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Sample records for boundary upwelling ecosystems

  1. Potential new production estimates in four eastern boundary upwelling ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messié, Monique; Ledesma, Jesus; Kolber, Dorota D.; Michisaki, Reiko P.; Foley, David G.; Chavez, Francisco P.

    2009-12-01

    Nitrate supply by coastal upwelling has been estimated for four eastern boundary regions (Benguela, California, Northwest Africa and Peru) by combining surface winds measured from space and in situ vertical nitrate profiles. We use a QuikSCAT 0.25°×0.25° weekly wind product to assess the seasonal vertical transport induced by wind forcing. The calculation is made from the coast to 150 km offshore and the wind-driven upwelling is partitioned into that contributed by Ekman transport and pumping. We assume that on the upwelling event time scale (days) the water brought to the surface originates from a depth of 60 m. Seasonal climatologies are used to estimate in situ nitrate concentration at 60 m, and nitrate supply is calculated as the product of nitrate concentration times the vertical transport obtained from QuikSCAT. This represents the potential new production, i.e. the amount of nitrate available for phytoplankton primary production, for each region. We find that Benguela, Northwest Africa and Peru have similar levels of nitrate supply and potential new production while California has about 60% of the other three.

  2. Role of nutrient recycling in upwelling ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitledge, T E

    1979-01-01

    The regeneration of nitrogen is an important process that increases the efficiency of the upwelling ecosystem by enlarging their spatial scales. Ammonium regeneration was considered to contribute 42 to 72 percent of phytoplankton nitrogen requirements in the northwest Africa, Peru, and Baja California upwelling systems. Zooplankton are responsible for the largest portion of regenerated nitrogen; however, fish and benthic sediments may be nearly as large. Comparisons of the importance of ammonium regeneration in upwelling areas with coastal and open ocean regions indicate that the percentage contributions are similar. Future nutrient regeneration studies are needed to assess the recycling of benthic sediments, microzooplankton, gelatinous zooplankton, demersal fish, bacterioplankton, and mollusks.

  3. Influence of ocean winds on the pelagic ecosystem in upwelling regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykaczewski, Ryan R; Checkley, David M

    2008-02-12

    Upwelling of nutrient-rich, subsurface water sustains high productivity in the ocean's eastern boundary currents. These ecosystems support a rate of fish harvest nearly 100 times the global mean and account for >20% of the world's marine fish catch. Environmental variability is thought to be the major cause of the decadal-scale biomass fluctuations characteristic of fish populations in these regions, but the mechanisms relating atmospheric physics to fish production remain unexplained. Two atmospheric conditions induce different types of upwelling in these ecosystems: coastal, alongshore wind stress, resulting in rapid upwelling (with high vertical velocity, w); and wind-stress curl, resulting in slower upwelling (low w). We show that the level of wind-stress curl has increased and that production of Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax) varies with wind-stress curl over the past six decades. The extent of isopycnal shoaling, nutricline depth, and chlorophyll concentration in the upper ocean also correlate positively with wind-stress curl. The size structure of plankton assemblages is related to the rate of wind-forced upwelling, and sardine feed efficiently on small plankters generated by slow upwelling. Upwelling rate is a fundamental determinant of the biological structure and production in coastal pelagic ecosystems, and future changes in the magnitude and spatial gradient of wind stress may have important and differing effects on these ecosystems. Understanding of the biological mechanisms relating fisheries production to environmental variability is essential for wise management of marine resources under a changing climate.

  4. Modelling Upwelling Irradiance using Secchi disk depth in lake ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio ROSSI

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A simple model for upwelling irradiance has been developed. The model represents the relationship between Photosynthetically Active Radiation diffuse attenuation coefficients and Secchi disk depth described with a physical-mathematical expression. This physical mathematical expression allows the evaluation of the sub surface upwelling irradiance that was generated by the interaction between downwelling irradiance and the water column. The validation of the relation was performed using experimental data collected from five different aquatic ecosystems at different latitudes, solar elevations and irradiance levels. We found a good linear, positive correlation between the theoretical and measured upwelling irradiance (R2 = 0.96. The residues were well distributed, around the null value, according a Gaussian curve (R2 = 0.92. The results confirm the importance and the versatility of the Secchi disk measurements for aquatic optics.

  5. Coastal upwelling ecosystems are known to be parts of the most ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    able to sustain extremely large populations of pelagic fish such as sardine ... This major characteristic of coastal upwelling ... Because a coastal upwelling ecosystem is a disper- ..... clupéidés des zones d'upwelling d'Afrique de L'Ouest. Aquat ...

  6. Trophic interactions in northern Chile upwelling ecosystem, year 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica E Barros

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A food web model is constructed to describe predator-prey interactions, community structure and trophic flows in northern Chile upwelling ecosystem (18°20'S, 24°S, for the year 1997. The model is built using the Ecopath with Ecosim software version 6.4, and encompasses 21 functional groups, ranging from primary producers (phytoplankton to top predators (birds and marine mammals, the principal fishing resources and the fishery. Input parameters required to build the model were gathered from specialized literature, grey literature and our own estimates. The results indicated that the total biomass (B T was estimated at 624.7 ton km-2. The combined biomass of small pelagic fish represented 26% of B T, while the combined biomass of demersal fish represented only 0.1% of B T. These results highlight the importance of pelagic fish in this system. Predation mortality resulted to be the main source of mortality. Nevertheless, fishing mortality was important in anchovy, mackerel, common dolphinfish and jack mackerel. The mean trophic level of the fishery was estimated as 3.7, with landings sustained mainly by anchovy. Primary production required to sustain the landings (PPR was estimated at 7.5% of calculated total net primary production, which is lower than PPR estimates in other upwelling ecosystems. The average trophic transfer efficiency was 18%, which is in the range (10-20% informed for marine ecosystems. Results indicate that in 1997 the northern Chile marine ecosystem was characterized for being a system far from maturity, dominated in terms of biomass and flows by the pelagic realm.

  7. Coastal upwelling ecosystems are often identified as regions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    number of human fatalities have also been reported. The .... frontal (upwelling front – UF) red tide population during relaxation of upwelling-favourable winds off the west coast of South ... stability, so favouring the widespread distribution of.

  8. On the Past, Present, and Future of Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bograd, S. J.; Black, B.; Garcia-Reyes, M.; Rykaczewski, R. R.; Thompson, S. A.; Turley, B. D.; van der Sleen, P.; Sydeman, W. J.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal upwelling in Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS) drives high productivity and marine biodiversity and supports lucrative commercial fishing operations. Thus there is significant interest in understanding the mechanisms underlying variations in the upwelling process, its drivers, and potential changes relative to global warming. Here we review recent results from a combination of regional and global observations, reanalysis products, and climate model projections that describe variability in coastal upwelling in EBUS. Key findings include: (1) interannual variability in California Current upwelling occurs in two orthogonal seasonal modes: a winter/early spring mode dominated by interannual variability and a summer mode dominated by long-term increasing trend; (2) there is substantial coherence in year-to-year variability between this winter/spring upwelling mode and upper trophic level demographic processes, including fish growth rates (rockfish and salmon) and seabird phenology, breeding success and survival; (3) a meta-analysis of existing literature suggests consistency with the Bakun (1990) hypothesis that rising global greenhouse-gas concentrations would result in upwelling-favorable wind intensification; however, (4) an ensemble of coupled, global ocean-atmosphere models finds limited evidence for intensification of upwelling-favorable winds over the 21st century, although summertime winds near the poleward boundaries of climatalogical upwelling zones are projected to intensify. We will also review a new comparative research program between the California and Benguela Upwelling Systems, including efforts to understand patterns of change and variation between climate, upwelling, fish, and seabirds.

  9. Delayed upwelling alters nearshore coastal ocean ecosystems in the northern California current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, John A; Menge, Bruce A; Lubchenco, Jane; Chan, Francis; Bane, John M; Kirincich, Anthony R; McManus, Margaret A; Nielsen, Karina J; Pierce, Stephen D; Washburn, Libe

    2007-03-06

    Wind-driven coastal ocean upwelling supplies nutrients to the euphotic zone near the coast. Nutrients fuel the growth of phytoplankton, the base of a very productive coastal marine ecosystem [Pauly D, Christensen V (1995) Nature 374:255-257]. Because nutrient supply and phytoplankton biomass in shelf waters are highly sensitive to variation in upwelling-driven circulation, shifts in the timing and strength of upwelling may alter basic nutrient and carbon fluxes through marine food webs. We show how a 1-month delay in the 2005 spring transition to upwelling-favorable wind stress in the northern California Current Large Marine Ecosystem resulted in numerous anomalies: warm water, low nutrient levels, low primary productivity, and an unprecedented low recruitment of rocky intertidal organisms. The delay was associated with 20- to 40-day wind oscillations accompanying a southward shift of the jet stream. Early in the upwelling season (May-July) off Oregon, the cumulative upwelling-favorable wind stress was the lowest in 20 years, nearshore surface waters averaged 2 degrees C warmer than normal, surf-zone chlorophyll-a and nutrients were 50% and 30% less than normal, respectively, and densities of recruits of mussels and barnacles were reduced by 83% and 66%, respectively. Delayed early-season upwelling and stronger late-season upwelling are consistent with predictions of the influence of global warming on coastal upwelling regions.

  10. Nutrients, Recycling, and Biological Populations in Upwelling Ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitledge, T. E.

    1980-01-01

    Nutrient recycling has been studied in the upwelling areas of Baja California, Northwest Africa, and Peru. Regeneration by biological populations in these areas contributes significant quantities of recycled nitrogen which is utilized in productivity processes. Each area has a different combination of organisms which leads to differences in the relative contributions of zooplankton, nekton, or benthos to the nutrient cycles. Comparisons of ammonium regeneration rates of zooplankton and nekton-micronekton populations in the three upwelling areas show that zooplankton recycle relatively less nitrogen in the Baja California and Peru systems than nekton. In the Northwest Africa upwelling region, however, zooplankton, fish, and benthic inputs are all substantial. In recent years the Peruvian upwelling system has been altered with the decline of the anchoveta population and an increase in the importance of zooplankton in nutrient recycling. The distribution of recycled nitrogen (ammonium and urea) in transects across the shelf at 10°S and 15°S indicates that regeneration is relatively more important at 10°S in the region of the wide shelf. In both areas the distribution of ammonium and urea are not entirely coincident thereby indicating differences in their production and/or utilization.

  11. The potential role of mass balance models for the management of upwelling ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarre, Astrid

    1998-01-01

    Upwelling ecosystems are productive fishing grounds, contributing >30% to the world's catch of marine fish. A set of seven trophic mass balance models of productive subsystems of the four largest upwelling areas is used to demonstrate key features of the modeling process and the analysis...... set of species interactions, and its impact can thus be readily compared to that of other piscivores in the ecosystem. This approach consequently allows us to assess the ecological sustainability of a fishery. It therefore addresses the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries recently published...

  12. Defining seascapes for marine unconsolidated shelf sediments in an eastern boundary upwelling region: The southern Benguela as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karenyi, Natasha; Sink, Kerry; Nel, Ronel

    2016-02-01

    Marine unconsolidated sediment habitats, the largest benthic ecosystem, are considered physically controlled ecosystems driven by a number of local physical processes. Depth and sediment type are recognised key drivers of these ecosystems. Seascape (i.e., marine landscape) habitat classifications are based solely on consistent geophysical features and provide an opportunity to define unconsolidated sediment habitats based on processes which may vary in distribution through space and time. This paper aimed to classify unconsolidated sediment seascapes and explore their diversity in an eastern boundary upwelling region at the macro-scale, using the South African west coast as a case study. Physical variables such as sediment grain size, depth and upwelling-related variables (i.e., maximum chlorophyll concentration, austral summer bottom oxygen concentration and sediment organic carbon content) were included in the analyses. These variables were directly measured through sampling, or collated from existing databases and the literature. These data were analysed using multivariate Cluster, Principal Components Ordination and SIMPER analyses (in PRIMER 6 + with PERMANOVA add-in package). There were four main findings; (i) eight seascapes were identified for the South African west coast based on depth, slope, sediment grain size and upwelling-related variables, (ii) three depth zones were distinguished (inner, middle and outer shelf), (iii) seascape diversity in the inner and middle shelves was greater than the outer shelf, and (iv) upwelling-related variables were responsible for the habitat diversity in both inner and middle shelves. This research demonstrates that the inclusion of productivity and its related variables, such as hypoxia and sedimentary organic carbon, in seascape classifications will enhance the ability to distinguish seascapes on continental shelves, where productivity is most variable.

  13. Surface mixing and biological activity in the four Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rossi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS are characterized by a high productivity of plankton associated with large commercial fisheries, thus playing key biological and socio-economical roles. Since they are populated by several physical oceanic structures such as filaments and eddies, which interact with the biological processes, it is a major challenge to study this sub- and mesoscale activity in connection with the chlorophyll distribution. The aim of this work is to make a comparative study of these four upwelling systems focussing on their surface stirring, using the Finite Size Lyapunov Exponents (FSLEs, and their biological activity, based on satellite data. First, the spatial distribution of horizontal mixing is analysed from time averages and from probability density functions of FSLEs, which allow us to divide each areas in two different subsystems. Then we studied the temporal variability of surface stirring focussing on the annual and seasonal cycle. We also proposed a ranking of the four EBUS based on the averaged mixing intensity. When investigating the links with chlorophyll concentration, the previous subsystems reveal distinct biological signatures. There is a global negative correlation between surface horizontal mixing and chlorophyll standing stocks over the four areas. To try to better understand this inverse relationship, we consider the vertical dimension by looking at the Ekman-transport and vertical velocities. We suggest the possibility of a changing response of the phytoplankton to sub/mesoscale turbulence, from a negative effect in the very productive coastal areas to a positive one in the open ocean. This study provides new insights for the understanding of the variable biological productivity in the ocean, which results from both dynamics of the marine ecosystem and of the 3-D turbulent medium.

  14. Four large coastal upwelling areas are created by eastern boundary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    A balanced trophic flow model of the southern Benguela ecosystem is presented, averaging the period. 1980–1989 ...... similar to that of benthic carnivorous fish, a weighted diet was ...... its positive effect as anchovy prey was largely counter-.

  15. The distribution and impacts of harmful algal bloom species in eastern boundary upwelling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainer, V. L.; Pitcher, G. C.; Reguera, B.; Smayda, T. J.

    2010-04-01

    Comparison of harmful algal bloom (HAB) species in eastern boundary upwelling systems, specifically species composition, bloom densities, toxin concentrations and impacts are likely to contribute to understanding these phenomena. We identify and describe HABs in the California, Canary, Benguela and Humboldt Current systems, including those that can cause the poisoning syndromes in humans called paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), and amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), as well as yessotoxins, ichthyotoxins, and high-biomass blooms resulting in hypoxia and anoxia. Such comparisons will allow identification of parameters, some unique to upwelling systems and others not, that contribute to the development of these harmful blooms.

  16. Warm Bias and Parameterization of Boundary Upwelling in Ocean Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cessi, Paola; Wolfe, Christopher

    2012-11-06

    It has been demonstrated that Eastern Boundary Currents (EBC) are a baroclinic intensification of the interior circulation of the ocean due to the emergence of mesoscale eddies in response to the sharp buoyancy gradients driven by the wind-stress and the thermal surface forcing. The eddies accomplish the heat and salt transport necessary to insure that the subsurface flow is adiabatic, compensating for the heat and salt transport effected by the mean currents. The EBC thus generated occurs on a cross-shore scale of order 20-100 km, and thus this scale needs to be resolved in climate models in order to capture the meridional transport by the EBC. Our result indicate that changes in the near shore currents on the oceanic eastern boundaries are linked not just to local forcing, such as coastal changes in the winds, but depend on the basin-wide circulation as well.

  17. Trophic structure and diversity in rocky intertidal upwelling ecosystems: A comparison of community patterns across California, Chile, South Africa and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchette, C. A.; Wieters, E. A.; Broitman, B. R.; Kinlan, B. P.; Schiel, D. R.

    2009-12-01

    The Benguela, California, and Humboldt represent three of the major eastern boundary upwelling ecosystems in the world. Upwelling ecosystems are highly productive, and this productivity forms the base of the food chain, potentially leading to ecosystems similar in trophic structure and diversity among upwelling regions. Here we compare the biological and trophic structure of rocky intertidal communities in each of these major upwelling regions. Our comparison includes a fourth region, New Zealand, which spans a similar latitudinal range, and experiences intermittent upwelling. The influence of oceanographic conditions on these communities was evaluated by using the long-term mean and standard deviation of satellite-based sea surface temperature (SST). Large differences emerged in the taxonomic richness in each of these systems, with California as the most and the Humboldt as the least taxonomically rich. Across all regions, richness tended to decrease progressively from lower trophic levels (macrophytes) to higher trophic levels (carnivores), and richness was inversely correlated with the proportion of variance in SST contained in the seasonal cycle, suggesting that strongly seasonal, predictable environments are relatively low in diversity. The functional and trophic structures were remarkably similar across these four regions of the world. Macrophytes were slightly dominant over filter-feeders in terms of space occupancy in all regions except the Benguela. Densities of herbivorous grazers were greatest in California and Benguela and far outnumbered carnivore densities in all regions. Despite some similarities, the overall structure of the communities from these regions differed significantly supporting the hypothesis that the biological and ecological consequences of similar physical forcing mechanisms (e.g. upwelling) are likely to be context-dependent.

  18. Jet stream intraseasonal oscillations drive dominant ecosystem variations in Oregon's summertime coastal upwelling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bane, John M; Spitz, Yvette H; Letelier, Ricardo M; Peterson, William T

    2007-08-14

    Summertime wind stress along the coast of the northwestern United States typically exhibits intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) with periods from approximately 15 to 40 days, as well as fluctuations on the 2- to 6-day "weather-band" and 1-day diurnal time scales. Coastal upwelling of cool, nutrient-rich water is driven by extended periods of equatorward alongshore winds, and we show that the approximately 20-day ISOs in alongshore wind stress dominated the upwelling process during summer 2001 off Oregon. These wind stress ISOs resulted from north-south positional ISOs of the atmospheric jet stream (JS). Upper-ocean temperature, phytoplankton, and zooplankton varied principally on the approximately 20-day time scale as well, and these correlated with the ISOs in alongshore wind stress and JS position, even though there also were weather-band stress fluctuations of comparable magnitude. Such wind stress ISOs are typical along Oregon in the summer upwelling season, occurring in 10 of 12 years examined, including 2001. We present a previously unreported direct connection from the atmospheric JS to oceanic primary and secondary production on the intraseasonal time scale and show the leading importance of ISOs in driving this coastal upwelling ecosystem during a typical summer.

  19. Persistence of trophic hotspots and relation to human impacts within an upwelling marine ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santora, Jarrod A; Sydeman, William J; Schroeder, Isaac D; Field, John C; Miller, Rebecca R; Wells, Brian K

    2017-03-01

    Human impacts (e.g., fishing, pollution, and shipping) on pelagic ecosystems are increasing, causing concerns about stresses on marine food webs. Maintaining predator-prey relationships through protection of pelagic hotspots is crucial for conservation and management of living marine resources. Biotic components of pelagic, plankton-based, ecosystems exhibit high variability in abundance in time and space (i.e., extreme patchiness), requiring investigation of persistence of abundance across trophic levels to resolve trophic hotspots. Using a 26-yr record of indicators for primary production, secondary (zooplankton and larval fish), and tertiary (seabirds) consumers, we show distributions of trophic hotspots in the southern California Current Ecosystem result from interactions between a strong upwelling center and a productive retention zone with enhanced nutrients, which concentrate prey and predators across multiple trophic levels. Trophic hotspots also overlap with human impacts, including fisheries extraction of coastal pelagic and groundfish species, as well as intense commercial shipping traffic. Spatial overlap of trophic hotspots with fisheries and shipping increases vulnerability of the ecosystem to localized depletion of forage fish, ship strikes on marine mammals, and pollution. This study represents a critical step toward resolving pelagic areas of high conservation interest for planktonic ecosystems and may serve as a model for other ocean regions where ecosystem-based management and marine spatial planning of pelagic ecosystems is warranted. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  20. Oceanographic implications of the Cabo Catoche (Northeast Yucatan) upwelling and its effects on the coastal ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Mendoza, O.; Marino-Tapia, I.; Herrera Silveira, J.; Cárdenas-Palómo, N.; Ruiz, G.

    2013-05-01

    The coasts of the world where upwelling events occur are intrinsically related to the human population, mainly because of their large fisheries, socioeconomic repercussion and implications concerning the health of the ecosystem. In the northeast of the Yucatan Peninsula occurs an upwelling event known as the Yucatan upwelling (YU) associated with the current of the same name. The mechanisms that generate the YU are still under discussion. In terms of seasonality it is agreed that this is annual, occurring between April and September. During spring and summer, the northeast coast of the Peninsula between CaboCatoche and Isla Contoy becomes a productive and diverse pelagic ecosystem, unique to the region. It is classified as a priority marine zone host to close to 59 species protected by the national laws. It is also recognized as an important priority marine site because of its fishery. Also, the largest global aggregation of whale sharks, the world's biggest fish, is found at this site. There is a strong connection between the physical and the biological components of the system, however the coastal extent, seasonality, and magnitude of these processes need to be determined. Therefore an in-situ study was designed in the coastal region of CaboCatoche, where a 50 km transect was positioned along shelf and another across shelf 20 km, where water was collected to determine nutrient concentrations and CTD profiles were casted during the summer of 2007, 2008 and 2011. Two acoustic profilers were installed 12 km from the coast, which recorded currents and temperature by 2 years. Another profiler located 17 km from the coast to recorded data by 8 years. Atmospheric pressure and temperature were measured, as a wind fields from NOAA. Maps were created for the vertical distribution of temperature (18-31°C), salinity (35-38 psu), density (22-27 kg/m3) and chlorophyll (0.05-12.7 mg/m3). Frequency periods were estimated for temperature, currents, wind and atmospheric pressure

  1. Wind-driven coastal upwelling along the western boundary of the Bay of Bengal during the southwest monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Gouveia, A.D.; Michael, G.S.; Sundar, D.; Nampoothiri, G.

    monsoon. Occur- rence of shelf waves can have important implications for upwelling along the coast. In their presence, the upwelling intensity at any location is determined not only by the local longshore wind stress, but also by the history of shelf... of Bengal. In: The encyclopedia of oceanography, R. W. FAXRaR~D~E. editor, Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Stroudburg, 1021 pp. LEGECKIS R. (1987) Satellite observations of a western boundary current in the Bay of Bengal. Journal of Geophysical Research, 92...

  2. Surface-to-subsurface temperature variations during the last century in a western boundary upwelling system (Southeastern, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venancio, Igor M.; Gomes, Vitor P.; Belem, Andre L.; Albuquerque, Ana Luiza S.

    2016-08-01

    The upper thermal gradient of a western boundary upwelling system was reconstructed for the last 100 years. The reconstruction was based on oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of four planktonic foraminifera species derived from two boxcores (BCCF10-01 and BCCF10-04) located in the southeastern Brazilian shelf. Calcification depths of the four planktonic foraminifera species were estimated in order to understand which layer of the water column was assessed. Changes in the upper thermal gradient were evaluated by using the δ18O difference from the surface-dwelling species Globigerinoides ruber (pink) and the deep-dwelling Neogloboquadrina dutertrei. The relative abundance of cold-water species and the δ13C of G. ruber (pink) were also used to evaluate changes on the surface layer. Our results demonstrate a trend to reduction on the temperature difference (∆T) between the surface and the thermocline layer towards the present for both cores, together with an increase on the relative abundance of cold-water species for the mid-shelf core (BCCF10-04) and a decrease in δ13C values of G. ruber (pink) for both cores. Despite the observable trend on the proxies, only the relative abundance of Turborotalita quinqueloba and the δ13C of G. ruber (pink) for the mid-shelf core presented statistically significant trends. These results were related to an increase in South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) intrusions in the sub-surface layer, especially on the middle shelf region. The SACW intrusions would lower the sea surface temperature and would bring a depleted δ13C of the dissolved inorganic carbon signature to the surface, which would be in agreement with our findings. Moreover, these mid-shelf SACW intrusions in the region were attributed to the Ekman pumping (wind stress curl-driven), which was previously reported to be an important mechanism in this upwelling system. The major outcomes to this western boundary current ecosystem from an intensification of the mid

  3. Regenerated primary production dominates in a periodically upwelling shelf ecosystem, northeast New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, S. J.; Zeldis, J. R.; Nodder, S. D.; Gall, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first field measured primary production values for an intermittently upwelling shelf ecosystem in the Hauraki Gulf, northeast New Zealand. Phytoplankton uptake rates of 13C and 15N were used to determine the relative importance of new (15NO3- ) versus regenerated nutrients (15NH4+ and 15N-urea) to productivity, and to test the hypothesis that the upwelling system supports high export of organic material, acting as a net sink for CO2. From early spring to early summer (1996-1997), deep NO3--rich waters upwelled onto the shelf and into the inner gulf, producing a short-lived low-level predominantly NO3--fuelled bloom (surface chlorophyll-a (chl-a) >1.0 mg m-3) in early spring. From late spring onwards, mixed layer NO3- concentrations were depleted to often lower levels than NH4+ and urea (∼0.1 mmol m-3), with mid-water chl-a maxima associated with the top of the nitracline fuelled predominantly by regenerated nutrients. By late summer, upwelling had ceased, with intrusions of low-nutrient subtropical oceanic surface water producing oligotrophic conditions. NH4+ and urea uptake nearly always exceeded NO3- uptake throughout the euphotic zone, even within the nitracline, with relative preference index (RPI) estimates giving RPIUrea>RPINH>RPINO, and low uptake f ratios (generally fphysiological preference of phytoplankton for reduced forms of nitrogen. Despite periods of upwelling producing relatively high levels of integrated NO3- (typically 25-150 mmol NO3- m-2) across the shelf from early spring to early summer, the highest integrated total production (1266 mg C m-2 d-1) and specific uptake rates of C/chl-a were obtained in late summer. In the inner gulf and on the mid-shelf, these higher late summer production rates coincided with low integrated chl-a biomass and NO3- inventories. There was no correlation of chl-a with C uptake in either surface waters (r2=0.0115), or in the euphotic zone (r2=0.0232) for the compiled data set, raising potential

  4. Spatio-Temporal Variation in Effects of Upwelling on the Fatty Acid Composition of Benthic Filter Feeders in the Southern Benguela Ecosystem: Not All Upwelling Is Equal

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuaid, Christopher David; Noyon, Margaux

    2016-01-01

    Variability in mesoscale nearshore oceanographic conditions plays an important role in the distribution of primary production and food availability for intertidal consumers. Advection of nutrient rich waters by upwelling usually allows the proliferation of diatoms, later replaced by dinoflagellates. We examined upwelling effects on the fatty acid (FA) signature of a benthic intertidal filter feeder to identify its response to pulsed variability in food availability. The study took place in two contrasting seasons and at two upwelling and two non-upwelling sites interspersed within the southern Benguela upwelling system of South Africa. We investigated the FA composition of the adductor muscles and gonads of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis to assess how FA are apportioned to the different tissues and whether this changes between upwelling and non-upwelling conditions. In situ temperature loggers used to identify upwelling conditions at the four sites indicated that such events occurred only at the upwelling centres and only in summer. Tissues differed strongly, with gonads presenting a higher proportion of essential FAs. This could reflect the faster turnover rate of gonad tissue or preferential retention of specific FA for reproductive purposes. FA composition did not vary as a direct function of upwelling, but there were strong dissimilarities among sites. Upwelling influenced mussel diets at one upwelling site while at the other, the expected signature of upwelling was displaced downstream of the core of upwelling. Condition Index (CI) and Gonad Index (GI) differed among sites and were not influenced by upwelling, with GI being comparable among sites. In addition, FA proportions were consistent among sites, indicating similar food quality and quantity over time and under upwelling and non-upwelling conditions. This suggests that the influence of upwelling on the west coast of South Africa is pervasive and diffuse, rather than discrete; while nearshore

  5. On the warm nearshore bias in Pathfinder monthly SST products over Eastern Boundary upwelling systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dufois, F

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available , and Benguela Upwelling Systems. This warm bias could at least partly explain the cold bias often found in numerical models of coastal upwelling. The last release of Pathfinder (version 5.2, September 2011) clearly improved the bias found on the previous...

  6. Short-term dynamics of nutrients influenced by upwelling in a small oligotrophic coastal ecosystem,Gan Bay,in the northwest Philippines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanping Xu; Minhan Dai; Weidong Zhai; Dongxing Yuan; Jinwen Liu; Zhenyu Sun; Hua Lin; Jingyu Wi

    2009-01-01

    We present a time-series analysis of nutrient and pCO2 (partial pressure of CO2) levels in an oligotrophic coastal ecosystem (Gan Bay),which was likely to be influenced by upwelled subsurface water.Gan Bay is off Currimao Harbor,in the northwest Philippines and is located at the boundary of the South China Sea (SCS).This 42-h time-series observation was conducted in December 2006.In addition to continuous observations of dissolved oxygen (DO) and pCO2,discrete samples were collected at a depth of 5 m every 3 h for measurements of nutrients,including soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and inorganic nitrogen (NO3- + NO2-) in order to examine their dynamics and possible physical and biological controls.We observed remarkably large short-term variations in the surface water,spanning a 10-fold change for SRP (32-330 nM) and from <0.3 μM to 4.3 μM for NO3- + NO2-.DO also varied substantially from a lower end of 171 to 205 μM O2.Surface water pCO2 changed from an equilibrium stage with the atmosphere (~386 μatm) to a stage where it was a significant source for the atmospheric CO2 (seawater pCO2~469 μatm).We found that the variation of nutrients was driven neither by tidal mixing nor by biological activities,as was suggested by the variations in the total bacterial abundance and chlorophyll a.Instead,our inverse T-S relationship suggested a two end-member mixing process during the observation period.The N:P ratio throughout the observation period was ~13.2,which is characteristic of SCS subsurface and deep waters.Moreover,pCO2 was correlated inversely with the sea surface temperature.It is likely,therefore,that an upwelled subsurface cold water with high nutrients,low-temperature and high-pCO2 existed.It should be noted that this upwelled cold water did not appear to impact the entire observation period (approximately 35 h of 42 h),which might suggest an extremely dynamic nature for this upwelled cold water mass.(C) 2009 National Natural Science Foundation of

  7. Boundary Influences on HAB Phytoplankton Ecology in a Stratification-Enhanced Upwelling Shadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-13

    patterns, rather than precipitation and land drainage. Water column observations at Ml further showed that the increasing intensity of wind...2014) 63-79 79 Pitcher, G.C.. Figueiras, F.G.. Hickey. B.M.. Moita. MX , 2010. The physical oceano- graphy of upwelling systems and the development of

  8. El Niño and similar perturbation effects on the benthos of the Humboldt, California, and Benguela Current upwelling ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. E. Arntz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To a certain degree, Eastern Boundary Current (EBC ecosystems are similar: Cold bottom water from moderate depths, rich in nutrients, is transported to the euphotic zone by a combination of trade winds, Coriolis force and Ekman transport. The resultant high primary production fuels a rich secondary production in the upper pelagic and nearshore zones, but where O2 exchange is restricted, it creates oxygen minimum zones (OMZs at shelf and upper slope (Humboldt and Benguela Current or slope depths (California Current. These hypoxic zones host a specifically adapted, small macro- and meiofauna together with giant sulphur bacteria that use nitrate to oxydise H2S. In all EBC, small polychaetes, large nematodes and other opportunistic benthic species have adapted to the hypoxic conditions and co-exist with sulphur bacteria, which seem to be particularly dominant off Peru and Chile. However, a massive reduction of macrobenthos occurs in the core of the OMZ. In the Humboldt Current area the OMZ ranges between <100 and about 600 m, with decreasing thickness in a poleward direction. The OMZ merges into better oxygenated zones towards the deep sea, where large cold-water mega- and macrofauna occupy a dominant role as in the nearshore strip. The Benguela Current OMZ has a similar upper limit but remains shallower. It also hosts giant sulphur bacteria but little is known about the benthic fauna. However, sulphur eruptions and intense hypoxia might preclude the coexistence of significant mega- und macrobenthos. Conversely, off North America the upper limit of the OMZ is considerably deeper (e.g., 500–600 m off California and Oregon, and the lower boundary may exceed 1000m. The properties described are valid for very cold and cold (La Niña and "normal" ENSO conditions with effective upwelling of nutrient-rich bottom water. During warm (El Niño episodes, warm water masses of low oxygen concentration from oceanic and equatorial regions enter the upwelling

  9. Emergy evaluation of benthic ecosystems influenced by upwelling in northern Chile: Contributions of the ecosystems to the regional economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emergy evaluations of three benthic ecosystem networks found in Mejillones, Antofagasta and Tongoy Bays, located on the coast of northern Chile, were carried out with the intent of documenting the contributions of these coastal ecosystems to the economy. The productivity of these...

  10. Nitrogen fixation in sediments along a depth transect through the Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems off Peru and Mauritania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gier, J.; Sommer, S.; Löscher, C. R.; Dale, A.; Schmitz, R. A.; Treude, T.

    2015-12-01

    The distribution of benthic nitrogen (N2) fixation and its relevance for N cycling in the Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS) are still unknown. Recent studies confirm that benthic N2 fixation can be coupled to sulfate reduction (SR) and that several species of sulfate reducing bacteria have the genetic ability to fix N due to the presence of the gene encoding for the nitrogenase enzyme. We investigated benthic N2 fixation and SR in the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone at 12°S and in the Mauritanian upwelling system at 18°N along a depth transect. Sediments were retrieved by a multicorer and a benthic lander at six stations in both regions. Benthic N2 fixation occurred throughout the sediment in both EBUS. Off Peru the highest integrated (0-20 cm) N2 fixation rate of 0.4 mmol N/m2/d was measured inside the core of the OMZ at 253 m water depth. Off Mauritania the highest integrated (0-20 cm) N2 fixation rate of 0.15 mmol N/m2/d was measured at 90 m, coinciding with a low bottom water oxygen concentration (30 μM). N2 fixation depth profiles often overlapped with SR activity. Moreover, sequencing data yielded insights into the composition and diversity of the nifH gene pool in EBUS sediments. Interestingly, detected sequences in both EBUS clustered with SR bacteria, such as Desulfovibrio vulgaris and several of the novel detected clades belonged to uncultured diazotrophs. Our results suggest that N2 fixation and SR were coupled to a large extent in both regions. However, potential environmental factors controlling benthic diazotrophs in the EBUS appear to be the availability of sulfide and organic matter. Additionally, no inhibition of N2 fixation at high ammonium concentrations was found, which highlights gaps in our knowledge regards the interaction between ammonium availability and diazotrophy. Our results contribute to a better understanding of N cycling in EBUS sediments and sources of fixed N.

  11. Coupled physical/biogeochemical modeling including O2-dependent processes in the Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems: application in the Benguela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gutknecht

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS contribute to one fifth of the global catches in the ocean. Often associated with Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs, EBUS represent key regions for the oceanic nitrogen (N cycle. Important bioavailable N loss due to denitrification and anammox processes as well as greenhouse gas emissions (e.g, N2O occur also in these EBUS. However, their dynamics are currently crudely represented in global models. In the climate change context, improving our capability to properly represent these areas is crucial due to anticipated changes in the winds, productivity, and oxygen content. We developed a biogeochemical model (BioEBUS taking into account the main processes linked with EBUS and associated OMZs. We implemented this model in a 3-D realistic coupled physical/biogeochemical configuration in the Namibian upwelling system (northern Benguela using the high-resolution hydrodynamic ROMS model. We present here a validation using in situ and satellite data as well as diagnostic metrics and sensitivity analyses of key parameters and N2O parameterizations. The impact of parameter values on the OMZ off Namibia, on N loss, and on N2O concentrations and emissions is detailed. The model realistically reproduces the vertical distribution and seasonal cycle of observed oxygen, nitrate, and chlorophyll a concentrations, and the rates of microbial processes (e.g, NH4+ and NO2− oxidation, NO3− reduction, and anammox as well. Based on our sensitivity analyses, biogeochemical parameter values associated with organic matter decomposition, vertical sinking, and nitrification play a key role for the low-oxygen water content, N loss, and N2O concentrations in the OMZ. Moreover, the explicit parameterization of both steps of nitrification, ammonium oxidation to nitrate with nitrite as an explicit intermediate, is necessary to improve the representation of microbial activity linked with the OMZ. The simulated minimum oxygen

  12. Modelling the CO2 atmosphere-ocean flux in the upwelling zones using radiative transfer tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapivin, Vladimir F.; Varotsos, Costas A.

    2016-12-01

    An advanced mathematical model of the radiation forcing on the ocean surface is proposed for the assessment of the CO2 fluxes between atmosphere and ocean boundary in the upwelling zones. Two types of the upwelling are considered: coastal and local in the open ocean that are closely associated with changes in solar irradiance. The proposed model takes into account the maximal number of the carbon fluxes in the upwelling ecosystem considering that in the latter the only original source of energy and matter for all forms of life is the energy of the solar radiation. The vertical structure of the upwelling zone is represented by four levels: the upper mixed layer above the thermocline, the intermediate photic layer below the thermocline, the deep ocean and the near-bottom layer. Peruvian upwelling and typical local upwelling of tropical pelagic region are considered as examples for the model calculations.

  13. Phytoplankton and nutrient distributions in a front-eddy area adjacent to the coastal upwelling zone off Concepcion (Chile): implications for ecosystem productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Carmen; Anabalón, Valeria; Hormazábal, Samuel; Cornejo, Marcela; Bento, Joaquim; Silva, Nelson

    2016-04-01

    The impact that sub-mesoscale (1-10 km) to mesocale (50-100 km) oceanographic variability has on plankton and nutrient distributions (horizontal and vertical) in the coastal upwelling and transition zones off Concepcion was the focus of this study. Satellite time-series data (wind, sea-surface temperature (SST), and altimetry) were used to understand the dynamic context of in situ data derived from a short-term front survey (3 d) during the upwelling period (3-6 February, 2014). The survey included two transects perpendicular to the coast, covering the shelf and shelf-break areas just north of Punta Lavapie, a main upwelling center (˜37° S). Wind and SST time-series data indicated that the survey was undertaken just after a moderate upwelling event (end of January) which lead to a relaxation phase during early February. A submesoscale thermal front was detected previous to and during the survey and results from an eddy tracking algorithm based on altimetry data indicated that this front (F1) was flanked on its oceanic side by an anticyclonic, mesoscale eddy (M1), which was ˜25 d old at the sampling time. M1 strengthened the thermal gradient of F1 by bringing warmer oceanic water nearer to the colder coastal upwelling zone. The distributions of hydrographic variables and nutrients in the water column (interaction creates a complex field of submesoscale processes in the top layer, including vertical nutrient injections and lateral stirring, which contributes to the exportation of coastal communities to the open ocean in this region. We discuss how this interaction might affect ecosystem productivity in the coastal band.

  14. Data mining for environmental analysis and diagnostic: a case study of upwelling ecosystem of Arraial do Cabo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Carvalho Pereira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian coastal zone presents a large extension and a variety of environments. Nevertheless, little is known about biological diversity and ecosystem dynamics. Environmental changes always occur; however, it is important to distinguish natural from anthropic variability. Under these scenarios, the aim of this work is to present a Data Mining methodology able to access the quality and health levels of the environmental conditions through the biological integrity concept. A ten-year time series of physical, chemical and biological parameters from an influenced upwelling area of Arraial do Cabo-RJ were used to generate a classification model based on association rules. The model recognizes seven different classes of water based on biological diversity and a new trophic index (PLIX. Artificial neural networks were evolved and optimized by genetic algorithms to forecast these indices, enabling environmental diagnostic to be made taking into account control mechanisms of topology, stability and complex behavioral properties of food web.A zona costeira brasileira apresenta grande extensão e variedade de ambientes. Contudo, pouco se sabe sobre sua diversidade biológica e o funcionamento dos ecossistemas. Como mudanças ambientais são constantes, é muito importante distinguir entre variabilidade natural e antrópica. Nesse cenário, o objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar a metodologia para o desenvolvimento de um Sistema Inteligente de Gerenciamento Integrado do Ecossistema Costeiro (SIGIEC capaz de acessar o nível de qualidade e saúde ambiental através do conceito de Integridade Biológica. Foram usadas séries temporais de dez anos de parâmetros físicos, químicos e biológicos para extrair conhecimento e gerar modelos de regras de associação para classificar sete diferentes tipos de condições ambientais, analisadas através da diversidade biológica e um novo índice trófico (PLIX. Redes neurais artificiais foram otimizadas por

  15. Combined fishing and climate forcing in the southern Benguela upwelling ecosystem: an end-to-end modelling approach reveals dampened effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgane Travers-Trolet

    Full Text Available The effects of climate and fishing on marine ecosystems have usually been studied separately, but their interactions make ecosystem dynamics difficult to understand and predict. Of particular interest to management, the potential synergism or antagonism between fishing pressure and climate forcing is analysed in this paper, using an end-to-end ecosystem model of the southern Benguela ecosystem, built from coupling hydrodynamic, biogeochemical and multispecies fish models (ROMS-N2P2Z2D2-OSMOSE. Scenarios of different intensities of upwelling-favourable wind stress combined with scenarios of fishing top-predator fish were tested. Analyses of isolated drivers show that the bottom-up effect of the climate forcing propagates up the food chain whereas the top-down effect of fishing cascades down to zooplankton in unfavourable environmental conditions but dampens before it reaches phytoplankton. When considering both climate and fishing drivers together, it appears that top-down control dominates the link between top-predator fish and forage fish, whereas interactions between the lower trophic levels are dominated by bottom-up control. The forage fish functional group appears to be a central component of this ecosystem, being the meeting point of two opposite trophic controls. The set of combined scenarios shows that fishing pressure and upwelling-favourable wind stress have mostly dampened effects on fish populations, compared to predictions from the separate effects of the stressors. Dampened effects result in biomass accumulation at the top predator fish level but a depletion of biomass at the forage fish level. This should draw our attention to the evolution of this functional group, which appears as both structurally important in the trophic functioning of the ecosystem, and very sensitive to climate and fishing pressures. In particular, diagnoses considering fishing pressure only might be more optimistic than those that consider combined effects

  16. Combined fishing and climate forcing in the southern Benguela upwelling ecosystem: an end-to-end modelling approach reveals dampened effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers-Trolet, Morgane; Shin, Yunne-Jai; Shannon, Lynne J; Moloney, Coleen L; Field, John G

    2014-01-01

    The effects of climate and fishing on marine ecosystems have usually been studied separately, but their interactions make ecosystem dynamics difficult to understand and predict. Of particular interest to management, the potential synergism or antagonism between fishing pressure and climate forcing is analysed in this paper, using an end-to-end ecosystem model of the southern Benguela ecosystem, built from coupling hydrodynamic, biogeochemical and multispecies fish models (ROMS-N2P2Z2D2-OSMOSE). Scenarios of different intensities of upwelling-favourable wind stress combined with scenarios of fishing top-predator fish were tested. Analyses of isolated drivers show that the bottom-up effect of the climate forcing propagates up the food chain whereas the top-down effect of fishing cascades down to zooplankton in unfavourable environmental conditions but dampens before it reaches phytoplankton. When considering both climate and fishing drivers together, it appears that top-down control dominates the link between top-predator fish and forage fish, whereas interactions between the lower trophic levels are dominated by bottom-up control. The forage fish functional group appears to be a central component of this ecosystem, being the meeting point of two opposite trophic controls. The set of combined scenarios shows that fishing pressure and upwelling-favourable wind stress have mostly dampened effects on fish populations, compared to predictions from the separate effects of the stressors. Dampened effects result in biomass accumulation at the top predator fish level but a depletion of biomass at the forage fish level. This should draw our attention to the evolution of this functional group, which appears as both structurally important in the trophic functioning of the ecosystem, and very sensitive to climate and fishing pressures. In particular, diagnoses considering fishing pressure only might be more optimistic than those that consider combined effects of fishing and

  17. Dehumidification of Iberia by enhanced summer upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, P. M.; Costa, V.; Nogueira, M.; Semedo, A.

    2015-12-01

    Dehumidification of Iberia by enhanced summer upwelling Miranda PMA, Costa V, Semedo AIDL, Faculdade de Ciências, University of LisbonA 24-year simulation of the recent Iberian climate, using the WRF model at 9km resolution forced by ERA-Interim reanalysis (1989-2012), is analysed for the decadal evolution of the upwelling forcing coastal wind and for column integrated Precipitable water vapour (PWV). Results indicate that, unlike what was found by Bakun et al. (2009) for the Peruvian region, a statistically significant trend in the upwelling favourable (northerly) wind has been accompanied by a corresponding decrease in PWV, not only inland but also over the coastal waters. Such increase is consistent with a reinforced northerly coastal jet in the maritime boundary layer contributing to atmospheric Ekman pumping of dry continental air into the coastal region. Diagnostics of the prevalence of the Iberian thermal low following Hoinka and Castro (2003) also show a positive trend in its frequency during an extended summer period (April to September). These results are consistent with recent studies indicating an upward trend in the frequency of upwelling in SW Iberia (Alves and Miranda 2013), and may be relevant for climate change applications as an increase in coastal upwelling (Miranda et al 2013) may lead to substantial regional impacts in the subtropics. Aknowledgements: Study supported by FCT Grant RECI/GEO-MET/0380/2012Alves JMR, Miranda PMA (2013) Variability of Iberian upwelling implied by ERA-40 and ERA-Interim reanalyses, Tellus A 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/tellusa.v65i0.19245.Bakun et al (2010) Greenhouse gas, upwelling-favorable winds, and the future of coastal ocean upwelling ecosystems, Global Change Biology, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02094.xHoinka KP, Castro M (2003) The Iberian Peninsula thermal low. QJRMS, 129, 1491- 1511, doi: 10.1256/qj.01.189.Miranda et al (2013) Climate change and upwelling: response of Iberian upwelling to atmospheric

  18. Ecosystem Services as a Boundary Concept: Arguments from Social Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schleyer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services (ES are defined as the interdependencies between society and nature. Despite several years of conceptual discussions, some challenges of the ES concept are far from being resolved. In particular, the usefulness of the concept for nature protection is questioned, and a strong critique is expressed concerning its contribution towards the neoliberal commodification of nature. This paper argues that these challenges can be addressed by dealing more carefully with ES as a boundary concept between different disciplines and between science and society. ES are neither about nature nor about human wellbeing, but about the mutual dependencies between nature and human wellbeing. These mutual interdependencies, however, create tensions and contradictions that manifest themselves in the boundary negotiations between different scientific disciplines and between science and society. This paper shows that approaches from Social Ecology can address these boundary negotiations and the power relations involved more explicitly. Finally, this implies the urgent need for more inter- and transdisciplinary collaboration in ES research. We conclude (1 that the social–ecological nature of ES must be elaborated more carefully while explicitly focussing on the interdependencies between nature and society; (2 to better implement inter- and transdisciplinary methods into ES research; and (3 that such ES research can—and to some extent already does—substantially enhance international research programmes such as Future Earth.

  19. An annually-resolved palaeoenvironmental archive for the Eastern Boundary North Atlantic upwelling system: Sclerochronology of Glycymeris glycymeris (Bivalvia) shells from the Iberian shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Pedro; Monteiro, Carlos; Butler, Paul; Reynolds, David; Richardson, Christopher; Gaspar, Miguel; Scourse, James

    2015-04-01

    The seasonally variable western Iberia upwelling system, albeit placed at a crucial climatic boundary position to record high frequency climate events, lacks well-dated high-resolution records of environmental variability. Bivalve shells provide robust high-resolution archives of oceanographic and climatic variability on timescales of decades to millennia. In particular, the North Atlantic Ocean region has recently seen several noteworthy sclerochronological and geochemical reconstructions based on bivalve shells (mainly Arctica islandica) of high frequency oceanographic and climatic conditions during the last millennium. However, due to the absence of Arctica islandica and similarly long-lived bivalves, sclerochronological palaeoenvironmental studies of southern European coastal shelf seas are scarce. In particular, none of these studies focus on reconstructing the variability of an eastern boundary upwelling system. The relatively long-lived bivalve (>100 years) Glycymeris glycymeris occurs in European and North West African coastal shelf seas and provides a valid annually resolved archive of environmental conditions during growth. Annual growth increment width series from living G. glycymeris shells, collected in 2014 on the western Iberian continental shelf (ca. 35 m water depth), were used to construct a statistically robust, ca. 70-year long absolutely-dated chronology. Sub-annually resolved (11 to 22 samples per year) oxygen stable isotope (δ18Oshell) data covering three years of shell growth, together with the direct evaluation of the time of growth mark deposition in shells collected during the autumn and winter months, were used to constrain the season of growth and to evaluate the seasonal bias of the sea-surface temperature signal preserved in the δ18Oshelldata. The growth increment width and δ18Oshell series, once robustly calibrated against modelled and instrumental oceanographic and climatic series, potentially provide novel insights into the

  20. Seasonal cycle of N:P:TA stoichiometry as a modulator of CO2 buffering in eastern boundary upwelling systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gregor, L

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available scale physical variability of the Benguela current large marine ecosystem (BCLME), Large Mar., 14, 15–30. Thomas, H., L.-S. Schiettecatte, K. Suykens, Y. Koné, E. Shadwick, F. Prowe, Y. Bozec, H. J. de Baar, and A. Borges (2009), Enhanced ocean carbon...

