WorldWideScience

Sample records for bounded model checking

  1. Efficient Proof Engines for Bounded Model Checking of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin; Herde, Christian

    2005-01-01

    of the various optimizations that arise naturally in the bounded model checking context, e.g. isomorphic replication of learned conflict clauses or tailored decision strategies, and extends them to the hybrid domain. We demonstrate that those optimizations are crucial to the performance of the tool....

  2. Applied Bounded Model Checking for Interlocking System Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan; Pinger, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    In this article the verification and validation of interlocking systems is investigated. Reviewing both geographical and route-related interlocking, the verification objectives can be structured from a perspective of computer science into (1) verification of static semantics, and (2) verification...... of behavioural (operational) semantics. The former checks that the plant model – that is, the software components reflecting the physical components of the interlocking system – has been set up in an adequate way. The latter investigates trains moving through the network, with the objective to uncover potential...... safety violations. From a formal methods perspective, these verification objectives can be approached by theorem proving, global, or bounded model checking. This article explains the techniques for application of bounded model checking techniques, and discusses their advantages in comparison...

  3. Behavioral Consistency of C and Verilog Programs Using Bounded Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-05-01

    We present an algorithm that checks behavioral consistency between an ANSI-C program and a circuit given in Verilog using Bounded Model Checking . Both...behavioral consistency between an ANSI-C program and a circuit given in Verilog using Bounded Model Checking . Both the circuit and the program are unwound

  4. Tarmo: A Framework for Parallelized Bounded Model Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siert Wieringa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates approaches to parallelizing Bounded Model Checking (BMC for shared memory environments as well as for clusters of workstations. We present a generic framework for parallelized BMC named Tarmo. Our framework can be used with any incremental SAT encoding for BMC but for the results in this paper we use only the current state-of-the-art encoding for full PLTL. Using this encoding allows us to check both safety and liveness properties, contrary to an earlier work on distributing BMC that is limited to safety properties only. Despite our focus on BMC after it has been translated to SAT, existing distributed SAT solvers are not well suited for our application. This is because solving a BMC problem is not solving a set of independent SAT instances but rather involves solving multiple related SAT instances, encoded incrementally, where the satisfiability of each instance corresponds to the existence of a counterexample of a specific length. Our framework includes a generic architecture for a shared clause database that allows easy clause sharing between SAT solver threads solving various such instances. We present extensive experimental results obtained with multiple variants of our Tarmo implementation. Our shared memory variants have a significantly better performance than conventional single threaded approaches, which is a result that many users can benefit from as multi-core and multi-processor technology is widely available. Furthermore we demonstrate that our framework can be deployed in a typical cluster of workstations, where several multi-core machines are connected by a network.

  5. Applied Bounded Model Checking for Interlocking System Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan; Pinger, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    of behavioural (operational) semantics. The former checks that the plant model – that is, the software components reflecting the physical components of the interlocking system – has been set up in an adequate way. The latter investigates trains moving through the network, with the objective to uncover potential...

  6. Bounded Model Checking and Inductive Verification of Hybrid Discrete-Continuous Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Bernd; Behle, Markus; Eisenbrand, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    We present a concept to signicantly advance the state of the art for bounded model checking (BMC) and inductive verication (IV) of hybrid discrete-continuous systems. Our approach combines the expertise of partners coming from dierent domains, like hybrid systems modeling and digital circuit...

  7. Local Model Checking of Weighted CTL with Upper-Bound Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Finnemann; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Srba, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    We present a symbolic extension of dependency graphs by Liu and Smolka in order to model-check weighted Kripke structures against the logic CTL with upper-bound weight constraints. Our extension introduces a new type of edges into dependency graphs and lifts the computation of fixed-points from...... boolean domain to nonnegative integers in order to cope with the weights. We present both global and local algorithms for the fixed-point computation on symbolic dependency graphs and argue for the advantages of our approach compared to the direct encoding of the model checking problem into dependency...... graphs. We implement all algorithms in a publicly available tool prototype and evaluate them on several experiments. The principal conclusion is that our local algorithm is the most efficient one with an order of magnitude improvement for model checking problems with a high number of “witnesses”....

  8. Model Checking

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 7. Model Checking - Automated Verification of Computational Systems. Madhavan Mukund. General Article Volume 14 Issue 7 July 2009 pp 667-681. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  9. An efficient algorithm for computing fixed length attractors based on bounded model checking in synchronous Boolean networks with biochemical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X Y; Yang, G W; Zheng, D S; Guo, W S; Hung, W N N

    2015-04-28

    Genetic regulatory networks are the key to understanding biochemical systems. One condition of the genetic regulatory network under different living environments can be modeled as a synchronous Boolean network. The attractors of these Boolean networks will help biologists to identify determinant and stable factors. Existing methods identify attractors based on a random initial state or the entire state simultaneously. They cannot identify the fixed length attractors directly. The complexity of including time increases exponentially with respect to the attractor number and length of attractors. This study used the bounded model checking to quickly locate fixed length attractors. Based on the SAT solver, we propose a new algorithm for efficiently computing the fixed length attractors, which is more suitable for large Boolean networks and numerous attractors' networks. After comparison using the tool BooleNet, empirical experiments involving biochemical systems demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of our approach.

  10. Safe, Multiphase Bounds Check Elimination in Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    National Science Foundation under grants CCF-0846010, EIA-0117255, CCF-0702527, and CNS-0855247. References [1] Elvira Albert, Germán Puebla, and Manuel ...David Grove, Michael Hind, Vivek Sarkar, Mauricio J. Serrano , V. C. Sreedhar, Harini Srinivasan, and John Whaley. The jalapeño dynamic optimizing...Computer Science, pages 137–153, August 2009. 40 Gampe, et al. Multiphase Bounds Check Elimination CS-TR-2010-001 [44] Martin Odersky and Philip Wadler

  11. Model Checking Algorithms for CTMDPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Peter; Hahn, Ernst Moritz; Hermanns, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Continuous Stochastic Logic (CSL) can be interpreted over continuoustime Markov decision processes (CTMDPs) to specify quantitative properties of stochastic systems that allow some external control. Model checking CSL formulae over CTMDPs requires then the computation of optimal control strategies...... to prove or disprove a formula. The paper presents a conservative extension of CSL over CTMDPs—with rewards—and exploits established results for CTMDPs for model checking CSL. A new numerical approach based on uniformization is devised to compute time bounded reachability results for time dependent control...

  12. Model checking FTA

    OpenAIRE

    Thums, Andreas; Schellhorn, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    Model checking FTA / A. Thums and G. Schellhorn . - In: Formal methods : Pisa, Italy, September 8 - 14, 2003 ; proceedings. - Berlin [u.a.] : Springer, 2003. - S. 739-757. - (Lecture notes in computer science ; 2805)

  13. Partial model checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif

    1995-01-01

    A major obstacle in applying finite-state model checking to the verification of large systems is the combinatorial explosion of the state space arising when many loosely coupled parallel processes are considered. The problem also known as the state-explosion problem has been attacked from various...... sides. This paper presents a new approach based on partial model checking where parts of the concurrent system are gradually removed while transforming the specification accordingly. When the intermediate specifications constructed in this manner can be kept small, the state-explosion problem is avoided...

  14. Model Checking Feature Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Olsen, Petur; Pedersen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an offline approach to analyzing feature interactions in embedded systems. The approach consists of a systematic process to gather the necessary information about system components and their models. The model is first specified in terms of predicates, before being refined to t...... to timed automata. The consistency of the model is verified at different development stages, and the correct linkage between the predicates and their semantic model is checked. The approach is illustrated on a use case from home automation....

  15. Partial Model Checking with ROBDDs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif; Maretti, Niels; Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    This paper introduces a technique for localizing model checking of concurrent state-based systems. The technique, called partial model checking, isfully automatic and performs model checking by gradually specializing the specification with respect to the concurrent components one by one...

  16. The Complexity of Model Checking Higher-Order Fixpoint Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Roland; Lange, Martin; Somla, Rafal

    2007-01-01

    provides complexity results for its model checking problem. In particular we consider its fragments HFLk,m which are formed using types of bounded order k and arity m only. We establish k-ExpTime-completeness for model checking each HFLk,m fragment. For the upper bound we reduce the problem to the problem...

  17. Bounding Species Distribution Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Cahterine S.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Esaias, Wayne E.

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5): 642-647, 2011].

  18. Compositional Reasoning in Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-02

    The main problem in model checking that prevents it from being used for verification of large systems is the state explosion problem. This problem...the systems that model checkers can handle. We describe several compositional model checking techniques used in practice and show a few examples demonstrating their performance.

  19. Compositional and Quantitative Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a survey of a composition model checking methodology and its succesfull instantiation to the model checking of networks of finite-state, timed, hybrid and probabilistic systems with respect; to suitable quantitative versions of the modal mu-calculus [Koz82]. The method is based...

  20. Model Checking as Static Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Fuyuan

    to a multi-valued setting, and we therefore obtain a multivalued analysis for temporal properties specied by CTL formulas. In particular, we have shown that the three-valued CTL model checking problem over Kripke modal transition systems can be exactly encoded in three-valued ALFP. Last, we come back to two-valued......Both model checking and static analysis are prominent approaches to detecting software errors. Model Checking is a successful formal method for verifying properties specified in temporal logics with respect to transition systems. Static analysis is also a powerful method for validating program...... properties which can predict safe approximations to program behaviors. In this thesis, we have developed several static analysis based techniques to solve model checking problems, aiming at showing the link between static analysis and model checking. We focus on logical approaches to static analysis...

  1. Model checking exact cost for attack scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Nielson, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    Attack trees constitute a powerful tool for modelling security threats. Many security analyses of attack trees can be seamlessly expressed as model checking of Markov Decision Processes obtained from the attack trees, thus reaping the benefits of a coherent framework and a mature tool support....... However, current model checking does not encompass the exact cost analysis of an attack, which is standard for attack trees. Our first contribution is the logic erPCTL with cost-related operators. The extended logic allows to analyse the probability of an event satisfying given cost bounds and to compute...... the exact cost of an event. Our second contribution is the model checking algorithm for erPCTL. Finally, we apply our framework to the analysis of attack trees....

  2. A k-Bounded Symbolic Execution for Checking Strong Heap Properties of Open Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jooyong; Deng, Xianghua; Bogor, Robby

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents Kiasan, a bounded technique to reason about open systems based on a path sensitive, relatively sound and complete symbolic execution instead of the usual compositional reasoning through weakest precondition calculation that summarizes all execution paths. Kiasan is able to check...... strong heap properties, and it is fully automatic and flexible in terms of its cost and the guarantees it provides. It allows a user-adjustable mixed compositional/non-compositional reasoning and naturally produces error traces as fault evidence. We implemented Kiasan using the Bogor model checking...

  3. Model Checking Discounted Temporal Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-13

    the micro-calculus evaluation of C(sub TL) formulas. We show that, while these semantics coincide for C(sub TL), they differ for D(sub CTL), and we provide model - checking algorithms for both semantics.

  4. Coverage Metrics for Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penix, John; Visser, Willem; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    When using model checking to verify programs in practice, it is not usually possible to achieve complete coverage of the system. In this position paper we describe ongoing research within the Automated Software Engineering group at NASA Ames on the use of test coverage metrics to measure partial coverage and provide heuristic guidance for program model checking. We are specifically interested in applying and developing coverage metrics for concurrent programs that might be used to support certification of next generation avionics software.

  5. New Challenges in Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, Gerard J.; Joshi, Rajeev; Groce, Alex

    2006-01-01

    In the last 25 years, the notion of performing software verification with logic model checking techniques has evolved from intellectual curiosity to accepted technology with significant potential for broad practical application. In this paper we look back at the main steps in this evolution and illustrate how the challenges have changed over the years, as we sharpened our theories and tools. Next we discuss a typical challenge in software verification that we face today - and that perhaps we can look back on in another 25 years as having inspired the next logical step towards a broader integration of model checking into the software development process.

  6. Advances in Probabilistic Model Checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katoen, Joost P.; Barthe, G.; Hermenegildo, M.

    Random phenomena occur in many applications: security, communication protocols, distributed algorithms, and performance and dependability analysis, to mention a few. In the last two decades, efficient model-checking algorithms and tools have been developed to support the automated verification of

  7. Model checking embedded system designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, Hendrik; Mader, Angelika H.

    2002-01-01

    Model checking has established itself as a successful tool supported technique for the verification and debugging of various hardware and software systems [16]. Not only in academia, but also by industry this technique is increasingly being regarded as a promising and practical proposition,

  8. Model Checking Is Static Analysis of Modal Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2010-01-01

    that it can give an exact characterisation of the semantics of formulae in a modal logic. This shows that model checking can be performed by means of state-of-the-art approaches to static analysis and allow us to conclude that the problems of model checking and static analysis are reducible to each other....... In terms of computational complexity we show that model checking by means of static analysis gives the same complexity bounds as are known for traditional approaches to model checking....

  9. Model Checking Markov Chains: Techniques and Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zapreev, I.S.

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation deals with four important aspects of model checking Markov chains: the development of efficient model-checking tools, the improvement of model-checking algorithms, the efficiency of the state-space reduction techniques, and the development of simulation-based model-checking

  10. Program Analysis as Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mads Chr.

    Software programs are proliferating throughout modern life, to a point where even the simplest appliances such as lightbulbs contain software, in addition to the software embedded in cars and airplanes. The correct functioning of these programs is therefore of the utmost importance, for the quality...... and sustenance of life. Due to the complexity inherent in the software it can be very difficult for the software developer to guarantee the absence of errors; automated support in the form of automated program analysis is therefore essential. Two methods have traditionally been proposed: model checking...... and abstract interpretation. Model checking views the program as a finite automaton and tries to prove logical properties over the automaton model, or present a counter-example if not possible — with a focus on precision. Abstract interpretation translates the program semantics into abstract semantics...

  11. Checking chess checks with chunks: A model of simple check detection

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, RL; Gobet, F; Lane, PCR

    2009-01-01

    The procedure by which humans identify checks in check positions is not well understood. We report here our experience in modelling this process with CHREST, a general-purpose cognitive model that has previously successfully captured a variety of attention- and perception-related phenomena. We have attempted to reproduce the results of an experiment investigating the ability of humans to determine checks in simple chess positions. We propose a specific model of how humans perform this experi...

  12. Timing analysis by model checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naydich, Dimitri; Guaspari, David

    2000-01-01

    The safety of modern avionics relies on high integrity software that can be verified to meet hard real-time requirements. The limits of verification technology therefore determine acceptable engineering practice. To simplify verification problems, safety-critical systems are commonly implemented under the severe constraints of a cyclic executive, which make design an expensive trial-and-error process highly intolerant of change. Important advances in analysis techniques, such as rate monotonic analysis (RMA), have provided a theoretical and practical basis for easing these onerous restrictions. But RMA and its kindred have two limitations: they apply only to verifying the requirement of schedulability (that tasks meet their deadlines) and they cannot be applied to many common programming paradigms. We address both these limitations by applying model checking, a technique with successful industrial applications in hardware design. Model checking algorithms analyze finite state machines, either by explicit state enumeration or by symbolic manipulation. Since quantitative timing properties involve a potentially unbounded state variable (a clock), our first problem is to construct a finite approximation that is conservative for the properties being analyzed-if the approximation satisfies the properties of interest, so does the infinite model. To reduce the potential for state space explosion we must further optimize this finite model. Experiments with some simple optimizations have yielded a hundred-fold efficiency improvement over published techniques.

  13. Engineering Abstractions in Model Checking and Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achenbach, Michael; Ostermann, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Abstractions are used in model checking to tackle problems like state space explosion or modeling of IO. The application of these abstractions in real software development processes, however, lacks engineering support. This is one reason why model checking is not widely used in practice yet...... and implementing abstractions will improve the applicability of model checking in practice....

  14. Software Model Checking for Verifying Distributed Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-28

    2014 Carnegie Mellon University Software Model Checking for Verifying Distributed Algorithms Sagar Chaki, James Edmondson October 28, 2014...SUBTITLE Software Model Checking for Verifying Distributed Algorithms 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...Program Software Model Checking (CBMC, BLAST etc.) Failure Success Program in Domain Specific Language Automatic verification technique for finite

  15. Model Checking Timed Automata with Priorities using DBM Subtraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Pettersson, Paul

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe an extension of timed automata with priorities, and efficient algorithms to compute subtraction on DBMs (difference bounded matrices), needed in symbolic model-checking of timed automata with priorities. The subtraction is one of the few operations on DBMs that result...... this number affects the performance of symbolic model-checking. The uses of the DBM subtraction operation extend beyond timed automata with priorities. It is also useful for allowing guards on transitions with urgent actions, deadlock checking, and timed games....

  16. On-the-Fly Confluence Detection for Statistical Model Checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmanns, Arnd; Timmer, Mark; Brat, Guillaume; Rungta, Neha; Venet, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Statistical model checking is an analysis method that circumvents the state space explosion problem in model-based verification by combining probabilistic simulation with statistical methods that provide clear error bounds. As a simulation-based technique, it can only provide sound results if the

  17. Model checking of healthcare domain models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksi, Dibyendu

    2009-12-01

    This paper shows the application of a type of formal software verification technique known as lightweight model checking to a domain model in healthcare informatics in general and public health surveillance systems in particular. One of the most complex use cases of such a system is checked using assertions to verify one important system property. This use case is one of the major justifications for the complexity of the domain model. Alloy Analyzer verification tool is utilized for this purpose. Such verification work is very effective in either uncovering design flaws or in providing guarantees on certain desirable system properties in the earlier phases of the development lifecycle of any critical project.

  18. Model Checking, Abstraction, and Compositional Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    a mathematical model of the design is proved to satisfy a precise specification. Model checking is one formal verification technique. It consists of...involving the sequencing of events in time. One of the main drawbacks of model checking is the state explosion problem. This problem occurs in systems...considers two methods for avoiding the state explosion problem in the context of model checking : compositional verification and abstraction

  19. Approximate symbolic model checking of continous-time Markov chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baier, Christel; Baeten, J.C.M.; Mauw, S.; Katoen, Joost P.; Hermanns, H.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a symbolic model checking algorithm for continuous-time Markov chains for an extension of the continuous stochastic logic CSL of Aziz et al. [1] The considered logic contains a time-bounded until-operator and a novel operator to express steady-state probabilities. We show that

  20. Approximate Model Checking of Stochastic COWS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaglia, Paola; Schivo, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Given the description of a model and a probabilistic formula, approximate model checking is a verification technique based on statistical reasoning that allows answering whether or not the model satisfies the formula. Only a subset of the properties that can be analyzed by exact model checking can

  1. Reliable sequential testing for statistical model checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijsbergen, D.P.; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a framework for comparing statistical model checking (SMC) techniques and propose a new, more reliable, SMC technique. Statistical model checking has recently been implemented in tools like UPPAAL and PRISM to be able to handle models which are too complex for numerical analysis.

  2. Addressing Dynamic Issues of Program Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerda, Flavio; Visser, Willem

    2001-01-01

    Model checking real programs has recently become an active research area. Programs however exhibit two characteristics that make model checking difficult: the complexity of their state and the dynamic nature of many programs. Here we address both these issues within the context of the Java PathFinder (JPF) model checker. Firstly, we will show how the state of a Java program can be encoded efficiently and how this encoding can be exploited to improve model checking. Next we show how to use symmetry reductions to alleviate some of the problems introduced by the dynamic nature of Java programs. Lastly, we show how distributed model checking of a dynamic program can be achieved, and furthermore, how dynamic partitions of the state space can improve model checking. We support all our findings with results from applying these techniques within the JPF model checker.

  3. Analysing Biochemical Oscillations through Probabilistic Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballarini, Paolo; Mardare, Radu Iulian; Mura, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Analysing Biochemical Oscillations through Probabilistic Model Checking. In Proc. of the Second International Workshop "From Biology To Concurrency" (FBTC 2008), Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science......Analysing Biochemical Oscillations through Probabilistic Model Checking. In Proc. of the Second International Workshop "From Biology To Concurrency" (FBTC 2008), Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science...

  4. Approximate Symbolic Model Checking Using Overlapping Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Abstract Symbolic Model Checking extends the scope of verification algorithms that can be handled automatically, by using symbolic representations...many of today’s large designs because of the state explosion problem. Approximate symbolic model checking is an attempt to trade off accuracy with

  5. Statistical model checking in Uppaal: lets practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, K.G.; Legay, Axel; Mikučionis, Marius

    Statistical model-checking is a recent technique used for both verification and performance analysis of hybrid systems. It does not suffer from decidability issues or state-space explosion compared to traditional model-checking. Furthermore, it is applicable to more powerful formalisms such as

  6. Model Checking Software Systems: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-10

    Model checking is a proven successful technology for verifying hardware. It works, however, on only fInite state machines, and most software systems...have infInitely many states. Our approach to applying model checking to software hinges on identifying appropriate abstractions that exploit the

  7. Program Model Checking: A Practitioner's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressburger, Thomas T.; Mansouri-Samani, Masoud; Mehlitz, Peter C.; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Markosian, Lawrence Z.; Penix, John J.; Brat, Guillaume P.; Visser, Willem C.

    2008-01-01

    Program model checking is a verification technology that uses state-space exploration to evaluate large numbers of potential program executions. Program model checking provides improved coverage over testing by systematically evaluating all possible test inputs and all possible interleavings of threads in a multithreaded system. Model-checking algorithms use several classes of optimizations to reduce the time and memory requirements for analysis, as well as heuristics for meaningful analysis of partial areas of the state space Our goal in this guidebook is to assemble, distill, and demonstrate emerging best practices for applying program model checking. We offer it as a starting point and introduction for those who want to apply model checking to software verification and validation. The guidebook will not discuss any specific tool in great detail, but we provide references for specific tools.

  8. Program Model Checking as a New Trend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Visser, Willem; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces a special section of STTT (International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer) containing a selection of papers that were presented at the 7th International SPIN workshop, Stanford, August 30 - September 1, 2000. The workshop was named SPIN Model Checking and Software Verification, with an emphasis on model checking of programs. The paper outlines the motivation for stressing software verification, rather than only design and model verification, by presenting the work done in the Automated Software Engineering group at NASA Ames Research Center within the last 5 years. This includes work in software model checking, testing like technologies and static analysis.

  9. Model Checking CSL for Markov Population Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Spieler

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Markov population models (MPMs are a widely used modelling formalism in the area of computational biology and related areas. The semantics of a MPM is an infinite-state continuous-time Markov chain. In this paper, we use the established continuous stochastic logic (CSL to express properties of Markov population models. This allows us to express important measures of biological systems, such as probabilistic reachability, survivability, oscillations, switching times between attractor regions, and various others. Because of the infinite state space, available analysis techniques only apply to a very restricted subset of CSL properties. We present a full algorithm for model checking CSL for MPMs, and provide experimental evidence showing that our method is effective.

  10. Bayesian Model Checking for Multivariate Outcome Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Catherine M; Boscardin, W John

    2009-09-01

    Bayesian models are increasingly used to analyze complex multivariate outcome data. However, diagnostics for such models have not been well-developed. We present a diagnostic method of evaluating the fit of Bayesian models for multivariate data based on posterior predictive model checking (PPMC), a technique in which observed data are compared to replicated data generated from model predictions. Most previous work on PPMC has focused on the use of test quantities that are scalar summaries of the data and parameters. However, scalar summaries are unlikely to capture the rich features of multivariate data. We introduce the use of dissimilarity measures for checking Bayesian models for multivariate outcome data. This method has the advantage of checking the fit of the model to the complete data vectors or vector summaries with reduced dimension, providing a comprehensive picture of model fit. An application with longitudinal binary data illustrates the methods.

  11. On parameter synthesis by parallel model checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnat, Jirí; Brim, Lubos; Krejcí, Adam; Streck, Adam; Safránek, David; Vejnár, Martin; Vejpustek, Tomás

    2012-01-01

    An important problem in current computational systems biology is to analyze models of biological systems dynamics under parameter uncertainty. This paper presents a novel algorithm for parameter synthesis based on parallel model checking. The algorithm is conceptually universal with respect to the modeling approach employed. We introduce the algorithm, show its scalability, and examine its applicability on several biological models.

  12. Model Checking Discounted Temporal Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Alfaro, Luca; Faella, Marco; Henzinger, Thomas A.; Majumdar, Rupak; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; Jensen, K; Podelski, A.

    2004-01-01

    Temporal logic is two-valued: a property is either true or false. When applied to the analysis of stochastic systems, or systems with imprecise formal models, temporal logic is therefore fragile: even small changes in the model can lead to opposite truth values for a specification. We present a

  13. Model Checking Discounted Temporal Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Alfaro, Luca; Faella, Marco; Henzinger, Thomas A.; Majumdar, Rupak; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette

    2005-01-01

    Temporal logic is two-valued: a property is either true or false. When applied to the analysis of stochastic systems, or systems with imprecise formal models, temporal logic is therefore fragile: even small changes in the model can lead to opposite truth values for a specification. We present a

  14. Model Checking Discounted Temporal Properties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Alfaro, Luca; Faella, Marco; Henzinger, Thomas A; Majumdar, Rupak; Stoelinga, Marieelle

    2005-01-01

    ...) which achieves robustness with respect to model perturbations by giving a quantitative interpretation to predicates and logical operators, and by discounting the importance of events according to how late they occur...

  15. UTP and Temporal Logic Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Hugh; Ciobanu, Gabriel; Freitas, Leo

    In this paper we give an additional perspective to the formal verification of programs through temporal logic model checking, which uses Hoare and He Unifying Theories of Programming (UTP). Our perspective emphasizes the use of UTP designs, an alphabetised relational calculus expressed as a pre/post condition pair of relations, to verify state or temporal assertions about programs. The temporal model checking relation is derived from a satisfaction relation between the model and its properties. The contribution of this paper is that it shows a UTP perspective to temporal logic model checking. The approach includes the notion of efficiency found in traditional model checkers, which reduced a state explosion problem through the use of efficient data structures

  16. Posterior Predictive Model Checking in Bayesian Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    This simulation study compared the utility of various discrepancy measures within a posterior predictive model checking (PPMC) framework for detecting different types of data-model misfit in multidimensional Bayesian network (BN) models. The investigated conditions were motivated by an applied research program utilizing an operational complex…

  17. A Method for Model Checking Feature Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas; Le Guilly, Thibaut; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method to check for feature interactions in a system assembled from independently developed concurrent processes as found in many reactive systems. The method combines and refines existing definitions and adds a set of activities. The activities describe how to populate the ...... the definitions with models to ensure that all interactions are captured. The method is illustrated on a home automation example with model checking as analysis tool. In particular, the modelling formalism is timed automata and the analysis uses UPPAAL to find interactions....

  18. Using Stochastic Model Checking to Provision Complex Business Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Luke Thomas; Sharp, Robin

    2012-01-01

    bounds on resources consumed during execution of business processes. Accurate resource provisioning is often central to ensuring the safe execution of a process. We first introduce a formalised core subset of the Business Process Modelling and Notation (BPMN), which we extend with probabilistic and non......-deterministic branching and reward annotations. We then develop an algorithm for the efficient translation of these models into the guarded command language used by the model checker PRISM, in turn enabling model checking of BPMN processes and allowing for the calculation of a wide range of quantitative properties...

  19. Model Checking Dynamic States in GROOVE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastenberg, H.; Rensink, Arend; Valmari, A.

    2006-01-01

    Much research has been done in the field of model-checking complex systems (either hardware or software). Approaches that use explicit state modelling mostly use bit vectors to represent the states of such systems. Unfortunately, that kind of representation does not extend smoothly to systems in

  20. Statistical Model Checking for Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Du, Dehui; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents novel extensions and applications of the UPPAAL-SMC model checker. The extensions allow for statistical model checking of stochastic hybrid systems. We show how our race-based stochastic semantics extends to networks of hybrid systems, and indicate the integration technique...

  1. Model Checking the Remote Agent Planner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Lina; Muscettola, Nicola; Havelund, Klaus; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This work tackles the problem of using Model Checking for the purpose of verifying the HSTS (Scheduling Testbed System) planning system. HSTS is the planner and scheduler of the remote agent autonomous control system deployed in Deep Space One (DS1). Model Checking allows for the verification of domain models as well as planning entries. We have chosen the real-time model checker UPPAAL for this work. We start by motivating our work in the introduction. Then we give a brief description of HSTS and UPPAAL. After that, we give a sketch for the mapping of HSTS models into UPPAAL and we present samples of plan model properties one may want to verify.

  2. Model Checking as Static Analysis: Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Fuyuan; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2012-01-01

    We show that the model checking problem of the μ-calculus can be viewed as an instance of static analysis. We propose Succinct Fixed Point Logic (SFP) within our logical approach to static analysis as an extension of Alternation-free Least Fixed Logic (ALFP). We generalize the notion...

  3. Efficient CSL Model Checking Using Stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lijun; Jansen, David N.; Nielson, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    For continuous-time Markov chains, the model-checking problem with respect to continuous-time stochastic logic (CSL) has been introduced and shown to be decidable by Aziz, Sanwal, Singhal and Brayton in 1996 [ 1, 2]. Their proof can be turned into an approximation algorithm with worse than...

  4. Model Checking and Model-based Testing in the Railway Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes some approaches and emerging trends for verification and model-based testing of railway control systems. We describe state-of-the-art methods and associated tools for verifying interlocking systems and their configuration data, using bounded model checking and k-induction. ...

  5. Slicing AADL Specifications for Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odenbrett, Maximilian; Nguyen, Viet Yen; Noll, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    To combat the state-space explosion problem in model checking larger systems, abstraction techniques can be employed. Here, methods that operate on the system specification before constructing its state space are preferable to those that try to minimize the resulting transition system as they generally reduce peak memory requirements. We sketch a slicing algorithm for system specifications written in (a variant of) the Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL). Given a specification and a property to be verified, it automatically removes those parts of the specification that are irrelevant for model checking the property, thus reducing the size of the corresponding transition system. The applicability and effectiveness of our approach is demonstrated by analyzing the state-space reduction for an example, employing a translator from AADL to Promela, the input language of the SPIN model checker.

  6. CUDA Accelerated LTL Model Checking -­ Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Bauch, Petr; Ceska, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the massively parallel architecture has been used to significantly accelerate many computation demanding tasks. For example, in [Baier, Kateon, The MIT Press, 2009; Barnat, Brim, Ceska, ICPADS 2009] we have shown how CUDA technology can be employed to accelerate the process of Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) Model Checking. In this paper we redesign the One-Way-Catch-Them-Young (OWCTY) algorithm [Cerna, Pelanek, SPIN'03] in order to devise a new CUDA accelerated OWCTY algorithm that wil...

  7. Semantic Importance Sampling for Statistical Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-18

    development [7]. It has been used to verify systems ranging from pacemakers [1], root contention protocols [8] and biologi- cal pathways [6]. For our...syntactic extractor which looks for //@dist declarations to determine the input space and distributions; and (iii) a verification condition generator...Norman, G., Sproston, J.: Probabilistic Model Checking of Deadline Properties in the IEEE 1394 FireWire Root Contention Protocol. Formal Aspects of

  8. Statistical Model Checking of Rich Models and Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Danny Bøgsted

    Software is in increasing fashion embedded within safety- and business critical processes of society. Errors in these embedded systems can lead to human casualties or severe monetary loss. Model checking technology has proven formal methods capable of finding and correcting errors in software....... However, software is approaching the boundary in terms of the complexity and size that model checking can handle. Furthermore, software systems are nowadays more frequently interacting with their environment hence accurately modelling such systems requires modelling the environment as well - resulting...... in undecidability issues for the traditional model checking approaches. Statistical model checking has proven itself a valuable supplement to model checking and this thesis is concerned with extending this software validation technique to stochastic hybrid systems. The thesis consists of two parts: the first part...

  9. Model Checking Properties on Reduced Trace Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Santone

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Temporal logic has become a well-established method for specifying the behavior of distributed systems. In this paper, we interpret a temporal logic over a partial order model that is a trace system. The satisfaction of the formulae is directly defined on traces on the basis of rewriting rules; so, the graph representation of the system can be completely avoided; moreover, a method is presented that keeps the trace system finite, also in the presence of infinite computations. To further reduce the complexity of model checking temporal logic formulae, an abstraction technique is applied to trace systems.

  10. Workflow Fault Tree Generation Through Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Luke Thomas; Sharp, Robin

    2014-01-01

    We present a framework for the automated generation of fault trees from models of realworld process workflows, expressed in a formalised subset of the popular Business Process Modelling and Notation (BPMN) language. To capture uncertainty and unreliability in workflows, we extend this formalism...... with probabilistic non-deterministic branching. We present an algorithm that allows for exhaustive generation of possible error states that could arise in execution of the model, where the generated error states allow for both fail-stop behaviour and continued system execution. We employ stochastic model checking...... of the system being modelled. From these calculations, a comprehensive fault tree is generated. Further, we show that annotating the model with rewards (data) allows the expected mean values of reward structures to be calculated at points of failure....

  11. Model Checking Abstract PLEXIL Programs with SMART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siminiceanu, Radu I.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a method to automatically generate discrete-state models of abstract Plan Execution Interchange Language (PLEXIL) programs that can be analyzed using model checking tools. Starting from a high-level description of a PLEXIL program or a family of programs with common characteristics, the generator lays the framework that models the principles of program execution. The concrete parts of the program are not automatically generated, but require the modeler to introduce them by hand. As a case study, we generate models to verify properties of the PLEXIL macro constructs that are introduced as shorthand notation. After an exhaustive analysis, we conclude that the macro definitions obey the intended semantics and behave as expected, but contingently on a few specific requirements on the timing semantics of micro-steps in the concrete executive implementation.

  12. Model checking for ROC regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tianxi; Zheng, Yingye

    2007-03-01

    The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is a prominent tool for characterizing the accuracy of a continuous diagnostic test. To account for factors that might influence the test accuracy, various ROC regression methods have been proposed. However, as in any regression analysis, when the assumed models do not fit the data well, these methods may render invalid and misleading results. To date, practical model-checking techniques suitable for validating existing ROC regression models are not yet available. In this article, we develop cumulative residual-based procedures to graphically and numerically assess the goodness of fit for some commonly used ROC regression models, and show how specific components of these models can be examined within this framework. We derive asymptotic null distributions for the residual processes and discuss resampling procedures to approximate these distributions in practice. We illustrate our methods with a dataset from the cystic fibrosis registry.

  13. Using chemical organization theory for model checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Christoph; Richter, Stephan; Dittrich, Peter

    2009-08-01

    The increasing number and complexity of biomodels makes automatic procedures for checking the models' properties and quality necessary. Approaches like elementary mode analysis, flux balance analysis, deficiency analysis and chemical organization theory (OT) require only the stoichiometric structure of the reaction network for derivation of valuable information. In formalisms like Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML), however, information about the stoichiometric coefficients required for an analysis of chemical organizations can be hidden in kinetic laws. First, we introduce an algorithm that uncovers stoichiometric information that might be hidden in the kinetic laws of a reaction network. This allows us to apply OT to SBML models using modifiers. Second, using the new algorithm, we performed a large-scale analysis of the 185 models contained in the manually curated BioModels Database. We found that for 41 models (22%) the set of organizations changes when modifiers are considered correctly. We discuss one of these models in detail (BIOMD149, a combined model of the ERK- and Wnt-signaling pathways), whose set of organizations drastically changes when modifiers are considered. Third, we found inconsistencies in 5 models (3%) and identified their characteristics. Compared with flux-based methods, OT is able to identify those species and reactions more accurately [in 26 cases (14%)] that can be present in a long-term simulation of the model. We conclude that our approach is a valuable tool that helps to improve the consistency of biomodels and their repositories. All data and a JAVA applet to check SBML-models is available from http://www.minet.uni-jena.de/csb/prj/ot/tools. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  14. Distributed Parametric and Statistical Model Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bulychev

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Statistical Model Checking (SMC is a trade-off between testing and formal verification. The core idea of the approach is to conduct some simulations of the system and verify if they satisfy some given property. In this paper we show that SMC is easily parallelizable on a master/slaves architecture by introducing a series of algorithms that scale almost linearly with respect to the number of slave computers. Our approach has been implemented in the UPPAAL SMC toolset and applied on non-trivial case studies.

  15. Automated Environment Generation for Software Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachuk, Oksana; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Pasareanu, Corina S.

    2003-01-01

    A key problem in model checking open systems is environment modeling (i.e., representing the behavior of the execution context of the system under analysis). Software systems are fundamentally open since their behavior is dependent on patterns of invocation of system components and values defined outside the system but referenced within the system. Whether reasoning about the behavior of whole programs or about program components, an abstract model of the environment can be essential in enabling sufficiently precise yet tractable verification. In this paper, we describe an approach to generating environments of Java program fragments. This approach integrates formally specified assumptions about environment behavior with sound abstractions of environment implementations to form a model of the environment. The approach is implemented in the Bandera Environment Generator (BEG) which we describe along with our experience using BEG to reason about properties of several non-trivial concurrent Java programs.

  16. Designing the Control of a UAV Fleet with Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Designing the Control of a UAV Fleet with Model Checking Technical Report OSU-CISRC-1/04-TR06 Christopher A. Bohn∗ Paolo A.G. Sivilotti Bruce W...demonstrate that model checking can be used to suggest strategies by which a single UAV can locate targets. Moreover, model checking can be used to...better. Through model checking , we have shown that there are configurations in which all but one pursuer can remain stationary, and the single moving

  17. Graphical model checking with correlated response data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, W; Connett, J E; Porzio, G C; Weisberg, S

    2001-10-15

    Correlated response data arise often in biomedical studies. The generalized estimation equation (GEE) approach is widely used in regression analysis for such data. However, there are few methods available to check the adequacy of regression models in GEE. In this paper, a graphical method is proposed based on Cook and Weisberg's marginal model plot. A bootstrap method is applied to obtain the reference band to assess statistical uncertainties in comparing two marginal mean functions. We also propose using the generalized additive model (GAM) in a similar fashion. The proposed two methods are easy to implement by taking advantage of existing smoothing and GAM softwares for independent data. The usefulness of the methodology is demonstrated through application to a correlated binary data set drawn from a clinical trial, the Lung Health Study. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Model Checking JAVA Programs Using Java Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Pressburger, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a translator called JAVA PATHFINDER from JAVA to PROMELA, the "programming language" of the SPIN model checker. The purpose is to establish a framework for verification and debugging of JAVA programs based on model checking. This work should be seen in a broader attempt to make formal methods applicable "in the loop" of programming within NASA's areas such as space, aviation, and robotics. Our main goal is to create automated formal methods such that programmers themselves can apply these in their daily work (in the loop) without the need for specialists to manually reformulate a program into a different notation in order to analyze the program. This work is a continuation of an effort to formally verify, using SPIN, a multi-threaded operating system programmed in Lisp for the Deep-Space 1 spacecraft, and of previous work in applying existing model checkers and theorem provers to real applications.

  19. Valuation models and Simon's bounded rationality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexandra Strommer de Farias Godoi

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims at reconciling the evidence that sophisticated valuation models are increasingly used by companies in their investment appraisal with the literature of bounded rationality, according...

  20. Optimizing Robotic Team Performance with Probabilistic Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-22

    2014 Carnegie Mellon University Optimizing Robotic Team Performance with Probabilistic Model Checking Software Engineering Institute...2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Optimizing Robotic Team Performance with Probabilistic Model Checking 5a...permission@sei.cmu.edu. DM-0001796 3 SIMPAR 2014, Bergamo, Italy David Kyle, 0ct. 22, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Model Checking Pentium

  1. Apply Model Checking to Security Analysis in Trust Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    checking tool called SMY Model checking is an automated technique that checks if desired purposes hold in the model. Our experience, reported here...efforts to build practical tools that answer such questions in many cases nevertheless by using a lightweight approach that leverages a mature model

  2. Are two nucleons bound in lattice QCD for heavy quark masses? Consistency check with Lüscher's finite volume formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iritani, Takumi; Aoki, Sinya; Doi, Takumi; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Ikeda, Yoichi; Inoue, Takashi; Ishii, Noriyoshi; Nemura, Hidekatsu; Sasaki, Kenji; HAL QCD Collaboration

    2017-08-01

    On the basis of Lüscher's finite volume formula, a simple test (consistency check or sanity check) is introduced and applied to inspect the recent claims of the existence of the nucleon-nucleon (N N ) bound state(s) for heavy quark masses in lattice QCD. We show that the consistency between the scattering phase shifts at k2>0 and/or k2shifts from the effective range expansion (ERE) around k2=0 exposes the validity of the original lattice data; otherwise, such information is hidden in the energy shift Δ E of the two nucleons on the lattice. We carry out this consistency check for all the lattice results in the literature claiming the existence of the N N bound state(s) for heavy quark masses and find that (i) some of the N N data show a clear inconsistency between the behavior of ERE at k2>0 and that at k2pole in the S matrix, and (iv) the rest of the N N data are inconsistent among themselves. Furthermore, we raise a caution of using the ERE in the case of the multiple bound states. Our finding, together with the fake plateau problem previously pointed out by the present authors, brings a serious doubt on the existence of the N N bound states for pion masses heavier than 300 MeV in the previous studies.

  3. Simulation-Based Model Checking for Nondeterministic Systems and Rare Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    proba- bilistic automata that have both statistical elements and pure (unquantified) nondeterminism. Typically, we model-check safety assertions in...been developing methods to check bounded-time properties of probabilistic automata using heuristic search. The strengths (and weaknesses) of heuristic...Probabilistic Automata " in Proc. Int’l Workshop on Design and Implementation of Formal Tools and Systems (DIFTS), September 2015. Michael W. Boldt

  4. Software Model Checking Without Source Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaki, Sagar; Ivers, James

    2009-01-01

    We present a framework, called AIR, for verifying safety properties of assembly language programs via software model checking. AIR extends the applicability of predicate abstraction and counterexample guided abstraction refinement to the automated verification of low-level software. By working at the assembly level, AIR allows verification of programs for which source code is unavailable-such as legacy and COTS software-and programs that use features-such as pointers, structures, and object-orientation-that are problematic for source-level software verification tools. In addition, AIR makes no assumptions about the underlying compiler technology. We have implemented a prototype of AIR and present encouraging results on several non-trivial examples.

  5. Using Model Checking to Validate AI Planner Domain Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penix, John; Pecheur, Charles; Havelund, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    This report describes an investigation into using model checking to assist validation of domain models for the HSTS planner. The planner models are specified using a qualitative temporal interval logic with quantitative duration constraints. We conducted several experiments to translate the domain modeling language into the SMV, Spin and Murphi model checkers. This allowed a direct comparison of how the different systems would support specific types of validation tasks. The preliminary results indicate that model checking is useful for finding faults in models that may not be easily identified by generating test plans.

  6. A Mixed Model for Double Checking Fallible Auditors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raats, V.M.; Moors, J.J.A.; van der Genugten, B.B.

    2004-01-01

    The paper discusses the problem of a fallible auditor who assesses the values of sampled records, but may make mistakes.To detect these mistakes, a subsample of the checked elements is checked again, now by an infallible expert. We propose a model for this kind of double check, which takes into

  7. Abstraction and Model Checking in the PEPA Plug-in for Eclipse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Michael James Andrew

    2010-01-01

    lead to very large Markov chains. One way of analysing such models is to use abstraction - constructing a smaller model that bounds the properties of the original. We present an extension to the PEPA plug-in for Eclipse that enables abstracting and model checking of PEPA models. This implements two new...... features. The abstraction view provides a graphical interface for labelling and aggregating states of individual PEPA components. The model checking view provides an interface for constructing CSL properties, which are then verified with respect to the specified abstraction. We have an internal CSL model...

  8. Analyzing Mode Confusion via Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luettgen, Gerald; Carreno, Victor

    1999-01-01

    Mode confusion is one of the most serious problems in aviation safety. Today's complex digital flight decks make it difficult for pilots to maintain awareness of the actual states, or modes, of the flight deck automation. NASA Langley leads an initiative to explore how formal techniques can be used to discover possible sources of mode confusion. As part of this initiative, a flight guidance system was previously specified as a finite Mealy automaton, and the theorem prover PVS was used to reason about it. The objective of the present paper is to investigate whether state-exploration techniques, especially model checking, are better able to achieve this task than theorem proving and also to compare several verification tools for the specific application. The flight guidance system is modeled and analyzed in Murphi, SMV, and Spin. The tools are compared regarding their system description language, their practicality for analyzing mode confusion, and their capabilities for error tracing and for animating diagnostic information. It turns out that their strengths are complementary.

  9. Modelling Chinese Smart Grid : A stochastic model checking case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuksel, E.; Nielson, H.R.; Nielson, F. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Informatics, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Zhu, H. (East China Normal Univ. (China)); Huang, H. (Wuxi SensingNet Industrialization Research Institute (China))

    2012-07-01

    In this document, we consider a specific Chinese Smart Grid implementation and try to address the verification problem for certain quantitative properties including performance and battery consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using PRISM model checker. (Author)

  10. Classification and checking model of pedestrian crossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Delgado Méndez

    2012-11-01

    After realizing this investigation it can be confirmed that the functionality of a pedestrian crossing depends on almost a hundred parameters which must be checked or measured, in turn proving that this design and construction process is indeed complex.

