplenia syndrome.Conclusions. Horseshoe adrenal gland is a less common manifestation of asplenia that may be demonstrated by imaging. Horseshoe adrenal gland may be a differentiating feature between asplenia and polysplenia. (orig.)

  7. A case of adrenal tumour in a lion (Panthera leo: tomographic and ultrasonographic findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Longo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal gland tumors are common in humans and in several animal species. Studies concerning this neoplasia in human medicine indicate that clinical signs have a high variability. Adrenal adenomas can be occasionally observed in asymptomatic patients during tomographic studies while estrogen-secreting tumors, known as "feminizing adrenal tumors" (FATs, have been rarely reported. The aim of this study is to describe for the first time the Imaging findings of a captivity lion affected by a neoplastic secreting adrenal tumour. An 8 year-old male lion with progressive lack of secondary sex characteristics, disorexia and weight loss was referred to our Institution. The patient was chemically immobilized to undergo general clinical evaluation, hematologic, serum biochemical and hormonal profile, FIV and FeLV tests. Three months later a total body computed tomography and abdominal ultrasonography were performed. Liver and left adrenal lesions FNABs were performed. Imaging findings showed the presence of an extended expansive neoplastic lesion on the left adrenal gland (40x39x37 mm with right adrenal gland atrophy. Generalized hepatopathy associated with a suspected intrahepatic cholestasis was confirmed by ultrasonography. Cytological evaluation ruled out the presence of neuroendocrine cells without malignancy evidences compatible with the adenomatous nature of the lesion, associated with moderate degenerative hepatopathy. Blood tests reported an estradiol concentration of 462 ng/dl. To our knowledge, this is the first description of adrenal mass in a lion associated with secondary feminization, inappetence and high values of hematic estradiol, referable to a feminizing adrenal tumor (FAT. 

  8. Hepatic and Adrenal Hemangioendothelioma-A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Sulata M; Nagaraj, H.K.; Mysorekar, Vijaya V

    2013-01-01

    Haemangioendothelioma (HE) liver is a mesenchymal vascular tumour, intermediate between a haemangioma and an angiosarcoma. It has a variable clinical course, is a low grade malignancy and is associated with long-term survival. It has a characteristic histologic appearance. Immunohistochemical studies have shown that the neoplastic cells in HE are of endothelial derivation. These are essential to distinguish HE from metastatic carcinoma and primary epithelial liver tumour. We report a case of a 36-year-old male with HE of the liver with adrenal involvement, probably metastatic, with tuberculosis as an incidental finding. To our knowledge this is the first such case reported in literature. The confirmation of diagnosis was done by immunohistochemical study. PMID:24392409

  9. Nonclassical congenital adrenal hyperplasia: targets of treatment and transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann-Crosby, Bonnie; Chen, Min-Jye; Lyons, Sarah K; Lin, Yuezhen; Axelrad, Marni; Dietrich, Jennifer E; Sutton, V Reid; Macias, Charles G; Gunn, Sheila; Karaviti, Lefkothea

    2014-12-01

    Nonclassical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCCAH) caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a common autosomal recessive condition that can present with a wide range of hyperandrogenemic signs in childhood or adulthood. The management of children with NCCAH can be challenging, as no universally accepted guidelines have been established. Our goal was to evaluate the literature and develop an evidence-based guideline for the medical management of children and adolescents with NCCAH. We reviewed the published literature and used the Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system when appropriate to grade the evidence and provide recommendations for the medical management of children and adolescents with NCCAH, appropriate transition practices from pediatric to adult endocrine care, and psychological issues that should be addressed in parents and patients with NCCAH. We offer recommendations, based on the available evidence, for the management of NCCAH at the different developmental stages from diagnosis through transition to adulthood.

  10. A new adrenal computer imaging technique using dual-radioisotopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohashi,Teruhisa

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Computer processed adrenal imaging using dual-radioisotopes, 6 beta-iodomethyl-19-nor-cholest-5(10-en-3 beta-ol-131I and 99mTc-phytate was performed in 12 patients with primary aldosteronism and 4 with Cushing's syndrome due to adrenocortical tumor. Adreno-photoscanning and hepato-photoscanning were performed in the same position 2-4 days following intravenous administration of radiocholesterol. The scintigraphic information was stored on cassettes and scan subtraction and a digital-computer method for data smoothing were performed on an oscilloscope. The tumor site could be determined in all cases until day 4 by this computer processed image.

