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Sample records for bout duration affects

  1. Maximum lying bout duration affects the occurrence of shoulder lesions in sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westin Rebecka

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Shoulder lesions are caused by tissue breakdown of the skin and/or underlying tissue as a result of long lasting pressure. The lesions are commonly seen in sows during the period of lactation and contribute to poor animal welfare as well as affecting the consumers' attitudes towards the swine industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between prolonged recumbency during early lactation and development of shoulder lesions, in particular the lying bout time. Eighteen sows of Swedish Landrace were observed for 24 hours during the day of farrowing and day 2, 4, 9 and 11 after farrowing in May 2009. The data were analysed for correlations between the duration of the longest observed uninterrupted lying bout and the prevalence of shoulder lesions recorded at weaning (week 5. In the study, shoulder lesions were observed in eight of the eighteen sows at the time of weaning. The total lying time of the sows was highest on day 0 and day 2, when the proportion of time spent in lateral recumbency over the 24-hour period was on average 80 percent. The longest lying bout had an average duration of 6,3 hours (right side and 7,2 hours (left side. A significant correlation (Spearman rank coefficient = 0,88; P

  2. Statistical Learning Is Not Affected by a Prior Bout of Physical Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, David J; Arciuli, Joanne; Anderson, David I

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the effect of a prior bout of exercise on implicit cognition. Specifically, we examined whether a prior bout of moderate intensity exercise affected performance on a statistical learning task in healthy adults. A total of 42 participants were allocated to one of three conditions-a control group, a group that exercised for 15 min prior to the statistical learning task, and a group that exercised for 30 min prior to the statistical learning task. The participants in the exercise groups cycled at 60% of their respective V˙O2 max. Each group demonstrated significant statistical learning, with similar levels of learning among the three groups. Contrary to previous research that has shown that a prior bout of exercise can affect performance on explicit cognitive tasks, the results of the current study suggest that the physiological stress induced by moderate-intensity exercise does not affect implicit cognition as measured by statistical learning. PMID:26084984

  3. The impact of duration of one bout treadmill exercise on cell proliferation and central fatigue in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang-Won; Kim, Yeon-Soo; Jun, Tae-Won; Seo, Jin-Hee; Kim, Kijeong; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the duration-dependence of the one bout treadmill exercise on cell proliferation, stress, and central fatigue in rats. The animals were randomly divided into five groups: the non-exercise group, 1-h exercise group, 2-h exercise group, 4-h exercise group, and 6-h exercise group. The exercise load consisted of running at speed of 13 meters/min with the 0° inclination. Cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was increased in ...

  4. Effects of Repeated Bouts of Long-duration Endurance Exercise on Muscle and Urinary Levels of 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine in Moderately Trained Cyclists

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuda, Nobuo; Bolin, Celeste; Cardozo-Pelaez, Fernando; Ruby, Brent C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of repeated bouts of long-duration endurance exercise on both muscle and urinary levels of oxidative DNA damage in moderately trained individuals. Seven moderately trained male cyclists participated in this study. All participants repeated two sessions consisting of a 5 hour cycling period (equivalent to approximately 52% VO2peak) followed by a 15 hour rest, then a 40 km time trial. During the sessions, participants were instructed to tak...

  5. A bout of strength training affects sport-specific maximal power but not 2000m rowing ergometer performance

    OpenAIRE

    Gee, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Rowers regularly undertake rowing training within 24 h of performing bouts of strength training; however, the effect of this practice has not been investigated. This study evaluated the impact of a bout of high-intensity strength training on 2,000 m rowing ergometer performance and rowing-specific maximal power. Eight highly trained male club rowers performed baseline measures of five separate, static squat jumps (SSJ) and countermovement jumps (CMJ), maximal rowing ergometer power strokes (P...

  6. Ecological sounds affect breath duration more than artificial sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Mauro; Santoro, Ilaria; Tamburini, Giorgia; Prpic, Valter; Sors, Fabrizio; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that auditory rhythms affect both movement and physiological functions. We hypothesized that the ecological sounds of human breathing can affect breathing more than artificial sounds of breathing, varying in tones for inspiration and expiration. To address this question, we monitored the breath duration of participants exposed to three conditions: (a) ecological sounds of breathing, (b) artificial sounds of breathing having equal temporal features as the ecological sounds, (c) no sounds (control). We found that participants' breath duration variability was reduced in the ecological sound condition, more than in the artificial sound condition. We suggest that ecological sounds captured the timing of breathing better than artificial sounds, guiding as a consequence participants' breathing. We interpreted our results according to the Theory of Event Coding, providing further support to its validity, and suggesting its possible extension in the domain of physiological functions which are both consciously and unconsciously controlled. PMID:25637249

  7. A single bout of exhaustive exercise affects integrated baroreflex function after 16 days of head-down tilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelke, K. A.; Doerr, D. F.; Convertino, V. A.

    1995-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that one bout of maximal exercise performed 24 h before reambulation from 16 days of 6 degrees head-down tilt (HDT) could increase integrated baroreflex sensitivity. Isolated carotid-cardiac and integrated baroreflex function was assessed in seven subjects before and after two periods of HDT separated by 11 mo. On the last day of one HDT period, subjects performed a single bout of maximal cycle ergometry (exercise). Subjects did not exercise after the other HDT period (control). Carotid-cardiac baroreflex sensitivity was evaluated using a neck collar device. Integrated baroreflex function was assessed by recording heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (MAP) during a 15-s Valsalva maneuver (VM) at a controlled expiratory pressure of 30 mmHg. The ratio of change in HR to change in MAP (delta HR/ delta MAP) during phases II and IV of the VM was used as an index of cardiac baroreflex sensitivity. Baroreflex-mediated vasoconstriction was assessed by measuring the late phase II rise in MAP. Following HDT, carotid-cardiac baroreflex sensitivity was reduced (2.8 to 2.0 ms/mmHg; P = 0.05) as was delta HR/ delta MAP during phase II (-1.5 to -0.8 beats/mmHg; P = 0.002). After exercise, isolated carotid baroreflex activity and phase II delta HR/ delta MAP returned to pre-HDT levels but remained attenuated in the control condition. Phase IV delta HR/ delta MAP was not altered by HDT or exercise. The late phase II increase of MAP was 71% greater after exercise compared with control (7 vs. 2 mmHg; P = 0.041).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  8. Oxidative stress in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: is it affected by a single bout of prolonged exercise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pia Francescato

    Full Text Available Presently, no clear-cut guidelines are available to suggest the more appropriate physical activity for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus due to paucity of experimental data obtained under patients' usual life conditions. Accordingly, we explored the oxidative stress levels associated with a prolonged moderate intensity, but fatiguing, exercise performed under usual therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and matched healthy controls. Eight patients (4 men, 4 women; 49±11 years; Body Mass Index 25.0±3.2 kg·m(-2; HbA1c 57±10 mmol·mol(-1 and 14 controls (8 men, 6 women; 47±11 years; Body Mass Index 24.3±3.3 kg·m(-2 performed a 3-h walk at 30% of their heart rate reserve. Venous blood samples were obtained before and at the end of the exercise for clinical chemistry analysis and antioxidant capacity. Capillary blood samples were taken at the start and thereafter every 30 min to determine lipid peroxidation. Patients showed higher oxidative stress values as compared to controls (95.9±9.7 vs. 74.1±12.2 mg·L(-1 H2O2; p<0.001. In both groups, oxidative stress remained constant throughout the exercise (p = NS, while oxidative defence increased significantly at the end of exercise (p<0.02 from 1.16±0.13 to 1.19±0.10 mmol·L(-1 Trolox in patients and from 1.09±0.21 to 1.22±0.14 mmol·L(-1 Trolox in controls, without any significant difference between the two groups. Oxidative stress was positively correlated to HbA1c (p<0.005 and negatively related with uric acid (p<0.005. In conclusion, we were the first to evaluate the oxidative stress in patients with type 1 diabetes exercising under their usual life conditions (i.e. usual therapy and diet. Specifically, we found that the oxidative stress was not exacerbated due to a single bout of prolonged moderate intensity aerobic exercise, a condition simulating several outdoor leisure time physical activities. Oxidative defence increased in both patients and controls, suggesting

  9. How unemployment insurance savings accounts affect employment duration : evidence from Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Nagler, P.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of unemployment insurance savings accounts (UISA) in Chile in October 2002 brought in more comprehensive unemployment protection while decreasing the opportunity costs of job change. Being the first to empirically investigate the effect of UISA on employment duration, this paper examines (i) whether the introduction of UISA affected employment duration among formal private sector workers, and (ii) the magnitude of this effect. The analysis is performed on longitudinal social ...

  10. Do changes in regulation affect employment duration in temporary help agencies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoni, Manfred; Jahn, Elke

    2009-01-01

    The employment duration of workers in temporary help agencies is seen as an important indicator of their job quality. Most of the countries that regulate temporary agency employment do so to insure at least a minimal level of employment stability. Over the past three decades Germany has repeatedly...... liberalized the law on temporary agency employment. These successive reforms should have affected the employment duration in the temporary employment sector. Based on informative administrative data, we use a mixed proportional hazard rate model to examine whether employment duration has changed in response...... to these reforms. We find that the repeated prolongation of the maximum assignment period has significantly increased average employment duration, while the possibility to conclude fixed-term contracts and further liberalizations have reduced employment tenure....

  11. BOUT++: Recent and current developments

    CERN Document Server

    Dudson, B D; Breyiannis, G; Brugger, E; Buchanan, J; Easy, L; Farley, S; Joseph, I; Kim, M; McGann, A D; Omotani, J T; Umansky, M V; Walkden, N R; Xia, T; Xu, X Q

    2014-01-01

    BOUT++ is a 3D nonlinear finite-difference plasma simulation code, capable of solving quite general systems of PDEs, but targeted particularly on studies of the edge region of tokamak plasmas. BOUT++ is publicly available, and has been adopted by a growing number of researchers worldwide. Here we present improvements which have been made to the code since its original release, both in terms of structure and its capabilities. Some recent applications of these methods are reviewed, and areas of active development are discussed. We also present algorithms and tools which have been developed to enable creation of inputs from analytic expressions and experimental data, and for processing and visualisation of output results. This includes a new tool Hypnotoad for the creation of meshes from experimental equilibria. Algorithms have been implemented in BOUT++ to solve a range of linear algebraic problems encountered in the simulation of reduced MHD and gyro-fluid models: A preconditioning scheme is presented which en...

  12. The Effect of Recovery Duration on Vastus Lateralis Oxygenation, Heart Rate, Perceived Exertion and Time Motion Descriptors during Small Sided Football Games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott McLean

    Full Text Available Small sided games (SSG of football are an effective and efficient format to simultaneously train the physiological, technical, and tactical components of football. The duration of the recovery period between bouts of SSG will affect the physiological response to subsequent bouts. It was hypothesised that decreasing the duration of recovery periods separating serial SSG bouts would increase physiological, and perceptual responses, and decrease high speed running, and distance during SSG bouts.Twelve experienced footballers (mean ± SD; age 21 ± 3 yrs; VO2peak 64 ± 7 ml·min·kg-1; playing experience 15 ± 3 yrs completed two SSG sessions. Each SSG consisted of 3 vs. 3 players and 6 bouts of 2 min duration, with bouts separated by either 30 s recovery (REC-30 or 120 s recovery (REC-120. Deoxygenated haemoglobin (HHb in the vastus lateralis (VL (using near infrared spectroscopy, heart rate (HR and time motion descriptors (TMD (speed and distance were measured continuously during the SSG sessions and perceived exertion (RPE was measured for each bout.During the recovery periods, in REC-30 compared to REC-120, there was a significant (p < 0.05 main effect of a higher HHb and HR. During the bouts, in REC-30 compared to REC-120, there were no significant differences in HHb, HR, RPE, or TMD, but within both REC-30 and REC-120 there were significant increases as a function of bout number in RPE.Although a four-fold increase in recovery period allowed a significant increase in the recovery of HHb and HR, this did not increase the physiological, and perceptual responses, or time motion descriptors during the bouts. These results could have been due to the regulation of effort (pacing, in these experienced players performing an exercise task to which they were well adapted.

  13. Has the Spanish economic crisis affected the duration of sickness absence episodes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia López, Guillermo; Delclós Clanchet, Jordi; Ubalde López, Mònica; Calvo Bonacho, Eva; Benavides, Fernando G

    2016-07-01

    The global economic crisis has had particularly intense effects on the Spanish labor market. We investigated whether the duration of non-work related sickness absence (SA) episodes in salaried workers had experienced any changes before and after the crisis started. This was a repeated cross-sectional analysis conducted in a dynamic cohort in 2006 and 2010. Database was provided by eight mutual insurance companies, covering 983,108 workers and 451,801 SA episodes. Descriptive analysis and crude, bivariate and multivariate analyses using Cox proportional hazards modeling were performed, to quantify the changes in duration of SA episodes between 2006 and 2010, stratified by sex. There was a higher number of episodes in 2010 for both sexes, but especially for women. Unadjusted median duration in men was similar for both years, while for women it was shorter in 2010. Final multivariate models show a greater risk of longer episode duration for men in 2010 (HR 0.95; 95% CI, 0.95-0.95), but a shorter one for women (HR 1.07; 95% CI, 1.07-1.07). Once the economic crisis started affecting the Spanish labor market, the number of SA episodes in women equalized with those in men. There was a decrease of episodes in the youngest age groups, in the construction and in temporary contracts. The relative ranking of leading diagnoses was similar in both years with an increase in infectious, nervous system and respiratory diseases and in mental disorder episodes for both sexes, but especially for women. The risk of longer episode duration was greater in 2010 among men, but smaller in women. PMID:27209364

  14. Out of mind, out of heart: attention affects duration of emotional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Alexandra M; Keil, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the extent to which a person maintains attention to pleasant versus unpleasant aspects of a given stimulus has an effect on the self-reported affective state. This assumption was empirically tested in two experiments. In Study 1, participants received the instruction either to focus on a positive emotion-eliciting event (winning a tournament chess game) or to focus their attention on an affectively neutral distraction task (describing drawings). Study 2 used negative performance feedback in a cognitive task to induce unpleasant affect and included three experimental groups (waiting condition, continuing with the same cognitive task, distraction by a different cognitive task). Results converged to show that distracting attention away from the emotion-eliciting event leads to a shorter duration of the emotional experience. These findings support the attention-focus hypothesis. PMID:22963519

  15. How Changes in Unemployment Benefit Duration Affect the Inflow Into Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    van Ours, J.C.; Tuit, S.

    2010-01-01

    We study how changes in the maximum benefit duration affect the inflow into unemployment in the Netherlands. Until August 2003, workers who became unemployed after age 57.5 were entitled to unemployment benefits until the age of 65, after which they would receive old age pensions. This characteristic made it attractive for workers to enter unemployment shortly after age 57.5 rather than shortly before. Indeed, we find a peak in the inflow into unemployment for workers after age 57.5. From Aug...

  16. The pupil's response to affective pictures: Role of image duration, habituation, and viewing mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Robert J; O'Farrell, Katherine R; Burley, Daniel; Erichsen, Jonathan T; Newton, Naomi V; Gray, Nicola S

    2016-08-01

    The pupil has been shown to be sensitive to the emotional content of stimuli. We examined this phenomenon by comparing fearful and neutral images carefully matched in the domains of luminance, image contrast, image color, and complexity of content. The pupil was more dilated after viewing affective pictures, and this effect was (a) shown to be independent of the presentation time of the images (from 100-3,000 ms), (b) not diminished by repeated presentations of the images, and (c) not affected by actively naming the emotion of the stimuli in comparison to passive viewing. Our results show that the emotional modulation of the pupil is present over a range of variables that typically vary from study to study (image duration, number of trials, free viewing vs. task), and encourages the use of pupillometry as a measure of emotional processing in populations where alternative techniques may not be appropriate. PMID:27172997

  17. The prognostic ability of the STarT Back Tool was affected by episode duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsø, Lars; Kongsted, Alice; Hestbaek, Lise; Kent, Peter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The prognostic ability of the STarT Back Tool (SBT) reportedly varies, but the factors affecting this are unclear. This study investigated the influences of care setting (chiropractic, GP, physiotherapy, spine centre), episode duration (0-2, 3-4, 4-12, >12 weeks), and outcome time period...... (3, 6, 12 months) on SBT prognostic ability. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of data from three primary care cohorts [chiropractic (n = 416), GP (n = 265), and physiotherapy (n = 200) practices] and one cohort from a secondary care outpatient spine centre (n = 974) in Denmark. Care pathways...... were not systematically affected by SBT risk subgroup (non-stratified care). Using generalised estimating equations, we investigated statistical interactions between SBT risk subgroups and potentially influential factors on the prognostic ability of the SBT subgroups, when Roland Morris Disability...

  18. Improved Nonlinear Solvers in BOUT++

    CERN Document Server

    Dudson, Ben; McInnes, Lois Curfman

    2012-01-01

    Challenging aspects of large-scale turbulent edge simulations in plasma physics include robust nonlinear solvers and efficient preconditioners. This paper presents recent advances in the scalable solution of nonlinear partial differential equations in BOUT++, with emphasis on simulations of edge localized modes in tokamaks. A six-field, nonlinear, reduced magnetohydrodynamics model containing the fast shear Alfven wave and electron and ion heat conduction along magnetic fields is solved by using Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) methods and nonlinear GMRES (NGMRES). Physics-based preconditioning based on analytic Schur factorization of a simplified Jacobian is found to result in an order of magnitude reduction in runtime over unpreconditioned JFNK, and NGMRES is shown to significantly reduce runtime while requiring only the nonlinear function evaluation. We describe in detail the preconditioning algorithm, and we discuss parallel performance of NGMRES and Newton-Krylov methods using the PETSc library.

  19. Duration and intensity of shade differentially affects mycorrhizal growth- and phosphorus uptake responses of Medicago truncatula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konvalinková, T.; Püschel, David; Janoušková, Martina; Gryndler, M.; Jansa, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, FEB 13 (2015), s. 1-11. ISSN 1664-462X Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis * light intensity * shading duration Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.948, year: 2014

  20. Acute Mountain Sickness, Hypoxia, Hypobaria and Exercise Duration each Affect Heart Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPasquale, D M; Strangman, G E; Harris, N S; Muza, S R

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we quantified the changes in post-exercise resting heart rate (HRrst) associated with acute mountain sickness (AMS), and compared the effects of hypobaric hypoxia (HH) and normobaric hypoxia (NH) on HRrst. We also examined the modulating roles of exercise duration and exposure time on HRrst. Each subject participated in 2 of 6 conditions: normobaric normoxia (NN), NH, or HH (4 400 m altitude equivalent) combined with either 10 or 60 min of moderate cycling at the beginning of an 8-h exposure. AMS was associated with a 2 bpm higher HRrst than when not sick, after taking into account the ambient environment, exercise duration, and SpO2. In addition, HRrst was elevated in both NH and HH compared to NN with HRrst being 50% higher in HH than in NH. Participating in long duration exercise led to elevated resting HRs (0.8-1.4 bpm higher) compared with short exercise, while short exercise caused a progressive increase in HRrst over the exposure period in both NH and HH (0.77-1.2 bpm/h of exposure). This data suggests that AMS, NH, HH, exercise duration, time of exposure, and SpO2 have independent effects on HRrst. It further suggests that hypobaria exerts its own effect on HRrst in hypoxia. Thus NH and HH may not be interchangeable environments. PMID:25837245

  1. Duration and intensity of shade differentially affects mycorrhizal growth- and phosphorus uptake responses of Medicago truncatula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konvalinková, Tereza; Püschel, David; Janoušková, Martina; Gryndler, Milan; Jansa, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, FEB 13 (2015), s. 1-11. ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LK11224 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis * light intensity * shading duration Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.948, year: 2014

  2. How residency duration affects the outcome of a territorial contest: Complementary game-theoretic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesterton-Gibbons, Mike; Sherratt, Tom N

    2016-04-01

    While the first individuals to discover and maintain territories are generally respected as owners, under some conditions there may be ambiguity as to who got there first. Here we attempt to understand the evolutionary consequences of this ambiguity by developing a pair of game-theoretic models in which we explicitly consider rival residency-based claims to ownership. Following earlier qualitative explanations for residency effects, we assume that either the value of the territory (Model A) or an interloper׳s self-belief that it is the owner (Model B) increases with duration of residency. Model A clearly demonstrates that if the value of a territory increases to a resident over time, so should its motivation to fight in terms of the effort it invests in fighting. Indeed, only a small increase in territory value with residency duration can be sufficient for longer established residents to win disputes, even without any arbitrary convention or other form of priority effect. Likewise, Model B shows that the observed increase in fighting persistence with residency duration can be readily explained as a consequence of increasing confidence on behalf of the interloper that it is the rightful owner. Collectively, the models help to explain some general findings long observed by empiricists, and shed light on the nature of conflicts that can arise when individuals do not have complete information about rival claims to ownership. PMID:26807804

  3. Rate and duration of seed filling and yield of soybean affected by water and radiation deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed filling and yield of soybean under water and radiation deficits were investigated during 2011 and 2012. Treatments were irrigations (I1, I2, I3 and I4 for irrigation after 60, 90, 120 and 150 mm evaporation from class A pan, respectively in main plots and light interceptions (L1: 100 %, L2: 65 % and L3: 25 % sunlight in sub-plots. Seeds per plant under I1 and I2 decreased, but under I3 and I4 increasedas a result of radiation deficit. Maximum seed weight and seed filling duration of plants under 25 % light interception (L3 were higher than those under full sunlight (L1 and 65 % light interception (L2. In contrast, plants under full sunlight had the highest seed filling rate, particularly under water stress. Seed filling duration under severe light deficit (L3 was about 9 days longer than that under full sunlight (L1, leading to 15.8 % enhancement in maximum seed weight. Decreasing seed yield of soybean under well watering and mild water stress and improving it under moderate and severe water deficit due to low solar radiation are directly related with changes in seed filling duration and consequently in seed weight and number of seeds per plant under these conditions.

  4. Timing and Duration of Drug Exposure Affects Outcomes of a Drug-Nutrient Interaction During Ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Alcorn

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Significant drug-nutrient interactions are possible when drugs and nutrients share the same absorption and disposition mechanisms. During postnatal development, the outcomes of drug-nutrient interactions may change with postnatal age since these processes undergo ontogenesis through the postnatal period. Our study investigated the dependence of a significant drug-nutrient interaction (cefepime-carnitine on the timing and duration of drug exposure relative to postnatal age. Rat pups were administered cefepime (5 mg/kg twice daily subcutaneously according to different dosing schedules (postnatal day 1-4, 1-8, 8-11, 8-20, or 1-20. Cefepime significantly reduced serum and heart L-carnitine levels in postnatal day 1-4, 1-8 and 8-11 groups and caused severe degenerative changes in ventricular myocardium in these groups. Cefepime also altered the ontogeny of several key L-carnitine homeostasis pathways. The qualitative and quantitative changes in levels of hepatic γ-butyrobetaine hydroxylase mRNA and activity, hepatic trimethyllysine hydroxlase mRNA, intestinal organic cation/carnitine transporter (Octn mRNA, and renal Octn2 mRNA depended on when during postnatal development the cefepime exposure occurred and duration of exposure. Despite lower levels of heart L-carnitine in earlier postnatal groups, levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase mRNA and activity, heart Octn2 mRNA and ATP levels in all treatment groups remained unchanged with cefepime exposure. However, changes in other high energy phosphate substrates were noted and reductions in the phosphocreatine/ATP ratio were found in rat pups with normal serum L-carnitine levels. In summary, our data suggest a significant drug-nutrient transport interaction in developing neonates, the nature of which depends on the timing and duration of exposure relative to postnatal age.

  5. Does Increasing Active Warm-Up Duration Affect Afternoon Short-Term Maximal Performance during Ramadan?

    OpenAIRE

    Baklouti, Hana; Aloui, Asma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Briki, Walid; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon. Methods Twelve healthy active men took part in the study. The experimental design consisted of four test sessions conducted at 5 p.m., before and during Ramadan, either with a 5-minute or a 15-minute warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. ...

  6. How Hearing Impairment Affects Sentence Comprehension: Using Eye Fixations to Investigate the Duration of Speech Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Dorothea; Kollmeier, Birger; Brand, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the extent to which hearing impairment influences the duration of sentence processing. An eye-tracking paradigm is introduced that provides an online measure of how hearing impairment prolongs processing of linguistically complex sentences; this...... quiet and in two different noise conditions. Participants with hearing impairment spent more time processing sentences, even at high levels of speech intelligibility. In addition, the relationship between the proposed online measure and listener-specific factors, such as hearing aid use and cognitive...

  7. Late Sleeping Affects Sleep Duration and Body Mass Index in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh G.Kathrotia1,

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available During adolescence, there is a tendency to sleep late andsleep less because of altered psychosocial and life-stylechanges. Recent studies have demonstrated the link betweensleeping less and gaining weight in children, adolescents, andadults. We studied the effect of late sleeping and sleepingless on body mass index (BMI in medical college freshmen.All participants were adolescents (104 male and 38 femaleadolescents, mean age 17.77±0.79 years. After obtaininginformed consent, they filled out a questionnaire about theirsleeping habits. Height and weight were measured after abrief history taking and clinical examination. BMI increasedsignificantly with decrease in total sleep duration and withdelayed bedtime. Late sleeping individuals (after midnighthad significantly less sleep duration (6.78 hours v 7.74 hours,P<0.001, more day time sleepiness (85.2% v 69.3%,P=0.033 and more gap between dinner time and going tosleep (234.16 min v 155.45 min, P<0.001. Increased BMI inlate sleepers may be explained by low physical activity duringthe day caused by excess sleepiness and increased calorieintake with a gap of 5-6 hours between dinner and sleep.Sleep habits of late sleeping and sleeping less contribute toincrease BMI in adolescents.

  8. Mismatch Negativity Affects Muscle Fatigue during Repeated Contraction Trials of Different Durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, Aleksander A.; Knyazeva, Veronika M.; Stankevich, Ludmila N.; Dmitrieva, Elena S.; Shestakova, Anna N.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effect of involuntary attention switching (related to mismatch negativity generation in the oddball paradigm) on fatigue development during trials of different durations. The experiment consisted of two trials, long (40 min) and short (15 min), and two experimental conditions in each trial: the simple reaction task (deviants-only paradigm) and the stimuli recognition task (oddball paradigm). In each condition, a participant responded to each target acoustic stimulus by squeezing a handgrip dynamometer. We found the significantly lower rates of fatigue development in the short-trial deviants-only paradigm compared to the long trial. The short- and the long-trial oddball paradigms differed significantly from both the short- and the long-trial deviants-only paradigms. The results demonstrated that the fatigue developed differently depending on the expected trial duration. The involuntary activation of attention broke this subconscious regulative mechanism leading to increase of the compression force during the long trial and its decrease during the short. PMID:26869932

  9. Out of mind, out of heart: Attention affects duration of emotional experience

    OpenAIRE

    Freund, Alexandra M; Keil, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the extent to which a person maintains attention to pleasant versus unpleasant aspects of a given stimulus has an effect on the self-reported affective state. This assumption was empirically tested in two experiments. In Study 1, participants received the instruction either to focus on a positive emotion-eliciting event (winning a tournament chess game) or to focus their attention on an affectively neutral distraction task (describing drawings). Study 2 used negativ...

  10. Does increasing active warm-up duration affect afternoon short-term maximal performance during Ramadan?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Baklouti

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon.Twelve healthy active men took part in the study. The experimental design consisted of four test sessions conducted at 5 p.m., before and during Ramadan, either with a 5-minute or a 15-minute warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. During each session, the subjects performed two vertical jump tests (squat jump and counter movement jump for measurement of vertical jump height followed by a 30-second Wingate test for measurement of peak and mean power. Oral temperature was recorded at rest and after warming-up. Moreover, ratings of perceived exertion were obtained immediately after the Wingate test.Oral temperature was higher before Ramadan than during Ramadan at rest, and was higher after the 15-minute warm-up than the 5-minute warm-up both before and during Ramadan. In addition, vertical jump heights were not significantly different between the two warm-up conditions before and during Ramadan, and were lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan after both warm-up conditions. Peak and mean power were not significantly different between the two warm-up durations before Ramadan, but were significantly higher after the 5-minute warm-up than the 15-minute warm-up during Ramadan. Moreover, peak and mean power were lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan after both warm-up conditions. Furthermore, ratings of perceived exertion were higher after the 15-minute warm-up than the 5-minute warm-up only during Ramadan.The prolonged active warm-up has no effect on vertical jump height but impairs anaerobic power assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon.

  11. Nonambulatory cows: Duration of recumbency and quality of nursing care affect outcome of flotation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojkov, J; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2016-03-01

    Cows that are unable or unwilling to stand and remain recumbent for ≥ 12 h are defined as nonambulatory. Care and management of nonambulatory cattle is considered a major animal welfare concern facing the livestock industry, particularly the dairy sector. Flotation therapy has gained interest as a means to promote recovery in nonambulatory cows and is based on the concept that by floating the cow in warm water, secondary pressure damage to muscles and nerves will be reduced. The objective of this study was to assess the physiological responses to stress related to the flotation therapy and to evaluate the effect of recumbency duration and nursing care on the outcome of the flotation therapy. The outcomes of 34 nonambulatory Holstein dairy cows were analyzed after they were subjected to flotation therapy. The duration of recumbency and quality of nursing care provided before initiation of the flotation treatment were assessed based on producer responses to survey questions, and from on-site observations by the researchers. A veterinarian examined all cows before flotation therapy began. The treatment was divided into 5 phases: baseline (before filling), manipulation (placing the cow into the tank), filling (the tank was filled with water), flotation (the cow was confined in the filled tank), and draining (water was removed from the tank). Stress responses to the procedure, excluding the manipulation portion, were assessed using heart rate variability. The high-frequency component (HF normalized units) decreased during the filling and draining phases (2.8 ± 0.2 and 3.1 ± 0.4, respectively) compared with the baseline and floating phase (5.1 ± 0.6 and 4.9 ± 0.3, [corrected] respectively). These results indicate that the stress related to the flotation therapy is greatest during the filling and draining phases of the treatment, when cows likely have to exert increased effort to transition to a standing position. The flotation therapy was less likely to be

  12. Does School Duration Affect Student Performance? Findings from Canton-Based Variation in Swiss Educational Length

    OpenAIRE

    Skirbekk, V.

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates Swiss canton-based regulations to determine the number of school years required to graduate from academic track secondary school. The results show that the variation (12, 12.5 or 13 years) does not affect human capital levels (TIMSS math and science performance). This suggests that one could decrease school length from 13 to 12 years without decreasing student performance levels. A younger school leaving age could extend the working life, soften the burden of populatio...

  13. How does duration of curing affect the radiopacity of dental materials?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinicians commonly encounter cases in which it is difficult to determine whether adjacent radiopacities are normal or pathologic. The ideal radiopacity of composite resin is equal to or higher than that of the same thickness of aluminum. We aimed to investigate the possible effects of different curing times on the post-24-hour radiopacity of composite resins on digital radiographs. One mm thick samples of Filtek P60 and Clearfil resin composites were prepared and cured with three regimens of continuous 400 mW/cm2 irradiance for 10, 20 and 30 seconds. Along with a 12-step aluminum step wedge, digital radiographs were captured and the radiopacities were transformed to the equivalent aluminum thicknesses. Data were compared by a general linear model and repeated-measures of ANOVA. Overall, the calculated equivalent aluminum thicknesses of composite resins were increased significantly by doubling and tripling the curing times (F(2,8)=8.94, p=0.002). Notably, Bonferroni post-hoc tests confirmed that the radiopacity of the cured Filtek P60 was significantly higher at 30 seconds compared with 10 seconds (p=0.04). Although the higher radiopacity was observed by increasing the time, other comparisons showed no statistical significance (p>0.05). These results supported the hypothesis that the radiopacity of resin composites might be related to the duration of light curing. In addition to the current standards for radiopacity of digital images, defining a standard protocol for curing of dental materials should be considered, and it is suggested that they should be added to the current requirements for dental material.

  14. How does duration of curing affect the radiopacity of dental materials?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejeh Mir, Arash Poorsattar [School of Dentistry, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bejeh Mir, Morvarid Poorsattar [Private Practice of Orthodontics, Montreal (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    Clinicians commonly encounter cases in which it is difficult to determine whether adjacent radiopacities are normal or pathologic. The ideal radiopacity of composite resin is equal to or higher than that of the same thickness of aluminum. We aimed to investigate the possible effects of different curing times on the post-24-hour radiopacity of composite resins on digital radiographs. One mm thick samples of Filtek P60 and Clearfil resin composites were prepared and cured with three regimens of continuous 400 mW/cm{sup 2} irradiance for 10, 20 and 30 seconds. Along with a 12-step aluminum step wedge, digital radiographs were captured and the radiopacities were transformed to the equivalent aluminum thicknesses. Data were compared by a general linear model and repeated-measures of ANOVA. Overall, the calculated equivalent aluminum thicknesses of composite resins were increased significantly by doubling and tripling the curing times (F(2,8)=8.94, p=0.002). Notably, Bonferroni post-hoc tests confirmed that the radiopacity of the cured Filtek P60 was significantly higher at 30 seconds compared with 10 seconds (p=0.04). Although the higher radiopacity was observed by increasing the time, other comparisons showed no statistical significance (p>0.05). These results supported the hypothesis that the radiopacity of resin composites might be related to the duration of light curing. In addition to the current standards for radiopacity of digital images, defining a standard protocol for curing of dental materials should be considered, and it is suggested that they should be added to the current requirements for dental material.

  15. The effect of lactate concentration on the handgrip strength during judo bouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitch-Góngora, Juan G; Bonitch-Domínguez, Juan G; Padial, Paulino; Feriche, Belen

    2012-07-01

    Judo is a combat sport in which the athletes attempt to hold and control their adversary through gripping techniques (kumi-kata) to apply opportune throwing techniques (nage-waza). Twelve male judo athletes, representing national teams, were recruited to investigate the changes in the maximal isometric strength in both hands before (pre) and after (post) 4 judo bouts and its relationship with the maximal blood lactic acid concentration. The subjects performed a maximal isometric contraction with each hand immediately before and after each bout. A blood sample was taken at 1, 3, and 14 minutes after each bout, and the lactic acid concentration was determined. An overall effect of the successive bouts on the maximal isometric handgrip strength of prebouts was observed for both hands (p 0.05). The dominant hand showed an overall decrease in the maximal isometric strength because of the bout, with the decrease being significant for the first, third, and fourth bouts (p < 0.05). The nondominant hand only showed a significant decrease in the first prebout and postbout (p < 0.05). We observed an inverse relationship between the maximal isometric handgrip strength of postbouts and maximum lactic acid concentration (Lacmax), and between the maximal isometric handgrip strength of postbouts and the lactic acid concentration at minute 14 of the recovery period (Lac14) (p < 0.05). These results show that successive judo bouts significantly reduce the maximal isometric strength of both hands and may suggest that fatigue of each hand depends on different factors. An enhanced understanding of the behavior of the isometric handgrip strength, and the factors that affect grip fatigue during judo bouts in the dominant and nondominant hands, can aid coaches in developing optimal training and exercise interventions that are aimed at mitigating decreases in the capacity of judo athletes to perform a grip. PMID:21986690

  16. Addictive drugs and their duration affecting on trace elements levels in men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the drug addiction the blood biochemistry particularly level of trace elements in blood is widely affected. Eighty male addicts of various age groups along with seventeen normal subjects were studied. The plasma Zinc and manganese concentration was high in addict person as compared to normal subjects. Where as a significant decrease in iron concentration was observed in addicts. The plasma copper concentration was also low in addicts as compared to normal subjects. In conclusion drug addiction leads to many biochemical changes that may have detritus effects on health status of addicts. (author)

  17. Criteria of immobilization duration of the affected foot in diabetic Charcot neuro-osteoarthropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Gennadyevna Demina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Long-term offloading is the key factor in the treatment of the acute stage of Charcot foot. The indication for remobilization and transition of the affected foot to weight-bearing activities is believed to be based on two factors: the absence of the clinical signs of inflammation and results of the objective diagnostic tests. At the present time, consensus about appropriate methods sufficient for initiating weight-bearing activities after immobilization is absent. This paper discusses current data on clinical and laboratory tests and methods and describes their advantages and disadvantages.

  18. Do Ergogenic Aids Alter Lower Extremity Joint Alignment During a Functional Movement Lunge Prior to and Following an Exercise Bout?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Chris

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ergogenic aids have been used to alter joint kinematics in an attempt to minimise injury risk, yet the effectiveness of these aids may be compromised following a bout of exercise. This preliminary study aimed to measure the effect of compression garments and Kinesio Tape® on lower extremity joint alignment prior to and following an exercise bout. Eight male athletes (age = 24.1 ± 3.0 years, body height = 177.4 ± 5.2 cm, body mass = 72.3 ± 7.2 kg volunteered to participant in this study. Joint kinematics were recorded whilst all participants performed three rotational lunges, in three conditions (control, compression garment, Kinesio Tape®, prior to and following a 10 minute exercise bout. Frontal plane kinematics (lateral pelvic tilt, knee valgus, ankle inversion/eversion were used to assess ergogenic aid effectiveness during the lunge. Participants exhibited no significant differences in joint kinematics between ergogenic aid conditions prior to the exercise bout. Following exercise the only significant difference occurred within the Kinesio Tape® condition where maximum knee valgus angle significantly increased from 6.5° prior to exercise, to 7.7° following the exercise bout. The results of this study suggest joint kinematics are not affected by the ergogenic aids in this study prior to an exercise bout. However, there is evidence to suggest that the application of Kinesio Tape® may allow an increase in knee valgus angle following a bout of exercise, yet, compression garments are effective at maintaining joint alignment following a bout of exercise.

  19. Do Ergogenic Aids Alter Lower Extremity Joint Alignment During a Functional Movement Lunge Prior to and Following an Exercise Bout?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Chris; Knight, James; Milligan, Gemma

    2015-01-01

    Ergogenic aids have been used to alter joint kinematics in an attempt to minimise injury risk, yet the effectiveness of these aids may be compromised following a bout of exercise. This preliminary study aimed to measure the effect of compression garments and Kinesio Tape® on lower extremity joint alignment prior to and following an exercise bout. Eight male athletes (age = 24.1 ± 3.0 years, body height = 177.4 ± 5.2 cm, body mass = 72.3 ± 7.2 kg) volunteered to participant in this study. Joint kinematics were recorded whilst all participants performed three rotational lunges, in three conditions (control, compression garment, Kinesio Tape®), prior to and following a 10 minute exercise bout. Frontal plane kinematics (lateral pelvic tilt, knee valgus, ankle inversion/eversion) were used to assess ergogenic aid effectiveness during the lunge. Participants exhibited no significant differences in joint kinematics between ergogenic aid conditions prior to the exercise bout. Following exercise the only significant difference occurred within the Kinesio Tape® condition where maximum knee valgus angle significantly increased from 6.5° prior to exercise, to 7.7° following the exercise bout. The results of this study suggest joint kinematics are not affected by the ergogenic aids in this study prior to an exercise bout. However, there is evidence to suggest that the application of Kinesio Tape® may allow an increase in knee valgus angle following a bout of exercise, yet, compression garments are effective at maintaining joint alignment following a bout of exercise. PMID:25964805

  20. Simulation of Edge Localised Modes using BOUT++

    CERN Document Server

    Dudson, B D; Umansky, M V; Wilson, H R; Snyder, P B

    2010-01-01

    The BOUT++ code is used to simulate ELMs in a shifted circle equilibrium. Reduced ideal MHD simulations are first benchmarked against the linear ideal MHD code ELITE, showing good agreement. Diamagnetic drift effects are included finding the expected suppression of high toroidal mode number modes. Nonlinear simulations are performed, making the assumption that the anomalous kinematic electron viscosity is comparable to the anomalous electron thermal diffusivity. This allows simulations with realistically high Lundquist numbers S = 1e8, finding ELM sizes of 5-10% of the pedestal stored thermal energy. Scans show a strong dependence of the ELM size resistivity at low Lundquist numbers, with higher resistivity leading to more violent eruptions. At high Lundquist numbers relevant to high-performance discharges, ELM size is independent of resistivity as hyper-resistivity becomes the dominant dissipative effect.

  1. Visible Persistence of Single-Transient Random Dot Patterns: Spatial Parameters Affect the Duration of Fading Percepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchmann, Maximilian; Thaler, Kathrin; Vorberg, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Visible persistence refers to the continuation of visual perception after the physical termination of a stimulus. We studied an extreme case of visible persistence by presenting two matrices of randomly distributed black and white pixels in succession. On the transition from one matrix to the second, the luminance polarity of all pixels within a disk- or annulus-shaped area reversed, physically creating a single second-order transient signal. This transient signal produces the percept of a disk or an annulus with an abrupt onset and a gradual offset. To study the nature of this fading percept we varied spatial parameters, such as the inner and the outer diameter of annuli (Experiment I) and the radius and eccentricity of disks (Experiment III), and measured the duration of visible persistence by having subjects adjust the synchrony of the onset of a reference stimulus with the onset or the offset of the fading percept. We validated this method by comparing two modalities of the reference stimuli (Experiment I) and by comparing the judgments of fading percepts with the judgments of stimuli that actually fade in luminance contrast (Experiment II). The results show that (i) irrespective of the reference modality, participants are able to precisely judge the on- and the offsets of the fading percepts, (ii) auditory reference stimuli lead to higher visible persistence durations than visual ones, (iii) visible persistence duration increases with the thickness of annuli and the diameter of disks, but decreases with the diameter of annuli, irrespective of stimulus eccentricity. These effects cannot be explained by stimulus energy, which suggests that more complex processing mechanisms are involved. Seemingly contradictory effects of disk and annulus diameter can be unified by assuming an abstract filling-in mechanism that speeds up with the strength of the edge signal and takes more time the larger the stimulus area is. PMID:26348616

  2. Feeling of Pleasure to High-Intensity Interval Exercise Is Dependent of the Number of Work Bouts and Physical Activity Status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danniel Thiago Frazão

    Full Text Available To examine the affective responses during a single bout of a low-volume HIIE in active and insufficiently active men.Fifty-eight men (aged 25.3 ± 3.6 years volunteered to participate in this study: i active (n = 29 and ii insufficiently active (n = 29. Each subject undertook i initial screening and physical evaluation, ii maximal exercise test, and iii a single bout of a low-volume HIIE. The HIIE protocol consisted of 10 x 60s work bouts at 90% of maximal treadmill velocity (MTV interspersed with 60s of active recovery at 30% of MTV. Affective responses (Feeling Scale, -5/+5, rating of perceived exertion (Borg's RPE, 6-20, and heart rate (HR were recorded during the last 10s of each work bout. A two-factor mixed-model repeated measures ANOVA, independent-samples t test, and chi-squared test were used to data analysis.There were similar positive affective responses to the first three work bouts between insufficiently active and active men (p > 0.05. However, insufficiently active group displayed lower affective responses over time (work bout 4 to 10 than the active group (p 0.05.Insufficiently active and active men report feelings of pleasure to few work bouts (i.e., 3-4 during low-volume HIIE, while the affective responses become more unpleasant over time for insufficiently active subjects. Investigations on the effects of low-volume HIIE protocols including a fewer number of work bouts on health status and fitness of less active subjects would be interesting, especially in the first training weeks.

  3. A prior bout of contractions speeds VO2 and blood flow on-kinetics and reduces the VO2 slow-component amplitude in canine skeletal muscle contracting in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Andrés; McDonald, James R; Lai, Nicola; Gladden, L Bruce

    2010-05-01

    It was the purpose of this study to examine the effect of a priming contractile bout on oxygen uptake (VO2) on-kinetics in highly oxidative skeletal muscle. Canine gastrocnemii (n=12) were stimulated via their sciatic nerves (8 V, 0.2-ms duration, 50 Hz, 200-ms train) at a rate of 2 contractions/3 s (approximately 70% peak VO2) for two 2-min bouts, separated by 2 min of recovery. Blood flow was recorded with an ultrasonic flowmeter, and muscle oxygenation monitored via near-infrared spectroscopy. Compared with the first bout (bout 2 vs. bout 1), the VO2 primary time constant (mean+/-SD, 9.4+/-2.3 vs. 12.0+/-3.9 s) and slow-component amplitude (5.9+/-6.3 vs. 12.1+/-9.0 ml O2.kg wet wt(-1).min(-1)) were significantly reduced (P<0.05) during the second bout. Blood flow on-kinetics were significantly speeded during the second bout (time constant=7.7+/-2.6 vs. 14.8+/-5.8 s), and O2 extraction was greater at the onset of contractions (0.050+/-0.030 vs. 0.020+/-0.010 ml O2/ml blood). Kinetics of muscle deoxygenation were significantly slower at the onset of the second bout (7.2+/-2.2 vs. 4.4+/-1.2 s), while relative oxyhemoglobin concentration was elevated throughout the second bout. These results suggest that better matching of O2 delivery to VO2 speeds Vo(2) on-kinetics at this metabolic rate, but do not eliminate a potential role for enhanced metabolic activation. Additionally, altered motor unit recruitment at the onset of a second bout is not a prerequisite for reductions in the VO2 slow-component amplitude after a priming contractile bout in canine muscle in situ. PMID:20223997

  4. Storage temperature and duration affect Steinernema scarabaei dispersal and attraction, virulence, and infectivity to a white grub host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppenhöfer, Albrecht M; Ebssa, Lemma; Fuzy, Eugene M

    2013-02-01

    The entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema scarabaei has exceptional potential for the control of many white grub species. Initial studies suggested this species to have a widely ranging foraging strategy based on its attraction to hosts in soil columns, however, with a generally low but very variable dispersal rate even in the presence of hosts. The objective of this study was to develop a better understanding of the dispersal behavior of S. scarabaei IJs and the influence of storage conditions on its dispersal and infectivity. We found that storage temperature and duration had a strong effect on S. scarabaei IJ dispersal, virulence, and infectivity. But even under conditions conducive to movement only a small proportion of IJs moved towards a host. IJ dispersal declined with storage time by a factor of around 100 between 1 week and 12 weeks of storage whether the IJs were stored at room temperature or 8°C; however, the decline was more than twice as fast after storage at 8°C. Host attraction also diminished with storage duration. IJ virulence and infectivity declined with storage time for IJs stored at room temperature. In contrast, for IJs stored at 8°C virulence remained high and infectivity increased over time. The decrease in dispersal and infectivity when stored at room temperature may reflect an adaptation to conserve energy in the absence of hosts since S. scarabaei IJs have to persist through extended periods in summer during which infections are unlikely to occur. The even faster decrease in dispersal rate when stored at 8°C may suggest a cold-induced dormancy that may serve as an overwintering strategy. The parallel increase in infectivity, however, seems to contradict such a strategy. Future studies should examine whether and how S. scarabaei IJs 'inactivated' by the absence of hosts can be 'reactivated' and whether this behavior could be used to improve the efficacy of nematode applications against insect pests. PMID:23201455

  5. Five-field Peeling-Ballooning Modes Simulation with BOUT++

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In this paper we report the simulations on ELMs with 5-field peeling-ballooning model using BOUT++ code. A minimum set of three-field two-fluid equations based on the peeling-ballooning (P-B) model with non-ideal physics effects is found to simulate pedestal collapse when using the BOUT++ simulation code [1]. Based on this 3-field model, we investigate the effects of perturbed parallel velocity first. The perturbed parallel velocity can decrease the growth rate by 20.0%, and the energy loss caused by ELMs is decreased by 12.1%. After this work, in order to study the particle and energy transport at the pedestal region, we extend the previous two-fluid 3-field model of the pedestal collapse by separating the pressure into ion density, ion and electron temperature equations. Through the simulation, we find that the equilibrium density ni0 does not affect the normalized linear growth rate in the ideal MHD model because the dispersion relationship for normalized growth rate has nothing to do with density. With diamagnetic effects, the growth rate is inversely proportional to ni0. The reason is that the diamagnetic effects, which are inversely proportional to ni0, increase the threshold of the growth of perturbation. For the same pressure profile, constant T0 cases increase the growth rate by 6.2% compared with constant ni0 cases in ideal MHD model. With diamagnetic effects, the growth rate is increased by 31.43% for toroidal mode number n = 15. This is because that the gradient of ni0 introduces the cross term in the vorticity equation. This cross term has the destabilizing effect on peeling-ballooning mode. For the nonlinear simulation, the gradient of ni0 in the pedestal region can increase the energy loss of ELMs and drive the perturbation to go into the core region. In order to simulate the recovering phase of ELMs, the edge transport barrier (ETB) is necessary. Therefore, besides the parallel viscosity, the parallel thermal conductivities of ions and

  6. Serum levels of soluble CD30 in adult patients affected by atopic dermatitis and its relation to age, duration of disease and Scoring Atopic Dermatitis index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Di Lorenzo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The value of CD30 and the soluble circulating fragment of CD30 (sCD30 for atopic dermatitis (AD remains unclear. In particular, little is known about the effects of age, duration of disease and Scoring Atopic Dermatitis index (SCORAD on the levels of serum sCD30 in patients affected by AD. In the present study, we have analysed serum sCD30 levels of adult patients affected by AD. The study's population includes 18 non-smoking outpatients, with a diagnosis of AD. As a control group we studied 18 non-atopic subjects from laboratory staff, matched for sex and age. These subjects had no history of AD, urticaria or seasonal or perennial rhinitis or asthma, and had negative skin prick test to a panel of allergens.

  7. Factors affecting cerebral oxygenation in hemodialysis patients: cerebral oxygenation associates with pH, hemodialysis duration, serum albumin concentration, and diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyonori Ito

    Full Text Available Patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD often develop cerebral disease complications. Furthermore, cerebral regional saturation of oxygen (rSO2 was previously reported to be significantly lower in HD patients than in healthy subjects. We aimed to identify the factors affecting the cerebral rSO2 in HD patients.Fifty-four HD patients (38 men and 16 women; mean age, 67.7 ± 1.2 years, HD duration, 6.5 ± 1.9 years were recruited. Cerebral rSO2 was monitored at the forehead before HD using an INVOS 5100C (Covidien Japan, Tokyo, Japan.The rSO2 levels were significantly lower in HD patients compared with healthy controls (49.5 ± 1.7% vs. 68.9 ± 1.6%, p <0.001. Multiple regression analysis showed that cerebral rSO2 independently associated with pH (standardized coefficient: -0.35, HD duration (standardized coefficient: -0.33, and serum albumin concentration (standardized coefficient: 0.28. Furthermore, the rSO2 was significantly lower in HD patients with diabetes mellitus (DM, compared with patients without DM (46.8 ± 1.7% vs. 52.1 ± 1.8%, p <0.05.In HD patients, cerebral rSO2 was affected by multiple factors, including pH, HD duration, and serum albumin concentration. Furthermore, this is the first report describing significantly lower levels of rSO2 in HD patients with DM than in those without DM.

  8. A single bout of exercise improves motor memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roig, Marc; Skriver, Kasper Christen; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper;

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity has a positive impact on cognition and brain function. Here we investigated if a single bout of exercise can improve motor memory and motor skill learning. We also explored if the timing of the exercise bout in relation to the timing of practice has any impact...... 1 hour, 24 hours and 7 days after practice. Differences among groups in the rate of motor skill acquisition were not significant. In contrast, both exercise groups showed a significantly better retention of the motor skill 24 hours and 7 days after practice. Furthermore, compared to the subjects...... that exercised before practice, the subjects that exercised after practice showed a better retention of the motor skill 7 days after practice. These findings indicate that one bout of intense exercise performed immediately before or after practicing a motor task is sufficient to improve the long-term retention...

  9. Status and Verification of Edge Plasma Turbulence Code BOUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umansky, M V; Xu, X Q; Dudson, B; LoDestro, L L; Myra, J R

    2009-01-08

    The BOUT code is a detailed numerical model of tokamak edge turbulence based on collisional plasma uid equations. BOUT solves for time evolution of plasma uid variables: plasma density N{sub i}, parallel ion velocity V{sub {parallel}i}, electron temperature T{sub e}, ion temperature T{sub i}, electric potential {phi}, parallel current j{sub {parallel}}, and parallel vector potential A{sub {parallel}}, in realistic 3D divertor tokamak geometry. The current status of the code, physics model, algorithms, and implementation is described. Results of verification testing are presented along with illustrative applications to tokamak edge turbulence.

  10. Nonlinear ELM Simulations based on Peeling-Ballooning Modes using the BOUT/ BOUT++ Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A minimum set of equations based on the Peeling-Ballooning (P-B) mode with non-ideal physics effects (diamagnetic drift, E x B drift, resistivity, and anomalous electron viscosity) is found to simulate pedestal collapse when using the BOUT++ simulation code, developed in part from the original fluid edge code BOUT. Linear simulations of peeling-ballooning modes find good agreement in growth rate and mode structure with ELITE calculations. The influence of the E x B drift, diamagnetic drift, resistivity, and anomalous electron viscosity on peeling-ballooning modes is being studied; we find that (1) the diamagnetic drift and E x B drift stabilize the peeling-ballooning mode in a manner consistent with theoretical expectations; (2) resistivity destabilizes the peeling-ballooning mode, leading to resistive peeling-ballooning mode; (3) anomalous electron viscosity destabilizes the peeling-ballooning mode, leading to a viscous peeling-ballooning mode. With addition of the anomalous electron viscosity under the assumption that the anomalous kinematic electron viscosity is comparable to the anomalous electron thermal diffusivity, it is found from nonlinear simulations using a realistic high Lundquist number that the pedestal collapse is limited to the edge region and the ELM size is about 5 - 10% of the pedestal stored energy. This is consistent with many observations of large ELMs. It is also shown that for high Lundquist number there are two distinct processes in the evolution of pressure profiles: a fast collapse greatly flattening the pressure profile near the peak pressure gradient on the order of tens of Alfven times after the onset of nonlinear P-B mode and a slow buildup of pressure gradient. We can characterize the fast collapse as a magnetic reconnection triggered by P-B modes → an island formation and magnetic braiding → bursting process and a slow collapse as a turbulence transport process. The estimated island size is consistent with the size of

  11. Changes in ambient temperature and oxygenation during the proestrus do not affect duration, regularity and repeatability of the estrus cycle in female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyna Wójcik

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There are a lot of factors affecting the release of hormones from the anterior part of pituitary gland and their interactions with other parts of the endocrine, nervous and immune systems. The special significance of the proestrus phase of the estrous cycle of the rat, during which LH and FSH levels increase, followed by ovulation is known. The short length of the estrous cycle and the well recognized sequence of vaginal lavage cytology make it useful for investigating the influence of a stressful environment on the reproductive function. Short duration and mild changes in environmental conditions is considered as a factor analogous to psychological stress. The study was undertaken to determine the effects of a short duration change in the ambient temperature and oxygenation (30 minutes on the proestrus phase of reproductive cycle and on the repeatability and regularity of phases of the reproductive cycle of Wistar strain rats. The animals were kept under standard conditions and had food and water available ad libitum. The climatic chamber with automatically adjustable and monitored internal parameters (temperature, oxygenation, humidity was used to develop stress conditions. An estimation of the vaginal lavage using the microscope was done to determine the estrous cycle. The animals were divided into 6 groups. On the day of experiment: the control group (CG stayed in the climatic chamber for 30 minutes (ambient temperature 21 degrees C, normoxia - 21% O(2, the five test groups (TG - I - V remained in the climatic chamber for 30 minutes, in the established environmental conditions (I - 21 degrees C, 10% O(2; II - 10 degrees C, 21% O(2; III - 10 degrees C, 10% O(2; IV - 35 degrees C, 21% O(2; V - 35 degrees C, 10% O(2. During the following days after the experiment, a microscopic estimation of vaginal lavage was collected over again. There were no changes of duration and sequence of the present estrous cycle and repeatability of the next cycles

  12. A single bout of exercise improves motor memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Roig

    Full Text Available Regular physical activity has a positive impact on cognition and brain function. Here we investigated if a single bout of exercise can improve motor memory and motor skill learning. We also explored if the timing of the exercise bout in relation to the timing of practice has any impact on the acquisition and retention of a motor skill. Forty-eight young subjects were randomly allocated into three groups, which practiced a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task either before or after a bout of intense cycling or after rest. Motor skill acquisition was assessed during practice and retention was measured 1 hour, 24 hours and 7 days after practice. Differences among groups in the rate of motor skill acquisition were not significant. In contrast, both exercise groups showed a significantly better retention of the motor skill 24 hours and 7 days after practice. Furthermore, compared to the subjects that exercised before practice, the subjects that exercised after practice showed a better retention of the motor skill 7 days after practice. These findings indicate that one bout of intense exercise performed immediately before or after practicing a motor task is sufficient to improve the long-term retention of a motor skill. The positive effects of acute exercise on motor memory are maximized when exercise is performed immediately after practice, during the early stages of memory consolidation. Thus, the timing of exercise in relation to practice is possibly an important factor regulating the effects of acute exercise on long-term motor memory.

