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Ballester Pla, Coralio
2012-03-01
Full Text Available The observation of the actual behavior by economic decision makers in the lab and in the field justifies that bounded rationality has been a generally accepted assumption in many socio-economic models. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the difficulties involved in providing a correct definition of what a rational (or irrational agent is. In this paper we describe two frameworks that employ different approaches for analyzing bounded rationality. The first is a spatial segregation set-up that encompasses two optimization methodologies: backward induction and forward induction. The main result is that, even under the same state of knowledge, rational and non-rational agents may match their actions. The second framework elaborates on the relationship between irrationality and informational restrictions. We use the beauty contest (Nagel, 1995 as a device to explain this relationship.
La observación del comportamiento de los agentes económicos tanto en el laboratorio como en la vida real justifica que la racionalidad acotada sea un supuesto aceptado en numerosos modelos socio-económicos. El objetivo de este artículo es ilustrar las dificultades que conlleva una correcta definición de qué es un agente racional (irracional. En este artículo se describen dos marcos que emplean diferentes metodologías para analizar la racionalidad acotada. El primero es un modelo de segregación espacial donde se contrastan dos metodologías de optimización: inducción hacia atrás y hacia adelante. El resultado principal es que, incluso con el mismo nivel de conocimiento, tanto agentes racionales como irracionales podrían coincidir en sus acciones. El segundo marco trabaja sobre la relación entre irracionalidad y restricción de información. Se utiliza el juego llamado “beauty contest” (Nagel 1995 como mecanismo para explicar dicha relación.
Information, Utility & Bounded Rationality
Ortega, Pedro A
2011-01-01
Perfectly rational decision-makers maximize expected utility, but crucially ignore the resource costs incurred when determining optimal actions. Here we employ an axiomatic framework for bounded rational decision-making based on a thermodynamic interpretation of resource costs as information costs. This leads to a variational "free utility" principle akin to thermodynamical free energy that trades off utility and information costs. We show that bounded optimal control solutions can be derived from this variational principle, which leads in general to stochastic policies. Furthermore, we show that risk-sensitive and robust (minimax) control schemes fall out naturally from this framework if the environment is considered as a bounded rational and perfectly rational opponent, respectively. When resource costs are ignored, the maximum expected utility principle is recovered.
Lehmann-Waffenschmidt, Marco; Sandri, Serena
2007-01-01
This study aims at the analysis of the possible self-referential effects of economic theories and models on its own subject and of the mechanisms through which bounded rational actors perceive the self-referential nature of economic theories and might absorb their prescriptions. Thus, the focus of the present study will be on the effects of economic theories on the behaviour of the analyzed economic actors. The analysis of the possible causal role of theories on bounded rational economic beha...
Kahneman, Daniel
2002-01-01
The work cited by the Nobel committee was done jointly with the late Amos Tversky (1937-1996) during a long and unusually close collaboration. Together, we explored the psychology of intuitive beliefs and choices and examined their bounded rationality. This essay presents a current perspective on the three major topics of our joint work: heuristics of judgment, risky choice, and framing effects. In all three domains we studied intuitions - thoughts and preferences that come to mind quickly an...
Bounded Rationality in Transposition Processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vollaard, Hans; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg
2014-01-01
that concerns the organisation and financing of national healthcare systems. This article applies the perspective of bounded rationality to explain (irregularities in) the timely and correct transposition of EU directives. The cognitive and organisational constraints long posited by the bounded rationality...... perspective may affect the commonly employed explanatory factors of administrative capacities, misfit and the heterogeneity of preferences among veto players. To prevent retrospective rationalisation of the transposition process, this paper traces this process as it unfolded in Denmark and the Netherlands....... As bounded rationality is apparent in the transposition processes in these relatively well-organised countries, future transposition studies should devote greater consideration to the bounded rationality perspective....
Bounded Rationality, Retaliation, and the Spread of Urban Violence
Jacobs, Bruce A.; Wright, Richard
2010-01-01
Drawing from in-depth interviews with 52 active street criminals, this article examines the grounded theoretic implications of bounded rationality for retaliatory street violence. The bounds on rationality that this article explores are anger, uncertainty, and time pressure. These bounds create imperfections in the retaliatory decision-making…
Bounded rationality and heterogeneous expectations in macroeconomics
D. Massaro
2012-01-01
This thesis studies the effect of individual bounded rationality on aggregate macroeconomic dynamics. Boundedly rational agents are specified as using simple heuristics in their decision making. An important aspect of the type of bounded rationality described in this thesis is that the population of
Bounded rationality and learning in market competition
Tuinstra, J.; Hommes, C.H.; Kopányi, D.
2015-01-01
This thesis promotes the use of bounded rationality in economic models. The assumption of perfect rationality often imposes high informational and computational burden on economic agents and predictions based on this assumption are not in line with observed behavior in some cases. Models of bounded rationality may better explain actual behavior in such situations. In the thesis we consider market models where firms are boundedly rational: they do not know the demand for their product and they...
Consumer choice and revealed bounded rationality
Manzini, Paola; Mariotti, Marco
2006-01-01
We study two boundedly rational procedures in consumer behavior. We show that these procedures can be detected by conditions on observable demand data of the same type as standard revealed preference axioms. This provides the basis for a non-parametric analysis of boundedly rational consumer behavior mirroring the classical one for utility maximization.
The neural basis of bounded rational behavior
Coricelli, Giorgio; Nagel, Rosemarie
2010-01-01
Bounded rational behaviour is commonly observed in experimental games and in real life situations. Neuroeconomics can help to understand the mental processing underlying bounded rationality and out-of-equilibrium behaviour. Here we report results from recent studies on the neural basis of limited steps of reasoning in a competitive setting —the beauty contest game. We use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the neural correlates of human mental processes in strategic games. ...
Bounded Rationality of Generalized Abstract Fuzzy Economies
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Lei Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available By using a nonlinear scalarization technique, the bounded rationality model M for generalized abstract fuzzy economies in finite continuous spaces is established. Furthermore, by using the model M, some new theorems for structural stability and robustness to (λ,ϵ-equilibria of generalized abstract fuzzy economies are proved.
Oligopolistic Banks, Bounded Rationality, and the Credit Cycle
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Tobias F. Rötheli
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper studies how boundedly rational default expectations affect the credit cycle. I propose a simple model of oligopolistic bank competition which serves to compare situations with just a portion of boundedly rational banks to situations where either all banks are rational or all banks are boundedly rational. When all banks are boundedly rational, the credit cycle is most amplified relative to the situation where all banks are rational. However, the amplifying effect of bounded rationality on the side of banks largely remains even when only a portion of banks are boundedly rational. Hence, the interest rate decisions of a minority of boundedly rational banks induce the more rational competitors to aggravate the credit cycle.
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Ana Paula Ribeiro Bonilauri Ferreira
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the reasoning mechanisms used by physicians in decision-making and how this compares to diagnostic clinical practice guidelines. We explored the clinical reasoning process in a real life environment. METHOD: This is a qualitative study evaluating transcriptions of sixteen physicians' reasoning during appointments with patients, clinical discussions between specialists, and personal interviews with physicians affiliated to a hospital in Brazil. RESULTS: FOUR MAIN THEMES WERE IDENTIFIED: simple and robust heuristics, extensive use of social environment rationality, attempts to prove diagnostic and therapeutic hypothesis while refuting potential contradictions using positive test strategy, and reaching the saturation point. Physicians constantly attempted to prove their initial hypothesis while trying to refute any contradictions. While social environment rationality was the main factor in the determination of all steps of the clinical reasoning process, factors such as referral letters and number of contradictions associated with the initial hypothesis had influence on physicians' confidence and determination of the threshold to reach a final decision. DISCUSSION: Physicians rely on simple heuristics associated with environmental factors. This model allows for robustness, simplicity, and cognitive energy saving. Since this model does not fit into current diagnostic clinical practice guidelines, we make some propositions to help its integration.
Of Models and Machines: Implementing Bounded Rationality.
Dick, Stephanie
2015-09-01
This essay explores the early history of Herbert Simon's principle of bounded rationality in the context of his Artificial Intelligence research in the mid 1950s. It focuses in particular on how Simon and his colleagues at the RAND Corporation translated a model of human reasoning into a computer program, the Logic Theory Machine. They were motivated by a belief that computers and minds were the same kind of thing--namely, information-processing systems. The Logic Theory Machine program was a model of how people solved problems in elementary mathematical logic. However, in making this model actually run on their 1950s computer, the JOHNNIAC, Simon and his colleagues had to navigate many obstacles and material constraints quite foreign to the human experience of logic. They crafted new tools and engaged in new practices that accommodated the affordances of their machine, rather than reflecting the character of human cognition and its bounds. The essay argues that tracking this implementation effort shows that "internal" cognitive practices and "external" tools and materials are not so easily separated as they are in Simon's principle of bounded rationality--the latter often shaping the dynamics of the former. PMID:26685521
Valuation models and Simon's bounded rationality
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Alexandra Strommer de Farias Godoi
2009-09-01
Full Text Available This paper aims at reconciling the evidence that sophisticated valuation models are increasingly used by companies in their investment appraisal with the literature of bounded rationality, according to which objective optimization is impracticable in the real world because it would demand an immense level of sophistication of the analytical and computational processes of human beings. We show how normative valuation models should rather be viewed as forms of reality representation, frameworks according to which the real world is perceived, fragmented for a better understanding, and recomposed, providing an orderly method for undertaking a task as complex as the investment decision.
Bounded Rationality and Tacit Knowledge in the Organizational Capabilities Approach
Foss, Nikolaj J.
2004-01-01
The famous three chapters in Nelson and Winter (1982) that focus on firm routines and capabilities are often taken to be solidly founded on an assumption of bounded rationality. I argue that, in actuality, bounded rationality plays a rather limited role in Nelson and Winter (1982), that the very different assumption of tacit knowledge is much more central, and that the links between bounded rationality and routines/capabilities are not clear. I then argue that the absence in Nelson and Winter...
The neural basis of bounded rational behavior
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Coricelli, Giorgio
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Bounded rational behaviour is commonly observed in experimental games and in real life situations. Neuroeconomics can help to understand the mental processing underlying bounded rationality and out-of-equilibrium behaviour. Here we report results from recent studies on the neural basis of limited steps of reasoning in a competitive setting —the beauty contest game. We use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to study the neural correlates of human mental processes in strategic games. We apply a cognitive hierarchy model to classify subject’s choices in the experimental game according to the degree of strategic reasoning so that we can identify the neural substrates of different levels of strategizing. We found a correlation between levels of strategic reasoning and activity in a neural network related to mentalizing, i.e. the ability to think about other’s thoughts and mental states. Moreover, brain data showed how complex cognitive processes subserve the higher level of reasoning about others. We describe how a cognitive hierarchy model fits both behavioural and brain data.
La racionalidad limitada es un fenómeno observado de manera frecuente tanto en juegos experimentales como en situaciones cotidianas. La Neuroeconomía puede mejorar la comprensión de los procesos mentales que caracterizan la racionalidad limitada; en paralelo nos puede ayudar a comprender comportamientos que violan el equilibrio. Nuestro trabajo presenta resultados recientes sobre la bases neuronales del razonamiento estratégico (y sus límite en juegos competitivos —como el juego del “beauty contest”. Estudiamos las bases neuronales del comportamiento estratégico en juegos con interacción entre sujetos usando resonancia magnética funcional (fMRI. Las decisiones de los participantes se clasifican acorde al grado de razonamiento estratégico: el llamado modelo de Jerarquías Cognitivas. Los resultados muestran una correlación entre niveles de
Lying for the Greater Good: Bounded Rationality in a Team
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Oktay Sürücü
2014-10-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the interaction between fully and boundedly rational agents in situations where their interests are perfectly aligned. The cognitive limitations of the boundedly rational agent do not allow him to fully understand the market conditions and lead him to take non-optimal decisions in some situations. Using categorization to model bounded rationality, we show that the fully rational agent can nudge, i.e., he can manipulate the information he sends and decrease the expected loss caused by the boundedly rational agent. Assuming different types for the boundedly rational agent, who differ only in the categories used, we show that the fully rational agent may learn the type of the boundedly rational agent along their interaction. Using this additional information, the outcome can be improved and the amount of manipulated information can be decreased. Furthermore, as the length of the interaction increases the probability that the fully rational agent learns the type of the boundedly rational agent grows
Research on Bounded Rationality of Fuzzy Choice Functions
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Xinlin Wu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The rationality of a fuzzy choice function is a hot research topic in the study of fuzzy choice functions. In this paper, two common fuzzy sets are studied and analyzed in the framework of the Banerjee choice function. The complete rationality and bounded rationality of fuzzy choice functions are defined based on the two fuzzy sets. An assumption is presented to study the fuzzy choice function, and especially the fuzzy choice function with bounded rationality is studied combined with some rationality conditions. Results show that the fuzzy choice function with bounded rationality also satisfies some important rationality conditions, but not vice versa. The research gives supplements to the investigation in the framework of the Banerjee choice function.
Analysis of Price Stackelberg Duopoly Game with Bounded Rationality
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Lian Shi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The classical Stackelberg game is extended to boundedly rational price Stackelberg game, and the dynamic duopoly game model is described in detail. By using the theory of bifurcation of dynamical systems, the existence and stability of the equilibrium points of this model are studied. And some comparisons with Bertrand game with bounded rationality are also performed. Stable region, bifurcation diagram, The Largest Lyapunov exponent, strange attractor, and sensitive dependence on initial conditions are used to show complex dynamic behavior. The results of theoretical and numerical analysis show that the stability of the price Stackelberg duopoly game with boundedly rational players is only relevant to the speed of price adjustment of the leader and not relevant to the follower’s. This is different from the classical Cournot and Bertrand duopoly game with bounded rationality. And the speed of price adjustment of the boundedly rational leader has a destabilizing effect on this model.
Bounding the number of rational places using Weierstrass semigroups
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Geil, Hans Olav; Matsumoto, Ryutaroh
2007-01-01
Let Lambda be a numerical semigroup. Assume there exists an algebraic function field over Fq in one variable which possesses a rational place that has Lambda as its Weierstrass semigroup. We ask the question as to how many rational places such a function field can possibly have and we derive...... an upper bound in terms of the generators of Lambda and q. Our bound is an improvement to Lewittes' bound in [6] which takes into account only the multiplicity of Lambda and q. From the new bound we derive significant improvements to Serre's upper bound in the cases q = 2, 3 and 4. We finally show...
Quantifying Bounded Rationality: Managerial Behaviour and the Smith Predictor
Riddalls, C.E.; Bennett, S.
2001-01-01
The concept of bounded rationality in decision making and research on its relegation to aggregate system dynamics is examined. By recasting one such example of a dynamic system, the Beer Game, as a Smith predictor control system is derived. A stability analysis is then employed to support the and qualify the assertion that the level of bounded rationality can adversely affect the aggregate dynamic behaviour of such supply chains. The analytical basis of these calculations enables the qualific...
From Bounded Rationality to Behavioral Economics
Massimo Egidi
2005-01-01
The paper provides an brief overview of the “state of the art” in the theory of rational decision making since the 1950’s, and focuses specially on the evolutionary justification of rationality. It is claimed that this justification, and more generally the economic methodology inherited from the Chicago school, becomes untenable once taking into account Kauffman’s Nk model, showing that if evolution it is based on trial-and-error search process, it leads generally to sub- optimal stable solut...
The Economics of Bounded Rationality, Entrepreneurship and Institutional Evolution
Day, Richard H.
1989-01-01
Bounded rationality provides a fundamental economic explanation for non-rational modes of behavior. These non-rational modes underlie both the erratic perturbations of entrepreneurship and the systematic waves of diffusion they initiate which in turn guarantee that the economy operates out of equilibrium. Continuing adjustments out of equilibrium are made possible by financial intermediation. They imply asymmetric changes in individual welfare. The markets for entrepreneurship, ownership and ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Geil, Hans Olav; Matsumoto, Ryutaroh
2009-01-01
We present a new bound on the number of Fq -rational places in an algebraic function field. It uses information about the generators of the Weierstrass semigroup related to a rational place. As we demonstrate, the bound has implications to the theory of towers of function fields....
Bounded rationality alters the dynamics of paediatric immunization acceptance.
Oraby, Tamer; Bauch, Chris T
2015-06-02
Interactions between disease dynamics and vaccinating behavior have been explored in many coupled behavior-disease models. Cognitive effects such as risk perception, framing, and subjective probabilities of adverse events can be important determinants of the vaccinating behaviour, and represent departures from the pure "rational" decision model that are often described as "bounded rationality". However, the impact of such cognitive effects in the context of paediatric infectious disease vaccines has received relatively little attention. Here, we develop a disease-behavior model that accounts for bounded rationality through prospect theory. We analyze the model and compare its predictions to a reduced model that lacks bounded rationality. We find that, in general, introducing bounded rationality increases the dynamical richness of the model and makes it harder to eliminate a paediatric infectious disease. In contrast, in other cases, a low cost, highly efficacious vaccine can be refused, even when the rational decision model predicts acceptance. Injunctive social norms can prevent vaccine refusal, if vaccine acceptance is sufficiently high in the beginning of the vaccination campaign. Cognitive processes can have major impacts on the predictions of behaviour-disease models, and further study of such processes in the context of vaccination is thus warranted.
Information-Theoretic Bounded Rationality and ε-Optimality
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Daniel A. Braun
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Bounded rationality concerns the study of decision makers with limited information processing resources. Previously, the free energy difference functional has been suggested to model bounded rational decision making, as it provides a natural trade-off between an energy or utility function that is to be optimized and information processing costs that are measured by entropic search costs. The main question of this article is how the information-theoretic free energy model relates to simple ε-optimality models of bounded rational decision making, where the decision maker is satisfied with any action in an ε-neighborhood of the optimal utility. We find that the stochastic policies that optimize the free energy trade-off comply with the notion of ε-optimality. Moreover, this optimality criterion even holds when the environment is adversarial. We conclude that the study of bounded rationality based on ε-optimality criteria that abstract away from the particulars of the information processing constraints is compatible with the information-theoretic free energy model of bounded rationality.
The bounded rationality of the educational choices
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Simone Digennaro
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Nowadays, models adopted by the educational systems met with rigidities and doctrinal axioms that are limiting the efficacy of the interventions. This is due to a reduced capacity of adaptability to the reality. There is the tendency to apply a cage of false rationality, in which objectives, times, tools, etc. are defined with rigidity – often dogmatically supported – with the risk to level out the educational activity, without directly acting on the specific features of each individual and on the specific aspects that characterize one context from another. This is one of the main issue that the education is regarded to address today. It is also a topic that needs to be analysed since represents an important viaticum for lines of reasoning concerning the policies to be developed and the changes that might emerge in the educational praxis and in the long-term strategic and political decisions.
The dynamics of Bertrand model with bounded rationality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang Jixiang [School of Economics and Management, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211189 (China)], E-mail: zhang_jixiang@126.com; Da Qingli [School of Economics and Management, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211189 (China); Wang Yanhua [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Min Hang, Shanghai 200240 (China)
2009-03-15
The paper considers a Bertrand model with bounded rational. A duopoly game is modelled by two nonlinear difference equations. By using the theory of bifurcations of dynamical systems, the existence and stability for the equilibria of this system are obtained. Numerical simulations used to show bifurcations diagrams, phase portraits for various parameters and sensitive dependence on initial conditions. We observe that an increase of the speed of adjustment of bounded rational player may change the stability of Nash equilibrium point and cause bifurcation and chaos to occur. The analysis and results in this paper are interesting in mathematics and economics.
Bounded Rationality and the Diffusion of Modern Investment Treaties
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Skovgaard Poulsen, Lauge
2014-01-01
insights on cognitive heuristics. In line with recent work on policy diffusion, it suggests that a bounded rationality framework has considerable potential to explain why, and how, developing countries have adopted modern investment treaties. To illustrate the potential of this approach, the case of South...
Foundations of Boundedly Rational Choice and Satisficing Decisions
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K. Vela Velupillai
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Formally, the orthodox rational agent's “Olympian” choices, as Simon has called orthodox rational choice, are made in a static framework. However, a formalization of consistent choice, underpinned by computability, suggests by, satisficing in a boundedly rational framework is not only more general than the model of “Olympian” rationality, it is also consistently dynamic. This kind of naturally process-oriented approach to the formalization of consistent choice can be interpreted and encapsulated within the framework of decision problems—in the formal sense of metamathematics and mathematical logic—which, in turn, is the natural way of formalizing the notion of Human Problem Solving in the Newell-Simon sense.
Person perception and the bounded rationality of social judgment.
Wright, J C; Dawson, V L
1988-11-01
In this article, we develop a bounded rationality view of the relation between person perception and social behavior. Two theses of this approach are that behaviors vary in their significance to observers, and that observers pursue bounded rather than global utility in forming personality impressions. Observers are expected to be sensitive to targets' overall behavioral tendencies and to the variability of their behavior across situations, but both sensitivities are bounded, being greater for behaviors that directly affect observers' outcomes. In two investigations involving extensive hourly and 6-s observations, we examined the bounded utility of people's impressions of personality, demonstrating how impression accuracy is linked to the significance of behaviors. Observers were sensitive to the organization of aggressive behaviors, but less sensitive to the organization of withdrawn behaviors, even when the consistency of those behaviors was comparable. The results clarify the relation between people's inferential shortcomings in laboratory paradigms and the bounded utility of person perception in the natural environment.
Person perception and the bounded rationality of social judgment.
Wright, J C; Dawson, V L
1988-11-01
In this article, we develop a bounded rationality view of the relation between person perception and social behavior. Two theses of this approach are that behaviors vary in their significance to observers, and that observers pursue bounded rather than global utility in forming personality impressions. Observers are expected to be sensitive to targets' overall behavioral tendencies and to the variability of their behavior across situations, but both sensitivities are bounded, being greater for behaviors that directly affect observers' outcomes. In two investigations involving extensive hourly and 6-s observations, we examined the bounded utility of people's impressions of personality, demonstrating how impression accuracy is linked to the significance of behaviors. Observers were sensitive to the organization of aggressive behaviors, but less sensitive to the organization of withdrawn behaviors, even when the consistency of those behaviors was comparable. The results clarify the relation between people's inferential shortcomings in laboratory paradigms and the bounded utility of person perception in the natural environment. PMID:3210145
Organizational Coordination and Costly Communication with Boundedly Rational Agents
Dietrichson, Jens; Jochem, Torsten
2014-01-01
How does costly communication affect organizational coordination? This paper develops a model of costly communication based on the weakest-link game and boundedly rational agents. Solving for the stochastically stable states, we find that communication increases the possibilities for efficient coordination compared to a setting where agents cannot communicate. But as agents face a trade-off between lowering the strategic uncertainty for the group and the costs of communication, the least effi...
Comparable stocks, boundedly rational stock markets and IPO entry rates.
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Jay Chok
Full Text Available In this study, we examine how initial public offerings (IPO entry rates are affected when stock markets are boundedly rational and IPO firms infer information from their counterparts in the market. We hypothesize a curvilinear relationship between the number of comparable stocks and initial public offerings (IPO entry rates into the NASDAQ Stock Exchange. Furthermore, we argue that trading volume and changes in stock returns partially mediates the relationship between the number of comparable stocks and IPO entry rates. The statistical evidence provides strong support for the hypotheses.
Focus: Bounded Rationality and the History of Science. Introduction.
Cowles, Henry M; Deringer, William; Dick, Stephanie; Webster, Colin
2015-09-01
Historians of science see knowledge and its claimants as constrained by myriad factors. These limitations range from the assumptions and commitments of scientific practitioners to the material and ideational contexts of their practice. The precise nature of such limits and the relations among them remains an open question in the history of science. The essays in this Focus section address this question by examining one influential portrayal of constraints--Herbert Simon's theory of "bounded rationality"--as well as the responses to which it has given rise over the last half century.
A heterogeneous boundedly rational expectation model for housing market
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Andrew Y. T. LEUNG; Jia-na XU; Wing Shum TSUI
2009-01-01
This research aims to test the housing price dynamics when considering heterogeneous boundedly rational expectations such as naive expectation, adaptive expectation and biased belief. The housing market is investigated as an evolutionary system with heterogeneous and competing expectations. The results show that the dynamics of the expected housing price varies substantially when heterogeneous expectations are considered together with some other endogenous factors. Simulation results explain some stylized phenomena such as equilibrium or oscillation, convergence or divergence, and over-shooting or under-shooting. Furthermore, the results suggest that variation of the proportion of groups of agents is basically dependent on the selected strategies. It also indicates that control policies should be chosen carefully in consistence with a unique real estate market during a unique period since certain parameter portfolio may increase or suppress oscillation.
Bounded rational expectations and the stability of interest rate policy
Gomes, Orlando; Mendes, Diana A.; Mendes, Vivaldo M.
2008-06-01
The New Keynesian model has recently been subject to two serious criticisms: the model cannot produce plausible inflation and output dynamics following a monetary shock, and the stability of its dynamics suffers from indeterminacy. The procedures that have been proposed to eliminate these two shortcomings fall into two categories: the introduction of some sort of backward price indexation into the standard model and/or other forms of stickiness (like sticky information); and the adoption of some form of policy rule that completely offsets the effects of forward looking dynamics in the optimization process. In this paper we do not eradicate forward looking behavior from the dynamics of the New Keynesian model, neither do we impose some form of backward price indexation. We assume that private economic agents have forward looking behavior and that they do try to optimize with all available information; the only novelty is that they are allowed to make small mistakes near the rational expectations equilibrium, in a fully deterministic setup. These “near rational” or “bounded rational” expectations show that the dynamics of the model with active interest rate rules is much richer than the simple problem of local indeterminacy as is usually found in the literature.
Distribution of rational points of bounded height on equivariant compactifications of PGL 2 I
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Takloo-Bighash, Ramin; Tanimoto, Sho
2016-01-01
We study the distribution of rational points of bounded height on a one-sided equivariant compactification of PGL2 using automorphic representation theory of PGL2.......We study the distribution of rational points of bounded height on a one-sided equivariant compactification of PGL2 using automorphic representation theory of PGL2....
Bounded Rationality, Emotions and Older Adult Decision Making: Not so Fast and yet so Frugal
Hanoch, Yaniv; Wood, Stacey; Rice, Thomas
2007-01-01
Herbert Simon's work on bounded rationality has had little impact on researchers studying older adults' decision making. This omission is surprising, as human constraints on computation and memory are exacerbated in older adults. The study of older adults' decision-making processes could benefit from employing a bounded rationality perspective,…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Previous studies discussing cooperation employ the best decision that every player knows all information regarding the payoff matrix and selects the strategy of the highest payoff. Therefore, they do not discuss cooperation based on the altruistic decision with limited information (bounded rational altruistic decision). In addition, they do not cover the case where every player can submit his/her strategy several times in a match of the game. This paper is based on Ohdaira's reconsideration of the bounded rational altruistic decision, and also employs the framework of the prisoner's dilemma game (PDG) with sequential strategy. The distinction between this study and the Ohdaira's reconsideration is that the former covers the model of multiple groups, but the latter deals with the model of only two groups. Ohdaira's reconsideration shows that the bounded rational altruistic decision facilitates much more cooperation in the PDG with sequential strategy than Ohdaira and Terano's bounded rational second-best decision does. However, the detail of cooperation of multiple groups based on the bounded rational altruistic decision has not been resolved yet. This study, therefore, shows how randomness in the network composed of multiple groups affects the increase of the average frequency of mutual cooperation (cooperation between groups) based on the bounded rational altruistic decision of multiple groups. We also discuss the results of the model in comparison with related studies which employ the best decision. (paper)
Computational and Game-Theoretic Approaches for Modeling Bounded Rationality
L. Waltman (Ludo)
2011-01-01
textabstractThis thesis studies various computational and game-theoretic approaches to economic modeling. Unlike traditional approaches to economic modeling, the approaches studied in this thesis do not rely on the assumption that economic agents behave in a fully rational way. Instead, economic age
Tang, Tie-Qiao; Luo, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Kai
2016-09-01
The driver's bounded rationality has significant influences on the micro driving behavior and researchers proposed some traffic flow models with the driver's bounded rationality. However, little effort has been made to explore the effects of the driver's bounded rationality on the trip cost. In this paper, we use our recently proposed car-following model to study the effects of the driver's bounded rationality on his running cost and the system's total cost under three traffic running costs. The numerical results show that considering the driver's bounded rationality will enhance his each running cost and the system's total cost under the three traffic running costs.
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Roberta Muramatsu
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Behavioral economics has addressed interesting positive and normative questions underlying the standard rational choice theory. More recently, it suggests that, in a real world of boundedly rational agents, economists could help people to improve the quality of their choices without any harm to autonomy and freedom of choice. This paper aims to scrutinize available arguments for and against current proposals of light paternalistic interventions mainly in the domain of intertemporal choice. It argues that incorporating the notion of bounded rationality in economic analysis and empirical findings of cognitive biases and self-control problems cannot make an indisputable case for paternalism.
Hodograph computation and bound estimation for rational B-spline curves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
It is necessary to compute the derivative and estimate the bound of rational B-spline curves in design system, which has not been studied to date. To improve the function of computer aided design (CAD) system, and to enhance the efficiency of different algorithms of rational B-spline curves, the representation of scaled hodograph and bound of derivative magnitude of uniform planar rational B-spline curves are derived by applying Dir function, which indicates the direction of Cartesian vector between homogeneous points, discrete B-spline theory and the formula of translating the product into a summation of B-spline functions. As an application of the result above,upper bound of parametric distance between any two points in a uniform planar rational B-spline curve is further presented.
Upper Bounds on Character Sums with Rational Function Entries
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Todd COCHRANE; Chun Lei LIU; Zhi Yong ZHENG
2003-01-01
We obtain formulae and estimates for character sums of the type (x, f,P )=∑pmx=1x(f(x)),where pm is a prime power with m ≥ 2, x is a mnultiplicative character (mod pm), and f ＝ f1/f2 is a rational function over Z. In particular, ifp is odd, d ＝ deg(f1)+deg(f2) and d* = max(deg(f1), deg(f2)) then we obtain |S(x, f, pm)|≤ (d- 1)pm(1 -1/dx) for any non-constant f (mod p) and primitive character x. For p ＝ 2 an extra factor of 2√2 is needed.
Social Rationality as a Unified Model of Man (Including Bounded Rationality)
Lindenberg, Siegwart
2001-01-01
In 1957, Simon published a collection of his essays under the title of “Models of Man: Social and Rational”. In the preface, he explains the choice for this title: All of the essays “are concerned with laying foundations for a science of man that will comfortably accommodate his dual nature as a social and as a rational animal.” (p. vii) Observe that the title of the book refers to two models of man, one social and one rational. Throughout his life, Simon kept contributing to this science of ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xujin Pu
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Market competition creates strategic incentives for firms to communicate private information about their own product quality through certification. Although voluntary certification has recently gained importance in the agricultural industry, information asymmetry is not always completely addressed. This study analyzes how the relative proportion of boundedly rational consumers in the market influences the effectiveness of voluntary certification mechanisms by using a duopoly game model of high- and low-quality firms. The presented results show that a change in the proportion of boundedly rational consumers leads to different certification behaviors and a different market equilibrium. We also find that the existence of boundedly rational consumers is an important factor in the failure of voluntary certification. Indeed, when the relative proportion of such consumers is very high, voluntary certification is ineffective at improving market efficiency.
Information Theory - The Bridge Connecting Bounded Rational Game Theory and Statistical Physics
Wolpert, David H.
2005-01-01
A long-running difficulty with conventional game theory has been how to modify it to accommodate the bounded rationality of all red-world players. A recurring issue in statistical physics is how best to approximate joint probability distributions with decoupled (and therefore far more tractable) distributions. This paper shows that the same information theoretic mathematical structure, known as Product Distribution (PD) theory, addresses both issues. In this, PD theory not only provides a principle formulation of bounded rationality and a set of new types of mean field theory in statistical physics; it also shows that those topics are fundamentally one and the same.
Boundedly rational learning and heterogeneous trading strategies with hybrid neuro-fuzzy models
S.D. Bekiros
2009-01-01
The present study deals with heterogeneous learning rules in speculative markets where heuristic strategies reflect the rules-of-thumb of boundedly rational investors. The major challenge for "chartists" is the development of new models that would enhance forecasting ability particularly for time se
A Reward-Maximizing Spiking Neuron as a Bounded Rational Decision Maker.
Leibfried, Felix; Braun, Daniel A
2015-08-01
Rate distortion theory describes how to communicate relevant information most efficiently over a channel with limited capacity. One of the many applications of rate distortion theory is bounded rational decision making, where decision makers are modeled as information channels that transform sensory input into motor output under the constraint that their channel capacity is limited. Such a bounded rational decision maker can be thought to optimize an objective function that trades off the decision maker's utility or cumulative reward against the information processing cost measured by the mutual information between sensory input and motor output. In this study, we interpret a spiking neuron as a bounded rational decision maker that aims to maximize its expected reward under the computational constraint that the mutual information between the neuron's input and output is upper bounded. This abstract computational constraint translates into a penalization of the deviation between the neuron's instantaneous and average firing behavior. We derive a synaptic weight update rule for such a rate distortion optimizing neuron and show in simulations that the neuron efficiently extracts reward-relevant information from the input by trading off its synaptic strengths against the collected reward. PMID:26079747
A Reward-Maximizing Spiking Neuron as a Bounded Rational Decision Maker.
Leibfried, Felix; Braun, Daniel A
2015-08-01
Rate distortion theory describes how to communicate relevant information most efficiently over a channel with limited capacity. One of the many applications of rate distortion theory is bounded rational decision making, where decision makers are modeled as information channels that transform sensory input into motor output under the constraint that their channel capacity is limited. Such a bounded rational decision maker can be thought to optimize an objective function that trades off the decision maker's utility or cumulative reward against the information processing cost measured by the mutual information between sensory input and motor output. In this study, we interpret a spiking neuron as a bounded rational decision maker that aims to maximize its expected reward under the computational constraint that the mutual information between the neuron's input and output is upper bounded. This abstract computational constraint translates into a penalization of the deviation between the neuron's instantaneous and average firing behavior. We derive a synaptic weight update rule for such a rate distortion optimizing neuron and show in simulations that the neuron efficiently extracts reward-relevant information from the input by trading off its synaptic strengths against the collected reward.
Complexity of a Duopoly Game in the Electricity Market with Delayed Bounded Rationality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junhai Ma
2012-01-01
Full Text Available According to a triopoly game model in the electricity market with bounded rational players, a new Cournot duopoly game model with delayed bounded rationality is established. The model is closer to the reality of the electricity market and worth spreading in oligopoly. By using the theory of bifurcations of dynamical systems, local stable region of Nash equilibrium point is obtained. Its complex dynamics is demonstrated by means of the largest Lyapunov exponent, bifurcation diagrams, phase portraits, and fractal dimensions. Since the output adjustment speed parameters are varied, the stability of Nash equilibrium gives rise to complex dynamics such as cycles of higher order and chaos. Furthermore, by using the straight-line stabilization method, the chaos can be eliminated. This paper has an important theoretical and practical significance to the electricity market under the background of developing new energy.
Bounded Rational Managers Struggle with Talent Management - An Agent-based Modelling Approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Adamsen, Billy; Thomsen, Svend Erik
and its denotative meaning floating, we propose that bounded rational managers base their decisions on a simple heuristic, i.e. selecting and cultivating individuals so that their capabilities resemble their own capabilities the most (Adamsen 2015). We model the consequences of this talent management...... of past success will provide failure rather than success in the future (Capelli.2008). Finally, we model the talent selection process either as a collective decision making process made by a group of managers or a decision process made by a single manager.It is argued that agent-based modeling is a useful....... The considered variables were: (a) decision makers’ attributes (capabilities and degree of bounded rationality), (b) characteristics of the sample where individuals are selected from (the level of capabilities and the dispersion thereof), (c) path-dependency of the organization’s success, and (d) the decision...
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Wenjie Bi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Dynamic portfolio choice is an important problem in finance, but the optimal strategy analysis is difficult when considering multiple stochastic volatility variables such as the stock price, interest rate, and income. Besides, recent research in experimental economics indicates that the agent shows limited attention, considering only the variables with high fluctuations but ignoring those with small ones. By extending the sparse max method, we propose an approach to solve dynamic programming problem with small stochastic volatility and the agent’s bounded rationality. This approach considers the agent’s behavioral factors and avoids effectively the “Curse of Dimensionality” in a dynamic programming problem with more than a few state variables. We then apply it to Merton dynamic portfolio choice model with stochastic volatility and get a tractable solution. Finally, the numerical analysis shows that the bounded rational agent may pay no attention to the varying equity premium and interest rate with small variance.
Stability analysis in a Cournot duopoly with managerial sales delegation and bounded rationality
Fanti, Luciano; Gori, Luca
2011-01-01
The present study analyses the dynamics of a Cournot duopoly with managerial sales delegation and bounded rational players. We find that when firms’ owners hire a manager and delegate the output decisions to him, the unique Cournot-Nash equilibrium is more likely to be destabilised (through a flip bifurcation) than when firms maximise profits. Moreover, highly periodicity and deterministic chaos can also occur as the managers’ bonus increases.
Understanding Strategic Adaptation in Dual-Task Situations as Cognitively Bounded Rational Behavior
Janssen, C. P.
2012-01-01
In this thesis I explored when people interleave attention in dual-task settings. The hypothesis is that people try to perform in a cognitively bounded rational way. Performance is limited by constraints that come from the task environment and cognition. If, given these constraints, multiple strategies for interleaving tasks are available, then people will interleave tasks in a way that aligns with their local priority objective (Chapter 3), or which maximizes the value of an objective payoff...
‘Milk is Milk’: Organic Dairy Adoption Decisions and Bounded Rationality
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Caroline C. Brock
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Bounded rationality is an especially appropriate framework for organic dairy adoption decisions as it recognizes internal and external constraints which are critical in understanding complex farm decision making. Farmers use of, and access to, information is examined using interview data gathered from organic, conventional, managed graziers, and Amish dairy farmers in Southwestern Wisconsin at a time when organic milk prices offered a 50% premium over conventional prices. Focusing on certain aspects and impressions of organic dairy, such as the sentiment that “milk is milk”, may lead to information satisficing where farmers do not take full advantage of the information available to them. Organic farmer interviews reveal the challenges they faced with bounded rationality constraints and how they countered these challenges with the help of social networks, as well as how situational factors such as economic and health crises may have motivated them to adopt organic dairy. The interview data from organic and conventional farmers alike also reveals how many conventional dairy farmers utilized information strategies which did not fully consider the pros and cons of the organic system. A bounded rationality framework could enlighten policy makers and educators as they tailor sustainable agricultural policy design and information dissemination strategies to serve the diversity of farmers on the landscape.
Advances in understanding strategic behaviour game theory, experiments and bounded rationality
Huck, Steffen
2004-01-01
The first ultimatum game, conducted by Werner Güth in the late 1970s, marks a crucial point in the history of modern economics-suddenly game theory lost its innocence and there was a chasm-between the beauty and elegance of the theory on one hand and the dour facts of behaviour on the other. Since then, the economics literature has slowly started filling this gap. Evolutionary game theory, preference evolution, learning models, models of bounded rationality with and without optimization, and, of course, more and more systematic experimental evidence-all these approaches flourished, competing w
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tim eGenewein
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Abstraction and hierarchical information-processing are hallmarks of human and animal intelligence underlying the unrivaled flexibility of behavior in biological systems. Achieving such a flexibility in artificial systems is challenging, even with more and more computational power. Here we investigate the hypothesis that abstraction and hierarchical information-processing might in fact be the consequence of limitations in information-processing power. In particular, we study an information-theoretic framework of bounded rational decision-making that trades off utility maximization against information-processing costs. We apply the basic principle of this framework to perception-action systems with multiple information-processing nodes and derive bounded optimal solutions. We show how the formation of abstractions and decision-making hierarchies depends on information-processing costs. We illustrate the theoretical ideas with example simulations and conclude by formalizing a mathematically unifying optimization principle that could potentially be extended to more complex systems.
Binswanger, J.
2010-01-01
This paper develops a new life cycle model that aims to describe the savings and asset allocation choices of boundedly rational agents. In this model, agents make forward-looking decisions without the requirement of anticipating their actual future decisions. Instead, agents pursue two simple so-cal
Howes, Andrew; Lewis, Richard L.; Vera, Alonso
2009-01-01
The authors assume that individuals adapt rationally to a utility function given constraints imposed by their cognitive architecture and the local task environment. This assumption underlies a new approach to modeling and understanding cognition--cognitively bounded rational analysis--that sharpens the predictive acuity of general, integrated…
An Explication of Rational Suicide: Its Definitions, Implications, and Complications.
Maltsberger, John T.
1998-01-01
Logical analysis of arguments in favor of rational suicide reveals 11 commonly encountered premises. These premises are listed, analyzed, and discussed. The arguments of the rational suicide literature are criticized on historical and philosophical grounds. Consensus-based reasonableness is found to provide an insubstantial base for social policy.…
Econometric Explorations on Bounded Rationality: The Case of Job Changing Behavior
Contini, Bruno; Morini, Matteo
2007-01-01
In this paper we question the hypothesis of full rationality in the context of job changing behaviour, via simple econometric explorations on microdata drawn from WHIP (Worker Histories Italian Panel). A rational outcome of the job matching process implies a positive tradeoff between future wages and risk-on-the-job. The main result of this paper is that no “rational” tradeoff is observable after controlling for a variety of possible shifters. However, if we control for individual characteris...
Pharmacodynamics of nicotine: implications for rational treatment of nicotine addiction.
Benowitz, N L
1991-05-01
Rational treatment of the pharmacologic aspects of tobacco addiction includes nicotine substitution therapy. Understanding the pharmacodynamics of nicotine and its role in the addiction process provides a basis for rational therapeutic intervention. Pharmacodynamic considerations are discussed in relation to the elements of smoking cessation therapy: setting objectives, selecting appropriate medication and dosing form, selecting the optimal doses and dosage regimens, assessing therapeutic outcome, and adjusting therapy to optimize benefits and minimize risks. PMID:1859911
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Nicole D Peterson
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In fishing communities in Baja California Sur, Mexico, fisheries management is heavily influenced by models of individual economic rationality held by biologists and others involved in management, in which fishermen ′choose′ to overfish because they are motivated by selfish individual rationality. Yet there is much that is neglected by these models, including the pressures of economic markets, family and community expectations, and cultural and personal value systems. Actual decisions about fishing and resource management rarely match the expectations of classical or neoliberal economic models of individual behaviour. I argue here that rational choice theory is a historically and culturally constructed discourse that becomes a taken-for-granted lens for viewing behaviour around the world. The effects of this discourse can be seen in the policies that are derived from them, as shown through this case study.
Bounds for variable degree rational L∞ approximations to the matrix cosine
Tsitouras, Ch.; Katsikis, V. N.