  11. Posterior Predictive Model Checking for Multidimensionality in Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Roy; Mislevy, Robert J.; Sinharay, Sandip

    2009-01-01

    If data exhibit multidimensionality, key conditional independence assumptions of unidimensional models do not hold. The current work pursues posterior predictive model checking, a flexible family of model-checking procedures, as a tool for criticizing models due to unaccounted for dimensions in the context of item response theory. Factors…

  12. Model Checking Algorithms for the mu-Calculus,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-23

    Model Checking Algorithms for the -Calculus Sergey Berezin Edmund Clarke Somesh Jha Will Marrero September 23, 1996 CMU-CS-96-180 School of Computer...authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for Governmental purposes. Keywords: automatic veri cation, temporal logic, model checking , binary decision di...comes from the existence of ecient model checking algorithms for this formalism. As a consequence, veri cation procedures for many temporal and modal

  13. Model checking in multiple imputation: an overview and case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cattram D. Nguyen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple imputation has become very popular as a general-purpose method for handling missing data. The validity of multiple-imputation-based analyses relies on the use of an appropriate model to impute the missing values. Despite the widespread use of multiple imputation, there are few guidelines available for checking imputation models. Analysis In this paper, we provide an overview of currently available methods for checking imputation models. These include graphical checks and numerical summaries, as well as simulation-based methods such as posterior predictive checking. These model checking techniques are illustrated using an analysis affected by missing data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Conclusions As multiple imputation becomes further established as a standard approach for handling missing data, it will become increasingly important that researchers employ appropriate model checking approaches to ensure that reliable results are obtained when using this method.

  14. Model checking in multiple imputation: an overview and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cattram D; Carlin, John B; Lee, Katherine J

    2017-01-01

    Multiple imputation has become very popular as a general-purpose method for handling missing data. The validity of multiple-imputation-based analyses relies on the use of an appropriate model to impute the missing values. Despite the widespread use of multiple imputation, there are few guidelines available for checking imputation models. In this paper, we provide an overview of currently available methods for checking imputation models. These include graphical checks and numerical summaries, as well as simulation-based methods such as posterior predictive checking. These model checking techniques are illustrated using an analysis affected by missing data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. As multiple imputation becomes further established as a standard approach for handling missing data, it will become increasingly important that researchers employ appropriate model checking approaches to ensure that reliable results are obtained when using this method.

  15. Verifying Multi-Agent Systems via Unbounded Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacprzak, M.; Lomuscio, A.; Lasica, T.; Penczek, W.; Szreter, M.

    2004-01-01

    We present an approach to the problem of verification of epistemic properties in multi-agent systems by means of symbolic model checking. In particular, it is shown how to extend the technique of unbounded model checking from a purely temporal setting to a temporal-epistemic one. In order to achieve this, we base our discussion on interpreted systems semantics, a popular semantics used in multi-agent systems literature. We give details of the technique and show how it can be applied to the well known train, gate and controller problem. Keywords: model checking, unbounded model checking, multi-agent systems

  16. Model Checking for Linear Temporal Logic: An Efficient Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    This report provides evidence to support the claim that model checking for linear temporal logic (LTL) is ’practically efficient.’ Two...implementations of a linear temporal logic model checker is described. One is based on transforming the model checking problem into a satisfiability problem; the

  17. Strategic Planning through Model Checking of ATL Formulae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamroga, W.J.; Rutkowski, L.; Siekmann, J.; Tadeusiewicz, R.; Zadeh, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    Model checking of temporal logic has already been proposed for automatic planning. In this paper, we introduce a simple adaptation of the ATL model checking algorithm that returns a strategy to achieve given goal. We point out that the algorithm generalizes minimaxing, and that ATL models generalize

  18. Discovering vesicle traffic network constraints by model checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Ankit; Bhattacharyya, Arnab; Kuppusamy, Lakshmanan; Srivas, Mandayam; Thattai, Mukund

    2017-01-01

    A eukaryotic cell contains multiple membrane-bound compartments. Transport vesicles move cargo between these compartments, just as trucks move cargo between warehouses. These processes are regulated by specific molecular interactions, as summarized in the Rothman-Schekman-Sudhof model of vesicle traffic. The whole structure can be represented as a transport graph: each organelle is a node, and each vesicle route is a directed edge. What constraints must such a graph satisfy, if it is to represent a biologically realizable vesicle traffic network? Graph connectedness is an informative feature: 2-connectedness is necessary and sufficient for mass balance, but stronger conditions are required to ensure correct molecular specificity. Here we use Boolean satisfiability (SAT) and model checking as a framework to discover and verify graph constraints. The poor scalability of SAT model checkers often prevents their broad application. By exploiting the special structure of the problem, we scale our model checker to vesicle traffic systems with reasonably large numbers of molecules and compartments. This allows us to test a range of hypotheses about graph connectivity, which can later be proved in full generality by other methods.

  19. Optimisation of BPMN Business Models via Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Luke Thomas; Sharp, Robin

    2013-01-01

    We present a framework for the optimisation of business processes modelled in the business process modelling language BPMN, which builds upon earlier work, where we developed a model checking based method for the analysis of BPMN models. We define a structure for expressing optimisation goals...... for synthesized BPMN components, based on probabilistic computation tree logic and real-valued reward structures of the BPMN model, allowing for the specification of complex quantitative goals. We here present a simple algorithm, inspired by concepts from evolutionary algorithms, which iteratively generates...... candidate improved processes based on the fittest of the previous generation. The evaluation of the fitness of each candidate in a generation is performed via model checking, detailed in previous work. At each iteration, this allows the determination of the precise numerical evaluation of the performance...

  20. Combining Theory Generation and Model Checking for Security Protocol Analysis,

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    checking to the task of protocol analysis, while the other utilizes the method of theory generation. which borrows from both model checking and...This paper reviews two relatively new tools for automated formal analysis of security protocols. One applies the formal methods technique of model

  1. A Case Study in Model Checking Software Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Model checking is a proven successful technology for verifying hardware. It works, however, on only finite state machines, and most software systems...have infinitely many states. Our approach to applying model checking to software hinges on identifying appropriate abstractions that exploit the

  2. A guide to Bayesian model checking for ecologists

    OpenAIRE

    Conn, Paul; Johnson, Devin; Williams, Perry; Melin, Sharon; Hooten, Mevin

    2017-01-01

    Checking that models adequately represent data is an essential component of applied statistical inference. Ecologists increasingly use hierarchical Bayesian statistical models in their research. The appeal of this modeling paradigm is undeniable, as researchers can build and fit models that embody complex ecological processes while simultaneously controlling observation error. However, ecologists tend to be less focused on checking model assumptions and assessing potential lack-of-fit when ap...

  3. Implementing Model-Check for Employee and Management Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corey; LaPha, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will discuss methods to which ModelCheck can be implemented to not only improve model quality, but also satisfy both employees and management through different sets of quality checks. This approach allows a standard set of modeling practices to be upheld throughout a company, with minimal interaction required by the end user. The presenter will demonstrate how to create multiple ModelCheck standards, preventing users from evading the system, and how it can improve the quality of drawings and models.

  4. Symbolic LTL Compilation for Model Checking: Extended Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozier, Kristin Y.; Vardi, Moshe Y.

    2007-01-01

    In Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) model checking, we check LTL formulas representing desired behaviors against a formal model of the system designed to exhibit these behaviors. To accomplish this task, the LTL formulas must be translated into automata [21]. We focus on LTL compilation by investigating LTL satisfiability checking via a reduction to model checking. Having shown that symbolic LTL compilation algorithms are superior to explicit automata construction algorithms for this task [16], we concentrate here on seeking a better symbolic algorithm.We present experimental data comparing algorithmic variations such as normal forms, encoding methods, and variable ordering and examine their effects on performance metrics including processing time and scalability. Safety critical systems, such as air traffic control, life support systems, hazardous environment controls, and automotive control systems, pervade our daily lives, yet testing and simulation alone cannot adequately verify their reliability [3]. Model checking is a promising approach to formal verification for safety critical systems which involves creating a formal mathematical model of the system and translating desired safety properties into a formal specification for this model. The complement of the specification is then checked against the system model. When the model does not satisfy the specification, model-checking tools accompany this negative answer with a counterexample, which points to an inconsistency between the system and the desired behaviors and aids debugging efforts.

  5. Lessons Learned Model Checking an Industrial Communications Library

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ivers, James

    2005-01-01

    Model checking is a fully automated formal verification technology that can be used to determine whether models of software satisfy behavioral requirements in such areas as safety, reliability, and security...

  6. Efficient family-based model checking via variability abstractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimovski, Aleksandar; Al-Sibahi, Ahmad Salim; Brabrand, Claus

    2016-01-01

    of related systems), specialized family-based model checking algorithms allow efficient verification of multiple variants, simultaneously, in a single run. These algorithms, implemented in a tool Snip, scale much better than ``the brute force'' approach, where all individual systems are verified using...... a single-system model checker, one-by-one. Nevertheless, their computational cost still greatly depends on the number of features and variants. For variational models with a large number of features and variants, the family-based model checking may be too costly or even infeasible. In this work, we address...... two key problems of family-based model checking. First, we improve scalability by introducing abstractions that simplify variability. Second, we reduce the burden of maintaining specialized family-based model checkers, by showing how the presented variability abstractions can be used to model check...

  7. Schedulability of Herschel revisited using statistical model checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Legay, Axel

    2015-01-01

    and blocking times of tasks. Consequently, the method may falsely declare deadline violations that will never occur during execution. This paper is a continuation of previous work of the authors in applying extended timed automata model checking (using the tool UPPAAL) to obtain more exact schedulability...... analysis, here in the presence of non-deterministic computation times of tasks given by intervals [BCET,WCET]. Computation intervals with preemptive schedulers make the schedulability analysis of the resulting task model undecidable. Our contribution is to propose a combination of model checking techniques...... to obtain some guarantee on the (un)schedulability of the model even in the presence of undecidability. Two methods are considered: symbolic model checking and statistical model checking. Since the model uses stop-watches, the reachability problem becomes undecidable so we are using an over...

  8. Independence-Based Optimization of Epistemic Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-22

    epistemic model checker MCK. The final reports experimental results demonstrate that it can yield multiple orders of magnitude of performance...based Optimization of Epistemic Model Checking Ron van der Meyden meyden@cse.unsw.edu.au School of Computer Science and Engineering, UNSW Australia...demonstrating that it can yield multiple orders of magnitude performance improvements. 1 Introduction Epistemic model checking [14] is a technique for the

  9. Type-checking Liveness for Collaborative Processes with Bounded and Unbounded Recursion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Slaats, Tijs

    2016-01-01

    We present the first session typing system guaranteeing request-response liveness properties for possibly non-terminating communicating processes. The types augment the branch and select types of the standard binary session types with a set of required responses, indicating that whenever...... a particular label is selected, a set of other labels, its responses, must eventually also be selected. We prove that these extended types are strictly more expressive than standard session types. We provide a type system for a process calculus similar to a subset of collaborative BPMN processes with internal...... (data-based) and external (event-based) branching, message passing, bounded and unbounded looping. We prove that this type system is sound, i.e., it guarantees request-response liveness for dead-lock free processes. We exemplify the use of the calculus and type system on a concrete example...

  10. Propel: Tools and Methods for Practical Source Code Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri-Samani, Massoud; Mehlitz, Peter; Markosian, Lawrence; OMalley, Owen; Martin, Dale; Moore, Lantz; Penix, John; Visser, Willem

    2003-01-01

    The work reported here is an overview and snapshot of a project to develop practical model checking tools for in-the-loop verification of NASA s mission-critical, multithreaded programs in Java and C++. Our strategy is to develop and evaluate both a design concept that enables the application of model checking technology to C++ and Java, and a model checking toolset for C++ and Java. The design concept and the associated model checking toolset is called Propel. It builds upon the Java PathFinder (JPF) tool, an explicit state model checker for Java applications developed by the Automated Software Engineering group at NASA Ames Research Center. The design concept that we are developing is Design for Verification (D4V). This is an adaption of existing best design practices that has the desired side-effect of enhancing verifiability by improving modularity and decreasing accidental complexity. D4V, we believe, enhances the applicability of a variety of V&V approaches; we are developing the concept in the context of model checking. The model checking toolset, Propel, is based on extending JPF to handle C++. Our principal tasks in developing the toolset are to build a translator from C++ to Java, productize JPF, and evaluate the toolset in the context of D4V. Through all these tasks we are testing Propel capabilities on customer applications.

  11. Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Priami, Corrado; Qualia, Paola

    2005-01-01

    Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus. In Proc. of the second International Workshop on Computational Methods in Systems Biology (CMSB04), Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics 3082:85-103, Springer, 2005.......Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus. In Proc. of the second International Workshop on Computational Methods in Systems Biology (CMSB04), Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics 3082:85-103, Springer, 2005....

  12. Dynamic State Space Partitioning for External Memory Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evangelista, Sami; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2009-01-01

    We describe a dynamic partitioning scheme usable by model checking techniques that divide the state space into partitions, such as most external memory and distributed model checking algorithms. The goal of the scheme is to reduce the number of transitions that link states belonging to different ...... partitions, and thereby limit the amount of disk access and network communication. We report on several experiments made with our verification platform ASAP that implements the dynamic partitioning scheme proposed in this paper....

  13. Model-Checking CTL* over Flat Presburger Counter Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demri, Stéphane; Finkel, Alain; Goranko, Valentin

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies model-checking of fragments and extensions of CTL* on infinite- state counter systems, where the states are vectors of integers and the transitions are determined by means of relations definable within Presburger arithmetic. In general, reachability properties of counter systems......, thereby enabling effective model checking. We provide evidence that our results are close to optimal with respect to the class of counter systems described above....

  14. Model checking temps-réel pour AADL

    OpenAIRE

    Berthomieu, Bernard; Bodeveix, J.-P; Dal Zilio, Silvano; Filali, M; Le Botlan, Didier; Verdier, G; Vernadat, François

    2015-01-01

    Rapport LAAS n° 15036; We describe a model-checking toolchain for the behavioral verification of AADL models that takes into account the realtime semantics of the language and that is compatible with the AADL Behavioral Annex. We give a high-level view of the tools and transformations involved in the verification process and focus on the support offered by our framework for checking user-defined properties. We also describe the experimental results obtained on a significant avionic demonstrat...

  15. Execution-Based Model Checking of Interrupt-Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drusinsky, Doron; Havelund, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Execution-based model checking (EMC) is a verification technique based on executing a multi-threaded/multiprocess program repeatedly in a systematic manner in order to explore the different interleavings of the program. This is in contrast to traditional model checking, where a model of a system is analyzed Several execution-based model-checking tools exist at this point, such as for example Verisoft and Java PathFinder. The most common formal specification languages used by EMC tools are un- timed, either just assertions, or linear-time temporal logic (LTL). An alternative verification technique is Runtime Execution Monitoring (REM), which is based on monitor- ing the execution of a program, checking that the execution trace conforms to a requirement specification. The Temporal Rover and DBRover are such tools. They provide a very rich specification language, being an extension of LTL with real-time constraints and time-series. We show how execution-based model checking, combined with runtime execution monitoring, can be used for the verification of a large class of safety critical systems commonly known as interrupt-based systems. The proposed approach is novel in that: (i) it supports model checking of a large class of applications not practically verifiable using conventional EMC tools, (ii) it supports verification of LTL assertions extended with real-time and time-series constraints, and (iii) it supports the verification of custom schedulers.

  16. Towards Model Checking Stochastic Process Algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermanns, H.; Grieskamp, W.; Santen, T.; Katoen, Joost P.; Stoddart, B.; Meyer-Kayser, J.; Siegle, M.

    2000-01-01

    Stochastic process algebras have been proven useful because they allow behaviour-oriented performance and reliability modelling. As opposed to traditional performance modelling techniques, the behaviour- oriented style supports composition and abstraction in a natural way. However, analysis of

  17. Learning Markov Decision Processes for Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mao, Hua; Chen, Yingke; Jaeger, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    . The proposed learning algorithm is adapted from algorithms for learning deterministic probabilistic finite automata, and extended to include both probabilistic and nondeterministic transitions. The algorithm is empirically analyzed and evaluated by learning system models of slot machines. The evaluation......Constructing an accurate system model for formal model verification can be both resource demanding and time-consuming. To alleviate this shortcoming, algorithms have been proposed for automatically learning system models based on observed system behaviors. In this paper we extend the algorithm...... on learning probabilistic automata to reactive systems, where the observed system behavior is in the form of alternating sequences of inputs and outputs. We propose an algorithm for automatically learning a deterministic labeled Markov decision process model from the observed behavior of a reactive system...

  18. Efficient family-based model checking via variability abstractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimovski, Aleksandar; Al-Sibahi, Ahmad Salim; Brabrand, Claus

    2016-01-01

    of related systems), specialized family-based model checking algorithms allow efficient verification of multiple variants, simultaneously, in a single run. These algorithms, implemented in a tool Snip, scale much better than ``the brute force'' approach, where all individual systems are verified using...... with the abstract model checking of the concrete high-level variational model. This allows the use of Spin with all its accumulated optimizations for efficient verification of variational models without any knowledge about variability. We have implemented the transformations in a prototype tool, and we illustrate...... the practicality of this method on several case studies....

  19. Model Independent Bounds on Kinetic Mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hook, Anson; Izaguirre, Eder; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC

    2011-08-22

    New Abelian vector bosons can kinetically mix with the hypercharge gauge boson of the Standard Model. This letter computes the model independent limits on vector bosons with masses from 1 GeV to 1 TeV. The limits arise from the numerous e{sup +}e{sup -} experiments that have been performed in this energy range and bound the kinetic mixing by {epsilon} {approx}< 0.03 for most of the mass range studied, regardless of any additional interactions that the new vector boson may have.

  20. Valuation models and Simon's bounded rationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Strommer de Farias Godoi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at reconciling the evidence that sophisticated valuation models are increasingly used by companies in their investment appraisal with the literature of bounded rationality, according to which objective optimization is impracticable in the real world because it would demand an immense level of sophistication of the analytical and computational processes of human beings. We show how normative valuation models should rather be viewed as forms of reality representation, frameworks according to which the real world is perceived, fragmented for a better understanding, and recomposed, providing an orderly method for undertaking a task as complex as the investment decision.

  1. Model Checking Temporal Logic Formulas Using Sticker Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijun Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important complex problem, the temporal logic model checking problem is still far from being fully resolved under the circumstance of DNA computing, especially Computation Tree Logic (CTL, Interval Temporal Logic (ITL, and Projection Temporal Logic (PTL, because there is still a lack of approaches for DNA model checking. To address this challenge, a model checking method is proposed for checking the basic formulas in the above three temporal logic types with DNA molecules. First, one-type single-stranded DNA molecules are employed to encode the Finite State Automaton (FSA model of the given basic formula so that a sticker automaton is obtained. On the other hand, other single-stranded DNA molecules are employed to encode the given system model so that the input strings of the sticker automaton are obtained. Next, a series of biochemical reactions are conducted between the above two types of single-stranded DNA molecules. It can then be decided whether the system satisfies the formula or not. As a result, we have developed a DNA-based approach for checking all the basic formulas of CTL, ITL, and PTL. The simulated results demonstrate the effectiveness of the new method.

  2. Model Checking Temporal Logic Formulas Using Sticker Automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weijun; Feng, Changwei; Wu, Huanmei

    2017-01-01

    As an important complex problem, the temporal logic model checking problem is still far from being fully resolved under the circumstance of DNA computing, especially Computation Tree Logic (CTL), Interval Temporal Logic (ITL), and Projection Temporal Logic (PTL), because there is still a lack of approaches for DNA model checking. To address this challenge, a model checking method is proposed for checking the basic formulas in the above three temporal logic types with DNA molecules. First, one-type single-stranded DNA molecules are employed to encode the Finite State Automaton (FSA) model of the given basic formula so that a sticker automaton is obtained. On the other hand, other single-stranded DNA molecules are employed to encode the given system model so that the input strings of the sticker automaton are obtained. Next, a series of biochemical reactions are conducted between the above two types of single-stranded DNA molecules. It can then be decided whether the system satisfies the formula or not. As a result, we have developed a DNA-based approach for checking all the basic formulas of CTL, ITL, and PTL. The simulated results demonstrate the effectiveness of the new method.

  3. Model Checking Temporal Logic Formulas Using Sticker Automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Changwei; Wu, Huanmei

    2017-01-01

    As an important complex problem, the temporal logic model checking problem is still far from being fully resolved under the circumstance of DNA computing, especially Computation Tree Logic (CTL), Interval Temporal Logic (ITL), and Projection Temporal Logic (PTL), because there is still a lack of approaches for DNA model checking. To address this challenge, a model checking method is proposed for checking the basic formulas in the above three temporal logic types with DNA molecules. First, one-type single-stranded DNA molecules are employed to encode the Finite State Automaton (FSA) model of the given basic formula so that a sticker automaton is obtained. On the other hand, other single-stranded DNA molecules are employed to encode the given system model so that the input strings of the sticker automaton are obtained. Next, a series of biochemical reactions are conducted between the above two types of single-stranded DNA molecules. It can then be decided whether the system satisfies the formula or not. As a result, we have developed a DNA-based approach for checking all the basic formulas of CTL, ITL, and PTL. The simulated results demonstrate the effectiveness of the new method. PMID:29119114

  4. Statistical Model Checking for Product Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ter Beek, Maurice H.; Legay, Axel; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    behaviour converge in a discrete-time Markov chain semantics, enabling the analysis of quantitative properties. Technically, a Maude implementation of QFLan, integrated with Microsoft’s SMT constraint solver Z3, is combined with the distributed statistical model checker MultiVeStA, developed by one...

  5. Model checking meets probability: a gentle introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katoen, Joost P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers fully probabilistic system models. Each transition is quantified with a probability—its likelihood of occurrence. Properties are expressed as automata that either accept or reject system runs. The central question is to determine the fraction of accepted system runs. We also

  6. Memoised Garbage Collection for Software Model Checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, V.Y.; Ruys, T.C.; Kowalewski, S.; Philippou, A.

    Virtual machine based software model checkers like JPF and MoonWalker spend up to half of their veri��?cation time on garbage collection. This is no surprise as after nearly each transition the heap has to be cleaned from garbage. To improve this, this paper presents the Memoised Garbage Collection

  7. Timed Model Checking of Security Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corin, R.J.; Etalle, Sandro; Hartel, Pieter H.; Mader, Angelika H.

    We propose a method for engineering security protocols that are aware of timing aspects. We study a simplified version of the well-known Needham Schroeder protocol and the complete Yahalom protocol. Timing information allows the study of different attack scenarios. We illustrate the attacks by model

  8. CheckMATE 2: From the model to the limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dercks, Daniel; Desai, Nishita; Kim, Jong Soo; Rolbiecki, Krzysztof; Tattersall, Jamie; Weber, Torsten

    2017-12-01

    We present the latest developments to the CheckMATE program that allows models of new physics to be easily tested against the recent LHC data. To achieve this goal, the core of CheckMATE now contains over 60 LHC analyses of which 12 are from the 13 TeV run. The main new feature is that CheckMATE 2 now integrates the Monte Carlo event generation via MadGraph5_aMC@NLO and Pythia 8. This allows users to go directly from a SLHA file or UFO model to the result of whether a model is allowed or not. In addition, the integration of the event generation leads to a significant increase in the speed of the program. Many other improvements have also been made, including the possibility to now combine signal regions to give a total likelihood for a model.

  9. Distributed Maximality based CTL Model Checking

    OpenAIRE

    Djamel Eddine Saidouni; Zine EL Abidine Bouneb

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate an approach to perform a distributed CTL Model checker algorithm on a network of workstations using Kleen three value logic, the state spaces is partitioned among the network nodes, We represent the incomplete state spaces as a Maximality labeled Transition System MLTS which are able to express true concurrency. we execute in parallel the same algorithm in each node, for a certain property on an incomplete MLTS , this last compute the set of states which satisfy o...

  10. Linear Parametric Model Checking of Timed Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hune, Tohmas Seidelin; Romijn, Judi; Stoelinga, Mariëlle

    2001-01-01

    We present an extension of the model checker Uppaal capable of synthesize linear parameter constraints for the correctness of parametric timed automata. The symbolic representation of the (parametric) state-space is shown to be correct. A second contribution of this paper is the identication...... of a subclass of parametric timed automata (L/U automata), for which the emptiness problem is decidable, contrary to the full class where it is know to be undecidable. Also we present a number of lemmas enabling the verication eort to be reduced for L/U automata in some cases. We illustrate our approach...

  11. Recent advances in importance sampling for statistical model checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijsbergen, D.P.; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the following work we present an overview of recent advances in rare event simulation for model checking made at the University of Twente. The overview is divided into the several model classes for which we propose algorithms, namely multicomponent systems, Markov chains and stochastic Petri

  12. The humble Bayesian : Model checking from a fully Bayesian perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, Richard D.; Romeijn, Jan-Willem; Rouder, Jeffrey N.

    Gelman and Shalizi (2012) criticize what they call the usual story in Bayesian statistics: that the distribution over hypotheses or models is the sole means of statistical inference, thus excluding model checking and revision, and that inference is inductivist rather than deductivist. They present

  13. Model checking conditional CSL for continuous-time Markov chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Yang; Xu, Ming; Zhan, Naijun

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the model-checking problem of continuous-time Markov chains (CTMCs) with respect to conditional logic. To the end, we extend Continuous Stochastic Logic introduced in Aziz et al. (2000) [1] to Conditional Continuous Stochastic Logic (CCSL) by introducing a conditional...... probabilistic operator. CCSL allows us to express a richer class of properties for CTMCs. Based on a parameterized product obtained from the CTMC and an automaton extracted from a given CCSL formula, we propose an approximate model checking algorithm and analyse its complexity....

  14. Take it NP-easy: Bounded model construction for duration calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin

    2002-01-01

    constrained to bounded length. As a corollary we obtain that model construction is in NP for the formulae actually encountered in case studies using Duration Calculus, as these have a certain small-model property. First experiments with a prototype implementation of the procedures demonstrate a competitive......Following the recent successes of bounded model-checking, we reconsider the problem of constructing models of discrete-time Duration Calculus formulae. While this problem is known to be non-elementary when arbitrary length models are considered [Hansen94], it turns out to be only NP-complete when...

  15. Tree-based model checking for logistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaogang

    2007-05-10

    A tree procedure is proposed to check the adequacy of a fitted logistic regression model. The proposed method not only makes natural assessment for the logistic model, but also provides clues to amend its lack-of-fit. The resulting tree-augmented logistic model facilitates a refined model with meaningful interpretation. We demonstrate its use via simulation studies and an application to the Pima Indians diabetes data. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Improved statistical model checking methods for pathway analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Chuan Hock; Palaniappan, Sucheendra K; Thiagarajan, P S; Wong, Limsoon

    2012-01-01

    Statistical model checking techniques have been shown to be effective for approximate model checking on large stochastic systems, where explicit representation of the state space is impractical. Importantly, these techniques ensure the validity of results with statistical guarantees on errors. There is an increasing interest in these classes of algorithms in computational systems biology since analysis using traditional model checking techniques does not scale well. In this context, we present two improvements to existing statistical model checking algorithms. Firstly, we construct an algorithm which removes the need of the user to define the indifference region, a critical parameter in previous sequential hypothesis testing algorithms. Secondly, we extend the algorithm to account for the case when there may be a limit on the computational resources that can be spent on verifying a property; i.e, if the original algorithm is not able to make a decision even after consuming the available amount of resources, we resort to a p-value based approach to make a decision. We demonstrate the improvements achieved by our algorithms in comparison to current algorithms first with a straightforward yet representative example, followed by a real biological model on cell fate of gustatory neurons with microRNAs.

  17. UPPAAL-SMC: Statistical Model Checking for Priced Timed Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulychev, Petr; David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    on a series of extensions of the statistical model checking approach generalized to handle real-time systems and estimate undecidable problems. U PPAAL - SMC comes together with a friendly user interface that allows a user to specify complex problems in an efficient manner as well as to get feedback...

  18. New Results in Software Model Checking and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.

    2010-01-01

    This introductory article surveys new techniques, supported by automated tools, for the analysis of software to ensure reliability and safety. Special focus is on model checking techniques. The article also introduces the five papers that are enclosed in this special journal volume.

  19. Model Checking Geographically Distributed Interlocking Systems Using UMC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantechi, Alessandro; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Nielsen, Michel Bøje Randahl

    2017-01-01

    The current trend of distributing computations over a network is here, as a novelty, applied to a safety critical system, namely a railway interlocking system. We show how the challenge of guaranteeing safety of the distributed application has been attacked by formally specifying and model checking...

  20. Mixed Portmanteau Test for Diagnostic Checking of Time Series Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Chand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Model criticism is an important stage of model building and thus goodness of fit tests provides a set of tools for diagnostic checking of the fitted model. Several tests are suggested in literature for diagnostic checking. These tests use autocorrelation or partial autocorrelation in the residuals to criticize the adequacy of fitted model. The main idea underlying these portmanteau tests is to identify if there is any dependence structure which is yet unexplained by the fitted model. In this paper, we suggest mixed portmanteau tests based on autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation functions of the residuals. We derived the asymptotic distribution of the mixture test and studied its size and power using Monte Carlo simulations.

  1. MTL-Model Checking of One-Clock Parametric Timed Automata is Undecidable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Quaas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Parametric timed automata extend timed automata (Alur and Dill, 1991 in that they allow the specification of parametric bounds on the clock values. Since their introduction in 1993 by Alur, Henzinger, and Vardi, it is known that the emptiness problem for parametric timed automata with one clock is decidable, whereas it is undecidable if the automaton uses three or more parametric clocks. The problem is open for parametric timed automata with two parametric clocks. Metric temporal logic, MTL for short, is a widely used specification language for real-time systems. MTL-model checking of timed automata is decidable, no matter how many clocks are used in the timed automaton. In this paper, we prove that MTL-model checking for parametric timed automata is undecidable, even if the automaton uses only one clock and one parameter and is deterministic.

  2. Logic Model Checking of Unintended Acceleration Claims in Toyota Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Part of the US Department of Transportation investigation of Toyota sudden unintended acceleration (SUA) involved analysis of the throttle control software, JPL Laboratory for Reliable Software applied several techniques including static analysis and logic model checking, to the software; A handful of logic models were build, Some weaknesses were identified; however, no cause for SUA was found; The full NASA report includes numerous other analyses

  3. Bayesian inference with information content model check for Langevin equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krog, Jens; Lomholt, Michael A.

    2017-12-01

    The Bayesian data analysis framework has been proven to be a systematic and effective method of parameter inference and model selection for stochastic processes. In this work, we introduce an information content model check that may serve as a goodness-of-fit, like the χ2 procedure, to complement conventional Bayesian analysis. We demonstrate this extended Bayesian framework on a system of Langevin equations, where coordinate-dependent mobilities and measurement noise hinder the normal mean-squared displacement approach.

  4. The humble Bayesian: model checking from a fully Bayesian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Richard D; Romeijn, Jan-Willem; Rouder, Jeffrey N

    2013-02-01

    Gelman and Shalizi (2012) criticize what they call the 'usual story' in Bayesian statistics: that the distribution over hypotheses or models is the sole means of statistical inference, thus excluding model checking and revision, and that inference is inductivist rather than deductivist. They present an alternative hypothetico-deductive approach to remedy both shortcomings. We agree with Gelman and Shalizi's criticism of the usual story, but disagree on whether Bayesian confirmation theory should be abandoned. We advocate a humble Bayesian approach, in which Bayesian confirmation theory is the central inferential method. A humble Bayesian checks her models and critically assesses whether the Bayesian statistical inferences can reasonably be called upon to support real-world inferences. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Model Checking for Verification of Interactive Health IT Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Keith A; Mercer, Eric; Bahrami, Ali; Tao, Cui

    Rigorous methods for design and verification of health IT systems have lagged far behind their proliferation. The inherent technical complexity of healthcare, combined with the added complexity of health information technology makes their resulting behavior unpredictable and introduces serious risk. We propose to mitigate this risk by formalizing the relationship between HIT and the conceptual work that increasingly typifies modern care. We introduce new techniques for modeling clinical workflows and the conceptual products within them that allow established, powerful modeling checking technology to be applied to interactive health IT systems. The new capability can evaluate the workflows of a new HIT system performed by clinicians and computers to improve safety and reliability. We demonstrate the method on a patient contact system to demonstrate model checking is effective for interactive systems and that much of it can be automated.

  6. Analysis of DIRAC's behavior using model checking with process algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Remenska, Daniela; Willemse, Tim; Bal, Henri; Verstoep, Kees; Fokkink, Wan; Charpentier, Philippe; Diaz, Ricardo Graciani; Lanciotti, Elisa; Roiser, Stefan; Ciba, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    DIRAC is the grid solution developed to support LHCb production activities as well as user data analysis. It consists of distributed services and agents delivering the workload to the grid resources. Services maintain database back-ends to store dynamic state information of entities such as jobs, queues, staging requests, etc. Agents use polling to check and possibly react to changes in the system state. Each agent's logic is relatively simple, the main complexity lies in their cooperation. Agents run concurrently, and collaborate using the databases as shared memory. The databases can be accessed directly by the agents if running locally or through a DIRAC service interface if necessary. This shared-memory model causes entities to occasionally get into inconsistent states. Tracing and fixing such problems becomes formidable due to the inherent parallelism present. We propose more rigorous methods to cope with this. Model checking is one such technique for analysis of an abstract model of a system. Unlike con...

  7. Probabilistic Priority Message Checking Modeling Based on Controller Area Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Min

    Although the probabilistic model checking tool called PRISM has been applied in many communication systems, such as wireless local area network, Bluetooth, and ZigBee, the technique is not used in a controller area network (CAN). In this paper, we use PRISM to model the mechanism of priority messages for CAN because the mechanism has allowed CAN to become the leader in serial communication for automobile and industry control. Through modeling CAN, it is easy to analyze the characteristic of CAN for further improving the security and efficiency of automobiles. The Markov chain model helps us to model the behaviour of priority messages.

  8. A Proof Theory for Model Checking: An Extended Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Heath

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While model checking has often been considered as a practical alternative to building formal proofs, we argue here that the theory of sequent calculus proofs can be used to provide an appealing foundation for model checking. Since the emphasis of model checking is on establishing the truth of a property in a model, we rely on the proof theoretic notion of additive inference rules, since such rules allow provability to directly describe truth conditions. Unfortunately, the additive treatment of quantifiers requires inference rules to have infinite sets of premises and the additive treatment of model descriptions provides no natural notion of state exploration. By employing a focused proof system, it is possible to construct large scale, synthetic rules that also qualify as additive but contain elements of multiplicative inference. These additive synthetic rules—essentially rules built from the description of a model—allow a direct treatment of state exploration. This proof theoretic framework provides a natural treatment of reachability and non-reachability problems, as well as tabled deduction, bisimulation, and winning strategies.

  9. Concrete Model Checking with Abstract Matching and Refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasareanu Corina S.; Peianek Radek; Visser, Willem

    2005-01-01

    We propose an abstraction-based model checking method which relies on refinement of an under-approximation of the feasible behaviors of the system under analysis. The method preserves errors to safety properties, since all analyzed behaviors are feasible by definition. The method does not require an abstract transition relation to he generated, but instead executes the concrete transitions while storing abstract versions of the concrete states, as specified by a set of abstraction predicates. For each explored transition. the method checks, with the help of a theorem prover, whether there is any loss of precision introduced by abstraction. The results of these checks are used to decide termination or to refine the abstraction, by generating new abstraction predicates. If the (possibly infinite) concrete system under analysis has a finite bisimulation quotient, then the method is guaranteed to eventually explore an equivalent finite bisimilar structure. We illustrate the application of the approach for checking concurrent programs. We also show how a lightweight variant can be used for efficient software testing.

  10. Model base SRAF insertion check with OPC verify tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chi-Yuan; Deng, Zexi; Gao, Gensheng; Zhang, Liguo; Liu, Qingwei

    2006-05-01

    With the critical dimension of IC design decreases dramatically, to meet the yield target of the manufacture process, resolution enhancement technologies become extremely important nowadays. For 90nm technology node and below, sub rule assistant feature (SRAF) are usually employed to enhance the robustness of the micro lithography process. SRAF is really a powerful methodology to push the process limit for given equipment conditions. However, there is also a drawback of the SRAF. It is very hard to check the reasonability of the SRAF location, especially when SRAF is applied on full chips. This work is trying to demonstrate a model-based approach to do full-chip check of the SRAF insertion rule. First, we try to capture the lithography process information through real empirical wafer data. Then we try to check every SRAFs location and to find any hot spot that has the risk of being printed out on the wafer. Based on this approach, we can then not only apply full chip check to reduce the printability of SRAF. Furthermore, combined with DRC tools, we can find SRAFs that are inserted unreasonably and then apply modification on them.

  11. Model Checking for Licensing Support in the Finnish Nuclear Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antti, Pakonen; Janne, Valkonen [VTT Technical Research, VTT (Finland); Sami, Matinaho; Markus, Hartikainen [Protum Power and Heat, Fortum (Finland)

    2014-08-15

    This paper examines how model checking can be used to support the qualification of digital I and C software in nuclear power plants, in a way that is consistent with regulatory demands specifically, the common position of seven European nuclear regulators and authorised technical support organisations. As a practical example, we discuss the third-party review service provided by VTT for the power company Fortum in the I and C renewal project of the Loviisa plant in southern Finland.

  12. Practical applications of probabilistic model checking to communication protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Duflot, M.; Kwiatkowska, M.; Norman, G; Parker, D.; Peyronnet, S.; Picaronny, C.; Sproston, J.

    2012-01-01

    Probabilistic model checking is a formal verification technique for the analysis of systems that exhibit stochastic behaviour. It has been successfully employed in an extremely wide array of application domains including, for example, communication and multimedia protocols, security and power management. In this chapter we focus on the applicability of these techniques to the analysis of communication protocols. An analysis of the performance of such systems must successfully incorporate seve...

  13. Approximating Attractors of Boolean Networks by Iterative CTL Model Checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarner, Hannes; Siebert, Heike

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of approximating asynchronous attractors of Boolean networks by minimal trap spaces. We define three criteria for determining the quality of an approximation: "faithfulness" which requires that the oscillating variables of all attractors in a trap space correspond to their dimensions, "univocality" which requires that there is a unique attractor in each trap space, and "completeness" which requires that there are no attractors outside of a given set of trap spaces. Each is a reachability property for which we give equivalent model checking queries. Whereas faithfulness and univocality can be decided by model checking the corresponding subnetworks, the naive query for completeness must be evaluated on the full state space. Our main result is an alternative approach which is based on the iterative refinement of an initially poor approximation. The algorithm detects so-called autonomous sets in the interaction graph, variables that contain all their regulators, and considers their intersection and extension in order to perform model checking on the smallest possible state spaces. A benchmark, in which we apply the algorithm to 18 published Boolean networks, is given. In each case, the minimal trap spaces are faithful, univocal, and complete, which suggests that they are in general good approximations for the asymptotics of Boolean networks.

  14. Introduction of Virtualization Technology to Multi-Process Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leungwattanakit, Watcharin; Artho, Cyrille; Hagiya, Masami; Tanabe, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Mitsuharu

    2009-01-01

    Model checkers find failures in software by exploring every possible execution schedule. Java PathFinder (JPF), a Java model checker, has been extended recently to cover networked applications by caching data transferred in a communication channel. A target process is executed by JPF, whereas its peer process runs on a regular virtual machine outside. However, non-deterministic target programs may produce different output data in each schedule, causing the cache to restart the peer process to handle the different set of data. Virtualization tools could help us restore previous states of peers, eliminating peer restart. This paper proposes the application of virtualization technology to networked model checking, concentrating on JPF.

  15. Model checking to assess T-helper cell plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Jaoudé, Wassim; Monteiro, Pedro T; Naldi, Aurélien; Grandclaudon, Maximilien; Soumelis, Vassili; Chaouiya, Claudine; Thieffry, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Computational modeling constitutes a crucial step toward the functional understanding of complex cellular networks. In particular, logical modeling has proven suitable for the dynamical analysis of large signaling and transcriptional regulatory networks. In this context, signaling input components are generally meant to convey external stimuli, or environmental cues. In response to such external signals, cells acquire specific gene expression patterns modeled in terms of attractors (e.g., stable states). The capacity for cells to alter or reprogram their differentiated states upon changes in environmental conditions is referred to as cell plasticity. In this article, we present a multivalued logical framework along with computational methods recently developed to efficiently analyze large models. We mainly focus on a symbolic model checking approach to investigate switches between attractors subsequent to changes of input conditions. As a case study, we consider the cellular network regulating the differentiation of T-helper (Th) cells, which orchestrate many physiological and pathological immune responses. To account for novel cellular subtypes, we present an extended version of a published model of Th cell differentiation. We then use symbolic model checking to analyze reachability properties between Th subtypes upon changes of environmental cues. This allows for the construction of a synthetic view of Th cell plasticity in terms of a graph connecting subtypes with arcs labeled by input conditions. Finally, we explore novel strategies enabling specific Th cell polarizing or reprograming events.

  16. Model checking to assess T-helper cell plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassim eAbou-Jaoudé

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational modeling constitutes a crucial step towards the functional understanding of complex cellular networks.In particular, logical modeling has proven suitable for the dynamical analysis of large signaling and transcriptional regulatory networks.In this context, signaling input components are generally meant to convey external stimuli, or environmental cues.In response to such external signals, cells acquire specific gene expression patterns modeled in terms of attractors ({em e.g.} stable states.The capacity for cells to alter or reprogram their differentiated states upon changes in environmental conditions is referred to as cell plasticity.In this article, we present a multivalued logical framework along with computational methods recently developed to efficiently analyze large models.We mainly focus on a symbolic model checking approach to investigate switches between attractors subsequent to changes of input conditions.As a case study, we consider the cellular network regulating the differentiation of T-helper cells, which orchestrate many physiological and pathological immune responses.To account for novel cellular subtypes, we present an extended version of a published model of T-helper cell differentiation. We then use symbolic model checking to analyze reachability properties between T-helper subtypes upon changes of environmental cues.This allows for the construction of a synthetic view of T-helper cell plasticity in terms of a graph connecting subtypes with arcs labeled by input conditions.Finally, we explore novel strategies enabling specific T-helper cell polarizing or reprograming events.

  17. Model Checking A Self-Stabilizing Synchronization Protocol for Arbitrary Digraphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekpour, Mahyar R.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the mechanical verification of a self-stabilizing distributed clock synchronization protocol for arbitrary digraphs in the absence of faults. This protocol does not rely on assumptions about the initial state of the system, other than the presence of at least one node, and no central clock or a centrally generated signal, pulse, or message is used. The system under study is an arbitrary, non-partitioned digraph ranging from fully connected to 1-connected networks of nodes while allowing for differences in the network elements. Nodes are anonymous, i.e., they do not have unique identities. There is no theoretical limit on the maximum number of participating nodes. The only constraint on the behavior of the node is that the interactions with other nodes are restricted to defined links and interfaces. This protocol deterministically converges within a time bound that is a linear function of the self-stabilization period. A bounded model of the protocol is verified using the Symbolic Model Verifier (SMV) for a subset of digraphs. Modeling challenges of the protocol and the system are addressed. The model checking effort is focused on verifying correctness of the bounded model of the protocol as well as confirmation of claims of determinism and linear convergence with respect to the self-stabilization period.

  18. An Automated Translator for Model Checking Time Constrained Workflow Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashiyat, Ahmed Shah; Rabbi, Fazle; Wang, Hao; Maccaull, Wendy

    Workflows have proven to be a useful conceptualization for the automation of business processes. While formal verification methods (e.g., model checking) can help ensure the reliability of workflow systems, the industrial uptake of such methods has been slow largely due to the effort involved in modeling and the memory required to verify complex systems. Incorporation of time constraints in such systems exacerbates the latter problem. We present an automated translator, YAWL2DVE-t, which takes as input a time constrained workflow model built with the graphical modeling tool YAWL, and outputs the model in DVE, the system specification language for the distributed LTL model checker DiVinE. The automated translator, together with the graphical editor and the distributed model checker, provides a method for rapid design, verification and refactoring of time constrained workflow systems. We present a realistic case study developed through collaboration with the local health authority.

  19. Optimizing ZigBee Security using Stochastic Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    ZigBee is a fairly new but promising wireless sensor network standard that offers the advantages of simple and low resource communication. Nevertheless, security is of great concern to ZigBee, and enhancements are prescribed in the latest ZigBee specication: ZigBee-2007. In this technical report......, we identify an important gap in the specification on key updates, and present a methodology for determining optimal key update policies and security parameters. We exploit the stochastic model checking approach using the probabilistic model checker PRISM, and assess the security needs for realistic...

  20. Asymptotic-bound-state model for Feshbach resonances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiecke, T.G.; Goosen, M.R.; Walraven, J.T.M.; Kokkelmans, S.J.J.M.F.

    2010-01-01

    We present an asymptotic-bound-state model which can be used to accurately describe all Feshbach resonance positions and widths in a two-body system. With this model we determine the coupled bound states of a particular two-body system. The model is based on analytic properties of the two-body

  1. Applying Model Checking to Industrial-Sized PLC Programs

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079190; Darvas, Daniel; Blanco Vinuela, Enrique; Tournier, Jean-Charles; Bliudze, Simon; Blech, Jan Olaf; Gonzalez Suarez, Victor M

    2015-01-01

    Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are embedded computers widely used in industrial control systems. Ensuring that a PLC software complies with its specification is a challenging task. Formal verification has become a recommended practice to ensure the correctness of safety-critical software but is still underused in industry due to the complexity of building and managing formal models of real applications. In this paper, we propose a general methodology to perform automated model checking of complex properties expressed in temporal logics (\\eg CTL, LTL) on PLC programs. This methodology is based on an intermediate model (IM), meant to transform PLC programs written in various standard languages (ST, SFC, etc.) to different modeling languages of verification tools. We present the syntax and semantics of the IM and the transformation rules of the ST and SFC languages to the nuXmv model checker passing through the intermediate model. Finally, two real cases studies of \\CERN PLC programs, written mainly in th...