  1. Partial decoupling of primary productivity from upwelling in the California Current system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Lionel; Deutsch, Curtis; McWilliams, James C.; Frenzel, Hartmut; Liang, Jun-Hong; Colas, François

    2016-07-01

    Coastal winds and upwelling of deep nutrient-rich water along subtropical eastern boundaries yield some of the ocean's most productive ecosystems. Simple indices of coastal wind strength have been extensively used to estimate the timing and magnitude of biological productivity on seasonal and interannual timescales and underlie the prediction that anthropogenic climate warming will increase the productivity by making coastal winds stronger. The effect of wind patterns on regional net primary productivity is not captured by such indices and is poorly understood. Here we present evidence, using a realistic model of the California Current system and satellite measurements, that the observed slackening of the winds near the coast has little effect on near-shore phytoplankton productivity despite a large reduction in upwelling velocity. On the regional scale the wind drop-off leads to substantially higher production even when the total upwelling rate remains the same. This partial decoupling of productivity from upwelling results from the impact of wind patterns on alongshore currents and the eddies they generate. Our results imply that productivity in eastern boundary upwelling systems will be better predicted from indices of the coastal wind that account for its offshore structure.

  2. Linking predators to seasonality of upwelling: Using food web indicators and path analysis to infer trophic connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sarah Ann; Sydeman, William J.; Santora, Jarrod A.; Black, Bryan A.; Suryan, Robert M.; Calambokidis, John; Peterson, William T.; Bograd, Steven J.

    2012-08-01

    Upwelling in eastern boundary current systems is a primary driver of ecosystem productivity. Typically, peak upwelling occurs during spring and summer, but winter upwelling may also be important to ecosystem functions. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that winter and spring/summer upwelling, operating through indirect trophic interactions, are important to a suite of top predators in the California Current. To test this hypothesis, we collated information on upwelling, chlorophyll-a concentrations, zooplankton and forage fish, and related these to predator responses including rockfish growth, salmon abundance, seabird productivity and phenology (timing of egg-laying), and whale abundance. Seabird diets served in part as food web indicators. We modeled pathways of response using path analysis and tested for significance of the dominant paths with multiple regression. We found support for the hypothesis that relationships between upwelling and top predator variables were mediated primarily by intermediate trophic levels. Both winter and summer upwelling were important in path models, as were intermediate lower and mid trophic level functional groups represented by chlorophyll-a, zooplankton, and forage fish. Significant pathways of response explained from 50% to 80% of the variation of seabird (Cassin's auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) and common murre (Uria aalge)), humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) and Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) dependent variables, whereas splitnose rockfish (Sebastes diploproa) showed no significant response pathways. Upwelling and trophic responses for salmon were established for both the year of ocean entry and the year of return, with zooplankton important in the year of ocean entry and forage fish important in the year of return. This study provides one of the first comparative investigations between upwelling and predators, from fish to marine mammals and birds within a geographically restricted area

  3. What controls biological productivity in coastal upwelling systems? Insights from a comparative modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachkar, Z.; Gruber, N.

    2011-06-01

    The magnitude of the biological productivity in Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS) is traditionally viewed as directly reflecting the upwelling intensity. Yet, different EBUS show different sensitivities of productivity to upwelling-favorable winds (Carr and Kearns, 2003). Here, using a comparative modeling study of the California Current System (California CS) and Canary Current System (Canary CS), we show how physical and environmental factors, such as light, temperature and cross-shore circulation modulate the response of biological productivity to upwelling strength. To this end, we made a series of eddy-resolving simulations of the California CS and Canary CS using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), coupled to a nitrogen based Nutrient-Phytoplankton-Zooplankton-Detritus (NPZD) ecosystem model. We find the nutrient content of the euphotic zone to be 20 % smaller in the Canary CS relative to the California CS. Yet, the biological productivity is 50 % smaller in the latter. This is due to: (1) a faster nutrient-replete growth in the Canary CS relative to the California CS, related to a more favorable light and temperature conditions in the Canary CS, and (2) the longer nearshore water residence times in the Canary CS which lead to larger buildup of biomass in the upwelling zone, thereby enhancing the productivity. The longer residence times in the Canary CS appear to be associated with the wider continental shelves and the lower eddy activity characterizing this upwelling system. This results in a weaker offshore export of nutrients and organic matter, thereby increasing local nutrient recycling and enhancing the coupling between new and export production in the Northwest African system. Our results suggest that climate change induced perturbations such as upwelling favorable wind intensification might lead to contrasting biological responses in the California CS and the Canary CS, with major implications for the biogeochemical cycles and fisheries

  4. What controls biological productivity in coastal upwelling systems? Insights from a comparative modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lachkar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The magnitude of the biological productivity in Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS is traditionally viewed as directly reflecting the upwelling intensity. Yet, different EBUS show different sensitivities of productivity to upwelling-favorable winds (Carr and Kearns, 2003. Here, using a comparative modeling study of the California Current System (California CS and Canary Current System (Canary CS, we show how physical and environmental factors, such as light, temperature and cross-shore circulation modulate the response of biological productivity to upwelling strength. To this end, we made a series of eddy-resolving simulations of the California CS and Canary CS using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS, coupled to a nitrogen based Nutrient-Phytoplankton-Zooplankton-Detritus (NPZD ecosystem model. We find the nutrient content of the euphotic zone to be 20 % smaller in the Canary CS relative to the California CS. Yet, the biological productivity is 50 % smaller in the latter. This is due to: (1 a faster nutrient-replete growth in the Canary CS relative to the California CS, related to a more favorable light and temperature conditions in the Canary CS, and (2 the longer nearshore water residence times in the Canary CS which lead to larger buildup of biomass in the upwelling zone, thereby enhancing the productivity. The longer residence times in the Canary CS appear to be associated with the wider continental shelves and the lower eddy activity characterizing this upwelling system. This results in a weaker offshore export of nutrients and organic matter, thereby increasing local nutrient recycling and enhancing the coupling between new and export production in the Northwest African system. Our results suggest that climate change induced perturbations such as upwelling favorable wind intensification might lead to contrasting biological responses in the California CS and the Canary CS, with major implications for the biogeochemical cycles

  5. Compound-specific δ15N amino acid measurements in littoral mussels in the California upwelling ecosystem: a new approach to generating baseline δ15N Isoscapes for coastal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vokhshoori, Natasha L; McCarthy, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    We explored δ(15)N compound-specific amino acid isotope data (CSI-AA) in filter-feeding intertidal mussels (Mytilus californianus) as a new approach to construct integrated isoscapes of coastal primary production. We examined spatial δ(15)N gradients in the California Upwelling Ecosystem (CUE), determining bulk δ(15)N values of mussel tissue from 28 sites between Port Orford, Oregon and La Jolla, California, and applying CSI-AA at selected sites to decouple trophic effects from isotopic values at the base of the food web. Bulk δ(15)N values showed a strong linear trend with latitude, increasing from North to South (from ∼ 7‰ to ∼ 12‰, R(2) = 0.759). In contrast, CSI-AA trophic position estimates showed no correlation with latitude. The δ(15)N trend is therefore most consistent with a baseline δ(15)N gradient, likely due to the mixing of two source waters: low δ(15)N nitrate from the southward flowing surface California Current, and the northward transport of the California Undercurrent (CUC), with (15)N-enriched nitrate. This interpretation is strongly supported by a similar linear gradient in δ(15)N values of phenylalanine (δ(15)NPhe), the best AA proxy for baseline δ(15)N values. We hypothesize δ(15)N(Phe) values in intertidal mussels can approximate annual integrated δ(15)N values of coastal phytoplankton primary production. We therefore used δ(15)N(Phe) values to generate the first compound-specific nitrogen isoscape for the coastal Northeast Pacific, which indicates a remarkably linear gradient in coastal primary production δ(15)N values. We propose that δ(15)N(Phe) isoscapes derived from filter feeders can directly characterize baseline δ(15)N values across major biochemical provinces, with potential applications for understanding migratory and feeding patterns of top predators, monitoring effects of climate change, and study of paleo- archives.

  6. Compound-specific δ15N amino acid measurements in littoral mussels in the California upwelling ecosystem: a new approach to generating baseline δ15N Isoscapes for coastal ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha L Vokhshoori

    Full Text Available We explored δ(15N compound-specific amino acid isotope data (CSI-AA in filter-feeding intertidal mussels (Mytilus californianus as a new approach to construct integrated isoscapes of coastal primary production. We examined spatial δ(15N gradients in the California Upwelling Ecosystem (CUE, determining bulk δ(15N values of mussel tissue from 28 sites between Port Orford, Oregon and La Jolla, California, and applying CSI-AA at selected sites to decouple trophic effects from isotopic values at the base of the food web. Bulk δ(15N values showed a strong linear trend with latitude, increasing from North to South (from ∼ 7‰ to ∼ 12‰, R(2 = 0.759. In contrast, CSI-AA trophic position estimates showed no correlation with latitude. The δ(15N trend is therefore most consistent with a baseline δ(15N gradient, likely due to the mixing of two source waters: low δ(15N nitrate from the southward flowing surface California Current, and the northward transport of the California Undercurrent (CUC, with (15N-enriched nitrate. This interpretation is strongly supported by a similar linear gradient in δ(15N values of phenylalanine (δ(15NPhe, the best AA proxy for baseline δ(15N values. We hypothesize δ(15N(Phe values in intertidal mussels can approximate annual integrated δ(15N values of coastal phytoplankton primary production. We therefore used δ(15N(Phe values to generate the first compound-specific nitrogen isoscape for the coastal Northeast Pacific, which indicates a remarkably linear gradient in coastal primary production δ(15N values. We propose that δ(15N(Phe isoscapes derived from filter feeders can directly characterize baseline δ(15N values across major biochemical provinces, with potential applications for understanding migratory and feeding patterns of top predators, monitoring effects of climate change, and study of paleo- archives.

  7. Different Levels of Hypoxia Tolerance during Early Life History Stages of Key Fish Species from the Northern Benguela Upwelling Ecosystem Inferred from the Comparison of Eco-Physiological Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, S. J.; Imam, R. M.; Kunzmann, A.; Ekau, W.

    2016-02-01

    Global change factors such as a pronounced Oxygen Minimum Zone and the shoaling of hypoxic waters are assumed to play a major role in controlling the recruitment of fish stocks in Upwelling Systems by affecting the planktonic early life history stages. Ecological and ecophysiological traits in the larval stages of five key fish species in the Northern Benguela Upwelling System (Sardine, Sardinops sagax; Anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus; Cape horse mackerel, Trachurus capensis; Cape hake, Merluccius sp.; Pelagic goby, Sufflogobobius bibarbatus) were investigated during the GENUS (Geochemistry and Ecology of the Namibian Upwelling Ecosystem) research project . Analysis of vertical larval distributions in relation to the depth of hypoxic water layers showed gradual interspecific differences, suggesting lower hypoxia tolerance levels of the small pelagics Sardine and Anchovy. Cape horse mackerel juveniles and larvae exhibited very high tolerance levels to short-term hypoxia in respirometry stress experiments, close to the levels of the extremely hypoxia-tolerant Pelagic goby. In the latter two species, we also measured the highest activities of anaerobic enzymes (pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase) in early and late larval stages, compared to very low activities in Sardine larvae. A higher amount of anaerobic enzymatic activity is related to a higher capacity to break down metabolites that build up during phases of oxygen debt and thus help the larvae to quickly recover from hypoxia exposure. In consequence, a high hypoxia tolerance during their early life stages allows Cape horse mackerel and Pelagic goby to successfully reproduce in an environment characterized by frequent hypoxic events. The low hypoxia tolerance of Sardine larvae, eventually resulting in higher mortality rates, is likely to be an important factor to understand the poor reproductive success and continuing recruitment failures of this formerly dominant fish species of the NBUS during the last

  8. Winter conditioning of the Cascadian margin upwelling system: Remote forcing and coastal river influences (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, B. R.; Goni, M. A.; Evans, W.; Harris, K. E.; Siedlecki, S. A.; Skyllingstad, E. D.; Wall, C.; Wetz, M.; White, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    The Cascadian margin stretches along the North American Pacific coast from Cape Mendocino to Vancouver Island, and across the land-ocean margin from the crest of the coastal mountains to the California Current. Carbonate system chemistry in these coastal waters is among the most dynamic in the world, with high net community productivity driving the system to a regionally important CO2 sink, while upwelled, respiration-influenced waters carry such elevated CO2 that they are often corrosive to biogenic carbonates. Most of the focus on this ecosystem has been on the influence of the seasonal upwelling and interaction with the upper thermocline of the ocean interior; recently, however, the downwelling-season has been recognized as critical in shaping the carbon cycling of the ecosystem. We present a combination of in-water survey and mooring data from river, estuary, and shelf waters; remote-sensing of coastal surface waters and watershed precipitation; and modeling results describing the physics of coastal circulation and storm-event precipitation and river discharge that shows how the winter conditions control carbon cycling. Coastally-trapped internal waves propagating northward from remote upwelling regions to the south lead to shoaling of the pycnocline such that upwelled source waters are present far inshore of the shelfbreak months before the onset of upwelling favorable winds. The close proximity of upwelled source waters to inner shelf upwelling locations leads to rapid transition in response to late winter and early spring upwelling favorable wind events. Winter storms and closely coupled flooding events deliver regionally significant amounts of nutrient-rich, low-CO2 fresh waters to the coastal ocean during downwelling conditions that retain these inputs on the shelf, and this fuels phytoplankton blooms that are a significant contribution to the annual net community production. These blooms and river influences maintain low coastal surface water pCO2 during

  9. Reconstructing the Mexican Tropical Dry Forests via an Autoecological Niche Approach: Reconsidering the Ecosystem Boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto-Torres, David A.; Rojas-Soto, Octavio R.

    2016-01-01

    We used Ecological Niche Modeling (ENM) of individual species of two taxonomic groups (plants and birds) in order to reconstruct the climatic distribution of Tropical Dry Forests (TDFs) in Mexico and to analyze their boundaries with other terrestrial ecosystems. The reconstruction for TDFs' distribution was analyzed considering the prediction and omission errors based upon the combination of species, obtained from the overlap of individual models (only plants, only birds, and all species comb...

  10. Ecosystems response and restitution time across the K/Pg boundary transition at high-latitudes, Southern Hemisphere, New Zealand - a palynological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willumsen, Pi; Vajda, Vivi

    2010-05-01

    Several major groups of biota/fauna disappeared globally across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (K/Pg boundary) and several other important groups suffered considerable, but not complete, species-level extinction. For marine phytoplankton - a major driver of ocean productivity - darkness and suppression of photosynthesis, in the aftermath of the asteroid impact, was likely a major killing mechanism. Thus, in the marine realm there is a separation in extinction rate between strongly affected groups with calcareous shells and groups that had organic cysts or siliceous tests. Detailed regional records of the long-term post-K/Pg boundary therefore still need to be undertaken to enhance the understanding of how each of the major microfossil groups recovered to elucidate recovery in different ecosystem types following this unique event. Throughout the New Zealand region, widespread deposition of siliceous sediments occurred during the Late Cretaceous to early Paleocene indicating the existence of a south Pacific upwelling regime (Hollis 1993, 1995; Strong et al. 1995). Silica concentration in the oceans increased after the K/Pg event and remained high for 1-2 millions years during the early Paleogene, reflecting high bio-siliceous productivity in the aftermath of the K/Pg boundary event (Hollis et al. 1995, 2003). The geological archives of New Zealand includes outcrops from several basins which provide a unique possibility for examining ecosystem response and restitution time from latest Cretaceous to early Paleogene in a suite of depositional environments spanning from terrestrial to bathyal (Willumsen 2000, Vajda et al. 2001, Vajda and Raine 2003). High-resolution palynological comparative studies of organic-walled microfossils such as dinoflagellate assemblages (dinocysts), spores and pollen are currently carried out on New Zealand sediments. The recovery period in the marine realm is much extended compared with the much shorter recovery time reflected by the

  11. What controls biological production in coastal upwelling systems? Insights from a comparative modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lachkar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The magnitude of net primary production (NPP in Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS is traditionally viewed as directly reflecting the wind-driven upwelling intensity. Yet, different EBUS show different sensitivities of NPP to upwelling-favorable winds (Carr and Kearns, 2003. Here, using a comparative modeling study of the California Current System (California CS and Canary Current System (Canary CS, we show how physical and environmental factors, such as light, temperature and cross-shore circulation modulate the response of NPP to upwelling strength. To this end, we made a series of eddy-resolving simulations of the two upwelling systems using the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS, coupled to a nitrogen-based Nutrient-Phytoplankton-Zooplankton-Detritus (NPZD ecosystem model. Using identical ecological/biogeochemical parameters, our coupled model simulates a level of NPP in the California CS that is 50 % smaller than that in the Canary CS, in agreement with observationally based estimates. We find this much lower NPP in the California CS despite phytoplankton in this system having nearly 20 % higher nutrient concentrations available to fuel their growth. This conundrum can be explained by: (1 phytoplankton having a faster nutrient-replete growth in the Canary CS relative to the California CS; a consequence of more favorable light and temperature conditions in the Canary CS, and (2 the longer nearshore water residence times in the Canary CS, which permit a larger buildup of biomass in the upwelling zone, thereby enhancing NPP. The longer residence times in the Canary CS appear to be a result of the wider continental shelves and the lower mesoscale activity characterizing this upwelling system. This results in a weaker offshore export of nutrients and organic matter, thereby increasing local nutrient recycling and reducing the spatial decoupling between new and export production in the Canary CS. Our results suggest that climate change

  12. Reconstructing the Mexican Tropical Dry Forests via an Autoecological Niche Approach: Reconsidering the Ecosystem Boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Torres, David A; Rojas-Soto, Octavio R

    2016-01-01

    We used Ecological Niche Modeling (ENM) of individual species of two taxonomic groups (plants and birds) in order to reconstruct the climatic distribution of Tropical Dry Forests (TDFs) in Mexico and to analyze their boundaries with other terrestrial ecosystems. The reconstruction for TDFs' distribution was analyzed considering the prediction and omission errors based upon the combination of species, obtained from the overlap of individual models (only plants, only birds, and all species combined). Two verifications were used: a primary vegetation map and 100 independent TDFs localities. We performed a Principal Component (PCA) and Discriminant Analysis (DA) to evaluate the variation in the environmental variables and ecological overlap among ecosystems. The modeling strategies showed differences in the ecological patterns and prediction areas, where the "all species combined" model (with a threshold of ≥10 species) was the best strategy to use in the TDFs reconstruction. We observed a concordance of 78% with the primary vegetation map and a prediction of 98% of independent locality records. Although PCA and DA tests explained 75.78% and 97.9% of variance observed, respectively, we observed an important overlap among the TDFs with other adjacent ecosystems, confirming the existence of transition zones among them. We successfully modeled the distribution of Mexican TDFs using a number of bioclimatic variables and co-distributed species. This autoecological niche approach suggests the necessity of rethinking the delimitations of ecosystems based on the recognition of transition zones among them in order to understand the real nature of communities and association patterns of species.

  13. Effects of an invasive plant transcend ecosystem boundaries through a dragonfly-mediated trophic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Laura A; Mihaljevic, Joseph R; Smith, Kevin G

    2012-12-01

    Trophic interactions can strongly influence the structure and function of terrestrial and aquatic communities through top-down and bottom-up processes. Species with life stages in both terrestrial and aquatic systems may be particularly likely to link the effects of trophic interactions across ecosystem boundaries. Using experimental wetlands planted with purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), we tested the degree to which the bottom-up effects of floral density of this invasive plant could trigger a chain of interactions, changing the behavior of terrestrial flying insect prey and predators and ultimately cascading through top-down interactions to alter lower trophic levels in the aquatic community. The results of our experiment support the linkage of terrestrial and aquatic food webs through this hypothesized pathway, with high loosestrife floral density treatments attracting high levels of visiting insect pollinators and predatory adult dragonflies. High floral densities were also associated with increased adult dragonfly oviposition and subsequently high larval dragonfly abundance in the aquatic community. Finally, high-flower treatments were coupled with changes in zooplankton species richness and shifts in the composition of zooplankton communities. Through changes in animal behavior and trophic interactions in terrestrial and aquatic systems, this work illustrates the broad and potentially cryptic effects of invasive species, and provides additional compelling motivation for ecologists to conduct investigations that cross traditional ecosystem boundaries.

  14. A Model Analysis for the Design and Deployment of an Eulerian Sediment Trap Mooring Array in a Western Boundary Upwelling System from Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    URSULA MENDOZA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the design and configuration of a Eulerian sediment trap mooring array, which was deployed at the shelf edge (zm ≈ 140 m 80 km off Cabo Frio, SE- Brazil (23° S. The site was subject to interplay between the Tropical Waters (TW of the Brazil Current (BC, intrusions from the South Atlantic Central Waters (SACW, which are the source of upwelling in the region, and other oceanographic processes. Detailed computations were used to optimize the total weight, buoyancy balance, and maximum acceptable tilt to avoid hydrodynamic bias in the trapping efficiency and array adaptation to the local oceanographic conditions with the assistance of Matlab and Muringa programs and Modular Ocean Model 4.0 (MOM; i.e., to assert the vertical distribution of the meridional current component. The velocity range of the current component was determined by short term measurements to be between 0.1 and 0.5 m/s. Projections led to a resulting minimum anchor weight of 456 kg. The necessary line tension was ascertained by using the appropriate distribution of a series of buoys along the array, which finally attained a high vertical load of 350 kg because of the attached oceanographic equipment. Additional flotation devices resulted in a stable mooring array as reflected by their low calculated tilt (2.6° ± 0.6°. A low drag of 16 N was computed for the maximum surface current velocity of 0.5 m/s. The Reynolds number values ranged from 4 × 104 to 2 × 105 and a cone-trap aspect ratio of 1.75 was used to assess the trap sampling efficiency upon exposure to different current velocities.

  15. Reconstructing the Mexican Tropical Dry Forests via an Autoecological Niche Approach: Reconsidering the Ecosystem Boundaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Prieto-Torres

    Full Text Available We used Ecological Niche Modeling (ENM of individual species of two taxonomic groups (plants and birds in order to reconstruct the climatic distribution of Tropical Dry Forests (TDFs in Mexico and to analyze their boundaries with other terrestrial ecosystems. The reconstruction for TDFs' distribution was analyzed considering the prediction and omission errors based upon the combination of species, obtained from the overlap of individual models (only plants, only birds, and all species combined. Two verifications were used: a primary vegetation map and 100 independent TDFs localities. We performed a Principal Component (PCA and Discriminant Analysis (DA to evaluate the variation in the environmental variables and ecological overlap among ecosystems. The modeling strategies showed differences in the ecological patterns and prediction areas, where the "all species combined" model (with a threshold of ≥10 species was the best strategy to use in the TDFs reconstruction. We observed a concordance of 78% with the primary vegetation map and a prediction of 98% of independent locality records. Although PCA and DA tests explained 75.78% and 97.9% of variance observed, respectively, we observed an important overlap among the TDFs with other adjacent ecosystems, confirming the existence of transition zones among them. We successfully modeled the distribution of Mexican TDFs using a number of bioclimatic variables and co-distributed species. This autoecological niche approach suggests the necessity of rethinking the delimitations of ecosystems based on the recognition of transition zones among them in order to understand the real nature of communities and association patterns of species.

  16. Coastal Upwelling Drives Intertidal Assemblage Structure and Trophic Ecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl J Reddin

    Full Text Available Similar environmental driving forces can produce similarity among geographically distant ecosystems. Coastal oceanic upwelling, for example, has been associated with elevated biomass and abundance patterns of certain functional groups, e.g., corticated macroalgae. In the upwelling system of Northern Chile, we examined measures of intertidal macrobenthic composition, structure and trophic ecology across eighteen shores varying in their proximity to two coastal upwelling centres, in a hierarchical sampling design (spatial scales of >1 and >10 km. The influence of coastal upwelling on intertidal communities was confirmed by the stable isotope values (δ13C and δ15N of consumers, including a dominant suspension feeder, grazers, and their putative resources of POM, epilithic biofilm, and macroalgae. We highlight the utility of muscle δ15N from the suspension feeding mussel, Perumytilus purpuratus, as a proxy for upwelling, supported by satellite data and previous studies. Where possible, we used corrections for broader-scale trends, spatial autocorrelation, ontogenetic dietary shifts and spatial baseline isotopic variation prior to analysis. Our results showed macroalgal assemblage composition, and benthic consumer assemblage structure, varied significantly with the intertidal influence of coastal upwelling, especially contrasting bays and coastal headlands. Coastal topography also separated differences in consumer resource use. This suggested that coastal upwelling, itself driven by coastline topography, influences intertidal communities by advecting nearshore phytoplankton populations offshore and cooling coastal water temperatures. We recommend the isotopic values of benthic organisms, specifically long-lived suspension feeders, as in situ alternatives to offshore measurements of upwelling influence.

  17. Vegetation Effects on Turbulent Boundary Layer Flows and their Role in Lotic Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neary, V. S.

    2009-12-01

    The effects of vegetation on fully developed turbulent boundary layer flows are profound and play an important role in lotic ecosystems. Recent experiments on flow past isolated plant stems (e.g. tree trunks in flood plains), alternating vegetation patches (e.g. Justicia americana in gravel bed rivers), and simulated emergent and submerged plant stem arrays in laboratory flumes are reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to fully developed turbulent flows through submerged vegetation modeled by large eddy simulation (LES), with a focus on understanding the role of the coherent structures on the momentum transfer across the water-plant interface. Comparisons are made with fully developed turbulent boundary layer flows in unobstructed (unvegetated) channels to show how the vegetation significantly changes the mean flow, Reynolds shear stress, turbulence intensities, turbulence event frequencies and the energy budget within and above the vegetation layer. The results demonstrate how vegetation in the lotic environment delineates ecotones with edge effects that are beneficial to mobile organisms (e.g. macroinvertebrates and fish), and how it alters mean flow and turbulence characteristics near the bed to promote desirable physical habitat conditions, e.g. substrate composition and stability, for benthic organisms such as mussels and crayfish. Vincent Neary, Ph.D., P.E. President, Springburn LLC Natural Engineering and Restoration

  18. Practice Alignment and intent as distinctions for understanding cross-boundary knowledge creation practices in knowledge ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Mathias

    communities of practices and organisations. By applying a practice theory approach to five data sets collected over a five-year period, the study investigates how two distinctions may serve as a potential gateway into understanding knowledge creation across boundaries. The two distinctions – practice......This paper explores how practice alignment and intent across organizational boundaries may serve as an explanation for collaborative knowledge creation in a knowledge ecosystem. The paper is based on a longitudinal case study of a large multinational knowledge ecosystem consisting of many...... alignment and stated intent – are developed and applied in a template analysis of the data sets, resulting in four potential outcomes, in which cross-boundary co-creation is possible in the intersection between practice alignment and stated and enacted practices. Furthermore, three other possible outcomes...

  19. The Effects of Changing Climatological Variables on Upwelling along the Southern California Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasmick, C.; Kudela, R. M.; Bausell, J.

    2015-12-01

    A large part of the high productivity of CA current ecosystems can be attributed to Ekman upwelling of cold, nutrient-rich water, driven by north winds running parallel to shore. As meteorological (e.g. wind direction and velocity, atmospheric pressure fields, etc.) and oceanographic (e.g. sea surface temperature) parameters change in the context of climate change, it is unclear how ecosystems and the coastal upwelling on which they depend, will be impacted. To better understand the effects of meteorological and oceanographic forcing on coastal upwelling, eleven years (2005-2015) of data were taken from satellites, weather stations and data-collecting buoys located in and around the Santa Barbara Channel as part of the NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP). These data were then analyzed using regression and time-series cross-correlation statistics in order to identify trends in meteorological and oceanographic cycles, their relationship to localized upwelling (e.g. upwelling indices), and how climate change may impact upwelling. Results indicate that as temperature has increased over the last four years (as a result of the 'warm blob'), upwelling has decreased. They also indicate differences in the annual cycles of cross-shore pressure gradients during years of poor versus years when upwelling conditions are favorable. This documented dependence of the coastal wind on sea surface temperature could have important implications as our oceans change; elevated sea surface temperatures, such as those associated with the 'warm blob', may result in less coastal upwelling and lower ecosystem productivity.

  20. Intensification of upwelling along Oman coast in a warming scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, V.; Ajayamohan, R. S.; Valsala, V.; Sandeep, S.

    2016-07-01

    The oceanic impact of poleward shift in monsoon low-level jet (MLLJ) is examined using a Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). Two sets of downscaling experiments were conducted using ROMS with boundary and initial conditions from six CMIP5 models. While outputs from the historical run (1981-2000) acts as forcing for the first, the second uses RCP8.5 (2080-2099). By comparing the outputs, it is found that Oman coast will experience an increase in upwelling in tune with MLLJ shift. Consistent with the changes in upwelling and zonal Ekman transport, temperature, salinity, and productivity show significant changes near the Oman coast. The changes in MLLJ causes the coastal wind to angle against the Oman coast in such a fashion that the net upwelling increases in the next century and so does the marine productivity. This study contrasts the general view of weakening of upwelling along the Arabian coasts due to the weakening of monsoon winds.

  1. Identifying Shifts in Leaf-Litter Ant Assemblages (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) across Ecosystem Boundaries Using Multiple Sampling Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiezik, Michal; Svitok, Marek; Wieziková, Adela; Dovčiak, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Global or regional environmental changes in climate or land use have been increasingly implied in shifts in boundaries (ecotones) between adjacent ecosystems such as beech or oak-dominated forests and forest-steppe ecotones that frequently co-occur near the southern range limits of deciduous forest biome in Europe. Yet, our ability to detect changes in biological communities across these ecosystems, or to understand their environmental drivers, can be hampered when different sampling methods are required to characterize biological communities of the adjacent but ecologically different ecosystems. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) have been shown to be particularly sensitive to changes in temperature and vegetation and they require different sampling methods in closed vs. open habitats. We compared ant assemblages of closed-forests (beech- or oak-dominated) and open forest-steppe habitats in southwestern Carpathians using methods for closed-forest (litter sifting) and open habitats (pitfall trapping), and developed an integrated sampling approach to characterize changes in ant assemblages across these adjacent ecosystems. Using both methods, we collected 5,328 individual ant workers from 28 species. Neither method represented ant communities completely, but pitfall trapping accounted for more species (24) than litter sifting (16). Although pitfall trapping characterized differences in species richness and composition among the ecosystems better, with beech forest being most species poor and ecotone most species rich, litter sifting was more successful in identifying characteristic litter-dwelling species in oak-dominated forest. The integrated sampling approach using both methods yielded more accurate characterization of species richness and composition, and particularly so in species-rich forest-steppe habitat where the combined sample identified significantly higher number of species compared to either of the two methods on their own. Thus, an integrated sampling

  2. Identifying Shifts in Leaf-Litter Ant Assemblages (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) across Ecosystem Boundaries Using Multiple Sampling Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiezik, Michal; Svitok, Marek; Wieziková, Adela; Dovčiak, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Global or regional environmental changes in climate or land use have been increasingly implied in shifts in boundaries (ecotones) between adjacent ecosystems such as beech or oak-dominated forests and forest-steppe ecotones that frequently co-occur near the southern range limits of deciduous forest biome in Europe. Yet, our ability to detect changes in biological communities across these ecosystems, or to understand their environmental drivers, can be hampered when different sampling methods are required to characterize biological communities of the adjacent but ecologically different ecosystems. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) have been shown to be particularly sensitive to changes in temperature and vegetation and they require different sampling methods in closed vs. open habitats. We compared ant assemblages of closed-forests (beech- or oak-dominated) and open forest-steppe habitats in southwestern Carpathians using methods for closed-forest (litter sifting) and open habitats (pitfall trapping), and developed an integrated sampling approach to characterize changes in ant assemblages across these adjacent ecosystems. Using both methods, we collected 5,328 individual ant workers from 28 species. Neither method represented ant communities completely, but pitfall trapping accounted for more species (24) than litter sifting (16). Although pitfall trapping characterized differences in species richness and composition among the ecosystems better, with beech forest being most species poor and ecotone most species rich, litter sifting was more successful in identifying characteristic litter-dwelling species in oak-dominated forest. The integrated sampling approach using both methods yielded more accurate characterization of species richness and composition, and particularly so in species-rich forest-steppe habitat where the combined sample identified significantly higher number of species compared to either of the two methods on their own. Thus, an integrated sampling

  3. Oxygen cycling in the northern Benguela Upwelling System: Modelling oxygen sources and sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Martin; Eggert, Anja

    2016-12-01

    This paper elucidates the oxygen dynamics in the northern Benguela Upwelling System by means of process oriented, numerical modelling. Owing to the complex physical-biological interaction in this system, a coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model is required to grasp the various aspects of the oxygen dynamics. We used high-resolution atmospheric fields derived from observations to force our model, available since 1999. The model results represent a 15 years, consistent data set of realistic hydrographic and ecosystem variables, including oxygen distribution patterns. After a concise description of the main aspects of the model, we use the model data to analyse the components contributing to the oxygen dynamics, namely, the ocean circulation, the exchange between ocean and atmosphere as well as the local biogeochemical oxygen cycling in the system. We thoroughly validate the model with available field observations and remote sensing data. The strengths of coastal upwelling, which controls the nutrient supply to the euphotic zone, as well as the poleward undercurrent that carries oxygen and nutrients to the shelf in the northern Benguela Upwelling System are well reproduced in the model. Among the biological oxygen sinks, mineralisation in the sediment, respiration of zooplankton and nitrification in the water column are important. We also found that vertical migration of zooplankton in response to the oxygen conditions provides a regulating feedback, which may prevent a complete deoxygenation of suboxic waters. As long as oxygen or nitrate are available in the bottom waters, the activities of chemolithoautotrophic sulphur bacteria on the sediment surface keep the redoxcline within the sediment and prevent the release of hydrogen sulphide into the water column. By horizontal integration of the simulated ocean-atmosphere oxygen flux, it can be shown that the Kunene upwelling cell between 16 ° S and 18 ° S is a boundary between the equatorial ocean, characterise by

  4. Salinity driven oceanographic upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D.H.

    1984-08-30

    The salinity driven oceanographic upwelling is maintained in a mariculture device that includes a long main duct in the general shape of a cylinder having perforated cover plates at each end. The mariculture device is suspended vertically in the ocean such that one end of the main duct is in surface water and the other end in relatively deep water that is cold, nutrient rich and relatively fresh in comparison to the surface water which is relatively warm, relatively nutrient deficient and relatively saline. A plurality of elongated flow segregating tubes are disposed in the main duct and extend from the upper cover plate beyond the lower cover plate into a lower manifold plate. The lower manifold plate is spaced from the lower cover plate to define a deep water fluid flow path to the interior space of the main duct. Spacer tubes extend from the upper cover plate and communicate with the interior space of the main duct. The spacer tubes are received in an upper manifold plate spaced from the upper cover plate to define a surface water fluid flow path into the flow segregating tubes. A surface water-deep water counterflow is thus established with deep water flowing upwardly through the main duct interior for discharge beyond the upper manifold plate while surface water flows downwardly through the flow segregating tubes for discharge below the lower manifold plate. During such counterflow heat is transferred from the downflowing warm water to the upflowing cold water. The flow is maintained by the difference in density between the deep water and the surface water due to their differences in salinity. The upwelling of nutrient rich deep water is used for marifarming by fertilizing the nutrient deficient surface water. 1 fig.

  5. Oceanic contributions from tropical upwelling systems to atmospheric halogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziska, Franziska; Hepach, Helmke; Stemmler, Irene; Quack, Birgit; Atlas, Elliot; Fuhlbrügge, Steffen; Bracher, Astrid; Tegtmeier, Susann; Krüger, Kirstin

    2014-05-01

    Short lived halogenated substances (halocarbons) from the oceans contribute to atmospheric halogens, where they are involved in ozone depletion and aerosol formation. Oceanic regions that are characterized by high biological activity are often associated with increased halocarbon abundance of e.g. bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), representing the main contributors to atmospheric organic bromine. Apart from biological production, photochemical pathways play an important role in the formation of methyl iodide (CH3I), the most abundant organoiodine in the marine atmosphere. Recently, the contribution of biogenic diiodomethane (CH2I2) and chloroiodomethane (CH2ClI) to atmospheric organic iodine has been estimated to be similarly significant as CH3I. In the tropics, rapid uplift of surface air can transport these short-lived compounds into the upper troposphere and into the stratosphere. Oceanic upwelling systems off Mauritania, Peru and in the equatorial Atlantic might therefore potentially contribute large amounts of halocarbons to the stratosphere. Concentrations and emissions of iodo- and bromocarbons from several SOPRAN campaigns in different tropical upwelling systems, the Mauritanian and the equatorial upwelling in the Atlantic, as well as the Peruvian upwelling in the Pacific, will be presented. Processes contributing to halocarbon occurrence in the water column, as well as biological and physical factors influencing their emission into the atmosphere are investigated (Fuhlbrügge, et al. 2013; Hepach et al., 2013). We will present the relative contribution of the upwelling systems to global air-sea fluxes from different modelling studies. The data based bottom-up emissions from Ziska et al. (2013) will be compared to model simulated halocarbons. The model is a global three-dimensional ocean general circulation model with an ecosystem model and halocarbon module embedded (MPIOM/HAMOCC). It resolves CH3I and CHBr3 production, degradation, and

  6. Trends in the number of extreme hot SST days along the Canary Upwelling System due to the influence of upwelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xurxo Costoya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Trends in the number of extreme hot days (days with SST anomalies higher than the 95% percentile were analyzed along the Canary Upwelling Ecosystem (CUE over the period 1982- 2012 by means of SST data retrieved from NOAA OI1/4 Degree. The analysis will focus on the Atlantic Iberian sector and the Moroccan sub- region where upwelling is seasonal (spring and summer are permanent, respectively. Trends were analyzed both near coast and at the adjacent ocean where the increase in the number of extreme hot days is higher. Changes are clear at annual scale with an increment of 9.8±0.3 (9.7±0.1 days dec-1 near coast and 11.6±0.2 (13.5±0.1 days dec-1 at the ocean in the Atlantic Iberian sector (Moroccan sub-region. The differences between near shore and ocean trends are especially patent for the months under intense upwelling conditions. During that upwelling season the highest differences in the excess of extreme hot days between coastal and ocean locations (Δn(#days dec-1 occur at those regions where coastal upwelling increase is high. Actually, Δn and upwelling trends have shown to be significantly correlated in both areas, R=0.88 (p<0.01 at the Atlantic Iberian sector and R=0.67 (p<0.01 at the Moroccan sub-region.

  7. Imprint of external climate forcing on coastal upwelling in past and future climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems are the major coastal upwelling regions. The trade winds are driving these upwelling regimes located in the subtropics at the eastern boundary of the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean. Here we analyse the impact of the external climate forcing, e.g. the greenhouse gas concentration, solar activity and volcano eruptions, on these upwelling systems in simulations of ensembles of two Earth System Models. The ensembles contain three simulations for each time period which cover the past millennium (900–1850, the 20th century (1850–2005 and the near future (2006–2100. Using a set of simulations, differing only in their initial conditions, enables us to detect whether the variability is driven internally or externally. Our analysis shows that the variability of the simulated upwelling is to the most driven internally and that there are no significant trends except for the scenario with the most dramatic increase of greenhouse gas concentrations.

  8. Determination of wetland ecosystem boundaries and validation of land use maps using remote sensing: Fuente de Piedra case study (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Antonio; Malak, Dania Abdul; Schröder, Christoph; Martinez-Murillo, Juan F.

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing techniques (SRS) are valid tools for wetland monitoring that could support wetland managers in assessing the spatial and temporal changes in wetland ecosystems as well as in understanding their condition and the ecosystem services they provide. This study focuses on the one hand, on drawing hydro-ecological guidelines for the delimitation of wetland ecosystems; and on the other hand, to assess the reliability of widely available satellite images (Landsat) in estimating the land use/ land cover types covering wetlands. This research develops comprehensive guidelines to determine the boundaries of the Fuente de Piedra wetland ecosystem located in Andalusia, Spain and defines the main land use/ land cover classes covering this ecosystem using Landsat 8 images. An accuracy of the SRS results delivered is tested using the regional inventory of land use produced by the regional government of Andalusia in 2011. By using the ecological and hydrological settings of the area, the boundaries of the Fuente de Piedra wetland ecosystem are determined as an alternative to improve the current delimitations methodology (the Ramsar and Natura 2000 delineations), used by the local authorities so far and based mainly on administrative reasoning. In terms of the land use land cover definition in the area, Fuente de Piedra wetland ecosystem shows to cover a total area of 195 km2 composed mainly by agricultural areas (81.46%): olive groves, non-irrigated arable land and pastures, being 54.82%, 25.71% and 0.93% of the surface respectively. Wetland related land covers (water surface, wetland vegetation) represent 6.85% while natural vegetation is distributed in forest, 1.67%, and shrub areas, 4.14%, being 5.81% in total. 4.58% of the area corresponds to urban and other artificial surfaces. The rest, 1.30%, is composed of different areas without vegetation (sands, bare rock, dumps, etc.). The classification of the Landsat images made with the newly developed SWOS toolbox

  9. Rocket Experiment For Neutral Upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenward, D. R.; Lessard, M.

    2015-12-01

    Observations from the CHAMP satellite from 2004 show relatively small scale heating in the thermosphere. Several different mechanisms have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. The RENU 2 rocket mission includes a suite of 14 instruments which will acquire data to help understand processes involved in neutral upwelling in the cusp. Neutral, ion, and electron measurements will be made to provide an assessment of the upwelling process. SUPERDarn measurements of large- scale Joule heating in the cusp during overflight will also be acquired. Small-scale data which could possibly be associated with Alfvén waves, will be acquired using onboard electric field measurements. In-situ measurement of precipitating electrons and all other measurements will be used in thermodynamic and electrodynamic models for comparison to the observed upwelling.

  10. Defining Boundaries for Ecosystem-Based Management: A Multispecies Case Study of Marine Connectivity across the Hawaiian Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Toonen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining the geographic scale at which to apply ecosystem-based management (EBM has proven to be an obstacle for many marine conservation programs. Generalizations based on geographic proximity, taxonomy, or life history characteristics provide little predictive power in determining overall patterns of connectivity, and therefore offer little in terms of delineating boundaries for marine spatial management areas. Here, we provide a case study of 27 taxonomically and ecologically diverse species (including reef fishes, marine mammals, gastropods, echinoderms, cnidarians, crustaceans, and an elasmobranch that reveal four concordant barriers to dispersal within the Hawaiian Archipelago which are not detected in single-species exemplar studies. We contend that this multispecies approach to determine concordant patterns of connectivity is an objective and logical way in which to define the minimum number of management units and that EBM in the Hawaiian Archipelago requires at least five spatially managed regions.

  11. Zooplankton Responses to Low-Oxygen Condition upon a Shallow Oxygen Minimum Zone in the Upwelling Region off Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, P.; Escribano, R.

    2015-12-01

    A shallow oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) is a critical component in the coastal upwelling ecosystem off Chile. This OMZ causes oxygen-deficient water entering the photic layer and affecting plankton communities having low tolerance to hypoxia. Variable, and usually species-dependent, responses of zooplankton to hypoxia condition can be found. Most dominant species avoid hypoxia by restricting their vertical distribution, while others can temporarily enter and even spent part of their life cycle within the OMZ. Whatever the case, low-oxygen conditions appear to affect virtually all vital rates of zooplankton, such as mortality, fecundity, development and growth and metabolism, and early developmental stages seem more sensitive, with significant consequences for population and community dynamics. For most study cases, these effects are negative at individual and population levels. Observations and predictions upon increasing upwelling intensity over the last 20-30 years indicate a gradual shoaling of the OMZ, and so that an expected enhancement of these negative effects of hypoxia on the zooplankton community. Unknown processes of adaptation and community-structure adjustments are expected to take place with uncertain consequences for the food web of this highly productive eastern boundary current ecosystem.

  12. Variability in upwelling intensity and nutrient regime in the coastal upwelling system offshore Namibia: results from sediment archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emeis, Kay-Christian; Struck, Ulrich; Leipe, Thomas; Ferdelman, Timothy G.

    2009-03-01

    The coastal upwelling system offshore Namibia is ideally suited to address a focal question of the Integrated Marine Biogeochemistry and Ecosystem Research Programme: what are the mechanisms that drive long-term changes in ecosystems? Considerable interannual variability in climatic forcing is indicated by long time series of meteorological and remote sensing observation; these accompany considerable interannual to interdecadal changes in the upwelling intensity over the last 100 years, as well as a centennial trend. On longer time scales, the only archives available are sediment records spanning the late Holocene. To decipher the sediment record, we mapped surface-sediment patterns of proxies for physical (sea surface temperature/SST from alkenone unsaturation indexes) and nutrient (δ15N on bulk sedimentary N) variables. Their present-day surface-sediment patterns outline the coastal upwelling cells and filaments and associated high productivity area. Analysed in an array of dated sediment cores, the spatial patterns of SST suggest long-term (>100 years) variability in the location and intensity of individual upwelling cells. The patterns of δ15N outline an area of intense denitrification near the coast, and advection of water with low-oxygen concentrations in the undercurrent from the North. δ15N exhibits considerable downcore variability, in particular over the last 50 years. The variability appears to be governed by differences in extent of denitrification and thus of the shelf oxygen balance, which appears to have deteriorated in the last 50 years. Together, the data suggest that SST and denitrification conditions have remained in the narrow bounds outlined by today’s patterns in surface sediments, but that spatially small variability in upwelling intensity and make-up of upwelling feed waters induced considerable changes in the lower trophic levels of the coastal upwelling ecosystem over the last 6,000 years. Attempts to correlate proxy records from

  13. Thermal indices of upwelling effects on inner-shelf habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Fabián J.; Navarrete, Sergio A.; Castillo, Manuel; Menge, Bruce A.; Castilla, Juan C.; Largier, John; Wieters, Evie A.; Broitman, Bernardo L.; Barth, John A.

    2009-12-01

    Spatial and temporal variability in regimes of coastal upwelling may have profound effects on the distribution and local dynamics of coastal marine populations and entire communities. Currently available mesoscale indices for upwelling intensity lack the resolution needed to characterize and compare inner-shelf upwelling regimes at small spatial scales (1-10’s km), which is often required to test relevant hypotheses in ecology, conservation, and management. We present local, quantitative indices of thermal variability, whose pattern across sites is largely driven by variation in coastal upwelling intensity at scales of few kilometers. Index calculations were based on daily records of insitu Sea Surface Temperature [SST], gathered at 30 sites along the Oregon-California coast, and at 25 sites along the coast of northern and central Chile. Several univariate metrics were calculated using daily series of temperature anomalies, and combined to produce a multivariate ordination of sites (Multivariate Upwelling Zone Index of Cooling, MUZIC) that allowed us to compare sites across regions. Multivariate indices calculated for 13 central Chile sites explained 52% and 50% of the among-site variance in corticated algal biomass and growth rate, respectively. Upwelling-induced variability at the scales documented here can have significant consequences on the ecology of coastal ecosystems. The basic data requirements (i.e. SST time series) and the simplicity of calculation make these indices a useful tool to apply at a large number of sites around the world, and to examine the generality of community- and population-level responses to physical forcing.

  14. Top down control of post-upwelling waters off Trivandrum: Indications from variability in DMS(P)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pandey S.; Bhonsle S.; RituKumari; Gauns, M.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Coastal upwelling is known to bring nutrient rich bottom waters to the surface. This change in chemistry triggers a series of cascading effects on the trophic levels of coastal ecosystems. Phytoplankton, besides being primary producers and carbon...

  15. The role of nutrients in regulation and promotion of harmful algal blooms in upwelling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudela, R. M.; Seeyave, S.; Cochlan, W. P.

    2010-04-01

    The Core Research Project on HABs in upwelling systems, as a component project of the international scientific programme on the Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (GEOHAB), promotes a comparative approach within and across systems to understand and predict the ecology, frequency and occurrence of HABs in eastern boundary current upwelling systems. Unlike other systems, upwelling circulation tends to override nutrient limitation caused by stratification, but is less affected by anthropogenic impacts due to the magnitude of the upwelling nutrient signal. At the same time, upwelling systems are unique in that they undergo seasonal succession as well as short-term spatial and temporal oscillations driven by the time-scale of upwelling wind events. An understanding of nutrient dynamics in upwelling systems is thus critical to any attempt to understand or predict HAB events in these environments. We review the state of knowledge regarding nutrient ecophysiology of a subset of HAB organisms identified in upwelling systems. The upwelling HABs exhibit a number of adaptations previously identified in HAB organisms, such as mixotrophy, osmotrophy and vertical migration. We suggest that, unlike most other HABs, these organisms do not necessarily follow a low nutrient-affinity strategy, and do not fit well with classic allometric scaling relationships. Despite these anomalies, progress has been made in predicting HAB events in upwelling systems, by linking HAB events to the unique environmental conditions associated with these systems. We conclude that this subset of HAB organisms is still poorly described in terms of nutrient ecophysiology, and will benefit from a comparative approach across systems, particularly because the subset of upwelling HABs does not necessarily fit the generic patterns identified for HABs generally.