2014-11-01
In this work we derive new alternatives for efficient computation of the matrix cosine which is useful when solving second order Initial Value Problems such as free vibration. We focus especially on the two classes of normal and nonnegative matrices and we present intervals of applications for rational L∞ approximations of various degrees for these types of matrices in the lines of Hargreaves and Higham (2005). Our method relies on Remez algorithm for rational approximation while the innovation here is the choice of the starting set of non-symmetrical Chebyshev points. Only one Remez iteration is then usually enough to quickly approach the actual L∞ approximant.
有限理性与KKM点集的稳定性%Bounded Rationality and Stability of KKM's Points Sets
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张德金
2011-01-01
It has been studied actively in recent years the consider the bounded rationality in the study of the stability about the solution of nonlinear problems, whose results will fit with the practical situation more easily. In this paper, the unified conclusions of stability for nonlinear problems are given first, and then, with the use of applications of the unified model, problems' metric for KKM's points problems are constricted and rationality function for KKM’s points problems are defined, to discuss the stability of solutions for KKM's points problems on the bounded rationality. It is proved that KKM's points problems are satisfied all of hypothesis conditions of the unified conclusions, we receive the conclusions of structurally stable and robust. Then, it is proved that most of KKM's points problems( in the sense of Baire category) are structurally stable and robust to ε- equilibria, finally, the stability results on KKM's points problems are given. Moreover, We assume that people only have bounded rationality in the study, so we can enlarge the application scope of the results of the KKM's points problems.%文章首先给出有限理性非线性问题的稳定性结果,然后应用统一结果对KKM点问题构造了问题空间,定义了理性函数,讨论了有限理性下KKM点问题解的稳定性.通过证明其满足统一结论的假设条件,得到了有限理性下KKM点集结构稳定性和鲁棒性结论.并证明了大多数的KKM点问题在Baire分类意义上都是结构稳定的,对ε-平衡也都是鲁棒的,得到了有限理性下KKM点集稳定性的一系列结果.并且,由于在问题研究中考虑了人们只具有有限理性的假设条件,故扩展了KKM点问题结论的应用范围.
Computation of lower derivatives of rational triangular Bézier surfaces and their bounds estimation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Lei; WANG Guo-jin
2005-01-01
By introducing the homogenous coordinates, degree elevation formulas and combinatorial identities, also by using multiplication of Bernstein polynomials and identity transformation on equations, this paper presents some explicit formulas of the derives some estimations of bound both on the direction and magnitude of the corresponding derivatives. All the results above have value not only in surface theory but also in practice.
Mild and rational synthesis of palladium complexes comprising C(4)-bound N-heterocyclic carbenes
Kluser, Evelyne; Neels, Antonia; Albrecht, Martin
2007-01-01
Oxidative addition of pyridyl-functionalised 4-iodoimidazolium salts to palladium(0) gives catalytically active complexes in which the N-heterocyclic carbene is bound to the palladium(II) centre in a non-classical bonding mode via C(4).
基于有限理性智能体的生态经济模型%The Ecological Economic Model Based on Bounded Rational Agents
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
姜继娇
2005-01-01
From the view of hominine bounded rationalities, this paper analyzes the important relationships between ecology and economics with behavioral finance. With a different focus, this paper adopts a new conceptualization of stock to show how this conceptualization leads to a new measure of the interaction between ecology and economics, based on bounded rational agents. The hierarchical structure of ecological economic system is described with a multi-agent simulation program. This paper also develops an ecological economic model, in which behavioral finance theories are applied to simulating the dynamics system. With the model, this paper confirms that macro-level indicators of sustainability are predictably influenced by behaviors of bounded rational agents at the micro-level. We discuss the significance of these findings in order to better understand the ecological-economic system based on behavioral finance.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Naimzada, Ahmad K. [Department of Economics, University of Milan, Bicocca (Italy)]. E-mail: ahmad.naimzada@unimib.it; Sbragia, Lucia [Department of Economics, University of Urbino (Italy)]. E-mail: l.sbragia@uniurb.it
2006-08-15
We consider a Cournot oligopoly game, where firms produce an homogenous good and the demand and cost functions are nonlinear. These features make the classical best reply solution difficult to be obtained, even if players have full information about their environment. We propose two different kinds of repeated games based on a lower degree of rationality of the firms, on a reduced information set and reduced computational capabilities. The first adjustment mechanism is called 'Local Monopolistic Approximation' (LMA). First firms get the correct local estimate of the demand function and then they use such estimate in a linear approximation of the demand function where the effects of the competitors' outputs are ignored. On the basis of this subjective demand function they solve their profit maximization problem. By using the second adjustment process, that belongs to a class of adaptive mechanisms known in the literature as 'Gradient Dynamics' (GD), firms do not solve any optimization problem, but they adjust their production in the direction indicated by their (correct) estimate of the marginal profit. Both these repeated games may converge to a Cournot-Nash equilibrium, i.e. to the equilibrium of the best reply dynamics. We compare the properties of the two different dynamical systems that describe the time evolution of the oligopoly games under the two adjustment mechanisms, and we analyze the conditions that lead to non-convergence and complex dynamic behaviors. The paper extends the results of other authors that consider similar adjustment processes assuming linear cost functions or linear demand functions.
Binswanger, J.
2008-01-01
This paper develops a new life cycle model that aims to describe the savings and asset allocation decisions of boundedly rational agents. The paper’s main theoretical contribution is the provision of a simple, tractable and parsimonious framework within which agents make forward looking decisions in
Modified Lyth bound and implications of BICEP2 results
Gao, Qing; Li, Tianjun
2015-01-01
To reconcile the BICEP2 measurement on the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$ with Planck constraint, a large negative running of scalar spectral index $n_s$ is needed. So the inflationary observable such as $n_s$ should be expanded at least to the second-order slow-roll parameters for single-field inflationary models. The large value of $r$ and the Lyth bound indicate that it is impossible to obtain the sub-Planckian excursion for the inflaton. However, we derive an absolutely minimal bound $\\Delta\\phi/M_{\\rm Pl}>\\sqrt{r/2}$ on the inflaton excursion for single-field inflationary models, which can be applied to non-slow-roll inflationary models as well. This bound excludes the possibility of the small-field inflation with $\\Delta\\phi<0.1 M_{\\rm Pl}$ if the BICEP2 result on $r$ stands and it opens the window of sub-Planckian excursion with $\\Delta\\phi
Boundedly rational credit cycles
S??ez, Mar??a
1996-01-01
We propose an evolutionary model of a credit market. We show that the economy exhibits credit cycles. The model predicts dynamics which are consistent with some evidence about the Great Depression. Real shocks trigger episodes of credit--crunch which are observed in the process of adjustment towards the post shock equilibrium.
有理Bézier曲线二阶导矢的界%Bound on the second derivative of rational Bézier curves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李宁
2012-01-01
The estimation of bounds on the second derivative of rational Bezier curves has important applications in CAGD. Considering the numerator and denominator of the expression of rational Bezier curves as the global respectively, the expression of derivatives of rational Bezier curves is given, according to derivative rule. As derivation to Bernstein basis function decreasing degree of it, and need of gaining better estimation, it is necessary to elevate degrees of Bernstein basis function, so as to make them equal. By a conclusion of inequality involved, the estimation of bounds on the second derivative of rational Bezier curves is obtained.%有理Bézier曲线二阶导矢界的估计在CAGD中有重要的应用.把有理Bézier曲线的分子和分母分别看成整体,按照求导法则,得到有理Bézier曲线二阶导矢的表达式.由于求导会降低Bernstein基函数的次数,鉴于获取更好的估计式的需要,对其进行必要的升阶,使Bernstein基函数的阶数一致.利用有关的不等式的结论得出有理Bézier曲线二阶导矢界的估计式.
有限理性下的进化博弈与合作机制%Evolutionary game and cooperation mechanisms based on bounded rationality
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王先甲; 刘伟兵
2011-01-01
The paper indicates that complete rationality is the basic assumption of traditional game theory and leads to limitations in dynamic game. It was pointed out that bounded rationality and replicator dynamics are the foundation of multi-person selection, and the evolutionary learning methods for improving bounded rationality and selection mechanism in dynamic game were explored. In addition, the essence of evolutionary game and evolutionary stable equilibrium was revealed and the difference between traditional game theory and evolutionary game theory was described. The problems to be studied about evolutionary game theory and cooperation mechanisms were proposed and some concerned research results under the assumption of bounded rationality were provided.%在介绍传统博弈论基本假设的基础上,指出完全理性是传统博弈论均衡选择的最基本假设和完全理性在动态博弈中的局限,提出有限理性与动态学习是动态博弈中多个智能体选择的基础；探讨了不断改善有限理性的进化学习方法和智能体选择机制；解释了进化博弈与进化稳定策略的本质；指出了传统博弈论与进化博弈论的区别；提出了有限理性下进化博弈与合作机制研究的问题,给出了有限理性下进化博弈与合作机制的研究结果.
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Ion POHOATA
2008-05-01
Full Text Available The rationality (its presence or its absence of the business, be it producer or consumer, has been a constant preoccupation of all those who dedicated their energy and talent on the sinuous road of the history of economic thinking. Without rational behaviour it was inconceivable to determine a development path. From this point of view the position of the great schools of thought is based, essentially, on two main approaches. The classics and the neoclassics had in mind the perfectly rational and well-informed individual. In reply, the institutional economy, in its old or new form (NIE, opposes to homo oeconomicus rationalis a narrow-minded and insufficiently informed homo contractualis. The consequences of this re-evaluation of the basics of the business’s potencies on the physiognomy of the theoretical approach and also on the results of practical actions are significant. Those linked to the bounded rationality hypothesis, an important operating concept in the analytical structures of NIE, may trigger debates on the theoretical basis of standard economics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carbon Rationing Action Groups (CRAGs) are grassroots voluntary groups of citizens concerned about climate change, who set themselves a carbon allowance each year and provide support to members seeking to reduce their direct carbon emissions from household energy use and personal transport. Some groups have a financial penalty for carbon emitted in excess of the ration, and systems whereby under-emitters are rewarded using the monies collected from over-emitters. CRAGs therefore operate the nearest scheme in existence to the proposed policy of Personal Carbon Trading (PCT). This paper reports the findings of a study of the opinions and experiences of individuals involved in CRAGs (‘CRAGgers’). In general, interviewees have made significant behavioural changes and emissions reductions, but many would be unwilling to sell spare carbon allowances within a national PCT system. The choices made by CRAGgers with respect to the design and operation of their ‘carbon accounting’, their experiences of reducing fossil fuel energy use, and their views on personal carbon trading at CRAG and national level are discussed. Some possible implications for PCT and other policies are considered, as well as the limitations of CRAGs in informing an understanding of the potential impacts and operation of PCT. - Highlights: ► Reports opinions and experiences of members of Carbon Rationing Action Groups (CRAGs). ► Many interviewees have made significant reductions to their carbon footprint. ► CRAGs offer insights into individuals' experiences of living with a carbon allowance. ► Most CRAGs involve highly motivated individuals and avoid trading. ► They nonetheless offer some insights into Personal Carbon Trading and other policies.
Surface Reactivity in Tropical Highly Weathered Soils and Implications for Rational Soil Management
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
R. MOREAU; J. PETARD
2004-01-01
Highly weathered soils are distributed in the humid and wet-dry tropics, as well as in the humid subtropics. As a result of strong weathering, these soils are characterized by low activity clays, which develop variable surface charge and related specific properties. Surface reactions regarding base exchange and soil acidification, heavy metal sorption and mobility, and phosphorus sorption and availability of the tropical highly weathered soils are reviewed in this paper.Factors controlling surface reactivity towards cations and anions, including ion exchange and specific adsorption processes, are discussed with consideration on practical implications for rational management of these soils. Organic matter content and pH value are major basic factors that should be controlled through appropriate agricultural practices, in order to optimise favorable effects of colloid surface properties on soil fertility and environmental quality.
媒体对有限理性投资者投资行为的影响研究%Media's Influence on Bounded Rational Investors
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邹亚宝
2012-01-01
News media has played an important role in the investment of securities. It will produce an effect on the behaviors of investors and therefore influence the assets price. Because of the invalid China's securities markets and the imperfection of investors, such as bounded rational and the psychology of investors, news media may influence the behaviors of investors. The accuracy of news, media authority, news releasing time, rate of its publishment duration may influence investors. To recognize the effect of media will help investors to invest rationally, this paper will be based on the assumption of bounded rational investors and discuss the effect of news media and finally put forward some proposals.%新闻媒体对证券市场的影响越来越大，它会通过影响投资者的行为而影响资产价格。由于我国证券市场并不是强有效市场，加之投资者自身的缺陷，比如投资者有限理性及投资者心理等因素，媒体就可能影响投资者的投资行为。新闻的准确性及来源媒体的权威性、新闻的发布时段以及媒体报道新闻的频率和持久性都会对投资者的行为产生影响。认识到媒体对投资者行为的不同影响，有利于投资者更好地把握新闻，进行理性的投资。
基于有限理性的交通方式划分模型%Traffic modal split model based on bounded rationality
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
左志; 潘晓锋
2014-01-01
An improved traffic modal split model is proposed considering travelers' bounded rationality.The weights of influence factors to mode choice and the evaluations of traffic modes against each factor are defined through a questionnaire survey.The value of each traffic mode is calculated by TODIM method.A Probit model of traffic mode choice is proposed on the basis of bounded rationality. The impact of parameters' change of the model on traffic modal split is discussed.Comparing working and shopping,the influence of different travel purposes on mode choice is analyzed.Experimental results show that the traffic modal split model based on bounded rationality can reflect travelers' preference of mode choice under different travel purposes.The parameterθrepresents travelers'cognition level,and in this modelθshould be valued in (0,2).%考虑出行者有限理性的特点,建立改进的交通方式划分模型。通过问卷调查,确定出行者方式选择各影响因素的权重,以及各交通方式在不同因素下的表现；运用 TODIM方法,计算各交通方式的价值；基于有限理性,建立交通方式选择 Probit 模型；讨论模型中参数变化对交通方式划分的影响；对比上班和购物出行,分析不同出行目的对方式选择的影响。研究表明,基于有限理性的交通方式划分模型能够体现不同出行目的下出行者出行方式选择偏好；参数θ体现出行者的认知程度,在该模型里应在(0,2)中取值。
Beckman, J. E.; Rozas, M.; Zurita, A.; Watson, R. A.; Knapen, J. H.
2000-01-01
In this paper we present evidence that the H II regions of high luminosity in disk galaxies may be density bounded, so that a significant fraction of the ionizing photons emitted by their exciting OB stars escape from the regions. The key piece of evidence is the presence, in the Ha luminosity functions (LFs) of the populations of H iI regions, of glitches, local sharp peaks at an apparently invariant luminosity, defined as the Stromgren luminosity Lstr), LH(sub alpha) = Lstr = 10(sup 38.6) (+/- 10(sup 0.1)) erg/ s (no other peaks are found in any of the LFs) accompanying a steepening of slope for LH(sub alpha) greater than Lstr This behavior is readily explicable via a physical model whose basic premises are: (a) the transition at LH(sub alpha) = Lstr marks a change from essentially ionization bounding at low luminosities to density bounding at higher values, (b) for this to occur the law relating stellar mass in massive star-forming clouds to the mass of the placental cloud must be such that the ionizing photon flux produced within the cloud is a function which rises more steeply than the mass of the cloud. Supporting evidence for the hypothesis of this transition is also presented: measurements of the central surface brightnesses of H II regions for LH(sub alpha) less than Lstr are proportional to L(sup 1/3, sub H(sub alpha)), expected for ionization bounding, but show a sharp trend to a steeper dependence for LH(sub alpha) greater than Lstr, and the observed relation between the internal turbulence velocity parameter, sigma, and the luminosity, L, at high luminosities, can be well explained if these regions are density bounded. If confirmed, the density-bounding hypothesis would have a number of interesting implications. It would imply that the density-bounded regions were the main sources of the photons which ionize the diffuse gas in disk galaxies. Our estimates, based on the hypothesis, indicate that these regions emit sufficient Lyman continuum not only to
Departure Time Choice Behavior Based on Bounded Rationality%有限理性下个体出发时间选择行为研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
栾琨; 傅忠宁; 隽志才
2016-01-01
Subject to such limitations as cognitive ability and logical reasoning ability, it is difficult for individual to be perfectly rational in the travel decision-making process. Taking departure time choice as an example, key behavior factors such as spatial knowledge acquisition, learning, cognition update and solution search are introduced. The theoretical framework of travel decision-making process is built based on bounded rationality. Departure time behavioral intention survey program is designed by integration of RP and SP survey methods. Individual’s knowledge representation is studied, and cognitive update is completed by using Bayesian learning theory. Functions of search cost and search gain are defined. By using survey data, departure time heuristic search rules and decision rules are derived based on PART and RIPPER algorithm separately. The results show that there exist perception threshold in individual’s departure time choice behavior under bounded rationality, rather than seeking global optimal solution.%个体受限于认知能力和逻辑推理能力的限制，在出行决策过程中很难做到完全理性。本文以出发时间选择为例，在有限理性行为假设基础上，引入空间知识获取、学习及认知更新和方案搜索等关键行为要素，构建有限理性下的出行决策过程理论框架。融合RP和SP调查方法，设计出发时间选择行为意向调查方案。研究个体知识的表达方式，应用贝叶斯学习理论完成认知更新。定义搜索成本和收益函数，利用调查数据分别提取基于PART和RIPPER算法的出发时间启发式搜索规则和决策规则。结果表明，有限理性下个体出发时间选择行为存在感知阈值，而并非寻求全局最优解。
A Feminist Critique of Rational-Choice Theories: Implications for Sociology.
England, Paula
1989-01-01
Provides a feminist critique of rational-choice theory and the interdisciplinary feminist theories of sociology. Applies the separative model of self to four assumptions of the neoclassical economics version of rational-choice theory. Uses research on marital power to illustrate how removing distorting assumptions can help illuminate sociological…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adilson Aderito da Silva
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The levels of uncertainty perceived by managers as having the perspective of the theoretical support of the Information Uncertainty, focusing on the multidimensional approach proposed by Milliken (1987, which supports the existence of three types of uncertainty: uncertainty of state, uncertainty effect and response uncertainty. The levels of rationality of managers were estimated to construct a second order from the uncertainties of effect and response uncertainty, with the theoretical support in the definitions of the concept of bounded rationality proposed by Simon (1957. The data collected from the 118 employees of the banking sector in the State of São Paulo were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling with the Software Smart PLS. The results indicated a significant influence of the state uncertainty on the level of rationality of managers and bring important methodological and conceptual contributions to the advancement of studies on the subject of uncertainty in decision makingEsta pesquisa foi desenvolvida com o objetivo de avaliar o impacto da incerteza percebida no ambiente sobre os níveis de racionalidade dos gestores do setor financeiro. Para tal, foram estimados os níveis de incerteza percebidos pelos gestores tendo como suporte teórico a perspectiva da Incerteza da Informação, com foco na abordagem multidimensional proposta por Milliken (1987, que defende a existência de três tipos de incerteza: incerteza de estado, incerteza de efeito e incerteza de resposta. Os níveis de racionalidade dos gestores foram estimados como um construto de segunda ordem a partir das incertezas de efeito e da incerteza de resposta, com o suporte teórico nas definições do conceito de racionalidade limitada propostas por Simon (1957. Os dados coletados junto aos 118 funcionários do setor bancário no Estado de São Paulo foram analisados por meio de Modelagem por Equações Estruturais com o Software Smart PLS. Os resultados
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
梁福秋
2011-01-01
理性假设是经济学的重要前提之一,其内涵的界定直接关系到经济学体系的构建。西蒙从批判古典经济学的＂完全理性＂的＂经济人＂出发,建立了其＂有限理性＂学说,用满意原则代替最优原则。科尔曼则首先借鉴和扩展了经济学的理性选择,以理性选择理论为立足点,发展出新的社会行动理论,促进理性选择理论在社会学中的发展,为社会学研究提供了一种新的研究视角,不断被运用于各个领域的各种现象,沟通着社会的微观与宏观。对两者进行比较,有助于更好地在现实中将其运用,以最恰当的理性,得到符合自己的选择。%Rationality assumption is one of the important hypotheses of economics.The intention of rationality assumption has immediate relationship with the construction of economics system.Based on the criticism of the perfect rationality economic man of classical economics,satisfactory principle was replaced by optimum principle then Harbert A.Simon established his bounded rationality theory.Taking his foothold on rational choice,James S.Coleman developed a new social action theory.The theory promoted the development of rational choice in the sociology,provided a new research perspective,and was utilized in all kinds of phenomenon of every field,communicated the micro social and the macro social.Contrasting the two theories will help their application in the reality and get one＇s choice with the most proper ration.
Meglino, Bruce M; Korsgaard, Audrey
2004-12-01
In contrast with major theories of attitudes and behavior, the authors propose that individuals are not equally motivated to pursue their self-interests. The authors show that differences in other orientation affect the extent to which actions and attitudes reflect self-interested calculation (instrumental rationality) and the extent to which beliefs represent their external environment (epistemic rationality). These differences have consequences for processes underlying a wide range of attitudes and behavior typically assumed to be rationally self-interested. Thus, the authors' model exposes a common explanation for diverse organizational phenomena. It also clarifies inconsistencies surrounding the validity of certain attitudinal and motivational models, the relationship between job attitudes and actions, cross-cultural differences in attitudes and behavior, escalation of commitment, and the relationship between chief executive officer characteristics and organizational performance.
个体决策者有限理性的影响因素分析%Analysis on Impact Factors of Bounded Rationality of Individual Decision-maker
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵令锐; 张骥骧
2012-01-01
有限理性是比完全理性更符合社会经济实际情况的假说.论文在相关文献梳理的基础上,主要从决策者自身和决策环境两方面来考虑,采用定性分析的方法对影响个体决策者有限理性的四大因素——认知、心智成本、不确定性和信息成本进行系统研究,分析有限理性与这四个影响因素之间的复杂关系,并对影响因素之间的交互效应进行研究.%Bounded rationality is more consistent with social and economic reality than complete rationality. Based on review of relevant literatures, this paper, by using a qualitative method, discussed four impact factors of bounded rationality of individual decision-maker: cognition, cost of intelligence, uncertainty and cost of information. The complex relations between bounded rationality and the four impact factors were analyzed, and then the interactive effect of the four impact factors was studied.
面向有限理性决策的出行者行为研究%Study on Traveler's Behavior for Bounded-rational Decision-making
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
龙雪琴; 宋嘉骐; 王建军; 关宏志
2016-01-01
为了研究突发事件下出行者进行路径选择的行为规律,引入前景理论建立了出行者行为决策模型.首先分析了事故消散时间,建立了事故消散时间模型.然后分析了出行者行为决策过程,搭建了出行者行为决策框架.进一步采用前景理论,分别针对出行者收益和损失,提出了出行者路径选择的效用函数,并采用连续离散的方式对路径效用进行了分析.最后建立了出行者路径选择模型,对出行者行为进行刻画.通过一个仿真算例,在假定的出行场景下,研究了出行者有限理性路径决策行为,分析了期望出行时间对事故消散时间和路径选择结果的影响.采用试验对比的方法,证明了仿真结果和试验结果的一致性,验证了有限理性决策在出行者路径选择领域的适用性.%In order to analyze the regularity of traveler's route choice behavior under emergency incidents, the traveler's behavior decision-making model is established by introducing prospect theory. First, the accident dissipation time is analyzed, and the model of accident dissipation time is established. Then, the traveler's behavior decision-making process is analyzed, and the traveler's behavior decision-making frame is established. By applying prospect theory, the utility function for traveler's route choice is put forward in terms of traveler's earning and loss respectively, and the route utility is analysed by using continuous-discretion method. At last, the traveler's route choice model is established to describe traveler's behavior. A simulation case study is conducted under an assumption scene to research the bounded-rational traveler's route decision-making behavior and the influence of expect trip time on traffic accident dissipation time and route choice result. A comparative experiment is used to prove the consistence between the simulation result and experiment result, and the applicability of bounded rational decision
Determinants of Actor Rationality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ellegaard, Chris
-supplier relations are investigated in a multiple case study, leading to the proposal of various additional factors that determine and shape actor rationality. Moreover a conceptual model of rationality determinants in the buyer-supplier relation is proposed, a model that may help supply managers analyse...... and understand actor rationalities. Finally managerial implications are discussed....
Computational Intelligence Determines Effective Rationality
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
Rationality is a fundamental concept in economics. Most researchers will accept that human beings are not fully rational.Herbert Simon suggested that we are "bounded rational". However, it is very difficult to quantify "bounded rationality", and therefore it is difficult to pinpoint its impact to all those economic theories that depend on the assumption of full rationality. Ariel Rubinstein proposed to model bounded rationality by explicitly specifying the decision makers' decision-making procedures. This paper takes a computational point of view to Rubinstein's approach. From a computational point of view, decision procedures can be encoded in algorithms and heuristics. We argue that, everything else being equal, the effective rationality of an agent is determined by its computational power - we refer to this as the computational intelligence determines effective rationality (CIDER) theory. This is not an attempt to propose a unifying definition of bounded rationality. It is merely a proposal of a computational point of view of bounded rationality. This way of interpreting bounded rationality enables us to (computationally) reason about economic systems when the full rationality assumption is relaxed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
章思; 陈准
2011-01-01
从有限理性角度探析了农村大学生就业行为,提出了相较之于城镇大学生的农村大学生有限理性程度的度量方法.结果表明,影响农村大学生就业有限理性的认知因素主要有认知广度和认知深度,而环境因素主要有体制因素、经济因素和家庭因素.%This paper explored the employment behavior of rural college students from the perspective of bounded rationality and proposed a method to measure the level of bounded rationality for rural college student in comparison with urban college students.The results showed that the cognitive factors, which impact bounded rationality of employment of rural college students, mainly include breadth and depth of cognizance, and environmental factors mainly include institutional, economic and family factors.
Modeling of bounded rationality users for industrial rapid product design%面向产品快速设计的有限理性用户建模方法
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴勘
2014-01-01
用户满意是工业产品设计成功的标志，然而用户与设计师对产品的认知与要求也存在着显著差异。分析了有限理性用户建模的依据，提出了面向产品快速设计的有限理性用户建模模型，从提高产品方案的设计效率和用户满意度出发，探讨了用户模型的分析方法，提出了面向产品快速设计的有限理性用户建模理论与方法体系。%User satisfaction is the sign of a designer ’s success.However,there are differences in the perceptions of the products modeling between the clients and the designers .Discussed the basis of user model based on the bounded rational at first ,proposed user bounded rationality modeling for rapid product design .Then explored the analysis of user model to improve the design effi-ciency and user satisfaction at product solutions .Finally,the theory and methodology of Bounded rationality users modeling for product quickly design is suggested and a example is given to illustrate .
The formation of bound residues of diazinon in four UK soils: Implications for risk assessment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fenlon, Katie A., E-mail: katefenlon@hotmail.com [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Andreou, Kostas; Jones, Kevin C.; Semple, Kirk T. [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)
2011-03-15
The behaviour of diazinon in the soil determines the likelihood of further pollution incidents, particularly leaching to water. The most significant processes in the control of the fate of diazinon in the soil are microbial degradation and the formation of bound residues. Soils from four sites in the UK were amended with diazinon and its {sup 14}C labelled analogue and incubated for 100 days. After 0, 10, 21, 50 and 100 days, the formation of bound residues was assessed by solvent extraction, and the microbial degradation of diazinon by mineralisation assay. In microbially active soils, diazinon is degraded rapidly, reducing the risk of future pollution incidents. However, where there was limited mineralisation there was also significantly lower formation of bound residues, which may lead to water pollution via leaching. The formation of bound residues was dependent on extraction type. Acetonitrile extraction identified bound residues in all soils, with the bound residue fraction increasing with increasing incubation time. - Research highlights: > Bound residues are defined by extraction method. > Microbial degradation is limited by the formation of bound residues. > Bioavailability of diazinon maybe estimated by chemical extraction. - The formation of bound residues and biodegradation of diazinon are dependent on soil type and the presence of degrading bacteria.
有限理性对劳动力流动决策的影响分析%An analysis of the influence of bounded rationality on labor flow decision-making
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
袁乐平; 王立软; 李萍
2012-01-01
经典劳动力流动理论以完全理性为假设前提，难以准确分析当前我国存在的“盲流”“回流”等劳动力流动“异象”问题。通过对劳动力流动现状与传统理论之间的冲突进行分析，得出造成劳动力流动异象的原因在于劳动者的有限理性。劳动者的有限理性造成预期成本和收益与实际不符，进而影响劳动力的流动决策，当预期净收益现值与实际净收益现值异号时，劳动力流动“异象”便会发生。% The classical labor flow theory is based on the assumption of perfect rationality, which cannot acutely analyze the heteromorphism problem in present Chinese labor flow such as “unemployed migrant people” and labor backflow. The theory deviates from the reality. Through the analysis of conflict between current situation of labor flow and traditional theory, we conclude that bounded rationality leads to heteromorphism problem. So, we analyze the process of generation of labor flow decision-making from the perspective of bounded rationality. The bounded rationality cause the expected costs and benefits do not match with the actual, which would affect labors’ decision-making for flow. Labor flow heteromorphism occurs when there is an opposite sign between the present value of expected net income and the present value of actual net income.
Reyna, Valerie F; Farley, Frank
2006-09-01
Crime, smoking, drug use, alcoholism, reckless driving, and many other unhealthy patterns of behavior that play out over a lifetime often debut during adolescence. Avoiding risks or buying time can set a different lifetime pattern. Changing unhealthy behaviors in adolescence would have a broad impact on society, reducing the burdens of disease, injury, human suffering, and associated economic costs. Any program designed to prevent or change such risky behaviors should be founded on a clear idea of what is normative (what behaviors, ideally, should the program foster?), descriptive (how are adolescents making decisions in the absence of the program?), and prescriptive (which practices can realistically move adolescent decisions closer to the normative ideal?). Normatively, decision processes should be evaluated for coherence (is the thinking process nonsensical, illogical, or self-contradictory?) and correspondence (are the outcomes of the decisions positive?). Behaviors that promote positive physical and mental health outcomes in modern society can be at odds with those selected for by evolution (e.g., early procreation). Healthy behaviors may also conflict with a decision maker's goals. Adolescents' goals are more likely to maximize immediate pleasure, and strict decision analysis implies that many kinds of unhealthy behavior, such as drinking and drug use, could be deemed rational. However, based on data showing developmental changes in goals, it is important for policy to promote positive long-term outcomes rather than adolescents' short-term goals. Developmental data also suggest that greater risk aversion is generally adaptive, and that decision processes that support this aversion are more advanced than those that support risk taking. A key question is whether adolescents are developmentally competent to make decisions about risks. In principle, barring temptations with high rewards and individual differences that reduce self-control (i.e., under ideal
Reyna, Valerie F; Farley, Frank
2006-09-01
Crime, smoking, drug use, alcoholism, reckless driving, and many other unhealthy patterns of behavior that play out over a lifetime often debut during adolescence. Avoiding risks or buying time can set a different lifetime pattern. Changing unhealthy behaviors in adolescence would have a broad impact on society, reducing the burdens of disease, injury, human suffering, and associated economic costs. Any program designed to prevent or change such risky behaviors should be founded on a clear idea of what is normative (what behaviors, ideally, should the program foster?), descriptive (how are adolescents making decisions in the absence of the program?), and prescriptive (which practices can realistically move adolescent decisions closer to the normative ideal?). Normatively, decision processes should be evaluated for coherence (is the thinking process nonsensical, illogical, or self-contradictory?) and correspondence (are the outcomes of the decisions positive?). Behaviors that promote positive physical and mental health outcomes in modern society can be at odds with those selected for by evolution (e.g., early procreation). Healthy behaviors may also conflict with a decision maker's goals. Adolescents' goals are more likely to maximize immediate pleasure, and strict decision analysis implies that many kinds of unhealthy behavior, such as drinking and drug use, could be deemed rational. However, based on data showing developmental changes in goals, it is important for policy to promote positive long-term outcomes rather than adolescents' short-term goals. Developmental data also suggest that greater risk aversion is generally adaptive, and that decision processes that support this aversion are more advanced than those that support risk taking. A key question is whether adolescents are developmentally competent to make decisions about risks. In principle, barring temptations with high rewards and individual differences that reduce self-control (i.e., under ideal
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵丹华
2014-01-01
通过对超市管理人理性认知模式和决议选择的分析，探讨在有限理性视角下的超市管理人的行为机理，得出，有限理性视角下的超市管理人的博弈行为对我国能否有效顺利实施“农超对接”起着关键作用，本文从有限理性经济人的角度出发，通过博弈模型剖析超市参与“农超对接”行为，发现“农超对接”实施中存在的根本问题，为促进我国“农超对接”快速发展提供理论依据。%This article analyzes the rational cognitive mode and the resolution selection of the supermarket manager, and explores the behavior mechanism of supermarket manager under bounded rationality perspective. It is concluded that, under the bounded rationality perspective, the gambling behavior of supermarket manager is key factor that affect China's effective implementation of agriculture-supermarket jointing. From the perspective of limited rational economic man, this paper analyzes supermarket's participation in agriculture-supermarket jointing through game model, and finds out the fundamental problems in agriculture-supermarket jointing, in order to provide theoretical basis for the rapid development of China's agriculture-supermarket jointing.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周强; 高春鸣; 孟志刚
2011-01-01
为了让游戏NPC能够学习和模拟玩家在游戏中的策略和行为方式,在基于模型的智能决策方法基础上,结合行为决策理论中的有限理性模型提出了一种新的游戏智能方法.该方法分别从有限理性模型的两个核心原则——有限理性和满意准则来改进过去的方法在感知和决策过程中所面对的问题,从而使得游戏NPC行为决策方式更加人性化.最后,通过在Starcraft平台上与其他方法的对抗性实验来进一步验证该方法的优势.%This article presented a novel game intelligent decision-making method to make game NPC( non-player character) learn and simulate strategies and behavioral pattern which the players used in the video game. This method improved the mod-el-based method, and introduced the bounded rationality model of the behavioural decision theory as the basic decision-making model. So that it would drawback the problems confronted with the past methods in the perception and decision-making process from two aspects-bounded rationality and satisfactory criterion, which was the core of the bounded rationality model. Finally, the advantages of this method were verified by the experiments on the platform of Starcraft.
Jones, Roger A C; Kehoe, Monica A
2016-07-01
Current approaches used to name within-species, plant virus phylogenetic groups are often misleading and illogical. They involve names based on biological properties, sequence differences and geographical, country or place-association designations, or any combination of these. This type of nomenclature is becoming increasingly unsustainable as numbers of sequences of the same virus from new host species and different parts of the world increase. Moreover, this increase is accelerating as world trade and agriculture expand, and climate change progresses. Serious consequences for virus research and disease management might arise from incorrect assumptions made when current within-species phylogenetic group names incorrectly identify properties of group members. This could result in development of molecular tools that incorrectly target dangerous virus strains, potentially leading to unjustified impediments to international trade or failure to prevent such strains being introduced to countries, regions or continents formerly free of them. Dangerous strains might be missed or misdiagnosed by diagnostic laboratories and monitoring programs, and new cultivars with incorrect strain-specific resistances released. Incorrect deductions are possible during phylogenetic analysis of plant virus sequences and errors from strain misidentification during molecular and biological virus research activities. A nomenclature system for within-species plant virus phylogenetic group names is needed which avoids such problems. We suggest replacing all other naming approaches with Latinized numerals, restricting biologically based names only to biological strains and removing geographically based names altogether. Our recommendations have implications for biosecurity authorities, diagnostic laboratories, disease-management programs, plant breeders and researchers. PMID:27101071
Shan, Xin; Yu, Xinghe; Clift, Peter D.; Wang, Tianyi; Tan, Chengpeng; Jin, Lina
2016-09-01
Ground-penetrating radar and trenching studies of a barrier spit on the north shore of Huangqihai Lake were made, that reveal important implications for the coastal washover barrier boundary hierarchy and interpretations of this depositional record. A four-fold hierarchy bounding-surface model, representing different levels of impact and genesis, is defined. Each level of the hierarchy is enclosed by a distinct kind of surface characterized by different ground-penetrating radar reflection features, sedimentary characteristics (color, grain size, sorting, rounding and sedimentary structures) and origin. We suggest that this hierarchical model can be applied to any coastal washover barrier deposits.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
曹波伟; 薛青; 姚义军
2012-01-01
Because of the shortage of current virtual soldier modeling method, the concept of bounded rationality theory and its soldier is proposed, then the virtual soldier's limited behavior model based on bounded rationality . Theory is given, the model include limited vision model , limited hearing model, limited memory model, and these soldiers have the character of similar perception, decision making and exercise capacity. Those has certain meaning to the modeling of the Virtual Soldier's Behavior.%针对当前虚拟士兵感知行为模型的缺陷,介绍有限理性理论和基于有限理性虚拟士兵的概念,分析了加入有限理性理论的虚拟士兵的特点,提出了基于有限理性虚拟士兵的感知行为模型.该模型包括有限视觉模型、有限听觉模型和有限记忆模型,基于该感知模型的虚拟士兵在感知、决策和运动能力方面与类似真实士兵具有较高的一致性.这对虚拟士兵的感知行为建模研究具有一定的探索意义.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
牟博佼; 李岩; 朱岩
2012-01-01
Bounded rationality has become an important research focus in operations management.This paper summarizes the current results in this field related to the behavioral theories underlying the research and conclusions from behavioral experiments and analytical modeling.Finally,this paper gives some directions for future research,including studies on selling multiple products and vertical/horizontal competition in multiple periods using bounded rationality.%有限理性成为近年来运营管理领域关注的热点,本文归纳分析了该类问题的阶段性研究成果。本文首先提炼出该类研究采用的行为理论基础,然后从行为实验和建模分析2种方法视角介绍了研究焦点以及取得的结论。最后基于研究现状展望了该领域的未来发展,指出未来研究可以针对单周期多产品、多周期纵向/横向竞争等系统展开分析。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈文庆
2015-01-01
社会救助的本源是“慈善之心”。而“合理、应当、公平、正义”的问题是操作的工具或操作过程中体现的基于工具上的价值性问题。近年来，社会救助中的工具性及价值性的问题讨论，超过了对慈善本源性问题的关注，成为人们对救助问题支持与否的首要观念及理论依据。文章尝试从现象、责权、价值、方法四个角度讨论社会救助中的慈善与“合理、应当、公平、正义”的关系问题，认为社会救助作为实践伦理行动，应当是情感与理性的结合，即救助体制或行动方案的设定，要尽可能实现“慈善”的本源性和“合理、应当、公平、正义”的工具性及价值性的完美结合。%Social relief is originated from "charitable hearts" and the matter of "rationality,duty bound nature,fairness and justice" is an operation tool and a valuable matter which is displayed in the course of operation.In the recent years,the discussion of the matter of tool and value relating to social relief has gone beyond the concern of its original matter of charity,which has become the major concept and the theoretical ground in whether we should support social relief or not.This essay attempts to dis-cuss the matter of"rationality,duty bound nature,fairness and justice"from the four respects of phe-nomenon,duty authority,value and method in social relief and holds that social relief as a practical ethi-cal action should be a combination between emotion and ration,namely,the enactment of the system and action plan of social relief should try to realize its perfect combination among the origin of"charity", tool and value of"rationality,duty bound nature,fairness and justice".
Luo, Pei; Ni, Hong-Gang; Bao, Lian-Jun; Li, Shao-Meng; Zeng, Eddy Y
2014-12-01
Size distribution of particles in part dictates the environmental behavior of particle-bound organic pollutants in the atmosphere. The present study was conducted to examine the potential mechanisms responsible for the distribution of organic pollutants in size fractionated particles and their environmental implications, using an e-waste recycling zone in South China as a case study. Size-fractionated atmospheric particles were collected at the heights of 1.5, 5, and 20 m near two residential apartments and analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The concentrations of particle-bound ΣPBDE (sum of 18 PBDE congeners) were significantly greater at 5 and 20 m than those at 1.5 m. The size-fractionated distributions of airborne ΣPBDE displayed trimodal peaks in 0.10–0.18, 1.8–3.2, and 10–18 μm at 1.5 m but only an unimodal peak in 1.0–1.8 μm at 20 m height. Emission sources, resuspension of dust and soil, and volatility of PBDEs were important factors influencing the size distribution of particle-bound PBDEs. The dry deposition fluxes of particle-bound PBDE estimated from the measured data in the present study were approximately twice the estimated wet deposition fluxes, with a total deposition flux of 3000 ng m(–2) d(–1). The relative contributions of particles to dry and wet deposition fluxes were also size-dependent, e.g., coarse (aerodynamic diameters (Dp) > 1.8 μm) and fine (Dp deposition fluxes of PBDEs, respectively.
Bounded Rationality and Fixed Point Problem Well-Possedness%考虑有限理性的良定不动点问题研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘益波; 高维
2011-01-01
本文引入了新的不动点问题良定的定义,应用有限理性模型M研究了良定不动点问题,给出了不动点问题良定的充分条件.%This paper introduces a new definition of the fixed point problem well-posedness, applying the finite rational model set M to study well-posedness of the fixed point problem, sufficient conditions of the fixed point problem ′s well-pesedness are given.
Semantically-bounded anomia: implications for the neural implementation of naming.
Farah, M J; Wallace, M A
1992-07-01
We describe a patient whose anomia is disproportionately severe for fruits and vegetables when familiarity and name frequency are taken into account. His fruit and vegetable naming impairment was evident in a variety of different tasks. In contrast, he retained good general knowledge of fruits and vegetables, and he could access their names when given a phonemic cue. We discuss the phenomenon of semantically-bounded anomia in relation to the issues of local vs distributed representation, the existence of semantic "maps" in the brain, and the implementation of arbitrary associations in neural networks.
Shirshin, E A; Budylin, G S; Grechischeva, N Yu; Fadeev, V V; Perminova, I V
2016-07-01
Fluorescence quenching (FQ) is extensively used for quantitative assessment of partition coefficients (KOC) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to natural organic materials - humic substances (HS). The presence of bound PAHs with incompletely quenched fluorescence would lead to underestimation of the KOC values measured by this technique. The goal of this work was to prove the validity of this assumption using an original experimental setup, which implied FQ measurements upon excitation into two distinct vibronically coupled electronic states. Pyrene was used as a fluorescent probe, and aquatic fulvic acid (SRFA) and leonardite humic acid (CHP) were used as the humic materials with low and high binding affinity for pyrene, respectively. Excitation of pyrene into the forbidden (S0-S1) and allowed (S0-S2) electronic states yielded two pairs of nonidentical FQ curves. This was indicative of incomplete quenching of the bound pyrene, and the divergence of the two FQ curves was much more pronounced for CHP as compared to SRFA. The two component model of fluorescence response formation was proposed to estimate the KOC values from the data obtained. The resulting pyrene KOC value for CHP (220 ± 20) g L(-1) was a factor 3 higher compared to the KOC value determined with the use of the Stern-Volmer formalism (68 ± 2) g L(-1). At the same time for aquatic FA the difference in FQ curves was almost negligible, which enables the use of the Stern-Volmer formalism for weakly interacting HS and PAHs. PMID:27279258
Structure of product-bound SMG1 lipase: active site gating implications.