  13. A Single Bout of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Improves Motor Skill Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statton, Matthew A; Encarnacion, Marysol; Celnik, Pablo; Bastian, Amy J

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exercise is associated with improved performance on a variety of cognitive tasks including attention, executive function, and long-term memory. Remarkably, recent studies have shown that even a single bout of aerobic exercise can lead to immediate improvements in declarative learning and memory, but less is known about the effect of exercise on motor learning. Here we sought to determine the effect of a single bout of moderate intensity aerobic exercise on motor skill learning. In experiment 1, we investigated the effect of moderate aerobic exercise on motor acquisition. 24 young, healthy adults performed a motor learning task either immediately after 30 minutes of moderate intensity running, after running followed by a long rest period, or after slow walking. Motor skill was assessed via a speed-accuracy tradeoff function to determine how exercise might differentially affect two distinct components of motor learning performance: movement speed and accuracy. In experiment 2, we investigated both acquisition and retention of motor skill across multiple days of training. 20 additional participants performed either a bout of running or slow walking immediately before motor learning on three consecutive days, and only motor learning (no exercise) on a fourth day. We found that moderate intensity running led to an immediate improvement in motor acquisition for both a single session and on multiple sessions across subsequent days, but had no effect on between-day retention. This effect was driven by improved movement accuracy, as opposed to speed. However, the benefit of exercise was dependent upon motor learning occurring immediately after exercise-resting for a period of one hour after exercise diminished the effect. These results demonstrate that moderate intensity exercise can prime the nervous system for the acquisition of new motor skills, and suggest that similar exercise protocols may be effective in improving the outcomes of movement rehabilitation

  14. A Single Bout of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Improves Motor Skill Acquisition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Statton

    Full Text Available Long-term exercise is associated with improved performance on a variety of cognitive tasks including attention, executive function, and long-term memory. Remarkably, recent studies have shown that even a single bout of aerobic exercise can lead to immediate improvements in declarative learning and memory, but less is known about the effect of exercise on motor learning. Here we sought to determine the effect of a single bout of moderate intensity aerobic exercise on motor skill learning. In experiment 1, we investigated the effect of moderate aerobic exercise on motor acquisition. 24 young, healthy adults performed a motor learning task either immediately after 30 minutes of moderate intensity running, after running followed by a long rest period, or after slow walking. Motor skill was assessed via a speed-accuracy tradeoff function to determine how exercise might differentially affect two distinct components of motor learning performance: movement speed and accuracy. In experiment 2, we investigated both acquisition and retention of motor skill across multiple days of training. 20 additional participants performed either a bout of running or slow walking immediately before motor learning on three consecutive days, and only motor learning (no exercise on a fourth day. We found that moderate intensity running led to an immediate improvement in motor acquisition for both a single session and on multiple sessions across subsequent days, but had no effect on between-day retention. This effect was driven by improved movement accuracy, as opposed to speed. However, the benefit of exercise was dependent upon motor learning occurring immediately after exercise-resting for a period of one hour after exercise diminished the effect. These results demonstrate that moderate intensity exercise can prime the nervous system for the acquisition of new motor skills, and suggest that similar exercise protocols may be effective in improving the outcomes of movement

  15. Technical note: Validation of sensor-recorded lying bouts in lactating dairy cows using a 2-sensor approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, A; van Knegsel, A T M; van Middelaar, C E; Hogeveen, H; Kemp, B; de Boer, I J M

    2015-11-01

    Lying behavior is a relevant indicator for the evaluation of cow welfare. Lying can be recorded automatically by data loggers attached to one of the hind legs of a cow. A threshold for the duration of a lying bout (LB) record is required, however, to discard false records caused by horizontal leg movements, such as scratching. Previously determined thresholds for similar sensors ranged from 25s to 4min. We aimed to validate LB recorded by the IceQube sensor (with IceManager software; IceRobotics, South Queensferry, UK) and to determine a threshold to distinguish true from false LB records in lactating dairy cows. A novel method of validation, which does not require time-consuming behavioral observations, was used to generate a larger data set with potentially more incidental short LB records. Both hind legs of 28 lactating dairy cows were equipped with an IceQube sensor for a period of 6d and used as each other's validation. Classification of LB records as true (actual LB) or false (recorded while standing) was based on 3 assumptions. First, all standing records (absence of LB records) were assumed to occur while standing. Second, false LB records due to short leg movements could not occur in both hind legs simultaneously. Third, true LB only occurred if the LB records of the paired sensors coincided. False LB records constituted 4% of the records. Based on a maximum accuracy of 0.99, a minimum duration of LB records of 33 s was determined, implying a sensitivity of 0.99 and a specificity of 0.98. Applying this threshold of 33 s hardly affected estimates of daily lying time, but improved estimates of frequency and mean duration of LB for individual cows. The importance of distinguishing short LB was demonstrated specifically for detection of calving. The 2-sensor approach, using sensor outputs on both hind legs as each other's validation, is a time-efficient method to validate LB records that can be applied to different sensors and husbandry conditions. PMID

  16. A Single Bout of Torpor in Mice Protects Memory Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Nowakowski, Sarah G.; Swoap, Steven J.; Sandstrom, Noah J.

    2009-01-01

    NOWAKOWSKI, S. G., S. J. SWOAP, AND N. J. SANDSTROM. A single bout of torpor in mice protects memory processes. PHYSIOL BEHAV 00(0) 000-000, 2008. – Memory consolidation is the process by which new and labile information is stabilized as long-term memory. Consolidation of spatial memories is thought to involve the transfer of information from the hippocampus to cortical regions. While the hypometabolic and hypothermic state of torpor dramatically changes hippocampal connectivity, little work ...

  17. Systemic cytokine response to three bouts of eccentric exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Cornish, Stephen M.; Johnson, Steven T

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the changes in inflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1ß, IL-10, as well as muscle force, muscle soreness, thigh circumference, and range of motion in response to 3 bouts of eccentric knee extension. Ten males were recruited to participate. The participants performed eccentric exercise on 3 consecutive days on the knee extensors on the right leg separated by 24??h. Participants performed 6 sets of 10 repetitions of isokinetic eccentric knee extension at 120° pe...

  18. Verification of BOUT++ by the Method of Manufactured Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Dudson, Ben; Omotani, John; Hill, Peter; Easy, Luke; Løiten, Michael

    2016-01-01

    BOUT++ is a software package designed for solving plasma fluid models. It has been used to simulate a wide range of plasma phenomena ranging from linear stability analysis to 3D plasma turbulence, and is capable of simulating a wide range of drift-reduced plasma fluid and gyro-fluid models. A verification exercise has been performed as part of a EUROfusion Enabling Research project, to rigorously test the correctness of the algorithms implemented in BOUT++, by testing order-of-accuracy convergence rates using the Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS). We present tests of individual components including time-integration and advection schemes, non-orthogonal coordinate systems and the shifted metric procedure which is used to handle highly sheared grids. The Flux Coordinate Independent (FCI) approach to differencing along magnetic field-lines has been implemented in BOUT++, and is here verified using the MMS in a sheared slab configuration. Finally we show tests of three complete models: 2-field Hasegawa-Wakat...

  19. Verification of BOUT++ by the method of manufactured solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudson, B. D.; Madsen, J.; Omotani, J.; Hill, P.; Easy, L.; Løiten, M.

    2016-06-01

    BOUT++ is a software package designed for solving plasma fluid models. It has been used to simulate a wide range of plasma phenomena ranging from linear stability analysis to 3D plasma turbulence and is capable of simulating a wide range of drift-reduced plasma fluid and gyro-fluid models. A verification exercise has been performed as part of a EUROfusion Enabling Research project, to rigorously test the correctness of the algorithms implemented in BOUT++, by testing order-of-accuracy convergence rates using the Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS). We present tests of individual components including time-integration and advection schemes, non-orthogonal toroidal field-aligned coordinate systems and the shifted metric procedure which is used to handle highly sheared grids. The flux coordinate independent approach to differencing along magnetic field-lines has been implemented in BOUT++ and is here verified using the MMS in a sheared slab configuration. Finally, we show tests of three complete models: 2-field Hasegawa-Wakatani in 2D slab, 3-field reduced magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in 3D field-aligned toroidal coordinates, and 5-field reduced MHD in slab geometry.

  20. Acute-Phase Inflammatory Response to Single-Bout HIIT and Endurance Training: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Kaspar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study compared acute and late effect of single-bout endurance training (ET and high-intensity interval training (HIIT on the plasma levels of four inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein and insulin-like growth factor 1. Design. Cohort study with repeated-measures design. Methods. Seven healthy untrained volunteers completed a single bout of ET and HIIT on a cycle ergometer. ET and HIIT sessions were held in random order and at least 7 days apart. Blood was drawn before the interventions and 30 min and 2 days after the training sessions. Plasma samples were analyzed with ELISA for the interleukins (IL, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1, and C-reactive protein (CRP. Statistical analysis was with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results. ET led to both a significant acute and long-term inflammatory response with a significant decrease at 30 minutes after exercise in the IL-6/IL-10 ratio (−20%; p=0.047 and a decrease of MCP-1 (−17.9%; p=0.03. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that ET affects the inflammatory response more adversely at 30 minutes after exercise compared to HIIT. However, this is compensated by a significant decrease in MCP-1 at two days associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerosis.

  1. Acute-Phase Inflammatory Response to Single-Bout HIIT and Endurance Training: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, Felix; Jelinek, Herbert F; Perkins, Steven; Al-Aubaidy, Hayder A; deJong, Bev; Butkowski, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study compared acute and late effect of single-bout endurance training (ET) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the plasma levels of four inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein and insulin-like growth factor 1. Design. Cohort study with repeated-measures design. Methods. Seven healthy untrained volunteers completed a single bout of ET and HIIT on a cycle ergometer. ET and HIIT sessions were held in random order and at least 7 days apart. Blood was drawn before the interventions and 30 min and 2 days after the training sessions. Plasma samples were analyzed with ELISA for the interleukins (IL), IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Statistical analysis was with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results. ET led to both a significant acute and long-term inflammatory response with a significant decrease at 30 minutes after exercise in the IL-6/IL-10 ratio (-20%; p = 0.047) and a decrease of MCP-1 (-17.9%; p = 0.03). Conclusion. This study demonstrates that ET affects the inflammatory response more adversely at 30 minutes after exercise compared to HIIT. However, this is compensated by a significant decrease in MCP-1 at two days associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerosis. PMID:27212809

  2. Exercise-induced muscle damage and the repeated bout effect: evidence for cross transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, Chelsea; Eston, Roger G

    2012-03-01

    We examined whether a prior bout of eccentric exercise in the elbow flexors provided protection against exercise-induced muscle damage in the contralateral arm. Fifteen males (age 22.7 ± 2.1 years; height 178.6 ± 6.8 cm, mass 75.8 ± 9.3 kg) were randomly assigned to two groups who performed two bouts of 60 eccentric contractions (30°/s) separated by 2 weeks: ipsilateral (n = 7, both bouts performed in the same arm), contralateral (n = 8, one bout performed in each arm). Strength, muscle soreness and resting arm angle (RAA) were measured at baseline and at 1, 24 and 48 h post exercise. Surface electromyography was recorded during both bouts of exercise. The degree of strength loss was attenuated (p < 0.05) in the ipsilateral group after the second bout of eccentric exercise (-22 cf. -3% for bout 1 and 2 at 24 h, respectively). Strength loss following eccentric exercise was also attenuated (p < 0.05) at 24 h in the contralateral group (-30 cf. 13% for bout 1 and 2, respectively). Muscle soreness (≈34 cf 19 mm) and change in RAA (≈5 cf. 3%) were also lower following the second bout of eccentric exercise (p < 0.05), although there was no difference in the overall change in these values between groups. Median frequency (MF) was decreased by 31% between bouts, with no difference between groups. Data support observations that the repeated bout effect transfers to the opposite (untrained) limb. The similar reduction in MF between bouts for the two groups provides evidence for a centrally mediated, neural adaptation. PMID:21720885

  3. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein: is there a repeated bout effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Behringer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of the present study was to investigate if there is a repeated bout effect for cartilage tissue, evident in the marker serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (sCOMP. Ten healthy male subjects (26.4±3.14 years performed two high impact interventions (100 drop jumps with a 30 second interval carried out at a 3 week interval. After each intervention, sCOMP and muscle soreness were assessed on 8 and 6 occasions respectively. Muscle soreness was determined via a visual analog scale with a maximum pain score of 10. sComp levels did not show a blunted response after the second bout (Bout 1: 12.2±3.3 U/L−1; Bout 2: 13.1±4.0 U/L−1; P>0.05. Remarkably, sCOMP increased from baseline levels by 16% after bout 1 and 15% after bout 2. Muscle soreness was blunted following the second intervention (Bout 1: 5.0±1.8; Bout 2: 1.6±0.8. Unlike the known repeated bout effect for muscle damage markers, sCOMP levels do not show a blunted response after two similar loading interventions. This information on biomarker behavior is essential to clinicians attempting to use this marker as an indicator of cartilage damage associated with the development or progression of osteoarthritis.

  4. BOUT++: a framework for parallel plasma fluid simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Dudson, B D; Xu, X Q; Snyder, P B; Wilson, H R

    2008-01-01

    A new modular code called BOUT++ is presented, which simulates 3D fluid equations in curvilinear coordinates. Although aimed at simulating Edge Localised Modes (ELMs) in tokamak X-point geometry, the code is able to simulate a wide range of fluid models (magnetised and unmagnetised) involving an arbitrary number of scalar and vector fields, in a wide range of geometries. Time evolution is fully implicit, and 3rd-order WENO schemes are implemented. Benchmarks are presented for linear and non-linear problems (the Orszag-Tang vortex) showing good agreement. Performance of the code is tested by scaling with problem size and processor number, showing efficient scaling to thousands of processors. Linear initial-value simulations of ELMs using reduced ideal MHD are presented, and the results compared to the ELITE linear MHD eigenvalue code. The resulting mode-structures and growth-rate are found to be in good agreement (BOUT++ = 0.245, ELITE = 0.239). To our knowledge, this is the first time dissipationless, initial...

  5. Simulations of Edge Current Driven Kink Modes with BOUT + + code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G. Q.; Xu, X. Q.; Snyder, P. B.; Turnbull, A. D.; Xia, T. Y.; Ma, C. H.; Xi, P. W.

    2013-10-01

    Edge kink modes (or peeling modes) play a key role in the ELMs. The edge kink modes are driven by peak edge current, which comes from the bootstrap current. We calculated sequences of equilibria with different edge current using CORSICA by keeping total current and pressure profile fixed. Based on these equilibria, with the 3-field BOUT + + code, we calculated the MHD instabilities driven by edge current. For linear low-n ideal MHD modes, BOUT + + results agree with GATO results. With the edge current increasing, the dominant modes are changed from high-n ballooning modes to low-n kink modes. The edge current provides also stabilizing effects on high-n ballooning modes. Furthermore, for edge current scan without keeping total current fixed, the increasing edge current can stabilize the high-n ballooning modes and cannot drive kink modes. The diamagnetic effect can stabilize the high-n ballooning modes, but has no effect on the low-n kink modes. Also, the nonlinear behavior of kink modes is analyzed. Work supported by China MOST grant 2013GB111000 and by China NSF grant 10975161. Also performed for USDOE by LLNL under DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. Sleep during arousal episodes as a function of prior torpor duration in hibernating European ground squirrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strijkstra, A M; Daan, S

    1997-03-01

    EEG's were recorded in hibernating European ground squirrels during euthermic arousal episodes at an ambient temperature of 5.5 degrees C. Spontaneous torpor bouts ranged from 6 to 15 days, body temperature during torpor was 7.5 degrees C. The torpor duration prior to EEG measurements was experimentally manipulated: the animals were induced to arouse by gentle handling after torpor of less then 1 day (n = 3), 1-2 days (n = 6), 3-4 days (n = 9) and 5-12 days (n = 9). The animals slept 71.5% of euthermic time, of which 61.4% NREM and 10.2% REM sleep. NREM percentage was slightly positively and REM percentage negatively correlated with prior torpor duration (TD). Spectral analysis showed changes in EEG activity during the euthermic phase in the slow wave frequency range (1-4 Hz) and in higher frequencies. Prior TD specifically affected the slow waves. Slow wave activity decreased exponentially during the euthermic phase. The initial slow wave activity showed a systematic increase with prior TD, which could be described by an exponentially saturating function, albeit with a relatively small time constant compared with spontaneous torpor duration. It is concluded that sleep during arousal episodes following torpor at an ambient temperature of 5.5 degrees C is affected both in structure and intensity by prior TD. The results are consistent with the proposition that torpor inhibits the restorative function of sleep. PMID:9125697

  7. Shelf-life of Roasted Cashew Nuts as Affected by Relative Humidity, Thickness of Polythene Packaging Material and Duration of Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Irtwange

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of relative humidity, thickness of polythene packaging material and duration of storageon the shelf life of roasted cashew was determined to provide inform ation for packaged roasted cashew nutsmarketers. For this study, split plot in Randomized Complete Block Design was used with a total number of180 observations (3 relative humidity x 4 polythene thicknesses x 5 duration levels of storage x 3 replicationseach for moisture content, microbial count and quality index, which w ere measured using standard procedures.The initial mean moisture content, total fungal counts and percentage quality index of the nuts were found tobe 1.17%db, 30CFU/g and 100% respectively, which were all deemed appropriate in comparison with the setacceptable storage moisture content of 5.8%db, tolerable fungal levels of 103 and 104/g and acceptablepercentage quality index of 45% for roasted cashew nuts which did not exceed its shelf-life and still deemedfit for human consumption. The results of the study indicates that relative humidity, polythene thickness andduration of storage have a highly significant effect (P≤0.01 on moisture content and quality index while forthe microbial count, polythene thickness and duration of storage has significant effect (P≤0.05 with relativehumidity showing non-significance. For all levels of relative humidity and polythene thickness, moisturecontent and microbial count increased with increase in duration of storage w hile quality index decreased withincrease in duration of storage. As the polythene thickness increased at constant storage duration, the moisturecontent decreased. The moisture content of all the samples increased with increase in duration of storage atconstant polythene thickness level. As the thickness of the polythene packaging material increased, the amountof moisture absorbed over time (in days decreases; the total fugal growth decreases, and the percentage qualityindex increases. It is recommended that

  8. Analyse expérimentale et simulation thermomécanique du soudage bout à bout de tubes de polyéthylène

    OpenAIRE

    Hehn, Olivier

    2006-01-01

    Ce travail porte sur la compréhension et la simulation numérique des phénomènes thermomécaniques régissant la formation des soudures au cours du procédé de soudage bout à bout de tubes de polyéthylène. Ce procédé consiste à faire fondre les extrémités des tubes et à les plaquer l'un contre l'autre avec une certaine pression pour former la soudure par refroidissement de la matière. Le soudage bout à bout, qui paraît simple a priori, fait intervenir un certain nombre de phénomènes interagissant...

  9. Changes in peak leg power induced by successive judo bouts and their relationship to lactate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitch-Domínguez, Juan; Bonitch-Góngora, Juan; Padial, Paulino; Feriche, Belén

    2010-12-01

    Eleven male judoka, who compete at national level, were recruited with the aim of investigating changes in peak leg power as a result of successive judo bouts and their relationship with lactate production. The participants executed a force-velocity curve to determine peak power in a 908 squat exercise in concentric work. The group then participated in four 5-min judo bouts each separated by 15 min of passive rest. The power developed as a result of the load associated with the maximum peak power reached in the preliminary test was determined, for the same movement, before and after each bout. Finger capillary blood samples were taken after each bout to determine the maximum lactate concentration achieved and lactate clearance. The results showed no effect of successive bouts on peak leg power (P > 0.05) and no difference when comparing the power measured before and after each bout (P > 0.05). Maximum lactate concentration of the fourth bout was lower than that of the first (12.6 + 3.5 and 14.6+4 mmol · l(-1) respectively; P 0.05). On the basis of the results obtained, we conclude that successive judo bouts, with the structure proposed in this study, produce high acidosis levels, which have no effect on the peak power developed in the legs. PMID:21038167

  10. Sildenafil can induce the onset of a cluster headache bout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guan-Yu; Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Peng, Giia-Sheun; Yang, Fu-Chi

    2014-05-01

    About 25% of patients who are prescribed sildenafil, the phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitor, for erectile dysfunction (ED) experience headaches. These migraine effects are well-described, including cluster headaches. We report the case of a man who experienced a cluster headache attack following each of 2 sildenafil doses. His symptoms were resolved by adding naproxen to his treatment regimen and changing his ED treatment from 50 mg of sildenafil to 5 mg of vardenafil. To our knowledge, no study has reported cluster headaches triggered by the less commonly used PDE-5 inhibitors, namely vardenafil and tadalafil. Urologists should be cautious in prescribing sildenafil to patients with ED and with a history of cluster headaches. In these patients, they should consider prescribing low-dose vardenafil or tadalafil instead. Failure to recognize sildenafil risks could result in unnecessary headache bouts in patients with a history of cluster headaches. PMID:24940471

  11. Factors affecting the duration of nestling period and fledging order in Tengmalm's owl (Aegolius funereus: effect of wing length and hatching sequence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kouba

    Full Text Available In altricial birds, the nestling period is an important part of the breeding phase because the juveniles may spend quite a long time in the nest, with associated high energy costs for the parents. The length of the nestling period can be variable and its duration may be influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors; however, studies of this have mostly been undertaken on passerine birds. We studied individual duration of nestling period of 98 Tengmalm's owl chicks (Aegolius funereus at 27 nests during five breeding seasons using a camera and chip system and radio-telemetry. We found the nestlings stayed in the nest box for 27 - 38 days from hatching (mean ± SD, 32.4 ± 2.2 days. The individual duration of nestling period was negatively related to wing length, but no formally significant effect was found for body weight, sex, prey availability and/or weather conditions. The fledging sequence of individual nestlings was primarily related to hatching order; no relationship with wing length and/or other factors was found in this case. We suggest the length of wing is the most important measure of body condition and individual quality in Tengmalm's owl young determining the duration of the nestling period. Other differences from passerines (e.g., the lack of effect of weather or prey availability on nestling period are considered likely to be due to different life-history traits, in particular different food habits and nesting sites and greater risk of nest predation among passerines.

  12. Fast pedestal, SOL and divertor measurements from DIII-D to validate BOUT++ nonlinear ELM simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenstermacher, M.E., E-mail: fenstermacher@fusion.gat.com [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Xu, X.Q.; Joseph, I.; Lanctot, M.J.; Lasnier, C.J.; Meyer, W.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Tobias, B. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Zeng, L. [University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-7099 (United States); Leonard, A.W.; Osborne, T.H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    This paper documents first work toward validation of BOUT++ nonlinear edge localized mode (ELM) simulations in X-point geometry, at experimental pedestal collisionality, against multiple diagnostic measurements of a well-characterized ELM event in DIII-D. The key to the BOUT++ simulations is the use of a hyper-resistivity model that effectively spreads the very thin current sheets that form in low collisionality nonlinear simulations, and allows for ELM driven magnetic reconnection at finite current density. Experimental ELM characterization includes multiple fast line-integrated diagnostic measurements revealing in–out divertor asymmetric response to ELMs, IRTV imaging at the divertor targets, visible emission in the divertor volume to test the extension of BOUT++ to X-point geometry, and forward modeling of new electron cyclotron emission imaging to test predictions of ELM filaments in the edge pedestal. Initial comparisons suggest optimized BOUT boundary conditions and model parameters, and show similarities between initial BOUT++ results and several measurements.

  13. A Jump-Diffusion Model with Stochastic Volatility and Durations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Wei; Pelletier, Denis

    Market microstructure theories suggest that the durations between transactions carry information about volatility. This paper puts forward a model featuring stochastic volatility, stochastic conditional duration, and jumps to analyze high frequency returns and durations. Durations affect price...

  14. Sleep during arousal episodes as a function of prior torpor duration in hibernating European ground squirrels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkstra, AM; Daan, S

    1997-01-01

    EEG's were recorded in hibernating European ground squirrels during euthermic arousal episodes at an ambient temperature of 5.5 degrees C. Spontaneous torpor bouts ranged from 6 to 15 days, body temperature during torpor was 7.5 degrees C. The torpor duration prior to EEG measurements was experiment

  15. Turbulent Simulations of Divertor Detachment Based On BOUT + + Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Xu, Xueqiao; Xia, Tianyang; Ye, Minyou

    2015-11-01

    China Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor is under conceptual design, acting as a bridge between ITER and DEMO. The detached divertor operation offers great promise for a reduction of heat flux onto divertor target plates for acceptable erosion. Therefore, a density scan is performed via an increase of D2 gas puffing rates in the range of 0 . 0 ~ 5 . 0 ×1023s-1 by using the B2-Eirene/SOLPS 5.0 code package to study the heat flux control and impurity screening property. As the density increases, it shows a gradually change of the divertor operation status, from low-recycling regime to high-recycling regime and finally to detachment. Significant radiation loss inside the confined plasma in the divertor region during detachment leads to strong parallel density and temperature gradients. Based on the SOLPS simulations, BOUT + + simulations will be presented to investigate the stability and turbulent transport under divertor plasma detachment, particularly the strong parallel gradient driven instabilities and enhanced plasma turbulence to spread heat flux over larger surface areas. The correlation between outer mid-plane and divertor turbulence and the related transport will be analyzed. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-675075.

  16. Chemical inhibition of potato ABA-8'-hydroxylase activity alters in vitro and in vivo ABA metabolism and endogenous ABA levels but does not affect potato microtuber dormancy duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttle, Jeffrey C; Abrams, Suzanne R; De Stefano-Beltrán, Luis; Huckle, Linda L

    2012-09-01

    The effects of azole-type P450 inhibitors and two metabolism-resistant abscisic acid (ABA) analogues on in vitro ABA-8'-hydroxylase activity, in planta ABA metabolism, endogenous ABA content, and tuber meristem dormancy duration were examined in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Russet Burbank). When functionally expressed in yeast, three potato CYP707A genes were demonstrated to encode enzymatically active ABA-8'-hydroxylases with micromolar affinities for (+)-ABA. The in vitro activity of the three enzymes was inhibited by the P450 azole-type inhibitors ancymidol, paclobutrazol, diniconazole, and tetcyclasis, and by the 8'-acetylene- and 8'-methylene-ABA analogues, with diniconazole and tetcyclasis being the most potent inhibitors. The in planta metabolism of [(3)H](±)-ABA to phaseic acid and dihydrophaseic acid in tuber meristems was inhibited by diniconazole, tetcyclasis, and to a lesser extent by 8'-acetylene- and 8'-methylene-ABA. Continuous exposure of in vitro generated microtubers to diniconazole resulted in a 2-fold increase in endogenous ABA content and a decline in dihydrophaseic acid content after 9 weeks of development. Similar treatment with 8'-acetylene-ABA had no effects on the endogenous contents of ABA or phaseic acid but reduced the content of dihydrophaseic acid. Tuber meristem dormancy progression was determined ex vitro in control, diniconazole-, and 8'-acetylene-ABA-treated microtubers following harvest. Continuous exposure to diniconazole during microtuber development had no effects on subsequent sprouting at any time point. Continuous exposure to 8'-acetylene-ABA significantly increased the rate of microtuber sprouting. The results indicate that, although a decrease in ABA content is a hallmark of tuber dormancy progression, the decline in ABA levels is not a prerequisite for dormancy exit and the onset of tuber sprouting. PMID:22664582

  17. A Single Bout of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Improves Motor Skill Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Statton, Matthew A.; Marysol Encarnacion; Pablo Celnik; Bastian, Amy J

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exercise is associated with improved performance on a variety of cognitive tasks including attention, executive function, and long-term memory. Remarkably, recent studies have shown that even a single bout of aerobic exercise can lead to immediate improvements in declarative learning and memory, but less is known about the effect of exercise on motor learning. Here we sought to determine the effect of a single bout of moderate intensity aerobic exercise on motor skill learning. In e...

  18. Regional adaptation of collagen in skeletal muscle to repeated bouts of strenuous eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Ryo; Ogasawara, Riki; Tsutaki, Arata; Nakazato, Koichi; Ishii, Naokata

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the injured region-specific alterations of factors related to the "repeated bout effect" (RBE), i.e., when the first bout of eccentric exercise generates resistance to injuries from the second bout of the same exercise. Wistar rats were divided into single injury (SI) and repeated injury (RI) groups. The right gastrocnemius muscle was subjected to a bout of eccentric contractions (ECs) at the age of 14 weeks in the SI group and 10 and 14 weeks in the RI group. The number of injured fibers after the last bout of ECs was lower in RI than in SI. In the SI group, injured fibers after ECs were mainly located in the superficial region of muscle and expressed myosin heavy chain (MHC) IIx and IIb. Prior to the second bout of ECs, the fiber-type composition in the RI group showed decreased MHC IIx and IIb fibers and increased MHC IIa fibers compared with those in the SI group. However, most regenerating fibers showed either MHC IIx or IIb expression. Heat shock protein 72 and total collagen contents in whole muscle were higher in the RI group than in the SI group; however, only the collagen expression in the RI group was more intense than that in the SI group in the superficial region of muscle. These findings suggest that increased collagen may play a more important role in the injured region of muscle than the other factors in RBE. PMID:27469054

  19. Differences in extreme low salinity timing and duration differentially affect eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) size class growth and mortality in Breton Sound, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Peyre, Megan K.; Eberline, Benjamin S.; Soniat, Thomas M.; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding how different life history stages are impacted by extreme or stochastic environmental variation is critical for predicting and modeling organism population dynamics. This project examined recruitment, growth, and mortality of seed (25-75 mm) and market (>75 mm) sized oysters along a salinity gradient over two years in Breton Sound, LA. In April 2010, management responses to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill resulted in extreme low salinity (25 °C) significantly and negatively impacted oyster recruitment, survival and growth in 2010, while low salinity (valve closing and resulting starvation or asphyxiation in response to the combination of low salinity during high temperatures (>25 °C). With increasing management of our freshwater inputs to estuaries combined with predicted climate changes, how extreme events affect different life history stages is key to understanding variation in population demographics of commercially important species and predicting future populations.

  20. Differences in extreme low salinity timing and duration differentially affect eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) size class growth and mortality in Breton Sound, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPeyre, Megan K.; Eberline, Benjamin S.; Soniat, Thomas M.; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how different life history stages are impacted by extreme or stochastic environmental variation is critical for predicting and modeling organism population dynamics. This project examined recruitment, growth, and mortality of seed (25–75 mm) and market (>75 mm) sized oysters along a salinity gradient over two years in Breton Sound, LA. In April 2010, management responses to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill resulted in extreme low salinity (25 °C) significantly and negatively impacted oyster recruitment, survival and growth in 2010, while low salinity (25 °C). With increasing management of our freshwater inputs to estuaries combined with predicted climate changes, how extreme events affect different life history stages is key to understanding variation in population demographics of commercially important species and predicting future populations.

  1. Duration of one-lung ventilation stage, POSSUM value and the quality of post-operative analgesia significantly affect survival and length of stay on intensive care unit of patients undergoing two-stage esophagectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Said AlMakadma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To analyze different factors affecting the outcome of patients undergoing Two Stage Esophagectomy (TSE for the treatment of esophageal carcinoma (EC while relating these factors to the length of stay on Intensive Care Unit (ILOS, mortality, and morbidity. Methods: Retrospective study of case-notes of 45 patients who underwent a TSE for resection of EC at a general district hospital in the United Kingdom (UK. These procedures were performed by the same surgical team and followed same approach, known as the Ivor-Lewis procedure. Results: The duration of One Lung Ventilation (OLV during TSE was found to be critical for patient′s outcome. Statistical analysis suggested a potentially strong effect of the duration of OLV (range: 90-320 minutes on the ILOS (P=0.001. The ratio OLV: Total duration of surgery (TOT was significantly different in early post-operative (PO deaths (within 3 months and late deaths after the third month (P=0.032. The POSSUM value (Physiological and Operative Severity Score for Enumeration of Mortality correlated well with ILOS (P=0.05. Regression analysis showed a strong relationship between the two variables (P=0.03. An excellent to good quality of PO analgesia allowed for shorter ILOS (P=0.023. Conclusions: Duration of the OLV appears as an important factor in the outcome of patients. POSSUM value could help in planning the post-operative critical care need of patients undergoing TSE. A well managed post-operative pain allowed to reduce the ILOS.

  2. 基于审查回归模型的失业持续期影响因素分析%Based on the Censored Regression Model to Analyze the Factors Affecting of Unemployment Duration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马莹; 裴晓敏

    2012-01-01

    针对我国失业人员的失业持续期问题,运用审查回归模型(Censored regression model)对影响失业持续时阍因素进行分析。结果显示:男性失业持续时问明显较女性短,教育对一个人再次就业有着明显的促进作用。个人进行人力资本的投资不但能够缩短失业持续时间,而且在当前我国就业形势严峻的局面下,个人受教育年限的多少对于一个人的成功就业也具有重要的意义。对于社会网络、家庭背景等影响劳动力就业的非市场因素,政府创造公平合理的就业竞争机制具有非常重要的作用。%In view of the unemployed duration of unemployment problem, using Censored regression model to analyze the factors affecting of unemployment duration. The results show that male unemployment duration was significantly shorter than that of women, education of a people once again have a significant role in promoting employment. Personal investment in human capital will not only shorten the duration of unemployment, but also in the current situation of China's employment situation is grim, the individual number of years of education for the employment of a person's success is also of great significance. For social networks, family background and other effects of non - market factors, labor employment, government employment and creating a fair competition mechanism has a very important role.

  3. Investigate the Affect of Post-natal Care Intervention on Breastfeeding Rates and Duration%浅谈进行产后护理干预对母乳喂养率及持续时间的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付雅铭

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨产后护理干预对母乳喂养率及持续时间的影响效果。方法收集我院2013年1月~2014年6月收治的1600例产妇按是否愿意接受产后护理干预分为两组。对照组产妇给予常规护理,实验组产妇加施产后护理,比较两组产妇母乳喂养率、母乳喂养持续时间与自信心情况等。结果实验组产妇母乳喂养率高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01);实验组产妇母乳喂养持续时间与BSES评分高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论产后护理干预对母乳喂养率及持续时间的影响效果显著。%Objective Investigate the affect of post-natal care intervention on breastfeeding rates and duration.MethodsColected in our hospital from January 2013 to June 2014 were treated 1 600 cases of maternal press are wiling to accept post-natal care interventions into two groups. Control groups were given routine care,the experimental groups were applied on post-natal care,maternal breastfeeding rates between the two groups,duration of breastfeeding and self-confidence and so on.ResultsExperimental groups were significantly higher than the rate of breastfeeding,there was a significant difference statisticaly significant(P< 0.01),the experimental groups were breastfeeding duration and BSES score significantly higher,there was a significant difference,statisticaly significant(P< 0.01).Conclusion Postpartum care intervention on breastfeeding rates and duration affect the results significantly.

  4. Effect of adjusting pulse durations of functional electrical stimulation cycling on energy expenditure and fatigue after spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf S. Gorgey, MPT, PhD, FACSM

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of three different pulse durations (200, 350, and 500 microseconds [P200, P350, and P500, respectively] on oxygen uptake, cycling performance, and energy expenditure (EE percentage of fatigue of the knee extensor muscle group immediately and 48 to 72 h after cycling in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI. A convenience sample of 10 individuals with motor complete SCI participated in a repeated-measures design using a functional electrical stimulation (FES cycle ergometer over a 3 wk period. There was no difference among the three FES protocols on relative oxygen uptake or cycling EE. Delta EE between exercise and rest was 42% greater in both P500 and P350 than in P200 (p = 0.07, whereas recovery oxygen uptake was 23% greater in P350 than in P200 (p = 0.03. There was no difference in the outcomes of the three pulse durations on muscle fatigue. Knee extensor torque significantly decreased immediately after (p < 0.001 and 48 to 72 h after (p < 0.001 FES leg cycling. Lengthening pulse duration did not affect submaximal or relative oxygen uptake or EE, total EE, and time to fatigue. Greater recovery oxygen updake and delta EE were noted in P350 and P500 compared with P200. An acute bout of FES leg cycling resulted in torque reduction that did not fully recover 48 to 72 h after cycling.

  5. Acute Exercise and Oxidative Stress: CrossFit™ vs. Treadmill Bout

    OpenAIRE

    Kliszczewicz Brian; John Quindry C.; Daniel Blessing L.; Gretchen Oliver D.; Michael Esco R.; Kyle Taylor J.

    2015-01-01

    CrossFit™, a popular high-intensity training modality, has been the subject of scrutiny, with concerns of elevated risk of injury and health. Despite these concerns empirical evidence regarding physiologic stresses including acute oxidative stress is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute redox response to a CrossFit™ bout. Furthermore, these findings were compared to a high-intensity treadmill bout as a point of reference. Ten males 26.4 ± 2.7 yrs havi...

  6. Acute-Phase Inflammatory Response to Single-Bout HIIT and Endurance Training: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kaspar, Felix; Jelinek, Herbert F.; Perkins, Steven; Al-Aubaidy, Hayder A.; deJong, Bev; Butkowski, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study compared acute and late effect of single-bout endurance training (ET) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the plasma levels of four inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein and insulin-like growth factor 1. Design. Cohort study with repeated-measures design. Methods. Seven healthy untrained volunteers completed a single bout of ET and HIIT on a cycle ergometer. ET and HIIT sessions were held in random order and at least 7 days apart. Blood was drawn befor...

  7. Rent Control and Unemployment Duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jacob R.; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyse how rent control affects the duration of individual unemployment. In atheoretical search model we distinguish between two effects of rent control. On one hand, rentcontrol reduces housing mobility and hence mobility in the labour market. On the other hand, tomaintain rent...

  8. EFFECTS OF A 4-WEEK ECCENTRIC TRAINING PROGRAM ON THE REPEATED BOUT EFFECT IN YOUNG ACTIVE WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the responses of women to the repeated bout effect (RBE and to a short eccentric training program. Twenty-four young females were randomly assigned to a training group (TG, n = 14 or a control group (CG, n = 10. They performed two identical acute eccentric bouts (120 repetitions at 70% of 1RM in a leg-press device in an 8 weeks interval. TG followed a 4-week-eccentric-training program between the bouts. Maximal isometric contraction, range of motion, peak power and quadriceps muscle soreness were compared between and within groups before and after the two acute eccentric bouts. TG and CG presented significant losses of isometric strength and peak power, and an increment in soreness after the first bout. Isometric strength and peak power were recovered faster in CG after the second bout (p < 0.05 compared with TG, which showed a similar recovery of these parameters after the second bout compared with the first one. A decrease in soreness and a faster recovery of range of motion were found in TG (p < 0.05 following the second bout compared with the first one, but not in CG. Data indicate that a 4-week eccentric training program may prevent the RBE over those adaptations related with muscle damage (e.g. strength loss, but it may increase RBE impact on inflammatory processes (e.g. soreness.

  9. Swimming training induces liver mitochondrial adaptations to oxidative stress in rats submitted to repeated exhaustive swimming bouts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico D Lima

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although acute exhaustive exercise is known to increase liver reactive oxygen species (ROS production and aerobic training has shown to improve the antioxidant status in the liver, little is known about mitochondria adaptations to aerobic training. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the aerobic training on oxidative stress markers and antioxidant defense in liver mitochondria both after training and in response to three repeated exhaustive swimming bouts. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into training (n = 14 and control (n = 14 groups. Training group performed a 6-week swimming training protocol. Subsets of training (n = 7 and control (n = 7 rats performed 3 repeated exhaustive swimming bouts with 72 h rest in between. Oxidative stress biomarkers, antioxidant activity, and mitochondria functionality were assessed. RESULTS: Trained group showed increased reduced glutathione (GSH content and reduced/oxidized (GSH/GSSG ratio, higher superoxide dismutase (MnSOD activity, and decreased lipid peroxidation in liver mitochondria. Aerobic training protected against exhaustive swimming ROS production herein characterized by decreased oxidative stress markers, higher antioxidant defenses, and increases in methyl-tetrazolium reduction and membrane potential. Trained group also presented higher time to exhaustion compared to control group. CONCLUSIONS: Swimming training induced positive adaptations in liver mitochondria of rats. Increased antioxidant defense after training coped well with exercise-produced ROS and liver mitochondria were less affected by exhaustive exercise. Therefore, liver mitochondria also adapt to exercise-induced ROS and may play an important role in exercise performance.

  10. Effect of intense interval workouts on running economy using three recovery durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavorsky, G S; Montgomery, D L; Pearsall, D J

    1998-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine whether running economy (RE) is adversely affected following intense interval bouts of 10 x 400-m running, and whether there is an interaction effect between RE and recovery duration during the workouts. Twelve highly trained male endurance athletes [maximal oxygen consumption; VO2max = 72.5 (4.3) ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) mean (SD)] performed three interval running workouts of 10 x 400 m with a minimum of 4 days between runs. Recovery duration between the repetitions was randomly assigned at 60, 120 or 180 s. The velocity for each 400-m run was determined from a treadmill VO2max test. The average running velocity was 357.9 (9.0) m x min(-1). Following the workout, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) increased significantly (P workout, RE was measured at speeds of 200 and 268 m x min(-1). Changes in RE from pre- to post-workout, as well as heart rate (HR) and respiratory exchange ratio (R) were similar for the three recovery conditions. When averaged across conditions, oxygen consumption (VO2) increased significantly (P pre- to post-test [from 38.5 to 40.5 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) at 200 m x min(-1), and from 53.1 to 54.5 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) at 268 m x min(-1), respectively]. HR increased (from 124 to 138, and from 151 to 157 beats x min(-1) respectively) and R decreased (from 0.90 to 0.78, and from 0.93 to 0.89, respectively) at 200 and 268 m x min(-1), respectively (P workout and that the changes in VO2, HR and R were independent of the recovery duration between the repetitions. PMID:9535583

  11. Skeletal muscle fiber type composition and performance during repeated bouts of maximal, concentric contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliander, E. B.; Dudley, G. A.; Tesch, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    Force output and fatigue and recovery patterns were studied during intermittent short-term exercise. 27 men performed three bouts of 30 maximal unilateral knee extensions on 2 different occasions. Blood flow was maintained or occluded during recovery periods (60 s). Blood flow was restricted by inflating a pneumatic cuff placed around the proximal thigh. Muscle biopsies from vastus lateralis were analyzed for identification of fast twitch (FT) and slow twitch (ST) fibers and relative FT area. Peak torque decreased during each bout of exercise and more when blood flow was restricted during recovery. Initial peak torque (IPT) and average peak torque (APT) decreased over the three exercise bouts. This response was 3 fold greater without than with blood flow during recovery. IPT and APT decreased more in individuals with mainly FT fibers than in those with mainly ST fibers. It is suggested that performance during repeated bouts of maximal concentric contractions differs between individuals with different fiber type composition. Specifically, in high intensity, intermittent exercise with emphasis on anaerobic energy release a high FT composition may not necessarily be advantageous for performance.

  12. A Bout of Voluntary Running Enhances Context Conditioned Fear, Its Extinction, and Its Reconsolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siette, Joyce; Reichelt, Amy C.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments used rats to examine the effect of a single bout of voluntary activity (wheel running) on the acquisition, extinction, and reconsolidation of context conditioned fear. In Experiment 1, rats provided with access to a wheel for 3 h immediately before or after a shocked exposure to a context froze more when tested in that context…

  13. Adipose tissue lipolysis is increased during a repeated bout of aerobic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stich, V; de Glisezinski, I; Berlan, M;

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine whether lipid mobilization from adipose tissue undergoes changes during repeated bouts of prolonged aerobic exercise. Microdialysis of the subcutaneous adipose tissue was used for the assessment of lipolysis; glycerol concentration was measured in the dialysate...

  14. Call recognition in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana: Generalization along the duration continuuma)

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Andrea Megela

    2004-01-01

    Male bullfrogs emit multicroak, quasiharmonic advertisement calls that function in mate attraction and neighbor recognition. The degree of variability of acoustic features in these calls can influence perceptual decisions by conspecific receivers. Analysis of duration of individual croaks in spontaneous advertisement calls of a sample of males shows considerable intraindividual variability in this feature, even within short chorusing bouts. The influence of this intraindividual variability on...

  15. A bout analysis reveals age-related methylmercury neurotoxicity and nimodipine neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Andrew Nathanael; Cummings, Craig; Pope, Derek; Hoffman, Daniel; Newland, M Christopher

    2016-09-15

    Age-related deficits in motor and cognitive functioning may be driven by perturbations in calcium (Ca(2+)) homeostasis in nerve terminals, mechanisms that are also thought to mediate the neurotoxicity of methylmercury (MeHg). Calcium-channel blockers (CCBs) protect against MeHg toxicity in adult mice, but little is known about their efficacy in other age groups. Two age groups of BALB/c mice were exposed to 0 or 1.2mg/kg/day MeHg and 0 or 20mg/kg/day of the CCB nimodipine for approximately 8.5 months. Adults began exposure on postnatal day (PND) 72 and the retired breeders on PND 296. High-rate operant behavior was maintained under a percentile schedule, which helped to decouple response rate from reinforcer rate. Responding was analyzed using a log-survivor bout analysis approach that partitioned behavior into high-rate bouts separated by pauses. MeHg-induced mortality did not depend on age but nimodipine neuroprotection was age-dependent, with poorer protection occurring in older mice. Within-bout response rate (a marker of sensorimotor function) was more sensitive to MeHg toxicity than bout-initiation rate (a marker of motivation). Within-bout rate declined almost 2 months prior to overt signs of toxicity for the MeHg-only retired breeders but not adults, suggesting greater delay to toxicity in younger animals. Motor-based decrements also appeared in relatively healthy adult MeHg+NIM animals. Aging appeared to alter the processes underlying Ca(2+) homeostasis thereby diminishing protection by nimodipine, even in mice that have not reached senescence. The study of MeHg exposure presents an experimental model by which to study potential mechanisms of aging. PMID:27196441

  16. Functional and expression analyses of kiwifruit SOC1-like genes suggest that they may not have a role in the transition to flowering but may affect the duration of dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voogd, Charlotte; Wang, Tianchi; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika

    2015-08-01

    The MADS-domain transcription factor SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 (SOC1) is one of the key integrators of endogenous and environmental signals that promote flowering in the annual species Arabidopsis thaliana. In the deciduous woody perennial vine kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.), environmental signals are integrated to regulate annual cycles of growth and dormancy. Accumulation of chilling during winter is required for dormancy break and flowering in spring. In order to understand the regulation of dormancy and flowering in kiwifruit, nine kiwifruit SOC1-like genes were identified and characterized. All genes affected flowering time of A. thaliana Col-0 and were able to rescue the late flowering phenotype of the soc1-2 mutant when ectopically expressed. A differential capacity for homodimerization was observed, but all proteins were capable of strong interactions with SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP) MADS-domain proteins. Largely overlapping spatial domains but distinct expression profiles in buds were identified between the SOC1-like gene family members. Ectopic expression of AcSOC1e, AcSOC1i, and AcSOC1f in Actinidia chinensis had no impact on establishment of winter dormancy and failed to induce precocious flowering, but AcSOC1i reduced the duration of dormancy in the absence of winter chilling. These findings add to our understanding of the SOC1-like gene family and the potential diversification of SOC1 function in woody perennials. PMID:25979999

  17. The Duration of Unemployment in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Gogran, L.; Berg, van den, V.A.C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper uses longitudinal survey data to assess factors affecting the duration of unemployment in Russia. We examine four types of marginalised labour force participants, according to ILO guidelines and survey responses, and we estimate duration models for each type. It turns out that the sets of characteristics with the strongest effects on the duration are remarkably similar across the different unemployment definitions and model specifications. Therefore, despite the formidable practica...

  18. The Physiologic Effects of an Acute Bout of Supramaximal High-Intensity Interval Training Compared with a Continuous Exercise Bout in Patients with COPD

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This study compared physiological responses and work performed during a supramaximal high-intensity interval exercise training session (HIIT) and a constant work rate (CWR) exercise session. Fourteen patients with COPD (mean FEV1   53±13% predicted (±SD)) completed an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) and a steep ramp anaerobic test (SRAT) and then two exercise bouts to symptom limitation on separate days, in random order: (1) a CWR trial at 80% of CPET peak work rate (mean 63±...

  19. Studies of impact of plasma shaping on edge localized modes with a nonlinear code BOUT + +

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G. Q.; Xu, X. Q.; Snyder, P. B.; Turnbull, A. D.; Xia, T. Y.

    2014-10-01

    The plasma shaping has important effects on the edge localized modes (ELMs). In this work, with the 3-field BOUT + + code, we study the impact of the plasma shaping on the ELMs. Three kinds of typical plasma shapes are studied: circular (cbm), elongated (dbm) and shaped with X-point (meudas). Our calculations show that the shaped plasma and the X-point geometry have stabilizing effect on the ELMs. For linear ideal MHD calculation we benchmark BOUT + + results with ELITE and GATO codes. Then we study the role of non-ideal effects such as resistivity on the ELMs for the X-point geometry. Also the nonlinear calculations are carried out to study the impact of plasma shape on the ELM size. Work supported by China National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program under Grant Nos. 2014GB106001 and 2013GB111000. Also performed for USDOE by LLNL under DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-656997.

  20. Endothelial glycocalyx integrity is preserved in young, healthy men during a single bout of strenuous physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerczak, J; Duda, K; Chlopicki, S; Bartosz, G; Zakrzewska, A; Balcerczyk, A; Smoleński, R T; Zoladz, J A

    2016-06-20

    In the present study we aimed to evaluate whether oxidative stress and inflammation induced by strenuous exercise affect glycocalyx integrity and endothelial function. Twenty one young, untrained healthy men performed a maximal incremental cycling exercise - until exhaustion. Markers of glycocalyx shedding (syndecan-1, heparan sulfate and hyaluronic acid), endothelial status (nitric oxide and prostacyclin metabolites - nitrate, nitrite, 6-keto-prostaglandin F(1alpha)), oxidative stress (8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine) and antioxidant capacity (uric acid, non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity) as well as markers of inflammation (sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1) were analyzed in venous blood samples taken at rest and at the end of exercise. The applied strenuous exercise caused a 5-fold increase in plasma lactate and hypoxanthine concentrations (p<0.001), a fall in plasma uric acid concentration and non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (p<10(-4)), accompanied by an increase (p=0.003) in sVCAM-1 concentration. Plasma 6-keto-prostaglandin F(1alpha) concentration increased (p=0.006) at exhaustion, while nitrate and nitrite concentrations were not affected. Surprisingly, no significant changes in serum syndecan-1 and heparan sulfate concentrations were observed. We have concluded, that a single bout of severe-intensity exercise is well accommodated by endothelium in young, healthy men as it neither results in evident glycocalyx disruption nor in the impairment of nitric oxide and prostacyclin production. PMID:26447512

  1. Cryotherapy and Sequential Exercise Bouts Following Cryotherapy on Concentric and Eccentric Strength in the Quadriceps

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Daniel H.; Myrer, J. William; Durrant, Earlene; Fellingham, Gilbert W.

    1993-01-01

    We investigated the effects of cryotherapy followed by sequential exercise bouts on concentric and eccentric strength of the quadriceps. Nineteen males (18-27 years) participated in a two-stage design involving four sequences: ice and exercise, ice and rest, no ice and exercise, and no ice and rest. We gathered concentric and eccentric strength measures (torque) using a kinetic communicator (KIN-COM) prior to exercise, immediately following treatment, and 20- and 40-minutes post-treatment. Th...

  2. Enhanced procollagen processing in skeletal muscle after a single bout of eccentric loading in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crameri, Regina M; Langberg, Henning; Teisner, Børge; Magnusson, Peter; Schrøder, Henrik Daa; Olesen, Jens L; Jensen, Charlotte H; Koskinen, Satu; Suetta, Charlotte; Kjaer, Michael

    2004-01-01

    -terminal propeptide of procollagen type III (PIIINP) was also shown in the exercising leg only. Further, from day 2 post-exercise, immunoreactivity for tenascin C and reactive macrophages (CD68+ cells) was seen within the perimysial and endomysial connective tissue of the exercising leg only, indicating a high...... mechanical load and inflammation. This study shows that following a single bout of high intensity eccentric exercise there is an increase in procollagen processing within skeletal muscle in humans....

  3. Variations of hematological parameters following repeated bouts of concurrent endurance-resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The aim of the present study is to investigate the variations of hematological parameters following two bouts of selected concurrent endurance and resistance exercises in one day.Material and Methods:Eight male students of physical education in Guilan University volunteered for our study. The participants performed concurrent endurance-resistance exercises for 90 minutes in the morning and afternoon bouts. Blood samples were obtained before, immediately after and three hours after the exercise to measure for hematological parameters – white blood cell, red blood cell, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, platelet, and plasma volume. The participants were fasting for at least 12 hours prior to the first blood sampling. We used analysis of variance with repeated measures and Bonferroni’s post hoc test to evaluate the hematological variations, with p values ≤ 0.05 considered significant.Results:Our findings indicate that white blood cell and platelet counts increased significantly three hours after, and immediately after exercise, respectively. Furthermore, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and red blood cell counts decreased significantly three hours after exercise (p0.05.Conclusion:Considering the fall in blood factors essential for gas exchange and its possible impact on oxygenation of active muscles, as well as the rise in coagulative and immunity factors following two bouts of exercise, trainers and athletes are advised to be wary about the impacts of performing concurrent and repeated exercises in one day.

  4. Linear calculations of edge current driven kink modes with BOUT++ code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work extends previous BOUT++ work to systematically study the impact of edge current density on edge localized modes, and to benchmark with the GATO and ELITE codes. Using the CORSICA code, a set of equilibria was generated with different edge current densities by keeping total current and pressure profile fixed. Based on these equilibria, the effects of the edge current density on the MHD instabilities were studied with the 3-field BOUT++ code. For the linear calculations, with increasing edge current density, the dominant modes are changed from intermediate-n and high-n ballooning modes to low-n kink modes, and the linear growth rate becomes smaller. The edge current provides stabilizing effects on ballooning modes due to the increase of local shear at the outer mid-plane with the edge current. For edge kink modes, however, the edge current does not always provide a destabilizing effect; with increasing edge current, the linear growth rate first increases, and then decreases. In benchmark calculations for BOUT++ against the linear results with the GATO and ELITE codes, the vacuum model has important effects on the edge kink mode calculations. By setting a realistic density profile and Spitzer resistivity profile in the vacuum region, the resistivity was found to have a destabilizing effect on both the kink mode and on the ballooning mode. With diamagnetic effects included, the intermediate-n and high-n ballooning modes can be totally stabilized for finite edge current density

  5. Linear calculations of edge current driven kink modes with BOUT++ code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G. Q.; Xu, X. Q.; Snyder, P. B.; Turnbull, A. D.; Xia, T. Y.; Ma, C. H.; Xi, P. W.

    2014-10-01

    This work extends previous BOUT++ work to systematically study the impact of edge current density on edge localized modes, and to benchmark with the GATO and ELITE codes. Using the CORSICA code, a set of equilibria was generated with different edge current densities by keeping total current and pressure profile fixed. Based on these equilibria, the effects of the edge current density on the MHD instabilities were studied with the 3-field BOUT++ code. For the linear calculations, with increasing edge current density, the dominant modes are changed from intermediate-n and high-n ballooning modes to low-n kink modes, and the linear growth rate becomes smaller. The edge current provides stabilizing effects on ballooning modes due to the increase of local shear at the outer mid-plane with the edge current. For edge kink modes, however, the edge current does not always provide a destabilizing effect; with increasing edge current, the linear growth rate first increases, and then decreases. In benchmark calculations for BOUT++ against the linear results with the GATO and ELITE codes, the vacuum model has important effects on the edge kink mode calculations. By setting a realistic density profile and Spitzer resistivity profile in the vacuum region, the resistivity was found to have a destabilizing effect on both the kink mode and on the ballooning mode. With diamagnetic effects included, the intermediate-n and high-n ballooning modes can be totally stabilized for finite edge current density.

  6. Linear calculations of edge current driven kink modes with BOUT++ code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, G. Q., E-mail: ligq@ipp.ac.cn; Xia, T. Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, CAS, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Xu, X. Q. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Snyder, P. B.; Turnbull, A. D. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Ma, C. H.; Xi, P. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); FSC, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-10-15

    This work extends previous BOUT++ work to systematically study the impact of edge current density on edge localized modes, and to benchmark with the GATO and ELITE codes. Using the CORSICA code, a set of equilibria was generated with different edge current densities by keeping total current and pressure profile fixed. Based on these equilibria, the effects of the edge current density on the MHD instabilities were studied with the 3-field BOUT++ code. For the linear calculations, with increasing edge current density, the dominant modes are changed from intermediate-n and high-n ballooning modes to low-n kink modes, and the linear growth rate becomes smaller. The edge current provides stabilizing effects on ballooning modes due to the increase of local shear at the outer mid-plane with the edge current. For edge kink modes, however, the edge current does not always provide a destabilizing effect; with increasing edge current, the linear growth rate first increases, and then decreases. In benchmark calculations for BOUT++ against the linear results with the GATO and ELITE codes, the vacuum model has important effects on the edge kink mode calculations. By setting a realistic density profile and Spitzer resistivity profile in the vacuum region, the resistivity was found to have a destabilizing effect on both the kink mode and on the ballooning mode. With diamagnetic effects included, the intermediate-n and high-n ballooning modes can be totally stabilized for finite edge current density.

  7. Physiological profile of a professional boxer preparing for Title Bout: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Israel; Hughes, Steven; Chapman, Dale W

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to (1) profile a professional boxer (23 years and 80 kg) with boxing-specific, muscle function, aerobic capacity and body composition tests, and (2) quantify how these measures varied during an 8-week preparation phase leading to, and post a state-Title Bout fought in the 76.2-kg class. A series of boxing-specific and muscle function tests were completed on 11 occasions: 9 prior and twice after the bout, each separated by approximately 2 weeks. The boxing test included 36 maximal punches (9 of each: lead and rear straights, lead and rear hooks) to a punching integrator measuring forces and velocity. Muscle function tests included countermovement jump, drop-jumps, isometric mid-thigh pull and isometric bench-press. Body composition was assessed using skin-fold measurements on three occasions and one dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Aerobic capacity was assessed using 2 VO2 max tests. Leading up to the bout, performance decreased in isometric mid-thigh pull (8%), isometric bench-press (5%), countermovement jump (15%) and impact forces in 3 of 4 punches (4%-7%). Whereas measures of dynamic and isometric muscle function remained depressed or unchanged post competition, punching forces (6%-15%) and aerobic power (6%) increased. Data suggest the athlete may have super-compensated following rest as fatigue dissipated and further adaptation occurred. PMID:26881871

  8. Cross Sectional Association between Spatially Measured Walking Bouts and Neighborhood Walkability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Liang-Dar; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Duncan, Glen E.