  16. Propagating buoyant mantle upwelling on the Reykjanes Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Fernando; Hey, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Crustal features of the Reykjanes Ridge have been attributed to mantle plume flow radiating outward from the Iceland hotspot. This model requires very rapid mantle upwelling and a "rheological boundary" at the solidus to deflect plume material laterally and prevent extreme melting above the plume stem. Here we propose an alternative explanation in which shallow buoyant mantle upwelling instabilities propagate along axis to form the crustal features of the ridge and flanks. As only the locus of buoyant upwelling propagates this mechanism removes the need for rapid mantle plume flow. Based on new geophysical mapping we show that a persistent sub-axial low viscosity channel supporting buoyant mantle upwelling can explain the current oblique geometry of the ridge as a reestablishment of its original configuration following an abrupt change in opening direction. This mechanism further explains the replacement of ridge-orthogonal crustal segmentation with V-shaped crustal ridges and troughs. Our findings indicate that crustal features of the Reykjanes Ridge and flanks are formed by shallow buoyant mantle instabilities, fundamentally like at other slow spreading ridges, and need not reflect deep mantle plume flow.

  17. Spatial analyses of benthic habitats to define coral reef ecosystem regions and potential biogeographic boundaries along a latitudinal gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K Walker

    Full Text Available Marine organism diversity typically attenuates latitudinally from tropical to colder climate regimes. Since the distribution of many marine species relates to certain habitats and depth regimes, mapping data provide valuable information in the absence of detailed ecological data that can be used to identify and spatially quantify smaller scale (10 s km coral reef ecosystem regions and potential physical biogeographic barriers. This study focused on the southeast Florida coast due to a recognized, but understudied, tropical to subtropical biogeographic gradient. GIS spatial analyses were conducted on recent, accurate, shallow-water (0-30 m benthic habitat maps to identify and quantify specific regions along the coast that were statistically distinct in the number and amount of major benthic habitat types. Habitat type and width were measured for 209 evenly-spaced cross-shelf transects. Evaluation of groupings from a cluster analysis at 75% similarity yielded five distinct regions. The number of benthic habitats and their area, width, distance from shore, distance from each other, and LIDAR depths were calculated in GIS and examined to determine regional statistical differences. The number of benthic habitats decreased with increasing latitude from 9 in the south to 4 in the north and many of the habitat metrics statistically differed between regions. Three potential biogeographic barriers were found at the Boca, Hillsboro, and Biscayne boundaries, where specific shallow-water habitats were absent further north; Middle Reef, Inner Reef, and oceanic seagrass beds respectively. The Bahamas Fault Zone boundary was also noted where changes in coastal morphologies occurred that could relate to subtle ecological changes. The analyses defined regions on a smaller scale more appropriate to regional management decisions, hence strengthening marine conservation planning with an objective, scientific foundation for decision making. They provide a framework

  18. Viability Kernel for Ecosystem Management Models

    CERN Document Server

    Anaya, Eladio Ocana; Oliveros--Ramos, Ricardo; Tam, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    We consider sustainable management issues formulated within the framework of control theory. The problem is one of controlling a discrete--time dynamical system (e.g. population model) in the presence of state and control constraints, representing conflicting economic and ecological issues for instance. The viability kernel is known to play a basic role for the analysis of such problems and the design of viable control feedbacks, but its computation is not an easy task in general. We study the viability of nonlinear generic ecosystem models under preservation and production constraints. Under simple conditions on the growth rates at the boundary constraints, we provide an explicit description of the viability kernel. A numerical illustration is given for the hake--anchovy couple in the Peruvian upwelling ecosystem.

  19. Intense submesoscale upwelling in anticyclonic eddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannigan, L.

    2016-04-01

    Observations from around the global ocean show that enhanced biological activity can be found in anticyclonic eddies. This may mean that upwelling of nutrient-rich water occurs within the eddy, but such upwelling is not captured by models that resolve mesoscale processes. High-resolution simulations presented here show intense submesoscale upwelling from the thermocline to the mixed layer in anticyclonic eddies. The properties of the upwelling are consistent with a process known as symmetric instability. A simple limiting nutrient experiment shows that this upwelling can drive much higher biological activity in anticyclonic eddies when there is a high nutrient concentration in the thermocline. An estimate for the magnitude of upwelling associated with symmetric instability in anticyclonic eddies in the Sargasso Sea shows that it may be of comparable magnitude to other processes, though further work is required to understand the full implications for basin-scale nutrient budgets.

  20. Pathways of upwelling deep waters to the surface of the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamsitt, Veronica; Drake, Henri; Morrison, Adele; Talley, Lynne; Dufour, Carolina; Gray, Alison; Griffies, Stephen; Mazloff, Matthew; Sarmiento, Jorge; Wang, Jinbo; Weijer, Wilbert

    2017-04-01

    Upwelling of Atlantic, Indian and Pacific deep waters to the sea surface in the Southern Ocean closes the global overturning circulation and is fundamentally important for oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon and heat, nutrient resupply for sustaining oceanic biological production, and the melt rate of ice shelves. Here we go beyond the two-dimensional view of Southern Ocean upwelling, to show detailed Southern Ocean upwelling pathways in three dimensions, using hydrographic observations and particle tracking in high-resolution ocean and climate models. The northern deep waters enter the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) via narrow southward currents along the boundaries of the three ocean basins, before spiraling southeastward and upward through the ACC. Upwelling is greatly enhanced at five major topographic features, associated with vigorous mesoscale eddy activity. Deep water reaches the upper ocean predominantly south of the southern ACC boundary, with a spatially nonuniform distribution, regionalizing warm water supply to Antarctic ice shelves and the delivery of nutrient and carbon-rich water to the sea surface. The timescale for half of the deep water to upwell from 30°S to the mixed layer is on the order of 60-90 years, which has important implications for the timescale for signals to propagate through the deep ocean. In addition, we quantify the diabatic transformation along particle trajectories, to identify where diabatic processes are important along the upwelling pathways.

  1. Differential responses of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of a brown macroalga to present-day and future upwelling pCO2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Saderne

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are key species of the Baltic Sea benthic ecosystems. They are the substratum of numerous fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Several of these epibionts bear calcified structures and could be impacted by the high pCO2 events of the late summer upwellings in the Baltic nearshores. Those events are expected to increase in strength and duration with global change and ocean acidification. If calcifying epibionts are impacted by transient acidification as driven by upwelling events, their increasing prevalence could cause a shift of the fouling communities toward fleshy species. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of selected seaweed macrofoulers to transient elevation of pCO2 in their natural microenvironment, i.e. the boundary layer covering the thallus surface of brown seaweeds. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing an epibiotic community composed of the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium hirsutum (Bryozoa were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460 ± 59 µatm, present-day upwelling1193 ± 166 µatm and future upwelling 3150 ± 446 µatm. Only the highest pCO2 caused a significant reduction of growth rates and settlement of S. spirorbis individuals. Additionally, S. spirorbis settled juveniles exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during daylight hours compared to dark hours, possibly reflecting a day-night alternation of an acidification-modulating effect by algal photosynthesis as opposed to an acidification-enhancing effect of algal respiration. E. pilosa colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at intermediate pCO2 (1193 µatm but no response to higher pCO2. No effect of acidification on A. hirsutum colonies growth rates was observed. The results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibionts to levels of acidification occurring at present day upwellings in the Baltic

  2. Upwelling regions, the most fertile of the seas' habitats, are also ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    times catastrophic) interruptions of the diatom blooms characteristically induced by ... Some traditional concepts of phytoplankton ecology may not completely ... multiple and shifting sub-habitats, whose physical ... an alternating series of bloom-support and bloom- ...... in an estuarine upwelling ecosystem: Ria de Vigo. J.

  3. Meteorological constraints on oceanic halocarbons above the Peruvian upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhlbrügge, Steffen; Quack, Birgit; Atlas, Elliot; Fiehn, Alina; Hepach, Helmke; Krüger, Kirstin

    2016-09-01

    During a cruise of R/V METEOR in December 2012 the oceanic sources and emissions of various halogenated trace gases and their mixing ratios in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) were investigated above the Peruvian upwelling. This study presents novel observations of the three very short lived substances (VSLSs) - bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide - together with high-resolution meteorological measurements, Lagrangian transport and source-loss calculations. Oceanic emissions of bromoform and dibromomethane were relatively low compared to other upwelling regions, while those for methyl iodide were very high. Radiosonde launches during the cruise revealed a low, stable MABL and a distinct trade inversion above acting as strong barriers for convection and vertical transport of trace gases in this region. Observed atmospheric VSLS abundances, sea surface temperature, relative humidity and MABL height correlated well during the cruise. We used a simple source-loss estimate to quantify the contribution of oceanic emissions along the cruise track to the observed atmospheric concentrations. This analysis showed that averaged, instantaneous emissions could not support the observed atmospheric mixing ratios of VSLSs and that the marine background abundances below the trade inversion were significantly influenced by advection of regional sources. Adding to this background, the observed maximum emissions of halocarbons in the coastal upwelling could explain the high atmospheric VSLS concentrations in combination with their accumulation under the distinct MABL and trade inversions. Stronger emissions along the nearshore coastline likely added to the elevated abundances under the steady atmospheric conditions. This study underscores the importance of oceanic upwelling and trade wind systems on the atmospheric distribution of marine VSLS emissions.

  4. Meteorological constraints on oceanic halocarbons above the Peruvian Upwelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fuhlbrügge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Halogenated very short lived substances (VSLS are naturally produced in the ocean and emitted to the atmosphere. Recently, oceanic upwelling regions in the tropical East Atlantic were identified as strong sources of brominated halocarbons to the atmosphere. During a cruise of R/V METEOR in December 2012 the oceanic sources and emissions of various halogenated trace gases and their mixing ratios in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL were investigated above the Peruvian Upwelling for the first time. This study presents novel observations of the three VSLS bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide together with high resolution meteorological measurements and Lagrangian transport modelling. Although relatively low oceanic emissions were observed, except for methyl iodide, surface atmospheric abundances were elevated. Radiosonde launches during the cruise revealed a low, stable MABL and a distinct trade inversion above acting both as strong barriers for convection and trace gas transport in this region. Significant correlations between observed atmospheric VSLS abundances, sea surface temperature, relative humidity and MABL height were found. We used a simple source-loss estimate to identify the contribution of oceanic emissions to observed atmospheric concentrations which revealed that the observed marine VSLS abundances were dominated by horizontal advection below the trade inversion. The observed VSLS variations can be explained by the low emissions and their accumulation under different MABL and trade inversion conditions. This study confirms the importance of oceanic upwelling and trade wind systems on creating effective transport barriers in the lower atmosphere controlling the distribution of VSLS abundances above ocean upwelling regions.

  5. Benthic primary production in an upwelling-influenced coral reef, Colombian Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktarov, Elisa; Hauffe, Torsten; Pizarro, Valeria; Wilke, Thomas; Wild, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In Tayrona National Natural Park (Colombian Caribbean), abiotic factors such as light intensity, water temperature, and nutrient availability are subjected to high temporal variability due to seasonal coastal upwelling. These factors are the major drivers controlling coral reef primary production as one of the key ecosystem services. This offers the opportunity to assess the effects of abiotic factors on reef productivity. We therefore quantified primary net (Pn) and gross production (Pg) of the dominant local primary producers (scleractinian corals, macroalgae, algal turfs, crustose coralline algae, and microphytobenthos) at a water current/wave-exposed and-sheltered site in an exemplary bay of Tayrona National Natural Park. A series of short-term incubations was conducted to quantify O2 fluxes of the different primary producers during non-upwelling and the upwelling event 2011/2012, and generalized linear models were used to analyze group-specific O2 production, their contribution to benthic O2 fluxes, and total daily benthic O2 production. At the organism level, scleractinian corals showed highest Pn and Pg rates during non-upwelling (16 and 19 mmol O2 m−2 specimen area h−1), and corals and algal turfs dominated the primary production during upwelling (12 and 19 mmol O2 m−2 specimen area h−1, respectively). At the ecosystem level, corals contributed most to total Pn and Pg during non-upwelling, while during upwelling, corals contributed most to Pn and Pg only at the exposed site and macroalgae at the sheltered site, respectively. Despite the significant spatial and temporal differences in individual productivity of the investigated groups and their different contribution to reef productivity, differences for daily ecosystem productivity were only present for Pg at exposed with higher O2 fluxes during non-upwelling compared to upwelling. Our findings therefore indicate that total benthic primary productivity of local autotrophic reef communities is

  6. Benthic primary production in an upwelling-influenced coral reef, Colombian Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corvin Eidens

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In Tayrona National Natural Park (Colombian Caribbean, abiotic factors such as light intensity, water temperature, and nutrient availability are subjected to high temporal variability due to seasonal coastal upwelling. These factors are the major drivers controlling coral reef primary production as one of the key ecosystem services. This offers the opportunity to assess the effects of abiotic factors on reef productivity. We therefore quantified primary net (Pn and gross production (Pg of the dominant local primary producers (scleractinian corals, macroalgae, algal turfs, crustose coralline algae, and microphytobenthos at a water current/wave-exposed and-sheltered site in an exemplary bay of Tayrona National Natural Park. A series of short-term incubations was conducted to quantify O2 fluxes of the different primary producers during non-upwelling and the upwelling event 2011/2012, and generalized linear models were used to analyze group-specific O2 production, their contribution to benthic O2 fluxes, and total daily benthic O2 production. At the organism level, scleractinian corals showed highest Pn and Pg rates during non-upwelling (16 and 19 mmol O2 m−2 specimen area h−1, and corals and algal turfs dominated the primary production during upwelling (12 and 19 mmol O2 m−2 specimen area h−1, respectively. At the ecosystem level, corals contributed most to total Pn and Pg during non-upwelling, while during upwelling, corals contributed most to Pn and Pg only at the exposed site and macroalgae at the sheltered site, respectively. Despite the significant spatial and temporal differences in individual productivity of the investigated groups and their different contribution to reef productivity, differences for daily ecosystem productivity were only present for Pg at exposed with higher O2 fluxes during non-upwelling compared to upwelling. Our findings therefore indicate that total benthic primary productivity of local autotrophic reef

  7. Benthic primary production in an upwelling-influenced coral reef, Colombian Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidens, Corvin; Bayraktarov, Elisa; Hauffe, Torsten; Pizarro, Valeria; Wilke, Thomas; Wild, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In Tayrona National Natural Park (Colombian Caribbean), abiotic factors such as light intensity, water temperature, and nutrient availability are subjected to high temporal variability due to seasonal coastal upwelling. These factors are the major drivers controlling coral reef primary production as one of the key ecosystem services. This offers the opportunity to assess the effects of abiotic factors on reef productivity. We therefore quantified primary net (Pn ) and gross production (Pg ) of the dominant local primary producers (scleractinian corals, macroalgae, algal turfs, crustose coralline algae, and microphytobenthos) at a water current/wave-exposed and-sheltered site in an exemplary bay of Tayrona National Natural Park. A series of short-term incubations was conducted to quantify O2 fluxes of the different primary producers during non-upwelling and the upwelling event 2011/2012, and generalized linear models were used to analyze group-specific O2 production, their contribution to benthic O2 fluxes, and total daily benthic O2 production. At the organism level, scleractinian corals showed highest Pn and Pg rates during non-upwelling (16 and 19 mmol O2 m(-2) specimen area h(-1)), and corals and algal turfs dominated the primary production during upwelling (12 and 19 mmol O2 m(-2) specimen area h(-1), respectively). At the ecosystem level, corals contributed most to total Pn and Pg during non-upwelling, while during upwelling, corals contributed most to Pn and Pg only at the exposed site and macroalgae at the sheltered site, respectively. Despite the significant spatial and temporal differences in individual productivity of the investigated groups and their different contribution to reef productivity, differences for daily ecosystem productivity were only present for Pg at exposed with higher O2 fluxes during non-upwelling compared to upwelling. Our findings therefore indicate that total benthic primary productivity of local autotrophic reef communities is

  8. Influence of external climate forcing on coastal upwelling systems analysed in ensemble of past millennium climate simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tim, Nele; Zorita, Eduardo; Hünicke, Birgit; Yi, Xin; Emeis, Kay

    2016-04-01

    Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems are highly productive coastal ocean areas where nutrient rich, cold water upwells by the action of favorable winds. Observations over the 20th century and ocean sediment records, which may be indicative of upwelling, display an intensification due to stronger external climate forcing, such as increasing greenhouse gas concentrations or changes in solar irradiance. This intensification is compatible with the hypothesis put forward by Bakun (1990) that a stronger external radiative forcing should lead to a more intense coastal upwelling. Here, we analyze ensemble of simulations covering the past millennium with the aim of identifying and quantifying the role of external climate forcing on upwelling in the major Eastern Boundary Upwelling System. We analyse the decadal variability and centennial trends of upwelling in ensemble of simulations with the global climate model MPI-ESM covering the past millennium, the last 150 years and the next 100 years. The future simulations were driven by three IPCC scenarios of concentrations of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, RCP2.5, RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5. For the past millennium and the last 150 years, coastal upwelling does not show any imprint of external forcing. This result indicates that chaotic internal variability has dominated upwelling intensity in major upwelling regions over the last thousand years and even since industrialisation up to present. For the 21st century, all ensemble members show a consistent and significant intensification of upwelling in the strongest scenario RCP8.5 for the Benguela upwelling region, consistent and significant weakening for Morocco and California, and no significant change for the Peruvian upwelling. Weaker scenarios do not produce consistent long-term trends that are replicated in all ensemble members. The results are confirmed by analysing another ensemble of past millennium simulations with the model CESM-CAM5 (Community Earth System Model

  9. Climate change and decadal shifts in the phenology of larval fishes in the California Current ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, Rebecca G

    2015-07-28

    Climate change has prompted an earlier arrival of spring in numerous ecosystems. It is uncertain whether such changes are occurring in Eastern Boundary Current Upwelling ecosystems, because these regions are subject to natural decadal climate variability, and regional climate models predict seasonal delays in upwelling. To answer this question, the phenology of 43 species of larval fishes was investigated between 1951 and 2008 off southern California. Ordination of the fish community showed earlier phenological progression in more recent years. Thirty-nine percent of seasonal peaks in larval abundance occurred earlier in the year, whereas 18% were delayed. The species whose phenology became earlier were characterized by an offshore, pelagic distribution, whereas species with delayed phenology were more likely to reside in coastal, demersal habitats. Phenological changes were more closely associated with a trend toward earlier warming of surface waters rather than decadal climate cycles, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and North Pacific Gyre Oscillation. Species with long-term advances and delays in phenology reacted similarly to warming at the interannual time scale as demonstrated by responses to the El Niño Southern Oscillation. The trend toward earlier spawning was correlated with changes in sea surface temperature (SST) and mesozooplankton displacement volume, but not coastal upwelling. SST and upwelling were correlated with delays in fish phenology. For species with 20th century advances in phenology, future projections indicate that current trends will continue unabated. The fate of species with delayed phenology is less clear due to differences between Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change models in projected upwelling trends.

  10. Climate change and decadal shifts in the phenology of larval fishes in the California Current ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, Rebecca G.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change has prompted an earlier arrival of spring in numerous ecosystems. It is uncertain whether such changes are occurring in Eastern Boundary Current Upwelling ecosystems, because these regions are subject to natural decadal climate variability, and regional climate models predict seasonal delays in upwelling. To answer this question, the phenology of 43 species of larval fishes was investigated between 1951 and 2008 off southern California. Ordination of the fish community showed earlier phenological progression in more recent years. Thirty-nine percent of seasonal peaks in larval abundance occurred earlier in the year, whereas 18% were delayed. The species whose phenology became earlier were characterized by an offshore, pelagic distribution, whereas species with delayed phenology were more likely to reside in coastal, demersal habitats. Phenological changes were more closely associated with a trend toward earlier warming of surface waters rather than decadal climate cycles, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and North Pacific Gyre Oscillation. Species with long-term advances and delays in phenology reacted similarly to warming at the interannual time scale as demonstrated by responses to the El Niño Southern Oscillation. The trend toward earlier spawning was correlated with changes in sea surface temperature (SST) and mesozooplankton displacement volume, but not coastal upwelling. SST and upwelling were correlated with delays in fish phenology. For species with 20th century advances in phenology, future projections indicate that current trends will continue unabated. The fate of species with delayed phenology is less clear due to differences between Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change models in projected upwelling trends. PMID:26159416

  11. Upwelling along the east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, C.S.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    the premonsoon and monsoon periods. Waters from deeper layers of the shelf appear to reach the surface causing considerable fall of surface temperature near the coast. The probable causes for these differences in upwelling along the coast are discussed...

  12. Iron Meteorites and Upwelling in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourlay, B. S.; Behr, E.; Mardon, A.; Behr, E.

    2016-09-01

    In Antarctica, a meteorite stranding zone, stone meteorites are more common than iron. Dr. Evatt's team suggests that the heat conductivity of iron may be opposing the upwelling effects so iron meteorites sink under the ice unlike the stone ones.

  13. Seabird diversity hotspot linked to ocean productivity in the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attrill, Martin J.; Becker, Peter H.; Egevang, Carsten; Furness, Robert W.; Grémillet, David; Kopp, Matthias; Lescroël, Amélie; Matthiopoulos, Jason; Peter, Hans-Ulrich; Phillips, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Upwelling regions are highly productive habitats targeted by wide-ranging marine predators and industrial fisheries. In this study, we track the migratory movements of eight seabird species from across the Atlantic; quantify overlap with the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME) and determine the habitat characteristics that drive this association. Our results indicate the CCLME is a biodiversity hotspot for migratory seabirds; all tracked species and more than 70% of individuals used this upwelling region. Relative species richness peaked in areas where sea surface temperature averaged between 15 and 20°C, and correlated positively with chlorophyll a, revealing the optimum conditions driving bottom-up trophic effects for seabirds. Marine vertebrates are not confined by international boundaries, making conservation challenging. However, by linking diversity to ocean productivity, our research reveals the significance of the CCLME for seabird populations from across the Atlantic, making it a priority for conservation action. PMID:27531154

  14. Impact of sea-level change on the paleo Primary Productivity record in the NW African coastal upwelling area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, X.; Paul, A.

    2009-04-01

    A sea level decrease of 120 m at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) drastically modifies the shelf morphology of the North West African coastal upwelling area. Using a regional coupled circulation-ecosystem model subject to a set of boundary conditions that reflect Present Day (PD) and LGM conditions, we aim to quantify how changes in shelf morphology, as well as changes in sub-surface nutrient concentrations or local climatic conditions, influence the biological productivity and its record in the sediments. The oceanic circulation is simulated by the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS), taking advantage of the AGRIF (Adaptive Grid Refinement in Fortran) technique to set-up an embedded grid structure. A high-resolution grid (1/10°) is centred on our study area, and is nested in a larger, coarser grid (1/2°) over the Atlantic domain. Boundary and initial conditions for PD and LGM are provided by global simulations performed with the University of Victoria Earth System-Climate Model (UVic ESCM). We used NPZD (Nutrient, Phytoplankton, Zooplankton and Detritus) biogeochemical models. We have identified the following issues in interpreting a sedimentary record at a fixed core location as an indicator of the total upwelling productivity: - Changes in the shelf morphology due to sea-level change appeared to have an impact on the productivity of the upwelling itself, but also to displace the high-productivity zone. - Comparing the Primary Production (PP) between PD and LGM at a given geographical location, or comparing the zonal mean of the PP, can show opposite results. The comparison at geographical locations assumes a direct connection between the production in the surface ocean and the underlying sediments. The comparison of the zonal mean of PP or sediment flux assumes that lateral advection of particulates and sediment transport are significant processes in producing the sedimentary signal at a given location. We illustrate the various situations, with or without

  15. The spawning products of fish living in upwelling ecosystems have ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    the broadest distribution, covering the entire Namibian coast from nearshore out to .... Wind velocity was measured continuously with an. Aanderaa ship .... However, the simulation after this stage cannot be .... Northward flow appears restricted to a narrow band over the .... wind-induced turbulence will not influence their ver-.

  16. FWS Ecosystem Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Digital ecosystem information portraying the location and boundaries of the ecosystems. The Service originally chose the U.S. Geological Survey's Hydrologic Unit Map...

  17. Marine ecosystem dynamics, ocean circulation and horizontal stirring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, V.; Tewkai, E.; López, C.; Sudre, J.; Hernández-García, E.; Garcon, V.

    2009-04-01

    The oceanic submeso and mesoscale circulation and its eddies, filaments, meanders play a major role in marine ecosystems dynamics from the lower trophic levels to the marine top predators. We study here the interplay between turbulence in fluid dynamics on these scales and biological activity at different trophic levels using two cases study. The first example focuses on the four eastern boundary upwelling zones, the Canary, Benguela, California and Humboldt upwelling systems which constitute the largest contribution to the world ocean productivity. These areas are spatially heterogeneous, populated with a large variety of mesoscale and sub-mesoscale structures such as filaments, plumes and eddies, which control exchange processes between the shelf and open ocean and play a major role in modulating the biomass, rates and structure of marine ecosystems. We will present here results from a lagrangian approach based on Finite Size Lyapunov Exponents (FSLE) using altimetric and scatterometric data to estimate the spatial and temporal variations in the lateral stirring and mixing of tracers in the upper ocean within the four areas. When investigating links with chlorophyll a concentration as a proxy for biological activity in these upwelling systems, results show that surface horizontal stirring and mixing vary inversely with chlorophyll standing stocks. FSLEs lead to a clear clustering of the systems suggesting that one may use them as integrated and comparative indices for characterizing horizontal dynamical features in all eastern boundary upwellings. Then we investigate the role of submesoscale structures in the Mozambique Channel on the distribution of a top marine predator, the Great Frigatebird. Using similar dynamical concept, the FSLE, we have identified Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs) present in the surface flow in the Channel. By comparing seabirds' satellite positions with LCSs locations, we demonstrate that frigatebirds track precisely these

  18. Biogeochemical cycling in the ocean. Part 1: Introduction to the effects of upwelling along the west coast of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, John T.

    1986-01-01

    Coastal upwelling is examined as it relates to the cycling of chemical species in coastal waters along the west coast of North America. The temporal and spatial features of upwelling phenomena in the Eastern boundary regions of the North Pacific Ocean are presented and discussed in terms of upwelling episodes. Climate conditions affecting upwelling include: thermal effects, wind-induced shear stress which moves surface layers, and the curl of the wind stress vector which is thought to affect the extent and nature of upwelling and the formation of offshore convergent downwelling fronts. These effects and the interaction of sunlight and upwelled nutrients which result in a biological bloom in surface waters is modeled analytically. The roles of biological and chemical species, including the effects of predation, are discussed in that context, and relevant remote sensing and in situ observations are presented. Climatological, oceanographic, biological, physical, chemical events, and processes that pertain to biogeochemical cycling are presented and described by a set of partial differential equations. Simple preliminary results are obtained and are compared with data. Thus a fairly general framework has been laid where the many facets of biogeochemical cycling in coastal upwelled waters can be examined in their relationship to one another, and to the whole, to whatever level of detail or approximation is warranted or desired.

  19. Upwelling systems in eastern boundary currents have been ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    P. T. STRUB*, F. A. SHILLINGTON†, C. JAMES* and S. J. WEEKS† ... College of Oceanographic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, 97331-5503, USA. .... windows around each point in a regular grid.

  20. Wildfire and abrupt ecosystem disruption on California's Northern Channel Islands at the Ållerød-Younger Dryas boundary (13.0-12.9 ka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett, D. J.; Kennett, J. P.; West, G. J.; Erlandson, J. M.; Johnson, J. R.; Hendy, I. L.; West, A.; Culleton, B. J.; Jones, T. L.; Stafford, Thomas W., Jr.

    2008-12-01

    Sedimentary records from California's Northern Channel Islands and the adjacent Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) indicate intense regional biomass burning (wildfire) at the Ållerød-Younger Dryas boundary (˜13.0-12.9 ka) (All age ranges in this paper are expressed in thousands of calendar years before present [ka]. Radiocarbon ages will be identified and clearly marked " 14C years".). Multiproxy records in SBB Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) Site 893 indicate that these wildfires coincided with the onset of regional cooling and an abrupt vegetational shift from closed montane forest to more open habitats. Abrupt ecosystem disruption is evident on the Northern Channel Islands at the Ållerød-Younger Dryas boundary with the onset of biomass burning and resulting mass sediment wasting of the landscape. These wildfires coincide with the extinction of Mammuthus exilis [pygmy mammoth]. The earliest evidence for human presence on these islands at 13.1-12.9 ka (˜11,000-10,900 14C years) is followed by an apparent 600-800 year gap in the archaeological record, which is followed by indications of a larger-scale colonization after 12.2 ka. Although a number of processes could have contributed to a post 18 ka decline in M. exilis populations (e.g., reduction of habitat due to sea-level rise and human exploitation of limited insular populations), we argue that the ultimate demise of M. exilis was more likely a result of continental scale ecosystem disruption that registered across North America at the onset of the Younger Dryas cooling episode, contemporaneous with the extinction of other megafaunal taxa. Evidence for ecosystem disruption at 13-12.9 ka on these offshore islands is consistent with the Younger Dryas boundary cosmic impact hypothesis [Firestone, R.B., West, A., Kennett, J.P., Becker, L., Bunch, T.E., Revay, Z.S., Schultz, P.H., Belgya, T., Kennett, D.J., Erlandson, J.M., Dickenson, O.J., Goodyear, A.A., Harris, R.S., Howard, G.A., Kloosterman, J.B., Lechler, P

  1. TNT Degradation by Natural Microbial Assemblages at Frontal Boundaries Between Water Masses in Coastal Ecosystems (ER-2124 Interim Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-26

    isotopic analyses of earth metals . However, during the August 2013 sampling, we came across a frontal boundary between two water masses (here...01 January 2013 – 31 December 2013 61-4540-0-3 *Marine, Earth , and Atmospheric Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695...and Dave Kirchman and Matt Cottrell for sample processing . Environmental sampling guidance was provided by Joanne Delaney at NOAA (National Marine

  2. Ecosystem Viable Yields

    CERN Document Server

    De Lara, Michel; Oliveros-Ramos, Ricardo; Tam, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg, 2002) encouraged the application of the ecosystem approach by 2010. However, at the same Summit, the signatory States undertook to restore and exploit their stocks at maximum sustainable yield (MSY), a concept and practice without ecosystemic dimension, since MSY is computed species by species, on the basis of a monospecific model. Acknowledging this gap, we propose a definition of "ecosystem viable yields" (EVY) as yields compatible i) with biological viability levels for all time and ii) with an ecosystem dynamics. To the difference of MSY, this notion is not based on equilibrium, but on viability theory, which offers advantages for robustness. For a generic class of multispecies models with harvesting, we provide explicit expressions for the EVY. We apply our approach to the anchovy--hake couple in the Peruvian upwelling ecosystem between the years 1971 and 1981.

  3. Spatio-temporal trends in coastal upwelling across NW Africa, 1981-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropper, Thomas; Hanna, Edward; Bigg, Grant

    2013-04-01

    In the early 1990's it was hypothesized that coastal upwelling across the eastern boundary currents may increase as a result of global warming. Since then, numerous studies have sought to elucidate the spatial and temporal trends in coastal upwelling intensity. Across the Canary Current (10-36°N), a conflicting signal (i.e. a positive/negative/no trend) in published results has emerged. We surmise this to be the consequence of (1) minor methodological differences, (2) differences in the temporal periods considered (intra- and inter-annual) and (3) the use of different data sets/sources. Here, we present seasonal upwelling estimates across the most recent 30-year climatic 'normal' period (1981-2010) based on the more commonly used wind stress and sea-surface temperature (SST) methodologies, and reinforce this analysis with traditionally 'lesser-used' sources (including sea-surface height, horizontal current velocity and vertical water column motion). For the wind-stress upwelling index we use six data sources (ERA-Interim, NCEP/NCAR, 20CR, PFEL, ICOADS and MERRA) and for the SST index we use three (HadISST, Reynolds OISST and ICOADS). We also utilize the sparse coastal meteorological and tide-gauge stations scattered across the NW African coastline. Additionally, we examine sea-surface height data from four sources (AVISO, GODAS, SODA and GRACE), horizontal current velocity from two sources (GODAS, SODA) and vertical water column motion from the GODAS dataset as further proxies for upwelling estimation. Generally, across summer, the numerous indices correlate reasonably well and display consistent spatial patterns and the same year-to-year oscillations, although the trend directions across the entire period sometimes diverge. Nevertheless, we conclude there is enough corroborating evidence to suggest there is a positive (negative) tendency in upwelling poleward (equatorward) of 20°N, but are cautious that these trends aren't ubiquitously significant. We suggest

  4. Deep ocean mass fluxes in the coastal upwelling off Mauritania from 1988 to 2012: variability on seasonal to decadal timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gerhard; Romero, Oscar; Merkel, Ute; Donner, Barbara; Iversen, Morten; Nowald, Nico; Ratmeyer, Volker; Ruhland, Götz; Klann, Marco; Wefer, Gerold

    2016-05-01

    A more than two-decadal sediment trap record from the Eastern Boundary Upwelling Ecosystem (EBUE) off Cape Blanc, Mauritania, is analysed with respect to deep ocean mass fluxes, flux components and their variability on seasonal to decadal timescales. The total mass flux revealed interannual fluctuations which were superimposed by fluctuations on decadal timescales. High winter fluxes of biogenic silica (BSi), used as a measure of marine production (mostly by diatoms) largely correspond to a positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index (December-March). However, this relationship is weak. The highest positive BSi anomaly was in winter 2004-2005 when the NAO was in a neutral state. More episodic BSi sedimentation events occurred in several summer seasons between 2001 and 2005, when the previous winter NAO was neutral or even negative. We suggest that distinct dust outbreaks and deposition in the surface ocean in winter and occasionally in summer/autumn enhanced particle sedimentation and carbon export on short timescales via the ballasting effect. Episodic perturbations of the marine carbon cycle by dust outbreaks (e.g. in 2005) might have weakened the relationships between fluxes and large-scale climatic oscillations. As phytoplankton biomass is high throughout the year, any dry (in winter) or wet (in summer) deposition of fine-grained dust particles is assumed to enhance the efficiency of the biological pump by incorporating dust into dense and fast settling organic-rich aggregates. A good correspondence between BSi and dust fluxes was observed for the dusty year 2005, following a period of rather dry conditions in the Sahara/Sahel region. Large changes of all bulk fluxes occurred during the strongest El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in 1997-1999 where low fluxes were obtained for almost 1 year during the warm El Niño and high fluxes in the following cold La Niña phase. For decadal timescales, Bakun (1990) suggested an intensification of coastal upwelling

  5. West Florida shelf upwelling: Origins and pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Robert H.; Zheng, Lianyuan; Liu, Yonggang

    2016-08-01

    Often described as oligotrophic, the west Florida continental shelf supports abundant fisheries, experiences blooms of the harmful alga, Karenia brevis, and exhibits subsurface chlorophyll maxima evident in shipboard and glider surveys. Renewal of inorganic nutrients by the upwelling of deeper ocean water onto the shelf may account for this, but what are the origins and pathways by which such new water may broach the shelf break and advance toward the shoreline? We address these questions via numerical model simulations of pseudo-Lagrangian, isopycnic water parcel trajectories. Focus is on 2010, when the west Florida shelf was subjected to an anomalously protracted period of upwelling caused by Gulf of Mexico Loop Current interactions with the shelf slope. Origins and pathways are determined by integrating trajectories over successive 45 day intervals, beginning from different locations along the shelf break and at various locations and depths along the shelf slope. Waters upwelling across the shelf break are found to originate from relatively shallow depths along the shelf slope. Even for the anomalous 2010 year, much of this upwelling occurs from about 150 m and above, although waters may broach the shelf break from 300 m depth, particularly in the Florida Panhandle. Such interannual renewal of west Florida shelf waters appears to have profound effects on west Florida shelf ecology.

  6. Comparative study of potential transfer of natural and anthropogenic cadmium to plankton communities in the North-West African upwelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auger, P.A., E-mail: pierreamael.auger@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Physique des Océans (LPO), UMR-CNRS 6523/IFREMER/IRD/UBO, BP70, 29280 Plouzané (France); Machu, E.; Gorgues, T.; Grima, N. [Laboratoire de Physique des Océans (LPO), UMR-CNRS 6523/IFREMER/IRD/UBO, BP70, 29280 Plouzané (France); Waeles, M. [Université de Bretagne Occidentale (UBO), Laboratoire de l' Environnement Marin (LEMAR), UMR-CNRS 6539/IRD/UBO, place N. Copernic, 29280 Plouzané (France)

    2015-02-01

    A Lagrangian approach based on a physical–biogeochemical modeling was used to compare the potential transfer of cadmium (Cd) from natural and anthropogenic sources to plankton communities (Cd-uptake) in the North-West African upwelling. In this region, coastal upwelling was estimated to be the main natural source of Cd while the most significant anthropogenic source for marine ecosystem is provided by phosphate industry. In our model experiment, Cd-uptake (natural or anthropogenic) in the North-West African upwelling is the result of an interplay between the Cd dispersion (by advection processes) and the simulated biological productivity. In the Moroccan waters, advection processes limit the residence time of water masses resulting in a low natural Cd-uptake by plankton communities while anthropogenic Cd-uptake is high. As expected, the situation is reversed in the Senegalo-Mauritanian upwelling where natural Cd-uptake is higher than anthropogenic Cd-uptake. Based upon an estimate of Cd sources, our modeling study shows, unexpectedly, that the anthropogenic signal of potential Cd-bioaccumulation in the Moroccan upwelling is of the same order of magnitude as the natural signal mainly present in the Senegalo-Mauritanian upwelling region. A comparison with observed Cd levels in mollusk and fishes, which shows overall agreement with our simulations, is confirming our estimates. - Highlights: • We model the physical–biogeochemical dynamics in the North-West African upwelling. • We model the transport of cadmium from natural and anthropogenic sources. • We derive proxies of potential cadmium absorption and bioaccumulation in the plankton food chain. • The anthropogenic signal off Morocco at least equals the natural upwelling signal off Mauritania. • We compare our results with observed cadmium levels in mollusks and fishes.

  7. The mechanism of the effects of the upwelling mean on the ENSO event mature phase locking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism of the effects of the upwelling mean on the ENSO event mature phase locking is ex-amined by using a mixed-mode model. The results show that the positive feedback process of the ef-fects of the seasonal variation of the upwelling mean on the Kelvin wave is the mechanism of the locking of the event mature phase to the end of the calendar year. The memory of the Rossby waves for the sign-shifting of the sea surface temperature anomaly from positive to negative 6 months before the cold peak time is the other mechanism of the locking of the La Nia event mature phase to the end of the calendar year. The results here are different from previous ones which suggest that the balance between cold and warm trends of sea surface temperature anomaly is the mechanism involved. The cold trend is caused by the upwelling Kelvin wave from upwelling Rossby wave reflected at the western boundary, excited by the westerly anomaly stress over the central Pacific and amplified by the seasonal variation of the coupled strength in its way propagating westward. The warm trend is caused by the Kelvin wave forced by the western wind stress over the middle and eastern equatorial Pacific. The cause of the differences is due to the opposite phase of the seasonal variation of the upwelling mean to that in the observation and an improper parameterization scheme for the effects of the seasonal varia-tion of the upwelling mean on the ENSO cycle in previous studies.

  8. The mechanism of the effects of the upwelling mean on the ENSO event mature phase locking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN BangLiang

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism of the effects of the upwelling mean on the ENSO event mature phase locking is examined by using a mixed-mode model. The results show that the positive feedback process of the effects of the seasonal variation of the upwelling mean on the Kelvin wave is the mechanism of the locking of the event mature phase to the end of the calendar year. The memory of the Rossby waves for the sign-shifting of the sea surface temperature anomaly from positive to negative 6 months before the cold peak time is the other mechanism of the locking of the La Ni(n)a event mature phase to the end of the calendar year. The results here are different from previous ones which suggest that the balance between cold and warm trends of sea surface temperature anomaly is the mechanism involved. The cold trend is caused by the upwelling Kelvin wave from upwelling Rossby wave reflected at the western boundary, excited by the westerly anomaly stress over the central Pacific and amplified by the seasonal variation of the coupled strength in its way propagating westward. The warm trend is caused by the Kelvin wave forced by the western wind stress over the middle and eastern equatorial Pacific. The cause of the differences is due to the opposite phase of the seasonal variation of the upwelling mean to that in the observation and an improper parameterization scheme for the effects of the seasonal variation of the upwelling mean on the ENSO cycle in previous studies.

  9. Relation between Upwelling Intensity and the Variability of Physical and Chemical Parameters in the Southern Benguela Upwelling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ebrahiem Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which wind-driven seasonal upwelling cycles manifest in surface ocean temperature and nutrient variability along a monitoring line in the Southern Benguela upwelling system was investigated. Monitoring conducted monthly over a six-year period shows that surface temperature and nutrient concentrations exhibit very poor seasonality and weak correlation with the upwelling index. This is, despite clear evidence for spatial inshore-offshore gradients in temperature, nutrients, and chlorophyll, consistent with an upwelling regime. The upper ocean temperature gradient shows a much better correspondence to the upwelling index but at the same time demonstrates that surface heating, and not vertical mixing related to upwelling, controls the upper ocean temperature gradient. The results suggest that remote sensing techniques would be inadequate tools to monitor upwelling events in the Southern Benguela. Also, the incidence of phytoplankton blooms is more likely triggered by stratified conditions associated with surface heating than relaxation of upwelling winds.

  10. A comparison of Globigerinoides ruber calcification between upwelling and non-upwelling regions in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, S.S.; Godad, S.P.; Naidu, P.D.; Ramaswamy, V.

    Shell weights of planktonic foraminifera species Globigerinoides ruber in the size range of 300–355 mew m were measured from sediment traps in the western and eastern Arabian Sea which represent upwelling and non-upwelling conditions respectively...

  11. Spatial and temporal patterns across an ecological boundary: Allochthonous effects of a young saltwater lake on a desert ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehme, C.S.; Boarman, W.I.; Hathaway, S.A.; Herring, A.; Lyren, L.; Mendelsohn, M.; Pease, K.; Rahn, M.; Rochester, C.; Stokes, D.; Turschak, G.; Fisher, R.N.

    2009-01-01

    We documented changes in the abundance and composition of terrestrial flora and fauna with respect to distance from the sea edge and timing of large allochthonous inputs from the Salton Sea, California. We found significant effects that were most pronounced within 300 m of the shore, but extended 3 km inland via coyote scat deposition. The zone within 300 m of the sea had a higher density of vegetation with a distinctly different plant composition. The denser vegetation supported higher abundances of birds and reptiles. Coyotes exhibited spatial and temporal responses to marine subsidies of fish, while birds were likely subsidized by aquatic aerial insects. Top-down control, as well as dietary and habitat preferences, may have resulted in reduced number of ants, beetles, and small mammals near the sea. Species responses to the habitat edge appeared to be associated with life history, as the near shore habitat favored habitat generalists and shore specialists, while inland desert habitat favored many sand and open desert specialists. Ecosystem responses support current theories of allochthonous spatial subsidies and consumer-resource dynamics but were limited in scope, magnitude, and distance.

  12. Fish larvae retention linked to abrupt bathymetry at Mejillones Bay (northern Chile during coastal upwelling events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo M Rojas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of oceanic circulation and bathymetry on the fish larvae retention inside Mejillones Bay, northern Chile, was examined. Fish larvae were collected during two coastal upwelling events in November 1999 and January 2000. An elevated fish larvae accumulation was found near an oceanic front and a zone of low-speed currents. Three groups of fish larvae were identified: the coastal species (Engraulis ringens and Sardinops sagax, associated with high chlorophyll-a levels; larvae from the families Phosichthyidae (Vinciguerria lucetia and Myctophidae (Diogenichthys laternatus and Triphoturus oculeus, associated with the thermocline (12°C, and finally, larvae of the families Myctophidae (Diogenichthys atlanticus and Bathylagidae (Bathylagus nigrigenys, associated with high values of temperature and salinity. The presence of a seamount and submarine canyon inside Mejillones Bay appears to play an important role in the circulation during seasonal upwelling events. We propose a conceptual model of circulation and particles retention into Mejillones Bay. The assumption is that during strong upwelling conditions the flows that move along the canyon emerge in the centre of Mejillones Bay, producing a fish larvae retention zone. Understanding the biophysical interactions responsible to trap and/or concentrate particles is essential to protect these fragile upwelling ecosystems.

  13. Microbial and biogeochemical responses to projected future nitrate enrichment in the California upwelling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rose Marie Mackey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Coastal California is a dynamic upwelling region where nitrogen (N and iron (Fe can both limit productivity and influence biogeochemistry over different spatial and temporal scales. With global change, the flux of nitrate from upwelling is expected to increase over the next century, potentially driving additional oceanic regions toward Fe limitation. In this study we explored the effect of changes in Fe/N ratio on native phytoplankton from five currently Fe-replete sites near the major California upwelling centers at Bodega Bay and Monterey Bay using nutrient addition incubation experiments. Despite the high nitrate levels (13-30 M in the upwelled water, phytoplankton at three of the five sites showed increased growth when 10 M nitrate was added. None of the sites showed enhanced growth following addition of 10 nM Fe. Nitrate additions favored slow sinking single-celled diatoms over faster sinking chain-forming diatoms, suggesting that future increases in nitrate flux could affect carbon and silicate export and alter grazer populations. In particular, solitary cells of Cylindrotheca were more abundant than the toxin-producing genus Pseudonitzschia following nitrate addition. These responses suggest the biogeochemistry of coastal California could change in response to future increases in nitrate, and multiple stressors like ocean acidification and hypoxia may further result in ecosystem shifts.

  14. Spatial distribution of bivalve mollusc assemblages in the upwelling ecosystem of the continental shelf of Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Distribuição espacial das associações de moluscos bivalves na plataforma continental do ecossistema da ressurgência de Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abilio Soares-Gomes

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Bivalve mollusks of the continental shelf of Cabo Frio upwelling ecosystem were sampled monthly from February 1986 to February 1987 along a 30 to 60 m depth gradient. Mactra petiti Orbigny, 1846, and Tellina gibber Ihering, 1907 were constant species in 30 m; Nucula puelcha Orbigny, 1846, Adrana patagonica Orbigny, 1846, T. petitiana, T. gibber, and Corbula patagonica Orbigny, 1846 in 45 m; and N. puelcha, T. gibber, C. patagonica, and C. caribaea in 60 m. The number of rare species was similar along the depth gradient, ranging from six to ten species. The number of common species was higher in 60 m than in 30 m. Some species showed a continuous distribution but changed the frequency and abundance along the bathymetric gradient. The mean density was higher in 45-60 m than in 30 m, ranging from 15.6 ind.m-2, in 30 m, to 68.1 ind.m-2, in 60 m. There was no seasonal change in density nor in the taxocene structure during the studied period. On the other hand, the bivalve assemblage was spatially structured along the depth gradient, showing consistent changes from 30 to 60 m depths. Diversity and richness also follow this distribution pattern.Os moluscos bivalves da plataforma continental do ecossistema da ressurgência do Cabo Frio foram amostrados mensalmente de fevereiro de 1986 a fevereiro de 1987, entre 30 a 60 m de profundidade. Mactra petiti e Tellina gibber Ihering, 1907 foram espécies constantes a 30 m; Nucula puelcha Orbigny, 1846, Adrana patagonica Orbigny, 1846, T. petitiana, T. gibber e Corbula patagonica Orbigny, 1846 a 45 m; e N. puelcha, T. gibber, C. patagonica e C. caribaea a 60 m. O número de espécies raras foi similar nas diferentes profundidades, variando entre seis a dez espécies. O número de espécies comuns foi maior a 60 m que a 30 m. Algumas espécies apresentaram distribuição contínua porém, com variação na freqüência e abundância ao longo do gradiente batimétrico. A densidde média foi maior a 45-60 m do que

  15. A trans-ecosystem fishery: Environmental effects on the small-scale gillnet fishery along the Río de la Plata boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaureguizar, Andrés Javier; Cortés, Federico; Milessi, Andrés Conrado; Cozzolino, Ezequiel; Allega, Lucrecia

    2015-12-01

    To improve the understanding of the environmental processes affecting small-scale gillnet fisheries along neighboring waters of estuaries, we analyzed the main climatic forcing and the environmental conditions, the fishery landing spatial and temporal variation, including the relative importance of site, distance to coast, temperature and salinity in the structuring of landed species profile. Data were collected monthly in two sites along the adjacent south coast of the Río de la Plata between October 2009 and September 2010. The gillnet fishery was dominated by four species (Cynoscion guatucupa, Micropogonias furnieri, Mustelus schmitti and Parona signata) from a total of 38 species landed, which accounted for 98.6% of total landings. The fishing effort and landings by the fishery were largely conditioned by the availability of fish species in the fishing grounds resulting from the combination of the species reproductive behavior and the predominant environmental conditions. The highest abundances for some species occurred before (M. furnieri, C. guatucupa, P. signata) or during the reproductive period (M. schmitti, Squatina guggenheim), while in other species it was associated with favorable environmental conditions during cold months (Squalus acanthias, Callorhinchus callorhynchus, Galeorhinus galeus) or warm months (Trichiurus lepturus). The predominant seasonal environmental conditions along the coast were mainly determined by the location of Río de la Plata boundary, whose spatial extent was forced by the wind patterns and freshwater discharge. The strong environmental dependence means that the small-scale fishery is in fact a seasonal trans-ecosystem fishery. This attribute, together that shared the resources with the industrial fishery and the overlap of the fishery ground with essential habitat of sharks, make this kind of small-scale gillnet fishery particularly relevant to be included in the development of a coastal ecosystem-based management approach.