Guo, Shaohua; Xu, Jinxin; Pavlidis, Ioannis V; Lan, Dongming; Bornscheuer, Uwe T; Liu, Jinsong; Wang, Yonghua
2015-12-01
Monoacylglycerol and diacylglycerol lipases are industrially interesting enzymes, due to the health benefits that arise from the consumption of diglycerides compared to the traditional triglyceride oils. Most lipases possess an α-helix (lid) directly over the catalytic pocket which regulates the activity of the enzyme. Generally, lipases exist in active and inactive conformations, depending on the positioning of this lid subdomain. However, lipase SMG1, a monoacylglycerol and diacylglycerol specific lipase, has an atypical activation mechanism. In the present study we were able to prove by crystallography, in silico analysis and activity tests that only two positions, residues 102 and 278, are responsible for a gating mechanism that regulates the active and inactive states of the lipase, and that no significant structural changes take place during activation except for oxyanion hole formation. The elucidation of the gating effect provided data enabling the rational design of improved lipases with 6-fold increase in the hydrolytic activity toward diacylglycerols, just by providing additional substrate stabilization with a single mutation (F278N or F278T). Due to the conservation of F278 among the monoacylglycerol and diacylglycerol lipases in the Rhizomucor miehei lipase-like family, the gating mechanism described herein might represent a general mechanism applicable to other monoacylglycerol and diacylglycerol lipases as well. Database: Structural data are available in the Protein Data Bank under the accession numbers 4ZRE (F278D mutant) and 4ZRD (F278N mutant). PMID:26365206
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Goede Andrean
2006-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing number of known protein structures provides valuable information about pharmaceutical targets. Drug binding sites are identifiable and suitable lead compounds can be proposed. The flexibility of ligands is a critical point for the selection of potential drugs. Since computed 3D structures of millions of compounds are available, the knowledge of their binding conformations would be a great benefit for the development of efficient screening methods. Results Integration of two public databases allowed superposition of conformers for 193 approved drugs with 5507 crystallised target-bound counterparts. The generation of 9600 drug conformers using an atomic force field was carried out to obtain an optimal coverage of the conformational space. Bioactive conformations are best described by a conformational ensemble: half of all drugs exhibit multiple active states, distributed over the entire range of the reachable energy and conformational space. A number of up to 100 conformers per drug enabled us to reproduce the bound states within a similarity threshold of 1.0 Å in 70% of all cases. This fraction rises to about 90% for smaller or average sized drugs. Conclusion Single drugs adopt multiple bioactive conformations if they interact with different target proteins. Due to the structural diversity of binding sites they adopt conformations that are distributed over a broad conformational space and wide energy range. Since the majority of drugs is well represented by a predefined low number of conformers (up to 100 this procedure is a valuable method to compare compounds by three-dimensional features or for fast similarity searches starting with pharmacophores. The underlying 9600 generated drug conformers are downloadable from the Super Drug Web site 1. All superpositions are visualised at the same source. Additional conformers (110,000 of 2400 classified WHO-drugs are also available.
Lessons from Learning to Have Rational Expectations
Lindh, Thomas
1989-01-01
This paper reviews a growing literature investigating how economic agents may learn rational expectations. Fully rational learning requires implausible initial information assumptions, therefore some form of bounded rationality has come into focus. Such learning models often converge to rational expectations equilibria within certain bounds. Convergence analysis has been much simplified by methods from adaptive control theory. Learning stability as a correspondence principle show some promise...
Limited rationality and strategic interaction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fehr, Ernst; Tyran, Jean-Robert
2008-01-01
Much evidence suggests that people are heterogeneous with regard to their abilities to make rational, forward-looking decisions. This raises the question as to when the rational types are decisive for aggregate outcomes and when the boundedly rational types shape aggregate results. We examine...... this question in the context of a long-standing and important economic problem: the adjustment of nominal prices after an anticipated monetary shock. Our experiments suggest that two types of bounded rationality-money illusion and anchoring-are important behavioral forces behind nominal inertia. However......, depending on the strategic environment, bounded rationality has vastly different effects on aggregate price adjustment. If agents' actions are strategic substitutes, adjustment to the new equilibrium is extremely quick, whereas under strategic complementarity, adjustment is both very slow and associated...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
任静; 刘升福
2014-01-01
企业家认知的有限性决定了企业家在有限理性的状态下进行战略决策。基于行为经济学和决策行为理论，研究有限理性下企业家战略决策风险行为及其影响因素。通过建立模型和实证研究来探讨企业家战略决策风险行为及其影响因素对战略决策风险行为的影响，从而为企业家战略决策风险行为管理提供依据。%The limitation of Entrepreneurs′cognition decides that entrepreneurs make strategic decisions under the limited rational state.The paper,based on the theory of behavioral economics and the decision-making behavior,studies the entrepreneur strategic decision deviation behavior based on bounded rationality and its influencing factors.Through the questionnaire,interviews and the empirical research,the paper explores the various influencing factors of entrepreneur strategic decision-making risk behavior influence on strategic decision-making risk behaviors,so as to provide the basis for entrepreneurs strategic decision-making risk behavior management.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张德金; 向淑文; 周永辉
2012-01-01
首先引入有限理性下非线性问题的稳定性的统-模型,对拟变分不等式问题定义了理性函数,讨论有限理性下拟变分不等式问题解的稳定性.证明了大多数的拟变分不等式问题(在Baire纲分类意义上)都是结构稳定的,对ε-平衡也都是鲁棒的.得到了有限理性下拟变分不等式问题解的稳定性的一系列结论.%In this paper, a unified framework of stability of solutions to nonlinear problems is first given. Then a rationality function is introduced for a eltlSS of 'quasi-variational inequality problems and the bounded rationality is investigated. It is proved that most of quasi-variational inequality problems (in the sense of Baire category) are structurally stable and robust to ^-equilibria. Finally some stability results on these quasi-variational inequality problems are obtained.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈慧; 范峰
2015-01-01
从组织社会学视角，探寻大学体育现实困惑背后的深层次原因。“功利性”可量化成果与“道德性”制度化规范之间的博弈，影响着大学体育行动者的价值取向。大学体育行动者有限理性的复杂性与不确定性，将持续影响其行动决策。教师评价制度建设和市场需求的理性选择是重建大学体育核心价值秩序的重要力量。%From the perspective of organizational sociology, the authors probed into the deep down reasons behind realistic confusion about college sports. The gaming between “utilitarian” quantifiable achievements and “moral”institutionalized norms is affecting the value tendency of college sports executors. The complexity and uncertainty of bounded rationality of college sports executors will continue to affect their action decision making. Teacher evaluation system construction and rational choosing of market demands are important forces for rebuilding the or-der of core values of college sports.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
任静; 刘升福
2014-01-01
企业家认知的有限性决定了企业家在有限理性的状态下进行战略决策。基于行为经济学和决策行为理论，研究有限理性下企业家战略决策风险行为及其影响因素。通过建立模型和实证研究来探讨企业家战略决策风险行为及其影响因素对战略决策风险行为的影响，从而为企业家战略决策风险行为管理提供依据。%The limitation of Entrepreneurs′cognition decides that entrepreneurs make strategic decisions under the limited rational state.The paper,based on the theory of behavioral economics and the decision-making behavior,studies the entrepreneur strategic decision deviation behavior based on bounded rationality and its influencing factors.Through the questionnaire,interviews and the empirical research,the paper explores the various influencing factors of entrepreneur strategic decision-making risk behavior influence on strategic decision-making risk behaviors,so as to provide the basis for entrepreneurs strategic decision-making risk behavior management.
The Evolution of Public Opinion in Social Network Considering Bounded Rationality%有限理性转发者的社会网络舆情演化分析
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张倩楠; 杨尊琦; 史浩
2014-01-01
基于新媒体时代下信息传播模式的现状，从网络未确认信息在理性人群体与有限理性人群体中传播的特点入手。基于演化博弈理论，针对虚拟网络及其中的理性人与有限理性人对于消息的不同行为，建立在不同行为下的收益-风险矩阵。通过博弈进化计算，讨论了两方均转发得到的净收益、仅一方转发时各自的净收益对选择策略的影响。从而得到不同情形下网民群体之间的进化稳定策略。结果表明：由于有限理性转发者的参与，导致即使只有一方选择转发仍能够得到整体的最大收益；仅一方转发时，总收益受到两方是否合作的影响。最后根据演化结果对网络监管部门的控制提出相关意见。%Based on the current situation of information dissemination mode, this article starts with the disseminating characteristics of a ra-tional man and a bounded rationality man's attitude towards Internet unconfirmed information. Adopting the theory of evolution game, the article studies the different behaviors of different groups towards information and finds an evolution stabilization strategy among cyber citi-zen groups under different situations. According to the analysis of the impact on selection strategy, the result indicates that integral maxi-mum return can be gained from one party' s transmitting actions because of the participation of bounded rationality group;general earnings will be influenced by whether both groups will cooperate if there is just one party being engaging in the transmitting. At last, advices on network supervision are given according to evolution result to help the related government department to carry out their work of monitoring and control effectively.
Mayo, David J.
1998-01-01
The rational suicide paradigm is contrasted with the traditional view of the mental health professions. Historical background on suicide in western civilization is supplied and the concept of rationality elucidated. Parallels between the questions of refusing life-prolonging therapy and rational suicide are discussed, as are reasons for suicide.…
Counting rational points on cubic curves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HEATH-BROWN; Roger; TESTA; Damiano
2010-01-01
We prove upper bounds for the number of rational points on non-singular cubic curves defined over the rationals.The bounds are uniform in the curve and involve the rank of the corresponding Jacobian.The method used in the proof is a combination of the "determinant method" with an m-descent on the curve.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周长锋
2013-01-01
Under bounded rationality evolutionary game analysis, the paper analyzes the dynamic genetic reproduction process for the players. It research that whether the insured purchases insurance depends on their comparison of the expected return and costs. The track of game between insurers and insurance applying didn't conform to the evolution stabilization strategy for both parties, but it could achieve a relatively better strategy in the insurance market.% 在有限理性进化博弈分析框架下，分析了保险市场中保险局中人群体复制动态变化过程。研究发现，投保人是否购买保险，一方面决定于其所要承担选择成本的大小，另一方面决定于个体的比较预期收益，而使博弈双方共同稳定的进化稳定策略不存在于保险人与投保人的博弈轨迹中，只能实现保险市场上平均意义上较优策略。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
樊钉
2013-01-01
Crisis decision-making ability is an important part of the government’s ruling ability. From the perspective of bounded rationality, crisis decision-making emphasizes the segmentation of decision problems and the avoidance of routine problems of distracting policymakers, strengthens playing full roles of other irrational factors such as experience, intuition and insight to control crisis spread within a maximum limit by making prompt decisions, and stresses the solution of grey zone problems of power division starting from conventional system construction, hence constantly improving the ability of crisis decision-making.%危机决策能力是政府执政能力的重要组成。有限理性视角下的危机决策强调细分决策问题，避免常规问题分散决策者注意力；强调充分发挥经验、直觉和洞察力等非理性因素，当机立断，最大限度控制危机蔓延；强调从常规制度结构建设入手，解决权力划分灰色区域的问题，不断提高危机决策的能力。
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave
The standard problem of adjudicating conflicting claims describes a situation in which a given amount of a divisible good has to be allocated among agents who hold claims against it exceeding the available amount. This paper considers more general rationing problems in which, in addition to claims......, there exist baselines (to be interpreted as objective entitlements, ideal targets, or past consumption) that might play an important role in the allocation process. The model we present is able to accommodate real-life rationing situations, ranging from resource allocation in the public health care sector...... to international protocols for the reduction of greenhouse emissions, or water distribution in drought periods. We define a family of allocation methods for such general rationing problems - called baseline rationing rules - and provide an axiomatic characterization for it. Any baseline rationing rule within...
Artificial intelligence techniques for rational decision making
Marwala, Tshilidzi
2014-01-01
Develops insights into solving complex problems in engineering, biomedical sciences, social science and economics based on artificial intelligence. Some of the problems studied are in interstate conflict, credit scoring, breast cancer diagnosis, condition monitoring, wine testing, image processing and optical character recognition. The author discusses and applies the concept of flexibly-bounded rationality which prescribes that the bounds in Nobel Laureate Herbert Simon's bounded rationality theory are flexible due to advanced signal processing techniques, Moore's Law and artificial intellig
Consumer theory with bounded rational preferences
Gerasimou, Georgios
2009-01-01
The neoclassical consumer maximizes utility and makes choices by completely preordering the feasible alternatives and weighing when indifferent. The consumer studied in this paper chooses by weighing when indifferent and also when indecisive, without necessarily preordering the alternatives or exhausting her budget. Preferences therefore need not be complete, transitive or non-satiated but are assumed strictly convex and "adaptive". The latter axiom is new and parallels that of ambiguity a...
Vliet, van B.J.M.
2012-01-01
Network-bound systems are crucial in environmental governance as the usage of their services embody significant environmental impacts. Conditions for network-bound systems providing services to consumers have altered dramatically over the last decades. Liberalization and privatization have led to a
Kalberg, Stephen
1980-01-01
Explores rationality in Max Weber's works and identifies four types of rationality which play major roles in his writing--practical, theoretical, substantive, and formal. Implications for society and education are discussed. (DB)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blackett, S.A. [Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand). Dept of Engineering Science
1996-02-01
Numerical analysis is an important part of Engineering. Frequently relationships are not adequately understood, or too complicated to be represented by theoretical formulae. Instead, empirical approximations based on observed relationships can be used for simple fast and accurate evaluations. Historically, storage of data has been a large constraint on approximately methods. So the challenge is to find a sufficiently accurate representation of data which is valid over as large a range as possible while requiring the storage of only a few numerical values. Polynomials, popular as approximation functions because of their simplicity, can be used to represent simple data. Equation 1.1 shows a simple 3rd order polynomial approximation. However, just increasing the order and number of terms included in a polynomial approximation does not improve the overall result. Although the function may fit exactly to observed data, between these points it is likely that the approximation is increasingly less smooth and probably inadequate. An alternative to adding further terms to the approximation is to make the approximation rational. Equation 1.2 shows a rational polynomial, 3rd order in the numerator and denominator. A rational polynomial approximation allows poles and this can greatly enhance an approximation. In Sections 2 and 3 two different methods for fitting rational polynomials to a given data set are detailed. In Section 4, consideration is given to different rational polynomials used on adjacent regions. Section 5 shows the performance of the rational polynomial algorithms. Conclusions are presented in Section 6.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roland Züst
2007-08-01
Full Text Available Attenuated viral vaccines can be generated by targeting essential pathogenicity factors. We report here the rational design of an attenuated recombinant coronavirus vaccine based on a deletion in the coding sequence of the non-structural protein 1 (nsp1. In cell culture, nsp1 of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV, like its SARS-coronavirus homolog, strongly reduced cellular gene expression. The effect of nsp1 on MHV replication in vitro and in vivo was analyzed using a recombinant MHV encoding a deletion in the nsp1-coding sequence. The recombinant MHV nsp1 mutant grew normally in tissue culture, but was severely attenuated in vivo. Replication and spread of the nsp1 mutant virus was restored almost to wild-type levels in type I interferon (IFN receptor-deficient mice, indicating that nsp1 interferes efficiently with the type I IFN system. Importantly, replication of nsp1 mutant virus in professional antigen-presenting cells such as conventional dendritic cells and macrophages, and induction of type I IFN in plasmacytoid dendritic cells, was not impaired. Furthermore, even low doses of nsp1 mutant MHV elicited potent cytotoxic T cell responses and protected mice against homologous and heterologous virus challenge. Taken together, the presented attenuation strategy provides a paradigm for the development of highly efficient coronavirus vaccines.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ming Liu
Full Text Available Amylosucrase (AS is a kind of glucosyltransferases (E.C. 2.4.1.4 belonging to the Glycoside Hydrolase (GH Family 13. In the presence of an activator polymer, in vitro, AS is able to catalyze the synthesis of an amylose-like polysaccharide composed of only α-1,4-linkages using sucrose as the only energy source. Unlike AS, other enzymes responsible for the synthesis of such amylose-like polymers require the addition of expensive nucleotide-activated sugars. These properties make AS an interesting enzyme for industrial applications. In this work, the structures and topology of the two AS were thoroughly investigated for the sake of explaining the reason why Deinococcus geothermalis amylosucrase (DgAS is more stable than Neisseria polysaccharea amylosucrase (NpAS. Based on our results, there are two main factors that contribute to the superior thermostability of DgAS. On the one hand, DgAS holds some good structural features that may make positive contributions to the thermostability. On the other hand, the contacts among residues of DgAS are thought to be topologically more compact than those of NpAS. Furthermore, the dynamics and unfolding properties of the two AS were also explored by the gauss network model (GNM and the anisotropic network model (ANM. According to the results of GNM and ANM, we have found that the two AS could exhibit a shear-like motion, which is probably associated with their functions. What is more, with the discovery of the unfolding pathway of the two AS, we can focus on the weak regions, and hence designing more appropriate mutations for the sake of thermostability engineering. Taking the results on structure, dynamics and unfolding properties of the two AS into consideration, we have predicted some novel mutants whose thermostability is possibly elevated, and hopefully these discoveries can be used as guides for our future work on rational design.
Bound states in the 3d Ising model and implications for QCD at finite temperature and density
Caselle, M; Provero, P; Zarembo, K
2002-01-01
We study the spectrum of bound states of the three dimensional Ising model in the (h,beta) plane near the critical point. We show the existence of an unbinding line, defined as the boundary of the region where bound states exist. Numerical evidence suggests that this line coincides with the beta=beta_c axis. When the 3D Ising model is considered as an effective description of hot QCD at finite density, we conjecture the correspondence between the unbinding line and the line that separates the quark-gluon plasma phase from the superconducting phase. The bound states of the Ising model are conjectured to correspond to the diquarks of the latter phase of QCD.
Vymazalova, Hana
2016-01-01
The distribution of rations can be found in documents from different period of the Egyptian history but the general features of the ration system is not easy to trace. Most of the sources are the more or less fragmentary lists of wages/payments that reflect various conditions, such as status of the recipients, period to which the payment corresponds etc, that are not always known to us. Other documents provide us with categories of allowances ascribed to the workmen and officials who particip...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
韩姣杰; 周国华; 李延来; 陆绍凯
2011-01-01
项目团队成员的行为策略选择将会直接影响到团队合作效率,甚至影响项目的成败.运用行为经济学的相关理论,以有限理性为假设前提,建立了基于异质群体的动态演化博弈模型,对项目团队合作中多代理人的行为进行了研究,分析了委托人的监督策略、利润分享系数,以及代理人的贡献度、团队合作度,其他代理人的行为对代理人行为选择策略的影响,为降低项目团队合作中的道德风险和提高团队整体绩效提供了策略建议.通过案例研究对得出的结论进行了检验,结果表明,该结论在实际项目中对提高项目整体绩效水平有很好的指导作用.%The behavior strategies that project team members chose will directly have a great impact on the cooperation efficiency of project team, and will further influence the success of project. By using the relative theory of behavioral economics, this paper built an evolutionary game model based on heterogeneous group under the assumption of bounded rationality in order to analyze the influences of principal's supervision strategy, profit sharing coefficient, agent's contribution, team cooperation degree, and the behavior choices of the other agents on the behavior choices of an given agent. The results of this paper have provided theoretical supports and strategic suggestions on how to reduce the moral hazards with respect to the cooperation of project team, as well as how to improve the team performance. Finally, a case study was carried out so as to test previous theoretical results, and it found that the theoretical results played a conducting role in improving the overall project performance in actual projects.
Lam, Chi-Ming
2014-01-01
Nowadays, there is still a widely held view that the Chinese and Western modes of thought are quite distinct from each other. In particular, the Chinese mode of thought derived from Confucianism is considered as comparatively less rational than the Western one. In this article, I first argue that although the analogical mode of argumentation,…
Collective action and rationality models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luis Miguel Miller Moya
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The Olsonian theory of collective action (Olson, 1965 assumes a model of economic rationality, based on a simple calculus between costs and benefits, that can be hardly hold at present, given the models of rationality proposed recently by several fields of research. In relation to these fields, I will concentrate in two specific proposals, namely: evolutionary game theory and, over all, the theory of bounded rationality. Both alternatives are specially fruitful in order to propose models that do not need a maximizing rationality, or environments of complete and perfect information. Their approaches, based on the possibility of individual learning over the time, have contributed to the analysis of the emergence of social norms, which is something really necessary to the resolution of problems related to cooperation. Thus, this article asserts that these two new theoretical contributions make feasible a fundamental advance in the study of collective action.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Georg Spielthenner
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Valuations are ubiquitous. We may be for or against genetically modified food; we find some politicians irresponsible; we prefer Beethoven to rock ‘n’ roll or vice versa; some enjoy bird-watching while others find it boring; and we may think that we have to tighten up on green-house gas emissions. Valuing is pervasive and often we are not even aware that we are valuing. However, many of ourvaluations are ill grounded and rationally defective. They are frequently based on misinformation, sloppy thinking, prejudice, and are biased in many ways as psychological research shows. For this reason there is widespread agreement among phi-losophers that we need an account of substantive valuational rationality, both for the theory of practical reasoning and for ethics as well. My main objectin this paper is to outline such an account and to present a principle that allows a non-technical rational criticism of valuations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wendy Wendy
2014-08-01
Full Text Available This study analyzes the stock investor's rational and irrational behavior formation through Investor's Adaptation model. Hypotheses testings were conducted by manipulating four market conditions using between-subject experimental design. The results supported the hypotheses proposed in this study. When given treatment one (opportunity-high control, investors tended to adapt the proﬁt maximizing strategy (rational. Meanwhile, when given treatment two (opportunity-low control, three (threat-high control and four (threat-low control, they tended to adapt the proﬁt satisfying strategy (rational-emotional, bad news handling strategy (emotional-rational, and self-preserving strategy (irrational respectively. The application of rational strategies are intended to obtain personal beneﬁts and proﬁt, while adapting irrational strategy is intended to recover emotional stability and reduce some other tensions. Another ﬁnding showed that for the investors, the relatively irrational decision formation was "harder" than that of rational.
Saric, Dragomir
2006-01-01
We give a short proof of the fact that bounded earthquakes of the unit disk induce quasisymmetric maps of the unit circle. By a similar method, we show that symmetric maps are induced by bounded earthquakes with asymptotically trivial measures.
Binmore, Ken
2008-01-01
It is widely held that Bayesian decision theory is the final word on how a rational person should make decisions. However, Leonard Savage--the inventor of Bayesian decision theory--argued that it would be ridiculous to use his theory outside the kind of small world in which it is always possible to ""look before you leap."" If taken seriously, this view makes Bayesian decision theory inappropriate for the large worlds of scientific discovery and macroeconomic enterprise. When is it correct to use Bayesian decision theory--and when does it need to be modified? Using a minimum of mathematics,
Krishnan, Hari B; Chen, Ming-Hsuan
2013-06-01
Rice, the staple food of south and east Asian counties, is considered to be hypoallergenic. However, several clinical studies have documented rice-induced allergy in sensitive patients. Rice proteins with molecular weights of 14-16, 26, 33, and 56 kDa have been identified as allergens. Recently, it was documented that the 56 kDa rice allergen was responsible for rice-induced anaphylaxis. The 14-16 kDa allergens have been identified as α-amylase inhibitors; the 26 kDa protein has been identified as α-globulin; and the 33 kDa protein has been identified as glyoxalase I. However, the identity of the 56 kDa rice allergen has not yet been determined. In this study, we demonstrate that serum from patients allergic to maize shows IgE binding to a 56 kDa protein that was present in both maize and rice but not in the oil seeds soybean and peanut. The 56 kDa IgE-binding protein was abundant in the rice endosperm. We have purified this protein from rice endosperm and demonstrated its reactivity to IgE antibodies from the serum of maize-allergic patients. The purified protein was subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, resulting in identification of this rice allergen as granule-bound starch synthase, a product of the Waxy gene. Immunoblot analysis using protein extracts from a waxy mutant of rice revealed the absence of the 56 kDa IgE-binding protein. Our results demonstrate that the 56 kDa rice allergen is granule-bound starch synthase and raise the possibility of using waxy mutants of rice as a potential source of the hypoallergenic diet for patients sensitized to the 56 kDa rice allergen.
Rationalization: A Bibliography.
Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.
Rationalization was studied by Sigmund Freud and was specifically labeled by Ernest Jones. Rationalization ought to be differentiated from rational, rationality, logical analysis, etc. On the one hand, rationalization is considered a defense mechanism, on the other hand, rationality is not. Haan has done much work with self-report inventories and…
Rational inattention or rational overreaction?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Browning, Martin; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Smed, Sinne
We investigate differences in how consumers of fish react to health information in the mass media. We specify a dynamic empirical model that allows for heterogeneity in all basic parameters of consumer behavior as well as in how consumers react to information. We estimate the model using a unique...... houshold panel tracking consumption, prices, news stories and media habits over 24 quarters. We fi nd that the consumers most likely to be ’rationally ignorant’ of health effects react more dramatically to health news than the consumers who most likely are well informed....
Bound entanglement and entanglement bounds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sauer, Simeon [Physikalisch-Astronomische Fakultaet, Friedrich-Schiller-Univesitaet Jena (Germany)]|[Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Strasse 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Melo, Fernando de; Mintert, Florian; Buchleitner, Andreas [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Strasse 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)]|[Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik komplexer Systeme, Noethnitzer Str.38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Bae, Joonwoo [School of Computational Sciences, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 130-012 (Korea); Hiesmayr, Beatrix [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)
2008-07-01
We investigate the separability of Bell-diagonal states of two qutrits. By using lower bounds to algebraically estimate concurrence, we find convex regions of bound entangled states. Some of these regions exactly coincide with the obtained results when employing optimal entanglement witnesses, what shows that the lower bound can serve as a precise detector of entanglement. Some hitherto unknown regions of bound entangled states were discovered with this approach, and delimited efficiently.
有限理性与两层优化问题的通有良定性%Bounded Rationality and Generic Well Posedness of Bi-level Optimization Problems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邓喜才; 郭华华
2012-01-01
In this paper,we define rationality function for upper level optimization problems of two level optimization. Under well posedness for nonlinear problems frame,using the rationality function of upper level optimization problems, we prove upper level optimization problems are generic well posedness. In Baire category sense,majority of upper level optimization problems are Hadamard well posedness and Tykhonov well posedness.%本文定义两层优化问题中上层优化问题的有限理性函数.在非线性问题良定性框架下,使用上层优化问题的有限理性证明上层优化问题的通有良定性,即在Baire分类的意义下,大多数上层优化问题是Hadamard良定的和Tykhonov良定的.
Meat Demand under Rational Habit Persistence
Zhen, Chen; Wohlgenant, Michael K.
2005-01-01
The objective of this paper is to explore the theoretical implications of a meat demand model with rational habits. To introduce consumption dynamics, habit persistence is used to motivate intertemporally related preferences. The impact of food safety information on meat consumption is systematically analyzed. Important differences between myopic habits and rational habits are outlined.
Information Transmission and Rational Inattention
Antonella Tutino
2015-01-01
We study the problem of optimal communication strategy between a fully informed agent and a rationally inattentive agent. The fully informed agent observes a sequence of shocks and transmits a message to the limited-capacity agent who takes a set of actions in response to the message. The problem of the informed agent is to seek the optimal signaling strategy that induces a behavior consistent with minimal welfare loss, uniformly over a given class of bounded utility functions. We characteriz...
Angeles, Jorge
1988-01-01
A rational study of kinematics is a treatment of the subject based on invariants, i.e., quantities that remain essentially unchanged under a change of observer. An observer is understood to be a reference frame supplied with a clock (Truesdell 1966). This study will therefore include an introduction to invariants. The language of these is tensor analysis and multilinear algebra, both of which share many isomorphic relations, These subjects are treated in full detail in Ericksen (1960) and Bowen and Wang (1976), and hence will not be included here. Only a short account of notation and definitions will be presented. Moreover, definitions and basic concepts pertaining to the kinematics of rigid bodies will be also included. Although the kinematics of rigid bodies can be regarded as a particular case of the kinematics of continua, the former deserves attention on its own merits for several reasons. One of these is that it describes locally the motions undergone by continua. Another reason is that a whole area of ...
Sharp Bounds for Symmetric and Asymmetric Diophantine Approximation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Cornelis KRAAIKAMP; Ionica SMEETS
2011-01-01
In 2004,Tong found bounds for the approximation quality of a regular continued fraction convergent to a rational number,expressed in bounds for both the previous and next approximation.The authors sharpen his results with a geometric method and give both sharp upper and lower bounds.The asymptotic frequencies that these bounds occur are also calculated.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trabelsi, T.; Ajili, Y.; Ben Yaghlane, S.; Jaidane, N.-E. [Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Atomique, Moléculaire et Applications–LSAMA, Université de Tunis El Manar, Tunis (Tunisia); Mogren Al-Mogren, M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Francisco, J. S. [Department of Chemistry and Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906 (United States); Hochlaf, M., E-mail: hochlaf@univ-mlv.fr [Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, Université Paris-Est, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 Blvd. Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallée (France)
2015-07-21
We investigate the lowest electronic states of doublet and quartet spin multiplicity states of HNS{sup −} and HSN{sup −} together with their parent neutral triatomic molecules. Computations were performed using highly accurate ab initio methods with a large basis set. One-dimensional cuts of the full-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) along the interatomic distances and bending angle are presented for each isomer. Results show that the ground anionic states are stable with respect to the electron detachment process and that the long range parts of the PESs correlating to the SH{sup −} + N, SN{sup −} + H, SN + H{sup −}, NH + S{sup −}, and NH{sup −} + S are bound. In addition, we predict the existence of long-lived weakly bound anionic complexes that can be formed after cold collisions between SN{sup −} and H or SH{sup −} and N. The implications for the reactivity of these species are discussed; specifically, it is shown that the reactions involving SH{sup −}, SN{sup −}, and NH{sup −} lead either to the formation of HNS{sup −} or HSN{sup −} in their electronic ground states or to autodetachment processes. Thus, providing an explanation for why the anions, SH{sup −}, SN{sup −}, and NH{sup −}, have limiting detectability in astrophysical media despite the observation of their corresponding neutral species. In a biological context, we suggest that HSN{sup −} and HNS{sup −} should be incorporated into H{sub 2}S-assisted heme-catalyzed reduction mechanism of nitrites in vivo.
Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A
2003-01-01
A bound on the nu /sup tau / magnetic moment is calculated through the reaction e/sup +/e/sup -/ to nu nu gamma at the Z/sub 1/-pole, and in the framework of a left-right symmetric model at LEP energies. We find that the bound is almost independent of the mixing angle phi of the model in the allowed experimental range for this parameter. (31 refs).
Rational Suicide and the Crisis of Terminal Illness.
Lokhandwala, Tasneem M.; Westefeld, John S.
1998-01-01
Whether or not suicide may be considered a rational choice for clients with terminal illness is controversial. Rational suicide and the literature and statistics pertaining to suicide and terminal illness are reviewed. Implications of accepting rational suicide as a treatment option, including moral and ethical issues, are addressed. (Author/EMK)
Scarcity of cycles for rational functions over a number field
Canci, J. K.; Vishkautsan, Solomon
2016-01-01
We provide an explicit bound on the number of periodic points of a rational function defined over a number field, where the bound depends only on the number of primes of bad reduction and the degree of the function, and is linear in the degree. More generally, we show that there exists an explicit uniform bound on the number of periodic points for any rational function in a given finitely generated semigroup (under composition) of rational functions of degree at least 2. We show that under st...
On the Number of Rational Points on Prym Varieties over Finite Fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aubry, Yves; Haloui, Safia
2016-01-01
We give upper and lower bounds for the number of rational points on Prym varieties over finite fields. Moreover, we determine the exact maximum and minimum number of rational points on Prym varieties of dimension 2.......We give upper and lower bounds for the number of rational points on Prym varieties over finite fields. Moreover, we determine the exact maximum and minimum number of rational points on Prym varieties of dimension 2....
Rational choice in field archaelology
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Cătălin Pavel
2011-11-01
Full Text Available In the present article I attempt to apply advances in the study of instrumental and epistemic rationality to field archaeology in order to gain insights into the ways archaeologists reason. The cognitive processes, particularly processes of decision making, that enable archaeologists to conduct the excavation in the trench have not been adequately studied so far. I take my cues from two different bodies of theory. I first inquire into the potential that rational choice theory (RCT may have in modeling archaeological behaviour, and I define subjective expected utility, which archaeologists attempt to maximize, in terms of knowledge acquisition and social gain. Following Elster’s criticism of RCT, I conclude that RCT’s standards for rational action do not correspond with those ostensibly used in field archaeology, but that instrumental rationality has a prominent role in the “archaeological experiment”. I further explore if models proposed as reaction to RCT may account for archaeological decision making. I focus on fast and frugal heuristics, and search for archaeological illustrations for some of the cognitive biases that are better documented in psychological literature. I document confirmation and congruence biases, the endowment effect, observer-expectancy bias, illusory correlation, clustering illusion, sunk cost bias, and anchoring, among others and I propose that some of these biases are used as cognitive tools by archaeologists at work and retain epistemic value. However, I find formal logic to be secondary in the development of archaeological reasoning, with default logic and defeasible logic being used instead. I emphasize scientific knowledge as an actively negotiated social product of human inquiry, and conclude that to describe rationality in field archaeology a bounded rationality model is the most promising avenue of investigation.
[Constitutional requirements of rationing].
Kluth, Winfried
2008-01-01
Rationing is an emotive issue in the field of public health. This complicates the rational discourse, which is indispensable for analyzing the rationing conditions as set out by constitutional law and which requires manifold differentiation and consideration that shall briefly be outlined in the following short contribution. Of central significance is the distinction between indirect and direct rationing as well as the reference to the essential responsibility of legislators for rationing decisions. PMID:19004184
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
丁胜红; 吴应宇
2012-01-01
利用不完全契约理论和资源与市场关系,揭示了超额利润市场形成以及组成人本资本的企业内生性人力资本与治理资本（组织资本、关系资本）是企业品的构成要素,并论证人本资本价值决定企业价值。根据无委托代理定义,以完全理性的委托代理为参照系,探索在有限理性人的假设下,探索企业的人本资本价值形成路径及其意义。%Using incomplete contractual theory and the relationship between resources and markets,the author reveals the formation of excess profits market as well as explains that endogenous human capital and management capital（organizational capital,relational capital） of humanism capital are the constituents of enterprise as product.Also it proves that humanism capital determines the enterprise＇s value.According to the definition of non-commissioned agent,this paper explors the formation path of humanism capital value and its significance under the hypothesis of bounded rationality man with reference to fully rational principal-agent.
有限理性下中美投资者对财富和消费偏好的比较研究%Selections of consuming and Investing under Bounded Rationality
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱旭强
2012-01-01
The theories of assets pricing have made a breakthrough under complete rationality hypothesis. However, these theories can not interpret some economical facts perfectly. For example, ＂the puzzle of equity risk premium＂ and ＂consumption-smoothing puzzle＂ are still puzzles. In this paper, with the concept that consumption and wealth are substitutable, the writers put forward a new utility function in order to interpret the relationship of consumption, investment and assets＇ yields. According to the demonstration, the new model can interpret the economical facts very well.%投资和消费是人们最重要的经济决策，而投资和消费的选择是由对财富和消费的偏好决定的。在效用最大化的前提下，构建有限理性的效用函数，来比较中国和美国投资者对于消费和财富的偏好。研究的结果表明，相对中国入而言美国人是更加偏好消费的，而中国人更偏重于财富。这样的差异形成的原因可能在于中国的金融市场发达程度不如美国，中国的社会保障体系不如美国完善。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈姗姗; 陈海; 梁小英; 刘俊新
2012-01-01
利用有限理性理论与方法进行行为决策研究已成为多样化决策研究中的热点。研究微观尺度土地利用变化中农户有限理性行为决策的影响因素,对于揭示农户土地利用驱动因子、调整农户决策行为与优化农业景观格局具有重要的理论与现实意义。论文以陕西省米脂县高西沟村为例,通过构建农户效应收益模型,利用2009—2011年农户调查数据揭示理性最优决策与农户实际决策之间的差异性;利用体现农户行为满意度的Probit模型分析有限理性决策的影响因素。结论为：①高西沟村农户理性最优决策与实际决策差异性较大,说明农户在实践中采用有限理性进行土地利用生产;②构建Probit模型模拟农户满意度决策行为态度,选取的4类变量较好地解释了农户决策的影响因子。其中,农业收入回归系数为0.78、反映相对经济地位下降变量0.41、退耕面积-0.42、耕地面积-0.62、打工收入-0.34、性别0.48、劳动力0.31,均处于显著相关水平。各变量估计结果与理论预测和实际调查结果相符合,具有较强的解释力。%Using the bounded rationality and behavior decision-making mechanism to research human decision-making behavior has become one of the hot-spots in rational diversification of Modern Economics.In this paper,we discussed the influencing factors of peasant household bounded rationality and behavior decision-making in microscopic scale of land use change.A case was studied for Gaoxigou Village of Mizhi County in Shaanxi Province.After establishing the household income expectation model,using 2009-2011 household survey data,the differences between the rational optimal decision and the farmers＇actual decision-making were indentified firstly.Then based on bounded rationality idea,using the Probit model which can better reflect the satisfaction of farmer＇s decision to explain and analyze these differences and the
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave
2013-01-01
We introduce a new operator for general rationing problems in which, besides conflicting claims, individual baselines play an important role in the rationing process. The operator builds onto ideas of composition, which are not only frequent in rationing, but also in related problems...... such as bargaining, choice, and queuing. We characterize the operator and show how it preserves some standard axioms in the literature on rationing. We also relate it to recent contributions in such literature....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hui eWEI
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Identifying the cell wall-ionically bound glycoside hydrolases (GHs in Arabidopsis stems is important for understanding the regulation of cell wall integrity. For cell wall proteomics studies, the preparation of clean cell wall fractions is a challenge since cell walls constitute an open compartment, which is more likely to contain a mixture of intracellular and extracellular proteins due to cell leakage at the late growth stage. Here, we utilize a CaCl2-extraction procedure to isolate non-structural proteins from Arabidopsis whole stems, followed by the in-solution and in-gel digestion methods coupled with Nano-LC-MS/MS, bioinformatics and literature analyses. This has led to the identification of 75 proteins identified using the in-solution method and 236 proteins identified by the in-gel method, among which about 10% of proteins predicted to be secreted. Together, eight cell wall proteins, namely AT1G75040, AT5G26000, AT3G57260, AT4G21650, AT3G52960, AT3G49120, AT5G49360 and AT3G14067, were identified by the in-solution method; among them, three were the GHs (AT5G26000, myrosinase 1, GH1; AT3G57260, β-1,3-glucanase 2, GH17; AT5G49360, bifunctional XYL 1/α-L-arabinofuranosidase, GH3. Moreover, four more GHs: AT4G30270 (xyloglucan endotransferase, GH16, AT1G68560 (bifunctional α-l-arabinofuranosidase/XYL, GH31, AT1G12240 (invertase, GH32 and AT2G28470 (β-galactosidase 8, GH35, were identified by the in-gel solution method only. Notably, more than half of above identified GHs are xylan- or hemicellulose-modifying enzymes, and will likely have an impact on cellulose accessibility, which is a critical factor for downstream enzymatic hydrolysis of plant tissues for biofuels production. The implications of these cell wall proteins identified at the late growth stage for the genetic engineering of bioenergy crops are discussed.
Walsh, Kieran
2016-03-01
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of rationing in medical education. Medical education is expensive and there is a limit to that which governments, funders or individuals can spend on it. Rationing involves the allocation of resources that are limited. This paper discussed the pros and cons of the application of rationing to medical education and the different forms of rationing that could be applied. Even though some stakeholders in medical education might be taken aback at the prospect of rationing, the truth is that rationing has always occurred in one form or another in medical education and in healthcare more broadly. Different types of rationing exist in healthcare professional education. For example rationing may be implicit or explicit or may be based on macro-allocation or micro-allocation decisions. Funding can be distributed equally among learners, or according to the needs of individual learners, or to ensure that overall usefulness is maximised. One final option is to allow the market to operate freely and to decide in that way. These principles of rationing can apply to individual learners or to institutions or departments or learning modes. Rationing is occurring in medical education, even though it might be implicit. It is worth giving consideration to methods of rationing and to make thinking about rationing more explicit. PMID:27358649
On rationally supported surfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gravesen, Jens; Juttler, B.; Sir, Z.
2008-01-01
We analyze the class of surfaces which are equipped with rational support functions. Any rational support function can be decomposed into a symmetric (even) and an antisymmetric (odd) part. We analyze certain geometric properties of surfaces with odd and even rational support functions. In partic...
Rationality and Organization: the Multiple Aspects of an Enigma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Victor Natanael Schwetter Silveira
2008-10-01
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to make a theoretical discussion about the rationality concept and its impacts over the organization’s context. Starting from the philosophical influences by notions of reason and rationality, a brief historical and philosophical approach is making, discussing about the duality of two basics notions: logic (thought and pragmatic (action. On sequence, the rationality concept it’s considered with regard to Weber’s theory ofbureaucracy. After that, the cognitive boundaries of human rationality are considered and the relationships between rationality, legitimacy and institutionalization are overviewed. Finally, rationality is overviewed based on Critical Theory authors like Habermas (1987a, Horkheimer (2002 and Marcuse (1975. In conclusion, this discussion tries to evidence the range and implications of the multiple facets of rationality concept and also brings concepts to go forward the debates about rationality on organizational theory field.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fortenberry, Ryan C. [Department of Chemistry, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460 (United States); Francisco, Joseph S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Lee, Timothy J., E-mail: rfortenberry@georgiasouthern.edu [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000 (United States)
2016-03-10
Proton-bound complexes have been hypothesized as further means of detecting the nitrogen molecule in the interstellar medium. The study of such complexes has largely been hindered by the necessary experimental setups utilized or by their difficulty in producing and/or analyzing computed potential energy surfaces. Here the NN–HCO{sup +} proton-bound complex is analyzed via quartic force fields (QFFs). While QFFs have produced meaningful results for other proton-bound complexes, they have been hindered by double-well potentials or flat potential surfaces. NN–HCO{sup +} is not affected by these constraints. This strongly dipolar (3.63 D) molecule can be observed rotationally unlike the more heavily analyzed OCHCO{sup +} and NNHNN{sup +} proton-bound complexes. Additionally, the large absorption feature corresponding to the proton motion, a hallmark of proton-bound complexes, is much higher in frequency at 2547.1 cm{sup −1}, changing the range of experimental observation for the bright frequency. NN–HCO{sup +} is hypothesized to be present in protoplanetary disks where N{sub 2}H{sup +} and CO are known. As such, it may help to influence the nitrogen budget of planet-forming astronomical regions.