  2. SoS contract verification using statistical model checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Mignogna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Exhaustive formal verification for systems of systems (SoS is impractical and cannot be applied on a large scale. In this paper we propose to use statistical model checking for efficient verification of SoS. We address three relevant aspects for systems of systems: 1 the model of the SoS, which includes stochastic aspects; 2 the formalization of the SoS requirements in the form of contracts; 3 the tool-chain to support statistical model checking for SoS. We adapt the SMC technique for application to heterogeneous SoS. We extend the UPDM/SysML specification language to express the SoS requirements that the implemented strategies over the SoS must satisfy. The requirements are specified with a new contract language specifically designed for SoS, targeting a high-level English- pattern language, but relying on an accurate semantics given by the standard temporal logics. The contracts are verified against the UPDM/SysML specification using the Statistical Model Checker (SMC PLASMA combined with the simulation engine DESYRE, which integrates heterogeneous behavioral models through the functional mock-up interface (FMI standard. The tool-chain allows computing an estimation of the satisfiability of the contracts by the SoS. The results help the system architect to trade-off different solutions to guide the evolution of the SoS.

  3. Model checking for clinical guidelines: an agent-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, L; Terenziani, P; Bottrighi, A; Montani, S; Donzella, L

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new computer-based approach to model clinical guidelines, adopting the agent-based paradigm. We first show how clinical guidelines can be modelled in an agent like fashion in the specification language Promela of the model checker SPIN. Then, we describe the impact of such a move: by using SPIN model-checking facilities, one can automatically prove a wide range of properties concerning the modeled guidelines. As a proof of concept, we apply such a methodology to the clinical guidelines in GLARE, a domain-independent prototypical system for acquiring, representing and executing clinical guidelines, which has been built within a 7-year project with Azienda Ospedaliera San Giovanni Battista in Turin (one of the largest hospitals in Italy).

  4. Using Model Checking to Generate Test Cases for Android Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rosario Espada

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of mobile devices is highly non deterministic and barely predictable due to the interaction of the user with its applications. In consequence, analyzing the correctness of applications running on a smartphone involves dealing with the complexity of its environment. In this paper, we propose the use of model-based testing to describe the potential behaviors of users interacting with mobile applications. These behaviors are modeled by composing specially-designed state machines. These composed state machines can be exhaustively explored using a model checking tool to automatically generate all possible user interactions. Each generated trace model checker can be interpreted as a test case to drive a runtime analysis of actual applications. We have implemented a tool that follows the proposed methodology to analyze Android devices using the model checker Spin as the exhaustive generator of test cases.

  5. Model Checking a Byzantine-Fault-Tolerant Self-Stabilizing Protocol for Distributed Clock Synchronization Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekpour, Mahyar R.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the mechanical verification of a simplified model of a rapid Byzantine-fault-tolerant self-stabilizing protocol for distributed clock synchronization systems. This protocol does not rely on any assumptions about the initial state of the system. This protocol tolerates bursts of transient failures, and deterministically converges within a time bound that is a linear function of the self-stabilization period. A simplified model of the protocol is verified using the Symbolic Model Verifier (SMV) [SMV]. The system under study consists of 4 nodes, where at most one of the nodes is assumed to be Byzantine faulty. The model checking effort is focused on verifying correctness of the simplified model of the protocol in the presence of a permanent Byzantine fault as well as confirmation of claims of determinism and linear convergence with respect to the self-stabilization period. Although model checking results of the simplified model of the protocol confirm the theoretical predictions, these results do not necessarily confirm that the protocol solves the general case of this problem. Modeling challenges of the protocol and the system are addressed. A number of abstractions are utilized in order to reduce the state space. Also, additional innovative state space reduction techniques are introduced that can be used in future verification efforts applied to this and other protocols.

  6. Symbolic Model Checking: An Approach to the State Explosion Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    model checking is proposed and studied. This method avoids building a state graph by using Boolean formulas to represent sets and relations. A variety of properties characterized by least and greatest fixed points can be verified purely by manipulations of these formulas using Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams. Theoretically, a structural class of sequential circuits is demonstrated whose transition relations can be represented by polynomial space OBDDs, though the number of states is exponential. This result is born out by experimental results on example circuits and

  7. Model Checking Process Algebra of Communicating Resources for Real-time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudjadar, Jalil; Kim, Jin Hyun; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2014-01-01

    the original semantics of PACOR and enables the verification of PACOR systems using symbolic model checking in UPPAAL and statistical model checking UPPAAL SMC. Finally we provide an example to illustrate system specification in PACOR, translation and verification....

  8. Addressing challenges in obtaining high coverage when model checking android applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Heila-Marie

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available use model checking to systematically explore application paths while reducing the analysis size using state matching and backtracking. In particular, we extend the Java PathFinder (JPF) model checking environment for Android. We describe...

  9. Combining Static Analysis and Model Checking for Software Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brat, Guillaume; Visser, Willem; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    We present an iterative technique in which model checking and static analysis are combined to verify large software systems. The role of the static analysis is to compute partial order information which the model checker uses to reduce the state space. During exploration, the model checker also computes aliasing information that it gives to the static analyzer which can then refine its analysis. The result of this refined analysis is then fed back to the model checker which updates its partial order reduction. At each step of this iterative process, the static analysis computes optimistic information which results in an unsafe reduction of the state space. However we show that the process converges to a fired point at which time the partial order information is safe and the whole state space is explored.

  10. Using model checking for critiquing based on clinical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, Perry; Hommersom, Arjen; Lucas, Peter J F; Merk, Robbert-Jan; ten Teije, Annette; van Harmelen, Frank; Serban, Radu

    2009-05-01

    Medical critiquing systems compare clinical actions performed by a physician with a predefined set of actions. In order to provide useful feedback, an important task is to find differences between the actual actions and a set of 'ideal' actions as described by a clinical guideline. In case differences exist, the critiquing system provides insight into the extent to which they are compatible. We propose a computational method for such critiquing, where the ideal actions are given by a formal model of a clinical guideline, and where the actual actions are derived from real world patient data. We employ model checking to investigate whether a part of the actual treatment is consistent with the guideline. We show how critiquing can be cast in terms of temporal logic, and what can be achieved by using model checking. Furthermore, a method is introduced for off-line computing relevant information which can be exploited during critiquing. The method has been applied to a clinical guideline of breast cancer in conjunction with breast cancer patient data.

  11. Generalized Symbolic Execution for Model Checking and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshid, Sarfraz; Pasareanu, Corina; Visser, Willem; Kofmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Modern software systems, which often are concurrent and manipulate complex data structures must be extremely reliable. We present a novel framework based on symbolic execution, for automated checking of such systems. We provide a two-fold generalization of traditional symbolic execution based approaches: one, we define a program instrumentation, which enables standard model checkers to perform symbolic execution; two, we give a novel symbolic execution algorithm that handles dynamically allocated structures (e.g., lists and trees), method preconditions (e.g., acyclicity of lists), data (e.g., integers and strings) and concurrency. The program instrumentation enables a model checker to automatically explore program heap configurations (using a systematic treatment of aliasing) and manipulate logical formulae on program data values (using a decision procedure). We illustrate two applications of our framework: checking correctness of multi-threaded programs that take inputs from unbounded domains with complex structure and generation of non-isomorphic test inputs that satisfy a testing criterion. Our implementation for Java uses the Java PathFinder model checker.

  12. Model Checking Degrees of Belief in a System of Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Franco; Primero, Giuseppe; Rungta, Neha

    2014-01-01

    Reasoning about degrees of belief has been investigated in the past by a number of authors and has a number of practical applications in real life. In this paper we present a unified framework to model and verify degrees of belief in a system of agents. In particular, we describe an extension of the temporal-epistemic logic CTLK and we introduce a semantics based on interpreted systems for this extension. In this way, degrees of beliefs do not need to be provided externally, but can be derived automatically from the possible executions of the system, thereby providing a computationally grounded formalism. We leverage the semantics to (a) construct a model checking algorithm, (b) investigate its complexity, (c) provide a Java implementation of the model checking algorithm, and (d) evaluate our approach using the standard benchmark of the dining cryptographers. Finally, we provide a detailed case study: using our framework and our implementation, we assess and verify the situational awareness of the pilot of Air France 447 flying in off-nominal conditions.

  13. Conformity checking of LPG Transportation Trucks by Modelling and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallab Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available LPG Loading /unloading site is considered as a dangerous environment of significant risk, especially during LPG transfer operations. These risks may cause catastrophic dangers such as BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion, UVCE (Unconfined Vapour Cloud Explosion, etc. The site consists of a tank (RST containing LPG and threetransfer posts. Two posts allow loading of small carrier tankers 6 tons. The other one transfer post transfer LPG contained injumbo tankers 20 tons inside the tank. The industrial site at risks chooses to demonstrate the need for a modelling-simulation approach. The aim is to check first compliance and authorization of the truck when it enters the site for loading /unloading, to verify the authorization to make the transfer, and then, to identify the driver and his training to ensure that the transfer operations are going to take place without incident. Sometimes, it may happen that Consignment Operator (CO is busy orabsent and thus the driver operates alone without being authorized, in this case the site risks a loss of control due to a lack of resources. The modelling-simulation will be done using multi-agent systems that will present the drivers, trucks, PO and loading unloading posts as agents in order to have a model facilitating this checking.

  14. User Assistance Characteristics of the USE Model Checking Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Hilken

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Unified Modeling Language (UML is a widely used general purpose modeling language. Together with the Object Constraint Language (OCL, formal models can be described by defining the structure and behavior with UML and additional OCL constraints. In the development process for formal models, it is important to make sure that these models are (a correct, i.e. consistent and complete, and (b testable in the sense that the developer is able to interactively check model properties. The USE tool (UML-based Specification Environment allows both characteristics to be studied. We demonstrate how the tool supports modelers to analyze, validate and verify UML and OCL models via the use of several graphical means that assist the modeler in interpreting and visualizing formal model descriptions. In particular, we discuss how the so-called USE model validator plugin is integrated into the USE environment in order to allow non domain experts to use it and construct object models that help to verify properties like model consistency.

  15. Automatic validation of computational models using pseudo-3D spatio-temporal model checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pârvu, Ovidiu; Gilbert, David

    2014-12-02

    Computational models play an increasingly important role in systems biology for generating predictions and in synthetic biology as executable prototypes/designs. For real life (clinical) applications there is a need to scale up and build more complex spatio-temporal multiscale models; these could enable investigating how changes at small scales reflect at large scales and viceversa. Results generated by computational models can be applied to real life applications only if the models have been validated first. Traditional in silico model checking techniques only capture how non-dimensional properties (e.g. concentrations) evolve over time and are suitable for small scale systems (e.g. metabolic pathways). The validation of larger scale systems (e.g. multicellular populations) additionally requires capturing how spatial patterns and their properties change over time, which are not considered by traditional non-spatial approaches. We developed and implemented a methodology for the automatic validation of computational models with respect to both their spatial and temporal properties. Stochastic biological systems are represented by abstract models which assume a linear structure of time and a pseudo-3D representation of space (2D space plus a density measure). Time series data generated by such models is provided as input to parameterised image processing modules which automatically detect and analyse spatial patterns (e.g. cell) and clusters of such patterns (e.g. cellular population). For capturing how spatial and numeric properties change over time the Probabilistic Bounded Linear Spatial Temporal Logic is introduced. Given a collection of time series data and a formal spatio-temporal specification the model checker Mudi ( http://mudi.modelchecking.org ) determines probabilistically if the formal specification holds for the computational model or not. Mudi is an approximate probabilistic model checking platform which enables users to choose between frequentist and

  16. Using Model Checking for Analyzing Distributed Power Control Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Brihaye

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Model checking (MC is a formal verification technique which has been known and still knows a resounding success in the computer science community. Realizing that the distributed power control (PC problem can be modeled by a timed game between a given transmitter and its environment, the authors wanted to know whether this approach can be applied to distributed PC. It turns out that it can be applied successfully and allows one to analyze realistic scenarios including the case of discrete transmit powers and games with incomplete information. The proposed methodology is as follows. We state some objectives a transmitter-receiver pair would like to reach. The network is modeled by a game where transmitters are considered as timed automata interacting with each other. The objectives are then translated into timed alternating-time temporal logic formulae and MC is exploited to know whether the desired properties are verified and determine a winning strategy.

  17. Model-checking dense-time Duration Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Since the seminal work of Zhou Chaochen, M. R. Hansen, and P. Sestoft on decidability of dense-time Duration Calculus [Zhou, Hansen, Sestoft, 1993] it is well-known that decidable fragments of Duration Calculus can only be obtained through withdrawal of much of the interesting vocabulary...... of this logic. While this was formerly taken as an indication that key-press verification of implementations with respect to elaborate Duration Calculus specifications were also impossible, we show that the model property is well decidable for realistic designs which feature natural constraints...... suitably sparser model classes we obtain model-checking procedures for rich subsets of Duration Calculus. Together with undecidability results also obtained, this sheds light upon the exact borderline between decidability and undecidability of Duration Calculi and related logics....

  18. Analysis of DIRAC's behavior using model checking with process algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remenska, Daniela; Templon, Jeff; Willemse, Tim; Bal, Henri; Verstoep, Kees; Fokkink, Wan; Charpentier, Philippe; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Lanciotti, Elisa; Roiser, Stefan; Ciba, Krzysztof

    2012-12-01

    DIRAC is the grid solution developed to support LHCb production activities as well as user data analysis. It consists of distributed services and agents delivering the workload to the grid resources. Services maintain database back-ends to store dynamic state information of entities such as jobs, queues, staging requests, etc. Agents use polling to check and possibly react to changes in the system state. Each agent's logic is relatively simple; the main complexity lies in their cooperation. Agents run concurrently, and collaborate using the databases as shared memory. The databases can be accessed directly by the agents if running locally or through a DIRAC service interface if necessary. This shared-memory model causes entities to occasionally get into inconsistent states. Tracing and fixing such problems becomes formidable due to the inherent parallelism present. We propose more rigorous methods to cope with this. Model checking is one such technique for analysis of an abstract model of a system. Unlike conventional testing, it allows full control over the parallel processes execution, and supports exhaustive state-space exploration. We used the mCRL2 language and toolset to model the behavior of two related DIRAC subsystems: the workload and storage management system. Based on process algebra, mCRL2 allows defining custom data types as well as functions over these. This makes it suitable for modeling the data manipulations made by DIRAC's agents. By visualizing the state space and replaying scenarios with the toolkit's simulator, we have detected race-conditions and deadlocks in these systems, which, in several cases, were confirmed to occur in the reality. Several properties of interest were formulated and verified with the tool. Our future direction is automating the translation from DIRAC to a formal model.

  19. Model Checking with Edge-Valued Decision Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Pierre; Siminiceanu, Radu I.

    2010-01-01

    We describe an algebra of Edge-Valued Decision Diagrams (EVMDDs) to encode arithmetic functions and its implementation in a model checking library. We provide efficient algorithms for manipulating EVMDDs and review the theoretical time complexity of these algorithms for all basic arithmetic and relational operators. We also demonstrate that the time complexity of the generic recursive algorithm for applying a binary operator on EVMDDs is no worse than that of Multi- Terminal Decision Diagrams. We have implemented a new symbolic model checker with the intention to represent in one formalism the best techniques available at the moment across a spectrum of existing tools. Compared to the CUDD package, our tool is several orders of magnitude faster

  20. Algebraic model checking for Boolean gene regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Quoc-Nam

    2011-01-01

    We present a computational method in which modular and Groebner bases (GB) computation in Boolean rings are used for solving problems in Boolean gene regulatory networks (BN). In contrast to other known algebraic approaches, the degree of intermediate polynomials during the calculation of Groebner bases using our method will never grow resulting in a significant improvement in running time and memory space consumption. We also show how calculation in temporal logic for model checking can be done by means of our direct and efficient Groebner basis computation in Boolean rings. We present our experimental results in finding attractors and control strategies of Boolean networks to illustrate our theoretical arguments. The results are promising. Our algebraic approach is more efficient than the state-of-the-art model checker NuSMV on BNs. More importantly, our approach finds all solutions for the BN problems.

  1. Software Model Checking of ARINC-653 Flight Code with MCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sarah J.; Brat, Guillaume; Venet, Arnaud

    2010-01-01

    The ARINC-653 standard defines a common interface for Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) code. In particular, ARINC-653 Part 1 specifies a process- and partition-management API that is analogous to POSIX threads, but with certain extensions and restrictions intended to support the implementation of high reliability flight code. MCP is a software model checker, developed at NASA Ames, that provides capabilities for model checking C and C++ source code. In this paper, we present recent work aimed at implementing extensions to MCP that support ARINC-653, and we discuss the challenges and opportunities that consequentially arise. Providing support for ARINC-653 s time and space partitioning is nontrivial, though there are implicit benefits for partial order reduction possible as a consequence of the API s strict interprocess communication policy.

  2. Model Checking Security Protocols: A Multiagent System Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Boureanu, Ioana Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Security protocols specify the communication required to achieve security objectives, e.g., data-privacy. Such protocols are used in electronic media: e-commerce, e-banking, e-voting, etc. Formal verification is used to discover protocol-design flaws. In this thesis, we use a multiagent systems approach built on temporal-epistemic logic to model and analyse a bounded number of concurrent sessions of authentication and key-establishment protocols executing in a Dolev-Yao environment. We increa...

  3. Transformation of UML Behavioral Diagrams to Support Software Model Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Brasil Rebelo dos Santos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Unified Modeling Language (UML is currently accepted as the standard for modeling (object-oriented software, and its use is increasing in the aerospace industry. Verification and Validation of complex software developed according to UML is not trivial due to complexity of the software itself, and the several different UML models/diagrams that can be used to model behavior and structure of the software. This paper presents an approach to transform up to three different UML behavioral diagrams (sequence, behavioral state machines, and activity into a single Transition System to support Model Checking of software developed in accordance with UML. In our approach, properties are formalized based on use case descriptions. The transformation is done for the NuSMV model checker, but we see the possibility in using other model checkers, such as SPIN. The main contribution of our work is the transformation of a non-formal language (UML to a formal language (language of the NuSMV model checker towards a greater adoption in practice of formal methods in software development.

  4. Combining Decision Diagrams and SAT Procedures for Efficient Symbolic Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Poul Frederick; Biere, Armin; Clarke, Edmund M.

    2000-01-01

    , combined with BDDs and SAT-solvers to perform satisfiability checking. As a result we are able to model check systems for which standard BDD-based methods fail. For example, we model check a liveness property of a 256 bit shift-and-add multiplier and we are able to find a previously undetected bug...

  5. Symbolic Game Semantics for Model Checking Program Families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimovski, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    represent program families with infinite integers as so-called (finite-state) featured symbolic automata. Specifically designed model checking algorithms are then employed to verify safety of all programs from a family at once and pinpoint those programs that are unsafe (respectively, safe). We present......Program families can produce a (potentially huge) number of related programs from a common code base. Many such programs are safety critical. However, most verification techniques are designed to work on the level of single programs, and thus are too costly to apply to the entire program family....... In this paper, we propose an efficient game semantics based approach for verifying open program families, i.e. program families with free (undefined) identifiers. We use symbolic representation of algorithmic game semantics, where concrete values are replaced with symbolic ones. In this way, we can compactly...

  6. A Succinct Approach to Static Analysis and Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filipiuk, Piotr

    Fixed Point Logic. Its most prominent feature is the direct support for both inductive computations of behaviors as well as co-inductive specications of properties. Two main theoretical contributions are a Moore Family result and a parametrized worst-case time complexity result. We develop a BDD......In a number of areas software correctness is crucial, therefore it is often desirable to formally verify the presence of various properties or the absence of errors. This thesis presents a framework for concisely expressing static analysis and model checking problems. The framework facilitates......-based solving algorithm, which computes the least solution guaranteed by the Moore Family result with worst-case time complexity as given by the complexity result. We also present magic set transformation for ALFP, known from deductive databases, which is a clause-rewriting strategy for optimizing query...

  7. Temporal logics for phylogenetic analysis via model checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requeno, José Ignacio; Casado, Gregorio de Miguel; Blanco, Roberto; Colom, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The need for general-purpose algorithms for studying biological properties in phylogenetics motivates research into formal verification frameworks. Researchers can focus their efforts exclusively on evolution trees and property specifications. To this end, model checking, a mature automated verification technique originating in computer science, is applied to phylogenetic analysis. Our approach is based on three cornerstones: a logical modeling of the evolution with transition systems; the specification of both phylogenetic properties and trees using flexible temporal logic formulas; and the verification of the latter by means of automated computer tools. The most conspicuous result is the inception of a formal framework which allows for a symbolic manipulation of biological data (based on the codification of the taxa). Additionally, different logical models of evolution can be considered, complex properties can be specified in terms of the logical composition of others, and the refinement of unfulfilled properties as well as the discovery of new properties can be undertaken by exploiting the verification results. Some experimental results using a symbolic model verifier support the feasibility of the approach.

  8. Simple nonparametric checks for model data fit in CAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.R.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the usefulness of several nonparametric checks is discussed in a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) context. Although there is no tradition of nonparametric scalability in CAT, it can be argued that scalability checks can be useful to investigate, for example, the quality of item

  9. Adopting model checking techniques for clinical guidelines verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottrighi, Alessio; Giordano, Laura; Molino, Gianpaolo; Montani, Stefania; Terenziani, Paolo; Torchio, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Clinical guidelines (GLs) are assuming a major role in the medical area, in order to grant the quality of the medical assistance and to optimize medical treatments within healthcare organizations. The verification of properties of the GL (e.g., the verification of GL correctness with respect to several criteria) is a demanding task, which may be enhanced through the adoption of advanced Artificial Intelligence techniques. In this paper, we propose a general and flexible approach to address such a task. Our approach to GL verification is based on the integration of a computerized GL management system with a model-checker. We propose a general methodology, and we instantiate it by loosely coupling GLARE, our system for acquiring, representing and executing GLs, with the model-checker SPIN. We have carried out an in-depth analysis of the types of properties that can be effectively verified using our approach, and we have completed an overview of the usefulness of the verification task at the different stages of the GL life-cycle. In particular, experimentation on a GL for ischemic stroke has shown that the automatic verification of properties in the model checking approach is able to discover inconsistencies in the GL that cannot be detected in advance by hand. Our approach thus represents a further step in the direction of general and flexible automated GL verification, which also meets usability requirements. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Model Checking Vector Addition Systems with one zero-test

    CERN Document Server

    Bonet, Rémi; Leroux, Jérôme; Zeitoun, Marc

    2012-01-01

    We design a variation of the Karp-Miller algorithm to compute, in a forward manner, a finite representation of the cover (i.e., the downward closure of the reachability set) of a vector addition system with one zero-test. This algorithm yields decision procedures for several problems for these systems, open until now, such as place-boundedness or LTL model-checking. The proof techniques to handle the zero-test are based on two new notions of cover: the refined and the filtered cover. The refined cover is a hybrid between the reachability set and the classical cover. It inherits properties of the reachability set: equality of two refined covers is undecidable, even for usual Vector Addition Systems (with no zero-test), but the refined cover of a Vector Addition System is a recursive set. The second notion of cover, called the filtered cover, is the central tool of our algorithms. It inherits properties of the classical cover, and in particular, one can effectively compute a finite representation of this set, e...

  11. Experimental bounds on collapse models from gravitational wave detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlesso, Matteo; Bassi, Angelo; Falferi, Paolo; Vinante, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Wave function collapse models postulate a fundamental breakdown of the quantum superposition principle at the macroscale. Therefore, experimental tests of collapse models are also fundamental tests of quantum mechanics. Here, we compute the upper bounds on the collapse parameters, which can be inferred by the gravitational wave detectors LIGO, LISA Pathfinder, and AURIGA. We consider the most widely used collapse model, the continuous spontaneous localization (CSL) model. We show that these experiments exclude a huge portion of the CSL parameter space, the strongest bound being set by the recently launched space mission LISA Pathfinder. We also rule out a proposal for quantum-gravity-induced decoherence.

  12. Model Checking of a Diabetes-Cancer Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Haijun; Zuliani, Paolo; Clarke, Edmund M.

    2011-06-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that cancer incidence might be associated with diabetes mellitus, especially Type II diabetes which is characterized by hyperinsulinaemia, hyperglycaemia, obesity, and overexpression of multiple WNT pathway components. These diabetes risk factors can activate a number of signaling pathways that are important in the development of different cancers. To systematically understand the signaling components that link diabetes and cancer risk, we have constructed a single-cell, Boolean network model by integrating the signaling pathways that are influenced by these risk factors to study insulin resistance, cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis. Then, we introduce and apply the Symbolic Model Verifier (SMV), a formal verification tool, to qualitatively study some temporal logic properties of our diabetes-cancer model. The verification results show that the diabetes risk factors might not increase cancer risk in normal cells, but they will promote cell proliferation if the cell is in a precancerous or cancerous stage characterized by losses of the tumor-suppressor proteins ARF and INK4a.

  13. Model building and model checking for biochemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniotti, Marco; Policriti, Alberto; Ugel, Nadia; Mishra, Bud

    2003-01-01

    A central claim of computational systems biology is that, by drawing on mathematical approaches developed in the context of dynamic systems, kinetic analysis, computational theory and logic, it is possible to create powerful simulation, analysis, and reasoning tools for working biologists to decipher existing data, devise new experiments, and ultimately to understand functional properties of genomes, proteomes, cells, organs, and organisms. In this article, a novel computational tool is described that achieves many of the goals of this new discipline. The novelty of this system involves an automaton-based semantics of the temporal evolution of complex biochemical reactions starting from the representation given as a set of differential equations. The related tools also provide ability to qualitatively reason about the systems using a propositional temporal logic that can express an ordered sequence of events succinctly and unambiguously. The implementation of mathematical and computational models in the Simpathica and XSSYS systems is described briefly. Several example applications of these systems to cellular and biochemical processes are presented: the two most prominent are Leibler et al.'s repressilator (an artificial synthesized oscillatory network), and Curto- Voit-Sorribas-Cascante's purine metabolism reaction model.

  14. The Modeling Library of Eavesdropping Methods in Quantum Cryptography Protocols by Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Yang, Guowu; Hao, Yujie

    2016-07-01

    The most crucial issue of quantum cryptography protocols is its security. There exists many ways to attack the quantum communication process. In this paper, we present a model checking method for modeling the eavesdropping in quantum information protocols. So when the security properties of a certain protocol are needed to be verified, we can directly use the models which are already built. Here we adopt the probabilistic model checking tool—PRISM to model these attack methods. The verification results show that the detection rate of eavesdropping is approximately close to 1 when enough photons are transmitted.

  15. GPU-accelerated Model Checking of Periodic Self-Suspending Real-Time Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Liberg, Tim; Måhl, Per-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Efficient model checking is important in order to make this type of software verification useful for systems that are complex in their structure. If a system is too large or complex then model checking does not simply scale, i.e., it could take too much time to verify the system. This is one strong argument for focusing on making model checking faster. Another interesting aim is to make model checking so fast that it can be used for predicting scheduling decisions for real-time schedulers at ...

  16. A model checking method for the proportional hazards model with recurrent gap time data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiung-Yu; Luo, Xianghua; Follmann, Dean A

    2011-07-01

    Recurrent events are the natural outcome in many medical and epidemiology studies. To assess covariate effects on the gaps between consecutive recurrent events, the Cox proportional hazards model is frequently employed in data analysis. The validity of statistical inference, however, depends on the appropriateness of the Cox model. In this paper, we propose a class of graphical techniques and formal tests for checking the Cox model with recurrent gap time data. The building block of our model checking method is an averaged martingale-like process, based on which a class of multiparameter stochastic processes is proposed. This maneuver is very general and can be used to assess different aspects of model fit. Numerical simulations are conducted to examine finite-sample performance, and the proposed model checking techniques are illustrated with data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register.

  17. Electrostatic charge bounds for ball lightning models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephan, Karl D [Department of Technology, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States)], E-mail: kdstephan@txstate.edu

    2008-03-15

    Several current theories concerning the nature of ball lightning predict a substantial electrostatic charge in order to account for its observed motion and shape (Turner 1998 Phys. Rep. 293 1; Abrahamson and Dinniss 2000 Nature 403 519). Using charged soap bubbles as a physical model for ball lightning, we show that the magnitude of charge predicted by some of these theories is too high to allow for the types of motion commonly observed in natural ball lightning, which includes horizontal motion above the ground and movement near grounded conductors. Experiments show that at charge levels of only 10-15 nC, 3-cm-diameter soap bubbles tend to be attracted by induced charges to the nearest grounded conductor and rupture. We conclude with a scaling rule that can be used to extrapolate these results to larger objects and surroundings.

  18. Electrostatic charge bounds for ball lightning models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Karl D.

    2008-03-01

    Several current theories concerning the nature of ball lightning predict a substantial electrostatic charge in order to account for its observed motion and shape (Turner 1998 Phys. Rep. 293 1; Abrahamson and Dinniss 2000 Nature 403 519). Using charged soap bubbles as a physical model for ball lightning, we show that the magnitude of charge predicted by some of these theories is too high to allow for the types of motion commonly observed in natural ball lightning, which includes horizontal motion above the ground and movement near grounded conductors. Experiments show that at charge levels of only 10-15 nC, 3-cm-diameter soap bubbles tend to be attracted by induced charges to the nearest grounded conductor and rupture. We conclude with a scaling rule that can be used to extrapolate these results to larger objects and surroundings.

  19. Bounded Semantics of CTL and SAT-Based Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhui

    Bounded model checking has been proposed as a complementary approach to BDD based symbolic model checking for combating the state explosion problem, esp. for efficient error detection. This has led to a lot of successful work with respect to error detection in the checking of LTL, ACTL (the universal fragment of CTL) and ACTL* properties by satisfiability testing. The use of bounded model checking for verification (in contrast to error detection) of LTL and ACTL properties has later also been studied. This paper studies the potentials and limitations of bounded model checking for the verification of CTL and CTL* formulas. On the theoretical side, we first provide a framework for discussion of bounded semantics, which serves as the basis for bounded model checking, then extend the bounded semantics of ACTL to a bounded semantics of CTL, and discuss the limitation of developing such a bounded semantics for CTL*. On the practical side, a deduction of a SAT-based bounded model checking approach for ACTL properties from the bounded semantics of CTL is demonstrated, and a comparison of such an approach with BDD-based model checking is presented based on experimental results.

  20. Modelling and Analysis of Smart Grid: A Stochastic Model Checking Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Zhu, Huibiao; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2012-01-01

    Cyber-physical systems integrate information and communication technology functions to the physical elements of a system for monitoring and controlling purposes. The conversion of traditional power grid into a smart grid, a fundamental example of a cyber-physical system, raises a number of issues...... consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using PRISM model checker....

  1. Cryptography In The Bounded Quantum-Storage Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Salvail, Louis; Schaffner, Christian

    2005-01-01

    , whereas an adversarial player needs quantum memory of size at least n/2 in order to break the protocol, where n is the number of qubits transmitted. This is in sharp contrast to the classical bounded- memory model, where we can only tolerate adversaries with memory of size quadratic in honest players......We initiate the study of two-party cryptographic primitives with unconditional security, assuming that the adversary's quantum memory is of bounded size. We show that oblivious transfer and bit commitment can be implemented in this model using protocols where honest parties need no quantum memory...

  2. Cryptography in the Bounded Quantum-Storage Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Serge, Fehr; Schaffner, Christian

    2008-01-01

    , whereas an adversarial player needs quantum memory of size at least $n/2$ in order to break the protocol, where $n$ is the number of qubits transmitted. This is in sharp contrast to the classical bounded-memory model, where we can only tolerate adversaries with memory of size quadratic in honest players......We initiate the study of two-party cryptographic primitives with unconditional security, assuming that the adversary's quantum memory is of bounded size. We show that oblivious transfer and bit commitment can be implemented in this model using protocols where honest parties need no quantum memory...

  3. Model checking process algebra of communicating resources for real-time systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudjadar, Jalil; Kim, Jin Hyun; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2014-01-01

    preserves the original semantics of PACoR and enables the verification of PACoR systems using symbolic model checking in Uppaal and statistical model checking UppaalSMC. Finally we provide an example to illustrate system specification in PACoR, translation and verification....

  4. A Quantum Computing Approach to Model Checking for Advanced Manufacturing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This project studied the feasibility of integrating the capabilities of the D-Wave adiabatic quantum annealing processor into a Model Checking (MC...imposed by the limited connectivity of the processor, performed a set of benchmarking tests of the device, and implemented a proof of concept example that integrated the quantum processor with regular model checking techniques.

  5. WCET Analysis of ARM Processors using Real-Time Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Martin; Olesen, Mads Christian; Dalsgaard, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible method that utilises real-time model checking to determine safe and sharp WCETs for processes running on hardware platforms featuring pipelining and caching.......This paper presents a flexible method that utilises real-time model checking to determine safe and sharp WCETs for processes running on hardware platforms featuring pipelining and caching....

  6. Explicit State Model Checking with Generalized Büchi and Rabin Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, Vincent; Duret-Lutz, Alexandre; Pol, Jaco van de

    In the automata theoretic approach to explicit state LTL model checking, the synchronized product of the model and an automaton that represents the negated formula is checked for emptiness. In practice, a (transition-based generalized) Büchi automaton (TGBA) is used for this procedure. This paper

  7. PVeStA: A Parallel Statistical Model Checking and Quantitative Analysis Tool

    KAUST Repository

    AlTurki, Musab

    2011-01-01

    Statistical model checking is an attractive formal analysis method for probabilistic systems such as, for example, cyber-physical systems which are often probabilistic in nature. This paper is about drastically increasing the scalability of statistical model checking, and making such scalability of analysis available to tools like Maude, where probabilistic systems can be specified at a high level as probabilistic rewrite theories. It presents PVeStA, an extension and parallelization of the VeStA statistical model checking tool [10]. PVeStA supports statistical model checking of probabilistic real-time systems specified as either: (i) discrete or continuous Markov Chains; or (ii) probabilistic rewrite theories in Maude. Furthermore, the properties that it can model check can be expressed in either: (i) PCTL/CSL, or (ii) the QuaTEx quantitative temporal logic. As our experiments show, the performance gains obtained from parallelization can be very high. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  8. Stieltjes electrostatic model interpretation for bound state problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, it is shown that Stieltjes electrostatic model and quantum Hamilton Jacobi formalism are analogous to each other. This analogy allows the bound state problem to mimic as unit moving imaginary charges i ℏ , which are placed in between the two fixed imaginary charges arising due to the classical turning ...

  9. Cryptography in the Bounded Quantum-Storage Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.B. Damgård (Ivan); S. Fehr (Serge); L. Salvail (Louis); C. Schaffner (Christian)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractWe initiate the study of two-party cryptographic primitives with unconditional security, assuming that the adversary’s quantum memory is of bounded size. We show that oblivious transfer and bit commitment can be implemented in this model using protocols where honest parties need no

  10. Cryptography in the Bounded Quantum-Storage Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.B. Damgård (Ivan); S. Fehr (Serge); L. Salvail (Louis); C. Schaffner (Christian)

    2005-01-01

    htmlabstractWe initiate the study of two-party cryptographic primitives with unconditional security, assuming that the adversary’s quantum memory is of bounded size. We show that oblivious transfer and bit commitment can be implemented in this model using protocols where honest parties need no

  11. Vulnerable Derivatives and Good Deal Bounds: A Structural Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murgoci, Agatha

    2013-01-01

    We price vulnerable derivatives -- i.e. derivatives where the counterparty may default. These are basically the derivatives traded on the over-the-counter (OTC) markets. Default is modeled in a structural framework. The technique employed for pricing is good deal bounds (GDBs). The method imposes...

  12. Composable Security in the Bounded-Quantum-Storage Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.D.C. Wehner (Stephanie); J. Wullschleger

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractWe give a new, simulation-based, definition for security in the bounded-quantum-storage model, and show that this definition allows for sequential composition of protocols. Damgård et al. (FOCS ’05, CRYPTO ’07) showed how to securely implement bit commitment and oblivious transfer in the

  13. Composable security in the bounded-quantum-storage model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.D.C. Wehner (Stephanie); J. Wullschleger

    2007-01-01

    htmlabstractWe present a simplified framework for proving sequential composability in the quantum setting. In particular, we give a new, simulation-based, definition for security in the bounded-quantum-storage model, and show that this definition allows for sequential composition of protocols.

  14. Bounds on collapse models from cold-atom experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilardello, Marco; Donadi, Sandro; Vinante, Andrea; Bassi, Angelo

    2016-11-01

    The spontaneous localization mechanism of collapse models induces a Brownian motion in all physical systems. This effect is very weak, but experimental progress in creating ultracold atomic systems can be used to detect it. In this paper, we considered a recent experiment (Kovachy et al., 2015), where an atomic ensemble was cooled down to picokelvins. Any Brownian motion induces an extra increase of the position variance of the gas. We study this effect by solving the dynamical equations for the Continuous Spontaneous Localizations (CSL) model, as well as for its non-Markovian and dissipative extensions. The resulting bounds, with a 95 % of confidence level, are beaten only by measurements of spontaneous X-ray emission and by experiments with cantilever (in the latter case, only for rC ≥ 10-7 m, where rC is one of the two collapse parameters of the CSL model). We show that, contrary to the bounds given by X-ray measurements, non-Markovian effects do not change the bounds, for any reasonable choice of a frequency cutoff in the spectrum of the collapse noise. Therefore the bounds here considered are more robust. We also show that dissipative effects are unimportant for a large spectrum of temperatures of the noise, while for low temperatures the excluded region in the parameter space is the more reduced, the lower the temperature.

  15. An integrated framework for checking the behaviour of fUML models using CSP

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelhalim, I; Schneider, SA; Treharne, H.

    2013-01-01

    Transforming Unified Modelling Language (UML) models into a formal representation to check certain properties has been addressed many times in the literature. However, the lack of automatic formalization for executable UML models and provision of model checking results as modeller-friendly feedback has inhibited the practical use of such approaches in real life projects. In this paper, we address those issues by performing the automatic formalization of the Foundational subset for executable ...

  16. Key management and encryption under the bounded storage model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draelos, Timothy John; Neumann, William Douglas; Lanzone, Andrew J.; Anderson, William Erik

    2005-11-01

    There are several engineering obstacles that need to be solved before key management and encryption under the bounded storage model can be realized. One of the critical obstacles hindering its adoption is the construction of a scheme that achieves reliable communication in the event that timing synchronization errors occur. One of the main accomplishments of this project was the development of a new scheme that solves this problem. We show in general that there exist message encoding techniques under the bounded storage model that provide an arbitrarily small probability of transmission error. We compute the maximum capacity of this channel using the unsynchronized key-expansion as side-channel information at the decoder and provide tight lower bounds for a particular class of key-expansion functions that are pseudo-invariant to timing errors. Using our results in combination with Dziembowski et al. [11] encryption scheme we can construct a scheme that solves the timing synchronization error problem. In addition to this work we conducted a detailed case study of current and future storage technologies. We analyzed the cost, capacity, and storage data rate of various technologies, so that precise security parameters can be developed for bounded storage encryption schemes. This will provide an invaluable tool for developing these schemes in practice.

  17. An overview of existing modeling tools making use of model checking in the analysis of biochemical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Miguel; Góngora, Pedro A; Rosenblueth, David A

    2012-01-01

    Model checking is a well-established technique for automatically verifying complex systems. Recently, model checkers have appeared in computer tools for the analysis of biochemical (and gene regulatory) networks. We survey several such tools to assess the potential of model checking in computational biology. Next, our overview focuses on direct applications of existing model checkers, as well as on algorithms for biochemical network analysis influenced by model checking, such as those using binary decision diagrams (BDDs) or Boolean-satisfiability solvers. We conclude with advantages and drawbacks of model checking for the analysis of biochemical networks.

  18. Family-Based Model Checking Without a Family-Based Model Checker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimovski, Aleksandar; Al-Sibahi, Ahmad Salim; Brabrand, Claus

    2015-01-01

    with all its accumulated optimizations for efficient verification of variational models without any knowledge about variability. We demonstrate the practicality of this method on several examples using both the SNIP (family based) and SPIN (single system) model checkers....... (systems with variability), specialized family-based model checking algorithms allow efficient verification of multiple variants, simultaneously. These algorithms scale much better than ``brute force'' verification of individual systems, one-by-one. Nevertheless, they can deal with only very small...... variational models. We address two key problems of family-based model checking. First, we improve scalability by introducing abstractions that simplify variability. Second, we reduce the burden of maintaining specialized family-based model checkers, by showing how the presented variability abstractions can...

  19. Thermodynamic models for bounding pressurant mass requirements of cryogenic tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandresar, Neil T.; Haberbusch, Mark S.

    1994-01-01

    Thermodynamic models have been formulated to predict lower and upper bounds for the mass of pressurant gas required to pressurize a cryogenic tank and then expel liquid from the tank. Limiting conditions are based on either thermal equilibrium or zero energy exchange between the pressurant gas and initial tank contents. The models are independent of gravity level and allow specification of autogenous or non-condensible pressurants. Partial liquid fill levels may be specified for initial and final conditions. Model predictions are shown to successfully bound results from limited normal-gravity tests with condensable and non-condensable pressurant gases. Representative maximum collapse factor maps are presented for liquid hydrogen to show the effects of initial and final fill level on the range of pressurant gas requirements. Maximum collapse factors occur for partial expulsions with large final liquid fill fractions.

  20. Quantitative modelling and analysis of a Chinese smart grid: a stochastic model checking case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    that require novel methods and applications. One of the important issues in this context is the verification of certain quantitative properties of the system. In this paper, we consider a specific Chinese smart grid implementation as a case study and address the verification problem for performance and energy...... consumption.We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using PRISM model checker....

  1. Applying Infinite State Model Checking and Other Analysis Techniques to Tabular Requirements Specifications of Safety-Critical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Although it is most often applied to finite state models, in recent years, symbolic model checking has been extended to infinite state models using...toolset. Based on the experimental results, strengths and weaknesses of infinite state model checking with respect to other formal analysis...approaches such as explicit and finite state model checking and theorem proving are discussed.

  2. Practical Formal Verification of Diagnosability of Large Models via Symbolic Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavada, Roberto; Pecheur, Charles

    2003-01-01

    This document reports on the activities carried out during a four-week visit of Roberto Cavada at the NASA Ames Research Center. The main goal was to test the practical applicability of the framework proposed, where a diagnosability problem is reduced to a Symbolic Model Checking problem. Section 2 contains a brief explanation of major techniques currently used in Symbolic Model Checking, and how these techniques can be tuned in order to obtain good performances when using Model Checking tools. Diagnosability is performed on large and structured models of real plants. Section 3 describes how these plants are modeled, and how models can be simplified to improve the performance of Symbolic Model Checkers. Section 4 reports scalability results. Three test cases are briefly presented, and several parameters and techniques have been applied on those test cases in order to produce comparison tables. Furthermore, comparison between several Model Checkers is reported. Section 5 summarizes the application of diagnosability verification to a real application. Several properties have been tested, and results have been highlighted. Finally, section 6 draws some conclusions, and outlines future lines of research.

  3. Checking the new IRI model The bottomside B parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Mosert, M; Ezquer, R; Lazo, B; Miro, G

    2002-01-01

    Electron density profiles obtained at Pruhonice (50.0, 15.0), El Arenosillo (37.1, 353.2) and Havana (23, 278) were used to check the bottom-side B parameters BO (thickness parameter) and B1 (shape parameter) predicted by the new IRI - 2000 version. The electron density profiles were derived from ionograms using the ARP technique. The data base includes daytime and nighttime ionograms recorded under different seasonal and solar activity conditions. Comparisons with IRI predictions were also done. The analysis shows that: a) The parameter B1 given by IRI 2000 reproduces better the observed ARP values than the IRI-90 version and b) The observed BO values are in general well reproduced by both IRI versions: IRI-90 and IRI-2000.

  4. LHCb: Analysing DIRAC's Behavior using Model Checking with Process Algebra

    CERN Multimedia

    Remenska, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    DIRAC is the Grid solution designed to support LHCb production activities as well as user data analysis. Based on a service-oriented architecture, DIRAC consists of many cooperating distributed services and agents delivering the workload to the Grid resources. Services accept requests from agents and running jobs, while agents run as light-weight components, fulfilling specific goals. Services maintain database back-ends to store dynamic state information of entities such as jobs, queues, staging requests, etc. Agents use polling to check for changes in the service states, and react to these accordingly. A characteristic of DIRAC's architecture is the relatively low complexity in the logic of each agent; the main source of complexity lies in their cooperation. These agents run concurrently, and communicate using the services' databases as a shared memory for synchronizing the state transitions. Although much effort is invested in making DIRAC reliable, entities occasionally get into inconsistent states, leadi...

  5. Model checking of time Petri nets using the state class timed automaton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lime, Didier; Roux, Olivier H.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method for building the state class graph of a bounded time Petri net (TPN) as a timed automaton (TA), which we call the state class timed automaton. We consider bounded TPN, whose underlying net is not necessarily bounded. We prove that our translation preserves the b...... experimental results illustrating the efficiency of the translation algorithm in terms of number of clocks. Using the state class TA, we also give a framework for expressing and efficiently verifying TCTL properties on the initial TPN.......In this paper, we propose a method for building the state class graph of a bounded time Petri net (TPN) as a timed automaton (TA), which we call the state class timed automaton. We consider bounded TPN, whose underlying net is not necessarily bounded. We prove that our translation preserves...... the behavioral semantics of the TPN (the initial TPN and the obtained TA are proved timed-bisimilar). It allows us to check real-time properties on TPN by using the state class TA. This can be done efficiently thanks to a reduction of the number of clocks. We have implemented the method, and give some...