  16. Biología poblacional de huirales submareales de Macrocystis integrifolia y Lessonia trabeculata (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae en un ecosistema de surgencia del norte de Chile: variabilidad interanual y El Niño 1997-1998 Population biology of the subtidal kelps Macrocystis integrifolia and Lessonia trabeculata (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae in an upwelling ecosystem of northern Chile: interannual variability and El Niño 1997-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. ALONSO VEGA

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the population biology of Lessonia trabeculata and Macrocystis integrifolia during and after the 1997-1998 El Niño in an area of permanent coastal upwelling in northern Chile. Spatial and temporal patterns of distribution were evaluated seasonally for adult and juvenile sporophytes of both species between 1996 and 2003. These two kelp form an assemblage distributed between 2 and 15 m depth, with disjunct patterns along a bathymetric gradient, including two morphs of L. trabeculata, the occurrence of which depends on the presence or absence of M. integrifolia. During the 1997-1998 El Niño the spatial-temporal patterns of abundance of the kelp assemblage were maintained by the continuity of coastal upwelling, which buffered and moderated superficial warming of the sea and depletion of nutrients. In this context, localities associated with coastal upwelling areas could function as "sources" of reproductive propagules after passage of El Niño, thus increasing kelp recolonization rates in "sink" localities, which suffered local kelp extinctions. Intensification of upwelling processes after the 1998-2000 La Niña increased nutrient inputs into subtidal habitats, favoring the productivity of the kelp assemblage. However, an abrupt change in the spatial-temporal patterns of abundance of the black sea urchin Tetrapygus niger, the most conspicuous benthic grazer in northern Chile, produced local extinctions of M. integrifolia and compression of the range of bathymetric distribution of L. trabeculata. Top-down (mortality of benthic carnivores during the 1997-1998 El Niño and bottom-up effects (intensity and frequency of upwelling in this subtidal coastal ecosystem appear to regulate the kelp-herbivore interactions in the study area. The main sources of reproductive propagules for the re-establishment of the assemblage kelp were fertile sporophytes which included isolated, low density patches of M.integrifolia located within the bed

  17. Laboratory Experiments Concerning Upwellings From the Slab-Graveyard: Implications For Geochemical and Seismic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A. C.; Kincaid, C.; Hall, P.

    2005-12-01

    The ongoing plume debate appears to focus on upwellings characterized by large heads and smaller tails, that form from a deep or basal thermal boundary layer (BTBL), which are driven by temperature excesses in the range of 200° C. We use 3-D laboratory experiments to explore how upwellings might differ from this common plume description when BTBLs are influenced by subducted plates. An important aspect of the models is the representation of ridge chemical differentiation processes resulting in slabs with two distinct layers; a lighter, depleted upper mantle component (Harzburgite:H) and a heavier, iron-rich crustal component (Basalt/Eclogite:B/E). Laboratory experiments utilize a working fluid of glucose syrup with temperature dependent density and viscosity. Compositionally distinct mantle reservoirs are represented through isothermal density/viscosity contrasts controlled by water content. The ambient fluid (AF) is contained within a rectangular tank that is heated from below and cooled from above to produce background convection with a Rayleigh number of 10-5-10-6. Highly viscous, tabular slabs are produced by pouring compositionally distinct syrup from two slab reservoirs (B/E and H) into a mold which is chilled to -5° C. The viscous layered slab is emplaced at the fluid surface and subsequently sinks through, stalls and spreads within a BTBL roughly twice the slab thickness (1 cm). Results show that a wide variety in upwelling morphologies form when layered slabs reside within the BTBL and that plume heads/tails are largely dissimilar to those of the standard plume model. The manner in which the slab laminae vs. AF in the BTBL combine (or segregate) within upwellings depends on viscosity/density contrasts, how slabs collapse in the BTBL, and time. End-member regimes include: experiments dominated by a very light H-slab component with early, cold H-plumes and late, hot B/E-AF plumes and experiments where density differences between H, B/E and AF are small and

  18. Interactions between trophic levels in upwelling and non-upwelling regions during summer monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, A.; Fernandes, C. E. G.; Gonsalves, M.-J. B. D.; Subina, N. S.; Mamatha, S. S.; Krishna, K.; Varik, S.; Kumari, R.; Gauns, M.; Cejoice, R. P.; Pandey, S. S.; Jineesh, V. K.; Kamaleson, A. S.; Vijayan, V.; Mukherjee, I.; Subramanyan, S.; Nair, S.; Ingole, B.; LokaBharathi, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Coastal upwelling is a regular phenomenon occurring along the southwest coast of India during summer monsoon (May-September). We hypothesize that there could be a shift in environmental parameters along with changes in the network of interactions between bacteria, phytoplankton, and zooplankton in upwelling and non-upwelling regions. During cruise # 267 on FORV Sagar Sampada, water samples were analysed for environmental and biological parameters from two transects, one upwelling region off Trivandrum (TVM) (8°26‧N, 76°20‧E-8°30‧N, 76°50‧E), and the other non-upwelling region off Calicut (CLT) (11°11‧N, 75°30‧E-11°14‧N,74°54‧E), about 230 nmi to the north. Meteorological, hydrological, and nutrient profiles confirmed upwelling off TVM. Bacteria, phytoplankton and zooplankton significantly responded. Primary and bacterial productivity enhanced together with increase in the percentage of viable bacteria (TVC). Pearson's correlation analysis pointed out the differences in bacterial interactions with other trophic levels at both transects. TVC played a prominent role in trophic interactions off TVM by depending on phytoplankton for substrate (r = 0.754). This contrasted with CLT where total counts (TC) played an important role. However, most interrelationships were less pronounced. Principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed the correlation analysis and further showed that the factor loadings of the biotic and abiotic parameters differed in strength and direction in the two regions. More importantly, the processes of mineralization by bacteria and uptake by phytoplankton are obviously more coupled off TVM as evidenced by the clustering of the related parameters in the PCA biplot. Canonical correspondence analysis also complements these findings and demonstrated that the abiotic factors influenced phytoplankton and bacteria similarly at TVM but differently at CLT. The impact on the trophic interrelationships is evident by the close association

  19. Assessment of Downscaling Planetary Boundaries to Semi-Arid Ecosystems with a Local Perception: A Case Study in the Middle Reaches of Heihe River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Yi Teah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The middle reaches of Heihe River are located in the oasis of the Gobi Desert where limited freshwater supply supports more than 1.5 million inhabitants. The intense agricultural activities are depleting the groundwater reserve. Consequently, natural landscapes and habitats are degraded. Though such development improves the livelihood of the local community, long-term sustainability of the ecosystem is at risk. Local authorities must be informed holistically to prepare for adapting to the changes and/or mitigating the impacts. The purpose of this study was to perform a regional sustainability assessment based on downscaling the planetary boundaries (PBs. We proposed a regional safe operating space framework that applied a top-down approach using the environmental monitoring data, and a bottom-up approach using knowledge from the local perception about environmental disaster. We conducted on-site samplings and interviews of residents to demonstrate the method. Overall, we showed that the middle reaches had transgressed the safe operating space, particularly on the freshwater use and biogeochemical flow dimensions. We found that the local perception acquired from interviews complemented the insufficiency of the monitoring data and provided the insightful social implications of transgressing the safe operating space, i.e., the anticipated impacts on local livelihood, for policy support.

  20. Numerical modeling experiments of coastal upwelling at the field of Arctic fjords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosecki, Szymon; Dzierzbicka-Głowacka, Lidia

    2016-04-01

    Coastal upwelling is a well described, known phenomenon in theory. Nowadays there is more and more both environmental and modeling studies about it. Upwelling especially in the Arctic fjords is a process that strongly affects hydrodynamics and even more ecosystems. It is so important, that it brings detailed question about effects and needed wind driven forcing parameters. My modeling experiment studies were strongly different than the studies that are typically carried out using numerical models. Instead of searching for this phenomenon in modeled analysis or environmental data, I did several case scenarios simulations. For those I used statistically selected wind data measured in-stiu. The hi-resolution coastal mapping, the flexible mesh discretization method and the sigma-layered three dimensional model MIKE 3 by DHI allowed me to explore this phenomenon with very good accuracy. This studies have been done in Institute of Oceanology PAS in Sopot, as a part of Centre for Polar Studies.

  1. Characterization of upwelling phenomenon along the Italian coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orasi, Arianna; Morucci, Sara; Rinaldi, Eleonora; Bignami, Francesco; Inghilesi, Roberto; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2013-04-01

    In order to investigate wind-driven upwelling along the Italian coasts, preliminary wind data provided by the ISPRA Italian Tide Gauge Measurement Network (RMN) have been analyzed. In a further step, MyOcean Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data have been analyzed in order to define an SST index for wind-driven coastal upwelling assessment. At first, hourly wind data for the period 2009 - 2011 have been used in order to provide the statistical distribution and the wind rose plots at each RMN station. In particular, wind direction and speed have been selected in order to find upwelling-favorable areas and periods of time. E.g. wind directions in the sector between North and West in the Tyrrhenian Sea and between South and East in the Adriatic Sea have been defined as upwelling favorable, the wind sector being defined as the ± 30° arc around the direction parallel to the coast. Moreover only wind speeds greater than 3.0 m/s have been considered as significant for upwelling. For each location, the number of selected data has been divided by the total number of recorded wind data, thus obtaining a sort of upwelling frequency, which allows to define areas mostly exposed to upwelling. Once these areas were defined, satellite SST data have been used as a proxy to study the changes in upwelling intensity, since upwelling waters are colder than surrounding waters. So, in a given satellite SST image the upwelling event is identifiable through SST minima along the coasts. Finally, the SST upwelling index has been defined; also, this index has been "weighted" with wind intensity and direction indicating upwelling conditions obtained from the RMN wind dataset, to better distinguish between upwelling-favorable and downwelling-favorable conditions at each RMN site.

  2. Zonation of bacterioplankton communities along aging upwelled water in the northern Benguela upwelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eBergen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Upwelling areas are shaped by enhanced primary production in surface waters, accompanied by a well-investigated planktonic succession. Although bacteria play an important role in biogeochemical cycles of upwelling systems, little is known about bacterial community composition and its development during upwelling events. The aim of this study was to investigate the succession of bacterial assemblages in aging upwelled water of the Benguela upwelling from coastal to offshore sites. Water from the upper mixed layer at 12 stations was sampled along two transects from the origin of the upwelling to a distance of 220 km. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was then used in a bacterial diversity analysis and major bacterial taxa were quantified by catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH. Additionally, bacterial cell numbers and bacterial production were assessed . Community statistical analysis revealed a reproducible zonation along the two transects, with four clusters of significantly different microbial assemblages. Clustering was mainly driven by phytoplankton composition and abundance. Similar to the temporal succession that occurs during phytoplankton blooms in temperate coastal waters, operational taxonomic units (OTUs affiliated with Bacteroidetes and Gammaproteobacteria were dominant during algal blooming whereas Pelagibacterales were highly abundant in regions with low algal abundance. The most dominant heterotrophic OTU (9% of all reads was affiliated with Pelagibacterales and showed a strong negative correlation with phytoplankton. By contrast, the second most abundant heterotrophic OTU (6% of all reads was affiliated with the phylum Verrucomicrobia and correlated positively with phytoplankton. Together with the close relation of bacterial production and phytoplankton abundance, our results showed that bacterial community dynamics is strongly driven by the development and composition of the phytoplankton

  3. Biogenic halocarbons from coastal oceanic upwelling regions as tropospheric halogen source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Kirstin; Fuhlbrügge, Steffen; Hepach, Helmke; Fiehn, Alina; Atlas, Elliot; Quack, Birgit

    2016-04-01

    Halogenated very short lived substances (VSLS) are naturally produced in the ocean and emitted to the atmosphere. Recently, oceanic upwelling regions in the tropical East Atlantic were identified as strong sources of brominated halocarbons to the troposphere. During a cruise of R/V METEOR in December 2012 the oceanic sources and emissions of various halogenated trace gases and their mixing ratios in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) were investigated above the Peruvian Upwelling for the first time. This study presents novel observations of the three VSLS bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide together with high resolution meteorological measurements and Lagrangian transport modelling. Although relatively low oceanic emissions were observed, except for methyl iodide, surface atmospheric abundances were elevated. Radiosonde launches during the cruise revealed a low, stable MABL and a distinct trade inversion above acting both as strong barriers for convection and trace gas transport in this region. Significant correlations between observed atmospheric VSLS abundances, sea surface temperature, relative humidity and MABL height were found. We used a simple source-loss estimate to identify the contribution of oceanic emissions to observed atmospheric concentrations which revealed that the observed marine VSLS abundances were dominated by horizontal advection below the trade inversion. The observed VSLS variations can be explained by the low emissions and their accumulation under different MABL and trade inversion conditions. Finally, observations from a second Peruvian Upwelling cruise with R/V SONNE during El Nino in October 2015 will be compared to highlight the role of different El Nino Southern Oscillation conditions. This study confirms the importance of coastal oceanic upwelling and trade wind systems on creating effective transport barriers in the lowermost atmosphere controlling the distribution of VSLS abundances above coastal ocean upwelling

  4. Biophysical interactions in the Cabo Frio upwelling system, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Augusto Coelho-Souza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The rising of cold water from deeper levels characterizes coastal upwelling systems. This flow makes nutrients available in the euphotic layer, which enhances phytoplankton production and growth. On the Brazilian coast, upwelling is most intense in the Cabo Frio region (RJ. The basic knowledge of this system was reviewed in accordance with concepts of biophysical interactions. The high frequency and amplitude of the prevailing winds are the main factor promoting the rise of South Atlantic Central Water, but meanders and eddies in the Brazil Current as well as local topography and coast line are also important. Upwelling events are common during spring/summer seasons. Primary biomass is exported by virtue of the water circulation and is also controlled by rapid zooplankton predation. Small pelagic fish regulate plankton growth and in their turn are preyed on by predatory fish. Sardine furnishes an important regional fish stock. Shoreline irregularities define the embayment formation of the Marine Extractive Reserve of Arraial do Cabo making it an area with evident different intensities of upwelled water that harbors high species diversity. Consequently, on a small spatial scale there are environments with tropical and subtropical features, a point to be explored as a particularity of this ecosystem.Os sistemas costeiros de ressurgência são caracterizados pela ascensão de águas frias que tornam os nutrientes disponíveis na camada eufótica para o crescimento e aumento da produção fitoplanctônica. No Brasil, a região do Cabo Frio (RJ é o principal sistema de ressurgência costeira. O objetivo desse artigo foi revisar o atual conhecimento desse sistema através dos conceitos sobre interações biofísicas. A ascensão da Água Central do Atlântico Sul ocorre devido à alta frequência e amplitude dos ventos, à presença de meandros e vórtices na Corrente do Brasil, além da topografia local e da linha de costa. Os eventos de ressurg

  5. The physical oceanography of upwelling systems and the development of harmful algal blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, G.C.; Figueiras, F.G.; Hickey, B.M.; Moita, M.T.

    2011-01-01

    The upwelling systems of the eastern boundaries of the world’s oceans are susceptible to harmful algal blooms (HABs) because they are highly productive, nutrient-rich environments, prone to high-biomass blooms. This review identifies those aspects of the physical environment important in the development of HABs in upwelling systems through description and comparison of bloom events in the Benguela, California and Iberia systems. HAB development is dictated by the influence of wind stress on the surface boundary layer through a combination of its influence on surface mixed-layer characteristics and shelf circulation patterns. The timing of HABs is controlled by windstress fluctuations and buoyancy inputs at the seasonal, event and interannual scales. Within this temporal framework, various mesoscale features that interrupt typical upwelling circulation patterns, determine the spatial distribution of HABs. The inner shelf in particular provides a mosaic of shifting habitats, some of which favour HABs. Changes in coastline configuration and orientation, and bottom topography are important in determining the distribution of HABs through their influence on water stratification and retention. A spectrum of coastline configurations, including headlands, capes, peninsulas, Rías, bays and estuaries, representing systems of increasing isolation from the open coast and consequent increasing retention times, are assessed in terms of their vulnerability to HABs. PMID:22053120

  6. Modelling shelf-ocean exchange and its biogeochemical consequences in coastal upwelling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchamad, Al Azhar

    slope and deeper depths. The coupled model may potentially serve as a robust tool in investigation of the dynamics of oceanic biogeochemical cycle throughout Earth history as well as a practical method to quantified storage of carbon flux into the ocean across the continental margins under present day...... in eastern boundary upwelling systems is an example of the most productive ocean waters over continental margins where intense supply of nutrients occur from deeper ocean waters. Interesting questions arise related to the biogeochemical cycles in such upwelling systems; such as 1) how the recently observed...... active but cryptic sulfur cycle possibly is coupled to the nitrogen cycle in an oxygen-minimum-zone (OMZ), 2) what is the relation between the shelf–ocean exchange, continental shelf width and development of the observed bottom water anoxia/euxinia associated with different configurations of continental...

  7. Salinity inversions in the thermocline under upwelling favorable winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, Hans; Basdurak, N. Berkay; Gräwe, Ulf; Knoll, Michaela; Mohrholz, Volker; Müller, Selina

    2017-02-01

    This paper discusses and explains the phenomenon of salinity inversions in the thermocline offshore from an upwelling region during upwelling favorable winds. Using the nontidal central Baltic Sea as an easily accessible natural laboratory, high-resolution transect and station observations in the upper layers are analyzed. The data show local salinity minima in the strongly stratified seasonal thermocline during summer conditions under the influence of upwelling favorable wind. A simple analytical box model using parameters (including variation by means of a Monte Carlo method) estimated from a hindcast model for the Baltic Sea is constructed to explain the observations. As a result, upwelled water with high salinity and low temperature is warmed up due to downward surface heat fluxes while it is transported offshore by the Ekman transport. The warming of upwelled surface water allows maintenance of stable stratification despite the destabilizing salinity stratification, such that local salinity minima in the thermocline can be generated. Inspection of published observations from the Benguela, Peruvian, and eastern tropical North Atlantic upwelling systems shows that also there salinity inversions occur in the thermocline, but in these cases thermocline salinity shows local maxima, since upwelled water has a lower salinity than the surface water. It is hypothesized that thermocline salinity inversions should generally occur offshore from upwelling regions whenever winds are steady enough and surface warming is sufficiently strong.

  8. Upwelling features near Sri Lanka in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ShreeRam, P.; Rao, L.V.G.

    , the southwest monsoon in summer and the northeast monsoon in winter. The wind stress associated with these winds cause mass drift of oceanic waters leading to upwelling and downwelling. The upwelling features in the Bay of Bengal with a special mention about...

  9. Evidence of Upwelling along Peninsular Malaysia during Southwest Monsoon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daryabor, Farshid

    2015-01-01

    Upwelling off the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia (PM) was detected from recent cruise data collected during the southwest monsoon. Thermocline lifting was observed at 104˚E from a number of parallel transects. To confirm the presence of upwelling, satellite remote sensing data were used...

  10. The relationship between Arabian Sea upwelling and Indian monsoon revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Yi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies based on upwelling indices (sediment records, sea-surface temperature and wind suggest that upwelling along the western coast of Arabian Sea is strongly affected by the Indian summer monsoon (ISM. In order to examine this relationship directly, we employ the vertical water mass transport produced by the eddy-resolving global ocean simulation STORM driven by meteorological reanalysis over the last 61 years. With its very high spatial resolution (10 km, STORM allows us to identify characteristics of the upwelling system. We analyze the co-variability between upwelling and meteorological and oceanic variables from 1950 to 2010. The analyses reveal high interannual correlations between coastal upwelling and along-shore wind-stress (r=0.73 as well as with sea-surface temperature (r0.83. However, the correlation between the upwelling and the ISM is small and other factors might contribute to the upwelling variability. In addition, no long-term trend is detected in our modeled upwelling time series.

  11. Analysis of upwelling event in Southern Makassar Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utama, F. G.; Atmadipoera, A. S.; Purba, M.; Sudjono, E. H.; Zuraida, R.

    2017-01-01

    The southeast monsoon (SEM) winds which blow in southern Makassar Strait, generate the coastal upwelling phenomenon. The wind data for one year, which is equipped with CTD data from MAJAFLOX cruise results, is used to analyze the phenomenon of upwelling in this region. During the SEM 2015 occurrence, the southeasterly winds speed were in average of 6 m/s, while the highest speed appeared in August and September. Using the Ekman theory’s analysis of upwelling during this monsoon period, we could estimate the Ekman transport was about 8.50 m2/s toward offshore (to the Southwest direction); the upwelled water, occurred from deeper layer, started from the coastal area with vertical velocity was about 6.87 x 10-5 m/s – 7.84 x 10-5 m/s; and The Ekman layer depth in the upwelling region was approximately 60 m and these were good agreement with CTD observation result.

  12. Fishing for ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kevin L; Pegg, Mark A; Cole, Nicholas W; Siddons, Stephen F; Fedele, Alexis D; Harmon, Brian S; Ruskamp, Ryan L; Turner, Dylan R; Uerling, Caleb C

    2016-12-01

    Ecosystems are commonly exploited and manipulated to maximize certain human benefits. Such changes can degrade systems, leading to cascading negative effects that may be initially undetected, yet ultimately result in a reduction, or complete loss, of certain valuable ecosystem services. Ecosystem-based management is intended to maintain ecosystem quality and minimize the risk of irreversible change to natural assemblages of species and to ecosystem processes while obtaining and maintaining long-term socioeconomic benefits. We discuss policy decisions in fishery management related to commonly manipulated environments with a focus on influences to ecosystem services. By focusing on broader scales, managing for ecosystem services, and taking a more proactive approach, we expect sustainable, quality fisheries that are resilient to future disturbances. To that end, we contend that: (1) management always involves tradeoffs; (2) explicit management of fisheries for ecosystem services could facilitate a transition from reactive to proactive management; and (3) adaptive co-management is a process that could enhance management for ecosystem services. We propose adaptive co-management with an ecosystem service framework where actions are implemented within ecosystem boundaries, rather than political boundaries, through strong interjurisdictional relationships. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Fishing for ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kevin L.; Pegg, Mark A.; Cole, Nicholas W.; Siddons, Stephen F.; Fedele, Alexis D.; Harmon, Brian S.; Ruskamp, Ryan L.; Turner, Dylan R.; Uerling, Caleb C.

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystems are commonly exploited and manipulated to maximize certain human benefits. Such changes can degrade systems, leading to cascading negative effects that may be initially undetected, yet ultimately result in a reduction, or complete loss, of certain valuable ecosystem services. Ecosystem-based management is intended to maintain ecosystem quality and minimize the risk of irreversible change to natural assemblages of species and to ecosystem processes while obtaining and maintaining long-term socioeconomic benefits. We discuss policy decisions in fishery management related to commonly manipulated environments with a focus on influences to ecosystem services. By focusing on broader scales, managing for ecosystem services, and taking a more proactive approach, we expect sustainable, quality fisheries that are resilient to future disturbances. To that end, we contend that: (1) management always involves tradeoffs; (2) explicit management of fisheries for ecosystem services could facilitate a transition from reactive to proactive management; and (3) adaptive co-management is a process that could enhance management for ecosystem services. We propose adaptive co-management with an ecosystem service framework where actions are implemented within ecosystem boundaries, rather than political boundaries, through strong interjurisdictional relationships.

  14. Role of physical forcings and nutrient availability on the control of satellite-based chlorophyll a concentration in the coastal upwelling area of the Sicilian Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Patti

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The northern sector of the Sicilian Channel is an area of favourable upwelling winds, which ought to support primary production. However, the values for primary production are low when compared with other Mediterranean areas and very low compared with the most biologically productive regions of the world’s oceans: California, the Canary Islands, Humboldt and Benguela. The aim of this study was to identify the main factors that limit phytoplankton biomass in the Sicilian Channel and modulate its monthly changes. We compared satellite-based estimates of chlorophyll a concentration in the Strait of Sicily with those observed in the four Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems mentioned above and in other Mediterranean wind-induced coastal upwelling systems (the Alboran Sea, the Gulf of Lions and the Aegean Sea. Our results show that this low level of chlorophyll is mainly due to the low nutrient level in surface and sub-surface waters, independently of wind-induced upwelling intensity. Further, monthly changes in chlorophyll are mainly driven by the mixing of water column and wind-induced and/or circulation-related upwelling processes. Finally, primary production limitation due to the enhanced stratification processes resulting from the general warming trend of Mediterranean waters is not active over most of the coastal upwelling area off the southern Sicilian coast.

  15. Seasonal sources of carbon to the Brazilian upwelling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho-Souza, Sergio A.; Pereira, Gilberto C.; Lopez, Maria S.; Guimaraes, Jean R. D.; Coutinho, Ricardo

    2017-07-01

    Environmental heterogeneity on coastal areas is an outcome of several hydrodynamic forces. Particularly, wind-driven upwelling is usually associated with alternating periods of water mixing and stratification. In addition, the effects of near shore oceanographic conditions may vary with coastline topography and anthropogenic impacts. Herein we evaluated the seasonal differences in the hydrodynamics of the Cabo Frio upwelling system (Brazil) in function of its local bay. Surface and deep water from 5 contrasting coastal areas were sampled 13 times during the spring/summer and in the fall/winter periods to use two-way Analysis of Variance comparing the measured variables in function of season and depth. Northeastern wind was predominant during both seasons but it was more intense during the spring/summer period when water temperature was colder and concentration of nutrients peaked. Southwestern wind was more common during the fall/winter period and was associated with cold fronts that decreased water salinity inner the bay. Consequently, the concentrations of nutrients, chlorophylls, prokaryotic secondary production (PSP) as well as fluorescent and non-fluorescent particles were significantly higher during the upwelling season while the concentration of particulate organic matter (POM) was highest during the non-upwelling season. Respectively, mean nitrate concentration varied from 2.2 to 0.9 μM, ammonium from 2.7 to 1.0 μM, chlorophyll a from 2.4 to 1.4 mg m-3, PSP from 1.8 to 1.0 μgC.L-1 h-1 and POM from 2.6 to 6.4 mg L-1. Contrasting surface and deep waters, mean nitrate concentration ranged from 0.9 to 2.2 μM, POM from 4.2 to 5.2 mg L-1 and PSP from 1.9 to 0.8 μgC.L-1 h-1. Three scenarios were identified: water stratification, upwelling and water homogenization. The first two scenarios were more common outside the bay during the upwelling season. When upwelling was intense, deep water temperature in the bay dropped to less than 20 °C resulting in the

  16. Inorganic carbon dynamics in the upwelling system off the Oregon coast and implications for commercial shellfish hatcheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, J. M.; Hales, B. R.

    2010-12-01

    The increasing absorption of anthropogenic CO2 by the global ocean and concomitant decrease in pH will alter seawater carbonate chemistry in ways that may negatively impact calcifying organisms. In particular, the change in saturation state (Ω) of calcium carbonate minerals calcite and aragonite may be energetically unfavorable for shell formation while favoring shell dissolution. Eastern boundary upwelling systems may provide insights into how ecosystems respond to future conditions of ocean acidification when deep water with high dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), low pH and low Ω is forced toward the surface. Mortality in commercial seed stock and reduced wild set of the oyster Crassostrea gigas in the northeast Pacific during 2005-2009 reinforced the need for understanding biological responses to acidified ocean water. In response, a long-term strategy to understand local carbonate chemistry dynamics, seasonal perturbations and the effects on development of calcifying bivalves was developed. At present, a time-series of pCO2 measurements was implemented in April 2010 in Netarts Bay, Oregon at Whiskey Creek Shellfish Hatchery (WCH). The intake sits at a depth of 0.5-8ft and water is pumped in at 100gpm. A line taken off the intake is run continuously through a thermosalinograph at approximately 1.5gpm into a showerhead style equilibrator in which the headspace is recirculated by aerating the water for enhanced gas exchange. CO2 in equilibrated air is analyzed by NDIR. Additionally two discrete samples of intake seawater were taken across tidal cycles weekly and analyzed for total CO2 (TCO2) according to the methods of Hales et al. (2004) and pCO2 for quality control. The pCO2 in the bay exhibits a diurnal cycle representative of daytime photosynthesis and nighttime respiration. However, the phasing and profiles of these cycles are dominated by tidal mixing and are affected by the introduction of high pCO2 water during upwelling events. Diurnal pCO2 during

  17. A Vegetation Database for the Colorado River Ecosystem from Glen Canyon Dam to the Western Boundary of Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Barbara E.; Davis, Philip A.; Weber, Robert M.; Rundall, Jill M.

    2008-01-01

    A vegetation database of the riparian vegetation located within the Colorado River ecosystem (CRE), a subsection of the Colorado River between Glen Canyon Dam and the western boundary of Grand Canyon National Park, was constructed using four-band image mosaics acquired in May 2002. A digital line scanner was flown over the Colorado River corridor in Arizona by ISTAR Americas, using a Leica ADS-40 digital camera to acquire a digital surface model and four-band image mosaics (blue, green, red, and near-infrared) for vegetation mapping. The primary objective of this mapping project was to develop a digital inventory map of vegetation to enable patch- and landscape-scale change detection, and to establish randomized sampling points for ground surveys of terrestrial fauna (principally, but not exclusively, birds). The vegetation base map was constructed through a combination of ground surveys to identify vegetation classes, image processing, and automated supervised classification procedures. Analysis of the imagery and subsequent supervised classification involved multiple steps to evaluate band quality, band ratios, and vegetation texture and density. Identification of vegetation classes involved collection of cover data throughout the river corridor and subsequent analysis using two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN). Vegetation was classified into six vegetation classes, following the National Vegetation Classification Standard, based on cover dominance. This analysis indicated that total area covered by all vegetation within the CRE was 3,346 ha. Considering the six vegetation classes, the sparse shrub (SS) class accounted for the greatest amount of vegetation (627 ha) followed by Pluchea (PLSE) and Tamarix (TARA) at 494 and 366 ha, respectively. The wetland (WTLD) and Prosopis-Acacia (PRGL) classes both had similar areal cover values (227 and 213 ha, respectively). Baccharis-Salix (BAXX) was the least represented at 94 ha. Accuracy assessment of the

  18. Nitrate reducing activity pervades surface waters during upwelling.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, S.O.; Halarnekar, R.; Malik, A.; Vijayan, V.; Varik, S.; RituKumari; Jineesh V.K.; Gauns, M.U.; Nair, S.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Nitrate reducing activity (NRA) is known to be mediated by microaerophilic to anaerobic bacteria and generally occurs in the sub-surface waters. However, we hypothesize that NRA could become prominent in the surface waters during upwelling. Hence...

  19. Optimal Environmental Conditions and Anomalous Ecosystem Responses: Constraining Bottom-up Controls of Phytoplankton Biomass in the California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacox, Michael G.; Hazen, Elliott L.; Bograd, Steven J.

    2016-06-01

    In Eastern Boundary Current systems, wind-driven upwelling drives nutrient-rich water to the ocean surface, making these regions among the most productive on Earth. Regulation of productivity by changing wind and/or nutrient conditions can dramatically impact ecosystem functioning, though the mechanisms are not well understood beyond broad-scale relationships. Here, we explore bottom-up controls during the California Current System (CCS) upwelling season by quantifying the dependence of phytoplankton biomass (as indicated by satellite chlorophyll estimates) on two key environmental parameters: subsurface nitrate concentration and surface wind stress. In general, moderate winds and high nitrate concentrations yield maximal biomass near shore, while offshore biomass is positively correlated with subsurface nitrate concentration. However, due to nonlinear interactions between the influences of wind and nitrate, bottom-up control of phytoplankton cannot be described by either one alone, nor by a combined metric such as nitrate flux. We quantify optimal environmental conditions for phytoplankton, defined as the wind/nitrate space that maximizes chlorophyll concentration, and present a framework for evaluating ecosystem change relative to environmental drivers. The utility of this framework is demonstrated by (i) elucidating anomalous CCS responses in 1998-1999, 2002, and 2005, and (ii) providing a basis for assessing potential biological impacts of projected climate change.

  20. Optimal Environmental Conditions and Anomalous Ecosystem Responses: Constraining Bottom-up Controls of Phytoplankton Biomass in the California Current System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacox, Michael G; Hazen, Elliott L; Bograd, Steven J

    2016-06-09

    In Eastern Boundary Current systems, wind-driven upwelling drives nutrient-rich water to the ocean surface, making these regions among the most productive on Earth. Regulation of productivity by changing wind and/or nutrient conditions can dramatically impact ecosystem functioning, though the mechanisms are not well understood beyond broad-scale relationships. Here, we explore bottom-up controls during the California Current System (CCS) upwelling season by quantifying the dependence of phytoplankton biomass (as indicated by satellite chlorophyll estimates) on two key environmental parameters: subsurface nitrate concentration and surface wind stress. In general, moderate winds and high nitrate concentrations yield maximal biomass near shore, while offshore biomass is positively correlated with subsurface nitrate concentration. However, due to nonlinear interactions between the influences of wind and nitrate, bottom-up control of phytoplankton cannot be described by either one alone, nor by a combined metric such as nitrate flux. We quantify optimal environmental conditions for phytoplankton, defined as the wind/nitrate space that maximizes chlorophyll concentration, and present a framework for evaluating ecosystem change relative to environmental drivers. The utility of this framework is demonstrated by (i) elucidating anomalous CCS responses in 1998-1999, 2002, and 2005, and (ii) providing a basis for assessing potential biological impacts of projected climate change.

  1. Life cycle of eddies along the western boundary of the Bay of Bengal and their implications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nuncio, M.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    current during early February. The cross-shore density gradient was developed under the influence of cyclonic (upwelling)/anticyclonic (downwelling) wind stress curl along the western boundary/open ocean region and the westward propagating Rossby wave...

  2. Micro-phytoplankton community structure in the coastal upwelling zone off Concepción (central Chile): Annual and inter-annual fluctuations in a highly dynamic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anabalón, V.; Morales, C. E.; González, H. E.; Menschel, E.; Schneider, W.; Hormazabal, S.; Valencia, L.; Escribano, R.

    2016-12-01

    An intensification of upwelling-favorable winds in recent decades has been detected in some of the main eastern boundary current systems, especially at higher latitudes, but the response of coastal phytoplankton communities in the Humboldt Current System (HCS) remains unknown. At higher latitudes in the HCS (35-40°S), strong seasonality in wind-driven upwelling during spring-summer coincides with an annual increase in coastal chlorophyll-a and primary production, and a dominance of micro-phytoplankton. In order to understand the effects of potential upwelling intensification on the micro-phytoplankton community in this region, annual and inter-annual variability in its structure (total and taxa-specific abundance and biomass) and its association with oceanographic fluctuations were analyzed using in situ time series data (2002-2009) from a shelf station off Concepcion (36.5°S). At the annual scale, total mean abundance and biomass, attributed to a few dominant diatom taxa, were at least one order of magnitude greater during spring-summer than autumn-winter, in association with changes in upwelling and surface salinity and temperature, whereas macro-nutrient concentrations remained relatively high all the year. At the inter-annual scale, total abundance and biomass decreased during the upwelling season of the 2006-2009 period compared with the 2002-2006 period, notably due to lower abundances of Skeletonema and Leptocylindrus, but the relative dominance of a few taxa was maintained. The 2006-2009 period was characterized by higher upwelling intensity, colder and higher salinity waters, and changes in nutrient concentrations and ratios compared with the first period. The inter-annual changes in the micro-phytoplankton community were mostly associated with changes in surface salinity and temperature (changes in upwelling intensity) but also with changes in Si/N and N/P, which relate to other land-derived processes.

  3. Methane emissions from the upwelling area off Mauritania (NW Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kock

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Coastal upwelling regions have been identified as sites of enhanced CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. The coastal upwelling area off Mauritania (NW Africa is one of the most biologically productive regions of the world's ocean but its CH4 emissions have not been quantified so far. More than 1000 measurements of atmospheric and dissolved CH4 in the surface layer in the upwelling area off Mauritania were performed as part of the German SOPRAN (Surface Ocean Processes in the Anthropocene study during two cruises in March/April 2005 (P320/1 and February 2007 (P348. During P348 enhanced CH4 saturations of up to 200% were found close to the coast and were associated with upwelling of South Atlantic Central Water. An area-weighted, seasonally adjusted estimate yielded overall annual CH4 emissions in the range from 1.6 to 2.9 Gg CH4. Thus the upwelling area off Mauritania represents a regional hot spot of CH4 emissions but seems to be of minor importance for the global oceanic CH4 emissions.

  4. Bowhead whale body condition and links to summer sea ice and upwelling in the Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, John C.; Druckenmiller, Matthew L.; Laidre, Kristin L.; Suydam, Robert; Person, Brian

    2015-08-01

    We examined the response of bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) body condition to summer sea ice conditions and upwelling-favorable winds. We used a long-term dataset collected from whales of the Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort Seas (BCB) stock to estimate various body condition indices (BCI's) for individual whales that were harvested by Alaskan Eskimos. A series of offshore regions frequented by bowhead whales in summer were delineated and used to quantify interannual summertime environmental conditions including: (a) mean open water fraction, (b) duration of melt season, (c) date of continuous freeze-up, and (d) mean upwelling-favorable wind stress. Body condition was analyzed relative to these metrics for both the preceding summer feeding season and the previous three seasons combined. Our analysis indicates a significant increase in the long-term trend in an axillary girth-based body condition index (BCIG) over the study period (1989-2011). The increase in BCIG is likely associated with the trend in overall reduction of sea ice, including increased duration of open water, changes in upwelling potential (wind stress), and possibly higher primary production in the Pacific Arctic marine ecosystem favoring water-column invertebrates. We found strong significant positive correlations between BCIG and late summer open water fraction in the Beaufort Sea and smaller nearshore areas off the Mackenzie Delta and west of Banks Island. Additionally, BCIG was positively and significantly correlated with duration of melt season, later date of freeze-up in the Beaufort Sea, and upwelling-favorable winds on the Mackenzie shelf and west of Banks Island. A strong seasonal difference in BCI's was noted for subadult bowheads, presumably associated with summer feeding; however, yearlings were found to drop in BCI over at least the first summer after weaning. Our results indicate an overall increase in bowhead whale body condition and a positive correlation with summer sea ice loss over the

  5. Evaluation of upwelling infrared radiance in a nonequilibrium nonhomogeneous atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Subramanian, S. V.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of vibrational nonequilibrium upon upwelling infrared radiance from the earth's atmosphere is investigated. By employing the line-by-line model for spectral absorption, heating rates and upwelling radiances are calculated for equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions in the spectral range of 4.7 micron CO and 3.3 micron CH4 bands. Heating rates are calculated also for the 15 micron CO2 band and are compared with other available results in the literature. For the spectral range of the CO fundamental band, the influence of different parameters on the upwelling radiance is investigated. It is found that for CO the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) is not justified at tropospheric temperatures and pressures. If the resonance effects of CO-N2 collisions are considered, then the assumption of LTE is justified up to 60 kilometers. This information is very useful for measurement of atmospheric pollutants, earth radiation budget studies and climate modeling, and infrared signature works.

  6. An investigation of Ekman upwelling in the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclain, Charles R.; Firestone, James

    1993-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of the North Atlantic Ekman upwelling fields on seasonal and interannual time scales is investigated on the basis of surface winds from the Fleet Numerical Oceanography Center for 1979-1986. A pronounced minimum in the basin-wide monthly mean vertical Ekman velocities during 1981-1982 is found. It is shown that the primary source of the interannual signal was the region off NW Africa in the vicinity of the Guinea Dome. Other sectors of the basin experienced no significant interannual trends. Hydrographic data and SST data from the NW Africa sector for 1981-1986 indicate a cooling trend beginning in late 1982, consistent with increased upwelling. The fall and winter seasons' mixed layers at the center of the Guinea Dome were deeper in 1984 and 1985 than in previous years. The potential impact of large interannual variations in Ekman upwelling on basin-wide primary productivity is discussed.

  7. Dynamics of transient upwelling across the tropical tropopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randel, W. J.; Abalos, M.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical upwelling is a fundamental component of the stratospheric Brewer Dobson circulation (BDC), influencing temperatures, water vapor and chemical constituents throughout the global stratosphere. There is a substantial component of sub-seasonal variability in upwelling, with strong effects on temperatures and tracers in the tropical lower stratosphere. Upwelling diagnosed using momentum balance calculations from ERAinterim data demonstrate that transience is linked to the effects of extratropical wave forcing, with centers of action in the high latitude winter stratosphere and in the subtropical upper troposphere of both hemispheres. Zonal mean wind tendencies are an important part of communicating the remote wave forcing to the deep tropics. Dynamical patterns reflect clear differences in forcing the shallow vs. deep branches of the BDC; the shallow branch is most correlated with wave forcing in the subtropical upper troposphere, while the deep branch is mainly influenced by high latitude planetary waves.

  8. Why productive upwelling areas are often sources rather than sinks of CO2? – a comparative study on eddy upwellings in the South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jiao

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine upwelling regions are known to be productive in carbon fixation and thus thought to be sinks of CO2, whereas many upwelling areas in the ocean are actually sources rather than sinks of CO2. To address this paradox, multiple biogeochemical parameters were investigated at two cyclonic-eddy-induced upwelling sites CE1 and CE2 in the western South China Sea. The results showed that upwelling can exert significant influences on biological activities in the euphotic zone and can either increase or decrease particulate organic carbon (POC export flux depending on upwelling conditions such as the magnitude, timing, and duration of nutrient input and consequent microbial activities. At CE2 the increase of phytoplankton biomass caused by the upwelled nutrients resulted in increase of POC export flux compared to non-eddy reference sites, while at CE1 the microbial respiration of organic carbon stimulated by the upwelled nutrients significantly contributed to the attenuation of POC export flux, aggravating outgassing of CO2. These results suggest that on top of upwelled dissolved inorganic carbon release, microbial activities stimulated by upwelled nutrients and phytoplankton labile organic carbon can play a critical role for a marine upwelling area to be a source rather than a sink of CO2. Meanwhile, we point out that even though an upwelling region is outgassing, carbon sequestration still takes place through the POC-based biological pump as well as the refractory dissolved organic carbon (RDOC-based microbial carbon pump.

  9. The Role of Shelf Break Upwelling Along the East Coast of the US in the Coastal Carbon Cycle: A Model's Tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlecki, S. A.; Mahadevan, A.; Archer, D.

    2008-12-01

    The coastal ocean is highly productive because it has several sources of nutrients: rivers, sediments and the open ocean. Although the East Coast of the United States is not an upwelling regime, its continental shelf is supplied by nutrients from the open ocean. Instead of traditional upwelling, a persistent front at the continental shelf break regulates the source of nutrients by interactions with the bottom boundary layer and the winds via a mechanism referred to as "shelf break upwelling." Shelf break upwelling also leads to ventilation of carbon dioxide and methane from coastal waters. A three-dimensional, nonhydrostatic, 2km resolution model with idealized bathymetry is used to simulate the shelf and shelf-break front circulations of an archetypical passive margin off the eastern coast of the United States. The model is adapted for the coastal setting from a model developed for open ocean fronts after Mahadevan et al, (1996a) and Mahadevan et al, (1996b) and is ground-truthed using data from the Mid- Atlantic Bight. We diagnose the pathways for nutrient supply and ventilation using a series of idealized tracers including nutrient, gas and bottom boundary layer tracers We find that the location of the foot of the front determines the source waters for the shelf break upwelling. In response to Southerly winds, the foot of the front moves onshore. Conversely, the foot moves offshore in response to Northerly winds. Targeted tracer results indicate that the source waters for upwelling depend on the direction of the wind: Southerly winds bring slope bottom water to the shelf, while Northerly winds bring up shelf bottom boundary layer water. The upwelling flux is sensitive to the duration as well as the magnitude of wind events. The physics and geochemistry of the bottom boundary layer and the shelf break front are not resolved in global-scale carbon cycle models, yet they appear to play a strong role in the coastal carbon cycle. Mahadevan, A., J. Oliger, and R

  10. Impact of climate change on surface wind regime over the Peru-Chile upwelling region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goubanova, K.; Echevin, V.; Dewitte, B.; Garreaud, R.; Terray, P.; Vrac, M.

    2009-04-01

    The ocean region off the Chile-Peru coast is characterized by upwelling of cold, nutrient-rich waters, which drives an exceptionally high biological productivity. This upwelling is induced by the persistent southerly winds along the coast that exhibit a coastal jet structure at intraseasonal scales. Recent climate change studies based on the coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCM) show a strengthening of the large-scale southerlies along the subtropical coast that could lead to an increase in coastal upwelling. However the coastal jet events which represent a considerable source of the synoptic variability of the alongshore winds are characterized by horizontal scale comparable to a AOGCM grid cell size, and cannot be therefore explicitly resolved by the AOGCMs. In order to provide a regional estimate of the winds as predicted by the coarse-resolution AOGCMs, a statistical downscaling method based on multiple linear regression is proposed. Large-scale wind at 10 m and sea level pressure are chosen as the predictor variables for regional 10 m wind. The validation is performed in two steps. First, QuikSCAT and ERS satellite products and NCEP reanalysis for the period 1992-2006 are used to build and validate the statistical model for the present climate. Second, the model is validated under a warmer climate: it is applied to large-scale predictors extracted from HadCM3 AOGCM simulations for the A2 and B2 SRES scenarios (2071-2100); the downscaled wind is then compared with outputs of the PRECIS regional climate model, forced at its boundaries by the same HadCM3 scenarios. To assess climate change impact on the along-shore wind, the statistical downscaling is applied to two contrasted SRES scenarios, namely the so-called preindustrial and CO2 quadrupling. The outputs of the IPSL-CM4 AOGCM are used as predictors. Evolution of the along-shore wind regime with a focus on the change of the coastal jet characteristics is discussed. For this particular

  11. The Gulf of Cádiz pelagic ecosystem: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Lafuente, Jesús; Ruiz, Javier

    2007-08-01

    The Gulf of Cádiz, strategically situated between the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, has been the focus of attention of a few oceanographic studies dealing with the deep circulation in order to understand the dynamics of the dense plume of Mediterranean water. Much less attention has been paid to the surface pelagic layer which holds important living resources of commercial and ecological interest. This overview summarizes the recent advances that have been made concerning the regional oceanography of the northern half of this important basin from an interdisciplinary point of view. Probably the most relevant oceanographic feature of the basin is its strong seasonality, which is linked to the meteorologically-induced seasonality of the eastern boundary current system of the North Atlantic. The prominent cape Santa Maria divides the continental shelf off the southern Iberian Peninsula in two shelves of different shape that hold different oceanographic processes, which in turn determine the characteristics of the pelagic ecosystem. Mass and energy inputs from land as well as tidally-driven processes makes the wider eastern shelf be more productive while the narrower western shelf, cut by a sharp submarine canyon, is under the influence of the almost-permanent upwelling spot off cape San Vicente. Under easterlies, the west-going, warm coastal countercurrent that is observed in the eastern shelf may invade the western shelf thus connecting biologically both shelves in an east-to-west direction. Westerlies induce generalised upwelling off the southern Iberia Peninsula, which adds to the almost-permanent one off cape San Vicente and generates an upwelling jet that moves eastwards. Cape Santa Maria may deflect this flow by generating a cold filament that extends southward and diverts water from the western shelf to the open ocean. This pattern of circulation hampers the biological connection between shelves in the west-to-east direction, which is

  12. Export of pre-aged, labile DOM from a central California coastal upwelling system: Insights from D/L amino acids and Δ14C signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, B. D.; Shen, Y.; Benner, R. H.; Druffel, E. R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal upwelling zones are among the most productive regions in the world and play a major role in global carbon and nitrogen cycles. Recent research suggests that a substantial fraction of newly fixed organic matter is exported offshore in the form of dissolved organic matter (DOM). However, to date only a few studies have examined DOM composition in the context of production and export from upwelling systems. The ultimate fate and geochemical impact of coastal DOM exported to offshore and mesopelagic ecosystems also remains largely unknown. Between 2007-2009 we conducted a high-resolution biogeochemical time series at the Granite Canyon Marine Pollution Studies Lab in part to evaluate the seasonal production and export of DOM from the Central CA coast. Our previous work demonstrated substantial, albeit disparate, seasonal production of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen (DOC, DON) - with high DON (and low C:N ratios) produced during upwelling and high DOC produced during summer/fall water column stratification (Walker and McCarthy, 2012). Here we present new total dissolved D/L amino acid (TDAA) and UV-oxidizable DOC radiocarbon (Δ14C) data with the goal of determining the relative sources (heterotrophic vs. autotrophic), bioavailability, microbial processing and 14C-ages of C-rich vs. N-rich DOM exported from this upwelling system. Our results suggest that C-rich DOM produced during water column stratification carries a large microbial signature (i.e. high D/L AA ratios and non-protein AA abundance), whereas N-rich DOM produced during upwelling appears to be fresh, autotrophic DOM (i.e. lowest D/L AA ratios and highest TDAA abundance). DOM Δ14C signatures also did not approximate in situ dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and instead were far more negative and highly correlated to water mass density. Together our results indicate a previously unrecognized source of highly labile yet pre-aged DOM potentially impacting offshore and mesopelagic ecosystems.