  11. Exercise and the Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos, Martine; Tabarin, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Exercise represents a potent physiological stimulus upon the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Two major factors modulate the HPA axis response to exercise: intensity and duration. Endurance training per se does not induce permanent hypercortisolism as endurance-trained subjects have similar biological markers of HPA axis activity in resting condition as healthy untrained men. However, during a challenge of the HPA axis, endurance-trained subjects demonstrate an adaptation of the HPA axis activity to repeated exercise resulting from decreased tissular sensitivity to glucocorticoids. A great diversity of other mechanisms is involved in this adaptation, acting potentially at all levels in the cascade and leading to the biological effects of cortisol. PMID:27348531

  12. Management considerations for the adult with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auchus, Richard J

    2015-06-15

    The congenital adrenal hyperplasias (CAH) are a group of genetic defects in cortisol biosynthesis, most commonly steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD). With the advent of cortisone therapy in the 1960s and newborn screening in the 1990s, most children with 21OHD now reach adulthood. The needs and concerns of adults with 21OHD overlap with those of children, but the focus and approach shift as these patients reach adulthood. Cohort studies suggest that adults with 21OHD experience significant health concerns such as infertility, obesity, short stature, neoplasia, and bone loss, as well as reduced quality of life. Nevertheless, the spectrum of health status and disease severity is broad, but only some of the reasons for these disparities are known. This review will summarize the current state of knowledge and suggested approaches to management adults with classic 21OHD, plus a few major considerations for adults with nonclassic 21OHD.

  13. [Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage (BAH): cannabis and vascular involvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debaille, V; Taylor, S; Borghgraef, J; Rossi, C

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 39-year-old man with bilateral adrenal haemorrhage. The diagnosis is rarely primarily made with imaging alone. Our patient had a previous history of a stroke six years prior to this episode. We evoke the possibility that long-term daily cannabis use could be the underlying cause of the patient's vascular pathologies. After thorough review of existing literature, this link was found to be probable. Cannabis is the most consumed recreational drug in the world, and this tendency is ever-increasing. Serious complications other than psychiatric resulting from consumption are reported with increasing frequency. Neurological, cerebrovascular, cardiovascular and respiratory complications have been observed. It is thus important to remain vigilant when patients are hospitalised notably through the emergency department, in order to obtain a complete anamnesis, optimise screening, and to adapt the treatment of these patients. PMID:27487697

  14. Multimodality imaging of fat-containing adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Umar; Poder, Liina; Carlson, David; Courtier, Jesse; Joe, Bonnie N; Coakley, Fergus V

    2012-06-01

    A biopsy-proven fat-containing metastasis to the adrenal gland in a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma demonstrated low density on nonenhanced CT, heterogeneity on contrast-enhanced CT, and marked signal loss on opposed-phase gradient-echo MRI, mimicking an adrenal adenoma. However, the mass was not present on older studies and showed increased FDG uptake on PET. The possibility of a fat-containing metastasis should be considered for an apparent adrenal adenoma in a patient with a primary hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:22614216

  15. Neonatal adrenal hematoma with urinary tract infection: Risk factor or a chance association?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhadi M Habeb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal adrenal hematoma is a rare finding that can be discovered incidentally or presents with various symptoms. However, urinary tract infection (UTI has not been reported in association with this condition. We report on a 4-week old child with massive unilateral adrenal hematoma discovered incidentally during a routine abdominal ultrasound scan for UTI. The mass resolved spontaneously after several months with no complications. The diagnosis and ma-nagement of infantile suprarenal mass and the possible link between this child′s UTI and the adrenal hematoma are discussed.

  16. Spontaneous Rupture and Hemorrhage of Adrenal Pseudocyst Presenting With Acute Abdomen and Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Mahmodlou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal gland pseudocysts are not common conditions, and most of them are nonfunctional and asymptomatic. However, large pseudocysts may causes abdominal discomfort and have compressive effects on adjacent organs. They may rupture spontaneously or after trauma, and lead to retroperitoneal hemorrhage and surgical emergency. Herein, we report a case of 21-year-old female who presented with acute abdomen and hemorrhagic shock due to spontaneous rupture of adrenal pseudocyst. She was treated successfully by open surgery, removal of adrenal pseudocyst and unilateral adrenalectomy.