    2016-01-01

    Walking is the most popular choice of aerobic physical activity to improve health among U.S. adults. Physical characteristics of the home neighborhood can facilitate or hinder walking. The purpose of this study was to quantify neighborhood walking, using objective methods and to examine the association between counts of walking bouts in the home neighborhood and neighborhood walkability. This was a cross-sectional study of 106 adults who wore accelerometers and GPS devices for two weeks. Walking was quantified within 1, 2, and 3 km Euclidean (straight-line) and network buffers around the geocoded home location. Walkability was estimated using a commercially available index. Walking bout counts increased with buffer size and were associated with walkability, regardless of buffer type or size (p < 0.001). Quantification of walking bouts within (and outside) of pre-defined neighborhood buffers of different sizes and types allowed for the specification of walking locations to better describe and elucidate walking behaviors. These data support the concept that neighborhood characteristics can influence walking among adults. PMID:27070633

  9. Interleukin-6 and associated cytokine responses to an acute bout of high-intensity interval exercise: the effect of exercise intensity and volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Tom; Thomas, Andrew W; Webb, Richard; Hughes, Michael G

    2016-08-01

    Acute increases in interleukin (IL)-6 following prolonged exercise are associated with the induction of a transient anti-inflammatory state (e.g., increases in IL-10) that is partly responsible for the health benefits of regular exercise. The purposes of this study were to investigate the IL-6-related inflammatory response to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) and to determine the impact of exercise intensity and volume on this response. Ten participants (5 males and 5 females) completed 3 exercise bouts of contrasting intensity and volume (LOW, MOD, and HIGH). The HIGH protocol was based upon standard HIIE protocols, while the MOD and LOW protocols were designed to enable a comparison of exercise intensity and volume with a fixed duration. Inflammatory cytokine concentrations were measured in plasma (IL-6, IL-10) and also determined the level of gene expression (IL-6, IL-10, and IL-4R) in peripheral blood. The plasma IL-6 response to exercise (reported as fold changes) was significantly greater in HIGH (2.70 ± 1.51) than LOW (1.40 ± 0.32) (P = 0.04) and was also positively correlated to the mean exercise oxygen uptake (r = 0.54, P exercise of the same duration. The increases in IL-6 were relatively small in magnitude, and appear to have been insufficient to induce the acute systemic anti-inflammatory effects, which are evident following longer duration exercise. PMID:27377137

  10. The effect of predictability on subjective duration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Pariyadath

    Full Text Available Events can sometimes appear longer or shorter in duration than other events of equal length. For example, in a repeated presentation of auditory or visual stimuli, an unexpected object of equivalent duration appears to last longer. Illusions of duration distortion beg an important question of time representation: when durations dilate or contract, does time in general slow down or speed up during that moment? In other words, what entailments do duration distortions have with respect to other timing judgments? We here show that when a sound or visual flicker is presented in conjunction with an unexpected visual stimulus, neither the pitch of the sound nor the frequency of the flicker is affected by the apparent duration dilation. This demonstrates that subjective time in general is not slowed; instead, duration judgments can be manipulated with no concurrent impact on other temporal judgments. Like spatial vision, time perception appears to be underpinned by a collaboration of separate neural mechanisms that usually work in concert but are separable. We further show that the duration dilation of an unexpected stimulus is not enhanced by increasing its saliency, suggesting that the effect is more closely related to prediction violation than enhanced attention. Finally, duration distortions induced by violations of progressive number sequences implicate the involvement of high-level predictability, suggesting the involvement of areas higher than primary visual cortex. We suggest that duration distortions can be understood in terms of repetition suppression, in which neural responses to repeated stimuli are diminished.

  11. The effects of a single bout pilates exercise on mRNA expression of bone metabolic cytokines in osteopenia women

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Chang Sun; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hyo Jin

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a single bout pilates exercise on mRNA expression of bone metabolic cytokines in elderly osteopenia women. [Methods] We selected 11 people of elderly osteopenia women and loaded a single bout pilates exercise about RPE 10-14 level. The blood samples were collected before, immediately after and 60 minute after pilates exercise, then examined calcium metabolic markers in serum and extracted peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)...

  12. Time perception: paradigms, methods, target duration and individual differences

    OpenAIRE

    McFarlane, Henriett A

    2008-01-01

    The present study assessed the role of the time judgement paradigms of prospective and retrospective durations, the length of durations and the effects of the states of mood and arousal in time perception. The role of the biological variable of circadian types was also assessed. Long target durations were judged as shorter than whereas short target durations were judged as longer. Duration judgement paradigms did not affect perception of time and neither did mood and circa...

  13. Dinâmica do banco de sementes de arroz-vermelho afetado pelo pisoteio bovino e tempo de pousio da área Red rice seed bank dynamics affected by cattle trampling and fallow duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Marchezan

    2003-04-01

    time: [A1] - 1999, [A2] 2000 and [A3] - 2001. The red rice seed bank estimation was made using 12 soil samples by plot, in April 1999, April 2000 and April 2001, using a 10 cm diameter cylinder soil sampler. The sampling depths were 0-1 cm, 1-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-15 cm. After being extracted from the soil, the grains of red rice were counted and submitted to a tetrazolium test to estimate seed viability. Cattle trampling did not affect seed distribution in the soil profile and the dynamics of the red rice seed bank. Fallow duration affected the seed bank of red rice; the regression equation fit that best explains the correlation between number of viable seeds and fallow duration in months was the exponential equation: y = 1382.15 exp (-0.1988*x p<0.05, showing a decrease in the number of seeds within 12 months, from 1,448 to 151 (90% reduction, and 38 (98% reduction viable seeds per square meter in 24 months of fallow. Regarding the red rice seed burial depths, seed bank reduction was greater on the soil surface in 2000, with no difference between the depths in 2001. The seeds located on the soil surface lost their viability rapidly, with an average of 99% within one year fallow with or without cattle trampling. It can be concluded that cattle trampling does not affect red rice seed bank dynamics in fallow areas. Soil fallow, with or without cattle trampling, reduces in the red rice seed bank.

  14. RECOVERY OF POWER OUTPUT AND HEART RATE KINETICS DURING REPEATED BOUTS OF ROWING EXERCISE WITH DIFFERENT REST INTERVALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Mavrommataki

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of recovery time on the maintenance of power output and the heart rate response during repeated maximal rowing exercise. Nine male, junior rowers (age: 16 ± 1 years; body mass: 74.0 ± 9.1 kg; height: 1.78 ± 0.03 m performed two consecutive all-out 1000 m bouts on a rowing ergometer on three separate occasions. The rest interval between the two bouts was 1.5 (INT1.5, 3 (INT3 and 6 min (INT6, allocated in random order. Power output was averaged for each 1000 m bout and for the first and last 500 m of each bout. Heart rate kinetics were determined using a two-component exponential model. Performance time and mean power output for the first bout was 209 ± 3 s and 313 ± 10 W respectively. Recovery of mean power output was incomplete even after 6 min (78 ± 2, 81 ± 2 and 84 ± 2 % for INT1.5, INT3 and INT6 respectively. Mean power output after INT6 was higher (p < 0.01 only compared with INT1.5. Power output during the first 500 m of bout 2 after INT6 was 10% higher compared with the second 500 m. During INT1.5 and INT3 power output during the first and the second 500 m of bout 2 was similar. Peak heart rate (~197 b·min-1 and the HR time constant (~13 s were unaffected by prior exercise and recovery time. However, when the recovery was short (INT1.5, HR during the first 50 s of bout 2 was significantly higher compared with corresponding values during bout 1. The present study has shown that in order to maintain similar power outputs during repeated maximal rowing exercise, the recovery interval must be greater than 6 min. The influence of a longer recovery time (INT6 on maintenance of power output was only evident during the first half of the second 1000 m bout.

  15. Affect and self-efficacy responses during moderate-intensity exercise among low-active women: the effect of cognitive appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Amy S; Hulley, Angie; Beauchamp, Mark

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between cognitive and affective responses during acute exercise, 24 low-active females completed two 30-min bouts of cycle ergometer exercise at 90% of the ventilatory threshold. In one condition participants had full knowledge of the exercise duration (KD); in the other, exercise duration was unknown (UD). Affect and self-efficacy were measured before and every 3 min during exercise, and affect was also measured postexercise. Affect declined throughout the first half of both conditions, and continued its decline until the end of the UD condition, when a rebound effect was observed. Self-efficacy during exercise displayed a similar pattern. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that during-exercise self-efficacy was a stronger predictor of during-exercise affect than preexercise self-efficacy, and that this relationship was strongest at the end of exercise when duration was unknown. These results indicate that repetitive cognitive appraisal of self and the task could impact the exercise experiences of low-active women during the adoption phase of an exercise program. PMID:20479476

  16. The effect of AQP3 deficiency on fuel selection during a single bout of exhausting exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ju Hyun; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Han, Dong Wook; Kwak, Jong-Young; Bae, Hae-Rahn

    2016-07-01

    Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) is an integral membrane protein that facilitates the transport of water and glycerol across cell membranes. However, the precise localization and function of AQP3 in skeletal muscles is currently unknown. In this study, we investigated the capacity of AQP3 knockout mice to perform a single bout of exhausting exercise and analyzed the parameters related to skeletal muscle energy metabolism during exhausting exercise. Mice were exposed to a single bout of treadmill running at a speed of 12 m/min with 10° inclination until exhaustion, and sacrificed immediately, 24 h and 48 h after exercise. Both immunohistochemistry and double immunofluorescence staining revealed that AQP3 is expressed at the cell surface with no evidence of colocalization with either AQP1 or AQP4 in hamstring skeletal muscles. When exposed to a single bout of exhaustive exercise, AQP3 knockout mice fatigued more easily with the average time to exhaustion shorter than the wild-type mice. After exhausting exercise, plasma glucose, muscle glycogen, muscle triglyceride, and muscle free fatty acid levels decreased compared with the values before exercise in both AQP3 knockout and wild-type mice. However, muscle glycerol concentration after exercise decreased in the wild-type mice, but rather increased in AQP3 knockout mice. These findings suggest that decreased glycerol efflux from the skeletal muscles in AQP3 knockout mice may result in low exercise capacity, presumably due to the limitations in the constant energy supply through hepatic gluconeogenesis from glycerol during the prolonged endurance exercise. PMID:27138166

  17. SALIVARY CORTISOL RESPONSES AND PERCEIVED EXERTION DURING HIGH INTENSITY AND LOW INTENSITY BOUTS OF RESISTANCE EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison D. Egan

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure the salivary cortisol response to different intensities of resistance exercise. In addition, we wanted to determine the reliability of the session rating of perceived exertion (RPE scale to monitor resistance exercise intensity. Subjects (8 men, 9 women completed 2 trials of acute resistance training bouts in a counterbalanced design. The high intensity resistance exercise protocol consisted of six, ten-repetition sets using 75% of one repetition maximum (RM on a Smith machine squat and bench press exercise (12 sets total. The low intensity resistance exercise protocol consisted of three, ten-repetition sets at 30% of 1RM of the same exercises as the high intensity protocol. Both exercise bouts were performed with 2 minutes of rest between each exercise and sessions were repeated to test reliability of the measures. The order of the exercise bouts was randomized with least 72 hours between each session. Saliva samples were obtained immediately before, immediately after and 30 mins following each resistance exercise bout. RPE measures were obtained using Borg's CR-10 scale following each set. Also, the session RPE for the entire exercise session was obtained 30 minutes following completion of the session. There was a significant 97% increase in the level of salivary cortisol immediately following the high intensity exercise session (P<0.05. There was also a significant difference in salivary cortisol of 145% between the low intensity and high intensity exercise session immediately post-exercise (P<0.05. The low intensity exercise did not result in any significant changes in cortisol levels. There was also a significant difference between the session RPE values for the different intensity levels (high intensity 7.1 vs. low intensity 1.9 (P<0.05. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the session RPE measure was 0.95. It was concluded that the session RPE method is a valid and reliable method of

  18. Three dimensional nonlinear simulations of edge localized modes on the EAST tokamak using BOUT++ code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z. X., E-mail: zxliu316@ipp.ac.cn; Xia, T. Y.; Liu, S. C.; Ding, S. Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Xu, X. Q.; Joseph, I.; Meyer, W. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Gao, X.; Xu, G. S.; Shao, L. M.; Li, G. Q.; Li, J. G. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Experimental measurements of edge localized modes (ELMs) observed on the EAST experiment are compared to linear and nonlinear theoretical simulations of peeling-ballooning modes using the BOUT++ code. Simulations predict that the dominant toroidal mode number of the ELM instability becomes larger for lower current, which is consistent with the mode structure captured with visible light using an optical CCD camera. The poloidal mode number of the simulated pressure perturbation shows good agreement with the filamentary structure observed by the camera. The nonlinear simulation is also consistent with the experimentally measured energy loss during an ELM crash and with the radial speed of ELM effluxes measured using a gas puffing imaging diagnostic.

  19. Increased CSF levels of phosphorylated neurofilament heavy protein following bout in amateur boxers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Neselius

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Diagnosis of mild TBI is hampered by the lack of imaging or biochemical measurements for identifying or quantifying mild TBI in a clinical setting. We have previously shown increased biomarker levels of protein reflecting axonal (neurofilament light protein and tau and glial (GFAP and S-100B damage in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF after a boxing bout. The aims of this study were to find other biomarkers of mild TBI, which may help clinicians diagnose and monitor mild TBI, and to calculate the role of APOE ε4 allele genotype which has been associated with poor outcome after TBI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty amateur boxers with a minimum of 45 bouts and 25 non-boxing matched controls were included in a prospective cohort study. CSF and blood were collected at one occasion between 1 and 6 days after a bout, and after a rest period for at least 14 days (follow up. The controls were tested once. CSF levels of neurofilament heavy (pNFH, amyloid precursor proteins (sAPPα and sAPPβ, ApoE and ApoA1 were analyzed. In blood, plasma levels of Aβ42 and ApoE genotype were analyzed. RESULTS: CSF levels of pNFH were significantly increased between 1 and 6 days after boxing as compared with controls (p<0.001. The concentrations decreased at follow up but were still significantly increased compared to controls (p = 0.018. CSF pNFH concentrations correlated with NFL (r =  0.57 after bout and 0.64 at follow up, p<0.001. No significant change was found in the other biomarkers, as compared to controls. Boxers carrying the APOE ε4 allele had similar biomarker concentrations as non-carriers. CONCLUSIONS: Subconcussive repetitive trauma in amateur boxing causes a mild TBI that may be diagnosed by CSF analysis of pNFH, even without unconsciousness or concussion symptoms. Possession of the APOE ε4 allele was not found to influence biomarker levels after acute TBI.

  20. Acute Exercise and Oxidative Stress: CrossFit(™) vs. Treadmill Bout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliszczewicz, Brian; Quindry, C John; Blessing, L Daniel; Oliver, D Gretchen; Esco, R Michael; Taylor, J Kyle

    2015-09-29

    CrossFit(™), a popular high-intensity training modality, has been the subject of scrutiny, with concerns of elevated risk of injury and health. Despite these concerns empirical evidence regarding physiologic stresses including acute oxidative stress is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute redox response to a CrossFit(™) bout. Furthermore, these findings were compared to a high-intensity treadmill bout as a point of reference. Ten males 26.4 ± 2.7 yrs having three or more months of CrossFit(™) experience participated in the present study. Blood plasma was collected at four time points: Pre-exercise (PRE), immediately-post-exercise (IPE), 1 hr-post (1-HP) and 2 hr-post (2-HP), to examine oxidative damage and antioxidant capacity. Regarding plasma oxidative damage, CrossFit(™) and Treadmill elicited a time-dependent increase of lipid peroxides 1-HP (CrossFit(™)=+143%, Treadmill=+115%) and 2-HP (CrossFit(™)=+256%, Treadmill+167%). Protein Carbonyls were increased IPE in CF only (+5%), while a time-dependent decrease occurred 1-HP (CrossFit(™)=-16%, Treadmill=-8%) and 2-HP (CF=-16%, TM=-1%) compared to IPE. Regarding antioxidant capacity, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power also demonstrated a time-dependent increase within CrossFit(™) and Treadmill: IPE (CrossFit(™)=+25%, Treadmill=+17%), 1-HP (CrossFit(™)=+26%, Treadmill=+4.8%), 2-HP (CrossFit(™)=+20%, Treadmill=+12%). Total Enzymatic Antioxidant Capacity showed a time-dependent decrease in IPE (CrossFit(™)=-10%, Treadmill=-12%), 1-HP (CrossFit(™)=-12%, Treadmill=-6%), 2-HP (CrossFit(™)=-7%, Treadmill=-11%). No trial-dependent differences were observed in any biomarker of oxidative stress. The CrossFit(™) bout elicited an acute blood oxidative stress response comparable to a traditional bout of high-intensity treadmill running. Results also confirm that exercise intensity and the time course of exercise recovery influence oxidative responses. PMID

  1. Acute Exercise and Oxidative Stress: CrossFit™ vs. Treadmill Bout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kliszczewicz Brian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available CrossFit™, a popular high-intensity training modality, has been the subject of scrutiny, with concerns of elevated risk of injury and health. Despite these concerns empirical evidence regarding physiologic stresses including acute oxidative stress is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute redox response to a CrossFit™ bout. Furthermore, these findings were compared to a high-intensity treadmill bout as a point of reference. Ten males 26.4 ± 2.7 yrs having three or more months of CrossFit™ experience participated in the present study. Blood plasma was collected at four time points: Pre-exercise (PRE, immediately-post-exercise (IPE, 1 hr-post (1-HP and 2 hr-post (2-HP, to examine oxidative damage and antioxidant capacity. Regarding plasma oxidative damage, CrossFit™ and Treadmill elicited a time-dependent increase of lipid peroxides 1-HP (CrossFit™=+143%,Treadmill=+115% and 2-HP (CrossFit™=+256%,Treadmill+167%. Protein Carbonyls were increased IPE in CF only (+5%, while a time-dependent decrease occurred 1-HP (CrossFit™=−16%,Treadmill=−8% and 2-HP (CF=−16%,TM=−1% compared to IPE. Regarding antioxidant capacity, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power also demonstrated a time-dependent increase within CrossFit™ and Treadmill: IPE (CrossFit™=+25%,Treadmill=+17%, 1-HP (CrossFit™=+26%,Treadmill=+4.8%, 2-HP (CrossFit™=+20%,Treadmill=+12%. Total Enzymatic Antioxidant Capacity showed a time-dependent decrease in IPE (CrossFit™= −10%,Treadmill=−12%, 1-HP (CrossFit™= −12%,Treadmill=−6%, 2-HP (CrossFit™= −7%,Treadmill=−11%. No trial-dependent differences were observed in any biomarker of oxidative stress. The CrossFit™ bout elicited an acute blood oxidative stress response comparable to a traditional bout of high-intensity treadmill running. Results also confirm that exercise intensity and the time course of exercise recovery influence oxidative responses.

  2. Acute Exercise and Oxidative Stress: CrossFit™ vs. Treadmill Bout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliszczewicz, Brian; Quindry, C. John; Blessing, L. Daniel; Oliver, D. Gretchen; Esco, R. Michael; Taylor, J. Kyle

    2015-01-01

    CrossFit™, a popular high-intensity training modality, has been the subject of scrutiny, with concerns of elevated risk of injury and health. Despite these concerns empirical evidence regarding physiologic stresses including acute oxidative stress is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute redox response to a CrossFit™ bout. Furthermore, these findings were compared to a high-intensity treadmill bout as a point of reference. Ten males 26.4 ± 2.7 yrs having three or more months of CrossFit™ experience participated in the present study. Blood plasma was collected at four time points: Pre-exercise (PRE), immediately-post-exercise (IPE), 1 hr-post (1-HP) and 2 hr-post (2-HP), to examine oxidative damage and antioxidant capacity. Regarding plasma oxidative damage, CrossFit™ and Treadmill elicited a time-dependent increase of lipid peroxides 1-HP (CrossFit™=+143%, Treadmill=+115%) and 2-HP (CrossFit™=+256%, Treadmill+167%). Protein Carbonyls were increased IPE in CF only (+5%), while a time-dependent decrease occurred 1-HP (CrossFit™=−16%, Treadmill=−8%) and 2-HP (CF=−16%, TM=−1%) compared to IPE. Regarding antioxidant capacity, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power also demonstrated a time-dependent increase within CrossFit™ and Treadmill: IPE (CrossFit™=+25%, Treadmill=+17%), 1-HP (CrossFit™=+26%, Treadmill=+4.8%), 2-HP (CrossFit™=+20%, Treadmill=+12%). Total Enzymatic Antioxidant Capacity showed a time-dependent decrease in IPE (CrossFit™=−10%, Treadmill=−12%), 1-HP (CrossFit™=−12%, Treadmill=−6%), 2-HP (CrossFit™=−7%, Treadmill=−11%). No trial-dependent differences were observed in any biomarker of oxidative stress. The CrossFit™ bout elicited an acute blood oxidative stress response comparable to a traditional bout of high-intensity treadmill running. Results also confirm that exercise intensity and the time course of exercise recovery influence oxidative responses. PMID:26557192

  3. Duration of symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Olfred; Larsen, Susanne; Bastholt, Lars;

    2005-01-01

    . A total of 544 patients fulfilled the criteria for inclusion to the study (Stage I-III glottic cancer, a duration of symptoms less than or equal to 36 months, primary radiotherapy with at least 50 Gy and sufficient data for analysis). The total radiation dose ranged from 50.0 to 71.6 Gy in 22 to 42...... of symptoms was a significant factor (p < 0.0001) with a hazard ratio of 1.045 (95% CI 1.023, 1.069). Other significant factors included tumor stage and radiation dose, whereas duration of treatment time was borderline significant (p = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: The duration of symptoms was statistically...

  4. Duration Calculus: Logical Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Chaochen, Zhou

    1997-01-01

    The Duration Calculus (abbreviated DC) represents a logical approach to formal design of real-time systems, where real numbers are used to model time and Boolean valued functions over time are used to model states and events of real-time systems. Since it introduction, DC has been applied to many...

  5. Development of test particle module for impurity transport in BOUT++ framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiaotao; Tang, Tengfei; Xu, Xueqiao

    2015-11-01

    Impurity generation and transport are an important topic of research under reactor relevant conditions in order to avoid a significant confinement degradation of the fusion plasmas. It is also a critical issue for RF experiments due to the phenomenon of rf-enhanced impurity generation. Developing the test particle module in BOUT++ framework, which simulates tokamak edge plasmas using fluid models, will enhance the capability to efficiently simulate both turbulence and neoclassical physics in realistic geometry. Firstly, the guiding-center orbit is calculated in cylinder coordinates due to singularity of x-point in flux coordinate. Then evolution of radial profile of impurities in edge plasmas from given sources at the divertor plates and at the protection limiters near RF antennas is obtained by a random walk turbulence model. The characteristics of impurity transport during the ELMs cycles are also simulated by adding a time varying three dimensions perturbed electric field under BOUT++ framework. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-675025.

  6. Effects of an acute bout of exercise on memory in 6th grade children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etnier, Jennifer; Labban, Jeffrey D; Piepmeier, Aaron; Davis, Matthew E; Henning, David A

    2014-08-01

    Research supports the positive effects of exercise on cognitive performance by children. However, a limited number of studies have explored the effects specifically on memory. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of an acute bout of exercise on learning, short-term memory, and long-term memory in a sample of children. Children were randomly assigned to an exercise condition or to a no-treatment control condition and then performed repeated trials on an auditory verbal learning task. In the exercise condition, participants performed the PACER task, an aerobic fitness assessment, in their physical education class before performing the memory task. In the control condition, participants performed the memory task at the beginning of their physical education class. Results showed that participants in the exercise condition demonstrated significantly better learning of the word lists and significantly better recall of the words after a brief delay. There were not significant differences in recognition of the words after an approximately 24-hr delay. These results provide evidence in a school setting that an acute bout of exercise provides benefits for verbal learning and long-term memory. Future research should be designed to identify the extent to which these findings translate to academic measures. PMID:25050827

  7. DIII-D L-mode edge instabilities simulated in BOUT + +

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Eric; Holland, Christopher; Xia, Tianyang; Xu, Xueqiao

    2015-11-01

    The well-known shortfall in predicted DIII-D tokamak L-mode edge transport is investigated using various one and two-fluid models implemented in the BOUT + + code. Five- and six-field models employed here contain the essential physics of peeling-ballooning modes, common in the H-mode edge, as well as drift-wave instabilities, predicted by various gyrokinetic and gyrofluid codes to dominate in the benchmark L-mode shot under investigation. We examine the extent to which instabilities driven at the separatrix can account for the systematic under-prediction of transport by these previous efforts. The focus is on the unstable linear spectrum for two domains: including and not including the separatrix. We compare one-fluid results (resistive ballooning unstable), two-fluid results (varying stability characteristics), and predictions from the gyrokinetic code GYRO (driftwave dominant), to establish which models make meaningful contact with the experiment in which regimes and locations. We comment on numerical pitfalls within BOUT + + revealed in the present study. Prepared by UCSD under Contract DE-FG02-06ER54871 and by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  8. An acute bout of aerobic exercise can protect immediate offline motor sequence gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Joohyun; Chen, Jing; Riechman, Steven M; Handa, Atul; Bhatia, Sanjeev; Wright, David L

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined the efficacy of a short bout of moderately intensive exercise to protect knowledge of a newly acquired motor sequence. Previous work revealed that sleep-dependent offline gains in motor sequence performance are reduced by practicing an alternative motor sequence in close temporal proximity to the original practice with the target motor sequence. In the present work, a brief bout of exercise was inserted at two different temporal locations between practice of a to-be-learned motor sequence and the interfering practice that occurred 2 h later. At issue was whether exposure to exercise could reduce the impact of practice with the interfering task which was expected to be manifest as reemergence of offline gain observed in the case in which the learner is not exposed to the interfering practice. Acute exercise did influence the interfering quality of practice with an alternative motor sequence resulting in the return of broad offline gain. However, this benefit was immediate, emerging on the initial test trial, only when exercise was experienced some time after the original period of motor sequence practice and just prior to practice with the interfering motor sequence. Thus, while exercise can contribute to post-practice consolidation, there appears to be a fragile interplay between spontaneous memory consolidation occurring after task practice and the consolidation processes induced via exercise. PMID:26115758

  9. Changes of central haemodynamic parameters during mental stress and acute bouts of static and dynamic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydakis, C; Momen, A; Blaha, C; Gugoff, S; Gray, K; Herr, M; Leuenberger, U A; Sinoway, L I

    2008-05-01

    Chronic dynamic (aerobic) exercise decreases central arterial stiffness, whereas chronic resistance exercise evokes the opposite effect. Nevertheless, there is little information available on the effects of acute bouts of exercise. Also, there is limited data showing an increase of central arterial stiffness during acute mental stress. This study aimed to determine the effect of acute mental and physical (static and dynamic exercise) stress on indices of central arterial stiffness. Fifteen young healthy volunteers were studied. The following paradigms were performed: (1) 2 min of mental arithmetic, (2) short bouts (20 s) of static handgrip at 20 and 70% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), (3) fatiguing handgrip at 40% MVC and (4) incremental dynamic knee extensor exercise. Central aortic waveforms were assessed using SphygmoCor software. As compared to baseline, pulse wave transit time decreased significantly for all four interventions indicating that central arterial stiffness increased. During fatiguing handgrip there was a fall in the ratio of peripheral to central pulse pressure from 1.69+/-0.02 at baseline to 1.56+/-0.05 (Pfatiguing handgrip protocols, whereas there was no change in the knee extensor protocol. We conclude that (1) during all types of acute stress tested in this study (including dynamic exercise) estimated central stiffness increased, (2) during static exercise the workload posed on the left ventricle (expressed as change in central pulse pressure) is relatively higher than that posed during dynamic exercise (given the same pulse pressure change in the periphery). PMID:18273040

  10. Application of the speed-duration relationship to normalize the intensity of high-intensity interval training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Ferguson

    Full Text Available The tolerable duration of continuous high-intensity exercise is determined by the hyperbolic Speed-tolerable duration (S-tLIM relationship. However, application of the S-tLIM relationship to normalize the intensity of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT has yet to be considered, with this the aim of present study. Subjects completed a ramp-incremental test, and series of 4 constant-speed tests to determine the S-tLIM relationship. A sub-group of subjects (n = 8 then repeated 4 min bouts of exercise at the speeds predicted to induce intolerance at 4 min (WR4, 6 min (WR6 and 8 min (WR8, interspersed with bouts of 4 min recovery, to the point of exercise intolerance (fixed WR HIIT on different days, with the aim of establishing the work rate that could be sustained for 960 s (i.e. 4×4 min. A sub-group of subjects (n = 6 also completed 4 bouts of exercise interspersed with 4 min recovery, with each bout continued to the point of exercise intolerance (maximal HIIT to determine the appropriate protocol for maximizing the amount of high-intensity work that can be completed during 4×4 min HIIT. For fixed WR HIIT tLIM of HIIT sessions was 399±81 s for WR4, 892±181 s for WR6 and 1517±346 s for WR8, with total exercise durations all significantly different from each other (P0.050. However, there was significantly less high-intensity work completed during bouts 2 (153.5±40. 9 m, 3 (136.9±38.9 m, and 4 (136.7±39.3 m, compared with bout 1 (264.9±58.7 m; P>0.050. These data establish that WR6 provides the appropriate work rate to normalize the intensity of HIIT between subjects. Maximal HIIT provides a protocol which allows the relative contribution of the work rate profile to physiological adaptations to be considered during alternative intensity-matched HIIT protocols.

  11. Application of the speed-duration relationship to normalize the intensity of high-intensity interval training

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, C.; J. Wilson; Birch, K. M.; Kemi, O.J.

    2013-01-01

    The tolerable duration of continuous high-intensity exercise is determined by the hyperbolic Speed-tolerable duration (S-tLIM) relationship. However, application of the S-tLIM relationship to normalize the intensity of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) has yet to be considered, with this the aim of present study. Subjects completed a ramp-incremental test, and series of 4 constant-speed tests to determine the S-tLIM relationship. A sub-group of subjects (n = 8) then repeated 4 min bouts...

  12. Duration Calculus: Logical Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Chaochen, Zhou

    1997-01-01

    The Duration Calculus (abbreviated DC) represents a logical approach to formal design of real-time systems, where real numbers are used to model time and Boolean valued functions over time are used to model states and events of real-time systems. Since it introduction, DC has been applied to many...... case studies and it has been extended in several directions. The aim of this paper is to provide a thorough presentation of the logic....

  13. Call recognition in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana: Generalization along the duration continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Andrea Megela

    2004-03-01

    Male bullfrogs emit multicroak, quasiharmonic advertisement calls that function in mate attraction and neighbor recognition. The degree of variability of acoustic features in these calls can influence perceptual decisions by conspecific receivers. Analysis of duration of individual croaks in spontaneous advertisement calls of a sample of males shows considerable intraindividual variability in this feature, even within short chorusing bouts. The influence of this intraindividual variability on behavior was examined in a series of evoked calling experiments. When presented with synthetic calls whose croak durations varied over the range of the natural variability in this feature, males responded similarly to intermediate and long duration croaks, but significantly less to short duration croaks. When presented with playbacks of calls with croak durations outside the natural range of variability, males again responded significantly less to shorter durations. The response gradient for duration is thus asymmetrical, with stimuli at the shorter end of the continuum evoking fewer responses than stimuli at the longer end. This asymmetry may be related to the biological demands of rejecting perception of heterospecific advertisement calls, and of mediating appropriate responses to conspecific aggressive calls. The shape of the response gradient for duration may reflect a process of stimulus generalization.

  14. Nonlinear ELM simulations based on a nonideal peeling-ballooning model using the BOUT++ code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A minimum set of equations based on the peeling-ballooning (P-B) model with nonideal physics effects (diamagnetic drift, E x B drift, resistivity and anomalous electron viscosity) is found to simulate pedestal collapse when using the BOUT++ simulation code, developed in part from the original fluid edge code BOUT. Linear simulations of P-B modes find good agreement in growth rate and mode structure with ELITE calculations. The influence of the E x B drift, diamagnetic drift, resistivity, anomalous electron viscosity, ion viscosity and parallel thermal diffusivity on P-B modes is being studied; we find that (1) the diamagnetic drift and E x B drift stabilize the P-B mode in a manner consistent with theoretical expectations; (2) resistivity destabilizes the P-B mode, leading to resistive P-B mode; (3) anomalous electron and parallel ion viscosities destabilize the P-B mode, leading to a viscous P-B mode; (4) perpendicular ion viscosity and parallel thermal diffusivity stabilize the P-B mode. With addition of the anomalous electron viscosity under the assumption that the anomalous kinematic electron viscosity is comparable to the anomalous electron perpendicular thermal diffusivity, or the Prandtl number is close to unity, it is found from nonlinear simulations using a realistic high Lundquist number that the pedestal collapse is limited to the edge region and the ELM size is about 5-10% of the pedestal stored energy. This is consistent with many observations of large ELMs. The estimated island size is consistent with the size of fast pedestal pressure collapse. In the stable α-zones of ideal P-B modes, nonlinear simulations of viscous ballooning modes or current-diffusive ballooning mode (CDBM) for ITER H-mode scenarios are presented.

  15. Effects of an acute bout of moderate-intensity exercise on postprandial lipemia and airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ariel M; Kurti, Stephanie P; Smith, Joshua R; Rosenkranz, Sara K; Harms, Craig A

    2016-03-01

    A high-fat meal (HFM) induces an increase in blood lipids (postprandial lipemia; PPL), systemic inflammation, and acute airway inflammation. While acute exercise has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and lipid-lowering effects, it is unknown whether exercise prior to an HFM will translate to reduced airway inflammation post-HFM. Our purpose was to determine the effects of an acute bout of exercise on airway inflammation post-HFM and to identify whether any protective effect of exercise on airway inflammation was associated with a reduction in PPL or systemic inflammation. In a randomized cross-over study, 12 healthy, 18- to 29-year-old men (age, 23.0 ± 3.2 years; height, 178.9 ± 5.5 cm; weight, 78.5 ± 11.7 kg) consumed an HFM (1 g fat/1 kg body weight) 12 h following exercise (EX; 60 min at 60% maximal oxygen uptake) or without exercise (CON). Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO; measure of airway inflammation), triglycerides (TG), and inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, tumor-necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-6) were measured while fasted at 2 h and 4 h post-HFM. FENO increased over time (2 h: CON, p = 0.001; EX, p = 0.002, but not by condition (p = 0.991). TG significantly increased 2 and 4 h post-HFM (p 0.05). There were no relationships between FENO and TG or systemic inflammatory markers for any time point or condition (p > 0.05). In summary, an acute bout of moderate-intensity exercise performed 12 h prior to an HFM did not change postprandial airway inflammation or lipemia in healthy, 18- to 29-year-old men. PMID:26872295

  16. The effects of aging, physical training, and a single bout of exercise on mitochondrial protein expression in human skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Bori, Zoltan; Zhao, Zhongfu; Koltai, Erika; Fatouros, Ioannis G.; JAMURTAS, ATHANASIOS Z.; Douroudos, Ioannis I.; Terzis, Gerasimos; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Sovatzidis, Apostolos; Draganidis, Dimitrios; Boldogh, Istvan; Radak, Zsolt

    2012-01-01

    Aging results in a significant decline in aerobic capacity and impaired mitochondrial function. We have tested the effects of moderate physical activity on aerobic capacity and a single bout of exercise on the expression profile of mitochondrial biogenesis, and fusion and fission related genes in skeletal muscle of human subjects. Physical activity attenuated the aging-associated decline in VO2 max (p

  17. Decline in Executive Control during Acute Bouts of Exercise as a Function of Exercise Intensity and Fitness Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle, Veronique; Bosquet, Laurent; Mekary, Said; Bherer, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Studies on the effects of acute bouts of cardiovascular exercise on cognitive performances show contradictory findings due to methodological differences (e.g., exercise intensity, cognitive function assessed, participants' aerobic fitness level, etc.). The present study assessed the acute effect of exercise intensity on cognition while controlling…

  18. Duration of load revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2007-01-01

    samples were formed. Four groups were subjected to short-term strength tests, and four groups were subjected to long-term tests. Creep and time to failure were moni-tored. Time to failure as a function of stress level was established and the reliability of stress level assessment was discussed. A...... significant mechanosorptive effect was demonstrated both in terms of increased creep and shortening of time to failure. The test results were employed for the calibration of four existing duration of load models. The effect of long-term loading was expressed as the stress level SL50 to cause failure after 50...... years of loading. SL50 was found to be of the order 0.60 for MC = 11 %, 0.50 for MC = 20 % and 0.44 MC varying be-tween 11 % and 20 %. The test results revealed no evidence of a threshold stress level. A reliability based cali-bration of load-duration factors was performed using probabilistic models of...

  19. A single bout of resistance exercise improves memory consolidation and increases the expression of synaptic proteins in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Jansen; Soares, Juliana Carlota Kramer; do Amaral Baliego, Luiz Guilherme Zaccaro; Arida, Ricardo Mario

    2016-08-01

    Over the past decade, several studies have indicated that chronic resistance exercise (i.e., strength training, weight lifting, etc.) is beneficial for brain health and cognitive function. However, little is known about the effects of a single bout of resistance exercise on brain function, particularly on memory consolidation. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to examine the effects of a single bout of resistance exercise applied immediately after the training of fear conditioning on memory consolidation and on the expression of IGF-1 and synaptic proteins in the hippocampus. Male Wistar rats were familiarized with climbing a ladder without a load for 3 days and randomly assigned into control (CTL) and resistance exercise (RES) groups. The RES group was subjected to a single bout of resistance exercise applied immediately after fear conditioning training. Subsequently, the animals were tested for contextual (24 h) and tone (48 h) fear memory. Another group of animals were subjected to a single bout of resistance exercise and euthanized 24 h later for hippocampal analysis of IGF-1 and synaptic proteins (synapsin I, synaptophysin, and PSD-95). The exercised rats improved contextual but not tone fear memory. Hippocampal IGF-1 was not altered by resistance exercise. However, the levels of synapsin I, synaptophysin, and PSD-95 increased significantly in the RES group. The results suggested that a single bout of resistance exercise applied immediately after fear conditioning could improve contextual memory, probably through the activation of pre- and postsynaptic machinery required for memory consolidation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27008926

  20. Human alpha-actinin-3 genotype association with exercise-induced muscle damage and the repeated-bout effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venckunas, Tomas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Brazaitis, Marius; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Snieckus, Audrius; Moran, Colin N

    2012-12-01

    Alpha-actinin-3 (ACTN3) is an integral part of the Z line of the sarcomere. The ACTN3 R577X (rs1815739) polymorphism determines the presence or absence of functional ACTN3, which may influence the extent of exercise-induced muscle damage. This study aimed to compare the impact of, and recovery from, muscle-damaging eccentric exercise on subjects with or without functional ACTN3. Seventeen young men (20-33 years old), homozygous for the R (n = 9) or X (n = 8) alleles, performed two bouts of stretch-shortening exercise (50 drop jumps) two weeks apart. Muscle soreness, plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity, jump height, maximal voluntary isometric torque (MVC), peak concentric isokinetic torque (IT), and electrically stimulated knee extension torques at 20 and 100 Hz were measured at baseline and at a number of time points up to 14 days after each bout. There were no significant baseline differences between the groups. However, significant time point × genotype interactions were observed for MVC (p = 0.021) and IT (p = 0.011) for the immediate effect of eccentric exercise in bout 1. The RR group showed greater voluntary force decrements (RR vs. XX: MVC, -33.3% vs. -24.5%; IT, -35.9% vs. -23.2%) and slower recovery. A repeated-bout effect was clearly observed, but there were no differences by genotype group. The ACTN3 genotype modulates the response of muscle function to plyometric jumping exercise, although the differences are modest. The ACTN3 genotype does not influence the clearly observed repeated-bout effect; however, XX homozygotes recover baseline voluntary torque values faster and thus may be able to undertake more frequent training sessions. PMID:22891846

  1. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ''strong motion duration'' has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions

  2. Road Congestion and Incident Duration

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Martin W.; van Ommeren, Jos; Rietveld, Piet

    2013-01-01

    Non-recurrent congestion is frequently caused by accidents and other incidents. We estimate the causal effect of incident duration on drivers’ time losses through changes in non-recurrent road congestion on Dutch highways. We demonstrate that incident duration has a strong positive, but concave, effect on non-recurrent congestion. The duration elasticity of non-recurrent congestion is about 0.40 implying that a one minute duration reduction generates a €60 gain per incident. We also show that...

  3. Duration of one-lung ventilation stage, POSSUM value and the quality of post-operative analgesia significantly affect survival and length of stay on intensive care unit of patients undergoing two-stage esophagectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Yasin Said AlMakadma; Tamer Hunein Riad; Ayad, Ismaei I.; Tamer Hussein Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze different factors affecting the outcome of patients undergoing Two Stage Esophagectomy (TSE) for the treatment of esophageal carcinoma (EC) while relating these factors to the length of stay on Intensive Care Unit (ILOS), mortality, and morbidity. Methods: Retrospective study of case-notes of 45 patients who underwent a TSE for resection of EC at a general district hospital in the United Kingdom (UK). These procedures were performed by the same surgical team and followed s...

  4. Vessel noise affects beaked whale behavior: results of a dedicated acoustic response study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirotta, Enrico; Milor, Rachael; Quick, Nicola; Moretti, David; Di Marzio, Nancy; Tyack, Peter; Boyd, Ian; Hastie, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Some beaked whale species are susceptible to the detrimental effects of anthropogenic noise. Most studies have concentrated on the effects of military sonar, but other forms of acoustic disturbance (e.g. shipping noise) may disrupt behavior. An experiment involving the exposure of target whale groups to intense vessel-generated noise tested how these exposures influenced the foraging behavior of Blainville's beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris) in the Tongue of the Ocean (Bahamas). A military array of bottom-mounted hydrophones was used to measure the response based upon changes in the spatial and temporal pattern of vocalizations. The archived acoustic data were used to compute metrics of the echolocation-based foraging behavior for 16 targeted groups, 10 groups further away on the range, and 26 non-exposed groups. The duration of foraging bouts was not significantly affected by the exposure. Changes in the hydrophone over which the group was most frequently detected occurred as the animals moved around within a foraging bout, and their number was significantly less the closer the whales were to the sound source. Non-exposed groups also had significantly more changes in the primary hydrophone than exposed groups irrespective of distance. Our results suggested that broadband ship noise caused a significant change in beaked whale behavior up to at least 5.2 kilometers away from the vessel. The observed change could potentially correspond to a restriction in the movement of groups, a period of more directional travel, a reduction in the number of individuals clicking within the group, or a response to changes in prey movement. PMID:22880022

  5. EPOC Comparison between Isocaloric Bouts of Steady-State Aerobic, Intermittent Aerobic, and Resistance Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Beau Kjerulf; Sirithienthad, Prawee; Moffatt, Robert J.; Marcello, Richard T.; Panton, Lynn B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) is dependent on intensity, duration, and mode of exercise. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of both exercise mode and intensity on EPOC while controlling for caloric expenditure and duration. Method: Ten low to moderately physically active men (22 ± 2 yrs) performed 3…

  6. Duration judgements over multiple elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    InciAyhan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the limits of the number of events observers can simultaneously time. For single targets occurring in one of eight positions sensitivity to duration was improved for spatially pre-cued items as compared to post-cued items indicating that exogenous driven attention can improve duration discrimination. Sensitivity to duration for pre-cued items was also marginally better for single items as compared to eight items indicating that even after the allocation of focal attention, distracter items can interfere with the encoding of duration. For an eight item array discrimination was worse for post-cued locations as compared to pre-cued locations indicating both that attention can improve duration discrimination performance and that it was not possible to access a perfect memory trace of the duration of eight elements. The interference from the distracters in the pre-cued eight item array may reflect some mandatory averaging of target and distracter events. To further explore duration averaging we asked subjects to explicitly compare average durations of multiple item arrays against a single item standard duration. Duration discrimination thresholds were significantly lower for single elements as compared to multiple elements, showing that averaging, either automatically or intentionally, impairs duration discrimination. There was no set size effect. Performance was the same for averages of two and eight items, but performance with even an average of two items was worse than for one item. This was also true for sequential presentation indicating poor performance was not due to limits on the division of attention across items. Rather performance appears to be limited by an inability to remember or aggregate duration information from two or more items. Although it is possible to manipulate perceived duration locally, there appears to be no perceptual mechanisms for aggregating local durations across space.

  7. Duration of Breastfeeding and Its Correlates in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Akter, Shamima; Rahman, Md. Mizanur

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the duration of breastfeeding and the sociodemographic factors affecting it. Data for the study were drawn from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2004. In total 5,364 mothers were included in the study. The life table and Cox's proportional hazards model were employed for the analysis of breastfeeding-related data, which showed that the average duration of breastfeeding was 31.9 months. Cox regression analysis revealed that the duration of br...

  8. Impact of pedestal plasma density on linear and nonlinear edge-localized mode simulations using BOUT + +

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Defeng; Chen, Jianguo; Xu, Xueqiao

    2015-11-01

    The BOUT + + simulations are used to study the linear and nonlinear characteristics of edge-localized mode at different collisionality via a density scan (pressure profiles are kept the same). For a force-balanced electric field Er with no net flow, linear results demonstrate that as the pedestal collisionality decreases, the growth rate of the peeling-ballooning modes decreases for high n but increases for low n (1 =20, resulting in the lack of dominant filamentary structures and reduced ELM energy loss. The impact of radial electric field Er on peeling and ballooning modes is different. The increase Er significantly enhances the linear growth rate of low-n peeling modes, but only weakly impacts on their nonlinear ELM energy loss; while the increase Er leads to large suppression of nonlinear ballooning fluctuation amplitudes, but only weakly impacts on their linear growth rates. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos 11405214.

  9. Self-consistently simulation of RF sheath boundary condition in BOUT + + framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Bin; Xu, Xueqiao; Xia, Tianyang

    2015-11-01

    The effect of the RF sheath boundary condition on the edge-localized modes and the turbulent transport is simulated in this work. The work includes two parts. The first part is to calculate the equilibrium radial electric field with RF sheath boundary condition. It is known the thermal sheath or the rectified RF sheath will modify the potential in the SOL region. The modified potential induces addition shear flow in SOL. In this part, the equilibrium radial electric field across the separatrix is calculated by solving the 2D current continuity equation with sheath boundary condition, drifts and viscosity. The second part is applying the sheath boundary condition on the perturbed variables of the six-field two fluid model in BOUT + + framework. The six-field two-fluid model simulates the ELMs and turbulent transport. The sheath boundary condition is applied in this model and it aims to simulate effect of sheath boundary condition on the turbulent transport. It is found the sheath boundary plays as a sink in the plasma and suppresses the local perturbation. Based on this two work, the effect of RF sheath boundary condition on the ELMs and turbulent transport could be self-consistently simulated. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  10. Linear peeling–ballooning mode simulations in snowflake-like divertor configuration using BOUT++ code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present linear characteristics of peeling–ballooning (P–B) modes in the pedestal region of DIII-D tokamak with snowflake (SF) plus divertor configuration using edge two-fluid code BOUT++. A set of reduced magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations is found to simulate the linear P–B mode in both snowflake plus and standard (STD) single-null divertor configurations. Further analysis shows that the implementation of snowflake geometry changes the local magnetic shear in the pedestal region, which leads to different linear behaviours of the P–B mode in STD and SF divertor configuration. Primary linear simulation results are the following. (1) The growth rate of the coupled P–B mode in SF-plus divertor geometry is larger than that in STD divertor geometry. (2) The global linear mode structures are more radially extended yet less poloidally extended in SF-plus divertor geometry, especially for moderate and high toroidal mode numbers. (3) The current-gradient drive (the kink term) dominates the P–B mode for low n, while the pressure gradient drive (ballooning) dominates for n > 25. In addition, constraints on poloidal field and central solenoid coils for snowflake geometry are briefly discussed based on conclusions in this paper. (paper)

  11. Five-field simulations of peeling-ballooning modes using BOUT++ code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simulations of edge localized modes (ELMs) with a 5-field peeling-ballooning (P-B) model using BOUT++ code are reported in this paper. In order to study the particle and energy transport in the pedestal region, the pressure equation is separated into ion density and ion and electron temperature equations. Through the simulations, the length scale Ln of the gradient of equilibrium density ni0 is found to destabilize the P-B modes in ideal MHD model. With ion diamagnetic effects, the growth rate is inversely proportional to ni0 at medium toroidal mode number n. For the nonlinear simulations, the gradient of ni0 in the pedestal region can more than double the ELM size. This increasing effect can be suppressed by thermal diffusivities χ∥, employing the flux limited expression. Thermal diffusivities are sufficient to suppress the perturbations at the top of pedestal region. These suppressing effects lead to smaller ELM size of P-B modes

  12. Does whole-body cryotherapy improve vertical jump recovery following a high-intensity exercise bout?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Amilton; Bottaro, Martim; Ferreira-Junior, Joao B; Vieira, Carlos; Cleto, Vitor A; Cadore, Eduardo L; Simões, Herbert G; Carmo, Jake Do; Brown, Lee E

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) has been used as a recovery strategy following different sports activities. Thus, the aim of the study reported here was to examine the effect of WBC on vertical jump recovery following a high-intensity exercise (HIE) bout. Twelve trained men (mean ± standard deviation age = 23.9±5.9 years) were randomly exposed to two different conditions separated by 7 days: 1) WBC (3 minutes of WBC at -110°C immediately after the HIE) and 2) control (CON; no WBC after the HIE). The HIE consisted of six sets of ten repetitions of knee extensions at 60° · s(-1) concentric and 180° · s(-1) eccentric on an isokinetic dynamometer. The vertical jump test was used to evaluate the influence of HIE on lower extremity muscular performance. The vertical jump was performed on a force platform before HIE (T1) and 30 minutes after (T2) the WBC and CON conditions. As a result of HIE, jump height, muscle power, and maximal velocity (Vmax) had significant decreases between T1 and T2, however no significance was found between the WBC and CON conditions. The results indicate that one session of WBC had no effect on vertical jump following an HIE compared with a CON condition. WBC may not improve muscle-function (dependent on stretch-shortening cycle) recovery in very short periods (ie, 30 minutes) following HIE. PMID:25750548

  13. Proteomic analysis of rat skeletal muscle submitted to one bout of incremental exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandra, P G; Valente, R H; Perales, J; Pacheco, A G; Macedo, D V

    2012-04-01

    Exercise can alter gene transcriptional and protein translational rates leading to changes in protein abundance toward adaptation to exercise. We investigated the alterations in protein abundance in skeletal muscle after one bout of an exhaustive exercise through proteomic analysis. Gastrocnemius muscles were sampled from non-exercised control rats and from rats exercised on a treadmill with incremental increases in speed until exhaustion (approximately 30 min). Rats were sacrificed 3 and 24 h after exercise cessation. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was performed and spots with a significant alteration in relative volume were identified by mass spectrometry. Six spots presented statistically significant altered abundances after exercise. The spots identified as the metabolic related proteins triosephosphate isomerase 1, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, the β subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase E(1) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 were all more abundant after exercise. One spot identified as heat shock cognate 70 was also more abundant after exercise. One spot demonstrated a decreased abundance after exercise and was identified as α-actin. These results suggest that a single session of exhaustive incremental exercise in untrained muscle can alter thin filaments synthesis/degradation rate and enhance cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins synthesis. The identified proteins may be important to a general preconditioning of skeletal muscle for subsequent exercise sessions. PMID:20973830

  14. BOUT++ Simulations of Edge Turbulence in Alcator C-Mod's EDA H-Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E. M.; Porkolab, M.; Hughes, J. W.; Labombard, B.; Snyder, P. B.; Xu, X. Q.

    2013-10-01

    Energy confinement in tokamaks is believed to be strongly controlled by plasma transport in the pedestal. The pedestal of Alcator C-Mod's Enhanced Dα (EDA) H-mode (ν* > 1) is regulated by a quasi-coherent mode (QCM), an edge fluctuation believed to reduce particle confinement and allow steady-state H-mode operation. ELITE calculations indicate that EDA H-modes sit well below the ideal peeling-ballooning instability threshold, in contrast with ELMy H-modes. Here, we use a 3-field reduced MHD model in BOUT++ to study the effects of nonideal and nonlinear physics on EDA H-modes. In particular, incorporation of realistic pedestal resistivity is found to drive resistive ballooning modes (RBMs) and increase linear growth rates above the corresponding ideal rates. These RBMs may ultimately be responsible for constraining the EDA pedestal gradient. However, recent high-fidelity mirror Langmuir probe measurements indicate that the QCM is an electron drift-Alfvén wave - not a RBM. Inclusion of the parallel pressure gradient term in the 3-field reduced MHD Ohm's law and various higher field fluid models are implemented in an effort to capture this drift wave-like response. This work was performed under the auspices of the USDoE under awards DE-FG02-94-ER54235, DE-AC52-07NA27344, DE-AC52-07NA27344, and NNSA SSGF.

  15. A two-year old boy with recurrent bouts of acute abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, H; Bochner, A; Vervloessem, D; Desimpelaere, J; Devière, J; Veereman-Wauters, G

    2010-01-01

    In a small number of patients with pancreas divisum (with stenotic minor papilla) a relative obstruction to pancreatic exocrine secretory flow results in pancreatitis. We report a 2-year-old boy presenting with recurrent bouts of abdominal pain. The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis was made based on blood biochemistry results. Ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed several abdominal pseudocysts, peritoneal exsudate and confirmed pancreatitis but initially failed to reveal the aetiology. Ascites and cysts contained pancreatic enzymes. After weeks of combined conservative and surgical treatment, a magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography with secretin, showed a pancreas divisum with a cyst between the ducts of Santorini and Wirsung. Based on these findings, two endoscopic papillotomies (minor and major papilla) were performed. Three years follow-up was uneventful. In a child with recurrent pancreatitis or pancreatitis with chronic recurrent abdominal pain it is crucial to search aggressively for congenital abnormalities, including pancreas divisum. Secretin-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography or diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging is a valuable diagnostic tool for visualizing pancreatic duct anatomy. PMID:21299165

  16. An Acute Bout of Self-Myofascial Release in the Form of Foam Rolling Improves Performance Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Peacock, Corey A; KREIN, DARREN D.; Silver, Tobin A.; Sanders, Gabriel J; VON CARLOWITZ, KYLE-PATRICK A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in the strength and conditioning field have shown the incorporation of foam rolling self-myofascial release in adjunct with a dynamic warm-up. This is thought to improve overall training performance; however, minimal research exists supporting this theory. Therefore, determining if an acute bout of foam rolling self-myofascial release in addition to a dynamic warm-up could influence performance is of importance. In order to do so, eleven athletically trained male subjects ...

  17. Effects of Single Bouts of Walking Exercise and Yoga on Acute Mood Symptoms in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ensari, Ipek; Brian M. Sandroff; Motl, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the acute or immediate effects of walking exercise and yoga on mood in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Such an examination is important for identifying an exercise modality for inclusion in exercise-training interventions that yields mood benefits in MS. We examined the effects of single bouts of treadmill walking and yoga compared with a quiet, seated-rest control condition on acute mood symptoms in MS.

  18. Impaired hemodynamic response to mental stress in subjects with prehypertension is improved after a single bout of maximal dynamic exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Frauches Medeiros

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: High blood pressure during mental stress in subjects with prehypertension is associated with blunted vasodilation in skeletal muscles, which might be improved by an acute bout of exercise. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the hemodynamic responses to mental stress before and after a bout of exercise in subjects with prehypertension. METHOD: Eighteen subjects with prehypertension and 16 with normotension underwent a mental stress test before and after a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test on a treadmill. Blood pressure was measured by auscultation, and forearm blood flow was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography; from these measurements, the vascular conductance was calculated. RESULTS: Subjects with prehypertension had a higher mean blood pressure during mental stress (prehypertension 112±2 vs. normotension 101±3 mm Hg, p<0.05, and their vascular conductance did not increase (baseline 0.025±0.004 vs. mental stress 0.022±0.003 a.u., p.0.05. After the exercise bout, the mean blood pressure during mental stress was lower in subjects with prehypertension (before exercise 112±2 vs. after exercise 107±2 mm Hg, p<0.05, and vascular conductance increased (baseline 0.011±0.001 vs. mental stress 0.024±0.004 a.u., p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Subjects with prehypertension had elevated blood pressure and a blunted vasodilator response during mental stress, but their blood pressure was attenuated and their vasodilator response was normalized after a single bout of maximal dynamic exercise.

  19. Influence of preliminary exercise training on muscle damage indices in rats after one bout of prolonged treadmill exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun, Ju; Hwangbo, Kak; Kim, Young Mi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise on muscle damage indices in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Two groups of rats were trained in either moderate- or high-intensity treadmill running for 4 weeks. Subsequently, the concentrations of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were examined following a single bout of prolonged (3-h) intensive exercise. [Subjects and Methods] The study included forty 6-week-old male Spragu...

  20. The influence of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on cortical contributions to motor preparation and execution

    OpenAIRE

    Thacker, Jonathan S.; Middleton, Laura E; McIlroy, William E.; Staines, W. Richard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Increasing evidence supports the use of physical activity for modifying brain activity and overall neurological health. Specifically, aerobic exercise appears to have a positive effect on cognitive function, which some have suggested to be a result of increasing levels of arousal. However, the role of aerobic exercise on movement‐related cortical activity is less clear. We tested the hypothesis that (1) an acute bout of exercise modulates excitability within motor areas and (2) trans...

  1. Necessity of the glossopharyngeal nerve in the maintenance of normal intake and ingestive bout size of corn oil by rats

    OpenAIRE

    Treesukosol, Yada; Blonde, Ginger D.; Jiang, Enshe; Gonzalez, Dani; Smith, James C.; Spector, Alan C.

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence in the literature suggests that signals carried by the glossopharyngeal nerve (GL), which supplies sensory and parasympathetic innervation of the posterior tongue, might be essential in the maintenance of normal gustatory responses to fat stimuli. Here, we report that GL transection (GLX) significantly decreased corn oil intake and preference in 23-h two-bottle tests relative to sham-operated controls (Sham). Drinking-pattern analysis of corn oil licking revealed that bout siz...

  2. The Acute Effects of a Single Bout of Moderate-intensity Aerobic Exercise on Cognitive Functions in Healthy Adult Males

    OpenAIRE

    Nanda, Bijli; Balde, Jagruti; MANJUNATHA, S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Single acute bouts of moderately-intense aerobic exercise like walking have been found to improve cognitive control of attention in children, but some studies have reported no improvement in cognitive flexibility following acute aerobic exercise. Submaximal aerobic exercise performed for 60 minutes facilitated specific aspects of information processing in adults but extended exercises leading to dehydration compromised both information processing and memory functions. Improvemen...

  3. Effects of a single bout of walking on psychophysiologic responses and executive function in elderly adults: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Hatta A; Nishihira Y; Higashiura T

    2013-01-01

    Arihiro Hatta,1 Yoshiaki Nishihira,2 Takuro Higashiura3 1Department of Health Pharmacy, Yokohama College of Pharmacy, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan; 2Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan; 3Department of Law, Faculty of Law, Seiwa University, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a single bout of walking on mood, psychophysiologic responses, and executive function in elderly adults. Me...