Herbert A. Simon and the concept of rationality: boundaries and procedures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gustavo Barros
2010-09-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses Herbert A. Simon's conception of rationality in two of its principal general definitions: bounded rationality and procedural rationality. It argues that the latter is the one that better synthesizes the author's view about rational behavior and that the former fills mainly a critical function. They are complementarily used by Simon in this sense. In spite of that, it is argued that it is the low degree of specificity of the concept of bounded rationality one of the reasons for its relatively greater success.
Zigrand, Jean-Pierre
2001-01-01
It is often argued that asset prices exhibit patterns incompatible with the behaviour of rational, optimizing agents. This paper proposes a rational framework which generates asset prices which appear irrational. This is accomplished by studying rational expectations equilibria in the presence of two realistic market frictions: immediacy risk (agents have to submit their demand functions before they know the equilibrium price) and asset-specific orders (investors have to submit one seperate d...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
马靖云
2015-01-01
Immanuel Kant made his rational subject of human nature based on the criticism and inheritance of the Hume’s philosophy.Kant made the world dualistic in order to release the land for human activities , he believes that human are dominated and subjected by the law of experience but at the same time , have the ability to practice beyond those experiences and act in the meaning of practical reason .Human are considered as rational subjects with the abili-ty of self-regulations .Human are also considered as goals with the highest purpose of nature that their absolute value cannot be calculated by prices , this is what be called “dignity”.Kant’ s philosophy is filled with the concept of re-spect for humanity and high praise of human independence and autonomy .Starting from the moral concepts , profound legal implications has implied in Kant ’ s philosophy as well .Therefore , Kant ’ s philosophy is in a great meaning for establishing rational behavior ,“people-oriented” legislation and legitimate law based -on common sense.%伊曼努尔·康德在对休谟哲学批判继承的基础上，提出了自己的理性主体的人性观。康德将世界二元化，以便为人性的活动留出地盘，他认为人既受经验的必然规律支配，又可以超越经验，遵循实践理性而行动。人是理性主体，因此具有意志自律的能力。人是目的，并且是自然的最高目的，人具有无法用价格计算的绝对价值，即尊严。康德的哲学充满了对人性的尊重，对人的独立性、自主性的高度赞扬。康德的理性主体观以道德为基点，却隐含了深厚的法律意蕴，对于理性行为准则的确立、“以人为本”的立法关怀、法律立足于普遍意志才能具备合法性的这一法治精神的弘扬均有着不可忽视的重要意义。
Evidence of Rational Addiction to Carbonated Soft Drinks?
Rigoberto A. Lopez; Xiaoou Liu
2012-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to apply the Becker-Murphy theory of rational addiction to the case of carbonated soft drinks. The research aims to reveal the rational addiction evidence of carbonated soft drinks and derive policy implications under this evidence. Consumers' rational addictive evidence for carbonated soft drinks provides a warning for the Chinese government to regulate the industry, due to its bad health consequences. – The authors empirically apply a time-varying parameter mode...
Decision Making: Between Rationality and Reality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marko Polič
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Almost by definition decision-making is typical human activity, and therefore important psychological subject. The starting point of its classical conception within psychology could be traced back to economy and mathematic, with ideas of human as rational economic being, and conceptualising decision making as choice between two or more alternatives, and as such being a separate event in space and time. Already in fifties Herbert Simon challenged such a view with his concept of bounded rationality, emerging from the joint effect of internal limitations of the human mind, and the structure of external environments in which the mind operates. During the last decades with the shift to the real word situations where decisions are embedded in larger tasks, becoming so part of the study of action, the lost rational human appeared again as efficient creature in the complex environment. Gigerenzer showed how heuristics help in this process.
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: Origins, Constructs, and Applications.
Watson, Joshua C.
In 1956, Dr. Albert Ellis presented his seminal work on Rational Therapy, subsequently renamed Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) in 1993. This paper explores the origins, theoretical foundations, applications, and implications of REBT and provides a look at the empirical research available in support of the approach's efficacy. REBT is…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Danny Frederick
2010-02-01
Full Text Available The dominant tradition in Western philosophy sees rationality as dictating. Thus rationality may require that we believe the best explanation and simple conceptual truths and that we infer in accordance with evident rules of inference. I argue that, given what we know about the growth of knowledge, this authoritarian concept of rationality leads to absurdities and should be abandoned. I then outline a libertarian concept of rationality, derived from Popper, which eschews the dictates and which sees a rational agent as one who questions, criticises, conjectures and experiments. I argue that, while the libertarian approach escapes the absurdities of the authoritarian, it requires two significant developments and an important clarification to be made fully consistent with itself.
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J. P. Laceby
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP accident in March 2011 resulted in a significant fallout of radiocesium over the Fukushima region. After reaching the soil surface, radiocesium is almost irreversibly bound to fine soil particles. Thereafter, rainfall and snow melt run-off events transfer particle-bound radiocesium downstream. Erosion models, such as the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE, depict a proportional relationship between rainfall and soil erosion. As radiocesium is tightly bound to fine soil and sediment particles, characterizing the rainfall regime of the fallout-impacted region is fundamental to modelling and predicting radiocesium migration. Accordingly, monthly and annual rainfall data from ~ 60 meteorological stations within a 100 km radius of the FDNPP were analysed. Monthly rainfall erosivity maps were developed for the Fukushima coastal catchments illustrating the spatial heterogeneity of rainfall erosivity in the region. The mean average rainfall in the Fukushima region was 1387 mm yr−1 (σ 230 with the mean rainfall erosivity being 2785 MJ mm ha−1 yr−1 (σ 1359. The results indicate that the majority of rainfall (60 % and rainfall erosivity (86 % occurs between June and October. During the year, rainfall erosivity evolves positively from northwest to southeast in the eastern part of the prefecture, whereas a positive gradient from north to south occurs in July and August, the most erosive months of the year. During the typhoon season, the coastal plain and eastern mountainous areas of the Fukushima prefecture, including a large part of the contamination plume, are most impacted by erosive events. Understanding these rainfall patterns, particularly their spatial and temporal variation, is fundamental to managing soil and particle-bound radiocesium transfers in the Fukushima region. Moreover, understanding the impact of typhoons is important for managing sediment transfers in subtropical regions impacted
Exploring rationality in schizophrenia
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Revsbech, Rasmus; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Owen, Gareth;
2015-01-01
Background Empirical studies of rationality (syllogisms) in patients with schizophrenia have obtained different results. One study found that patients reason more logically if the syllogism is presented through an unusual content. Aims To explore syllogism-based rationality in schizophrenia. Method...... Thirty-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 29 syllogisms that varied in presentation content (ordinary v. unusual) and validity (valid v. invalid). Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in models adjusting for intelligence...... differences became non-significant. Conclusions When taking intelligence and neuropsychological performance into account, patients with schizophrenia and controls perform similarly on syllogism tests of rationality....
Barnes, David
2015-01-01
We show that one can use model categories to construct rational orthogonal calculus. That is, given a continuous functor from vector spaces to based spaces one can construct a tower of approximations to this functor depending only on the rational homology type of the input functor, whose layers are given by rational spectra with an action of $O(n)$. By work of Greenlees and Shipley, we see that these layers are classified by torsion $H^*(B SO(n))[O(n)/SO(n)]$-modules.
Aroonkesorn, Aratee; Pootanakit, Kusol; Katzenmeier, Gerd; Angsuthanasombat, Chanan
2015-05-29
The interaction between Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins and their receptors on midgut cells of susceptible insect larvae is the critical determinant in toxin specificity. Besides GPI-linked alkaline phosphatase in Aedes aegypti mosquito-larval midguts, membrane-bound aminopeptidase N (AaeAPN) is widely thought to serve as a Cry4Ba receptor. Here, two full-length AaeAPN isoforms, AaeAPN2778 and AaeAPN2783, predicted to be GPI-linked were cloned and successfully expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells as 112- and 107-kDa membrane-bound proteins, respectively. In the cytotoxicity assay, Sf9 cells expressing each of the two AaeAPN isoforms showed increased sensitivity to the Cry4Ba mosquito-active toxin. Double immunolocalization revealed specific binding of Cry4Ba to each individual AaeAPN expressed on the cell membrane surface. Sequence analysis and homology-based modeling placed these two AaeAPNs to the M1 aminopeptidase family as they showed similar four-domain structures, with the most conserved domain II being the catalytic component. Additionally, the most variable domain IV containing negatively charged surface patches observed only in dipteran APNs could be involved in insect specificity. Overall results demonstrated that these two membrane-bound APN isoforms were responsible for mediating Cry4Ba toxicity against AaeAPN-expressed Sf9 cells, suggesting their important role as functional receptors for the toxin counterpart in A. aegypti mosquito larvae. PMID:25871797
Crab Rationalization Permit Program
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Crab Rationalization Program (Program) allocates BSAI crab resources among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities. The North Pacific Fishery Management...
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Janusz J. Charatonik
1994-05-01
Full Text Available Spaces which are metrizable completions of the space Q of rationals are described. A characterization of metrizable spaces having the same family of metrizable completions as Q is deduced.
Uncertainty, rationality, and agency
Hoek, Wiebe van der
2006-01-01
Goes across 'classical' borderlines of disciplinesUnifies logic, game theory, and epistemics and studies them in an agent-settingCombines classical and novel approaches to uncertainty, rationality, and agency
[Concepts of rational taxonomy].
Pavlinov, I Ia
2011-01-01
The problems are discussed related to development of concepts of rational taxonomy and rational classifications (taxonomic systems) in biology. Rational taxonomy is based on the assumption that the key characteristic of rationality is deductive inference of certain partial judgments about reality under study from other judgments taken as more general and a priory true. Respectively, two forms of rationality are discriminated--ontological and epistemological ones. The former implies inference of classifications properties from general (essential) properties of the reality being investigated. The latter implies inference of the partial rules of judgments about classifications from more general (formal) rules. The following principal concepts of ontologically rational biological taxonomy are considered: "crystallographic" approach, inference of the orderliness of organismal diversity from general laws of Nature, inference of the above orderliness from the orderliness of ontogenetic development programs, based on the concept of natural kind and Cassirer's series theory, based on the systemic concept, based on the idea of periodic systems. Various concepts of ontologically rational taxonomy can be generalized by an idea of the causal taxonomy, according to which any biologically sound classification is founded on a contentwise model of biological diversity that includes explicit indication of general causes responsible for that diversity. It is asserted that each category of general causation and respective background model may serve as a basis for a particular ontologically rational taxonomy as a distinctive research program. Concepts of epistemologically rational taxonomy and classifications (taxonomic systems) can be interpreted in terms of application of certain epistemological criteria of substantiation of scientific status of taxonomy in general and of taxonomic systems in particular. These concepts include: consideration of taxonomy consistency from the
Gee, Graham; Webber, Grégoire C. N.
2013-01-01
Rationalism is ‘the stylistic criterion of all respectable politics’. So lamented political philosopher Michael Oakeshott in a series of essays published in the 1940s and 1950s. Rationalism, for Oakeshott, is shorthand for a propensity to prioritise the universal over the local, the uniform over the particular and, ultimately, principle over practice. It culminates in the triumph of abstract principles over practical knowledge in a manner that erodes our ability to engage in political activit...
Social Rationality as a Unified Model of Man (Including Bounded Rationality)
Lindenberg, Siegwart
2001-01-01
In 1957, Simon published a collection of his essays under the title of “Models of Man: Social and Rational”. In the preface, he explains the choice for this title: All of the essays “are concerned with laying foundations for a science of man that will comfortably accommodate his dual nature as a soc
The epistemic value of rationality
Alexandru W. A. POPP
2008-01-01
Models of rational choice use different definitions of rationality. However, there is no clear description of the latter. We recognize rationality as a conceptual conglomerate where reason, judgment, deliberation, relativity, behavior, experience, and pragmatism interact. Using our definition, the game theoretic idealized principle of rationality becomes absolute. Our model gives a more precise account of the players, of their true behavior. We show that the Rational Method (RM) is the only p...
[What did bachelard mean by "applied rationalism" ?].
Tiles, Mary
2013-01-01
Bachelard was concerned with the processes whereby scientific knowledge is acquired, including the activity of knowing subjects. He did not equate reasoning with logic but rather argued that reasoning resulted from the use of mathematics in organizing both thought and experimental practices, which is why he conceived science as applied mathematics. This had material and technical implications, for Bachelard was concerned with the element of reason inherent in technical materialism as well as the concrete reality inherent in applied rationalism. PMID:24091650
[What did bachelard mean by "applied rationalism" ?].
Tiles, Mary
2013-01-01
Bachelard was concerned with the processes whereby scientific knowledge is acquired, including the activity of knowing subjects. He did not equate reasoning with logic but rather argued that reasoning resulted from the use of mathematics in organizing both thought and experimental practices, which is why he conceived science as applied mathematics. This had material and technical implications, for Bachelard was concerned with the element of reason inherent in technical materialism as well as the concrete reality inherent in applied rationalism.
Adaptive Rationality, Adaptive Behavior and Institutions
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Volchik Vyacheslav, V.
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The economic literature focused on understanding decision-making and choice processes reveals a vast collection of approaches to human rationality. Theorists’ attention has moved from absolutely rational, utility-maximizing individuals to boundedly rational and adaptive ones. A number of economists have criticized the concepts of adaptive rationality and adaptive behavior. One of the recent trends in the economic literature is to consider humans irrational. This paper offers an approach which examines adaptive behavior in the context of existing institutions and constantly changing institutional environment. It is assumed that adaptive behavior is a process of evolutionary adjustment to fundamental uncertainty. We emphasize the importance of actors’ engagement in trial and error learning, since if they are involved in this process, they obtain experience and are able to adapt to existing and new institutions. The paper aims at identifying relevant institutions, adaptive mechanisms, informal working rules and practices that influence actors’ behavior in the field of Higher Education in Russia (Rostov Region education services market has been taken as an example. The paper emphasizes the application of qualitative interpretative methods (interviews and discourse analysis in examining actors’ behavior.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bruyere, Emilie; Jonckheere, Nicolas; Frenois, Frederic [Inserm, UMR837, Jean-Pierre Aubert Research Center, Team 5 ' Mucins, Epithelial Differentiation and Carcinogenesis' , rue Polonovski, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Universite Lille-Nord de France, 1 place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Mariette, Christophe [Inserm, UMR837, Jean-Pierre Aubert Research Center, Team 5 ' Mucins, Epithelial Differentiation and Carcinogenesis' , rue Polonovski, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Universite Lille-Nord de France, 1 place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Department of Digestive and Oncological Surgery, University Hospital Claude Huriez, 1 place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Van Seuningen, Isabelle, E-mail: isabelle.vanseuningen@inserm.fr [Inserm, UMR837, Jean-Pierre Aubert Research Center, Team 5 ' Mucins, Epithelial Differentiation and Carcinogenesis' , rue Polonovski, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Universite Lille-Nord de France, 1 place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France)
2011-09-23
Highlights: {yields} Loss of MUC4 reduces proliferation of esophageal cancer cells. {yields} MUC4 inhibition impairs migration of esophageal cancer cells but not their invasion. {yields} Loss of MUC4 significantly reduces in vivo tumor growth. {yields} Decrease of S100A4 induced by MUC4 inhibition impairs proliferation and migration. -- Abstract: MUC4 is a membrane-bound mucin known to participate in tumor progression. It has been shown that MUC4 pattern of expression is modified during esophageal carcinogenesis, with a progressive increase from metaplastic lesions to adenocarcinoma. The principal cause of development of esophageal adenocarcinoma is the gastro-esophageal reflux, and MUC4 was previously shown to be upregulated by several bile acids present in reflux. In this report, our aim was thus to determine whether MUC4 plays a role in biological properties of human esophageal cancer cells. For that stable MUC4-deficient cancer cell lines (shMUC4 cells) were established using a shRNA approach. In vitro (proliferation, migration and invasion) and in vivo (tumor growth following subcutaneous xenografts in SCID mice) biological properties of shMUC4 cells were analyzed. Our results show that shMUC4 cells were less proliferative, had decreased migration properties and did not express S100A4 protein when compared with MUC4 expressing cells. Absence of MUC4 did not impair shMUC4 invasiveness. Subcutaneous xenografts showed a significant decrease in tumor size when cells did not express MUC4. Altogether, these data indicate that MUC4 plays a key role in proliferative and migrating properties of esophageal cancer cells as well as is a tumor growth promoter. MUC4 mucin appears thus as a good therapeutic target to slow-down esophageal tumor progression.
Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A; Lee, Shanique J
2013-08-01
Elements of social norm theory and communication theory on the third-person effect may prove useful in efforts to prevent excessive weight gain among emerging adults entering college. The present study explored the associations of race/ethnicity and BMI status with these socio-cognitive factors that may affect first-year weight regulation in a sample of Black (N = 247) and White (N = 94) college-bound females. Participants completed an online survey assessing first-year weight-gain perceived norms along with weight-change expectations and concerns. Results provided evidence of the persistence of the myth of the "Freshman 15", belief in the typicality of gaining weight during the first year of college, and significant concern about first-year weight gain. Initial findings further revealed a robust third-person effect whereby despite nearly 90% of the sample endorsing that first-year weight gain was common, only 12% expected they would experience weight gain. Main effects of race/ethnicity, BMI status, and their interaction further uncovered distinct patterns of findings. Preliminary results highlight the need for college health officials at both predominantly White as well as minority-serving institutions to adequately address the significant concern over first-year weight gain in conjunction with the desire to lose weight expressed by an appreciable number of incoming college females. Findings also advocate the utility of evaluating social norm theory and the third-person perceptual bias in the context of first-year weight gain to potentially enhance the design and effectiveness of healthy weight management initiatives among ethnically-diverse young women entering college. PMID:23910760
Strategic environmental assessment and the limits to rationality in decision making processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kørnøv, Lone
The paper focueses on the subject of rationality in decision making processes and the implications for the integration of SEA.......The paper focueses on the subject of rationality in decision making processes and the implications for the integration of SEA....
Wang, Shuai; Dupin, Lucie; Noël, Mathieu; Carroux, Cindy J; Renaud, Louis; Géhin, Thomas; Meyer, Albert; Souteyrand, Eliane; Vasseur, Jean-Jacques; Vergoten, Gérard; Chevolot, Yann; Morvan, François; Vidal, Sébastien
2016-08-01
Anti-infectious strategies against pathogen infections can be achieved through antiadhesive strategies by using multivalent ligands of bacterial virulence factors. LecA and LecB are lectins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa implicated in biofilm formation. A series of 27 LecA-targeting glycoclusters have been synthesized. Nine aromatic galactose aglycons were investigated with three different linker arms that connect the central mannopyranoside core. A low-nanomolar (Kd =19 nm, microarray) ligand with a tyrosine-based linker arm could be identified in a structure-activity relationship study. Molecular modeling of the glycoclusters bound to the lectin tetramer was also used to rationalize the binding properties observed.
Ockenfels, A.; Raub, W.
2010-01-01
Zusammenfassung: Das „Standardmodell“ des Rational Choices-Ansatzes, das Modell des homo oeconomicus, unterstellt rationales und eigennütziges Verhalten. Das Standardmodell hat manche Vorzüge, aber es gibt auch empirische Regelmäßigkeiten, die diesem Modell widersprechen. Wir behandeln experimentell
Ideal Theory, Real Rationality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Flyvbjerg, Bent
Understanding rationality and power are key to understanding actual political and administrative behavior. Political and administrative theory that ignores this fact stand in danger of being at best irrelevant or, at worst part of the problem it whishes to solve. The paper presents Jürgen Habermas...
Cognition, Technology and Rationality Interview to Eduardo Broncano
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Fernando Broncano
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Cognition, technology and rationality are directly bound and constitute three domains of study. In the present paper we pretend to clarify some of the main general relationships which allow such binding. Thus, it specifies some relevant topics to frame a non-reductionist comprehension of such relationships
Miner, Kyle D; Pfister, Thomas D; Hosseinzadeh, Parisa; Karaduman, Nadime; Donald, Lynda J; Loewen, Peter C; Lu, Yi; Ivancich, Anabella
2014-06-17
The location of the Trp radical and the catalytic function of the [Fe(IV)═O Trp₁₉₁(•+)] intermediate in cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) are well-established; however, the unambiguous identification of the site(s) for the formation of tyrosyl radical(s) and their possible biological roles remain elusive. We have now performed a systematic investigation of the location and reactivity of the Tyr radical(s) using multifrequency Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy combined with multiple-site Trp/Tyr mutations in CcP. Two tyrosines, Tyr71 and Tyr236, were identified as those contributing primarily to the EPR spectrum of the tyrosyl radical, recorded at 9 and 285 GHz. The EPR characterization also showed that the heme distal-side Trp51 is involved in the intramolecular electron transfer between Tyr71 and the heme and that formation of Tyr₇₁(•) and Tyr₂₃₆(•) is independent of the [Fe(IV)═O Trp₁₉₁(•+)] intermediate. Tyr71 is located in an optimal position to mediate the oxidation of substrates binding at a site, more than 20 Å from the heme, which has been reported recently in the crystal structures of CcP with bound guaicol and phenol [Murphy, E. J., et al. (2012) FEBS J. 279, 1632-1639]. The possibility of discriminating the radical intermediates by their EPR spectra allowed us to identify Tyr₇₁(•) as the reactive species with the guaiacol substrate. Our assignment of the surface-exposed Tyr236 as the other radical site agrees well with previous studies based on MNP labeling and protein cross-linking [Tsaprailis, G., and English, A. M. (2003) JBIC, J. Biol. Inorg. Chem. 8, 248-255] and on its covalent modification upon reaction of W191G CcP with 2-aminotriazole [Musah, R. A., and Goodin, D. B. (1997) Biochemistry 36, 11665-11674]. Accordingly, while Tyr71 acts as a true reactive intermediate for the oxidation of certain small substrates that bind at a site remote from the heme, the surface-exposed Tyr236 would be more
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scattering of a particle by bound nucleons is discussed. Effects of nucleons that are bound in a nucleus are taken as a structure function. The way how to calculate the structure function is given. (author)
Rational management of epilepsy.
Viswanathan, Venkataraman
2014-09-01
Management of epilepsies in children has improved considerably over the last decade, all over the world due to the advances seen in the understanding of the patho-physiology of epileptogenesis, availability of both structural and functional imaging studies along with better quality EEG/video-EEG recordings and the availability of a plethora of newer anti-epileptic drugs which are tailormade to act on specific pathways. In spite of this, there is still a long way to go before one is able to be absolutely rational about which drug to use for which type of epilepsy. There have been a lot of advances in the area of epilepsy surgery and is certainly gaining ground for specific cases. Better understanding of the genetic basis of epilepsies will hopefully lead to a more rational treatment plan in the future. Also, a lot of work needs to be done to dispel various misunderstandings and myths about epilepsy which still exists in our country.
Lower Bound of Electrical Conductivity from Holography
Ge, Xian-Hui; Wu, Shao-Feng
2015-01-01
We propose a universal lower bound of dc electrical conductivity in rotational- and translational- symmetries breaking systems via the holographic duality. This bound predicts that BTZ-black brane can be easily used to realize linear temperature resistivity. We also construct an anisotropic black brane solution, which yields linear temperature for the in-plane resistivity and insulating behavior for the out-of-plane resistivity. Ultimately, we discuss its implications in experiments.
Game interrupted: The rationality of considering the future
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brandon Almy
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The ``problem of points'', introduced by Paccioli in 1494 and solved by Pascal and Fermat 160 years later, inspired the modern concept of probability. Incidentally, the problem also shows that rational decision-making requires the consideration of future events. We show that naive responses to the problem of points are more future oriented and thus more rational in this sense when the problem itself is presented in a future frame instead of the canonical past frame. A simple nudge is sufficient to make decisions more rational. We consider the implications of this finding for hypothesis testing and predictions of replicability.
Caticha, Ariel
2009-12-01
Some criticisms that have been raised against the Cox approach to probability theory are addressed. Should we use a single real number to measure a degree of rational belief? Can beliefs be compared? Are the Cox axioms obvious? Are there counterexamples to Cox? Rather than justifying Cox's choice of axioms we follow a different path and derive the sum and product rules of probability theory as the unique (up to regraduations) consistent representations of the Boolean AND and OR operations.
Caticha, Ariel
2009-01-01
Some criticisms that have been raised against the Cox approach to probability theory are addressed. Should we use a single real number to measure a degree of rational belief? Can beliefs be compared? Are the Cox axioms obvious? Are there counterexamples to Cox? Rather than justifying Cox's choice of axioms we follow a different path and derive the sum and product rules of probability theory as the unique (up to regraduations) consistent representations of the Boolean and and or operations.
Variance bounding Markov chains
Roberts, Gareth O.; Jeffrey S. Rosenthal
2008-01-01
We introduce a new property of Markov chains, called variance bounding. We prove that, for reversible chains at least, variance bounding is weaker than, but closely related to, geometric ergodicity. Furthermore, variance bounding is equivalent to the existence of usual central limit theorems for all L2 functionals. Also, variance bounding (unlike geometric ergodicity) is preserved under the Peskun order. We close with some applications to Metropolis–Hastings algorithms.
Rational cuspidal curves with four cusps on Hirzebruch surfaces
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Torgunn Karoline Moe
2014-10-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to shed light on the question of how many and what kind of cusps a rational cuspidal curve on a Hirzebruch surface can have. Our main result is a list of rational cuspidal curves with four cusps, their type, cuspidal congurations and the surfaces they lie on. We use birational transformations to construct these curves. Moreover, we find a general expression for and compute the Euler characteristic of the logarithmic tangent sheaf in these cases. Additionally, we show that there exists a real rational cuspidal curve with four real cusps. Last, we show that for rational cuspidal curves with two or more cusps on a Hirzebruch surface, there is a lower bound on one of the multiplicities.
Probability and rational choice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Botting
2014-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper I will discuss the rationality of reasoning about the future. There are two things that we might like to know about the future: which hypotheses are true and what will happen next. To put it in philosophical language, I aim to show that there are methods by which inferring to a generalization (selecting a hypothesis and inferring to the next instance (singular predictive inference can be shown to be normative and the method itself shown to be rational, where this is due in part to being based on evidence (although not in the same way and in part on a prior rational choice. I will also argue that these two inferences have been confused, being distinct not only conceptually (as nobody disputes but also in their results (the value given to the probability of the hypothesis being not in general that given to the next instance and that methods that are adequate for one are not by themselves adequate for the other. A number of debates over method founder on this confusion and do not show what the debaters think they show.
Sequential rationalization of multivalued choice
García Sanz, María Dolores; Rodríguez Alcantud, José Carlos
2015-01-01
[EN]This paper contributes to the theory of rational choice under sequential criteria. Following the approach initiated by Manzini and Mariotti (2007) for single-valued choice functions, we characterize choice correspondences that are rational by two sequential criteria under a mild consistency axiom. Rationales ensuring the sequential rationalization are explicitly constructed and a uniquely determined, canonical solution is provided.
The RHMC algorithm for theories with unknown spectral bounds
Kogut, J B
2006-01-01
The Rational Hybrid Monte Carlo (RHMC) algorithm extends the Hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm for lattice QCD simulations to situations involving fractional powers of the determinant of the quadratic Dirac operator. This avoids the updating increment ($dt$) dependence of observables which plagues the Hybrid Molecular-dynamics (HMD) method. The RHMC algorithm uses rational approximations to fractional powers of the quadratic Dirac operator. Such approximations are only available when positive upper and lower bounds to the operator's spectrum are known. We apply the RHMC algorithm to simulations of 2 theories for which a positive lower spectral bound is unknown: lattice QCD with staggered quarks at finite isospin chemical potential and lattice QCD with massless staggered quarks and chiral 4-fermion interactions ($\\chi$QCD). A choice of lower bound is made in each case, and the properties of the RHMC simulations these define are studied. Justification of our choices of lower bounds is made by comparing measurements ...
Bounds on Two-Phase Frictional Pressure Gradient and Void Fraction in Circular Pipes
Awad, M M; Muzychka, Y. S.
2014-01-01
Simple rules are developed for obtaining rational bounds for two-phase frictional pressure gradient and void fraction in circular pipes. The bounds are based on turbulent-turbulent flow assumption. Both the lower and upper bounds for frictional pressure gradient are based on the separate cylinders formulation. For frictional pressure gradient, the lower bound is based on the separate cylinders formulation that uses the Blasius equation to represent the Fanning friction factor while the upper ...
On the rationality of Manx crabs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tove Ahlbom
2014-05-01
Full Text Available This paper accepts the challenge posed by Godfrey Baldacchino in “Islands and despots”, published in Commonwealth & Comparative Politics in February 2012, to acknowledge and investigate the implications of the “expressions of harmony and solidarity” often observed in small island societies. To do so, aspects of the Isle of Man’s political and social life are discussed from the perspectives of popular rule and rationality. This paper argues that a homogeneity in preferences and the political practices of small island states might be a rational way of protecting a vulnerable economy and thus ensuring economic growth and a sufficient allocation to each island resident of the scarce resources required to survive. Such small island homogeneity and consensualism is therefore not necessarily indicating a deficient democratic practice, but might just connote another way of conducting democratic governance, spawned from a particular way of living and a particular range of needs
Physical Uncertainty Bounds (PUB)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vaughan, Diane Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Dean L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-03-19
This paper introduces and motivates the need for a new methodology for determining upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulations of engineered systems due to limited fidelity in the composite continuum-level physics models needed to simulate the systems. We show that traditional uncertainty quantification methods provide, at best, a lower bound on this uncertainty. We propose to obtain bounds on the simulation uncertainties by first determining bounds on the physical quantities or processes relevant to system performance. By bounding these physics processes, as opposed to carrying out statistical analyses of the parameter sets of specific physics models or simply switching out the available physics models, one can obtain upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulated quantities of interest.
Rational-slice Knots via Strongly Negative-amphicheiral Knots
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
KAWAUCHI AKIO
2009-01-01
We show that certain satellite knots of every strongly negative-amphicheiral rational knot are rational-slice knots. This proof also shows that the 0-surgery man-ifold of a certain strongly negative amphicheiral knot such as the figure-eight knot bounds a compact oriented smooth 4-manifold homotopy equivalent to the 2-sphere such that a second homology class of the 4-manifold is represented by a smoothly embedded 2-sphere if and only if the modulo two reduction of it is zero.
Affine and quasi-affine frames for rational dilations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bownik, Marcin; Lemvig, Jakob
2011-01-01
, the corresponding family of quasi-affine systems are frames with uniform frame bounds. We also prove a similar equivalence result between pairs of dual affine frames and dual quasi-affine frames. Finally, we uncover some fundamental differences between the integer and rational settings by exhibiting an example......In this paper we extend the investigation of quasi-affine systems, which were originally introduced by Ron and Shen [J. Funct. Anal. 148 (1997), 408-447] for integer, expansive dilations, to the class of rational, expansive dilations. We show that an affine system is a frame if, and only if...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Emiris, Ioannis Z.; Mourrain, Bernard; Tsigaridas, Elias
2010-01-01
) resultant by means of mixed volume, as well as recent advances on aggregate root bounds for univariate polynomials, and are applicable to arbitrary positive dimensional systems. We improve upon Canny's gap theorem [7] by a factor of O(dn-1), where d bounds the degree of the polynomials, and n is the number...... bound on the number of steps that subdivision-based algorithms perform in order to isolate all real roots of a polynomial system. This leads to the first complexity bound of Milne's algorithm [22] in 2D....
Kassotakis, Pavlos; Nieszporski, Maciej; Damianou, Pantelis
2015-01-01
We present a natural extension of the notion of nondegenerate rational maps (quadrirational maps) to arbitrary dimensions. We refer to these maps as $2^n-$rational maps. In this note we construct a rich family of $2^n-$rational maps. These maps by construction are involutions and highly symmetric in the sense that the maps and their companion maps have the same functional form.
Rational Bubbles in Stock Prices?
Behzad T. Diba; Grossman, Herschel I.
1985-01-01
This paper reports empirical tests for the existence of rational bubbles in stock prices. The analysis focuses on a familiar model that defines market fundamentals to be the expected present value of dividends, discounted at a constantrate, and defines a rational bubble to be a self-confirming divergence of stock prices from market fundamentals in response to extraneous variables. The tests are based on the theoretical result that, if rational bubbles exist, time series obtained by differenci...
Credit rationing and firm size
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. CALCAGNINI
2013-10-01
Full Text Available This paper examines the likelihood of credit rationing faced by firms of different size. Contrary to common thought, several recent contributions on this topic argue that, when rationing credit, size alone is not a sufficient condition for discriminating between firms. We show that this result can be predicted using a framework based on the Stiglitz-Weiss model. In particular, in an environment of asymmetric information, we highlight how the likelihood of credit rationing depends upon the shape of the distribution function of project returns, especially its asymmetry and Kurtosis. Our empirical results do not support the hypothesis that small firms face more credit rationing than larger firms.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
In Between Magic and Rationality, Vibeke Steffen, Steffen Jöhncke, and Kirsten Marie Raahauge bring together a diverse range of ethnographies that examine and explore the forms of reflection, action, and interaction that govern the ways different contemporary societies create and challenge...... the limits of reason. The essays here visit an impressive array of settings, including international scientific laboratories, British spiritualist meetings, Chinese villages, Danish rehabilitation centers, and Uzbeki homes, where they encounter a diverse assortment of people whose beliefs and concerns...... exhibit an unusual but central contemporary dichotomy: scientific reason versus spiritual/paranormal belief. Exploring the paradoxical way these modes of thought push against reason's boundaries, they offer a deep look at the complex ways they coexist, contest one another, and are ultimately intertwined....
Hegel's phenomenology of rationality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huggler, Jørgen
2009-01-01
The aim of this chapter is to elucidate Hegel's conception of rationality in the Phänomenologie des Geistes (1807), and to defend the thesis that he is an author engaged in discussion with a wide variety of sources. He uses sceptical reasoning to form a line of argument with a necessary progression......, although the various materials that he considers are not linked in a simple, compelling logical way. The paper discusses what Hegel aimed at and the methods he used to reach his goal (sect. 1). These considerations are then used to cast an eye on the development of the contents of the book (sect. 2). Last......, the paper presents a metaphysical interpretation of the course of experiences and discusses why Hegel's sceptical method is adequate to the metaphysics of spirit with which the book concludes (sect. 3)....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marie-France Benoit
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Ce texte présente le point de vue général de la CSN (Confédération des syndicats nationaux, Québec sur les questions touchant l’égalité hommes-femmes, ainsi que la conciliation travail-famille, dans le cadre du projet de recherche comparatif France-Québec sur la gouvernance de la conciliation travail-famille.This paper presents the point of view of la CSN (Confédération des syndicats nationaux, Québec on the issues of equality between men and women as well as work-family reconciliation, in the context of the comparative research project between France and Québec on the governance of work-family reconciliation.
de Rham, Claudia; Tolley, Andrew J; Zhou, Shuang-Yong
2016-01-01
Recently, aLIGO has announced the first direct detections of gravitational waves, a direct manifestation of the propagating degrees of freedom of gravity. The detected signals GW150914 and GW151226 have been used to examine the basic properties of these gravitational degrees of freedom, particularly setting an upper bound on their mass. It is timely to review what the mass of these gravitational degrees of freedom means from the theoretical point of view, particularly taking into account the recent developments in constructing consistent massive gravity theories. Apart from the GW150914 mass bound, a few other observational bounds have been established from the effects of the Yukawa potential, modified dispersion relation and fifth force that are all induced when the fundamental gravitational degrees of freedom are massive. We review these different mass bounds and examine how they stand in the wake of recent theoretical developments and how they compare to the bound from GW150914.
Heegaard Floer genus bounds for Dehn surgeries on knots
Jabuka, Stanislav
2012-01-01
We provide a new obstruction for a rational homology 3-sphere to arise by Dehn surgery on a given knot in the 3-sphere. The obstruction takes the form of an inequality involving the genus of the knot, the surgery coefficient, and a count of L-structures on the 3-manifold, that is spin-c structures with the simplest possible associated Heegaard Floer group. Applications include an obstruction for two framed knots to yield the same 3-manifold, an obstruction that is particularly effective when working with families of framed knots. We introduce the rational and integral Dehn surgery genera for a rational homology 3-sphere, and use our inequality to provide bounds, and in some cases exact values, for these genera. We also demonstrate that the difference between the integral and rational Dehn surgery genera can be arbitrarily large.
Multicolor Bound Soliton Molecule
Luo, Rui; Lin, Qiang
2015-01-01
We show a new class of bound soliton molecule that exists in a parametrically driven nonlinear optical cavity with appropriate dispersion characteristics. The composed solitons exhibit distinctive colors but coincide in time and share a common phase, bound together via strong inter-soliton four-wave mixing and Cherenkov radiation. The multicolor bound soliton molecule shows intriguing spectral locking characteristics and remarkable capability of spectrum management to tailor soliton frequencies, which may open up a great avenue towards versatile generation and manipulation of multi-octave spanning phase-locked Kerr frequency combs, with great potential for applications in frequency metrology, optical frequency synthesis, and spectroscopy.
Taranu, Victoria; VERBEECK, Griet
2016-01-01
Mobilization for energy renovation. The commonly used policies to encourage the uptake of energy efficient measures in renovations are mostly based on monetary incentives and information provision. Both these approaches have the underlying assumption that dwellers act exclusively as rational homo economicus, who has unlimited intellectual capabilities to calculate long term ROI. However, recent findings show evidence that people have bounded rationality and bounded willpower. A survey was...
Implicitization of rational maps
Botbol, Nicolas
2011-01-01
Motivated by the interest in computing explicit formulas for resultants and discriminants initiated by B\\'ezout, Cayley and Sylvester in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and emphasized in the latest years due to the increase of computing power, we focus on the implicitization of hypersurfaces in several contexts. Our approach is based on the use of linear syzygies by means of approximation complexes, following [Bus\\'e Jouanolou 03], where they develop the theory for a rational map $f:P^{n-1}\\dashrightarrow P^n$. Approximation complexes were first introduced by Herzog, Simis and Vasconcelos in [Herzog Simis Vasconcelos 82] almost 30 years ago. The main obstruction for this approximation complex-based method comes from the bad behavior of the base locus of $f$. Thus, it is natural to try different compatifications of $A^{n-1}$, that are better suited to the map $f$, in order to avoid unwanted base points. With this purpose, in this thesis we study toric compactifications $T$ for $A^{n-1}$. We provide re...
Rationality in a general model of choice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Somdeb Lahiri
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper we consider choice correspondences which may be empty-valued. We study conditions under which such choice correspondences are rational, transitively rational, partially rational, partially almost transitive rational, partially almost quasi-transitive rational. This provides fresh impetus and understanding of multi-criteria decision making.
Rational offset approximation of rational Bézier curves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHENG Min; WANG Guo-jin
2006-01-01
The problem of parametric speed approximation of a rational curve is raised in this paper. Offset curves are widely used in various applications. As for the reason that in most cases the offset curves do not preserve the same polynomial or rational polynomial representations, it arouses difficulty in applications. Thus approximation methods have been introduced to solve this problem. In this paper, it has been pointed out that the crux of offset curve approximation lies in the approximation of parametric speed. Based on the Jacobi polynomial approximation theory with endpoints interpolation, an algebraic rational approximation algorithm of offset curve, which preserves the direction of normal, is presented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Leo, Stefano [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Campinas, PO Box 6065, SP 13083-970, Campinas (Brazil); Ducati, Gisele C [Department of Mathematics, University of Parana PO Box 19081, PR 81531-970, Curitiba (Brazil)
2005-04-15
We study the bound-state solutions of vanishing angular momentum in a quaternionic spherical square-well potential of finite depth. As in standard quantum mechanics, such solutions occur for discrete values of energy. At first glance, it seems that the continuity conditions impose a very restrictive constraint on the energy eigenvalues and, consequently, no bound states were expected for energy values below the pure quaternionic potential. Nevertheless, a careful analysis shows that pure quaternionic potentials do not remove bound states. It is also interesting to compare these new solutions with the bound state solutions of the trial-complex potential. The study presented in this paper represents a preliminary step towards a full understanding of the role that quaternionic potentials could play in quantum mechanics. Of particular interest for the authors is the analysis of confined wave packets and tunnelling times in this new formulation of quantum theory.
Fields of algebraic numbers with bounded local degrees and their properties
Checcoli, Sara
2010-01-01
We provide a characterization of infinite algebraic Galois extensions of the rationals with uniformly bounded local degrees, giving a detailed proof of all the results announced in a paper by Checcoli and Zannier and obtaining relevant generalizations for them. In particular we show that that for an infinite Galois extension of the rationals the following three properties are equivalent: having uniformly bounded local degrees at every prime; having uniformly bounded local degrees at almost every prime; having Galois group of finite exponent. The proof of this result enlightens interesting connections with Zelmanov's work on the Restricted Burnside Problem. We give a formula to explicitly compute bounds for the local degrees of a infinite extension in some special cases. We relate the uniform boundedness of the local degrees to other properties: being a subfield of the compositum of all number fields of bounded degree; being generated by elements of bounded degree. We prove that the above properties are equiva...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniela Ribeiro Schneider
2010-05-01
Full Text Available O artigo refere-se à discussão de pesquisa baseada em metodologia de análise de conteúdo, cuja meta é explicitar o horizonte de racionalidade dos serviços de atenção aos usuários de álcool e outras drogas na Região da Grande Florianópolis, objetivando contribuir no estabelecimento de parâmetros qualitativos na avaliação de serviços de saúde. Verificou-se a existência de concepção hegemônica acerca do fenômeno da dependência de drogas e do modo de intervenção no fenômeno, síntese de racionalidades diversas e, algumas vezes, contraditórias entre si. Tal concepção centra seu modelo na noção de doença, na meta da abstinência, no busca do controle sobre a adição, operando dispositivos médico-terapêuticos e morais. Nas raízes desta concepção, encontra-se uma perspectiva subjetivista, moralista e psicopatologizante, constituindo-se em visão ahistórica e pouco crítica da produção social em torno do uso de drogas, pautada numa racionalidade de predomínio metafísico, ainda que mesclado com outras racionalidades como a científica. Discute-se a importância de correlacionar o "horizonte de racionalidade" dos serviços de saúde com a problemática da eficácia e eficiência dos tratamentos na área da dependência de drogas.This article refers to the research discussion based on methodology of content analysis, which aims at making explicit the horizon of rationality of the services provided for alcohol users and other drugs in the Great Florianópolis region, to contribute to the establishment of qualitative parameters in the evaluation of health services. It was verified that there is a hegemonic conception about the drugs dependence phenomenon as well as the way to intervene in this phenomenon, synthesis of different and, sometimes, contradictory rationalities. The model of this conception is based on the notion of disease, on the pursue for abstinence, on the struggle to control de addiction, operating
Bounding the number of points on a curve using a generalization of Weierstrass semigroups
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beelen, Peter; Ruano, Diego
2013-01-01
In this article we use techniques from coding theory to derive upper bounds for the number of rational places of the function field of an algebraic curve defined over a finite field. The used techniques yield upper bounds if the (generalized) Weierstrass semigroup (J Pure Appl Algebra 207(2), 243......–260, 2006) for an n-tuple of places is known, even if the exact defining equation of the curve is not known. As shown in examples, this sometimes enables one to get an upper bound for the number of rational places for families of function fields. Our results extend results in (J Pure Appl Algebra 213...