  13. Environmental changes associated with monsoon induced upwelling, off central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSousa, S.N.; Sawkar, K.; Rao, P.V.S.S.D.P.

    Coastal upwelling of nutrients during and after the southwest monsoon has been considered to support rich pelagic and demersal fisheries off the west coast of India. Studies indicate occurrence of coastal upwelling assoicated with Ekman transport...

  14. Upwelling Index, 60N 146W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N. The...

  15. Upwelling Index, 45N 125W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N. The...

  16. Coastal upwelling observed by multi-satellite sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Coastal upwelling phenomenon along the China coast in the Yellow Sea during August 2007 is studied using ENVISAT Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) data, NOAA Advanced AVHRR series Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data,and NASA QuikSCAT Scatterometer ocean surface wind data. A dark pattern in an ASAR image is interpreted as coastal upwelling. This is because the natural biogenic slicks associated with coastal upwelling damp the Bragg waves on the sea surface and thus make the surface smoother. Most of the incoming radar energy is reflected in the forward direction. As a result, the radar backscatter signal is very weak. Analyzing the concurrent AVHRR SST image, we find that the dark pattern in the ASAR image is indeed corresponding to the low SST area. The wind retrieval in the slicks dominant region is biased due to the low Normalised Radar Cross Section (NRCS) associated with the coastal upwelling. We applied a SST correction to the NRCS values to improve the accuracy of wind retrieval from ASAR data.

  17. Coastal upwelling observed by multi-satellite sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI XiaoMing; LI XiaoFeng; HE MingXia

    2009-01-01

    Coastal upwelling phenomenon along the China coast in the Yellow Sea during August 2007 is studied using ENVISAT Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) data, NOAA Advanced AVHRR series Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data, and NASA QuikSCAT Scatterometer ocean surface wind data. A dark pattern in an ASAR image is interpreted as coastal upwelling. This is because the natural biogenic slicks associated with coastal upwelling damp the Bragg waves on the sea surface and thus make the surface smoother. Most of the incoming radar energy is reflected in the forward direction. As a result, the radar backscatter signal is very weak. Analyzing the concurrent AVHRR SST Image, we find that the dark pattern in the ASAR image is indeed corresponding to the low SST area. The wind retrieval in the slicks dominant region is biased due to the low Normaliced Radar Cross Section (NRCS) associated with the coastal upwelling. We applied a SST correction to the NRCS values to improve the accuracy of wind retrieval from ASAR data.

  18. The Benguela upwelling system lying off southern Africa's west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Examples of the variability of the flow on a week-by-week basis are provided and are related to the thermal structure and ... South African Journal of Marine Science 19. 1998. 35° ..... margin of the grid as a result of sustained upwelling for up to ...

  19. Upwelling Index, 60N 149W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N. The...

  20. Upwelling Index, 21N 107W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N. The...

  1. Upwelling Index, 42N 125W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N. The...

  2. Upwelling Index, 33N 119W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N. The...

  3. Upwelling Index, 27N 116W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N. The...

  4. Upwelling Index, 57N 137W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N. The...

  5. Upwelling Index, 30N 119W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N. The...

  6. Upwelling Index, 54N 134W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N. The...

  7. Upwelling Index, 51N 131W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N. The...

  8. Upwelling Index, 39N 125W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N. The...

  9. Upwelling Index, 36N 122W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N. The...

  10. Upwelling Index, 24N 113W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N. The...

  11. Upwelling Index, 48N 125W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N. The...

  12. Evaluation and application of the ROMS 1-way embedding procedure to the central california upwelling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penven, Pierrick; Debreu, Laurent; Marchesiello, Patrick; McWilliams, James C.

    What most clearly distinguishes near-shore and off-shore currents is their dominant spatial scale, O (1-30) km near-shore and O (30-1000) km off-shore. In practice, these phenomena are usually both measured and modeled with separate methods. In particular, it is infeasible for any regular computational grid to be large enough to simultaneously resolve well both types of currents. In order to obtain local solutions at high resolution while preserving the regional-scale circulation at an affordable computational cost, a 1-way grid embedding capability has been integrated into the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS). It takes advantage of the AGRIF (Adaptive Grid Refinement in Fortran) Fortran 90 package based on the use of pointers. After a first evaluation in a baroclinic vortex test case, the embedding procedure has been applied to a domain that covers the central upwelling region off California, around Monterey Bay, embedded in a domain that spans the continental U.S. Pacific Coast. Long-term simulations (10 years) have been conducted to obtain mean-seasonal statistical equilibria. The final solution shows few discontinuities at the parent-child domain boundary and a valid representation of the local upwelling structure, at a CPU cost only slightly greater than for the inner region alone. The solution is assessed by comparison with solutions for the whole US Pacific Coast at both low and high resolutions and to solutions for only the inner region at high resolution with mean-seasonal boundary conditions.

  13. Kinematics and dynamics of the East Pacific Rise linked to a stable, deep-mantle upwelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, David B; Forte, Alessandro M; Rowan, Christopher J; Glišović, Petar; Moucha, Robert; Grand, Stephen P; Simmons, Nathan A

    2016-12-01

    Earth's tectonic plates are generally considered to be driven largely by negative buoyancy associated with subduction of oceanic lithosphere. In this context, mid-ocean ridges (MORs) are passive plate boundaries whose divergence accommodates flow driven by subduction of oceanic slabs at trenches. We show that over the past 80 million years (My), the East Pacific Rise (EPR), Earth's dominant MOR, has been characterized by limited ridge-perpendicular migration and persistent, asymmetric ridge accretion that are anomalous relative to other MORs. We reconstruct the subduction-related buoyancy fluxes of plates on either side of the EPR. The general expectation is that greater slab pull should correlate with faster plate motion and faster spreading at the EPR. Moreover, asymmetry in slab pull on either side of the EPR should correlate with either ridge migration or enhanced plate velocity in the direction of greater slab pull. Based on our analysis, none of the expected correlations are evident. This implies that other forces significantly contribute to EPR behavior. We explain these observations using mantle flow calculations based on globally integrated buoyancy distributions that require core-mantle boundary heat flux of up to 20 TW. The time-dependent mantle flow predictions yield a long-lived deep-seated upwelling that has its highest radial velocity under the EPR and is inferred to control its observed kinematics. The mantle-wide upwelling beneath the EPR drives horizontal components of asthenospheric flows beneath the plates that are similarly asymmetric but faster than the overlying surface plates, thereby contributing to plate motions through viscous tractions in the Pacific region.

  14. Variability in biological responses influenced by upwelling events in the Eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Habeebrehman, H.; Prabhakaran, M.P.; Jacob, J.; Sabu, P.; Jayalakshmi, K.J.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Revichandran, C.

    zooplankton standing stock and physico-chemical variables were examined according to the different stages of upwelling i.e., newly upwelled (Type-1), mature (Type-2) and aged upwelling (Type-3). Type-1 stage was observed along the inshore waters off 8...

  15. Ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trista Patterson

    2014-01-01

    Since its inception, the ecosystem service approach has stimulated interest from numerous planning, management, and partnership perspectives. To date, however, research that quantifies ecosystem services in the study area (in the form of explicit ecosystem service studies) has been limited. This chapter reviews and synthesizes the concept of ecosystem services,...

  16. Record of the Pacific Large Low Shear Velocity Province Upwellings Preserved in the Cretaceous Large Igneous Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, P.; Gazel, E.; Flores, K. E.; Bizimis, M.; Jicha, B. R.

    2015-12-01

    As the surface expression of deep mantle dynamics, Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) are associated with the edges of large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVP) rooted at the core-mantle boundary. Instabilities in the LLSVP can cause periodic upwellings of material in the form of mantle plumes, which impact the lithosphere forming LIPs. However, the time frames of these massive lava outpourings are still uncertain. While continental LIPs are more readily accessible, oceanic LIPs have only been studied through drilling and sampling of fragments accreted to continental margins or island arcs, hence, they are relatively less understood. The impact of oceanic LIPs on oceanic biota is conspicuously recorded in global occurrences of black shale deposits that evidence episodes of anoxia and mass extinctions shortly after the formation of LIPs that ultimately can affect life on the entire planet. Our new geochemical and geochronological data of accreted Pacific LIPs found in the coasts of Nicoya Peninsula in Costa Rica record three LIP pulses possibly reflecting upwelling periods of the LLSVP at 140, 120 and 90 Ma. In order to test different models of origin of these LIPS, we created a complete reconstruction of the Pacific Plate configuration from the Mid-Jurassic to Upper-Cretaceous to show the existing correlation between upwelling pulses at edges of the Pacific LLSVP, oceanic anoxic events and the age from Pacific LIPs. We propose that since the formation of the Pacific plate at circa 175-180 Ma, a series of upwellings that interacted with mid-ocean ridge systems separated by 10-20 Ma have affected the planet periodically forming oceanic LIPs that still can be found today on the Pacific seafloor and accreted along the plate margins.

  17. Life in the sea of plenty: Seasonal and regional comparison of physiological performance of Euphausia hanseni in the northern Benguela upwelling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Thorsten; Buchholz, Cornelia; Buchholz, Friedrich

    2015-09-01

    Variability in upwelling events may lead to periods of constrained food availability in the northern Benguela upwelling system (NBUS), thereby affecting the physiological state and metabolic activity of euphausiids. Most attention has so far been paid to seasonal effects but little is known about regional variability. Metabolic activity (expressed by respiration and excretion rates) and physiological state (expressed by reproductive effort and moult activity) in Euphausia hanseni were examined at different stations during austral summer (minimum upwelling) and austral winter (maximum upwelling). Overall, regional differences in physiological state, influencing metabolic activity, were greater than seasonal ones, indicating favourable conditions for growth and reproduction year-round. Higher respiration rates were found for females in more advanced stages of sexual development. Moult stage did not affect oxygen consumption rates, however. The physiological state of E. hanseni at the time of capture may serve as a meaningful indicator of the associated hydrographic conditions in the NBUS, to be further used in eco-system analysis on seasonal or long-term time scales. A latitudinal comparison of species highlights the extraordinary physiological plasticity of euphausiids.

  18. Can upwelling signals be detected in intertidal fishes of different trophic levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulgar, J; Poblete, E; Alvarez, M; Morales, J P; Aranda, B; Aldana, M; Pulgar, V M

    2013-11-01

    For intertidal fishes belonging to three species, the herbivore Scartichthys viridis (Blenniidae), the omnivore Girella laevifrons (Kyphosidae) and the carnivore Graus nigra (Kyphosidae), mass and body size relationships were higher in individuals from an upwelling zone compared with those from a non-upwelling zone. RNA:DNA were higher in the herbivores and omnivores from the upwelling zone. Higher biomass and RNA:DNA in the upwelling intertidal fishes may be a consequence of an increased exposure to higher nutrient availability, suggesting that increased physiological conditioning in vertebrates from upwelling areas can be detected and measured using intertidal fishes of different trophic levels.

  19. The role of Equatorial Undercurrent in sustaining the Eastern Indian Ocean upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gengxin; Han, Weiqing; Shu, Yeqiang; Li, Yuanlong; Wang, Dongxiao; Xie, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    By combining volume transport and salinity analysis from 1958 to 2014, this paper investigates how the transient Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) sustains the summer-fall equatorial eastern Indian Ocean (EIO) upwelling. On seasonal time scales, the EIO upwelling is mainly supplied by the salty water from the western basin through a buffering process: The winter-spring EUC carries the salty water from the western basin eastward, induces downwelling in the EIO, and pushes portion of the salty water below the central thermocline, which subsequently upwells to the central thermocline during summer-fall and sustains the EIO upwelling. On interannual time scales, enhanced upwelling occurs during positive Indian Ocean Dipole (+IOD) years. The strong summer-fall EUC associated with the +IOD supplies water for the intensified upwelling. This research provides new knowledge for basin-scale mass and property exchanges associated with the EIO upwelling, contributing to our understanding of three-dimensional ocean circulation and climate variability.

  20. Implications of Upwells as Hydrodynamic Jets in a Pulse Jet Mixed System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pease, Leonard F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bamberger, Judith A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Minette, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-02-28

    This report evaluates the physics of the upwell flow in pulse jet mixed systems in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Although the initial downward flow and radial flow from jets characteristic of pulse jet mixers (PJMs) has been analyzed, the upwells have received considerably less attention despite having significant implications for vessel mixing. Do the upwells behave like jets? How do the upwells scale? When will the central upwell break through? What proportion of the vessel is blended by the upwells themselves? Indeed, how the physics of the central upwell is affected by multiple PJMs (e.g., six in the proposed mixing vessels), non-Newtonian rheology, and significant multicomponent solids loadings remain unexplored.

  1. Sensitivity analysis of upwelling thermal radiance in presence of clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, S. V.; Tiwari, S. N.; Suttles, J. T.

    1981-01-01

    Total upwelling radiance at the top of the atmosphere is evaluated theoretically in the presence of clouds. The influence of cloud heights, thicknesses and different cloud covers on the upwelling radiance is also investigated. The characteristics of the two cloud types considered in this study closely correspond to altocumulus and cirrus with the cloud emissivity as a function of its liquid water (or ice) content. For calculation of the integrated transmittance of atmospheric gases such as, H2O, CO2, O3, and N2O, the Quasi Random Band (QRB) model approach is adopted. Results are obtained in three different spectral ranges and are compared with the clearsky radiance results. It is found that the difference between the clearsky and cloudy radiance increases with increasing cloud height and liquid water content. This difference also decreases as the surface temperature approaches the value of the cloud top temperature.

  2. Bacterial community characterization and biogeochemistry of sediments from a tropical upwelling system (Cabo Frio, Southeastern Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelo-Branco, R.; Barreiro, A.; Silva, F. S.; Carvalhal-Gomes, S. B. V.; Fontana, L. F.; Mendonça-Filho, J. G.; Vasconcelos, V.

    2016-11-01

    The Cabo Frio Upwelling System is one of the largest and most productive areas in southeastern Brazil. Although it is well-known that bacterial communities play a crucial role in the biogeochemical cycles and food chain of marine ecosystems, little is known regarding the microbial communities in the sediments of this upwelling region. In this research, we address the effect of different hydrological conditions on the biogeochemistry of sediments and the diversity of bacterial communities. Biogeochemistry profiles of sediments from four sampling stations along an inner-outer transect on the continental shelf were evaluated and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments was used to study the bacterial community composition in these sediments. Our sequencing analysis of excised bands identified Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes phyla as the phylogenetic groups, indicating the existence of great diversity in these marine sediments. In this multidisciplinary study, the use of multivariate analysis was crucial for understanding how biogeochemical profiles influence bacterial community distribution. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated that the biogeochemical variables exhibited a clear spatial pattern that is mainly related to hydrological conditions. A Correspondence Analysis (CA) revealed an important association between certain taxonomic groups and specific sampling locations. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) demonstrated that the biogeochemistry influences the structure of the bacterial community in sediments. Among the bacterial groups identified, the most taxonomically diverse classes (Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria) were found to be distributed regardless of any studied biogeochemical variables influences, whereas other groups responded to biogeochemical conditions which, in turn, were influenced by hydrological conditions. This finding

  3. Laboratory Modelling of the Dynamics of Coastal Upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-28

    such regions. standing features. as described above. should be absent. instead a uniform upwelled front and associated traveling frontal-eddies...Argote. E.M.L., Amador. B.A. and Barton. E.D.. 1978. Mediciones de vientos. corrientes e hidrografia frente a Punto Colonet. B.C. En Junio 1976. CICESE...the distance of the downstream standing waves bre from the cape were considerably smaller. by As in our previous experiment, travelling baroclinic waves

  4. Isotopic evidences of past upwelling intensity in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.

    inorgan- ic carbon in the surrounding water. Thus, for carbon were not compared with any other established upwelling indices from the same site in the Arabian Sea. Therefore, the main focus of the present communication is to evaluate the relationship be... monsoons. In summer, heating of the Asian land mass results in low pressure over Asia and high pressure over the Indian Ocean. The geostrophically balanced airflow results in strong, topographically steered southwesterly winds during summer (SW monsoon...

  5. Aragonite saturation state dynamics in a coastal upwelling zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Katherine E.; Degrandpre, Michael D.; Hales, Burke

    2013-06-01

    upwelling zones may be at enhanced risk from ocean acidification as upwelling brings low aragonite saturation state (ΩAr) waters to the surface that are further suppressed by anthropogenic CO2. ΩAr was calculated with pH, pCO2, and salinity-derived alkalinity time series data from autonomous pH and pCO2 instruments moored on the Oregon shelf and shelf break during different seasons from 2007 to 2011. Surface ΩAr values ranged between 0.66 ± 0.04 and 3.9 ± 0.04 compared to an estimated pre-industrial range of 1.0 ± 0.1 to 4.7 ± 0.1. Upwelling of high-CO2 water and subsequent removal of CO2 by phytoplankton imparts a dynamic range to ΩAr from ~1.0 to ~4.0 between spring and autumn. Freshwater input also suppresses saturation states during the spring. Winter ΩAr is less variable than during other seasons and is controlled primarily by mixing of the water column.

  6. Peru-Chile upwelling dynamics under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerder, Véra; Colas, Francois; Echevin, Vincent; Codron, Francis; Tam, Jorge; Belmadani, Ali

    2015-02-01

    The consequences of global warming on the Peru-Chile Current System (PCCS) ocean circulation are examined with a high-resolution, eddy-resolving regional oceanic model. We performed a dynamical downscaling of climate scenarios from the IPSL-CM4 Coupled General Circulation Model (CGCM), corresponding to various levels of CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. High-resolution atmospheric forcing for the regional ocean model are obtained from the IPSL atmospheric model run on a stretched grid with increased horizontal resolution in the PCCS region. When comparing future scenarios to preindustrial (PI) conditions, the circulation along the Peru and Chile coasts is strongly modified by changes in surface winds and increased stratification caused by the regional warming. While the coastal poleward undercurrent is intensified, the surface equatorial coastal jet shoals and the nearshore mesoscale activity are reinforced. Reduction in alongshore wind stress and nearshore wind stress curl drive a year-round reduction in upwelling intensity off Peru. Modifications in geostrophic circulation mitigate this upwelling decrease in late austral summer. The depth of the upwelling source waters becomes shallower in warmer conditions, which may have a major impact on the system's biological productivity.

  7. Surface circulation and upwelling patterns around Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. de Vos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sri Lanka occupies a unique location within the equatorial belt in the northern Indian Ocean with the Arabian Sea on its western side and the Bay of Bengal on its eastern side. The region is characterised by bi-annually reversing monsoon winds resulting from seasonal differential heating and cooling of the continental land mass and the ocean. This study explored elements of the dynamics of the surface circulation and coastal upwelling in the waters around Sri Lanka using satellite imagery and the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS configured to the study region and forced with ECMWF interim data. The model was run for 2 yr to examine the seasonal and shorter term (∼10 days variability. The results confirmed the presence of the reversing current system in response to the changing wind field: the eastward flowing Southwest Monsoon Current (SMC during the Southwest (SW monsoon transporting 11.5 Sv and the westward flowing Northeast Monsoon Current (NMC transporting 9.5 Sv during the Northeast (NE monsoon, respectively. A recirculation feature located to the east of Sri Lanka during the SW monsoon, the Sri Lanka Dome, is shown to result from the interaction between the SMC and the Island of Sri Lanka. Along the eastern and western coasts, during both monsoon periods, flow is southward converging along the south coast. During the SW monsoon the Island deflects the eastward flowing SMC southward whilst along the east coast the southward flow results from the Sri Lanka Dome recirculation. The major upwelling region, during both monsoon periods, is located along the south coast and is shown to be due to flow convergence and divergence associated with offshore transport of water. Higher surface chlorophyll concentrations were observed during the SW monsoon. The location of the flow convergence and hence the upwelling centre was dependent on the relative strengths of wind driven flow along the east and west coasts: during the SW (NE monsoon the flow

  8. Ecosystem Jenga!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umphlett, Natalie; Brosius, Tierney; Laungani, Ramesh; Rousseau, Joe; Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra L.

    2009-01-01

    To give students a tangible model of an ecosystem and have them experience what could happen if a component of that ecosystem were removed; the authors developed a hands-on, inquiry-based activity that visually demonstrates the concept of a delicately balanced ecosystem through a modification of the popular game Jenga. This activity can be…

  9. Natural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleishman, Erica; Belnap, Jayne; Cobb, Neil; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Ford, Karl; MacDonald, Glen; Pellant, Mike; Schoennagel, Tania; Schmit, Lara M.; Schwartz, Mark; van Drunick, Suzanne; Westerling, Anthony LeRoy; Keyser, Alisa; Lucas, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Natural Ecosystems analyzes the association of observed changes in climate with changes in the geographic distributions and phenology (the timing of blossoms or migrations of birds) for Southwestern ecosystems and their species, portraying ecosystem disturbances—such as wildfires and outbreaks of forest pathogens—and carbon storage and release, in relation to climate change.

  10. Ecosystem Jenga!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umphlett, Natalie; Brosius, Tierney; Laungani, Ramesh; Rousseau, Joe; Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra L.

    2009-01-01

    To give students a tangible model of an ecosystem and have them experience what could happen if a component of that ecosystem were removed; the authors developed a hands-on, inquiry-based activity that visually demonstrates the concept of a delicately balanced ecosystem through a modification of the popular game Jenga. This activity can be…

  11. Boundary issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Alan R.; Porder, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    What is our point of no return? Caesar proclaimed 'the die is cast' while crossing the Rubicon, but rarely does modern society find so visible a threshold in our continued degradation of ecosystems and the services they provide. Humans have always used their surroundings to make a living— sometimes successfully, sometimes not (Diamond 2005)—and we intuitively know that there are boundaries to our exploitation. But defining these boundaries has been a challenge since Malthus first prophesied that nature would limit the human population (Malthus 1798). In 2009, Rockström and colleagues tried to quantify what the 6.8 billion (and counting) of us could continue to get away with, and what we couldn't (Rockström et al 2009). In selecting ten 'planetary boundaries', the authors contend that a sustainable human enterprise requires treating a number of environmental thresholds as points of no return. They suggest we breach these Rubicons at our own peril, and that we've already crossed three: biodiversity loss, atmospheric CO2, and disruption of the global nitrogen (N) cycle. As they clearly hoped, the very act of setting targets has provoked scientific inquiry about their accuracy, and about the value of hard targets in the first place (Schlesinger 2009). Such debate is a good thing. Despite recent emphasis on the science of human-ecosystem interactions, understanding of our planetary boundaries is still in its infancy, and controversy can speed scientific progress (Engelhardt and Caplan 1987). A few weeks ago in this journal, Carpenter and Bennett (2011) took aim at one of the more controversial boundaries in the Rockström analysis: that for human alteration of the global phosphorus (P) cycle. Rockström's group chose riverine P export as the key indicator, suggesting that humans should not exceed a value that could trigger widespread marine anoxic events—and asserting that we have not yet crossed this threshold. There are defensible reasons for a marine

  12. Distribution and Composition of Particulate Organic Carbon along Oregon's Upwelling Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goni, M. A.; Holser, R. R.; Hales, B. R.; Succes Team

    2010-12-01

    Direct measurements of particulate organic carbon (POC) concentrations are needed to quantitatively understand the carbon cycle in Eastern Boundary ocean margins. However, in the past these measurements have been somewhat restricted due to the time-intensive nature of the sample collection and manual filtration procedures. To increase temporal and spatial coverage of POC distributions, we designed and built a semi-automated filtration system (SAFS) linked to a towed profiling vehicle with pumping capabilities. This set up allowed us to perform filtrations at high frequency and measure POC concentrations throughout the entire water column along several shore-perpendicular transects across the Oregon shelf. We combined these data with in-situ optical measurements (i.e., beam transmission, chlorophyll fluorescence and optical backscatter) and characterized several distinct pools of particles within different geographical and depth regions of the water column off the central Oregon Coast. For example, early in the upwelling season (May 2009) surface waters were characterized by elevated POC concentrations (> 20 uM) and displayed significant patchiness with areas of very high concentrations (> 80 uM). Below 50 m POC concentrations were uniformly low (water particles were carbon and chlorophyll rich but had elevated backscatter properties that approached those of particles in the BBL. These compositions indicate phytoplankton contributed predominantly to the particle pool in both surface and mid-depth waters, with the main differences between them being overall concentration (much higher at the surface) and particle size (much smaller at the mid-depths). The lack of fresh algal materials in the BBL suggests labile OM transport to the deeper regions of the water column had not occurred at this early stage in the upwelling season. The elevated backscatter properties of BBL particles are consistent with high lithogenic content and resuspended seabed provenance.

  13. The MORENA Project: Shelf-ocean exchanges and transport processes along the continental margin in the European coastal upwelling region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiuza, A.F.G. [Univ. de Lisboa (Portugal). Inst. de Oceanografia; Perez, F. [Inst. Investigaciones Marinas, Vigo (Spain); Johnson, J. [Univ. East Anglia (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    The MORENA Project (Multidisciplinary Oceanographic Research in the Eastern Boundary of the North Atlantic) is sponsored by the CEC MAST-2 Programme and has as general objective to measure, understand and model shelf-ocean exchange in a typical coastal upwelling region of the eastern boundary layer of the subtropical ocean. This is being attained through a multidisciplinary approach aimed at the quantitative understanding of the physical, chemical and biological processes involved in the transfer of matter (including salt, particulates, nutrients, organic compounds, biomass), momentum and energy across and along the shelf, the shelf break and the slope, in the Iberian region of the European Atlantic. MORENA has the following components: Observations, Modelling and Combined Analysis.

  14. Upwelling increases net primary production of corals and reef-wide gross primary production along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines eStuhldreier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic production is a key ecosystem service provided by tropical coral reefs, but knowledge about the contribution of corals and other reef-associated organisms and the controlling environmental factors is scarce. Locations with occurrence of upwelling events can serve as in-situ laboratories to investigate the impact of environmental variability on production rates of reef-associated organisms. This study investigated individual and reef-wide net (Pn and gross primary production (Pg for the dominant autotrophic benthic organisms (hard corals Pocillopora spp., crustose coralline algae (CCA, turf algae, and the macroalga Caulerpa sertularioides associated with a coral reef along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Oxygen fluxes by these organisms were measured at a weekly to monthly resolution over one year (May 2013 - April 2014 via in-situ chamber incubations. The influence of simultaneously measured environmental parameters (temperature, light, inorganic nutrient concentrations, dissolved and particulate organic matter concentrations on Pn of the different taxa were tested via linear model fitting. Turf algae showed highest individual Pn and Pg rates per organism surface area (35 and 49 mmol O2 m-² h-1, followed by Pocillopora spp. (16 and 25 mmol O2 m-² h-1, CCA (9 and 15 mmol O2 m-² h-1 and C. sertularioides (8 and 11 mmol O2 m-² h-1. Under upwelling conditions (February – April 2014, Pn rates of all algal taxa remained relatively uniform despite high nutrient availability, Pn of corals increased by 70 %. On an ecosystem level, corals on average contributed 60 % of total Pn and Pg per reef area (73 and 98 mmol O2 m-² h-1, respectively due to high benthic coverage, followed by turf algae (25 %. Under upwelling conditions, reef-wide Pg increased by >40 %, indicating acclimatization of local reef communities to upwelling conditions.

  15. Coastal upwelling in Southern Coast of Sumbawa Island, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufikurahman, Qamal; Hidayat, Rahmat

    2017-01-01

    Circulation and water mass characteristics in southern coast of Sumbawa Island is strongly influenced by monsoon which change each season. This research aims to (1) identify the Ekman transport and Ekman pumping variations and (2) analyse the SST and chlorophyll-a variability. During Juni-July-August (JJA) season, the highest value of Ekman transport (-0.72 m2 s-1) moves the water mass towards Indian Ocean while Ekman pumping (0.15x10-4 m2 s-1) rises the water mass to the surface (upwelling). Impact of coastal upwelling was identified by cooling SST and high chlorophyll-a. Coolest SST (26.58°C) associated with highest chlorophyll-a (0.6 mg m-3) were found in JJA season. Inter-annual variation of SST and chlorophyll-a concentrations during 2003-2015 is driven by Ekman transport and Ekman pumping. Coolest SST and highest chlorophyll-a were found in JJA season in 2006 with an average value of 25.98°C and 0.78 mg m-3, also in JJA season in 2008 with an average value of 26°C and 0.71 mg m-3. Thus the process of Ekman transport and Ekman pumping has an important role in lifting the cold water high nutriens from the deeper layer to surface. The high concentration of chlorophyll-a in water is the impact of appointment nutrient from the deeper layer by the coastal upwelling.

  16. VOCALS-CUpEx: the Chilean Upwelling Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garreaud, R. D.; Rutllant, J. A.; Muñoz, R. C.; Rahn, D. A.; Ramos, M.; Figueroa, D.

    2011-03-01

    The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) was a major field experiment conducted in spring of 2008 off southern Peru and northern Chile, aimed at better understanding the coupled climate systems of the southeast Pacific. Because of logistical constrains, the coastal area around 30° S was not sampled during VOCALS-REx. This area not only marks the poleward edge of the subtropical stratocumulus cloud regime (thus acting as a source of transient disturbances) but is also one of the most active upwelling centers and source of surface ocean kinetic energy along the Chilean coast. To fill such an observational gap, a small, brief, but highly focused field experiment was conducted in late spring 2009 in the near-shore region around 30° S. The Chilean Upwelling Experiment (CUpEx) was endorsed by VOCALS as a regional component. CUpEx included long-term monitoring, an intensive two-week field campaign and off-shore research flights. Our goal was to obtain an atmospheric/oceanic dataset with enough temporal and spatial coverage to be able to document (a) the mean diurnal cycles of the lower-troposphere and upper-ocean in a region of complex topography and coastline geometry, and (b) the ocean-atmosphere response to the rapid changes in coastal winds from strong, upwelling-favorable equatorward flow (southerly winds) to downwelling-favorable poleward flow (northerly winds). In this paper we describe the measurement platforms and sampling strategy, and provide an observational overview, highlighting some key mean-state and transient features.

  17. Coastal Upwelling and Deep Fog: 50-year Worldwide Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koracin, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    An analysis is presented of the marine fog distribution based upon the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) ship observations taken during 1950-2007. Deep fog occurrence is reported in routine weather reports that are encoded in an ICOADS ship observation. Occurrence is estimated by the number of deep fog observations divided by the total present weather observations in a one-degree area centered on latitude and longitude grid point intersections. The mean fog occurrence for the summer (June-July-August) 1950-2007 was computed for each one degree point for the world. There are five major world locations with coastal SST minimums due to wind driven upwelling. Four of these are during the local summer on the eastern side of a semi-permanent anticyclone on eastern sides of northern and southern mid-latitudes of the Pacifica and the Atlantic. The fifth is during the SW monsoon in the Indian Ocean. For all five of these locations, the deep fog occurrence is at maximum during the upwelling season, with the greatest occurrences concentrated along the coast and isolated over the SST minimum. For the five coastal fog maxima, the greatest and longest duration occurrence along coast occurrence is associated with the coldest sea surface temperature and longest along coast occurrence, which is along N. California- S. Oregon. In contrast, the lowest occurrence of fog and the least along coast occurrence is associated with the warmest sea surface temperatures and least along coast occurrence along the SE Arabian Peninsula. The remaining three zones, Peru-Chile, NW Africa, and SW Africa are between the two extremes in fog occurrence, along coast coverage and sea surface temperature. Peru-Chile is more complex than the others as the Peru upwelling and fog appears the more dominant although ship observations are sparse along Chile.

  18. Upwelling in the Minicoy region of the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, L.V.G.; Jayaraman, R.

    stream_size 9902 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Curr_Sci_35_378.pdf.txt stream_source_info Curr_Sci_35_378.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 378 Upwelling... structure with function. Drs. P. Sadhukhan and D. N. Misra (Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics) dis- cussed the different procedures of "particle counting by electron microscopy and its applica- tion in quantitative virology" and "the mass thickness...

  19. Narrowing of the Upwelling Branch of the Brewer-Dobson Circulation and Hadley Cell in Chemistry-Climate Model Simulations of the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Stolarski, Richard S.; Pawson, Steven; Newman, Paul A.; Waugh, Darryn

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the width of the upwelling branch of the Brewer-Dobson circulation and Hadley cell in the 21st Century are investigated using simulations from a coupled chemistry-climate model. In these model simulations the tropical upwelling region narrows in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. The narrowing of the Brewer-Dobson circulation is caused by an equatorward shift of Rossby wave critical latitudes and Eliassen-Palm flux convergence in the subtropical lower stratosphere. In the troposphere, the model projects an expansion of the Hadley cell's poleward boundary, but a narrowing of the Hadley cell's rising branch. Model results suggest that eddy forcing may also play a part in the narrowing of the rising branch of the Hadley cell.

  20. Artificial ocean upwelling utilizing the energy of surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Artificial upwelling can bring cold water from below the thermocline to the sea surface. Vershinsky, Pshenichnyy, and Soloviev (1987) developed a prototype device, utilizing the energy of surface waves to create an upward flow of water in the tube. This is a wave-inertia pump consisting of a vertical tube, a valve, and a buoy to keep the device afloat. An outlet valve at the top of the unit synchronizes the operation of the device with surface waves and prevents back-splashing. A single device with a 100 m long and 1.2 m diameter tube is able to produce up to 1 m3s-1 flow of deep water to the surface. With a 10 oC temperature difference over 100 m depth, the negative heat supply rate to the sea surface is 42 MW, which is equivalent to a 42 Wm-2 heat flux, if distributed over 1 km2 area. Such flux is comparable to the average net air-sea flux. A system of artificial upwelling devices can cool down the sea surface, modify climate on a regional scale and possibly help mitigate hurricanes. The cold water brought from a deeper layer, however, has a larger density than the surface water and therefore has a tendency to sink back down. In this work, the efficiency of wave-inertia pumps and climatic consequences are estimated for different environmental conditions using a computational fluid dynamics model.

  1. Coastal upwelling at Cape Frio: Its structure and weakening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jury, Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    Cape Frio at the Angola-Namibia border, is the northern-most coastal upwelling cell of the Benguela Current ( 17S, 11E) and is sensitive to climate variability. This study provides new insights using daily high resolution satellite and ocean-atmosphere reanalysis datasets in the period 1985-2015. The annual cycle of SST follows two months behind the net heat balance and wind stress curl, reaching a minimum in July-September. Ranking the daily SST record, two intense multi-day upwelling events stand out. The more recent case of 26-29 August 2005 is studied, given the greater density and sophistication of satellite data. A coastal wind jet >10 m s-1 develops next to Cape Frio, with sharp edges imposed by a thermal inversion and the mountainous cape. The cold plume wind stress curl and downward heat fluxes. Leeward of Cape Frio, a wind shadow and poleward currents contribute to phytoplankton blooms. Daily time series 1985-2015 reveal warming SST +.035C/yr and diminishing winds -0.025 m s-1/yr. The trend toward cyclonic winds over Angola and the northern Benguela Current reflects a poleward and offshore shift of the main axis of southeasterly winds.

  2. Southern Ocean warming delayed by circumpolar upwelling and equatorward transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Kyle C.; Marshall, John; Scott, Jeffery R.; Donohoe, Aaron; Newsom, Emily R.

    2016-07-01

    The Southern Ocean has shown little warming over recent decades, in stark contrast to the rapid warming observed in the Arctic. Along the northern flank of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, however, the upper ocean has warmed substantially. Here we present analyses of oceanographic observations and general circulation model simulations showing that these patterns--of delayed warming south of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and enhanced warming to the north--are fundamentally shaped by the Southern Ocean's meridional overturning circulation: wind-driven upwelling of unmodified water from depth damps warming around Antarctica; greenhouse gas-induced surface heat uptake is largely balanced by anomalous northward heat transport associated with the equatorward flow of surface waters; and heat is preferentially stored where surface waters are subducted to the north. Further, these processes are primarily due to passive advection of the anomalous warming signal by climatological ocean currents; changes in ocean circulation are secondary. These findings suggest the Southern Ocean responds to greenhouse gas forcing on the centennial, or longer, timescale over which the deep ocean waters that are upwelled to the surface are warmed themselves. It is against this background of gradual warming that multidecadal Southern Ocean temperature trends must be understood.

  3. Non-limiting food conditions for growth and production of the copepod community in a highly productive upwelling zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano, Rubén; Bustos-Ríos, Evelyn; Hidalgo, Pamela; Morales, Carmen E.

    2016-09-01

    Zooplankton production is critical for understanding marine ecosystem dynamics. This work estimates copepod growth and production in the coastal upwelling and coastal transition zones off central-southern Chile (~35 to 37°S) during a 3-year time series (2004, 2005, and 2006) at a fixed shelf station, and from spring-summer spatial surveys during the same period. To estimate copepod production (CP), we used species-biomasses and associated C-specific growth rates from temperature dependent equations (food-saturated) for the dominant species, which we assumed were maximal growth rates (gmax). Using chlorophyll-a concentrations as a proxy for food conditions, we determined a size-dependent half-saturation constant with the Michaelis-Menten equation to derive growth rates (g) under the effect of food limitation. These food-dependent C-specific growth rates were much lower (absence of bottom-up control, allowing copepods to grow without limitation due to food resources.

  4. Seasonal variability and trends in coastal upwelling across the Northwest African coastline, 1981-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropper, T. E.; Hanna, E.; Bigg, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    The evolution of coastal upwelling systems under global warming is of huge biological, climatological and socio-economic importance. It was hypothesized in the early 1990's that upwelling might increase as a result of stronger land-ocean pressure gradients, however published results since then have conflicted as to whether coastal upwelling intensity has increased across the NW African coastline. Here, we present seasonal upwelling estimates for NW Africa (11-35°N) from 1981-2012, focusing mainly on changes during summer (JJA). Seasonal coastal upwelling indices are derived or estimated from several near-surface wind, sea-surface temperature (SST), sea-surface height (SSH), geometric vertical velocity and near-surface horizontal current datasets. For the wind-stress upwelling indices we use observational data (ICOADS), forecast model data (PFEL) and five atmospheric reanalysis datasets (ERA-Interim, NCEP-DOE II, 20th Century Reanalysis, MERRA and CFSR). For the SST indices we use the HadISST, Reynolds OISST and ICOADS datasets and for SSH we use satellite altimetry data from AVISO. Ocean reanalysis products (ORS4A, SODA 2.1.6 and GODAS) are used for ocean motion data. The numerous indices generally correlate well spatially, all reflecting a similar pattern induced by the trade wind climatology A statistically significant upwelling increase above 21°N is found in several indices, with a corresponding decrease in upwelling intensity below 20°N as well. This supports the upwelling intensification hypothesis as at approximately 20°N the summer trade winds are displaced by onshore monsoonal winds, which favour downwelling. However, these trend directions aren't ubiquitous across all the datasets, with most of the reanalysis wind indices suggesting no significant trend direction and sea-level height from altimetry showing no signs of lowering at coastal gridpoints (which would potentially indicate an upwelling increase). We attempt to validate if upwelling trends are

  5. Evolution to decay of upwelling and associated biogeochemistry over the southeastern Arabian sea shelf

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, G.V.M.; Sudheesh, V.; Sudharma, K.V.; Saravanane, N.; Dhanya, V.; Dhanya, K.R.; Lakshmi, G.; Sudhakar, M.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    (SM). By changing an oligotrophic to a nutrient-replete condition, the upwelling is the major process that regulates the biogeochemistry of this shelf. Its onset is perceptible at 100m depth between January and March. The upwelling reaches the surface...

  6. How marine upwelling influences the distribution of Artemesia longinaris (Decapoda: Penaeoidea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo S Sancinetti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Upwelling events can occur in most of the oceans altering the water physical, chemical and sediment conditions and consequently the species communities dwelling the areas. For better understanding the behavior of populations inhabiting upwelling regions, the spatial and temporal distribution of a Penaeoidea shrimp was studied correlating it with the abiotic factors that vary during upwelling and non-upwelling periods in an area under influence of Cabo Frio upwelling. Bottom salinity and temperature, organic matter and sediment type from each station were sampled from March 2008 to February 2010, in six stations located between 5 and 45 m depth. The lowest temperatures were recorded during spring and summer for both years with temperature values lower than 19ºC. A total of 26,466 Artemesia longinaris shrimps were captured mainly in 10-35 m depth. Upwelling periods showed significant differences in abundance in relation to non-upwelling periods. The spatial distribution among stations varied according to the temperature with higher abundance in stations with values between 19 and 21ºC. The highest abundance of A. longinaris was recorded in spring and summer when intrusions of the cold waters of South Atlantic Central Waters (SACW were frequent. Thus, the effect of cold water of SACW boosted by the upwelling was a determinant factor in the spatial and temporal distribution of A. longinaris in the studied region.

  7. Nitrogen transfers off Walvis Bay: a 3-D coupled physical/biogeochemical modeling approach in the Namibian upwelling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutknecht, E.; Dadou, I.; Marchesiello, P.; Cambon, G.; Le Vu, B.; Sudre, J.; Garçon, V.; Machu, E.; Rixen, T.; Kock, A.; Flohr, A.; Paulmier, A.; Lavik, G.

    2013-06-01

    Eastern boundary upwelling systems (EBUS) are regions of high primary production often associated with oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). They represent key regions for the oceanic nitrogen (N) cycle. By exporting organic matter (OM) and nutrients produced in the coastal region to the open ocean, EBUS can play an important role in sustaining primary production in subtropical gyres. However, losses of fixed inorganic N through denitrification and anammox processes take place in oxygen depleted environments such as EBUS, and can potentially mitigate the role of these regions as a source of N to the open ocean. EBUS can also represent a considerable source of nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere, affecting the atmospheric budget of N2O. In this paper a 3-D coupled physical/biogeochemical model (ROMS/BioEBUS) is used to investigate the N budget in the Namibian upwelling system. The main processes linked to EBUS and associated OMZs are taken into account. The study focuses on the northern part of the Benguela upwelling system (BUS), especially the Walvis Bay area (between 22° S and 24° S) where the OMZ is well developed. Fluxes of N off the Walvis Bay area are estimated in order to understand and quantify (1) the total N offshore export from the upwelling area, representing a possible N source that sustains primary production in the South Atlantic subtropical gyre; (2) export production and subsequent losses of fixed N via denitrification and anammox under suboxic conditions (O2 < 25 mmol O2 m-3); and (3) the N2O emission to the atmosphere in the upwelling area. In the mixed layer, the total N offshore export is estimated as 8.5 ± 3.9 × 1010 mol N yr-1 at 10° E off the Walvis Bay area, with a mesoscale contribution of 20%. Extrapolated to the whole BUS, the coastal N source for the subtropical gyre corresponds to 0.1 ± 0.04 mol N m-2 yr-1. This N flux represents a major source of N for the gyre compared with other N sources, and contributes 28% of the new primary

  8. Nitrogen transfers off Walvis Bay: a 3-D coupled physical/biogeochemical modeling approach in the Namibian upwelling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gutknecht

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Eastern boundary upwelling systems (EBUS are regions of high primary production often associated with oxygen minimum zones (OMZs. They represent key regions for the oceanic nitrogen (N cycle. By exporting organic matter (OM and nutrients produced in the coastal region to the open ocean, EBUS can play an important role in sustaining primary production in subtropical gyres. However, losses of fixed inorganic N through denitrification and anammox processes take place in oxygen depleted environments such as EBUS, and can potentially mitigate the role of these regions as a source of N to the open ocean. EBUS can also represent a considerable source of nitrous oxide (N2O to the atmosphere, affecting the atmospheric budget of N2O. In this paper a 3-D coupled physical/biogeochemical model (ROMS/BioEBUS is used to investigate the N budget in the Namibian upwelling system. The main processes linked to EBUS and associated OMZs are taken into account. The study focuses on the northern part of the Benguela upwelling system (BUS, especially the Walvis Bay area (between 22° S and 24° S where the OMZ is well developed. Fluxes of N off the Walvis Bay area are estimated in order to understand and quantify (1 the total N offshore export from the upwelling area, representing a possible N source that sustains primary production in the South Atlantic subtropical gyre; (2 export production and subsequent losses of fixed N via denitrification and anammox under suboxic conditions (O2 2 m−3; and (3 the N2O emission to the atmosphere in the upwelling area. In the mixed layer, the total N offshore export is estimated as 8.5 ± 3.9 × 1010 mol N yr−1 at 10° E off the Walvis Bay area, with a mesoscale contribution of 20%. Extrapolated to the whole BUS, the coastal N source for the subtropical gyre corresponds to 0.1 ± 0.04 mol N m−2 yr−1. This N flux represents a major source of N for the gyre compared with other N sources, and contributes 28% of the new primary

  9. Seasonal patterns of wind-induced upwelling/downwelling in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Bakun

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The historical file of wind observations from maritime weather reports is summarized to identify the characteristic seasonal distributions of wind-induced Ekman upwelling and downwelling in the Mediterranean Sea. Both coastal upwelling/downwelling and wind-stress curl-driven open ocean upwelling/downwelling are treated in a unified description. Vigorous upwelling zones are found in the eastern Aegean Sea, off the west coast of Greece, and in the Gulf of Lyons. The southern coast of the Mediterranean is found to be primarily a downwelling area, although significant coastal upwelling does appear in the Gulf of Sidra during the spring and summer seasons, and along the Algerian coast during summer.

  10. Variability of Iberian upwelling implied by ERA-40 and ERA-Interim reanalyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. R. Alves

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Regional Ocean Modeling System ocean model is used to simulate the decadal evolution of the regional waters in offshore Iberia in response to atmospheric fields given by ECMWF ERA-40 (1961–2001 and ERA-Interim (1989–2008 reanalyses. The simulated sea surface temperature (SST fields are verified against satellite AVHRR SST, and they are analysed to characterise the variability and trends of coastal upwelling in the region. Opposing trends in upwelling frequency are found at the northern limit, where upwelling has been decreasing in recent decades, and at its southern edge, where there is some evidence of increased upwelling. These results confirm previous observational studies and, more importantly, indicate that observed SST trends are not only due to changes in radiative or atmospheric heat fluxes alone but also due to changes in upwelling dynamics, suggesting that such a process may be relevant in climate change scenarios.

  11. Combining tower mixing ratio and community model data to estimate regional-scale net ecosystem carbon exchange by boundary layer inversion over four flux towers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Xuerui; Lai, Chun-Ta; Hollinger, David Y.; Schauer, Andrew J.; Xiao, Jingfeng; Munger, J. William; Owensby, Clenton; Ehleringer, James R.

    2011-09-01

    We evaluated an idealized boundary layer (BL) model with simple parameterizations using vertical transport information from community model outputs (NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis and ECMWF Interim Analysis) to estimate regional-scale net CO2 fluxes from 2002 to 2007 at three forest and one grassland flux sites in the United States. The BL modeling approach builds on a mixed-layer model to infer monthly average net CO2 fluxes using high-precision mixing ratio measurements taken on flux towers. We compared BL model net ecosystem exchange (NEE) with estimates from two independent approaches. First, we compared modeled NEE with tower eddy covariance measurements. The second approach (EC-MOD) was a data-driven method that upscaled EC fluxes from towers to regions using MODIS data streams. Comparisons between modeled CO2 and tower NEE fluxes showed that modeled regional CO2 fluxes displayed interannual and intra-annual variations similar to the tower NEE fluxes at the Rannells Prairie and Wind River Forest sites, but model predictions were frequently different from NEE observations at the Harvard Forest and Howland Forest sites. At the Howland Forest site, modeled CO2 fluxes showed a lag in the onset of growing season uptake by 2 months behind that of tower measurements. At the Harvard Forest site, modeled CO2 fluxes agreed with the timing of growing season uptake but underestimated the magnitude of observed NEE seasonal fluctuation. This modeling inconsistency among sites can be partially attributed to the likely misrepresentation of atmospheric transport and/or CO2 gradients between ABL and the free troposphere in the idealized BL model. EC-MOD fluxes showed that spatial heterogeneity in land use and cover very likely explained the majority of the data-model inconsistency. We show a site-dependent atmospheric rectifier effect that appears to have had the largest impact on ABL CO2 inversion in the North American Great Plains. We conclude that a systematic BL modeling approach

  12. Habitat use of calling baleen whales in the southern California Current Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which temporal, spatial, environmental, and physiological factors influence baleen whale acoustic occurrence was investigated in the southern California Current Ecosystem, a highly productive, upwelling-driven ecosystem that hosts a large abundance of top predators. By combining data sets from ten years of passive acoustic monitoring and concurrent environmental sampling, thisdissertation presents detailed intra-annual and mesoscale spatial patterns previously unknown. Analyses ...

  13. Combined impact of ocean acidification and corrosive waters in a river-influenced coastal upwelling area off Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, C.; De La Hoz, M.; San Martin, V.; Contreras, P.; Navarro, J. M.; Lagos, N. A.; Lardies, M.; Manríquez, P. H.; Torres, R.