  6. P2-16: Dual-Bound Model and the Role of Time Bound in Perceptual Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daeseob Lim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The diffusion model (DM encapsulates the dynamics of perceptual decision within a ‘diffusion field’ that is defined by a basis with sensory-evidence (SE and time vectors. At the core of the DM, it assumes that a decision is not made until an evidence particle drifts in the diffusion field and eventually hits one of the two pre-fixed bounds defined in the SE axis. This assumption dictates when and which choice is made by referring to when and which bound will be hit by the evidence particle. What if urgency pressures the decision system to make a choice even when the evidence particle has yet hit the SE bound? Previous modeling attempts at coping with time pressure, despite differences in detail, all manipulated the coordinate of SE bounds. Here, we offer a novel solution by adopting another bound on the time axis. This ‘dual-bound’ model (DBM posits that decisions can also be made when the evidence particle hits a time bound, which is determined on a trial-by-trial basis by a ‘perceived time interval’ – how long the system can stay in the ‘diffusion’ field. The classic single-bound model (SBM exhibited systematic errors in predicting both the reaction time distributions and the time-varying bias in choice. Those errors were not corrected by previously proposed variants of the SBM until the time bound was introduced. The validity of the DBM was further supported by the strong across-individual correlation between observed precision of interval timing and the predicted trial-by-trial variability of the time bound.

  7. Validation of mission critical software design and implementation using model checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingree, P. J.; Mikk, E.; Holzmann, G.; Smith, M.; Dams, D.

    2002-01-01

    Model Checking conducts an exhaustive exploration of all possible behaviors of a software system design and as such can be used to detect defects in designs that are typically difficult to discover with conventional testing approaches.

  8. Efficient Symmetry Reduction and the Use of State Symmetries for Symbolic Model Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Appold

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available One technique to reduce the state-space explosion problem in temporal logic model checking is symmetry reduction. The combination of symmetry reduction and symbolic model checking by using BDDs suffered a long time from the prohibitively large BDD for the orbit relation. Dynamic symmetry reduction calculates representatives of equivalence classes of states dynamically and thus avoids the construction of the orbit relation. In this paper, we present a new efficient model checking algorithm based on dynamic symmetry reduction. Our experiments show that the algorithm is very fast and allows the verification of larger systems. We additionally implemented the use of state symmetries for symbolic symmetry reduction. To our knowledge we are the first who investigated state symmetries in combination with BDD based symbolic model checking.

  9. Abstraction and Counterexample-Guided Refinement in Model Checking of Hybrid Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Edmund; Fehnker, Ansgar; Han, Zhi; Krogh, Bruce; Ouaknine, Joel; Stursberg, Olaf; Theobald, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid dynamic systems include both continuous and discrete state variables. Properties of hybrid systems, which have an infinite state space, can often be verified using ordinary model checking together with a finite-state abstraction...

  10. Model-Checking of Component-Based Event-Driven Real-Time Embedded Software

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gu, Zonghua; Shin, Kang G

    2005-01-01

    .... We discuss application of model-checking to verify system-level concurrency properties of component-based real-time embedded software based on CORBA Event Service, using Avionics Mission Computing...

  11. Deterministic Compilation of Temporal Safety Properties in Explicit State Model Checking

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The translation of temporal logic specifications constitutes an essen- tial step in model checking and a major influence on the efficiency of formal verification via...

  12. Verification of Compartmental Epidemiological Models using Metamorphic Testing, Model Checking and Visual Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanathan, Arvind [ORNL; Steed, Chad A [ORNL; Pullum, Laura L [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Compartmental models in epidemiology are widely used as a means to model disease spread mechanisms and understand how one can best control the disease in case an outbreak of a widespread epidemic occurs. However, a significant challenge within the community is in the development of approaches that can be used to rigorously verify and validate these models. In this paper, we present an approach to rigorously examine and verify the behavioral properties of compartmen- tal epidemiological models under several common modeling scenarios including birth/death rates and multi-host/pathogen species. Using metamorphic testing, a novel visualization tool and model checking, we build a workflow that provides insights into the functionality of compartmental epidemiological models. Our initial results indicate that metamorphic testing can be used to verify the implementation of these models and provide insights into special conditions where these mathematical models may fail. The visualization front-end allows the end-user to scan through a variety of parameters commonly used in these models to elucidate the conditions under which an epidemic can occur. Further, specifying these models using a process algebra allows one to automatically construct behavioral properties that can be rigorously verified using model checking. Taken together, our approach allows for detecting implementation errors as well as handling conditions under which compartmental epidemiological models may fail to provide insights into disease spread dynamics.

  13. Towards Symbolic Model Checking for Multi-Agent Systems via OBDDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Franco; Lomunscio, Alessio

    2004-01-01

    We present an algorithm for model checking temporal-epistemic properties of multi-agent systems, expressed in the formalism of interpreted systems. We first introduce a technique for the translation of interpreted systems into boolean formulae, and then present a model-checking algorithm based on this translation. The algorithm is based on OBDD's, as they offer a compact and efficient representation for boolean formulae.

  14. Phase Two Feasibility Study for Software Safety Requirements Analysis Using Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeon, Gregory; Price, Petra

    2010-01-01

    A feasibility study was performed on a representative aerospace system to determine the following: (1) the benefits and limitations to using SCADE , a commercially available tool for model checking, in comparison to using a proprietary tool that was studied previously [1] and (2) metrics for performing the model checking and for assessing the findings. This study was performed independently of the development task by a group unfamiliar with the system, providing a fresh, external perspective free from development bias.

  15. Security analysis of multi-party quantum private comparison protocol by model checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Yang, Guowu; Hao, Yujie; Luo, Qingbin; Wang, Yuqi

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents an analysis method for quantum information protocols based on model checking, with special focus on the quantum privacy comparison (QPC). The security properties of these protocols can be proved but in ways with much difficulty. Here we will discuss a probabilistic model checking tool — PRISM to verify specific properties of QPC protocol with multi-body and PRISM to verify specific properties of quantum private comparison (QPC) protocol with multi-party and d-dimensional entangled states.

  16. Probability bounds analysis for nonlinear population ecology models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enszer, Joshua A; Andrei Măceș, D; Stadtherr, Mark A

    2015-09-01

    Mathematical models in population ecology often involve parameters that are empirically determined and inherently uncertain, with probability distributions for the uncertainties not known precisely. Propagating such imprecise uncertainties rigorously through a model to determine their effect on model outputs can be a challenging problem. We illustrate here a method for the direct propagation of uncertainties represented by probability bounds though nonlinear, continuous-time, dynamic models in population ecology. This makes it possible to determine rigorous bounds on the probability that some specified outcome for a population is achieved, which can be a core problem in ecosystem modeling for risk assessment and management. Results can be obtained at a computational cost that is considerably less than that required by statistical sampling methods such as Monte Carlo analysis. The method is demonstrated using three example systems, with focus on a model of an experimental aquatic food web subject to the effects of contamination by ionic liquids, a new class of potentially important industrial chemicals. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Multiple imputation for model checking: completed-data plots with missing and latent data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Andrew; Van Mechelen, Iven; Verbeke, Geert; Heitjan, Daniel F; Meulders, Michel

    2005-03-01

    In problems with missing or latent data, a standard approach is to first impute the unobserved data, then perform all statistical analyses on the completed dataset--corresponding to the observed data and imputed unobserved data--using standard procedures for complete-data inference. Here, we extend this approach to model checking by demonstrating the advantages of the use of completed-data model diagnostics on imputed completed datasets. The approach is set in the theoretical framework of Bayesian posterior predictive checks (but, as with missing-data imputation, our methods of missing-data model checking can also be interpreted as "predictive inference" in a non-Bayesian context). We consider the graphical diagnostics within this framework. Advantages of the completed-data approach include: (1) One can often check model fit in terms of quantities that are of key substantive interest in a natural way, which is not always possible using observed data alone. (2) In problems with missing data, checks may be devised that do not require to model the missingness or inclusion mechanism; the latter is useful for the analysis of ignorable but unknown data collection mechanisms, such as are often assumed in the analysis of sample surveys and observational studies. (3) In many problems with latent data, it is possible to check qualitative features of the model (for example, independence of two variables) that can be naturally formalized with the help of the latent data. We illustrate with several applied examples.

  18. Model checking methodology for large systems, faults and asynchronous behaviour. SARANA 2011 work report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Launiainen, T.; Heljanko, K.; Ropponen, J. [Aalto Univ., Espoo (Finland). Dept. of Information and Computer Science

    2012-07-01

    Digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems are challenging to verify. They enable complicated control functions, and the state spaces of the models easily become too large for comprehensive verification through traditional methods. Model checking is a formal method that can be used for system verification. A number of efficient model checking systems are available that provide analysis tools to determine automatically whether a given state machine model satisfies the desired safety properties. This report reviews the work performed in the Safety Evaluation and Reliability Analysis of Nuclear Automation (SARANA) project in 2011 regarding model checking. We have developed new, more exact modelling methods that are able to capture the behaviour of a system more realistically. In particular, we have developed more detailed fault models depicting the hardware configuration of a system, and methodology to model function-block-based systems asynchronously. In order to improve the usability of our model checking methods, we have developed an algorithm for model checking large modular systems. The algorithm can be used to verify properties of a model that could otherwise not be verified in a straightforward manner. (orig.)

  19. Leader's opinion priority bounded confidence model for network opinion evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Meixia; Xie, Guangqiang

    2017-08-01

    Aiming at the weight of trust someone given to participate in the interaction in Hegselmann-Krause's type consensus model is the same and virtual social networks among individuals with different level of education, personal influence, etc. For differences between agents, a novelty bounded confidence model was proposed with leader's opinion considered priority. Interaction neighbors can be divided into two kinds. The first kind is made up of "opinion leaders" group, another kind is made up of ordinary people. For different groups to give different weights of trust. We also analyzed the related characteristics of the new model under the symmetrical bounded confidence parameters and combined with the classical HK model were analyzed. Simulation experiment results show that no matter the network size and initial view is subject to uniform distribution or discrete distribution. We can control the "opinion-leader" good change the number of views and values, and even improve the convergence speed. Experiment also found that the choice of "opinion leaders" is not the more the better, the model well explain how the "opinion leader" in the process of the evolution of the public opinion play the role of the leader.

  20. On Diagnostic Checking of Vector ARMA-GARCH Models with Gaussian and Student-t Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongning Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the diagnostic checking of vector ARMA (VARMA models with multivariate GARCH errors. For a fitted VARMA-GARCH model with Gaussian or Student-t innovations, we derive the asymptotic distributions of autocorrelation matrices of the cross-product vector of standardized residuals. This is different from the traditional approach that employs only the squared series of standardized residuals. We then study two portmanteau statistics, called Q1(M and Q2(M, for model checking. A residual-based bootstrap method is provided and demonstrated as an effective way to approximate the diagnostic checking statistics. Simulations are used to compare the performance of the proposed statistics with other methods available in the literature. In addition, we also investigate the effect of GARCH shocks on checking a fitted VARMA model. Empirical sizes and powers of the proposed statistics are investigated and the results suggest a procedure of using jointly Q1(M and Q2(M in diagnostic checking. The bivariate time series of FTSE 100 and DAX index returns is used to illustrate the performance of the proposed portmanteau statistics. The results show that it is important to consider the cross-product series of standardized residuals and GARCH effects in model checking.

  1. Kumaraswamy autoregressive moving average models for double bounded environmental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Fábio Mariano; Bayer, Débora Missio; Pumi, Guilherme

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we introduce the Kumaraswamy autoregressive moving average models (KARMA), which is a dynamic class of models for time series taking values in the double bounded interval (a,b) following the Kumaraswamy distribution. The Kumaraswamy family of distribution is widely applied in many areas, especially hydrology and related fields. Classical examples are time series representing rates and proportions observed over time. In the proposed KARMA model, the median is modeled by a dynamic structure containing autoregressive and moving average terms, time-varying regressors, unknown parameters and a link function. We introduce the new class of models and discuss conditional maximum likelihood estimation, hypothesis testing inference, diagnostic analysis and forecasting. In particular, we provide closed-form expressions for the conditional score vector and conditional Fisher information matrix. An application to environmental real data is presented and discussed.

  2. Assessing fit of alternative unidimensional polytomous IRT models using posterior predictive model checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tongyun; Xie, Chao; Jiao, Hong

    2017-06-01

    This article explored the application of the posterior predictive model checking (PPMC) method in assessing fit for unidimensional polytomous item response theory (IRT) models, specifically the divide-by-total models (e.g., the generalized partial credit model). Previous research has primarily focused on using PPMC in model checking for unidimensional and multidimensional IRT models for dichotomous data, and has paid little attention to polytomous models. A Monte Carlo simulation was conducted to investigate the performance of PPMC in detecting different sources of misfit for the partial credit model family. Results showed that the PPMC method, in combination with appropriate discrepancy measures, had adequate power in detecting different sources of misfit for the partial credit model family. Global odds ratio and item total correlation exhibited specific patterns in detecting the absence of the slope parameter, whereas Yen's Q1 was found to be promising in the detection of misfit caused by the constant category intersection parameter constraint across items. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. modelling of queuing process at airport check-in system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    models in queue studies. The study adopted travel demand data for Manchester and Leeds-Bradford airports from the United Kingdom. Civil Aviation Authority database. 1.2 Analytical Models for Queuing Studies. Previous researchers have examined queuing process extensively and developed analytical models used for.

  4. Posterior Predictive Model Checking for Conjunctive Multidimensionality in Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Roy

    2011-01-01

    If data exhibit multidimensionality, key conditional independence assumptions of unidimensional models do not hold. The current work pursues posterior predictive model checking (PPMC) as a tool for criticizing models due to unaccounted for dimensions in data structures that follow conjunctive multidimensional models. These pursuits are couched in…

  5. An interval-valued reliability model with bounded failure rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozine, Igor; Krymsky, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The approach to deriving interval-valued reliability measures described in this paper is distinctive from other imprecise reliability models in that it overcomes the issue of having to impose an upper bound on time to failure. It rests on the presupposition that a constant interval-valued failure...... rate is known possibly along with other reliability measures, precise or imprecise. The Lagrange method is used to solve the constrained optimization problem to derive new reliability measures of interest. The obtained results call for an exponential-wise approximation of failure probability density...... function if only partial failure information is available. An example is provided. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC....

  6. Parameter discovery in stochastic biological models using simulated annealing and statistical model checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Faraz; Jha, Sumit K; Jha, Susmit; Langmead, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Stochastic models are increasingly used to study the behaviour of biochemical systems. While the structure of such models is often readily available from first principles, unknown quantitative features of the model are incorporated into the model as parameters. Algorithmic discovery of parameter values from experimentally observed facts remains a challenge for the computational systems biology community. We present a new parameter discovery algorithm that uses simulated annealing, sequential hypothesis testing, and statistical model checking to learn the parameters in a stochastic model. We apply our technique to a model of glucose and insulin metabolism used for in-silico validation of artificial pancreata and demonstrate its effectiveness by developing parallel CUDA-based implementation for parameter synthesis in this model.

  7. Minimal Z' models present bounds and early LHC reach

    CERN Document Server

    Salvioni, Ennio; Zwirner, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    We consider `minimal' Z' models, whose phenomenology is controlled by only three parameters beyond the Standard Model ones: the Z' mass and two effective coupling constants. They encompass many popular models motivated by grand unification, as well as many arising in other theoretical contexts. This parameterization takes also into account both mass and kinetic mixing effects, which we show to be sizable in some cases. After discussing the interplay between the bounds from electroweak precision tests and recent direct searches at the Tevatron, we extend our analysis to estimate the early LHC discovery potential. We consider a center-of-mass energy from 7 towards 10 TeV and an integrated luminosity from 50 to several hundred pb^-1, taking all existing bounds into account. We find that the LHC will start exploring virgin land in parameter space for M_Z' around 700 GeV, with lower masses still excluded by the Tevatron and higher masses still excluded by electroweak precision tests. Increasing the energy up to 10...

  8. Model-Checking Real-Time Control Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, T. K.; Kristoffersen, K. J.; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2000-01-01

    of UPPAAL. The fixed scheduling algorithm used by the LEGO(R) RCX(TM) processor is modeled in UPPALL, and supply of similar (sufficient) timed automata models for the environment allows analysis of the overall real-time system using the tools of UPPALL. To illustrate our technique for sorting LEGO(R) bricks...

  9. Closing open SDL-systems for model checking with DTSpin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Ioustinova (Natalia); N. Sidorova; M. Steffen

    2002-01-01

    textabstractModel checkers like Spin can handle closed reactive systems, only. Thus to handle open systems, in particular when using assume-guarantee reasoning, we need to be able to close (sub-)systems, which is commonly done by adding an environment process. For models with asynchronous

  10. PKreport: report generation for checking population pharmacokinetic model assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoyong; Li, Jun

    2011-05-16

    Graphics play an important and unique role in population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) model building by exploring hidden structure among data before modeling, evaluating model fit, and validating results after modeling. The work described in this paper is about a new R package called PKreport, which is able to generate a collection of plots and statistics for testing model assumptions, visualizing data and diagnosing models. The metric system is utilized as the currency for communicating between data sets and the package to generate special-purpose plots. It provides ways to match output from diverse software such as NONMEM, Monolix, R nlme package, etc. The package is implemented with S4 class hierarchy, and offers an efficient way to access the output from NONMEM 7. The final reports take advantage of the web browser as user interface to manage and visualize plots. PKreport provides 1) a flexible and efficient R class to store and retrieve NONMEM 7 output, 2) automate plots for users to visualize data and models, 3) automatically generated R scripts that are used to create the plots; 4) an archive-oriented management tool for users to store, retrieve and modify figures, 5) high-quality graphs based on the R packages, lattice and ggplot2. The general architecture, running environment and statistical methods can be readily extended with R class hierarchy. PKreport is free to download at http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/PKreport/index.html.

  11. PKreport: report generation for checking population pharmacokinetic model assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jun

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Graphics play an important and unique role in population pharmacokinetic (PopPK model building by exploring hidden structure among data before modeling, evaluating model fit, and validating results after modeling. Results The work described in this paper is about a new R package called PKreport, which is able to generate a collection of plots and statistics for testing model assumptions, visualizing data and diagnosing models. The metric system is utilized as the currency for communicating between data sets and the package to generate special-purpose plots. It provides ways to match output from diverse software such as NONMEM, Monolix, R nlme package, etc. The package is implemented with S4 class hierarchy, and offers an efficient way to access the output from NONMEM 7. The final reports take advantage of the web browser as user interface to manage and visualize plots. Conclusions PKreport provides 1 a flexible and efficient R class to store and retrieve NONMEM 7 output, 2 automate plots for users to visualize data and models, 3 automatically generated R scripts that are used to create the plots; 4 an archive-oriented management tool for users to store, retrieve and modify figures, 5 high-quality graphs based on the R packages, lattice and ggplot2. The general architecture, running environment and statistical methods can be readily extended with R class hierarchy. PKreport is free to download at http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/PKreport/index.html.

  12. Performance evaluation:= (process algebra + model checking) x Markov chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermanns, H.; Larsen, K.G.; Nielsen, Mogens; Katoen, Joost P.

    2001-01-01

    Markov chains are widely used in practice to determine system performance and reliability characteristics. The vast majority of applications considers continuous-time Markov chains (CTMCs). This tutorial paper shows how successful model specification and analysis techniques from concurrency theory

  13. Modelling of queuing process at airport check-in system: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study built a Simulation Model (SM) using SimEvents toolbox in MATLAB for implementing Analytical Models (AM) of queuing process at airport check - in system. Air travel demand data for Manchester and Leeds - Bradford airports in 2014 were adopted for validation of the model. There was no statistical differenc e ...

  14. Practical Application of Model Checking in Software Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Skakkebaek, Jens Ulrik

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents our experiences in applying the JAVA PATHFINDER (J(sub PF)), a recently developed JAVA to SPIN translator, in the finding of synchronization bugs in a Chinese Chess game server application written in JAVA. We give an overview of J(sub PF) and the subset of JAVA that it supports and describe the abstraction and verification of the game server. Finally, we analyze the results of the effort. We argue that abstraction by under-approximation is necessary for abstracting sufficiently smaller models for verification purposes; that user guidance is crucial for effective abstraction; and that current model checkers do not conveniently support the computational models of software in general and JAVA in particular.

  15. Hypersonic: Model Analysis and Checking in the Cloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acretoaie, Vlad; Störrle, Harald

    2014-01-01

    ”. Objective: In this paper we investigate the conceptual and technical feasibility of a new software architecture for modeling tools, where certain advanced features are factored out of the client and moved towards the Cloud. With this approach we plan to address the above mentioned drawbacks of existing...

  16. Application of Model-Checking Technology to Controller Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Grunnet, Jacob Deleuran; Jessen, Jan Jacob

    2011-01-01

    its continuous environment, which is modelled and taken care of in our frameworks. Our first technique does it by using Matlab to discretise the problem and then Uppaal-tiga to solve the obtained timed game. This is implemented as a toolbox. The second technique relies on the user defining a timed...

  17. Dynamic Delayed Duplicate Detection for External Memory Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evangelista, Sami

    2008-01-01

    Duplicate detection is an expensive operation of disk-based model checkers. It consists of comparing some potentially new states, the candidate states, to previous visited states. We propose a new approach to this technique called dynamic delayed duplicate detection. This one exploits some typica...

  18. Model-Checking Driven Design of QoS-Based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and reliable routing protocols with Quality of Service (QoS support determine the mission-critical application efficiency in WSNs. This paper proposes a model-checking design driven framework for designing the QoS-based routing protocols of WSNs, which involves the light-weight design process, the timed automata model, and the alternative QoS verification properties. The accurate feedback of continually model checking in the iterative design process effectively stimulates the parameter tuning of the protocols. We demonstrate the straightforward and modular characteristics of the proposed framework in designing a prototype QoS-based routing protocol. The prototype study shows that the model-checking design framework may complement other design methods and ensure the QoS implementation of the QoS-based routing protocol design for WSNs.

  19. UML Statechart Fault Tree Generation By Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Luke Thomas; Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

    Creating fault tolerant and efficient process work-flows poses a significant challenge. Individual faults, defined as an abnormal conditions or defects in a component, equipment, or sub-process, must be handled so that the system may continue to operate, and are typically addressed by implementing...... trees are typically manually constructed and determining the probabilities of faults occurring in systems which exhibit stochastic behaviour in the course of their correct execution is difficult, time-consuming and error prone. Typically a FTA is based on an informal descrip-tion of the underlying...... probability of occurrence. Our method can determine the proba-bility of combined faults occurring, while accounting for the basic probabilistic structure of the system be-ing modelled. From these calculations, a comprehen-sive fault tree is generated. Further, we show that annotating the model with rewards...

  20. Model Checking Failed Conjectures in Theorem Proving: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Lee; Miner, Paul; Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2004-01-01

    Interactive mechanical theorem proving can provide high assurance of correct design, but it can also be a slow iterative process. Much time is spent determining why a proof of a conjecture is not forthcoming. In some cases, the conjecture is false and in others, the attempted proof is insufficient. In this case study, we use the SAL family of model checkers to generate a concrete counterexample to an unproven conjecture specified in the mechanical theorem prover, PVS. The focus of our case study is the ROBUS Interactive Consistency Protocol. We combine the use of a mechanical theorem prover and a model checker to expose a subtle flaw in the protocol that occurs under a particular scenario of faults and processor states. Uncovering the flaw allows us to mend the protocol and complete its general verification in PVS.

  1. Using Runtime Analysis to Guide Model Checking of Java Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes how two runtime analysis algorithms, an existing data race detection algorithm and a new deadlock detection algorithm, have been implemented to analyze Java programs. Runtime analysis is based on the idea of executing the program once. and observing the generated run to extract various kinds of information. This information can then be used to predict whether other different runs may violate some properties of interest, in addition of course to demonstrate whether the generated run itself violates such properties. These runtime analyses can be performed stand-alone to generate a set of warnings. It is furthermore demonstrated how these warnings can be used to guide a model checker, thereby reducing the search space. The described techniques have been implemented in the b e grown Java model checker called PathFinder.

  2. Using Model Checking for Analyzing Distributed Power Control Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brihaye, Thomas; Jungers, Marc; Lasaulce, Samson

    2010-01-01

    wanted to know whether this approach can be applied to distributed PC. It turns out that it can be applied successfully and allows one to analyze realistic scenarios including the case of discrete transmit powers and games with incomplete information. The proposed methodology is as follows. We state some...... objectives a transmitter-receiver pair would like to reach. The network is modeled by a game where transmitters are considered as timed automata interacting with each other. The objectives are then translated into timed alternating-time temporal logic formulae and MC is exploited to know whether the desired...

  3. Model of automobile emission checking by wireless technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikumar, R; Sivasundhararaja, D; Kumar, R Anand

    2010-07-01

    Air contains a lot of pollutants and most of these pollutants are toxic. Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the five primary pollutants, which together contributes more than 90% of global atmospheric pollution. Therefore, CO has been chosen for this analytical study. The main source of CO is the exhaust from automobiles only. In the present situation, the usage of motor vehicles rapidly expanded. The number of vehicles cannot be reduced but their emission (which is a cause for pollution) can be effectively controlled. In this direction, a model has been developed in this study to sense the level of carbon monoxide emitted from the automobiles. When the exhaust reaches a harmful level it sends the data about the vehicle number and the concentration of CO to the emission-testing centre (PC). As a result the government can take necessary action to seize the particular vehicle emitting more carbon monoxide than the permitted level.

  4. Prototype of Automated PLC Model Checking Using Continuous Integration Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Lettrich, Michael

    2015-01-01

    To deal with the complexity of operating and supervising large scale industrial installations at CERN, often Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) are used. A failure in these control systems can cause a disaster in terms of economic loses, environmental damages or human losses. Therefore the requirements to software quality are very high. To provide PLC developers with a way to verify proper functionality against requirements, a Java tool named PLCverif has been developed which encapsulates and thus simplifies the use of third party model checkers. One of our goals in this project is to integrate PLCverif in development process of PLC programs. When the developer changes the program, all the requirements should be verified again, as a change on the code can produce collateral effects and violate one or more requirements. For that reason, PLCverif has been extended to work with Jenkins CI in order to trigger automatically the verication cases when the developer changes the PLC program. This prototype has been...

  5. Analysis of an emergency diesel generator control system by compositional model checking. MODSAFE 2010 work report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, J.; Bjoerkman, K.; Valkonen, J.; Frits, J.; Niemelae, I.

    2010-12-15

    Digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems containing programmable logic controllers are challenging to verify. They enable complicated control functions and the state spaces (number of distinct values of inputs, outputs and internal memory) of the designs easily become too large for comprehensive manual inspection. Model checking is a formal method that can be used for verifying that systems have been correctly designed. A number of efficient model checking systems are available which provide analysis tools that are able to determine automatically whether a given state machine model satisfies the desired safety properties. The practical case analysed in this research project is called an 'emergency diesel generator control system' and its purpose is to provide reserve power to critical devices and computers that must be available without interruption. This report describes 1) the development of a compositional approach for checking the models in large system designs, 2) the development of a modular model checking approach for modelling function block diagrams with the Uppaal model checker and 3) the experience of utilising the new modelling approaches in practice. (orig.)

  6. A Process for Verifying and Validating Requirements for Fault Tolerant Systems Using Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, F.; Easterbrook, S.; Callahan, J.; Holzmann, G.; Reinholtz, W.; Ko, A.; Shahabuddin, M.

    1999-01-01

    Model checking is shown to be an effective tool in validating the behavior of a fault tolerant embedded spacecraft controller. The case study presented here shows that by judiciously abstracting away extraneous complexity, the state space of the model could be exhaustively searched allowing critical functional requirement to be validated down to the design level.

  7. HiVy automated translation of stateflow designs for model checking verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingree, Paula

    2003-01-01

    tool set enables model checking of finite state machines designs. This is acheived by translating state-chart specifications into the input language of the Spin model checker. An abstract syntax of hierarchical sequential automata (HSA) is provided as an intermediate format tool set.

  8. Logic Model Checking of Unintended Acceleration Claims in the 2005 Toyota Camry Electronic Throttle Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Ed; Holzmann, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Part of the US DOT investigation of Toyota SUA involved analysis of the throttle control software. JPL LaRS applied several techniques, including static analysis and logic model checking, to the software. A handful of logic models were built. Some weaknesses were identified; however, no cause for SUA was found. The full NASA report includes numerous other analyses

  9. Random Testing and Model Checking: Building a Common Framework for Nondeterministic Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groce, Alex; Joshi, Rajeev

    2008-01-01

    Two popular forms of dynamic analysis, random testing and explicit-state software model checking, are perhaps best viewed as search strategies for exploring the state spaces introduced by nondeterminism in program inputs. We present an approach that enables this nondeterminism to be expressed in the SPIN model checker's PROMELA language, and then lets users generate either model checkers or random testers from a single harness for a tested C program. Our approach makes it easy to compare model checking and random testing for models with precisely the same input ranges and probabilities and allows us to mix random testing with model checking's exhaustive exploration of non-determinism. The PROMELA language, as intended in its design, serves as a convenient notation for expressing nondeterminism and mixing random choices with nondeterministic choices. We present and discuss a comparison of random testing and model checking. The results derive from using our framework to test a C program with an effectively infinite state space, a module in JPL's next Mars rover mission. More generally, we show how the ability of the SPIN model checker to call C code can be used to extend SPIN's features, and hope to inspire others to use the same methods to implement dynamic analyses that can make use of efficient state storage, matching, and backtracking.

  10. Model Checking Real Time Java Using Java PathFinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Gary; Mehlitz, Peter C.; Visser, Willem

    2005-01-01

    The Real Time Specification for Java (RTSJ) is an augmentation of Java for real time applications of various degrees of hardness. The central features of RTSJ are real time threads; user defined schedulers; asynchronous events, handlers, and control transfers; a priority inheritance based default scheduler; non-heap memory areas such as immortal and scoped, and non-heap real time threads whose execution is not impeded by garbage collection. The Robust Software Systems group at NASA Ames Research Center has JAVA PATHFINDER (JPF) under development, a Java model checker. JPF at its core is a state exploring JVM which can examine alternative paths in a Java program (e.g., via backtracking) by trying all nondeterministic choices, including thread scheduling order. This paper describes our implementation of an RTSJ profile (subset) in JPF, including requirements, design decisions, and current implementation status. Two examples are analyzed: jobs on a multiprogramming operating system, and a complex resource contention example involving autonomous vehicles crossing an intersection. The utility of JPF in finding logic and timing errors is illustrated, and the remaining challenges in supporting all of RTSJ are assessed.

  11. Quantitative Analysis of Probabilistic Models of Software Product Lines with Statistical Model Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice H. ter Beek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the suitability of statistical model checking techniques for analysing quantitative properties of software product line models with probabilistic aspects. For this purpose, we enrich the feature-oriented language FLan with action rates, which specify the likelihood of exhibiting particular behaviour or of installing features at a specific moment or in a specific order. The enriched language (called PFLan allows us to specify models of software product lines with probabilistic configurations and behaviour, e.g. by considering a PFLan semantics based on discrete-time Markov chains. The Maude implementation of PFLan is combined with the distributed statistical model checker MultiVeStA to perform quantitative analyses of a simple product line case study. The presented analyses include the likelihood of certain behaviour of interest (e.g. product malfunctioning and the expected average cost of products.

  12. Quantitative Analysis of Probabilistic Models of Software Product Lines with Statistical Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ter Beek, Maurice H.; Legay, Axel; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the suitability of statistical model checking techniques for analysing quantitative properties of software product line models with probabilistic aspects. For this purpose, we enrich the feature-oriented language FLAN with action rates, which specify the likelihood of exhibiting...... particular behaviour or of installing features at a specific moment or in a specific order. The enriched language (called PFLAN) allows us to specify models of software product lines with probabilistic configurations and behaviour, e.g. by considering a PFLAN semantics based on discrete-time Markov chains....... The Maude implementation of PFLAN is combined with the distributed statistical model checker MultiVeStA to perform quantitative analyses of a simple product line case study. The presented analyses include the likelihood of certain behaviour of interest (e.g. product malfunctioning) and the expected average...

  13. PENERAPAN MODEL PEMBELAJARAN KOOPERATIF TIPE PAIR CHECKS PEMECAHAN MASALAH UNTUK MENINGKATKAN SOCIAL SKILL SISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lestari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian tindakan kelas ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh proses pembelajaran dengan menggunakan model pembelajaran kooperatif tipe Pair Checks pemecahan masalah terhadap peningkatan social skill siswa. Pada proses penerapan model pembelajaran kooperatif tipe Pair Checks pemecahan masalah siswa dibagi dalam kelompok-kelompok dan satu kelompok terdiri dari dua orang. Setiap kelompok berdiskusi untuk menyelesaikan suatu masalah, kemudian hasil diskusi kelompok akan dicek oleh pasangan dari kelompok lain. Metode Penelitian yang digunakan adalah penelitian tindakan kelas yang dilaksanakan dua siklus. Metode pengumpulan data menggunakan tes dan angket skala sikap, sedangkan teknik analisis data menggunakan teknik analisis data kuantitatif. Social Skill siswa dari siklus I ke siklus II mengalami peningkatan. Hal ini didapatkan dari data angket skala sikap siklus I ke siklus II ketuntasan klasikalnya meningkat dan sebagian besar siswa sudah memiliki social skill yang baik. Hasil belajar kognitif siswa juga mengalami peningkatan. Model pembelajaran kooperatif tipe Pair Checks pemecahan masalah dapat meningkatkan social skill siswa.This two cycles-action research aimed to know learning process applying cooperative learning model-pair checks problem solving type and improvement of student’s social skills. The process of the model was as follows: deviding students into some groups consisting of two students, solving problem by each group and checking result of the discussion by other groups. Data collection method used was test and the use of attitude scale questionnaire, while technique of data analysis used was quantitative data analysis technique. The data analysis result showed that there was an increase of student’s social skill and students’ achievement from cycle one to two. It is concluded that cooperative learning model-pair checks problem solving type can enhance student’s social skills

  14. DiVinE-CUDA - A Tool for GPU Accelerated LTL Model Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Barnat

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a tool that performs CUDA accelerated LTL Model Checking. The tool exploits parallel algorithm MAP adjusted to the NVIDIA CUDA architecture in order to efficiently detect the presence of accepting cycles in a directed graph. Accepting cycle detection is the core algorithmic procedure in automata-based LTL Model Checking. We demonstrate that the tool outperforms non-accelerated version of the algorithm and we discuss where the limits of the tool are and what we intend to do in the future to avoid them.

  15. Model checking with residuals for g-estimation of optimal dynamic treatment regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Benjamin; Moodie, Erica E M; Stephens, David A; Platt, Robert W

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss model checking with residual diagnostic plots for g-estimation of optimal dynamic treatment regimes. The g-estimation method requires three different model specifications at each treatment interval under consideration: (1) the blip model; (2) the expected counterfactual model; and (3) the propensity model. Of these, the expected counterfactual model is especially difficult to specify correctly in practice and so far there has been little guidance as to how to check for model misspecification. Residual plots are a useful and standard tool for model diagnostics in the classical regression setting; we have adapted this approach for g-estimation. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach in a simulation study, and apply it to real data in the context of estimating the optimal time to stop breastfeeding.

  16. Automated parameter estimation for biological models using Bayesian statistical model checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Faraz; Langmead, Christopher J; Mi, Qi; Dutta-Moscato, Joyeeta; Vodovotz, Yoram; Jha, Sumit K

    2015-01-01

    Probabilistic models have gained widespread acceptance in the systems biology community as a useful way to represent complex biological systems. Such models are developed using existing knowledge of the structure and dynamics of the system, experimental observations, and inferences drawn from statistical analysis of empirical data. A key bottleneck in building such models is that some system variables cannot be measured experimentally. These variables are incorporated into the model as numerical parameters. Determining values of these parameters that justify existing experiments and provide reliable predictions when model simulations are performed is a key research problem. Using an agent-based model of the dynamics of acute inflammation, we demonstrate a novel parameter estimation algorithm by discovering the amount and schedule of doses of bacterial lipopolysaccharide that guarantee a set of observed clinical outcomes with high probability. We synthesized values of twenty-eight unknown parameters such that the parameterized model instantiated with these parameter values satisfies four specifications describing the dynamic behavior of the model. We have developed a new algorithmic technique for discovering parameters in complex stochastic models of biological systems given behavioral specifications written in a formal mathematical logic. Our algorithm uses Bayesian model checking, sequential hypothesis testing, and stochastic optimization to automatically synthesize parameters of probabilistic biological models.

  17. Efficient parameter search for qualitative models of regulatory networks using symbolic model checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batt, Gregory; Page, Michel; Cantone, Irene; Goessler, Gregor; Monteiro, Pedro; de Jong, Hidde

    2010-09-15

    Investigating the relation between the structure and behavior of complex biological networks often involves posing the question if the hypothesized structure of a regulatory network is consistent with the observed behavior, or if a proposed structure can generate a desired behavior. The above questions can be cast into a parameter search problem for qualitative models of regulatory networks. We develop a method based on symbolic model checking that avoids enumerating all possible parametrizations, and show that this method performs well on real biological problems, using the IRMA synthetic network and benchmark datasets. We test the consistency between IRMA and time-series expression profiles, and search for parameter modifications that would make the external control of the system behavior more robust. GNA and the IRMA model are available at http://ibis.inrialpes.fr/.

  18. Model checking optimal finite-horizon control for probabilistic gene regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ou; Guo, Zonghao; Niu, Yun; Liao, Wenyuan

    2017-12-14

    Probabilistic Boolean networks (PBNs) have been proposed for analyzing external control in gene regulatory networks with incorporation of uncertainty. A context-sensitive PBN with perturbation (CS-PBNp), extending a PBN with context-sensitivity to reflect the inherent biological stability and random perturbations to express the impact of external stimuli, is considered to be more suitable for modeling small biological systems intervened by conditions from the outside. In this paper, we apply probabilistic model checking, a formal verification technique, to optimal control for a CS-PBNp that minimizes the expected cost over a finite control horizon. We first describe a procedure of modeling a CS-PBNp using the language provided by a widely used probabilistic model checker PRISM. We then analyze the reward-based temporal properties and the computation in probabilistic model checking; based on the analysis, we provide a method to formulate the optimal control problem as minimum reachability reward properties. Furthermore, we incorporate control and state cost information into the PRISM code of a CS-PBNp such that automated model checking a minimum reachability reward property on the code gives the solution to the optimal control problem. We conduct experiments on two examples, an apoptosis network and a WNT5A network. Preliminary experiment results show the feasibility and effectiveness of our approach. The approach based on probabilistic model checking for optimal control avoids explicit computation of large-size state transition relations associated with PBNs. It enables a natural depiction of the dynamics of gene regulatory networks, and provides a canonical form to formulate optimal control problems using temporal properties that can be automated solved by leveraging the analysis power of underlying model checking engines. This work will be helpful for further utilization of the advances in formal verification techniques in system biology.

  19. Modeling and analysis of cell membrane systems with probabilistic model checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepalde, Mirlaine A; Faria-Campos, Alessandra C; Campos, Sérgio V A

    2011-12-22

    Recently there has been a growing interest in the application of Probabilistic Model Checking (PMC) for the formal specification of biological systems. PMC is able to exhaustively explore all states of a stochastic model and can provide valuable insight into its behavior which are more difficult to see using only traditional methods for system analysis such as deterministic and stochastic simulation. In this work we propose a stochastic modeling for the description and analysis of sodium-potassium exchange pump. The sodium-potassium pump is a membrane transport system presents in all animal cell and capable of moving sodium and potassium ions against their concentration gradient. We present a quantitative formal specification of the pump mechanism in the PRISM language, taking into consideration a discrete chemistry approach and the Law of Mass Action aspects. We also present an analysis of the system using quantitative properties in order to verify the pump reversibility and understand the pump behavior using trend labels for the transition rates of the pump reactions. Probabilistic model checking can be used along with other well established approaches such as simulation and differential equations to better understand pump behavior. Using PMC we can determine if specific events happen such as the potassium outside the cell ends in all model traces. We can also have a more detailed perspective on its behavior such as determining its reversibility and why its normal operation becomes slow over time. This knowledge can be used to direct experimental research and make it more efficient, leading to faster and more accurate scientific discoveries.

  20. Design of Installing Check Dam Using RAMMS Model in Seorak National Park of South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, K.; Tak, W.; JUN, B. H.; Lee, H. J.; KIM, S. D.

    2016-12-01

    Design of Installing Check Dam Using RAMMS Model in Seorak National Park of South Korea Kye-Won Jun*, Won-Jun Tak*, Byong-Hee Jun**, Ho-Jin Lee***, Soung-Doug Kim* *Graduate School of Disaster Prevention, Kangwon National University, 346 Joogang-ro, Samcheok-si, Gangwon-do, Korea **School of Fire and Disaster Protection, Kangwon National University, 346 Joogang-ro, Samcheok-si, Gangwon-do, Korea ***School of Civil Engineering, Chungbuk National University, 1 Chungdae-ro, Seowon-gu, Cheongju, Korea Abstract As more than 64% of the land in South Korea is mountainous area, so many regions in South Korea are exposed to the danger of landslide and debris flow. So it is important to understand the behavior of debris flow in mountainous terrains, the various methods and models are being presented and developed based on the mathematical concept. The purpose of this study is to investigate the regions that experienced the debris flow due to typhoon called Ewiniar and to perform numerical modeling to design and layout of the Check dam for reducing the damage by the debris flow. For the performance of numerical modeling, on-site measurement of the research area was conducted including: topographic investigation, research on bridges in the downstream, and precision LiDAR 3D scanning for composed basic data of numerical modeling. The numerical simulation of this study was performed using RAMMS (Rapid Mass Movements Simulation) model for the analysis of the debris flow. This model applied to the conditions of the Check dam which was installed in the upstream, midstream, and downstream. Considering the reduction effect of debris flow, the expansion of debris flow, and the influence on the bridges in the downstream, proper location of the Check dam was designated. The result of present numerical model showed that when the Check dam was installed in the downstream section, 50 m above the bridge, the reduction effect of the debris flow was higher compared to when the Check dam were

  1. Parallel CSRL Model Checking: First Results and Pointers to the Future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntz, G.W.M.; Černá, I.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The verification of quantitative aspects of a system, like performance and dependability, by means of model checking has become an important and vivid area of research over the past decade. Recently, great progress has been made in the combined analysis of a system's performance and dependability

  2. Monitor-Based Statistical Model Checking for Weighted Metric Temporal Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulychev, Petr; David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel approach and implementation for ana- lysing weighted timed automata (WTA) with respect to the weighted metric temporal logic (WMTL≤ ). Based on a stochastic semantics of WTAs, we apply statistical model checking (SMC) to estimate and test probabilities of satisfaction...

  3. Using Abstraction and Model Checking to Detect Safety Violations in Requirements Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    ming Language: Design, Semantics, Implementation,” Science of Computer Programming , vol. 19, 1992. [8] R. Bharadwaj, “A Generalized Validity Checker... Science of Computer Programming , vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 41–61, Oct. 1995. [62] T. Sreemani and J.M. Atlee, “Feasibility of Model Checking Soft- ware

  4. A practical approach to model checking Duration Calculus using Presburger Arithmetic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Dung, Phan Anh; Brekling, Aske Wiid

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of reducing a model-checking problem K ⊧ ϕ for discrete time Duration Calculus to the decision problem for Presburger Arithmetic. Theoretical results point at severe limitations of this approach: (1) the reduction in Fränzle and Hansen (Int J Softw Inform 3...... limits of the approach are illustrated by a family of examples....

  5. Efficient model checking for duration calculus based on branching-time approximations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    2008-01-01

    Duration Calculus (abbreviated to DC) is an interval-based, metric-time temporal logic designed for reasoning about embedded real-time systems at a high level of abstraction. But the complexity of model checking any decidable fragment featuring both negation and chop, DC's only modality, is non...

  6. Specification and Generation of Environment for Model Checking of Software Components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pařízek, P.; Plášil, František

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 176, - (2007), s. 143-154 ISSN 1571-0661 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400300504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : software components * behavior protocols * model checking * automated generation of environment Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software

  7. Model Checking - My 27-Year Quest to Overcome the State Explosion Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Ed

    2009-01-01

    Model Checking is an automatic verification technique for state-transition systems that are finite=state or that have finite-state abstractions. In the early 1980 s in a series of joint papers with my graduate students E.A. Emerson and A.P. Sistla, we proposed that Model Checking could be used for verifying concurrent systems and gave algorithms for this purpose. At roughly the same time, Joseph Sifakis and his student J.P. Queille at the University of Grenoble independently developed a similar technique. Model Checking has been used successfully to reason about computer hardware and communication protocols and is beginning to be used for verifying computer software. Specifications are written in temporal logic, which is particularly valuable for expressing concurrency properties. An intelligent, exhaustive search is used to determine if the specification is true or not. If the specification is not true, the Model Checker will produce a counterexample execution trace that shows why the specification does not hold. This feature is extremely useful for finding obscure errors in complex systems. The main disadvantage of Model Checking is the state-explosion problem, which can occur if the system under verification has many processes or complex data structures. Although the state-explosion problem is inevitable in worst case, over the past 27 years considerable progress has been made on the problem for certain classes of state-transition systems that occur often in practice. In this talk, I will describe what Model Checking is, how it works, and the main techniques that have been developed for combating the state explosion problem.