  17. [The state of sympathetic-adrenal system in patients with chronic cardiac insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigmatullin, R R; Kirillova, V V; Dzhordzhikiia, R K; Kudrin, V S; Klodt, P M

    2009-01-01

    Activation of sympato-adrenal system plays an important role in the development of chronic cardiac failure (CCF). However, its relation to morpho-functional state of myocardium in CCF patients is virtually unknown. HPLC with electrochemical detection was used to determine plasma noradrenalin, adrenalin, and their precursors, 3,4-dioxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and dopamine, in patients with different morpho-functional changes in myocardium. The study demonstrated enhanced activity of sympato-adrenal system in patients with CCF. It showed for the first time that activity of sympato-adrenal system in CCF patients depends on the morpho-functional status of myocardium.

  18. Immunoprophylaxis of bovine respiratory syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogan Dragan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Respiratory Syndrome (BRS is a multifactorial disease caused by the interaction of infective agents, the environment and the individual immunological response of animals in the herd. Despite five decades of research on BRS, no clear understanding of how environmental factors influence pathogenic outcomes of the disease has been defined. As such, the development of immunoprophylaxis and vaccine programmes to prevent outbreaks of BRS in cattle has not been successful. The current paper discusses vaccination programmes for all categories of cattle and presents a review of existing vaccines being used for immunoprophylaxis of respiratory syndrome in cattle and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the currently used vaccines and vaccination programmes. Lastly, a discussion detailing the design of future perfect vaccines is presented.

  19. Search for the genome of bovine herpesvirus types 1, 4 and 5 in bovine semen

    OpenAIRE

    P.E. Morán; Favier, P.A.; Lomónaco, M.; Catena, M.C.; M.L. Chiapparrone; Odeón, A.C.; Verna, A.E.; S.E. Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) causes respiratory and reproductive disorders in cattle. Recently, bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) and bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BoHV-4) have been identified to be associated with genital disease. In this study, the presence of the genome of BoHV-1, BoHV-4 and BoHV-5 in bovine semen of Argentinean and international origin was analyzed by PCR assays. The most important finding of this study is the detection of the genome of BoHV-1 and BoHV-4 in semen of b...

  20. Interfacial behaviour of bovine testis hyaluronidase

    OpenAIRE

    Belem-Gonçalves, Silvia; Tsan, Pascale; Lancelin, Jean-Marc; Alves, Tito L. M.; Salim, Vera M.; Besson, Françoise

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The interfacial properties of bovine testicular hyaluronidase were suggested by demonstrating the association of hyaluronidase activity with membranes prepared from bovine testis. Protein adsorption to the air/water interface was investigated using surface pressure-area isotherms. Whatever the way to obtain interfacial films (protein injection or deposition), the hyaluronidase exhibited a significant affinity for the air/water interface. The isotherm obtained 180 min after...

  1. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: biotypes and disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Deregt, D; Loewen, K G

    1995-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus continues to produce significant economic losses for the cattle industry and challenges investigators with the complexity of diseases it produces and the mechanisms by which it causes disease. This paper updates and attempts to clarify information regarding the roles of noncytopathic and cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses in persistent infections and mucosal disease. It also covers, in brief, what is known of the new diseases: thrombocytopenia and hemorrhagic...

  2. Ultrasonographic detection of adrenal gland tumor and ureterolithiasis in a guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 5-year-old guinea pig was presented to the University of Berne Small Animal Radiology Department for an ultrasound examination of the abdomen to confirm a suspected diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. The patient had bilateral alopecia, was apathic and obese. Ultrasonographically, a tumor of the left adrenal gland, obstruction of the left ureter by an ureterolith, as well as hydronephrosis of the left kidney were detected. During surgery to relieve the ureteral obstruction the adrenal gland tumor was removed. The guinea pig died post-operatively due to blood loss. The left adrenal gland tumor was found histopathologically to be an adenoma and the right adrenal gland also had multiple small adenomas, but grossly appeared normal. The ureterolith was analyzed and found by x-ray diffraction to consist of calcium carbonate

  3. Adrenal Crisis: Still a Deadly Event in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puar, Troy H K; Stikkelbroeck, Nike M M L; Smans, Lisanne C C J; Zelissen, Pierre M J; Hermus, Ad R M M

    2016-03-01

    Adrenal crisis is a life-threatening medical emergency, associated with a high mortality unless it is appropriately recognized and early treatment is rendered. Despite it being a treatable condition for almost 70 years, failure of adequate preventive measures or delayed treatment has often led to unnecessary deaths. Gastrointestinal illness is the most common precipitant for an adrenal crisis. Although most patients are educated about "sick day rules," patients, and physicians too, are often reluctant to increase their glucocorticoid doses or switch to parenteral injections, and thereby fail to avert the rapid deterioration of the patients' condition. Therefore, more can be done to prevent an adrenal crisis, as well as to ensure that adequate acute medical care is instituted after a crisis has occurred. There is generally a paucity of studies on adrenal crisis. Hence, we will review the current literature, while also focusing on the incidence, presentation, treatment, prevention strategies, and latest recommendations in terms of steroid dosing in stress situations.