  4. The effects of odor and body posture on perceived duration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, Eliane; Hoeksma, Marco R.; Smeets, Monique A M; Semin, Gün R.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports an examination of the internal clock model, according to which subjective time duration is influenced by attention and arousal state. In a time production task, we examine the hypothesis that an arousing odor and an upright body posture affect perceived duration. The experimental

  5. Influence of preliminary exercise training on muscle damage indices in rats after one bout of prolonged treadmill exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Ju; Kim, Young Mi; Hwangbo, Kak; Kim, Young Mi

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise on muscle damage indices in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Two groups of rats were trained in either moderate- or high-intensity treadmill running for 4 weeks. Subsequently, the concentrations of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were examined following a single bout of prolonged (3-h) intensive exercise. [Subjects and Methods] The study included forty 6-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 150-180 g each. The aerobic exercise group was divided into high-intensity (28 m/min) and moderate-intensity (15 m/min) subgroups. Both subgroups were trained for 35 min daily for 6 days per week (excluding Sunday) over a 4-week period. Following training, the high- and moderate-intensity exercise groups and a non-exercise group performed one bout of prolonged (3-h) treadmill exercise for 3 hours at a speed of 15 m/min. [Results] Creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels differed significantly among the groups. [Conclusion] The preliminary exercise groups showed lower muscle damage and inflammatory response levels than the non-exercise group after the bout of prolonged intensive exercise. PMID:27390433

  6. Eicosanoid Production following One Bout of Exercise in Middle-Aged African American Pre- and Stage 1 Hypertensives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheara Williamson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction and a sedentary lifestyle may be involved in the development of hypertension which is proliferative among middle-aged African Americans (AA. Signaling molecules derived from the oxidation of 20-carbon fatty acid molecules known as eicosanoids influence vascular tone. The relationship between aerobic fitness and eicosanoid formation following exercise in middle-aged African American hypertensives is unknown. Purpose. To determine the relationship between aerobic capacity and eicosanoid formation after a bout of moderate-intensity exercise in middle-aged AA hypertensives. Methods. Ten sedentary hypertensive AA underwent 50 min of aerobic exercise at 65% VO2max. Urine was collected for 24 hr on two occasions, prior to testing and immediately following the bout of exercise. Urinary metabolites of prostacyclin (6-keto PGF1α and thromboxane (11-dTXB2 were measured during the day and night periods by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results. 6-keto PGF1α levels significantly increased (=.04 following the bout of exercise compared to the control day. There was a significant relationship (=.49, <.05 between 6-keto PGF1α levels and VO2max during the exercise day. Conclusion. Based on this preliminary study, there appears to be a relationship between aerobic capacity and exercise-induced 6-keto PGF1α production in middle-aged hypertensive AAs. AAs with lower VO2max had lower 6-keto PGF1α formation.

  7. CAFFEINE ATTENUATES ACUTE GROWTH HORMONE RESPONSE TO A SINGLE BOUT OF RESISTANCE EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Hun Wu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of caffeine consume on substrate metabolism and acute hormonal responses to a single bout of resistance exercise (RE. Ten resistance-trained men participated in this study. All subjects performed one repetition maximum (1RM test and then performed two protocols: caffeine (CAF, 6 mg·kg-1 and control (CON in counter balanced order. Subjects performed RE (8 exercises, 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 75% of 1RM after caffeine or placebo ingestion one hour prior to RE. Blood samples collected prior to treatment ingestion (pre-60, immediately prior to RE (pre-exe, and 0, 15, 30 min post to RE (P0, P15, P30 for analysis of insulin, testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone, glucose, free fatty acid and lactic acid. Each experiment was separated by seven days. In this study, statistical analysis of a two-way analysis of variance (treatment by time with repeated measures was applied. After ingesting caffeine, the concentrations of free fatty acid (pre- exe, P0, P15, P30 in CAF were significantly higher than CON (p < 0.05. Additionally, the responses of GH (P0, P15, P30 in CAF were significantly lower than CON (p < 0.05, whereas the concentrations of insulin, testosterone and cortisol were not different between CAF and CON (p < 0.05 after RE. The results of this study indicated that caffeine ingestion prior to RE might attenuate the response of GH. This effect might be caused by the elevation in blood FFA concentration at the beginning of RE

  8. Six-field two-fluid simulations of peeling–ballooning modes using BOUT++

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simulations on edge-localized modes (ELMs) with six-field peeling–ballooning (P–B) modes using the BOUT++ code are reported in this paper. This six-field model based on the full Braginskii equations are developed to simulate self-consistent turbulence and transport between ELMs. Through the comparison with the previous three-field two-fluid model, P–B instability, ion diamagnetic effects, resistivity and hyper-resistivity are found to be the dominant physics during ELMs. The additional physics, such as ion acoustic waves, thermal conductivities, Hall effects, toroidal compressibility and electron–ion friction, are less important in this process. Through the simulations within different equilibrium temperature profiles but with the same pressure and current, the particle loss of ions contributes the least to the total ELM size. The ELM size will be smaller for low-density cases. The study of convective particle and heat flux indicates that the peak of radial particle flux is obviously related to the ELM filaments burst events. The analysis of radial transport coefficients indicates that the ELM size is mainly determined by the energy loss at the crash phase. The typical values for transport coefficients in the saturation phase after ELM crashes are Dr ∼ 200 m2 s−1, χir ∼ χer ∼ 40 m2 s−1. The turbulent zonal flow, which is mainly driven by the Reynolds stress and suppressed by ion diamagnetic terms, regulates the turbulence from the ELM crash phase to the quasi-steady state for large ELM cases. (paper)

  9. NOX2 Inhibition Impairs Early Muscle Gene Expression Induced by a Single Exercise Bout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Díaz-Vegas, Alexis; Utreras-Mendoza, Yildy; Campos, Cristian; Arias-Calderón, Manuel; Llanos, Paola; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Espinosa, Alejandra; Altamirano, Francisco; Jaimovich, Enrique; Valladares, Denisse M.

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) participate as signaling molecules in response to exercise in skeletal muscle. However, the source of ROS and the molecular mechanisms involved in these phenomena are still not completely understood. The aim of this work was to study the role of skeletal muscle NADPH oxidase isoform 2 (NOX2) in the molecular response to physical exercise in skeletal muscle. BALB/c mice, pre-treated with a NOX2 inhibitor, apocynin, (3 mg/kg) or vehicle for 3 days, were swim-exercised for 60 min. Phospho–p47phox levels were significantly upregulated by exercise in flexor digitorum brevis (FDB). Moreover, exercise significantly increased NOX2 complex assembly (p47phox–gp91phox interaction) demonstrated by both proximity ligation assay and co-immunoprecipitation. Exercise-induced NOX2 activation was completely inhibited by apocynin treatment. As expected, exercise increased the mRNA levels of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), citrate synthase (CS), mitochondrial transcription factor A (tfam) and interleukin-6 (IL-I6) in FDB muscles. Moreover, the apocynin treatment was associated to a reduced activation of p38 MAP kinase, ERK 1/2, and NF-κB signaling pathways after a single bout of exercise. Additionally, the increase in plasma IL-6 elicited by exercise was decreased in apocynin-treated mice compared with the exercised vehicle-group (p < 0.001). These results were corroborated using gp91-dstat in an in vitro exercise model. In conclusion, NOX2 inhibition by both apocynin and gp91dstat, alters the intracellular signaling to exercise and electrical stimuli in skeletal muscle, suggesting that NOX2 plays a critical role in molecular response to an acute exercise. PMID:27471471

  10. Subacute effects of a maximal exercise bout on endothelium-mediated vasodilation in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bousquet-Santos

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated vascular reactivity after a maximal exercise test in order to determine whether the effect of exercise on the circulation persists even after interruption of the exercise. Eleven healthy sedentary volunteers (six women, age 28 ± 5 years were evaluated before and after (10, 60, and 120 min a maximal exercise test on a treadmill. Forearm blood flow (FBF was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography before and during reactive hyperemia (RH. Baseline FBF, analyzed by the area under the curve, increased only at 10 min after exercise (P = 0.01. FBF in response to RH increased both at 10 and 60 min vs baseline (P = 0.004. Total excess flow for RH above baseline showed that vascular reactivity was increased up to 60 min after exercise (mean ± SEM, before: 526.4 ± 48.8; 10 min: 1053.0 ± 168.2; 60 min: 659.4 ± 44.1 ml 100 ml-1 min-1 . s; P = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively, vs before exercise. The changes in FBF were due to increased vascular conductance since mean arterial blood pressure did not change. In a time control group (N = 5, 34 ± 3 years, three women that did not exercise, FBF and RH did not change significantly (P = 0.07 and 0.7, respectively. These results suggest that the increased vascular reactivity caused by chronic exercise may result, at least in part, from a summation of the subacute effects of successive exercise bouts.

  11. Influence of repeated bouts of table tennis training on cardiac biomarkers in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guodong; Liu, Yanhuan; Liu, Kemin

    2014-04-01

    It is documented that exercise can increase serum cardiac troponins in adults and adolescents; however, there is a lack of related studies concerning the release of cardiac troponins in children. This study investigated the influence of table tennis training on cardiac biomarkers in children. Twenty-eight male children performed six 10-min forehand exercise sessions with 5-min recovery intervals. Serum cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and I (cTnI), and creatinine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK-MB) were assessed before exercise, immediately after the last 10 min of exercise (PEI), 4 h post-exercise (PE4), 24 h post-exercise (PE24), and 48 h post-exercise (PE48). Cardiac function was measured using an ultrasound system (GE Vivid7 Dimension) at rest state. Serum cTnT, cTnI, and CK-MB were significantly elevated from the PEI sample point, and returned to baseline at the PE48 sample point in children. Serum cTnT in four (14.29%), nine (32.14%), and two (7.14%) subjects at the PEI, PE4, and PE24 sample points, respectively, exceeded the cutoff for myocardial injury. At the PE4 sample point, cTnT in five subjects (17.86%) exceeded the cutoff for acute myocardial infarction. Serum cTnI in two (14.29%), seven (25%), and two (7.14 %) subjects at the PEI, PE4, and PE24 timepoints, respectively, exceeded the cutoff for myocardial injury. cTnI in two subjects (7.14%) exceeded the cutoff for acute myocardial infarction at the PE4 timepoint in children. Repeated bouts of table tennis forehand training can significantly increase the release of serum cardiac troponins in some children. PMID:24272170

  12. Hormone responses to a continuous bout of rock climbing in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherk, Vanessa D; Sherk, Kyle A; Kim, SoJung; Young, Kaelin C; Bemben, Debra A

    2011-04-01

    Rock climbing is rapidly increasing in popularity as a recreational activity and as a competitive sport. Few studies have tested acute physiological responses to climbing, and no studies to date have tested hormone responses to a climbing-based workout. This study aimed to measure testosterone (T), growth hormone (GH), and cortisol (C) responses to continuous vertical climbing in young male rock climbers. Ten male rock climbers, aged between 21 and 30 years, climbed laps on a submaximal 55' climbing route for 30 min, or until exhaustion, whichever came first. Heart rate (HR) was recorded after every lap. Blood samples were collected by venipuncture before (Pre), immediately post (IP), and 15 min after the climbing exercise (P15) to assess blood lactate and plasma GH, T, and C. Subjects climbed 24.9 ± 1.9 min and 507.5 ± 82.5 feet. Peak HR was 182.1 ± 2.3 bpm, and lactate (Pre: 2.9 ± 0.6 mmol/dL, IP: 11.1 ± 1.0 mmol/dL) significantly (P Pre to IP. T concentrations significantly (P Pre (6.04 ± 0.31 ng/mL) to IP (7.39 ± 0.40 ng/mL) and returned to baseline at P15 (6.23 ± 0.33 ng/mL). Cortisol levels did not significantly change during the protocol. GH significantly (P Pre (0.63 ± 0.17 ng/mL) to IP (19.89 ± 4.53 ng/mL) and remained elevated at P15 (15.03 ± 3.89 ng/mL). An acute, short-term bout of high-intensity continuous climbing was an effective exercise stimulus for elevating plasma testosterone and growth hormone levels in young males. PMID:20963437

  13. Tensiomyographic Characteristics of Rectus Femoris after a Single Bout of Intense Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C Paez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: It is not well known how local fatigue can impair the contractile properties of skeletal muscle, so the aim of this study was to determine the Tensiomyographic (TMG characteristics of Rectus Femoris (RF after a single bout of intense exercise. Approach: Twelve healthy male volunteers (mean±SEM; age, 24.16±0.62 years, height 172.02±1.21 cm, body mass 71.84±2.19 kg, BMI 24.42±0.70 kg m- were recruited. Results: In session 1, a graded exercise test on cycle ergometer was performed in order to determine subject’s maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max and power at this key point (pVO2max. In a second testing session, TMG rest values were assessed and then all subjects carried out 2 min of cycling at pVO2max after which TMG analysis was applied again. The results showed subject’s VO2max values of 53.44±2.67 ml kg-1 min-1 reaching a mean pVO2max of 270.83±8.61 W. Maximal radial displacement (Dm and time from the onset of electrical stimulus to 10% of Dm (Td were significantly lower at post-test (from 7.577.57±0.92-4.37±0.67 mm; p = 0.01, for Dm and from 25.25±0.57-22.44±0.89 ms; p≤0.05, for Td. Conclusion/Recommendations: It can be concluded that a brief and intense exercise consisting in 2 min of cycling at PVO2max provokes a reduction in contractile properties of RF considering TMG parameters such as Dm and Td. More studies are needed to clarify the role of muscle fatigue on temporal TMG parameters.

  14. Écriture et dissidence dans les fictions spéculatives de Pascal Quignard : sur l´exemple de Boutès

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Martínez García

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In Boutès (2008 Pascal Quignard rescues the figure of this pre-Homeric neglected hero, hidden in one of the best known mythological legends, that of Ja-son and Argona, to which Apollonius of Rhodes only dedicates but a few lines. Contrary to Ulysses and Orpheus, Butes abandons the rowing and lets himself be carried away by the sirens’ chant. In Quignard´s opinion, he dissents from the exemplary model of the heroes that have founded our culture, and dissociates himself from the group that tries to enclose and domesticate the outcast. Based on Quignard´s reading of this myth, we propose an approach to his writing as a token of ethic and aesthetic dissidence, affecting different aspects: dissidence from prevailing models of socialization, dissi-dence from traditional literary forms and conventional genres, dissidence from meta-narratives and their linear vision of history, and finally, dissidence from modern conceptions of time and progress.

  15. Duration of an elastic collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a pedagogical goal, this paper deals with a study of the duration of an elastic collision of an inflatable spherical ball on a planar surface suitable for undergraduate studies. First, the force generated by the deformed spherical ball is obtained under assumptions that are discussed. The study of the motion of the spherical ball colliding with the planar surface allows us to determine the duration of the elastic collision. In order to check the theoretical model, an experiment is proposed to measure the duration of the collision. A more refined model built with masses and springs gives good agreement between theoretical and experimental values. (paper)

  16. Duration of an elastic collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Izarra, Charles

    2012-07-01

    With a pedagogical goal, this paper deals with a study of the duration of an elastic collision of an inflatable spherical ball on a planar surface suitable for undergraduate studies. First, the force generated by the deformed spherical ball is obtained under assumptions that are discussed. The study of the motion of the spherical ball colliding with the planar surface allows us to determine the duration of the elastic collision. In order to check the theoretical model, an experiment is proposed to measure the duration of the collision. A more refined model built with masses and springs gives good agreement between theoretical and experimental values.

  17. Task duration in contextual interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter J K

    2002-12-01

    Duration of practice trial on a pursuit rotor task in contextual interference was investigated. Participants practiced at each of 4 angular velocities, with 24 participants completing 28 trials lasting 20 sec., and 24 participants completing 112 trials of 5 sec. Half of the participants in each trial-duration condition practiced in a blocked format and half practiced in a random format. After random practice posttest performance was better than blocked practice when practice-trial duration was 20 sec., but worse when practice-trial duration was 5 sec. This result is not consistent with theoretical explanations of the contextual interference effect and is discussed with reference to the task characteristics and demands of the pursuit rotor. PMID:12578255

  18. Synthesizing controllers from duration calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin

    1996-01-01

    Duration Calculus is a logic for reasoning about requirements for real-time systems at a high level of abstraction from operational detail, which qualifies it as an interesting starting point for embedded controller design. Such a design activity is generally thought to aim at a control device the...... physical behaviours of which satisfy the requirements formula, i.e. the refinement relation between requirements and implementations is taken to be trajectory inclusion. Due to the abstractness of the vocabulary of Duration Calculus, trajectory inclusion between control requirements and controller designs...... relation for embedded controller design and exploit this fact for developing an automatic procedure for controller synthesis from specifications formalized in Duration Calculus. As far as we know, this is the first positive result concerning feasibility of automatic synthesis from dense-time Duration...

  19. A single prior bout of exercise protects against palmitate-induced insulin resistance despite an increase in total ceramide content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrush, A Brianne; Harasim, Ewa; Chabowski, Adrian; Gulli, Roberto; Stefanyk, Leslie; Dyck, David J

    2011-05-01

    Ceramide accumulation has been implicated in the impairment of insulin-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle following saturated fatty acid (FA) exposure. Importantly, a single bout of exercise can protect against acute lipid-induced insulin resistance. The mechanism by which exercise protects against lipid-induced insulin resistance is not completely known but may occur through a redirection of FA toward triacylglycerol (TAG) and away from ceramide and diacylglycerol (DAG). Therefore, in the current study, an in vitro preparation was used to examine whether a prior bout of exercise could confer protection against palmitate-induced insulin resistance and whether the pharmacological [50 μM fumonisin B(1) (FB1)] inhibition of ceramide synthesis in the presence of palmitate could mimic the protective effect of exercise. Soleus muscle of sedentary (SED), exercised (EX), and SED in the presence of FB1 (SED+FB1) were incubated with or without 2 mM palmitate for 4 h. This 2-mM palmitate exposure impaired insulin-stimulated glucose transport (-28%, P TAG accumulation in the SED group (P TAG (P net increase in ceramide content in response to palmitate exposure in the EX group was not different compared with SED, despite the maintenance of insulin sensitivity. The incubation of soleus from SED rats with FB1 (SED+FB1) prevented the detrimental effects of palmitate and caused a redirection of FA toward TAG accumulation (P < 0.05). Therefore, this research suggests that although inhibiting ceramide accumulation can prevent the detrimental effects of palmitate, a single prior bout of exercise appears to protect against palmitate-induced insulin resistance, which may be independent of changes in ceramide content. PMID:21325642

  20. The effects of yoga training and a single bout of yoga on delayed onset muscle soreness in the lower extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Colleen A; Sayers, Stephen P; Jensen, Barbara E; Headley, Samuel A; Manos, Tina M

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of yoga training and a single bout of yoga on the intensity of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). 24 yoga-trained (YT; n = 12) and non-yoga-trained (CON; n = 12), matched women volunteers were administered a DOMS-inducing bench-stepping exercise. Muscle soreness was assessed at baseline, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours after bench-stepping using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Groups were also compared on body awareness (BA), flexibility using the sit-and-reach test (SR), and perceived exertion (RPE). Statistical significance was accepted at p yoga class than after yoga class at 24 hours (21.4 [+/- 6.9] mm vs. 11.1 [+/- 4.1] mm; p = 0.02). The SR was greater in YT than in CON (65.0 [+/- 7.9] cm vs. 33.3 [+/- 7.0] cm; p yoga and control in BA (94.0 [+/- 4.4] units vs. 83.8 [+/- 3.7] units; p = 0.21) or in RPE at 5-minute intervals (2.9 [+/- 0.3], 5.3 [+/- 0.8], 5.8 [+/- 0.9], and 5.2 [+/- 0.8] vs. 2.5 [+/- 0.3], 4.0 [+/- 0.5], 4.2 [+/- 0.3], and 4.9 [+/- 0.4]. Yoga training and a single bout of yoga appear to attenuate peak muscle soreness in women following a bout of eccentric exercise. These findings have significant implications for coaches, athletes, and the exercising public who may want to implement yoga training as a preseason regimen or supplemental activity to lessen the symptoms associated with muscle soreness. PMID:15574074

  1. Unemployment duration and personality traits

    OpenAIRE

    Uysal, Selver; Pohlmeier, Winfried

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role personality traits play in determining individual unemployment duration. We argue that a worker's job search intensity is decisively driven by her personality traits, reflected in her propensity to motivate and control herself while searching for a job. Moreover, personality traits, in as far as they can be signaled to a potential employer, may also enhance the probability of receiving and accepting a job offer. For our econometric duration analysis, we use the ...

  2. Hazard based models for freeway traffic incident duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli Hojati, Ahmad; Ferreira, Luis; Washington, Simon; Charles, Phil

    2013-03-01

    Assessing and prioritising cost-effective strategies to mitigate the impacts of traffic incidents and accidents on non-recurrent congestion on major roads represents a significant challenge for road network managers. This research examines the influence of numerous factors associated with incidents of various types on their duration. It presents a comprehensive traffic incident data mining and analysis by developing an incident duration model based on twelve months of incident data obtained from the Australian freeway network. Parametric accelerated failure time (AFT) survival models of incident duration were developed, including log-logistic, lognormal, and Weibul-considering both fixed and random parameters, as well as a Weibull model with gamma heterogeneity. The Weibull AFT models with random parameters were appropriate for modelling incident duration arising from crashes and hazards. A Weibull model with gamma heterogeneity was most suitable for modelling incident duration of stationary vehicles. Significant variables affecting incident duration include characteristics of the incidents (severity, type, towing requirements, etc.), and location, time of day, and traffic characteristics of the incident. Moreover, the findings reveal no significant effects of infrastructure and weather on incident duration. A significant and unique contribution of this paper is that the durations of each type of incident are uniquely different and respond to different factors. The results of this study are useful for traffic incident management agencies to implement strategies to reduce incident duration, leading to reduced congestion, secondary incidents, and the associated human and economic losses. PMID:23333698

  3. Metabolic and hormonal responses during repeated bouts of brief and intense exercise: effects of pre-exercise glucose ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouassi, D; Mercier, J; Ahmaidi, S; Brun, J F; Mercier, B; Orsetti, A; Préfaut, C

    1997-01-01

    We investigated metabolic and hormonal responses during repeated bouts of brief and intense exercise (a force-velocity test; Fv test) and examined the effect of glucose ingestion on these responses and on exercise performance. The test was performed twice by seven subjects [27 (2) years] according to a double-blind randomized crossover protocol. During the experimental trial (GLU), the subjects ingested 500 ml of glucose polymer solution containing 25 g glucose 15 min before starting the exercise. During the control trial (CON), the subjects received an equal volume of sweet placebo (aspartame). Exercise performance was assessed by calculating peak anaerobic power (W(an,peak)). Venous plasma lactate concentration increased significantly during the Fv test (P Blood glucose first decreased significantly from the beginning of exercise up to the 6-kg load (P glucose ingestion (P blood glucose and insulin concentrations decreased during repeated bouts of brief and intense exercise, while blood lactate concentration increased markedly without any significant change in glucagon and epinephrine concentrations. Glucose ingestion altered metabolic and hormonal responses during the Fv test, but the performance as measured by W(an,peak) was not changed. PMID:9286597

  4. Die Another Day: Duration in German Import Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Nitsch, Volker

    2007-01-01

    International trade patterns at the product level are surprisingly dynamic. The majority of trade relationships exist for just a few, often only one to three, years. In this paper, I examine empirically the duration in German import trade at the 8-digit product level from 1995 to 2005. I find that survival probabilities are affected by exporter characteristics, product type and market structure. Specifically, I show that the duration of exporting a product to Germany is longer for products ob...

  5. Short duration gamma ray bursts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Patrick Das Gupta

    2004-10-01

    After a short review of gamma ray bursts (GRBs), we discuss the physical implications of strong statistical correlations seen among some of the parameters of short duration bursts (90 < 2 s). Finally, we conclude with a brief sketch of a new unified model for long and short GRBs.

  6. JACEE long duration balloon flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JACEE balloon-borne emulsion chamber detectors are used to observe the spectra and interactions of cosmic ray protons and nuclei in the energy range 1-100A TeV. Experience with long duration mid-latitude balloon flights and characteristics of the detector system that make it ideal for planned Antarctic balloon flights are discussed. 5 refs., 2 figs

  7. Acute response of plasma markers of bone turnover to a single bout of resistance training or plyometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Robert S; Dawson, Andrew W; Wang, Ze; Thyfault, John P; Hinton, Pamela S

    2011-11-01

    The time course of changes in plasma bone turnover markers following an acute bout of resistance training (RT) or plyometrics (PLY) has not been well characterized. This study is the first to compare the acute response of bone formation and resorption markers to a single bout of RT or PLY. Using a partially randomized, cross-over study design, 12 recreationally active men, aged 43 ± 5 yr, each completed four exercise trials: RT (Fed/Fasted) and PLY (Fed/Fasted). In addition to the RT and PLY trials, 5 of the original 12 participants also completed a fasted, no-exercise control trial to examine time-of-day variation. For each trial, blood was drawn immediately before exercise (PRE), immediately following exercise, and 15 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, and 24 h following PRE for determination of plasma bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), osteocalcin (OC), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP5b), COOH-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), testosterone, parathyroid hormone, and cortisol. A one-factor repeated-measures ANOVA was performed for each trial to detect changes in bone markers during the 2 h following RT or PLY. TRAP5b transiently decreased during the 2 h following all exercise trials (main effect for time, P < 0.05), but returned to PRE concentrations 2 h postexercise. BAP, CTX, and OC remained unchanged, except for reductions in BAP and CTX following PLY-Fasted and PLY-Fed, respectively. During the control trial, BAP decreased, while TRAP5b, CTX, and OC remained unchanged. In general, plasma hormone concentrations decreased during the 2 h following PLY or RT, and cumulative decreases in TRAP5b during the 2 h following exercise were positively correlated with cumulative decreases in parathyroid hormone. The results of the present study suggest that the timing of the measurement of bone turnover markers relative to the last exercise bout is important for detection of exercise-associated changes in bone turnover markers, as the markers returned

  8. The True Durations of Starbursts: HST Observations of Three Nearby Dwarf Starburst Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    McQuinn, Kristen B W; Skillman, Evan D.; Cannon, John M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Dolphin, Andrew; Stark, David; Weisz, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The duration of a starburst is a fundamental parameter affecting the evolution of galaxies yet, to date, observational constraints on the durations of starbursts are not well established. Here we study the recent star formation histories (SFHs) of three nearby dwarf galaxies to rigorously quantify the duration of their starburst events using a uniform and consistent approach. We find that the bursts range from ~200 - ~400 Myr in duration resolving the tension between the shorter timescales of...

  9. The immediate effects of a single bout of aerobic exercise on oral glucose tolerance across the glucose tolerance continuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sine H; Karstoft, Kristian; Pedersen, Bente K;

    2014-01-01

    We investigated glucose tolerance and postprandial glucose fluxes immediately after a single bout of aerobic exercise in subjects representing the entire glucose tolerance continuum. Twenty-four men with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or type 2 diabetes (T2D; age......: 56 ± 1 years; body mass index: 27.8 ± 0.7 kg/m(2), P > 0.05) underwent a 180-min oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) combined with constant intravenous infusion of [6,6-(2)H2]glucose and ingestion of [U-(13)C]glucose, following 1 h of exercise (50% of peak aerobic power) or rest. In both trials......, plasma glucose concentrations and kinetics, insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon were measured. Rates (mg kg(-1) min(-1)) of glucose appearance from endogenous (RaEndo) and exogenous (oral glucose; Ra OGTT) sources, and glucose disappearance (Rd) were determined. We found that exercise increased RaEndo, Ra...

  10. North American ginseng protects against muscle damage and reduces neutrophil infiltration after an acute bout of downhill running in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estaki, Mehrbod; Noble, Earl G

    2015-02-01

    Eccentric muscle contractions such as those experienced during downhill running are associated with inflammation, delayed-onset of muscle soreness, myofiber damage, and various functional deficits. North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties and thus may offset some of this exercise-induced damage. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that intervention with North American ginseng would reduce eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage and inflammation. Male Wistar rats were fed (300 mg/(kg·day)(-1)) of either an alcohol (AL) or aqueous (AQ) extract of North American ginseng for 14 days before a single bout of downhill running and were compared with matching nonexercised (C) groups. Plasma creatine kinase levels were significantly reduced in both ginseng treated groups compared with the C group that received a water placebo (p exercise-induced muscle damage and inflammation. PMID:25531801

  11. Optimal duration of magazine promotions

    OpenAIRE

    Mercedes Esteban-Bravo; Jose M. Mugica; Jose M. Vidal-Sanz

    2005-01-01

    The planning of promotions and other marketing events frequently requires manufacturers to make decisions about the optimal duration of these activities. Yet manufacturers often lack the support tools for decision making. We assume that customer decisions at the aggregated level follow a state-dependent Markov process. On the basis of the expected economic return associated with dynamic response to stimuli, we determine the ideal length of marketing events using dynamic programming optimizati...

  12. Effects of load-volume on EPOC after acute bouts of resistance training in resistance-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, George J; Greer, Beau K; Campbell, Sara C; Panton, Lynn B

    2013-07-01

    Recent investigations have shown excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) to be elevated for up to 48 hours in both untrained and trained subjects after resistance training (RT). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of load-volume on EPOC. Eight trained men (aged 22 ± 3 years) participated in 2 randomized RT bouts separated by at least 1 week with total load-volumes of 10,000 and 20,000 kg, respectively. Intensity of RT (85% 1 repetition maximum) did not differ between trials. Exercise energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were measured by indirect calorimetry at 8.5 hours before, 1.5 hours before, and during RT bouts and 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after exercise. Creatine kinase (CK) was measured before and after RT, and 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours postexercise; ratings of perceived muscle soreness were measured on a similar time course save the immediate postexercise time point. Analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to analyze dependent variables. During the 20,000 kg trial, subjects expended significantly (p < 0.01) more energy (484 ± 29 kcal) than the 10,000 kg lift (247 ± 18 kcal). After the 20,000 kg lift, 12 hours postexercise, CK (1,159 ± 729 U·L) was significantly elevated (p < 0.05) as compared with baseline (272 ± 280 U·L) and immediately postexercise (490 ± 402 U·L). No significant time or trial differences were found in RMR between the 10,000 and 20,000 kg trials. In conclusion, high-intensity RT with load-volumes of up to 20,000 kg using resistance-trained men does not significantly increase EPOC above baseline RMR. PMID:23085971

  13. Effects of Acute 60 and 80% V[o.sub.2]max Bouts of Aerobic Exercise on State Anxiety of Women of Different Age Groups across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Richard H.; Thomas, Tom R.; Hinton, Pam S.; Donahue, Owen M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on state anxiety of women while controlling for iron status (hemoglobin and serum ferritin). Participants were 24 active women, ages 18-20 years (n=12) and 35-45 years (n=12). In addition to a nonexercise control condition, participants completed one…

  14. Physical activity in the school setting: cognitive performance is not affected by three different types of acute exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, Vera; Saliasi, Emi; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle; Chinapaw, Mai; Singh, Amika

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that a single bout of physical exercise can have immediatepositive effects on cognitive performance of children and adolescents. However, thetype of exercise that affects cognitive performance the most in young adolescents isnot fully understood. Therefore, this controlled st

  15. Unemployment duration and unemployment insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røed, Knut; Jensen, Peter; Thoursie, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Based on pooled register data from Norway and Sweden, we find that differences in unemployment duration patterns reflect dissimilarities in unemployment insurance (UI) systems in a way that convincingly establishes the link between economic incentives and job search behaviour. Specifically, UI...... benefits are relatively more generous for low-income workers in Sweden than in Norway, leading to relatively longer unemployment spells for low-income workers in Sweden. Based on the between-countries variation in replacement ratios, we find that the elasticity of the outflow rate from insured unemployment...

  16. Rail commuting duration and passenger stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Wener, Richard E

    2006-05-01

    Over 100 million Americans commute to work every weekday. Little is known, however, about how this aspect of work, which may indeed be the most stressful aspect of the job for some, affects human health and well-being. The authors studied a sample of 208 male and female suburban rail commuters who took the train to Manhattan, New York. The greater the duration of the commute, the larger the magnitude of salivary cortisol elevations in reference to resting baseline levels, the less the commuter's persistence on a task at the end of the commute, and the greater the levels of perceived stress. These effects were not moderated by gender. Commuting stress is an important and largely overlooked aspect of environmental health. PMID:16719613

  17. Sleep disruption and its effect on lymphocyte redeployment following an acute bout of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Lesley A; Simpson, Richard J; Malone, Eva; Florida-James, Geraint D

    2015-07-01

    Sleep disruption and deprivation are common in contemporary society and have been linked with poor health, decreased job performance and increased life-stress. The rapid redeployment of lymphocytes between the blood and tissues is an archetypal feature of the acute stress response, but it is not known if short-term perturbations in sleep architecture affect lymphocyte redeployment. We examined the effects of a disrupted night sleep on the exercise-induced redeployment of lymphocytes and their subtypes. 10 healthy male cyclists performed 1h of cycling at a fixed power output on an indoor cycle ergometer, following a night of undisrupted sleep (US) or a night of disrupted sleep (DS). Blood was collected before, immediately after and 1h after exercise completion. Lymphocytes and their subtypes were enumerated using direct immunofluorescence assays and 4-colour flow cytometry. DS was associated with elevated concentrations of total lymphocytes and CD3(-)/CD56(+) NK-cells. Although not affecting baseline levels, DS augmented the exercise-induced redeployment of CD8(+) T-cells, with the naïve/early differentiated subtypes (KLRG1(-)/CD45RA(+)) being affected most. While the mobilisation of cytotoxic lymphocyte subsets (NK cells, CD8(+) T-cells γδ T-cells), tended to be larger in response to exercise following DS, their enhanced egress at 1h post-exercise was more marked. This occurred despite similar serum cortisol and catecholamine levels between the US and DS trials. NK-cells redeployed with exercise after DS retained their expression of perforin and Granzyme-B indicating that DS did not affect NK-cell 'arming'. Our findings indicate that short-term changes in sleep architecture may 'prime' the immune system and cause minor enhancements in lymphocyte trafficking in response to acute dynamic exercise. PMID:25582807

  18. The impact of short duration, high intensity exercise on cardiac troponin release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Keith P; Grant, Marie Clare; Davies, Bruce; Baker, Julien S

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the appearance of cardiac troponins (cTnI and/or cTnT) after a short bout (30 s) of 'all-out' intense exercise and to determine the stability of any exercise-related cTnI release in response to repeated bouts of high intensity exercise separated by 7 days recovery. Eighteen apparently healthy, physically active, male university students completed two all-out 30 s cycle sprint, separated by 7 days. cTnI, blood lactate and catecholamine concentrations were measured before, immediately after and 24 h after each bout. Cycle performance, heart rate and blood pressure responses to exercise were also recorded. Cycle performance was modestly elevated in the second trial [6·5% increase in peak power output (PPO)]; there was no difference in the cardiovascular, lactate or catecholamine response to the two cycle trials. cTnI was not significantly elevated from baseline through recovery (Trial 1: 0·06 ± 0·04 ng ml(-1) , 0·05 ± 0·04 ng ml(-1) , 0·03 ± 0·02 ng ml(-1) ; Trial 2: 0·02 ± 0·04 ng ml(-1) , 0·04 ± 0·03 ng ml(-1) , 0·05 ± 0·06 ng ml(-1) ) in either trial. Very small within subject changes were not significantly correlated between the two trials (r = 0·06; P>0·05). Subsequently, short duration, high intensity exercise does not elicit a clinically relevant response in cTnI and any small alterations likely reflect the underlying biological variability of cTnI measurement within the participants. PMID:25532821

  19. Exercise Holds Immediate Benefits for Affect and Cognition in Younger and Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan, Candice L.; Mata, Jutta; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is associated with improved affective experience and enhanced cognitive processing. Potential age differences in the degree of benefit, however, are poorly understood because most studies examine either younger or older adults. The present study examined age differences in cognitive performance and affective experience immediately following a single bout of moderate exercise. Participants (144 community members aged 19 to 93) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental...

  20. The Influence of Various Distraction Stimuli on Affective Responses during Recumbent Cycle Ergometry

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Paul C.; HALL, ERIC E.; Bailey, Elizabeth K

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: Acute bouts of exercise have been associated with affective changes. Exercise supplemented with distraction may divert attention from unpleasant feelings commonly associated with exercise to more pleasant feelings. The purpose of this study was to compare affective responses to exercise with and without distraction. (2) Methods: 25 individuals volunteered for this investigation and completed all three conditions. This study included three 30 min cycle ergometry exercise condit...

  1. Factors Affecting Haul-Out Behavior of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina in Tidewater Glacier Inlets in Alaska: Can Tourism Vessels and Seals Coexist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail M Blundell

    Full Text Available Large numbers of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina use habitat in tidewater glaciers in Alaska for pupping, breeding, and molting. Glacial fjords are also popular tourist destinations; however, visitation by numerous vessels can result in disturbance of seals during critical life-history phases. We explored factors affecting haul-out behavior of harbor seals at a glacial site frequented by tourism vessels. In 2008-10, we deployed VHF transmitters on 107 seals in Endicott Arm, Alaska. We remotely monitored presence and haul-out behavior of tagged seals and documented vessel presence with time-lapse cameras. We evaluated the influence of environmental and physical factors on the probability of being hauled out, duration of haul-out bouts, and as factors associated with the start and end of a haulout. Location, season, hour, and interactions of location by year, season, hour, and sex significantly influenced haul-out probability, as did ice, weather, and vessels. Seals were more likely to be hauled out with greater ice availability during the middle of the day, and less likely to be hauled out if vessels were present. Cruise ships had the strongest negative effect; however, most vessel types negatively affected haul-out probability. Haul-out duration was longest in association with starting on incoming tides, clear skies, no precipitation, occurring in the middle of the day, and ending in the late afternoon or evening. End of haulouts was associated with increasing cloud cover, low ice availability, and vessel presence; large-sized tourism vessels or all-vessel-types combined were significant predictors of ending a haul-out bout. Probability of being hauled out was highest in June, during pupping season. Potential disturbances of harbor seals could be reduced, enabling longer resting times for seals and fewer interruptions for nursing pups, if vessels focused the majority of visits to glacial habitat to before or after the hours of 08:00-17:00 or, less

  2. Equity Duration, Growth Options and Asset Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Cornell, Bradford

    1999-01-01

    Because much of the value of equity depends on the option characteristics of investment projects, it is not feasible to calculate equity duration directly. As a result, recent literature has focused on estimating equity duration empirically. By using 25 size and book-to-market portfolios, this paper shows that estimates of equity duration are critically dependent on the specifications of the regression model used to estimate equity duration. In particular, including all three Fama-French fact...

  3. Instrumental variable estimation for duration data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.E. Bijwaard (Govert)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this article we focus on duration data with an endogenous variable for which an instrument is available. In duration analysis the covariates and/or the effect of the covariates may vary over time. Another complication of duration data is that they are usually heavy censored. The

  4. Early Ethanol and Water Consumption: Accumulating Experience Differentially Regulates Drinking Pattern and Bout Parameters in Male Alcohol Preferring (P) vs. Wistar and Sprague Dawley Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Azarov, Alexey V.; Woodward, Donald J.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol-preferring (P) rats develop high ethanol intake over several weeks of water/10% ethanol (10E) choice drinking. However, it is not yet clear precisely what components of drinking behavior undergo modification to achieve higher intake. Our concurrent report compared precisely measured daily intake in P vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Here we analyze their drinking patterns and bouts to clarify microbehavioral components that are common to rats of different origin, ...

  5. L-arginine Supplementation Protects Exercise Performance and Structural Integrity of Muscle Fibers after a Single Bout of Eccentric Exercise in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lomonosova, Yulia N.; Shenkman, Boris S.; Kalamkarov, Grigorii R.; Kostrominova, Tatiana Y.; Tatyana L Nemirovskaya

    2014-01-01

    Eccentric exercise is known to disrupt sarcolemmal integrity and induce damage of skeletal muscle fibers. We hypothesized that L-arginine (L-Arg; nitric oxide synthase (NOS) substrate) supplementation prior to a single bout of eccentric exercise would diminish exercise-induced damage. In addition, we used N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME; NOS inhibitor) to clarify the role of native NOS activity in the development of exercise-induced muscle damage. Rats were divided into ...

  6. Twenty-Four Hour Total and Dietary Fat Oxidation in Lean, Obese and Reduced-Obese Adults with and without a Bout of Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Kealey, Elizabeth H.; Schmidt, Stacy L.; Jackman, Matthew R.; Bessesen, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that obese and reduced-obese individuals have decreased oxidative capacity, which contributes to weight gain and regain. Recent data have challenged this concept. Objective To determine (1) whether total and dietary fat oxidation are decreased in obese and reduced-obese adults compared to lean but increase in response to an acute exercise bout and (2) whether regular physical activity attenuates these metabolic alterations. Design We measured 24-hr total (w...

  7. Acute Impact of Moderate-Intensity and Vigorous-Intensity Exercise Bouts on Daily Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Xuewen Wang; Nicklas, Barbara J

    2011-01-01

    This study determined whether performing a single moderate- or vigorous-intensity exercise bout impacts daily physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE, by accelerometer). Overweight/obese postmenopausal women underwent a 5-month caloric restriction and moderate- (n = 18) or vigorous-intensity (n = 18) center-based aerobic exercise intervention. During the last month of intervention, in women performing moderate-intensity exercise, PAEE on days with exercise (577.7 ± 219.7 kcal·d−1) was high...

  8. Ingestion of 10 grams of whey protein prior to a single bout of resistance exercise does not augment Akt/mTOR pathway signaling compared to carbohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooke Matthew B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the effects of a whey protein supplement in conjunction with an acute bout of lower body resistance exercise, in recreationally-active males, on serum insulin and insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 and Akt/mTOR signaling markers indicative of muscle protein synthesis: insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1, AKT, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, p70S6 kinase (p70S6K and 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1. Methods In a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design, 10 males ingested 1 week apart, either 10 g of whey protein (5.25 g EAAs or carbohydrate (maltodextrose, 30 min prior to a lower-body resistance exercise bout. The resistance exercise bout consisted of 4 sets of 8-10 reps at 80% of the one repetition maximum (RM on the angled leg press and knee extension exercises. Blood and muscle samples were obtained prior to, and 30 min following supplement ingestion and 15 min and 120 min post-exercise. Serum and muscle data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA. Results No significant differences were observed for IGF-1 (p > 0.05. A significant main effect for Test was observed for serum insulin (p 0.05. For the Akt/MTOR signaling intermediates, no significant Supplement × Test interactions were observed (p > 0.05. However, significant main effects for Test were observed for phosphorylated concentrations of IRS, mTOR, and p70S6K, as all were elevated at 15 min post-exercise (p Conclusion Ingestion of 10 g of whey protein prior to an acute bout of lower body resistance exercise had no significant preferential effect compared to carbohydrate on systemic and cellular signaling markers indicative of muscle protein synthesis in untrained individuals.

  9. Incident duration modeling using flexible parametric hazard-based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruimin; Shang, Pan

    2014-01-01

    Assessing and prioritizing the duration time and effects of traffic incidents on major roads present significant challenges for road network managers. This study examines the effect of numerous factors associated with various types of incidents on their duration and proposes an incident duration prediction model. Several parametric accelerated failure time hazard-based models were examined, including Weibull, log-logistic, log-normal, and generalized gamma, as well as all models with gamma heterogeneity and flexible parametric hazard-based models with freedom ranging from one to ten, by analyzing a traffic incident dataset obtained from the Incident Reporting and Dispatching System in Beijing in 2008. Results show that different factors significantly affect different incident time phases, whose best distributions were diverse. Given the best hazard-based models of each incident time phase, the prediction result can be reasonable for most incidents. The results of this study can aid traffic incident management agencies not only in implementing strategies that would reduce incident duration, and thus reduce congestion, secondary incidents, and the associated human and economic losses, but also in effectively predicting incident duration time. PMID:25530753

  10. Incident Duration Modeling Using Flexible Parametric Hazard-Based Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing and prioritizing the duration time and effects of traffic incidents on major roads present significant challenges for road network managers. This study examines the effect of numerous factors associated with various types of incidents on their duration and proposes an incident duration prediction model. Several parametric accelerated failure time hazard-based models were examined, including Weibull, log-logistic, log-normal, and generalized gamma, as well as all models with gamma heterogeneity and flexible parametric hazard-based models with freedom ranging from one to ten, by analyzing a traffic incident dataset obtained from the Incident Reporting and Dispatching System in Beijing in 2008. Results show that different factors significantly affect different incident time phases, whose best distributions were diverse. Given the best hazard-based models of each incident time phase, the prediction result can be reasonable for most incidents. The results of this study can aid traffic incident management agencies not only in implementing strategies that would reduce incident duration, and thus reduce congestion, secondary incidents, and the associated human and economic losses, but also in effectively predicting incident duration time.

  11. A single bout of exercise with a flexible pole induces significant cardiac autonomic responses in healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane M. Ogata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Flexible poles can provide rapid eccentric and concentric muscle contractions. Muscle vibration is associated with a "tonic vibration reflex” that is stimulated by a sequence of rapid muscle stretching, activation of the muscle spindles and stimulation of a response that is similar to the myotatic reflex. Literature studies analyzing the acute cardiovascular responses to different exercises performed with this instrument are lacking. We investigated the acute effects of exercise with flexible poles on the heart period in healthy men. METHOD: The study was performed on ten young adult males between 18 and 25 years old. We evaluated the heart rate variability in the time and frequency domains. The subjects remained at rest for 10 min. After the rest period, the volunteers performed the exercises with the flexible poles. Immediately after the exercise protocol, the volunteers remained seated at rest for 30 min and their heart rate variability was analyzed. RESULTS: The pNN50 was reduced at 5-10 and 15-20 min after exercise compared to 25-30 min after exercise (p = 0.0019, the SDNN was increased at 25-30 min after exercise compared to at rest and 0-10 min after exercise (p = 0.0073 and the RMSSD was increased at 25-30 min after exercise compared to 5-15 min after exercise (p = 0.0043. The LF in absolute units was increased at 25-30 min after exercise compared to 5-20 min after exercise (p = 0.0184. CONCLUSION: A single bout of exercise with a flexible pole reduced the heart rate variability and parasympathetic recovery was observed approximately 30 min after exercise.

  12. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of a Bout of Circuit Resistance Exercise With Moderateintensity in Inactive Obese Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghari Jafarabadi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is a state characterized by a low-grade inflammation that leads to insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to assess serum interleukin-18 (IL-18, interleukin-6 (IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR in response to circuit resistance exercise in obese and normal-weight subjects with different levels of physical activity. Methods: Thirty-two healthy male students participated in the present study. Subjects were divided into 4 groups according to their BMI and level of physical activity: active obese (n=8, active non-obese (n=8, inactive obese (n=8, and inactive non-obese (n=8. To determine serum IL-6, IL-18, CRP, glucose and insulin concentrations, fasting and post-exercise blood samples were obtained. Subjects performed a bout of circuit resistance exercise in 2 sets with 10 repetitions at 60% of 1RM. Results: Obese subjects comparing non-obese ones showed significant increase in IL-6 and significant decrease in IL-18 concentrations in response to exercise (p<0.05. There was no significant difference between active normal and inactive normal subjects in response to exercise. Also, there were not significant differences in four groups in response to exercise. Discussion: The significant decrease in IL-18 concentration in the obese group comparing normal group in response to exercise was probably due to anti-inflammatory effects of exercise. Also, recommending this kind of exercise for obese persons with low level of physical activity can improve insulin resistance.

  13. Acute negative effect of a hypertrophy-oriented training bout on subsequent upper-body power output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Daniel

    2003-08-01

    Athletes regularly combine maximal strength, power, and hypertrophy-oriented training within the same workout. Traditionally, it has been suggested that power-oriented exercises precede strength and hypertrophy-oriented training within a workout to avoid the possible negative effects that the latter types of training may have on power output. However, with regard to upper-body training, little study has been performed to verify this commonly held belief. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent, if any, of a high-repetition, short-rest-period, hypertrophy-oriented training dose on upper-body power output. Twenty-seven college-aged rugby league players were tested for average power output during bench press throws with a resistance of 40 kg (BT P40). The experimental group (Hyp, n = 15) then performed a typical hypertrophy-oriented work bout (3 x 10 at 65% 1 repetition maximum bench press, 1RM BP) before being retested for power output with the same resistance. In comparison with the control group (Con, n = 12), whose power output remained unchanged between the pre- and posttest periods, the Hyp group experienced a large, significant decrease in BT P40 power output. Even after further passive rest of 7 minutes, power output remained suppressed from the pretest values. Furthermore, the strongest 5 subjects experienced significantly larger percentage declines in power output than did the 5 less strong subjects. This study shows that a high-repetition, short-rest-period training can acutely decrease power output. Coaches should plan the order of exercises carefully when combining power and hypertrophy training. PMID:12930181

  14. Lipidomics analysis reveals efficient storage of hepatic triacylglycerides enriched in unsaturated fatty acids after one bout of exercise in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiu Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endurance exercise induces lipolysis, increases circulating concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA and the uptake and oxidation of fatty acids in the working muscle. Less is known about the regulation of lipid metabolism in the liver during and post-exercise. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed an ultra fast liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS based lipidomics analysis of liver tissue samples obtained from C57Bl/6J mice immediately after a 60 min treadmill run of moderate intensity, and after 3 h of recovery. The PLS-DA scores plot for 115 quantified lipid molecular species revealed a clear separation of the hepatic lipid profile of sedentary from recovering mice, but not from mice immediately after running. 21 lipid species were considered to be most responsible for the difference in the hepatic lipid profiles, including 17 triacylglycerides (TG, one lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC and three phosphatidylcholines (PC. TG species were found to be more abundant in the recovery phase, while PC species were decreased. The degree of accumulation of individual TG species correlated well with the amount of theoretical energy stored whereas no increase was found for TG species containing only saturated or one monounsaturated fatty acid. Total liver TG content as assayed by an enzymatic method was increased to 163% in the recovery phase, while it was significantly decreased in skeletal muscle by the exercise bout and remained less in the recovery phase. Results from fasted and refed mice indicate that fasting-induced lipolysis was associated with a pronounced accumulation of hepatic TG, which is reversed by refeeding for 5 h. Thus food intake per se did not elevate hepatic TG. CONCLUSION: These data indicate that high availability of FFA induced by endurance exercise or fasting resulted in a transient hepatic TG accumulation, while muscle TG content was decreased during exercise presumably due to increased muscle fatty

  15. The influence of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on cortical contributions to motor preparation and execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Jonathan S; Middleton, Laura E; McIlroy, William E; Staines, W Richard

    2014-10-01

    Increasing evidence supports the use of physical activity for modifying brain activity and overall neurological health. Specifically, aerobic exercise appears to have a positive effect on cognitive function, which some have suggested to be a result of increasing levels of arousal. However, the role of aerobic exercise on movement-related cortical activity is less clear. We tested the hypothesis that (1) an acute bout of exercise modulates excitability within motor areas and (2) transient effects would be sustained as long as sympathetic drive remained elevated (indicated by heart rate). In experiment 1, participants performed unimanual self-paced wrist extension movements before and after a 20-min, moderate intensity aerobic exercise intervention on a recumbent cycle ergometer. After the cessation of exercise, Bereitschaftspotentials (BP), representative cortical markers for motor preparation, were recorded immediately postexercise (Post) and following a return to baseline heart rate (Post[Rest]). Electroencephalography (EEG) was used to measure the BP time-locked to onset of muscle activity and separated into three main components: early, late and reafferent potentials. In experiment 2, two additional time points postexercise were added to the original protocol following the Post[Rest] condition. Early BP but not late BP was influenced by aerobic exercise, evidenced by an earlier onset, indicative of a regionally selective effect across BP generators. Moreover, this effect was sustained for up to an hour following exercise cessation and this effect was following a return to baseline heart rate. These data demonstrate that acute aerobic exercise may alter and possibly enhance the cortical substrates required for the preparation of movement. PMID:25355852

  16. Dopamine modulates the rest period length without perturbation of its power law distribution in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Ueno

    Full Text Available We analyzed the effects of dopamine signaling on the temporal organization of rest and activity in Drosophila melanogaster. Locomotor behaviors were recorded using a video-monitoring system, and the amounts of movements were quantified by using an image processing program. We, first, confirmed that rest bout durations followed long-tailed (i.e., power-law distributions, whereas activity bout durations did not with a strict method described by Clauset et al. We also studied the effects of circadian rhythm and ambient temperature on rest bouts and activity bouts. The fraction of activity significantly increased during subjective day and at high temperature, but the power-law exponent of the rest bout distribution was not affected. The reduction in rest was realized by reduction in long rest bouts. The distribution of activity bouts did not change drastically under the above mentioned conditions. We then assessed the effects of dopamine. The distribution of rest bouts became less long-tailed and the time spent in activity significantly increased after the augmentation of dopamine signaling. Administration of a dopamine biosynthesis inhibitor yielded the opposite effects. However, the distribution of activity bouts did not contribute to the changes. These results suggest that the modulation of locomotor behavior by dopamine is predominantly controlled by changing the duration of rest bouts, rather than the duration of activity bouts.

  17. A combined M5P tree and hazard-based duration model for predicting urban freeway traffic accident durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lei; Wang, Qian; Sadek, Adel W

    2016-06-01

    The duration of freeway traffic accidents duration is an important factor, which affects traffic congestion, environmental pollution, and secondary accidents. Among previous studies, the M5P algorithm has been shown to be an effective tool for predicting incident duration. M5P builds a tree-based model, like the traditional classification and regression tree (CART) method, but with multiple linear regression models as its leaves. The problem with M5P for accident duration prediction, however, is that whereas linear regression assumes that the conditional distribution of accident durations is normally distributed, the distribution for a "time-to-an-event" is almost certainly nonsymmetrical. A hazard-based duration model (HBDM) is a better choice for this kind of a "time-to-event" modeling scenario, and given this, HBDMs have been previously applied to analyze and predict traffic accidents duration. Previous research, however, has not yet applied HBDMs for accident duration prediction, in association with clustering or classification of the dataset to minimize data heterogeneity. The current paper proposes a novel approach for accident duration prediction, which improves on the original M5P tree algorithm through the construction of a M5P-HBDM model, in which the leaves of the M5P tree model are HBDMs instead of linear regression models. Such a model offers the advantage of minimizing data heterogeneity through dataset classification, and avoids the need for the incorrect assumption of normality for traffic accident durations. The proposed model was then tested on two freeway accident datasets. For each dataset, the first 500 records were used to train the following three models: (1) an M5P tree; (2) a HBDM; and (3) the proposed M5P-HBDM, and the remainder of data were used for testing. The results show that the proposed M5P-HBDM managed to identify more significant and meaningful variables than either M5P or HBDMs. Moreover, the M5P-HBDM had the lowest overall mean

  18. Duration of nuclear explosion ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper evaluates the duration of strong ground shaking that results from nuclear explosions and identifies some of the problems associated with its determination. Knowledge of the duration of horizontal ground shaking is important out to epicentral distances of about 44 km and 135 km, the approximate distances at which the ground shaking level falls to 0.01 g for nuclear explosions having yields of about 100 kt and 1,000 kt, respectively. Evaluation of the strong ground motions recorded from the event STRAIT (M/sub L/ = 5.6) on a linear array of five, broad-band velocity seismographs deployed in the distance range 3.2 to 19.5 km provides information about the characteristics of the duration of ground shaking. The STRAIT data show that: (1) the definition that is used for defining duration is very important; (2) the duration of ground acceleration, as defined in terms of 90% of the integral of the squared time history, increased from about 4 to 26 sec over the approximately 20-km distance range; and (3) the duration of ground velocity and displacement were slightly greater because of the effect of the alluvium layer on the propagating surface waves. Data from other events augment the STRAIT data and show that: (1) duration of shaking is increased by frequency-dependent site effects and (2) duration of shaking, as defined by the integral of the squared time history, does not increase as rapidly with increase in yield as is indicated by other definitions of duration that are stated in terms of an amplitude threshold (e.g., bracketed duration, response envelopes). The available data suggest that the duration of ground acceleration, based on the integral definition, varies from about 4 to 40 sec for a 100-kt range explosion and from about 4 to 105 sec for a megaton range explosion in the epicentral distance range of 0 to 44 km and 0 to 135 km, respectively

  19. Talkin' 'bout My Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickes, Persis C.

    2010-01-01

    The monikers are many: (1) "Generation Y"; (2) "Echo Boomers"; (3) "GenMe"; (4) the "Net Generation"; (5) "RenGen"; and (6) "Generation Next". One name that appears to be gaining currency is "Millennials," perhaps as a way to better differentiate the current generation from its predecessor, Generation X. Millennials are those individuals born…

  20. Interaction of Factors Related to Lactation Duration

    OpenAIRE

    Boettcher, Joan P; Chezem, Jo Carol; Roepke, Judith; Whitaker, Tracy Adams

    1999-01-01

    Perceived social support and interpersonal dependency were studied as potential factors associated with lactation duration based upon previous breastfeeding experience. Inexperienced breastfeeding mothers perceived more social support than experienced breastfeeding mothers did. Perceived social support was not significantly correlated with lactation duration. An ancillary finding was that women providing a combination of breast milk and human milk substitutes had significantly lower social se...

  1. Valsalva maneuver: shortest optimal expiratory strain duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh K. Khurana, Md

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To quantitate the level of difficulty and determine consistency of hemodynamic responses with various expiratory strain (ES durations. Methods : Thirty-four healthy subjects performed the Valsalva maneuver (VM with an ES duration of 10, 12, and 15 seconds in random order. Level of difficulty after each trial was rated 1 to 10, with 10 being the most difficult. Blood pressure and heart rate (HR were recorded continuously and non-invasively. Parameters studied were Valsalva ratio (VR, early phase II (IIE, late phase II (IIL, tachycardia latency (TL, bradycardia latency (BL, and overshoot latency (OV-L. Consistency of responses was calculated. Results : Difficulty increased significantly with increased ES duration: 5.1±0.1 (mean±SEM at 10 seconds, 5.9±0.1 at 12 seconds, and 6.8±0.1 at 15 seconds (p<0.001. Phase IIE, TL, BL, OV-L, and VR response did not differ statistically with increasing ES durations, and there were no differences in variability. Phase IIL response increased significantly with increasing ES duration. Phase IIL was poorly delineated in 14 of 102 trials with 10 seconds ES duration. Conclusions : ES duration of 10 seconds created a low level of difficulty in healthy individuals. This strain duration produced consistent hemodynamic response for all parameters tested except IIL phase. The absence of IIL phase with 10 seconds ES should not be interpreted as an indicator of sympathetic vasoconstrictor failure.