    2012-12-01

    Elevated CO2 in the atmosphere promotes a cascade of physical and chemical changes affecting all levels of biological organization, and the evidence from local to global scales has shown that such anthropogenic climate change has triggered significant responses in the Earth's biota. The increased concentration of CO2 is likely to cause a corresponding increase in ocean acidification (OA). In addition, economically valuable shellfish species predominantly inhabit coastal regions both in natural stocks and/or in managed stocks and farming areas. Many coastal ecosystems may experience seawater pCO2 levels significantly higher than expected from equilibrium with the atmosphere, which in this case are strongly linked to biological processes and/or the impact of two important processes; river plumes and coastal upwelling events, which indeed interplay in a very dynamic way on continental shelves, resulting in both source or sink of CO2 to the atmosphere. Coastal ecosystems receive persistent acid inputs as a result of freshwater discharges from river basins into the coastal domain. In this context, since shellfish resources and shellfish aquaculture activities predominantly occur in nearshore areas, it is expected that shellfish species inhabiting river-influenced benthic ecosystems will be exposed persistently to acidic conditions that are suboptimal for its development. In a wider ecological context, little is also known about the potential impacts of acid waters on the performance of larvae and juveniles of almost all the marine species inhabiting this benthic ecosystem in Eastern Southern Pacific Ocean. We present here the main results of a research study aimed to investigate the environmental conditions to which economically valuable calcifiers shellfish species are exposed in a river-influenced continental shelf off Central Chile. By using isotopic measurements in the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) pool (d13C-DIC) we showed the effect of the remineralization of

  14. A numerical investigation of the atmosphere-ocean thermal contrast over the coastal upwelling region of Cabo Frio, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourado, M. [Departamento de Meteorologia, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: marcelo_dourado@ufpel.edu.br; Pereira de Oliveira, A. [Departamento de Ciencias Atmosfericas, Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    An one-dimensional atmospheric second order closure model, coupled to an oceanic mixed layer model, is used to investigate the short term variation of the atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers in the coastal upwelling area of Cabo Frio, Brazil (23 degrees Celsius S, 42 degrees Celsius 08' W). The numerical simulations were carried out to evaluate the impact caused by the thermal contrast between atmosphere and ocean on the vertical extent and other properties of both atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers. The numerical simulations were designed taking as reference the observations carried out during the passage of a cold front that disrupted the upwelling regime in Cabo Frio in July of 1992. The simulations indicated that in 10 hours the mechanical mixing, sustained by a constant background flow of 10 m s-1, increases the atmospheric boundary layer in 214 m when the atmosphere is initially 2 K warmer than the ocean (positive thermal contrast observed during upwelling regime). For an atmosphere initially -2 K colder than the ocean (negative thermal contrast observed during passage of the cold front), the incipient thermal convection intensifies the mechanical mixing increasing the vertical extent of the atmospheric boundary layer in 360 m. The vertical evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer is consistent with the observations carried out in Cabo Frio during upwelling condition. When the upwelling is disrupted, the discrepancy between the simulated and observed atmospheric boundary layer heights in Cabo Frio during July of 1992 increases considerably. During the period of 10 hours, the simulated oceanic mixed layer deepens 2 m and 5.4 m for positive and negative thermal contrasts of 2 K and -2 K, respectively. In the latter case, the larger vertical extent of the oceanic mixed layer is due to the presence of thermal convection in the atmospheric boundary layer, which in turn is associated to the absence of upwelling caused by the passage of cold fronts

  15. Phytoplankton blooms on the western shelf of Tasmania: evidence of a highly productive ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpf, J.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite-derived chlorophyll a data using the standard NASA-OC3 (ocean colour) algorithm are strongly biased by coloured dissolved organic matter and suspended sediment of river discharges, which is a particular problem for the western Tasmanian shelf. This work reconstructs phytoplankton blooms in the study region using a quadratic regression between OC3 data and chlorophyll fluorescence based on the fluorescence line height (FLH) data. This regression is derived from satellite data of the nearby Bonney upwelling region, which is devoid of river influences. To this end, analyses of 10 years of MODIS-aqua satellite data reveal the existence of a highly productive ecosystem on the western Tasmanian shelf. The region normally experiences two phytoplankton blooms per annum. The first bloom occurs during late austral summer months as a consequence of upwelling-favourable coastal winds. Hence, the western Tasmanian shelf forms a previously unknown upwelling centre of the regional upwelling system, known as Great South Australian Coastal Upwelling System. The second phytoplankton bloom is a classical spring bloom also developing in the adjacent Tasman Sea. The author postulates that this region forms another important biological hot spot for the regional marine ecosystem.

  16. Ecosystem functioning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jax, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    "In the face of decreasing biodiversity and ongoing global changes, maintaining ecosystem functioning is seen both as a means to preserve biological diversity as well as for safeguarding human well...

  17. Ecosystem, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trend of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Lagos Lagoon. Ecosystem ... these various factors, Oyewo (1998) estimated levels of ... Measurement of some physico-chemical parameters ... Further analysis was carried out only where there was a ...

  18. The Mono Arch, eastern Sierra region, California: Dynamic topography associated with upper-mantle upwelling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayko, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    A broad, topographic flexure localized east of and over the central and southern Sierra Nevada, herein named the Mono Arch, apparently represents crustal response to lithospheric and/or upper-mantle processes, probably dominated by mantle upwelling within the continental interior associated Pacific-North American plate-boundary deformation. This zone of flexure is identified through comparison between the topographic characteristics of the active Cascade volcanic arc and backarc regions with the analogous former arc and backarc in the Sierra Nevada and eastern Sierra Nevada. Serial topographic profiles measured normal to the modern Cascade backarc reveal an accordance of topographic lows defined by valley floors with an average minimum elevation of ???1400-1500m for over 175km to the southeast. Although the accordance drops in elevation slightly to the south, the modern Cascade backarc region is remarkably level, and is characterized by relief up to ???750m above this baseline elevation. By contrast, serial topographic profiles over the former arc and backarc transitions of the eastern Sierra region exhibit a regional anticlinal warping defined by accordant valley floors and by a late Miocene-early Pliocene erosion surface and associated deposits. The amplitude of this flexure above regionally flat baseline elevations to the east varies spatially along the length of the former Sierran arc, with a maximum of ???1000m centred over the Bridgeport Basin. The total zone of flexure is approximately 350km long N-S and 100km wide E-W, and extends from Indian Wells Valley in the south to the Sonora Pass region in the north. Previous geophysical, petrologic, and geodetic studies suggest that the Mono Arch overlies a zone of active mantle upwelling. This region also represents a zone crustal weakness formerly exploited by the middle-to-late Miocene arc and is presently the locus of seismic and volcanic activities. This seismic zone, which lies east of the Sierra Nevada block

  19. Identification of upwelling areas in the Oman Sea Using Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Masoud

    2016-07-01

    Satellite-derived sea-surface temperature, TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) sea-level anomalies (SLAs), modeled wind data, and hydrodynamic data from World Ocean Database were used to characterize the upwelling along the Oman Sea coasts during 2002 - 2012. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the satellite-derived sea-surface temperature (SST) shows the first mode affected by upwelling processes, which represents a biannual variability. In addition, the SST shows the upwelling front moving offshore with the development of Southwest (SW) Monsoon in early June. SST shows the persistence of cold upwelling waters for nearly a month after the end of the SW Monsoon within the bays along the Oman coast. TOPEX/POSEIDON SLAs indicate that with the onset of the SW Monsoon, a 30-cm drop in height is observed along the Oman coast associated the presence of the cool upwelled waters. This drop in height sets up a horizontal pressure gradient and results in a compensating along-shore, northeastward flowing, geostrophic current (East Arabian Current) during the SW Monsoon. Similarly, the altimeter data slow an offshore decrease in height during the Northeast (NE) Monsoon, indicating a seasonal reversal in direction of the East Oman Currents with flow to the southwest. The following upwelling characteristics are identified for the Oman upwelling zone: 1- Upwelling zones have seen along Oman and Pakistan coasts and in the western coasts, like Iran, persistent upwelling zones are not available. 2- Upwelling zones along Oman coasts are more persistent and developed than in Pakistan coastal area. 3- Upwelling in the Oman and East Pakistan coasts starts with SW-Monsoon and will developed in the mid-August, adjusted with summer cooling. 4- Along Oman Sea, upwelling zones were developed between Rasal-Haddad and the southern bay. Mean SST during SW-Monsoon is about 22 °C. 5-Waters with temperature about 23°C were upwelled from depth 50-75 m along Oman coasts, and about 50 m along Pakistan coasts. 6

  20. Examining Lagrangian surface transport during a coastal upwelling in the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpeche-Ellmann, Nicole; Mingelaitė, Toma; Soomere, Tarmo

    2017-07-01

    We employ in-situ surface drifters and satellite derived sea surface temperature data to examine the impact that an upwelling event may have on mixing and Lagrangian transport of surrounding surface waters. The test area is located near the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland where easterly winds are known to trigger intense coastal upwellings. The analysis is based on the comparison of motions of three drifters that follow the currents in the uppermost layer with a thickness of 2 m with MODIS-based sea surface temperature data and high-quality open sea wind time series. The presence of an upwelling event superseded the classic Ekman-type drift of the surface layer and considerably slowed down the average speed of surface currents in the region affected by the upwelled cold water jet and its filaments. The drifters tended to stay amidst the surrounding surface waters. The properties of mixing were evaluated using the daily rate of temperature change along several transects. The upwelled cooler water largely kept its identity during almost the entire duration of the upwelling event. Intense mixing started at a later stage of the upwelling and continued after the end of the event when the winds that have driven the entire process began to subside.

  1. Long-term trends of upwelling and impacts on primary productivity in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickart, Robert S.; Schulze, Lena M.; Moore, G. W. K.; Charette, Matthew A.; Arrigo, Kevin R.; van Dijken, Gert; Danielson, Seth L.

    2013-09-01

    Using a previously established wind proxy for upwelling along the North Slope of Alaska, we examine the interannual to decadal variability in upwelling as well as the climatological monthly trends. The ability of the upwelling to trigger phytoplankton blooms via upward nitrate flux from the halocline is then investigated using data from a moored array together with the proxy. The 70-year record of wind speed from the Barrow, Alaska meteorological station (1941-2010) reveals that strong upwelling events - lasting at least 4 days and exceeding 10 m/s during the storm - occur throughout the year. On average there are 9-10 upwelling events per year, and the number and strength of events has increased over the last 25 years. The low-frequency variability in the upwelling co-varies with previously documented Arctic climate trends, but there is no significant correlation with various high latitude atmospheric indices. There are two seasonal peaks in the occurrence of upwelling, in May and November. The role of the Beaufort High and Aleutian Low in driving the upwelling is investigated using NCEP reanalysis fields. Fluctuations in both of these centers of action contribute to the enhanced winds, and the location of the Aleutian Low storm track plays a key role in the seasonal variability of the upwelling. The upward nitrate flux due to storms in the open water period can account for new primary production that is on par with carbon fixed during the summer growing season in the absence of storms. Evidence from satellite ocean color data of such wind-induced phytoplankton blooms is presented.

  2. Biological and oceanographic upwelling indicators at Cabo Frio (RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleyci A. O. Moser

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton biomass, chemical parameters and hydrology were studied in a transect 101.6 km long off Cabo Frio (RJ, Southeast Brazil, during summer (December 29 to 31, 1991 and winter (June 27 to 30, 1992. Wind induced upwelling events are frequently observed in the area during summer, becoming rare during winter. By the summer cruise a bloom of phytoplankton was observed in surface, close to the coast, with chlorophyll concentrations reaching 25.55 mg Chl-a m-3, uncoupled from the cold, nutrient rich waters of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW, found below 40 m depth. During the winter cruise, the SACW raised at the surface waters in front of Cabo Frio depicting an upwelling event. However, in spite of high surface nitrate concentrations (up to 7.7 f.1M chlorophyll-a were lower than 2 mg Chl-a m-3. The phytoplankton biomass, meteorological and hydrological data suggest a probable upwelling event immediately before the summer cruise, and an ongoing one during winter time. Cluster analyses and principal component analyses (PCA were applied to summer and winter data, pointing out multidimensional fronts in the area during both seasons.A biomassa fitoplanctônica, parâmetros químicos e hidrologia foram estudadas em um transecto de 101,6 Km ao largo de Cabo Frio, (RJ Brasil, durante o verão (Dezembro 29 a 31, 1991 e inverno (Junho 27 a 30, 1992. Nesta área, eventos de ressurgência induzidos pelo vento são comuns durante o verão, tornando-se mais raros durante o inverno. Durante o período de verão uma floração de fitoplâncton foi observada na superfície próximo ao continente, apresentando um máximo de clorofila-a igual a 25,55 mg Cl-a m'3 desacoplado das águas frias e ricas em nutrientes da Água Central do Atlântico Sul (ACAS, presente abaixo de 40 m. Durante o inverno, a ACAS alcançou a superflcie em frente a Cabo Frio, caracterizando um evento de ressurgência. Entretanto, apesar das altas concentrações de nitrato na superf

  3. Corona Formation and Heat Loss on Venus by Coupled Upwelling and Delamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Stofan, Ellen R.

    1997-01-01

    Coronae are volcanotectonic features that are unique to Venus and are interpreted to be small-scale upwellings. A model in which upwelling causes delamination at the edge of the plume head, along with deformation of a pre-existing depleted mantel Layer, can produce the full range of topographic forms of coronae. If half of the coronae are active, delamination of the lower lithosphere could account for about 10% of venus's heat loss, with another 15% due to upwelling. Delamination may occur in other geologic enviroment and could help account for 'Venus' heat loss 'deficit'.

  4. Open Informational Ecosystems: The Missing Link for Sharing Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerres, Michael; Heinen, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Open educational resources are not available "as such". Their provision relies on a technological infrastructure of related services that can be described as an informational ecosystem. A closed informational ecosystem keeps educational resources within its boundary. An open informational ecosystem relies on the concurrence of…

  5. Controlled artificial upwelling in a fjord to combat toxic algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClimans, T. A.; Hansen, A. H.; Fredheim, A.; Lien, E.; Reitan, K. I.

    2003-04-01

    During the summer, primary production in the surface layers of some fjords depletes the nutrients to the degree that some arts of toxic algae dominate the flora. We describe an experiment employing a bubble curtain to lift significant amounts of nutrient-rich seawater to the light zone and provide an environment in which useful algae can survive. The motivation for the experiment is to provide a local region in which mussels can be cleansed from the effects of toxic algae. Three 100-m long, perforated pipes were suspended at 40 m depth in the Arnafjord, a side arm of the Sognefjord. Large amounts of compressed air were supplied during a period of three weeks. The deeper water mixed with the surface water and flowed from the mixing region at 5 to 15 m depth. Within a few days, the mixture of nutrient-rich water covered most of the inner portion of Arnafjord. Within 10 days, the plankton samples showed that the artificial upwelling produced the desired type of algae and excluded the toxic blooms that were occurring outside the manipulated fjord arm. The project (DETOX) is supported by the Norwegian ministries of Fisheries, Agriculture and Public Administration.

  6. Metagenomes of the picoalga Bathycoccus from the Chile coastal upwelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vaulot

    Full Text Available Among small photosynthetic eukaryotes that play a key role in oceanic food webs, picoplanktonic Mamiellophyceae such as Bathycoccus, Micromonas, and Ostreococcus are particularly important in coastal regions. By using a combination of cell sorting by flow cytometry, whole genome amplification (WGA, and 454 pyrosequencing, we obtained metagenomic data for two natural picophytoplankton populations from the coastal upwelling waters off central Chile. About 60% of the reads of each sample could be mapped to the genome of Bathycoccus strain from the Mediterranean Sea (RCC1105, representing a total of 9 Mbp (sample T142 and 13 Mbp (sample T149 of non-redundant Bathycoccus genome sequences. WGA did not amplify all regions uniformly, resulting in unequal coverage along a given chromosome and between chromosomes. The identity at the DNA level between the metagenomes and the cultured genome was very high (96.3% identical bases for the three larger chromosomes over a 360 kbp alignment. At least two to three different genotypes seemed to be present in each natural sample based on read mapping to Bathycoccus RCC1105 genome.

  7. Designer ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awasthi, Ashutosh; Singh, Kripal; O'Grady, Audrey; Courtney, Ronan; Kalra, Alok; Singh, Rana Pratap; Cerda Bolinches, Artemio; Steinberger, Yosef; Patra, D.D.

    2016-01-01

    Increase in human population is accelerating the rate of land use change, biodiversity loss and habitat degradation, triggering a serious threat to life supporting ecosystem services. Existing strategies for biological conservation remain insufficient to achieve a sustainable human-nature relatio

  8. On an upwelling front along the west coast of India during later part of southwest monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Antony, M.K.

    A coastal front, associated with upwelling, is identified from the observed thermal field along the west coast of India during September, 1987. The front, which is seen very clearly upto a depth of about 75 m, has a horizontal gradient...

  9. Ekman Upwelling, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes science quality Ekman current (in zonal, meridional, and modulus sets) and Ekman upwelling data. This data begins with wind velocity...

  10. Ekman Upwelling, METOP ASCAT, 0.25 degrees, Global, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes near real time Ekman current (in zonal, meridional, and modulus sets) and Ekman upwelling data. This data begins with wind velocity...

  11. Upwelling variability along the southern coast of Bali and in Nusa Tenggara waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningsih, Nining Sari; Rakhmaputeri, Noviani; Harto, Agung B.

    2013-03-01

    Spatial and temporal variation of upwelling along the southern coast of Bali and in the Nusa Tenggara waters — Indonesia was studied by using satellite image data of sea surface temperatures and chlorophyll-a from September 1997 to December 2008. This study clearly reveals annual upwelling in the regions from June to October, associated with the southeast monsoon cycle, with the sea surface temperature (chlorophyll-a concentration) being colder (higher) than that during the northwest monsoon. In addition, this study also shows that the upwelling strength is controlled remotely by ENSO and IOD climate phenomena. During El Niño/positive IOD (La Niña/negative IOD) periods, the Bali — Nusa Tenggara upwelling strength increases (decreases).

  12. Coastal Upwelling Activity on the Pacific Shelf of the Baja California Peninsula

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zaytsev, Oleg; Cervantes-Duarte, Rafael; Montante, Orzo; Gallegos-Garcia, Artemio

    2003-01-01

    High primary productivity on the Pacific coast of the Baja California Peninsula is usually related to coastal upwelling activity that injects nutrients into the euphotic zone in response to prevailing longshore winds...

  13. Ekman Upwelling, METOP ASCAT, 0.25 degrees, Global, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes near real time Ekman current (in zonal, meridional, and modulus sets) and Ekman upwelling data. This data begins with wind velocity...

  14. Ekman Upwelling, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes science quality Ekman current (in zonal, meridional, and modulus sets) and Ekman upwelling data. This data begins with wind velocity...

  15. Diatoms Si uptake capacity drives carbon export in coastal upwelling systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrantes, F.; Cermeno, P.; Lopes, C.; Romero, O.; Rufino, M.; van Iperen, J.; Matos, L.; Magalhães, V.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal upwelling systems account for approximatelyhalf of global ocean primary production and contributedisproportionately to biologically driven carbon sequestration.Diatoms, silica-precipitating microalgae, constitutethe dominant phytoplankton in these productive regions,and their abundance and a

  16. Ocean variability over the Agulhas Bank and its dynamical connection with the southern Benguela upwelling system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Blanke, B

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the oceanic pathway connecting the Agulhas Bank to the southern Benguela upwelling system by means of a quantitative Lagrangian interpretation of the velocity field calculated by a high-resolution numerical simulation...

  17. Observational evidence of upwelling off the southwest coast of India during June-July 2006

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Lekshmi, S.; Smitha, B.R.; Revichandran, C.

    Considerable latitudinal variability exists in the forcing mechanisms and intensity of coastal upwelling along the southwest coast of India. Present work is based on the insitu observations conducted onboard FORV Sagar Sampada for 12 days along two...

  18. A Fortran-77 program for Monte Carlo simulation of upwelling light from the sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sathe, P.V.; Sathyendranath, S.

    it begins the simulation of radiation transfer. The following are the input parameters which the user controls in every run. (!) Maximum number of photons to be run (2) Solar elevation (3) Fraction of diffuse light present (4) Spectral composition... angular interval (18 intervals of 5 ° each). This is followed by spectral distribution of upwelling light within each of these 18 angular intervals (15 spectral intervals of 20nm each). (4) Status of upwelling light just below the sea surface. Both...

  19. Kinematic models for the opening of the South China Sea: An upwelling divergent flow origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Hu, Jiwei; Yang, Dinghui; Song, Haibin; Wang, Zhenhua

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the kinematics of continent breakup and seafloor spreading in response to the upwelling divergent mantle flow using the optimal nearly-analytical discrete method. Modeling results show that a larger upwelling rate (Vz) in the upwelling divergent flow system favors the earlier development of continent breakup and seafloor spreading and the formation of narrow continental rifted margins and mantle exhumation; while a larger half divergent rate (Vx) favors the diffusive lithospheric thinning and the formation of wide continental rifted margins and mantle exhumation. The upwelling divergent flow-driven continent extension is strongly depth-dependent at the proximal margins, but it behaves approximately in a depth-uniform manner at the distal margins. Application of this model to the South China Sea (SCS) demonstrates that: (1) an upwelling flow operation with Vz = 0.3 cm/yr can explain the pre-spreading continent extension of the SCS between ca. 65 Ma and ca. 33 Ma; (2) the followed upwelling divergent flow with Vx = 2.5 cm/yr and Vz = 0.3 cm/yr can reproduce the seafloor spreading history at ca. 33-16 Ma in the SCS central oceanic basin; and (3) the post-16 Ma thermal cooling since the cessation of the SCS seafloor spreading contributed ∼1.2 km to the present-day bathymetry at the relict spreading ridge. The upwelling divergent flow with a high ratio of Vx/Vz was also likely responsible for the occurrence of the very wide rifted continental margins bounded the SCS. We suggest that an upwelling divergent mantle flow played a leading role in the opening of the SCS.

  20. Upwelling Dynamics off Monterey Bay: Heat Flux and Temperature Variability, and their Sensitivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Jamieson and the other donors to the Paul E. Gray Endowed Fund for UROP. 5 Table of contents Acknowledgements...viscous stress. In the surface Ekman layer, as the result of these stresses, the net transport is 90 degrees to the right of the wind in the northern...upward fluid motions). Upwelling can also occur in non-coastal areas. Equatorial upwelling occurs due to the opposite directions of Ekman drift

  1. Practical limitations on the use of diurnal temperature signals to quantify groundwater upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Martin; Lautz, Laura K.; Buckley, Sean F.; Lane, Jr., John W.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater upwelling to streams creates unique habitat by influencing stream water quality and temperature; upwelling zones also serve as vectors for contamination when groundwater is degraded. Temperature time series data acquired along vertical profiles in the streambed have been applied to simple analytical models to determine rates of vertical fluid flux. These models are based on the downward propagation characteristics (amplitude attenuation and phase-lag) of the surface diurnal signal. Despite the popularity of these models, there are few published characterizations of moderate-to-strong upwelling. We attribute this limitation to the thermodynamics of upwelling, under which the downward conductive signal transport from the streambed interface occurs opposite the upward advective fluid flux. Governing equations describing the advection–diffusion of heat within the streambed predict that under upwelling conditions, signal amplitude attenuation will increase, but, counterintuitively, phase-lag will decrease. Therefore the extinction (measurable) depth of the diurnal signal is very shallow, but phase lag is also short, yielding low signal to noise ratio and poor model sensitivity. Conversely, amplitude attenuation over similar sensor spacing is strong, yielding greater potential model sensitivity. Here we present streambed thermal time series over a range of moderate to strong upwelling sites in the Quashnet River, Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The predicted inverse relationship between phase-lag and rate of upwelling was observed in the field data over a range of conditions, but the observed phase-lags were consistently shorter than predicted. Analytical solutions for fluid flux based on signal amplitude attenuation return results consistent with numerical models and physical seepage meters, but the phase-lag analytical model results are generally unreasonable. Through numerical modeling we explore reasons why phase-lag may have been over-predicted by the

  2. Growth of the Humboldt Current krill in the upwelling zone off central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme-Bugueño, Ramiro; Silva-Aburto, Jocelyn; Escribano, Rubén; Peterson, William T.; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2016-11-01

    Temporal variability in the daily growth rate (DGR) of the Humboldt Current krill, Euphausia mucronata, was studied in eighteen incubation experiments off the coast of Dichato, central Chile (36.5°S), carried out in 2011-2014. Intermolt period (IMP) was derived from the molting rate method in order to estimate the DGRs. Mean IMP was 9.2 ± 4.8 days (range: 2.9-18.7 d). Overall mean DGR was 0.03 ± 0.13 mm d- 1. DGR showed a dome-shaped pattern, with a higher mean DGR when upwelling was moderate (0.06 ± 0.04 mm d- 1) than intense (0.01 ± 0.00 mm d- 1) or weak (0.01 ± - 0.01 mm d- 1). This dome-shaped trend was observed in chlorophyll-a concentrations (Chla) at similar upwelling regimens. E. mucronata DGR variability was best explained by a generalized linear model which included the contribution of the Equatorial Subsurface Water, temperature, dissolved oxygen and Chla as predictor variables. Results suggest that E. mucronata is better adapted to grow under upwelling conditions when it can take advantage of high biological productivity, although the species growth is not limited when weak upwelling or even downwelling occurs. Analysis of the duration of the upwelling events suggest that E. mucronata growth is limited (shrinking) when upwellings last > 10 days.

  3. Potential new production in two upwelling regions of the western Arabian Sea: Estimation and comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiaomei; Zhan, Haigang; Du, Yan

    2016-07-01

    Using satellite-derived and in situ data, the wind-driven potential new production (nitrate supply) for the 300 km wide coastal band in two upwelling regions of the western Arabian Sea (AS) during the southwest monsoon is estimated. The upward nitrate flux to the euphotic zone is generally based on the physical processes of coastal transport (Ekman transport and geostrophic transport) and offshore Ekman pumping. The coastal geostrophic current in the western AS influences the upwelling intensity and latitudinal distributions of nitrate supply. The Oman and Somalia upwelling regions have similar level of potential new production (nitrate supply) during the summer monsoon, while the satellite estimates of primary production off Oman are 2 times greater than those off Somalia. The much higher potential f-ratio in the Somalia upwelling region indicates that the primary production could be limited by availability of other macronutrients (e.g., silicate). The correlation analysis of the primary production and the aerosol optical thickness shows that the Oman upwelling region displays a stronger coupling between the atmospheric deposition and the phytoplankton abundance. The high summertime dust levels in the atmosphere are suggested to contribute to the high primary production in the Oman upwelling region.

  4. Spatial and temporal seasonal trends in the major global upwelling areas during the last 30 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Varela Rodríguez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Winds at the ocean surface are a key element in the Earth system having a great impact on many economic activities and becoming really important to several oceanographic and atmospheric applications. Thus, wind above sea surface constitutes a critical parameter to analyze coastal phenomena as upwelling events. Upwelling regions are areas of high productivity compared to other areas of the ocean. In fact, over 20% of global fish catches occur in upwelling areas, although these areas occupy less than 1% of the surface of the world's oceans. Therefore, accurate surface wind datasets are needed to better analyze these processes. In this study wind data obtained from NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR database was used to analyse the four most important upwelling systems (Benguela, Canarias, Peru and California. Wind data are available for the whole world at a spatial resolution of 0.3 x 0.3 degrees and a temporal resolution of 6h from January 1982 to December 2010. Alongshore wind stress was considered to analyse variations in upwelling intensity and trends were analysed on these upwelling regions. Comparison with previous studies showed the highly dependence of the results of the length of the time series, the selected areas, the season considered for the analysis and the resolution of the used database.

  5. Dynamics of wind-driven upwelling off the northeastern coast of Hainan Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Peigen; Cheng, Peng; Gan, Jianping; Hu, Jianyu

    2016-02-01

    Both observational and reanalysis sea surface temperature data reveal that upwelling occurs frequently off the northeastern coast of Hainan Island (downstream of the change in topography off Tongluo Cape), which cannot be attributed to the along-shelf wind alone. To identify dynamics of the upwelling, we conduct a numerical experiment using an idealized topography that is simplified from the actual topography off the eastern and northeastern coasts of Hainan Island. The result indicates that the upwelling downstream of the change in topography is associated with onshore cross-isobath transport. Analysis of the vertically integrated momentum balance shows that the upwelling-linked onshore transport is primarily intensified by the along-isobath barotropic pressure gradient force (PGT), but is weakened by the along-isobath baroclinic pressure gradient force (PGC). The along-isobath PGT is linked to the advection of relative vorticity, the bottom stress curl and the gradient of momentum flux in vorticity equation. On the other hand, the PGC-related process is diagnosed by potential vorticity (PV) balance. Similar to the negative PV term from wind stress, the negative PV terms of the joint effect of baroclinicity and relief and the baroclinic bottom pressure torque weaken the upwelling-linked onshore transport downstream of the change in topography. The onshore transport is enhanced by the positive PV from bottom stress. In addition, the cross-isobath forces play an important role in upwelling intensification in the shallow nearshore region.

  6. Trends in coastal upwelling intensity during the late 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Narayan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents linear trends of coastal upwelling intensity in the later part of the 20th century (1960–2001 employing various indices of upwelling, derived from meridional wind stress and sea surface temperature. The analysis was conducted in the four major coastal upwelling regions in the world, which are off North-West Africa, Lüderitz, California and Peru. The trends in meridional wind stress showed a steady increase of intensity from 1960–2001, which was also reflected in the SST index calculated for the same time period. The steady cooling observed in the instrumental records of SST off California substantiated this observation further. It was also noted that the trends in meridional wind stress obtained from different datasets differ substantially from each other. Correlation analysis showed that basin-scale oscillations like the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO could not be directly linked to the observed increase of upwelling intensity off NW Africa and California respectively. The relationship of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO with coastal upwelling off NW Africa turned out to be ambiguous due to a negative correlation between the NAO index and the meridional wind stress and a lack of correlation with the SST index. Our results give additional support to the hypothesis that the coastal upwelling intensity increases globally because of raising greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere and an associated increase of the land-sea pressure gradient and meridional wind stress.

  7. Winter coastal upwelling off northwest Borneo in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Yunwei; LING Zheng; CHEN Changlin

    2015-01-01

    Winter coastal upwelling off northwest Borneo in the South China Sea (SCS) is investigated by using satellite data, climatological temperature and salinity fields and reanalysis data. The upwelling forms in Decem-ber, matures in January, starts to decay in February and almost disappears in March. Both Ekman trans-port induced by the alongshore winter monsoon and Ekman pumping due to orographic wind stress curl are favorable for the upwelling. Transport estimates demonstrate that the month-to-month variability of Ekman transport and Ekman pumping are both consistent with that of winter coastal upwelling, but Ek-man transport is two times larger than Ekman pumping in January and February. Under the influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the upwelling shows remarkable interannual variability: during winter of El Niño (La Niña) years, an anticyclonic (a cyclonic) wind anomaly is established in the SCS, which behaves a northeasterly (southwesterly) anomaly and a positive (negative) wind stress curl anomaly off the north-west Borneo coast, enhancing (reducing) the upwelling and causing anomalous surface cooling (warming) and higher (lower) chlorophyll concentration. The sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) associated with ENSO off the northwest Borneo coast has an opposite phase to that off southeast Vietnam, resulting in a SSTA seesaw pattern in the southern SCS in winter.

  8. Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca in Glycymeris glycymeris (Bivalvia) shells from the Iberian upwelling system: Ontogeny and environmental control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Pedro; Richardson, Christopher; Chenery, Simon; Monteiro, Carlos; Butler, Paul; Reynolds, David; Scourse, James; Gaspar, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    Bivalve shells have a great potential as high-resolution geochemical proxy archives of marine environmental conditions. In addition, sclerochronology of long-lived bivalve species (e.g. Arctica islandica) provides a timeline of absolutely dated shell material for geochemical analysis that can extend into the past beyond the lifetime of single individuals through the use of replicated crossmatched centennial to millennial chronologies. However, the interpretation of such records remains extremely challenging and complex, with multiple environmental and biological processes affecting element incorporation in the shell (e.g. crystal fabrics, organic matrix, biomineralization mechanisms and physiological processes). As a result, the effective use of bivalve shell elemental/Ca ratios as palaeoenvironmental proxies has been limited, often to species-specific applications or applications restricted to particular environmental settings. The dog-cockle, Glycymeris glycymeris, is a relatively long-lived bivalve (up to 200 years) that occurs in coarse-grained subtidal sediments of coastal shelf seas of Europe and North West Africa. Glycymeris glycymeris shells provide a valuable, albeit not fully explored, archive to reconstruct past environmental variability in an area lacking sclerochronological studies due to the rarity of long-lived bivalves and lack of coral reefs. In this study, we evaluate the potential of Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios in G. glycymeris shells as geochemical proxies of upwelling conditions in the Iberian Upwelling System, the northern section of the Canary Current Eastern Boundary Upwelling System. Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca generally co-varied significantly and a clear ontogenetic, non-environmental related change in Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca variability was observed. High Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios in older shells (> 10 years old) were found to be associated with the occurrence of growth lines deposited during the winter reduction in shell growth. Nevertheless, Sr/Ca and Mg

  9. Implications of Upwells as Hydrodynamic Jets in a Pulse Jet Mixed System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pease, Leonard F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bamberger, Judith A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Minette, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report evaluates the physics of the upwell flow in pulse jet mixed systems in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Although the initial downward flow and radial flow from pulse jet mixers (PJMs) has been analyzed in some detail, the upwells have received considerably less attention despite having significant implications for vessel mixing. Do the upwells behave like jets? How do the upwells scale? When will the central upwell breakthrough? What proportion of the vessel is blended by the upwells themselves? Indeed, how the physics of the central upwell is affected by multiple PJMs (e.g., six in the proposed mixing vessels), non-Newtonian rheology, and significant multicomponent solids loadings remain unexplored. The central upwell must satisfy several criteria to be considered a free jet. First, it must travel for several diameters in a nearly constant direction. Second, its velocity must decay with the inverse of elevation. Third, it should have an approximately Gaussian profile. Fourth, the influence of surface or body forces must be negligible. A combination of historical data in a 12.75 ft test vessel, newly analyzed data from the 8 ft test vessel, and conservation of momentum arguments derived specifically for PJM operating conditions demonstrate that the central upwell satisfies these criteria where vigorous breakthrough is achieved. An essential feature of scaling from one vessel to the next is the requirement that the underlying physics does not change adversely. One may have confidence in scaling if (1) correlations and formulas capture the relevant physics; (2) the underlying physics does not change from the conditions under which it was developed to the conditions of interest; (3) all factors relevant to scaling have been incorporated, including flow, material, and geometric considerations; and (4) the uncertainty in the relationships is sufficiently narrow to meet required specifications. Although the central upwell

  10. The seasonal upwellings in the Gulf of Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, Jean-Marc

    Observational as well as numerical experiments show that Ekman divergence neither at the equator nor at the coast can explain a significant part of the annual upwelling in the Gulf of Guinea. The remote forcing theory is tested by analyzing both historical data and the FOCAL hydrographic stations (1982-1984). The meteorological data base is analysed as well. Analyses of the thermostad show that waters with the same characteristics as those of the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) are carried by the equatorial under current (EUC) and the South Equatorial Undercurrent (SEUC) from the western-central equatorial Atlantic at 35° - 29°W towards the thermostad regions in the Gulf of Guinea. The thermostad water is then carried back westward in the two geostrophic compensation flows flanking the EUC at 2° - 3°N and 2° - 3°S. The cooling of the subthermoclinal waters off Abidjan (5°N) and Pointe-Noire (5°S) is related to the advection and vertical spreading of SACW between 500m and 50m in May-June-July. An exceptional warm event occurred in early 1984 in the Gulf of Guinea. The winds collapsed nearly completely all along the equator in January-April 1984. The onset of the African monsoon was late (in July-August 1984), then the monsoon was weaker than climatology in August-October 1984. The equatorial thermocline was observed 50m deeper than climatology in February 1984, then near the surface in July 1984. Sea levels rose over the equatorial Atlantic, the surge reaching about 13cm at 6°E in February 1984, when the western-central equatorial Atlantic was nearly flat. Minimum sea levels occurred in June-July 1984 at 6°E, before the African monsoon. During this event, the maximum speed in the shallow core of the equatorial undercurrent at 4°W and 6°E was nearly insensitive to large changes in the thermal structure (downwelling or upwelling situations). In February-May 1984, we have observed distinct increasing eastward flows at the equator below 250m and minimum

  11. The Ecology and Evolution of Constructed Ecosystems as Green Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy eLundholm

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Green infrastructure consists of ecosystems that provide valuable services to urban areas. Constructed ecosystems, including green roofs, bioretention systems, constructed wetlands and bioreactors are artificial, custom-built components of green infrastructure that are becoming more common in cities. Small size, strong spatial boundaries, ecological novelty and the role of human design characterize all constructed ecosystems, influencing their functions and interactions with other urban ecosystems. Here I outline the relevance of ecology and evolution in understanding the functioning of constructed ecosystems. In turn, a research focus on the distinctive aspects of constructed ecosystems can contribute to fundamental science.

  12. Climate change impacts on marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doney, Scott C; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Duffy, J Emmett; Barry, James P; Chan, Francis; English, Chad A; Galindo, Heather M; Grebmeier, Jacqueline M; Hollowed, Anne B; Knowlton, Nancy; Polovina, Jeffrey; Rabalais, Nancy N; Sydeman, William J; Talley, Lynne D

    2012-01-01

    In marine ecosystems, rising atmospheric CO2 and climate change are associated with concurrent shifts in temperature, circulation, stratification, nutrient input, oxygen content, and ocean acidification, with potentially wide-ranging biological effects. Population-level shifts are occurring because of physiological intolerance to new environments, altered dispersal patterns, and changes in species interactions. Together with local climate-driven invasion and extinction, these processes result in altered community structure and diversity, including possible emergence of novel ecosystems. Impacts are particularly striking for the poles and the tropics, because of the sensitivity of polar ecosystems to sea-ice retreat and poleward species migrations as well as the sensitivity of coral-algal symbiosis to minor increases in temperature. Midlatitude upwelling systems, like the California Current, exhibit strong linkages between climate and species distributions, phenology, and demography. Aggregated effects may modify energy and material flows as well as biogeochemical cycles, eventually impacting the overall ecosystem functioning and services upon which people and societies depend.

  13. Emerging boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvschal, Mette

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a processual ontology for the emergence of man-made, linear boundaries across northwestern Europe, particularly in the first millennium BC. Over a significant period of time, these boundaries became new ways of organizing the landscape and settlements—a phenomenon that has...... of this phenomenon emerged along equivalent trajectories. At the same time, variation in the regional incorporation of these linear phenomena points toward situation-specific applications and independent development....

  14. Boundary Spanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zølner, Mette

    The paper explores how locals span boundaries between corporate and local levels. The aim is to better comprehend potentialities and challenges when MNCs draws on locals’ culture specific knowledge. The study is based on an in-depth, interpretive case study of boundary spanning by local actors in...... approach with pattern matching is a way to shed light on the tacit local knowledge that organizational actors cannot articulate and that an exclusively inductive research is not likely to unveil....

  15. Phytoplankton blooms on the western shelf of Tasmania: evidence of a highly productive ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kämpf

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of >10 years of satellite-derived ocean-color data reveal the existence of a highly productive ecosystem on the west Tasmanian shelf. A closer event-based analysis indicates that the nutrient supply for this system has two different dynamical origins: (a wind-driven coastal upwelling and (b river plumes. During austral summer months, the west Tasmanian shelf forms a previously unknown upwelling center of the "Great South Australian Coastal Upwelling System", presumably injecting nutrient-rich water into western Bass Strait. Surprisingly, river discharges render the study region productive during other seasons of the year, except when nutrient-poor water of the South Australian Current reaches the region. Overall, the west Tasmanian shelf is more phytoplankton-productive than the long-known coastal upwelling along the Bonney Coast. The existence of phytoplankton blooms during the off-upwelling-season may explain the wintertime spawing aggregations of the blue grenadier (Macruronus novaezelandiae and the associated regionally high abundance of Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus.

  16. Statistical downscaling of sea-surface wind over the Peru-Chile upwelling region: diagnosing the impact of climate change from the IPSL-CM4 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goubanova, K. [CNES/CNRS/IRD/UPS, Laboratoire d' Etudes en Geophysique et Oceanographie Spatiale, Toulouse (France); Instituto del Mar del Peru, Callao (Peru); Echevin, V.; Terray, P. [IPSL/UPMC/IRD, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et de Climatologie, Experimentation et Approches Numeriques, Paris (France); Dewitte, B. [CNES/CNRS/IRD/UPS, Laboratoire d' Etudes en Geophysique et Oceanographie Spatiale, Toulouse (France); Instituto del Mar del Peru, Callao (Peru); Instituto Geofisico del Peru, Lima (Peru); Codron, F. [UPMC/CNRS, Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Paris (France); Takahashi, K. [Instituto Geofisico del Peru, Lima (Peru); Vrac, M. [IPSL/CNRS/CEA/UVSQ, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2011-04-15

    The key aspect of the ocean circulation off Peru-Chile is the wind-driven upwelling of deep, cold, nutrient-rich waters that promote a rich marine ecosystem. It has been suggested that global warming may be associated with an intensification of upwelling-favorable winds. However, the lack of high-resolution long-term observations has been a limitation for a quantitative analysis of this process. In this study, we use a statistical downscaling method to assess the regional impact of climate change on the sea-surface wind over the Peru-Chile upwelling region as simulated by the global coupled general circulation model IPSL-CM4. Taking advantage of the high-resolution QuikSCAT wind product and of the NCEP reanalysis data, a statistical model based on multiple linear regressions is built for the daily mean meridional and zonal wind at 10 m for the period 2000-2008. The large-scale 10 m wind components and sea level pressure are used as regional circulation predictors. The skill of the downscaling method is assessed by comparing with the surface wind derived from the ERS satellite measurements, with in situ wind observations collected by ICOADS and through cross-validation. It is then applied to the outputs of the IPSL-CM4 model over stabilized periods of the pre-industrial, 2 x CO{sub 2} and 4 x CO{sub 2} IPCC climate scenarios. The results indicate that surface along-shore winds off central Chile (off central Peru) experience a significant intensification (weakening) during Austral winter (summer) in warmer climates. This is associated with a general decrease in intra-seasonal variability. (orig.)

  17. Steps in the intensification of Benguela upwelling over the Walvis Ridge during Miocene and Pliocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoetzel, Sebastian; Dupont, Lydie M.; Marret, Fabienne; Jung, Gerlinde; Wefer, Gerold

    2017-01-01

    Upwelling is a significant part of the ocean circulation controlling largely the transport of nutrient-rich cold waters to the surface and therefore influencing ocean productivity and global climate. The Benguela upwelling system (BUS) is one of the major upwelling areas in the world. Previous reconstructions of the BUS mainly focused on the onset and intensification in southern and central parts, but changes of the northern part have been rarely investigated in detail. Using the Late Miocene to Pliocene organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst record of ODP Site 1081, we reconstruct and discuss the early upwelling history over the Walvis Ridge with a special focus on the movement of the Angola-Benguela Front (ABF). We suggest that during the Late Miocene the Angola Current flowed southwards over the Walvis Ridge more frequently than today because the ABF was probably located further south as a result of a weaker meridional temperature gradient. A possible strengthening of the meridional gradient during the latest Miocene to early Pliocene in combination with uplift of south-western Africa intensified the upwelling along the coast and increased the upwelling's filaments over the Walvis Ridge. An intermediate period from 6.2 to 5.5 Ma is shown by the dominance of Habibacysta tectata, cysts of a cool-tolerant dinoflagellate known from the northern Atlantic, indicating changing oceanic conditions contemporaneous with the Messinian Salinity Crisis. From 4.3 Ma on, the upwelling signal got stronger again and waters were well-mixed and nutrient-rich. Our results indicate a northward migration of the ABF as early as 7 Ma and the initial stepwise intensification of the BUS.

  18. Steps in the intensification of Benguela upwelling over the Walvis Ridge during Miocene and Pliocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoetzel, Sebastian; Dupont, Lydie M.; Marret, Fabienne; Jung, Gerlinde; Wefer, Gerold

    2016-03-01

    Upwelling is a significant part of the ocean circulation controlling largely the transport of nutrient-rich cold waters to the surface and therefore influencing ocean productivity and global climate. The Benguela upwelling system (BUS) is one of the major upwelling areas in the world. Previous reconstructions of the BUS mainly focused on the onset and intensification in southern and central parts, but changes of the northern part have been rarely investigated in detail. Using the Late Miocene to Pliocene organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst record of ODP Site 1081, we reconstruct and discuss the early upwelling history over the Walvis Ridge with a special focus on the movement of the Angola-Benguela Front (ABF). We suggest that during the Late Miocene the Angola Current flowed southwards over the Walvis Ridge more frequently than today because the ABF was probably located further south as a result of a weaker meridional temperature gradient. A possible strengthening of the meridional gradient during the latest Miocene to early Pliocene in combination with uplift of south-western Africa intensified the upwelling along the coast and increased the upwelling's filaments over the Walvis Ridge. An intermediate period from 6.2 to 5.5 Ma is shown by the dominance of Habibacysta tectata, cysts of a cool-tolerant dinoflagellate known from the northern Atlantic, indicating changing oceanic conditions contemporaneous with the Messinian Salinity Crisis. From 4.3 Ma on, the upwelling signal got stronger again and waters were well-mixed and nutrient-rich. Our results indicate a northward migration of the ABF as early as 7 Ma and the initial stepwise intensification of the BUS.

  19. Influence of ENSO-Related Wind Stress Variability on the Coastal Upwelling off Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huaringa, E. E.; Campos, E. J.; Lentini, C. A.

    2005-05-01

    The Eastern Tropical and Subtropical Pacific, particularly the coastal region off the western South America, is negatively affected by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. The rise of coastal sea temperatures due to the weakening of coastal upwelling causes the reduction of important fish stocks and other coastal resources of economical significance, especially the sardine and anchovy populations. Here, variability in the intensity of upwelling along the Peruvian coast is studied using monthly means of the ERS-1 and ERS-2 scatterometer wind stress. In the study area, the Trade Winds blow predominantly parallel to the coast, making the upwelling system highly sensitive to variability in the intensity of the wind stress. On its turn, the wind stress intensity is expected to suffer strong variation during ENSO periods. In our ongoing work we try to understand the relationship between coastal upwelling and different ENSO events in the 1991-2000 decade. In this period, two warm events where observed, the relatively weaker 1991-1994 and the stronger 97-98 El Niños. In both cases we found that in the region from 12°S to 3°S, the intensity of alongshore wind stress is reduced considerably, with the coastal upwelled waters being replaced by warmer waters. On the other hand, in the region between 12°S and 19°S the coastal upwelling maintains its intensity because only the cross-shore component of the wind stress was reduced. With respect to the two cold events, the 1996-1997 and the 1998-2000 La Niñas, the intensity of the alongshore windstress was higher than the climatological values. This resulted in more intense upwelling in the entire region.

  20. A Lagrangian study tracing water parcel origins in the Canary Upwelling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Mason

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The regional ocean circulation within the Canary Upwelling System between 31°N and 35°N is studied using numerical tools. Seasonal mean and near-instantaneous velocity fields from a previously-generated climatological Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS solution of the Canary Basin are used to force a series of offline Lagrangian particle-tracking experiments. The primary objective is to identify the pathways through which water parcels arrive at the upwelling region north of Cape Ghir. Examining year-long pathways, the Azores Current contributes over 80% of particles annually, of which a large proportion arrive directly from offshore (from the northwest, while others travel along the shelf and slope from the Gulf of Cadiz. The remaining ~20% originate within the Gulf of Cadiz or come from the south, although the southern contribution is only significant in autumn and winter. When season-long pathways are considered, the alongshore contributions become increasingly important: northern contributions reach 40% in spring and summer, while southern values exceed 35% in winter. This study also shows that coastal upwelling changes both spatially and temporally. Upwelling becomes intensified near Cape Beddouza, with most upwelling occurring within ~40 km from shore although significant values may reach as far as 120 km offshore north of Cape Beddouza; at these locations the offshore integrated upwelling reaches as much as 4 times the offshore Ekman transport. In the Cape Beddouza area (32°N to 33°N, upwelling is negligible in February but intensifies in autumn, reaching as much as 3 times the offshore Ekman transport.

  1. Seasonal variation of upwelling in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea: Impact of sea ice cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Lena M.; Pickart, Robert S.

    2012-06-01

    Data from a mooring array deployed from August 2002 to September 2004 are used to characterize differences in upwelling near the shelf break in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea due to varying sea ice conditions. The record is divided into three ice seasons: open water, partial ice, and full ice. The basic response is the same in each of the seasons. Roughly 8 h after the onset of easterly winds the shelf break jet reverses, followed approximately 10 h later by upwelling of saltier water which is cold near the shelf break (Pacific Winter Water) and warm at depth (Atlantic Water). The secondary circulation at the outer shelf is, to first order, consistent with a two-dimensional Ekman balance of offshore flow in the upper layer and onshore flow at depth. There are, however, important seasonal differences in the upwelling. Overall the response is strongest in the partial ice season and weakest in the full ice season. It is believed that these differences are dictated by the degree to which wind stress is transmitted through the pack-ice, as the strength of the wind-forcing was comparable over the three seasons. An EOF-based upwelling index is constructed using information about the primary flow, secondary flow, and hydrography. The ability to predict upwelling using the wind record alone is explored, which demonstrates that 90% of easterly wind events exceeding 9.5 m s-1 drive significant upwelling. During certain periods the ice cover on the shelf became landfast, which altered the upwelling and circulation patterns near the shelf break.