  8. A Novel Method to Verify Multilevel Computational Models of Biological Systems Using Multiscale Spatio-Temporal Meta Model Checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pârvu, Ovidiu; Gilbert, David

    2016-01-01

    Insights gained from multilevel computational models of biological systems can be translated into real-life applications only if the model correctness has been verified first. One of the most frequently employed in silico techniques for computational model verification is model checking. Traditional model checking approaches only consider the evolution of numeric values, such as concentrations, over time and are appropriate for computational models of small scale systems (e.g. intracellular networks). However for gaining a systems level understanding of how biological organisms function it is essential to consider more complex large scale biological systems (e.g. organs). Verifying computational models of such systems requires capturing both how numeric values and properties of (emergent) spatial structures (e.g. area of multicellular population) change over time and across multiple levels of organization, which are not considered by existing model checking approaches. To address this limitation we have developed a novel approximate probabilistic multiscale spatio-temporal meta model checking methodology for verifying multilevel computational models relative to specifications describing the desired/expected system behaviour. The methodology is generic and supports computational models encoded using various high-level modelling formalisms because it is defined relative to time series data and not the models used to generate it. In addition, the methodology can be automatically adapted to case study specific types of spatial structures and properties using the spatio-temporal meta model checking concept. To automate the computational model verification process we have implemented the model checking approach in the software tool Mule (http://mule.modelchecking.org). Its applicability is illustrated against four systems biology computational models previously published in the literature encoding the rat cardiovascular system dynamics, the uterine contractions of labour

  9. Graphical diagnostics to check model misspecification for the proportional odds regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ivy; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Suesse, Thomas; Sparrow, David; Park, Sung Kyun

    2009-02-01

    The cumulative logit or the proportional odds regression model is commonly used to study covariate effects on ordinal responses. This paper provides some graphical and numerical methods for checking the adequacy of the proportional odds regression model. The methods focus on evaluating functional misspecification for specific covariate effects, but misspecification of the link function can also be dealt with under the same framework. For the logistic regression model with binary responses, Arbogast and Lin (Statist. Med. 2005; 24:229-247) developed similar graphical and numerical methods for assessing the adequacy of the model using the cumulative sums of residuals. The paper generalizes their methods to ordinal responses and illustrates them using an example from the VA Normative Aging Study. Simulation studies comparing the performance of the different diagnostic methods indicate that some of the graphical methods are more powerful in detecting model misspecification than the Hosmer-Lemeshow-type goodness-of-fit statistics for the class of models studied. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. A formal algorithm for verifying the validity of clustering results based on model checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaobin; Cheng, Yuan; Lang, Dapeng; Chi, Ronghua; Liu, Guofeng

    2014-01-01

    The limitations in general methods to evaluate clustering will remain difficult to overcome if verifying the clustering validity continues to be based on clustering results and evaluation index values. This study focuses on a clustering process to analyze crisp clustering validity. First, we define the properties that must be satisfied by valid clustering processes and model clustering processes based on program graphs and transition systems. We then recast the analysis of clustering validity as the problem of verifying whether the model of clustering processes satisfies the specified properties with model checking. That is, we try to build a bridge between clustering and model checking. Experiments on several datasets indicate the effectiveness and suitability of our algorithms. Compared with traditional evaluation indices, our formal method can not only indicate whether the clustering results are valid but, in the case the results are invalid, can also detect the objects that have led to the invalidity.

  11. A formal algorithm for verifying the validity of clustering results based on model checking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobin Huang

    Full Text Available The limitations in general methods to evaluate clustering will remain difficult to overcome if verifying the clustering validity continues to be based on clustering results and evaluation index values. This study focuses on a clustering process to analyze crisp clustering validity. First, we define the properties that must be satisfied by valid clustering processes and model clustering processes based on program graphs and transition systems. We then recast the analysis of clustering validity as the problem of verifying whether the model of clustering processes satisfies the specified properties with model checking. That is, we try to build a bridge between clustering and model checking. Experiments on several datasets indicate the effectiveness and suitability of our algorithms. Compared with traditional evaluation indices, our formal method can not only indicate whether the clustering results are valid but, in the case the results are invalid, can also detect the objects that have led to the invalidity.

  12. Improved metastability bounds on the standard model Higgs mass

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa, J R; Espinosa, J R; Quiros, M

    1995-01-01

    Depending on the Higgs-boson and top-quark masses, M_H and M_t, the effective potential of the Standard Model at finite (and zero) temperature can have a deep and unphysical stable minimum \\langle \\phi(T)\\rangle at values of the field much larger than G_F^{-1/2}. We have computed absolute lower bounds on M_H, as a function of M_t, imposing the condition of no decay by thermal fluctuations, or quantum tunnelling, to the stable minimum. Our effective potential at zero temperature includes all next-to-leading logarithmic corrections (making it extremely scale-independent), and we have used pole masses for the Higgs-boson and top-quark. Thermal corrections to the effective potential include plasma effects by one-loop ring resummation of Debye masses. All calculations, including the effective potential and the bubble nucleation rate, are performed numerically and so the results do not rely on any kind of analytical approximation. Easy-to-use fits are provided for the benefit of the reader. Conclusions on the possi...

  13. Semi-bounded Rationality: A model for decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Tshilidzi Marwala

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the theory of semi-bounded rationality is proposed as an extension of the theory of bounded rationality. In particular, it is proposed that a decision making process involves two components and these are the correlation machine, which estimates missing values, and the causal machine, which relates the cause to the effect. Rational decision making involves using information which is almost always imperfect and incomplete as well as some intelligent machine which if it is a human ...

  14. A surrogate modelling framework for the optimal deployment of check dams in erosion-prone areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Debasish; Tang, Honglei; Galelli, Stefano; Ran, Qihua

    2017-04-01

    Despite the great progresses made in the last decades, the control of soil erosion still remains a key challenge for land-use planning. The nonlinear interactions between hydrologic and morphologic processes and increase in extreme rainfall events predicted with climatic change create new areas of concern and make the problem unresolved. Spatially distributed models are a useful tool for modelling such processes and assessing the effect of large-scale engineering measures, but their computational requests prevent the resolution of problems requiring several model evaluations—sensitivity analysis or optimization, for instance. In this study, we tackle this problem by developing a surrogate modelling framework for the optimal deployment of check dams. The framework combines a spatially distributed model (WaTEM/SEDEM), a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm and artificial neural networks as surrogate model. We test the framework on Shejiagou catchment—a 14 km2 area located in the Loess Plateau, China—where we optimize check dam locations by maximizing the mass of sediments retained in the catchment and minimizing the total number of dams. Preliminary results show that the performance of the existing check dam system could be improved by changing the dam locations.

  15. Formal verification of dynamic hybrid systems: a NuSMV-based model checking approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Software security is an important and challenging research topic in developing dynamic hybrid embedded software systems. Ensuring the correct behavior of these systems is particularly difficult due to the interactions between the continuous subsystem and the discrete subsystem. Currently available security analysis methods for system risks have been limited, as they rely on manual inspections of the individual subsystems under simplifying assumptions. To improve this situation, a new approach is proposed that is based on the symbolic model checking tool NuSMV. A dual PID system is used as an example system, for which the logical part and the computational part of the system are modeled in a unified manner. Constraints are constructed on the controlled object, and a counter-example path is ultimately generated, indicating that the hybrid system can be analyzed by the model checking tool.

  16. Analyzing Phylogenetic Trees with Timed and Probabilistic Model Checking: The Lactose Persistence Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requeno, José Ignacio; Colom, José Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Model checking is a generic verification technique that allows the phylogeneticist to focus on models and specifications instead of on implementation issues. Phylogenetic trees are considered as transition systems over which we interrogate phylogenetic questions written as formulas of temporal logic. Nonetheless, standard logics become insufficient for certain practices of phylogenetic analysis since they do not allow the inclusion of explicit time and probabilities. The aim of this paper is to extend the application of model checking techniques beyond qualitative phylogenetic properties and adapt the existing logical extensions and tools to the field of phylogeny. The introduction of time and probabilities in phylogenetic specifications is motivated by the study of a real example: the analysis of the ratio of lactose intolerance in some populations and the date of appearance of this phenotype.

  17. Applying Infinite State Model Checking and Other Analysis Techniques to Tabular Requirements Specifications of Safety-Critical Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bultan, Tevfik; Heitmeyer, Constance

    2006-01-01

    Although it is most often applied to finite state models, in recent years, symbolic model checking has been extended to infinite state models using symbolic representations that encode infinite sets...

  18. Model Checking Techniques for Assessing Functional Form Specifications in Censored Linear Regression Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Larry F; Cai, Tianxi

    2012-04-01

    In this paper we develop model checking techniques for assessing functional form specifications of covariates in censored linear regression models. These procedures are based on a censored data analog to taking cumulative sums of "robust" residuals over the space of the covariate under investigation. These cumulative sums are formed by integrating certain Kaplan-Meier estimators and may be viewed as "robust" censored data analogs to the processes considered by Lin, Wei & Ying (2002). The null distributions of these stochastic processes can be approximated by the distributions of certain zero-mean Gaussian processes whose realizations can be generated by computer simulation. Each observed process can then be graphically compared with a few realizations from the Gaussian process. We also develop formal test statistics for numerical comparison. Such comparisons enable one to assess objectively whether an apparent trend seen in a residual plot reects model misspecification or natural variation. We illustrate the methods with a well known dataset. In addition, we examine the finite sample performance of the proposed test statistics in simulation experiments. In our simulation experiments, the proposed test statistics have good power of detecting misspecification while at the same time controlling the size of the test.

  19. Fault Tree Analysis with Temporal Gates and Model Checking Technique for Qualitative System Safety Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Kwang Yong; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Fault tree analysis (FTA) has suffered from several drawbacks such that it uses only static gates and hence can not capture dynamic behaviors of the complex system precisely, and it is in lack of rigorous semantics, and reasoning process which is to check whether basic events really cause top events is done manually and hence very labor-intensive and time-consuming for the complex systems while it has been one of the most widely used safety analysis technique in nuclear industry. Although several attempts have been made to overcome this problem, they can not still do absolute or actual time modeling because they adapt relative time concept and can capture only sequential behaviors of the system. In this work, to resolve the problems, FTA and model checking are integrated to provide formal, automated and qualitative assistance to informal and/or quantitative safety analysis. Our approach proposes to build a formal model of the system together with fault trees. We introduce several temporal gates based on timed computational tree logic (TCTL) to capture absolute time behaviors of the system and to give concrete semantics to fault tree gates to reduce errors during the analysis, and use model checking technique to automate the reasoning process of FTA

  20. Checking the Adequacy of Fit of Models from Split-Plot Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almini, A. A.; Kulahci, Murat; Montgomery, D. C.

    2009-01-01

    -plot models. In this article, we propose the computation of two R-2, R-2-adjusted, prediction error sums of squares (PRESS), and R-2-prediction statistics to measure the adequacy of fit for the WP and the SP submodels in a split-plot design. This is complemented with the graphical analysis of the two types...... of errors to check for any violation of the underlying assumptions and the adequacy of fit of split-plot models. Using examples, we show how computing two measures of model adequacy of fit for each split-plot design model is appropriate and useful as they reveal whether the correct WP and SP effects have...

  1. From Collective Adaptive Systems to Human Centric Computation and Back: Spatial Model Checking for Medical Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Belmonte

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on formal verification for Collective Adaptive Systems (CAS pushed advancements in spatial and spatio-temporal model checking, and as a side result provided novel image analysis methodologies, rooted in logical methods for topological spaces. Medical Imaging (MI is a field where such technologies show potential for ground-breaking innovation. In this position paper, we present a preliminary investigation centred on applications of spatial model checking to MI. The focus is shifted from pure logics to a mixture of logical, statistical and algorithmic approaches, driven by the logical nature intrinsic to the specification of the properties of interest in the field. As a result, novel operators are introduced, that could as well be brought back to the setting of CAS.

  2. HyLTL: a temporal logic for model checking hybrid systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Bresolin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The model-checking problem for hybrid systems is a well known challenge in the scientific community. Most of the existing approaches and tools are limited to safety properties only, or operates by transforming the hybrid system to be verified into a discrete one, thus loosing information on the continuous dynamics of the system. In this paper we present a logic for specifying complex properties of hybrid systems called HyLTL, and we show how it is possible to solve the model checking problem by translating the formula into an equivalent hybrid automaton. In this way the problem is reduced to a reachability problem on hybrid automata that can be solved by using existing tools.

  3. Numerical Modeling of Debris Flow Force Caused by Climate Change and Its application to Check Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, S. D.; Jun, K.; JUN, B. H.; Lee, H. J.; TAK, W. J.

    2016-12-01

    Due to global warming, climate change cause a super hurricane and heavy rainfall frequently. Heavy rainfall cause by debris flow in mountainous terrains, and disasters by debris flow force have continuously increased. The purpose of this study is to analyze the characteristics of debris flow force acting on the check dam. The numerical approach to the debris flow force was performed by the Finite Difference Method (FDM) based on the erosion-deposition combination model including the equation of continuity, mass conservation, and momentum conservation. In order to investigate behavior of the debris flow force according to the variance of supplying water discharge and channel slope angle, a rectangular straight channel and one closed type check dam was set up for conducting numerical simulations. As the supply water discharges increase, the curve of the impact force by debris flow becomes unstable and fluctuation with high impact force occurred as time passes. And the peak impact force showed a steeper slope and appeared more quickly, the high impact force undergoes a fluctuation with high speed, and acting on the check dam. At the mountainous upstream, strong rainfall energy provoke a repeat erosion and deposition which results in debris flow force causing much damage along the check dam at the mountainous place. The analyses of the present study help provide information to predict future debris flow force and how to design for the check dam. This research was supported by a grant [MPSS-NH-2014-74] through the Disaster and Safety Management Institute funded by Ministry of Public Safety and Security of Korean government

  4. Analysis of DGNB-DK criteria for BIM-based Model Checking automatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Peter; Svidt, Kjeld; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    This report includes the results of an analysis of the automation potential of the Danish edition of building sustainability assessment method Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nachhaltiges Bauen (DGNB) for office buildings version 2014 1.1. The analysis investigate the criteria related to DGNB-DK and if......-DK and if they would be suited for automation through the technological concept BIM-based Model Checking (BMC)....

  5. Model checking software for phylogenetic trees using distribution and database methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requeno, José Ignacio; Colom, José Manuel

    2013-11-14

    Model checking, a generic and formal paradigm stemming from computer science based on temporal logics, has been proposed for the study of biological properties that emerge from the labeling of the states defined over the phylogenetic tree. This strategy allows us to use generic software tools already present in the industry. However, the performance of traditional model checking is penalized when scaling the system for large phylogenies. To this end, two strategies are presented here. The first one consists of partitioning the phylogenetic tree into a set of subgraphs each one representing a subproblem to be verified so as to speed up the computation time and distribute the memory consumption. The second strategy is based on uncoupling the information associated to each state of the phylogenetic tree (mainly, the DNA sequence) and exporting it to an external tool for the management of large information systems. The integration of all these approaches outperforms the results of monolithic model checking and helps us to execute the verification of properties in a real phylogenetic tree.

  6. A Novel Algorithm for Intrusion Detection Based on RASL Model Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijun Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The interval temporal logic (ITL model checking (MC technique enhances the power of intrusion detection systems (IDSs to detect concurrent attacks due to the strong expressive power of ITL. However, an ITL formula suffers from difficulty in the description of the time constraints between different actions in the same attack. To address this problem, we formalize a novel real-time interval temporal logic—real-time attack signature logic (RASL. Based on such a new logic, we put forward a RASL model checking algorithm. Furthermore, we use RASL formulas to describe attack signatures and employ discrete timed automata to create an audit log. As a result, RASL model checking algorithm can be used to automatically verify whether the automata satisfy the formulas, that is, whether the audit log coincides with the attack signatures. The simulation experiments show that the new approach effectively enhances the detection power of the MC-based intrusion detection methods for a number of telnet attacks, p-trace attacks, and the other sixteen types of attacks. And these experiments indicate that the new algorithm can find several types of real-time attacks, whereas the existing MC-based intrusion detection approaches cannot do that.

  7. A rule-based approach to model checking of UML state machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobelna, Iwona; Grobelny, Michał; Stefanowicz, Łukasz

    2016-12-01

    In the paper a new approach to formal verification of control process specification expressed by means of UML state machines in version 2.x is proposed. In contrast to other approaches from the literature, we use the abstract and universal rule-based logical model suitable both for model checking (using the nuXmv model checker), but also for logical synthesis in form of rapid prototyping. Hence, a prototype implementation in hardware description language VHDL can be obtained that fully reflects the primary, already formally verified specification in form of UML state machines. Presented approach allows to increase the assurance that implemented system meets the user-defined requirements.

  8. Model Checking Verification and Validation at JPL and the NASA Fairmont IV and V Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Frank; Easterbrook, Steve; Callahan, Jack; Montgomery, Todd

    1999-01-01

    We show how a technology transfer effort was carried out. The successful use of model checking on a pilot JPL flight project demonstrates the usefulness and the efficacy of the approach. The pilot project was used to model a complex spacecraft controller. Software design and implementation validation were carried out successfully. To suggest future applications we also show how the implementation validation step can be automated. The effort was followed by the formal introduction of the modeling technique as a part of the JPL Quality Assurance process.

  9. Combinatorial bounds on the α-divergence of univariate mixture models

    KAUST Repository

    Nielsen, Frank

    2017-06-20

    We derive lower- and upper-bounds of α-divergence between univariate mixture models with components in the exponential family. Three pairs of bounds are presented in order with increasing quality and increasing computational cost. They are verified empirically through simulated Gaussian mixture models. The presented methodology generalizes to other divergence families relying on Hellinger-type integrals.

  10. Non-parametric estimation and model checking procedures for marginal gap time distributions for recurrent events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvist, Kajsa; Gerster, Mette; Andersen, Per Kragh; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2007-12-30

    For recurrent events there is evidence that misspecification of the frailty distribution can cause severe bias in estimated regression coefficients (Am. J. Epidemiol 1998; 149:404-411; Statist. Med. 2006; 25:1672-1684). In this paper we adapt a procedure originally suggested in (Biometrika 1999; 86:381-393) for parallel data for checking the gamma frailty to recurrent events. To apply the model checking procedure, a consistent non-parametric estimator for the marginal gap time distributions is needed. This is in general not possible due to induced dependent censoring in the recurrent events setting, however, in (Biometrika 1999; 86:59-70) a non-parametric estimator for the joint gap time distributions based on the principle of inverse probability of censoring weights is suggested. Here, we attempt to apply this estimator in the model checking procedure and the performance of the method is investigated with simulations and applied to Danish registry data. The method is further investigated using the usual Kaplan-Meier estimator and a marginalized estimator for the marginal gap time distributions. We conclude that the procedure only works when the recurrent event is common and when the intra-individual association between gap times is weak. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Model-Checking the Higher-Dimensional Modal mu-Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lange

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The higher-dimensional modal mu-calculus is an extension of the mu-calculus in which formulas are interpreted in tuples of states of a labeled transition system. Every property that can be expressed in this logic can be checked in polynomial time, and conversely every polynomial-time decidable problem that has a bisimulation-invariant encoding into labeled transition systems can also be defined in the higher-dimensional modal mu-calculus. We exemplify the latter connection by giving several examples of decision problems which reduce to model checking of the higher-dimensional modal mu-calculus for some fixed formulas. This way generic model checking algorithms for the logic can then be used via partial evaluation in order to obtain algorithms for theses problems which may benefit from improvements that are well-established in the field of program verification, namely on-the-fly and symbolic techniques. The aim of this work is to extend such techniques to other fields as well, here exemplarily done for process equivalences, automata theory, parsing, string problems, and games.

  12. Boundedly Rational versus Optimization-Based Models of Strategic Thinking and Learning in Games

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Vincent P

    2013-01-01

    Harstad and Selten’s article in this forum performs a valuable service by highlighting the dominance of optimization-based models over boundedly rational models in modern microeconomics, and questioning whether optimization-based models are a better way forward than boundedly rational models. This article complements Rabin’s response to Harstad and Selten, focusing on modeling strategic behavior. I consider Harstad and Selten’s examples and proposed boundedly rational models in the ligh...

  13. Stieltjes electrostatic model interpretation for bound state problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    + iQ(xk) = 0, 1 ≤ k ≤ n. (17) the solution for the differential eq. (17), for an exactly solvable potential that is for cer- tain Q(xk), are the zeros of appropriate orthogonal polynomials. The interval is fixed by the fixed poles of the potential. It is well known that the classical orthogonal poly- nomials arise as solutions to the bound ...

  14. A conceptual model of the hydraulics of check dam for gully control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, C.; Pérez, R.; Gómez, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Check dams have been long recognized as useful structures to minimize concentrated flow erosion by reducing the original gradient of the gully channel and, consequently, the erosive power of run-off (FAO, 1986). Careful attention must be paid to the design of the structures in order to avoid negative effects such as bypassing or scouring that might lead to the parcial or total collapse of the structure (Nyssen,2004). This study attempts to offer a conceptual model to explain the fundamental hydraulics of the flow regime modifications produced by these structures on rectagular-shaped gullies, before and after the filling by sediment of the small volume created by the check dam. The factors affecting the characteristics (location and amount of dissipated energy) of the hydraulic jump and the role played by the steepness of the gully on the hydraulic influence are discussed through a geometric and energetic approach. The shear stress reduction efficiency of the structure is evaluated against flow conditions (subcritical and supercritical), steepness factor, effective height and check dam spacing. HEC RAS 4.0 model (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 2008) has been used for validation purposes. In addition, apron protection measures (riprap stone and gabions) have been discussed in order to determine the limits of the discharge and drop height to prevent scouring. The model presented a good performance on the prediction of hydraulic variables, and especially estimating shear stress reduction by the check dam structure. Steepness factor is the key parameter defining the hydraulic influence and ultimate slope and, therefore, the efficiency of the structure. The effective control of the flow erosivity requires the selection of a steepness factor value close to or higher than 1, showing similarities with natural stabilised channels as step-pools morphologies (Abrahams, 1995). The requirements for an efficient reduction of the shear stress and for assuring the stability of the

  15. Dependence in probabilistic modeling, Dempster-Shafer theory, and probability bounds analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberkampf, William Louis; Tucker, W. Troy (Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, NY); Zhang, Jianzhong (Iowa State University, Ames, IA); Ginzburg, Lev (Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, NY); Berleant, Daniel J. (Iowa State University, Ames, IA); Ferson, Scott (Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, NY); Hajagos, Janos (Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, NY); Nelsen, Roger B. (Lewis & Clark College, Portland, OR)

    2004-10-01

    This report summarizes methods to incorporate information (or lack of information) about inter-variable dependence into risk assessments that use Dempster-Shafer theory or probability bounds analysis to address epistemic and aleatory uncertainty. The report reviews techniques for simulating correlated variates for a given correlation measure and dependence model, computation of bounds on distribution functions under a specified dependence model, formulation of parametric and empirical dependence models, and bounding approaches that can be used when information about the intervariable dependence is incomplete. The report also reviews several of the most pervasive and dangerous myths among risk analysts about dependence in probabilistic models.

  16. Chiefly Symmetric: Results on the Scalability of Probabilistic Model Checking for Operating-System Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Völp

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Reliability in terms of functional properties from the safety-liveness spectrum is an indispensable requirement of low-level operating-system (OS code. However, with evermore complex and thus less predictable hardware, quantitative and probabilistic guarantees become more and more important. Probabilistic model checking is one technique to automatically obtain these guarantees. First experiences with the automated quantitative analysis of low-level operating-system code confirm the expectation that the naive probabilistic model checking approach rapidly reaches its limits when increasing the numbers of processes. This paper reports on our work-in-progress to tackle the state explosion problem for low-level OS-code caused by the exponential blow-up of the model size when the number of processes grows. We studied the symmetry reduction approach and carried out our experiments with a simple test-and-test-and-set lock case study as a representative example for a wide range of protocols with natural inter-process dependencies and long-run properties. We quickly see a state-space explosion for scenarios where inter-process dependencies are insignificant. However, once inter-process dependencies dominate the picture models with hundred and more processes can be constructed and analysed.

  17. Petri Net and Probabilistic Model Checking Based Approach for the Modelling, Simulation and Verification of Internet Worm Propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaq, Misbah; Ahmad, Jamil

    2015-01-01

    Internet worms are analogous to biological viruses since they can infect a host and have the ability to propagate through a chosen medium. To prevent the spread of a worm or to grasp how to regulate a prevailing worm, compartmental models are commonly used as a means to examine and understand the patterns and mechanisms of a worm spread. However, one of the greatest challenge is to produce methods to verify and validate the behavioural properties of a compartmental model. This is why in this study we suggest a framework based on Petri Nets and Model Checking through which we can meticulously examine and validate these models. We investigate Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) model and propose a new model Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered-Delayed-Quarantined (Susceptible/Recovered) (SEIDQR(S/I)) along with hybrid quarantine strategy, which is then constructed and analysed using Stochastic Petri Nets and Continuous Time Markov Chain. The analysis shows that the hybrid quarantine strategy is extremely effective in reducing the risk of propagating the worm. Through Model Checking, we gained insight into the functionality of compartmental models. Model Checking results validate simulation ones well, which fully support the proposed framework.

  18. Bayesian truncation errors in chiral effective field theory: model checking and accounting for correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, Jordan; Wesolowski, Sarah; Furnstahl, Dick

    2017-09-01

    Chiral effective field theory (EFT) predictions are necessarily truncated at some order in the EFT expansion, which induces an error that must be quantified for robust statistical comparisons to experiment. A Bayesian model yields posterior probability distribution functions for these errors based on expectations of naturalness encoded in Bayesian priors and the observed order-by-order convergence pattern of the EFT. As a general example of a statistical approach to truncation errors, the model was applied to chiral EFT for neutron-proton scattering using various semi-local potentials of Epelbaum, Krebs, and Meißner (EKM). Here we discuss how our model can learn correlation information from the data and how to perform Bayesian model checking to validate that the EFT is working as advertised. Supported in part by NSF PHY-1614460 and DOE NUCLEI SciDAC DE-SC0008533.

  19. Bringing Automated Model Checking to PLC Program Development - A CERN Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Adiego, B; Tournier, J-C; Blanco Vinuela, E; Gonzalez Suarez, V M

    2014-01-01

    Verification of critical software is a high priority but a challenging task for industrial control systems. Model checking appears to be an appropriate approach for this purpose. However, this technique is not widely used in industry yet, due to some obstacles. The main obstacles encountered when trying to apply formal verification techniques at industrial installations are the difficulty of creating models out of PLC programs and defining formally the specification requirements. In addition, models produced out of real-life programs have a huge state space, thus preventing the verification due to performance issues. Our work at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) focuses on developing efficient automatic verification methods for industrial critical installations based on PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) control systems. In this paper, we present a tool generating automatically formal models out of PLC code. The tool implements a general methodology which can support several input languages, ...

  20. An error bound for a discrete reduced order model of a linear multivariable system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saggaf, Ubaid M.; Franklin, Gene F.

    1987-01-01

    The design of feasible controllers for high dimension multivariable systems can be greatly aided by a method of model reduction. In order for the design based on the order reduction to include a guarantee of stability, it is sufficient to have a bound on the model error. Previous work has provided such a bound for continuous-time systems for algorithms based on balancing. In this note an L-infinity bound is derived for model error for a method of order reduction of discrete linear multivariable systems based on balancing.

  1. An Efficient Explicit-time Description Method for Timed Model Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Timed model checking, the method to formally verify real-time systems, is attracting increasing attention from both the model checking community and the real-time community. Explicit-time description methods verify real-time systems using general model constructs found in standard un-timed model checkers. Lamport proposed an explicit-time description method using a clock-ticking process (Tick to simulate the passage of time together with a group of global variables to model time requirements. Two methods, the Sync-based Explicit-time Description Method using rendezvous synchronization steps and the Semaphore-based Explicit-time Description Method using only one global variable were proposed; they both achieve better modularity than Lamport's method in modeling the real-time systems. In contrast to timed automata based model checkers like UPPAAL, explicit-time description methods can access and store the current time instant for future calculations necessary for many real-time systems, especially those with pre-emptive scheduling. However, the Tick process in the above three methods increments the time by one unit in each tick; the state spaces therefore grow relatively fast as the time parameters increase, a problem when the system's time period is relatively long. In this paper, we propose a more efficient method which enables the Tick process to leap multiple time units in one tick. Preliminary experimental results in a high performance computing environment show that this new method significantly reduces the state space and improves both the time and memory efficiency.

  2. Sediment yield model implementation based on check dam infill stratigraphy in a semiarid Mediterranean catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bussi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil loss and sediment transport in Mediterranean areas are driven by complex non-linear processes which have been only partially understood. Distributed models can be very helpful tools for understanding the catchment-scale phenomena which lead to soil erosion and sediment transport. In this study, a modelling approach is proposed to reproduce and evaluate erosion and sediment yield processes in a Mediterranean catchment (Rambla del Poyo, Valencia, Spain. Due to the lack of sediment transport records for model calibration and validation, a detailed description of the alluvial stratigraphy infilling a check dam that drains a 12.9 km2 sub-catchment was used as indirect information of sediment yield data. These dam infill sediments showed evidences of at least 15 depositional events (floods over the time period 1990–2009. The TETIS model, a distributed conceptual hydrological and sediment model, was coupled to the Sediment Trap Efficiency for Small Ponds (STEP model for reproducing reservoir retention, and it was calibrated and validated using the sedimentation volume estimated for the depositional units associated with discrete runoff events. The results show relatively low net erosion rates compared to other Mediterranean catchments (0.136 Mg ha−1 yr−1, probably due to the extensive outcrops of limestone bedrock, thin soils and rather homogeneous vegetation cover. The simulated sediment production and transport rates offer model satisfactory results, further supported by in-site palaeohydrological evidences and spatial validation using additional check dams, showing the great potential of the presented data assimilation methodology for the quantitative analysis of sediment dynamics in ungauged Mediterranean basins.

  3. Re-engineering pre-employment check-up systems: a model for improving health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rateb, Said Abdel Hakim; El Nouman, Azza Abdel Razek; Rateb, Moshira Abdel Hakim; Asar, Mohamed Naguib; El Amin, Ayman Mohammed; Gad, Saad abdel Aziz; Mohamed, Mohamed Salah Eldin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a model for improving health services provided by the pre-employment medical fitness check-up system affiliated to Egypt's Health Insurance Organization (HIO). Operations research, notably system re-engineering, is used in six randomly selected centers and findings before and after re-engineering are compared. The re-engineering model follows a systems approach, focusing on three areas: structure, process and outcome. The model is based on six main components: electronic booking, standardized check-up processes, protected medical documents, advanced archiving through an electronic content management (ECM) system, infrastructure development, and capacity building. The model originates mainly from customer needs and expectations. The centers' monthly customer flow increased significantly after re-engineering. The mean time spent per customer cycle improved after re-engineering--18.3 +/- 5.5 minutes as compared to 48.8 +/- 14.5 minutes before. Appointment delay was also significantly decreased from an average 18 to 6.2 days. Both beneficiaries and service providers were significantly more satisfied with the services after re-engineering. The model proves that re-engineering program costs are exceeded by increased revenue. Re-engineering in this study involved multiple structure and process elements. The literature review did not reveal similar re-engineering healthcare packages. Therefore, each element was compared separately. This model is highly recommended for improving service effectiveness and efficiency. This research is the first in Egypt to apply the re-engineering approach to public health systems. Developing user-friendly models for service improvement is an added value.

  4. Bounds on the number of bound states in the transfer matrix spectrum for some weakly correlated lattice models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Carroll, Michael [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada e Estatistica, ICMC-USP, C.P. 668,13560-970 Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    We consider the interaction of particles in weakly correlated lattice quantum field theories. In the imaginary time functional integral formulation of these theories there is a relative coordinate lattice Schroedinger operator H which approximately describes the interaction of these particles. Scalar and vector spin, QCD and Gross-Neveu models are included in these theories. In the weakly correlated regime H=H{sub o}+W where H{sub o}=-{gamma}{Delta}{sub l}, 0 < {gamma} Much-Less-Than 1 and {Delta}{sub l} is the d-dimensional lattice Laplacian: {gamma}={beta}, the inverse temperature for spin systems and {gamma}={kappa}{sup 3} where {kappa} is the hopping parameter for QCD. W is a self-adjoint potential operator which may have non-local contributions but obeys the bound Double-Vertical-Line W(x, y) Double-Vertical-Line Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To cexp ( -a( Double-Vertical-Line x Double-Vertical-Line + Double-Vertical-Line y Double-Vertical-Line )), a large: exp-a={beta}/{beta}{sub o}{sup (1/2)}({kappa}/{kappa}{sub o}) for spin (QCD) models. H{sub o}, W, and H act in l{sub 2}(Z{sup d}), d Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 1. The spectrum of H below zero is known to be discrete and we obtain bounds on the number of states below zero. This number depends on the short range properties of W, i.e., the long range tail does not increase the number of states.

  5. Data-driven optimizations for model checking of multi-valued regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streck, Adam; Thobe, Kirsten; Siebert, Heike

    2016-11-01

    The model checking method has been long since established as an important tool for modelling and reverse engineering of biological systems. However, due to a high complexity of both the method and the biological systems, this approach often requires a vast amount of computational resources. In this article we show that by reducing the expressivity of the method we can gain performance while still being able to use all biologically relevant data. We utilize this approach to conduct a study of mutations in the EGFR signalling, motivated by a paper from Klinger et al. (2013). Here we aim at constructing approximated models of multiple cell-lines from sizeable sets of experimental data. Due to cancerous mutations in each cell line, there is a high degree of parameter uncertainty and the study would not be practically tractable without the performance optimizations described here. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Model Checking Artificial Intelligence Based Planners: Even the Best Laid Plans Must Be Verified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Margaret H.; Holzmann, Gerard J.; Cucullu, Gordon C., III; Smith, Benjamin D.

    2005-01-01

    Automated planning systems (APS) are gaining acceptance for use on NASA missions as evidenced by APS flown On missions such as Orbiter and Deep Space 1 both of which were commanded by onboard planning systems. The planning system takes high level goals and expands them onboard into a detailed of action fiat the spacecraft executes. The system must be verified to ensure that the automatically generated plans achieve the goals as expected and do not generate actions that would harm the spacecraft or mission. These systems are typically tested using empirical methods. Formal methods, such as model checking, offer exhaustive or measurable test coverage which leads to much greater confidence in correctness. This paper describes a formal method based on the SPIN model checker. This method guarantees that possible plans meet certain desirable properties. We express the input model in Promela, the language of SPIN and express the properties of desirable plans formally.

  7. Using cumulative sums of martingale residuals for model checking in nested case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgan, Ørnulf; Zhang, Ying

    2015-09-01

    Standard use of Cox regression requires collection of covariate information for all individuals in a cohort even when only a small fraction of them experiences the event of interest (fail). This may be very expensive for large cohorts. Further in biomarker studies, it will imply a waste of valuable biological material that one may want to save for future studies. A nested case-control study offers a useful alternative. For this design, covariate information is only needed for the failing individuals (cases) and a sample of controls selected from the cases' at-risk sets. Methods based on martingale residuals are useful for checking the fit of Cox's regression model for cohort data. But similar methods have so far not been developed for nested case-control data. In this article, it is described how one may define martingale residuals for nested case-control data, and it is shown how plots and tests based on cumulative sums of martingale residuals may be used to check model fit. The plots and tests may be obtained using available software. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  8. Upper Higgs boson mass bounds from a chirally invariant lattice Higgs-Yukawa Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerhold, P. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC/DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Jansen, K. [John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC/DESY, Zeuthen (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    We establish the cutoff-dependent upper Higgs boson mass bound by means of direct lattice computations in the framework of a chirally invariant lattice Higgs-Yukawa model emulating the same chiral Yukawa coupling structure as in the Higgs-fermion sector of the Standard Model. As expected from the triviality picture of the Higgs sector, we observe the upper mass bound to decrease with rising cutoff parameter {lambda}. Moreover, the strength of the fermionic contribution to the upper mass bound is explored by comparing to the corresponding analysis in the pure {phi}{sup 4}-theory. (orig.)

  9. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 229 - Model Availability Policy Disclosures, Clauses, and Notices; Model Substitute Check Policy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Longer Delays May Apply Funds you deposit by check may be delayed for a longer period under the following..., not $100 from each category of check. Longer Delays May Apply Funds you deposit by check may be... $100 from each category of check. Longer Delays May Apply Funds you deposit by check may be delayed for...

  10. A new numerical scheme for bounding acceleration in the LWR model

    OpenAIRE

    LECLERCQ, L; ELSEVIER

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the numerical resolution of bounded acceleration extensions of the LWR model. Two different manners for bounding accelerations in the LWR model will be presented: introducing a moving boundary condition in front of an accelerating flow or defining a field of constraints on the maximum allowed speed in the (x,t) plane. Both extensions lead to the same solutions if the declining branch of the fundamental diagram is linear. The existing numerical scheme for the latter exte...

  11. Tools for model-independent bounds in direct dark matter searches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirelli, M.; Del Nobile, E.; Panci, P.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss a framework (based on non-relativistic operators) and a self-contained set of numerical tools to derive the bounds from some current direct detection experiments on virtually any arbitrary model of Dark Matter elastically scattering on nuclei.......We discuss a framework (based on non-relativistic operators) and a self-contained set of numerical tools to derive the bounds from some current direct detection experiments on virtually any arbitrary model of Dark Matter elastically scattering on nuclei....

  12. Intelligently deciphering unintelligible designs: algorithmic algebraic model checking in systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Bud

    2009-07-06

    Systems biology, as a subject, has captured the imagination of both biologists and systems scientists alike. But what is it? This review provides one researcher's somewhat idiosyncratic view of the subject, but also aims to persuade young scientists to examine the possible evolution of this subject in a rich historical context. In particular, one may wish to read this review to envision a subject built out of a consilience of many interesting concepts from systems sciences, logic and model theory, and algebra, culminating in novel tools, techniques and theories that can reveal deep principles in biology--seen beyond mere observations. A particular focus in this review is on approaches embedded in an embryonic program, dubbed 'algorithmic algebraic model checking', and its powers and limitations.

  13. A material optimization model to approximate energy bounds for cellular materials under multiload conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guedes, J.M.; Rodrigues, H.C.; Bendsøe, Martin P.

    2003-01-01

    bounds within this class of composites. A comparison of the computational results with the globally optimal bounds given via rank-N layered composites illustrates the behaviour for tension and shear load situations, as well as the importance of considering the shape of the basic unit cell as part......This paper describes a computational model, based on inverse homogenization and topology design, for approximating energy bounds for two-phase composites under multiple load cases. The approach allows for the identification of possible single-scale cellular materials that give rise to the optimal...

  14. Surface-bounded growth modeling applied to human mandibles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Per Rønsholt

    1999-01-01

    to yield a spatially dense field. Different methods for constructing the sparse field are compared. Adaptive Gaussian smoothing is the preferred method since it is parameter free and yields good results in practice. A new method, geometry-constrained diffusion, is used to simplify The most successful...... growth model is linear and based on results from shape analysis and principal component analysis. The growth model is tested in a cross validation study with good results. The worst case mean modeling error in the cross validation study is 3.7 mm. It occurs when modeling the shape and size of a 12 years...

  15. Enabling model checking for collaborative process analysis: from BPMN to `Network of Timed Automata'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallek, Sihem; Daclin, Nicolas; Chapurlat, Vincent; Vallespir, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Interoperability is a prerequisite for partners involved in performing collaboration. As a consequence, the lack of interoperability is now considered a major obstacle. The research work presented in this paper aims to develop an approach that allows specifying and verifying a set of interoperability requirements to be satisfied by each partner in the collaborative process prior to process implementation. To enable the verification of these interoperability requirements, it is necessary first and foremost to generate a model of the targeted collaborative process; for this research effort, the standardised language BPMN 2.0 is used. Afterwards, a verification technique must be introduced, and model checking is the preferred option herein. This paper focuses on application of the model checker UPPAAL in order to verify interoperability requirements for the given collaborative process model. At first, this step entails translating the collaborative process model from BPMN into a UPPAAL modelling language called 'Network of Timed Automata'. Second, it becomes necessary to formalise interoperability requirements into properties with the dedicated UPPAAL language, i.e. the temporal logic TCTL.

  16. Surface-bounded growth modeling applied to human mandibles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Per Rønsholt; Brookstein, F. L.; Conradsen, Knut

    2000-01-01

    automatically using shape features and a new algorithm called geometry-constrained diffusion. The semilandmarks are mapped into Procrustes space. Principal component analysis extracts a one-dimensional subspace, which is used to construct a linear growth model. The worst case mean modeling error in a cross...

  17. Dynamic modelling of check valves in shipping terminals; Modelagem dinamica de valvulas de retencao em terminais maritimos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Luis F.G.; Barreto, Claudio V.; Sarmento, Renata C. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Simulacao Termohidraulica de Dutos (SIMDUT)

    2005-07-01

    As usual a shipping terminal contains a header and its diameter is smaller than the main pipeline diameter. This diameter reduction amplifies the effects caused by hydraulic transients. It was noticed during simulations that check valves without dynamic modeling may introduce some error in the maximum pressure results without a dynamic model approach. The current paper uses commercial pipeline simulation software to model the dynamic behavior of the check valves. It was studied the header diameter influence and how the check valve model type may change the maximum pressure in the pipeline. It was proved that even a pipeline that works with low pressure and small elevation drop needs a detailed valve modeling to prevent the calculation of unreal pressure values in the region with diameter reduction. (author)

  18. Verification of communication protocols in web services model-checking service compositions

    CERN Document Server

    Tari, Zahir; Mukherjee, Anshuman

    2014-01-01

    Gathers recent advancements in the field of self-organizing wireless sensor networks and provides readers with the essential, state-of-the-art information about sensor networking. In the near future, wireless sensor networks will become an integral part of our day-to-day life. To solve different sensor networking related issues, researchers have put a great deal of effort into coming up with innovative ideas. Verification of Communication Protocols in Web Services: Model-Checking Service Compositions gathers recent advancements in the field of self-organizing wireless sensor networks and provides readers with integral information about sensor networking. It introduces current technological trends, particularly in node organization, and provides implementation details of each networking type to help readers set up sensor networks in their related job fields. In addition, it identifies the limitations of current technologies, as well as future research directions.

  19. Mass media and polarisation processes in the bounded confidence model of opinion dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    McKeown, Gary; Sheehy, Noel

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a social simulation in which we add an additional layer of mass media communication to the social network 'bounded confidence' model of Deffuant et al (2000). A population of agents on a lattice with continuous opinions and bounded confidence adjust their opinions on the basis of binary social network interactions between neighbours or communication with a fixed opinion. There are two mechanisms for interaction. 'Social interaction' occurs between neighbours on a lattice a...

  20. Analyzing resilience properties in oscillatory biological systems using parametric model checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreychenko, Alexander; Magnin, Morgan; Inoue, Katsumi

    2016-11-01

    Automated verification of living organism models allows us to gain previously unknown knowledge about underlying biological processes. In this paper we show how parametric time model checking can be applied to define the time behavior of biological oscillatory systems more precisely. In particular, we focus on the resilience properties of such systems. This notion was introduced to understand the behavior of biological systems (e.g. the mammalian circadian rhythm) that are reactive and adaptive enough to endorse major changes in their environment (e.g. jet-lags, day-night alternating work-time). We formalize these properties through parametric TCTL and investigate the influence of environmental conditions changes on the resilience of living organisms under the uncertainty in parameters. In particular, we discuss the influence of various perturbations, e.g. artificial jet-lag or components knock-out on the parameters controlling the oscillatory behavior. This analysis is crucial when it comes to model elicitation for dynamic biological systems. We demonstrate the applicability of this technique using a simplified model of circadian clock and discuss its results with regard to other previous studies based on hybrid modeling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fluid Petri Nets and hybrid model-checking: a comparative case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gribaudo, M.; Horvath, A.; Bobbio, A.; Tronci, E.; Ciancamerla, E.; Minichino, M

    2003-09-01

    The modeling and analysis of hybrid systems is a recent and challenging research area which is actually dominated by two main lines: a functional analysis based on the description of the system in terms of discrete state (hybrid) automata (whose goal is to ascertain conformity and reachability properties), and a stochastic analysis (whose aim is to provide performance and dependability measures). This paper investigates a unifying view between formal methods and stochastic methods by proposing an analysis methodology of hybrid systems based on Fluid Petri Nets (FPNs). FPNs can be analyzed directly using appropriate tools. Our paper shows that the same FPN model can be fed to different functional analyzers for model checking. In order to extensively explore the capability of the technique, we have converted the original FPN into languages for discrete as well as hybrid as well as stochastic model checkers. In this way, a first comparison among the modeling power of well known tools can be carried out. Our approach is illustrated by means of a 'real world' hybrid system: the temperature control system of a co-generative plant.

  2. Bounded Rationality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ballester Pla, Coralio; Hernández, Penélope

    2012-01-01

    The observation of the actual behavior by economic decision makers in the lab and in the field justifies that bounded rationality has been a generally accepted assumption in many socio-economic models...

  3. Boson bound states in the β-Fermi–Pasta–Ulam model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    paper, we report our results on boson bound states (BBS) in the β-FPU model. The paper is organized as follows. In §2, we first describe the model and introduce the quantization scheme, then, at 4-quanta level, we introduce the basis we used to diagonalize the effective. Hamiltonian. The energy spectrum of the model at ...

  4. Bounding the $\

    CERN Document Server

    Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A

    2003-01-01

    A bound on the nu /sup tau / magnetic moment is calculated through the reaction e/sup +/e/sup -/ to nu nu gamma at the Z/sub 1/-pole, and in the framework of a left-right symmetric model at LEP energies. We find that the bound is almost independent of the mixing angle phi of the model in the allowed experimental range for this parameter. (31 refs).

  5. Lower bound plane stress element for modelling 3D structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herfelt, Morten Andersen; Poulsen, Peter Noe; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2017-01-01

    In-plane action is often the primary load-carrying mechanism of reinforced concrete structures. The plate bending action will be secondary, and the behaviour of the structure can be modelled with a reasonable accuracy using a generalised three-dimensional plane stress element. In this paper...