  2. Enhancing duration processing with parietal brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormal, Valérie; Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Pesenti, Mauro; Walsh, Vincent; Cappelletti, Marinella

    2016-05-01

    Numerosity and duration are thought to share common magnitude-based mechanisms in brain regions including the right parietal and frontal cortices like the supplementary motor area, SMA. Numerosity and duration are, however, also different in several intrinsic features. For instance, in a quantification context, numerosity is known for being more automatically accessed than temporal events, and durations are by definition sequential whereas numerosity can be both sequential and simultaneous. Moreover, numerosity and duration processing diverge in terms of their neuronal correlates. Whether these observed neuronal specificities can be accounted for by differences in automaticity or presentation-mode is however not clear. To address this issue, we used brain stimulation (transcranial random noise stimulation, tRNS) to the right parietal cortex or the SMA combined with experimental stimuli differing in their level of automaticity (numerosity and duration) and presentation mode (sequential or simultaneous). Compared to a no stimulation group, performance changed in duration but not in numerosity categorisation following right parietal but not SMA stimulation. These results indicate that the right parietal cortex is critical for duration processing, and suggest that tRNS has a stronger effect on less automatic processes such as duration. PMID:27037043

  3. From Sleep Duration to Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Börnhorst, Claudia; Hense, Sabrina; Ahrens, Wolfgang;

    2012-01-01

    Sleep duration has been identified as risk factor for obesity already in children. Besides investigating the role of fat mass (FM), this study addressed the question whether endocrine mechanisms act as intermediates in the association between sleep duration and overweight/obesity. Within...... the framework of the IDEFICS study, the present research was conducted in 609 German resident children aged 2–9 years with information on fasting insulin, C-reactive protein and cortisol levels next to anthropometric measurements and parental questionnaires. Emphasising methodological aspects, an age......-specific measure of sleep duration was derived to account for alteration in sleep duration during childhood/period of growth. Multivariate linear regression and quantile regression models confirmed an inverse relationship between sleep duration and measures of overweight/obesity. The estimate for the association...

  4. Developing Project Duration Models in Software Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pierre Bourque; Serge Oligny; Alain Abran; Bertrand Fournier

    2007-01-01

    Based on the empirical analysis of data contained in the International Software Benchmarking Standards Group(ISBSG) repository, this paper presents software engineering project duration models based on project effort. Duration models are built for the entire dataset and for subsets of projects developed for personal computer, mid-range and mainframeplatforms. Duration models are also constructed for projects requiring fewer than 400 person-hours of effort and for projectsre quiring more than 400 person-hours of effort. The usefulness of adding the maximum number of assigned resources as asecond independent variable to explain duration is also analyzed. The opportunity to build duration models directly fromproject functional size in function points is investigated as well.

  5. 7 CFR 201.58 - Substrata, temperature, duration of test, and certain other specific directions for testing for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 201.58, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substrata, temperature, duration of test, and certain... REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.58 Substrata, temperature, duration...

  6. The impact of cell phone use on the intensity and liking of a bout of treadmill exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Rebold

    Full Text Available This study used a within-subjects design to assess the effect of three common cellular telephone (cell phone functions (texting, talking, listening to music on planned exercise. Forty-four young adults (n = 33 females, 21.8 ± 1.3 years each participated in four, separate, 30-minute exercise conditions on a treadmill in a random order. During each condition, the treadmill speed display was covered and grade was fixed at zero. However, participants were able to alter treadmill speed as desired. Throughout the texting and talking conditions, research personnel used a pre-determined script to simulate cell phone conversations. During the music condition, participants used their cell phone to listen to music of their choice. Finally, participants completed a control condition with no cell phone access. For each condition, average treadmill speed, heart rate and liking (via visual analog scale were assessed. Treadmill speed (3.4 ± 1.3 miles∙hour(-1, heart rate (122.3 ± 24.3 beats∙min(-1 and liking (7.5 ± 1.5 cm in the music condition were significantly (p ≤ 0.014 greater than all other conditions. Treadmill speed in the control condition (3.1 ± 1.2 miles∙hour(-1 was significantly (p = 0.04 greater than both texting and talking (2.8 ± 1.1 miles∙hour(-1 each. Heart rate during the control condition (115.4 ± 22.8 beats∙min(-1 was significantly (p = 0.04 greater than texting (109.9 ± 16.4 beats∙min(-1 but not talking (112.6 ± 16.1 beats∙min(-1. Finally, liking during the talking condition (5.4 ± 2.2 cm was greater (p = 0.05 than the control (4.3 ± 2.2 cm but not the texting (5.1 ± 2.2 cm conditions. In conclusion, using a cell phone for listening to music can increase the intensity (speed and heart rate and liking of a bout of treadmill exercise. However, other common cell phone uses (texting and talking can interfere with treadmill exercise and reduce intensity.

  7. Alcohol ingestion impairs maximal post-exercise rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis following a single bout of concurrent training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn B Parr

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The culture in many team sports involves consumption of large amounts of alcohol after training/competition. The effect of such a practice on recovery processes underlying protein turnover in human skeletal muscle are unknown. We determined the effect of alcohol intake on rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS following strenuous exercise with carbohydrate (CHO or protein ingestion. METHODS: In a randomized cross-over design, 8 physically active males completed three experimental trials comprising resistance exercise (8×5 reps leg extension, 80% 1 repetition maximum followed by continuous (30 min, 63% peak power output (PPO and high intensity interval (10×30 s, 110% PPO cycling. Immediately, and 4 h post-exercise, subjects consumed either 500 mL of whey protein (25 g; PRO, alcohol (1.5 g·kg body mass⁻¹, 12±2 standard drinks co-ingested with protein (ALC-PRO, or an energy-matched quantity of carbohydrate also with alcohol (25 g maltodextrin; ALC-CHO. Subjects also consumed a CHO meal (1.5 g CHO·kg body mass⁻¹ 2 h post-exercise. Muscle biopsies were taken at rest, 2 and 8 h post-exercise. RESULTS: Blood alcohol concentration was elevated above baseline with ALC-CHO and ALC-PRO throughout recovery (P<0.05. Phosphorylation of mTOR(Ser2448 2 h after exercise was higher with PRO compared to ALC-PRO and ALC-CHO (P<0.05, while p70S6K phosphorylation was higher 2 h post-exercise with ALC-PRO and PRO compared to ALC-CHO (P<0.05. Rates of MPS increased above rest for all conditions (∼29-109%, P<0.05. However, compared to PRO, there was a hierarchical reduction in MPS with ALC-PRO (24%, P<0.05 and with ALC-CHO (37%, P<0.05. CONCLUSION: We provide novel data demonstrating that alcohol consumption reduces rates of MPS following a bout of concurrent exercise, even when co-ingested with protein. We conclude that alcohol ingestion suppresses the anabolic response in skeletal muscle and may therefore impair recovery and adaptation

  8. Kinematics of swimming and thrust production during powerstroking bouts of the swim frenzy in green turtle hatchlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T. Booth

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hatchling sea turtles emerge from nests, crawl down the beach and enter the sea where they typically enter a stereotypical hyperactive swimming frenzy. During this swim the front flippers are moved up and down in a flapping motion and are the primary source of thrust production. I used high-speed video linked with simultaneous measurement of thrust production in tethered hatchlings, along with high-speed video of free swimming hatchlings swimming at different water speeds in a swim flume to investigate the links between kinematics of front flipper movement, thrust production and swimming speed. In particular I tested the hypotheses that (1 increased swimming speed is achieved through an increased stroke rate; (2 force produced per stroke is proportional to stroke amplitude, (3 that forward thrust is produced during both the down and up phases of stroking; and (4 that peak thrust is produced towards the end of the downstroke cycle. Front flipper stroke rate was independent of water speed refuting the hypothesis that swimming speed is increased by increasing stroke rate. Instead differences in swimming speed were caused by a combination of varying flipper amplitude and the proportion of time spent powerstroking. Peak thrust produced per stroke varied within and between bouts of powerstroking, and these peaks in thrust were correlated with both flipper amplitude and flipper angular momentum during the downstroke supporting the hypothesis that stroke force is a function of stroke amplitude. Two distinct thrust production patterns were identified, monophasic in which a single peak in thrust was recorded during the later stages of the downstroke, and biphasic in which a small peak in thrust was recorded at the very end of the upstroke and this followed by a large peak in thrust during the later stages of the downstroke. The biphasic cycle occurs in ∼20% of hatchlings when they first started swimming, but disappeared after one to two hours of

  9. Research on determinants of breastfeeding duration: suggestions for biocultural studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, L H; Pelto, G H

    1985-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to suggest directions for future intra-cultural research on the factors that affect breastfeeding duration, especially policy-oriented research. A 2nd purpose is to call for a reexamination of the theoretical construct, biocultural determinants, with respect to infant feeding. The study compares determinants in 4 multivariate studies. One was carried out in Connecticut, 1 in a working class community in Scotland, another in England and the 4th in Sweden. Almost no biological factors are strongly associated with breastfeeding duration in any of the population studied. Of the external factors, those relating to social support and advice were the most consistent predictors. Socioeconomic status, income, and work outside the home were not good predictors. Maternal attitudes and experience are of great importance in predicting feeding duration. The general picture that emerged from all the studies is that if a mother wants to breastfeed, she can. Mothers breastfeed longer if they desire to breastfeed; they intend to do it for a longer period of time; they feel comfortable feeding in public; they are informed about breastfeeding; and they are not anxious about the process. There is also fairly strong evidence linking a number of biocultural factors to feeding duration. Whether the linkage is biological or behavioral has significant policy implications: if it is biological, successful intervention would require a change in hospital practices to earlier 1st feeding; if the linkage is behavioral, the problem might be resolved through improved maternal education. PMID:3836324

  10. Repetition enhancement and memory effects for duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Martin; Thompson, James C

    2015-06-01

    A remarkable aspect of conscious perception is that moments carryover from one to the next, also known as temporal continuity. This ability is thus crucial for detecting regularities, such as in speech and music, and may rely on an accurate perception of time. Investigations of human time perception have detailed two electroencephalographic (EEG) components associated with timing, the contingent negative variation (CNV) and late positive component of timing (LPCt); however, the precise roles of these components in timing remain elusive. Recently, we demonstrated that the perception of duration is influenced by durations presented on prior trials, which we explained by the creation of an implicit memory standard that adapts to local changes in sequence presentation. Here, we turn to the neural basis of this effect. Human participants performed a temporal bisection task in which they were required to classify the duration of auditory stimuli into short and long duration categories; crucially, the presentation order was first-order counterbalanced, allowing us to measure the effect of each presented duration on the next. EEG recordings revealed that the CNV and LPCt signals both covaried with the duration presented on the current trial, with CNV predicting reaction time and LPCt predicting choice. Additionally, both signals covaried with the duration presented in the prior trial but in different ways, with the CNV amplitude reflecting the change in the memory standard and the LPCt reflecting decision uncertainty. Furthermore, we observed a repetition enhancement effect of duration only for the CNV, suggesting that this signal additionally indexes the similarity of successive durations. These findings demonstrate dissociable roles for the CNV and LPCt, and demonstrate that both signals are continuously updated on a trial-by-trial basis that reflects shifts in temporal decisions. PMID:25818689

  11. Evidence that gestation duration and lactation duration are coupled traits in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubman, Evgenia; Collard, Mark; Mooers, Arne Ø

    2012-12-23

    Gestation duration and lactation duration are usually treated as independently evolving traits in primates, but the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) suggests both durations should be determined by metabolic rate. We used phylogenetic generalized least-squares linear regression to test these different perspectives. We found that the allometries of the durations are divergent from each other and different from the scaling exponent predicted by the MTE (0.25). Gestation duration increases much more slowly (0.06 switch from gestation to lactation in relation to some as-yet-unidentified body-size-related factor. PMID:22915631

  12. Effect of time and weather on preference, frequency, and duration of shade use by horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, K E; Stull, C L

    2016-04-01

    The Federation of Animal Science Societies (FASS) recommends providing access to shade for horses in hot, sunny weather at equine facilities. Previously, we found that healthy, mature domestic horses use shade with behavioral and physiological benefits during those weather conditions. The objective of this study was to characterize preference, frequency, and duration of shade use by healthy, mature horses in a Bureau of Land Management (BLM) holding facility during hot, sunny weather. The study took place at the BLM's Palomino Valley Wild Horse and Burro Center in Reno, NV, from Aug. 10 to Oct. 1, 2014. Freestanding shade structures were constructed in each of 2 drylot pens with shade cloth covering the top that blocked 98% of UV radiation. A group of 4 mares was placed in each of the 2 pens. After a 2-d acclimation period, data were recorded for 5 d, the horses were moved to the opposite pen, and data collected for an additional 5 d. This schedule was repeated for a total of 4 consecutive trials and 32 horses. Footage from time-lapse cameras was viewed at 10 s intervals between 0930 and 1700 h to record each horse's position relative to shade. Dosimeters secured to horses' halters recorded UV exposure. Automated weather stations recorded daytime ambient temperature (mean 25.9°C [SD 5.8]), relative humidity (mean 25.4% [SD 17.1]), black globe temperature (mean 29.3°C [SD 6.5] in shade and 35.8°C [SD 8.0] in unshaded area), and solar radiation (mean 595 W/m [SD 235]). Horses spent 10.9% more time in shade than by chance ( < 0.0001) within the drylots across all 40 study days. Mean daily time spent in shade was 107.9 min/horse (SD 66.9), comprising 17.1 bouts (SD 12.1) with an average bout length of 6.3 min (SD 3.4). The mean daily UV Index experienced by horses in these partially shaded drylots was 1.52 (SD 0.58) compared with 3.4 (SD 1.5) for a control instrument in the sun. Horses used shade more on the sunniest days and greater than just by chance at all hours

  13. High-intensity interval training: Modulating interval duration in overweight/obese men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Ryan, Abbie E.; Melvin, Malia N.; Wingfield, Hailee L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient strategy shown to induce various cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations. Little is known about the optimal tolerable combination of intensity and volume necessary for adaptations, especially in clinical populations. Objectives In a randomized controlled pilot design, we evaluated the effects of two types of interval training protocols, varying in intensity and interval duration, on clinical outcomes in overweight/obese men. Methods Twenty-five men [body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg·m2] completed baseline body composition measures: fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM) and percent body fat (%BF) and fasting blood glucose, lipids and insulin (IN). A graded exercise cycling test was completed for peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and power output (PO). Participants were randomly assigned to high-intensity short interval (1MIN-HIIT), high-intensity interval (2MIN-HIIT) or control groups. 1MIN-HIIT and 2MIN-HIIT completed 3 weeks of cycling interval training, 3 days/week, consisting of either 10 × 1 min bouts at 90% PO with 1 min rests (1MIN-HIIT) or 5 × 2 min bouts with 1 min rests at undulating intensities (80%–100%) (2MIN-HIIT). Results There were no significant training effects on FM (Δ1.06 ± 1.25 kg) or %BF (Δ1.13% ± 1.88%), compared to CON. Increases in LM were not significant but increased by 1.7 kg and 2.1 kg for 1MIN and 2MIN-HIIT groups, respectively. Increases in VO2peak were also not significant for 1MIN (3.4 ml·kg−1·min−1) or 2MIN groups (2.7 ml·kg−1·min−1). IN sensitivity (HOMA-IR) improved for both training groups (Δ −2.78 ± 3.48 units; p HIIT may be an effective short-term strategy to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and IN sensitivity in overweight males. PMID:25913937

  14. Computer use, sleep duration and health symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuutinen, Teija; Roos, Eva; Ray, Carola;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether computer use is associated with health symptoms through sleep duration among 15-year olds in Finland, France and Denmark. METHODS: We used data from the WHO cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study collected in Finland, France and...... Denmark in 2010, including data on 5,402 adolescents (mean age 15.61 (SD 0.37), girls 53 %). Symptoms assessed included feeling low, irritability/bad temper, nervousness, headache, stomachache, backache, and feeling dizzy. We used structural equation modeling to explore the mediating effect of sleep...... duration on the association between computer use and symptom load. RESULTS: Adolescents slept approximately 8 h a night and computer use was approximately 2 h a day. Computer use was associated with shorter sleep duration and higher symptom load. Sleep duration partly mediated the association between...

  15. Model-Checking Discrete Duration Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    1994-01-01

    Duration calculus was introduced by Chaochen Zhou et al. (1991) as a logic to specify and reason about requirements for real-time systems. It is an extension of interval temporal logic where one can reason about integrated constraints over time-dependent and Boolean valued states without explicit...... mention of absolute time. Several major case studies have shown that duration calculus provides a high level of abstraction for both expressing and reasoning about specifications. Using timed automata one can express how real-time systems can be constructed at a level of detail which is close to an actual...... implementation. We consider in the paper the correctness of timed automata with respect to duration calculus formulae. For a subset of duration calculus, we show that one can automatically verify whether a timed automaton ℳ is correct with respect to a formula 𝒟, abbreviated ℳ|=𝒟, i.e. one...

  16. Long Duration Space Shelter Shielding Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has developed fiber reinforced ceramic composites for radiation shielding that can be used for external walls in long duration manned...

  17. Sleep Duration and Breast Cancer Phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Khawaja; Santosh Rao; Li Li; Thompson, Cheryl L.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that short sleep is associated with an increased risk of cancer; however, little has been done to study the role of sleep on tumor characteristics. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between sleep duration and tumor phenotype in 972 breast cancer patients. Sleep duration was inversely associated with tumor grade (univariate P = 0.032), particularly in postmenopausal women (univariate P = 0.018). This association did not reach statistical significance after...

  18. Performance Sampling and Bimodal Duration Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Jerker Denrell; Zur Shapira

    2006-01-01

    Performance sampling models of duration dependence in employee turnover and firm exit predict that hazard rates will initially be low, gradually rise to a maximum, and then fall. As we note in this paper, however, several empirical duration distributions have bimodal hazard rates. This paper shows that such bimodal hazard rates can be derived from existing models of performance sampling by small changes in the assumptions. In particular, bimodal hazard rates emerge if the mean or the variance...

  19. Duration of the pluviometric deficit in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    AZEM BARDHI1; BESNIK GJONGECAJ

    2014-01-01

    The pluviometric deficit is the part of water amount evapotranspirated from the field but not getting replaced by the rainfall in a given period of time. That is why the pluviometric deficit could get quantified only when both, the potential evapotranspiration and rainfall are determined quantitatively. However, the pluviometric deficit is made of two dimensions: duration and magnitude. The aim of this paper is to present the results of a study done throughout Albania on the duration of pluvi...

  20. Call Duration Characteristics based on Customers Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žvinys Karolis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays a lot of different researches are performed based on call duration distributions (CDD analysis. However, the majority of studies are linked with social relationships between the people. Therefore the scarcity of information, how the call duration is associated with a user's location, is appreciable. The goal of this paper is to reveal the ties between user's voice call duration and the location of call. For this reason we analyzed more than 5 million calls from real mobile network, which were made over the base stations located in rural areas, roads, small towns, business and entertainment centers, residential districts. According to these site types CDD’s and characteristic features for call durations are given and discussed. Submitted analysis presents the users habits and behavior as a group (not an individual. The research showed that CDD’s of customers being them in different locations are not equal. It has been found that users at entertainment, business centers are tend to talk much shortly, than people being at home. Even more CDD can be distorted strongly, when machinery calls are evaluated. Hence to apply a common CDD for a whole network it is not recommended. The study also deals with specific parameters of call duration for distinguished user groups, the influence of network technology for call duration is considered.

  1. Satellite-Based Sunshine Duration for Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo Ahrens

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two different methods were applied to derive daily and monthly sunshine duration based on high-resolution satellite products provided by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring using data from Meteosat Second Generation (MSG SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager. The satellite products were either hourly cloud type or hourly surface incoming direct radiation. The satellite sunshine duration estimates were not found to be significantly different using the native 15-minute temporal resolution of SEVIRI. The satellite-based sunshine duration products give additional spatial information over the European continent compared with equivalent in situ-based products. An evaluation of the satellite sunshine duration by product intercomparison and against station measurements was carried out to determine their accuracy. The satellite data were found to be within ±1 h/day compared to high-quality Baseline Surface Radiation Network or surface synoptic observations (SYNOP station measurements. The satellite-based products differ more over the oceans than over land, mainly because of the treatment of fractional clouds in the cloud type-based sunshine duration product. This paper presents the methods used to derive the satellite sunshine duration products and the performance of the different retrievals. The main benefits and disadvantages compared to station-based products are also discussed.

  2. Hemodynamic mechanisms of the attenuated blood pressure response to mental stress after a single bout of maximal dynamic exercise in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Neves

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To determine the hemodynamic mechanisms responsible for the attenuated blood pressure response to mental stress after exercise, 26 healthy sedentary individuals (age 29 ± 8 years underwent the Stroop color-word test before and 60 min after a bout of maximal dynamic exercise on a treadmill. A subgroup (N = 11 underwent a time-control experiment without exercise. Blood pressure was continuously and noninvasively recorded by infrared finger photoplethysmography. Stroke volume was derived from pressure signals, and cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance were calculated. Perceived mental stress scores were comparable between mental stress tests both in the exercise (P = 0.96 and control (P = 0.24 experiments. After exercise, the blood pressure response to mental stress was attenuated (pre: 10 ± 13 vs post: 6 ± 7 mmHg; P 0.05. In conclusion, a single bout of maximal dynamic exercise attenuates the blood pressure response to mental stress in healthy subjects, along with lower stroke volume and cardiac output, denoting an acute modulatory action of exercise on the central hemodynamic response to mental stress.

  3. The Effect of Different Recovery Duration on Repeated Anaerobic Performance in Elite Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harbili Sultan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of recovery duration on repeated anaerobic performance in elite cyclists. The study followed a cross-over design protocol. Twelve elite male cyclists were randomly assigned to three groups (with recovery duration of 1, 2 and 3 min, respectively. All the subjects performed 4 repeated Wingate tests (4 × 30 s WT at 48 h intervals for three different recovery periods. No significant interaction was observed between the effects of recovery duration and repetition (p>0.05, whereas there was a significant main effect of repetition on peak power, mean power, and a fatigue index (p0.05. In contrast, mean power decreased significantly in repeated WTs with 1, 2 and 3 min recovery duration (p0.05. In a 4 × 30 s WT, peak power decreased in cycles with 1 and 2 min recovery duration, but remained unchanged with 3 min recovery duration, whereas mean power decreased in all recovery duration procedures. The WT with 1 min recovery duration caused greater fatigue. Although recovery duration affected both peak power and mean power, the effect on peak power was greater.

  4. Duration reproduction with sensory feedback delay: Differential involvement of perception and action time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie eGanzenmüller

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that voluntary action can attract subsequent, delayed feedback events towards the action, and adaptation to the sensorimotor delay can even reverse motor-sensory temporal-order judgments. However, whether and how sensorimotor delay affects duration reproduction is still unclear. To investigate this, we injected an onset- or offset-delay to the sensory feedback signal from a duration reproduction task. We compared duration reproductions within (visual, auditory modality and across audiovisual modalities with feedback signal onset- and offset-delay manipulations. We found that the reproduced duration was lengthened in both visual and auditory feedback signal onset-delay conditions. The lengthening effect was evident immediately, on the first trial with the onset delay. However, when the onset of the feedback signal was prior to the action, the lengthening effect was diminished. In contrast, a shortening effect was found with feedback signal offset-delay, though the effect was weaker and manifested only in the auditory offset-delay condition. These findings indicate that participants tend to mix the onset of action and the feedback signal more when the feedback is delayed, and they heavily rely on motor-stop signals for the duration reproduction. Furthermore, auditory duration was overestimated compared to visual duration in crossmodal feedback conditions, and the overestimation of auditory duration (or the underestimation of visual duration was independent of the delay manipulation.

  5. Access to Electric Light Is Associated with Shorter Sleep Duration in a Traditionally Hunter-Gatherer Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Fernández-Duque, Eduardo; Golombek, Diego A; Lanza, Norberto; Duffy, Jeanne F; Czeisler, Charles A; Valeggia, Claudia R

    2015-08-01

    Access to electric light might have shifted the ancestral timing and duration of human sleep. To test this hypothesis, we studied two communities of the historically hunter-gatherer indigenous Toba/Qom in the Argentinean Chaco. These communities share the same ethnic and sociocultural background, but one has free access to electricity while the other relies exclusively on natural light. We fitted participants in each community with wrist activity data loggers to assess their sleep-wake cycles during one week in the summer and one week in the winter. During the summer, participants with access to electricity had a tendency to a shorter daily sleep bout (43 ± 21 min) than those living under natural light conditions. This difference was due to a later daily bedtime and sleep onset in the community with electricity, but a similar sleep offset and rise time in both communities. In the winter, participants without access to electricity slept longer (56 ± 17 min) than those with access to electricity, and this was also related to earlier bedtimes and sleep onsets than participants in the community with electricity. In both communities, daily sleep duration was longer during the winter than during the summer. Our field study supports the notion that access to inexpensive sources of artificial light and the ability to create artificially lit environments must have been key factors in reducing sleep in industrialized human societies. PMID:26092820

  6. Physical Activity in the School Setting: Cognitive Performance Is Not Affected by Three Different Types of Acute Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    van den Berg, Vera; Saliasi, Emi; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle; Chinapaw, Mai; Singh, Amika

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that a single bout of physical exercise can have immediate positive effects on cognitive performance of children and adolescents. However, the type of exercise that affects cognitive performance the most in young adolescents is not fully understood. Therefore, this controlled study examined the acute effects of three types of 12-min classroom-based exercise sessions on information processing speed and selective attention. The three conditions consisted of aerobic, coor...

  7. Effect of temperature and heating duration of drying on quality of low amylose rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutarop Yardthaisong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Processed food is mostly made from stale rice which contains high viscosity. However the storage of stale rice takes approximately 4-6 months, so acceleration aging of rice saves time and area in the warehouse. Therefore the study aims to observe effects of temperatures and heating duration on the quality of rice with initial low-amylose. Optimum temperature and heating duration of rice quality similar to stale rice were analyzed. The Khao Dok Mali 105 has been tested under controlled temperatures at 70, 80 and 90 °C with heating duration for 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours. The results showed that final viscosity, color value, amylose content and grain cracking increased, but Breakdown decreased as temperature, heating duration and storage time increased. The optimum temperature at 90 °C and heating duration for 4 hours affected to rice quality in the experiment similar to stale rice after storage for 4 months.

  8. Relationships between facial temperature changes, end-exercise affect and during-exercise changes in affect: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Fabien D; Bertucci, William M; Arfaoui, Ahlem

    2015-01-01

    The present study was performed as an evaluation of the relationships between changes in facial temperature and self-reported pleasure-displeasure during an acute aerobic exercise bout. Ninety-two students performed a 10-minute long session of cycle ergometry at 80-85% of age-predicted maximal heart rate. Using infrared thermography and a single-item measure of pleasure-displeasure (the Feeling Scale, FS), facial temperature and the FS score were sampled at the beginning (Min1:00) and at the end of the exercise session (Min9:00). Statistical analyses revealed that cheek (but not forehead) temperature was higher at the end of the exercise bout compared to Min1:00 (it increased by about 5%). Change in cheek temperature was negatively related to end-exercise affect (β = -0.28, P affective changes (β = -0.35, P temperature was found. Some of the possible reasons for this differential effect as well as theoretical and practical implications of our findings are discussed. PMID:25131146

  9. A study of duration of digital dermatitis lesions after treatment in a Danish dairy herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sørensen Jan T

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Digital dermatitis (DD is a contagious disease of cattle affecting the skin adjacent to the claws. Disease dynamics of DD have been described to some extend, but we still need to quantify the duration of lesions and look into non-treatment factors affecting this. The aim of this study was to estimate the duration of lesions due to DD and to evaluate parity and lactation stage as potential risk factors for longer duration of such lesions. An estimate of the duration of lesions will be a valuable parameter in the evaluation of the economic impact of the disease and will additionally allow estimates of incidence based on prevalence figures. From May 2007 until November 2008, lesions associated with DD in the hind legs of 151 Danish Holstein cows at the Danish Cattle Research Centre were clinically scored on fifteen occasions. The mean interval between recordings was 39 days. Onset and end of each new case were estimated as midway between recordings prior to a change in the presence or absence of a lesion. Kaplan-Meier survival functions and Cox proportional hazard regression were performed to estimate the duration and analyse differences in the duration of lesions between primi- and multiparous cows and between different stages in lactation at onset of the lesion. The median duration of lesions were estimated to be 42 days, less than most previous published estimates. The relatively aggressive regime of topical treatment in the study herd might have shortened the duration of the lesions. Furthermore the comparatively long interval between recordings introduced an element of uncertainty in this estimate. No significant effects of parity or days in milk at lesion onset on the duration of DD were found using these data though lesions developed earlier in the lactation may have a longer duration. Further data would be needed to confirm the latter.

  10. Fluctuation behaviors of financial return volatility duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hongli; Wang, Jun; Lu, Yunfan

    2016-04-01

    It is of significantly crucial to understand the return volatility of financial markets because it helps to quantify the investment risk, optimize the portfolio, and provide a key input of option pricing models. The characteristics of isolated high volatility events above certain threshold in price fluctuations and the distributions of return intervals between these events arouse great interest in financial research. In the present work, we introduce a new concept of daily return volatility duration, which is defined as the shortest passage time when the future volatility intensity is above or below the current volatility intensity (without predefining a threshold). The statistical properties of the daily return volatility durations for seven representative stock indices from the world financial markets are investigated. Some useful and interesting empirical results of these volatility duration series about the probability distributions, memory effects and multifractal properties are obtained. These results also show that the proposed stock volatility series analysis is a meaningful and beneficial trial.

  11. Slow Wave Sleep and Long Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, Alexandra; Orr, Martin; Arias, Diana; Rueger, Melanie; Johnston, Smith; Leveton, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    While ground research has clearly shown that preserving adequate quantities of sleep is essential for optimal health and performance, changes in the progression, order and /or duration of specific stages of sleep is also associated with deleterious outcomes. As seen in Figure 1, in healthy individuals, REM and Non-REM sleep alternate cyclically, with stages of Non-REM sleep structured chronologically. In the early parts of the night, for instance, Non-REM stages 3 and 4 (Slow Wave Sleep, or SWS) last longer while REM sleep spans shorter; as night progresses, the length of SWS is reduced as REM sleep lengthens. This process allows for SWS to establish precedence , with increases in SWS seen when recovering from sleep deprivation. SWS is indeed regarded as the most restorative portion of sleep. During SWS, physiological activities such as hormone secretion, muscle recovery, and immune responses are underway, while neurological processes required for long term learning and memory consolidation, also occur. The structure and duration of specific sleep stages may vary independent of total sleep duration, and changes in the structure and duration have been shown to be associated with deleterious outcomes. Individuals with narcolepsy enter sleep through REM as opposed to stage 1 of NREM. Disrupting slow wave sleep for several consecutive nights without reducing total sleep duration or sleep efficiency is associated with decreased pain threshold, increased discomfort, fatigue, and the inflammatory flare response in skin. Depression has been shown to be associated with a reduction of slow wave sleep and increased REM sleep. Given research that shows deleterious outcomes are associated with changes in sleep structure, it is essential to characterize and mitigate not only total sleep duration, but also changes in sleep stages.

  12. Modeling Labor Market Behavior of the Population of a Large Industrial City: Duration of Registered Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Nivorozhkin Evgeny; Nivorozhkina Ludmila; Shukhmin Andrey

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes factors affecting the duration of registered unemployment and the intensity of the individuals' transition from unemployment to alternative states. The results will help evaluate the process of the population's adaptation to the government's system of employment assistance in Russia and the effects of this system on the duration of job searchers and the relative chances of employment for various socio-demographic groups of population. We also explore the effect of the legi...

  13. Generational status and duration of residence predict diabetes prevalence among Latinos: the California Men's Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sternfeld Barbara; Caan Bette; Quinn Virginia P; Ahmed Ameena T; Haque Reina; Van Den Eeden Stephen K

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Diabetes disproportionately affects Latinos. However, examining Latinos as one group obscures important intra-group differences. This study examined how generational status, duration of US residence, and language preference are associated with diabetes prevalence and to what extent these explain the higher prevalence among Latinos. Methods We determined nativity, duration of US residence, language preference, and diabetes prevalence among 11 817 Latino, 6109 black, and 52 ...

  14. Terrorism and cabinet duration: An empirical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gassebner, Martin; Jong-A-Pin, Richard; Mierau, Jochen O.

    2007-01-01

    We examine the relationship between terrorism and cabinet duration. Our data set includes more than 2,400 cabinets in over 150 countries in the period 1968-2002. We find a small, but significant effect of terrorism on the probability of government failure. Furthermore, we find that the impact of terrorism depends on the type of attack and is larger in case of more severe attacks. Marginal effect calculations show that the impact of terror on cabinet duration is larger than the impact of econo...

  15. Statistical analysis of random duration times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents basic statistical methods for analyzing data obtained by observing random time durations. It gives nonparametric estimates of the cumulative distribution function, reliability function and cumulative hazard function. These results can be applied with either complete or censored data. Several models which are commonly used with time data are discussed, and methods for model checking and goodness-of-fit tests are discussed. Maximum likelihood estimates and confidence limits are given for the various models considered. Some results for situations where repeated durations such as repairable systems are also discussed

  16. Auditory stimulus timing influences perceived duration of co-occurring visual stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo eRomei

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in multisensory influences upon sensory-specific judgements, such as when auditory stimuli affect visual perception. Here we studied whether the duration of an auditory event can objectively affect the perceived duration of a co-occurring visual event. On each trial, participants were presented with a pair of successive flashes and had to judge whether the first or second was longer. Two beeps were presented with the flashes. The order of short and long stimuli could be the same across audition and vision (audiovisual congruent or reversed, so that the longer flash was accompanied by the shorter beep and vice versa (audiovisual incongruent; or the two beeps could have the same duration as each other. Beeps and flashes could onset synchronously or asynchronously. In a further control experiment, the beep durations were much longer (tripled than the flashes. Results showed that visual duration-discrimination sensitivity (d' was significantly higher for congruent (and significantly lower for incongruent audiovisual synchronous combinations, relative to the visual only presentation. This effect was abolished when auditory and visual stimuli were presented asynchronously, or when sound durations tripled those of flashes. We conclude that the temporal properties of co-occurring auditory stimuli influence the perceived duration of visual stimuli and that this can reflect genuine changes in visual sensitivity rather than mere response bias.

  17. Short-term memory for event duration: modality specificity and goal dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2012-11-01

    Time perception is involved in various cognitive functions. This study investigated the characteristics of short-term memory for event duration by examining how the length of the retention period affects inter- and intramodal duration judgment. On each trial, a sample stimulus was followed by a comparison stimulus, after a variable delay period (0.5-5 s). The sample and comparison stimuli were presented in the visual or auditory modality. The participants determined whether the comparison stimulus was longer or shorter than the sample stimulus. The distortion pattern of subjective duration during the delay period depended on the sensory modality of the comparison stimulus but was not affected by that of the sample stimulus. When the comparison stimulus was visually presented, the retained duration of the sample stimulus was shortened as the delay period increased. Contrarily, when the comparison stimulus was presented in the auditory modality, the delay period had little to no effect on the retained duration. Furthermore, whenever the participants did not know the sensory modality of the comparison stimulus beforehand, the effect of the delay period disappeared. These results suggest that the memory process for event duration is specific to sensory modality and that its performance is determined depending on the sensory modality in which the retained duration will be used subsequently. PMID:22810560

  18. Homework schedule: an important factor associated with shorter sleep duration among Chinese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghui; Yang, Qian; Chen, Zhe; Jin, Xingming; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming

    2014-09-01

    This study was designed to examine the hypothesis that homework schedule has adverse impacts on Chinese children's sleep-wake habits and sleep duration. A random sample of 19,299 children aged 5.08 to 11.99 years old participated in a large, cross-sectional survey. A parent-administered questionnaire was completed to quantify children's homework schedule and sleep behaviors. Generally, it was demonstrated that more homework schedule was significantly associated with later bedtime, later wake time, and shorter sleep duration. Among all sleep variables, bedtime and sleep duration during weekdays appeared to be most affected by homework schedule, especially homework schedule during weekdays. PMID:24256420

  19. How climate seasonality modifies drought duration and deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loon, A. F.; Tijdeman, E.; Wanders, N.; Van Lanen, H. A.-J.; Teuling, A. J.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2014-04-01

    Drought propagation through the terrestrial hydrological cycle is associated with a change in drought characteristics (duration and deficit), moving from precipitation via soil moisture to discharge. Here we investigate climate controls on drought propagation with a modeling experiment in 1271 virtual catchments that differ only in climate type. For these virtual catchments we studied the bivariate distribution of drought duration and standardized deficit for the variables precipitation, soil moisture, and discharge. We found that for meteorological drought (below-normal precipitation), the bivariate distributions of drought characteristics have a linear shape in all climates and are thus not affected by seasonality in climate. Despite the linear shape of meteorological drought, soil moisture drought (below-normal storage in the unsaturated zone) and hydrological drought (below-normal water availability in aquifers, lakes, and/or streams) show strongly nonlinear shapes in drought characteristics in climates with a pronounced seasonal cycle in precipitation and/or temperature. These seasonality effects on drought propagation are found in monsoonal, savannah, and Mediterranean climate zones. In these regions, both soil moisture and discharge show deviating shapes in drought characteristics. The effect of seasonality on drought propagation is even stronger in cold seasonal climates (i.e., at high latitudes and altitudes), where snow accumulation during winter prevents recovery from summer hydrological drought, and deficit increases strongly with duration. This has important implications for water resources management in seasonal climates, which cannot solely rely on meteorology-based indices as proxies for hydrological drought duration and deficit and need to include seasonal variation in both precipitation and temperature in hydrological drought forecasting.

  20. Effects of emotional valence and arousal on acoustic duration reproduction assessed via the “dual klepsydra model”

    OpenAIRE

    Karin Meissner; Dharol Tankersley; Marc Wittmann

    2014-01-01

    We report results of an acoustic duration reproduction task with stimulus duration of 2, 4 and 6 s, using 45 emotionally negative, positive, and neutral sounds from the International Affective Digitized Sounds System, in a sample of 31 young healthy participants. To investigate the influence of induced emotions on perceived duration, the effects of emotional modulation were quantified in two ways: (i) via model-free indices (aggregated ratios of reproduced times), and (ii) via dual klepsydra ...

  1. Sleep Duration and Breast Cancer Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khawaja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that short sleep is associated with an increased risk of cancer; however, little has been done to study the role of sleep on tumor characteristics. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between sleep duration and tumor phenotype in 972 breast cancer patients. Sleep duration was inversely associated with tumor grade (univariate P=0.032, particularly in postmenopausal women (univariate P=0.018. This association did not reach statistical significance after adjustments for age, race, body mass index, hormone replacement therapy use, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity in the entire study sample (P=0.052, but it remained statistically significant (P=0.049 among post-menopausal patients. We did not observe a statistically significant association between sleep duration and stage at diagnosis, ER, or HER2 receptor status. These results present a modest association between short duration of sleep and higher grade breast cancer in post-menopausal women. Further work needs to be done to validate these findings.

  2. Prediction uncertainty in seasonal partial duration series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Funder; Rosbjerg, Dan

    1991-01-01

    In order to obtain a good description of the exceedances in a partial duration series it is often necessary to divide the year into a number (2-4) of seasons. Hereby a stationary exceedance distribution can be maintained within each season. This type of seasonal models may, however, not be suitable...

  3. Duration of asynchronous operations in distributed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Makhaniok, Mikhail; Männer, Reinhard

    1995-01-01

    A distributed asynchronous system is investigated. Its processing elements execute common operations concurrently and distributively. They are implemented as combinatorial circuits and exchange data via open collector bus lines. A method is presented to identify and to minimize the duration of an operation and therefore to increase the performance of the system. No hardware modifications are required.

  4. Modeling and Forecasting Persistent Financial Durations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žikeš, F.; Baruník, Jozef; Shenai, N.

    -, - (2015). ISSN 0747-4938 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-32263S EU Projects: European Commission 612955 - FINMAP Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : price durations * long memory * multifractal models * realized volatility * Whittle estimation Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.189, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/barunik-0434201.pdf

  5. Duration of untreated psychiatry affecting white matter integrity in first-episode medication-free patients with schizophrenia%精神病未治疗期对首发未服药精神分裂症脑白质完整性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏钦令; 朱康顺; 王相兰; 张晋碚; 康庄; 国效峰; 韩自力; 赵靖平

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of duration of untreated psychiatry (DUP) on the white matter integrity in first-episode medication-free patients with schizophrenia. Methods The Chinese version of Nottingham Onset Schedule was used to assess the DUP of 39 first-episode medication-free patients with schizophrenia. According to the median of DUP, the 39 patients were grouped into long-DUP group and short-DUP group. Diffusion weighted images of the 39 patients' whole brains were acquired with a Half-Fourier Acquired Single-Shot Turbo Spin Echo (HASTE) sequence.After being preprocessed with DTI-studio and statistical parametric mapping software (SPM5), the fractional anisotropy (FA) images of the 2 groups were compared by two-sample t-test with SPM5 software. The differences of gender, age, education level and total scores of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores between the 2 groups were also detected. Results No significant difference was noted on gender, age, education level, PANSS scores between the 2 groups (P>0.05).Subjects of long-DUP group showed significantly reduced FA value in the right anterior cingulate fasciculus (x=8, y=40, z=24) and left prefrontal white matter thresholded (x=32, y=34, z=4) as compared with that of short-DUP group at a level of P<0.001 (uncorrected). Conclusion Extension of the duration of DUP will reduce the white matter integrity in first-episode medication-free patients with schizophrenia.%目的 探讨精神病未治疗期(DUP)对首发未服药精神分裂症患者脑白质完整性的影响.方法 应用汉化的诺丁汉发病症状量表评定39例首发未服药精神分裂症患者的DUP,以其中位数为界将患者分为长DUP组和短DUP组,同时比较两组患者的性别构成、年龄、受教育年限、阳性和阴性症状量表总分.采用自旋回波序列得到弥散张量磁共振成像资料,以DTI-Studi0软件和统计参数图软件(SPM5)对所得图像进行预处理,得到的分子

  6. Pre-attentive sensitivity to vowel duration reveals native phonology and predicts learning of second-language sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Chládková; P. Escudero; S.C. Lipski

    2013-01-01

    In some languages (e.g. Czech), changes in vowel duration affect word meaning, while in others (e.g. Spanish) they do not. Yet for other languages (e.g. Dutch), the linguistic role of vowel duration remains unclear. To reveal whether Dutch represents vowel length in its phonology, we compared audito

  7. Sleep duration, cardiovascular disease, and proinflammatory biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandner MA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Michael A Grandner,1,2 Megan R Sands-Lincoln,3 Victoria M Pak,2,4 Sheila N Garland1,5 1Behavioral Sleep Medicine Program, Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA; 2Center for Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA; 3Center for Evidence Based Medicine, Elsevier Inc, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Division of Sleep Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA; 5Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA Abstract: Habitual sleep duration has been associated with cardiometabolic disease, via several mechanistic pathways, but few have been thoroughly explored. One hypothesis is that short and/or long sleep duration is associated with a proinflammatory state, which could increase risk for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. This hypothesis has been largely explored in the context of experimental sleep deprivation studies which have attempted to demonstrate changes in proinflammatory markers following acute sleep loss in the laboratory. Despite the controlled environment available in these studies, samples tend to lack generalization to the population at large and acute sleep deprivation may not be a perfect analog for short sleep. To address these limitations, population based studies have explored associations between proinflammatory markers and habitual sleep duration. This review summarizes what is known from experimental and cross-sectional studies about the association between sleep duration, cardiovascular disease, and proinflammatory biomarkers. First, the association between sleep duration with both morbidity and mortality, with a focus on cardiovascular disease, is reviewed. Then, a brief review of the potential role of proinflammatory markers in cardiovascular disease is presented. The majority of this review details specific findings related to specific

  8. Acoustic correlates of caller identity and affect intensity in the vowel-like grunt vocalizations of baboons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendall, Drew

    2003-06-01

    Comparative, production-based research on animal vocalizations can allow assessments of continuity in vocal communication processes across species, including humans, and may aid in the development of general frameworks relating specific constitutional attributes of callers to acoustic-structural details of their vocal output. Analyses were undertaken on vowel-like baboon grunts to examine variation attributable to caller identity and the intensity of the affective state underlying call production. Six hundred six grunts from eight adult females were analyzed. Grunts derived from 128 bouts of calling in two behavioral contexts: concerted group movements and social interactions involving mothers and their young infants. Each context was subdivided into a high- and low-arousal condition. Thirteen acoustic features variously predicted to reflect variation in either caller identity or arousal intensity were measured for each grunt bout, including tempo-, source- and filter-related features. Grunt bouts were highly individually distinctive, differing in a variety of acoustic dimensions but with some indication that filter-related features contributed disproportionately to individual distinctiveness. In contrast, variation according to arousal condition was associated primarily with tempo- and source-related features, many matching those identified as vehicles of affect expression in other nonhuman primate species and in human speech and other nonverbal vocal signals.

  9. Checking Timed Automata for Linear Duration Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建华

    2000-01-01

    It is proved in this paper that checking a timed automaton M with respect to a linear duration property D can be done by investigating only the integral timed states of M. An equivalence relation is introduced in this paper to divide the infinite number of integral timed states into finite number of equivalence classes. Based on this, a method is proposed for checking whether M satisfies D. In some cases, the number of equivalence classes is too large for a computer to manipulate. A technique for reducing the search-space for checking linear duration property is also described. This technique is more suitable for the case in this paper than those in the literature because most of those techniques are designed for reachability analysis.

  10. Does Sexual Satisfaction Change With Relationship Duration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedeberg, Claudia; Schröder, Jette

    2016-01-01

    Despite a large body of empirical literature on sexual satisfaction, its development over the course of a relationship is still unclear. Only a small number of studies, most of which have relied on cross-sectional data of convenience samples, have explicitly focused on relationship duration, and empirical evidence is mixed. We analyzed how sexual satisfaction changes over the course of a relationship using three waves of the German Family Panel study (pairfam). We concentrated our analyses on young and middle-aged heterosexual individuals in committed relationships (N = 2,814) and applied fixed effects regression models, which have the advantage of estimations based on changes within individuals over time. We found a positive development of sexual satisfaction in the first year of a relationship, followed by a steady decline. This pattern persisted even when controlling for the frequency of intercourse, although the effects were, in part, mediated by intercourse frequency. We explained the non-linear effect of relationship duration on sexual satisfaction with an initial learning effect regarding partner-specific sexual skills, which is then outweighed by a decline in passion at later stages of a relationship. Moreover, we found significant effects for the control variables of health status, intimacy in couple communication, and conflict style, as expected. In contrast to past research, however, cohabitation and marriage were not found to play a role for sexual satisfaction in our data. Further research is required to deepen the understanding of the reasons why sexual satisfaction changes with relationship duration. PMID:26246315

  11. Duration of the pluviometric deficit in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AZEM BARDHI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The pluviometric deficit is the part of water amount evapotranspirated from the field but not getting replaced by the rainfall in a given period of time. That is why the pluviometric deficit could get quantified only when both, the potential evapotranspiration and rainfall are determined quantitatively. However, the pluviometric deficit is made of two dimensions: duration and magnitude. The aim of this paper is to present the results of a study done throughout Albania on the duration of pluviometric deficit. For this, the dependencies of potential evapotranspiration and rainfall, respectively, over time are determined by applying the regression analysis, after the data on sun radiation, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and precipitation are collected from 56 meteorological stations throughout Albania and over six years. All of these functions are plotted in individual graphs and the duration of pluviometric deficit is determined by equalizing the function of potential evapotranspiration over time with the respective function of rainfall over time. The results are going to be used to classify the Albanian climate on humidity and aridity scales.

  12. How much variation in the moult duration of passerines can be explained by the growth rate of tail feathers?

    OpenAIRE

    De la Hera, I., Unanue, A., Aguirre, I.; Schaper, S.V.; Diaz, J.A.; J. Pérez-Tris; Bensch, S.; J.L. Tellería

    2011-01-01

    In birds, molt duration is an important parameter that can affect plumage functionality and consequently the fitness of individuals. However, our knowledge about the factors affecting variation in molt speed is scarce, mostly because of the methodological difficulties of studying avian molt. In this study, we used a ptilochronology-based approach to estimate the growth rate at which tail feathers were produced during molt, and hence to shed light on the relationship between molt duration and ...

  13. Analysis of dependence among size, rate and duration in internet flows

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Cheolwoo; Marron, J S; Jeffay, Kevin; Smith, F Donelson; 10.1214/09-AOAS268

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we examine rigorously the evidence for dependence among data size, transfer rate and duration in Internet flows. We emphasize two statistical approaches for studying dependence, including Pearson's correlation coefficient and the extremal dependence analysis method. We apply these methods to large data sets of packet traces from three networks. Our major results show that Pearson's correlation coefficients between size and duration are much smaller than one might expect. We also find that correlation coefficients between size and rate are generally small and can be strongly affected by applying thresholds to size or duration. Based on Transmission Control Protocol connection startup mechanisms, we argue that thresholds on size should be more useful than thresholds on duration in the analysis of correlations. Using extremal dependence analysis, we draw a similar conclusion, finding remarkable independence for extremal values of size and rate.

  14. The True Durations of Starbursts: HST Observations of Three Nearby Dwarf Starburst Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    McQuinn, Kristen B W; Cannon, John M; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Dolphin, Andrew; Stark, David; Weisz, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The duration of a starburst is a fundamental parameter affecting the evolution of galaxies yet, to date, observational constraints on the durations of starbursts are not well established. Here we study the recent star formation histories (SFHs) of three nearby dwarf galaxies to rigorously quantify the duration of their starburst events using a uniform and consistent approach. We find that the bursts range from ~200 - ~400 Myr in duration resolving the tension between the shorter timescales often derived observationally with the longer timescales derived from dynamical arguments. If these three starbursts are typical of starbursts in dwarf galaxies, then the short timescales (3 - 10 Myr) associated with starbursts in previous studies are best understood as "flickering" events which are simply small components of the larger starburst. In this sample of three nearby dwarfs, the bursts are not localized events. All three systems show bursting levels of star formation in regions of both high and low stellar densit...

  15. How long depends on how fast--perceived flicker dilates subjective duration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie K Herbst

    Full Text Available How do humans perceive the passage of time and the duration of events without a dedicated sensory system for timing? Previous studies have demonstrated that when a stimulus changes over time, its duration is subjectively dilated, indicating that duration judgments are based on the number of changes within an interval. In this study, we tested predictions derived from three different accounts describing the relation between a changing stimulus and its subjective duration as either based on (1 the objective rate of changes of the stimulus, (2 the perceived saliency of the changes, or (3 the neural energy expended in processing the stimulus. We used visual stimuli flickering at different frequencies (4-166 Hz to study how the number of changes affects subjective duration. To this end, we assessed the subjective duration of these stimuli and measured participants' behavioral flicker fusion threshold (the highest frequency perceived as flicker, as well as their threshold for a frequency-specific neural response to the flicker using EEG. We found that only consciously perceived flicker dilated perceived duration, such that a 2 s long stimulus flickering at 4 Hz was perceived as lasting as long as a 2.7 s steady stimulus. This effect was most pronounced at the slowest flicker frequencies, at which participants reported the most consistent flicker perception. Flicker frequencies higher than the flicker fusion threshold did not affect perceived duration at all, even if they evoked a significant frequency-specific neural response. In sum, our findings indicate that time perception in the peri-second range is driven by the subjective saliency of the stimulus' temporal features rather than the objective rate of stimulus changes or the neural response to the changes.

  16. Transports Regulators of Networks with Junctions Detected by Durations Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    This study advocates a mathematical framework of ''transport relations'' on a network. They single out a subset of ''traffic states'' described by time, duration, position and other traffic attributes (called ''monads'' for short). Duration evolutions are non-negative, decreasing toward zero for incoming durations, increasing from zero for outgoing durations, allowing the detection of ''junction states'' defined as traffic states with ''zero duration''. A ''junction relation'' (crossroads, sy...

  17. Advanced Water Recovery Technologies for Long Duration Space Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Scan X.

    2005-01-01

    Extended-duration space travel and habitation require recovering water from wastewater generated in spacecrafts and extraterrestrial outposts since the largest consumable for human life support is water. Many wastewater treatment technologies used for terrestrial applications are adoptable to extraterrestrial situations but challenges remain as constraints of space flights and habitation impose severe limitations of these technologies. Membrane-based technologies, particularly membrane filtration, have been widely studied by NASA and NASA-funded research groups for possible applications in space wastewater treatment. The advantages of membrane filtration are apparent: it is energy-efficient and compact, needs little consumable other than replacement membranes and cleaning agents, and doesn't involve multiphase flow, which is big plus for operations under microgravity environment. However, membrane lifespan and performance are affected by the phenomena of concentration polarization and membrane fouling. This article attempts to survey current status of membrane technologies related to wastewater treatment and desalination in the context of space exploration and quantify them in terms of readiness level for space exploration. This paper also makes specific recommendations and predictions on how scientist and engineers involving designing, testing, and developing space-certified membrane-based advanced water recovery technologies can improve the likelihood of successful development of an effective regenerative human life support system for long-duration space missions.

  18. Duration of pneumoperitoneum in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The duration of pneumoperitoneum was examined in 12 adult and 4 immature dogs. Four dogs were given intra-abdominal injections of 110 ml of air/kg (group 1), 4 were given 55 ml of air/kg (group 2), and 4 were given 27.5 ml of air/kg (group 3). Also, 4 immature dogs were given 110 ml of air/kg (group 4). The number of days from creation of pneumoperitoneum until the radiographic absence of pneumoperitoneum averaged 25 days for group 1, 14 days for group 2, 9 days for group 3, and 17 days for group 4

  19. Training Concept for Long Duration Space Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, William

    2008-01-01

    There has been papers about maintenance and psychological training for Long Duration Space Mission (LDSM). There are papers on the technology needed for LDSMs. Few are looking at how groundbased pre-mission training and on-board in-transit training must be melded into one training concept that leverages this technology. Even more importantly, fewer are looking at how we can certify crews pre-mission. This certification must ensure, before the crew launches, that they can handle any problem using on-board assets without a large ground support team.

  20. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...

  1. Dietary Caffeine and Polyphenol Supplementation Enhances Overall Metabolic Rate and Lipid Oxidation at Rest and After a Bout of Sprint Interval Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Edward; Lewis, Kiana L; Higuera, Daniel; Hernandez, Joshua; Osmond, Adam D; Directo, Dean J; Wong, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Jo, E, Lewis, KL, Higuera, D, Hernandez, J, Osmond, AD, Directo, DJ, and Wong, M. Dietary caffeine and polyphenol supplementation enhances overall metabolic rate and lipid oxidation at rest and after a bout of sprint interval exercise. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1871-1879, 2016-The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a caffeine-polyphenolic supplement on (a) metabolic rate and fat oxidation at rest and after a bout of sprint interval exercise (SIE) and (b) SIE performance. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study and after an initial familiarization visit, 12 subjects (male: n = 11; female: n = 1) (body mass = 76.1 ± 2.2 kg; height = 169.8 ± 1.6 cm; body mass index = 22.7 ± 3.0 kg·m; body fat % = 21.6 ± 2.0%) underwent 2 testing sessions during which time they consumed either a caffeine-polyphenol supplement or placebo. After supplementation, resting energy expenditure, heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP) were assessed. Subsequently, subjects performed 30 minutes of SIE while researchers collected performance data. Subjects were then tested for post-SIE energy expenditure, HR, and BP. The caffeine-polyphenol treatment resulted in significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater energy expenditure (+7.99% rest; +10.16% post-SIE), V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (+9.64% rest; +12.10% post-SIE), and fat oxidation rate (+10.60% rest; +9.76% post-SIE) vs. placebo at rest and post-SIE. No significant differences were detected for peak and average power at all sprint intervals between treatments. Post-SIE HR was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater with caffeine-polyphenol supplementation vs. placebo (90.8 ± 3.5 vs. 85.1 ± 3.6 b·min). There were no significant between-treatment differences for BP. It may be concluded that the observed thermogenic response after SIE was directly attributable to caffeine-polyphenol supplementation as opposed to an indirect manifestation of enhanced performance and work output. Collectively, these results

  2. Relationships among timing of moult, moult duration and feather mass in long-distance migratory passerines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De la Hera, I.; Pérez-Tris, J.; Tellería, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Moult is a costly but necessary process in avian life, which displays two main temporal patterns within the annual cycle of birds (summer and winter moult). Timing of moult can affect its duration and consequently the amount of material invested in feathers, which could have a considerable influence

  3. Effects of Excerpt Tempo and Duration on Musicians' Ratings of High-Level Piano Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapnick, Joel; Ryan, Charlene; Campbell, Louise; Deek, Patricia; Lemire, Renata; Darrow, Alice-Ann

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how judgments of solo performances recorded at an international piano competition might be affected by excerpt duration (20 versus 60 seconds) and tempo (slow versus fast). Musicians rated performances on six test items. Results indicated that piano majors rated slow excerpts higher than they rated fast…

  4. Induced abortion and subsequent pregnancy duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Wei Jin; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Olsen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first-trimester ind......OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first......-trimester induced abortions were compared with 46,026 whose pregnancies were not terminated by induced abortions. All subsequent pregnancies until 1994 were identified by register linkage. RESULTS: Preterm and post-term singleton live births were more frequent in women with one, two, or more previous induced...... abortions. After adjusting for potential confounders and stratifying by gravidity, the odds ratios of preterm singleton live births in women with one, two, or more previous induced abortions were 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.70, 2.11), 2.66 (95% CI 2.09, 3.37), and 2.03 (95% CI 1.29, 3...

  5. Long Duration Balloon Charge Controller Stack Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Kyle

    NASA and the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility are interested in updating the design of the charge controller on their long duration balloon (LDB) in order to enable the charge controllers to be directly interfaced via RS232 serial communication by a ground testing computers and the balloon's flight computer without the need to have an external electronics stack. The design involves creating a board that will interface with the existing boards in the charge controller in order to receive telemetry from and send commands to those boards, and interface with a computer through serial communication. The inputs to the board are digital status inputs indicating things like whether the photovoltaic panels are connected or disconnected; and analog inputs with information such as the battery voltage and temperature. The outputs of the board are 100ms duration command pulses that will switch relays that do things like connect the photovoltaic panels. The main component of this design is a PIC microcontroller which translates the outputs of the existing charge controller into serial data when interrogated by a ground testing or flight computer. Other components involved in the design are an AD7888 12-bit analog to digital converter, a MAX3232 serial transceiver, various other ICs, capacitors, resistors, and connectors.