  4. Ectopic adrenal tissue in the spermatic cord in pediatric patients: surgical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Mendez

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the incidence and relevance of ectopic adrenal tissue in pediatric patients who underwent groin surgical explorations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 1120 patients with groin surgical explorations during a period of 8 consecutive years. Patients’ clinical data and histological findings were analyzed. RESULTS: We found ectopic adrenal tissue in 13 patients in 1120 groin surgical exploration (1.16%. Of the 13 cases, 5 were diagnosed as having undescended testes, 6 inguinal hernia and 2 communicating hydrocele. Median age at diagnosis was 5.6 years. Histological sections showed adrenal cortical tissue with no medulla present. CONCLUSION: Based on the clinical implications of those adrenal rests it is mandatory the removal of this ectopic tissue whenever encountered during surgical interventions in the groin region in children.

  5. Health Alert: Adrenal Crisis Causes Death in Some People Who Were Treated with hGH

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Organizations (PDF, 269 KB). Alternate Language URL Health Alert: Adrenal Crisis Causes Death in Some People Who ... a medical ID card and wear a Medic-Alert bracelet to tell emergency workers that you lack ...

  6. Radioimmunoassay of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone in patients with adrenal tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavnov, V.N.; Yakovlev, A.A.; Yugrinov, O.G.; Gandzha, T.I. (Kievskij Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Ehndokrinologii i Obmena Veshchestv (Ukrainian SSR))

    1983-02-01

    The results are presented of a study of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in 89 patients with aldosteronoma, corticosteroma, pheochromocytoma and hypertension. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure aldosterone concentration and renin activity in the peripheral blood and blood from vena cava inferior, the renal and adrenal veins, the circadian cycle of their content and the responsiveness of the glomerular zone of the adrenal cortex and the juxtaglomerular renal system under the influence of lasix intake and the change over from a horizontal into vertical position. Patients with adrenal tumors have shown disorders of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone function. Radioimmunoassay of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system promotes early detection of adrenal tumors in the general population of patients with hypertension and can be used for control over therapeutic efficacy.

  7. Isolated hydatid cyst of adrenal gland with hypertension mimicking Conn's syndrome: a very rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Chaudhary

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid cyst of the adrenal gland is one of the rare conditions caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. The incidence of adrenal gland involvement is less than 1% of all hydatid disease in humans and isolated adrenal involvement is extremely rare. Hydatid disease is frequent in endemic regions and sheep farming areas with equal sex distribution. Here, a case of 23 year old female with isolated adrenal gland hydatid cyst is presented, that was evaluated clinically, investigated radiographicaly and by blood investigations and finally histopathology confirmed the diagnosis. No complications occurred at peri and postoperative period. The patient was given 6 cycles of albendazole (10 mg/kg in two divided doses, each for a period of four weeks followed by a week's rest. The patient is on regular follow-up without recurrence in last 1 year. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 3071-3073

  8. Genetics Home Reference: congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Intersex Society of North America MalaCards: adrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency March of Dimes: Genital and Urinary Tract Defects Merck Manual Consumer Version: The Body's Control ...

  9. Surgical resection of adrenal metastasis from primary liver tumors:a report of two cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Durgatosh Pandey; Kai-Chah Tan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the treatment of extrahepatic metastases from primary liver tumors is essentially palliative, solitary metastasis from such tumors offers a possibility of cure by surgical resection. The adrenal gland is an uncommon site for metastasis from primary liver tumors. METHOD: We report two cases of adrenalectomy for solitary adrenal metastasis: one from intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and the other from hepatocellular carcinoma. RESULTS: The patient with intrahepatic cholangiocar-cinoma had a synchronous adrenal metastasis and underwent simultaneous liver resection and adrenalectomy. However, he developed recurrent disease 17 months following surgery for which he is presently on palliative chemotherapy. The other patient underwent adrenalectomy for adrenal metastasis 3 months following liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma. He is presently alive and disease-free 27 months after adrenalectomy. CONCLUSION: Carefully selected patients with solitary metastasis from primary liver tumors may be considered for resection.