Rational Efficiency of a Heat Exchanger
McGovern, Jim; Smyth, Brian P.
2011-01-01
The authors propose a new and unique definition for the rational efficiency of a heat exchanger. This new rational efficiency is defined in terms of its sub-rational efficiencies: a heat transfer rational efficiency and a friction rational efficiency for each of the fluid systems comprising the heat exchanger. The heat transfer rational efficiency is based on the definition of a mean temperature for the heat source and a mean temperature for the heat sink and reflects the exergy supplied and ...
Monodromy Substitutions and Rational Blowdowns
Endo, Hisaaki; van Horn-Morris, Jeremy
2010-01-01
We introduce several new families of relations in the mapping class groups of planar surfaces, each equating two products of right-handed Dehn twists. The interest of these relations lies in their geometric interpretation in terms of rational blowdowns of 4-manifolds, specifically via monodromy substitution in Lefschetz fibrations. The simplest example is the lantern relation, already shown by the first author and Gurtas to correspond to rational blowdown along a -4 sphere; here we give relations that extend that result to realize the "generalized" rational blowdowns of Fintushel-Stern and Park by monodromy subsitution, as well as several of the families of rational blowdowns discovered by Stipsicz-Szab\\'o-Wahl.
The rationing agenda in the NHS. Rationing Agenda Group.
New, B
1996-06-22
The Rationing Agenda Group has been founded to deepen the British debate on rationing health care. It believes that rationing in health care is inevitable and that the public must be involved in the debate about issues relating to rationing. The group comprises people from all parts of health care, none of whom represent either their group or their institutions. RAG has begun by producing this document, which attempts to set an agenda of all the issues that need to be considered when debating the rationing of health care. We hope for responses to the document. The next stage will be to incorporate the responses into the agenda. Then RAG will divide the agenda into manageable chunks and commission expert, detailed commentaries. From this material a final paper will be published and used to prompt public debate. This stage should be reached early in 1997. While these papers are being prepared RAG is developing ways to involve the public in the debate and evaluate the whole process. We present as neutrally as possible all the issues related to rationing and priority setting in the NHS. We focus on the NHS for two reasons. Firstly, for those of us resident in the United Kingdom the NHS is the health care system with which we are most familiar and most concerned. Secondly, focusing on one system alone allows more coherent analysis than would be possible if issues in other systems were included as well. Our concern is with the delivery of health care, not its finance, though we discuss the possible effects of changing the financing system of the NHS. Finally, though our position is neutral, we hold two substantive views--namely, that rationing is unavoidable and that there should be more explicit debate about the principles and issues concerned. We consider the issues under four headings: preliminaries, ethics, democracy, and empirical questions. Preliminaries deal with the semantics of rationing, whether rationing is necessary, and with the range of services to which
Hoyer, Paul
2016-01-01
Even a first approximation of bound states requires contributions of all powers in the coupling. This means that the concept of "lowest order bound state" needs to be defined. In these lectures I discuss the "Born" (no loop, lowest order in $\\hbar$) approximation. Born level states are bound by gauge fields which satisfy the classical field equations. As a check of the method, Positronium states of any momentum are determined as eigenstates of the QED Hamiltonian, quantized at equal time. Analogously, states bound by a strong external field $A^\\mu(\\xv)$ are found as eigenstates of the Dirac Hamiltonian. Their Fock states have dynamically created $e^+e^-$ pairs, whose distribution is determined by the Dirac wave function. The linear potential of $D=1+1$ dimensions confines electrons but repels positrons. As a result, the mass spectrum is continuous and the wave functions have features of both bound states and plane waves. The classical solutions of Gauss' law are explored for hadrons in QCD. A non-vanishing bo...
Bounding species distribution models
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Thomas J. STOHLGREN; Catherine S. JARNEVICH; Wayne E. ESAIAS; Jeffrey T. MORISETTE
2011-01-01
Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern.Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development,yet there is no recommended best practice for “clamping” model extrapolations.We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches:classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models,and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations,bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors,to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States.Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding,and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models,like those presented here,should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5):642-647,2011].
Interpolation of rational matrix functions
Ball, Joseph A; Rodman, Leiba
1990-01-01
This book aims to present the theory of interpolation for rational matrix functions as a recently matured independent mathematical subject with its own problems, methods and applications. The authors decided to start working on this book during the regional CBMS conference in Lincoln, Nebraska organized by F. Gilfeather and D. Larson. The principal lecturer, J. William Helton, presented ten lectures on operator and systems theory and the interplay between them. The conference was very stimulating and helped us to decide that the time was ripe for a book on interpolation for matrix valued functions (both rational and non-rational). When the work started and the first partial draft of the book was ready it became clear that the topic is vast and that the rational case by itself with its applications is already enough material for an interesting book. In the process of writing the book, methods for the rational case were developed and refined. As a result we are now able to present the rational case as an indepe...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Warne, L.K.; Merewether, K.O.; Chen, K.C.; Jorgenson, R.E.; Morris, M.E.; Solberg, J.E.; Lewis, J.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Derr, W. [Derr Enterprises, Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1996-07-01
Test data on canonical weapon-like fixtures are used to validate previously developed analytical bounding results. The test fixtures were constructed to simulate (but be slightly worse than) weapon ports of entry but have known geometries (and electrical points of contact). The exterior of the test fixtures exhibited exterior resonant enhancement of the incident fields at the ports of entry with magnitudes equal to those of weapon geometries. The interior consisted of loaded transmission lines adjusted to maximize received energy or voltage but incorporating practical weapon geometrical constraints. New analytical results are also presented for bounding the energies associated with multiple bolt joints and for bounding the exterior resonant enhancement of the exciting fields.
Kodiak: An Implementation Framework for Branch and Bound Algorithms
Smith, Andrew P.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Markevicius, Mantas
2015-01-01
Recursive branch and bound algorithms are often used to refine and isolate solutions to several classes of global optimization problems. A rigorous computation framework for the solution of systems of equations and inequalities involving nonlinear real arithmetic over hyper-rectangular variable and parameter domains is presented. It is derived from a generic branch and bound algorithm that has been formally verified, and utilizes self-validating enclosure methods, namely interval arithmetic and, for polynomials and rational functions, Bernstein expansion. Since bounds computed by these enclosure methods are sound, this approach may be used reliably in software verification tools. Advantage is taken of the partial derivatives of the constraint functions involved in the system, firstly to reduce the branching factor by the use of bisection heuristics and secondly to permit the computation of bifurcation sets for systems of ordinary differential equations. The associated software development, Kodiak, is presented, along with examples of three different branch and bound problem types it implements.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Faust, Sebastian; Mukherjee, Pratyay;
2013-01-01
a public tamper-proof common reference string. Finally, we explain how to boost bounded tampering and leakage resilience (as in 1. and 2. above) to continuous tampering and leakage resilience, in the so-called floppy model where each user has a personal hardware token (containing leak- and tamper...
Rational Decision Making as Performative Praxis: Explaining Rationality's Éternel Retour
Cabantous, L.; Gond, J-P.
2011-01-01
Organizational theorists built their knowledge of decision making through a progressive critique of rational choice theory. Their positioning towards rationality, however, is at odds with the observation of rationality persistence in organizational life. This paper addresses this paradox. It proposes a new perspective on rationality that allows the theorizing of the production of rational decisions by organizations. To account for rationality's éternel retour, we approach rational decision ma...
On Reachability for Hybrid Automata over Bounded Time
Brihaye, Thomas; Geeraerts, Gilles; Ouaknine, Joël; Raskin, Jean-François; Worrell, James
2011-01-01
This paper investigates the time-bounded version of the reachability problem for hybrid automata. This problem asks whether a given hybrid automaton can reach a given target location within T time units, where T is a constant rational value. We show that, in contrast to the classical (unbounded) reachability problem, the timed-bounded version is decidable for rectangular hybrid automata provided only non-negative rates are allowed. This class of systems is of practical interest and subsumes, among others, the class of stopwatch automata. We also show that the problem becomes undecidable if either diagonal constraints or both negative and positive rates are allowed.
Generalized Skyrme model with the loosely bound potential
Gudnason, Sven Bjarke; Ma, Nana
2016-01-01
We study a generalization of the loosely bound Skyrme model which consists of the Skyrme model with a sixth-order derivative term and the second-order loosely bound potential. We use the rational map approximation for the 4-Skyrmion and calculate the binding energy and estimate the systematic error in using the latter approximation. In the parameter space that we can explore within the rational map approximation, we find classical binding energies as low as 1.8% and once taking into account the contribution from spin-isospin quantization we obtain binding energies as low as 5.3%. We also calculate the contribution from the sixth-order derivative term to the electric charge density and axial coupling.
Rational points on elliptic curves
Silverman, Joseph H
2015-01-01
The theory of elliptic curves involves a pleasing blend of algebra, geometry, analysis, and number theory. This book stresses this interplay as it develops the basic theory, thereby providing an opportunity for advanced undergraduates to appreciate the unity of modern mathematics. At the same time, every effort has been made to use only methods and results commonly included in the undergraduate curriculum. This accessibility, the informal writing style, and a wealth of exercises make Rational Points on Elliptic Curves an ideal introduction for students at all levels who are interested in learning about Diophantine equations and arithmetic geometry. Most concretely, an elliptic curve is the set of zeroes of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, then one can ask for a description of those zeroes whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. It is this number theoretic question that is the main subject of this book. Topics covered include the geometry and ...
Axioms for Rational Reinforcement Learning
Sunehag, Peter
2011-01-01
We provide a formal, simple and intuitive theory of rational decision making including sequential decisions that affect the environment. The theory has a geometric flavor, which makes the arguments easy to visualize and understand. Our theory is for complete decision makers, which means that they have a complete set of preferences. Our main result shows that a complete rational decision maker implicitly has a probabilistic model of the environment. We have a countable version of this result that brings light on the issue of countable vs finite additivity by showing how it depends on the geometry of the space which we have preferences over. This is achieved through fruitfully connecting rationality with the Hahn-Banach Theorem. The theory presented here can be viewed as a formalization and extension of the betting odds approach to probability of Ramsey and De Finetti.
Rationalizing the Promotion of Non-Rational Behaviors in Organizations.
Smith, Peter A. C.; Sharma, Meenakshi
2002-01-01
Organizations must balance rational/technical efficiency and emotions. Action learning has been proven to be effective for developing emotional openness in the workplace. Facilitators of action learning should draw upon the disciplines of counseling, Gestalt, psychodynamics, and Eastern philosophies. (Contains 23 references.) (SK)
Rational Polytherapy with Antiepileptic Drugs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jong Woo Lee
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Approximately 30–40% of patients do not achieve seizure control with a single antiepileptic drug (AED. With the advent of multiple AEDs in the past 15 years, rational polytherapy, the goal of finding combinations of AEDs that have favorable characteristics, has become of greater importance. We review the theoretical considerations based on AED mechanism of action, animal models, human studies in this field, and the challenges in finding such optimal combinations. Several case scenarios are presented, illustrating examples of rational polytherapy.
RATIONAL EXPECTATIONS AND MONETARY THEORY: AN INVESTIGATIVE PAPER[1960 - 1989
DR. GODWIN CHUKWUDUM NWAOBI
2005-01-01
SINCE 1930, EXPECTATIONS HAVE PLAYED AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN ECONOMIC THEORY AND THIS IS BECAUSE ECONOMICS IS GENERALLY CONCERNED WITH THE IMPLICATIONS OF CURRENT ACTIONS FOR THE FUTURE. THIS PAPER THEREFORE ARGUES THAT THE DEVELOPMENT OF RATIONAL EXPECTATIONS THEORY WILL MAKE A MORE SIGNIFICANT CONTRIBUTION TO ECONOMICS(AND IN PARTICULAR, MONETARY ECONOMICS) IN THE IMPETUS IT GIVES TO RESEARCH ON THE VITAL AREAS OF LEARNING AND PRICE EXPECTATIONS FORMATION
Towards Secure Distance Bounding
Boureanu, Ioana; Mitrokotsa, Aikaterini; Vaudenay, Serge
2013-01-01
Relay attacks (and, more generally, man-in-the-middle attacks) are a serious threat against many access control and payment schemes. In this work, we present distance-bounding protocols, how these can deter relay attacks, and the security models formalizing these protocols. We show several pitfalls making existing protocols insecure (or at least, vulnerable, in some cases). Then, we introduce the SKI protocol which enjoys resistance to all popular attack-models and features provable security....
Irving Babbitt’s Literary Criticism Implication f rom Rational Perspective%理性视野中的欧文·白璧德文学批评意蕴
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
潘水萍
2014-01-01
The profound critique towards classical theory and the speculation take the credit for the maturation of Irving Babbitt’s doctrine ,which inevitably would bear the connotations of classicism .Therefore ,it is highly desirable and worthwhile to ana-lyze and summarize Irving Babbitt’s literary theory in a comprehensive manner in the context of contemporary literary criticism . On the one hand ,Irving Babbitt’s critique viewpoint ,namely steadiness ,skillfulness and penetrability ,can be peeped at through volumes of works .On the other hand ,from the theoretical assertions of Xue Heng School to literary criticism views of Liang Shiqiu ,the unique enlightenment and critical rationality of Irving Babbitt’s classicism theory in Chinese modern literary history can be rendered .%在现代历史语境视野中，对欧文·白璧德的文学理论学说加以全面的分析与概述，不失为一个极具价值意义的重要论题。一方面从白璧德系列著述中可以窥视到其思想理论学说批判视点之稳健、圆熟与透彻；另一方面从学衡派之思想主张到梁实秋之文学批评观，则可清晰印证白璧德古典主义思想学说在中国现代文学史上的特有的内涵启蒙和理性批判。
The neural basis of belief updating and rational decision making.
Achtziger, Anja; Alós-Ferrer, Carlos; Hügelschäfer, Sabine; Steinhauser, Marco
2014-01-01
Rational decision making under uncertainty requires forming beliefs that integrate prior and new information through Bayes' rule. Human decision makers typically deviate from Bayesian updating by either overweighting the prior (conservatism) or overweighting new information (e.g. the representativeness heuristic). We investigated these deviations through measurements of electrocortical activity in the human brain during incentivized probability-updating tasks and found evidence of extremely early commitment to boundedly rational heuristics. Participants who overweight new information display a lower sensibility to conflict detection, captured by an event-related potential (the N2) observed around 260 ms after the presentation of new information. Conservative decision makers (who overweight prior probabilities) make up their mind before new information is presented, as indicated by the lateralized readiness potential in the brain. That is, they do not inhibit the processing of new information but rather immediately rely on the prior for making a decision.
On Counting the Rational Numbers
Almada, Carlos
2010-01-01
In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…
Teaching Rational Decision-Making.
Woolever, Roberts
1978-01-01
Presented is an outline of a college course, "Education in American Society," that focused on teaching students rational decision-making skills while examining current issues in American Education. The outline is followed by student comments, reactions, and evaluations of the course. (JMD)
Personal Autonomy and Rational Suicide.
Webber, May A.; Shulman, Ernest
That certain suicides (which can be designated as rational) ought not to be interfered with is closely tied to the notion of the "right to autonomy." Specifically it is because the individual in question has this right that interference is prohibited. A proper understanding of the right to autonomy, while essential to understanding why suicide is…
Frobenius groups and retract rationality
Kang, Ming-chang
2012-01-01
Let $k$ be any field, $G$ be a finite group acting on the rational function field $k(x_g:g\\in G)$ by $h\\cdot x_g=x_{hg}$ for any $h,g\\in G$. Define $k(G)=k(x_g:g\\in G)^G$. Noether's problem asks whether $k(G)$ is rational (= purely transcendental) over $k$. A weaker notion, retract rationality introduced by Saltman, is also very useful for the study of Noether's problem. We prove that, if $G$ is a Frobenius group with abelian Frobenius kernel, then $k(G)$ is retract $k$-rational for any field $k$ satisfying some mild conditions. As an application, we show that, for any algebraic number field $k$, for any Frobenius group $G$ with Frobenius complement isomorphic to $SL_2(\\bm{F}_5)$, there is a Galois extension field $K$ over $k$ whose Galois group is isomorphic to $G$, i.e. the inverse Galois problem is valid for the pair $(G,k)$. The same result is true for any non-solvable Frobenius group if $k(\\zeta_8)$ is a cyclic extension of $k$.
BOUNDING PYRAMIDS AND BOUNDING CONES FOR TRIANGULAR BEZIER SURFACES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jian-song Deng; Fa-lai Chen; Li-li Wang
2000-01-01
This paper describes practical approaches on how to construct bounding pyramids and bounding cones for triangular Bézier surfaces. Examples are provided to illustrate the process of construction and comparison is made between various surface bounding volumes. Furthermore, as a starting point for the construction,we provide a way to compute hodographs of triangular Bézier surfaces and improve the algorithm for computing the bounding cone of a set of vectors.
Universal bounds on current fluctuations
Pietzonka, Patrick; Barato, Andre C.; Seifert, Udo
2016-05-01
For current fluctuations in nonequilibrium steady states of Markovian processes, we derive four different universal bounds valid beyond the Gaussian regime. Different variants of these bounds apply to either the entropy change or any individual current, e.g., the rate of substrate consumption in a chemical reaction or the electron current in an electronic device. The bounds vary with respect to their degree of universality and tightness. A universal parabolic bound on the generating function of an arbitrary current depends solely on the average entropy production. A second, stronger bound requires knowledge both of the thermodynamic forces that drive the system and of the topology of the network of states. These two bounds are conjectures based on extensive numerics. An exponential bound that depends only on the average entropy production and the average number of transitions per time is rigorously proved. This bound has no obvious relation to the parabolic bound but it is typically tighter further away from equilibrium. An asymptotic bound that depends on the specific transition rates and becomes tight for large fluctuations is also derived. This bound allows for the prediction of the asymptotic growth of the generating function. Even though our results are restricted to networks with a finite number of states, we show that the parabolic bound is also valid for three paradigmatic examples of driven diffusive systems for which the generating function can be calculated using the additivity principle. Our bounds provide a general class of constraints for nonequilibrium systems.
Proper Reparametrization of Rational Ruled Surface
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jia Li; Li-Yong Shen; Xiao-Shan Gao
2008-01-01
In this paper, we present a proper reparametrization algorithm for rational ruled surfaces. That is, for an improper rational parametrization of a ruled surface, we construct a proper rational parametrization for the same surface. The algorithm consists of three steps. We first reparametrize the improper rational parametrization caused by improper supports. Then the improper rational parametrization is transformed to a new one which is proper in one of the parameters. Finally, the problem is reduced to the proper reparametrization of planar rational algebraic curves.
Maldacena, Juan; Stanford, Douglas
2015-01-01
We conjecture a sharp bound on the rate of growth of chaos in thermal quantum systems with a large number of degrees of freedom. Chaos can be diagnosed using an out-of-time-order correlation function closely related to the commutator of operators separated in time. We conjecture that the influence of chaos on this correlator can develop no faster than exponentially, with Lyapunov exponent $\\lambda_L \\le 2 \\pi k_B T/\\hbar$. We give a precise mathematical argument, based on plausible physical assumptions, establishing this conjecture.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Faupin, Jeremy; Møller, Jacob Schach; Skibsted, Erik
2011-01-01
We study regularity of bound states pertaining to embedded eigenvalues of a self-adjoint operator H, with respect to an auxiliary operator A that is conjugate to H in the sense of Mourre. We work within the framework of singular Mourre theory which enables us to deal with confined massless Pauli......–Fierz models, our primary example, and many-body AC-Stark Hamiltonians. In the simpler context of regular Mourre theory, our results boil down to an improvement of results obtained recently in [8, 9]....
Steinberg, Peter
2008-06-01
Who is the blog written by? Peter Steinberg is a nuclear physicist at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York, US. He is acting project manager of the PHOBOS experiment, which used Brookhaven's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) to search for unusual events produced during collisions between gold nuclei. He is also involved with the PHENIX experiment, which seeks to discover a new state of matter known as the quark-gluon plasma. In addition to his own blog Entropy Bound, Steinberg is currently blogging on a website that was set up last year to publicize the involvement of US scientists with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN.
Universal Bounds on Charged States in 2d CFT and 3d Gravity
Benjamin, Nathan; Fitzpatrick, A Liam; Kachru, Shamit
2016-01-01
We derive an explicit bound on the dimension of the lightest charged state in two dimensional conformal field theories with a global abelian symmetry. We find that the bound scales with $c$ and provide examples that parametrically saturate this bound. We also prove than any such theory must contain a state with charge-to-mass ratio above a minimal lower bound. We comment on the implications for charged states in three dimensional theories of gravity.
Novel Bounds on Marginal Probabilities
Mooij, Joris M.; Kappen, Hilbert J
2008-01-01
We derive two related novel bounds on single-variable marginal probability distributions in factor graphs with discrete variables. The first method propagates bounds over a subtree of the factor graph rooted in the variable, and the second method propagates bounds over the self-avoiding walk tree starting at the variable. By construction, both methods not only bound the exact marginal probability distribution of a variable, but also its approximate Belief Propagation marginal (``belief''). Th...
Tight Bernoulli tail probability bounds
Dzindzalieta, Dainius
2014-01-01
The purpose of the dissertation is to prove universal tight bounds for deviation from the mean probability inequalities for functions of random variables. Universal bounds shows that they are uniform with respect to some class of distributions and quantity of variables and other parameters. The bounds are called tight, if we can construct a sequence of random variables, such that the upper bounds are achieved. Such inequalities are useful for example in insurance mathematics, for constructing...
Error bounds for set inclusions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHENG; Xiyin(郑喜印)
2003-01-01
A variant of Robinson-Ursescu Theorem is given in normed spaces. Several error bound theorems for convex inclusions are proved and in particular a positive answer to Li and Singer's conjecture is given under weaker assumption than the assumption required in their conjecture. Perturbation error bounds are also studied. As applications, we study error bounds for convex inequality systems.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming
1992-01-01
they obtain a quadratic bound. These bounds are shown to be tight. Specializing the case of strict and additive functions to functionals of a form that would correspond to iterative programs they show that a linear bound is tight. This is related to several analyses studied in the literature (including...
Separable subgroups have bounded packing
Yang, Wen-yuan
2010-01-01
In this note, we prove that separable subgroups have bounded packing in ambient groups. The notion bounded packing was introduced by Hruska-Wise \\cite{HrWi} and in particular, our result confirms a conjecture in \\cite{HrWi} which states each subgroup of a virtually polycyclic group has the bounded packing property.
Learning rational temporal eye movement strategies.
Hoppe, David; Rothkopf, Constantin A
2016-07-19
During active behavior humans redirect their gaze several times every second within the visual environment. Where we look within static images is highly efficient, as quantified by computational models of human gaze shifts in visual search and face recognition tasks. However, when we shift gaze is mostly unknown despite its fundamental importance for survival in a dynamic world. It has been suggested that during naturalistic visuomotor behavior gaze deployment is coordinated with task-relevant events, often predictive of future events, and studies in sportsmen suggest that timing of eye movements is learned. Here we establish that humans efficiently learn to adjust the timing of eye movements in response to environmental regularities when monitoring locations in the visual scene to detect probabilistically occurring events. To detect the events humans adopt strategies that can be understood through a computational model that includes perceptual and acting uncertainties, a minimal processing time, and, crucially, the intrinsic costs of gaze behavior. Thus, subjects traded off event detection rate with behavioral costs of carrying out eye movements. Remarkably, based on this rational bounded actor model the time course of learning the gaze strategies is fully explained by an optimal Bayesian learner with humans' characteristic uncertainty in time estimation, the well-known scalar law of biological timing. Taken together, these findings establish that the human visual system is highly efficient in learning temporal regularities in the environment and that it can use these regularities to control the timing of eye movements to detect behaviorally relevant events. PMID:27382164
A Critical Analysis of Rational & Emotional Approaches in Car Selling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krishn A. Goyal
2010-12-01
Full Text Available A well known fact is that investment in a Car is the costliest investment made in a life time only next to construction of a house, for any human being. It is a common knowledge that all of us are attracted towards cars right from childhood and we have developed our own perceptions for cars. When we acquire the capacity to buy cars, our experience of buying, involves both emotional and rational aspects which lead to a purchase decision. Unlike other consumable durables, the decision to buy specific brand of Car is shaped over a long period of time. The period between recognition of need to buy a car and the actual purchase may run into many weeks or even months. Considerable research has focussed on conceptually and operationally defining various factors that lead to a purchase decision. However, because of the inherent difficulties in deciphering consumer behaviour coupled with exponential changes in consumer aspirations, there is a need to constantly re-define our perceptions about consumer behaviour. Revealed Preference Theory of Samuelson & Bounded rationality Theory of Herbert Simon and many others have provided a conceptual analysis of Consumer Behaviour from the perspective of economics, we have still not been able to pinpoint whether consumers are Rational or Emotional when it comes to buying Cars. “ According to some early economic theorists (e.g., Adam Smith, Jeremy Bentham, Alfred Marshall, man’s/woman’s desire for goods and services exceed his/her ability to pay. Therefore, buying decisions are made through a rational process during which we assign a value to each desired product or service offering based upon our assessment of the ability of that offering to satisfy our needs and desires. This want satisfying ability is termed “utility.” As different offerings possess different levels of utility, rational behavior dictates that one seek to maximize utility.
Rationality, mental causation and social sciences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mladenović Ivan
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of mental causation in the context of rational choice theory. The author defends psychological aspect of rational explanation against the challenge of contemporary reductive materialism.
WAVELET RATIONAL FILTERS AND REGULARITY ANALYSIS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zheng Kuang; Ming-gen Cui
2000-01-01
In this paper, we choose the trigonometric rational functions as wavelet filters and use them to derive various wavelets. Especially for a certain family of wavelets generated by the rational filters, the better smoothness results than Daubechies' are obtained.
THE ALGEBRAIC METHOD OF RATIONAL INTERPOLATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Cai Shoufeng; Zhang Shugong
2005-01-01
This paper deals with rational interpolation. From algebraic viewpoint, we present an algebraic formulation of rational interpolation and discuss the existence of the interpolation function. Finally an algorithm for univariate case and an example are presented.
Rational maps, monopoles and skyrmions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss the similarities between BPS monopoles and skyrmions, and point to an underlying connection in terms of rational maps between Riemann spheres. This involves the introduction of a new ansatz for Skyrme fields. We use this to construct good approximations to several known skyrmions, including all the minimal energy configurations up to baryon number nine, and some new solutions such as a baryon number seventeen Skyrme field with the truncated icosahedron structure of a buckyball. The new approach is also used to understand the low-lying vibrational modes of skyrmions, which are required for quantization. Along the way we discover an interesting Morse function on the space of rational maps which may be of use in understanding the Sen forms on the monopole moduli spaces. (orig.)
Psychology and the Rationality of Emotion*
Clore, Gerald L.
2011-01-01
Questions addressed by recent psychological research on emotion include questions about how thought shapes emotion and how emotion, in turn, shapes thought. Research on emotion and cognition paints a somewhat different picture than that seen in traditional discussions of passion and reason. This article reviews several aspects of this research, concentrating specifically on three views of rationality: Rationality as Process, Rationality as Product, and Rationality as Outcome.
Rational Students and Resit Exams
Kooreman, Peter
2012-01-01
Resit exams - extra opportunities to do an exam in the same academic year - are widely prevalent in European higher education, but uncommon in the US. I present a simple theoretical model to compare rational student behavior in the case of only one exam opportunity versus the case of two exam opportunities. Numerical examples for a wide range of plausible parameter values show that a second exam opportunity increases the ultimate passing probability only slightly, but strongly reduces average...
Nevanlinna Theory and Rational Points
Noguchi, Junjiro
1996-01-01
S. Lang conjectured in 1974 that a hyperbolic algebraic variety defined over a number field has only finitely many rational points, and its analogue over function fields. We discuss the Nevanlinna-Cartan theory over function fields of arbitrary dimension and apply it for Diophantine property of hyperbolic projective hypersurfaces (homogeneous Diophantine equations) constructed by Masuda-Noguchi. We also deal with the finiteness property of $S$-units points of those Diophantine equations over ...
On Quantum Integers and Rationals
Le Stum, Bernard; Quirós, Adolfo
2013-01-01
ISBN: 978-0-8218-9858-1 International audience We introduce the notions of quantum characteristic and quantum flatness for arbitrary rings. More generally, we develop the theory of quantum integers in a ring and show that the hypothesis of quantum flatness together with positive quantum characteristic generalizes the usual notion of prime positive characteristic. We also explain how one can define quantum rational numbers in a ring and introduce the notion of twisted powers. These resul...
Rational Asset Pricing Bubbles Revisited
Jan Werner
2012-01-01
Price bubble arises when the price of an asset exceeds the asset's fundamental value, that is, the present value of future dividend payments. The important result of Santos and Woodford (1997) says that price bubbles cannot exist in equilibrium in the standard dynamic asset pricing model with rational agents as long as assets are in strictly positive supply and the present value of total future resources is finite. This paper explores the possibility of asset price bubbles when either one of ...
Davidson on Turing: Rationality Misunderstood?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John-Michael Kuczynski
2005-12-01
Full Text Available Alan Turing advocated a kind of functionalism: A machine M is a thinker provided that it responds in certain ways to certain inputs. Davidson argues that Turing’s functionalism is inconsistent with a cer-tain kind of epistemic externalism, and is therefore false. In Davidson’s view, concepts consist of causal liasons of a certain kind between subject and object. Turing’s machine doesn’t have the right kinds of causal li-asons to its environment. Therefore it doesn’t have concepts. Therefore it doesn’t think. I argue that this reasoning is entirely fallacious. It is true that, in some cases, a causal liason between subject and object is part of one’s concept of that object. Consequently, to grasp certain propositions, one must have certain kids of causal ties to one’s environment. But this means that we must rethink some old views on what rationality is. It does not mean, pace Davidson, that a precondition for being rational is being causally embedded in one’s environment in a certain way. If Tur-ing’s machine isn’t capable of thinking (I leave it open whether it is or is not, that has nothing to do with its lacking certain kinds of causal con-nections to the environment. The larger significance of our discussion is this: rationality consists either in one’s ability to see the bearing of purely existential propositions on one another or rationality is simply not to be understood as the ability see the bearing that propositions have on one another.
Optimally Rational Expectations and Macroeconomics
David Demery; Nigel Duck
2002-01-01
This paper provides an alternative to the theory of rational expectations (RE). Its central idea is that the information set on which agents will choose to condition their expectations will not, in general, include all the available information. Our alternative has many of the attractive features of RE; it emerges from an explicit choice-theoretic framework; it has wide applicability; and it can in principle explain the failure of models incorporating RE to account for the dynamics of many ma...
Rational Solutions in a Coupled Burgers System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUANG Ling
2006-01-01
Three types of the rational solutions for a new coupled Burgers system are studied in detail in terms of the reduction and decoupled procedures. The first two types of rational solutions are singular and valid for one type of model parameter c＞0, and another type of rational solutions is nonsingular at any type and valid for another type of model parameter c＜0.
Rational Thinking in School-Based Practice
Clark, Mary Kristen; Flynn, Perry
2011-01-01
Purpose: We reflect on Alan Kamhi's (2011) prologue on balancing certainty and uncertainty as it pertains to school-based practice. Method: In schools, rational thinking depends on effective team processes, much like professional learning communities. We consider the conditions that are required for rational thinking and how rational team dialogue…
Fuzzy Syntactic Congruence and Rational Fuzzy Languages
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHU Lan; PENG Jia-yin
2002-01-01
In this paper the notion of rational fuzzy language is introduced, and a theorem is obtained: a fuzzy subset of ∑ * is recognizable if and only if it's rational. The result connects the rational fuzzy language with fuzzy finite-state automaton language.
Nowak, K.; Kästner, M.; Miltner, A.
2009-04-01
During degradation of organic pollutants in soil, metabolites, microbial biomass, CO2and "bound" residues ("non-extractable" residues in soil organic matter) are formed. Enhanced transformation of these contaminants into "bound" residues has been proposed as an alternative remediation method for polluted soils. However, this kind of residues may pose a potential risk for the environment due to their chemical structure and possible remobilization under different conditions. Therefore particular attention is given actually to "bound" residues. Part of these non-extractable residues may be "biogenic," because microorganisms use the carbon from the pollutant to form their biomass components (fatty acids, amino acids, amino sugars), which subsequently may be incorporated into soil organic matter. Furthermore, the CO2 originating from mineralization of xenobiotics, can be re-assimilated by microorganisms and also incorporated into "biogenic residue". The hazard posed by "bound" residues may be overestimated because they are "biogenic" (contain microbial fatty acids and amino acids). The knowledge about the pathways of "biogenic residue" formation is necessary for a proper assessment of the fate of tested pollutants and their turnover in the soil environment. Moreover, these data are needed to establish the realistic degradation rates of the contaminants in soil. The main objectives of this study are: to quantify the extent of "biogenic residue" (fatty acids, amino acids, amino sugars) formation during the degradation of a model pollutant (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid = 2,4-D) and during CO2 assimilation by microorganisms and to evaluate which components are mainly incorporated into "bound" residues. To investigate the extent of "biogenic residue" formation in soil during the degradation of 2,4-D, experiments with either 14C-U-ring and 13C6-2,4-D or carboxyl-14C 2,4-D were performed. The incubation experiments were performed according to OECD test guideline 307, in the
Mass Bounds on a Very Light Neutralino
Dreiner, H K; Kittel, O; Langenfeld, U; Weber, A M; Weiglein, G
2009-01-01
Within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) we systematically investigate the bounds on the mass of the lightest neutralino. We allow for non-universal gaugino masses and thus even consider massless neutralinos, while assuming in general that R-parity is conserved. Our main focus are laboratory constraints. We consider collider data, precision observables, and also rare meson decays to very light neutralinos. We then discuss the astrophysical and cosmological implications. We find that a massless neutralino is allowed by all existing experimental data and astrophysical and cosmological observations.
Mass bounds on a very light neutralino
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dreiner, Herbi K. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physis and Physikalisches Institut; Heinemeyer, Sven [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Santander (Spain); Kittel, Olaf [Granada Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos and CAFPE; Langenfeld, Ulrich [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Weber, Arne M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany). Werner-Heisenberg-Institut; Weiglein, Georg [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). IPPP
2008-12-15
Within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) we systematically investigate the bounds on the mass of the lightest neutralino. We allow for non-universal gaugino masses and thus even consider massless neutralinos, while assuming in general that R-parity is conserved. Our main focus are laboratory constraints. We consider collider data, precision observables, and also rare meson decays to very light neutralinos. We then discuss the astrophysical and cosmological implications. We find that a massless neutralino is allowed by all existing experimental data and astrophysical and cosmological observations. (orig.)
Corporate rationalization of American health care: a visitor's appraisal.
Pollitt, C
1982-01-01
This paper uses elements of the macrotheory of advanced capitalist societies developed by Jurgen Habermas and other "critical theorists" to locate and explore the implications of the containing corporatization of the U.S. health care sector. It questions the often-dominant view that cost is the major problem of current U.S. arrangements, and shows how most recent government policies have reinforced the corporate rationalization of health care, or at least proved neutral towards it. Yet it can be argued that it is precisely this "rationalization" which renders more difficult both cost-control and the much-needed broadening of the agenda of the health care debate to important issues other than cost. PMID:7108167
Corporate rationalization of American health care: a visitor's appraisal.
Pollitt, C
1982-01-01
This paper uses elements of the macrotheory of advanced capitalist societies developed by Jurgen Habermas and other "critical theorists" to locate and explore the implications of the containing corporatization of the U.S. health care sector. It questions the often-dominant view that cost is the major problem of current U.S. arrangements, and shows how most recent government policies have reinforced the corporate rationalization of health care, or at least proved neutral towards it. Yet it can be argued that it is precisely this "rationalization" which renders more difficult both cost-control and the much-needed broadening of the agenda of the health care debate to important issues other than cost.
Competency to stand trial: rationalism, "contextualism" and other modest theories.
Jan Brakel, S
2003-01-01
Determinations of competency to stand trial in criminal cases are complicated and rendered unpredictable by two sub-surface issues that are rarely articulated: (i) the place of the defendant's rationality in the substantive standard(s) for competency and (ii) the level or degree of incompetency required to stop the criminal process. The rare references to these issues, mostly indirect, that are made in the cases, commentary, and competency testing instruments devised (including those civil as well as criminal) are examined. The conclusion that emerges is that the level of capacity and rationality required of the defendant depends much on context-the type of case, its relative complexity, and the values and stakes implicated in the outcome. PMID:12808691
Bounding approaches to system identification
Norton, John; Piet-Lahanier, Hélène; Walter, Éric
1996-01-01
In response to the growing interest in bounding error approaches, the editors of this volume offer the first collection of papers to describe advances in techniques and applications of bounding of the parameters, or state variables, of uncertain dynamical systems. Contributors explore the application of the bounding approach as an alternative to the probabilistic analysis of such systems, relating its importance to robust control-system design.
Nonlinear Instabilities in Shock-Bounded Slabs
Vishniac, E T
1993-01-01
(substantial changes to section 3.2, otherwise minor) We present an analysis of the hydrodynamic stability of a cold slab bounded by two accretion shocks. Previous numerical work has shown that when the Mach number of the shock is large the slab is unstable. Here we show that to linear order both the bending and breathing modes of such a slab are stable. However, nonlinear effects will tend to soften the restoring forces for bending modes, and when the slab displacement is comparable to its thickness this gives rise to a nonlinear instability. The growth rate of the instability, above this threshold but for small bending angles, is $\\sim c_sk (k\\eta)^{1/2}$, where $\\eta$ is the slab displacement. When the bending angle is large the slab will contain a local vorticity comparable to $c_s/L$, where $L$ is the slab thickness. We discuss the implications of this work for gravitational instabilities of slabs. Finally, we examine the cases of a decelerating slab bounded by a single shock and a stationary slab bounde...
Distributive properties of the rationals
Zelator, Konstantine
2009-01-01
If o and * are two binary operations in a number system, then three elements a,b,c in that number system are said to satisfy the distributive property of the operation o over the operation * if, ao(b*c)= (aob)*(aoc) Now, suppose that the number system is the rationals,and the operations o and * are among the four usual operations of addition, multiplication, subtraction, and division. If we allow for o and * to be the same operation, then there are precisely 16 combinations with the operation o being one of the four usual operations in Q; and likewise for the operation *. Two of these 16 combinations are when o is the multiplication operationand * being the addition operation; and when is o is multiplication and * is subtraction. For these two combinations, the above stated distributive property is universally satisfied; that is, for ane three rational numbers a,b,and c. In this work, we examine the other fourteen combinations, to find out when the distributive property is satisfied. Of these 14 combinations ...
Steiner, Wolfgang
2012-01-01
An integral self-affine tile is the solution of a set equation $\\mathbf{A} \\mathcal{T} = \\bigcup_{d \\in \\mathcal{D}} (\\mathcal{T} + d)$, where $\\mathbf{A}$ is an $n \\times n$ integer matrix and $\\mathcal{D}$ is a finite subset of $\\mathbb{Z}^n$. In the recent decades, these objects and the induced tilings have been studied systematically. We extend this theory to matrices $\\mathbf{A} \\in \\mathbb{Q}^{n \\times n}$. We define rational self-affine tiles as compact subsets of the open subring $\\mathbb{R}^n\\times \\prod_\\mathfrak{p} K_\\mathfrak{p}$ of the ad\\'ele ring $\\mathbb{A}_K$, where the factors of the (finite) product are certain $\\mathfrak{p}$-adic completions of a number field $K$ that is defined in terms of the characteristic polynomial of $\\mathbf{A}$. Employing methods from classical algebraic number theory, Fourier analysis in number fields, and results on zero sets of transfer operators, we establish a general tiling theorem for these tiles. We also associate a second kind of tiles with a rational matr...
The bridge from cold facts and hot rhetoric to rational climate policy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The scientific community must expand its role in the political debate over climate change if we are to have wise and smart policies. The current debate is characterized by a cacaphony of competing scientific claims, scare tactics and propaganda. Scientists, particularly those in academia, are badly needed to uphold the principles of scientific inquiry and standards of evidence, upon which rational public policy depends. They should weigh into the conflict heavily, when the bounds of -rational analysis are exceeded. The acid test of analytical rigor must remain a first principle
Bounds for Asian basket options
Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michèle
2008-09-01
In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Li-Guo; TIAN Cheng-Lin; CHEN Ping-Xing; YUAN Nai-Chang
2009-01-01
We derive an analytical lower bound on the concurrence for bipartite quantum systems with an improved computable cross norm or realignment criterion and an improved positive partial transpose criterion respectively.Furthermore we demonstrate that our bound is better than that obtained from the local uncertainty relations criterion with optimal local orthogonal observables which is known as one of the best estimations of concurrence.
Geometric Rationalization for Freeform Architecture
jiang, caigui
2016-06-20
The emergence of freeform architecture provides interesting geometric challenges with regards to the design and manufacturing of large-scale structures. To design these architectural structures, we have to consider two types of constraints. First, aesthetic constraints are important because the buildings have to be visually impressive. Sec- ond, functional constraints are important for the performance of a building and its e cient construction. This thesis contributes to the area of architectural geometry. Specifically, we are interested in the geometric rationalization of freeform architec- ture with the goal of combining aesthetic and functional constraints and construction requirements. Aesthetic requirements typically come from designers and architects. To obtain visually pleasing structures, they favor smoothness of the building shape, but also smoothness of the visible patterns on the surface. Functional requirements typically come from the engineers involved in the construction process. For exam- ple, covering freeform structures using planar panels is much cheaper than using non-planar ones. Further, constructed buildings have to be stable and should not collapse. In this thesis, we explore the geometric rationalization of freeform archi- tecture using four specific example problems inspired by real life applications. We achieve our results by developing optimization algorithms and a theoretical study of the underlying geometrical structure of the problems. The four example problems are the following: (1) The design of shading and lighting systems which are torsion-free structures with planar beams based on quad meshes. They satisfy the functionality requirements of preventing light from going inside a building as shad- ing systems or reflecting light into a building as lighting systems. (2) The Design of freeform honeycomb structures that are constructed based on hex-dominant meshes with a planar beam mounted along each edge. The beams intersect without
Rational choice by two sequential criteria
García-Sanz, María D.; Alcantud, José Carlos R.