  6. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    , experience and consumption are all strategic design tools applied by planners and architects. Whereas urban design in former modernist planning served merely functional or political means, urban design has increasingly become an aesthetical mediator of ideologies embedded in the urban field of life forces...... capitalism not only changes urban life and its means of production, it specifically influences the way the city is designed and how it unfolds as events (Anderson & Harrison 2010) and affective, emotional production (Pile 2009). Through examples of urban design and events in the Carlsberg City in Copenhagen...... and The High Line in Chelsea, New York, the paper sets out to define and question these affective modes of production. Whether these productions are socio-material practices consisting of ludic designs (Stevens 2007), temporary architecture or art installations or evental practices consisting of...

  7. An acute bout of whole body passive hyperthermia increases plasma leptin, but does not alter glucose or insulin responses in obese type 2 diabetics and healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Eric; Newmire, Dan E; Crandall, Craig G; Hooper, Philip L; Ben-Ezra, Vic

    2016-07-01

    Acute and chronic hyperthermic treatments in diabetic animal models repeatedly improve insulin sensitivity and glycemic control. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that an acute 1h bout of hyperthermic treatment improves glucose, insulin, and leptin responses to an oral glucose challenge (OGTT) in obese type 2 diabetics and healthy humans. Nine obese (45±7.1% fat mass) type 2 diabetics (T2DM: 50.1±12y, 7.5±1.8% HbA1c) absent of insulin therapy and nine similar aged (41.1±13.7y) healthy non-obese controls (HC: 33.4±7.8% fat mass, Pleptin concentrations. Hyperthermia itself did not alter area under the curve for plasma glucose, insulin, or C-peptide during the OGTT in either group. Fasting absolute and normalized (kg·fat mass) plasma leptin was significantly increased (P<0.01) only after the hyperthermic exposure by 17% in T2DM and 24% in HC groups (P<0.001) when compared to the control condition. These data indicate that an acute hyperthermic treatment does not improve glucose tolerance 24h post treatment in moderate metabolic controlled obese T2DM or HC individuals. PMID:27264884

  8. Acute Impact of Moderate-Intensity and Vigorous-Intensity Exercise Bouts on Daily Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewen Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined whether performing a single moderate- or vigorous-intensity exercise bout impacts daily physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE, by accelerometer. Overweight/obese postmenopausal women underwent a 5-month caloric restriction and moderate- (n=18 or vigorous-intensity (n=18 center-based aerobic exercise intervention. During the last month of intervention, in women performing moderate-intensity exercise, PAEE on days with exercise (577.7±219.7 kcal⋅d−1 was higher (P=.011 than on days without exercise (450.7±140.5 kcal⋅d−1; however, the difference (127.0±188.1 kcal⋅d−1 was much lower than the energy expended during exercise. In women performing vigorous-intensity exercise, PAEE on days with exercise (450.6±153.6 kcal⋅d−1 was lower (P=.047 than on days without exercise (519.2±127.4 kcal⋅d−1. Thus, women expended more energy on physical activities outside of prescribed exercise on days they did NOT perform center-based exercise, especially if the prescribed exercise was of a higher intensity.

  9. Acute Impact of Moderate-Intensity and Vigorous-Intensity Exercise Bouts on Daily Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuewen; Nicklas, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    This study determined whether performing a single moderate- or vigorous-intensity exercise bout impacts daily physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE, by accelerometer). Overweight/obese postmenopausal women underwent a 5-month caloric restriction and moderate- (n = 18) or vigorous-intensity (n = 18) center-based aerobic exercise intervention. During the last month of intervention, in women performing moderate-intensity exercise, PAEE on days with exercise (577.7 ± 219.7 kcal·d−1) was higher (P = .011) than on days without exercise (450.7 ± 140.5 kcal·d−1); however, the difference (127.0 ± 188.1 kcal·d−1) was much lower than the energy expended during exercise. In women performing vigorous-intensity exercise, PAEE on days with exercise (450.6 ± 153.6 kcal·d−1) was lower (P = .047) than on days without exercise (519.2 ± 127.4 kcal·d−1). Thus, women expended more energy on physical activities outside of prescribed exercise on days they did NOT perform center-based exercise, especially if the prescribed exercise was of a higher intensity. PMID:20847895

  10. Exclusive breastfeeding duration in Cali, Colombia, 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera Gustavo Alonso

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exclusive breast-feeding (EB is the nutritional gold standard of children in their 0-6 months of life and its practice is recommended in the current national plans of health, feeding and nutrition. Objective: To describe the duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EB in a cohort of women who breastfed, from Cali, Colombia, in 2003. Methods: A cohort of 438 urban women was established, with first singleton live birth in immediate postpartum, whose childbirth was cared without complications, in one of the six institutions (4 public and 2 private that concentrate 80% of all deliveries from the city, approximately. With the previous consent of each woman and through structured questionnaires, these women were interviewed in the first hours after postpartum; then, they were visited and a face to face interview was applied at home, at days 8, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 since the birth, until abandon of EB was identified or woman could not be found. Results: At recruitment, 15 out of 453 puerperal women captured in postpartum rooms refused to participate in the study; 38 (8.5% women were lost during the following. At the end of the months 1°, 2°, 3°, 4°, 5° and 6°, respectively, only 28%, 15%, 9%, 5%, 2% and 1.6% of the women included to the study kept EB practice, according to the adopted criteria. Conclusion: High participation in the prenatal and delivery care of the institutions selected for this study, low lost of women during the following and broad socio-economic distribution of recruited women, allow to suggest that observations from this cohort characterise the duration of EB in 1, 2, 3 and 4 socio-economic strata of urban area of Cali, Colombia, in 2003. The duration of EB in the studied cohort is very short regarding to national and international recommendations. This fact indicates the scarce effects of both, national packages of National Security System in Health and national and local initiatives addressed to

  11. The role of the murine motor cortex in action duration and order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry H Yin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the contributions of the primary and secondary motor cortices (M1 and M2 to action differentiation and sequencing in mice. In Experiment 1, mice with excitotoxic lesions of M1 and M2 and sham controls learned to emit lever presses exceeding a criterion duration to earn food rewards. Duration differentiation obeys Weber’s law—i.e. the spread of the distribution is proportional to the average duration. M1 or M2 lesions did not affect differentiation of press durations. Experiment 2 studied the effects of the same lesions on the learning of a simple sequence consisting of two lever presses, one distal, and the other proximal, to the reward. M2 lesions impaired the acquisition and reversal of this sequence. M1 lesions, by contrast, had no effect on acquisition but impaired sequence reversal. Moreover, duration of the first press in a sequence was on average twice as long as that of the second press, though this ratio was not affected by motor cortex lesions. Together these results offer a first glimpse into the cortical substrates of instrumental differentiation in mice.

  12. Factors contributing to the treatment duration of diphenylcyclopropenone immunotherapy for periungual warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyung Kwon; Kim, Joung Soo

    2016-03-01

    Diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP) immunotherapy has been shown to be efficacious for the treatment of warts, especially periungual warts for which destructive techniques are limited. However, factors affecting the duration of treatment of periungual warts have not been studied. A total of 61 patients with periungual warts who were completely cured with DPCP immunotherapy were included in this study. Age, sex, disease duration, location (fingernail, toenail, or both), number of warts, diameter of the largest wart, application number for sensitization and two types of sensitization reactions, erythema and blister index (EBI), and pruritus index were evaluated. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to find correlations of these variables with the treatment duration. Of the nine variables, application number for sensitization (regression coefficient = 3.251 and 2.428, respectively) and EBI (regression coefficient = -9.950 and -9.694, respectively) were independent factors significantly affecting both the total duration of treatment and the duration of treatment after sensitization (p < 0.05, respectively). The sample size was limited. A shorter sensitization period and more severe EBI of the sensitization reaction contribute to a shorter time required for a complete cure in the treatment of periungual warts with DPCP immunotherapy. PMID:26556040

  13. THE TRUE DURATIONS OF STARBURSTS: HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THREE NEARBY DWARF STARBURST GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The duration of a starburst is a fundamental parameter affecting the evolution of galaxies yet, to date, observational constraints on the durations of starbursts are not well established. Here we study the recent star formation histories of three nearby dwarf galaxies to rigorously quantify the duration of their starburst events using a uniform and consistent approach. We find that the bursts range from ∼200 to ∼400 Myr in duration resolving the tension between the shorter timescales often derived observationally with the longer timescales derived from dynamical arguments. If these three starbursts are typical of starbursts in dwarf galaxies, then the short timescales (3-10 Myr) associated with starbursts in previous studies are best understood as 'flickering' events which are simply small components of the larger starburst. In this sample of three nearby dwarfs, the bursts are not localized events. All three systems show bursting levels of star formation in regions of both high and low stellar density. The enhanced star formation moves around the galaxy during the bursts and covers a large fraction of the area of the galaxy. These massive, long-duration bursts can significantly affect the structure, dynamics, and chemical evolution of the host galaxy and can be the progenitors of 'superwinds' that drive much of the recently chemically enriched material from the galaxy into the intergalactic medium.

  14. The roles of pitch and duration in sentence accent of Chinese discourse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiaohong; ZHAO Jianjun; YANG Yufang; LU Shinan

    2012-01-01

    Relying on a corpus of thirty narrative discourses, the roles of pitch and duration of prosodic words in sentence accent were studied in discourse context. At first, the pitch was normalized. Then according to the pitch range, the sentence and prosodic word were classified into three ranks of strengthened, normal and weakened respectively. In the same time the sentence accent was classified into two levels of primary and secondary by perceptual evaluation. The results showed that the relative pitch range of prosodic words in opposition to sentence contributed dominantly to sentence accent. Furthermore, the roles of pitch and duration in sentence accent were affected interactively by the rank of sentence and prosodic words. In normal prosodic words, primary sentence accents were realized by the mutual performance of pitch and duration while secondary sentence accents mainly depended on the variation of pitch. In strengthened prosodic words, the role of duration in sentence accent was more significant when the pitch range of the sentence was more compressed. Finally, it was found that the correlation between pitch and duration was influenced primarily by the strength of prosodic words, and in weakened, normal and strengthened prosodic words, the correlations between pitch and duration were positive, null, and negative respectively.

  15. Association of sleep duration with arterial blood pressure profile of Gujarati Indian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Wasim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Recently, National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey-1 data analysis found short sleep duration as a risk factor for hypertension in the U.S. population. However, since ethnic differences exist in the aetiopathogenesis of diseases, the current study was undertaken to study the effect of sleep duration on the blood pressure profile of Gujarati Indian adolescents. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 489 Gujarati Indian adolescents of age group 16-19 years studying in school and colleges in the local population. The participants were assessed for their sleep duration, physical activity status, body composition, blood pressure profile and cardiovascular reactivity. The sleep duration was reported by the subjects as the number of hours they slept on most of the nights in a week over the last one year. The observations of the study were then analyzed after grouping them into: 1 Adequate Sleep Duration at Night, ASDN (≥ 7 hrs and 2 Inadequate Sleep Duration at Night, ISDN (< 7 hrs groups. Student′s unpaired t-test was used to study if any significant difference (P< 0.05 existed between the groups. Results: No significant difference was found in Systolic blood pressure, Diastolic blood pressure, Pulse pressure and Mean arterial pressure between the ASDN group and the ISDN group. Physical activity status also did not differ between the two groups. However, adolescents of ISDN group showed a significantly higher level of adiposity and cardiovascular reactivity as compared to adolescents of ASDN group. Conclusion: Although short sleep duration is associated with a higher level of adiposity and cardiovascular reactivity in Gujarati Indian adolescents, it does not affect the resting blood pressure profile of these adolescents. However, longitudinal studies would be required to observe if the changes in adiposity and cardiovascular reactivity affect these adolescents in later life.

  16. Vacancy Duration, Wage Offers, and Job Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Chen, Long-Hwa

    concerned with how vacancy durations vary with firms' minimum wage offers and minimum job requirements (regarding education, skills, age, gender and earlier work experience). The empirical analysis is based on ten employer surveys carried out by the DGBAS on Taiwan during the period 1996-2006. We estimate......Besides wage offers, credentials like education, work experience and skill requirements are key screening tools for firms in their recruitment of new employees. This paper adds some new evidence to a relatively tiny literature on firms' recruitment behaviour. In particular, our analysis is...... logistic discrete hazard models with a rich set of job and firm characteristics as explanatory variables. The results show that vacancies associated with higher wage offers take, ceteris paribus, longer to be filled. The impact of firms' wage offers and credential requirements does not vary over the...

  17. Period and pulse duration with "strobe" lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birriel, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Strobe lights have traditionally been discussed in The Physics Teacher in the context of stop action strobe photography. During the Halloween season most department and hardware stores sell inexpensive, compact "strobe" lights (although these can be found online year round). These lights generally sell for under 10 and usually employ LED lights. Most such devices have a rotary switch to adjust the rate at which the LED bulbs flash. This rotary switch is not calibrated—i.e., it has no markings to indicate the rate, but in general the greater the rotation of the switch from the off position, the faster the rate of flashing. We show how these simple devices can be used with a light sensor to study both the frequency of flashing and the duration of the light pulse. We briefly discuss if these devices are truly strobe lights.

  18. Architectural considerations for lunar long duration habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Payam

    The future of space exploration science and technology is expected to move toward long duration missions. During this long duration missions the most important factor to success will be the habitation system, the place that crew will live and work. The broad range of future space exploration, new advances in technology and increasing demand for space travel and space tourism will create great opportunities for architects to use their special abilities and skills in the realm of space. The lunar habitat is defined as a multidisciplinary task and cannot be considered an independent project from the main module. Therefore, habitability will become the most important aspect of future human exploration. A successful design strategy should integrate architecture, structure and other disciplines and should bring in elements such as psychological and physiological factors, human interfaces, and privacy. The current research provides "Habitat Architectural Design System (HADS)" in order to evaluate lunar habitat concepts based on habitability, functional optimization, and human factors. HADS helps to promote parametric studied and evaluation of habitat concepts. It will provide a guideline dependent upon mission objectives to standardize architectural needs within the engineering applications and scientific demands. The significance of this research is the process of developing lunar habitat concepts using an architectural system to evaluate the quality of each concept via habitability aspects. This process can be employed during the early stage of design development and is flexible enough to be adjusted by different parameters according to the objectives of lunar mission, limitations, and cost. It also emphasizes the importance of architecture involvement in space projects, especially habitats.

  19. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    Recently, in human geography there has been a considerable attention paid to retheorising maps; less as a product and more as practice. This refers to the notion that rather than reading maps as fixed representations, digital mapping is by nature a dynamic, performative, and participatory practice....... In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology...

  20. Moderate Intensity Resistance Training Significantly Elevates Testosterone following Upper Body and Lower Body Bouts When Total Volume is Held Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rietjens

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is unknown whether resistance training intensity or total volume of work affects the acute testosterone response to a greater extent. Purpose: Therefore, the circulating testosterone response was investigated following four resistance training protocols where total volume of work was held constant: moderate intensity (70% 1RM upper body (bench press, bent barbell row, and military press, moderate intensity lower body (squat and deadlift, high intensity (90% 1RM upper body, high intensity lower body. Methods: Total volume of work performed by each participant between protocols was maintained by adjusting the number of sets and or repetitions performed. Ten healthy, resistance trained men volunteered, and performed exercise protocols on separate days in a counterbalanced order. Capillary blood was obtained via finger stick at baseline (pre, immediately following the exercise session (post, and 1h post for the determination of testosterone concentration. Data were analyzed using a factorial ANOVA and significance was accepted at p≤ 0.05. Results: Both moderate intensity resistance protocols (upper and lower body significantly increased testosterone concentration (p=0.026, and p=0.024 respectively, whereas the high intensity protocols elevated testosterone but failed to achieve significance (upper p=0.272, lower p=0.658. No difference was noted in post session testosterone concentration between upper and lower body protocols for either moderate (p=0.248 or high intensity (p=0.990. Conclusion: This may be useful for novice resistance trained individuals because it provides evidence that moderate intensity is sufficient to increase testosterone compared to high intensity protocols that could be associated with a greater risk of injury.Keywords: hormone response, equal total work, high intensity protocol

  1. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DURATION OF BOTTEL FEEDING AND OCCLUSION IN PRIMARY DENTITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Anisyah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bottle-feeding period more than one year may influence the occlusion and will disturb the formation of strong muscle jaw. This effect will give an adverse result to permanent teeth. The type of malocclusion resulted from bad oral habit, may vary, depends on the type of oral habit, intensity, duration and frequency. The purpose of this study was to observe the relationship between duration of bottle-feeding and occlusion of primary teeth. The following occlusion relationships examined were overbite, overjet, canine relationship, and terminal plane. The design of this was cross-sectional analytic, which was carried out in pre-school children aged between 3-5 years old. The duration of bottle-feeding was categorized in 24 months, 25-36 months, 37-48 months, and >48 months. Overbite and overjet were measured from the cast using a digital caliper. Canine relationship and terminal plane were also measured from the cast. The result of Pearson Correlation test revealed a weak relationship between the period of bottle-feeding and overbite (0,329 and overjet (r=0,372, whereas the result of Chi-Square test, used to investigate the correlation between canine (r=0,111 and terminal plane was not statistically significant (r=0,170. Anova test was carried out to observe the difference of overbite and overjet affected by duration of bottle-feeding. The result demonstrated an increase of overbite and overjet if duration of bottle-feeding was prolonged. Tukey HSD test result on bottle-feeding duration and overbite shows significant differences between group of ≤ 24 months, 25-36 months, and group of 37-48 months. Meanwhile Tukey HSD test result on bottle-feeding duration on overjet shows significant differences between group of ≤ 24 months, group of 37-48 months, and >48 months duration.

  2. Respiratory frequency is strongly associated with perceived exertion during time trials of different duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolò, Andrea; Marcora, Samuele M; Sacchetti, Massimo

    2016-07-01

    In order to provide further insight into the link between respiratory frequency (fR) and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE), the present study investigated the effect of exercise duration on perceptual and physiological responses during self-paced exercise. Nine well-trained competitive male cyclists (23 ± 3 years) performed a preliminary incremental ramp test and three randomised self-paced time trials (TTs) differing in exercise duration (10, 20 and 30 min). Both RPE and fR increased almost linearly over time, with a less-pronounced rate of increase when absolute exercise duration increased. However, when values were expressed against relative exercise duration, no between-trial differences were found in either RPE or fR. Conversely, between-trial differences were observed for minute ventilation ([Formula: see text]E), [Formula: see text]O2 and heart rate (HR), when values were expressed against relative exercise duration. Unlike the relationship between RPE and both [Formula: see text]E and HR, the relationship between RPE and fR was not affected by exercise duration. In conclusion, fR, but not [Formula: see text]E, HR or [Formula: see text]O2, shows a strong relationship to RPE and a similar time course, irrespective of exercise duration. These findings indicate that fR is the best correlate of RPE during self-paced exercise, at least among the parameters and for the range of durations herein investigated. PMID:26503587

  3. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  4. Implications of food patch distribution on social foraging in domestic pigs (Sus scrofa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Liat Romme; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2010-01-01

    feeding behaviour of growing pigs changed with increasing distance between feeding sites. During 20-min feeding tests, eight groups, each consisting of four growing pigs (35.4 ± 2.7 kg), were allowed to eat from four buckets containing food pellets placed in a test arena in a rectangular pattern. The...... buckets (i.e. time spent eating, intake, number of bouts, mean bout duration, number of aggressive interactions, number of shifts to new feeding sites: P < 0.0001; mean duration of aggressive interactions: P = 0.0010; displacements: P = 0.3228). Physical separation of food sites (medium and far) affected...... aggressive interactions (lower frequency, longer mean duration) compared to minimal separation (close). Time spent eating, number of feeding bouts, number of shifts to a new site, and food intake decreased with increasing distance between food sites (from close to far). Mean bout duration was affected by...

  5. Modeling the Distribution Characteristics of Urban Public Bicycle Rental Duration

    OpenAIRE

    Shuichao Zhang; Kangkang He; Sheng Dong; Jibiao Zhou

    2016-01-01

    In order to model the distribution characteristics of public bicycle rental durations, individual journey data for three cities in China (Ningbo, Hangzhou, and Beijing), for weekdays, was obtained. The distribution curves for public bicycle rental duration in the three cities were found to be extremely similar, with small differences among the weekdays. The basic parameters such as the average rental duration, the rental duration corresponding to the maximum rental frequency, and the rental d...

  6. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  7. 24 CFR 891.165 - Duration of capital advance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of capital advance. 891... General Program Requirements § 891.165 Duration of capital advance. The duration of the fund reservation for the capital advance is 18 months from the date of issuance with limited exceptions up to 24...

  8. Duration of Load Effects on Different Sized Timber Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Lotte; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report submitted to EC in connection with a project on duration of load. The report contains the results of the experimental work on duration of load for beams and notched beams of LVL and of glulam. The report also contains experimental results from duration of load experiments...

  9. How Do Intensity and Duration of Rehabilitation Services Affect Outcomes from Severe Traumatic Brain Injury?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hart, Tessa; Whyte, John; Poulsen, Ingrid;

    2016-01-01

    treatments were estimated per discipline using a structured interview administered to patients and/ or caregivers at 12 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: FIM, Glasgow Outcome Scale- Extended, Disability Rating Scale, Participation Assessment with Recombined Tools-Objective, Perceived Quality of Life, SF-12......, Brief Symptom Inventory-18 item version. RESULTS: Despite identical inclusion criteria, patient severity on admission was greater at the DK site. After adjustment for patient/ injury characteristics, there were no site differences in either functional or emotional outcome at 12 months. Significantly...... dose with extent of early disability suggests that dose was driven by unmeasured factors reflecting need for services. Improved measures of injury-related factors driving treatment allocation are needed to model the independent effects of treatment on outcomes....

  10. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: duration of its cell cycle and phases at growth rates affected by light intensity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vítová, Milada; Bišová, Kateřina; Umysová, Dáša; Hlavová, Monika; Kawano, S.; Zachleder, Vilém; Čížková, Mária

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 233, č. 1 (2011), s. 75-86. ISSN 0032-0935 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200614; GA ČR GA525/09/0102; GA ČR GA204/09/0111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Cell division timing * Cell cycle phases * Chlamydomonas Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.000, year: 2011

  11. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy. PMID:23888587

  12. THE DURATION OF RIGHTS CONFERRED BY COPYRIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia DUMITRU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The duration of copyright protection has been a controversial issue. And yet never completed. It was and is the key issue of copyright, the same as are those concerning the recognition of their nature and content. If the first law to protect a new creation, gave the exclusive right for the author as long as a year, today its duration is, basically the whole life of the author’s plus 70 years for the heirs. Some argue that it is unwise. Others that should not be as such at all. In reality, the copyright in the widest sense of the term of copyright for the purposes of law complex that regulates the relations between the author with his work and of the relations between the authors and others on his work, this right never ceases. The oldest sculpture (Venus Wilfredo, paintings of Ardeche, Vezere and Altamira, even if you do not know who created them, will belong forever, not just in the consciousness of humanity as a whole, but also according to unwritten rules of law before the law was created by humans, to whose who created them. Even if you do not know who created them and say that they belong to the universal culture. As everyone’s works that were created right after the rules of law were created by humans, but before the recognition of copyright by special laws, will belong forever to the universal culture as well. As for the right created by and after recognizing and codifying copyright notice that he is trying to harmonize the interests of authors and those of the public and to make peace between the author with his audience in a more general interest, and the solution for reconciliation and / or harmonization was limiting the length of some of the attributes of copyright. A solution that makes copyright law without a right to have the benefits after a while, that every owner has of his property. Furthermore, the link between the author and his work remains eternal because none other than the author may not claim ever to be the author of

  13. A duração do exercício determina a magnitude e a duração da hipotensão pós-exercício Exercise duration determines the magnitude and duration of post-exercise hypotension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Lúcia de Moraes Forjaz

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Considerando-se que a duração do exercício físico possa influenciar a hipotensão pós-exercício, testamos a hipótese de que o exercício submáximo mais prolongado provoca queda pressórica de maior magnitude e duração que o exercício mais curto.MÉTODOS: Protocolo experimental - 10 indivíduos realizaram duas sessões de exercício (25 e 45min no cicloergômetro em 50%VO2 pico. Protocolo controle - 12 indivíduos permaneceram em repouso por 45min. A pressão arterial (PA foi aferida antes (20min e após (90min o exercício ou o repouso. RESULTADOS: Protocolo experimental - a PA sistólica diminuiu significantemente pós-exercício e essa queda foi maior e mais prolongada após 45min de exercício. A PA média e diastólica diminuíram significantemente pós-exercício e foram significantemente menores na sessão de 45min. Protocolo controle - a PA não se alterou durante a sessão controle. CONCLUSÃO: O exercício físico de maior duração provoca hipotensão pós-exercício maior e mais prolongada.PURPOSE: Considering that exercise duration may play a role in post-exercise hypotension, we tested the hypothesis that a prolonged submaximal exercise would lead to a greater and longer blood pressure fall after exercise than a shorter exercise bout. METHODS: Experimental protocol - 10 subjects were submitted to two cycle ergometer exercise trials (25 and 45min at 50% of VO2 peak. Control protocol - 12 subjects rested in the sitting position for 45min. Blood pressure (BP was measured before (20min and after (90min rest or exercise bouts. RESULTS: Systolic BP decreased significantly after exercise and this reduction was greater and lasted longer after 45min of exercise. Mean and diastolic BP decreased after exercise and they were significantly lower during the 45min session. Control protocol - no change in BP was observed after resting condition. CONCLUSION: A longer exercise bout leads to a greater and longer post

  14. Suprasegmental Duration Modelling with Elastic Constraints in Automatic Speech Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Molloy, Laurence; Isard, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    In this paper a method of integrating a model of suprasegmental duration with a HMM-based recogniser at the post-processing level is presented. The N-Best utterance output is rescored using a suitable linear combination of acoustic log-likelihood (provided by a set of tied-state triphone HMMs) and duration log-likelihood (provided by a set of durational models). The durational model used in the post-processing imposes syllable-level elastic constraints on the durational behaviour of speech se...

  15. Geostatistical prediction of flow-duration curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, A.; Castellarin, A.; Brath, A.

    2013-11-01

    We present in this study an adaptation of Topological kriging (or Top-kriging), which makes the geostatistical procedure capable of predicting flow-duration curves (FDCs) in ungauged catchments. Previous applications of Top-kriging mainly focused on the prediction of point streamflow indices (e.g. flood quantiles, low-flow indices, etc.). In this study Top-kriging is used to predict FDCs in ungauged sites as a weighted average of standardised empirical FDCs through the traditional linear-weighting scheme of kriging methods. Our study focuses on the prediction of period-of-record FDCs for 18 unregulated catchments located in Central Italy, for which daily streamflow series with length from 5 to 40 yr are available, together with information on climate referring to the same time-span of each daily streamflow sequence. Empirical FDCs are standardised by a reference streamflow value (i.e. mean annual flow, or mean annual precipitation times the catchment drainage area) and the overall deviation of the curves from this reference value is then used for expressing the hydrological similarity between catchments and for deriving the geostatistical weights. We performed an extensive leave-one-out cross-validation to quantify the accuracy of the proposed technique, and to compare it to traditional regionalisation models that were recently developed for the same study region. The cross-validation points out that Top-kriging is a reliable approach for predicting FDCs, which can significantly outperform traditional regional models in ungauged basins.

  16. Kicking atoms with finite duration pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Julia; Chai, Shijie; Daszuta, Boris; Andersen, Mikkel F.

    2016-05-01

    The atom optics delta-kicked particle is a paradigmatic system for experimental studies of quantum chaos and classical-quantum correspondence. It consists of a cloud of laser cooled atoms exposed to a periodically pulsed standing wave of far off-resonant laser light. A purely quantum phenomena in such systems are quantum resonances which transfers the atoms into a coherent superposition of largely separated momentum states. Using such large momentum transfer ``beamsplitters'' in atom interferometers may have applications in high precision metrology. The growth in momentum separation cannot be maintained indefinitely due to finite laser power. The largest momentum transfer is achieved by violating the usual delta-kick assumption. Therefore we explore the behavior of the atom optics kicked particle with finite pulse duration. We have developed a semi-classical model which shows good agreement with the full quantum description as well as our experiments. Furthermore we have found a simple scaling law that helps to identify optimal parameters for an atom interferometer. We verify this by measurements of the ``Talbot time'' (a measurement of h/m) which together with other well-known constants constitute a measurement of the fine structure constant.

  17. Adaptive Preheating Duration Control for Low-Power Ambient Air Quality Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonchul Baek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic gas sensors used for measuring ambient air quality have features suitable for practical applications such as healthcare and air quality management, but have a major drawback—large power consumption to preheat the sensor for accurate measurements. In this paper; the adaptive preheating duration control (APC method is proposed to reduce the power consumption of ambient air quality sensor networks. APC reduces the duration of unnecessary preheating, thereby alleviating power consumption. Furthermore, the APC can allow systems to meet user requirements such as accuracy and periodicity factor when detecting the concentration of a target gas. A performance evaluation of the power consumption of gas sensors is conducted with various user requirements and factors that affect the preheating duration of the gas sensor. This shows that the power consumption of the APC is lower than that of continuous power supply methods and constant power supply/cutoff methods.

  18. Response-Stimulus Interval Duration Modulates Interference Effects in the Stroop Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Galer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Stroop task, incongruent stimuli (e.g. “red” printed in blue induce a robust interference effect. The impact of both the changes in the duration of the interval between the subject’s response and the next stimulus (RSI and the development from childhood to adulthood on the size of the interference have not been systematically studied. We have therefore tested the modulation of within-task RSI (from 1000 to 5000 ms on the interference effect in 8–10 years old children and young adults. Results disclose a stronger interference effect for the shortest RSI duration (1000 ms in both adults and children, indicating more effective inhibitory processses for longer RSI durations. Moreover, similar interference effect were found between children and adults suggesting that both groups are similarly affected by interference. Taken together, these results suggest that inhibitory processes require a certain amount of time to develop. 

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF POTASSIUM DICHROMATE Cr (VI ADMINISTRATION DURATION ON GLOBULAR RESISTANCE IN FEMALE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LETIŢIA STANA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The „in vivo” experiment has had as aim the study of different Cr(VI doses administration on globular resistance in female rats related to administration duration. Study was carried out on 56 female rats divided in 8 groups, 6 experimental and 2 control that received potassium dichromate in drinking water in doses of 25 ppm, 50 ppm and 75ppm Cr(VI, for 3 months, respectively, 6 months. Decrease of globular resistance (in terms of haemolysis degree in hypotonic solutions at increasing dose (up to 0.8% NaCl at 75 ppm dose in all experimental groups, in direct relation with the duration of administration was registered. Control groups were in physiological limits. The results of the present study revealed the affecting of erythrocyte membrane in function of administration duration and chromium intake level, because of oxidative lesions produced by it.

  20. Lack of Skeletal Muscle IL-6 Affects Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Activity at Rest and during Prolonged Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiksen, Anders; Schwartz, Camilla Lindgren; Bertholdt, Lærke; Joensen, Ella; Knudsen, Jakob G.; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2016-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) plays a key role in the regulation of skeletal muscle substrate utilization. IL-6 is produced in skeletal muscle during exercise in a duration dependent manner and has been reported to increase whole body fatty acid oxidation, muscle glucose uptake and decrease PDHa activity in skeletal muscle of fed mice. The aim of the present study was to examine whether muscle IL-6 contributes to exercise-induced PDH regulation in skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle-specific IL-6 knockout (IL-6 MKO) mice and floxed littermate controls (control) completed a single bout of treadmill exercise for 10, 60 or 120 min, with rested mice of each genotype serving as basal controls. The respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was overall higher (Putilization during prolonged exercise via effects on PDH. PMID:27327080

  1. Seasonal Changes in Sleep Duration in African American and African College Students Living In Washington, D.C.

    OpenAIRE

    Janna Volkov; Kelly J. Rohan; Yousufi, Samina M.; Minh-Chau Nguyen; Jackson, Michael A.; Thrower, Courtney M.; Stiller, John W.; Teodor T. Postolache

    2007-01-01

    Duration of nocturnal melatonin secretion, a marker of “biological night” that relates to sleep duration, is longer in winter than in summer in patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD), but not in healthy controls. In this study of African and African American college students, we hypothesized that students who met criteria for winter SAD or subsyndromal SAD (S-SAD) would report sleeping longer in winter than in summer. In addition, based on our previous observation that Africans repor...

  2. What Can the Duration of Discovered Cartels Tell Us About the Duration of Cartels?

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph E. Harrington, Jr.; Yanhao Wei

    2014-01-01

    There are many data sets based on the population of discovered cartels and it is from this data that average cartel duration and the annual probability of cartel death are estimated. It is recognized, however, that these estimates could be biased because the population of discovered cartels may not be a representative sample of the population of cartels. This paper constructs a simple birth-death-discovery process to theoretically investigate what it is we can learn about cartels from data on...

  3. Maintenance Duration Estimate for a DEMO Fusion Power Plant, based on the EFDA WP12 pre-conceptual studies

    CERN Document Server

    Crofts, O

    2014-01-01

    The erosion and high neutron flux in a fusion power plant results in the need for frequent remote replacement of the plasma facing components. This is a complex and time consuming remote handling operation and its duration directly affects the availability and therefore the commercial viability of the power plant. A tool is needed to allow the maintenance duration to be determined so that developments in component design can be assessed in terms of their effect on the maintenance duration. This allows the correct balance to be drawn between component cost and performance on the one hand and the remote handling cost and plant availability on the other.

  4. Duration of disease does not equally influence all aspects of quality of life in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benge, Jared F; Kekecs, Zoltán; Encarnacion, Elmyra; Ainslie, Melissa; Herff, Christina; Elkins, Gary; Herath, Priyantha

    2016-06-01

    Health related quality of life (HRQoL) is negatively impacted in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD). For the specific components that comprise HRQoL, the relationship between clinical variables, such as disease duration, is not fully characterized. In this cross-sectional study (n=302), self-reported HRQoL on the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39) was evaluated as a global construct as well as individual subscale scores. HRQoL was compared in three groups: those within 5years of diagnosis, those within 6-10years of diagnosis, and those greater than 11years since diagnosis. Non-parametric analyses revealed lower HRQoL with increasing disease duration when assessed as a global construct. However, when subscales were evaluated, difficulties with bodily discomfort and cognitive complaints were comparable in individuals in the 1-5years and 6-10year duration groups. Exploratory regression analyses suggested disease duration does explain unique variance in some subscales, even after controlling for Hoehn and Yahr stage and neuropsychiatric features. Our findings show that HRQoL domains in PD patients are affected differentially across the duration of the disease. Clinicians and researchers may need to tailor interventions intended to improve HRQoL at different domains as the disease progresses. PMID:26778512

  5. Maternal restraint and external eating behaviour are associated with formula use or shorter breastfeeding duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A

    2014-05-01

    Maternal eating behaviour (e.g. restraint, disinhibition) has been associated with maternal child-feeding style (e.g. pressure to eat, restricting intake, monitoring) for children over the age of two years. In particular, mothers high in restraint are significantly more likely to restrict and monitor their child's intake of food. Research has not however examined the impact of maternal eating behaviour upon earlier infant feeding. A controlling maternal child-feeding style has been linked with shorter breastfeeding duration and earlier introduction of solid foods but the relationship between infant milk feeding and maternal eating behaviour has not been explored despite links between maternal weight, body image and breastfeeding duration. The aim of the current study was to explore associations between maternal restraint, emotional and external eating and breastfeeding initiation and duration. Seven hundred and fifty-six mothers with an infant aged 6-12months completed a copy of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and reported breastfeeding duration and formula use up to six months postpartum. Mothers high in restraint and external eating were significantly more likely to formula feed from birth, to breastfeed for a shorter duration and to introduce formula milk sooner than those lower in these behaviours. Moreover these behaviours were associated with reporting greater control during milk feeding by feeding to a mother-led rather than baby-led routine. Maternal eating behaviour may therefore affect breastfeeding initiation and continuation and is an important element for discussion for those working to support new mothers. PMID:24463067

  6. Perceived time and temporal structure: Neural entrainment to isochronous stimulation increases duration estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horr, Ninja K; Wimber, Maria; Di Luca, Massimiliano

    2016-05-15

    Distortions of perceived duration can give crucial insights into the mechanisms that underlie the processing and representation of stimulus timing. One factor that affects duration estimates is the temporal structure of stimuli that fill an interval. For example, regular filling (isochronous interval) leads to an overestimation of perceived duration as compared to irregular filling (anisochronous interval). In the present article, we use electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate the neural basis of this subjective lengthening of perceived duration with isochrony. In a two-interval forced choice task, participants judged which of two intervals lasts longer - one always being isochronous, the other one anisochronous. Response proportions confirm the subjective overestimation of isochronous intervals. At the neural level, isochronous sequences are associated with enhanced pairwise phase consistency (PPC) at the stimulation frequency, reflecting the brain's entrainment to the regular stimulation. The PPC over the entrainment channels is further enhanced for isochronous intervals that are reported to be longer, and the magnitude of this PCC effect correlates with the amount of perceptual bias. Neural entrainment has been proposed as a mechanism of attentional selection, enabling increased neural responsiveness toward stimuli that arrive at an expected point in time. The present results support the proposed relationship between neural response magnitudes and temporal estimates: An increase in neural responsiveness leads to a more pronounced representation of the individual stimuli filling the interval and in turn to a subjective increase in duration. PMID:26883062

  7. How does real affect affect affect recognition in speech?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research described in this thesis was to develop speech-based affect recognition systems that can deal with spontaneous (‘real’) affect instead of acted affect. Several affect recognition experiments with spontaneous affective speech data were carried out to investigate what combinati

  8. The effects of pitch and duration on the perception of the neutral tone in standard Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yunjia

    2005-01-01

    The research aim is to investigate that how pitch and duration affect the perception of the neutral tone in standard Chinese and that which one of the two factors is more important.A psycho-acoustic experiment was conducted, in which the listening stimuli consisted of 15 groups of disyllabic words, and the pitches and durations of the two syllables in each of the words were artificially controlled. Thirty-three standard Chinese native speakers participated in a forced-choice task to judge if the second syllables of the words they heard carried the neutral tone or the normal tones. The results of the experiment indicated that, (1) the effects of both pitch and duration on the perception of the neutral tone are significant; (2) the effect of pitch is larger than that of duration; (3) both the Fo values of the high point in the pitch contour and the pitch contour pattern have influence on the perception. The results of the experiment were correspondent to some extent to those of the previous acoustic analyses on the neutral tone.The diversity between the results of the presented perceptual study and those of the acoustical studies implies that the acoustic features of the neutral tone that exist in natural speech while do not affect the perception may be phonologically redundant.

  9. Duration of cisplatin excretion in breast milk

    OpenAIRE

    Hays, Karen; Ryu, Rachel J.; Swisher, Elizabeth M.; Reed, Eddie; McManus, Terry; Rybeck, Blanche; Petros, William P.; Hebert, Mary F.

    2013-01-01

    Cisplatin, a platinum-based chemotherapy agent, is commonly used in treating cancers that may affect women of childbearing age, including cervical cancer, triple-negative breast cancer, and pediatric tumors in adolescents. The authors found that platinum was undetectable in breast milk at 66 hours and beyond following a 70 mg dose of intravenous cisplatin. Relative infant dose of platinum was calculated to be between 0.29% and 0.40% of the maternal dose corrected for body weight. This case de...

  10. All bout the Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何杏仙

    2006-01-01

    The Olympic Games is held every four years in a different city in theworld.The Games has become the most important athletic events and a symbolof friendship of all the people of the world!Athletes from different countriestake part in the sports.These sports include winter and summer games.The Olympic Games began in Greece more than2700years ago.So theOlympic Games has a long history.It became the most important festival in allof Greece because the games were originally part of a religious festival in hon-or...

  11. Personal growth following long-duration spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suedfeld, Peter; Brcic, Jelena; Johnson, Phyllis J.; Gushin, Vadim

    2012-10-01

    that cosmonauts do experience various aspects of positive personal growth following their space flights. As long-duration missions are (and will remain) the norm, it is important for the space agencies and the voyagers themselves to develop a better understanding and possible enhancement of this phenomenon.

  12. Temperament moderates the association between sleep duration and cognitive performance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Marije C M; Astill, Rebecca G; Benjamins, Jeroen S; Swaab, Hanna; Van Someren, Eus J W; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B

    2016-04-01

    The importance of sufficient sleep for cognitive performance has been increasingly recognized. Individual differences in susceptibility to effects of sleep restriction have hardly been investigated in children. We investigated whether individual differences in temperament moderate the association of sleep duration with sustained attention, inhibition, and working memory in 123 children (42% boys) aged 9 to 11 years. Sleep duration was assessed using parental diaries, and temperament traits of extraversion and negative affectivity were assessed by child self-report (Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised). Computerized assessment of sustained attention (short-form Psychomotor Vigilance Task, PVT), inhibition (PVT Go/No-Go adaptation), and working memory (visual Digit Span) were performed at school. Our findings demonstrate that long-sleeping introverted and negatively affective children show worse sustained attention and working memory than short-sleeping children with these temperaments. PMID:26761147

  13. Climatic changes and flooding durations in relation with public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, A.; Roumieux, C.; Trouillet, A.

    2009-04-01

    Climatic Changes, and more generaly Global Changes, play a major role in environmental modifications in relation with public health. Modifications of temperatures, precipitations... influence ecological habitats. These habitats can be adapted for some animals species, responsable of certain pandemics. Mosquitoes and birds represent for certain pandemics the essential elements of virus transmission. Abundance of mosquitoes and birds species, is heavily conditioned by flooded areas extent and specific habitats and their variations. The study we carried, has been done in South of France. We show present status of ecological habitats and flooded durations and future previsions. We reach environment impact for certain virus like West Nile virus. This virus affects bird, horse and sometimes man. Presence of the virus is conditioned by different factors, primarily including vector distribution (mosquitoes). We show how it's possible to localise favorable areas for the virus and to predict its future expansion areas. We present maps of the possibilities for future concerning previsions of bioclimatic steps variations. Thanks to the latest remote sensing and spatial analysis techniques. Our maps may be used as precious tools to help decision makers when faced with mosquito related problems.

  14. Bayesian comparison of different rainfall depth-duration-frequency relationships

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Depth-duration-frequency curves estimate the rainfall intensity patterns for various return periods and rainfall durations. An empirical model based on the generalized extreme value distribution is presented for hourly maximum rainfall, and improved by the inclusion of daily maximum rainfall, through the extremal indexes of 24 hourly and daily rainfall data. The model is then divided into two sub-models for the short and long rainfall durations. Three likelihood formulations are proposed to m...

  15. Dual-Priced Modal Transition Systems with Time Durations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beneš, Nikola; Kretínsky, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand;

    2012-01-01

    Modal transition systems are a well-established specification formalism for a high-level modelling of component-based software systems. We present a novel extension of the formalism called modal transition systems with durations where time durations are modelled as controllable or uncontrollable...... cheapest long-run average reward. We give an algorithm for computing such optimal implementations via a reduction to a new extension of mean payoff games with time durations and analyse the complexity of the algorithm....

  16. Inference in Hidden Markov Models with Explicit State Duration Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Dewar, Michael; Wiggins, Chris; Wood, Frank

    2012-01-01

    In this letter we borrow from the inference techniques developed for unbounded state-cardinality (nonparametric) variants of the HMM and use them to develop a tuning-parameter free, black-box inference procedure for Explicit-state-duration hidden Markov models (EDHMM). EDHMMs are HMMs that have latent states consisting of both discrete state-indicator and discrete state-duration random variables. In contrast to the implicit geometric state duration distribution possessed by the standard HMM, ...

  17. Observed and Unobserved Heterogeneity in the Duration Dependency Parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael

    2000-01-01

    We present a duration model, which allows for non-homogenous duration dependence with respect to observed and unobserved variables. The model is examined in a simulation study, and it is estimated on unemployment spells of a sample of Danish workers. Udgivelsesdato: MAR......We present a duration model, which allows for non-homogenous duration dependence with respect to observed and unobserved variables. The model is examined in a simulation study, and it is estimated on unemployment spells of a sample of Danish workers. Udgivelsesdato: MAR...

  18. Effects of Age, Exercise Duration, and Test Conditions on Heart Rate Variability in Young Endurance Horses

    OpenAIRE

    Younes, Mohamed; Robert, Céline; Barrey, Eric; Cottin, François

    2016-01-01

    Although cardiac recovery is an important criterion for ranking horses in endurance competitions, heart rate variability (HRV) has hardly ever been studied in the context of this equestrian discipline. In the present study, we sought to determine whether HRV is affected by parameters such as age, exercise duration and test site. Accordingly, HRV might be used to select endurance horses with the fastest cardiac recovery. The main objective of the present study was to determine the effects of a...

  19. Duration Analysis of Interest Rate Spells : Cross-National Study of Interest Rate Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Yingwen; Zhou Z.F., Sherry

    2011-01-01

    A duration analysis is adopted in this study to investigate the determinants of the "interest rate spells" across ten countries (or area) . Both parametric and nonparametric methods are employed for the analysis. It is found that the length of "interest rate spells" is affected by both the rate of inflation and the rate of economic growth. In contrast, the influence of exchange and unemployment rates proved to be insignificant and the lagged interest rate is significant only for Denmark. The ...

  20. Game-based evaluation of personalized support for astronauts in long duration missions

    OpenAIRE

    Smets, N.J.J.M.; Abbing, M.S.; Neerincx, M.A.; Lindenberg, J.; Oostendorp, H. van

    2008-01-01

    Long duration missions set high requirements for personalized astronaut support that takes into account the social, cognitive and affective state of the astronaut. Such support should be tested as thoroughly as possible before deployment into space. The in-orbit influences of the astronaut's state factors are hard to simulate on earth. Scenario-based evaluation might make the users feel as if they are in the eventual context of use, and are actually taking part in a scenario. In addition game...

  1. Muscle activity, time to fatigue, and maximum task duration at different levels of production standard time

    OpenAIRE

    Nur, Nurhayati Mohd; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md; Dahari, Mahidzal; Sanusi, Junedah

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the variations in muscle fatigue, time to fatigue, and maximum task duration at different levels of production standard time. [Methods] Twenty subjects performed repetitive tasks at three different levels of production standard time corresponding to “normal”, “hard” and “very hard”. Surface electromyography was used to measure the muscle activity. [Results] The results showed that muscle activity was significantly affected by the production standard time leve...

  2. LOFAR Observations of Swift J1644+57 and Implications for Short-Duration Transients

    OpenAIRE

    Cendes, Y.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Swinbank, J. D.; Rowlinson, A.; van der Horst, A. J.; Carbone, D.; Broderick, J. W.; Staley, T. D.; Stewart, A. J.; Molenaar, G.; Huizinga, F.; Alexov, A.; Bell, M. E.; Coenen, T.; Corbel, S.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We have analyzed low frequency radio data of tidal disruption event (TDE) Swift J1644+57 to search for a counterpart. We consider how brief transient signals (on the order of seconds or minutes) originating from this location would appear in our data. We also consider how automatic radio frequency interference (RFI) flagging at radio telescope observatories might affect these and other transient observations in the future, particularly with brief transients of a few seconds duration. Me...

  3. The Evolutionary Ecology of Human Lactation: Correlates of Duration of Breastfeeding

    OpenAIRE

    McKerracher, Luseadra

    2016-01-01

    Humans breastfeed our infants for less time than expected for primates of our size. Additionally, human breastfeeding duration appears more variable than in nonhuman species. This early and flexible weaning pattern affects maternal fertility as well as infant health and survivorship, from both within- and across- species perspectives. So, understanding what factors enabled humans to wean relatively early and flexibly is an important goal for human evolutionary demography. Yet, what these fact...

  4. Effects of far infrared rays emitting clothing on recovery after an intense plyometric exercise bout applied to elite soccer players: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loturco, I; Abad, Ccc; Nakamura, F Y; Ramos, S P; Kobal, R; Gil, S; Pereira, L A; Burini, Fhp; Roschel, H; Ugrinowitsch, C; Tricoli, V

    2016-09-01

    The aim was to investigate the effects of far infrared (FIR) ray emitting clothes on indirect markers of exercise-induced muscle damage and physical performance recovery after a plyometric bout applied to soccer players. Twenty-one male players (18.9±0.6 years; 70.8±5.01 kg; 178.3±0.06 cm) performed 100 drop-jumps. Six hours after the bout, athletes put on FIR clothes (FIR) (density of 225 g·m(-2), 88% far infrared rays emitting polyamide 66 Emana yarn (PA66) fibre, 12% Spandex, emissivity of 0.88 and power emitted of 341 W/m2µm at 37°C in the 5-20 µm wavelength range, patent WO 2009/077834 A2) (N = 10) or placebo clothes (PLA) (N = 11). Mid-thigh circumferences, creatine kinase (CK), and delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) were assessed before, immediately after and 24, 48, and 72 h after the bout. Squat (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) heights were measured before and at 24, 48, and 72 h after, while 1RM leg press (maximum strength) was measured before and at 72 h after the plyometrics. No differences between groups were found in mid-thigh circumferences, SJ, CMJ or 1RM. CK increased significantly 24 h after the plyometrics in comparison to before (p effect sizes were greater in FIR (moderate at 48 h, ES = 0.737 and large at 72 h, ES = 0.844), suggesting that FIR clothes may reduce perceived DOMS after an intense plyometric session performed by soccer players. PMID:27601783

  5. The impact of attention on judgments of frequency and duration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabell Winkler

    Full Text Available Previous studies that examined human judgments of frequency and duration found an asymmetrical relationship: While frequency judgments were quite accurate and independent of stimulus duration, duration judgments were highly dependent upon stimulus frequency. A potential explanation for these findings is that the asymmetry is moderated by the amount of attention directed to the stimuli. In the current experiment, participants' attention was manipulated in two ways: (a intrinsically, by varying the type and arousal potential of the stimuli (names, low-arousal and high-arousal pictures, and (b extrinsically, by varying the physical effort participants expended during the stimulus presentation (by lifting a dumbbell vs. relaxing the arm. Participants processed stimuli with varying presentation frequencies and durations and were subsequently asked to estimate the frequency and duration of each stimulus. Sensitivity to duration increased for pictures in general, especially when processed under physical effort. A large effect of stimulus frequency on duration judgments was obtained for all experimental conditions, but a similar large effect of presentation duration on frequency judgments emerged only in the conditions that could be expected to draw high amounts of attention to the stimuli: when pictures were judged under high physical effort. Almost no difference in the mutual impact of frequency and duration was obtained for low-arousal or high-arousal pictures. The mechanisms underlying the simultaneous processing of frequency and duration are discussed with respect to existing models derived from animal research. Options for the extension of such models to human processing of frequency and duration are suggested.

  6. Linear and Curvilinear Trajectories of Cortical Loss with Advancing Age and Disease Duration in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Daniel O; Dobolyi, David G; Isaacs, David A; Roman, Olivia C; Herb, Joshua; Wylie, Scott A; Neimat, Joseph S; Donahue, Manus J; Hedera, Peter; Zald, David H; Landman, Bennett A; Bowman, Aaron B; Dawant, Benoit M; Rane, Swati

    2016-05-01

    Advancing age and disease duration both contribute to cortical thinning in Parkinson's disease (PD), but the pathological interactions between them are poorly described. This study aims to distinguish patterns of cortical decline determined by advancing age and disease duration in PD. A convenience cohort of 177 consecutive PD patients, identified at the Vanderbilt University Movement Disorders Clinic as part of a clinical evaluation for Deep Brain Stimulation (age: M= 62.0, SD 9.3), completed a standardized clinical assessment, along with structural brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan. Age and gender matched controls (n=53) were obtained from the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and Progressive Parkinson's Marker Initiative (age: M= 63.4, SD 12.2). Estimated changes in cortical thickness were modeled with advancing age, disease duration, and their interaction. The best-fitting model, linear or curvilinear (2(nd), or 3(rd) order natural spline), was defined using the minimum Akaike Information Criterion, and illustrated on a 3-dimensional brain. Three curvilinear patterns of cortical thinning were identified: early decline, late decline, and early-stable-late. In contrast to healthy controls, the best-fit model for age related changes in PD is curvilinear (early decline), particularly in frontal and precuneus regions. With advancing disease duration, a curvilinear model depicts accelerating decline in the occipital cortex. A significant interaction between advancing age and disease duration is evident in frontal, motor, and posterior parietal areas. Study results support the hypothesis that advancing age and disease duration differentially affect regional cortical thickness and display regional dependent linear and curvilinear patterns of thinning. PMID:27330836

  7. Malignant Ureteral Obstruction: Functional Duration of Metallic versus Polymeric Ureteral Stents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Po-Ming; Chiang, I-Ni; Chen, Chia-Yen; Huang, Kuo-How; Hsu, Jui-Shan; Wang, Shuo-Meng; Lee, Yuan-Ju; Yu, Hong-Jeng; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Huang, Chao-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Ureteral obstruction caused by extrinsic compression is often associated with intra-abdominal cancers. Internal drainage with ureteral stents is typically the first-line therapy to relieve such obstructions. Novel designs of ureteral stents made of different materials have been invented to achieve better drainage. In this study, we described the functional outcomes of a Resonance metallic ureteral stent (Cook Medical, Bloomington, Indiana, USA) in patients with malignant ureteral obstruction and compare the functional duration of Resonance stents with regular polymeric stents in the same cohort. Methods Cancer patients who received polymeric stents and subsequent Resonance stents for ureteral obstruction between July 2009 and November 2012 were included in a chart review. Stent failure was detected by clinical symptoms, imaging studies, and renal function tests. The functional durations of each stent were calculated, and possible factors affecting stent patency were investigated. Results A total of 50 stents were successfully inserted into 50 ureteral units in 42 patients with malignant ureteral obstruction. There were 7 antegrade stents and 43 retrograde stents. There were no major complications. Stent-related symptoms were similar in both kinds of stents. After polymeric stents were replaced with Resonance metallic stents, hydronephrosis subsided or remained stable in 90% (45/50) of the ureteral units. Serum creatinine decreased or remained stable in 90% (38/42) of these patients. The Resonance stent exhibited a mean increase in functional duration of 4 months compared with the polymeric stents (p<0.0001), and 50% (25/50) of the Resonance stents exhibited a significant increase in functional duration (more than 3 months). Pre-operative serum creatinine < 2 was associated with a substantial increase in stent duration. Conclusions Resonance stents are effective and safe in relieving malignant ureteral obstructions after polymeric stents failure

  8. Manifestation of arsenicosis patients and factors determining the duration of arsenic symptoms in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study analyzed a total of 1482 arsenicosis patients living in 6 of 496 upzilas (sub-districts) of Bangladesh, who were identified through household screening and then confirmed by a trained medical team headed by medical officer. Melanosis was common (97%) among them but about two-thirds (68.7%) of the patients were suffering from keratosis. Average age was 36 years and average duration of arsenic symptoms was 3 (median) years. About 50% of the patients had been drinking tubewell water more than 24 years. Melanosis was significantly associated with younger patients (P = 0.031), shallower tubewell (P = 0.005), and complication of conjunctivitis (P < 0.001). Keratosis was also significantly associated with older age (P 0.022), shallower tubewell (P < 0.001), complication of conjunctivitis (P < 0.001), bronchitis (P < 0.001), loss of appetite (P < 0.001), and wasting (P < 0.001). Duration of arsenic symptoms was significantly associated with older age (P < 0.001), male (P = 0.002), married (P < 0.001), smoking (P 0.002), longer duration of consuming tubewell water (P < 0.001), complication of conjunctivitis (P = 0.002), loss of appetite (P < 0.001), wasting (P 0.006), and social problem faced having arsenicosis (P = 0.040). Multivariate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) indicated that keratosis (OR 2.00; 95% CI: 1.56-2.56) was significantly associated with longer duration of arsenic symptoms; loss of appetite (OR = 1.40; 95% CI: 1.12-1.74) was a significant complication for longer duration. Similarly smoking (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.06-1.68) was positively associated with longer duration of arsenic symptom. These findings will help the policy makers of Bangladesh to understand about the factors that may affect the severity condition of the patients through prolongation of arsenic symptoms

  9. Changes in energy metabolism in the quadriceps femoris after a single bout of acute exhaustive swimming in rats: a 31p-magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yingwei; Pan Shinong; Chen Zhian; Zhao Heng; Ma Ying; Zheng Liqiang; Li Qi

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the value of 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) in in vivo assessment of exhaustive exercise-induced injury in skeletal muscle.We aimed to evaluate the value of a 31P-MRS study using the quadriceps femoris after a single bout of acute exhaustive swimming in rats,and the correlation between 31P-MRS and histological changes.Methods Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to control,half-exhaustive,and exhaustive exercise groups.31P-MRS of the quadriceps femoris of the right lower limb was performed immediately after swimming exercise to detect Pi,PCr,and β-ATP.The Pi/PCr,Pi/β-ATP,PCr/β-ATP,and PCr/(PCr+Pi) were calculated and pH measured.Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) were calculated to evaluate the diagnostic potential of 31P-MRS in identifying and distinguishing the three groups.HE staining,electron microscopy and desmin immunostaining after imaging of the muscle were used as a reference standard.The correlation between 31P-MRS and the mean absorbance (A value) of desmin staining were analyzed with the Pearson correlation test.Results Pi,PCr,Pi/PCr,and PCr/(PCr+Pi) showed statistically significant intergroup differences (P<0.05).AUCs of Pi,PCr,Pi/PCr,and PCr/(PCr+Pi) were 0.905,0.848,0.930,and 0.930 for the control and half-exhaustive groups,while sensitivity and specificity were 90%/85%,95%/55%,95%/80%,and 90%/85%,respectively.The AUCs of Pi,PCr,Pi/PCr and PCr/(PCr+Pi) were 0.995,0.980,1.000,and 1.000 for the control and exhaustive groups,while sensitivity and specificity were 95%/90%,100%/90%,100%/95%,and 100%/95%,respectively.The AUCs of Pi,PCr,Pi/PCr,and PCr/(PCr+Pi) were 0.735,0.865,0.903,and 0.903 for the half-exhaustive and exhaustive groups,while sensitivity and specificity were 80%/60%,90%/75%,95%/65%,and 95%/70%,respectively.In the half-exhaustive group,some muscle fibers exhibited edema in HE staining,and the

  10. Termination of spiral wave breakup in a Fitzhugh-Nagumo model via short and long duration stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Richard A.