  10. The role of impairment of adrenal mineraloglucocorticoid function in the development of infertility in varicocele patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazo, E B; Koryakin, M V; Kudryavtsev JuV; Evseev, L P; Akopyan, A S

    1989-01-01

    The study was aimed at the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of the impairment of spermatogenesis in varicocele patients. The crucial role of tension increase in the venous plexus of the spermatic cord in spermatogenesis damage in the testis on the varicocele side and absence of any effect of haemodynamic abnormalities on spermatogenesis in the complementary testis has been determined. Retrograde blood flow through the central vein of the left adrenal gland in varicocele has been evidenced by X-ray examination. The role of this phenomenon in the changes of functional activity of the adrenal gland is discussed. Results of the study of functional status of adrenal glands revealed their tendency to provide hyperactivity in synthesis of mineraloglucocorticoids. Correlation between cortisol level in peripheral blood and percentage of abnormal sperm in ejaculate was shown. This fact supported the idea about the existence of a causal interrelationship between abnormalities in the functional status of adrenal glands and development of infertility in varicocele patients.

  11. Brain ultrasonographic findings of late-onset circulatory dysfunction due to adrenal insufficiency in preterm infants

    OpenAIRE

    Su-Mi Shin; Jee Won Chai

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to characterize the brain ultrasonographic findings of late-onset circulatory dysfunction (LCD) due to adrenal insufficiency (AI) in preterm infants. Methods: Among the 257 preterm infants born at

  12. Genotype-Phenotype Analysis in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to P450 Oxidoreductase Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krone, Nils; Reisch, Nicole; Idkowiak, Jan; Dhir, Vivek; Ivison, Hannah E.; Hughes, Beverly A.; Rose, Ian T.; O'Neil, Donna M.; Vijzelaar, Raymon; Smith, Matthew J.; MacDonald, Fiona; Cole, Trevor R.; Adolphs, Nicolai; Barton, John S.; Blair, Edward M.; Braddock, Stephen R.; Collins, Felicity; Cragun, Deborah L.; Dattani, Mehul T.; Day, Ruth; Dougan, Shelley; Feist, Miriam; Gottschalk, Michael E.; Gregory, John W.; Haim, Michaela; Harrison, Rachel; Olney, Ann Haskins; Hauffa, Berthold P.; Hindmarsh, Peter C.; Hopkin, Robert J.; Jira, Petr E.; Kempers, Marlies; Kerstens, Michiel N.; Khalifa, Mohamed M.; Koehler, Birgit; Maiter, Dominique; Nielsen, Shelly; O'Riordan, Stephen M.; Roth, Christian L.; Shane, Kate P.; Silink, Martin; Stikkelbroeck, Nike M. M. L.; Sweeney, Elizabeth; Szarras-Czapnik, Maria; Waterson, John R.; Williamson, Lori; Hartmann, Michaela F.; Taylor, Norman F.; Wudy, Stefan A.; Malunowicz, Ewa M.; Shackleton, Cedric H. L.; Arlt, Wiebke; Smith, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Context: P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a unique congenital adrenal hyperplasia variant that manifests with glucocorticoid deficiency, disordered sex development (DSD), and skeletal malformations. No comprehensive data on genotype-phenotype correlations in Caucasian patients are available.

  13. Adrenal hyperplasia, tumours in mice in connection with aberrant pituitary-gonadal function

    OpenAIRE

    Bernichtein, Sophie; Peltoketo, Hellevi; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo

    2009-01-01

    Adrenal hyperplasia, tumours in mice in connection with aberrant pituitary-gonadal function UNITED KINGDOM (Bernichtein, Sophie) UNITED KINGDOM Received: 2008-08-25 Revised: 2008-10-08 Accepted: 2008-10-08

  14. Genetics Home Reference: intrauterine growth restriction, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... abnormal side-to-side curvature of the spine ( scoliosis ) or thinning of the bones ( osteoporosis ). Adrenal hypoplasia ... health conditions: Diagnostic Tests Drug Therapy Surgery and Rehabilitation Genetic Counseling Palliative Care Related Information How are ...