  6. The Calculation and Use of Confidence Bounds in POD Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Floyd W.

    2007-03-01

    At a qualitative level the calculation of a statistical confidence interval for a quantity X is an attempt to answer the question: "How variable could X have been and still be consistent with the data that have been observed?" Models used in POD estimation fit an entire curve to the data in hand. However, the quantity of interest, X(p), is often a single point on the curve, such as the flaw size for which the probability of detection is equal to p. In order to make a confidence statement about X(p) the uncertainty about the parameter estimates are translated to the uncertainty about X(p). Often the calculation is made for each p and the results displayed as a curve. Curves derived in such a manner are not themselves POD-curves, although often interpreted as such. In this paper the most often recommended method in the statistical literature, based on likelihoods, are presented. It is shown that the methodology extends naturally to models incorporating additional parameters to model specific POD behaviors.

  7. Ultrasonic Modeling of Bounded Beam Reflection from Anisotropic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, D. R.; Malehmir, R.; Kazemi, N.

    2016-12-01

    In this contribution, we try to physically model and understand the physics behind directional dependency of reflectivity from an anisotropic medium as a test of existing theory. One aspect of this is to motivate researchers to look beyond the simplifying assumptions that have been widely employed in the analysis of azimuthally varying seismic reflectivity. To do this, we are making laboratory measurements of the acoustic reflectivity from an orthorhombic medium cut at a variety of orientations in order to expose surfaces with differing anisotropy. The laboratory experiments employ a large aperture transmitter and a small, near-point-source, receiver placed within a goniometer that allows for rotation of the transducers and of the sample, this system was developed in earlier studies of reflectivity from porous media. This enables us to measure reflectivity from any azimuth and over a large range of incidence angles. We used Aluminum with known elastic properties for calibration and comparing the reflectivity results with Zoepprtiz solution. The successful correlation with reflectivity data enables us to go one step ahead and replace the sample with any anisotropic sample. The samples are machined from a `phenolic' material created with fibre cloth layers embedded within an epoxy resin, this material is known to be weakly orthorhombic. Blocks fo this material are cut such that the reflecting surfaces lie at a variety of angles with respect to the layering. These results suggest that some care should be employed in azimuthal seismic studies as it may be difficult to detect the differences in the reflectivity before the P-wave critical angle. However, this critical angle displays substantial change with azimuth and may provide important information for seismic investigations.The reflectivity variations are being modelled using a code called ARTc (Anisotropic Reflection and Transmission code) that provides the plane-wave reflectivity and transmissivity for the general

  8. Reasoning the fast and frugal way: models of bounded rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigerenzer, G; Goldstein, D G

    1996-10-01

    Humans and animals make inferences about the world under limited time and knowledge. In contrast, many models of rational inference treat the mind as a Laplacean Demon, equipped with unlimited time, knowledge, and computational might. Following H. Simon's notion of satisfying, the authors have proposed a family of algorithms based on a simple psychological mechanism: one-reason decision making. These fast and frugal algorithms violate fundamental tenets of classical rationality: They neither look up nor integrate all information. By computer simulation, the authors held a competition between the satisfying "Take The Best" algorithm and various "rational" inference procedures (e.g., multiple regression). The Take The Best algorithm matched or outperformed all competitors in inferential speed and accuracy. This result in an existence proof that cognitive mechanisms capable of successful performance in the real world do not need to satisfy the classical norms of rational inference.

  9. A return to the traveling salesman model: a network branch and bound approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Munapo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a network branch and bound approach for solving the traveling salesman problem. The problem is broken into sub-problems, each of which is solved as a minimum spanning tree model. This is easier to solve than either the linear programming-based or assignment models.

  10. Simulation Modeling of a Check-in and Medication Reconciliation Ambulatory Clinic Kiosk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake Lesselroth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gaps in information about patient medication adherence may contribute to preventable adverse drug events and patient harm. Hence, health-quality advocacy groups, including the Joint Commission, have called for the implementation of standardized processes to collect and compare patient medication lists. This manuscript describes the implementation of a self-service patient kiosk intended to check in patients for a clinic appointment and collect a medication adherence history, which is then available through the electronic health record. We used business process engineering and simulation modeling to analyze existing workflow, evaluate technology impact on clinic throughput, and predict future infrastructure needs. Our empiric data indicated that a multi-function healthcare kiosk offers a feasible platform to collect medical history data. Furthermore, our simulation model showed a non-linear association between patient arrival rate, kiosk number, and estimated patient wait times. This study provides important data to help administrators and healthcare executives predict infrastructure needs when considering the use of self-service kiosks.

  11. Speeding-up the Fitting of the Model Defining the Ribs-bounded Contour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilinskas Mykolas J.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The method for analysing transversal plane images from computer tomography scans is considered in the paper. This method allows not only approximating ribs-bounded contour but also evaluating patient rotation around the vertical axis during a scan. In this method, a mathematical model describing the ribs-bounded contour was created and the problem of approximation has been solved by finding the optimal parameters of the mathematical model using least-squares-type objective function. The local search has been per-formed using local descent by quasi-Newton methods. The benefits of analytical derivatives of the function are disclosed in the paper.

  12. The Ability for Posterior Predictive Checking to Identify Model Misspecification in Bayesian Growth Mixture Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depaoli, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Proper model specification is an issue for researchers, regardless of the estimation framework being utilized. Typically, indexes are used to compare the fit of one model to the fit of an alternate model. These indexes only provide an indication of relative fit and do not necessarily point toward proper model specification. There is a procedure in…

  13. Predicting sickness absence-are extended health check-ups of any value? Comparisons of three individual risk models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, Anna; Nyfjäll, Mats; Bildt, Carina; Vingård, Eva

    2009-01-01

    To predict sickness absence by three health check-up models. A study group of 821 participants from the public sector in Sweden where three health check-up models were compared 1) the limited variable model including smoking, body mass index, blood pressure, and cholesterol, 2) the several variable model including smoking, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, relation between low density lipoproteins and high density lipoproteins, serum triglycerides, and fitness test, and 3) Self-rated health measured by one single question. Sickness absence data during 1 year was delivered from the employer. The three models served their purpose to predict sickness absence. The self-rated health-model with one single question has as good quality in predestination as more complicated models. This may have an implication for cost-effective procedures in occupational health services.

  14. Shell-model description of weakly bound and unbound nuclear states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, N. [University of Tennessee, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Physics Division, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nazarewicz, W. [University of Tennessee, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Physics Division, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Warsaw University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Ploszajczak, M.; Rotureau, J. [CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), Caen (France)

    2005-09-01

    A consistent description of weakly bound and unbound nuclei requires an accurate description of the particle continuum properties when carrying out multiconfiguration mixing. This is the domain of the Gamow Shell Model (GSM) which is the multiconfigurational shell model in the complex k-plane formulated using a complete Berggren ensemble representing bound single-particle (s.p.) states, s.p. resonances, and non-resonant complex energy continuum states. We discuss the salient features of effective interactions in weakly bound systems and show selected applications of the GSM formalism to p-shell nuclei. Finally, a development of the new non-perturbative scheme based on Density Matrix Renormalization Group methods to select the most significant continuum configurations in GSM calculations is discussed shortly. (orig.)

  15. Design and analysis of DNA strand displacement devices using probabilistic model checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakin, Matthew R; Parker, David; Cardelli, Luca; Kwiatkowska, Marta; Phillips, Andrew

    2012-07-07

    Designing correct, robust DNA devices is difficult because of the many possibilities for unwanted interference between molecules in the system. DNA strand displacement has been proposed as a design paradigm for DNA devices, and the DNA strand displacement (DSD) programming language has been developed as a means of formally programming and analysing these devices to check for unwanted interference. We demonstrate, for the first time, the use of probabilistic verification techniques to analyse the correctness, reliability and performance of DNA devices during the design phase. We use the probabilistic model checker prism, in combination with the DSD language, to design and debug DNA strand displacement components and to investigate their kinetics. We show how our techniques can be used to identify design flaws and to evaluate the merits of contrasting design decisions, even on devices comprising relatively few inputs. We then demonstrate the use of these components to construct a DNA strand displacement device for approximate majority voting. Finally, we discuss some of the challenges and possible directions for applying these methods to more complex designs.

  16. Online model checking for monitoring surrogate-based respiratory motion tracking in radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Sven-Thomas; Rinast, Jonas; Ma, Xintao; Schupp, Sibylle; Schlaefer, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Correlation between internal and external motion is critical for respiratory motion compensation in radiosurgery. Artifacts like coughing, sneezing or yawning or changes in the breathing pattern can lead to misalignment between beam and tumor and need to be detected to interrupt the treatment. We propose online model checking (OMC), a model-based verification approach from the field of formal methods, to verify that the breathing motion is regular and the correlation holds. We demonstrate that OMC may be more suitable for artifact detection than the prediction error. We established a sinusoidal model to apply OMC to the verification of respiratory motion. The method was parameterized to detect deviations from typical breathing motion. We analyzed the performance on synthetic data and on clinical episodes showing large correlation error. In comparison, we considered the prediction error of different state-of-the-art methods based on least mean squares (LMS; normalized LMS, nLMS; wavelet-based multiscale autoregression, wLMS), recursive least squares (RLSpred) and support vector regression (SVRpred). On synthetic data, OMC outperformed wLMS by at least 30 % and SVRpred by at least 141 %, detecting 70 % of transitions. No artifacts were detected by nLMS and RLSpred. On patient data, OMC detected 23-49 % of the episodes correctly, outperforming nLMS, wLMS, RLSpred and SVRpred by up to 544, 491, 408 and 258 %, respectively. On selected episodes, OMC detected up to 94 % of all events. OMC is able to detect changes in breathing as well as artifacts which previously would have gone undetected, outperforming prediction error-based detection. Synthetic data analysis supports the assumption that prediction is very insensitive to specific changes in breathing. We suggest using OMC as an additional safety measure ensuring reliable and fast stopping of irradiation.

  17. Frequency Weighted Model Order Reduction Technique and Error Bounds for Discrete Time Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran

    2014-01-01

    for whole frequency range. However, certain applications (like controller reduction require frequency weighted approximation, which introduce the concept of using frequency weights in model reduction techniques. Limitations of some existing frequency weighted model reduction techniques include lack of stability of reduced order models (for two sided weighting case and frequency response error bounds. A new frequency weighted technique for balanced model reduction for discrete time systems is proposed. The proposed technique guarantees stable reduced order models even for the case when two sided weightings are present. Efficient technique for frequency weighted Gramians is also proposed. Results are compared with other existing frequency weighted model reduction techniques for discrete time systems. Moreover, the proposed technique yields frequency response error bounds.

  18. Colored and dissipative continuous spontaneous localization model and bounds from matter-wave interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toroš, Marko; Gasbarri, Giulio; Bassi, Angelo

    2017-12-01

    Matter-wave interferometry is a direct test of the quantum superposition principle for massive systems, and of collapse models. Here we show that the bounds placed by matter-wave interferometry depend weakly on the details of the collapse mechanism. Specifically, we compute the bounds on the CSL model and its variants, provided by the KDTL interferometry experiment of Arndt's group (Eibenberger et al. (2013) [3]), which currently holds the record of largest mass in interferometry. We also show that the CSL family of models emerges naturally by considering a minimal set of assumptions. In particular, we construct the dynamical map for the colored and dissipative Continuous Spontaneous Localization (cdCSL) model, which reduces to the CSL model and variants in the appropriate limits. In addition, we discuss the measure of macroscopicity based on the cdCSL model.

  19. Path-Constrained Markov Decision Processes: bridging the gap between probabilistic model-checking and decision-theoretic planning.

    OpenAIRE

    Teichteil-Königsbuch, Florent

    2012-01-01

    Markov Decision Processes (MDPs) are a popular model for planning under probabilistic uncertainties. The solution of an MDP is a policy represented as a controlled Markov chain, whose complex properties on execution paths can be automatically validated using stochastic model-checking techniques. In this paper, we propose a new theoretical model, named Path-Constrained Markov Decision Processes: it allows system designers to directly optimize safe policies in a single design pass, whose possib...

  20. Boson bound states in the β-Fermi–Pasta–Ulam model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The bound states of four bosons in the quantum -Fermi–Pasta–Ulam model are investigated and some interesting results are presented using the number conserving approximation combined with the number state method. We find that the relative magnitude of anharmonic coefficient has a significant effect on forming ...

  1. Using dynamical uncertainty models estimating uncertainty bounds on power plant performance prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Mataji, B.

    2007-01-01

    Predicting the performance of large scale plants can be difficult due to model uncertainties etc, meaning that one can be almost certain that the prediction will diverge from the plant performance with time. In this paper output multiplicative uncertainty models are used as dynamical models of th...... models, is applied to two different sets of measured plant data. The computed uncertainty bounds cover the measured plant output, while the nominal prediction is outside these uncertainty bounds for some samples in these examples.  ......Predicting the performance of large scale plants can be difficult due to model uncertainties etc, meaning that one can be almost certain that the prediction will diverge from the plant performance with time. In this paper output multiplicative uncertainty models are used as dynamical models...... of the prediction error. These proposed dynamical uncertainty models result in an upper and lower bound on the predicted performance of the plant. The dynamical uncertainty models are used to estimate the uncertainty of the predicted performance of a coal-fired power plant. The proposed scheme, which uses dynamical...

  2. New bound on low reheating temperature for dark matter in models with early matter domination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki-Young; Takahashi, Tomo

    2017-08-01

    We investigate a new bound on the low reheating temperature in a scenario where the Universe experiences early matter domination before reheating after which the standard big bang cosmology begins. In many models of dark matter (DM), the small scale fluctuations of DM grow during the early matter-domination era and seed the formation of the ultracompact minihalos (UCMHs). Using the constraints on the number of UCMHs from gamma-ray observations, we find a lower bound on the reheating temperature between O (10 )-O (100 ) MeV for WIMP dark matter depending on the nature of DM. A similar bound could be obtained for non-WIMP dark matter by observing UCMHs gravitationally such as pulsar timing, microlensing and so on, in some future observations.

  3. A Rough Set Bounded Spatially Constrained Asymmetric Gaussian Mixture Model for Image Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zexuan; Huang, Yubo; Sun, Quansen; Cao, Guo; Zheng, Yuhui

    2017-01-01

    Accurate image segmentation is an important issue in image processing, where Gaussian mixture models play an important part and have been proven effective. However, most Gaussian mixture model (GMM) based methods suffer from one or more limitations, such as limited noise robustness, over-smoothness for segmentations, and lack of flexibility to fit data. In order to address these issues, in this paper, we propose a rough set bounded asymmetric Gaussian mixture model with spatial constraint for image segmentation. First, based on our previous work where each cluster is characterized by three automatically determined rough-fuzzy regions, we partition the target image into three rough regions with two adaptively computed thresholds. Second, a new bounded indicator function is proposed to determine the bounded support regions of the observed data. The bounded indicator and posterior probability of a pixel that belongs to each sub-region is estimated with respect to the rough region where the pixel lies. Third, to further reduce over-smoothness for segmentations, two novel prior factors are proposed that incorporate the spatial information among neighborhood pixels, which are constructed based on the prior and posterior probabilities of the within- and between-clusters, and considers the spatial direction. We compare our algorithm to state-of-the-art segmentation approaches in both synthetic and real images to demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed algorithm.

  4. Existence and Uniqueness of Positive and Bounded Solutions of a Discrete Population Model with Fractional Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Macías-Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We depart from the well-known one-dimensional Fisher’s equation from population dynamics and consider an extension of this model using Riesz fractional derivatives in space. Positive and bounded initial-boundary data are imposed on a closed and bounded domain, and a fully discrete form of this fractional initial-boundary-value problem is provided next using fractional centered differences. The fully discrete population model is implicit and linear, so a convenient vector representation is readily derived. Under suitable conditions, the matrix representing the implicit problem is an inverse-positive matrix. Using this fact, we establish that the discrete population model is capable of preserving the positivity and the boundedness of the discrete initial-boundary conditions. Moreover, the computational solubility of the discrete model is tackled in the closing remarks.

  5. Mass and charge conservation check in dynamic models: application to the new ADM1 model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gracia, M; Sancho, L; García-Heras, J L; Vanrolleghem, P; Ayesa, E

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a systematic methodology for the analysis of the mass and charge balances in dynamic models expressed using the Petersen matrix notation. This methodology is based on the definition of the model components via elemental mass fractions and in the estimation of the COD as a function of the redox equations associated with these elements. This approach makes the automatic calculation of all the stoichiometric coefficients under different measuring units and the study of COD, charge or mass fluxes easier. As an example of its application this methodology was applied to the ADM1 in order to illustrate its usefulness for the analysis of organic matter characterisation, nitrogen release or biogas composition in anaerobic digestion. The application of the methodology for a rigorous integration of different IWA models is proposed for further study.

  6. Upper Bounds on the Degeneracy of the Ground State in Quantum Field Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asao Arai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Axiomatic abstract formulations are presented to derive upper bounds on the degeneracy of the ground state in quantum field models including massless ones. In particular, given is a sufficient condition under which the degeneracy of the ground state of the perturbed Hamiltonian is less than or equal to the degeneracy of the ground state of the unperturbed one. Applications of the abstract theory to models in quantum field theory are outlined.

  7. Model Checking for a Class of Performance Properties of Fluid Stochastic Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, L.M.; Bujorianu, M.C.; Horváth, A.; Telek, M.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, there is an explosive development of fluid approa- ches to computer and distributed systems. These approaches are inherently stochastic and generate continuous state space models. Usually, the performance measures for these systems are defined using probabilities of reaching certain sets

  8. Tetraquark bound states and resonances in a unitary microscopic quark model: A case study of bound states of two light quarks and two heavy antiquarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicudo, P.; Cardoso, M.

    2016-11-01

    We address q q Q ¯Q ¯ exotic tetraquark bound states and resonances with a fully unitarized and microscopic quark model. We propose a triple string flip-flop potential, inspired by lattice QCD tetraquark static potentials and flux tubes, combining meson-meson and double Y potentials. Our model includes the color excited potential, but neglects the spin-tensor potentials, as well as all the other relativistic effects. To search for bound states and resonances, we first solve the two-body mesonic problem. Then we develop fully unitary techniques to address the four-body tetraquark problem. We fold the four-body Schrödinger equation with the mesonic wave functions, transforming it into a two-body meson-meson problem with nonlocal potentials. We find bound states for some quark masses, including the one reported in lattice QCD. Moreover, we also find resonances and calculate their masses and widths, by computing the T matrix and finding its pole positions in the complex energy plane, for some quantum numbers. However, a detailed analysis of the quantum numbers where binding exists shows a discrepancy with recent lattice QCD results for the l l b ¯ b ¯ tetraquark bound states. We conclude that the string flip-flop models need further improvement.

  9. Improved bounds on the epidemic threshold of exact SIS models on complex networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ruhi, Navid Azizan

    2017-01-05

    The SIS (susceptible-infected-susceptible) epidemic model on an arbitrary network, without making approximations, is a 2n-state Markov chain with a unique absorbing state (the all-healthy state). This makes analysis of the SIS model and, in particular, determining the threshold of epidemic spread quite challenging. It has been shown that the exact marginal probabilities of infection can be upper bounded by an n-dimensional linear time-invariant system, a consequence of which is that the Markov chain is “fast-mixing” when the LTI system is stable, i.e. when equation (where β is the infection rate per link, δ is the recovery rate, and λmax(A) is the largest eigenvalue of the network\\'s adjacency matrix). This well-known threshold has been recently shown not to be tight in several cases, such as in a star network. In this paper, we provide tighter upper bounds on the exact marginal probabilities of infection, by also taking pairwise infection probabilities into account. Based on this improved bound, we derive tighter eigenvalue conditions that guarantee fast mixing (i.e., logarithmic mixing time) of the chain. We demonstrate the improvement of the threshold condition by comparing the new bound with the known one on various networks with various epidemic parameters.

  10. Bounds on the Higgs mass in the standard model and the minimal supersymmetric standard model

    CERN Document Server

    Quiros, M.

    1995-01-01

    Depending on the Higgs-boson and top-quark masses, M_H and M_t, the effective potential of the {\\bf Standard Model} can develop a non-standard minimum for values of the field much larger than the weak scale. In those cases the standard minimum becomes metastable and the possibility of decay to the non-standard one arises. Comparison of the decay rate to the non-standard minimum at finite (and zero) temperature with the corresponding expansion rate of the Universe allows to identify the region, in the (M_H, M_t) plane, where the Higgs field is sitting at the standard electroweak minimum. In the {\\bf Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model}, approximate analytical expressions for the Higgs mass spectrum and couplings are worked out, providing an excellent approximation to the numerical results which include all next-to-leading-log corrections. An appropriate treatment of squark decoupling allows to consider large values of the stop and/or sbottom mixing parameters and thus fix a reliable upper bound on the mass o...

  11. Bound states in a model of interaction of Dirac field with material plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pismak Yu. M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the Symanzik approach model of the interaction of the Dirac spinor field with the material plane in the 3 + 1-dimensional space is constructed. The model contains eight real parameters characterizing the properties of the material plane. The general solution of the Euler-Lagrange equations of the model and dispersion equations for bound states are analyzed. It is shown that there is a choice of parameters of the model in which the connected states are characterized by dispersion law of a mass-less particle moving along the material plane with the dimensionless Fermi velocity not exceeding one.

  12. Upper bound on the gluino mass in supersymmetric models with extra matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Moroi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the upper bound on the gluino mass in supersymmetric models with vector-like extra matters. In order to realize the observed Higgs mass of 125 GeV, the gluino mass is bounded from above in supersymmetric models. With the existence of the vector-like extra matters at around TeV, we show that such an upper bound on the gluino mass is significantly reduced compared to the case of minimal supersymmetric standard model. This is due to the fact that radiatively generated stop masses as well the stop trilinear coupling are enhanced in the presence of the vector-like multiplets. In a wide range of parameter space of the model with extra matters, particularly with sizable tan⁡β (which is the ratio of the vacuum expectation values of the two Higgs bosons, the gluino is required to be lighter than ∼3 TeV, which is likely to be within the reach of forthcoming LHC experiment.

  13. Strongest model-independent bound on the lifetime of Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Audren, Benjamin; Mangano, Gianpiero; Serpico, Pasquale Dario; Tram, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Dark Matter is essential for structure formation in the late Universe so it must be stable on cosmological time scales. But how stable exactly? Only assuming decays into relativistic particles, we report an otherwise model independent bound on the lifetime of Dark Matter using current cosmological data. Since these decays affect only the low-$\\ell$ multipoles of the CMB, the Dark Matter lifetime is expected to correlate with the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$ as well as curvature $\\Omega_k$. We consider two models, including $r$ and $r+\\Omega_k$ respectively, versus data from Planck, WMAP, WiggleZ and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations, with or without the BICEP2 data (if interpreted in terms of primordial gravitational waves). This results in a lower bound on the lifetime of CDM given by 160Gyr (without BICEP2) or 200Gyr (with BICEP2) at 95% confidence level.

  14. An Improved Upper Bound for the Critical Probability of the Frog Model on Homogeneous Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebensztayn, Élcio; Machado, Fábio P.; Popov, Serguei

    2005-04-01

    We study the frog model on homogeneous trees, a discrete time system of simple symmetric random walks whose description is as follows. There are active and inactive particles living on the vertices. Each active particle performs a simple symmetric random walk having a geometrically distributed random lifetime with parameter (1 - p). When an active particle hits an inactive particle, the latter becomes active. We obtain an improved upper bound for the critical parameter for having indefinite survival of active particles, in the case of one-particle-per-vertex initial configuration. The main tool is to construct a class of branching processes which are dominated by the frog model and analyze their supercritical behavior. This approach allows us also to present an upper bound for the critical probability in the case of random initial configuration.

  15. Open Systems with Error Bounds: Spin-Boson Model with Spectral Density Variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascherpa, F; Smirne, A; Huelga, S F; Plenio, M B

    2017-03-10

    In the study of open quantum systems, one of the most common ways to describe environmental effects on the reduced dynamics is through the spectral density. However, in many models this object cannot be computed from first principles and needs to be inferred on phenomenological grounds or fitted to experimental data. Consequently, some uncertainty regarding its form and parameters is unavoidable; this in turn calls into question the accuracy of any theoretical predictions based on a given spectral density. Here, we focus on the spin-boson model as a prototypical open quantum system, find two error bounds on predicted expectation values in terms of the spectral density variation considered, and state a sufficient condition for the strongest one to apply. We further demonstrate an application of our result, by bounding the error brought about by the approximations involved in the hierarchical equations of motion resolution method for spin-boson dynamics.

  16. On the Complexity of Model-Checking Branching and Alternating-Time Temporal Logics in One-Counter Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Steen

    2015-01-01

    We study the complexity of the model-checking problem for the branching-time logic CTL ∗  and the alternating-time temporal logics ATL/ATL ∗  in one-counter processes and one-counter games respectively. The complexity is determined for all three logics when integer weights are input in unary (non...... when we add quantitative constraints that can compare the current value of the counter with a constant....

  17. Dynamic properties of the Solow model with bounded technological progress and time-to-build technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Luca; Sodini, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a time-to-build technology in a Solow model with bounded technological progress. Our analysis shows that the system may be asymptotically stable, or it can produce stability switches and Hopf bifurcations when time delay varies. The direction and the stability criteria of the bifurcating periodic solutions are obtained by the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem. Numerical simulations confirms the theoretical results.

  18. Early LHC bound on the W{sup Prime} boson mass in the nonuniversal gauge interaction model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeong Gyun [Department of Science Education, Gwangju National University of Education, Gwangju 500-703 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang Young, E-mail: kylee14214@gmail.com [Division of Quantum Phases and Devices, School of Physics, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-05

    We study the phenomenology of the heavy charged gauge boson and obtain the lower bounds on its mass with the early LHC data at 7 TeV center-of-mass energy in the nonuniversal gauge interaction model, in which the electroweak SU(2) gauge group depends upon the fermion family. We found that the direct bound with the early data of the LHC is already better than the indirect bound on the mass of the W{sup Prime} boson.

  19. A New Boundary Model for Simulating Complex and Flexible Wall Bounded Domain in Dissipative Particle Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Mokhtarian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite extensive area of applications, simulation of complex wall bounded problems or any deformable boundary is still a challenge in a Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulation. This limitation is rooted in the soft force nature of DPD and the fact that we need to use an antipenetration model for escaped particles. In the present paper, we propose a new model of antipenetration which preserves the conservation of linear momentum on the boundaries and enables us to simulate complex and flexible boundaries. Finally by performing numerical simulations, we demonstrate the validity of our new model.

  20. Combining Theorem Proving and Model Checking in the Safety-Critical Software Development through Translating Event-B to SMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Liang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Model checking and theorem proving are two key vertification techniques in the formal method, but each has its advantages and disadvantages. In this paper, we first try to present the general model transformation rules from Event-B to SMV in order to realize complementary advantages, and then design the model converter of Event-B to SMV according to the rules. ProB is the only tool to implement Event-B model checking, but it lacks the real-time property verification, while nuXmv is able to verify temporal logic formulas with the real-time property for SMV models. After completing the model transformation, we use ProB and nuXmv to make the verification of LTL and CTL formulas for two equivalent models respectively. Compared to the experimental results, in solving the same problem, nuXmv has more advantages over memory consumption, time efficiency and so on than ProB, especially when the formula to be verified is very complex. Therefore, if complex verifications of system models need to be performed, it is necessary to implement the model transformation between Event-B and SMV by using our translation rules, which is of great significance for the development, design and verification of safety-critical system softwares.

  1. Atomistic model for excitons: Capturing Strongly Bound Excitons in Monolayer Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Frank; Simsek, Ergun; Gunlycke, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides form a direct bandgap predicted in the visible regime making them attractive host materials for various electronic and optoelectronic applications. Due to a weak dielectric screening in these materials, strongly bound electron-hole pairs or excitons have binding energies up to at least several hundred meV's. While the conventional wisdom is to think of excitons as hydrogen-like quasi-particles, we show that the hydrogen model breaks down for these experimentally observed strongly bound, room-temperature excitons. To capture these non-hydrogen-like photo-excitations, we introduce an atomistic model for excitons that predicts both bright excitons and dark excitons, and their broken degeneracy in these two-dimensional materials. For strongly bound exciton states, the lattice potential significantly distorts the envelope wave functions, which affects predicted exciton peak energies. The combination of large binding energies and non-degeneracy of exciton states in monolayer transition metal dichalogendies may furthermore be exploited in room temperature applications where prolonged exciton lifetimes are necessary. This work has been funded by the Office of Naval Research (ONR), directly and through the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). F.T and E.S acknowledge support from NRL through the NRC Research Associateship Program and ONR Summer Faculty Program, respectively.

  2. Opinion formation and distribution in a bounded-confidence model on various networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, X. Flora; Van Gorder, Robert A.; Porter, Mason A.

    2018-02-01

    In the social, behavioral, and economic sciences, it is important to predict which individual opinions eventually dominate in a large population, whether there will be a consensus, and how long it takes for a consensus to form. Such ideas have been studied heavily both in physics and in other disciplines, and the answers depend strongly both on how one models opinions and on the network structure on which opinions evolve. One model that was created to study consensus formation quantitatively is the Deffuant model, in which the opinion distribution of a population evolves via sequential random pairwise encounters. To consider heterogeneity of interactions in a population along with social influence, we study the Deffuant model on various network structures (deterministic synthetic networks, random synthetic networks, and social networks constructed from Facebook data). We numerically simulate the Deffuant model and conduct regression analyses to investigate the dependence of the time to reach steady states on various model parameters, including a confidence bound for opinion updates, the number of participating entities, and their willingness to compromise. We find that network structure and parameter values both have important effects on the convergence time and the number of steady-state opinion groups. For some network architectures, we observe that the relationship between the convergence time and model parameters undergoes a transition at a critical value of the confidence bound. For some networks, the steady-state opinion distribution also changes from consensus to multiple opinion groups at this critical value.

  3. Uncertainty Quantification of Turbulence Model Closure Coefficients for Transonic Wall-Bounded Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, John; West, Thomas; Hosder, Serhat; Rumsey, Christopher; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Kleb, William

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work was to quantify the uncertainty and sensitivity of commonly used turbulence models in Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes codes due to uncertainty in the values of closure coefficients for transonic, wall-bounded flows and to rank the contribution of each coefficient to uncertainty in various output flow quantities of interest. Specifically, uncertainty quantification of turbulence model closure coefficients was performed for transonic flow over an axisymmetric bump at zero degrees angle of attack and the RAE 2822 transonic airfoil at a lift coefficient of 0.744. Three turbulence models were considered: the Spalart-Allmaras Model, Wilcox (2006) k-w Model, and the Menter Shear-Stress Trans- port Model. The FUN3D code developed by NASA Langley Research Center was used as the flow solver. The uncertainty quantification analysis employed stochastic expansions based on non-intrusive polynomial chaos as an efficient means of uncertainty propagation. Several integrated and point-quantities are considered as uncertain outputs for both CFD problems. All closure coefficients were treated as epistemic uncertain variables represented with intervals. Sobol indices were used to rank the relative contributions of each closure coefficient to the total uncertainty in the output quantities of interest. This study identified a number of closure coefficients for each turbulence model for which more information will reduce the amount of uncertainty in the output significantly for transonic, wall-bounded flows.

  4. Electron transfer between physically bound electron donors and acceptors: a fluorescence blob model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Christine Keyes; Duhamel, Jean

    2010-11-11

    The present study reports on the applicability of the fluorescence blob model (FBM) to analyze the complex fluorescence decays obtained with DNA-intercalated ethidium bromide (EB) as it transfers an electron to copper cations bound to the DNA helix. Traditionally, the information retrieved about the electron transfer process taking place between an electron donor intercalated in DNA and an electron acceptor physically and randomly bound to DNA has been limited due to the distribution of distances that quenching can occur over, which leads to a distribution of rate constants resulting in complex fluorescence decays. These complications can be overcome by analyzing the fluorescence data with a fluorescence blob model (FBM) that allows for the study of fluorescence quenching between fluorophores and quenchers randomly spaced along a polymeric backbone. The fluorescence decays obtained for EB intercalated between two DNA base pairs (bp) as it transfers an electron to copper randomly bound to the DNA were well fit with the FBM. In the FBM analysis, electron transfer is characterized by the size of a blob in term of base pairs, N(blob), over which electron transfer occurs, as well as the rate constant of electron transfer inside a blob, k(blob). The present work demonstrates that electron transfer between intercalated EB and randomly bound copper occurs over an average distance that increases with increasing duplex length up to a duplex length of 12 bp, beyond which the distance over which electron transfer occurs remains constant with duplex length and equals 10.8 ± 0.4 bp.

  5. Gamow shell-model description of weakly bound and unbound nuclear states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, N.; Nazarewicz, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Ploszajczak, M.; Rotureau, J. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DSM- NRS/IN2P3, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 05 (France)

    2004-12-01

    Recently, the shell model in the complex k-plane (the so-called Gamow Shell Model) has been formulated using a complex Berggren ensemble representing bound single-particle states, single-particle resonances, and non-resonant continuum states. In this framework, we shall discuss binding energies and energy spectra of neutron-rich helium and lithium isotopes. The single-particle basis used is that of the Hartree-Fock potential generated self-consistently by the finite-range residual interaction. (Author) 21 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  6. The Tightness of the Kesten-Stigum Reconstruction Bound of Symmetric Model with Multiple Mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjian; Jammalamadaka, Sreenivasa Rao; Ning, Ning

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that reconstruction problems, as the interdisciplinary subject, have been studied in numerous contexts including statistical physics, information theory and computational biology, to name a few. We consider a 2q-state symmetric model, with two categories of q states in each category, and 3 transition probabilities: the probability to remain in the same state, the probability to change states but remain in the same category, and the probability to change categories. We construct a nonlinear second-order dynamical system based on this model and show that the Kesten-Stigum reconstruction bound is not tight when q ≥ 4.

  7. Wedge-Local Fields in Integrable Models with Bound States II: Diagonal S-Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadamuro, Daniela; Tanimoto, Yoh

    2017-01-01

    We construct candidates for observables in wedge-shaped regions for a class of 1+1-dimensional integrable quantum field theories with bound states whose S-matrix is diagonal, by extending our previous methods for scalar S-matrices. Examples include the Z(N)-Ising models, the A_N-affine Toda field theories and some S-matrices with CDD factors. We show that these candidate operators which are associated with elementary particles commute weakly on a dense domain. For the models with two species of particles, we can take a larger domain of weak commutativity and give an argument for the Reeh-Schlieder property.

  8. Statistical validation of engineering and scientific models : bounds, calibration, and extrapolation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowding, Kevin J.; Hills, Richard Guy (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM)

    2005-04-01

    Numerical models of complex phenomena often contain approximations due to our inability to fully model the underlying physics, the excessive computational resources required to fully resolve the physics, the need to calibrate constitutive models, or in some cases, our ability to only bound behavior. Here we illustrate the relationship between approximation, calibration, extrapolation, and model validation through a series of examples that use the linear transient convective/dispersion equation to represent the nonlinear behavior of Burgers equation. While the use of these models represents a simplification relative to the types of systems we normally address in engineering and science, the present examples do support the tutorial nature of this document without obscuring the basic issues presented with unnecessarily complex models.

  9. Modelling and experimental checking of the influence of substrate concentration on the first order kinetic constant in photo-processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, M; Murcia, M D; Gómez, E; Ortega, S; Sánchez, A; Thaikovskaya, O; Briantceva, N

    2016-12-01

    Most photoprocesses follow a pseudo first order kinetic law and, commonly, the kinetic parameter depends on the initial concentration of the substrate. In this work, a kinetic model, which explains this dependence on the substrate concentration and on the other operational variables, has been developed. In the model, mass transfer of substrate from the bulk solution to the wall of the photoreactor was assumed as the step determining the rate of the process. To check the model, methylene blue (MB) has been used as model substrate and photodegradation experiments have been carried out in an exciplex KrCl flow-through photoreactor, It was observed that the methylene blue conversion improved with a decrease in its initial concentration, in good agreement with the model. Also, by fitting the experimental data to the model, high correlation coefficients and a high degree of agreement between experimental and calculated conversion was obtained, which validates the model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. How useful are delta checks in the 21st century? A stochastic-dynamic model of specimen mix-up and detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Ovens

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Delta checks use two specimen test results taken in succession in order to detect test result changes greater than expected physiological variation. One of the most common and serious errors detected by delta checks is specimen mix-up errors. The positive and negative predictive values of delta checks for detecting specimen mix-up errors, however, are largely unknown. Materials and Methods: We addressed this question by first constructing a stochastic dynamic model using repeat test values for five analytes from approximately 8000 inpatients in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. The analytes examined were sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, and creatinine. The model simulated specimen mix-up errors by randomly switching a set number of pairs of second test results. Sensitivities and specificities were then calculated for each analyte for six combinations of delta check equations and cut-off values from the published literature. Results: Delta check specificities obtained from this model ranged from 50% to 99%; however the sensitivities were generally below 20% with the exception of creatinine for which the best performing delta check had a sensitivity of 82.8%. Within a plausible incidence range of specimen mix-ups the positive predictive values of even the best performing delta check equation and analyte became negligible. Conclusion: This finding casts doubt on the ongoing clinical utility of delta checks in the setting of low rates of specimen mix-ups.

  11. A comparison between skeleton and bounding box models for falling direction recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narupiyakul, Lalita; Srisrisawang, Nitikorn

    2017-12-01

    Falling is an injury that can lead to a serious medical condition in every range of the age of people. However, in the case of elderly, the risk of serious injury is much higher. Due to the fact that one way of preventing serious injury is to treat the fallen person as soon as possible, several works attempted to implement different algorithms to recognize the fall. Our work compares the performance of two models based on features extraction: (i) Body joint data (Skeleton Data) which are the joint's positions in 3 axes and (ii) Bounding box (Box-size Data) covering all body joints. Machine learning algorithms that were chosen are Decision Tree (DT), Naïve Bayes (NB), K-nearest neighbors (KNN), Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), Voting Classification (VC), and Gradient boosting (GB). The results illustrate that the models trained with Skeleton data are performed far better than those trained with Box-size data (with an average accuracy of 94-81% and 80-75%, respectively). KNN shows the best performance in both Body joint model and Bounding box model. In conclusion, KNN with Body joint model performs the best among the others.

  12. Bounding the Electromagnetic and Weak Dipole Moments of the Tau-Lepton in a Simplest Little Higgs Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A.

    From the total cross-section for the reaction e+e-→τ+τ-γ at the Z1 pole and in the framework of a simplest little Higgs model (SLHM), we get a limit on the characteristic energy scale of the model f, f ≥ 5.4 TeV, which in turn induces bounds on the electromagnetic and weak dipole moments of the tau-lepton. Our bounds on the electromagnetic moments are consistent with the bounds obtained by the L3 and OPAL collaborations for the reaction e+e-→τ+τ-γ. We also obtained bounds on the tau weak dipole moments which are consistent with the bounds obtained recently by the DELPHI and ALEPH collaborations from the reaction e+e-→τ+τ-.

  13. Bounded Stochastic Shell Mixing Model: Further Development and Application to Inhomogeneous Scalar Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithianathan, T.; Xia, Yanjun; Collins, Lance R.

    2011-11-01

    Xia and Collins [Physics of Fluids 23 (6):065107, 2011] developed the Bounded Stochastic Shell Mixing (BSSM) model that takes into account the multi-scale nature of the turbulent mixing process. They successfully applied the model to mixing of isotropic scalars with an initial double-delta probability density function (PDF). To enforce the scalar bounds, they introduced a novel ``zeroth mode'' that precisely cancels the inherently non-conservative random terms in the formulation. The extension of the model to the mixing of inhomogeneous scalar fields uses notional particles that move with a fluctuating velocity that is chosen to conform with the underlying turbulent energy spectrum. A consistency condition further requires the particle motion in the direction of the mean scalar gradient be carefully connected to the generation of the scalar fluctuation. The appropriate constraint has been derived and is enforced by the numerical algorithm. This new formulation has been applied to turbulent mixing of a scalar slab of specified thickness. (In the limit of zero thickness, this reduces to the classical ``line source'' problem.) We analyze multiple scalars so that differential diffusion can be considered as well as the effect of the thickness of the slab (relative to the turbulence length scales). The predictions of the BSSM model compare well with direct numerical simulations.

  14. The Cramer-Rao Bound and DMT Signal Optimisation for the Identification of a Wiener-Type Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Koeppl

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available In linear system identification, optimal excitation signals can be determined using the Cramer-Rao bound. This problem has not been thoroughly studied for the nonlinear case. In this work, the Cramer-Rao bound for a factorisable Volterra model is derived. The analytical result is supported with simulation examples. The bound is then used to find the optimal excitation signal out of the class of discrete multitone signals. As the model is nonlinear in the parameters, the bound depends on the model parameters themselves. On this basis, a three-step identification procedure is proposed. To illustrate the procedure, signal optimisation is explicitly performed for a third-order nonlinear model. Methods of nonlinear optimisation are applied for the parameter estimation of the model. As a baseline, the problem of optimal discrete multitone signals for linear FIR filter estimation is reviewed.

  15. Multi-Level Reduced Order Modeling Equipped with Probabilistic Error Bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, Mohammad Gamal Mohammad Mostafa

    This thesis develops robust reduced order modeling (ROM) techniques to achieve the needed efficiency to render feasible the use of high fidelity tools for routine engineering analyses. Markedly different from the state-of-the-art ROM techniques, our work focuses only on techniques which can quantify the credibility of the reduction which can be measured with the reduction errors upper-bounded for the envisaged range of ROM model application. Our objective is two-fold. First, further developments of ROM techniques are proposed when conventional ROM techniques are too taxing to be computationally practical. This is achieved via a multi-level ROM methodology designed to take advantage of the multi-scale modeling strategy typically employed for computationally taxing models such as those associated with the modeling of nuclear reactor behavior. Second, the discrepancies between the original model and ROM model predictions over the full range of model application conditions are upper-bounded in a probabilistic sense with high probability. ROM techniques may be classified into two broad categories: surrogate construction techniques and dimensionality reduction techniques, with the latter being the primary focus of this work. We focus on dimensionality reduction, because it offers a rigorous approach by which reduction errors can be quantified via upper-bounds that are met in a probabilistic sense. Surrogate techniques typically rely on fitting a parametric model form to the original model at a number of training points, with the residual of the fit taken as a measure of the prediction accuracy of the surrogate. This approach, however, does not generally guarantee that the surrogate model predictions at points not included in the training process will be bound by the error estimated from the fitting residual. Dimensionality reduction techniques however employ a different philosophy to render the reduction, wherein randomized snapshots of the model variables, such as the

  16. What is a leader of opinion formation in bounded confidence models?

    CERN Document Server

    Kurmyshev, E

    2013-01-01

    Taking a decision in democratic social groups is based on the opinion of the majority or on the consensus. So, the study of opinion dynamics is of great interest in analyzing social phenomena. Among the different models of opinion dynamics, bounded confidence models have been studied in different contexts and shown interesting dynamics [1-3]. In [E. Kurmyshev, H.A. Ju\\'arez, and R.A. Gonz\\'alez-Silva, Phys. A 390, 16 (2011)] we proposed a new bounded confidence model and studied the self-formation of opinion in heterogeneous societies composed by agents of two psychological types, concord (C-) and partial antagonism (PA-) agents. In this work we study the influence of "leaders" on the clustering of opinions. Mixed C/PA-societies along with the pure C- and PA-society are studied. The influence of the leader's connectivity in the network, his toughness or tolerance and his opinion on the opinion dynamics is studied as a function of the initial opinion uncertainty (tolerance) of the population. Numerical results...

  17. Model-Checking an Alternating-time Temporal Logic with Knowledge, Imperfect Information, Perfect Recall and Communicating Coalitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Dima

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a variant of ATL with distributed knowledge operators based on a synchronous and perfect recall semantics. The coalition modalities in this logic are based on partial observation of the full history, and incorporate a form of cooperation between members of the coalition in which agents issue their actions based on the distributed knowledge, for that coalition, of the system history. We show that model-checking is decidable for this logic. The technique utilizes two variants of games with imperfect information and partially observable objectives, as well as a subset construction for identifying states whose histories are indistinguishable to the considered coalition.

  18. Efficacy of the chemotherapeutic action of HPMA copolymer‐bound doxorubicin in a solid tumor model of ovarian carcinoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Minko, Tamara; Kopečková, Pavla; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2000-01-01

    Anticancer activity and main mechanisms of action of free doxorubicin (DOX) and HPMA copolymer‐bound DOX (P(GFLG)‐DOX) were studied in solid tumor mice models of DOX sensitive and resistant human ovarian carcinoma...

  19. Using a Water Balance Model to Bound Potential Irrigation Development in the Upper Blue Nile Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain Figueroa, A.; McLaughlin, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD), on the Blue Nile is an example of water resource management underpinning food, water and energy security. Downstream countries have long expressed concern about water projects in Ethiopia because of possible diversions to agricultural uses that could reduce flow in the Nile. Such diversions are attractive to Ethiopia as a partial solution to its food security problems but they could also conflict with hydropower revenue from GERD. This research estimates an upper bound on diversions above the GERD project by considering the potential for irrigated agriculture expansion and, in particular, the availability of water and land resources for crop production. Although many studies have aimed to simulate downstream flows for various Nile basin management plans, few have taken the perspective of bounding the likely impacts of upstream agricultural development. The approach is to construct an optimization model to establish a bound on Upper Blue Nile (UBN) agricultural development, paying particular attention to soil suitability and seasonal variability in climate. The results show that land and climate constraints impose significant limitations on crop production. Only 25% of the land area is suitable for irrigation due to the soil, slope and temperature constraints. When precipitation is also considered only 11% of current land area could be used in a way that increases water consumption. The results suggest that Ethiopia could consume an additional 3.75 billion cubic meters (bcm) of water per year, through changes in land use and storage capacity. By exploiting this irrigation potential, Ethiopia could potentially decrease the annual flow downstream of the UBN by 8 percent from the current 46 bcm/y to the modeled 42 bcm/y.