    2002-09-01

    Rotating spiral waves have been observed in a variety of nonlinear biological and physical systems. Spiral waves are found in excitable and oscillatory systems and can be stationary, meander, or even degenerate into multiple unstable rotating waves (a process called "spiral wave breakup"). In the heart, spiral wave breakup is thought to be the underlying mechanism of cardiac fibrillation. The spatiotemporal complexity of multiple unstable spiral waves is difficult to control or terminate. Here, the mechanisms of the termination of spiral wave breakup in response to global stimulation are investigated. A modified Fitzhugh-Nagumo model was used to represent cellular kinetics to study the role of the fast (activation) and slow (recovery) variables. This simplified model allows a theoretical analysis of the termination of spiral wave breakup via both short and long duration pulses. Simulations were carried out in both two-dimensional sheets and in a three-dimensional geometry of the heart ventricles. The short duration pulses affected only the fast variable and acted to reset wave propagation. Monophasic pulses excited tissue ahead of the wave front thus reducing the amount of excitable tissue. Biphasic shocks did the same, but they also acted to generate new wave fronts from the pre-existing wave tails by making some active regions excitable. Thus, if the short duration stimuli were strong enough, they acted to fill in excitable tissue via propagating wave fronts and terminated all activity. The long duration wave forms were selected such that they had a frequency spectrum similar to that of the pseudoelectrocardiograms recorded during fibrillation. These long duration wave forms affected both the recovery and activation variables, and the mechanism of unstable multiple spiral wave termination was different compared to the short duration wave forms. If the long duration stimuli were strong enough, they acted to alter the "state" (i.e., combination of fast and slow

  11. P-wave duration and the risk of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jonas B.; Kühl, Jørgen T.; Pietersen, Adrian;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results on the association between P-wave duration and the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) are conflicting. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to obtain a detailed description of the relationship between P-wave duration and the risk of AF. METHODS: Using computerized analysis o...

  12. Instrumental variable estimation of treatment effects for duration outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.E. Bijwaard (Govert)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this article we propose and implement an instrumental variable estimation procedure to obtain treatment effects on duration outcomes. The method can handle the typical complications that arise with duration data of time-varying treatment and censoring. The treatment effect we defi

  13. Grammatical aspect influences event duration estimations: Evidence from Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flecken, M.E.P.; Gerwien, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of grammatical aspect marking in Dutch sentences, on speakers' estimations of the duration of highly familiar, everyday events. We first established the 'inherent' or natural duration of different events (Exp. 1). This was then used for the manipulation of aspect (

  14. A Jump Diffusion Model for Volatility and Duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Wei; Pelletier, Denis

    the market microstructure theory. Traditional measures of volatility do not utilize durations. I adopt a jump diffusion process to model the persistence of intraday volatility and conditional duration, and their interdependence. The jump component is disentangled from the continuous part of the price...

  15. 5 CFR 831.642 - Marriage duration requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 831.642... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Survivor Annuities Eligibility § 831.642 Marriage duration requirements. (a... in paragraph (b) of this section; or (2) A child was born of the marriage, as explained in...

  16. 5 CFR 843.303 - Marriage duration requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 843.303... Former Spouse Benefits § 843.303 Marriage duration requirements. (a) The current spouse of a retiree, an... marriage, as explained in paragraph (c) of this section; or (3) The death of the retiree, employee,...

  17. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive payments. Subject to the availability of appropriated funds, DOE shall make incentive payments under...

  18. Memory disorder related to coma duration after head injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Vilkki, J; Poropudas, K; Servo, A

    1988-01-01

    The relationship of memory and intelligence test performances to coma duration was studied in 51 head injured patients who had not been operated on for intracranial haematoma. Memory defect was related to coma duration, and was not secondary to impaired perceptual or conceptual analysis of the material to be remembered.

  19. 10 CFR 52.173 - Duration of manufacturing license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of manufacturing license. 52.173 Section 52.173... POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.173 Duration of manufacturing license. A manufacturing license... issuance. A holder of a manufacturing license may not initiate the manufacture of a reactor less than...

  20. 30 CFR 56.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 56.6406 Section 56... Blasting § 56.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be initiated from powerlines or lighting circuits, the time of current flow shall be limited to a maximum of...

  1. 30 CFR 57.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 57.6406 Section 57... Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be initiated from powerlines or lighting circuits, the time of current...

  2. 46 CFR 189.60-40 - Duration of Convention certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duration of Convention certificates. 189.60-40 Section... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 189.60-40 Duration of Convention certificates. (a) The following certificates are valid for...

  3. 46 CFR 91.60-40 - Duration of Convention certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duration of Convention certificates. 91.60-40 Section 91... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 91.60-40 Duration of Convention certificates. (a) The following certificates are valid for...

  4. Modeling the Distribution Characteristics of Urban Public Bicycle Rental Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichao Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to model the distribution characteristics of public bicycle rental durations, individual journey data for three cities in China (Ningbo, Hangzhou, and Beijing, for weekdays, was obtained. The distribution curves for public bicycle rental duration in the three cities were found to be extremely similar, with small differences among the weekdays. The basic parameters such as the average rental duration, the rental duration corresponding to the maximum rental frequency, and the rental duration corresponding to 75% degree were then calculated. On this basis, the radioactive decay law from physics was used to establish a theoretical model for the relationship between rental frequency and rental duration. The data on public bicycle rental duration in Ningbo, Hangzhou, and Beijing were used to test the model and produce a corrected theoretical model. The results indicate that the relationship between rental frequency and rental duration obeys the decay law. The study results provide important theoretical support for the rental station planning of bicycle sharing systems, as well as the allocation, operation, and dispatch of public bicycles.

  5. 10 CFR 52.104 - Duration of combined license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of combined license. 52.104 Section 52.104 Energy... Combined Licenses § 52.104 Duration of combined license. A combined license is issued for a specified... criteria are met under § 52.103(g) or allowing operation during an interim period under the...

  6. 14 CFR 1203.407 - Duration of classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of classification. 1203.407... PROGRAM Guides for Original Classification § 1203.407 Duration of classification. (a) Information shall be... date or event for declassification shall be set by the original classification authority at the...

  7. Sleep Duration and Obesity in Adults: What Are the Connections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theorell-Haglöw, Jenny; Lindberg, Eva

    2016-09-01

    Collectively, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on self-reported sleep duration and obesity do not show a clear pattern of association with some showing a negative linear relationship, some showing a U-shaped relationship, and some showing no relationship. Associations between sleep duration and obesity seem stronger in younger adults. Cross-sectional studies using objectively measured sleep duration (actigraphy or polysomnography (PSG)) also show this mixed pattern whereas all longitudinal studies to date using actigraphy or PSG have failed to show a relationship with obesity/weight gain. It is still too early and a too easy solution to suggest that changing the sleep duration will cure the obesity epidemic. Given novel results on emotional stress and poor sleep as mediating factors in the relationship between sleep duration and obesity, detection and management of these should become the target of future clinical efforts as well as future research. PMID:27372108

  8. Model-checking dense-time Duration Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Since the seminal work of Zhou Chaochen, M. R. Hansen, and P. Sestoft on decidability of dense-time Duration Calculus [Zhou, Hansen, Sestoft, 1993] it is well-known that decidable fragments of Duration Calculus can only be obtained through withdrawal of much of the interesting vocabulary of this...... logic. While this was formerly taken as an indication that key-press verification of implementations with respect to elaborate Duration Calculus specifications were also impossible, we show that the model property is well decidable for realistic designs which feature natural constraints on their...... suitably sparser model classes we obtain model-checking procedures for rich subsets of Duration Calculus. Together with undecidability results also obtained, this sheds light upon the exact borderline between decidability and undecidability of Duration Calculi and related logics....

  9. TMD pain: the effect on health related quality of life and the influence of pain duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenvergert Elisabeth M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives As impact of literature concerning this subject is scarce, the objectives of this study were to assess whether the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL is decreased in patients with painful temporomandibular disorders as compared to the HRQoL in the general population, and to evaluate to what extent pain duration affects HRQoL. Methods Data concerning physical and mental health were retrieved from patients with painful temporomandibular disorders. Assessment tools used were: the Mandibular Function Impairment Questionnaire (MFIQ, the Short-Form-36 (SF-36, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Schedule (HADS, and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. In order to examine the influence of the duration of pain on HRQoL, the total sample was divided into three different subgroups. Subgroup 1 consisted of patients with complaints existing less than one year. Patients with complaints from 1 to 3 years were allocated to the second group. The 3rd subgroup included patients with complaints longer than 3 years. Results The total sample consisted of 95 patients (90 females and 5 males. On most physical and social functioning items, groups 2 and 3 scored significantly worse than the general population. On the other hand, none of the groups differed from the general population when comparing the mental items. Duration of pain was significantly correlated with SF-36 subscale physical functioning and the mandibular impairment. Conclusion Patients with TMD pain less than one year score better than compared to the population norm. With a longer duration of pain, mental health scores and role limitations due to emotional problems do not appear to be seriously affected by reduced physical health, while social functioning appears to be considerably affected.

  10. Dependence of elemental concentrations in Alzheimer brain tissue on disease duration and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been recent interest in determining elemental concentrations of brain tissue affected by Alzheimer's disease and comparing these with concentrations in 'normal' brain tissue. Although age and sex influences on elemental concentrations are often allowed for, the duration for which a patient was suffering from Alzheimer's disease is a factor rarely considered. In the work presented the concentrations of sodium, potassium, chlorine and bromine in the frontal lobe of the Alzheimer brain are determined using the techniques of particle induced X ray emission (PIXE) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Concentrations of Na, Cl and Br were found to be high in Alzheimer brain tissue compared with 'normal' tissue, with concentrations lowest in brain tissue of long disease duration. Potassium, on the other hand, was found to have low concentrations in Alzheimer brain tissue but exhibited the highest concentrations in brain tissue of longest disease duration. The implication of this is that for concentrations from different sources to be compared, the disease duration is an important factor. (author)

  11. Diffraction response of photorefractive polymers over nine orders of magnitude of pulse duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanche, Pierre-Alexandre; Lynn, Brittany; Churin, Dmitriy; Kieu, Khanh; Norwood, Robert A.; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2016-07-01

    The development of a single mode fiber-based pulsed laser with variable pulse duration, energy, and repetition rate has enabled the characterization of photorefractive polymer (PRP) in a previously inaccessible regime located between millisecond and microsecond single pulse illumination. With the addition of CW and nanosecond pulse lasers, four wave mixing measurements covering 9 orders of magnitudes in pulse duration are reported. Reciprocity failure of the diffraction efficiency according to the pulse duration for a constant energy density is observed and attributed to multiple excitation, transport and trapping events of the charge carriers. However, for pulses shorter than 30 μs, the efficiency reaches a plateau where an increase in energy density no longer affects the efficiency. This plateau is due to the saturation of the charge generation at high peak power given the limited number of sensitizer sites. The same behavior is observed in two different types of devices composed of the same material but with or without a buffer layer covering one electrode, which confirm the origin of these mechanisms. This new type of measurement is especially important to optimize PRP for applications using short pulse duration.

  12. Effect of various temperature and storage duration on setting time of OREGA sealer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Sunarko

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Choosing the right rigid material and root canal paste are crucial in the success of root canal obturation. N2 is a root canal paste containing formaldehyde, which is toxic and carcinogenic. Whilst zinc oxide, resorcin, eugenol, glycerin, and hydrochloric acid, abbreviated as OREGA, are considered a safer root canal paste. In order to perform good obturation, root canal paste’s setting time plays an important role. This is connected with how long and in what temperature the paste’s substances are stored. Purpose: This experiment was performed to find out the effect of various temperature and storage duration on the setting time of OREGA sealer. Method: OREGA and N 2sealers were used as samples. Eighty sealer samples were produced for both sealers providing 10 samples foe each testing category. Each of these samples were stored in 27°C room temperature, 4°C refrigerator temperature, and put into storage for the duration of 0, 1, 2, and 3 months. After these treatments, the samples were tested and analyzed. Result: Data collected were analyzed by two-way ANOVA, showing no significant difference of the setting time among temperature and storage duration (p> 0.05. Conclusion: Temperature and storage duration do not affect the setting time of OREGA root canal paste.

  13. Diffraction response of photorefractive polymers over nine orders of magnitude of pulse duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanche, Pierre-Alexandre; Lynn, Brittany; Churin, Dmitriy; Kieu, Khanh; Norwood, Robert A; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2016-01-01

    The development of a single mode fiber-based pulsed laser with variable pulse duration, energy, and repetition rate has enabled the characterization of photorefractive polymer (PRP) in a previously inaccessible regime located between millisecond and microsecond single pulse illumination. With the addition of CW and nanosecond pulse lasers, four wave mixing measurements covering 9 orders of magnitudes in pulse duration are reported. Reciprocity failure of the diffraction efficiency according to the pulse duration for a constant energy density is observed and attributed to multiple excitation, transport and trapping events of the charge carriers. However, for pulses shorter than 30 μs, the efficiency reaches a plateau where an increase in energy density no longer affects the efficiency. This plateau is due to the saturation of the charge generation at high peak power given the limited number of sensitizer sites. The same behavior is observed in two different types of devices composed of the same material but with or without a buffer layer covering one electrode, which confirm the origin of these mechanisms. This new type of measurement is especially important to optimize PRP for applications using short pulse duration. PMID:27364998

  14. Antecedent acute cycling exercise affects attention control: an ERP study using attention network test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Pesce, Caterina; Chiang, Yi-Te; Kuo, Cheng-Yuh; Fong, Dong-Yang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the after-effects of an acute bout of moderate intensity aerobic cycling exercise on neuroelectric and behavioral indices of efficiency of three attentional networks: alerting, orienting, and executive (conflict) control. Thirty young, highly fit amateur basketball players performed a multifunctional attentional reaction time task, the attention network test (ANT), with a two-group randomized experimental design after an acute bout of moderate intensity spinning wheel exercise or without antecedent exercise. The ANT combined warning signals prior to targets, spatial cueing of potential target locations and target stimuli surrounded by congruent or incongruent flankers, which were provided to assess three attentional networks. Event-related brain potentials and task performance were measured during the ANT. Exercise resulted in a larger P3 amplitude in the alerting and executive control subtasks across frontal, central and parietal midline sites that was paralleled by an enhanced reaction speed only on trials with incongruent flankers of the executive control network. The P3 latency and response accuracy were not affected by exercise. These findings suggest that after spinning, more resources are allocated to task-relevant stimuli in tasks that rely on the alerting and executive control networks. However, the improvement in performance was observed in only the executively challenging conflict condition, suggesting that whether the brain resources that are rendered available immediately after acute exercise translate into better attention performance depends on the cognitive task complexity. PMID:25914634

  15. Antecedent acute cycling exercise affects attention control: an ERP study using attention network test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kai eChang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the after-effects of an acute bout of moderate-intensity aerobic cycling exercise on neuroelectric and behavioral indices of efficiency of three attentional networks: alerting, orienting, and executive (conflict control. Thirty young, highly fit amateur basketball players performed a multifunctional attentional reaction time task, the attention network test (ANT, with a two-group randomized experimental design after an acute bout of moderate-intensity spinning wheel exercise or without antecedent exercise. The ANT combined warning signals prior to targets, spatial cueing of potential target locations and target stimuli surrounded by congruent or incongruent flankers, which were provided to assess three attentional networks. Event-related brain potentials and task performance were measured during the ANT. Exercise resulted in a larger P3 amplitude in the alerting and executive control subtasks across frontal, central and parietal midline sites that was paralleled by an enhanced reaction speed only on trials with incongruent flankers of the executive control network. The P3 latency and response accuracy were not affected by exercise. These findings suggest that after spinning, more resources are allocated to task-relevant stimuli in tasks that rely on the alerting and executive control networks. However, the improvement in performance was observed in only the executively challenging conflict condition, suggesting that whether the brain resources that are rendered available immediately after acute exercise translate into better attention performance depends on the cognitive task complexity.

  16. Optimized adaptation algorithm for HEVC/H.265 dynamic adaptive streaming over HTTP using variable segment duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irondi, Iheanyi; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2016-04-01

    Adaptive video streaming using HTTP has become popular in recent years for commercial video delivery. The recent MPEG-DASH standard allows interoperability and adaptability between servers and clients from different vendors. The delivery of the MPD (Media Presentation Description) files in DASH and the DASH client behaviours are beyond the scope of the DASH standard. However, the different adaptation algorithms employed by the clients do affect the overall performance of the system and users' QoE (Quality of Experience), hence the need for research in this field. Moreover, standard DASH delivery is based on fixed segments of the video. However, there is no standard segment duration for DASH where various fixed segment durations have been employed by different commercial solutions and researchers with their own individual merits. Most recently, the use of variable segment duration in DASH has emerged but only a few preliminary studies without practical implementation exist. In addition, such a technique requires a DASH client to be aware of segment duration variations, and this requirement and the corresponding implications on the DASH system design have not been investigated. This paper proposes a segment-duration-aware bandwidth estimation and next-segment selection adaptation strategy for DASH. Firstly, an MPD file extension scheme to support variable segment duration is proposed and implemented in a realistic hardware testbed. The scheme is tested on a DASH client, and the tests and analysis have led to an insight on the time to download next segment and the buffer behaviour when fetching and switching between segments of different playback durations. Issues like sustained buffering when switching between segments of different durations and slow response to changing network conditions are highlighted and investigated. An enhanced adaptation algorithm is then proposed to accurately estimate the bandwidth and precisely determine the time to download the next

  17. Cognitive Assessment During Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Kimberly; Kane, R. L.; Sipes, Walter

    2010-01-01

    The Space Flight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is a computer-based, self-administered battery of five cognitive assessment tests developed for medical operations at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. WinSCAT is a medical requirement for U.S. long-duration astronauts and has been implemented with U.S. astronauts from one NASA/Mir mission (NASA-7 mission) and all expeditions to date on the International Space Station (ISS). Its purpose is to provide ISS crew surgeons with an objective clinical tool after an unexpected traumatic event, a medical condition, or the cumulative effects of space flight that could negatively affect an astronaut's cognitive status and threaten mission success. WinSCAT was recently updated to add network capability to support a 6-person crew on the station support computers. Additionally, WinSCAT Version 2.0.28 has increased difficulty of items in Mathematics, increased number of items in Match-to-Sample, incorporates a moving rather than a fixed baseline, and implements stricter interpretation rules. ISS performance data were assessed to compare initial to modified interpretation rules for detecting potential changes in cognitive functioning during space flight. WinSCAT tests are routinely taken monthly during an ISS mission. Performance data from these ISS missions do not indicate significant cognitive decrements due to microgravity/space flight alone but have shown decrements. Applying the newly derived rules to ISS data results in a number of off-nominal performances at various times during and after flight.. Correlation to actual events is needed, but possible explanations for off-nominal performances could include actual physical factors such as toxic exposure, medication effects, or fatigue; emotional factors including stress from the mission or life events; or failure to exert adequate effort on the tests.

  18. Factors associated with short sleep duration in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felden, Érico Pereira Gomes; Filipin, Douglas; Barbosa, Diego Grasel; Andrade, Rubian Diego; Meyer, Carolina; Louzada, Fernando Mazilli

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with short sleep duration in adolescents from Maravilha – Santa Catarina (SC), southern Brazil. Methods: The sample consisted of 516 adolescents aged 10–19 years of both genders. Issues associated with short sleep duration and difficulty falling asleep, chronotype, daytime sleepiness, physical activity, sedentary behavior and weight status were investigated. Results: The prevalence of short sleep duration (<8h on school days) was 53.6%. Adolescents aged 17–19 years showed a 2.05-fold (95%CI: 1.20–3.50) greater prevalence of short sleep duration than those aged 10–12 years. The ones studying in morning and evening shifts had a higher prevalence of short sleep duration compared to those in the afternoon shift. Older age and school shift were the main factors associated with short sleep duration. Conclusions: Adolescents from Maravilha showed high prevalence of short sleep duration, and older adolescents that studied in the morning and evening shifts showed reduced sleep. PMID:26559604

  19. Forecasting the duration of volcanic eruptions: an empirical probabilistic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, L. S.; Blake, S.; Jones, M. C.; Rymer, H.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to forecast future volcanic eruption durations would greatly benefit emergency response planning prior to and during a volcanic crises. This paper introduces a probabilistic model to forecast the duration of future and on-going eruptions. The model fits theoretical distributions to observed duration data and relies on past eruptions being a good indicator of future activity. A dataset of historical Mt. Etna flank eruptions is presented and used to demonstrate the model. The data have been compiled through critical examination of existing literature along with careful consideration of uncertainties on reported eruption start and end dates between the years 1300 AD and 2010. Data following 1600 is considered to be reliable and free of reporting biases. The distribution of eruption duration between the years 1600 and 1669 is found to be statistically different from that following it and the forecasting model is run on two datasets of Mt. Etna flank eruption durations: 1600-2010 and 1670-2010. Each dataset is modelled using a log-logistic distribution with parameter values found by maximum likelihood estimation. Survivor function statistics are applied to the model distributions to forecast (a) the probability of an eruption exceeding a given duration, (b) the probability of an eruption that has already lasted a particular number of days exceeding a given total duration and (c) the duration with a given probability of being exceeded. Results show that excluding the 1600-1670 data has little effect on the forecasting model result, especially where short durations are involved. By assigning the terms `likely' and `unlikely' to probabilities of 66 % or more and 33 % or less, respectively, the forecasting model based on the 1600-2010 dataset indicates that a future flank eruption on Mt. Etna would be likely to exceed 20 days (± 7 days) but unlikely to exceed 86 days (± 29 days). This approach can easily be adapted for use on other highly active, well

  20. High levels of DDT in breast milk: Intake, risk, lactation duration, and involvement of gender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated presence and levels of DDT in 163 breast milk samples from four South African villages where, in three of them, malaria is controlled with DDT-sprayed indoors. Mean ΣDDT levels in breast milk were 18, 11, and 9.5 mg/kg mf (milk fat) from the three DDT-sprayed villages, respectively, including the highest ΣDDT level ever reported for breast milk from South Africa (140 mg/kg mf). Understanding the causes for these differences would be informative for exposure reduction intervention. The Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) for DDT by infants, and the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) were significantly exceeded. DDT had no effect on duration of lactation. There were indications (not significant) from DDT-sprayed villages that first-born female infants drink milk with more ΣDDT than first-born male infants, and vice versa for multipara male and female infants, suggesting gender involvement on levels of DDT in breast milk – requiring further investigation. - Highlights: ► The highest ΣDDT in breast milk ever found in South Africa is reported. ► Maximum Residue Limit is exceeded, up to 99 times. ► Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake is exceeded, up to 310 times. ► High ΣDDT did not affect duration of lactation. ► Infant gender may affect levels of ΣDDT in breast milk. - High levels of DDT in breast milk from a DDT-spayed area exceeded known limits in milk, but did not affect duration lactation. Infant gender may affect levels of ΣDDT in breast milk.

  1. Monte Carlo radiation transfer simulations of photospheric emission in long-duration Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Lazzati, Davide

    2016-01-01

    We present MCRaT, a Monte Carlo Radiation Transfer code for self-consistently computing the light curves and spectra of the photospheric emission from relativistic, unmagnetized jets. We apply MCRaT to a relativistic hydrodynamic simulation of a long duration gamma-ray burst jet, and present the resulting light-curves and time-dependent spectra for observers at various angles from the jet axis. We compare our results to observational results and find that photospheric emission is a viable model to explain the prompt phase of long-duration gamma-ray bursts at the peak frequency and above, but faces challenges in reproducing the flat spectrum below the peak frequency. We finally discuss possible limitations of these results both in terms of the hydrodynamics and the radiation transfer and how these limitations could affect the conclusions that we present.

  2. Reducing the duration of untreated first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melle, Ingrid; Larsen, Tor K; Haahr, Ulrik; Friis, Svein; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Simonsen, Erik; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Vaglum, Per; McGlashan, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Most studies on first-episode psychosis show an association between a long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and poorer short-term outcome, but the mechanisms of this relationship are poorly understood....

  3. Worthless and Nutritive Nuptial Gifts: Mating Duration, Sperm Stored and Potential Female Decisions in Spiders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J Albo

    Full Text Available In nuptial gift-giving species females sometimes select their potential mates based on the presence and size of the gift. But in some species, such as the Neotropical polyandrous spider Paratrechalea ornate male gifts vary in quality, from nutritive to worthless, and this male strategy can be in conflict with female nutritional benefits. In this species, males without gifts experience a reduction in mating success and duration, while males that offer worthless or genuine nutritive gifts mate with similar frequencies and durations. The female apparently controls the duration of copulation. Thus, there is scope for females to favour males offering gifts and further if these are nutritious, via post-copulatory processes. We first tested whether females differentially store sperm from males that offer the highest nutritional benefits by experimentally presenting females with males that offer either nutritive or worthless gifts (uninterrupted matings. Second, we carried out another set of experiments to examine whether females can select sperm based only on gift presence. This time we interrupted matings after the first pedipalp insertion, thus matching number of insertions and mating duration for males that: offered and did not offer gift. Our results showed that the amount of sperm stored is positive related to mating duration in all groups, except in matings with worthless gifts. Gift presence itself did not affect the sperm stored by females, while they store similar number of sperm in matings with males offering either nutritive or worthless gifts. We discuss whether females prefer males with gifts regardless, if content, because it represents an attractive and/or reliable signal. Or alternatively, they prefer nutritive nuptial gifts, as they are an important source of food supply and/or signal of male donor ability.

  4. Food availability affects Osmia pumila (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) foraging, reproduction, and brood parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, Karen

    2003-03-01

    Food limitation can reduce reproductive success directly, as well as indirectly, if foraging imposes a risk of predation or parasitism. The solitary bee Osmia pumila suffers brood parasitism by the cleptoparasitic wasp Sapyga centrata, which enters the host nest to oviposit while the female bee is away. I studied foraging and reproduction of O. pumila nesting within cages stocked with rich or sparse floral resources, and the presence or absence of S. centrata to test (1) the response of nesting female O. pumila to food shortages, (2) the response of nesting female O. pumila to the presence of parasites, and (3) whether brood produced under scarce resources are more likely to be parasitized by S. centrata. The rate of brood cell production was significantly lower in cages with sparse floral resources, although females in sparse cages did not produce significantly fewer brood cells overall. Sapyga centrata did not influence the rate of brood cell production, but females exposed to the cleptoparasites had marginally significantly lower reproductive output. Nests in parasite cages had significantly fewer brood cells than those in parasite free cages. The mean duration of foraging bouts made by female O. pumila in sparse cages was not significantly longer than that in rich cages. O. pumila spent less time in the nest between pollen and nectar foraging bouts in sparse cages with S. centrata than those in other cages suggesting that these individuals made more frequent food foraging trips. Despite the weak effects of parasites and bloom density on foraging behavior, O. pumila brood cells experienced a 5-fold higher probability of parasitism by S. centrata in cages with sparse bloom than in those with rich bloom [corrected]. These results support the hypothesis that indirect effects of food scarcity increase O. pumila susceptibility to brood parasitism, although the exact mechanism is not entirely clear yet. PMID:12647124

  5. Systems and human factors concerns for long-duration spaceflight

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, Dwight A

    1991-01-01

    Long-duration spaceflight poses many challenging technical and non-technical problems that must be addressed. Past experience with long space missions has shown that the medical and psychological issues in the human factors realm that may arise are serious enough to require high-level consideration in the overall systems development process. An essential aspect of the total systems development process for long-duration space missions entails the conception of a var...

  6. Estimating the duration of full breastfeeding with survival analysis procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Singh G

    2007-01-01

    Background: Full breastfeeding refers to exclusive breastfeeding, which is the practice of feeding only breast milk excluding water, breast milk substitutes, other liquids and solid foods. `Full breastfeeding for the first six months is the most appropriate infant feeding practice. The duration of full breastfeeding varies considerably among women belonging to different sections of the population. Objective: To estimate the probabilities at various time intervals for the duration of full b...

  7. Class conflict and civil war duration the FARC insurgency

    OpenAIRE

    Akar, Mine

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the effects of class conflicts on civil war duration. Colombian civil war, the FARC insurgency, is examined from a class-based perspective. I argue that class-based civil wars last longer than non-class based civil wars such as identity conflicts because class conflicts have deeper roots embedded in the social, political, and economic aspects of the society. Through the examination of existing theories in the civil war duration literature, I propose four arguments in the c...

  8. Impact of Breastfeeding Duration on Age at Menarche

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Sahab, Ban; Adair, Linda; Hamadeh, Mazen J.; Ardern, Chris I.; Tamim, Hala

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to assess the relation between breastfeeding duration and age at menarche. Analysis was based on a cohort of 994 Filipino girls born in 1983–1984 and followed up from infancy to adulthood by the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. The main outcome was self-reported age at menarche. Cox regression was used to investigate the relation between duration of exclusive and any breastfeeding with age at menarche with adjustment sequentially for specific sets of known socioec...

  9. Sleep Duration, Insomnia Symptoms, and Emotion Regulation among Black Women

    OpenAIRE

    Racine, Christie; Kalra, Kaushal; Ceide, Mirnova; Williams, Natasha J.; Zizi, Ferdinand; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; Jean-Louis, Girardin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This study explored the associations between sleep duration and emotion regulation among urban black women (mean age=59 ± 7 yrs). Method Eligible women (n=523) provided sociodemographic data during face-to-face interviews. We used the Comprehensive Assessment and Referral Examination Physical to measure health status; women also estimated their habitual sleep duration. We utilized a modified version of Weinberger’s conceptual model of repression, the Index of Self-Regulation (ISE...

  10. Welfare benefits and the duration of single parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermisch, J; Wright, R E

    1989-11-01

    The authors examine the contention that the provision of welfare benefits to single parents increases the number of single parents and the duration of single parenthood. Data are from the Women and Employment Survey, which collected marital, childbearing, and employment data from 5,320 women aged 16-59 in the United Kingdom in 1980. The results indicate that welfare benefits exercise no significant effect on the duration of single parenthood. PMID:12342958

  11. Shortened Sleep Duration does not Predict Obesity in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Calamaro, Christina J.; Park, Sunhee; Mason, Thornton B.A.; Marcus, Carole L.; Weaver, Terri E.; Pack, Allan; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity continues to be a major public health issue. In adolescents, there are limited studies on the relationship between obesity and sleep duration. We hypothesied that average sleep duration of less than 6 hours in adolescents was associated with obesity. Data was from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (ADD Health); survey of 90,000 youths, ages 12 – 18 years; surveyed in several waves. The sample population for our study was 13,568. Weighted multiple logistic regression...

  12. Context-Dependent Neural Modulations in the Perception of Duration

    OpenAIRE

    Murai, Yuki; Yotsumoto, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have revealed that distinct brain networks are recruited in the perception of sub- and supra-second timescales, whereas psychophysical studies have suggested that there are common or continuous mechanisms for perceiving these two durations. The present study aimed to elucidate the neural implementation of such continuity by examining the neural correlates of peri-second timing. We measured neural activity during a duration reproduction task using functional magneti...

  13. Intonation and Duration Curve in Persian Interrogative Sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Keyhani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: prosody is a very important factor in communication and includes such parameters as: duration, intonation, pitch, stress, rhythm etc. Intonation is the pitch variation in one sentence. Duration is the time taken to utter a voice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate some parameters of prosody such as duration and intonation curve in interrogative sentences among normal Farsi speaking adults in order to determine the characteristics of this aspect of language with an emphasis on laboratory testing.Methods: This study was performed as a cross-sectional one. The participants included 134 male and female Farsi speaking individuals aging between 18-30 years. In this study two interrogative sentences with open and closed answers were used. The voice samples were analyzed by Dr.speech -real analysis software. Data analysis incorporated unilateral analysis of variance and an intonation curve was drawn for each sentence.Results: The parameter of duration among men and women was significantly different (p≤0.001. Duration in open questions was significantly longer than yes/no questions (p≤0.001. The intonation curve of the two groups were similar.Conclusion: Men and women use duration changes, for making difference in prosody. On the whole, duration among women is longer than men. In open questions, the duration of sentences is mostly due to the question word. The intonation curve in open questions has more amplitude. Women show much more changes in basic frequency for transferring interrogative state in their expressions.

  14. On nuclear reaction duration at the range of overlapping resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear reaction duration above the threshold of overlapping resonances is investigated and its importance to obtain a new information on a collision mechanism is evidenced. It is shown also that the duration of resonant nuclear reactions is asymptotically decreasing according to the law[E2n(E)]-1 when the energy E and the number of open channels n(E) are increasing

  15. Development of long-duration ballooning in Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following four successful long-duration test flights from Australia to South America, a new flight support system with global tracking, command, and telemetry capability is being developed to support long-duration balloon flights of relatively sophisticated instruments at both mid-latitudes and in Antarctica. The first test flight for the joint NASA-NSF program to support flights in Antarctica is scheduled from McMurdo in December 1989, with operational capability two years later

  16. Return Migration, Wage Differentials, and the Optimal Migration Duration

    OpenAIRE

    Dustmann, Christian

    2001-01-01

    In simple static models, migration increases with the wage differential between host and home country. In a dynamic framework, and if migrations are temporary, the size of the migrant population in the host country depends also on the migration duration. This paper analyses optimal migration durations in a model which rationalises the decision of the migrant to return to his home country, despite persistently higher wages in the host country. The analysis shows that, if migrations are tempora...

  17. Particle Astrophysics in NASA's Long Duration Balloon Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A century after Viktor Hess' discovery of cosmic rays, balloon flights still play a central role in the investigation of cosmic rays over nearly their entire spectrum. We report on the current status of NASA balloon program for particle astrophysics, with particular emphasis on the very successful Antarctic long-duration balloon program, and new developments in the progress toward ultra-long duration balloons

  18. The Determinants of Unemployment Duration by Gender in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Virve Ollikainen

    2003-01-01

    This paper models unemployment durations for men and women in Finland using a nationally representative data set from 1997. We begin with a baseline model where durations are modelled using a single risk discrete time hazard model. These estimations are extended to a piecewise constant hazard model and to a competing risks model. The results indicate that young children as well as foreign citizenship have a prolonging effect on female unemployment periods. Education appears as a highly positi...

  19. Melphalan antitumor efficacy and hepatotoxicity: the effect of variable infusion duration in the hepatic artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbarth, Joost; Woutersen, Ruud A; Sparidans, Rolf W; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Mulder, Gerard J

    2003-06-01

    The optimum conditions (duration and concentration) of a fixed dose, intra-arterial melphalan infusion in relation to its antitumor effect and toxicity in the liver were investigated in a rat colon tumor model (CC531) of liver metastases. We studied the difference in tumor and liver uptake, as well as antitumor effect and hepatotoxicity after 5- and 20-min hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) of a fixed melphalan dose. Melphalan content in perfusate, liver, and tumor tissue was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The antitumor effect and hepatotoxicity in rats treated either systemically or with 5- and 20-min HAI, with a fixed dose melphalan (4.4 micromol), were assessed 2 weeks after treatment. No difference in melphalan content of tumor/liver tissue or antitumor effect was observed between rats treated with 5- and 20-min HAI. Hepatotoxicity was strongly affected by perfusion duration/concentration, however. Rats treated with 5-min HAI weighed significantly less, and liver toxicity parameters were significantly increased compared with those of all other groups; eight of nine rats showed severe cholangiofibrosis. Body weights and liver toxicity parameters of the rats treated with 20-min HAI were not statistically different from the control group. In conclusion, duration of HAI with 4.4 micromol of fixed dose melphalan did not affect tumor uptake and antitumor effect, but the resulting increase in melphalan concentration had major impact on hepatobiliary toxicity. Therefore, in a clinical setting, caution should be taken when infusion duration and concentration of melphalan are changed. PMID:12606622

  20. Association of sleep duration and insulin resistance in Taiwanese vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Jiunn-Kae

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short sleep duration has been reported to associate with increased insulin resistance. However, no studies have investigated whether such association exists in vegetarians. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between sleep duration and insulin resistance in Taiwanese vegetarians. Methods A total of 1290 individuals were recruited from a regional hospital in south Taiwan during their regular routine physical examination. Only individuals who described themselves as Buddhist vegetarians were included in the study. Demographic information and clinical characteristics were collected and multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between sleep duration and insulin resistance. Results A total of 433 vegetarians were included in the study. Results from univariate logistic regression indicated that insulin resistance was significantly associated with male sex, greater waist circumference, higher triglyceride levels, lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, higher plasma creatinine levels, higher alanine transaminase levels, greater energy expenditure, and sleep duration of more than 8 hours per night. Multiple logistic regression revealed that insulin resistance was significantly and independently associated with sleep duration of more than 8 hours per night (odd ratios = 2.27, 95% confidence interval = 1.24, 4.11 after adjusting for waist circumference and levels of alanine transaminase. Conclusions Sleep duration of more than 8 hours per night is an independent risk factor associated with increased insulin resistance in vegetarians.

  1. Time Adaptation Shows Duration Selectivity in the Human Parietal Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masamichi J Hayashi

    Full Text Available Although psychological and computational models of time estimation have postulated the existence of neural representations tuned for specific durations, empirical evidence of this notion has been lacking. Here, using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI adaptation paradigm, we show that the inferior parietal lobule (IPL (corresponding to the supramarginal gyrus exhibited reduction in neural activity due to adaptation when a visual stimulus of the same duration was repeatedly presented. Adaptation was strongest when stimuli of identical durations were repeated, and it gradually decreased as the difference between the reference and test durations increased. This tuning property generalized across a broad range of durations, indicating the presence of general time-representation mechanisms in the IPL. Furthermore, adaptation was observed irrespective of the subject's attention to time. Repetition of a nontemporal aspect of the stimulus (i.e., shape did not produce neural adaptation in the IPL. These results provide neural evidence for duration-tuned representations in the human brain.

  2. Asymmetric processing of durational differences - electrophysiological investigations in Bengali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Adam C; Kotzor, Sandra; Wetterlin, Allison; Lahiri, Aditi

    2014-05-01

    Duration is used contrastively in many languages to distinguish word meaning (e.g. in Bengali, [pata] 'leaf' vs. [pat:a] 'whereabouts'). While there is a large body of research on other contrasts in speech perception (e.g. vowel contrasts and consonantal place features), little work has been done on how durational information is used in speech processing. In non-linguistic studies of low-level processing, such as visual and non-linguistic acoustic pop-out tasks, an asymmetry is found where additional information is more readily detected than missing information. In this study, event-related potentials were recorded during two cross-modal auditory-visual semantic priming studies, where nonword mispronunciations of spoken prime words were created by changing the duration of a medial consonant (real word [dana] 'seed'>nonword [dan:a]). N400 amplitudes showed an opposite asymmetric pattern of results, where increases in consonantal duration were tolerated and led to priming of the visual target, but decreases in consonantal duration were not accepted. This asymmetrical pattern of acceptability is attributed to the fact that a longer consonant includes all essential information for the recognition of the original word with a short medial consonant (a possible default category) and any additional information can be ignored. However, when a consonant is shortened, it lacks the required durational information to activate the word with the original long consonant. PMID:24726333

  3. Maternal recall of breastfeeding duration twenty years after delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natland Siv Tone

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the health benefits from breastfeeding often rely on maternal recall of breastfeeding. Although short-term maternal recall has been found to be quite accurate, less is known about long-term accuracy. The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of long-term maternal recall of breastfeeding duration. Methods In a prospective study of pregnancy and birth outcome, detailed information on breastfeeding during the child’s first year of life was collected from a cohort of Norwegian women who gave birth in 1986–88. Among 374 of the participants, data on breastfeeding initiation and duration were compared to recalled data obtained from mailed questionnaires some 20 years later. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, Bland-Altman plot, and Kappa statistics were used to assess the agreement between the two sources of data. Logistic regression was used to assess predictors of misreporting breastfeeding duration by more than one month. Results Recorded and recalled breastfeeding duration were strongly correlated (ICC=0.82, p Conclusion Breastfeeding duration was recalled quite accurately 20 years after mothers gave birth in a population where breastfeeding is common and its duration long.

  4. The effect of uraemia on the duration of arrhythmias in the context of cardioprotective ischaemic conditioning strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCafferty, Kieran; Byrne, Conor J; Kieswich, Julius; Raftery, Martin; Thiemermann, Christoph; Yaqoob, Muhammad M

    2014-01-01

    Background Sudden cardiac death is a leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease and end stage renal disease. Ischaemic conditioning strategies confer profound myocardial protection and, in the absence of uraemia, have been reported to reduce myocardial dysrhythmias. Recent data confirms that ischaemic conditioning can protect the uraemic heart. However, the effect of uraemia on myocardial arrhythmogenesis in the context of ischaemia-reperfusion injury and whether ischaemic conditioning can modulate this is unknown. Objective We investigated the effect of underling chronic uraemia on the duration of arrhythmias in the context of cardioprotective ischaemic conditioning strategies. Methods We examined the effect of chronic uraemia on arrhythmias occurring in the context of myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury and the ability of ischaemic preconditioning (IPC), remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) and ischaemic postconditioning (iPOST) to suppress arrhythmogenesis in uraemic and non-uraemic animals. Results IPC led to a reduction in the frequency and duration of arrhythmias occurring during ischaemia and reperfusion. Neither RIPC nor iPOST affected the duration or frequency of ischaemic or reperfusion arrhythmias. Underlying uraemia did not alter the frequency or duration of ischaemic arrhythmias in any of the experiments however it was associated with a reduction in reperfusion arrhythmia duration in the IPC and iPOST experiments. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that underlying chronic uraemia does not reduce the threshold for arrhythmia timing or duration resulting from myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion and underlying uraemia did not alter the effects of these cardioprotective ischaemic conditioning strategies in the context of arrhythmia duration. Summary This novel work in a rodent model of chronic uraemia establishes that underlying uraemia does not increase the susceptibility to myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion induced arrhythmias

  5. The Duration of Motor Responses Evoked with Intracortical Microstimulation in Rats Is Primarily Modulated by Stimulus Amplitude and Train Duration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Watson

    Full Text Available Microstimulation of brain tissue plays a key role in a variety of sensory prosthetics, clinical therapies and research applications, however the effects of stimulation parameters on the responses they evoke remain widely unknown. In particular, the effects of parameters when delivered in the form of a stimulus train as opposed to a single pulse are not well understood despite the prevalence of stimulus train use. We aimed to investigate the contribution of each parameter of a stimulus train to the duration of the motor responses they evoke in forelimb muscles. We used constant-current, biphasic, square wave pulse trains in acute terminal experiments under ketamine anaesthesia. Stimulation parameters were systematically tested in a pair-wise fashion in the caudal forelimb region of the motor cortex in 7 Sprague-Dawley rats while motor evoked potential (MEP recordings from the forelimb were used to quantify the influence of each parameter in the train. Stimulus amplitude and train duration were shown to be the dominant parameters responsible for increasing the total duration of the MEP, while interphase interval had no effect. Increasing stimulus frequency from 100-200 Hz or pulse duration from 0.18-0.34 ms were also effective methods of extending response durations. Response duration was strongly correlated with peak time and amplitude. Our findings suggest that motor cortex intracortical microstimulations are often conducted at a higher frequency rate and longer train duration than necessary to evoke maximal response duration. We demonstrated that the temporal properties of the evoked response can be both predicted by certain response metrics and modulated via alterations to the stimulation signal parameters.

  6. The Duration of Motor Responses Evoked with Intracortical Microstimulation in Rats Is Primarily Modulated by Stimulus Amplitude and Train Duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Meghan; Sawan, Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Microstimulation of brain tissue plays a key role in a variety of sensory prosthetics, clinical therapies and research applications, however the effects of stimulation parameters on the responses they evoke remain widely unknown. In particular, the effects of parameters when delivered in the form of a stimulus train as opposed to a single pulse are not well understood despite the prevalence of stimulus train use. We aimed to investigate the contribution of each parameter of a stimulus train to the duration of the motor responses they evoke in forelimb muscles. We used constant-current, biphasic, square wave pulse trains in acute terminal experiments under ketamine anaesthesia. Stimulation parameters were systematically tested in a pair-wise fashion in the caudal forelimb region of the motor cortex in 7 Sprague-Dawley rats while motor evoked potential (MEP) recordings from the forelimb were used to quantify the influence of each parameter in the train. Stimulus amplitude and train duration were shown to be the dominant parameters responsible for increasing the total duration of the MEP, while interphase interval had no effect. Increasing stimulus frequency from 100–200 Hz or pulse duration from 0.18–0.34 ms were also effective methods of extending response durations. Response duration was strongly correlated with peak time and amplitude. Our findings suggest that motor cortex intracortical microstimulations are often conducted at a higher frequency rate and longer train duration than necessary to evoke maximal response duration. We demonstrated that the temporal properties of the evoked response can be both predicted by certain response metrics and modulated via alterations to the stimulation signal parameters. PMID:27442588

  7. Countermeasures to Mitigate the Negative Impact of Sensory Deprivation and Social Isolation in Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Katharine Ridgeway OBrien; Otto, Christian; Leveton, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Long-duration space flight presents several challenges to the behavioral health of crew members. The environment that they are likely to experience will be isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) and, as such, crew members will experience extreme sensory deprivation and social isolation. The current paper briefly notes the behavioral, cognitive, and affective consequences of psychological stress induced by ICE environments and proposes nine countermeasures aimed at mitigating the negative effects of sensory deprivation and social isolation. Implementation of countermeasures aims to maintain successful crew performance and psychological well-being in a long-duration space flight mission.

  8. Sedimentary characteristics and their effects on hatching success and incubation duration of Caretta caretta (Testudines: Cheloniidae in Espirito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauana Schneider Fadini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The beaches of Espírito Santo encompass the most important nesting sites of the loggerhead sea turtle, Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758, in the South Atlantic Ocean. Previous research has shown that, unlike other nesting sites in Brazil, Espírito Santo harbors a large percentage of male individuals, which play an important role in maintaining the equilibrium of C. caretta populations in the South Atlantic. During the 2006/2007 reproductive season, four beaches presenting considerable geologic differences were monitored. The sedimentary features of the nesting sites (mineral composition, albedo, and grain size, nesting dates, and clutch sizes were correlated with hatching success and incubation duration. Results show that hatching success is mostly affected by clutch size _ and to a lesser extent, by grain size and albedo. Incubation duration is more sensitive to the characteristics of the nesting site, being affected by nesting date, clutch size, mineral composition, and grain size. However, results from one nesting site cannot be generalized or extended to other sites, because sediment properties are functions of the geological framework of the area and the interaction among environmental variables is far too complex. Our results reveal the importance of protecting areas with large geologic diversity, since sedimentary characteristics may affect incubation duration and embryo survival. Our findings are important in the scope of management activities, as nest transfer may alter nest microenvironment, impacting incubation duration and hatching success.

  9. Dynamics of Sleep–Wake Cyclicity at Night Across the Human Lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    KarlÆKarlsson

    2010-01-01

    Studies in adult mammals (rats, cats, mice, and humans) have revealed a surprising regularity in the duration of sleep and wake bouts. In particular, wake bout durations exhibit a power-law distribution whereas sleep bout durations exhibit an exponential distribution. Moreover, in rodents, sleep bouts exhibit an exponential distribution at all ages examined, whereas wake bout durations exhibit exponential distributions early in ontogeny with a clear power-law emerging only at the older ages. ...

  10. Effects of organic farming duration on field boundary vegetation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sune; Axelsen, Jørgen A.; Tybirk, Knud; Aude, E.; Vestergaard, Peter

    The aim of this study was to assess, whether organic dairy farming has increased the biological diversity of field boundary vegetation when compared to conventional dairy farming, and if increasing organic farming duration affected diversity. The diversity of plant species in field boundaries was...... found to be higher under organic than under conventional farming. Analysis of community patterns revealed that ruderal species and species with affinity to nutrient rich conditions were most common in conventional field borders, whereas stress-tolerant species were more abundant around organic farming...

  11. Duration of load behaviour of different sized straight timber beams subjected to bending in variable climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanhijärvi, A.; Galimard, P.; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1998-01-01

    The paper is the second in a series which sums up the results of an extensive project to quantify the duration-of-load (DOL) effect on different sized timber beams in different climates. The paper deals with straight (unnotched) beams. The results of various DOL-tests of stepwise and constant...... bending of LVL and glulam beams are reported and results of modelling outlined. It is concluded that in cyclically varying climate large cross-sections are less affected by the DOL-effect than smaller ones. The results do not show marked difference between LVL and glulam in susceptibility to the DOL-effect...

  12. Earth-Space Links and Fade-Duration Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarian, Faramaz

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, fade-duration statistics have been the subject of several experimental investigations. A good knowledge of the fade-duration distribution is important for the assessment of a satellite communication system's channel dynamics: What is a typical link outage duration? How often do link outages exceeding a given duration occur? Unfortunately there is yet no model that can universally answer the above questions. The available field measurements mainly come from temperate climatic zones and only from a few sites. Furthermore, the available statistics are also limited in the choice of frequency and path elevation angle. Yet, much can be learned from the available information. For example, we now know that the fade-duration distribution is approximately lognormal. Under certain conditions, we can even determine the median and other percentiles of the distribution. This paper reviews the available data obtained by several experimenters in different parts of the world. Areas of emphasis are mobile and fixed satellite links. Fades in mobile links are due to roadside-tree shadowing, whereas fades in fixed links are due to rain attenuation.

  13. Acute effects of cannabis on breath-holding duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Metrik, Jane

    2016-08-01

    Distress intolerance (an individual's perceived or actual inability to tolerate distressing psychological or physiological states) is associated with cannabis use. It is unknown whether a biobehavioral index of distress intolerance, breath-holding duration, is acutely influenced (increased or decreased) by cannabis. Such information may further inform understanding of the expression of psychological or physiological distress postcannabis use. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7%-3.0% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed duration of breath holding. Participants (n = 88; 65.9% male) were nontreatment-seeking frequent cannabis users who smoked placebo or active THC cigarette on two separate study days and completed a breath-holding task postsmoking. Controlling for baseline breath-holding duration and participant sex, THC produced significantly shorter breath-holding durations relative to placebo. There was a significant interaction of drug administration × frequency of cannabis use, such that THC decreased breath-holding time among less frequent but not among more frequent users. Findings indicate that cannabis may exacerbate distress intolerance (via shorter breath-holding durations). As compared to less frequent cannabis users, frequent users display tolerance to cannabis' acute effects including increased ability to tolerate respiratory distress when holding breath. Objective measures of distress intolerance are sensitive to contextual factors such as acute drug intoxication, and may inform the link between cannabis use and the expression of psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454678

  14. Building a Shared Definitional Model of Long Duration Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, M.; Whitmire, A.; Sandoval, L.; Leveton, L.; Arias, D.

    2011-01-01

    In 1956, on the eve of human space travel Strughold first proposed a simple classification of the present and future stages of manned flight that identified key factors, risks and developmental stages for the evolutionary journey ahead. As we look to optimize the potential of the ISS as a gateway to new destinations, we need a current shared working definitional model of long duration human space flight to help guide our path. Initial search of formal and grey literature augmented by liaison with subject matter experts. Search strategy focused on both the use of term long duration mission and long duration spaceflight, and also broader related current and historical definitions and classification models of spaceflight. The related sea and air travel literature was also subsequently explored with a view to identifying analogous models or classification systems. There are multiple different definitions and classification systems for spaceflight including phase and type of mission, craft and payload and related risk management models. However the frequently used concepts of long duration mission and long duration spaceflight are infrequently operationally defined by authors, and no commonly referenced classical or gold standard definition or model of these terms emerged from the search. The categorization (Cat) system for sailing was found to be of potential analogous utility, with its focus on understanding the need for crew and craft autonomy at various levels of potential adversity and inability to gain outside support or return to a safe location, due to factors of time, distance and location.

  15. Effect of walking speed on gait sub phase durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebenstreit, Felix; Leibold, Andreas; Krinner, Sebastian; Welsch, Götz; Lochmann, Matthias; Eskofier, Bjoern M

    2015-10-01

    Gait phase durations are important spatiotemporal parameters in different contexts such as discrimination between healthy and pathological gait and monitoring of treatment outcomes after interventions. Although gait phases strongly depend on walking speed, the influence of different speeds has rarely been investigated in literature. In this work, we examined the durations of the stance sub phases and the swing phase for 12 different walking speeds ranging from 0.6 to 1.7 m/s in 21 healthy subjects using infrared cinematography and an instrumented treadmill. We separated the stance phase into loading response, mid stance, terminal stance and pre-swing phase and we performed regression modeling of all phase durations with speed to determine general trends. With an increasing speed of 0.1m/s, stance duration decreased while swing duration increased by 0.3%. All distinct stance sub phases changed significantly with speed. These findings suggest the importance of including all distinct gait sub phases in spatiotemporal analyses, especially when different walking speeds are involved. PMID:26256534

  16. Experiencing affective interactive art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S.S.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Broek, van den Egon L.

    2010-01-01

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on the integration of a framework for affective move

  17. Theories of willpower affect sustained learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric M; Walton, Gregory M; Dweck, Carol S; Job, Veronika; Trzesniewski, Kali H; McClure, Samuel M

    2012-01-01

    Building cognitive abilities often requires sustained engagement with effortful tasks. We demonstrate that beliefs about willpower-whether willpower is viewed as a limited or non-limited resource-impact sustained learning on a strenuous mental task. As predicted, beliefs about willpower did not affect accuracy or improvement during the initial phases of learning; however, participants who were led to view willpower as non-limited showed greater sustained learning over the full duration of the task. These findings highlight the interactive nature of motivational and cognitive processes: motivational factors can substantially affect people's ability to recruit their cognitive resources to sustain learning over time. PMID:22745675

  18. Exercise holds immediate benefits for affect and cognition in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Candice L; Mata, Jutta; Carstensen, Laura L

    2013-06-01

    Physical activity is associated with improved affective experience and enhanced cognitive processing. Potential age differences in the degree of benefit, however, are poorly understood because most studies examine either younger or older adults. The present study examined age differences in cognitive performance and affective experience immediately following a single bout of moderate exercise. Participants (144 community members aged 19 to 93) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions: (a) exercise (15 min of moderate intensity stationary cycling) or (b) control (15 min completing ratings of neutral IAPS images). Before and after the manipulation, participants completed tests of working memory and momentary affect experience was measured. Results suggest that exercise is associated with increased levels of high-arousal positive affect (HAP) and decreased levels of low-arousal positive affect (LAP) relative to control condition. Age moderated the effects of exercise on LAP, such that younger age was associated with a drop in reported LAP postexercise, whereas the effects of exercise on HAP were consistent across age. Exercise also led to faster RTs on a working memory task than the control condition across age. Self-reported negative affect was unchanged. Overall, findings suggest that exercise may hold important benefits for both affective experience and cognitive performance regardless of age. PMID:23795769

  19. Sleep duration, depression, and oxytocinergic genotype influence prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex in postpartum women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comasco, Erika; Gulinello, Maria; Hellgren, Charlotte; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Sylven, Sara; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2016-04-01

    The postpartum period is characterized by a post-withdrawal hormonal status, sleep deprivation, and susceptibility to affective disorders. Postpartum mothering involves automatic and attentional processes to screen out new external as well as internal stimuli. The present study investigated sensorimotor gating in relation to sleep duration, depression, as well as catecholaminergic and oxytocinergic genotypes in postpartum women. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex and startle reactivity were assessed two months postpartum in 141 healthy and 29 depressed women. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met, and oxytocin receptor (OXTR) rs237885 and rs53576 polymorphisms were genotyped, and data on sleep duration were collected. Short sleep duration (less than four hours in the preceding night) and postpartum depression were independently associated with lower PPI. Also, women with postpartum depression had higher startle reactivity in comparison with controls. The OXTR rs237885 genotype was related to PPI in an allele dose-dependent mode, with T/T healthy postpartum women carriers displaying the lowest PPI. Reduced sensorimotor gating was associated with sleep deprivation and depressive symptoms during the postpartum period. Individual neurophysiological vulnerability might be mediated by oxytocinergic genotype which relates to bonding and stress response. These findings implicate the putative relevance of lower PPI of the startle response as an objective physiological correlate of liability to postpartum depression. PMID:26857197

  20. Evaluation of muscular activity duration in shoulders with rotator cuff tears using inertial sensors and electromyography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoulder disorders, including rotator cuff tears, affect the shoulder function and result in adapted muscle activation. Although these adaptations have been studied in controlled conditions, free-living activities have not been investigated. Based on the kinematics measured with inertial sensors and portable electromyography, the objectives of this study were to quantify the duration of the muscular activation in the upper trapezius (UT), medial deltoid (MD) and biceps brachii (BB) during motion and to investigate the effect of rotator cuff tear in laboratory settings and daily conditions. The duration of movements and muscular activations were analysed separately and together using the relative time of activation (TEMG/mov). Laboratory measurements showed the parameter’s reliability through movement repetitions (ICC > 0.74) and differences in painful shoulders compared with healthy ones (p < 0.05): longer activation for UT; longer activation for MD during abduction and tendency to shorter activation in other movements; shorter activation for BB. In daily conditions, TEMG/mov for UT was longer, whereas it was shorter for MD and BB (p < 0.05). Moreover, significant correlations were observed between these parameters and clinical scores. This study thus provides new insights into the rotator cuff tear effect on duration of muscular activation in daily activity. (paper)

  1. Effects of NYMEX trading on IPE Brent Crude futures markets: a duration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments in the energy markets, and the surge and dip in crude oil prices over the last few years, have renewed the interest in the workings of the two main price setting markets: London's International Petroleum Exchange (IPE) and New York's Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX). The interaction of these two markets, when both of them are open (synchronous trading) and when only London is open (asynchronous trading), is important, in view of the fact that most participants take positions in both markets. This paper looks at how London is affected by New York by analysing the transaction duration of the IPE Brent futures contract, both when the NYMEX WTI futures contract is being traded and when NYMEX is closed. Using tick-by-tick data obtained from IPE, transaction durations are found to form two distinctive and inverted U-shaped patterns. Autoregressive conditional duration (ACD) model, first introduced by Engle and Russell, is applied to the data. Parameters of IPE morning and afternoon are significantly different from each other, underlining the dominant effects of NYMEX on IPE trading. The results from the current analysis reinforce previous results by the authors, which indicate that NYMEX is a leading price setter in crude oil futures prices and has a dominant effect on the IPE-traded contracts. (Author)

  2. Effects of whole-body cryotherapy duration on thermal and cardio-vascular response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonda, Borut; De Nardi, Massimo; Sarabon, Nejc

    2014-05-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) is the exposure of minimally dressed participants to very cold air, either in a specially designed chamber (cryo-chamber) or cabin (cryo-cabin), for a short period of time. Practitioners are vague when it comes to recommendations on the duration of a single session. Recommended exposure for cryo-chamber is 150s, but no empirically based recommendations are available for a cryo-cabin. Therefore the aim of this study was to examine thermal and cardio-vascular responses after 90, 120, 150 and 180s of WBC in a cryo-cabin. Our hypothesis was that skin temperature would be significantly lower after longer exposers. Twelve male participants (age 23.9±4.2 years) completed four WBC of different durations (90, 120, 150 and 180s) in a cryo-cabin. Thermal response, heart rate and blood pressure were measured prior, immediately after, 5min after and 30min after the session. Skin temperature differed significantly among different durations, except between 150 and 180s. There was no significant difference in heart rate and blood pressure. Thermal discomfort during a single session displayed a linear increase throughout the whole session. Our results indicate that practitioners and clinicians using cryo-cabin for WBC do not need to perform sessions longer than 150s. We have shown that longer sessions do not substantially affect thermal and cardio-vascular response, but do increase thermal discomfort. PMID:24802149

  3. Target spectral, dynamic spectral, and duration cues in infant perception of German vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, O S; Polka, L

    2001-07-01

    Previous studies of vowel perception have shown that adult speakers of American English and of North German identify native vowels by exploiting at least three types of acoustic information contained in consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) syllables: target spectral information reflecting the articulatory target of the vowel, dynamic spectral information reflecting CV- and -VC coarticulation, and duration information. The present study examined the contribution of each of these three types of information to vowel perception in prelingual infants and adults using a discrimination task. Experiment 1 examined German adults' discrimination of four German vowel contrasts (see text), originally produced in /dVt/ syllables, in eight experimental conditions in which the type of vowel information was manipulated. Experiment 2 examined German-learning infants' discrimination of the same vowel contrasts using a comparable procedure. The results show that German adults and German-learning infants appear able to use either dynamic spectral information or target spectral information to discriminate contrasting vowels. With respect to duration information, the removal of this cue selectively affected the discriminability of two of the vowel contrasts for adults. However, for infants, removal of contrastive duration information had a larger effect on the discrimination of all contrasts tested. PMID:11508975

  4. Towards a Denotational Semantics of Timed RSL Using Duration Calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李黎

    2001-01-01

    The Timed RAISE Specification Language (Timed RSL) is an extension of RAISE Specification Language by adding time constructors for specifying real-time applications. Duration Calculus (DC) is a real-time interval logic, which can be used to specify and reason about timing and logical constraints on duration properties of Boolean states in a dynamic system. This paper gives a denotational semantics to a subset of Timed RSL expressions, using Duration Calculus extended with super-dense chop modality and notations to capture time point properties of piecewise continuous states of arbitrary types. Using this semantics, the paper presents a proof rule for verifying Timed RSL iterative expressions and implements the rule to prove the satisfaction by a sample Timed RSL specification of its real-time requirements.