  15. Bovine endometrial stromal cells display osteogenic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavirani Sandro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The endometrium is central to mammalian fertility. The endometrial stromal cells are very dynamic, growing and differentiating throughout the estrous cycle and pregnancy. In humans, stromal cells appear to have progenitor or stem cell capabilities and the cells can even differentiate into bone. It is not clear whether bovine endometrial stromal cells exhibit a similar phenotypic plasticity. So, the present study tested the hypothesis that bovine endometrial stromal cells could be differentiated along an osteogenic lineage. Pure populations of bovine stromal cells were isolated from the endometrium. The endometrial stromal cell phenotype was confirmed by morphology, prostaglandin secretion, and susceptibility to viral infection. However, cultivation of the cells in standard endometrial cell culture medium lead to a mesenchymal phenotype similar to that of bovine bone marrow cells. Furthermore, the endometrial stromal cells developed signs of osteogenesis, such as alizarin positive nodules. When the stromal cells were cultured in a specific osteogenic medium the cells rapidly developed the characteristics of mineralized bone. In conclusion, the present study has identified that stromal cells from the bovine endometrium show a capability for phenotype plasticity similar to mesenchymal progenitor cells. These observations pave the way for further investigation of the mechanisms of stroma cell differentiation in the bovine reproductive tract.

  16. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. PMID:27436438

  17. Complex Genital Malformation in a Female with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Evaluation with Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klessen, C.; Asbach, P.; Hein, P. A.; Beyersdorff, D.; Hamm, B.; Taupitz, M. [Humboldt-Univ. of Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2005-12-01

    This is a case of complex genital malformation in a young patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings included ostium of the vagina into the urethra (common urogenital opening), prostate-like tissue surrounding the urethra, and hyperplasia of the left adrenal gland. The report provides information on the clinical findings, the MRI examination, including the applied sequences and the MR findings, and gives an overview of the disease pattern and its frequency of occurrence.

  18. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Metastases Presenting as Ipsilateral Adrenal Mass and Renal Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Ginzburg

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic spread of differentiated thyroid cancer to genitourinary organs is rare. Synchronous presentation of renal and adrenal thyroid metastasis is even less common, this case being only the 3rd reported. We describe a case of a 60-year-old male with oligometastatic thyroid cancer, where adrenal and renal metastases were the only extracervical sites of disease and triggered the patient's presentation.

  19. Poor Response to Substitution Therapy with Cortisone Acetate in Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Inada, Hiroshi; Imamura, Takuji; Nakajima, Ryoichi; Yamano, Tsunekazu

    2004-01-01

    Although cortisone acetate is approved worldwide as corticosteroid substitution therapy in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (21-hydroxylase deficiency), its effectiveness is uncertain since its biologic activity depends on activation by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD). We sought to compare the effect of cortisone acetate with that of hydrocortisone. In 10 patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, cortisone acetate was replaced with hydrocortisone in substitution therapy. During t...

  20. Endoscopic Ultrasound in Endocrinology: Imaging of the Adrenals and the Endocrine Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Peter Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) imaging of adrenal glands and its application to diagnostic procedures of adrenal diseases has been reported since 1998. It can be considered a relevant advantage in the field of adrenal diseases. Indeed, EUS allows the detection of adrenal lesions (even very small ones) and their characterization, the assessment of malignancy criteria, the early detection of neoplastic recurrences, the preoperative identification of morphologically healthy parts of the glands, the differentiation of extra-adrenal from adrenal tumors, and of the pathological entities associated with adrenal insufficiency, and the fine-needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNA) of suspicious lesions. At the same time, its clinical relevance depends on the experience of the endosonographer. Moreover, EUS is also by far the best and most sensitive imaging technique to detect and assess the follow-up of pancreatic manifestation of MEN1 disease. It furthermore enables the preoperatively localization of insulinomas and critical structures in their neighborhood, and may be relevant in planning surgical strategy. A positive EUS in a case of insulinoma furthermore confirms the endocrine diagnosis, especially considering the differential diagnosis of hypoglycemia factitia by oral antidiabetics. It can be supplemented by EUS-FNA. Again, it has to be considered that EUS may reveal false positive and false negative results, and the quality of the findings largely depends on the endosonographer's skills and experience. The most important technical details together with the advantages and limitations of EUS, and the pathognomonic characteristic of benign and malignant disorders of the adrenals and pancreas are presented here. PMID:27003412