  20. Model Checking the Logic of Allen's Relations Meets and Started-by is P^NP-Complete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bozzelli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the plethora of fragments of Halpern and Shoham's modal logic of time intervals (HS, the logic AB of Allen's relations Meets and Started-by is at a central position. Statements that may be true at certain intervals, but at no sub-interval of them, such as accomplishments, as well as metric constraints about the length of intervals, that force, for instance, an interval to be at least (resp., at most, exactly k points long, can be expressed in AB. Moreover, over the linear order of the natural numbers N, it subsumes the (point-based logic LTL, as it can easily encode the next and until modalities. Finally, it is expressive enough to capture the ω-regular languages, that is, for each ω-regular expression R there exists an AB formula Φ such that the language defined by R coincides with the set of models of Φ over N. It has been shown that the satisfiability problem for AB over N is EXPSPACE-complete. Here we prove that, under the homogeneity assumption, its model checking problem is Δ^p_2 = P^NP-complete (for the sake of comparison, the model checking problem for full HS is EXPSPACE-hard, and the only known decision procedure is nonelementary. Moreover, we show that the modality for the Allen relation Met-by can be added to AB at no extra cost (AA'B is P^NP-complete as well.

  1. Model Checking a Self-Stabilizing Distributed Clock Synchronization Protocol for Arbitrary Digraphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekpour, Mahyar R.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the mechanical verification of a self-stabilizing distributed clock synchronization protocol for arbitrary digraphs in the absence of faults. This protocol does not rely on assumptions about the initial state of the system, other than the presence of at least one node, and no central clock or a centrally generated signal, pulse, or message is used. The system under study is an arbitrary, non-partitioned digraph ranging from fully connected to 1-connected networks of nodes while allowing for differences in the network elements. Nodes are anonymous, i.e., they do not have unique identities. There is no theoretical limit on the maximum number of participating nodes. The only constraint on the behavior of the node is that the interactions with other nodes are restricted to defined links and interfaces. This protocol deterministically converges within a time bound that is a linear function of the self-stabilization period.

  2. Model Pembelajaran Kooperatif Tipe Pair Check untuk Membangun Keterampilan Bertanya Produktif Siswa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Ermavianti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed for (1 developing the students’ productive questioning ability in the subject of Anatomy and Physiology and (2 improving the students’ productive cognitive learning. This classroom action study was conducted for the X grade students of the Department of Make up and Beauty Teraphy II. It was undertaken during the odd semester of the academic year of 2014/2015. The data was collected by participatory monitoring, questionnaires, and documentary study. The data resulted from the observation, the interviews, and the discussions with collaborators were analysed, identified, interpreted, validated, and inferred descriptively. The results revealed the students’ productive questioning ability development in the subject of Anatomy consists of 9 stages: the concept explanation, groups division, texts distribution, pair-check assignments, role shifts, answers validation, counseling and directing, correct answers validation, and rewards distribution. In the preliminary condition, the students’ questioning ability was scored and categorised as fair. In the second cycle, it achieved higher score and was categorised as good. It was proved by the higher frequency of questions and the more productive reading ability of the students. The students’ performance in the first cycle that was categorised as good and very good were 61.3% and 9.67% respectively. While in the second cycle, 12 students with the percentage of 38.70% were categorised as good and 15 students with the percentage of 48.30% were categorised as very good in productive questioning. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk (1 membangun keterampilan bertanya produktif siswa pada mata pelajaran anatomi dan fisiologi dan (2 mengembangkan cara berpikir siswa agar terampil secara produktif.  Penelitian ini menggunakan disain Penelitian Tindakan Kelas, dengan setting kegiatan pembelajaran dilaksanakan pada semester ganjil bagi siswa kelas X Tata Kecantikan 2 tahun ajaran 2014

  3. From superWIMPs to decaying dark matter. Models, bounds and indirect searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weniger, Christoph

    2010-06-15

    Despite lots of observational and theoretical efforts, the particle nature of dark matter remains unknown. Beyond the paradigmatic WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles), many theoretically well motivated models exist where dark matter interacts much more weakly than electroweak with Standard Model particles. In this case new phenomena occur, like the decay of dark matter or the interference with the standard cosmology of the early Universe. In this thesis we study some of these aspects of superweakly coupled dark matter in general, and in the special case of hidden U(1){sub X} gauginos that kinetically mix with hypercharge. There, we will assume that the gauge group remains unbroken, similar to the Standard Model U(1){sub em}. We study different kinds of cosmological bounds, including bounds from thermal overproduction, from primordial nucleosynthesis and from structure formation. Furthermore, we study the possible cosmic-ray signatures predicted by this scenario, with emphasis on the electron and positron channel in light of the recent observations by PAMELA and Fermi LAT. Moreover we study the cosmic-ray signatures of decaying dark matter independently of concrete particle-physics models. In particular we analyze in how far the rise in the positron fraction above 10 GeV, as observed by PAMELA, can be explained by dark matter decay. Lastly, we concentrate on related predictions for gamma-ray observations with the Fermi LAT, and propose to use the dipole-like anisotropy of the prompt gamma-ray dark matter signal to distinguish exotic dark matter contributions from the extragalactic gamma-ray background. (orig.)

  4. Deterministic Optimization Model of Elevetor Operation Problemsand An Application of Branch-and-Bound Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamoto, Tsutomu; Tamaki, Hisashi; Murao, Hajime; Kitamura, Shinzo

    In this paper, we propose a framework for obtaining the optimal car service to elevator operation problems by applying branch-and-bound methods based on the deterministic optimization model. In building the model, we assume the followings: the numbers such as time and car positions are discritized, the movement of cars and passengers synchronized with discrete time, and all passengers arriving to the hall is known beforehand. In the model, the transportation of any passenger is considered as a combination of two jobs, i.e., an into-job and an out-of-job. The into-job corresponds to a passenger's getting into a car, while the out-of-job corresponds to getting out of a car. Here, the optimal car service of the problem is obtained by assigning each into-job to an appropriate car and determining the processing order of into- and out-of-jobs for each car under some constraints including the precedence conditions. In designing a BAB solution, the assignment of into-jobs to cars and the processing order of jobs on each car are taken as decision variables. It is expected that the optimal (or near-optimal) car service obtained by applying such techniques as branch-and-bound methods based on the model is helpful to estimate the effectiveness of the utilization of look-ahead information. It is also useful in valuating the performance of the existing rules for elevator operation. In the paper, by using the proposed method, the validity of an existing rule, i.e., the Call-Dispatching and Selective-Collective rule (CDSC), is examined. The results of computational experiments show that the performance of the CDSC rule is not always the optimal or near-optimal, while it reveals a practical potential, i.e., it generates rather good car services within very short time.

  5. Diazepam-bound GABAA receptor models identify new benzodiazepine binding-site ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Lars; de Graaf, Chris; Sieghart, Werner; Varagic, Zdravko; Mörzinger, Martina; de Esch, Iwan J P; Ecker, Gerhard F; Ernst, Margot

    2012-01-01

    Benzodiazepines exert their anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle-relaxant and sedative-hypnotic properties by allosterically enhancing the action of GABA at GABAA receptors via their benzodiazepine-binding site. Although these drugs have been used clinically since 1960, the molecular basis of this interaction is still not known. By using multiple homology models and an un biased docking protocol, we identified a binding hypothesis for the diazepam-bound structure of the benzodiazepine site, which was confirmed by experimental evidence. Moreover, two independent virtual screening approaches based on this structure identified known benzodiazepine-site ligands from different structural classes and predicted potential new ligands for this site. Receptor-binding assays and electrophysiological studies on recombinant receptors confirmed these predictions and thus identified new chemotypes for the benzodiazepine-binding site. Our results support the validity of the diazepam-bound structure of the benzodiazepine-binding pocket, demonstrate its suitability for drug discovery and pave the way for structure-based drug design. PMID:22446838

  6. Modeling and simulation in inquiry learning: Checking solutions and giving intelligent advice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo, Crescencio; van Joolingen, Wouter; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Inquiry learning is a didactic approach in which students acquire knowledge and skills through processes of theory building and experimentation. Computer modeling and simulation can play a prominent role within this approach. Students construct representations of physical systems using modeling.

  7. Towards a Modelling Framework for Designing Active Check Valves - a Review of state-of-the-art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Niels Christian; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Plöckinger, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    plunger and seat impact, which introduces a concern about the severity of long-term fatigue and wear. A modelling framework of ACVs with the desired capabilities is multidisciplinary involving analysis of mechanics, fluid dynamics, contact mechanics and material science. Therefore, a state......This paper proposes a design methodology for designing the mechanical topology in hydraulic active check valves (ACVs). These valves may have optimised flow geometries to obtain fast switching and high flow rates. Furthermore, ACVs comprise large pressure differentials and high deceleration during......-of-the-art focusing on the significant contributions of these disciplines has been conducted. The literature review is focusing on lifetime models and wear concerned with valve seat inserts in different fatigue cycle regimes. No studies with direct application have been found, making this work an infant step towards...

  8. AUTOMATIC 3D BUILDING MODEL GENERATION FROM LIDAR AND IMAGE DATA USING SEQUENTIAL MINIMUM BOUNDING RECTANGLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kwak

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Digital Building Model is an important component in many applications such as city modelling, natural disaster planning, and aftermath evaluation. The importance of accurate and up-to-date building models has been discussed by many researchers, and many different approaches for efficient building model generation have been proposed. They can be categorised according to the data source used, the data processing strategy, and the amount of human interaction. In terms of data source, due to the limitations of using single source data, integration of multi-senor data is desired since it preserves the advantages of the involved datasets. Aerial imagery and LiDAR data are among the commonly combined sources to obtain 3D building models with good vertical accuracy from laser scanning and good planimetric accuracy from aerial images. The most used data processing strategies are data-driven and model-driven ones. Theoretically one can model any shape of buildings using data-driven approaches but practically it leaves the question of how to impose constraints and set the rules during the generation process. Due to the complexity of the implementation of the data-driven approaches, model-based approaches draw the attention of the researchers. However, the major drawback of model-based approaches is that the establishment of representative models involves a manual process that requires human intervention. Therefore, the objective of this research work is to automatically generate building models using the Minimum Bounding Rectangle algorithm and sequentially adjusting them to combine the advantages of image and LiDAR datasets.

  9. Closed-system 'economic' models for psychiatric disorders: Western atomism and its culture-bound syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Rodrick

    2015-08-01

    The stabilization of human cognition via feedback from embedding social and cultural contexts is a dynamic process deeply intertwined with it, constituting, in a sense, the riverbanks directing the flow of a stream of generalized consciousness at different scales: Cultural norms and social interaction are synergistic with individual and group cognition and their disorders. A canonical failure mode in atomistic cultures is found to be a 'ground state' collapse well represented by atomistic models of economic interaction that are increasingly characterized as divorced from reality by heterodox economists. That is, high rates of psychopathic and antisocial personality disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder emerge as culture-bound syndromes particular to Western or Westernizing societies, or to those undergoing social disintegration.

  10. Logic Model Checking of Time-Periodic Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian, Mihai; Gamble, Ed; Holzmann, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report on the work we performed to extend the logic model checker SPIN with built-in support for the verification of periodic, real-time embedded software systems, as commonly used in aircraft, automobiles, and spacecraft. We first extended the SPIN verification algorithms to model priority based scheduling policies. Next, we added a library to support the modeling of periodic tasks. This library was used in a recent application of the SPIN model checker to verify the engine control software of an automobile, to study the feasibility of software triggers for unintended acceleration events.

  11. Learning and Model-checking Networks of I/O Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mao, Hua; Jaeger, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new statistical relational learning (SRL) approach in which models for structured data, especially network data, are constructed as networks of communicating nite probabilistic automata. Leveraging existing automata learning methods from the area of grammatical inference, we can...... learn generic models for network entities in the form of automata templates. As is characteristic for SRL techniques, the abstraction level aorded by learning generic templates enables one to apply the learned model to new domains. A main benet of learning models based on nite automata lies in the fact...

  12. Interval Abstraction Refinement for Model Checking of Timed-Arc Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viesmose, Sine Lyhne; Jacobsen, Thomas Stig; Jensen, Jacob Jon

    2014-01-01

    -space exploration techniques. We suggest an approximation method for reducing the size of constants present in the model. The proposed method is developed for Timed-Arc Petri Nets and creates an under-approximation or an over-approximation of the model behaviour. The verification of approximated Petri net models...... can be considerably faster but it does not in general guarantee conclusive answers. We implement the algorithms within the open-source model checker TAPAAL and demonstrate on a number of experiments that our approximation techniques often result in a significant speed-up of the verification....

  13. Checking Fine and Gray subdistribution hazards model with cumulative sums of residuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jianing; Scheike, Thomas; Zhang, Mei Jie

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Fine and Gray (J Am Stat Assoc 94:496–509, 1999) proposed a semi-parametric proportional regression model for the subdistribution hazard function which has been used extensively for analyzing competing risks data. However, failure of model adequacy could lead to severe bias in parameter...

  14. Restructuring of workflows to minimise errors via stochastic model checking: An automated evolutionary approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Luke Thomas; Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a framework for the automated restructuring of stochastic workflows to reduce the impact of faults. The framework allows for the modelling of workflows by means of a formalised subset of the BPMN workflow language. We extend this modelling formalism to describe faults...

  15. Solution of the spatial neutral model yields new bounds on the Amazonian species richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shem-Tov, Yahav; Danino, Matan; Shnerb, Nadav M.

    2017-02-01

    Neutral models, in which individual agents with equal fitness undergo a birth-death-mutation process, are very popular in population genetics and community ecology. Usually these models are applied to populations and communities with spatial structure, but the analytic results presented so far are limited to well-mixed or mainland-island scenarios. Here we combine analytic results and numerics to obtain an approximate solution for the species abundance distribution and the species richness for the neutral model on continuous landscape. We show how the regional diversity increases when the recruitment length decreases and the spatial segregation of species grows. Our results are supported by extensive numerical simulations and allow one to probe the numerically inaccessible regime of large-scale systems with extremely small mutation/speciation rates. Model predictions are compared with the findings of recent large-scale surveys of tropical trees across the Amazon basin, yielding new bounds for the species richness (between 13100 and 15000) and the number of singleton species (between 455 and 690).

  16. Generating Phenotypical Erroneous Human Behavior to Evaluate Human-automation Interaction Using Model Checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Matthew L; Bass, Ellen J; Siminiceanu, Radu I

    2012-11-01

    Breakdowns in complex systems often occur as a result of system elements interacting in unanticipated ways. In systems with human operators, human-automation interaction associated with both normative and erroneous human behavior can contribute to such failures. Model-driven design and analysis techniques provide engineers with formal methods tools and techniques capable of evaluating how human behavior can contribute to system failures. This paper presents a novel method for automatically generating task analytic models encompassing both normative and erroneous human behavior from normative task models. The generated erroneous behavior is capable of replicating Hollnagel's zero-order phenotypes of erroneous action for omissions, jumps, repetitions, and intrusions. Multiple phenotypical acts can occur in sequence, thus allowing for the generation of higher order phenotypes. The task behavior model pattern capable of generating erroneous behavior can be integrated into a formal system model so that system safety properties can be formally verified with a model checker. This allows analysts to prove that a human-automation interactive system (as represented by the model) will or will not satisfy safety properties with both normative and generated erroneous human behavior. We present benchmarks related to the size of the statespace and verification time of models to show how the erroneous human behavior generation process scales. We demonstrate the method with a case study: the operation of a radiation therapy machine. A potential problem resulting from a generated erroneous human action is discovered. A design intervention is presented which prevents this problem from occurring. We discuss how our method could be used to evaluate larger applications and recommend future paths of development.

  17. Checking model-data weather hazard occurrence fit in the context of climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Tolosana Delgado, Raimon; Ortego Martínez, María Isabel; Egozcue Rubí, Juan José; Sánchez-Arcilla Conejo, Agustín

    2011-01-01

    In climate change impact studies it is common to run a given response model (from ecosystem changes to wavestorm or landslide occurrence) nested into one of the available long-term Global or Regional Circulation Models (GCM, RCM) reproducing the climate for the XX century or predicting it for the XXI. In this way, it is expected to capture the average behaviour of the studied system to a changing climate forcing: in other words, with such response forecasts, one does not actual...

  18. V and V of Lexical, Syntactic and Semantic Properties for Interactive Systems Through Model Checking of Formal Description of Dialog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brat, Guillaume P.; Martinie, Celia; Palanque, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    During early phases of the development of an interactive system, future system properties are identified (through interaction with end users in the brainstorming and prototyping phase of the application, or by other stakehold-ers) imposing requirements on the final system. They can be specific to the application under development or generic to all applications such as usability principles. Instances of specific properties include visibility of the aircraft altitude, speed… in the cockpit and the continuous possibility of disengaging the autopilot in whatever state the aircraft is. Instances of generic properties include availability of undo (for undoable functions) and availability of a progression bar for functions lasting more than four seconds. While behavioral models of interactive systems using formal description techniques provide complete and unambiguous descriptions of states and state changes, it does not provide explicit representation of the absence or presence of properties. Assessing that the system that has been built is the right system remains a challenge usually met through extensive use and acceptance tests. By the explicit representation of properties and the availability of tools to support checking these properties, it becomes possible to provide developers with means for systematic exploration of the behavioral models and assessment of the presence or absence of these properties. This paper proposes the synergistic use two tools for checking both generic and specific properties of interactive applications: Petshop and Java PathFinder. Petshop is dedicated to the description of interactive system behavior. Java PathFinder is dedicated to the runtime verification of Java applications and as an extension dedicated to User Interfaces. This approach is exemplified on a safety critical application in the area of interactive cockpits for large civil aircrafts.

  19. Bioavailability of organically bound Fe to model phytoplankton of the Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Hassler

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe is known to be mostly bound to organic ligands and to limit primary productivity in the Southern Ocean. It is thus important to investigate the bioavailability of organically bound Fe. In this study, we used four phytoplankton species of the Southern Ocean (Phaeocystis sp., Chaetoceros sp., Fragilariopsis kerguelensis and Thalassiosira antarctica Comber to measure the influence of various organic ligands on Fe solubility and bioavailability. Short-term uptake Fe:C ratios were inversely related to the surface area to volume ratios of the phytoplankton. The ratio of extracellular to intracellular Fe is used to discuss the relative importance of diffusive supply and uptake to control Fe bioavailability. The effect of excess organic ligands on Fe bioavailability cannot be solely explained by their effect on Fe solubility. For most strains studied, the bioavailability of Fe can be enhanced relative to inorganic Fe in the presence of porphyrin, catecholate siderophore and saccharides whereas it was decreased in presence of hydroxamate siderophore and organic amine. For Thalassiosira, iron bioavailability was not affected by the presence of porphyrin, catecholate siderophore and saccharides. The enhancement of Fe bioavailability in presence of saccharides is presented as the result from both the formation of bioavailable (or chemically labile organic form of Fe and the stabilisation of Fe within the dissolved phase. Given the ubiquitous presence of saccharides in the ocean, these compounds might represent an important factor to control the basal level of soluble and bioavailable Fe. Results show that the use of model phytoplankton is promising to improve mechanistic understanding of Fe bioavailability and primary productivity in HNLC regions of the ocean.

  20. Can We Efficiently Check Concurrent Programs Under Relaxed Memory Models in Maude?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arrahman, Yehia Abd; Andric, Marina; Beggiato, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Relaxed memory models offer suitable abstractions of the actual optimizations offered by multi-core architectures and by compilers of concurrent programming languages. Using such abstractions for verification purposes is challenging in part due to their inherent non-determinism which contributes...... to the state space explosion. Several techniques have been proposed to mitigate those problems so to make verification under relaxed memory models feasible. We discuss how to adopt some of those techniques in a Maude-based approach to language prototyping, and suggest the use of other techniques that have been...

  1. A dynamic model of membrane-bound phospholipase Cβ2 activation by Gβγ subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Daniel S; Golebiewska, Urszula; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Scarlata, Suzanne F; Weinstein, Harel

    2011-09-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC) β2, a well studied member of the family of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP₂) into secondary messengers, can be activated by the Gβγ subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins in a manner that depends on the presence and composition of the associated phospholipid membrane surface. The N-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of PLCβ2 mediates both the response to Gβγ and membrane binding, but how these interactions are coupled to yield an activated catalytic core remains unknown. Here we propose a mechanism based on molecular models of truncated PLCβ2 in its activated form complexed with Gβγ and in the catalytically inactive/membrane-bound form, obtained with the application of protein-protein docking algorithms and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. These models were probed experimentally, and the inferences were confirmed by results from a combination of molecular biology and fluorescence assays. Results from the dynamic simulations of the molecular models and their interactions with various lipid bilayers identify the determinants of PLCβ2-PH domain specificity for Gβγ and lipid membranes and suggest a mechanism for the previously reported dependence of Gβγ activation on the associated membrane composition. Together, these findings explain the roles of the different activators in terms of their effect on the orientations of the PH and catalytic core domains relative to the lipid membranes.

  2. A Dynamic Model of Membrane-Bound Phospholipase Cβ2 Activation by Gβγ Subunits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Daniel S.; Golebiewska, Urszula; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Weinstein, Harel

    2011-01-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC) β2, a well studied member of the family of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) into secondary messengers, can be activated by the Gβγ subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins in a manner that depends on the presence and composition of the associated phospholipid membrane surface. The N-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of PLCβ2 mediates both the response to Gβγ and membrane binding, but how these interactions are coupled to yield an activated catalytic core remains unknown. Here we propose a mechanism based on molecular models of truncated PLCβ2 in its activated form complexed with Gβγ and in the catalytically inactive/membrane-bound form, obtained with the application of protein-protein docking algorithms and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. These models were probed experimentally, and the inferences were confirmed by results from a combination of molecular biology and fluorescence assays. Results from the dynamic simulations of the molecular models and their interactions with various lipid bilayers identify the determinants of PLCβ2-PH domain specificity for Gβγ and lipid membranes and suggest a mechanism for the previously reported dependence of Gβγ activation on the associated membrane composition. Together, these findings explain the roles of the different activators in terms of their effect on the orientations of the PH and catalytic core domains relative to the lipid membranes. PMID:21693623

  3. Structural model of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor isotypes bound to acetylcholine and nicotine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abagyan Ruben

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nicotine is a psychoactive drug presenting a diverse array of biological activities, some positive, such as enhancement of cognitive performances, others negative, such as addiction liability. Ligands that discriminate between the different isotypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs could present improved pharmacology and toxicity profile. Results Based on the recent crystal structure of a soluble acetylcholine binding protein from snails, we have built atomic models of acetylcholine and nicotine bound to the pocket of four different human nAChR subtypes. The structures of the docked ligands correlate with available biochemical data, and reveal that the determinants for isotype selectivity are relying essentially on four residues, providing diversity of the ligand binding pocket both in terms of Van der Waals boundary, and electrostatic potential. We used our models to screen in silico a large compound database and identify a new ligand candidate that could display subtype selectivity. Conclusion The nAChR-agonist models should be useful for the design of nAChR agonists with diverse specificity profiles.

  4. Model checking a cache coherence protocol for a Java DSM implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Pang; W.J. Fokkink (Wan); R. Hofman (Rutger); R. Veldema

    2007-01-01

    textabstractJackal is a fine-grained distributed shared memory implementation of the Java programming language. It aims to implement Java's memory model and allows multithreaded Java programs to run unmodified on a distributed memory system. It employs a multiple-writer cache coherence

  5. Model checking a cache coherence protocol of a Java DSM implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, J.; Fokkink, W.J.; Hofman, R.; Veldema, R.S.

    2007-01-01

    Jackal is a fine-grained distributed shared memory implementation of the Java programming language. It aims to implement Java's memory model and allows multithreaded Java programs to run unmodified on a distributed memory system. It employs a multiple-writer cache coherence protocol. In this paper,

  6. An Object-Oriented Framework for Explicit-State Model Checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kattenbelt, M.; Ruys, T.C.; Rensink, Arend; Groot, P.; Serebrenik, A.; van Eekelen, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual architecture for an object-oriented framework to support the development of formal veri��?cation tools (i.e. model checkers). The objective of the architecture is to support the reuse of algorithms and to encourage a modular design of tools. The conceptual framework

  7. On the Use of Nonparametric Item Characteristic Curve Estimation Techniques for Checking Parametric Model Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Sun; Wollack, James A.; Douglas, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the model fit of a 2PL through comparison with the nonparametric item characteristic curve (ICC) estimation procedures. Results indicate that three nonparametric procedures implemented produced ICCs that are similar to that of the 2PL for items simulated to fit the 2PL. However for misfitting items,…

  8. Automated evolutionary restructuring of workflows to minimise errors via stochastic model checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Luke Thomas; Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    by means of a case study from the food industry. Through this case study we explore the extent to which the risk of production faults can be reduced and the impact of these can be minimised, primarily through restructuring of the production workflows. This approach is fully automated and only the modelling...

  9. Towards Understanding Life Cycle Savings of Boundedly Rational Agents : A Model with Feasibility Goals (Revision of DP 2008-14)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binswanger, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a new life cycle model that aims to describe the savings and asset allocation choices of boundedly rational agents. In this model, agents make forward-looking decisions without the requirement of anticipating their actual future decisions. Instead, agents pursue two simple

  10. Model-based control of transitional and turbulent wall-bounded shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moarref, Rashad

    Turbulent flows are ubiquitous in nature and engineering. Dissipation of kinetic energy by turbulent flow around airplanes, ships, and submarines increases resistance to their motion (drag). In this dissertation, we have designed flow control strategies for enhancing performance of vehicles and other systems involving turbulent flows. While traditional flow control techniques combine physical intuition with costly numerical simulations and experiments, we have developed control-oriented models of wall-bounded shear flows that enable simulation-free and computationally-efficient design of flow controllers. Model-based approach to flow control design has been motivated by the realization that progressive loss of robustness and consequential noise amplification initiate the departure from the laminar flow. In view of this, we have used the Navier-Stokes equations with uncertainty linearized around the laminar flow as a control-oriented model for transitional flows and we have shown that reducing the sensitivity of fluctuations to external disturbances represents a powerful paradigm for preventing transition. In addition, we have established that turbulence modeling in conjunction with judiciously selected linearization of the flow with control can be used as a powerful control-oriented model for turbulent flows. We have illustrated the predictive power of our model-based control design in three concrete problems: preventing transition by (i) a sensorless strategy based on traveling waves and (ii) an optimal state-feedback controller based on local flow information; and (iii) skin-friction drag reduction in turbulent flows by transverse wall oscillations. We have developed analytical and computational tools based on perturbation analysis (in the control amplitude) for control design by means of spatially- and temporally- periodic flow manipulation in problems (i) and (iii), respectively. In problem (ii), we have utilized tools for designing structured optimal state

  11. Probabilistic model checking analysis of palytoxin effects on cell energy reactions of the Na+/K+-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braz, Fernando A F; Cruz, Jader S; Faria-Campos, Alessandra C; Campos, Sérgio V A

    2013-01-01

    Probabilistic model checking (PMC) is a technique used for the specification and analysis of complex systems. It can be applied directly to biological systems which present these characteristics, including cell transport systems. These systems are structures responsible for exchanging ions through the plasma membrane. Their correct behavior is essential for animal cells, since changes on those are responsible for diseases. In this work, PMC is used to model and analyze the effects of the palytoxin toxin (PTX) interactions with one of these systems. Our model suggests that ATP could inhibit PTX action. Therefore, individuals with ATP deficiencies, such as in brain disorders, may be more susceptible to the toxin. We have also used heat maps to enhance the kinetic model, which is used to describe the system reactions. The map reveals unexpected situations, such as a frequent reaction between unlikely pump states, and hot spots such as likely states and reactions. This type of analysis provides a better understanding on how transmembrane ionic transport systems behave and may lead to the discovery and development of new drugs to treat diseases associated to their incorrect behavior.

  12. A Model for Predicting the Future Risk of Incident Erosive Esophagitis in an Asymptomatic Population Undergoing Regular Check-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Soo Hoon; Lim, Yaeji; Lee, Hyuk; Kim, Joungyoun; Chi, Sangah; Min, Yang Won; Min, Byung-Hoon; Lee, Jun Haeng; Son, Hee Jung; Ryu, Seungho; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Kim, Jae J

    2016-01-01

    Erosive esophagitis is a major risk factor for Barrett esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Information regarding the putative risk factors for developing erosive esophagitis is considerably heterogeneous; thus, a risk model is required to clinically predict the incidence of erosive esophagitis. This study was to derive and validate a predictive model for the incidence of developing erosive esophagitis after negative index endoscopy in a population subjected to routine health check-ups. This retrospective cohort study of health check-ups included 11,535 patients who underwent repeated screening endoscopy after >3 years from a negative index endoscopy. We used logistic regression analysis to predict the incidence of erosive esophagitis, and a Simple Prediction of Erosive Esophagitis Development score for risk assessment was developed and internally validated using the split-sample approach. The development and validation cohorts included 5765 patients (675 with erosive esophagitis [11.7%]) and 5770 patients (670 with erosive esophagitis [11.6%]), respectively. The final model included sex, smoking behavior, body mass index, hypertension, and the triglyceride level as variables. This model predicted 667 cases of erosive esophagitis, yielding an expected-to-observed ratio of 1.00 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-1.07). A simplified 5-item risk scoring system based on coefficients was developed, with a risk of erosive esophagitis of 6.2% (95% CI, 5.2-7.1) for the low-risk group (score ≤2), 15.1% (95% CI, 13.5-16.6) for the intermediate-risk group (score ≤3, 4), and 18.2% (95% CI, 15.2-21.3) for the high-risk group (score ≥5). The discriminative performance of the risk-prediction score was consistent in the derivation cohort and validation cohort (c-statistics 0.68 and 0.64, respectively); the calibration was good (Brier score 0.099 and 0.1, respectively). In conclusion, a simple risk-scoring model using putative risk factors can predict the future

  13. Effects of soft interactions and bound mobility on diffusion in crowded environments: a model of sticky and slippery obstacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefferson, Michael W; Norris, Samantha L; Vernerey, Franck J; Betterton, Meredith D; Hough, Loren E

    2017-06-29

    Crowded environments modify the diffusion of macromolecules, generally slowing their movement and inducing transient anomalous subdiffusion. The presence of obstacles also modifies the kinetics and equilibrium behavior of tracers. While previous theoretical studies of particle diffusion have typically assumed either impenetrable obstacles or binding interactions that immobilize the particle, in many cellular contexts bound particles remain mobile. Examples include membrane proteins or lipids with some entry and diffusion within lipid domains and proteins that can enter into membraneless organelles or compartments such as the nucleolus. Using a lattice model, we studied the diffusive movement of tracer particles which bind to soft obstacles, allowing tracers and obstacles to occupy the same lattice site. For sticky obstacles, bound tracer particles are immobile, while for slippery obstacles, bound tracers can hop without penalty to adjacent obstacles. In both models, binding significantly alters tracer motion. The type and degree of motion while bound is a key determinant of the tracer mobility: slippery obstacles can allow nearly unhindered diffusion, even at high obstacle filling fraction. To mimic compartmentalization in a cell, we examined how obstacle size and a range of bound diffusion coefficients affect tracer dynamics. The behavior of the model is similar in two and three spatial dimensions. Our work has implications for protein movement and interactions within cells.

  14. Effects of soft interactions and bound mobility on diffusion in crowded environments: a model of sticky and slippery obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefferson, Michael W.; Norris, Samantha L.; Vernerey, Franck J.; Betterton, Meredith D.; E Hough, Loren

    2017-08-01

    Crowded environments modify the diffusion of macromolecules, generally slowing their movement and inducing transient anomalous subdiffusion. The presence of obstacles also modifies the kinetics and equilibrium behavior of tracers. While previous theoretical studies of particle diffusion have typically assumed either impenetrable obstacles or binding interactions that immobilize the particle, in many cellular contexts bound particles remain mobile. Examples include membrane proteins or lipids with some entry and diffusion within lipid domains and proteins that can enter into membraneless organelles or compartments such as the nucleolus. Using a lattice model, we studied the diffusive movement of tracer particles which bind to soft obstacles, allowing tracers and obstacles to occupy the same lattice site. For sticky obstacles, bound tracer particles are immobile, while for slippery obstacles, bound tracers can hop without penalty to adjacent obstacles. In both models, binding significantly alters tracer motion. The type and degree of motion while bound is a key determinant of the tracer mobility: slippery obstacles can allow nearly unhindered diffusion, even at high obstacle filling fraction. To mimic compartmentalization in a cell, we examined how obstacle size and a range of bound diffusion coefficients affect tracer dynamics. The behavior of the model is similar in two and three spatial dimensions. Our work has implications for protein movement and interactions within cells.

  15. Turbulence modeling for flows in wall bounded porous media: An analysis based on direct numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y.; Kuznetsov, A. V.

    2017-04-01

    Various models are available for simulating turbulent flows in porous media. Models based on the eddy viscosity assumption are often adopted to close the Reynolds stress term. In order to validate the assumptions behind such turbulence models, we studied the dynamics of macroscopic momentum and turbulence kinetic energy in porous media flows by utilizing Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). The generic porous matrix is composed of regularly arranged spheres. The resulting periodic porous medium is bounded by two walls. The DNS analyses with a Lattice Boltzmann method were performed for various values of the applied pressure gradient, pore size to channel width ratio, and porosity. The DNS results were averaged over time and volume to obtain macroscopic results. The results show that the macroscopic shear Reynolds stress in all Representative Elementary Volumes (REVs), independent of their location, is negligibly small, although the mean velocity gradient takes nonzero values near the wall. The turbulence kinetic energy production rate is generally balanced by the dissipation rate in each REV. The DNS results support a zero-equation turbulence model that accounts for the fact that turbulent structures are restricted in size by the pore scale. The DNS results also suggest that the Brinkman term, which expresses the diffusion of momentum, has an important effect near the wall where the gradient of the shear stress is large. Therefore, the Brinkman term should be taken into account in the macroscopic momentum equation as a component of the total drag. A preliminary macroscopic model for calculating turbulent porous media flows has been proposed and compared with our DNS results.

  16. Compulsive checking behavior of quinpirole-sensitized rats as an animal model of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder(OCD: form and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonura Carlo A

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous report showed that the open field behavior of rats sensitized to the dopamine agonist quinpirole satisfies 5 performance criteria for compulsive checking behavior. In an effort to extend the parallel between the drug-induced phenomenon and human obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, the present study investigated whether the checking behavior of quinpirole rats is subject to interruption, which is an attribute characteristic of OCD compulsions. For this purpose, the rat's home-cage was placed into the open field at the beginning or the middle of a 2-hr test. Results Introduction of the home-cage reduced checking behavior, as rats stayed inside the cage. After 40 min, checking resurfaced, as quinpirole rats exited the home-cage often. An unfamiliar cage had no such effects on quinpirole rats or saline controls. Conclusions Checking behavior induced by quinpirole is not irrepressible but can be suspended. Results strengthen the quinpirole preparation as an animal model of OCD compulsive checking.

  17. Conditions for global dynamic stability of a class of resource-bounded model ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Robert M; Knight, Gwenan; Fung, Tak

    2010-11-01

    This paper studies a class of dynamical systems that model multi-species ecosystems. These systems are 'resource bounded' in the sense that species compete to utilize an underlying limiting resource or substrate. This boundedness means that the relevant state space can be reduced to a simplex, with coordinates representing the proportions of substrate utilized by the various species. If the vector field is inward pointing on the boundary of the simplex, the state space is forward invariant under the system flow, a requirement that can be interpreted as the presence of non-zero exogenous recruitment. We consider conditions under which these model systems have a unique interior equilibrium that is globally asymptotically stable. The systems we consider generalize classical multi-species Lotka-Volterra systems, the behaviour of which is characterized by properties of the community (or interaction) matrix. However, the more general systems considered here are not characterized by a single matrix, but rather a family of matrices. We develop a set of 'explicit conditions' on the basis of a notion of 'uniform diagonal dominance' for such a family of matrices, that allows us to extract a set of sufficient conditions for global asymptotic stability based on properties of a single, derived matrix. Examples of these explicit conditions are discussed.

  18. Physical Uncertainty Bounds (PUB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, Diane Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Dean L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-19

    This paper introduces and motivates the need for a new methodology for determining upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulations of engineered systems due to limited fidelity in the composite continuum-level physics models needed to simulate the systems. We show that traditional uncertainty quantification methods provide, at best, a lower bound on this uncertainty. We propose to obtain bounds on the simulation uncertainties by first determining bounds on the physical quantities or processes relevant to system performance. By bounding these physics processes, as opposed to carrying out statistical analyses of the parameter sets of specific physics models or simply switching out the available physics models, one can obtain upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulated quantities of interest.

  19. Cell-bound lipases from Burkholderia sp. ZYB002: gene sequence analysis, expression, enzymatic characterization, and 3D structural model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zhengyu; Lin, Hong; Shi, Shaolei; Mu, Xiangduo; Liu, Yanru; Huang, Jianzhong

    2016-05-03

    The whole-cell lipase from Burkholderia cepacia has been used as a biocatalyst in organic synthesis. However, there is no report in the literature on the component or the gene sequence of the cell-bound lipase from this species. Qualitative analysis of the cell-bound lipase would help to illuminate the regulation mechanism of gene expression and further improve the yield of the cell-bound lipase by gene engineering. Three predictive cell-bound lipases, lipA, lipC21 and lipC24, from Burkholderia sp. ZYB002 were cloned and expressed in E. coli. Both LipA and LipC24 displayed the lipase activity. LipC24 was a novel mesophilic enzyme and displayed preference for medium-chain-length acyl groups (C10-C14). The 3D structural model of LipC24 revealed the open Y-type active site. LipA displayed 96 % amino acid sequence identity with the known extracellular lipase. lipA-inactivation and lipC24-inactivation decreased the total cell-bound lipase activity of Burkholderia sp. ZYB002 by 42 % and 14 %, respectively. The cell-bound lipase activity from Burkholderia sp. ZYB002 originated from a multi-enzyme mixture with LipA as the main component. LipC24 was a novel lipase and displayed different enzymatic characteristics and structural model with LipA. Besides LipA and LipC24, other type of the cell-bound lipases (or esterases) should exist.

  20. Low-complexity stochastic modeling of wall-bounded shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Armin

    Turbulent flows are ubiquitous in nature and they appear in many engineering applications. Transition to turbulence, in general, increases skin-friction drag in air/water vehicles compromising their fuel-efficiency and reduces the efficiency and longevity of wind turbines. While traditional flow control techniques combine physical intuition with costly experiments, their effectiveness can be significantly enhanced by control design based on low-complexity models and optimization. In this dissertation, we develop a theoretical and computational framework for the low-complexity stochastic modeling of wall-bounded shear flows. Part I of the dissertation is devoted to the development of a modeling framework which incorporates data-driven techniques to refine physics-based models. We consider the problem of completing partially known sample statistics in a way that is consistent with underlying stochastically driven linear dynamics. Neither the statistics nor the dynamics are precisely known. Thus, our objective is to reconcile the two in a parsimonious manner. To this end, we formulate optimization problems to identify the dynamics and directionality of input excitation in order to explain and complete available covariance data. For problem sizes that general-purpose solvers cannot handle, we develop customized optimization algorithms based on alternating direction methods. The solution to the optimization problem provides information about critical directions that have maximal effect in bringing model and statistics in agreement. In Part II, we employ our modeling framework to account for statistical signatures of turbulent channel flow using low-complexity stochastic dynamical models. We demonstrate that white-in-time stochastic forcing is not sufficient to explain turbulent flow statistics and develop models for colored-in-time forcing of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations. We also examine the efficacy of stochastically forced linearized NS equations and their

  1. Bounded Parikh Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël Cadilhac

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Parikh finite word automaton model (PA was introduced and studied by Klaedtke and Ruess in 2003. Here, by means of related models, it is shown that the bounded languages recognized by PA are the same as those recognized by deterministic PA. Moreover, this class of languages is the class of bounded languages whose set of iterations is semilinear.

  2. Mic Check/Reality Check

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Vrasti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past couple of months history has been unfolding with dizzying speed. The #occupy model of leaderless, demandless direct action, which in the beginning no one with only a slim understanding of how capitalism works thought could become anything more than a facile if charming jab at anti-corporate activism, has gone viral. Every morning we wake up to new reports about ‘occupying X’, where X can be anything from cities, campuses, boardrooms, buildings, highways, and public events, all the way to academic disciplines. What originally seemed like a romantic fantasy about temporary autonomous zones now feels like history. And no one likes to find themselves on thewrong side of history, especially not intellectuals, let alone intellectuals in the business of explaining global politics.

  3. Super-Grid Modeling of the Elastic Wave Equation in Semi-Bounded Domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersson, N. Anders; Sjögreen, Björn

    2014-10-01

    Abstract

    We develop a super-grid modeling technique for solving the elastic wave equation in semi-bounded two- and three-dimensional spatial domains. In this method, waves are slowed down and dissipated in sponge layers near the far-field boundaries. Mathematically, this is equivalent to a coordinate mapping that transforms a very large physical domain to a significantly smaller computational domain, where the elastic wave equation is solved numerically on a regular grid. To damp out waves that become poorly resolved because of the coordinate mapping, a high order artificial dissipation operator is added in layers near the boundaries of the computational domain. We prove by energy estimates that the super-grid modeling leads to a stable numerical method with decreasing energy, which is valid for heterogeneous material properties and a free surface boundary condition on one side of the domain. Our spatial discretization is based on a fourth order accurate finite difference method, which satisfies the principle of summation by parts. We show that the discrete energy estimate holds also when a centered finite difference stencil is combined with homogeneous Dirichlet conditions at several ghost points outside of the far-field boundaries. Therefore, the coefficients in the finite difference stencils need only be boundary modified near the free surface. This allows for improved computational efficiency and significant simplifications of the implementation of the proposed method in multi-dimensional domains. Numerical experiments in three space dimensions show that the modeling error from truncating the domain can be made very small by choosing a sufficiently wide super-grid damping layer. The numerical accuracy is first evaluated against analytical solutions of Lamb’s problem, where fourth order accuracy is observed with a sixth order artificial dissipation. We then use successive grid refinements to study the numerical accuracy in the more

  4. On the ergodicity bounds for a constant retrial rate queueing model

    OpenAIRE

    Zeifman, Alexander; Satin, Yacov; Morozov, Evsey; Nekrasova, Ruslana; Gorshenin, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    We consider a Markovian single-server retrial queueing system with a constant retrial rate. Conditions of null ergodicity and exponential ergodicity for the correspondent process, as well as bounds on the rate of convergence are obtained.

  5. A Lower Bound on the Lyapunov Exponent for the Generalized Harper's Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitomirskaya, Svetlana; Liu, Wencai

    2017-02-01

    We obtain a lower bound for the Lyapunov exponent of a family of discrete Schrödinger operators (Hu)_n=u_{n+1}+u_{n-1}+2a_1 cos 2π (θ +nα )u_n+2a_2 cos 4π (θ +nα )u_n, that incorporates both a_1 and a_2, thus going beyond the Herman's bound.

  6. Regular health checks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj Larsen, Christian; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether Danish providers of general health checks present a balanced account of possible benefits and harms on their websites and whether the health checks are evidence-based.......To investigate whether Danish providers of general health checks present a balanced account of possible benefits and harms on their websites and whether the health checks are evidence-based....

  7. Gender-Specific Models of Work-Bound Korean Adolescents' Social Supports and Career Adaptability on Subsequent Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyojung; Rojewski, Jay W.

    2015-01-01

    A Korean national database, the High School Graduates Occupational Mobility Survey, was used to examine the influence of perceived social supports (family and school) and career adaptability on the subsequent job satisfaction of work-bound adolescents 4 months after their transition from high school to work. Structural equation modeling analysis…

  8. Multi-Higgs doublet models: physical parametrization, sum rules and unitarity bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Miguel P.; Haber, Howard E.; Romão, J. C.; Silva, João P.

    2017-11-01

    If the scalar sector of the Standard Model is non-minimal, one might expect multiple generations of the hypercharge-1/2 scalar doublet analogous to the generational structure of the fermions. In this work, we examine the structure of a Higgs sector consisting of N Higgs doublets (where N ≥ 2). It is particularly convenient to work in the so-called charged Higgs basis, in which the neutral Higgs vacuum expectation value resides entirely in the first Higgs doublet, and the charged components of remaining N - 1 Higgs doublets are mass-eigenstate fields. We elucidate the interactions of the gauge bosons with the physical Higgs scalars and the Goldstone bosons and show that they are determined by an N × 2 N matrix. This matrix depends on ( N - 1)(2 N - 1) real parameters that are associated with the mixing of the neutral Higgs fields in the charged Higgs basis. Among these parameters, N - 1 are unphysical (and can be removed by rephasing the physical charged Higgs fields), and the remaining 2( N - 1)2 parameters are physical. We also demonstrate a particularly simple form for the cubic interaction and some of the quartic interactions of the Goldstone bosons with the physical Higgs scalars. These results are applied in the derivation of Higgs coupling sum rules and tree-level unitarity bounds that restrict the size of the quartic scalar couplings. In particular, new applications to three Higgs doublet models with an order-4 CP symmetry and with a Z_3 symmetry, respectively, are presented.

  9. UML and Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, F.

    1999-01-01

    UML use cases conceptually identify function points or major requirements that a software system must satisfy. Sequence diagrams expand each use case to show in temporal sequence a more detailed notion of intended system behavior.