2010-01-01
This paper contributes to the theory of rational choice under multiple criteria. We perform a preliminary study of the properties of decision made by the sequential application of rational choices. This is then used to obtain a characterization of set-valued choice functions that are rational by two sequential criteria, which follows the approach initiated by Manzini and Mariotti (Amer. Econ. Rev., 2007) for single-valued choice functions. Uniqueness is not guaranteed but ...
Rational Addiction Evidence From Carbonated Soft Drinks
Xiaoou, Liu
2009-01-01
This paper applies the Becker-Murphy (1988) theory of rational addiction to the case of carbonated soft drinks, using a time-varying parameter model and scanner data from 46 U.S. cities. Empirical results provide strong evidence that carbonated soft drinks are rationally addictive, thus opening the door to taxation and regulation. Taking rational addition into account, estimated demand elasticities are much lower than previous estimates using scanner data.
Does the Minimum Wage Cause Inefficient Rationing?
Luttmer, Erzo F. P.
2007-01-01
This paper investigates whether the minimum wage leads to inefficient job rationing. By not allowing wages to clear the labor market, the minimum wage could cause workers with low reservation wages to be rationed out while equally skilled workers with higher reservation wages are employed. This paper exploits the overlapping nature of the CPS panels to more precisely identify those most affected by the minimum wage, a group I refer to as the "unskilled." I test for inefficient rationing by ex...
RATIONALITY AS AN EXPLANATION FOR ECONOMIC FLUCTUATIONS
Radu CONSTANTINESCU
2012-01-01
The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that rationality is one of the main factors determining economic fluctuations. From this, derives the issue that rationality is not only a concept tangent to the science of economics but also a homogenizing factor and a sine qua non condition of praxeology. However, rationality as a connecting factor of the decision and action processes is not always directly proportional with decisive motivation or with the determining goal.
RATIONAL PHARMACOTHERAPY IN TAKOTSUBO CARDIOMYOPATHY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Marchev
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Rational pharmacotherapy in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is based on clinical picture and data of functional and laboratory investigations of concrete patient. In patients with hypotension and moderate-to-severe left ventricle outflow tract obstruction inotropic agents must not to be used because they can worsen the degree of obstruction. In these patients beta blockers can improve hemodynamics by causing resolution of the obstruction. If intraventricular thrombus is detected, anticoagulation for at least 3 months is recommended. The duration of anticoagulant therapy may be modified depending on the extent of cardiac function recovery and thrombus resolution. For patients without thrombus but with severe left ventricular dysfunction, anticoagulation is recommended until the akinesis or dyskinesis has resolved but not more than 3 months.
Dual Rationality and Deliberative Agents
Debenham, John; Sierra, Carles
Human agents deliberate using models based on reason for only a minute proportion of the decisions that they make. In stark contrast, the deliberation of artificial agents is heavily dominated by formal models based on reason such as game theory, decision theory and logic—despite that fact that formal reasoning will not necessarily lead to superior real-world decisions. Further the Nobel Laureate Friedrich Hayek warns us of the ‘fatal conceit’ in controlling deliberative systems using models based on reason as the particular model chosen will then shape the system’s future and either impede, or eventually destroy, the subtle evolutionary processes that are an integral part of human systems and institutions, and are crucial to their evolution and long-term survival. We describe an architecture for artificial agents that is founded on Hayek’s two rationalities and supports the two forms of deliberation used by mankind.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
LiuWei Zhao
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A dynamic multimarket Cournot model is introduced based on a specific inverse demand function. Puu’s incomplete information approach, as a realistic method, is used to contract the corresponding dynamical model under this function. Therefore, some stability analysis is carried out on the model to detect the stability and instability conditions of the system’s Nash equilibrium. Based on the analysis, some dynamic phenomena such as bifurcation and chaos are found. Numerical simulations are used to provide experimental evidence for the complicated behaviors of the system evolution. It is observed that the equilibrium of the system can lose stability via flip bifurcation or Neimark-Sacker bifurcation and time-delayed feedback control is used to stabilize the chaotic behaviors of the system.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Koch, Carsten Allan
This paper attempts to generalize findings of the traditional literature of transaction cost economics (Willamson, 1971, 1973, 1975, 1985; Ouchi, 1980; Williamson & Ouchi 1981) by introducing more general factors or variables. Two of the most important of these are that asset specificity is repla...
On a Boundedly Rational Pareto-Optimal Trade in Emission Reduction
Kryazhimskiy, A.V.
2009-01-01
We consider the emission reduction process involving several countries, in which the countries negotiate, in steps, frequently enough, on small, local emission reductions and implement their decisions right away. In every step, the countries either find a mutually acceptable local emission reduction vector and use it as a local emission reduction plan, or terminate the emission reduction process. We prove that the process necessarily terminates in some step and the final total emission reduct...
R. Blutner
2008-01-01
Recently, Gerd Niestegge developed a new approach to quantum mechanics via conditional probabilities developing the well-known proposal to consider the Lüders-von Neumann measurement as a non-classical extension of probability conditionalization. I will apply his powerful and rigorous approach to th
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Koch, Carsten Allan
This paper attempts to generalize findings of the traditional literature of transaction cost economics (Willamson, 1971, 1973, 1975, 1985; Ouchi, 1980; Williamson & Ouchi 1981) by introducing more general factors or variables. Two of the most important of these are that asset specificity is repla...... replaced by a more general condition, vulnerability, and that the so-called market failure condition is replaced by a condition called contractual non-triviality. Sufficient conditions for non-triviality are found in terms of specific set of values for the basic set of factors....
Bounded Rationality in Bargaining Games: Do Proposers Believe That Responders Reject an Equal Split?
Ben Greiner
2004-01-01
Puzzled by the experimental results of the 'impunity game' by Bolton and Zwick (1995) we replicate the game and alter it in a systematic manner. We find that although almost nobody actually rejects an offered equal split in a bargaining game, proposers behave as if there would be a considerably large rejection rate for equal splits. This result is inconsistent with existing models of economic decision making. This includes models of selfish players as well as models of social utility and reci...
Stimulus representation in SOP: I. Theoretical rationalization and some implications.
Brandon, Susan E.; Vogel, Edgar H.; Wagner, Allan R.
2003-04-28
THE SOP MODEL [INFORMATION PROCESSING IN ANIMALS: Memory Mechanisms, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, 1981, p. 5] is described in terms of its assumed stimulus representation, network characteristics, and rules for learning and performance. It is shown how several Pavlovian conditioning phenomena can be accounted on the basis of the model's presumed stimulus representation. Challenges to the SOP model prompted the adoption of a componential stimulus representation in: AESOP [Contemporary Learning Theories: Pavlovian Conditioning and the Status of Traditional Learning Theory, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, 1989, p. 149], this was a dual representation of the unconditioned stimulus (US), and C-SOP [Contemporary Learning: Theory and Application, Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, 2001, p. 23], this was a multi-component representation of the conditioned stimulus (CS). The assumption of a componential CS representation, where large numbers of elements can be separately learned about, necessitated a modification of the learning rule. The modified, "constrained" rule was found useful to explain timing characteristics of Pavlovian conditioned responses, as well as data offered by Rescorla [J. Exp. Psychol. Anim. Behav. Process. 26 (2000) 428; Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 54B (2001) 53; J. Exp. Psychol. Anim. Behav. Process. 28 (2002) 163] showing that stimuli trained in compound do not share the same quantitative fate.
Economic implications of foreign exchange rationing in Ethiopia:
Dorosh, Paul A.; Robinson, Sherman; Ahmed, Hashim
2009-01-01
Ethiopia enjoyed remarkable economic growth from 2004/05 to 2008/09, in large part due to increases in foreign transfers and capital inflows combined with expanded domestic credit to fund major increases in private and public investments in infrastructure and housing. However, this rapid growth was accompanied by a major appreciation of the real exchange rate (by 34 percent between July 2004 and July 2008) that reduced incentives for domestic production of exportables and non-protected import...
Saravanan, Rathi; Bhunia, Anirban; Bhattacharjya, Surajit
2010-02-01
Melittin, the major component of the honey bee venom, is a 26-residue hemolytic and membrane active peptide. Structures of melittin determined either in lipid environments by NMR or by use of X-ray demonstrated two helical regions at the N- and C-termini connected by a hinge or a bend at the middle. Here, we show that deletion of the hinge residues along with two C-terminal terminal Gln residues (Q25 and Q26), yielding a peptide analog of 19-residue or Mel-H, did not affect antibacterial activity but resulted in a somewhat reduced hemolytic activity. A diastereomer of Mel-H or Mel-(d)H containing d-amino acids [(d)V5, (d)V8, (d)L11 and (d)K16] showed further reduction in hemolytic activity without lowering antibacterial activity. We have carried out NMR structures, dynamics (H-D exchange and proton relaxation), membrane localization by spin labeled lipids, pulse-field-gradient (PFG) NMR and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) in dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles, as a mimic to eukaryotic membrane, to gain insights into cell selectivity of these melittin analogs. PFG-NMR showed Mel-H and Mel-(d)H both were similarly partitioned into DPC micelles. ITC demonstrated that Mel-H and Mel-(d)H interact with DPC with similar affinity. The micelle-bound structure of Mel-H delineated a straight helical conformation, whereas Mel-(d)H showed multiple beta-turns at the N-terminus and a short helix at the C-terminus. The backbone amide-proton exchange with solvent D(2)O demonstrated a large difference in dynamics between Mel-H and Mel-(d)H, whereby almost all backbone protons of Mel-(d)H showed a much faster rate of exchange as compared to Mel-H. Proton T(1) relaxation had suggested a mobile backbone of Mel-(d)H peptide in DPC micelles. Resonance perturbation by paramagnetic lipids indicated that Mel-H inserted deeper into DPC micelles, whereas Mel-(d)H is largely located at the surface of the micelle. Taken together, results presented in this study demonstrated that the
Combining Alphas via Bounded Regression
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zura Kakushadze
2015-11-01
Full Text Available We give an explicit algorithm and source code for combining alpha streams via bounded regression. In practical applications, typically, there is insufficient history to compute a sample covariance matrix (SCM for a large number of alphas. To compute alpha allocation weights, one then resorts to (weighted regression over SCM principal components. Regression often produces alpha weights with insufficient diversification and/or skewed distribution against, e.g., turnover. This can be rectified by imposing bounds on alpha weights within the regression procedure. Bounded regression can also be applied to stock and other asset portfolio construction. We discuss illustrative examples.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhi-Hong Tao; Cong-Hua Zhou; Zhong Chen; Li-Fu Wang
2007-01-01
Bounded Model Checking has been recently introduced as an efficient verification method for reactive systems.This technique reduces model checking of linear temporal logic to propositional satisfiability.In this paper we first present how quantified Boolean decision procedures can replace BDDs.We introduce a bounded model checking procedure for temporal logic CTL* which reduces model checking to the satisfiability of quantified Boolean formulas.Our new technique avoids the space blow up of BDDs, and extends the concept of bounded model checking.
The Rationality of Alcoholics Anonymous and the Spirituality of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy.
Velten, Emmett
1996-01-01
Argues that Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) share important rational objectives and numerous cognitive-behavioral methods. Both emphasize a philosophical shift as a principal ingredient for change. Provides definitions of rationality and spirituality and explains how REBT and smart recovery are spiritual…
Schulz, M D; Vidal, J
2016-01-01
We discuss the emergence of bound states in the low-energy spectrum of the string-net Hamiltonian in the presence of a string tension. In the ladder geometry, we show that a single bound state arises either for a finite tension or in the zero-tension limit depending on the theory considered. In the latter case, we perturbatively compute the binding energy as a function of the total quantum dimension. We also address this issue in the honeycomb lattice where the number of bound states in the topological phase depends on the total quantum dimension. Finally, the internal structure of these bound states is analyzed in the zero-tension limit.
Evaluating the Rationality of Managers' Sales Forecasts
L.P. de Bruijn (Bert); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)
2011-01-01
textabstractThis paper deals with the analysis and evaluation of sales forecasts of managers, given that it is unknown how they constructed their forecasts. Our goal is to find out whether these forecasts are rational. To examine deviations from rationality, we argue that one has to approximate how
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
曹俊鹏; 侯伯宇; 岳瑞宏
2001-01-01
We propose the eigenstates and eigenvalues of Hamiltonians of the rational SU(N) Gaudin model based onthe quasi-classical limit of the SU ( N) chain under the periodic boundary condition. Using the quantum inversescattering method, we also obtain the eigenvalues of the generation function of the rational SU ( N) Gaudin model.
Neurophysiology and Rationality in Political Thinking.
Peterson, Steven A.
Research both in cognitive psychology and psychobiology suggests that political behavior is often less rational than individuals believe it to be. Information processing, memory, and decision making are interlinked processes. Studies in cognitive psychology reveal that even though decision making requires rationality, individuals often adopt…
Empirical Rationality in the Stock Market
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raahauge, Peter
2003-01-01
for this empiricalrationality on part of the agent, the resulting empirical model assignslikelihood to the data actually observed, unlike in the unmodified rational expectationscase. A Lucas (1978)-type asset pricing model which incorporatesempirical rationality is constructed and estimated using U.S. stock data...
Rational Invariants of the Generalized Classical Groups
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
NAN JI-ZHU; ZHAO JING
2011-01-01
In this paper, we give transcendence bases of the rational invariants fields of the generalized classical groups and their subgroups B, N and T, and we also compute the orders of them. Furthermore, we give explicit generators for the rational invariants fields of the Borel subgroup and the Neron-Severi subgroup of the general linear group.
Decision theory with resource-bounded agents.
Halpern, Joseph Y; Pass, Rafael; Seeman, Lior
2014-04-01
There have been two major lines of research aimed at capturing resource-bounded players in game theory. The first, initiated by Rubinstein (), charges an agent for doing costly computation; the second, initiated by Neyman (), does not charge for computation, but limits the computation that agents can do, typically by modeling agents as finite automata. We review recent work on applying both approaches in the context of decision theory. For the first approach, we take the objects of choice in a decision problem to be Turing machines, and charge players for the "complexity" of the Turing machine chosen (e.g., its running time). This approach can be used to explain well-known phenomena like first-impression-matters biases (i.e., people tend to put more weight on evidence they hear early on) and belief polarization (two people with different prior beliefs, hearing the same evidence, can end up with diametrically opposed conclusions) as the outcomes of quite rational decisions. For the second approach, we model people as finite automata, and provide a simple algorithm that, on a problem that captures a number of settings of interest, provably performs optimally as the number of states in the automaton increases. PMID:24764140
Curvature bounds for configuration spaces
Erbar, Matthias; Huesmann, Martin
2014-01-01
We show that the configuration space over a manifold M inherits many curvature properties of the manifold. For instance, we show that a lower Ricci curvature bound on M implies for the configuration space a lower Ricci curvature bound in the sense of Lott-Sturm-Villani, the Bochner inequality, gradient estimates and Wasserstein contraction. Moreover, we show that the heat flow on the configuration space, or the infinite independent particle process, can be identified as the gradient flow of t...
Finite Domain Bounds Consistency Revisited
Choi, Chiu Wo; Harvey, Warwick; Lee, Jimmy Ho-Man; Stuckey, Peter J.
2004-01-01
A widely adopted approach to solving constraint satisfaction problems combines systematic tree search with constraint propagation for pruning the search space. Constraint propagation is performed by propagators implementing a certain notion of consistency. Bounds consistency is the method of choice for building propagators for arithmetic constraints and several global constraints in the finite integer domain. However, there has been some confusion in the definition of bounds consistency. In t...
Entropy bounds for uncollapsed matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abreu, Gabriel; Visser, Matt, E-mail: Gabriel.Abreu@msor.vuw.ac.nz, E-mail: Matt.Visser@msor.vuw.ac.nz [School of Mathematics, Statistics and Operation Research Victoria University of Wellington Wellington (New Zealand)
2011-09-22
In any static spacetime the quasilocal Tolman mass contained within a volume can be reduced to a Gauss-like surface integral involving the flux of a suitably defined generalized surface gravity. By introducing some basic thermodynamics, and invoking the Unruh effect, one can then develop elementary bounds on the quasilocal entropy that are very similar in spirit to the holographic bound, and closely related to entanglement entropy.
Yadav, Rajesh Kumar; Khare, Avinash; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad
2014-01-01
Rationally extended shape invariant potentials in arbitrary D-dimensions are obtained by using point canonical transformation (PCT) method. The bound-state solutions of these exactly solvable potentials can be written in terms of X_m Laguerre or X_m Jacobi exceptional orthogonal polynomials. These potentials are isospectral to their usual counterparts and possess translationally shape invariance property.
Invariant algebraic curves and rational first integrals of holomorphic foliations in CP(2)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG; Xiang(张祥)
2003-01-01
In this paper, using the tools of algebraic geometry we provide sufficient conditions for a holomor-phic foliation in CP(2) to have a rational first integral. Moreover, we obtain an upper bound of the degreesof invariant algebraic curves of a holomorphic foliation in CP(2). Then we use these results to prove that anyholomorphic foliation of degree 2 does not have cubic limit cycles.
Some Bounds for the Logarithmic Function
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Topsøe, Flemming
2007-01-01
Development in continued fraction, rational approximations and orthogonal polynomials in relation to the logarithmic function are discussed.......Development in continued fraction, rational approximations and orthogonal polynomials in relation to the logarithmic function are discussed....
Russell, Jill; Greenhalgh, Trisha
2014-09-01
The English National Health Service Constitution states that patients have the right to expect all decisions about access to medicines and treatments to be made 'rationally'. Rationality in health care can be framed as instrumental, institutional or practical. In this article, we present a case example from an ethnographic study of the work of 'Individual Funding Request' panels to explore how rationality is enacted and accounted for in deliberations about the rationing of health care in the National Health Service. Our rhetorical analysis highlights how an embodied, practical rationality emerges as a significant aspect of rationality in practice, but at the same time has a problematic status in formal accounts of decision-making. We suggest that being both 'human' and 'rational' is a 'delicate balance' and creates a dilemma for Individual Funding Request panels. Aristotle's notion of phronesis provides a useful lens for theorising our observation of panel deliberations, and we argue for greater attention to the value of narrative ethics in helping us understand the challenges faced by resource allocators.
Rationality, institutions and environmental policy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vatn, Arild [Department of Economics and Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas (Norway)
2005-11-01
This paper is about how institutions determine choices and the importance of this for environmental policy. The model of individual rational choice from neoclassical economics is compared with the model of socially determined behavior. While in the first case, institutions are either exempted from or understood as mere economizing constraints on behavior, the latter perspective views institutions as basic structures necessary also to enable people to act. The paper develops a way to integrate the individualistic model into the wider perspective of social constructivism by viewing it as a special form of such construction. On the basis of this synthesis three issues with relevance for environmental economics are discussed. First, the role of institutional factors in the process of preference formation is emphasized. Next, the role of institutions for the choice of desired states of the environment is analyzed. Finally, the effect of various policy instruments to motivate people to produce these states is discussed. It is concluded that the core policy issue is to determine which institutional frameworks are most reasonable to apply to which kind of problem. Issues, which from the perspective of neoclassical economics are pure technical, become serious value questions if understood from an institutional perspective.
The Geometric Continuity of Rational Bezier Triangular Surfaces
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
田捷
1991-01-01
The problems of geometric continuity for rational Bezier surfaces are discussed.Concise conditions of first order and second order geometric continuity for rational triangular bezier surfaces are given.Meanwhile,a geometric condition for smoothness between adjacent rational bezier surfaces and the transformation formulae between rational triangular patches and rational rectangular patches are obtained.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈银飞; 茅宁
2009-01-01
在伦理决策中人们具有有限道德,包括沽名钓誉、内隐偏见、内群体互惠、漠视未来以及利益冲突."应该自我"与"想要自我"在决策的预想、行动与评价这3个阶段所处的地位不同,行动阶段道德意识的衰退与评价阶段的认知扭曲是有限道德产生的原因.有限道德的纠正需要决策者认识到多重自我的存在,在预想阶段倾听"想要自我"的声音;在行动阶段提升"应该自我"的影响,降低"想要自我"的作用;在评价阶段克服认知扭曲.
On a Generalization of Kingman's Bounds
Liu, Zhen; Nain, Philippe; Towsley, Don
1994-01-01
In this paper we develop a framework for computing upper and lower bounds of an exponential form for a class of single server queueing systems with non-renewal inputs. These bounds generalize Kingman's bounds for queues with renewal inputs.
[The rational diagnostic of cholangiocarcinoma].
Rydlo, Martin; Dvořáčková, Jana; Kupka, Tomáš; Klvaňa, Pavel; Havelka, Jaroslav; Uvírová, Magdalena; Geryk, Edvard; Czerný, Daniel; Jonszta, Tomáš; Bojková, Martina; Hrabovský, Vladimír; Jelínková, Veronika; Martínek, Arnošt; Dítě, Petr
2016-02-01
Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is a rare malignant tumour arising from cholangiocytes, and its prognosis is usually unfavourable, mostly as a result of late diagnosis of the tumour. The current incidence of cholangiocarcinoma in the Czech Republic is 1.4/100,000 inhabitants per year; in less than 30 % of patients with CC, one of the known risk factors can be identified, most frequently, primary sclerosing cholangitis. Only patients with early diagnosed and surgically amenable cholangiocarcinoma are likely to have a longer survival time; in their case, survival for more than five years has been achieved in 20 % to 40 %. From the perspective of the need for early diagnosis of CC, a significant part is played by imaging and histopathologic evaluation; the early diagnostic significance of oncomarkers is limited. The rational early diagnosis of CC consists in effective use of differentiated advantages of different imaging modalities - MRI with DSA appears to be the optimal method, endosonography is a sensitive method for the identification of malignancy in the hepatic hilum or distal common bile duct, MRCP (magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography) is used to display pathological changes in the biliary tree, ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) allows material removal for histopathological examination. Other new approaches are also beneficial, such as IDUS - intraductal ultrasonography of biliary tract or SPY-GLASS, enabling examination of the bile ducts by direct view with the possibility of taking targeted biopsies. Sensitivity and specificity of histology and cytology can be increased by using the molecular cytogenetic FISH method, i.e. fluorescence in situ by hybridization, with a specificity of 97 %. PMID:27172439
Perturbing rational harmonic functions by poles
Sète, Olivier; Liesen, Jörg
2014-01-01
We study how adding certain poles to rational harmonic functions of the form $R(z)-\\bar{z}$, with $R(z)$ rational and of degree $d\\geq 2$, affects the number of zeros of the resulting functions. Our results are motivated by and generalize a construction of Rhie derived in the context of gravitational microlensing (ArXiv e-print 2003). Of particular interest is the construction and the behavior of rational functions $R(z)$ that are {\\em extremal} in the sense that $R(z)-\\bar{z}$ has the maximal possible number of $5(d-1)$ zeros.
Positivity Preserving Interpolation Using Rational Bicubic Spline
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samsul Ariffin Abdul Karim
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses the positivity preserving interpolation for positive surfaces data by extending the C1 rational cubic spline interpolant of Karim and Kong to the bivariate cases. The partially blended rational bicubic spline has 12 parameters in the descriptions where 8 of them are free parameters. The sufficient conditions for the positivity are derived on every four boundary curves network on the rectangular patch. Numerical comparison with existing schemes also has been done in detail. Based on Root Mean Square Error (RMSE, our partially blended rational bicubic spline is on a par with the established methods.
COMPUTATION OF VECTOR VALUED BLENDING RATIONAL INTERPOLANTS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
檀结庆
2003-01-01
As we know, Newton's interpolation polynomial is based on divided differ-ences which can be calculated recursively by the divided-difference scheme while Thiele'sinterpolating continued fractions are geared towards determining a rational functionwhich can also be calculated recursively by so-called inverse differences. In this paper,both Newton's interpolation polynomial and Thiele's interpolating continued fractionsare incorporated to yield a kind of bivariate vector valued blending rational interpolantsby means of the Samelson inverse. Blending differences are introduced to calculate theblending rational interpolants recursively, algorithm and matrix-valued case are dis-cussed and a numerical example is given to illustrate the efficiency of the algorithm.
Eta nuclear bound states revisited
Friedman, E; Mareš, J
2013-01-01
The strong energy dependence of the s-wave eta-N scattering amplitude at and below threshold, as evident in coupled-channels K-matrix fits and chiral models that incorporate the S11 N*(1535) resonance, is included self consistently in eta-nuclear bound state calculations. This approach, applied recently in calculations of kaonic atoms and Kbar-nuclear bound states, is found to impose stronger constraints than ever on the onset of eta-nuclear binding, with a minimum value of Re a_{eta N} approximately 0.9 fm required to accommodate an eta-4He bound state. Binding energies and widths of eta-nuclear states are calculated within several underlying eta-N models for nuclei across the periodic table, including eta-25Mg for which some evidence was proposed in a recent COSY experiment.
Improved Range Searching Lower Bounds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Kasper Green; Nguyen, Huy L.
2012-01-01
range reporting problem. In approximate simplex range reporting, points that lie within a distance of ε ⋅ Diam(s) from the border of a query simplex s, are free to be included or excluded from the output, where ε ≥ 0 is an input parameter to the range searching problem. We prove our lower bounds......Table of Contents -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- In this paper we present a number of improved lower bounds for range searching in the pointer machine and the group model. In the pointer machine, we prove lower bounds for the approximate simplex...... by constructing a hard input set and query set, and then invoking Chazelle and Rosenberg's [CGTA'96] general theorem on the complexity of navigation in the pointer machine. For the group model, we show that input sets and query sets that are hard for range reporting in the pointer machine (i.e. by Chazelle...
Simulation bounds for system availability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
System availability is a dominant factor in the practicality of nuclear power electrical generating plants. A proposed model for obtaining either lower bounds or interval estimates on availability uses observed data on ''n'' failure-to-repair cycles of the system to estimate the parameters in the time-to-failure and time-to-repair models. These estimates are then used in simulating failure/repair cycles of the system. The availability estimate is obtained for each of 5000 samples of ''n'' failure/repair cycles to form a distribution of estimates. Specific percentile points of those simulated distributions are selected as lower simulation bounds or simulation interval bounds for the system availability. The method is illustrated with operational data from two nuclear plants for which an exponential time-to-failure and a lognormal time-to-repair are assumed
Energy bounds in designer gravity
Amsel, Aaron J.; Marolf, Donald
2006-09-01
We consider asymptotically anti-de Sitter gravity coupled to tachyonic scalar fields with mass at or slightly above the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound in d≥4 spacetime dimensions. The boundary conditions in these “designer gravity” theories are defined in terms of an arbitrary function W. We give a general argument that the Hamiltonian generators of asymptotic symmetries for such systems will be finite, and proceed to construct these generators using the covariant phase space method. The direct calculation confirms that the generators are finite and shows that they take the form of the pure gravity result plus additional contributions from the scalar fields. By comparing the generators to the spinor charge, we derive a lower bound on the gravitational energy when W has a global minimum and the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound is not saturated.
Experimental activation of bound entanglement.
Kaneda, Fumihiro; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Ishizaka, Satoshi; Mitsumori, Yasuyoshi; Kosaka, Hideo; Edamatsu, Keiichi
2012-07-27
Entanglement is one of the essential resources in quantum information and communication technology (QICT). The entanglement thus far explored and applied to QICT has been pure and distillable entanglement. Yet, there is another type of entanglement, called "bound entanglement," which is not distillable by local operations and classical communication. We demonstrate the experimental "activation" of the bound entanglement held in the four-qubit Smolin state, unleashing its immanent entanglement in distillable form, with the help of auxiliary two-qubit entanglement and local operations and classical communication. We anticipate that it opens the way to a new class of QICT applications that utilize more general classes of entanglement than ever, including bound entanglement.
Refining Castelnuovo-Halphen bounds
Di Gennaro, Vincenzo
2011-01-01
Fix integers $r,d,s,\\pi$ with $r\\geq 4$, $d\\gg s$, $r-1\\leq s \\leq 2r-4$, and $\\pi\\geq 0$. Refining classical results for the genus of a projective curve, we exhibit a sharp upper bound for the arithmetic genus $p_a(C)$ of an integral projective curve $C\\subset {\\mathbb{P}^r}$ of degree $d$, assuming that $C$ is not contained in any surface of degree $ \\pi$. Next we discuss other types of bound for $p_a(C)$, involving conditions on the entire Hilbert polynomial of the integral surfaces on which $C$ may lie.
Variables Bounding Based Retiming Algorithm
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
宫宗伟; 林争辉; 陈后鹏
2002-01-01
Retiming is a technique for optimizing sequential circuits. In this paper, wediscuss this problem and propose an improved retiming algorithm based on variables bounding.Through the computation of the lower and upper bounds on variables, the algorithm can signi-ficantly reduce the number of constraints and speed up the execution of retiming. Furthermore,the elements of matrixes D and W are computed in a demand-driven way, which can reducethe capacity of memory. It is shown through the experimental results on ISCAS89 benchmarksthat our algorithm is very effective for large-scale sequential circuits.
Précis of bayesian rationality: The probabilistic approach to human reasoning.
Oaksford, Mike; Chater, Nick
2009-02-01
According to Aristotle, humans are the rational animal. The borderline between rationality and irrationality is fundamental to many aspects of human life including the law, mental health, and language interpretation. But what is it to be rational? One answer, deeply embedded in the Western intellectual tradition since ancient Greece, is that rationality concerns reasoning according to the rules of logic--the formal theory that specifies the inferential connections that hold with certainty between propositions. Piaget viewed logical reasoning as defining the end-point of cognitive development; and contemporary psychology of reasoning has focussed on comparing human reasoning against logical standards. Bayesian Rationality argues that rationality is defined instead by the ability to reason about uncertainty. Although people are typically poor at numerical reasoning about probability, human thought is sensitive to subtle patterns of qualitative Bayesian, probabilistic reasoning. In Chapters 1-4 of Bayesian Rationality (Oaksford & Chater 2007), the case is made that cognition in general, and human everyday reasoning in particular, is best viewed as solving probabilistic, rather than logical, inference problems. In Chapters 5-7 the psychology of "deductive" reasoning is tackled head-on: It is argued that purportedly "logical" reasoning problems, revealing apparently irrational behaviour, are better understood from a probabilistic point of view. Data from conditional reasoning, Wason's selection task, and syllogistic inference are captured by recasting these problems probabilistically. The probabilistic approach makes a variety of novel predictions which have been experimentally confirmed. The book considers the implications of this work, and the wider "probabilistic turn" in cognitive science and artificial intelligence, for understanding human rationality.
Holomorphic Cartan geometries and rational curves
Biswas, Indranil
2010-01-01
We prove that any compact K\\"ahler manifold bearing a holomorphic Cartan geometry contains a rational curve just when the Cartan geometry is inherited from a holomorphic Cartan geometry on a lower dimensional compact K\\"ahler manifold.
Legendre rational approximation on the whole line
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GUO; Benyu; WANG; Zhongqing
2004-01-01
The Legendre rational approximation is investigated. Some approximation results are established, which form the mathematical foundation of a new spectral method on the whole line. A model problem is considered. Numerical results show the efficiency of this new approach.
Popper, Rationality and the Possibility of Social Science
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Danny Frederick
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Social science employs teleological explanations which depend upon the rationality principle, according to which people exhibit instrumental rationality. Popper points out that people also exhibit critical rationality, the tendency to stand back from, and to question or criticise, their views. I explain how our critical rationality impugns the explanatory value of the rationality principle and thereby threatens the very possibility of social science. I discuss the relationship between instrumental and critical rationality and show how we can reconcile our critical rationality with the possibility of social science if we invoke Popper’s conception of limited rationality and his indeterminism.
Hoogerheide, L.F.; Ravazzolo, F.; van Dijk
2011-01-01
textabstractPatton and Timmermann (2011, 'Forecast Rationality Tests Based on Multi-Horizon Bounds', Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, forthcoming) propose a set of useful tests for forecast rationality or optimality under squared error loss, including an easily implemented test based on a regression that only involves (long-horizon and short-horizon) forecasts and no observations on the target variable. We propose an extension, a simulation-based procedure that takes into account th...
Evaluating the Rationality of Managers' Sales Forecasts
de Bruijn, Bert; Franses, Philip Hans
2011-01-01
textabstractThis paper deals with the analysis and evaluation of sales forecasts of managers, given that it is unknown how they constructed their forecasts. Our goal is to find out whether these forecasts are rational. To examine deviations from rationality, we argue that one has to approximate how the managers could have generated the forecasts. We describe several ways to construct these approximate expressions. The analysis of a large set of a single manager's forecasts for sales of pharma...
Rationalism vs. Sentimentalism : Reviewing Price's Review
Olson, Jonas
2014-01-01
This paper revisits Richard Price’s Review of the Principal Questions in Morals (1757/1787). Price was a defender of rationalism about ethics and he anticipated many views and arguments that became influential as the metaethical and ethical debates evolved over the later centuries. The paper explores and assesses Price’s arguments in favour of rationalism and against sentimentalism, with a view to how they bear on the modern metaethical debate.
Rationality: a social-epistemology perspective
Sylvia eWenmackers; Danny Eric Paul Vanpoucke; Igor eDouven
2014-01-01
Both in philosophy and in psychology, human rationality has traditionally been studied from an 'individualistic' perspective. Recently, social epistemologists have drawn attention to the fact that epistemic interactions among agents also give rise to important questions concerning rationality. In previous work, we have used a formal model to assess the risk that a particular type of social-epistemic interactions lead agents with initially consistent belief states into inconsistent belief st...
Rational emotive behavior therapy: disputing irrational philosophies.
Sacks, Susan Bendersky
2004-05-01
This article provides an overview of the concepts and techniques of rational emotive behavior therapy to distinguish it from cognitive-behavioral therapy. Rational emotive behavior therapy proposes that psychological disturbance is largely created and maintained through irrational philosophies consisting of internal absolutistic demands. This therapy strives to produce sustained and profound cognitive, emotive, and behavioral change through active, vigorous disputation of underlying irrational philosophies.
QArith: Coq Formalisation of Lazy Rational Arithmetic
Niqui, Milad; Bertot, Yves
2003-01-01
In this paper we present the formalisation of the library which is an implementation of rational numbers as binary sequences for both lazy and strict computation. We use the representation also known as the Stern-Brocot representation for rational numbers. This formalisation uses advanced machinery of the theorem prover and applies recent developments in formalising general recursive functions. This formalisation highlights the rôle of type theory both as a tool to verify hand-written program...
Promoting rational prescribing: an international perspective.
Hogerzeil, H. V.
1995-01-01
Irrational prescribing is a global problem. Rational prescribing cannot be defined without a method of measurement and a reference standard. The former is now available but the latter needs further development. Proven effective interventions to promote rational prescribing in developed countries are treatment protocols based on wide consultation and consensus, properly introduced and with a possibility of feedback; face-to-face education focussed on a particular prescribing problem in selecte...
2-rational Cubic Spline Involving Tension Parameters
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M Shrivastava; J Joseph
2000-08-01
In the present paper, 1-piecewise rational cubic spline function involving tension parameters is considered which produces a monotonic interpolant to a given monotonic data set. It is observed that under certain conditions the interpolant preserves the convexity property of the data set. The existence and uniqueness of a 2-rational cubic spline interpolant are established. The error analysis of the spline interpolant is also given.
Understanding Markov-switching rational expectations models
Roger E.A. Farmer; Daniel F. Waggoner; Zha, Tao
2009-01-01
We develop a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for equilibria to be determinate in a class of forward-looking Markov-switching rational expectations models, and we develop an algorithm to check these conditions in practice. We use three examples, based on the new Keynesian model of monetary policy, to illustrate our technique. Our work connects applied econometric models of Markov switching with forward-looking rational expectations models and allows an applied researcher to construc...
Intergroup conflict and rational decision making.
Martínez-Tur, Vicente; Peñarroja, Vicente; Serrano, Miguel A; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Moliner, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia; Alacreu-Crespo, Adrián; Gracia, Esther; Molina, Agustín
2014-01-01
The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict -associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate)- has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making.
Bounded Densities and Their Derivatives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kozine, Igor; Krymsky, V.
2009-01-01
This paper describes how one can compute interval-valued statistical measures given limited information about the underlying distribution. The particular focus is on a bounded derivative of a probability density function and its combination with other available statistical evidence for computing...
Market Access through Bound Tariffs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Yalcin, Erdal
WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings on t...
Market access through bound tariffs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Yalcin, Erdal
2010-01-01
WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings on t...
Unconditional lower bounds against advice
H. Buhrman; L. Fortnow; R. Santhanam
2009-01-01
We show several unconditional lower bounds for exponential time classes against polynomial time classes with advice, including: (1) For any constant c, NEXP not in P^{NP[n^c]} (2) For any constant c, MAEXP not in MA/n^c (3) BPEXP not in BPP/n^{o(1)}. It was previously unknown even whether NEXP in NP
A Functional Calculus for Quotient Bounded Operators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sorin Mirel Stoian
2006-12-01
Full Text Available If (X, P is a sequentially locally convex space, then a quotient bounded operator T beloging to QP is regular (in the sense of Waelbroeck if and only if it is a bounded element (in the sense of Allan of algebra QP. The classic functional calculus for bounded operators on Banach space is generalized for bounded elements of algebra QP.
A discussion of theoretical and practical rationality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wahlstroem, B. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). VTT Automation
1999-12-01
Theoretical rationality as defined in Expected Utility Theory and amended with other considerations gives a good basis for decision making. One should however always keep in mind that practical rationality often is far more complicated. People use their everyday experience when placed before new problems and this may lead to apparently irrational choices which on a closer scrutiny may be completely rational. Theories in human decision making unfortunately becomes untestable, firstly because a theory taking all considerations into account would be to complex to be practical and secondly because the data needed to test the theory cannot be collected. The benefit of EUT is that it is simple and straightforward as compared with competing theories. In the natural sciences rationality is often seen simply as a problem of optimisation. This view is practical, but it has to include also psychological and sociological considerations. The apparent controversy between natural and behavioural sciences could at least in principle be resolved by a better understanding of the complexity of human rationality. The human mind does not work in isolation, but it is adapted to a social community and a continuously changing environment. Understanding all components of human rationality is a challenge which cannot be solved on a short term basis. An important part of human rationality is connected to the intricate balance between individual and societal utility. The human mind has over thousands of years learnt to resolve that balance, but in the modern society there are decisions which may not be solvable with an intuitive approach and a strategy of trial and error. For these decisions more solid theories of rationality will be needed. EUT can in spite of its dismerits be used as the backbone for such a theory, but it has to be extended with better explanations of both individual and social rationality. If this understanding of the practical aspects of human rationality can be reached
A discussion of theoretical and practical rationality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Theoretical rationality as defined in Expected Utility Theory and amended with other considerations gives a good basis for decision making. One should however always keep in mind that practical rationality often is far more complicated. People use their everyday experience when placed before new problems and this may lead to apparently irrational choices which on a closer scrutiny may be completely rational. Theories in human decision making unfortunately becomes untestable, firstly because a theory taking all considerations into account would be to complex to be practical and secondly because the data needed to test the theory cannot be collected. The benefit of EUT is that it is simple and straightforward as compared with competing theories. In the natural sciences rationality is often seen simply as a problem of optimisation. This view is practical, but it has to include also psychological and sociological considerations. The apparent controversy between natural and behavioural sciences could at least in principle be resolved by a better understanding of the complexity of human rationality. The human mind does not work in isolation, but it is adapted to a social community and a continuously changing environment. Understanding all components of human rationality is a challenge which cannot be solved on a short term basis. An important part of human rationality is connected to the intricate balance between individual and societal utility. The human mind has over thousands of years learnt to resolve that balance, but in the modern society there are decisions which may not be solvable with an intuitive approach and a strategy of trial and error. For these decisions more solid theories of rationality will be needed. EUT can in spite of its dismerits be used as the backbone for such a theory, but it has to be extended with better explanations of both individual and social rationality. If this understanding of the practical aspects of human rationality can be reached
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MOK Ngaiming
2008-01-01
In 1993,Tsai proved that a proper holomorphic mapping f : Ω→Ω' from an irreducible bounded symmetric domain Ω of rank ≥ 2 into a bounded symmetric domain Ω' is necessarily totally geodesic provided that r' : = rank(Ω') ≤ rank(Ω) := r,proving a conjecture of the author's motivated by Hermitian metric rigidity.As a first step in the proof,Tsai showed that df preserves almost everywhere the set of tangent vectors of rank 1.Identifying bounded symmetric domains as open subsets of their compact duals by means of the Borel embedding,this means that the germ of f at a general point preserves the varieties of minimal rational tangents (VMRTs).In another completely different direction Hwang-Mok established with very few exceptions the Cartan-Fubini extension priniciple for germs of local biholomorphisms between Fano manifolds of Picard num-ber 1,showing that the germ of map extends to a global biholomorphism provided that it preserves VMRTs.We propose to isolate the problem of characterization of special holomorphic embeddings between Fano manifolds of Picard number 1,especially in the case of classical manifolds such as ratio-nal homogeneous spaces of Picard number 1,by a non-equidimensional analogue of the Cartan-Fubini extension principle.As an illustration we show along this line that standard embeddings between com-plex Grassmahn manifolds of rank ≤ 2 can be characterized by the VMRT-preserving property and a non-degeneracy condition,giving a new proof of a result of Neretin's which on the one hand paves the way for far-reaching generalizations to the context of rational homogeneous spaces and more generally Fano manifolds of Picard number 1,on the other hand should be applicable to the study of proper holomorphic mappings between bounded domains carrying some form of geometric structures.
Emotions and Decisions: Beyond Conceptual Vagueness and the Rationality Muddle.
Volz, Kirsten G; Hertwig, Ralph
2016-01-01
For centuries, decision scholars paid little attention to emotions: Decisions were modeled in normative and descriptive frameworks with little regard for affective processes. Recently, however, an "emotions revolution" has taken place, particularly in the neuroscientific study of decision making, putting emotional processes on an equal footing with cognitive ones. Yet disappointingly little theoretical progress has been made. The concepts and processes discussed often remain vague, and conclusions about the implications of emotions for rationality are contradictory and muddled. We discuss three complementary ways to move the neuroscientific study of emotion and decision making from agenda setting to theory building. The first is to use reverse inference as a hypothesis-discovery rather than a hypothesis-testing tool, unless its utility can be systematically quantified (e.g., through meta-analysis). The second is to capitalize on the conceptual inventory advanced by the behavioral science of emotions, testing those concepts and unveiling the underlying processes. The third is to model the interplay between emotions and decisions, harnessing existing cognitive frameworks of decision making and mapping emotions onto the postulated computational processes. To conclude, emotions (like cognitive strategies) are not rational or irrational per se: How (un)reasonable their influence is depends on their fit with the environment. PMID:26817728
Emotions and Decisions: Beyond Conceptual Vagueness and the Rationality Muddle.