  2. Modelling of upwelling in the coastal area of Cabo Frio (Rio de Janeiro - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Carbonel

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A 1 1/2 reduced-gravity model is proposed to study the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic features of the coastal upwelling area of Cabo Frio (Rio de Janeiro-Brazil. The vertical structure of the model is described by an active layer overlaying a deep inert layer where the pressure gradient is set to zero. For the upper layer, the model includes the turbulent version of the momentum. continuity and heat equations. The conservation of heat is represented by a transport equation to describe the thermodynamic changes of the sea surface temperature (SST. The solution domain includes open boundaries in which weakly-retlective conditions are prescribed. Solutions are found numerically on a uniform grid and the fundamental equations are approximated by the finite difference method. Numerical experiments are performed to evaluate the dynamic response of the coastal area of Cabo Frio forced by uniform and non-uniform wind fields. The solutions differ considerably depending on the orientation of the winds. East and northeast winds correlate with colder waters in the zonal coastline of this area and the presence of tlows toward Cabo Frio correlates with north wind components. The proposed model is validated with the numerical simulation of an observed event of upwelling, where a time­-dependent and non-uniform wind ficld develops a SST pattern similar as the observations, particularly the extension of the cool water plume in south-west direction and the rapid time variation of the SST.Um modelo de gravidade reduzida de 1 1/2 camada é proposto para estudar as características hidrodinmicas e termodinmicas da área costeira de Cabo Frio (Rio de Janeiro ­Brasil. A estrutura vertical do modelo é descrita por uma camada ativa sobre uma camada profunda sem movimento onde o gradicnte de pressão é zero. Para a camada superior. o modelo incluí a versão turbulenta das equações de momentum, continuidade e calor. A conservação do calor é representada por uma

  3. One-dimensional advection diffusion modeling of upwelled hyporheic stream temperature along Deer Creek, Vina, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, N. L.; Hunt, J. R.; Tompkins, M. R.

    2011-12-01

    Hyporheic exchange can locally mitigate thermal stress caused by high water temperatures by upwelling water cooler than ambient stream temperatures and thus providing thermal refuge for critical cold water organisms like salmonids. Ten hyporheic exchange locations were identified by dye tracer experiments along a 16 km stretch of Deer Creek near Vina, California. Four months of continuous temperature measurements were made in the late summer of 2005 at each downwelling and upwelling location and revealed upwelled temperatures that were lagged in time and damped in amplitude. Upwelling hyporheic temperatures that could provide thermal refuge were observed in seven of the ten temperature records. This data was modeled by an analytical one-dimensional advection-diffusion equation solution using subsurface water velocity and the hydrodynamic dispersivity fitting parameters. At each location variations in upwelling temperature are explained by changing subsurface water velocities and flow pathways. The lag time in hyporheic heat flow ranged from a few hours to 44 hours over distances of 15 to 76 meters. The daily stream temperature variation was on the order of 10°C, which was reduced to 1 to 8°C in the upwelling hyporheic flow. At four locations, there was evidence that changes in stream flow produced changes in the amplitude and phase of the upwelling hyporheic water temperature by altering both the subsurface water velocity and hydrodynamic dispersivity. At two locations, additional cold water refuge was created by decreases in surface water flow because it reduced the estimated subsurface water velocity increasing the lag time between the peak surface water and subsurface water temperatures. Increases in surface water flow increased the dispersivity at three locations providing more cold water refuge by reducing the amplitude of the upwelling hyporheic temperature. Such changes alter thermal refuge for salmonids placing a new emphasis on managing surface water

  4. Late Quaternary upper-water column structure in upwelling areas of the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on a quantitative analysis of planktonic foraminifera in two gravity cores (17928 and 17954), the history of the upper-water structure of the eastern and western slopes of the South China Sea (SCS) over the last 220 Ka was reconstructed using the transfer function technique. Our results show that lower sea surface temperature (SST) and shallower depth of thermocline (DOT) exist at Core 17928, off Luzon, in the glacial periods; on the contrary, the same situation turned up in the interglacial at Core 17954, off Vietnam. These changes of the upper-water column structure in the two areas are induced by coastal upwelling, which in turn is driven by monsoons, namely, winter monsoon leads to upwelling at the eastern slope, and summer monsoon gives birth to upwelling on the western slope. Moreover, the intensity of upwellings is also closely related to the evolution of the East Asian monsoon. Therefore, we assume that the changes of the upwelling in the two sites indicate strengthenning of winter and su mmer monsoon during the glacial and interglacial periods, respectively.

  5. Octopus vulgaris paralarvae vertical distribution in a fluctuating upwelling-downwelling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Olmos Pérez

    2014-06-01

    - Upwelling situation: superficial waters (0-20m enter through the northern mouth of the Ría and are washed through the southern mouth. This water movement promotes the entrance of cold, bottom upwelled water through the southern mouth of the Ría. Under this scenario, Octopus paralarvae are concentrated at the surface (10-0m, thus leaving the Ría. This difference is bigger after strong upwelling during the previous days. Abundances inside the Ría are the highest, maybe because it acts as a temporal retention area, or because cold upwelled waters might stimulate hatching inside the Ría. Day/night changes under strong upwelling conditions: paralarvae abundance in both mouths was quite similar, except that during the day they were in sub-surficial waters (10-5 m, while at night paralarvae were mainly found close to the surface (0-5 m. This vertical distribution during the day is remarkable because paralarvae may select offward surface waters.

  6. Synchronisation of the equatorial QBO by the annual cycle in tropical upwelling in a warming climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Kylash; Moroz, Irene; Read, Peter; Osprey, Scott

    2016-04-01

    The response of the period of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) to increases in tropical upwelling is considered using a one-dimensional model. We find that the imposition of the annual cycle in tropical upwelling creates substantial variability in the period of the QBO. The annual cycle creates synchronisation regions in the wave forcing space, within which the QBO period locks onto an integer multiple of the annual forcing period. Outside of these regions, the QBO period undergoes discrete jumps as it attempts to find a stable relationship with the oscillator forcing. The resulting set of QBO periods can be either discrete or broad-banded, depending on the intrinsic period of the QBO. We use the same model to study the evolution of the QBO period as the strength of tropical upwelling increases as would be expected in a warmer climate. The QBO period lengthens and migrates closer towards 36 and 48 month locking regions as upwelling increases. The QBO period does not vary continuously with increased upwelling, however, but instead transitions through a series of 2- and 3-cycles before becoming locked to the annual cycle. Some evidence for the cyclical behaviour of the QBO periods in the real atmosphere is presented.

  7. Intraseasonal coastal upwelling signal along the southern coast of Java observed using Indonesian tidal station data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Takanori; Ueki, Iwao; Syamsudin, Fadli; Sofian, Ibnu; Ando, Kentaro

    2016-04-01

    Sea level variations along the coasts of Sumatra and Java were investigated to determine the coastal upwelling signal that is linked to local sea surface temperature (SST) variability. We used Indonesian tidal station data together with satellite SST data and atmospheric reanalysis data. The sea level variations along the southern coast of Java have a significant coherence with remote wind, local wind, and local SST variations, with an intraseasonal time scale of 20-50 days. Assuming that a coastal upwelling signal would appear as a sea level drop (SLD), we focused on intraseasonal-scale SLD events in the data. Significant upwelling signals are frequently observed during both the boreal summer and winter. To evaluate the impact of the coastal upwelling on local SST, we examined statistical relationships between sea level and SST variations. The results demonstrated that events that occurred during April-August were associated with local SST cooling. The horizontal distribution of the SST cooling was analogous with annual mean SST, suggesting the importance of intraseasonal-scale coastal upwelling in forming the climatic conditions of the southeastern tropical Indian Ocean.

  8. Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification Ecosystem Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Charles M.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Burke, Jennifer L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Marcoe, Keith Marcoe

    2012-01-01

    Estuarine ecosystems are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these processes will aid in prioritization of restoration efforts. This hierarchical Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification (henceforth "Classification") of the Columbia River estuary is a spatial database of the tidally-influenced reaches of the lower Columbia River, the tidally affected parts of its tributaries, and the landforms that make up their floodplains for the 230 kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam. This work is a collaborative effort between University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (henceforth "UW"), U.S. Geological Survey (henceforth "USGS"), and the Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership (henceforth "EP"). Consideration of geomorphologic processes will improve the understanding of controlling physical factors that drive ecosystem evolution along the tidal Columbia River. The Classification is organized around six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. For Levels 4 and 5, we mapped landforms within the Holocene floodplain primarily by visual interpretation of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topography supplemented with aerial photographs, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soils data, and historical maps. Mapped landforms are classified as to their current geomorphic function, the inferred process regime that formed them, and anthropogenic modification. Channels were classified primarily by a set of depth-based rules and geometric relationships. Classification Level 5 floodplain landforms ("geomorphic catenae") were further classified based on multivariate analysis of land-cover within the mapped landform area and attributed as "sub

  9. Blurring Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla; Nielsen, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    ; and 3) Services of general interest. In the Blurring Boundaries project, three aspects of the European Social Model have been particularly highlighted: the constitutionalisation of the European Social Model, its multi-level legal character, and the clash between market access justice at EU level...... of welfare functions into EU law both from an internal market law and a constitutional law perspective. The main problem areas covered by the Blurring Boundaries project were studied in sub-projects on: 1) Internal market law and welfare services; 2) Fundamental rights and non-discrimination law aspects...... and distributive justice at national level....

  10. Blurring Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla; Nielsen, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    ; and 3) Services of general interest. In the Blurring Boundaries project, three aspects of the European Social Model have been particularly highlighted: the constitutionalisation of the European Social Model, its multi-level legal character, and the clash between market access justice at EU level...... of welfare functions into EU law both from an internal market law and a constitutional law perspective. The main problem areas covered by the Blurring Boundaries project were studied in sub-projects on: 1) Internal market law and welfare services; 2) Fundamental rights and non-discrimination law aspects...... and distributive justice at national level....

  11. Blurring Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla; Nielsen, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    This article builds on the results obtained in the so-called Blurring Boundaries project which was undertaken at the Law Department, Copenhagen Business School, in the period from 2007 to 2009. It looks at the sustainability of the Danish welfare state in an EU law context and on the integration ...

  12. Negotiating boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarhus, Rikke; Ballegaard, Stinne Aaløkke

    2010-01-01

    To move treatment successfully from the hospital to that of technology assisted self-care at home, it is vital in the design of such technologies to understand the setting in which the health IT should be used. Based on qualitative studies we find that people engage in elaborate boundary work to ...

  13. Linking mantle upwelling with the lithosphere descent [corrected] and the Japan Sea evolution: a hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail-Zadeh, Alik; Honda, Satoru; Tsepelev, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Recent seismic tomography studies image a low velocity zone (interpreted as a high temperature anomaly) in the mantle beneath the subducting Pacific plate near the Japanese islands at the depth of about 400 km. This thermal feature is rather peculiar in terms of the conventional view of mantle convection and subduction zones. Here we present a dynamic restoration of the thermal state of the mantle beneath this region assimilating geophysical, geodetic, and geological data up to 40 million years. We hypothesise that the hot mantle upwelling beneath the Pacific plate partly penetrated through the subducting plate into the mantle wedge and generated two smaller hot upwellings, which contributed to the rapid subsidence in the basins of the Japan Sea and to back-arc spreading. Another part of the hot mantle migrated upward beneath the Pacific lithosphere, and the presently observed hot anomaly is a remnant part of this mantle upwelling.

  14. Analysis of potability conditions of upwelling water in Ubá, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Rodrigues de Souza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated the interference of anthropic activities on the potability of groundwater in the urban area of the city of Ubá, MG. To accomplish this, the physical characteristics (temperature, turbidity and color, chemical (pH, conductivity, chloride, nitrate and hardness and microbiological (total and thermotolerant coliforms of ten upwelling waters were monitored throughout one year. The temperature, pH, color, chloride and hardness of all upwelling waters were considered normal compared to standards of potable water. However, the analyses of turbidity, electrical conductivity, nitrate and total and thermotolerant coliforms indicate contamination by human activities. Overall, the results indicated the occurrence of high environmental degradation, where only 30% of monitored upwelling waters were in accordance with the quality standard, indicating the need for intervention to ensure water quality.

  15. Role of Ekman Transport Versus Ekman Pumping in Driving Summer Upwelling in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dakui; WANG Hui; LI Ming; LIU Guimei; WU Xiangyu

    2013-01-01

    Relative roles of Ekman transport and Ekman pumping in driving summer upwelling in the South China Sea (SCS) are examined using QuikSCAT scatterometer wind data.The major upwelling regions in the SCS are the coastal regions east and southeast of Vietnam (UESEV),east and southeast of Hainan Island (UESEH),and southeast of Guangdong province (USEG).It is shown that the Ekman transport due to alongshore winds and Ekman pumping due to offshore wind stress curl play different roles in the three upwelling systems.In UESEV,Ekman pumping and Ekman transport are equally important in generating upwelling.The Ekman transport increases linearly from 0.49 Sv in May to 1.23 Sv in August,while the Ekman pumping increases from 0.36 to 1.22 Sv during the same period.In UESEH,the mean estimates of Ekman transport and Ekman pumping are 0.14 and 0.07 Sv,respectively,indicating that 33% of the total wind-driven upwelling is due to Ekman pumping.In USEG,the mean Ekman transport is 0.041 Sv with the peak occurring in July,while Ekman pumping is much smaller (0.003 on average),indicating that the upwelling in this area is primarily driven by Ekman transport.In the summers of 2003 and 2007 following E1 Ni(n)o-Southem Oscillation (ENSO) events,both Ekman transport and Ekman pumping decrease in UESEV due to the abnormally weak southwest monsoon.During the same events,however,Ekman transport is slightly enhanced and Ekman pumping is weakened in UESEH and USEG.

  16. The use of circulation weather types to predict upwelling activity along the Western Iberian Peninsula coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Alexandre M.; Cordeiro Pires, Ana; Sousa, Pedro M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2013-04-01

    Coastal upwelling is a phenomenon that occurs in most western oceanic coasts due to the presence of mid-latitude high-pressure systems that generate equatorward winds along the coast and consequent offshore displacement of surface waters that in turn cause deeper, colder, nutrient-rich waters to arise. In western Iberian Peninsula (IP) the high-pressure system associated to northerly winds occurs mainly during spring and summer. Upwelling systems are economically relevant, being the most productive regions of the world ocean and crucial for fisheries. In this work, we evaluate the intra- and inter-annual variability of the Upwelling Index (UI) off the western coast of the IP considering four locations at various latitudes: Rias Baixas, Aveiro, Figueira da Foz and Cabo da Roca. In addition, the relationship between the variability of the occurrence of several circulation weather types (Ramos et al., 2011) and the UI variability along this coast was assessed in detail, allowing to discriminate which types are frequently associated with strong and weak upwelling activity. It is shown that upwelling activity is mostly driven by wind flow from the northern quadrant, for which the obtained correlation coefficients (for the N and NE types) are higher than 0.5 for the four considered test locations. Taking into account these significant relationships, we then developed statistical multi-linear regression models to hindcast upwelling series (April to September) at the four referred locations, using monthly frequencies of circulation weather types as predictors. Modelled monthly series reproduce quite accurately observational data, with correlation coefficients above 0.7 for all locations, and relatively small absolute errors. Ramos AM, Ramos R, Sousa P, Trigo RM, Janeira M, Prior V (2011) Cloud to ground lightning activity over Portugal and its association with Circulation Weather Types. Atmospheric Research 101:84-101. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2011.01

  17. Mantle Plume Upwelling Rates: Evidence from U-Series in Young Ocean Island Basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, B.; Turner, S. P.; Stracke, A.; Saal, A. E.

    2004-12-01

    U-series disequilibria measured in recent lavas at intraplate volcanoes provide a powerful probe to examine the validity of the plume model. U-Th and U-Pa fractionation produced during melting is a function of the melting rate. In turn, this parameter should scale with mantle upwelling velocities. Simply stated, a larger melting rate (larger mantle upwelling velocity) yields smaller Th and Pa excess relative to their parent nuclides. A number of observations supports this approach: (1) there is a negative correlation between 230Th excess and buoyancy fluxes (2) based on new measurements of 231Pa in the Azores, Iceland and the Galapagos and literature data, we show here that there is also a well defined correlation between 231Pa excess and buoyancy flux (3) For Hawaii, Iceland and the Azores, 230Th excess (or 231Pa excess) increases as a function of the distance from the centre of the `hotspot'. These observations suggests that `hotspot' buoyancy fluxes are associated with a greater melt production per unit of time and that the centre of `hotspot' corresponds to a faster mantle upwelling velocity than its periphery. This is therefore in strong support of a model where ocean islands are associated with faster upwelling at depth. However, there is in fact not a simple relationship between melt productivity and upwelling velocities. Notably, the presence of volatiles, of mafic lithologies or of variably enriched peridotitic source could all affect melting rate and hence U-Th-Pa fractionation. We have considered these issues in great detail using a large data base for the Azores islands. While there are clear variations in mantle source composition, they cannot explain the observations of increasing 231Pa/235U ratio with distance from the centre of the Azores hotspot . If we take into account the effect of water in the source of the Azores, it clearly affects the scaling between U-series fractionation and upwelling velocity but not the overall conclusions.

  18. Natural Variability of Environmental Proxies in Corals from an Upwelling Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, K. A.; Grottoli, A. G.; McDonough, W. F.; Palardy, J. E.

    2004-12-01

    The ratios of cadmium to calcium (Cd/Ca) and barium to calcium (Ba/Ca) chronicled in coral skeletal records are promising, yet uncalibrated, proxy tracers of oceanic upwelling. To date there has been no rigorous experimental evaluation of the natural variability of these elements among coral individuals, between species or across depth. Without an understanding of this variability, comparison of such proxy-derived records could yield inaccurate results. As a first step towards the quantitative development of these tracers, preliminary results from a survey of skeletal Cd and Ba (3 species, 2 depths, 30 individuals) will be presented, as well as stable oxygen and carbon isotopic values. Pavona gigantea, Pavona clavus and Porites lobata coral fragments were grown under monitored conditions during upwelling and non-upwelling periods in the Gulf of Panama (Pacific Ocean); the associated sea surface temperature, subsurface light intensity and nutrient concentration data will be compared to the skeletal records. Initial data from P. clavus does indicate a clear relationship between upwelling conditions and skeletal Cd/Ca. Once the range of natural variability in these fragments has been determined, the Cd/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios can then be evaluated against ocean conditions with an improved understanding of any species-specific offset or depth adjustments that should be made when comparing data sets. As quantitative upwelling proxies, coralline Cd/Ca and Ba/Ca could dramatically contribute to our understanding of the natural variability and intensity of oceanic upwelling events, and tropical climate variability on seasonal-to-centennial timescales.

  19. Tomographic mapping of a coastal upwelling and the associated diurnal internal tides in Hiroshima Bay, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanzheng; Kaneko, Arata; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Gohda, Noriaki

    2015-06-01

    Temperature variations caused by a typhoon were measured in the northern part of Hiroshima Bay by four coastal acoustic tomography (CAT) systems. The horizontal distributions of depth-averaged temperature from 0 to 8 m were mapped at 10 min intervals between the 11 and 25 September 2013. The horizontal distributions of a coastal upwelling and the associated diurnal internal tides were reconstructed well by regularized inversion based on the grid segmented method, using one-way travel time data along five successful sound transmission lines. Station-to-station ranges were corrected in such a way that sound speed (determined from one-way travel time data) was equal to sound speed calculated from a couple of CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) data sets on each transmission line. In addition, all station positions were adjusted to make focal points at the geographical positions of the transducers. The corrections increased the accuracy of temperature measurements to make temperature errors as small as 0.073-0.079°C. The high accuracy made it possible to map the temperature structure with a variation range of less than 0.5°C. An upwelling grew from 16 to 17 September, due to a typhoon-derived northerly wind. The diurnal internal tide resonated with the semidiurnal external tide, which was pronounced after the upwelling decayed (18 September), around the time the spring tide occurred. The upwelling and mixing fractions were formulated. These fractions increased continuously as the upwelling grew. Complete mixing was observed during the upwelling's mature phase.

  20. Spatiotemporal trends in the southwest monsoon wind-driven upwelling in the southwestern part of the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Poh Heng; Mohd Akhir, Mohd Fadzil; Tangang, Fredolin; Husain, Mohd Lokman

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzes two wind-induced upwelling mechanisms, namely, Ekman transport and Ekman pumping that occur during the southwest monsoon. The results suggest that the coastline of the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia (ECPM) is affected by upwelling with spatiotemporal variations. Characterization of upwelling by using wind-induced upwelling indexes (UIW) indicate the existence of favorable upwelling conditions from May to September. Upwelling intensity increased in May and peaked in August before declining in September, decreasing intensity from the southern tip towards the northern tip along the coastline of the ECPM. The existence of upwelling along the ECPM has resulted in an important difference between the SSTs of the inshore and the oceanic regions. Nonetheless, the use of the SST gradient between the inshore and the oceanic SSTs to characterize upwelling (UISST) was found to be unsuitable because the SST along the ECPM was affected by water advection from the Java Sea and incessant changes in the SST. In order to indicate the major contributor of wind-induced upwelling along the ECPM in terms of the spatiotemporal scale, a comparison between Ekman transport and Ekman pumping was drawn by integrating Ekman pumping with respect to the distance where the positive wind stress curl existed. The estimation of Ekman transport and Ekman pumping indicated that Ekman pumping played a major role in contributing towards upwelling in any particular month during the southwest monsoon along the entire coastline of the ECPM as compared to Ekman transport, which contributed towards more than half of the total upwelling transport. By dividing the ECPM into three coastal sections, we observed that Ekman pumping was relatively predominant in the middle and northern coasts, whereas both Ekman transport and Ekman pumping were equally prevalent in the southern coast.

  1. Spatiotemporal trends in the southwest monsoon wind-driven upwelling in the southwestern part of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Akhir, Mohd Fadzil; Tangang, Fredolin; Husain, Mohd Lokman

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzes two wind-induced upwelling mechanisms, namely, Ekman transport and Ekman pumping that occur during the southwest monsoon. The results suggest that the coastline of the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia (ECPM) is affected by upwelling with spatiotemporal variations. Characterization of upwelling by using wind-induced upwelling indexes (UIW) indicate the existence of favorable upwelling conditions from May to September. Upwelling intensity increased in May and peaked in August before declining in September, decreasing intensity from the southern tip towards the northern tip along the coastline of the ECPM. The existence of upwelling along the ECPM has resulted in an important difference between the SSTs of the inshore and the oceanic regions. Nonetheless, the use of the SST gradient between the inshore and the oceanic SSTs to characterize upwelling (UISST) was found to be unsuitable because the SST along the ECPM was affected by water advection from the Java Sea and incessant changes in the SST. In order to indicate the major contributor of wind-induced upwelling along the ECPM in terms of the spatiotemporal scale, a comparison between Ekman transport and Ekman pumping was drawn by integrating Ekman pumping with respect to the distance where the positive wind stress curl existed. The estimation of Ekman transport and Ekman pumping indicated that Ekman pumping played a major role in contributing towards upwelling in any particular month during the southwest monsoon along the entire coastline of the ECPM as compared to Ekman transport, which contributed towards more than half of the total upwelling transport. By dividing the ECPM into three coastal sections, we observed that Ekman pumping was relatively predominant in the middle and northern coasts, whereas both Ekman transport and Ekman pumping were equally prevalent in the southern coast. PMID:28187215

  2. Coastal upwelling and downwelling forcing of circulation in a semi-enclosed bay: Ria de Vigo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, E. D.; Largier, J. L.; Torres, R.; Sheridan, M.; Trasviña, A.; Souza, A.; Pazos, Y.; Valle-Levinson, A.

    2015-05-01

    Semi-enclosed bays in upwelling regions are exposed to forcing related to winds, currents and buoyancy over the shelf. The influence of this external forcing is moderated by factors such as connectivity to the open ocean, shelter by surrounding topography, dimensions of the bay, and freshwater outflows. Such bays, preferred locations for ports, mariculture, marine industry, recreational activities and coastal settlement, present a range of characteristics, understanding of which is necessary to their rational management. Observations in such a semi-enclosed bay, the Ria de Vigo in Spain, are used to characterize the influence of upwelling and downwelling pulses on its circulation. In this location, near the northern limit of the Iberian upwelling system, upwelling events dominate during a short summer season and downwelling events the rest of the year. The ria response to the external forcing is central to nutrient supply and resultant plankton productivity that supports its high level of cultured mussel production. Intensive field studies in September 2006 and June 2007 captured a downwelling event and an upwelling event, respectively. Data from eight current profiler moorings and boat-based MiniBat/ADCP surveys provided an unprecedented quasi-synoptic view of the distribution of water masses and circulation patterns in any ria. In the outer ria, circulation was dominated by the introduction of wind-driven alongshore flow from the external continental shelf through the ria entrances and its interaction with the topography. In the middle ria, circulation was primarily related to the upwelling/downwelling cycle, with a cool, salty and dense lower layer penetrating to the inner ria during upwelling over the shelf. A warmer, lower salinity and less dense surface layer of coastal waters flowed inward during downwelling. Without external forcing, the inner ria responded primarily to tides and buoyancy changes related to land runoff. Under both upwelling and downwelling

  3. Spatial distribution of upwelling off the central east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.V.N.

    for all the sections for the premonsoon and south-west monsoon seasons. This figure provides a clear picture of the position of the inclined pycnocline in the upwelling area. The pycnocline rises towards the surface as the coast is approached. During... Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science (2002) 54, 141–156 Lawson’s stations the season off whereby cool, nutrient rich subsurface water moves upward towards the surface. Coastal upwelling is important for the productivity of the surface waters. and Menzel (1965...

  4. Evaluation of ERTS data for certain oceanographic uses. [upwelling, water circulation, and pollution in Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, A. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Upwelling along the eastern shore of Lake Michigan was occurring during the 3 and 21 August 1973 visits by ERTS-1. The NOAA-2 VHRR thermal-IR data are being digitized for comparison. Early indications are that these upwellings induced a calcium carbonate precipitate to form in the surface waters. It is most pronounced in the MSS-4 channel. On the lake bottom this jell-like sediment is known as marl and adds to the eutrophication of the lake. This phenomenon may help to explain the varve-like nature of bottom cores that have been observed in the Great Lakes.

  5. Larval fish assemblages across an upwelling front: Indication for active and passive retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedemann, Maik; Brehmer, Patrice

    2017-03-01

    In upwelling areas, enrichment, concentration and retention are physical processes that have major consequences for larval fish survival. While these processes generally increase larval survival, strong upwelling can also increase mortality due to an offshore transport of larvae towards unfavorable habitats. In 2013 a survey was conducted along the Senegalese coast to investigate the upwelling effect with regard to larval fish assemblages and possible larval fish retention. According to water column characteristics two distinct habitats during an upwelling event were discriminated, i.e. the inshore upwelled water and the transition area over the deepest part of the Senegalese shelf. Along the two areas 42,162 fish larvae were collected representing 133 species within 40 families. Highest larval fish abundances were observed in the inshore area and decreasing abundances towards the transition, indicating that certain fish species make use of the retentive function of the inner shelf area as spawning grounds. Two larval fish assemblages overlap both habitats, which are sharply delimited by a strong upwelling front. One assemblage inhabited the inshore/upwelling area characterized by majorly neritic and pelagic species (Sparidae spp., Sardinella aurita), that seem to take the advantage of a passive retention on the shelf. The second assemblage consisted of a mix of pelagic and mesopelagic species (Engraulis encrasicolus, Carangidae spp. and Myctophidae spp.). Some species of the second assemblage, e.g. horse mackerels (Trachurus trachurus and Trachurus trecae), large finned-lantern fish (Hygophum macrochir) and foureyed sole (Microchirus ocellatus), revealed larval peak occurrences at intermediate and deep water layers, where the near-ground upwelling layer is able to transport larvae back to the shelf. This indicates active larval retention for species that are dominant in the transition area. Diel vertical migration patterns of S. aurita, E. encrasicolus and M

  6. Plume-subduction interaction in southern Central America: Mantle upwelling and slab melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazel, Esteban; Hoernle, Kaj; Carr, Michael J.; Herzberg, Claude; Saginor, Ian; den Bogaard, Paul van; Hauff, Folkmar; Feigenson, Mark; Swisher, Carl

    2011-01-01

    The volcanic front in southern Central America is well known for its Galapagos OIB-like geochemical signature. A comprehensive set of geochemical, isotopic and geochronological data collected on volumetrically minor alkaline basalts and adakites were used to better constrain the mantle and subduction magma components and to test the different models that explain this OIB signature in an arc setting. We report a migration of back-arc alkaline volcanism towards the northwest, consistent with arc-parallel mantle flow models, and a migration towards the southeast in the adakites possibly tracking the eastward movement of the triple junction where the Panama Fracture Zone intersects the Middle America Trench. The adakites major and trace element compositions are consistent with magmas produced by melting a mantle-wedge source metasomatized by slab derived melts. The alkaline magmas are restricted to areas that have no seismic evidence of a subducting slab. The geochemical signature of the alkaline magmas is mostly controlled by upwelling asthenosphere with minor contributions from subduction components. Mantle potential temperatures calculated from the alkaline basalt primary magmas increased from close to ambient mantle (~ 1380-1410 °C) in the Pliocene to ~ 1450 °C in the younger units. The calculated initial melting pressures for these primary magmas are in the garnet stability field (3.0-2.7 GPa). The average final melting pressures range between 2.7 and 2.5 GPa, which is interpreted as the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary at ~ 85-90 km. We provide a geotectonic model that integrates the diverse observations presented here. The slab detached after the collision of the Galapagos tracks with the arc (~ 10-8 Ma). The detachment allowed hotter asthenosphere to flow into the mantle wedge. This influx of hotter asthenosphere explains the increase in mantle potential temperatures, the northwest migration in the back-arc alkaline lavas that tracks the passage of the

  7. Changing Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodkin, Evelyn; Larsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, workfare-style policies have become part of the institutional architecture of welfare and labor market arrangements around the world. In this article, we offer a comparative, historical view of workfare´s advance. Our analysis recognizes the complexity and diversity of what we...... call the “policies of workfare” and highlights the different paths through which these policies have developed in the U.S. and parts of Europe. We argue that it is necessary to look beyond familiar policy labels and language in order to consider workfare-style policies as part of a broader political...... project that is altering the boundary between the democratic welfare state and the market economy. We see workfare policies as boundary-changing with potentially profound implications both for individuals disadvantaged by market arrangements and for societies seeking to grapple with the increasing...

  8. Examining coastal upwellings from a Lagrangian perspective in the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpeche-Ellmann, Nicole; Mingelaitė, Toma; Soomere, Tarmo

    2017-04-01

    This study examines from a Lagrangian perspective the impact that an upwelling event may have on mixing and the Lagrangian transport of surrounding surface waters. To accomplish this we employ in-situ surface drifters (that follow the currents in the uppermost layer with a thickness of 2 m), satellite derived sea surface temperature data (obtained from the MODIS Aqua satellite), and high-quality open sea wind time series. The study area is located near the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland where easterly winds are known to trigger intense coastal upwellings. The properties of mixing were evaluated using the daily rate of temperature change along several transects. Results show that unlike classical upwelling events that normally show cooler water hugging the coastline in a longitudinal direction, this upwelling event instead took the form of transverse jets that protruded as much as 40-45 km from the coastline at distinct locations. Interestingly, the surface drifters show that the presence of the upwelling event superseded classic Ekman-type drift of the surface layer and in effect slowed down the average speed of surface currents in the surrounding waters. It was discovered that intense and long-lasting upwelling events may contain three distinct stages, which was clearly influenced by the wind intensity: During the first stage (strong winds) the cooler water is brought to the surface. The second stage (strong winds) is characterized by the presence of coherent cooler water transverse jets that protrude some distance from the coast at two distinct locations and that lasted 5 days, during this stage very little mixing took place it was mainly the advection of colder water to the open sea. Whilst the third stage encompasses the presence of filaments/squirts and eventually the disintegration of these structures and intense mixing of upwelled and surrounding waters under weaker winds. Thus the upwelled cooler water largely kept its identity during almost the

  9. Microbial Ecosystems, Protection of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Nelson, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Synonyms Conservation of microbial diversity and ecosystem functions provided by microbes; Preservation of microbial diversity and ecosystem functions provided by microbes Definition The use, management, and conservation of ecosystems in order to preserve microbial diversity and functioning.

  10. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  11. Microbial Ecosystems, Protection of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Nelson, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Synonyms Conservation of microbial diversity and ecosystem functions provided by microbes; Preservation of microbial diversity and ecosystem functions provided by microbes Definition The use, management, and conservation of ecosystems in order to preserve microbial diversity and functioning. Introdu

  12. Coastal upwelling fluxes of O2, N2O, and CO2 assessed from continuous atmospheric observations at Trinidad, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Lueker

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous atmospheric records of O2/N2, CO2 and N2O obtained at Trinidad, California document the effects of air-sea exchange during coastal upwelling and plankton bloom events. The atmospheric records provide continuous observations of air-sea fluxes related to synoptic scale upwelling events over several upwelling seasons. Combined with satellite, buoy and local meteorology data, calculated anomalies in O2/N2 and N2O were utilized in a simple atmospheric transport model to compute air-sea fluxes during coastal upwelling. CO2 fluxes were linked to the oceanic component of the O2 fluxes through local hydrographic data and estimated as a function of upwelling intensity (surface ocean temperature and wind speed. Regional air-sea fluxes of O2/N2, N2O, and CO2 during coastal upwelling were estimated with the aid of satellite wind and SST data. Upwelling CO2 fluxes were found to represent ~10% of export production along the northwest coast of North America. Synoptic scale upwelling events impact the net exchange of atmospheric CO2 along the coastal margin, and will vary in response to the frequency and duration of alongshore winds that are subject to climate change.

  13. Astronomical Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, D. E.; Finkenbinder, L. R.

    2004-05-01

    Just as quetzals and jaguars require specific ecological habitats to survive, so too must planets occupy a tightly constrained astronomical habitat to support life as we know it. With this theme in mind we relate the transferable features of our elementary astronomy course, "The Astronomical Basis of Life on Earth." Over the last five years, in a team-taught course that features a spring break field trip to Costa Rica, we have introduced astronomy through "astronomical ecosystems," emphasizing astronomical constraints on the prospects for life on Earth. Life requires energy, chemical elements, and long timescales, and we emphasize how cosmological, astrophysical, and geological realities, through stabilities and catastrophes, create and eliminate niches for biological life. The linkage between astronomy and biology gets immediate and personal: for example, studies in solar energy production are followed by hikes in the forest to examine the light-gathering strategies of photosynthetic organisms; a lesson on tides is conducted while standing up to our necks in one on a Pacific beach. Further linkages between astronomy and the human timescale concerns of biological diversity, cultural diversity, and environmental sustainability are natural and direct. Our experience of teaching "astronomy as habitat" strongly influences our "Astronomy 101" course in Oklahoma as well. This "inverted astrobiology" seems to transform our student's outlook, from the universe being something "out there" into something "we're in!" We thank the SNU Science Alumni support group "The Catalysts," and the SNU Quetzal Education and Research Center, San Gerardo de Dota, Costa Rica, for their support.

  14. Seasonality in marine ecosystems: Peruvian seabirds, anchovy, and oceanographic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passuni, Giannina; Barbraud, Christophe; Chaigneau, Alexis; Demarcq, Hervé; Ledesma, Jesus; Bertrand, Arnaud; Castillo, Ramiro; Perea, Angel; Mori, Julio; Viblanc, Vincent A; Torres-MaitaA, Jose; Bertrand, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    In fluctuating environments, matching breeding timing to periods of high resource availability is crucial for the fitness of many vertebrate species, and may have major consequences on population health. Yet, our understanding of the proximate environmental cues driving seasonal breeding is limited. This is particularly the case in marine ecosystems, where key environmental factors and prey abundance and availability are seldom quantified. The Northern Humboldt Current System (NHCS) is a highly productive, low-latitude ecosystem of moderate seasonality. In this ecosystem, three tropical seabird species (the Guanay Cormorant Phalacrocorax bougainvillii, the Peruvian Booby Sula variegata, and the Peruvian Pelican Pelecanus thagus) live in sympatry and prey almost exclusively on anchovy, Engraulis ringens. From January 2003 to December 2012, we monitored 31 breeding sites along the Peruvian coast to investigate the breeding cycle of these species. We tested for relationships between breeding timing, oceanographic conditions, and prey availability using occupancy models. We found that all three seabird species exhibited seasonal breeding patterns, with marked interspecific differences. Whereas breeding mainly started during the austral winter/early spring and ended in summer/early fall, this pattern was stronger in boobies and pelicans than in cormorants. Breeding onset mainly occurred when upwelling was intense but ecosystem productivity was below its annual maxima, and when anchovy were less available and in poor physiological condition. Conversely, the abundance and availability of anchovy improved during chick rearing and peaked around the time of fledging. These results suggest that breeding timing is adjusted so that fledging may occur under optimal environmental conditions, rather than being constrained by nutritional requirements during egg laying. Adjusting breeding time so that fledglings meet optimal conditions at independence is unique compared with other

  15. The marine ecosystem services approach in a fisheries management perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Anker; Lassen, Hans; Frost, Hans Staby

    This paper reviews the concepts of marine ecosystem services and their economic valuation in a European fisheries management perspective. We find that the concept is at best cumbersome for advising on how best to regulate fisheries even in an ecosystem context. We propose that operational fisheries...... that the concept of marine ecosystem services is not helpful for the two first mentioned types of analysis and that a cost-benefit analysis that is implied by the marine ecosystem services concept is inadequate for the third. We argue that the discussion needs to be divided into two: (1) finding the boundaries...... within which we accept impact on the marine ecosystem and (2) within these boundaries find the optimal fishing pressure, in mathematical terms replacing the unconstrained optimisation implied by the ecosystem services concept with an optimisation with constraints. The constraints are defined...

  16. Planetary boundaries: Governing emerging risks and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The climate, ecosystems and species, ozone layer, acidity of the oceans, the flow of energy and elements through nature, landscape change, freshwater systems, aerosols, and toxins—these constitute the planetary boundaries within which humanity must find a safe way to live and prosper. These are thresholds that, if we cross them, we run the risk of rapid, non-linear, and irreversible changes to the environment, with severe consequences for human wellbeing. The concept of planetary boundaries, ...

  17. Foraminiferal production and monsoonal upwelling in the Arabian sea: evidence from sediment traps

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Curry, W.B.; Ostermann, D.R.; Guptha, M.V.S.; Ittekkot, V.

    (18) O values by about 1%, accurately reflecting the average 4 degrees C sea surface temperature decrease associated with the upwelling. The mean value of delta super(18) O for G. ruber was greater in the western Arabian Sea than in the central...

  18. Upwelling along the western Indian continental margin and its geological record - a summary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G

    of @iGlobigerina bulloides@@, and of dextrally coiled @iNeogloboquadrina pachyderma typica@@ through upwelling leave a record of the presence of such water masses in the sediments of that region. The very occurrence of @iG. bulloides@@ and the absence...

  19. Climate change and ocean deoxygenation within intensified surface-driven upwelling circulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakun, Andrew

    2017-09-13

    Ocean deoxygenation often takes place in proximity to zones of intense upwelling. Associated concerns about amplified ocean deoxygenation arise from an arguable likelihood that coastal upwelling systems in the world's oceans may further intensify as anthropogenic climate change proceeds. Comparative examples discussed include the uniquely intense seasonal Somali Current upwelling, the massive upwelling that occurs quasi-continuously off Namibia and the recently appearing and now annually recurring 'dead zone' off the US State of Oregon. The evident 'transience' in causal dynamics off Oregon is somewhat mirrored in an interannual-scale intermittence in eruptions of anaerobically formed noxious gases off Namibia. A mechanistic scheme draws the three examples towards a common context in which, in addition to the obvious but politically problematic remedy of actually reducing 'greenhouse' gas emissions, the potentially manageable abundance of strongly swimming, finely gill raker-meshed small pelagic fish emerges as a plausible regulating factor.This article is part of the themed issue 'Ocean ventilation and deoxygenation in a warming world'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Microbial uptake and regeneration of inorganic nitrogen off the coastal Namibian upwelling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Mar; Santana-Falcón, Yeray; Wasmund, Norbert; Arístegui, Javier

    2014-11-01

    We used 15N-labeled substrates to measure microbial nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) uptake, regeneration and associated dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) release in a coastal upwelling system off Namibia (Benguela Current) in the austral winter of 2011 with the aim of quantifying rates of new production (Pnew) and regenerated production (Preg). These measurements were made during four consecutive coastal-offshore transects. The water parcels sampled at the different stations over the transect were classified into three groups according to the time passed from the first contact of the water with the surface during coastal upwelling ('pseudo-age'). The average Pnew was high in freshly upwelled waters with a pseudo-age 55 d, respectively). Preg rates were similar in 55 d. Measuring nitrogen regeneration and DON release fluxes allowed us to correct Pnew and Preg rates. NO3- regeneration rates were low (< 0.5 mmol N m- 2 h- 1), while NH4+ regeneration rates were in the range of NH4+ uptake rates (~ 2 to 5 mmol N m- 2 h- 1), thus influencing significantly Preg rates. Parallel studies presented in this volume indicate a relatively high abundance of dinoflagellates and mixotrophic microflagellates, which may be partly responsible for the high Preg rates observed. Our results suggest that nitrogen regeneration plays an important role in sustaining primary production in this upwelling system.

  1. Diagnosing CO2 fluxes in the upwelling system off the Oregon coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Cao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It is generally known that the interplay between the carbon and nutrients supplied from subsurface waters via biological metabolism would determine the CO2 fluxes in upwelling systems. However, quantificational assessment of such interplay is difficult because of the dynamic nature of both upwelling circulation and the associated biogeochemistry. In this study, the diagnosis approach based upon the carbon/nutrient mass balance in the Ocean-dominated Margin (OceMar framework was applied to resolve the CO2 fluxes in the well-known upwelling system in the US west coast off Oregon, using the data collected along two cross-shelf transects from the inner shelf to the open basin in spring/early summer 2007. Through examining the biological consumption on top of the water mass mixing built upon the total alkalinity–salinity relationship, we successfully predicted and semi-analytically resolved the CO2 fluxes showing strong uptakes from the atmosphere beyond the nearshore regions, primarily resulting from the higher utilization of nutrients relative to dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC based on their concurrent inputs from the depth. On the other hand, we showed significant CO2 outgassing in the nearshore regions associated with intensified upwelling and minor biological consumption, where CO2 fluxes could be simplified without considering DIC/nutrient consumption. We reasoned that our approach in conceptualizing OceMar would be in a steady state with balanced DIC and nutrients via both physical transport and biological alterations in comparable timescales.

  2. SST patterns and dynamics of the southern Senegal-Gambia upwelling center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndoye, S.; Capet, X.; Estrade, P.; Sow, B.; Dagorne, D.; Lazar, A.; Gaye, A.; Brehmer, P.

    2014-12-01

    The southern end of the Canary current system comprises of an original upwelling center that has so far received little attention, the Southern Senegal-Gambia Upwelling Center (SSUC). We investigate its dynamical functioning by taking advantage of favorable conditions in terms of limited cloud coverage. Analyses and careful examinations of over 1500 satellite images of sea surface temperature scenes contextualized with respect to wind conditions confirm the regularity and stability of the SSUC dynamical functioning (as manifested by the recurrence and persistence of particular SST patterns). The analyses also reveal subtle aspects of its upwelling structure: shelf break cooling of surface waters consistent with internal tide breaking/mixing; complex interplay between local upwelling and the Mauritanian current off the Cape Verde headland; complexity of the inner-shelf/mid shelf frontal transition. The amplitude of the diurnal cycle suggests that large uncertainties exist in the SSUC heat budget. The studies limitations underscore the need for continuous in situ measurement in the SSUC, particularly of winds.

  3. Diatoms Si uptake capacity drives carbon export in coastal upwelling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, Fatima; Cermeno, Pedro; Lopes, Cristina; Romero, Oscar; Matos, Lélia; Van Iperen, Jolanda; Rufino, Marta; Magalhães, Vitor

    2016-07-01

    Coastal upwelling systems account for approximately half of global ocean primary production and contribute disproportionately to biologically driven carbon sequestration. Diatoms, silica-precipitating microalgae, constitute the dominant phytoplankton in these productive regions, and their abundance and assemblage composition in the sedimentary record is considered one of the best proxies for primary production. The study of the sedimentary diatom abundance (SDA) and total organic carbon content (TOC) in the five most important coastal upwelling systems of the modern ocean (Iberia-Canary, Benguela, Peru-Humboldt, California, and Somalia-Oman) reveals a global-scale positive relationship between diatom production and organic carbon burial. The analysis of SDA in conjunction with environmental variables of coastal upwelling systems such as upwelling strength, satellite-derived net primary production, and surface water nutrient concentrations shows different relations between SDA and primary production on the regional scale. On the global scale, SDA appears modulated by the capacity of diatoms to take up silicic acid, which ultimately sets an upper limit to global export production in these ocean regions.

  4. Phytoplankton succession in an isolated upwelled Benguela water body in relation to different initial nutrient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasmund, Norbert; Nausch, Günther; Hansen, Anja

    2014-11-01

    Freshly upwelled water is poor in phytoplankton biomass but rich in nutrients. With its ageing, phytoplankton biomass increases whereas the nutrients are consumed. The overall aim of our investigation was to check the succession in the phytoplankton composition as a consequence of changing nutrient conditions. The experiments were carried out in mesocosms filled with surface water in the northern Benguela region and installed on board of R/V "Maria S. Merian". In the freshly upwelled water, phytoplankton took up nitrogen at a higher rate than phosphorus if compared with the Redfield ratio. Therefore, nitrogen was exhausted already by day 6. Nitrogen limitation after day 6 was indicated by decreasing chlorophyll a (chla) concentrations, primary production rates and productivity indices and increasing C/N ratios in particulate matter. Despite nitrogen limitation, phosphorus addition stimulated further growth, mainly of diatoms, pointing to luxury uptake. Cyanobacteria did not develop and nitrogen fixation was zero even with phosphorus and iron addition. Diatoms stay the most important group in the freshly upwelled water, but autotrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates increase strongly in the matured upwelled water. Mesocosms excluded disturbances by advective water transports, which influence the study of succssions under field conditions.

  5. The significance of nitrogen regeneration for new production within a filament of the Mauritanian upwelling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Darren R.; Widdicombe, Claire E.; Rees, Andrew P.; Woodward, E. Malcolm S.

    2016-05-01

    The Lagrangian progression of a biological community was followed in a filament of the Mauritanian upwelling system, north-west Africa, during offshore advection. The inert dual tracers sulfur hexafluoride and helium-3 labelled a freshly upwelled patch of water that was mapped for 8 days. Changes in biological, physical, and chemical characteristics were measured, including phytoplankton productivity, nitrogen assimilation, and regeneration. Freshly upwelled water contained high nutrient concentrations but was depleted in N compared to Redfield stoichiometry. The highest rate of primary productivity was measured on the continental shelf, associated with high rates of nitrogen assimilation and a phytoplankton community dominated by diatoms and flagellates. Indicators of phytoplankton abundance and activity decreased as the labelled water mass transited the continental shelf slope into deeper water, possibly linked to the mixed layer depth exceeding the light penetration depth. By the end of the study, the primary productivity rate decreased and was associated with lower rates of nitrogen assimilation and lower nutrient concentrations. Nitrogen regeneration and assimilation took place simultaneously. Results highlighted the importance of regenerated NH4+ in sustaining phytoplankton productivity and indicate that the upwelled NO3- pool contained an increasing fraction of regenerated NO3- as it advected offshore. By calculating this fraction and incorporating it into an f ratio formulation, we estimated that of the 12.38 Tg C of annual regional production, 4.73 Tg C was exportable.

  6. Upwelling and associated hydrography along the west coast of india during southwest monsoon, 1999

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Maheswaran, P.A.; Rajesh, G.; Revichandran, C.; Nair, K.K.C.

    and related hydrography is discussed. Analysis of wind field and hydrography indicated active upwelling along the southwest coast of India. The sea surface temperature near the coast were lower by 1.7 degrees C (off Kanyakumari), 1.4 degrees C (off Cochin...

  7. On the upwelling off the Southern Tip and along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Smitha, B.R.; Sanjeevan, V.N.; VimalKumar, K.G.; Revichandran, C.

    ; the latter is forced by the longshore wind stress. Moderate to relatively intense upwelling occurs along the Kollam to Mangalore coast (9 degrees N to 13 degrees N) due to the combined action of the longshore wind stress, the coastally trapped Kelvin waves...