  10. Putting theory to the test: examining family context, caregiver motivation, and conflict in the Family Check-Up model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosco, Gregory M; Van Ryzin, Mark; Stormshak, Elizabeth A; Dishion, Thomas J

    2014-05-01

    This study examined contextual factors (caregiver depression, family resources, ethnicity, and initial levels of youth problem behavior) related to the effectiveness of the Family Check-Up (FCU) and evaluated family processes as a mediator of FCU intervention response and adolescent antisocial behavior. We followed a sample of 180 ethnically diverse youths of families who engaged in the FCU intervention. Family data were collected as part of the FCU assessment, and youth data were collected over 4 years, from sixth through ninth grade. Findings indicated that caregiver depression and minority status predicted greater caregiver motivation to change. In turn, caregiver motivation was the only direct predictor of FCU intervention response during a 1-year period. Growth in family conflict from sixth through eighth grade mediated the link between FCU response and ninth-grade antisocial behavior. This study explicitly tested core aspects of the FCU intervention model and demonstrated that caregiver motivation is a central factor that underlies family response to the FCU. The study also provided support for continued examination of family process mechanisms that account for enduring effects of the FCU and other family-centered interventions.

  11. An Artificially Intelligent Physical Model-Checking Approach to Detect Switching-Related Attacks on Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Hariri, Mohamad [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Faddel, Samy [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Mohammed, Osama [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Decentralized and hierarchical microgrid control strategies have lain the groundwork for shaping the future smart grid. Such control approaches require the cooperation between microgrid operators in control centers, intelligent microcontrollers, and remote terminal units via secure and reliable communication networks. In order to enhance the security and complement the work of network intrusion detection systems, this paper presents an artificially intelligent physical model-checking that detects tampered-with circuit breaker switching control commands whether, due to a cyber-attack or human error. In this technique, distributed agents, which are monitoring sectionalized areas of a given microgrid, will be trained and continuously adapted to verify that incoming control commands do not violate the physical system operational standards and do not put the microgrid in an insecure state. The potential of this approach has been tested by deploying agents that monitor circuit breakers status commands on a 14-bus IEEE benchmark system. The results showed the accuracy of the proposed framework in characterizing the power system and successfully detecting malicious and/or erroneous control commands.

  12. A mechanistic model of an upper bound on oceanic carbon export as a function of mixed layer depth and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Export production reflects the amount of organic matter transferred from the ocean surface to depth through biological processes. This export is in large part controlled by nutrient and light availability, which are conditioned by mixed layer depth (MLD. In this study, building on Sverdrup's critical depth hypothesis, we derive a mechanistic model of an upper bound on carbon export based on the metabolic balance between photosynthesis and respiration as a function of MLD and temperature. We find that the upper bound is a positively skewed bell-shaped function of MLD. Specifically, the upper bound increases with deepening mixed layers down to a critical depth, beyond which a long tail of decreasing carbon export is associated with increasing heterotrophic activity and decreasing light availability. We also show that in cold regions the upper bound on carbon export decreases with increasing temperature when mixed layers are deep, but increases with temperature when mixed layers are shallow. A meta-analysis shows that our model envelopes field estimates of carbon export from the mixed layer. When compared to satellite export production estimates, our model indicates that export production in some regions of the Southern Ocean, particularly the subantarctic zone, is likely limited by light for a significant portion of the growing season.

  13. Simulation-based model checking approach to cell fate specification during Caenorhabditis elegans vulval development by hybrid functional Petri net with extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Nagasaki, Masao; Ueno, Kazuko; Miyano, Satoru

    2009-04-27

    Model checking approaches were applied to biological pathway validations around 2003. Recently, Fisher et al. have proved the importance of model checking approach by inferring new regulation of signaling crosstalk in C. elegans and confirming the regulation with biological experiments. They took a discrete and state-based approach to explore all possible states of the system underlying vulval precursor cell (VPC) fate specification for desired properties. However, since both discrete and continuous features appear to be an indispensable part of biological processes, it is more appropriate to use quantitative models to capture the dynamics of biological systems. Our key motivation of this paper is to establish a quantitative methodology to model and analyze in silico models incorporating the use of model checking approach. A novel method of modeling and simulating biological systems with the use of model checking approach is proposed based on hybrid functional Petri net with extension (HFPNe) as the framework dealing with both discrete and continuous events. Firstly, we construct a quantitative VPC fate model with 1761 components by using HFPNe. Secondly, we employ two major biological fate determination rules - Rule I and Rule II - to VPC fate model. We then conduct 10,000 simulations for each of 48 sets of different genotypes, investigate variations of cell fate patterns under each genotype, and validate the two rules by comparing three simulation targets consisting of fate patterns obtained from in silico and in vivo experiments. In particular, an evaluation was successfully done by using our VPC fate model to investigate one target derived from biological experiments involving hybrid lineage observations. However, the understandings of hybrid lineages are hard to make on a discrete model because the hybrid lineage occurs when the system comes close to certain thresholds as discussed by Sternberg and Horvitz in 1986. Our simulation results suggest that: Rule I

  14. A new compliance checking level for nitrate in groundwater : modelling nitrate leaching and the fate of nitrogen in the upper 5 meter of the groundwater system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, P.; Renaud, L.V.; Roelsma, J.; Janssen, G.M.C.M.; Jansen, S.; Heerdink, R.; Griffioen, J.; Grift, van der B.

    2008-01-01

    Research was conducted on the implications of a possible lowering of the sampling depth for the nitrate compliance checking level in the Netherlands. The STONE model was used to simulate nitrate concentrations and nitrogen balances for the three main sand districts (North, Central, South) and for

  15. Minimax lower bound for kink location estimators in a nonparametric regression model with long-range dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Wishart, Justin Rory

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a lower bound is determined in the minimax sense for change point estimators of the first derivative of a regression function in the fractional white noise model. Similar minimax results presented previously in the area focus on change points in the derivatives of a regression function in the white noise model or consider estimation of the regression function in the presence of correlated errors.

  16. Bounded Gaussian process regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Larsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We extend the Gaussian process (GP) framework for bounded regression by introducing two bounded likelihood functions that model the noise on the dependent variable explicitly. This is fundamentally different from the implicit noise assumption in the previously suggested warped GP framework. We...

  17. Large N Chern-Simons with massive fundamental fermions — A model with no bound states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frishman, Yitzhak [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, The Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Sonnenschein, Jacob [The Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University,Ramat Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2014-12-29

    In a previous paper http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP12(2013)091, we analyzed the theory of massive fermions in the fundamental representation coupled to a U(N) Chern-Simons gauge theory in three dimensions at level K. It was done in the large N, large K limits where λ=(N/K) was kept fixed. Among other results, we showed there that there are no high mass “quark anti-quark' bound states. Here we show that there are no bound states at all.

  18. On devising Boussinesq-type models with bounded eigenspectra: One horizontal dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskilsson, Claes; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2014-01-01

    using a spectral element method of arbitrary spatial order p. It is shown that existing sets of parameters, found by optimising the linear dispersion relation, give rise to unbounded eigenspectra which govern stability. For explicit time-stepping schemes the global CFL time-step restriction typically......) are introduced. Using spectral element simulations of stream function waves it is illustrated that (i) the bounded equations capture the physics of the wave motion as well as the standard unbounded equations, and (ii) the bounded equations are computationally more efficient when explicit time-stepping schemes...

  19. Atmospheric inverse modeling with known physical bounds: an example from trace gas emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Miller

    2014-02-01

    the relative merits of each. This paper investigates the applicability of several approaches to bounded inverse problems. A common method of data transformations is found to unrealistically skew estimates for the examined example application. The method of Lagrange multipliers and two Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC methods yield more realistic and accurate results. In general, the examined MCMC approaches produce the most realistic result but can require substantial computational time. Lagrange multipliers offer an appealing option for large, computationally intensive problems when exact uncertainty bounds are less central to the analysis. A synthetic data inversion of US anthropogenic methane emissions illustrates the strengths and weaknesses of each approach.

  20. Bound states and the Bekenstein bound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousso, Raphael

    2003-10-16

    We explore the validity of the generalized Bekenstein bound, S<= pi M a. We define the entropy S as the logarithm of the number of states which have energy eigenvalue below M and are localized to a flat space region of width alpha. If boundary conditions that localize field modes are imposed by fiat, then the bound encounters well-known difficulties with negative Casimir energy and large species number, as well as novel problems arising only in the generalized form. In realistic systems, however, finite-size effects contribute additional energy. We study two different models for estimating such contributions. Our analysis suggests that the bound is both valid and nontrivial if interactions are properly included, so that the entropy S counts the bound states of interacting fields.

  1. Bounded Rationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballester Pla, Coralio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The observation of the actual behavior by economic decision makers in the lab and in the field justifies that bounded rationality has been a generally accepted assumption in many socio-economic models. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the difficulties involved in providing a correct definition of what a rational (or irrational agent is. In this paper we describe two frameworks that employ different approaches for analyzing bounded rationality. The first is a spatial segregation set-up that encompasses two optimization methodologies: backward induction and forward induction. The main result is that, even under the same state of knowledge, rational and non-rational agents may match their actions. The second framework elaborates on the relationship between irrationality and informational restrictions. We use the beauty contest (Nagel, 1995 as a device to explain this relationship.

    La observación del comportamiento de los agentes económicos tanto en el laboratorio como en la vida real justifica que la racionalidad acotada sea un supuesto aceptado en numerosos modelos socio-económicos. El objetivo de este artículo es ilustrar las dificultades que conlleva una correcta definición de qué es un agente racional (irracional. En este artículo se describen dos marcos que emplean diferentes metodologías para analizar la racionalidad acotada. El primero es un modelo de segregación espacial donde se contrastan dos metodologías de optimización: inducción hacia atrás y hacia adelante. El resultado principal es que, incluso con el mismo nivel de conocimiento, tanto agentes racionales como irracionales podrían coincidir en sus acciones. El segundo marco trabaja sobre la relación entre irracionalidad y restricción de información. Se utiliza el juego llamado “beauty contest” (Nagel 1995 como mecanismo para explicar dicha relación.

  2. Bounds for the price of a European-style Asian option in a binary tree model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynaerts, H; Vanmaele, M.; Dhaene, J.L.M.; Deelstra, G.

    2006-01-01

    Inspired by the ideas of Rogers and Shi [J. Appl. Prob. 32 (1995) 1077], Chalasani et al. [J. Comput. Finance 1(4) (1998) 11] derived accurate lower and upper bounds for the price of a European-style Asian option with continuous averaging over the full lifetime of the option, using a discrete-time

  3. Optimal Bounds in Parametric LTL Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Zimmermann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We consider graph games of infinite duration with winning conditions in parameterized linear temporal logic, where the temporal operators are equipped with variables for time bounds. In model checking such specifications were introduced as "PLTL" by Alur et al. and (in a different version called "PROMPT-LTL" by Kupferman et al.. We present an algorithm to determine optimal variable valuations that allow a player to win a game. Furthermore, we show how to determine whether a player wins a game with respect to some, infinitely many, or all valuations. All our algorithms run in doubly-exponential time; so, adding bounded temporal operators does not increase the complexity compared to solving plain LTL games.

  4. Annual Check-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Annual Check-Up Posted under Health Guides . Updated 24 April 2017. + ... I get ready for my annual medical check-up? If this is your first visit to your ...

  5. Using Task Analytic Models and Phenotypes of Erroneous Human Behavior to Discover System Failures Using Model Checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Matthew L; Bass, Ellen J

    2010-09-01

    Breakdowns in complex systems often occur as a result of system elements interacting in ways unanticipated by analysts or designers. In systems with human operators, human-automation interaction associated with both normative and erroneous human behavior can contribute to such failures. This paper presents a method for automatically generating task analytic models encompassing both erroneous and normative human behavior from normative task models. The resulting model can be integrated into a formal system model so that system safety properties can be formally verified with a model checker. This allows analysts to prove that a human automation-interactive system (as represented by the model) will or will not satisfy safety properties with both normative and generated erroneous human behavior. This method is illustrated with a case study: the operation of a radiation therapy machine. In this example, a problem resulting from a generated erroneous human action is discovered. Future extensions of our method are discussed.

  6. Checking Java Programs

    CERN Document Server

    Darwin, Ian

    2007-01-01

    This Short Cut tells you about tools that will improve the quality of your Java code, using checking above and beyond what the standard tools do, including: Using javac options, JUnit and assertions Making your IDE work harder Checking your source code with PMD Checking your compiled code (.class files) with FindBugs Checking your program's run-time behavior with Java PathFinder

  7. Pre-Test Assessment of the Upper Bound of the Drag Coefficient Repeatability of a Wind Tunnel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, N.; L'Esperance, A.

    2017-01-01

    A new method is presented that computes a pre{test estimate of the upper bound of the drag coefficient repeatability of a wind tunnel model. This upper bound is a conservative estimate of the precision error of the drag coefficient. For clarity, precision error contributions associated with the measurement of the dynamic pressure are analyzed separately from those that are associated with the measurement of the aerodynamic loads. The upper bound is computed by using information about the model, the tunnel conditions, and the balance in combination with an estimate of the expected output variations as input. The model information consists of the reference area and an assumed angle of attack. The tunnel conditions are described by the Mach number and the total pressure or unit Reynolds number. The balance inputs are the partial derivatives of the axial and normal force with respect to all balance outputs. Finally, an empirical output variation of 1.0 microV/V is used to relate both random instrumentation and angle measurement errors to the precision error of the drag coefficient. Results of the analysis are reported by plotting the upper bound of the precision error versus the tunnel conditions. The analysis shows that the influence of the dynamic pressure measurement error on the precision error of the drag coefficient is often small when compared with the influence of errors that are associated with the load measurements. Consequently, the sensitivities of the axial and normal force gages of the balance have a significant influence on the overall magnitude of the drag coefficient's precision error. Therefore, results of the error analysis can be used for balance selection purposes as the drag prediction characteristics of balances of similar size and capacities can objectively be compared. Data from two wind tunnel models and three balances are used to illustrate the assessment of the precision error of the drag coefficient.

  8. Using Time-Varying Evidence to Test Models of Decision Dynamics: Bounded Diffusion vs. the Leaky Competing Accumulator Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsetsos, Konstantinos; Gao, Juan; McClelland, James L; Usher, Marius

    2012-01-01

    When people make decisions, do they give equal weight to evidence arriving at different times? A recent study (Kiani et al., 2008) using brief motion pulses (superimposed on a random moving dot display) reported a primacy effect: pulses presented early in a motion observation period had a stronger impact than pulses presented later. This observation was interpreted as supporting the bounded diffusion (BD) model and ruling out models in which evidence accumulation is subject to leakage or decay of early-arriving information. We use motion pulses and other manipulations of the timing of the perceptual evidence in new experiments and simulations that support the leaky competing accumulator (LCA) model as an alternative to the BD model. While the LCA does include leakage, we show that it can exhibit primacy as a result of competition between alternatives (implemented via mutual inhibition), when the inhibition is strong relative to the leak. Our experiments replicate the primacy effect when participants must be prepared to respond quickly at the end of a motion observation period. With less time pressure, however, the primacy effect is much weaker. For 2 (out of 10) participants, a primacy bias observed in trials where the motion observation period is short becomes weaker or reverses (becoming a recency effect) as the observation period lengthens. Our simulation studies show that primacy is equally consistent with the LCA or with BD. The transition from primacy-to-recency can also be captured by the LCA but not by BD. Individual differences and relations between the LCA and other models are discussed.

  9. Enhancing Classroom Management Using the Classroom Check-up Consultation Model with In-Vivo Coaching and Goal Setting Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinert, Whitney L.; Silva, Meghan R.; Codding, Robin S.; Feinberg, Adam B.; St. James, Paula S.

    2017-01-01

    Classroom management is essential to promote learning in schools, and as such it is imperative that teachers receive adequate support to maximize their competence implementing effective classroom management strategies. One way to improve teachers' classroom managerial competence is through consultation. The Classroom Check-Up (CCU) is a structured…

  10. Two-body bound and edge states in the extended SSH Bose-Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Liberto, M.; Recati, A.; Carusotto, I.; Menotti, C.

    2017-07-01

    We study the bosonic two-body problem in a Su-Schrieffer-Heeger dimerized chain with on-site and nearest-neighbor interactions. We find two classes of bound states. The first, similar to the one induced by on-site interactions, has its center of mass on the strong link, whereas the second, existing only thanks to nearest-neighbor interactions, is centered on the weak link. We identify energy crossings between these states and analyse them using exact diagonalization and perturbation theory. In the presence of open boundary conditions, novel strongly-localized edge-bound states appear in the spectrum as a consequence of the interplay between lattice geometry, on-site and nearest-neighbor interactions. Contrary to the case of purely on-site interactions, such EBS persist even in the strongly interacting regime.

  11. Penerapan Model Pembelajaran Kooperatif Tipe Pair Checks Dalam Meningkatkan Motivasi dan Hasil Belajar IPA Tepadu Siswa Kelas VIIIA SMP Negeri 1 Tabulahan Kab. Mamasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fandi Ahmad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini adalah penelitian tindakan kelas (Classroom Action Research yang bertujuan untuk meningkatkan motivasi dan hasil belajar biologi dengan penerapan model pembelajaran kooperatif tipe pair checks pada materi sistem pernapasan. Pengumpulan data yang dilakukan dengan jumlah subjek 21 siswa kelas VIIIA SMP Negeri 1 tabulahan dengan menggunakan angket untuk mengukur motivasi belajar siswa, dan untuk mengukur hasil belajar dengan menggunakan tes hasil belajar siswa pada setiap ahir siklus. Dari hasil kegiatan pembelajaran yang telah dilakukan terjadi peningkatan motivasi belajar siswa dalam pembelajaran IPA Terpadu pada siklus I 73% dan  meningkat pada siklus II menjadi 85,50%, sedangkan untuk  hasil belajar siswa, siklus I sebanyak 10 orang dengan kategori kurang atau dengan persentase 47,60% dan pada siklus II sebanyak 19 orang dengan kategori sangat tinggi atau dengan persentase 90,08%. Dari penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa terjadi peningkatan motivasi dan hasil belajar siswa dengan penerapan model pembelajaran kooperatif tipe pair checks.Kata kunci: Model Pembelajaran Kooperatif Tipe Pair Checks, Hasil Belajar dan Motivasi Belajar.ABSTRACTThis study is a classroom action research that aims to increase motivation and biology learning outcomes by applying cooperative learning model of pair checks type on the respiratory system. The data were collected from 21 students of class VIIIA SMP Negeri 1 Tabulahan by using questionnaires to measure student's learning motivation, and learning outcomes test to measure learning outcomes of the students at each end of the cycle. Study result showed that there is improvement of student's learning motivation in Integrated IPA subject. In cycle I learning motivation of students is 73% and increase in cycle II become 85,50%. While for student learning outcomes in cycle I there are 10 people with less category or with percentage 47 , 60% and in cycle II there are 19 people with very high category

  12. Upper and lower Higgs boson mass bounds from a lattice Higgs-Yukawa model with dynamical overlap fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerhold, Philipp [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2009-12-15

    We study a lattice Higgs-Yukawa model emulating the same Higgs-fermion coupling structure as in the Higgs sector of the electroweak Standard Model, in particular, obeying a Ginsparg- Wilson version of the underlying SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y} symmetry, being a global symmetry here due to the neglection of gauge fields in this model. In this paper we present our results on the cutoffdependent upper Higgs boson mass bound at several selected values of the cutoff parameter {lambda}. (orig.)

  13. Online model checking approach based parameter estimation to a neuronal fate decision simulation model in Caenorhabditis elegans with hybrid functional Petri net with extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Nagasaki, Masao; Koh, Chuan Hock; Miyano, Satoru

    2011-05-01

    Mathematical modeling and simulation studies are playing an increasingly important role in helping researchers elucidate how living organisms function in cells. In systems biology, researchers typically tune many parameters manually to achieve simulation results that are consistent with biological knowledge. This severely limits the size and complexity of simulation models built. In order to break this limitation, we propose a computational framework to automatically estimate kinetic parameters for a given network structure. We utilized an online (on-the-fly) model checking technique (which saves resources compared to the offline approach), with a quantitative modeling and simulation architecture named hybrid functional Petri net with extension (HFPNe). We demonstrate the applicability of this framework by the analysis of the underlying model for the neuronal cell fate decision model (ASE fate model) in Caenorhabditis elegans. First, we built a quantitative ASE fate model containing 3327 components emulating nine genetic conditions. Then, using our developed efficient online model checker, MIRACH 1.0, together with parameter estimation, we ran 20-million simulation runs, and were able to locate 57 parameter sets for 23 parameters in the model that are consistent with 45 biological rules extracted from published biological articles without much manual intervention. To evaluate the robustness of these 57 parameter sets, we run another 20 million simulation runs using different magnitudes of noise. Our simulation results concluded that among these models, one model is the most reasonable and robust simulation model owing to the high stability against these stochastic noises. Our simulation results provide interesting biological findings which could be used for future wet-lab experiments.

  14. Quantum Chernoff bound metric for the XY model at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abasto, Damian F.; Jacobson, N. Tobias; Zanardi, Paolo

    2008-02-01

    We explore the finite-temperature phase diagram of the anisotropic XY spin chain using the quantum Chernoff bound metric on thermal states. The analysis of the metric elements allows one to easily identify, in terms of different scaling with temperature, quasiclassical and quantum-critical regions. These results extend recent ones obtained using the Bures metric and show that different information-theoretic notions of distance can carry the same sophisticated information about the phase diagram of an interacting many-body system featuring quantum-critical points.

  15. Research on a Dynamic Master-Slave Cournot Triopoly Game Model with Bounded Rational Rule and Its Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Tu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The oligopoly market is modelled by a new dynamic master-slave Cournot triopoly game model with bounded rational rule. The local stabile conditions and the stable region are got by the dynamical systems bifurcation theory. The dynamics characteristics of the system with the changes of the adjustment speed parameters are analyzed by means of bifurcation diagram, largest Lyapunov exponents, phase portrait, and sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Furthermore, the parameters adjustment method is used to control the complex dynamical behaviors of the systems. The derived results have some important theoretical and practical meanings for the oligopoly market.

  16. Unified one-dimensional model of bounded plasma with nonzero ion temperature in a broad pressure range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacio Mizrahi, J. H.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Krasik, Ya. E. [Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2013-03-15

    A one-dimensional model for steady state plasmas bounded either between large parallel walls, or by a cylinder or a sphere, valid in a wide range of gas pressures, is considered. The model includes nonzero ion temperature, inertial terms in the ion momentum equations, and allows one to calculate the plasma electron temperature and ion current density reaching the wall, as well as the spatial distributions of the ion fluid velocity, plasma density, and plasma potential in the plasma bulk. In addition, the effect of electron inertia is analyzed. The model includes as particular cases several earlier models that were based on a similar set of differential equations, but that are restricted to a specific pressure regime (low, intermediate, or high). Analytical solution is found in planar geometry, and numerical solution is given in cylindrical and spherical geometry. The results obtained are compared with those of earlier models and the differences are analyzed.

  17. checkCIF/PLATON (full publication check)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O1W Check. Alert level C. ABSTY02_ALERT_1_C An _exptl_absorpt_correction_type has been given without a literature citation. This should be contained in the ... CELLZ01_ALERT_1_G WARNING: H atoms missing from atom site list. ... 7 ALERT type 1 CIF construction/syntax error, inconsistent or missing data. 8 ALERT ...

  18. Trace metal bioavailability: Modeling chemical and biological interactions of sediment-bound zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, S. N.; Bryan, G.W.; Jenne, Everett A.

    1979-01-01

    Extractable concentrations of sediment-bound Zn, as modified by the physicochemical form of the metal in the sediments, controlled Zn concentrations in the deposit-feeding bivalvesScrobicularia plana (collected from 40 stations in 17 estuaries in southwest England) andMacoma balthica (from 28 stations in San Francisco Bay). Over a wide range of concentrations, a significant correlation was found between ammonium acetate-soluble concentrations of Zn in sediments and Zn concentrations in Scrobicularia. This correlation was insufficiently precise to be of predictive value for Scrobicularia, and did not hold for Macoma over the narrower range of Zn concentrations observed in San Francisco Bay. Strong correlation of Zn concentrations inScrobicularia and the bioavailability of sediment-bound Zn to Macoma with ratios of sorption substrate (oxides of iron and manganese, organic carbon, carbonates, humic materials) concentrations in sediments were found in both the English and San Francisco Bay study areas. These correlations were attributed to substrate competition for sorption of Zn within sediments, assuming: 1) competition for sorption of Zn was largely controlled by the relative concentrations of substrates present in the sediments and 2) the bioavailability of Zn to the deposit feeders was determined by the partitioning of Zn among the substrates. The correlations indicated that the availability of Zn to the bivalves increased when concentrations of either amorphous inorganic oxides or humic substances increased in sediments. Availability was reduced at increased concentrations of organic carbon and, in San Francisco Bay, ammonium acetate-soluble Mn. Concentrations of biologically available Zn in solution and low salinities may also have enhanced Zn uptake, although the roles of these variables were less obvious from the statistical analysis.

  19. NLO+NLL collider bounds, Dirac fermion and scalar dark matter in the B-L model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasen, Michael [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Muenster (Germany); Lyonnet, Florian [Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX (United States); Queiroz, Farinaldo S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Particle and Astroparticle Physics Division, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    Baryon and lepton numbers being accidental global symmetries of the Standard Model (SM), it is natural to promote them to local symmetries. However, to preserve anomaly-freedom, only combinations of B-L are viable. In this spirit, we investigate possible dark matter realizations in the context of the U(1){sub B-L} model: (i) Dirac fermion with unbroken B-L; (ii) Dirac fermion with broken B-L; (iii) scalar dark matter; (iv) two-component dark matter. We compute the relic abundance, direct and indirect detection observables and confront them with recent results from Planck, LUX-2016, and Fermi-LAT and prospects from XENON1T. In addition to the well-known LEP bound M{sub Z}{sup {sub '}}/g{sub BL} >or similar 7 TeV, we include often ignored LHC bounds using 13 TeV dilepton (dimuon + dielectron) data at next-to-leading order plus next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy. We show that, for gauge couplings smaller than 0.4, the LHC gives rise to the strongest collider limit. In particular, we find M{sub Z}{sup {sub '}}/g{sub BL} > 8.7 TeV for g{sub BL} = 0.3. We conclude that the NLO+NLL corrections improve the dilepton bounds on the Z{sup '} mass and that both dark matter candidates are only viable in the Z{sup '} resonance region, with the parameter space for scalar dark matter being fully probed by XENON1T. Lastly, we show that one can successfully have a minimal two-component dark matter model. (orig.)

  20. Inference on population history and model checking using DNA sequence and microsatellite data with the software DIYABC (v1.0).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornuet, Jean-Marie; Ravigné, Virgine; Estoup, Arnaud

    2010-07-28

    Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) is a recent flexible class of Monte-Carlo algorithms increasingly used to make model-based inference on complex evolutionary scenarios that have acted on natural populations. The software DIYABC offers a user-friendly interface allowing non-expert users to consider population histories involving any combination of population divergences, admixtures and population size changes. We here describe and illustrate new developments of this software that mainly include (i) inference from DNA sequence data in addition or separately to microsatellite data, (ii) the possibility to analyze five categories of loci considering balanced or non balanced sex ratios: autosomal diploid, autosomal haploid, X-linked, Y-linked and mitochondrial, and (iii) the possibility to perform model checking computation to assess the "goodness-of-fit" of a model, a feature of ABC analysis that has been so far neglected. We used controlled simulated data sets generated under evolutionary scenarios involving various divergence and admixture events to evaluate the effect of mixing autosomal microsatellite, mtDNA and/or nuclear autosomal DNA sequence data on inferences. This evaluation included the comparison of competing scenarios and the quantification of their relative support, and the estimation of parameter posterior distributions under a given scenario. We also considered a set of scenarios often compared when making ABC inferences on the routes of introduction of invasive species to illustrate the interest of the new model checking option of DIYABC to assess model misfit. Our new developments of the integrated software DIYABC should be particularly useful to make inference on complex evolutionary scenarios involving both recent and ancient historical events and using various types of molecular markers in diploid or haploid organisms. They offer a handy way for non-expert users to achieve model checking computation within an ABC framework, hence filling up a

  1. Model-Independent Analysis of $B \\to \\pi K$ Decays and Bounds on the Weak Phase $\\gamma$

    CERN Document Server

    Neubert, M

    1999-01-01

    A general parametrization of the amplitudes for the rare two-body decays B -> pi K is introduced, which makes maximal use of theoretical constraints arising from flavour symmetries of the strong interactions and the structure of the low-energy effective weak Hamiltonian. With the help of this parametrization, a model-independent analysis of the branching ratios and direct CP asymmetries in the various B -> pi K decay modes is performed, and the impact of hadronic uncertainties on bounds on the weak phase gamma = arg(Vub*) is investigated.

  2. Water hammer analysis. Dynamic simulation model check valve piston; Analisis del golpe de airete. Modelo de simulacion dinamica de valvula de retencion piston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royo, B.; Valdes, R.

    2012-11-01

    This report contains the description and the results of the dynamic simulation model that has been developed to predict the behaviour of one of our lift check valve design. The aim of the model is not only to simulate the closing process of the valve and to product the magnitude of the water hammer effect that may appear immediately after the valve closing, but also to simulate several design version until obtain the optimum which further minimizes such effect. the input data used for this study ensure reliable results since they represent a real system. (Author)

  3. Bounded noise induced first-order phase transitions in a baseline non-spatial model of gene transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Onofrio, Alberto; Caravagna, Giulio; de Franciscis, Sebastiano

    2018-02-01

    In this work we consider, from a statistical mechanics point of view, the effects of bounded stochastic perturbations of the protein decay rate for a bistable biomolecular network module. Namely, we consider the perturbations of the protein decay/binding rate constant (DBRC) in a circuit modeling the positive feedback of a transcription factor (TF) on its own synthesis. The DBRC models both the spontaneous degradation of the TF and its linking to other unknown biomolecular factors or drugs. We show that bounded perturbations of the DBRC preserve the positivity of the parameter value (and also its limited variation), and induce effects of interest. First, the noise amplitude induces a first-order phase transition. This is of interest since the system in study has neither spatial components nor it is composed by multiple interacting networks. In particular, we observe that the system passes from two to a unique stochastic attractor, and vice-versa. This behavior is different from noise-induced transitions (also termed phenomenological bifurcations), where a unique stochastic attractor changes its shape depending on the values of a parameter. Moreover, we observe irreversible jumps as a consequence of the above-mentioned phase transition. We show that the illustrated mechanism holds for general models with the same deterministic hysteresis bifurcation structure. Finally, we illustrate the possible implications of our findings to the intracellular pharmacodynamics of drugs delivered in continuous infusion.

  4. Frequency Weighted Model Order Reduction Technique and Error Bounds for Discrete Time Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Imran; Abdul Ghafoor; Victor Sreeram

    2014-01-01

    Model reduction is a process of approximating higher order original models by comparatively lower order models with reasonable accuracy in order to provide ease in design, modeling and simulation for large complex systems. Generally, model reduction techniques approximate the higher order systems for whole frequency range. However, certain applications (like controller reduction) require frequency weighted approximation, which introduce the concept of using frequency weights in model reductio...

  5. Visual Checking of Spreadsheets

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ying; Chan, Hock Chuan

    2008-01-01

    The difference between surface and deep structures of a spreadsheet is a major cause of difficulty in checking spreadsheets. After a brief survey of current methods of checking (or debugging) spreadsheets, new visual methods of showing the deep structures are presented. Illustrations are given on how these visual methods can be employed in various interactive local and global debugging strategies.

  6. Spell Checks Not Foolproof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Tony; Skubis, Rhett

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the use of spell checking and grammar checking software by high school journalists. Argues that, though they are useful, they are far from foolproof and are used best by students who have been taught the basics of spelling, editing, and grammatical writing. (SR)

  7. Modelling and simulation of turbulence and heat transfer in wall-bounded flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popovac, M.

    2006-01-01

    At present it is widely accepted that there is no universal turbulence model, i.e. no turbulence model can give acceptably good predictions for all turbulent flows that are found in nature or engineering. Every turbulence model is based on certain assumptions, and hence it is aimed at certain type

  8. Structural Model of the R State of Escherichia coli Aspartate Transcarbamoylase with Substrates Bound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang,J.; Eldo, J.; Kantrowitz, E.

    2007-01-01

    The allosteric enzyme aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) exists in two conformational states. The enzyme, in the absence of substrates is primarily in the low-activity T state, is converted to the high-activity R state upon substrate binding, and remains in the R state until substrates are exhausted. These conformational changes have made it difficult to obtain structural data on R-state active-site complexes. Here we report the R-state structure of ATCase with the substrate Asp and the substrate analog phosphonoactamide (PAM) bound. This R-state structure represents the stage in the catalytic mechanism immediately before the formation of the covalent bond between the nitrogen of the amino group of Asp and the carbonyl carbon of carbamoyl phosphate. The binding mode of the PAM is similar to the binding mode of the phosphonate moiety of N-(phosphonoacetyl)-l-aspartate (PALA), the carboxylates of Asp interact with the same residues that interact with the carboxylates of PALA, although the position and orientations are shifted. The amino group of Asp is 2.9 {angstrom} away from the carbonyl oxygen of PAM, positioned correctly for the nucleophilic attack. Arg105 and Leu267 in the catalytic chain interact with PAM and Asp and help to position the substrates correctly for catalysis. This structure fills a key gap in the structural determination of each of the steps in the catalytic cycle. By combining these data with previously determined structures we can now visualize the allosteric transition through detailed atomic motions that underlie the molecular mechanism.

  9. Computational modeling of chemical reactions and interstitial growth and remodeling involving charged solutes and solid-bound molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateshian, Gerard A; Nims, Robert J; Maas, Steve; Weiss, Jeffrey A

    2014-10-01

    Mechanobiological processes are rooted in mechanics and chemistry, and such processes may be modeled in a framework that couples their governing equations starting from fundamental principles. In many biological applications, the reactants and products of chemical reactions may be electrically charged, and these charge effects may produce driving forces and constraints that significantly influence outcomes. In this study, a novel formulation and computational implementation are presented for modeling chemical reactions in biological tissues that involve charged solutes and solid-bound molecules within a deformable porous hydrated solid matrix, coupling mechanics with chemistry while accounting for electric charges. The deposition or removal of solid-bound molecules contributes to the growth and remodeling of the solid matrix; in particular, volumetric growth may be driven by Donnan osmotic swelling, resulting from charged molecular species fixed to the solid matrix. This formulation incorporates the state of strain as a state variable in the production rate of chemical reactions, explicitly tying chemistry with mechanics for the purpose of modeling mechanobiology. To achieve these objectives, this treatment identifies the specific theoretical and computational challenges faced in modeling complex systems of interacting neutral and charged constituents while accommodating any number of simultaneous reactions where reactants and products may be modeled explicitly or implicitly. Several finite element verification problems are shown to agree with closed-form analytical solutions. An illustrative tissue engineering analysis demonstrates tissue growth and swelling resulting from the deposition of chondroitin sulfate, a charged solid-bound molecular species. This implementation is released in the open-source program FEBio ( www.febio.org ). The availability of this framework may be particularly beneficial to optimizing tissue engineering culture systems by examining the

  10. Andreas Acrivos Dissertation Award Talk: Modeling drag forces and velocity fluctuations in wall-bounded flows at high Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiang

    2017-11-01

    The sizes of fluid motions in wall-bounded flows scale approximately as their distances from the wall. At high Reynolds numbers, resolving near-wall, small-scale, yet momentum-transferring eddies are computationally intensive, and to alleviate the strict near-wall grid resolution requirement, a wall model is usually used. The wall model of interest here is the integral wall model. This model parameterizes the near-wall sub-grid velocity profile as being comprised of a linear inner-layer and a logarithmic meso-layer with one additional term that accounts for the effects of flow acceleration, pressure gradients etc. We use the integral wall model for wall-modeled large-eddy simulations (WMLES) of turbulent boundary layers over rough walls. The effects of rough-wall topology on drag forces are investigated. A rough-wall model is then developed based on considerations of such effects, which are now known as mutual sheltering among roughness elements. Last, we discuss briefly a new interpretation of the Townsend attached eddy hypothesis-the hierarchical random additive process model (HRAP). The analogy between the energy cascade and the momentum cascade is mathematically formal as HRAP follows the multi-fractal formulism, which was extensively used for the energy cascade.

  11. The dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist quinpirole increases checking-like behaviour in an operant observing response task with uncertain reinforcement: A novel possible model of OCD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Dawn M.; Noschang, Cristie; d’Angelo, Laure-Sophie Camilla; Noble, Christie A.; Day, Jacob O.; Dongelmans, Marie Louise; Theobald, David E.; Mar, Adam C.; Urcelay, Gonzalo P.; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive checking is a common, debilitating symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In an established rodent model of OCD checking behaviour, quinpirole (dopamine D2/3-receptor agonist) increased checking in open-field tests, indicating dopaminergic modulation of checking-like behaviours. We designed a novel operant paradigm for rats (observing response task (ORT)) to further examine cognitive processes underpinning checking behaviour and clarify how and why checking develops. We investigated i) how quinpirole increases checking, ii) dependence of these effects on D2/3 receptor function (following treatment with D2/3 receptor antagonist sulpiride) and iii) effects of reward uncertainty. In the ORT, rats pressed an ‘observing’ lever for information about the location of an ‘active’ lever that provided food reinforcement. High- and low-checkers (defined from baseline observing) received quinpirole (0.5 mg/kg, 10 treatments) or vehicle. Parametric task manipulations assessed observing/checking under increasing task demands relating to reinforcement uncertainty (variable response requirement and active-lever location switching). Treatment with sulpiride further probed the pharmacological basis of long-term behavioural changes. Quinpirole selectively increased checking, both functional observing lever presses (OLPs) and non-functional extra OLPs (EOLPs). The increase in OLPs and EOLPs was long-lasting, without further quinpirole administration. Quinpirole did not affect the immediate ability to use information from checking. Vehicle and quinpirole-treated rats (VEH and QNP respectively) were selectively sensitive to different forms of uncertainty. Sulpiride reduced non-functional EOLPs in QNP rats but had no effect on functional OLPs. These data have implications for treatment of compulsive checking in OCD, particularly for serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor treatment-refractory cases, where supplementation with dopamine receptor antagonists may be

  12. The dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist quinpirole increases checking-like behaviour in an operant observing response task with uncertain reinforcement: a novel possible model of OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Dawn M; Noschang, Cristie; d'Angelo, Laure-Sophie Camilla; Noble, Christie A; Day, Jacob O; Dongelmans, Marie Louise; Theobald, David E; Mar, Adam C; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Robbins, Trevor W

    2014-05-01

    Excessive checking is a common, debilitating symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In an established rodent model of OCD checking behaviour, quinpirole (dopamine D2/3-receptor agonist) increased checking in open-field tests, indicating dopaminergic modulation of checking-like behaviours. We designed a novel operant paradigm for rats (observing response task (ORT)) to further examine cognitive processes underpinning checking behaviour and clarify how and why checking develops. We investigated i) how quinpirole increases checking, ii) dependence of these effects on D2/3 receptor function (following treatment with D2/3 receptor antagonist sulpiride) and iii) effects of reward uncertainty. In the ORT, rats pressed an 'observing' lever for information about the location of an 'active' lever that provided food reinforcement. High- and low-checkers (defined from baseline observing) received quinpirole (0.5mg/kg, 10 treatments) or vehicle. Parametric task manipulations assessed observing/checking under increasing task demands relating to reinforcement uncertainty (variable response requirement and active-lever location switching). Treatment with sulpiride further probed the pharmacological basis of long-term behavioural changes. Quinpirole selectively increased checking, both functional observing lever presses (OLPs) and non-functional extra OLPs (EOLPs). The increase in OLPs and EOLPs was long-lasting, without further quinpirole administration. Quinpirole did not affect the immediate ability to use information from checking. Vehicle and quinpirole-treated rats (VEH and QNP respectively) were selectively sensitive to different forms of uncertainty. Sulpiride reduced non-functional EOLPs in QNP rats but had no effect on functional OLPs. These data have implications for treatment of compulsive checking in OCD, particularly for serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor treatment-refractory cases, where supplementation with dopamine receptor antagonists may be beneficial

  13. Preoperative teaching and stoma marking in an inpatient population: a quality improvement process using a FOCUS-Plan-Do-Check-Act model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimnicki, Katherine M

    2015-01-01

    Preoperative teaching and stoma marking are supported by research and included in clinical practice guidelines from the WOCN Society and others. Using a FOCUS-Plan-Do-Check-Act model of Total Quality Management, a multidisciplinary team was formed that developed a flow chart outlining the process of care for patients undergoing planned ostomy surgery that included an educational intervention that enabled staff nurses to perform preoperative stoma site marking and education. After 3 months, we found a statistically significant increase in the number of surgical patients who received these evidence-based interventions (14% vs 64%; χ = 9.32; P = .002).

  14. Modelling of the batch biosorption system: study on exchange of protons with cell wall-bound mineral ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    The interchange of the protons with the cell wall-bound calcium and magnesium ions at the interface of solution/bacterial cell surface in the biosorption system at various concentrations of protons has been studied in the present work. A mathematical model for establishing the correlation between concentration of protons and active sites was developed and optimized. The sporadic limited residence time reactor was used to titrate the calcium and magnesium ions at the individual data point. The accuracy of the proposed mathematical model was estimated using error functions such as nonlinear regression, adjusted nonlinear regression coefficient, the chi-square test, P-test and F-test. The values of the chi-square test (0.042-0.017), P-test (proton concentrations. The zeta potential of the bacterium surface at various concentrations of protons was observed to validate the denaturation of active sites.

  15. Bounded Rational Managers Struggle with Talent Management - An Agent-based Modelling Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Billy; Thomsen, Svend Erik

    , and by experimenting with different inputs it is possible to learn how the model behaves. The model is used to simulate the real world as it might be in a variety of circumstances (Gilbert, 2008). For this study a simulation model coded in Java-based NetLogo language was created. The simulation model contained only......This study applies an agent-based modeling approach to explore some aspects of an important managerial task: finding and cultivating talented individuals capable of creating value for their organization at some future state. Given that the term talent in talent management is an empty signifier...... method for studying this type of problems. The approach is particularly suitable to topics where understanding processes and their consequences is important. Agent-based models can include agents that are heterogeneous in their features and abilities, and can deal directly with the consequences...

  16. Loop Shaping Control Design for a Supersonic Propulsion System Model Using Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) Specifications and Bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Joseph W.; Kopasakis, George

    2010-01-01

    This paper covers the propulsion system component modeling and controls development of an integrated mixed compression inlet and turbojet engine that will be used for an overall vehicle Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elastic (APSE) model. Using previously created nonlinear component-level propulsion system models, a linear integrated propulsion system model and loop shaping control design have been developed. The design includes both inlet normal shock position control and jet engine rotor speed control for a potential supersonic commercial transport. A preliminary investigation of the impacts of the aero-elastic effects on the incoming flow field to the propulsion system are discussed, however, the focus here is on developing a methodology for the propulsion controls design that prevents unstart in the inlet and minimizes the thrust oscillation experienced by the vehicle. Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) specifications and bounds, and aspects of classical loop shaping are used in the control design process. Model uncertainty is incorporated in the design to address possible error in the system identification mapping of the nonlinear component models into the integrated linear model.

  17. Modelling near-surface bound electron states in a 3D topological insulator: analytical and numerical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men'shov, V N; Tugushev, V V; Menshchikova, T V; Eremeev, S V; Echenique, P M; Chulkov, E V

    2014-12-03

    We apply both analytical and ab-initio methods to explore heterostructures composed of a 3D topological insulator (3D TI) and an ultrathin normal insulator (NI) overlayer as a proving ground for the principles of topological phase engineering. Using the continual model of a semi-infinite 3D TI we study the surface potential (SP) effect caused by an attached ultrathin layer of 3D NI on the formation of topological bound states at the interface. The results reveal that the spatial profile and spectrum of these near-surface states strongly depend on both the sign and the strength of the SP. Using ab-initio band structure calculations to take the specificity of the materials into account, we investigate the NI/TI heterostructures formed by a single tetradymite-type quintuple or septuple layer block and the 3D TI substrate. The analytical continuum theory results relate the near-surface state evolution with the SP variation and are in good qualitative agreement with those obtained from density-functional theory (DFT) calculations. We also predict the appearance of the quasi-topological bound state on the 3D NI surface caused by a local band gap inversion induced by an overlayer.

  18. Prediction Interval Development for Wind-Tunnel Balance Check-Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, Drew; Toro, Kenneth G.; Commo, Sean A.; Lynn, Keith C.

    2014-01-01

    Results from the Facility Analysis Verification and Operational Reliability project revealed a critical gap in capability in ground-based aeronautics research applications. Without a standardized process for check-loading the wind-tunnel balance or the model system, the quality of the aerodynamic force data collected varied significantly between facilities. A prediction interval is required in order to confirm a check-loading. The prediction interval provides an expected upper and lower bound on balance load prediction at a given confidence level. A method has been developed which accounts for sources of variability due to calibration and check-load application. The prediction interval method of calculation and a case study demonstrating its use is provided. Validation of the methods is demonstrated for the case study based on the probability of capture of confirmation points.

  19. Large-time behaviour of some fully discrete kinetic models in bounded domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Gabetta

    1991-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the large-time behaviour of the fully discretized version both of the three velocity Broadwell model and of the four velocity model in a strip. We analyze the different behaviours on the light of some recent results by M. Slemrod [7] and C. Cercignani [3].

  20. Get Your Cholesterol Checked

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cholesterol levels with a blood test called a lipid profile. For the test, a nurse will take a ... blood tests that can check cholesterol, but a lipid profile gives the most information. Find out more about ...