Volz, Kirsten G; Hertwig, Ralph
2016-01-01
For centuries, decision scholars paid little attention to emotions: Decisions were modeled in normative and descriptive frameworks with little regard for affective processes. Recently, however, an "emotions revolution" has taken place, particularly in the neuroscientific study of decision making, putting emotional processes on an equal footing with cognitive ones. Yet disappointingly little theoretical progress has been made. The concepts and processes discussed often remain vague, and conclusions about the implications of emotions for rationality are contradictory and muddled. We discuss three complementary ways to move the neuroscientific study of emotion and decision making from agenda setting to theory building. The first is to use reverse inference as a hypothesis-discovery rather than a hypothesis-testing tool, unless its utility can be systematically quantified (e.g., through meta-analysis). The second is to capitalize on the conceptual inventory advanced by the behavioral science of emotions, testing those concepts and unveiling the underlying processes. The third is to model the interplay between emotions and decisions, harnessing existing cognitive frameworks of decision making and mapping emotions onto the postulated computational processes. To conclude, emotions (like cognitive strategies) are not rational or irrational per se: How (un)reasonable their influence is depends on their fit with the environment.
The database search problem: a question of rational decision making.
Gittelson, S; Biedermann, A; Bozza, S; Taroni, F
2012-10-10
This paper applies probability and decision theory in the graphical interface of an influence diagram to study the formal requirements of rationality which justify the individualization of a person found through a database search. The decision-theoretic part of the analysis studies the parameters that a rational decision maker would use to individualize the selected person. The modeling part (in the form of an influence diagram) clarifies the relationships between this decision and the ingredients that make up the database search problem, i.e., the results of the database search and the different pairs of propositions describing whether an individual is at the source of the crime stain. These analyses evaluate the desirability associated with the decision of 'individualizing' (and 'not individualizing'). They point out that this decision is a function of (i) the probability that the individual in question is, in fact, at the source of the crime stain (i.e., the state of nature), and (ii) the decision maker's preferences among the possible consequences of the decision (i.e., the decision maker's loss function). We discuss the relevance and argumentative implications of these insights with respect to recent comments in specialized literature, which suggest points of view that are opposed to the results of our study.
End-of-life decision making is more than rational.
Eliott, Jaklin A; Olver, Ian N
2005-01-01
Most medical models of end-of-life decision making by patients assume a rational autonomous adult obtaining and deliberating over information to arrive at some conclusion. If the patient is deemed incapable of this, family members are often nominated as substitutes, with assumptions that the family are united and rational. These are problematic assumptions. We interviewed 23 outpatients with cancer about the decision not to resuscitate a patient following cardiopulmonary arrest and examined their accounts of decision making using discourse analytical techniques. Our analysis suggests that participants access two different interpretative repertoires regarding the construct of persons, invoking a 'modernist' repertoire to assert the appropriateness of someone, a patient or family, making a decision, and a 'romanticist' repertoire when identifying either a patient or family as ineligible to make the decision. In determining the appropriateness of an individual to make decisions, participants informally apply 'Sanity' and 'Stability' tests, assessing both an inherent ability to reason (modernist repertoire) and the presence of emotion (romanticist repertoire) which might impact on the decision making process. Failure to pass the tests respectively excludes or excuses individuals from decision making. The absence of the romanticist repertoire in dominant models of patient decision making has ethical implications for policy makers and medical practitioners dealing with dying patients and their families.
Heuristic Search in Bounded-depth Trees: Best-Leaf-First Search
Ruml, Wheeler
2002-01-01
Many combinatorial optimization and constraint satisfaction problems can be formulated as a search for the best leaf in a tree of bounded depth. When exhaustive enumeration is infeasible, a rational strategy visits leaves in increasing order of predicted cost. Previous systematic algorithms for this setting follow a predetermined search order, making strong implicit assumptions about predicted cost and using problem-specific information inefficiently. We introduce a framework, best-leaf-first...
Upper bound and formula for class numbers of abelian function fields
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
For any abelian function field K ( i. e. any subfield of a cyclotomic function field L = k (AP) over the rational function field k ) with conductor being an irreducible polynomial over a finite field of odd characteristic, by studying the Carlitz-module structure and the character group of K, an explicit upper bound and a calculating formula of the relative divisor class number h - (K) of K are given. Our calculated results of K develop Rosen's recent results of L.
Pro-environmental behavior: rational choice meets moral motivation.
Turaga, Rama Mohana R; Howarth, Richard B; Borsuk, Mark E
2010-01-01
The determinants of individual behaviors that provide shared environmental benefits are a longstanding theme in social science research. Alternative behavioral models yield markedly different predictions and policy recommendations. This paper reviews and compares the literatures from two disciplines that appear to be moving toward a degree of convergence. In social psychology, moral theories of pro-environmental behavior have focused on the influence of personal moral norms while recognizing that external factors, such as costs and incentives, ultimately limit the strength of the norm-behavior relationship. Rational choice models, such as the theory of planned behavior in social psychology and the theories of voluntary provision of public goods in economics, have sought to incorporate the effects of personal norms and to measure their importance in explaining behaviors, such as recycling and the demand for green products. This paper explores the relationship between these approaches and their implications for the theory and practice of ecological economics. PMID:20146771
On computing closed forms for summations. [polynomials and rational functions
Moenck, R.
1977-01-01
The problem of finding closed forms for a summation involving polynomials and rational functions is considered. A method closely related to Hermite's method for integration of rational functions derived. The method expresses the sum of a rational function as a rational function part and a transcendental part involving derivatives of the gamma function.
Using Rational-Emotive Therapy to Prevent Classroom Problems.
Webber, Jo; Coleman, Maggie
1988-01-01
Teachers are encouraged to utilize rational-emotive therapy to prevent and deal with classroom behavior problems. Rational-emotive therapy is defined, the ABC model of rational thinking briefly explained, types of irrational thinking identified, and suggestions for becoming a rational thinker are offered. Classroom examples are given. (DB)
Physics with loosely bound nuclei
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Chhanda Samanta
2001-08-01
The essential aspect of contemporary physics is to understand properties of nucleonic matter that constitutes the world around us. Over the years research in nuclear physics has provided strong guidance in understanding the basic principles of nuclear interactions. But, the scenario of nuclear physics changed drastically as the new generation of accelerators started providing more and more rare isotopes, which are away from the line of stability. These weakly bound nuclei are found to exhibit new forms of nuclear matter and unprecedented exotic behaviour. The low breakup thresholds of these rare nuclei are posing new challenges to both theory and experiments. Fortunately, nature has provided a few loosely bound stable nuclei that have been studied thoroughly for decades. Attempts are being made to ﬁnd a consistent picture for the unstable nuclei starting from their stable counterparts. Some signiﬁcant differences in the structure and reaction mechanisms are found.
Concentration Bounds for Stochastic Approximations
Frikha, Noufel
2012-01-01
We obtain non asymptotic concentration bounds for two kinds of stochastic approximations. We first consider the deviations between the expectation of a given function of the Euler scheme of some diffusion process at a fixed deterministic time and its empirical mean obtained by the Monte-Carlo procedure. We then give some estimates concerning the deviation between the value at a given time-step of a stochastic approximation algorithm and its target. Under suitable assumptions both concentration bounds turn out to be Gaussian. The key tool consists in exploiting accurately the concentration properties of the increments of the schemes. For the first case, as opposed to the previous work of Lemaire and Menozzi (EJP, 2010), we do not have any systematic bias in our estimates. Also, no specific non-degeneracy conditions are assumed.
Entropy Bounds in Spherical Space
Brevik, I; Odintsov, S D; Brevik, Iver; Milton, Kimball A.; Odintsov, Sergei D.
2002-01-01
Exact calculations are given for the Casimir energy for various fields in $R\\times S^3$ geometry. The Green's function method naturally gives a result in a form convenient in the high-temperature limit, while the statistical mechanical approach gives a form appropriate for low temperatures. The equivalence of these two representations is demonstrated. Some discrepancies with previous work are noted. In no case, even for ${\\cal N}=4$ SUSY, is the ratio of entropy to energy found to be bounded.
2013-03-26
... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math Science... Upward Bound Math Science Annual Performance Report. OMB Control Number: 1840-NEW. Type of Review: New... under the regular Upward Bound (UB) and Upward Bound Math and Science (UBMS) Programs. The Department...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rebecca K. Helm
2016-07-01
Full Text Available The present study investigated the impact of different legal standards on mock juror decisions concerning whether a defendant was guilty or not guilty by reason of insanity. Undergraduate students (N = 477 read a simulated case summary involving a murder case and were asked to make an insanity determination. The cases differed in terms of the condition of the defendant (rationality deficit or control deficit and the legal standard given to the jurors to make the determination (Model Penal Code, McNaughten or McNaughten plus a separate control determination. The effects of these variables on the insanity determination were investigated. Jurors also completed questionnaires measuring individualism and hierarchy attitudes and perceptions of facts in the case. Results indicate that under current insanity standards jurors do not distinguish between defendants with rationality deficits and defendants with control deficits regardless of whether the legal standard requires them to do so. Even defendants who lacked control were found guilty at equal rates under a legal standard excusing rationality deficits only and a legal standard excluding control and rationality deficits. This was improved by adding a control test as a partial defence, to be determined after a rationality determination. Implications for the insanity defence in the Criminal Justice System are discussed.
Beyond dogmatism: Rationality in theology and science
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wentzel van Huyssteen
1988-01-01
Full Text Available The justification of cognitive claims in theology can be dealt with adequately only if the epistemological issues of metaphorical reference, experiential adequacy and explanatory progress are seen as crucial problems for the more encompassing problem of rationality in theology. To claim some form of reality depiction the theologian will have to argue for a plausible theory of reference on the basis of interpreted religious experience. In this discussion important analogies between the rationality of theological theorizing and the rationality of science are revealed. Thus explanatory progress in theology shows itself to be a form of inference to the best explanation, and the rationahty of both theology and science is therefore determined by certain epistemic values.
Rational speculative bubbles: A critical view
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Radonjić Ognjen
2007-01-01
Full Text Available According to the theory of rational bubbles, the bubble is present whenever asset prices progressively diverge from their fundamental value, which occurs because agents expect that asset prices will continue to grow exponentially (self-fulfilling prophecies far in the future and consistently, which promises the realization of ever larger capital gains. In our opinion, the basic shortcoming of this theory refers to the assumption that all market agents are perfectly informed and rational and, accordingly, form homogeneous expectations. The model does not explain decision-making processes or expectation formation, nor does it detect potential psychological and institutional factors that might significantly influence decision making processes and market participants’ reactions to news. Since assumptions of the model critically determine its validity, we conclude that comprehensiveness of the rational bubble model is, to put it mildly, limited.
Bounded Delay Packet Scheduling in a Bounded Buffer
Fung, Stanley P Y
2009-01-01
We study the problem of buffer management in QoS-enabled network switches in the bounded delay model where each packet is associated with a weight and a deadline. We consider the more realistic situation where the network switch has a finite buffer size. A 9.82-competitive algorithm is known for the case of multiple buffers (Azar and Levy, SWAT'06). Recently, for the case of a single buffer, a 3-competitive deterministic algorithm and a 2.618-competitive randomized algorithm was known (Li, INFOCOM'09). In this paper we give a simple deterministic 2-competitive algorithm for the case of a single buffer.
On the Rationality of Pluralistic Ignorance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjerring, Jens Christian Krarup; Hansen, Jens Ulrik; Pedersen, Nikolaj Jang Lee Linding
2014-01-01
on what precisely a formal and social epistemological account of pluralistic ignorance should look like, we need answers to at least the following two questions: What exactly is the phenomenon of pluralistic ignorance? And can the phenomenon arise among perfectly rational agents? In this paper, we propose...... and social interactive aspects of the phenomenon. Second, given our characterization of pluralistic ignorance, we argue that the phenomenon can indeed arise in groups of perfectly rational agents. This, in turn, ensures that the tools of formal epistemology can be fully utilized to reason about pluralistic...
Rationality: a social-epistemology perspective.
Wenmackers, Sylvia; Vanpoucke, Danny E P; Douven, Igor
2014-01-01
Both in philosophy and in psychology, human rationality has traditionally been studied from an "individualistic" perspective. Recently, social epistemologists have drawn attention to the fact that epistemic interactions among agents also give rise to important questions concerning rationality. In previous work, we have used a formal model to assess the risk that a particular type of social-epistemic interactions lead agents with initially consistent belief states into inconsistent belief states. Here, we continue this work by investigating the dynamics to which these interactions may give rise in the population as a whole.
Rationality: A Social-Epistemology Perspective
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sylvia eWenmackers
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Both in philosophy and in psychology, human rationality has traditionally been studied from an 'individualistic' perspective. Recently, social epistemologists have drawn attention to the fact that epistemic interactions among agents also give rise to important questions concerning rationality. In previous work, we have used a formal model to assess the risk that a particular type of social-epistemic interactions lead agents with initially consistent belief states into inconsistent belief states. Here, we continue this work by investigating the dynamics to which these interactions may give rise in the population as a whole.
Unitarity of rational N=2 superconformal theories
Eholzer, W
1997-01-01
We show that all rational models of the N=2 super Virasoro algebra are unitary. Our derivation relies on the coset realisation of the algebra in terms of su(2) and two free fermions. Most of our arguments generalise to the Kazama-Suzuki models indicating that all rational N=2 supersymmetric models might be unitary. As an independent non-trivial check we calculate Zhu's algebra A(H_0), for which we give a physically motivated derivation, in some examples. We also analyse the modular properties of the vacuum characters.
Does the Minimum Wage Cause Inefficient Rationing?
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
何满辉; 梁明秋
2008-01-01
By not allowing wages to dearthe labor market,the minimum wage could cause workers with low reservation wages to be rationed out while equally skilled woTkers with higher reservation wages are employed.I find that proxies for reservation wages of unskilled workers in high-impact stales did not rise relative to reservation wages in other states,suggesting that the increase in the minimum wage did not cause jobs to be allocated less efficiently.However,even if rationing is efficient,the minimum wage can still entail other efficiency costs.
Rational design of protein kinase inhibitors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yarmoluk S. M.
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Modern methodological approaches to rational design of low molecular weight compounds with specific activity in relation to predetermined biomolecular targets are considered by example of development of high effective protein kinase inhibitors. The application of new computational methods that allow to significantly improve the quality of computational experiments (in, particular, accuracy of low molecular weight compounds activity prediction without increase of computational and time costs are highlighted. The effectiveness of strategy of rational design is demonstrated by examples of several own investigations devoted to development of new inhibitors that are high effective and selective towards protein kinases CK2, FGFR1 and ASK1.
Cyclic sieving and rational Catalan theory
Bodnar, Michelle; Rhoades, Brendon
2015-01-01
Let $a < b$ be coprime positive integers. Armstrong, Rhoades, and Williams defined a set $\\mathsf{NC}(a,b)$ of `rational noncrossing partitions', which form a subset of the ordinary noncrossing partitions of $\\{1, 2, \\dots, b-1\\}$. Confirming a conjecture of Armstrong et. al., we prove that $\\mathsf{NC}(a,b)$ is closed under rotation and prove an instance of the cyclic sieving phenomenon for this rotational action. We also define a rational generalization of the $\\mathfrak{S}_a$-noncrossing p...
Consumption Self-Control by Rationing Purchase Quantities of Virtue and Vice
Klaus Wertenbroch
1998-01-01
Consumers' attempts to control their unwanted consumption impulses influence many everyday purchases with broad implications for marketers' pricing policies. Addressing theoreticians and practitioners alike, this paper uses multiple empirical methods to show that consumers voluntarily and strategically ration their purchase quantities of goods that are likely to be consumed on impulse and that therefore may pose self-control problems. For example, many regular smokers buy their cigarettes by ...
Handy, C. R.; Wang, Xiao Qian
2001-01-01
We show that a recently developed method for generating bounds for the discrete energy states of the non-hermitian $-ix^3$ potential (Handy 2001) is applicable to complex rotated versions of the Hamiltonian. This has important implications for extension of the method in the analysis of resonant states, Regge poles, and general bound states in the complex plane (Bender and Boettcher (1998)).
Bound Polaron Pair Formation in Poly (phenylenevinylenes)
Rothberg, Lewis
The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * PHOTOGENERATED YIELD OF SINGLET EXCITONS * AGGREGRATION EFFECTS ON EXCITED STATE PHOTO-GENERATION * ASSIGNMENT TO BOUND POLARON PAIRS AND DISCUSSION * PROBLEMS WITH THE BOUND POLARON PAIR PICTURE AND CONCLUSION * REFERENCES
An Exponential Bound for Cox Regression☆
Kosorok, M. R.
2012-01-01
We present an asymptotic exponential bound for the deviation of the survival function estimator of the Cox model. We show that the bound holds even when the proportional hazards assumption does not hold. PMID:23565013
An Exponential Bound for Cox Regression.
Goldberg, Y; Kosorok, M R
2012-07-01
We present an asymptotic exponential bound for the deviation of the survival function estimator of the Cox model. We show that the bound holds even when the proportional hazards assumption does not hold.
Adaptive rational block Arnoldi methods for model reductions in large-scale MIMO dynamical systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khalide Jbilou
2016-04-01
Full Text Available In recent years, a great interest has been shown towards Krylov subspace techniques applied to model order reduction of large-scale dynamical systems. A special interest has been devoted to single-input single-output (SISO systems by using moment matching techniques based on Arnoldi or Lanczos algorithms. In this paper, we consider multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO dynamical systems and introduce the rational block Arnoldi process to design low order dynamical systems that are close in some sense to the original MIMO dynamical system. Rational Krylov subspace methods are based on the choice of suitable shifts that are selected a priori or adaptively. In this paper, we propose an adaptive selection of those shifts and show the efficiency of this approach in our numerical tests. We also give some new block Arnoldi-like relations that are used to propose an upper bound for the norm of the error on the transfer function.
NMR structure and dynamics of the agonist dynorphin peptide bound to the human kappa opioid receptor
O’Connor, Casey; White, Kate L.; Doncescu, Nathalie; Didenko, Tatiana; Roth, Bryan L.; Czaplicki, Georges; Stevens, Raymond C.; Wüthrich, Kurt; Milon, Alain
2015-01-01
The human kappa opioid receptor (KOR) is implicated in addiction, pain, reward, mood, cognition, and perception. Activation of KOR by the neuropeptide dynorphin is critical in mediating analgesia and tolerance. Our solution NMR study of dynorphin (1–13) provided quantitative data on a KOR-bound conformation. Analysis of the peptide structure and dynamics revealed a central helical turn bounded on both sides by flexibly disordered peptide segments. Future drug development will benefit from kno...
Monotonicity of the quantum linear programming bound
Eric M. Rains
1998-01-01
The most powerful technique known at present for bounding the size of quantum codes of prescribed minimum distance is the quantum linear programming bound. Unlike the classical linear programming bound, it is not immediately obvious that if the quantum linear programming constraints are satisfiable for dimension K, that the constraints can be satisfied for all lower dimensions. We show that the quantum linear programming bound is indeed monotonic in this sense, and give an explicitly monotoni...
Rationality and its limits in Arianism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Birjukov, Dmitry
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Having considered certain recurrent issues, such as the idea of comprehensibility of God and apopahtic theology, Dmitry Birjukov (Russian Christian Academy, St. Petersburg looks at the rational tendencies in Arianism and, on the basis of available data, shows how from Arius and Asterius to the Neo-Arians the rationalist tendencies in theology gradually increase while apophatic element virtually disappears.
Einstein Metrics on Rational Homology Spheres
Boyer, Charles P.; Galicki, Krzysztof
2003-01-01
We prove the existence of Sasakian-Einstein metrics on infinitely many rational homology spheres in all odd dimensions greater than 3. In dimension 5 we obain somewhat sharper results. There are examples where the number of effective parameters in the Einstein metric grows exponentially with dimension.
Lectures on RCFT [Rational Conformal Field Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We review some recent results in two dimensional Rational Conformal Field Theory. We discuss these theories as a generalization of group theory. The relation to a three dimensional topological theory is explained and the particle example of Chern-Simons-Witten theory is analyzed in detail. This study leads to a natural conjecture regarding the classification of all RCFT's. 62 refs
Can we Rationally Learn to Coordinate?
S. Goyal (Sanjeev); M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten)
1996-01-01
textabstractIn this paper we examine the issue whether individual rationality considerations are sufficient to guarantee that individuals will learn to coordinate. This question is central in any discussion of whether social phenomena (read: conventions) can be explained in terms of a purely individ
Rationality, Theory Acceptance and Decision Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Nicolas Kaufmann
1998-06-01
Full Text Available Following Kuhn's main thesis according to which theory revision and acceptance is always paradigm relative, I propose to outline some possible consequences of such a view. First, asking the question in what sense Bayesian decision theory could serve as the appropriate (normative theory of rationality examined from the point of view of the epistemology of theory acceptance, I argue that Bayesianism leads to a narrow conception of theory acceptance. Second, regarding the different types of theory revision, i.e. expansion, contraction, replacement and residuals shifts, I extract from Kuhn's view a series of indications showing that theory replacement cannot be rationalized within the framework of Bayesian decision theory, not even within a more sophisticated version of that model. Third, and finally, I will point to the need for a more comprehensive model of rationality than the Bayesian expected utility maximization model, the need for a model which could better deal with the different aspects of theory replacement. I will show that Kuhn's distinction between normal and revolutionary science gives us several hints for a more adequate theory of rationality in science. I will also show that Kuhn is not in a position to fully articulate his main ideas and that he well be confronted with a serious problem concerning collective choice of a paradigm.
Dr. Strangelove and Irrational Collective Rationality
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
韩蕾
2012-01-01
Dr. Strangelove or: How I learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb is a 1964 black comedy film with satire of arm races and nuclear scare by the director Stanley Kubrick. In the movie, irrational practice and ideologies manifest them⁃selves as collective rationality and result in the destruction of the earth.
An Appraisal of Rational-Emotive Therapy.
Haaga, David A. F.; Davison, Gerald C.
1993-01-01
Scrutinizes rational-emotive therapy (RET) on conceptual and empirical grounds, including its reliance on constructive assessment and ethical stance. Notes that, although metanalytic reviews provide support for general utility of RET, more qualitative reviews question internal and external validity of much of published research. Notes that process…
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: Humanism in Action.
Hill, Larry K.
1996-01-01
Claims that humanism, in both concept and philosophy, is encased in a literature that is predominantly abstract, making humanism difficult to translate into tangible day-to-day action. Argues that rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), however, provides a detailed method for translating humanist concepts into humanist behavior. (RJM)
Some Contemporary Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Songs.
Watts, Richard E.
1996-01-01
Presents several new rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) songs. Claims that the songs may be used in both academic and therapeutic settings as a humorous way to address cognitive distortions or irrational beliefs. Reports that students and clients have responded favorably to these songs. (RJM)
Disability and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT).
Gandy, Gerald L.
This article provides information on how Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) can be adapted for use in rehabilitation counseling. It states that although clients with an average range of intelligence have responded well to REBT, clients with borderline intellectual functioning are not suitable candidates for cognitive disputing but can be…
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy with Troubled Students.
Zionts, Paul; Zionts, Laura
1997-01-01
Based on the early work of Albert Ellis, seeks to identify and challenge irrational beliefs that underlie behavior problems. Outlines concepts and methods of Rational Emotive Behavior Theory and describes the application both in counseling and as a mental health curriculum for troubled children and youth. Offers classroom techniques. (RJM)
The Rational-Emotive Approach: A Critique
Morris, G. Barry
1976-01-01
The critique of Rational-Emotive Therapy aims criticism at Ellis' concept of irrationality, analysis of human behavior and therapeutic techniques. Ellis suggests that his critic's claims lack the support of experimental evidence. He further suggests that an "existential" bias pervades which differs from his own brand of "existentialism." (KRP)
Critical Thinking and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy.
Hatcher, Donald; Brown, Tony; Gariglietti, Kelli P.
2001-01-01
Notes limitations of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT). Suggests that should these weaknesses be addressed, teachers of critical thinking would do well to incorporate REBT into their critical thinking courses. Relates that A. Ellis has suggested that the future of REBT is in integrating it into the educational curriculum as a way of…
Reflections on Rational-Emotive Therapy.
Ellis, Albert
1993-01-01
Reflects rational-emotive therapy (RET) in 1955 and discusses some of its recent constructivist and humanist theories and practice. Distinguishes between general RET, called synonymous with general cognitive-behavioral therapy, from preferential RET, called unique kind of cognitive therapy that partially overlaps with general cognitive-behavioral…
Rational Suggestions for Pre-Marital Counseling.
Ball, J.D.; Henning, Lawrence H.
1981-01-01
To demonstrate the utility of Rational Emotive Therapy in pre-marital counseling, examples of specific irrational beliefs which clinicians can use to help couples are presented. Mental health practitioners are encouraged to apply these principles to other specific irrationalities they may discover in their own work experience. (Author)
Applying inversion to construct rational spiral curves
Kurnosenko, A.
2009-01-01
A method is proposed to construct spiral curves by inversion of a spiral arc of parabola. The resulting curve is rational of 4-th order. Proper selection of the parabolic arc and parameters of inversion allows to match a wide range of boundary conditions, namely, tangents and curvatures at the endpoints, including those, assuming inflection.
The Rational Optimist: How Prosperity Evolves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matt Ridley
2012-05-01
Full Text Available There is much debate about the state of the world. Matt Ridley argues in The Rational Optimist that we can solve problems such as economic crashes,population explosions, climate change and terrorism, of poverty, AIDS, depression and obesity. His trust of capitalism and progress is examined and challenged in this book review.
Heterogeneous Parking Market Subject to Parking Rationing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saeed Asadi Bagloee
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Different types of drivers and parking spaces delineate a heterogeneous parking market for which the literature has yet to provide a model applicable to the real world. The main obstacle is computational complexities of considering various parking restrictions along with traffic congestion on the road network. In this study, the heterogeneity aspects are considered within a Logit parking choice model. A mathematical programming problem was introduced to explicitly consider parking capacities and parking rationing constraints. The parking rationing is defined as any arrangement to reserve parking space for some specific demand such as parking permit, private parking, VIP parking, and different parking durations. Introduction of parking rationing in the presence of other constraints is a unique factor in this study which makes the model more realistic. The algorithm was tested on a central business district case study. The results prove that the algorithm is able to converge rapidly. Among the algorithm’s output are shadow prices of the parking capacity and parking rationing constraints. The shadow prices contain important information which is key to addressing a variety of parking issues, such as the location of parking shortages, identification of fair parking charges, viability of parking permits, and the size of reserved parking.
Summary Report on Rational Cryptographic Protocols
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alwen, Joël; Cachin, Christian; Pereira, Olivier;
This report gives an overview of some of the models and techniques in rational cryptography, an emerging research area which in particular uses the methodologies and techniques of game theory to analyze cryptographic protocols and which uses cryptographic protocol theory to implement game theoretic...
Rational Landen transformations on mathbb{R}
Manna, Dante; Moll, Victor H.
2007-12-01
The Landen transformation (a,b) mapsto ( (a+b)/2,sqrt{ab} ) preserves the value of an elliptic integral, and its iteration produces the classical arithmetic-geometric mean AGM (a,b) . We present analogous transformations for rational functions integrated over the whole real line.
Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues
Warren, Jeffrey M.
2011-01-01
Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…
Competitive equilibrium hyperinflation under rational expectations
Sallum, Elvia Mureb; Barbosa, Fernando de Holanda; Cunha, Alexandre Barros da
2005-01-01
This paper shows that a competitive equilibrium model, where a representative agent maximizes welfare, expectations are rational and markets are in equilibrium can account for several hyperinflation stylized facts. The theory is built by combining two hypotheses, namely, a fiscal crisis that requires printing money to finance an increasing public deficit and a predicted change in an unsustainable fiscal regime.
Macroeconomics after Two Decades of Rational Expectations.
McCallum, Bennett T.
1994-01-01
Discusses real business cycle analysis, growth theory, and other economic concepts in the context of the rational expectations revolution in macroeconomics. Focuses on post-1982 research. Concludes that the rejuvenation of growth analysis is an encouraging development because it could lead to changes in welfare policy. (CFR)
Isomorphism, Homogeneity, and Rationalism in University Retrenchment.
Gates, Gordon S.
1997-01-01
Describes the process of retrenchment at a medium-sized state university (pseudonyms used) for the purpose of analyzing the isomorphic pressures (mimetic, coercive, normative) surfacing during the process and the role played by rationalism in decision-making. Draws on the literature of organizational theory and change, and makes comparisons with…
Rational Voters in a Partisanship Model
O.H. Swank (Otto)
1995-01-01
textabstractThis paper examines a voter model for the US which is interconnected with the partisan theory. In our model, voters are rational and forward-looking. They are perfectly informed about the preferences of political parties and about the state of the economy. The predictions of our voter mo
MINIMAL RATIONAL INTERPOLATION AND PRONYS METHOD
ANTOULAS, AC; WILLEMS, JC
1990-01-01
A new method is proposed for dealing with the rational interpolation problem. It is based on the reachability of an appropriately defined pair of matrices. This method permits a complete clarification of several issues raised, but not answered, by the so-called Prony method of fitting a linear model
Rationing in the presence of baselines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter
2013-01-01
We analyze a general model of rationing in which agents have baselines, in addition to claims against the (insufficient) endowment of the good to be allocated. Many real-life problems fit this general model (e.g., bankruptcy with prioritized claims, resource allocation in the public health care...
Bound entangled states invariant under Ux
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Zhen; Wang Zhi-Xi
2008-01-01
This paper obtains an entangled condition for isotropic-like states by using an atomic map. It constructs a class of bound entangled states from the entangled condition and shows that the partial transposition of the state from the constructed bound entangled class is an edge bound entangled state by using range criterion.
Upper Bounds on Numerical Approximation Errors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raahauge, Peter
2004-01-01
This paper suggests a method for determining rigorous upper bounds on approximationerrors of numerical solutions to infinite horizon dynamic programming models.Bounds are provided for approximations of the value function and the policyfunction as well as the derivatives of the value function...... to approximations of a standard (strictly concave)growth model.KEYWORDS: Numerical approximation errors, Bellman contractions, Error bounds...
Counting Young Tableaux of Bounded Height
Bergeron, Francois; Gascon, Francis
2000-03-01
We show that formulas of Gessel, for the generating functions for Young standard tableaux of height bounded by k (see [2]), satisfy linear differential equations, with polynomial coefficients, equivalent to P-recurrences conjectured by Favreau, Krob and the first author (see [1]) for the number of bounded height tableaux and pairs of bounded height tableaux.
Bound entangled states with a private key and their classical counterpart.
Ozols, Maris; Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John A
2014-03-21
Entanglement is a fundamental resource for quantum information processing. In its pure form, it allows quantum teleportation and sharing classical secrets. Realistic quantum states are noisy and their usefulness is only partially understood. Bound-entangled states are central to this question--they have no distillable entanglement, yet sometimes still have a private classical key. We present a construction of bound-entangled states with a private key based on classical probability distributions. From this emerge states possessing a new classical analogue of bound entanglement, distinct from the long-sought bound information. We also find states of smaller dimensions and higher key rates than previously known. Our construction has implications for classical cryptography: we show that existing protocols are insufficient for extracting private key from our distributions due to their "bound-entangled" nature. We propose a simple extension of existing protocols that can extract a key from them. PMID:24702340
Quantum discord bounds the amount of distributed entanglement.
Chuan, T K; Maillard, J; Modi, K; Paterek, T; Paternostro, M; Piani, M
2012-08-17
The ability to distribute quantum entanglement is a prerequisite for many fundamental tests of quantum theory and numerous quantum information protocols. Two distant parties can increase the amount of entanglement between them by means of quantum communication encoded in a carrier that is sent from one party to the other. Intriguingly, entanglement can be increased even when the exchanged carrier is not entangled with the parties. However, in light of the defining property of entanglement stating that it cannot increase under classical communication, the carrier must be quantum. Here we show that, in general, the increase of relative entropy of entanglement between two remote parties is bounded by the amount of nonclassical correlations of the carrier with the parties as quantified by the relative entropy of discord. We study implications of this bound, provide new examples of entanglement distribution via unentangled states, and put further limits on this phenomenon.
Higgs mass bounds from the functional RG
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate a Top-Yukawa toy model to study Higgs mass bounds in the framework of the functional renormalization group (RG). Starting the calculations with a quartic ultraviolet (UV) potential we get a finite range of values for the Higgs mass in the infrared for a given cutoff. The bounds appear in a natural way as a consequence of the RG flow. The lower mass bound is approached for a vanishing UV quartic coupling. Furthermore, we study the influence of higher-dimensional operators on the lower Higgs mass bound. We find that even seemingly RG irrelevant interactions can take a substantial influence on the lower bound for the Higgs mass.
Rational and moral action : a critical survey of rational choice theory
Jonge, de, D.N.
2009-01-01
This book is about rational choice theory from a different point of view. It is different for three reasons. First, it pays attention to the unintended consequences of intended actions. Second, it employs a non-instrumental approach to moral actions. And third, it argues that choice opportunities matter. These subjects are elaborated in the Parts II, III, and IV of this book. Part I deals with a critical outline of rational choice theory as it is conventionally understood. This book is focuse...
Schedler, Kuno
2012-01-01
The increasing blurring of the borders between government and non-government organisation forms in the provision of public services leads to new types of organisations. More and more, however, hybrid forms emerge in which there are not only clashes between different interests but also between differing rationalities. This paper focuses on the permanent phenomenon of multiple rationalities in hybrid organisations and attempts to structure it. In doing so, it develops a semantics for the observ...
Capacity Bounds for Parallel Optical Wireless Channels
Chaaban, Anas
2016-01-01
A system consisting of parallel optical wireless channels with a total average intensity constraint is studied. Capacity upper and lower bounds for this system are derived. Under perfect channel-state information at the transmitter (CSIT), the bounds have to be optimized with respect to the power allocation over the parallel channels. The optimization of the lower bound is non-convex, however, the KKT conditions can be used to find a list of possible solutions one of which is optimal. The optimal solution can then be found by an exhaustive search algorithm, which is computationally expensive. To overcome this, we propose low-complexity power allocation algorithms which are nearly optimal. The optimized capacity lower bound nearly coincides with the capacity at high SNR. Without CSIT, our capacity bounds lead to upper and lower bounds on the outage probability. The outage probability bounds meet at high SNR. The system with average and peak intensity constraints is also discussed.
实践理性辨析%Rational Practice:Discussion Praclice:Rational Discussion
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王炳书
2001-01-01
The problem of the rationalities of practice in not only the necessary theoretical content included by the Marxist philosophy,but also a significant task of the present practice.This dissertation,by analysis of the inner relation between practice and rationality and comparison between rationalities of practice and rationalities of theory,is going to throw some light on the innate character and distiguish features of rationalities of practice and basic form of rationalities of practice.%实践理性问题既是马克思主义哲学中必然蕴含着的理论内容，更是当代实践提出的重大课题。实践是理性的真实之所，理性是实践的重要特征，因此,必须从实践与理性的内在结合中揭示实践理性的本质，从实践理性与理论理性的比较与对照中揭示实践理性的特点，从人与世界的关系中探寻实践理性的基本形式。
Antibaryon-nucleus bound states
Hrtánková, J
2014-01-01
We calculated antibaryon ($\\bar{B}$ = $\\bar{p}$, $\\bar{\\Lambda}$, $\\bar{\\Sigma}$, $\\bar{\\Xi}$) bound states in selected nuclei within the relativistic mean-field (RMF) model. The G-parity motivated $\\bar{B}$-meson coupling constants were scaled to yield corresponding potentials consistent with available experimental data. Large polarization of the nuclear core caused by $\\bar{B}$ was confirmed. The $\\bar{p}$ annihilation in the nuclear medium was incorporated by including a phenomenological imaginary part of the optical potential. The calculations using a complex $\\bar{p}$-nucleus potential were performed fully self-consistently. The $\\bar{p}$ widths significantly decrease when the phase space reduction is considered for $\\bar{p}$ annihilation products, but they still remain sizeable for potentials consistent with $\\bar{p}$-atom data.
Hsu, Chia Wei; Zhen, Bo; Stone, A. Douglas; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin
2016-09-01
Bound states in the continuum (BICs) are waves that remain localized even though they coexist with a continuous spectrum of radiating waves that can carry energy away. Their very existence defies conventional wisdom. Although BICs were first proposed in quantum mechanics, they are a general wave phenomenon and have since been identified in electromagnetic waves, acoustic waves in air, water waves and elastic waves in solids. These states have been studied in a wide range of material systems, such as piezoelectric materials, dielectric photonic crystals, optical waveguides and fibres, quantum dots, graphene and topological insulators. In this Review, we describe recent developments in this field with an emphasis on the physical mechanisms that lead to BICs across seemingly very different materials and types of waves. We also discuss experimental realizations, existing applications and directions for future work.
Performance Bounds of Quaternion Estimators.
Xia, Yili; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Nitta, Tohru; Mandic, Danilo P
2015-12-01
The quaternion widely linear (WL) estimator has been recently introduced for optimal second-order modeling of the generality of quaternion data, both second-order circular (proper) and second-order noncircular (improper). Experimental evidence exists of its performance advantage over the conventional strictly linear (SL) as well as the semi-WL (SWL) estimators for improper data. However, rigorous theoretical and practical performance bounds are still missing in the literature, yet this is crucial for the development of quaternion valued learning systems for 3-D and 4-D data. To this end, based on the orthogonality principle, we introduce a rigorous closed-form solution to quantify the degree of performance benefits, in terms of the mean square error, obtained when using the WL models. The cases when the optimal WL estimation can simplify into the SWL or the SL estimation are also discussed. PMID:25643416
Towards Bounded Infeasible Code Detection
Christ, Jürgen; Schäf, Martin
2012-01-01
A first step towards more reliable software is to execute each statement and each control-flow path in a method once. In this paper, we present a formal method to automatically compute test cases for this purpose based on the idea of a bounded infeasible code detection. The method first unwinds all loops in a program finitely often and then encodes all feasible executions of the loop-free programs in a logical formula. Helper variables are introduced such that a theorem prover can reconstruct the control-flow path of a feasible execution from a satisfying valuation of this formula. Based on this formula, we present one algorithm that computes a feasible path cover and one algorithm that computes a feasible statement cover. We show that the algorithms are complete for loop-free programs and that they can be implemented efficiently. We further provide a sound algorithm to compute procedure summaries which makes the method scalable to larger programs.
Spectral computations for bounded operators
Ahues, Mario; Limaye, Balmohan
2001-01-01
Exact eigenvalues, eigenvectors, and principal vectors of operators with infinite dimensional ranges can rarely be found. Therefore, one must approximate such operators by finite rank operators, then solve the original eigenvalue problem approximately. Serving as both an outstanding text for graduate students and as a source of current results for research scientists, Spectral Computations for Bounded Operators addresses the issue of solving eigenvalue problems for operators on infinite dimensional spaces. From a review of classical spectral theory through concrete approximation techniques to finite dimensional situations that can be implemented on a computer, this volume illustrates the marriage of pure and applied mathematics. It contains a variety of recent developments, including a new type of approximation that encompasses a variety of approximation methods but is simple to verify in practice. It also suggests a new stopping criterion for the QR Method and outlines advances in both the iterative refineme...
VORONOI DIAGRAMS WITHOUT BOUNDING BOXES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. T. K. Sang
2015-10-01
Full Text Available We present a technique for presenting geographic data in Voronoi diagrams without having to specify a bounding box. The method restricts Voronoi cells to points within a user-defined distance of the data points. The mathematical foundation of the approach is presented as well. The cell clipping method is particularly useful for presenting geographic data that is spread in an irregular way over a map, as for example the Dutch dialect data displayed in Figure 2. The automatic generation of reasonable cell boundaries also makes redundant a frequently used solution to this problem that requires data owners to specify region boundaries, as in Goebl (2010 and Nerbonne et al (2011.
Information bounds for Gaussian copulas
Hoff, Peter D; Wellner, Jon A
2011-01-01
Often of primary interest in the analysis of multivariate data are the copula parameters describing the dependence among the variables, rather than the univariate marginal distributions. Since the ranks of a multivariate dataset are invariant to changes in the univariate marginal distributions, rank-based procedures are natural candidates as semiparametric estimators of copula parameters. Asymptotic information bounds for such estimators can be obtained from an asymptotic analysis of the rank likelihood, i.e. the probability of the multivariate ranks. In this article, we obtain limiting normal distributions of the rank likelihood for Gaussian copula models. Our results cover models with structured correlation matrices, such as exchangeable, autoregressive and circular correlation, as well as unstructured correlation matrices. For all Gaussian copula models, the limiting distribution of the rank likelihood ratio is shown to be equal to that of a parametric likelihood ratio for an appropriately chosen multivari...
Development of the Rational Behavior Inventory: Initial Validity and Reliability
Shorkey, Clayton T.; Whiteman, Victor L.
1977-01-01
The results of initial validity and reliability studies on the Rational Behavior Inventory are presented. The instrument was developed to be used for assessment, treatment planning, and evaluation of clients by counselors who use Rational Emotive Therapy. (Author/JKS)
. MODERN EDUCATION: FROM RATIONALITY TO REASONABLENESS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. S. Anisimov
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of modern education development and criticizes a pragmatic attitude to education. Based on the retrospective historical analysis, the author maintains that educational systems are generally focused on fostering the pragmatic intellect rather than reasoning, which leads to a superficial world perception, and undermines personal analytical potential and capability of strategic problem solving. Concentration on rationality is unlikely to provide a way out of the world crisis. In the author’s view, education demands both the deep and solid comprehension of existential concepts and the reference to the “absolute spirit” of Confucius, Plato, Kant and Hegel. The research is aimed at justifying the civilizational paradigm of education on the basis of Hegelian fundamental ideas of intellectual perception with the emphasis on reasonability instead of rationality. As the most adequate implementation instrument, the author suggests a game simulating technique that combines the benefits of philosophical, scientific and methodological thinking.
Health Care Rationing and Distributive Justice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Friedrich Breyer
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The rapid progress in medical technology makes it unavoidable to ration health care. In the discussion how to ration many people claim that principles of justice in distributing scarce resources should be applied. In this paper we argue that medical resources are not scarce as such but scarcity is a necessary by-product of collective financing arrangements such as social health insurance. So the right question to ask is the determination of the benefit package of such an institution. Hartmut Kliemt is currently involved in a commendable interdisciplinary research project in which principles of 'prioritization' of medical care are studied. This contribution adds a specific perspective to this endeavour: we ask how the goal of distributive justice can be interpreted in this context and compare different approaches to implementing 'just' allocation mechanisms.
Vaccines: from empirical development to rational design.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christine Rueckert
Full Text Available Infectious diseases are responsible for an overwhelming number of deaths worldwide and their clinical management is often hampered by the emergence of multi-drug-resistant strains. Therefore, prevention through vaccination currently represents the best course of action to combat them. However, immune escape and evasion by pathogens often render vaccine development difficult. Furthermore, most currently available vaccines were empirically designed. In this review, we discuss why rational design of vaccines is not only desirable but also necessary. We introduce recent developments towards specifically tailored antigens, adjuvants, and delivery systems, and discuss the methodological gaps and lack of knowledge still hampering true rational vaccine design. Finally, we address the potential and limitations of different strategies and technologies for advancing vaccine development.