  5. On measuring charged particle bunch duration in linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of measuring short bunches is simulated by means of cavity resonators in which HF fields are excited by both positive and negative ion bunches flying through them. The simulation is aimed to assess optimum operation of a linear accelerator. A set of bunches of chance form and duration is simulated. Then the simulation of the process of restoring the duration and shape of a bunch according to data obtained from a limited number of resonators is realized. The use of 3-4 resonators tuned to 3, 6, 9 and 12-th harmonics of bunch repetition rate is shown to be sufficient for determining bunch duration with an accuracy of several per cent. When data on harmonic phases is available, one can obtain information on beam asymmetry

  6. Adaptive Sensing and Transmission Durations for Cognitive Radios

    CERN Document Server

    Afifi, Wessam; Nafie, Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    In a cognitive radio setting, secondary users opportunistically access the spectrum allocated to primary users. Finding the optimal sensing and transmission durations for the secondary users becomes crucial in order to maximize the secondary throughput while protecting the primary users from interference and service disruption. In this paper an adaptive sensing and transmission scheme for cognitive radios is proposed. We consider a channel allocated to a primary user which operates in an unslotted manner switching activity at random times. A secondary transmitter adapts its sensing and transmission durations according to its belief regarding the primary user state of activity. The objective is to maximize a secondary utility function. This function has a penalty term for collisions with primary transmission. It accounts for the reliability-throughput tradeoff by explicitly incorporating the impact of sensing duration on secondary throughput and primary activity detection reliability. It also accounts for thro...

  7. Comparative Evaluation of Phone Duration Models for Greek Emotional Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Lazaridis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In this study we cope with the task of phone duration modeling for Greek emotional speech synthesis. Approach: Various well established machine learning techniques are applied for this purpose to an emotional speech database consisting of five archetypal emotions. The constructed phone duration prediction models are built on phonetic, morphosyntactic and prosodic features that can be extracted only from text. We employ model and regression trees, linear regression, lazy learning algorithms and meta-learning algorithms using regression trees as base classifiers, trained on a Modern Greek emotional database consisting of five emotional categories: anger, fear, joy, neutral and sadness. Results: Model trees based on the M5’ algorithm and meta-learning algorithms using as base classifier regression trees based on the M5’ algorithm proved to perform better. Conclusion: It was observed that the emotional categories of the speech database with the most uniform distribution of phone durations built the most accurate models.

  8. Institutional Investors’ Investment Durations and Stock Return Anomalies: Momentum, Reversal, Accruals, Share Issuance and R&D Increases

    OpenAIRE

    Martijn Cremers; Ankur Pareek

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of institutional investors? investment duration on the efficiency of stock prices. Using a new duration measure based on quarterly institutional investors? portfolio holdings, the presence of short-term institutional investors can help explain many of the best-known stock return anomalies, possibly because these investors are affected by behavioral biases like overconfidence. Specifically, we find that both momentum returns and subsequent returns reversal are mu...

  9. Sleep duration and cognitive function : a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jingjing; 黃晶晶

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association of sleep duration with cognitive function in adults. Methods and Results: Relevant studies were searched through PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar using keywords of ((“cognitive” OR “cognition” OR “memory impairment”) AND (“sleep duration” OR “sleep hours” OR “sleep time”)). Studies on the association of sleep duration with cognitive function as measured by various cognitive assessment tools in adults aged 18+ years were included. The initi...

  10. Duration of Thyroid Dysfunction Correlates with All-Cause Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laulund, Anne Sofie; Nybo, Mads; Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Abrahamsen, Bo; Jørgensen, Henrik Løvendahl; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND AIM: The association between thyroid dysfunction and mortality is controversial. Moreover, the impact of duration of thyroid dysfunction is unclarified. Our aim was to investigate the correlation between biochemically assessed thyroid function as well as dysfunction duration and...... mortality. METHODS: Register-based follow-up study of 239,768 individuals with a serum TSH measurement from hospitals and/or general practice in Funen, Denmark. Measurements were performed at a single laboratory from January 1st 1995 to January 1st 2011. Cox regression was used for mortality analyses and...

  11. An Unorthodox X-Class Long-Duration Confined Flare

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Rui; Titov, Viacheslav S.; Gou, Tingyu; Wang, Yuming; Liu, Kai; Wang, Haimin

    2014-01-01

    We report the observation of an X-class long-duration flare which is clearly confined. It appears as a compact-loop flare in the traditional EUV passbands (171 and 195 {\\AA}), but in the passbands sensitive to flare plasmas (94 and 131 {\\AA}), it exhibits a cusp-shaped structure above an arcade of loops like other long-duration events. Inspecting images in a running difference approach, we find that the seemingly diffuse, quasi-static cusp-shaped structure consists of multiple nested loops th...

  12. Crew productivity issues in long-duration space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, John M.; Foushee, H. Clayton; Ulschak, Francis L.

    1988-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests the importance of teamwork, coordination, and conflict resolution to the performance and survival of isolated, confined groups in high-technology environments. With the advent of long-duration space flight, group-related issues of crew functioning will take on added significance. This paper discusses the influence of crew roles, status, leadership, and norms on the performance of small, confined groups, and offers guidelines and suggestions regarding organizational design, crew selection, training, and team building for crew productivity and social well-being in long-duration spaceflight.

  13. Effect of Music on Pain and Duration of Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Amiri, Z.; Sh Marefat; L Nazari; L. Ajori

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This randomized clinical trial (RCT) was conducted to evaluate whether use of music could reduce the pain and duration of labor. Methods: Between 2010 and 2011, a total of 99 women at 38 weeks or greater with spontaneous labor were randomized to fast music, slow music, and control groups. Labor pain was assessed on a visual analogue scale (VAS) at beginning of the active phase and then every 1 hour. Duration of active phase and second stage of labor was recorded. Analysis of all...

  14. Diffusion from a steady source of short duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzi, E.; De Faveri, M.; Fumarola, G.; Ferraiolo, G.

    Releases of short duration can result from safety valves, rupture disks, sudden failures of storage tanks, reactors, lines, etc. Models for atmospheric dispersion of continuous, constant flow rate or instantaneous emissions lack reliability in those instances, because they do not take into account certain indispensable parameters, such as release duration, release starting time and exposure time. This paper offers a mathematical model which has been developed and validated with field experiments, with the intention of supplying reference material for design purposes (relief valves, plant design and layout) or for predicting potential consequences of a leakage, such as fires, explosions, contaminations.

  15. A higher-order duration calculus and its completeness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹乃军

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies how to describe the real-time behaviour of programs using duration calculus. Since program variables are interpreted as functions over time in real-time programming, and it is inevitable to introduce quantifications over program variables in order to describe local variable declaration and declare local channel and so on. Therefore to establish a higher-order duration calculus (HDC) is necessary. We first establish HDC, then show some real-time properties of programs in terms of HDC, and then, prove that HDC is complete on abstract domains under the assumption that all program variables vary finitely.

  16. Bond portfolio's duration and investment term-structure management problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daobai Liu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In the considered bond market, there are N zero-coupon bonds transacted continuously, which will mature at equally spaced dates. A duration of bond portfolios under stochastic interest rate model is introduced, which provides a measurement for the interest rate risk. Then we consider an optimal bond investment term-structure management problem using this duration as a performance index, and with the short-term interest rate process satisfying some stochastic differential equation. Under some technique conditions, an optimal bond portfolio process is obtained.

  17. Duality in binocular rivalry: distinct sensitivity of percept sequence and percept duration to imbalance between monocular stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual perception is usually stable and accurate. However, when the two eyes are simultaneously presented with conflicting stimuli, perception falls into a sequence of spontaneous alternations, switching between one stimulus and the other every few seconds. Known as binocular rivalry, this visual illusion decouples subjective experience from physical stimulation and provides a unique opportunity to study the neural correlates of consciousness. The temporal properties of this alternating perception have been intensively investigated for decades, yet the relationship between two fundamental properties - the sequence of percepts and the duration of each percept - remains largely unexplored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we examine the relationship between the percept sequence and the percept duration by quantifying their sensitivity to the strength imbalance between two monocular stimuli. We found that the percept sequence is far more susceptible to the stimulus imbalance than does the percept duration. The percept sequence always begins with the stronger stimulus, even when the stimulus imbalance is too weak to cause a significant bias in the percept duration. Therefore, introducing a small stimulus imbalance affects the percept sequence, whereas increasing the imbalance affects the percept duration, but not vice versa. To investigate why the percept sequence is so vulnerable to the stimulus imbalance, we further measured the interval between the stimulus onset and the first percept, during which subjects experienced the fusion of two monocular stimuli. We found that this interval is dramatically shortened with increased stimulus imbalance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study shows that in binocular rivalry, the strength imblanace between monocular stimuli has a much greater impact on the percept sequence than on the percept duration, and increasing this imbalance can accelerate the process responsible for the percept sequence.

  18. Generational status and duration of residence predict diabetes prevalence among Latinos: the California Men's Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sternfeld Barbara

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes disproportionately affects Latinos. However, examining Latinos as one group obscures important intra-group differences. This study examined how generational status, duration of US residence, and language preference are associated with diabetes prevalence and to what extent these explain the higher prevalence among Latinos. Methods We determined nativity, duration of US residence, language preference, and diabetes prevalence among 11 817 Latino, 6109 black, and 52 184 white participants in the California Men's Health Study. We combined generational status and residence duration into a single migration status variable with levels: ≥ third generation; second generation; and immigrant living in the US for > 25, 16-25, 11-15, or ≤ 10 years. Language preference was defined as language in which the participant took the survey. Logistic regression models were specified to assess the associations of dependent variables with prevalent diabetes. Results Diabetes prevalence was 22%, 23%, and 11% among Latinos, blacks, and whites, respectively. In age-adjusted models, we observed a gradient of risk of diabetes by migration status among Latinos. Further adjustment for socioeconomic status, obesity and health behaviors only partially attenuated this gradient. Language preference was a weak predictor of prevalent diabetes in some models and not significant in others. In multivariate models, we found that odds of diabetes were higher among US-born Latinos than US-born blacks. Conclusion Generational status and residence duration were associated with diabetes prevalence among middle-aged Latino men in California. As the Latino population grows, the burden of diabetes-associated disease is likely to increase and demands public health attention.

  19. Effect of various electric field strengths and current durations on stunning and spinal injuries of Atlantic herring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgreen, Andreas Hoel; Slinde, Erik; Møller, Dag; Roth, Bjorn

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of electric field strength and current duration on wild-caught Atlantic herring Clupea harengus stunned with sinusoidal 50-Hz AC in seawater. The fish were exposed to electric field strengths ranging from 16 to 142 V/m and current durations from 1 to 12 s. We recorded the elapsed times between the point at which each fish became unconscious and the points at which it resumed normal behavioral functions. We also investigated injuries such as broken spinal columns and hematomas after the fish were filleted. The threshold electric field strength required to stun all of the fish to unconsciousness was 33 V/m for 1 s. The duration of the unconscious condition increased as both electric field strength and current duration increased. Of a total of 260 Atlantic herring, 60% had broken spinal columns. The proportion of fish with fractured spines was independent of field strength and duration, but the number of fractures per fish increased with field strength. We conclude that electrical stunning would promote the welfare of Atlantic herring that are landed alive but negatively affect fillet quality owing to hematomas associated with the fractures. PMID:18783132

  20. Predictability Effects on Durations of Content and Function Words in Conversational English

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Alan; Brenier, Jason; Gregory, Michelle L.; girand, cynthia; Jurafsky, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Content and function word duration are affected differently by their frequency and predictability. Regression analyses of conversational speech show that content words are shorter when they are more frequent, but function words are not. Repeated content words are shorter, but function words are not. Furthermore, function words have shorter pronunciations, after controlling for frequency and predictability. both content and function words are strongly affected by predictability from the word following them, and only very frequent function words show sensitivity to predictability from the preceding word. The results support the view that content and function words are accessed by different production mechanisms. We argue that words’ form differences due to frequency or repetition stem from their faster or slower lexical access, mediated by a general mechanism that coordinates the pace of higher-level planning and the execution of the articulatory plan.

  1. The Limited Impact of Exposure Duration on Holistic Word Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changming; Abbasi, Najam ul Hasan; Song, Shuang; Chen, Jie; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The current study explored the impact of stimuli exposure duration on holistic word processing measured by the complete composite paradigm (CPc paradigm). The participants were asked to match the cued target parts of two characters which were presented for either a long (600 ms) or a short duration (170 ms). They were also tested by two popular versions of the CPc paradigm: the “early-fixed” task where the attention cue was visible from the beginning of each trial at a fixed position, and the “delayed-random” task where the cue showed up after the study character at random locations. The holistic word effect, as indexed by the alignment × congruency interaction, was identified in both tasks and was unaffected by the stimuli duration in both tasks. Meanwhile, the “delayed-random” task did not bring about larger holistic word effect than the “early-fixed” task. These results suggest the exposure duration (from around 150 to 600 ms) has a limited impact on the holistic word effect, and have methodological implications for experiment designs in this field. PMID:27375504

  2. The Social Costs of Unemployment: Accounting for Unemployment Duration

    OpenAIRE

    Ochsen, Carsten; Welsch, Heinz

    2006-01-01

    The social costs of unemployment, in terms of unemployment's impact on European citizens' life satisfaction, relate strongly to unemployment duration. At any level of general joblessness, reducing long-term unemployment is more important than reducing the number of people unemployed at any point in time.

  3. On a Possible Unified Scaling Law for Volcanic Eruption Durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannavò, Flavio; Nunnari, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    Volcanoes constitute dissipative systems with many degrees of freedom. Their eruptions are the result of complex processes that involve interacting chemical-physical systems. At present, due to the complexity of involved phenomena and to the lack of precise measurements, both analytical and numerical models are unable to simultaneously include the main processes involved in eruptions thus making forecasts of volcanic dynamics rather unreliable. On the other hand, accurate forecasts of some eruption parameters, such as the duration, could be a key factor in natural hazard estimation and mitigation. Analyzing a large database with most of all the known volcanic eruptions, we have determined that the duration of eruptions seems to be described by a universal distribution which characterizes eruption duration dynamics. In particular, this paper presents a plausible global power-law distribution of durations of volcanic eruptions that holds worldwide for different volcanic environments. We also introduce a new, simple and realistic pipe model that can follow the same found empirical distribution. Since the proposed model belongs to the family of the self-organized systems it may support the hypothesis that simple mechanisms can lead naturally to the emergent complexity in volcanic behaviour.

  4. Discrete time duration models with group-level heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Honoré, Bo; Hu, Loujia

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic discrete choice panel data models have received a great deal of attention. In those models, the dynamics is usually handled by including the lagged outcome as an explanatory variable. In this paper we consider an alternative model in which the dynamics is handled by using the duration...

  5. CRISP: A Computational Model of Fixation Durations in Scene Viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuthmann, Antje; Smith, Tim J.; Engbert, Ralf; Henderson, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Eye-movement control during scene viewing can be represented as a series of individual decisions about where and when to move the eyes. While substantial behavioral and computational research has been devoted to investigating the placement of fixations in scenes, relatively little is known about the mechanisms that control fixation durations.…

  6. Breastfeeding duration related to practised contraception in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouwe, J.P. van; Lanting, C.I.; Dommelen, P. van; Treffers, P.E.; Buuren, S. van

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to gain insight into contraception practised and related to breastfeeding duration. Methods: Mothers with infants up to 6 months received a questionnaire on infant feeding (breast or formula feeding) and contraception (hormonal or non-hormonal methods). Estimates of th

  7. How climate seasonality modifies drought duration and deficit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, A.F.; Tijdeman, E.; Wanders, N.; Lanen, H.A.J.; Teuling, A.J.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2014-01-01

    Drought propagation through the terrestrial hydrological cycle is associated with a change in drought characteristics (duration and deficit), moving from precipitation via soil moisture to discharge. Here we investigate climate controls on drought propagation with a modeling experiment in 1271 virtu

  8. 20 CFR 655.158 - Duration of positive recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of positive recruitment. 655.158 Section 655.158 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY... recruitment. Except as otherwise noted, the obligation to engage in positive recruitment described in §§...

  9. High Magnetic Field Generator of Sub-Microsecond Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Grainys

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the possibility of generating a micro and sub-microsecond magnetic impulse reaching 1–10 T, investigates various configurations of microcoils and discusses the principal circuit of a magnetic field impulse generator of microsecond duration. The transient processes of current, temperature and magnetic field are calculated applying the finite element method.Article in Lithuanian

  10. Functional connectivity homogeneity correlates with duration of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneef, Zulfi; Chiang, Sharon; Yeh, Hsiang J; Engel, Jerome; Stern, John M

    2015-05-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is often associated with progressive changes to seizures, memory, and mood during its clinical course. However, the cerebral changes related to this progression are not well understood. Because the changes may be related to changes in brain networks, we used functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) to determine whether brain network parameters relate to the duration of TLE. Graph theory-based analysis of the sites of reported regions of TLE abnormality was performed on resting-state fMRI data in 48 subjects: 24 controls, 13 patients with left TLE, and 11 patients with right TLE. Various network parameters were analyzed including betweenness centrality (BC), clustering coefficient (CC), path length (PL), small-world index (SWI), global efficiency (GE), connectivity strength (CS), and connectivity diversity (CD). These were compared for patients with TLE as a group, compared to controls, and for patients with left and right TLE separately. The association of changes in network parameters with epilepsy duration was also evaluated. We found that CC, CS, and CD decreased in subjects with TLE compared to control subjects. Analyzed according to epilepsy duration, patients with TLE showed a progressive reduction in CD. In conclusion, we found that several network parameters decreased in patients with TLE compared to controls, which suggested reduced connectivity in TLE. Reduction in CD associated with epilepsy duration suggests a homogenization of connections over time in TLE, indicating a reduction of the normal repertoire of stronger and weaker connections to other brain regions. PMID:25873437

  11. Valproic Acid and Sleep Duration in Children with Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep duration and behavior were assessed in 46 children (age range 1.7-17.4 years before and after tapering valproic acid (VPA administered for more than 6 months for epilepsy, in a study at University Children's Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland.

  12. 14 CFR 21.621 - Transferability and duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transferability and duration. 21.621 Section 21.621 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... FAA design and production approval issued to the manufacturer of an article that has been found...

  13. The key to reducing duration of untreated first psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Auestad, Bjørn; Friis, Svein; McGlashan, Thomas; Melle, Ingrid; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Simonsen, Erik; Vaglum, Per; Larsen, Tor K

    2008-01-01

    The TIPS early intervention program reduced the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) in first-episode schizophrenia from 16 to 5 weeks in a health care sector using a combination of easy access detection teams (DTs) and a massive information campaign (IC) about the signs and symptoms of psychosi...

  14. Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Sleep Duration Discordant Monozygotic Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrede, Joanna E; Mengel-From, Jonas; Buchwald, Dedra;

    2015-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number is an important component of mitochondrial function and varies with age, disease, and environmental factors. We aimed to determine whether mtDNA copy number varies with habitual differences in sleep duration within pairs of monozygotic twins...... twin. Fasting peripheral blood leukocyte DNA was assessed for mtDNA copy number via the n-fold difference between qPCR measured mtDNA and nuclear DNA creating an mtDNA measure without absolute units. We used generalized estimating equation linear regression models accounting for the correlated data...... structure to assess within-pair effects of sleep duration on mtDNA copy number. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Mean within-pair sleep duration difference per 24 hours was 94.3 minutes (SD 62.6 min). We found reduced sleep duration (β = 0.06; 95% CI 0.004, 0.12; P < 0.05) and sleep efficiency (β = 0.51; 95% CI 0...

  15. Predicting the phytoextraction duration to remediate heavy metal contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, G.F.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Song, J.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Japenga, J.

    2007-01-01

    The applicability of phytoextraction to remediate soils contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) depends on, amongst others, the duration before remediation is completed. The impact of changes in the HM content in soil occurring during remediation on plant uptake has to be considered in order to obtain

  16. Long-duration bed rest as an analog to microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, Alan R; Vico, Laurence

    2016-04-15

    Long-duration bed rest is widely employed to simulate the effects of microgravity on various physiological systems, especially for studies of bone, muscle, and the cardiovascular system. This microgravity analog is also extensively used to develop and test countermeasures to microgravity-altered adaptations to Earth gravity. Initial investigations of bone loss used horizontal bed rest with the view that this model represented the closest approximation to inactivity and minimization of hydrostatic effects, but all Earth-based analogs must contend with the constant force of gravity by adjustment of the G vector. Later concerns about the lack of similarity between headward fluid shifts in space and those with horizontal bed rest encouraged the use of 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest as pioneered by Russian investigators. Headward fluid shifts in space may redistribute bone from the legs to the head. At present, HDT bed rest with normal volunteers is the most common analog for microgravity simulation and to test countermeasures for bone loss, muscle and cardiac atrophy, orthostatic intolerance, and reduced muscle strength/exercise capacity. Also, current physiologic countermeasures are focused on long-duration missions such as Mars, so in this review we emphasize HDT bed rest studies with durations of 30 days and longer. However, recent results suggest that the HDT bed rest analog is less representative as an analog for other important physiological problems of long-duration space flight such as fluid shifts, spinal dysfunction and radiation hazards. PMID:26893033

  17. Interest Rate Risk Management using Duration Gap Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Armeanu

    2008-01-01

    should be measured and managed within an asset-liability management. Then the articles takes a short look at methods for measuring interest rate risk and after that explains and demonstrates how can be used Duration Gap Model for managing interest rate risk in banks.

  18. 32 CFR 2001.12 - Duration of classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... that should clearly and demonstrably be expected to reveal the identity of a confidential human source or a human intelligence source or key design concepts of weapons of mass destruction, an original... of a confidential human source or a human intelligence source, the duration shall be up to 75...

  19. The effect of receiving supplementary UI benefits on unemployment duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomi, Kyyrä,; Pierpaolo, Parrotta,; Rosholm, Michael

    2013-01-01

    insurance benefit receipt. We find evidence of a negative in-treatment effect and a positive post-treatment effect, both of which vary across different groups of individuals. The resulting net effect on the expected unemployment duration is positive for some groups (e.g. married women) and negative for...... others (e.g. young workers)....

  20. 20 CFR 410.213 - Duration of entitlement; child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... first occurs: (1) The child dies; (2) The child marries; (3) The child attains age 18 and, (i) Is not... the month in which he attains age 18; (4) If the child's entitlement is based on his status as a... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; child....

  1. Duration and speed of speech events: A selection of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibbon Dafydd

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of speech timing, i.e. the duration and speed or tempo of speech events, has increased in importance over the past twenty years, in particular in connection with increased demands for accuracy, intelligibility and naturalness in speech technology, with applications in language teaching and testing, and with the study of speech timing patterns in language typology. H owever, the methods used in such studies are very diverse, and so far there is no accessible overview of these methods. Since the field is too broad for us to provide an exhaustive account, we have made two choices: first, to provide a framework of paradigmatic (classificatory, syntagmatic (compositional and functional (discourse-oriented dimensions for duration analysis; and second, to provide worked examples of a selection of methods associated primarily with these three dimensions. Some of the methods which are covered are established state-of-the-art approaches (e.g. the paradigmatic Classification and Regression Trees, CART , analysis, others are discussed in a critical light (e.g. so-called ‘rhythm metrics’. A set of syntagmatic approaches applies to the tokenisation and tree parsing of duration hierarchies, based on speech annotations, and a functional approach describes duration distributions with sociolinguistic variables. Several of the methods are supported by a new web-based software tool for analysing annotated speech data, the Time Group Analyser.

  2. [Duration of anticoagulant therapy in venous thromboembolic complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, M R; Leontyev, S G; Neskhodimov, L A; Tolstikhin, V Yu; Khotinskiy, A A

    2016-01-01

    Adequate anticoagulant therapy is a general approach to treatment of deep vein thrombosis. However, the duration of anticoagulant therapy is not strictly specified in everyday clinical practice. The present article deals with various approaches to selecting the duration of therapy with anticoagulants based on the findings of studies, national and foreign clinical guidelines. The minimal duration of therapy for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism amounts to 3 months in accordance with the national and American recommendations. For some cohorts of patients, continuation of therapy above 3 months is considered: patients with idiopathic thrombosis (the recommended duration of therapy of not less than 6 months), patients having persisting risk factor for relapse of thrombosis on termination of the main therapeutic course, oncological patients (6 month therapy followed by assessing the risk and benefit of continuing therapy with anticoagulants). Prolonged therapy of venous thromboembolism using unfractionated heparin or low-molecular-weight heparin followed by changing over to vitamin K antagonists is associated with decreased risk for thrombosis relapse approximately by 90%, however increasing the risk of haemorrhage. Currently, as an alternative, it is possible to consider administration of novel oral anticoagulants (rivaroxaban, dabigatran, apixaban) which beside high efficacy are associated with less risk of bleeding. The route of administration, no necessity to control the INR, and the minimal number of drug and food interactions make administration of new oral anticoagulants an attractive alternative to therapy with heparins and vitamin K antagonists. PMID:27100556

  3. Spawning ascent durations of pelagic spawning reef fishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caroline A. HABRUN; Gorka SANCHO

    2012-01-01

    Predation risks have been hypothesized to influence spawning behaviors of coral reef fishes that broadcast gametes pelagically.The duration of spawning ascents of 13 species were measured from video footage at a single spawning site for multiple coral reef fishes to investigate if this behavior was influenced by varying risks of predation.Fishes that spawned in pairs had ascents of longer duration than group-spawning species.Duration of spawning ascents did not vary between fishes spawning at daytime and dusk,nor between group-spawning species with specific anti-predatory morphological adaptations.These results indicate that risk of predation may not significantly influence the duration of spawning ascents of pair spawning reef fishes at our study site,while group-spawning behaviors are influenced by predation.Avoidance of egg predation by benthic organisms and female mate choice are more likely to influence the pelagic spawning behaviors of all fishes observed [Current Zoology 58 ( 1 ):95-102,2012].

  4. Duration of ultrasound-mediated enhanced plasma membrane permeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammertink, Bart; Deckers, RHR; Storm, Gert; Moonen, Chrit; Bos, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) induced cavitation can be used to enhance the intracellular delivery of drugs by transiently increasing the cell membrane permeability. The duration of this increased permeability, termed temporal window, has not been fully elucidated. In this study, the temporal window was investiga

  5. Thin slice impressions : How advertising evaluation depends on exposure duration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Rik; Elsen, M.; Wedel, M.

    2016-01-01

    The duration of exposures to advertising is often brief. Then, consumers can only obtain “thin slices” of information from the ads, such as which product and brand are being promoted. This research is the first to examine the influence that such thin slices of information have on ad and brand evalua

  6. Effect of Music on Pain and Duration of Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Amiri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This randomized clinical trial (RCT was conducted to evaluate whether use of music could reduce the pain and duration of labor. Methods: Between 2010 and 2011, a total of 99 women at 38 weeks or greater with spontaneous labor were randomized to fast music, slow music, and control groups. Labor pain was assessed on a visual analogue scale (VAS at beginning of the active phase and then every 1 hour. Duration of active phase and second stage of labor was recorded. Analysis of all proportions was carried out using t- test, Mann-whitney test, and Pearson’s chi-square test when appropriate. Results: Patients in the fast music group revealed lower VAS scores at all time after music therapy, except fourth hour, and in the first and fifth hours, this differences were significant. In slow music group VAS scores, only in fifth hour were significantly lower than those of control group. Duration of labor was significantly lower in the fast music group than control. Conclusion: Listening fast music in the active phase of labor decreased pain and duration of labor.

  7. Astronomical duration of polarity Chron C31r (lower Maastrichtian)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husson, Dorothee; Galbrun, Bruno; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph;

    2012-01-01

    The duration of polarity Chron C31r is estimated with a cyclostratigraphic approach. Two sites are investigated: ODP Site 762 (Indian Ocean) and the Contessa Highway section (Gubbio, Italy). Cyclostratigraphic analysis is performed on greyscale variations (Site 762) and magnetic susceptibility va...

  8. Does a detection team shorten duration of untreated psychosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Thorup, Anne; Petersen, Lone;

    2008-01-01

    Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is shown to be associated with poor outcome in many domains. It has been shown that it is possible to shorten DUP when combining a detection team and an information campaign. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether DUP was shortened during the first 3 y...

  9. Patient demographics as a predictive tool of consultation duration

    OpenAIRE

    Pankevich, Volha

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a study undertaken to test the hypothesis that known patient demographics will be a reasonably reliable predictor of the duration of a patient's consultation with a general practitioner, regardless of the medical experience of an individual physician.

  10. Different duration of Colchicine for preventing recurrence of Gouty arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Karimzadeh

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gout is a Common recurrent clinical syndrome characterized by increased serum uric acid and recurrent attacks of acute arthritis. Colchicine is used for Prophylaxis against recurrence of arthritis, but the duration of its administration has mentioned variable. In this study, optimal duration of prophylactic colchicine for prevention of gouty arthritis was assessed. Methods : In a clinical trial 190 patients with gouty arthritis divided randomly to group 1,2and 3 and received colchicine for 3 to 6, 7 to 9 and 10 to 12 months then colchicine discontinued and the patients followed one year for recurrence of arthritis. Result assessed by survival analysis with Kaplan –Meier method. Results: The probability of recurrence of arthritis (in order of duration of colchicine prophylaxis was 54%, 27.5% and 23%, respectively. The difference between group one and others was statistically significant, but between group 2 and 3 was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The most suitable duration of colchicine prophylaxis that accompanied with lower recurrence rate was 7-9 months, which seems more cost -effective than 10-12 months regimen. Key words: Gout, Colchicine, Arthritis, Recurrence

  11. Habitual sleep duration and eating disorders in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, R A; Rozette, E

    1986-02-01

    To measure the relationship between habitual sleep duration and eating disorders, the responses of groups of 34 short- and 43 longer-sleeping college students to the EAT-26 Test were compared. The short-sleepers scored twice as high and were five times more likely to exhibit abnormal eating patterns than the longer-sleeping group. PMID:3457356

  12. 34 CFR 690.6 - Duration of student eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... has completed the academic curriculum requirements for that first undergraduate baccalaureate course... employment as a teacher in an elementary or secondary school in that State; (2) The postbaccalaureate program... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of student eligibility. 690.6 Section...

  13. 32 CFR 2400.11 - Duration of classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of classification. 2400.11 Section 2400.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY INFORMATION...

  14. 32 CFR 2400.35 - Duration of classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of classification. 2400.35 Section 2400.35 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY INFORMATION...

  15. Attention, Exposure Duration, and Gaze Shifting in Naming Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Ardi

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments are reported in which the role of attribute exposure duration in naming performance was examined by tracking eye movements. Participants were presented with color-word Stroop stimuli and left- or right-pointing arrows on different sides of a computer screen. They named the color attribute and shifted their gaze to the arrow to…

  16. Attention, Exposure Duration, and Gaze Shifting in Naming Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, A.P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments are reported in which the role of attribute exposure duration in naming performance was examined by tracking eye movements. Participants were presented with color-word Stroop stimuli and left- or right-pointing arrows on different sides of a computer screen. They named the color attr

  17. Duration Test Report for the Entegrity EW50 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

    2012-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of a duration test that NREL conducted on the Entegrity EW50 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

  18. Sleep duration differences between children of migrant and native origins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.W.W. Labree (L. J. W. (Wim)); H.D. van de Mheen (H. (Dike)); F.F.H. Rutten (Frans); G.(. Rodenburg (G. (Gerda)); G. Koopmans (Gerrit); M.M.E. Foets (Marleen)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAim: To explore whether primary school children of migrant and native Dutch origins differ regarding their sleep duration per night, a risk for overweight and obesity, and to determine to what degree differences in parenting styles contribute to these differences. Subjects and methods: A

  19. 42 CFR 86.36 - Duration and continuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES GRANTS FOR EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.36 Duration and continuation. Direct traineeship......

  20. Physical Activity in the School Setting: Cognitive Performance Is Not Affected by Three Different Types of Acute Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Vera; Saliasi, Emi; de Groot, Renate H. M.; Jolles, Jelle; Chinapaw, Mai J. M.; Singh, Amika S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that a single bout of physical exercise can have immediate positive effects on cognitive performance of children and adolescents. However, the type of exercise that affects cognitive performance the most in young adolescents is not fully understood. Therefore, this controlled study examined the acute effects of three types of 12-min classroom-based exercise sessions on information processing speed and selective attention. The three conditions consisted of aerobic, coordination, and strength exercises, respectively. In particular, this study focused on the feasibility and efficiency of introducing short bouts of exercise in the classroom. One hundred and ninety five students (5th and 6th grade; 10–13 years old) participated in a double baseline within-subjects design, with students acting as their own control. Exercise type was randomly assigned to each class and acted as between-subject factor. Before and immediately after both the control and the exercise session, students performed two cognitive tests that measured information processing speed (Letter Digit Substitution Test) and selective attention (d2 Test of Attention). The results revealed that exercising at low to moderate intensity does not have an effect on the cognitive parameters tested in young adolescents. Furthermore, there were no differential effects of exercise type. The results of this study are discussed in terms of the caution which should be taken when conducting exercise sessions in a classroom setting aimed at improving cognitive performance. PMID:27242629

  1. Physical Activity in the School Setting: Cognitive Performance Is Not Affected by Three Different Types of Acute Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Vera; Saliasi, Emi; de Groot, Renate H M; Jolles, Jelle; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Singh, Amika S

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that a single bout of physical exercise can have immediate positive effects on cognitive performance of children and adolescents. However, the type of exercise that affects cognitive performance the most in young adolescents is not fully understood. Therefore, this controlled study examined the acute effects of three types of 12-min classroom-based exercise sessions on information processing speed and selective attention. The three conditions consisted of aerobic, coordination, and strength exercises, respectively. In particular, this study focused on the feasibility and efficiency of introducing short bouts of exercise in the classroom. One hundred and ninety five students (5th and 6th grade; 10-13 years old) participated in a double baseline within-subjects design, with students acting as their own control. Exercise type was randomly assigned to each class and acted as between-subject factor. Before and immediately after both the control and the exercise session, students performed two cognitive tests that measured information processing speed (Letter Digit Substitution Test) and selective attention (d2 Test of Attention). The results revealed that exercising at low to moderate intensity does not have an effect on the cognitive parameters tested in young adolescents. Furthermore, there were no differential effects of exercise type. The results of this study are discussed in terms of the caution which should be taken when conducting exercise sessions in a classroom setting aimed at improving cognitive performance. PMID:27242629

  2. Chapter 2--the spinal generation of phases and cycle duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossard, Jean-Pierre; Sirois, Jennifer; Noué, Patrick; Côté, Marie-Pascale; Ménard, Ariane; Leblond, Hugues; Frigon, Alain

    2011-01-01

    During walking, an increase in speed is accompanied by a decrease in the stance phase duration while the swing phase remains relatively invariant. By definition, the rhythm generator in the lumbar spinal cord controls cycle period, phase durations, and phase transitions. Our first aim was to determine if this asymmetry in the control of locomotor cycles is an inherent property of the central pattern generator (CPG). We recorded episodes of fictive locomotion, that is, locomotor patterns in absence of reafference, in decerebrate cats with or without a complete spinal transection (acute or chronic). In fictive locomotion, stance and swing phases typically correspond to extension and flexion, respectively. In the vast majority of locomotor episodes, cycle period varied more with extensor phase duration. This could be observed without phasic sensory feedback or supraspinal structures or pharmacology. In a few experiments, we stimulated the mesencephalic locomotor region or selected peripheral nerves during fictive locomotion and both could alter the phase/cycle period relationship. We conclude that there is a built-in asymmetry within the spinal rhythm generator for locomotion, which can be modified by extraneous factors. Locomotor and scratching rhythms are characterized by alternation of flexion and extension phases within one hindlimb, which are mediated by rhythm-generating circuitry within the spinal cord. Our second aim was to determine if rhythm generators for locomotion and scratch have similar control mechanisms in adult decerebrate cats. The regulation of cycle period during fictive scratching was evaluated, as were the effects of specific sensory inputs on phase durations and transitions during pinna-evoked fictive scratching. Results show that cycle period during fictive scratching varied predominantly with flexion phase duration, contrary to spontaneous fictive locomotion. Ankle dorsiflexion greatly increased extension phase duration and cycle period

  3. Care Utilization Patterns and Diabetes Self-Management Education Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tammie M; Richards, Jennifer; Churilla, James R

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Previous studies have shown that receiving diabetes self-management education (DSME) is associated with increased care utilization. However, the relationship between DSME duration and care utilization patterns remains largely unexamined. Our purpose is to characterize DSME duration and examine the relationship between DSME duration and clinical- and self-care utilization patterns. Methods. The study sample included 1,446 adults who were ≥18 years of age, had diabetes, and had participated in the 2008 Florida Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. Clinical- and self-care outcomes were derived using responses to the survey's diabetes module and were based on minimum standards of care established by the American Diabetes Association. The outcomes examined included self-monitoring of blood glucose at least once per day; receiving at least one eye exam, one foot exam, A1C tests, and an influenza vaccination in the past year; and ever receiving a pneumococcal vaccination. DSME duration was categorized as no DSME, >0 to 10 hours. Results. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, compared to those who did not receive DSME, those who had 4-10 or 10+ hours of DSME were more likely to receive two A1C tests (odds ratio [95% CI] 2.69 [1.30-5.58] and 2.63 [1.10-6.31], respectively) and have a pneumococcal vaccination (1.98 [1.03-3.80] and 1.92 [1.01-3.64], respectively). Those receiving 10+ hours of DSME were 2.2 times (95% CI 1.18-4.09) as likely to have an influenza vaccination. Conclusion. These data reveal a positive relationship between DSME duration and utilization of some diabetes clinical care services. PMID:26300613

  4. Can we predict the duration of an interglacial?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Tzedakis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the duration of interglacials have long been apparent in palaeoclimate records of the Late and Middle Pleistocene. However, a systematic evaluation of such differences has been hampered by the lack of a metric that can be applied consistently through time and by difficulties in separating the local from the global component in various proxies. This, in turn, means that a theoretical framework with predictive power for interglacial duration has remained elusive. Here we propose that the interval between the terminal oscillation of the bipolar seesaw and three thousand years (kyr before its first major reactivation provides an estimate that approximates the length of the sea-level highstand, a measure of interglacial duration. We apply this concept to interglacials of the last 800 kyr by using a recently-constructed record of interhemispheric variability. The onset of interglacials occurs within 2 kyr of the boreal summer insolation maximum/precession minimum and is consistent with the canonical view of Milankovitch forcing pacing the broad timing of interglacials. Glacial inception always takes place when obliquity is decreasing and never after the obliquity minimum. The phasing of precession and obliquity appears to influence the persistence of interglacial conditions over one or two insolation peaks, leading to shorter (~ 13 kyr and longer (~ 28 kyr interglacials. Glacial inception occurs approximately 10 kyr after peak interglacial conditions in temperature and CO2, representing a characteristic timescale of interglacial decline. Second-order differences in duration may be a function of stochasticity in the climate system, or small variations in background climate state and the magnitude of feedbacks and mechanisms contributing to glacial inception, and as such, difficult to predict. On the other hand, the broad duration of an interglacial may be determined by the phasing of astronomical parameters and the history of

  5. Can we predict the duration of an interglacial?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Tzedakis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the duration of interglacials have long been apparent in palaeoclimate records of the Late and Middle Pleistocene. However, a systematic evaluation of such differences has been hampered by the lack of a metric that can be applied consistently through time and by difficulties in separating the local from the global component in various proxies. This, in turn, means that a theoretical framework with predictive power for interglacial duration has remained elusive. Here we propose that the interval between the terminal oscillation of the bipolar-seesaw and three thousand years (kyr before its first major reactivation provides an estimate that approximates the length of the sea-level highstand, a measure of interglacial duration. We apply this concept to interglacials of the last 800 kyr by using a recently-constructed record of interhemispheric variability. The onset of interglacials occurs within 2 kyr of the peak in boreal summer insolation and is consistent with the canonical view of Milankovitch forcing dictating the broad timing of interglacials. Glacial inception always takes place when obliquity is decreasing and never after the obliquity minimum. The phasing of precession and obliquity appears to influence the persistence of interglacial conditions over one or two insolation peaks, leading to shorter (~13 kyr and longer (~28 kyr interglacials. Glacial inception occurs approximately 10 kyr after peak interglacial conditions in temperature and CO2, representing an interglacial "relaxation" time over which gradual cooling takes place. Second-order differences in duration may be a function of stochasticity in the climate system, or small variations in background climate state and the magnitude of feedbacks and mechanisms contributing to glacial iinception, and as such, difficult to predict. On the other hand, the broad duration of an interglacial may be determined by the phasing of astronomical parameters and the

  6. Duration of orthodontic treatment in conjunction with orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavnic, Snjezana; Marcusson, Agneta

    2010-01-01

    Patients considering undergoing combined orthodontic-orthognathic treatment for correction of malocclusion require appropriate information, particularly with respect to duration of treatment. The primary aim of this study was to determine the duration of orthodontic treatment carried out in conjunction with orthognathic surgery and to analyze the influence of selected explanatory variables. A further aim was to compare the duration of orthodontic treatment in patients treated by orthodontists at Linköping University hospital orthodontic clinic and six regional orthodontic clinics. This is a retrospective study, based on data from the orthodontic records of patients who had undergone orthognathic surgery at the University Hospital Maxillofacial Unit in Linköping, Sweden, from 2000 to 2005. The subjects comprised 207 out of 233 patients (107 women and 100 men), aged 15.8-56.9 years, median 24.2 years at the time of surgery: 26 patients were excluded, either diagnosed with a syndrome, or because it was impossible to follow up the entire treatment. 59 subjects had undergone orthodontic treatment at the University hospital orthodontic clinic and 148 at the 6 regional orthodontic clinics. The variables recorded were gender, malocclusion, the number of appointments (scheduled and emergency) and treatment setting. The median value for pre-operative orthodontic treatment time was 19.2 months (range 2.4-68.4); for postoperative orthodontic treatment 4.6 months (range 0-18.8) and for total orthodontic treatment 27.8 months (range 5.9-79.1). For the University hospital orthodontic clinic, pre-operative (16.7 months) and total orthodontic treatment times (25 months) were significantly shorter than for the regional clinics; the duration of postoperative treatment was significantly longer (4.1 months). No other explanatory variables had a significant influence on the duration of orthodontic treatment. Compared with the regional orthodontic clinics, there were significantly

  7. Interest Rate Risk Management using Duration Gap Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Armeanu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The world for financial institutions has changed during the last 20 years, and become riskier and more competitive-driven. After the deregulation of the financial market, banks had to take on extensive risk in order to earn sufficient returns. Interest rate volatility has increased dramatically over the past twenty-five years and for that an efficient management of this interest rate risk is strong required. In the last years banks developed a variety of methods for measuring and managing interest rate risk. From these the most frequently used in real banking life and recommended by Basel Committee are based on: Reprising Model or Funding Gap Model, Maturity Gap Model, Duration Gap Model, Static and Dynamic Simulation. The purpose of this article is to give a good understanding of duration gap model used for managing interest rate risk. The article starts with a overview of interest rate risk and explain how this type of risk should be measured and managed within an asset-liability management. Then the articles takes a short look at methods for measuring interest rate risk and after that explains and demonstrates how can be used Duration Gap Model for managing interest rate risk in banks.The world for financial institutions has changed during the last 20 years, and become riskier and more competitive-driven. After the deregulation of the financial market, banks had to take on extensive risk in order to earn sufficient returns. Interest rate volatility has increased dramatically over the past twenty-five years and for that an efficient management of this interest rate risk is strong required. In the last years banks developed a variety of methods for measuring and managing interest rate risk. From these the most frequently used in real banking life and recommended by Basel Committee are based on: Reprising Model or Funding Gap Model, Maturity Gap Model, Duration Gap Model, Static and Dynamic Simulation. The purpose of this article is to give a

  8. The Role of Sleep Duration in the Regulation of Energy Balance: Effects on Energy Intakes and Expenditure

    OpenAIRE

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Short sleep duration and obesity are common occurrence in today's society. An extensive literature from cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies shows a relationship between short sleep and prevalence of obesity and weight gain. However, causality cannot be inferred from such studies. Clinical intervention studies have examined whether reducing sleep in normal sleepers, typically sleeping 7–9 h/night, can affect energy intake, energy expenditure, and endocrine regulators of en...

  9. Stage-specific heat effects: timing and duration of heat waves alter demographic rates of a global insect pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Rudolf, Volker H W; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2015-12-01

    The frequency and duration of periods with high temperatures are expected to increase under global warming. Thus, even short-lived organisms are increasingly likely to experience periods of hot temperatures at some point of their life-cycle. Despite recent progress, it remains unclear how various temperature experiences during the life-cycle of organisms affect demographic traits. We simulated hot days (daily mean temperature of 30 °C) increasingly experienced under field conditions and investigated how the timing and duration of such hot days during the life cycle of Plutella xylostella affects adult traits. We show that hot days experienced during some life stages (but not all) altered adult lifespan, fecundity, and oviposition patterns. Importantly, the effects of hot days were contingent on which stage was affected, and these stage-specific effects were not always additive. Thus, adults that experience different temporal patterns of hot periods (i.e., changes in timing and duration) during their life-cycle often had different demographic rates and reproductive patterns. These results indicate that we cannot predict the effects of current and future climate on natural populations by simply focusing on changes in the mean temperature. Instead, we need to incorporate the temporal patterns of heat events relative to the life-cycle of organisms to describe population dynamics and how they will respond to future climate change. PMID:26255274

  10. The effect of storage temperature and duration on the microbial quality of bulk tank milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, A; Ruegg, P L; Jordan, K; O'Brien, B; Gleeson, D

    2016-05-01

    The dairy industry in Ireland is currently undergoing a period of expansion and, as a result, it is anticipated that milk may be stored in bulk tanks on-farm for periods greater than 48 h. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of storage temperature and duration on microbial quality of bulk tank milk when fresh milk is added to the bulk tank twice daily. Bulk tank milk stored at 3 temperatures was sampled at 24-h intervals during storage periods of 0 to 96 h. Bulk tank milk samples were analyzed for total bacterial count (TBC), psychrotrophic bacterial count (PBC), laboratory pasteurization count (LPC), psychrotrophic-thermoduric bacterial count (PBC-LPC), proteolytic bacterial count, lipolytic bacterial count, presumptive Bacillus cereus, sulfite-reducing Clostridia (SRC), and SCC. The bulk tank milk temperature was set at each of 3 temperatures (2°C, 4°C, and 6°C) in each of 3 tanks on 2 occasions during two 6-wk periods. Period 1 was undertaken in August and September, when all cows were in mid lactation, and period 2 was undertaken in October and November, when all cows were in late lactation. None of the bulk tank bacterial counts except the proteolytic count were affected by lactation period. The proteolytic bacterial count was greater in period 2 than in period 1. The TBC and PBC of milk stored at 6°C increased as storage duration increased. The TBC did not increase with increasing storage duration when milk was stored at 2°C or 4°C but the PBC of milk stored at 4°C increased significantly between 0 and 96 h. The numbers of proteolytic and lipolytic bacteria, LPC, or PBC-LPC in bulk tank milk were not affected by temperature or duration of storage. Presumptive B. cereus were detected in 10% of all bulk tank milk samples taken over the two 6-wk periods, with similar proportions observed in both. In bulk tank milk samples, a greater incidence of SRC was observed in period 2 (20%) compared with period 1 (3%). Milk produced on

  11. Proactive Algorithms for Job Shop Scheduling with Probabilistic Durations

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, J C; 10.1613/jair.2080

    2011-01-01

    Most classical scheduling formulations assume a fixed and known duration for each activity. In this paper, we weaken this assumption, requiring instead that each duration can be represented by an independent random variable with a known mean and variance. The best solutions are ones which have a high probability of achieving a good makespan. We first create a theoretical framework, formally showing how Monte Carlo simulation can be combined with deterministic scheduling algorithms to solve this problem. We propose an associated deterministic scheduling problem whose solution is proved, under certain conditions, to be a lower bound for the probabilistic problem. We then propose and investigate a number of techniques for solving such problems based on combinations of Monte Carlo simulation, solutions to the associated deterministic problem, and either constraint programming or tabu search. Our empirical results demonstrate that a combination of the use of the associated deterministic problem and Monte Carlo sim...

  12. ANALYSIS OF THE DURATION OF UNEMPLOYMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMANESCU GEORGE OCTAVIAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of industrialization and expansion of wage labor is the difference between work and employment. The rigidity of the labor supply and its persistent surplus is explained by the very high compensation or unemployment benefits, through trade union action or error preset number of employees, which leads to greater gap between supply and demand for labor. Adjustment policies of employment in the future will be increasingly less state policy, of general application, and increasingly more political will and enterprise branch, the subject of an active social dialogue between employers and trade unions, dialogue resulted in agreements of limited duration and subject to revision depending on the economic and social situation. The duration of work and organizational modalities they will depend on this social dialogue.

  13. High-Intensity Intermittent Training Positively Affects Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance in Judo Athletes Independently of Exercise Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Emerson; Julio, Ursula F.; Panissa, Valéria L. G.; Lira, Fábio S.; Gerosa-Neto, José; Branco, Braulio H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on lower- and upper-body graded exercise and high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE, four Wingate bouts) performance, and on physiological and muscle damage markers responses in judo athletes. Methods: Thirty-five subjects were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 8) or to one of the following HIIT groups (n = 9 for each) and tested pre- and post-four weeks (2 training d·wk−1): (1) lower-body cycle-ergometer; (2) upper-body cycle-ergometer; (3) uchi-komi (judo technique entrance). All HIIT were constituted by two blocks of 10 sets of 20 s of all out effort interspersed by 10 s set intervals and 5-min between blocks. Results: For the upper-body group there was an increase in maximal aerobic power in graded upper-body exercise test (12.3%). The lower-body group increased power at onset blood lactate in graded upper-body exercise test (22.1%). The uchi-komi group increased peak power in upper- (16.7%) and lower-body (8.5%), while the lower-body group increased lower-body mean power (14.2%) during the HIIE. There was a decrease in the delta blood lactate for the uchi-komi training group and in the third and fourth bouts for the upper-body training group. Training induced testosterone-cortisol ratio increased in the lower-body HIIE for the lower-body (14.9%) and uchi-komi (61.4%) training groups. Conclusion: Thus, short-duration low-volume HIIT added to regular judo training was able to increase upper-body aerobic power, lower- and upper-body HIIE performance.

  14. Racial disparities in short sleep duration by occupation and industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Chandra L; Redline, Susan; Kawachi, Ichiro; Williams, Michelle A; Hu, Frank B

    2013-11-01

    Short sleep duration, which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, has been shown to vary by occupation and industry, but few studies have investigated differences between black and white populations. By using data from a nationally representative sample of US adult short sleepers (n = 41,088) in the National Health Interview Survey in 2004-2011, we estimated prevalence ratios for short sleep duration in blacks compared with whites for each of 8 industry categories by using adjusted Poisson regression models with robust variance. Participants' mean age was 47 years; 50% were women and 13% were black. Blacks were more likely to report short sleep duration than whites (37% vs. 28%), and the black-white disparity was widest among those who held professional occupations. Adjusted short sleep duration was more prevalent in blacks than whites in the following industry categories: finance/information/real estate (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30, 1.59); professional/administrative/management (PR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.44); educational services (PR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.25, 1.54); public administration/arts/other services (PR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.21, 1.41); health care/social assistance (PR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.14, 1.32); and manufacturing/construction (PR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.20). Short sleep generally increased with increasing professional responsibility within a given industry among blacks but decreased with increasing professional roles among whites. Our results suggest the need for further investigation of racial/ethnic differences in the work-sleep relationship. PMID:24018914

  15. Morning Circadian Misalignment during Short Sleep Duration Impacts Insulin Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Robert H; Depner, Christopher M; Perreault, Leigh; Markwald, Rachel R; Smith, Mark R; McHill, Andrew W; Higgins, Janine; Melanson, Edward L; Wright, Kenneth P

    2015-11-16

    Short sleep duration and circadian misalignment are hypothesized to causally contribute to health problems including obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, heart disease, mood disorders, cognitive impairment, and accidents. Here, we investigated the influence of morning circadian misalignment induced by an imposed short nighttime sleep schedule on impaired insulin sensitivity, a precursor to diabetes. Imposed short sleep duration resulted in morning wakefulness occurring during the biological night (i.e., circadian misalignment)-a time when endogenous melatonin levels were still high indicating the internal circadian clock was still promoting sleep and related functions. We show the longer melatonin levels remained high after wake time, insulin sensitivity worsened. Overall, we find a simulated 5-day work week of 5-hr-per-night sleep opportunities and ad libitum food intake resulted in ∼20% reduced oral and intravenous insulin sensitivity in otherwise healthy men and women. Reduced insulin sensitivity was compensated by an increased insulin response to glucose, which may reflect an initial physiological adaptation to maintain normal blood sugar levels during sleep loss. Furthermore, we find that transitioning from the imposed short sleep schedule to 9-hr sleep opportunities for 3 days restored oral insulin sensitivity to baseline, but 5 days with 9-hr sleep opportunities was insufficient to restore intravenous insulin sensitivity to baseline. These findings indicate morning wakefulness and eating during the biological night is a novel mechanism by which short sleep duration contributes to metabolic dysregulation and suggests food intake during the biological night may contribute to other health problems associated with short sleep duration. PMID:26549253

  16. Health care delivery system for long duration manned space operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. S.; Shulman, E. L.; Johnson, P. C.

    1983-01-01

    Specific requirements for medical support of a long-duration manned facility in a low earth orbit derive from inflight medical experience, projected medical scenarios, mission related spacecraft and environmental hazards, health maintenance, and preventive medicine. A sequential buildup of medical capabilities tailored to increasing mission complexity is proposed. The space station health maintenance facility must provide preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic medical support as immediate rescue capability may not exist.

  17. Breastfeeding in Iran: prevalence, duration and current recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Strandvik Birgitta; Heidarzadeh Abtin; Farivar Khalil; Olang Beheshteh; Yngve Agneta

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The need to promote breastfeeding is unquestionable for the health and development of infants. The aim of this study was to investigate prevalence, duration and promotion of breastfeeding status in Iran with respect to the Baby Friendly Hospital, government actions and activities by the Breastfeeding Promotion Society including comparison with European countries. Methods This retrospective study is based on data from 63,071 infants less than 24 months of age in all the 30 ...

  18. Long Duration Gamma-Ray Emission From Thunderclouds

    OpenAIRE

    Kelley, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-ray glows are long duration emission coming from thunderclouds. They are one example of high-energy atmospheric physics, a relatively new field studying high-energy phenomena from thunderstorms and lightning. Glows arise from sustained relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREA). Gamma-ray instruments on the ground, balloons and airplanes have detected glows. The Airborne Detector for Energetic Lightning Emissions (ADELE) is an array of gamma-ray detectors, built at the University o...

  19. Functional Connectivity Homogeneity Correlates with Duration of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Haneef, Zulfi; Chiang, Sharon; Yeh, Hsiang J.; Engel, Jerome; Stern, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) often is associated with progressive changes to seizures, memory, and mood during its clinical course. However, the cerebral changes related to this progression are not well understood. Because the changes may be related to changes in brain networks, we used functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) to determine whether brain network parameters relate to the duration of TLE. Graph theory based analysis of the sites of reported regions of TLE abnormality, was performed o...

  20. Insomnia with Short Sleep Duration: Nosological, Diagnostic, and Treatment Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of insomnia is based solely on subjective complaints. This has contributed to the low reliability and validity of the current nosology of insomnia as well as to its lack of firm association with clinically relevant outcomes such as cardiometabolic and neurocognitive morbidity. We review evidence that insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with physiological hyperarousal, higher risk for hypertension, diabetes, neurocognitive impairment, and mortality as well ...