Rational noncompliance with prescribed medical treatment.
Stewart, Douglas O; DeMarco, Joseph P
2010-09-01
Despite the attention that patient noncompliance has received from medical researchers, patient noncompliance remains poorly understood and difficult to alter. With a better theory of patient noncompliance, both greater success in achieving compliance and greater respect for patient decision making are likely. The theory presented, which uses a microeconomic approach, bridges a gap in the extant literature that has so far ignored the contributions of this classic perspective on decision making involving the tradeoff of costs and benefits. The model also generates a surprising conclusion: that patients are typically acting rationally when they refuse to comply with certain treatments. However, compliance is predicted to rise with increased benefits and reduced costs. The prediction that noncompliance is rational is especially true in chronic conditions at the point that treatment begins to move closer to the medically ideal treatment level. Although the details of this theory have not been tested empirically, it is well supported by existing prospective and retrospective studies.
Rational Thinking and Reasonable Thinking in Physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Isaeva E. A.
2008-04-01
Full Text Available The usual concept of space and time, based on Aristotle’s principle of contemplation of the world and of the absoluteness of time, is a product of rational thinking. At the same time, in philosophy, rational thinking differs from reasonable thinking; the aim of logic is to distinguish finite forms from infinite forms. Agreeing that space and time are things of infinity in this work, we shall show that, with regard to these two things, it is necessary to apply reasonable thinking. Spaces with non-Euclidean geometry, for example Riemannian and Finslerian spaces, in particular, the space of the General Theory of the Relativity (four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian geometry and also the concept of multi-dimensional space-time are products of reasonable thinking. Consequently, modern physical experiment not dealing with daily occurrences (greater speeds than a low speed to the velocity of light, strong fields, singularities, etc. can be covered only by reasonable thinking.
Principles of ration formulation for ruminants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feeding standards as practiced in developed countries could be misleading when non-conventional feed resources are used in formulating rations for ruminant livestock in developing countries. They tend to reject the poor quality feeds that are available in vast quantities. The non-availability of good quality forage throughout the year and the need to optimise the efficiency of utilisation of locally available feed resources have lead to the application of basic nutritional principles when considering ration formulation. The alternative approach to the use of feeding standards would be to ensure that the production system matches the available resources. The development of feed supplementation strategies based on locally available feed resources require the understanding of the relative roles and nutrient needs of the two-compartment system represented by the micro-organisms in the rumen and the host animal. (author)
Rational Instability in the Natural Coalition Forming
Vinogradova, Galina
2012-01-01
We are investigating a paradigm of instability in coalition forming among countries, which indeed is intrinsic to any collection of individual groups or other social aggregations. Coalitions among countries are formed by the respective attraction or repulsion caused by the historical bond propensities between the countries, which produced an intricate circuit of bilateral bonds. Contradictory associations into coalitions occur due to the independent evolution of the bonds. Those coalitions tend to be unstable and break down frequently. The model extends some features of the physical theory of Spin Glasses. Within the frame of this model, the instability is viewed as a consequence of decentralized maximization processes searching for the best coalition allocations. In contrast to the existing literature, a rational instability is found to result from forecast rationality of countries. Using a general theoretical framework allowing to analyze the countries' decision making in coalition forming, we feature a sys...
Towards a formal logic of design rationalization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Galle, Per
1997-01-01
Certain extensions to standard predicate logic are proposed and used as a framework for critical logical study of patterns of inference in design reasoning. It is shown that within this framework a modal logic of design rationalization (suggested by an empirical study reported earlier) can...... be formally defined in terms of quantification over a universe of discourse of ‘relevant points of view’. Five basic principles of the extended predicate logic are listed, on the basis of which the validity of ten modal patterns of inference encountered in design rationalization is tested. The basic idea...... of reducing modality to quantification is traced back to the philosophy of von Wright, and the approach is compared to that of related work on logic in design....
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MOK; Ngaiming
2008-01-01
In 1993,Tsal proved that a proper holomorphic mapping f:Ω→Ω’ from an irreducible bounded symmetric domainΩof rank≥2 into a bounded symmetric domainΩ’ is necessarily totally geodesic provided that r’:=rank(Ω’)≤rank(Ω):= r,proving a conjecture of the author’s motivated by Hermitian metric rigidity.As a first step in the proof,Tsai showed that df preserves almost everywhere the set of tangent vectors of rank 1.Identifying bounded symmetric domains as open subsets of their compact duals by means of the Borel embedding,this means that the germ of f at a general point preserves the varieties of minimal rational tangents(VMRTs). In another completely different direction Hwang-Mok established with very few exceptions the Cartan- Fubini extension priniciple for germs of local biholomorphisms between Fano manifolds of Picard num- ber 1,showing that the germ of map extends to a global biholomorphism provided that it preserves VMRTs.We propose to isolate the problem of characterization of special holomorphic embeddings between Fano manifolds of Picard number 1,especially in the case of classical manifolds such as ratio- nal homogeneous spaces of Picard number 1,by a non-equidimensional analogue of the Cartan-Fubini extension principle.As an illustration we show along this line that standard embeddings between com- plex Grassmann manifolds of rank≤2 can be characterized by the VMRT-preserving property and a non-degeneracy condition,giving a new proof of a result of Neretin’s which on the one hand paves the way for far-reaching generalizations to the context of rational homogeneous spaces and more generally Fano manifolds of Picard number 1,on the other hand should be applicable to the study of proper holomorphic mappings between bounded domains carrying some form of geometric structures.
Precis of Bayesian Rationality: The Probabilistic Approach to Human Reasoning
Oaksford, M.; Chater, N.
2009-01-01
According to Aristotle, humans are the rational animal. The borderline between rationality and irrationality is fundamental to many aspects of human life including the law, mental health, and language interpretation. But what is it to be rational? One answer, deeply embedded in the Western intellectual tradition since ancient Greece, is that rationality concerns reasoning according to the rules of logic - the formal theory that specifies the inferential connections that hold with certainty be...
The Ethics and Reality of Rationing in Medicine
Scheunemann, Leslie P.; White, Douglas B.
2011-01-01
Rationing is the allocation of scarce resources, which in health care necessarily entails withholding potentially beneficial treatments from some individuals. Rationing is unavoidable because need is limitless and resources are not. How rationing occurs is important because it not only affects individual lives but also expresses society’s most important values. This article discusses the following topics: (1) the inevitability of rationing of social goods, including medical care; (2) types of...
Thinking about acting logical foundations for rational decision making
Pollock, John L
2006-01-01
John Pollock aims to construct a theory of rational decision making for real agents--not ideal agents. Real agents have limited cognitive powers, but traditional theories of rationality have applied only to idealized agents that lack such constraints. Pollock argues that theories of ideal rationality are largely irrelevant to the decision making of real agents. Thinking about Acting aims to provide a theory of ""real rationality.""
Qualitative behavior of a rational difference equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qian Xiao
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract This article is concerned with the following rational difference equation yn+1 = (yn + yn-1/(p + ynyn-1 with the initial conditions; y-1, y0 are arbitrary positive real numbers, and p is positive constant. Locally asymptotical stability and global attractivity of the equilibrium point of the equation are investigated, and non-negative solution with prime period two cannot be found. Moreover, simulation is shown to support the results.
The rational design of topical formulations
Duszynska-Krupa, A. M.
2015-01-01
This thesis addresses the development of topical formulations designed to treat atopic dermatitis (AD) using nicotinamide (NA). A rational approach to the development of topical formulations based on the physical and chemical properties of the drug and vehicle components is studied. This approach is an alternative to the model of formulation development where the drug is added into an existing vehicle without optimisation of the formulation in terms of the active delivery to its site of actio...
NEVILLE-TYPE VECTOR VALUED RATIONAL INTERPOLANTS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈之兵; 顾传青; 徐晨
2004-01-01
A new kind of vector valued rational interpolants is established by means of Samelson inverse, with scalar numerator and vector valued denominator. It is essen tially different from that of Graves-Morris(1983), where the interpolants are constructed by Thiele-type continued fractions with vector valued numerator and scalar denominator. The new approach is more suitable to calculate the value of a vector valued function for a given point. And an error formula is also given and proven.
Beyond dogmatism: Rationality in theology and science
Wentzel van Huyssteen
1988-01-01
The justification of cognitive claims in theology can be dealt with adequately only if the epistemological issues of metaphorical reference, experiential adequacy and explanatory progress are seen as crucial problems for the more encompassing problem of rationality in theology. To claim some form of reality depiction the theologian will have to argue for a plausible theory of reference on the basis of interpreted religious experience. In this discussion important analogies between the rationa...
Dynamic factor demands under rational expectations
Robert S. Pindyck; Rotemberg, Julio
1982-01-01
This paper presents a dynamic model of the industrial demands for structures, equipment, and blue- and white-collar labor. Our approach is consistent with producers holding rational expectations and optimizing dynamically in the presence of adjustment costs, yet it permits generality of functional form regarding the technology. We represent the technology by atranslog input requirement function that specifies the amount of blue-collar labor (a flexible factor) the firm must hire to produce a ...
Liquid mixture viscosities correlation with rational models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Knežević-Stevanović Anđela B.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper twenty two selected rational correlation models for liquid mixture viscosities of organic compounds were tested on 219 binary sets of experimental data taken from literature. The binary sets contained 3675 experimental data points for 70 different compounds. The Dimitrov-Kamenski X, Dimitrov-Kamenski XII, and Dimitrov-Kamenski XIII models demonstrated the best correlative characteristics for binary mixtures with overall absolute average deviation less then 2%. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172063
Cognitive characteristics affecting rational decision making style
2011-01-01
Abstract Decision making is one of the most important and frequent tasks among managers and employees in an organization. Knowledge about more stable cognitive characteristics underlying decision making styles has been requested. This study aimed to examine the relationship between rational decision making style, cognitive style, self efficacy and locus of control. Possible interaction effects in relation to gender were also analyzed. 186 employees at the Ministry of Defence were surveyed...
Picard groups in rational conformal field theory
Fröhlich, J.; Fuchs, J.; Runkel, I.; Schweigert, C.
2005-01-01
Algebra and representation theory in modular tensor categories can be combined with tools from topological field theory to obtain a deeper understanding of rational conformal field theories in two dimensions: It allows us to establish the existence of sets of consistent correlation functions, to demonstrate some of their properties in a model-independent manner, and to derive explicit expressions for OPE coefficients and coefficients of partition functions in terms of invariants of links in t...
Rational trigonometry via projective geometric algebra
Gunn, Charles
2014-01-01
We show that main results of rational trigonometry (as developed by NJ Wildberger, "Divine Proportions", 2005) can be succinctly expressed using projective (aka homogeneous) geometric algebra (PGA). In fact, the PGA representation exhibits distinct advantages over the original vector-based approach. These include the advantages intrinsic to geometric algebra: it is coordinate-free, treats lines and points in a unified framework, and handles many special cases in a uniform and seamless fashion...
Macro-Economic Equilibrium and Credit Rationing
Stiglitz, Joseph E.; Andrew Weiss
1987-01-01
In this paper we investigate the macro-economic equilibria of an economy in which credit contracts have both adverse selection and incentive effects. The terms of credit contracts include both an interest rate and a collateral requirement. We show that in this richer model all types of borrowers may be rationed. Interest rates charged borrowers may move either pro or counter-cyclically. If pro-cyclical shocks have a greater effect on the success probabilities of risky techniques than on safe ...
Multiple Shooting in Rational Expectations Models
David Lipton; James M. Poterba; Jeffrey Sachs; Summers, Lawrence H.
1983-01-01
This note describes an algorithm for the solution of rational expectations models with saddlepoint stability properties. The algorithm is based on the method of multiple shooting, which is widely used to solve mathematically similar problems in the physical sciences. Potential applications to economics include models of capital accumulation and valuation, money arid growth, exchange rate determination, and macroeconomic activity. In general, whenever an asset price incorporates information ab...
Rational Expectations Equilibria: Existence and Representation
Bhowmik, Anuj; Cao, Jiling
2015-01-01
In this paper, we continue to explore the equilibrium theory under ambiguity. For a model of a pure exchange and asymmetric information economy with a measure space of agents whose exogenous uncertainty is described by a complete probability space, we establish a representation theorem for a Bayesian or maximin rational expectations equilibrium allocation in terms of a state-wise Walrasian equilibrium allocation. This result also strengthens the theorems on the existence and representation of...
Scalable Mechanisms for Rational Secret Sharing
Dani, Varsha; Saia, Jared
2012-01-01
We consider the classical secret sharing problem in the case where all agents are selfish but rational. In recent work, Kol and Naor show that, when there are two players, in the non-simultaneous communication model, i.e. when rushing is possible, there is no Nash equilibrium that ensures both players learn the secret. However, they describe a mechanism for this problem, for any number of players, that is an epsilon-Nash equilibrium, in that no player can gain more than epsilon utility by deviating from it. Unfortunately, the Kol and Naor mechanism, and, to the best of our knowledge, all previous mechanisms for this problem require each agent to send O(n) messages in expectation, where n is the number of agents. This may be problematic for some applications of rational secret sharing such as secure multi-party computation and simulation of a mediator. We address this issue by describing mechanisms for rational secret sharing that are designed for large n. Both of our results hold for n > 2, and are Nash equil...
Rationality in children: the first steps
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrew Woodfield
1991-12-01
Full Text Available Not all categorization is conceptual. Many of the experimental findings concerning infant and animal categorization invite the hypothesis that the subjects form abstract perceptual representations, mental models or cognitive maps that are not composed of concepts. The paper is a reflection upon the idea that conceptual categorization involves the ability to make categorical judgements under the guidance of norms of rationality. These include a norm of truth-seeking and a norm of good evidence. Acceptance of these norms implies willingness to defer to cognitive authorities, unwillingness to commit oneself to contradictions, and knowledge of how to reorganize one's representational system upon discovering that one has made a mistake. It is proposed that the cognitive architecture required for basic rationality is similar to that which underlies pretend-play. The representational system must be able to make room for separate 'mental spaces' in which alternatives to the actual world are entertained. The same feature underlies the ability to understand modalities, time, the appearance-reality distinction, other minds, and ethics. Each area of understanding admits of degrees, and mastery (up to normal adult level takes years. But rational concept-management, at least in its most rudimentary form, does not require a capacity to form second-order representations. It requires knowledge of how to operate upon, and compare, the contents of different mental spaces.
Rational quantitative safety goals: a summary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We introduce the notion of a Rational Quantitative Safety Goal. Such a goal reflects the imprecision and vagueness inherent in any reasonable notion of adequate safety and permits such vagueness to be incorporated into the formal regulatory decision-making process. A quantitative goal of the form, the parameter x, characterizing the safety level of the nuclear plant, shall not exceed the value x0, for example, is of a non-rational nature in that it invokes a strict binary logic in which the parameter space underlying x is cut sharply into two portions: that containing those values of x that comply with the goal and that containing those that do not. Here, we utilize an alternative form of logic which, in accordance with any intuitively reasonable notion of safety, permits a smooth transition of a safety determining parameter between the adequately safe and inadequately safe domains. Fuzzy set theory provides a suitable mathematical basis for the formulation of rational quantitative safety goals. The decision-making process proposed here is compatible with current risk assessment techniques and produces results in a transparent and useful format. Our methodology is illustrated with reference to the NUS Corporation risk assessment of the Limerick Generating Station
Rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment
Li, Renyuan; Zhang, Lianbin; Wang, Peng
2015-10-01
The ever-increasing human demand for safe and clean water is gradually pushing conventional water treatment technologies to their limits. It is now a popular perception that the solutions to the existing and future water challenges will hinge upon further developments in nanomaterial sciences. The concept of rational design emphasizes on `design-for-purpose' and it necessitates a scientifically clear problem definition to initiate the nanomaterial design. The field of rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment has experienced a significant growth in the past decade and is poised to make its contribution in creating advanced next-generation water treatment technologies in the years to come. Within the water treatment context, this review offers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of the latest progress in rational design, synthesis and applications of nanomaterials in adsorption, chemical oxidation and reduction reactions, membrane-based separation, oil-water separation, and synergistic multifunctional all-in-one nanomaterials/nanodevices. Special attention is paid to the chemical concepts related to nanomaterial design throughout the review.
Rational suicide: philosophical perspectives on schizophrenia.
Hewitt, Jeanette
2010-02-01
Suicide prevention is a National Health Service priority in the United Kingdom. People with mental illness are seen to represent one of the most vulnerable groups for suicide and recent British Government policy has focused on prevention and management of perceived risk. This approach to suicide prevention is constructed under a biomedical model of psychiatry, which maintains that suicidal persons suffer from some form of disease or irrational drive towards self-destruction. Many react to the idea of self-inflicted death with instinctive revulsion, which has prevented serious discussion of the concept of rational suicide, particularly in relation to those with schizophrenia. The idea that there may be circumstances in which suicide can be viewed as rational is discussed within the biomedical approach to ethics and wider literature primarily in relation to physical disease, terminal states and chronic pain. It is not deemed a viable choice for those who are considered 'non-autonomous' due to the controlling forces of mental illness. I propose that suicide is not a consequence of mental illness per se, and that it may be seen as a rational response to a realistic perspective on the course and consequences of living with schizophrenia. The denial of dialogue about the validity of suicidal ideation for people with schizophrenia has led to negative consequences for people with serious mental illness in terms of justice and recognition of person-hood.
Rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment
Li, Renyuan
2015-08-26
The ever-increasing human demand for safe and clean water is gradually pushing conventional water treatment technologies to their limits and it is now a popular perception that the solutions to the existing and future water challenges will highly hinge upon the further development of nanomaterial sciences. The concept of rational design emphasizes ‘design-for-purpose’ and it necessitates a scientifically clear problem definition to initiate the nanomaterial design. The field of rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment has experienced a significant growth in the past decade and is poised to make its contribution in creating advanced next-generation water treatment technologies in the years to come. Within the water treatment context, this review offers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of the latest progress of the rational design, synthesis and applications of nanomaterials in adsorption, chemical oxidation and reduction reactions, membrane-based separation, oil/water separation, and synergistic multifunctional all-in-one nanomaterials/nanodevices. Special attention is paid on chemical concepts of the nanomaterial designs throughout the review.
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Successes and Failures: Eight Personal Perspectives.
Weinrach, Stephen G.; Ellis, Albert; MacLaren, Catharine; DiGiuseppe, Raymond; Vernon, Ann; Wolfe, Janet; Malkinson, Ruth; Backx, Wouter
2001-01-01
Eight experts in Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) provide personal examples of their own successes and failures in applying REBT to themselves. The experts actively talked to themselves both rationally and irrationally. Rational self-talk was more prevalent in the examples of how REBT was successfully used by the experts. (GCP)
Coping More Effectively Through Rational Self-Counseling.
Rogers, George W., Jr.
1981-01-01
Rational Self-Counseling, a variation of rational-emotive therapy, is a self-help therapeutic technique in which students are encouraged to be responsible for their own behavior and emotions. The primary function of self-counseling is to evaluate whether thoughts are rational. A list of questions which students might ask themselves is presented.…
Cognitive Rationality and Its Logic-Mathematical Language
Masalova, Svetlana
2012-01-01
The article deals with the cognitive (flexible) rationality, combining rational and irrational moments of the scientific search of the cognizing subject. Linguo-cognitive model of the concept as the flexible regulative rationality reveals the activity of the cognitive processes and the mentality of the epistemological-ontic subject, its leading…
The Properties of Rational Modules and Coideal Subalgebras
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张良云
2000-01-01
In this paper, we first prove that the dual module of a rational module is still, a rational module, and maximum rational modules keep their exact properties. Then, we give the Maschke theorem of the coideal subalgebra of quasi-Frobenius algebra, and give some equivalent conditions for the ideal subcoalgebra.
The Impact of Menstrual Cycle Phase on Economic Choice and Rationality.
Lazzaro, Stephanie C; Rutledge, Robb B; Burghart, Daniel R; Glimcher, Paul W
2016-01-01
It is well known that hormones affect both brain and behavior, but less is known about the extent to which hormones affect economic decision-making. Numerous studies demonstrate gender differences in attitudes to risk and loss in financial decision-making, often finding that women are more loss and risk averse than men. It is unclear what drives these effects and whether cyclically varying hormonal differences between men and women contribute to differences in economic preferences. We focus here on how economic rationality and preferences change as a function of menstrual cycle phase in women. We tested adherence to the Generalized Axiom of Revealed Preference (GARP), the standard test of economic rationality. If choices satisfy GARP then there exists a well-behaved utility function that the subject's decisions maximize. We also examined whether risk attitudes and loss aversion change as a function of cycle phase. We found that, despite large fluctuations in hormone levels, women are as technically rational in their choice behavior as their male counterparts at all phases of the menstrual cycle. However, women are more likely to choose risky options that can lead to potential losses while ovulating; during ovulation women are less loss averse than men and therefore more economically rational than men in this regard. These findings may have market-level implications: ovulating women more effectively maximize expected value than do other groups. PMID:26824245
Bound anionic states of adenine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej S; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H
2007-03-20
Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases, are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation, we have demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine, which result from enamine-imine transformations, support valence anionic states with electron vertical detachment energies as large as 2.2 eV, and at least one of these anionic tautomers is adiabatically bound. Moreover, we predict that the new anionic tautomers should also dominate in solutions and should be characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy than the canonical valence anion. All of the new-found anionic tautomers might be formed in the course of dissociative electron attachment followed by a hydrogen atom attachment to a carbon atom, and they might affect the structure and properties of DNA and RNA exposed to low-energy electrons. The discovery of these valence anionic states of adenine was facilitated by the development of: (i) a new experimental method for preparing parent anions of nucleic acid bases for photoelectron experiments, and (ii) a new combinatorial/ quantum chemical approach for identification of the most stable tautomers of organic molecules. The computational portion of this work was supported by the: (i) Polish State Committee for Scientific Research (KBN) Grants: DS/8000-4-0140-7 (M.G.) and N204 127 31/2963 (M.H.), (ii) European Social Funds (EFS) ZPORR/2.22/II/2.6/ARP/U/2/05 (M.H.), and (iii) US DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Low Dose Radiation Research Program (M.G.). M.H. holds the Foundation for Polish Science (FNP) award for young scientists. The calculations were performed at the Academic
The tools of rational product range support
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.I. Jakovlev
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the research is to improve the methodological approaches to support the rational range of products under today's market conditions. The results of the analysis. Planning and optimization of product mix does not lose its relevance under the current economic conditions. One of the most important tasks in planning is to determine the range of rational perspective to the enterprise product lines products. In this connection there is a need to expand the use of methodological approaches to support the range of products. Integrated application of methodological approaches for determining the rationality and balance the range of products increases the validity of economic decision-making in the field of marketing of the company by identifying the correlation between the profitability of product lines and their weight in the total production. Using the margin profit as a criterion for ranking groups of products with the construction of the Pareto chart allows for a more flexible product strategy, which under the current market conditions is a significant competitive advantage for the enterprise. The necessary conditions for the effective implementation of the proposals of the authors are the high level of consistency of the strategic, tactical and operational levels of management at the enterprise, as well as the analysis of the results of marketing research about customer satisfaction of product parameters. The using of Pareto charts and Spearman correlation coefficient provides increased sales volumes, increasing the target market share of the enterprise, improving the company's image, reducing the risk of marketing activities, increase the company's profit. The results of this study give the company an opportunity to identify deficiencies in a timely manner in the activities and to identify the main directions of improvement of management systems and production planning. Prospects of this study are to develop the
Bounds on double-diffusive convection
Balmforth, Neil J.; Ghadge, Shilpa A.; Kettapun, Atichart; Mandre, Shreyas D.
2006-12-01
We consider double-diffusive convection between two parallel plates and compute bounds on the flux of the unstably stratified species using the background method. The bound on the heat flux for Rayleigh Bénard convection also serves as a bound on the double-diffusive problem (with the thermal Rayleigh number equal to that of the unstably stratified component). In order to incorporate a dependence of the bound on the stably stratified component, an additional constraint must be included, like that used by Joseph (Stability of Fluid Motion, 1976, Springer) to improve the energy stability analysis of this system. Our bound extends Joseph's result beyond his energy stability boundary. At large Rayleigh number, the bound is found to behave like R_T(1/2) for fixed ratio R_S/R_T, where R_T and R_S are the Rayleigh numbers of the unstably and stably stratified components, respectively.
Instanton bound states in ABJM theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Moriyama, Sanefumi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Kobayashi Maskawa Inst. and Graduate School of Mathematics; Okuyama, Kazumi [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Dept. of Physics
2013-06-15
The partition function of the ABJM theory receives non-perturbative corrections due to instanton effects. We study these non-perturbative corrections, including bound states of worldsheet instantons and membrane instantons, in the Fermi-gas approach. We require that the total non-perturbative correction should be always finite for arbitrary Chern-Simons level. This finiteness is realized quite non-trivially because each bound state contribution naively diverges at some levels. The poles of each contribution should be canceled out in total. We use this pole cancellation mechanism to find unknown bound state corrections from known ones. We conjecture a general expression of the bound state contribution. Summing up all the bound state contributions, we find that the effect of bound states is simply incorporated into the worldsheet instanton correction by a redefinition of the chemical potential in the Fermi-gas system. Analytic expressions of the 3- and 4-membrane instanton corrections are also proposed.
Process expression of bounded Petri nets
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴哲辉
1996-01-01
The concept of process expression of bounded Petri nets is presented.Moreover,an algorithm to find the process expression for a bounded Petri net is given.A process expression of a bounded Petri net is a regular expression whose every alphabet symbol represents a basic subprocess of the net.The regular set expressed by the regular expression is the set of all surjective processes of a bounded Petri net.A surjective process of a bounded Petri net is a process of this net in which every s-cut corresponds to a reachable marking of the net.Therefore,all surjective processes of a bounded Petri net can be obtained as long as its process expression and the basic subprocess represented by the alphabet symbols of the process expression are given.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
For many years exotic decay modes of the neutron have been investigated as possible doorways to the exploration of new physics. The bound beta-decay (BOB) of the neutron into a hydrogen atom and an anti-neutrino offers a very elegant method to study neutrino helicities. However, this rare decay has not yet been observed for the free neutron, owing to the challenge of measuring a decay involving only electrically neutral particles and with an estimated branching ratio of only a few 106 of the three-body decay mode. During the past few years scientists from the TUM E18 Group have developed a novel experimental scheme which addresses all necessary problems associated with the observation of this two-body neutron decay in a very coherent way. The BOB experiment shall be installed at a tangential beam tube of a powerful research reactor such as the SR6 at the FRMII in Garching or H6-H7 beam tube at ILL. This talk will provide insights and ideas on how such an experiment is to be performed.
Neutron bound {beta}- decay- BOB
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gabriel, M.; Berger, M.; Emmerich, R.; Faestermann, T.; Gutsmiedl, E.; Hartmann, F.J.; Paul, S.; Ruschel, S.; Schoen, J.; Schott, W.; Schubert, U.; Trautner, A. [Physik-Department, TUM, 85748 Garching (Germany); Engels, R. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Fierlinger, P. [Excellence Cluster Universe, TUM, 85748 Garching (Germany); Hertenberger, R. [Sektion Physik, LMU, 85748 Garching (Germany); Roehrmoser, R. [FRM2, TUM, 85748 Garching (Germany); Udem, T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany)
2011-07-01
The bound neutron {beta}-decay(BOB) into a hydrogen atom and an electron antineutrino is investigated.The hyper-fine-state population of the monoenergetic hydrogen atoms (326.3 eV) yields the neutrino left-handed-ness or a possible right-handed admixture and possible small scalar and tensor contributions to the weak force. Preexperiments to measure the BOB H(2s) atoms have been done or are being set up using ionizer and RF discharge proton sources, a Wien filter, Cs and Ar cells, a spin filter, electric counter and accelerating fields, a double focusing magnet and a solar blind PM for the Lyman-{alpha} photons. In a first experiment, the charge exchange of the H(2s) atoms into H{sup -}, offering a selective method to discriminate these states against background, is investigated. In a second step the number of background H(2s) resulting from protons interacting with the walls of the experimental setup are determined. For this a quenching E field and a solar blind PM are used.
Stable Bound Orbits around Black Rings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Igata, Takahisa; Ishihara, Hideki; Takamori, Yohsuke, E-mail: igata@sci.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)
2011-09-22
We study stable bound orbits of a free particle around a black ring. Unlike the higher-dimensional black hole case, we find that there exist stable bound orbits in toroidal spiral shape near the ring axis and stable circular orbits on the axis. In addition, radii of stable bound orbits can be infinitely large if the ring thickness is less than a critical value.
Spontaneous R-Parity violation bounds
Frank, M
2001-01-01
We investigate bounds from tree-level and one-loop processes in generic supersymmetric models with spontaneous R-parity breaking in the superpotential. We analyse the bounds from a general point of view. The bounds are applicable both for all models with spontaneous R-parity violation and for explicit bilinear R-parity violation based on general lepton-chargino and neutrino-neutralino mixings. We find constraints from semileptonic B, D and K decays, leptonic decays of the mu and tau, electric dipole moments, as well as bounds for the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon.
Bound States of Double Flavor Hyperons
Froemel, F; Riska, D O
2005-01-01
Several realistic phenomenological nucleon-nucleon interaction models are employed to investigate the possibility of bound deuteron-like states of such heavy flavor hyperons and nucleons, for which the interaction between the light flavor quark components is expected to be the most significant interaction. The results indicate that deuteron-like bound states are likely to form between nucleons and the $\\Xi_c^{'}$ and $\\Xi_{cc}$ charm hyperons as well as between $\\Xi$ hyperons and double-charm hyperons. Bound states between two $\\Sigma_c$ hyperons are also likely. In the case of beauty hyperons the corresponding states are likely to be deeply bound.
Bound states of heavy flavor hyperons
Frömel, F.; Juliá-Díaz, B.; Riska, D. O.
2005-04-01
Several realistic phenomenological nucleon-nucleon interaction models are employed to investigate the possibility of bound deuteron-like states of such heavy flavor hyperons and nucleons, for which the interaction between the light flavor quark components is expected to be the most significant interaction. The results indicate that deuteron-like bound states are likely to form between nucleons and the Ξc' and Ξ charm hyperons as well as between Ξ hyperons and double-charm hyperons. Bound states between two Σ hyperons are also likely. In the case of beauty hyperons the corresponding states are likely to be deeply bound.
A violation of the covariant entropy bound?
Masoumi, Ali
2014-01-01
Several arguments suggest that the entropy density at high energy density $\\rho$ should be given by the expression $s=K\\sqrt{\\rho/G}$, where $K$ is a constant of order unity. On the other hand the covariant entropy bound requires that the entropy on a light sheet be bounded by $A/4G$, where $A$ is the area of the boundary of the sheet. We find that in a suitably chosen cosmological geometry, the above expression for $s$ violates the covariant entropy bound. We consider different possible explanations for this fact; in particular the possibility that entropy bounds should be defined in terms of volumes of regions rather than areas of surfaces.
RATIONAL CHOICE INSTITUTIONALISM AND THE EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreea Maha
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to highlight the main aspects regarding the rational choice theory in neo-institutionalism, and the role the EU Neighbourhood Policy has nowadays. The protagonist of the rational choice theory in the new institutionalism remains homo-economicus. The theory of rational choice institutionalism challenges the perfect rationality of the individual, rather than the principle of rational choice itself. ENP is a framework for consolidating the Union's relations with neighbouring countries and aims therefore intensifying cooperation with them in order to establish a zone of prosperity, good neighbourliness, stability and security.
Lower Bounds for Enumerative Counts of Positive-Genus Real Curves
Niu, Jingchen
2015-01-01
We transform the positive-genus real Gromov-Witten invariants of many real-orientable symplectic threefolds into signed counts of curves. These integer invariants provide lower bounds for counts of real curves of a given genus that pass through conjugate pairs of constraints. We conclude with some implications and related conjectures for one- and two-partition Hodge integrals.
A REMARK ON IMPLICITIZING RATIONAL CURVES WITH BASE POINTS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHENFALAI
1998-01-01
A simple relationship between the Bezout matrix corresponding to a rational curve with base points and the Bezout matrix corresponding to the same rational curve except that whose base points are eliminated is clarified. Based on this relationship,the author proves that the implicit equation of a rational curve with base points is the largest rton-zero leading principal minor of the gezout resultant corresponding to the rational curve assuming that the rational curve doesn't have triva/base point 0,and thus provides a simple approach to Jmplicitze rational curves with base points. Furthermore，as a by-product ，art algorithm is presented to compute the base points of a rational curve.
Distortion Bounds for Source Broadcast over Degraded Channel
Yu, Lei; Li, Houqiang; Li, Weiping
2016-01-01
The joint source-channel coding problem of sending a memoryless source over a memoryless degraded broadcast channel is considered here. We derive an inner bound and two outer bounds on the achievable distortion region. Moreover, when specialized to Gaussian source broadcast or binary source broadcast, the inner bound and outer bounds could recover the best known inner bound and outer bound. Besides, we also extend the inner bound and outer bounds to Wyner-Ziv source broadcast problem, i.e., s...
Schwerdt, R
2005-08-01
The intraprofessional discourse about economical aspects in nursing from an ethical point of view has not taken place yet. To cope with the increasing restriction of resources, some preconditions have to be met: It is necessary to communicate issues in rationalizing and rationing in nursing openly. Person-oriented criteria in the nursing process indicate a high level of competence and user-oriented quality in nursing care. But nursing professionals do not decide in favor or against resources to perform this task on a high or poor quality level. Democratic decision-making on providing nursing services depends on a continuous societal discourse about allocation criteria. PMID:16133753
Are investors rational, irrational or normal?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Md Al Mamun
2015-08-01
Full Text Available The nature of investor’s rationality vs. irrationality debate drawn attention of thousands of academic papers, hundreds of conferences, roundtables discussion leading to two ends: the classical theorist i.e. the proponents of efficient market hypothesis (EMH and the behaviorist. From Fisher’s (1906 Nature of Capital & Income to Ross (1977; investor’s rationality has been considered as the principal assumption in the development of theoretical finance. Unfortunately though, various studies have shown repeated form of investor’s irrationality and incompetence in their decision process. Even the very proponents of EMH, Fama (1965 has later on in 1993 advocated the lack of market efficiency! Indeed the story of black Monday in the USA to the global financial tsunami (2007-2012 has put the proponents of EMH into the cluelessness. While, the behaviorists argument that the financial markets can be best understood by studying the psychology is also subject to criticism that there will be no existence of standard models to study agent’s behavior in the market! Therefore, this study aims at finding out the true scenarios of investor’s behavior by working on 200 individual investors in Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE. Investors’ response to different questions relating to fundamental assumption of “rationality’ or ‘presence of irrationality." The result shows a complete absence of the assumption of rationality or irrationality in number of critical issues. Therefore, the idea of EMH or mere psychologically driven behavioral finance should become less acknowledgeable in understanding the agents of financial market i.e. the investors. Rather a combination of these two may give more insight in understanding the investor’s behavior in the financial market.
Strategy of Rational Use of Energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the decade of the eighty, especially in order to this decade and so far, the Rational Use of Energy have not constituted a high-priority option and of present time for Colombia. The last politicians were guided, to favor the energy consumption with low prices of the coal, of the electricity, of those derived of the petroleum, growing subsidy to the gasoline and transfer of the productive sector toward the social one. In the recovery of the electric sector, it is contributed alternatives to improve the quality of the service of the electric industries where measured technical and investments in the industrial, commercial sectors and public would allow to reduce short term the consumptions for 5 to 10%, without reducing the production levels or of service. In the construction sector , the efficient designs of buildings could avoid a growth too much express of the energy consumption. The rational use of energy and the handling of the electric demand, should be one of the tools bigger than the State and of the electric industry, as the technical measures of reduction of losses, to respond to the financial crisis of the energy public sector, while the private sector acquires capacity of enough investment. The Colombians companies, experience the necessity to improve their energy efficiency, like one of the important areas of reduction of their costs and of increase of their competitiveness, in front of other countries, especially Latin-American. As consequence of the economic opening, the companies should modernize their processes and administration methods, what means a reduction in the energy consumptions. The reduction of the polluting, specially atmospheric emissions (industries, vehicles), as well as to elimination of having undone dangerous and industrial residuals, it is a priority in Colombia all improvement of the energy efficiency, particularly in the industries, it is accompanied of a proportional reduction of polluting emissions. Then a politics of
Innovative process rational choice grounding in organization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.M. Illiashenko
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to investigate and scientifically to ground recommendations concerning choice of the rational structure and innovative process content, depending on innovative development potential in the organization and innovation radicalization degree, which provides to coordinate interconnection between SRCCW and innovations marketing at its stages for various innovative business types. The results of the analysis. The generalized scheme of organization innovative activity is investigated. It characterizes interconnections between innovative process, innovative business and innovative strategies types. The peculiarities of the works conduct concerning innovative process distinguished types are confirmed by scheme: works essence, type (types of the innovative business, innovative strategy (strategies, which is realized. Recommendations concerning works conduct reasonability of the several stages in the innovative process for organizations, which have innovative business combined type, are suggested. Essence and content of SRRCW works and innovations marketing works are confirmed at the innovative and life cycle stages of the new product. Table of decisions is developed to choose innovative process variants, which are reasonably to realize by concrete organization, depending on subsystems constituents state of its innovative development potential and innovative product radicalization degree. The enlarged block-scheme of the algorithm to choose rational structure in the innovative process within one or every innovative projects, realized by organization, is investigated. The recommendations concerning estimation of the innovative processes possible simultaneous conduct with various or similar variants of the innovative process structures by formal procedures are developed. Conclusions and directions of further researches. Author’s studies together allow to increase validity and decrease risk to choose
Evaluation of radioactivity in ration items
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The aim of this study was to analyze and evaluate the radioactivity of various ration samples, such as (milk, tea, flour,lentil, food oil, food glee, beans, rice, and sugar) which had been imported by Ministry of Trade ,from January 2008 till December 2010. Gamma Spectroscopy analyzing System were used for measuring and analyzing of these samples, the system consist of high purity Germanium detector with efficiency 40%, resolution 2 keV at 1.332 MeV (60Co), Dsa 2000 system which protective barrier made in Canberra Company, the developed Genie 2000 program and using personal computer. The calibration of measuring system with standard source of multi energies was used. The mainliner geometrical shape beaker was used during these measured samples which were selected from the ration items. The result showed the existence of natural(40k) concentration vales which were between (45.6b q/kg and 463 Bq/Kg) and also industrial 137Cs concentrations were found in milk and tea samples between (0,94 Bq/Kg and 14.6 Bq/Kg), the result also showed the existence of traces of isotopes belong to the Sara's 238U, and 232Th in the tea samples. The concentration of 214Bi and 212Pb were 4.9 Bq/Kg and 2.35 Bq/Kg respectively. These low -level concentrations yield an annual radioactive dose rate of (7x10-5 mSv/y), we conclude that these radioactive isotopes concentration in food stuff and ration samples were within the acceptable limits which are internationally recommended and are recently published by IAEA safety reports . We consider these level of concentration were due to the influence of Cs. (Author)
Asymptotic representations and Drinfeld rational fractions
Hernandez, David; Jimbo, Michio
2011-01-01
We introduce and study a category of representations of the Borel algebra, associated with a quantum loop algebra of non-twisted type. We construct fundamental representations for this category as a limit of the Kirillov-Reshetikhin modules over the quantum loop algebra and we establish explicit formulas for their characters. We prove that general simple modules in this category are classified by n-tuples of rational functions in one variable, which are regular and non-zero at the origin but ...
The latent rationality of risky decisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The general question of rationality has changed from the old-fashioned difference of means and ends to the modern difference of system and environment. Organizations as social systems producing and reproducing decisions translate this difference into the difference of stability and variety. The question then is: In which way can the difference between stability and variety express rationality? - In the temporal dimension of risk-taking, re-entries may be expressed as 'present futures' or 'future presences'. These expressions indicate both: The irresolvable uncertainty of any risk-taking, indicated by open futures, and its boundedness by self-application of distinctions, e.g. projected futures from the background of a known past. - In the material dimension of risk-taking, re-entries may be expressed as 'stable flexibility' or 'flexible stability'. Again, these expressions indicate both: The irresolvable uncertainty of any risk-taking, indicted by open flexibilities, and its boundedness by self-application of distinctions, e.g. flexibility and stability after learning the respective costs of the single options. In the social dimension of risk-taking, re-entries may be expressed as 'pragmatic dissent' or 'controversial pragmatism'. Again, these expressions indicate both: The irresolvable uncertainty of any risk-taking, indicated by open dissent or controversies, and its boundedness by self-application of distinctions, e.g. pragmatic agreements and irresolvable dissent. Again, all three asymmetries represent re-entries. The built-in preferences simply do not work without the subtleties of re-entries, at least when these processes are described by sociologically informed observers. Who else should know that he or she is operating on the basis of something called re-entries? In everyday life communication, no one sees a thing like that since every observation has an in-built bias for one side of a distinction. So rationality will stay latent as the operation of re
Craniofacial reconstruction using rational cubic ball curves.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdul Majeed
Full Text Available This paper proposes the reconstruction of craniofacial fracture using rational cubic Ball curve. The idea of choosing Ball curve is based on its robustness of computing efficiency over Bezier curve. The main steps are conversion of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (Dicom images to binary images, boundary extraction and corner point detection, Ball curve fitting with genetic algorithm and final solution conversion to Dicom format. The last section illustrates a real case of craniofacial reconstruction using the proposed method which clearly indicates the applicability of this method. A Graphical User Interface (GUI has also been developed for practical application.
Ananyeva Rational antibiotic use in rheumatology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boris Sergeyevich Belov
2012-01-01
Full Text Available To control infections and infectious complications is one of the most urgent challenges in medicine under present-day conditions. At the same time, rational therapy with anti-infective drugs occupies a highly importance place. In rheumatology, the necessity of using antibiotics is associated with at least two factors, such as eradication of a pathogen trigger (an infectious agent that triggers the immunopathological mechanisms of inflammation and treatment of comorbid infection. The paper gives information on etiological agents and detailed antimicrobial therapy regimens for the major infections observed in modern rheumatology.
Ananyeva Rational antibiotic use in rheumatology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boris Sergeyevich Belov
2012-06-01
Full Text Available To control infections and infectious complications is one of the most urgent challenges in medicine under present-day conditions. At the same time, rational therapy with anti-infective drugs occupies a highly importance place. In rheumatology, the necessity of using antibiotics is associated with at least two factors, such as eradication of a pathogen trigger (an infectious agent that triggers the immunopathological mechanisms of inflammation and treatment of comorbid infection. The paper gives information on etiological agents and detailed antimicrobial therapy regimens for the major infections observed in modern rheumatology.