  8. Climate change in the Iberian Upwelling System: a numerical study using GCM downscaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro Pires, Ana; Nolasco, Rita; Rocha, Alfredo; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Dubert, Jesus

    2016-07-01

    The present work aims at evaluating the impacts of a climate change scenario on the hydrography and dynamics of the Iberian Upwelling System. Using regional ocean model configurations, the study domain is forced with three different sets of surface fields: a climatological dataset to provide the control run; a dataset obtained from averaging several global climate models (GCM) that integrate the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) models used in climate scenarios, for the same period as the climatological dataset; and this same dataset but for a future period, retrieved from the IPCC A2 climate scenario. After ascertaining that the ocean run forced with the GCM dataset for the present compared reasonably well with the climatologically forced run, the results for the future run (relative to the respective present run) show a general temperature increase (from +0.5 to +3 °C) and salinity decrease (from -0.1 to -0.3), particularly in the upper 100-200 m, although these differences depend strongly on season and distance to the coast. There is also strengthening of the SST cross-shore gradient associated to upwelling, which causes narrowing and shallowing of the upwelling jet. This effect is contrary to the meridional wind stress intensification that is also observed, which would tend to strengthen the upwelling jet.

  9. Late Eocene diatomite from the Peruvian coastal desert, coastal upwelling in the eastern Pacific, and Pacific circulation before the terminal Eocene event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marty, R.; Dunbar, R.; Martin, J.B.; Baker, P.

    1988-09-01

    Previously undocumented late Eocene diatomaceous sediments are present near Fundo Desbarrancado (FD) in southern Peru. These sediments are similar to Miocene diatomite from the same area but, unlike the Miocene diatomite, the FD sediments contain cherty layers, are enriched in CaCO/sub 3/, have a diverse and abundant radiolarian fauna, and possess varved-massive and millimeter- and meter-scale biogenic-terrigenous alternations. The FD sediments are part of an Eocene sequence that includes the clastic sediments of the Paracas Formation, and they are correlative to the Chira Formation of northern Peru. The Paleogene biogenic sediments of western South America show that coastal upwelling developed in the eastern Pacific before the latest Eocene, argue for the existence of a proto-Humboldt current at this time, and suggest that the terminal Eocene event was the culmination of gradual changes and not a catastrophic event at the Eocene/Oligocene boundary.

  10. boundary dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Camurdan

    1998-01-01

    are coupled by appropriate trace operators. This overall model differs from those previously studied in the literature in that the elastic chamber floor is here more realistically modeled by a hyperbolic Kirchoff equation, rather than by a parabolic Euler-Bernoulli equation with Kelvin-Voight structural damping, as in past literature. Thus, the hyperbolic/parabolic coupled system of past literature is replaced here by a hyperbolic/hyperbolic coupled model. The main result of this paper is a uniform stabilization of the coupled PDE system by a (physically appealing boundary dissipation.

  11. Phosphorus cycling in the red tide incubator region of Monterey Bay in response to upwelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rose Marie Mackey

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the cycling of phosphorus (P in the euphotic zone following upwelling in northeastern Monterey Bay (the Red Tide Incubator region of coastal California, with particular emphasis on how phytoplankton and bacteria mediate and respond to changes in P availability. In situ measurements of nutrient concentrations, phytoplankton community composition, and cell-specific alkaline phosphatase (AP activity (determined via enzyme labeled fluorescence assay were measured during 3 cruises. Upwelling led to a 10-fold increase in dissolved inorganic (DIP in surface waters, reaching ~0.5 mol L-1. This DIP was drawn down rapidly as upwelling relaxed over a period of 1 week. Relatively low ratios of nitrate to DIP uptake (~5:1 suggest that luxury P uptake was occurring as phytoplankton bloomed. Dissolved organic (DOP remained relatively constant (~0.3mol L-1 before and immediately following upwelling, but doubled as upwelling relaxed, likely due to phytoplankton excretion and release during grazing. This transition from a relatively high DIP:DOP ratio to lower DIP:DOP ratio was accompanied by a decline in the abundance of diatoms, which had low AP activity, toward localized, spatially-heterogeneous blooms of dinoflagellates in the genera Prorocentrum, Ceratium, Dinophysis, Alexandrium, and Scrippsiella that showed high AP activity regardless of ambient DIP levels. A nutrient addition incubation experiment showed that phytoplankton growth was primarily limited by nitrate, followed by DIP and then DOP, suggesting that P is a regulating, rather than limiting, nutrient in this region. AP activity was observed in bacteria associated with lysed cell debris and aggregates of particulate organic material, where it may serve to facilitate P regeneration, as well as affixed to the surfaces of intact phytoplankton cells, possibly indicative of close, beneficial phytoplankton-bacteria interactions.

  12. Distribution of 226Ra Radionuclide in Upwelling Event Off Ulsan, Gampo and Pohang, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muslim

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Upwelling is an important event in the sea for it makes the area to become more productive. The objective of this study is to determine the distribution of radium-226 as radiotoxic in the upwelling area in the summer season. Measurements of the horizontal and vertical activities of 226Ra in the Ulsan, Gampo and Pohang waters were conducted in June, August 1999 and June 2000 when the upwelling event was expected to occur. Water temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen (DO were also measured concurrently. The thermocline layer or the layer where the temperature decreased drastically occurred at a depth between 30 m to 100 m for samples dated June 1999 and 30 m to more than 100 m for samples dated August 1999 and June 2000. The salinity decreased with depth but the DO concentration increased in this layer. The condition affected the vertical distribution of 226Ra in the study area, where the 226Ra activities showed to be relatively homogeneous vertically in each station. This indicates that the upwelling which occurred in the study area was capable to distribute the 226Ra activities from the bottom to the surface. Thus, the 226Ra distribution at that time did not increase with depth, opposite to what usually occurs in the ocean at normal condition. The 226Ra activities also did not decrease after elapsed time of one year, in fact, it increased. However, horizontally the 226Ra activities decreased with increasing distance from the coastal zone. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the upwelling event in the Ulsan, Gampo and Pohang was effective for increasing the 226Ra activities and was capable to create homogeneous 226Ra activities from the bottom to the surface in the water column, and the source of 226Ra was likely to originate from outside area (i.e. coastal zone and bottom area.

  13. Seasonal variation of the upwelling trap in the Todos Santos Bay, Baja California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calva, M. A.; Perez-Brunius, P.; Lopez, M.; Candela, J.; García, E.

    2013-05-01

    Todos Santos Bay is located on the Pacific coast of Baja California, a region characterized by coastal upwelling throughout the year, being more intense in spring and summer. Aquaculture activities are expanding in the bay, so it is important to understand the processes that modulate the water temperature and stratification, given that these in turn affect biological productivity. This work presents an analysis of the seasonal variation of the temperature of the bay and adjacent regions, with satellite data and CTD casts made in quarterly cruises between 2008-2012. It has been observed that, on average, the surface temperature in the bay is warmer than outside, suggesting that upwelled waters that enter the bay are trapped a sufficiently long time to be heated by solar radiation, hence the name upwelling trap. During upwelling events that drive cold waters to the surface in the regions adjacent to the bay, satellite images show that the surface temperature inside the bay can be 4-5 °C higher than the surrounding area. This thermal front is strongest in summer when solar radiation is greater. We have studied the vertical structure of the lens of warm water with CTD data, which shows that its depth does not exceed 10 m and the temperature is 3 to 4 °C warmer than the water below. Preliminary results on the processes involved in the formation and evolution of the upwelling trap at synoptic to monthly scales will be presented, based on the analysis of sea surface temperature images, winds, and currents in the northwestern entrance of the bay.

  14. Models of oxic respiration, denitrification and sulfate reduction in zones of coastal upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, D. E.

    2006-12-01

    Coastal upwelling zones support some of the highest rates of primary production in the oceans. The settling and subsequent decomposition of this organic matter promotes oxygen depletion. In the Eastern tropical North and South Pacific and the Arabian Sea, large tracts of anoxic water develop, where intensive N 2 production through denitrification and anammox accounts for about 1/3 of the total loss of fixed nitrogen in the marine realm. It is curious that despite extensive denitrification in these waters, complete nitrate removal and the onset of sulfate reduction is extremely rare. A simple box model is constructed here to reproduce the dynamics of carbon, oxygen and nutrient cycling in coastal upwelling zones. The model is constructed with five boxes, where water is exchanged between the boxes by vertical and horizontal mixing and advection. These primary physical drivers control the dynamics of the system. The model demonstrates that in the absence of nitrogen fixation, the anoxic waters in a coastal upwelling system will not become nitrate free. This is because nitrate is the limiting nutrient controlling primary production, and if nitrate concentration becomes too low, primary production rate drops and this reduces rates of nitrate removal through N 2 production. With nitrogen fixation, however, complete nitrate depletion can occur and sulfate reduction will ensue. This situation is extremely rare in coastal upwelling zones, probably because nitrogen-fixing bacteria do not prosper in the high nutrient, turbid waters as typically in these areas. Finally, it is predicted here that the chemistry of the upwelling system will develop in a similar matter regardless whether N 2 production is dominated by anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) or canonical heterotrophic denitrification.

  15. Microbial diversity of a Brazilian coastal region influenced by an upwelling system and anthropogenic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano C Cury

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Upwelling systems are characterised by an intense primary biomass production in the surface (warmest water after the outcrop of the bottom (coldest water, which is rich in nutrients. Although it is known that the microbial assemblage plays an important role in the food chain of marine systems and that the upwelling systems that occur in southwest Brazil drive the complex dynamics of the food chain, little is known about the microbial composition present in this region. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out a molecular survey based on SSU rRNA gene from the three domains of the phylogenetic tree of life present in a tropical upwelling region (Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The aim was to analyse the horizontal and vertical variations of the microbial composition in two geographically close areas influenced by anthropogenic activity (sewage disposal/port activity and upwelling phenomena, respectively. A lower estimated diversity of microorganisms of the three domains of the phylogenetic tree of life was found in the water of the area influenced by anthropogenic activity compared to the area influenced by upwelling phenomena. We observed a heterogenic distribution of the relative abundance of taxonomic groups, especially in the Archaea and Eukarya domains. The bacterial community was dominated by Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla, whereas the microeukaryotic community was dominated by Metazoa, Fungi, Alveolata and Stramenopile. The estimated archaeal diversity was the lowest of the three domains and was dominated by uncharacterised marine Crenarchaeota that were most closely related to Marine Group I. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The variety of conditions and the presence of different microbial assemblages indicated that the area of Arraial do Cabo can be used as a model for detailed studies that contemplate the correlation between pollution-indicating parameters and the depletion of microbial

  16. Biogeochemical and ecological impacts of boundary currents in the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Raleigh R.; Beckley, Lynnath E.; Wiggert, Jerry D.

    2017-08-01

    Monsoon forcing and the unique geomorphology of the Indian Ocean basin result in complex boundary currents, which are unique in many respects. In the northern Indian Ocean, several boundary current systems reverse seasonally. For example, upwelling coincident with northward-flowing currents along the coast of Oman during the Southwest Monsoon gives rise to high productivity which also alters nutrient stoichiometry and therefore, the species composition of the resulting phytoplankton blooms. During the Northeast Monsoon most of the northern Indian Ocean boundary currents reverse and favor downwelling. Higher trophic level species have evolved behavioral responses to these seasonally changing conditions. Examples from the western Arabian Sea include vertical feeding migrations of a copepod (Calanoides carinatus) and the reproductive cycle of a large pelagic fish (Scomberomorus commerson). The impacts of these seasonal current reversals and changes in upwelling and downwelling circulations are also manifested in West Indian coastal waters, where they influence dissolved oxygen concentrations and have been implicated in massive fish kills. The winds and boundary currents reverse seasonally in the Bay of Bengal, though the associated changes in upwelling and productivity are less pronounced. Nonetheless, their effects are observed on the East Indian shelf as, for example, seasonal changes in copepod abundance and zooplankton community structure. In contrast, south of Sri Lanka seasonal reversals in the boundary currents are associated with dramatic changes in the intensity of coastal upwelling, chlorophyll concentration, and catch per unit effort of fishes. Off the coast of Java, monsoon-driven changes in the currents and upwelling strongly impact chlorophyll concentrations, seasonal vertical migrations of zooplankton, and sardine catch in Bali Strait. In the southern hemisphere the Leeuwin is a downwelling-favorable current that flows southward along western Australia

  17. Diffusive boundary layers over varying topography

    KAUST Repository

    Dell, R. W.

    2015-03-25

    Diffusive bottom boundary layers can produce upslope flows in a stratified fluid. Accumulating observations suggest that these boundary layers may drive upwelling and mixing in mid-ocean ridge flank canyons. However, most studies of diffusive bottom boundary layers to date have concentrated on constant bottom slopes. We present a study of how diffusive boundary layers interact with various idealized topography, such as changes in bottom slope, slopes with corrugations and isolated sills. We use linear theory and numerical simulations in the regional ocean modeling system (ROMS) model to show changes in bottom slope can cause convergences and divergences within the boundary layer, in turn causing fluid exchanges that reach far into the overlying fluid and alter stratification far from the bottom. We also identify several different regimes of boundary-layer behaviour for topography with oceanographically relevant size and shape, including reversing flows and overflows, and we develop a simple theory that predicts the regime boundaries, including what topographies will generate overflows. As observations also suggest there may be overflows in deep canyons where the flow passes over isolated bumps and sills, this parameter range may be particularly significant for understanding the role of boundary layers in the deep ocean.

  18. Diel variation in the vertical distribution of fish larvae forced by upwelling filaments off Punta Angamos (northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo M Rojas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of daily vertical migration (DVM of ichthyoplanktonic associations off Punta Angamos, in northern Chile, was examined. In September 1998 and January 1999, two oceanographic surveys were conducted during coastal upwelling events. Fish larvae were collected during the day/night in three depth strata (0-20, 20-80 and 80-200 m and inside/outside of upwelling filaments. The study area was dominated by a southward flow along 200 m depth; meanwhile, the Ekman layer did not exceed 20 m depth. The greatest accumulation of larvae was found in the middle layer (20-80 m, where the current velocity was low and did not interact with the circulation associated with upwelling the filament formation. Most fish larvae were found in non-upwelling waters in the middle stratum. Independent of the origin of water (upwelling/non-upwelling, larvae of Dioge-nichthys laternatus (Myctophidae, Engraulis ringens (Engraulidae and Bathylagus nigrigenys (Bathylagidae showed a deeper vertical distribution during the day, suggesting a daily vertical migration. This behavior can potentially increase retention of larvae near the coast in productive areas through vertical evasion of the Ekman layer during upwelling events.

  19. Phytoplankton community and environmental correlates in a coastal upwelling zone along western Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Kang, Jian-hua; Ye, You-yin; Lin, Geng-ming; Yang, Qing-liang; Lin, Mao

    2016-02-01

    Upwelling system in western Taiwan Strait is important for facilitating the fishery production. This study investigated hydro-chemical properties, phytoplankton biomass, phytoplankton species composition, three-dimensional (horizontal, vertical and transect) distribution of phytoplankton abundance, as well as phytoplankton annual variation and the correlation of phytoplankton community with the upwelling of underlying current and nutrients according to samples of Fujian-Guangdong coastal upwelling zone in western Taiwan Strait from August 27 to September 8, 2009. The results manifest that the nutrient-rich cold and high salinity current on the continental shelf of South China Sea upwells to the Fujian-Guangdong coastal waters through Taiwan Bank and the surging strength to surface is weak while strong at 30-m layer. The thermohaline center of coastal upwelling shifts to the east of Dongshan Island and expanded to offshore waters in comparison with previous records. A total of 137 phytoplankton species belonging to 59 genera in 4 phyla are identified excluding the unidentified species. Diatom is the first major group and followed by dinoflagellate. Cyanobacteria mainly composed by three Trichodesmium species account for a certain proportions, while Chrysophyta are only found in offshore waters. The dominant species include Thalassionema nitzschioides, Pseudo-nitzschia pungens, Thalassionema frauenfeldii, Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima, Rhizosolenia styliformis, Chaetoceros curvisetus, Diplopsalis lenticula and Trichodesmium thiebautii. Phytoplankton community mainly consists of eurythermal and eurytopic species, followed by warm-water species, tropic high-salinity species and oceanic eurythermic species in order. Phytoplankton abundance ranges from 1.00 × 102 ind./L ~ 437.22 × 102 ind./L with an average of 47.36 × 102 ind./L. For vertical distribution, maximum abundance is found at 30 m-depth and the surface comes second. Besides, the abundance below 30 m

  20. Surface Waters of the NW Iberian Margin: Upwelling on the Shelf versus Outwelling of Upwelled Waters from the Rı´as Baixas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Salgado, X. A.; Gago, J.; Míguez, B. M.; Gilcoto, M.; Pérez, F. F.

    2000-12-01

    A set of hydrographic surveys were carried out in the Rı´a of Vigo (NW Spain) at 2-4 d intervals during four 2-3 week periods in 1997, covering contrasting seasons. Residual exchange fluxes with the adjacent shelf were estimated with a 2-D, non-steady-state, salinity-temperature weighted box model. Exchange fluxes consist of a steady-state term (dependent on the variability of continental runoff) and a non-steady-state term (dependent on the time changes of density gradients in the embayment). More than 95% of the short-time-scale variability of the exchange fluxes in the middle and outer rı´a can be explained by the non-steady-state term that, in turns, is correlated (R 2>75%) with the offshore Ekman transport. Conversely, 96% of the variability of exchange fluxes in the inner rı´a rely on the steady-state term. The outer and middle rı´a are under the direct influence of coastal upwelling, which enhances the positive residual circulation pattern by an order of magnitude: from 10 2to 10 3 m 3s -1. On the contrary, downwelling provokes a reversal of the circulation in the outer rı´a. The position of the downwelling front along the embayment depends on the relative importance of Ekman transport ( Qx, m 3s -1km -1) and continental runoff ( R, m 3s -1). When Qx/ R>7±2 the reversal of the circulation affects the middle rı´a. Our results are representative for the 'Rı´as Baixas', four large coastal indentations in NW Spain. During the upwelling season (spring and summer), 60% of shelf surface waters off the 'Rı´as Baixas' consist of fresh Eastern North Atlantic Central Water (ENACW) upwelled in situ. The remaining 40% consists of upwelled ENACW that previously enters the rı´as and it is subsequently outwelled after thermohaline modification. During the downwelling season (autumn and winter), 40% of the warm and salty oceanic subtropic surface water, which piled on the shelf by the predominant southerly winds, enters the rı´as.

  1. Planetary boundaries : Governing emerging risks and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galaz, V.; de Zeeuw, Aart; Shiroyama, Hideaki; Tripley, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    The climate, ecosystems and species, ozone layer, acidity of the oceans, the flow of energy and elements through nature, landscape change, freshwater systems, aerosols, and toxins—these constitute the planetary boundaries within which humanity must find a safe way to live and prosper. These are thre

  2. Heterotrophic bacterial production, respiration, and growth efficiency associated with upwelling intensity in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bomina; Kim, Sung-Han; Kwak, Jung Hyun; Kang, Chang-Keun; Lee, Sang Heon; Hyun, Jung-Ho

    2017-09-01

    We investigated bacterial production (BP) and respiration (BR), as well as the physico-chemical properties of the water column, to elucidate the effect of upwelling on heterotrophic bacterial metabolic activities and growth efficiency (BGE) in July 2012 and May 2013 in the Ulleung Basin (UB), East/Japan Sea. The upwelled conditions were characterized by higher chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations resulting from the upward shift of the nitracline compared to that of the non-upwelled condition. Analyses of the size fractions of Chl-a and pigment composition revealed that large size phytoplankton (> 20 μm), mainly consisting of diatoms, appeared to be the major phytoplankton component. BP and BR were significantly correlated with Chl-a (P 0.05). These results suggest that bacterial metabolic activities are stimulated by the availability of organic resources enhanced by upwelling in the UB. Further statistical analysis showed that the difference in BP and BGE with variations in upwelling intensity were significant (P = 0.018 for BP, P = 0.035 for BGE), but the difference in BR was not significant (P = 0.321). These results suggest that metabolic energy is partitioned more for BP under a strong upwelling condition, i.e. high nutrient and Chl-a conditions. In contrast, the energy generated via respiration was partitioned more for maintaining metabolism rather than for biomass production under weakly or non-upwelled conditions, i.e. stratified and low Chl-a conditions. Overall, our results suggest that any changes in upwelling intensity would significantly affect the carbon cycle associated with the fate of primary production, and the role of the microbial loop in the UB where changes in the intensity and frequency of upwelling associated with climatic changes are in progress.

  3. Particle fluxes in the NW Iberian coastal upwelling system: Hydrodynamical and biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga, D.; Villacieros-Robineau, N.; Salgueiro, E.; Alonso-Pérez, F.; Rosón, G.; Abrantes, F.; Castro, C. G.

    2016-07-01

    To better understand sources and transport of particulate material in the NW Iberian coastal upwelling system, a mooring line dotted with an automated PPS 4/3 sediment trap was deployed off Cape Silleiro at the base of the photic zone. The samples were collected from November 2008 through June 2012 over sampling periods of 4-12 days. Our study represents the first automated sediment trap database for the NW Iberian margin. The magnitude and composition of the settling material showed strong seasonal variability with the highest fluxes during the poleward and winter mixing periods (averages of 12.9±9.6 g m-2 d-1 and 5.6±5.6 g m-2 d-1 respectively), and comparatively lower fluxes (3.6±4.1 g m-2 d-1) for the upwelling season. Intensive deposition events registered during poleward and winter mixing periods were dominated by the lithogenic fraction (80±3%). They were associated to high energy wave-driven resuspension processes, due to the occurrence of south-westerly storms, and intense riverine inputs of terrestrial material from Minho and Douro rivers. On the other hand, during the spring - summer upwelling season, the share of biogenic compounds (organic matter, calcium carbonate (CaCO3), biogenic silica (bSiO2)) to downward fluxes was higher, reflecting an increase in pelagic sedimentation due to the seasonal intensification of primary production and negligible river inputs and wave-driven resuspended material. Otherwise, the large variations of biogenic settling particles were mainly modulated by upwelling intensity, which by means of upwelling filaments ultimately controlled the offshore transport of the organic carbon fixed by primary producers towards the adjacent ocean. Based on the average downward flux of organic carbon (212 mg C m-2 d-1) and considering an average primary production of 1013 mg C m-2 d-1 from literature, we estimated that about 21% of the fixed carbon is vertically exported during the upwelling season.

  4. Transformation of Digital Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Hedman, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    In digital ecosystems, the fusion relation between business and technology means that the decision of technical compatibility of the offering is also the decision of how to position the firm relative to the coopetive relations that characterize business ecosystems. In this article we develop...... the Digital Ecosystem Technology Transformation (DETT) framework for explaining technology-based transformation of digital ecosystems by integrating theories of business and technology ecosystems. The framework depicts ecosystem transformation as distributed and emergent from micro-, meso-, and macro- level...... coopetition. The DETT framework consists an alternative to the existing explanations of digital ecosystem transformation as the rational management of one central actor balancing ecosystem tensions. We illustrate the use of the framework by a case study of transformation in the digital payment ecosystem...

  5. Amelioration of marine environments at the Smithian-Spathian boundary, Early Triassic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Z.-Q.; Algeo, T. J.; Li, Y.; Cao, L.

    2015-03-01

    The protracted recovery of marine ecosystems following the Permian-Triassic mass extinction may have been caused, in part, by episodic environmental and climatic crises during the Early Triassic, among which the Smithian-Spathian boundary (SSB) event is conspicuous. Here, we investigate the SSB event in the Shitouzhai section, Guizhou Province, South China, using a combination of carbonate carbon (δ13Ccarb) and carbonate-associated sulfate sulfur isotopes (δ34SCAS), rare earth elements, and elemental paleoredox and paleoproductivity proxies. The SSB at Shitouzhai is characterized by a +4‰ shift in δ13Ccarb and a -10 to -15‰ shift in δ34SCAS, recording negative covariation that diverges from the positive δ13Ccarb-δ34SCAS covariation that characterizes most of the Early Triassic. This pattern is inferred to reflect an increase in organic carbon burial (e.g., due to elevated marine productivity) concurrently with the oxidation of isotopically light H2S, as the result of enhanced vertical advection of nutrient- and sulfide-rich deep waters to the ocean-surface layer. Enhanced upwelling was likely a response to climatic cooling and the reinvigoration of global-ocean overturning circulation at the SSB. Coeval decreases in chemical weathering intensity and detrital sediment flux at Shitouzhai are also consistent with climatic cooling. A decline in marine biodiversity was probably associated with the late Smithian thermal maximum (LSTM) rather than with the SSB per se. The SSB thus marked the termination of the extreme hothouse conditions of the Griesbachian-Smithian substages of the Early Triassic and is significant as a record of accompanying climatic, environmental, and biotic changes. The ultimate cause of the SSB event is uncertain but may have been related to a reduction in intrusive magmatic activity in the Siberian Traps large igneous province.

  6. Upwelling-driven reworking of a MTD's fine-grained plume: an example at the Cariaco Basin/Cariaco Gulf connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Iliana; Beck, Christian; Audemard, Franck; Crouzet, Christian; Sabatier, Pierre; Develle, Anne-Lise; Boussafir, Mohammed; Campos, Corina

    2016-04-01

    The Cariaco Basin is a 1400 m-deep and 90 km-wide pull-apart basin, in the south-eastern corner of the Caribbean Sea. To the East, it is connected to the Cariaco Gulf, a 60 km-long, 15 km-wide, and 90 m-deep appendix. Both are E-W elongated and developed upon the south-eastern transform boundary of the Caribbean Plate, an active limit here mainly represented by the El Pilar Fault. The Gulf of Cariaco entrance is a 55 m-deep, and 5 km-wide sill mainly controlled by the large Manzanares River delta, which western foreset slope is facing the Basin's eastern edge. Within this connection area, two particular sedimentary processes have been previously documented: 1) strong seasonal upwelling responsible for the transfer of deep particulate organic matter from the Basin into the Gulf; 2) the recent occurrence, in the Basin, of a fine-grained suspension related to a submarine landslide; this event was detected after the 1997 Cariaco earthquake (Thunell et al., 1999; Lorenzoni et al., 2012) and was related to a slope failure of the Manzanares delta western foreset. From short gravity cores retrieved in the Gulf, we analysed the last millennium of sedimentation (components, transport and settling processes) using classical proxies and physical properties. All parameters led to underline: - a permanent mixed provenance of particulate Organic Matter in the main part of the Gulf: i) in situ and ii) allochtonous; - the occurrence of coarse siliciclastic layers related to flooding from the southern edge of the Gulf; - the occurrence of one peculiar fine-grained siliciclastic layer with a widespread distribution, dated around 1850 AD; - an abrupt increase of open marine influence just after the above-mentioned layer. Concerning the "background" permanent sedimentation, these results confirm the importance of upwelling through the connection between the Gulf and the Basin (transfer of the "allochtonous" O.M.). For the fine-grained silicilastic "event", we could discard a

  7. Low-frequency variations in primary production in the Oman upwelling zone associated with monsoon winds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Xiaomei; ZHAN Haigang; WEI Xing

    2012-01-01

    Thirteen-year satellite-derived data are used to investigate the temporal variability of net primaryproduction (NPP) in the Oman upwelling zone and its potential forcing mechanisms.The NPP in the Oman upwelling zone is characterized by an abnormal decrease during El Ni(n)o events.Such an NPP decrease may be related to El Ni(n)o-driven anomalous summertime weak wind.During the summer following El Ni(n)o,the anomalous northeasterly wind forced by southwest Indian Ocean warming weakens the southwest monsoon and warms the Arabian Sea.The abnormal wind weakens the coastal Ekman transport,offshore Ekman pumping and horizontal advection,resulting in reduced upward nutrient supply to the euphotic zone.A slightly declining trend in NPP after 2000 associated with a gradual decrease in surface monsoon winds is discussed.

  8. First year of of an ocean-atmosphere mooring in the Senegalese coastal upwelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Alban; Dausse, Denis; del Rey, Marta Martin; Diakhaté, Moussa; Machu, Éric; Faye, Saliou; Dagorne, Dominique; Gaye, Amadou

    2016-04-01

    The Joint International Laboratory ECLAIRS set up an oceanographic and meteorological buoy, dedicated to monitoring and analysis of the short and long-term changes in climate, atmosphere and marine environment within the Senegal upwelling. The buoy "MELAX" was deployed early 2015 in the heart of the Senegalese upwelling by 30m-depth at (14°20'N, 17°14'W). Data collected are, for the atmosphere, surface wind, solar radiation, humidity and rain, and for the ocean, temperatures, salinity, and currents (from the surface to the bottom) and oxygen. We present the first year of observations, in particular the relationship between wind, sea surface temperatures, hydrology and current, but also briochemistry. Satellite and model data are used to provide a larger-scale context to the punctual observations.

  9. Record of massive upwellings from the Pacific large low shear velocity province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, Pilar; Gazel, Esteban; Flores, Kennet E.; Bizimis, Michael; Jicha, Brian

    2016-11-01

    Large igneous provinces, as the surface expression of deep mantle processes, play a key role in the evolution of the planet. Here we analyse the geochemical record and timing of the Pacific Ocean Large Igneous Provinces and preserved accreted terranes to reconstruct the history of pulses of mantle plume upwellings and their relation with a deep-rooted source like the Pacific large low-shear velocity Province during the Mid-Jurassic to Upper Cretaceous. Petrological modelling and geochemical data suggest the need of interaction between these deep-rooted upwellings and mid-ocean ridges in pulses separated by ~10-20 Ma, to generate the massive volumes of melt preserved today as oceanic plateaus. These pulses impacted the marine biota resulting in episodes of anoxia and mass extinctions shortly after their eruption.

  10. Record of massive upwellings from the Pacific large low shear velocity province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, Pilar; Gazel, Esteban; Flores, Kennet E.; Bizimis, Michael; Jicha, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Large igneous provinces, as the surface expression of deep mantle processes, play a key role in the evolution of the planet. Here we analyse the geochemical record and timing of the Pacific Ocean Large Igneous Provinces and preserved accreted terranes to reconstruct the history of pulses of mantle plume upwellings and their relation with a deep-rooted source like the Pacific large low-shear velocity Province during the Mid-Jurassic to Upper Cretaceous. Petrological modelling and geochemical data suggest the need of interaction between these deep-rooted upwellings and mid-ocean ridges in pulses separated by ∼10–20 Ma, to generate the massive volumes of melt preserved today as oceanic plateaus. These pulses impacted the marine biota resulting in episodes of anoxia and mass extinctions shortly after their eruption. PMID:27824054

  11. Net primary productivity, upwelling and coastal currents in the Gulf of Ulloa, Baja California, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. González-Rodríguez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Gulf of Ulloa, a highly productive area off the western coast of Baja California Peninsula, is examined for five successive years (2003–2007 by using satellite data and seasonal net primary productivity estimates obtained by a vertical generalized production model. The results clearly identify a seasonal signal of coastal upwelling in productivity estimates. Highest values occur from May to June and sometimes July. We also find influence of an equatorward coastal current able of transporting water from neighboring north upwelling areas to the Gulf of Ulloa in winter–spring. This flow contributes to increase the seasonal net primary productivity. The opposite occurs in summer, when a warm poleward current of tropical characteristics arrives to the region. Our findings reveal that such warm coastal current suppressed the productivity in the whole.

  12. Modelling the upwelling offthe east Hainan Island coast in summer 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Peng; Gu, Yanzhen; Li, Peiliang; Wu, Kejian

    2016-11-01

    A synoptic-scale upwelling event that developed offthe east coast of the Hainan Island (EHIU) in the summer of 2010 is defined well via processing the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sea surface temperature (SST) data. The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) with high spatial resolution has been used to investigate this upwelling event. By comparing the ROMS results against tide station data, Argo float profiles and MODIS SST, it is confirmed that the ROMS reproduces the EHIU well. The cooler-water core (CWC) distinguished by waters wind stress curl that dominated the east Qiongzhou Strait mouth area suppressed the intensity of the CWC by 0.2-0.4°C. Further, nonlinear interaction between tidal currents and wind stress enhanced vertical mixing greatly, which would benefit the development of the CWC.

  13. Actively heated high-resolution fiber-optic-distributed temperature sensing to quantify streambed flow dynamics in zones of strong groundwater upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Martin A.; Buckley, Sean F.; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C.; Werkema, Dale D.; Lane, John W.

    2016-07-01

    Zones of strong groundwater upwelling to streams enhance thermal stability and moderate thermal extremes, which is particularly important to aquatic ecosystems in a warming climate. Passive thermal tracer methods used to quantify vertical upwelling rates rely on downward conduction of surface temperature signals. However, moderate to high groundwater flux rates (>-1.5 m d-1) restrict downward propagation of diurnal temperature signals, and therefore the applicability of several passive thermal methods. Active streambed heating from within high-resolution fiber-optic temperature sensors (A-HRTS) has the potential to define multidimensional fluid-flux patterns below the extinction depth of surface thermal signals, allowing better quantification and separation of local and regional groundwater discharge. To demonstrate this concept, nine A-HRTS were emplaced vertically into the streambed in a grid with ˜0.40 m lateral spacing at a stream with strong upward vertical flux in Mashpee, Massachusetts, USA. Long-term (8-9 h) heating events were performed to confirm the dominance of vertical flow to the 0.6 m depth, well below the extinction of ambient diurnal signals. To quantify vertical flux, short-term heating events (28 min) were performed at each A-HRTS, and heat-pulse decay over vertical profiles was numerically modeled in radial two dimension (2-D) using SUTRA. Modeled flux values are similar to those obtained with seepage meters, Darcy methods, and analytical modeling of shallow diurnal signals. We also observed repeatable differential heating patterns along the length of vertically oriented sensors that may indicate sediment layering and hyporheic exchange superimposed on regional groundwater discharge.

  14. Basaltic continental intraplate volcanism as sustained by shear-driven upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmer, M. D.; Conrad, C. P.; Smith, E. I.

    2012-04-01

    While most volcanism on Earth occurs at plate boundaries, the study of intraplate basaltic volcanism may provide an opportunity to scrutinize the make-up and dynamics of the mantle. In continental settings, a range of mechanisms were proposed to sustain mantle decompression and hence to support such volcanism. These include mantle plumes, fertile melting anomalies, self-sustaining buoyant decompression melting, lithospheric dripping, and edge-driven small-scale convection. Recently, Conrad et al. showed that basaltic continental volcanism occurs more often where shear across the asthenosphere is greatest, and hence propose shear-driven upwelling (SDU) to support such volcanism¹. SDU does not require density heterogeneity to drive convection, in contrast to other mechanisms. Rather, it develops when rapid shear across the asthenosphere meets lateral viscosity variation2. For example, in a case with a low-viscosity pocket in the mantle, asthenospheric shear is accommodated in a different manner across the pocket than across the ambient mantle. This contrast drives vertical flow close to the margins of the pocket, and may be sufficient to sustain decompression melting, particularly if the viscosity anomaly is supported by higher water contents or temperatures2. Mantle melting is also expected for situations in which asthenospheric shear flow enters a lithospheric cavity, or decompresses across a step in lithospheric thickness3 - and even more so if a low-viscosity pocket is entrained in such a flow. Seismic observations indicate that sublithospheric topography, and heterogeneity in mantle viscosity are indeed common beneath continents (regardless of whether the imaged anomalies are thermal or compositional in origin). We use three-dimensional numerical models to explore shear-driven flow, and investigate a range of cases with pockets of variable viscosity contrast and shape, lithospheric steps of variable offset and spacing, and asthenospheric flow with variable

  15. Modelling an alkenone-like proxy record in the NW African upwelling

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    A regional biogeochemical model is applied to the NW African coastal upwelling between 19° N and 27° N to investigate how a water temperature proxy is produced at the sea surface and recorded in the slope sediments. The biological model has two phytoplankton groups, to distinguish an alkenone producer group (considered as coccolithophores) from other phytoplankton. The Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) is used to simulate the ocean circulation, and takes advantage of the ...

  16. Wind-driven coastal upwelling and westward circulation in the Yucatan shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Castillo, Eugenio; Gomez-Valdes, Jose; Sheinbaum, Julio; Rioja-Nieto, Rodolfo

    2016-04-01

    The wind-driven circulation and wind-induced coastal upwelling in a large shelf sea with a zonally oriented coast are examined. The Yucatan shelf is located to the north of the Yucatan peninsula in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. This area is a tropical shallow body of water with a smooth sloping bottom and is one of the largest shelves in the world. This study describes the wind-driven circulation and wind-induced coastal upwelling in the Yucatan shelf, which is forced by easterly winds throughout the year. Data obtained from hydrographic surveys, acoustic current profilers and environmental satellites are used in the analysis. Hydrographic data was analyzed and geostrophic currents were calculated in each survey. In addition an analytical model was applied to reproduce the currents. The results of a general circulation model were used with an empirical orthogonal function analysis to study the variability of the currents. The study area is divided in two regions: from the 40 m to the 200 m isobaths (outer shelf) and from the coast to the 40 m isobath (inner shelf). At the outer shelf, observations revealed upwelling events throughout the year, and a westward current with velocities of approximately 0.2 m s-1 was calculated from the numerical model output and hydrographic data. In addition, the theory developed by Pedlosky (2007) for a stratified fluid along a sloping bottom adequately explains the current's primary characteristics. The momentum of the current comes from the wind, and the stratification is an important factor in its dynamics. At the inner shelf, observations and numerical model output show a wind-driven westward current with maximum velocities of 0.20 m s-1. The momentum balance in this region is between local acceleration and friction. A cold-water band is developed during the period of maximum upwelling.

  17. Biogenic halocarbons from the Peruvian upwelling region as tropospheric halogen source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepach, Helmke; Quack, Birgit; Tegtmeier, Susann; Engel, Anja; Bracher, Astrid; Fuhlbrügge, Steffen; Galgani, Luisa; Atlas, Elliot L.; Lampel, Johannes; Frieß, Udo; Krüger, Kirstin

    2016-09-01

    Halocarbons are produced naturally in the oceans by biological and chemical processes. They are emitted from surface seawater into the atmosphere, where they take part in numerous chemical processes such as ozone destruction and the oxidation of mercury and dimethyl sulfide. Here we present oceanic and atmospheric halocarbon data for the Peruvian upwelling zone obtained during the M91 cruise onboard the research vessel METEOR in December 2012. Surface waters during the cruise were characterized by moderate concentrations of bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2) correlating with diatom biomass derived from marker pigment concentrations, which suggests this phytoplankton group is a likely source. Concentrations measured for the iodinated compounds methyl iodide (CH3I) of up to 35.4 pmol L-1, chloroiodomethane (CH2ClI) of up to 58.1 pmol L-1 and diiodomethane (CH2I2) of up to 32.4 pmol L-1 in water samples were much higher than previously reported for the tropical Atlantic upwelling systems. Iodocarbons also correlated with the diatom biomass and even more significantly with dissolved organic matter (DOM) components measured in the surface water. Our results suggest a biological source of these compounds as a significant driving factor for the observed large iodocarbon concentrations. Elevated atmospheric mixing ratios of CH3I (up to 3.2 ppt), CH2ClI (up to 2.5 ppt) and CH2I2 (3.3 ppt) above the upwelling were correlated with seawater concentrations and high sea-to-air fluxes. During the first part of the cruise, the enhanced iodocarbon production in the Peruvian upwelling contributed significantly to tropospheric iodine levels, while this contribution was considerably smaller during the second part.

  18. Influence of monsoon upwelling on the planktonic foraminifera off Oman during Late Quaternary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.

    foraminifer species mass accumulation rates (flux), coiling direction, test size and isotopic values primarily based on the results from the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 723A (18°03N, 57°37E, water depth 808m) from the Oman Margin, Arabian Sea... Drilling Program (ODP) Site 723A from the Oman Margin, Arabian Sea. Neogloboquadrina pachyderma Fluctuations of the sinistral morphotype fluxes of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma follow closely the variation in the upwelling index in being higher...

  19. Shifts between gelatinous and crustacean plankton in a coastal upwelling region

    OpenAIRE

    Bode, A.; Álvarez-Ossorio-Costa, M.T. (María Teresa); Miranda, A; Ruiz-villarreal, M

    2013-01-01

    proyectos RADIALES (IEO) y EURO-BASIN (Ref. 264933, 7FP) Variability in the dominance of copepods vs. gelatinous plankton was analysed using monthly time-series covering the last 55 years and related to changes in climatic, oceanographic, and fishery conditions in the upwelling region of Galicia (NW Spain). Seasonality was generally the main component of variability in all groups, both along the coast and in the nearby ocean, but no common long-term trend was found. Coastal copepo...

  20. Nutrients, oxygen and biogeochemical processes in the Humboldt upwelling current system off Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle I. Graco

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The upwelling system of the Humboldt Current, is considered among the most productive systems in the world, extending along the eastern South Pacific off Chile and Peru. In particular the coastal waters off Peru attracted considerable interest for being among the most fertile and productive the world, highlighting fisheries, such as anchovy, which represent one of the pillars of the economy of Peru.

  1. Coastal upwelling supplies oxygen-depleted water to the Columbia River estuary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Curtis Roegner

    Full Text Available Low dissolved oxygen (DO is a common feature of many estuarine and shallow-water environments, and is often attributed to anthropogenic nutrient enrichment from terrestrial-fluvial pathways. However, recent events in the U.S. Pacific Northwest have highlighted that wind-forced upwelling can cause naturally occurring low DO water to move onto the continental shelf, leading to mortalities of benthic fish and invertebrates. Coastal estuaries in the Pacific Northwest are strongly linked to ocean forcings, and here we report observations on the spatial and temporal patterns of oxygen concentration in the Columbia River estuary. Hydrographic measurements were made from transect (spatial survey or anchor station (temporal survey deployments over a variety of wind stresses and tidal states during the upwelling seasons of 2006 through 2008. During this period, biologically stressful levels of dissolved oxygen were observed to enter the Columbia River estuary from oceanic sources, with minimum values close to the hypoxic threshold of 2.0 mg L(-1. Riverine water was consistently normoxic. Upwelling wind stress controlled the timing and magnitude of low DO events, while tidal-modulated estuarine circulation patterns influenced the spatial extent and duration of exposure to low DO water. Strong upwelling during neap tides produced the largest impact on the estuary. The observed oxygen concentrations likely had deleterious behavioral and physiological consequences for migrating juvenile salmon and benthic crabs. Based on a wind-forced supply mechanism, low DO events are probably common to the Columbia River and other regional estuaries and if conditions on the shelf deteriorate further, as observations and models predict, Pacific Northwest estuarine habitats could experience a decrease in environmental quality.

  2. Influence of upwelling induced near shore hypoxia on the Alappuzha mud banks, South West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    GireeshKumar, T.R.; Mathew, D.; Pratihary, A.K.; Naik, H.; Narvekar, K.U.; Araujo, J.; Balachandran, K.K.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Thorat, B.R.; Nair, M.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    The results of the first time-series measurements spanning 18-weeks (22 April to 20 September 2014) from a coastal environment (Alappuzha, southwest India), where two process of upwelling and mud banks are concurrent during summer monsoon...

  3. Carbon and oxygen isotope time series records of planktonic and benthic foraminifera from the Arabian Sea: Implications on upwelling processes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.; Niitsuma, N.

    .D. Naidu, N. Niitsuma/Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 202 (2003) 85^9588 was not driven by calci¢cation temperature changes for the following reasons: (1) upwelling was stronger during this period (Prell and Kutz- bach, 1987; Naidu...

  4. Contrasting energy allocation strategies of two sympatric Merluccius species in an upwelling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, J; Fernandez-Peralta, L; Quintanilla, L F; Hidalgo, M; Presas, C; Salmeron, F; Puerto, M A

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the somatic growth and energy allocation strategy of two sympatric hake species (Merluccius polli and Merluccius senegalensis), coexisting under the strong influence of the Mauritanian upwelling. The results revealed that ontogeny, bathymetry, geography and reproduction shaped the differences found between the condition dynamics of the two species. Aside from species-specific differences, individuals were observed in better condition in the northernmost area (more influenced by the permanent upwelling) and in the deepest waters, probably the most favourable habitat for Merluccius spp. Both species also displayed contrasting trade-offs in energy allocation probably due to the dissimilarity of their habitats, which favours the existence of divergent adaptive strategies in response to different ontogenic requirements. It was hypothesized that M. polli invests in mass and energy reserves while sacrificing growth, as larger sizes may not provide an ecological advantage in a deeper and more stable environment. Moreover, M. senegalensis capitalizes on a steady growth without major disruptions, enabling earlier spawning at the expense of a lower somatic mass, which is fitting to a less stable shallower environment. This study sheds new light on differences in the biological traits and life strategies of Merluccius spp., which permit their overlap in a complex upwelling system and may contribute to the long-lasting scientific-based management of these species. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  5. Beneficial use of the upwelling phenomenon in coal-tar remediation efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudijk, G.; Coler, M. [Hydrotechnology Consultants, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Manufactured gas plants (MGPs) were in operation in the State of New Jersey from about 1850 until the early 1930s. Large gas holders constructed of steel, commonly emplaced deep in the subsurface, were used to produce and store the gas. One by-product of coal gasification is a dense, viscous substance known as coal-tar which is commonly the source of many environmental problems in New Jersey. Coal-tar was often disposed of haphazardly and due to its high density, migrated downward causing significant contamination of groundwater supplies. Pools of coal-tar may be encountered at the bottom of an aquifer, becoming a continuous source of groundwater contamination. The purpose of this paper is to show that the physical phenomena observed during the upwelling of saline water, such as in coastal aquifers, can be applied in coal-tar recovery operations. Field data of coal-tar upwelling from an MGP site in New Jersey are applied to the salt water upwelling methodologies used in coastal aquifers. 2 ref.

  6. Macro-Scale Patterns in Upwelling/Downwelling Activity at North American West Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldívar-Lucio, Romeo; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Nakamura, Miguel; Villalobos, Héctor; Lluch-Cota, Daniel; Del Monte-Luna, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The seasonal and interannual variability of vertical transport (upwelling/downwelling) has been relatively well studied, mainly for the California Current System, including low-frequency changes and latitudinal heterogeneity. The aim of this work was to identify potentially predictable patterns in upwelling/downwelling activity along the North American west coast and discuss their plausible mechanisms. To this purpose we applied the min/max Autocorrelation Factor technique and time series analysis. We found that spatial co-variation of seawater vertical movements present three dominant low-frequency signals in the range of 33, 19 and 11 years, resembling periodicities of: atmospheric circulation, nodal moon tides and solar activity. Those periodicities might be related to the variability of vertical transport through their influence on dominant wind patterns, the position/intensity of pressure centers and the strength of atmospheric circulation cells (wind stress). The low-frequency signals identified in upwelling/downwelling are coherent with temporal patterns previously reported at the study region: sea surface temperature along the Pacific coast of North America, catch fluctuations of anchovy Engraulis mordax and sardine Sardinops sagax, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, changes in abundance and distribution of salmon populations, and variations in the position and intensity of the Aleutian low. Since the vertical transport is an oceanographic process with strong biological relevance, the recognition of their spatio-temporal patterns might allow for some reasonable forecasting capacity, potentially useful for marine resources management of the region. PMID:27893826

  7. The Correlation of Upwelling Phenomena and Ocean Sunfish Occurrences in Nusa Penida, Bali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tito, C. K.; Susilo, E.

    2017-02-01

    Sea surface Temperature (SST) is an important oceanographic variable that can figure the upwelling phenomena. This study aims to determine the variability of SST in relation to upwelling phenomena in the Indian Ocean Southern of Bali Island and the Ocean Sunfish occurrences in the southern of Nusa Penida. Data loggers and remote sensing approach that record temperature was used. An Onset HOBO U20 Water Level Logger U20-001-02 was deployed in Crystal Bay (08°42‧S and 115°27‧E) at 8 meters depth. The daily field SST data were available from June 2011 to December 2014 with 30 minutes time interval. The monthly satellite images obtained from MODIS on board the Aqua satellite. While the ocean sunfish occurrences were based on rate of encounter (ROE) of previous works by Putra (2015) on July to October 2014. It was found that field data and MODIS have a high correlation (r=0.89) with Root Mean Square Error (RMSE=1.64°C). The upwelling phenomena characterized by the evidence of the colder water mass (SST phenomena coincidence with the high occurrences of Ocean Sunfish in Crystal Bay on August to October.

  8. Influence of upwelling saline groundwater on iron and manganese cycling in the Rio Grande floodplain aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, Matthew F. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)], E-mail: matthew.f.kirk@gmail.com; Crossey, Laura J. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina [Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Newell, Dennis L. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Bowman, Robert S. [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    Salinity contributions from upwelling groundwater significantly degrade water quality in the Rio Grande, a major source of water for the southwestern USA. This study considers the influence of this upwelling water on the geochemistry and microbiology of the Rio Grande floodplain alluvial aquifer. The composition of surface water, groundwater, and floodplain sediment samples collected from three transects in the Socorro Basin was examined. Terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) was also used to examine microbial biomass samples. The distribution of salinity in the floodplain groundwater largely reflects the configuration of local groundwater flow and mixing of two major water sources, deeply-sourced saline groundwater and river water. Microbial populations in the shallow aquifer consume O{sub 2} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} and serve to redistribute metal oxides from the saturated zone to locations of groundwater discharge at the surface and possibly near the water table. The upwelling saline groundwater affects floodplain microbial processes by transporting reduced metals and organic electron donors to the alluvial aquifer system. This enhances metal reduction in the saturated zone and ultimately metal oxidation at or near the surface. Geochemical modeling suggests that mixing of the saline groundwater with more dilute water in the floodplain creates conditions more favorable for metal oxidation to occur and thereby influences the distribution of metal oxides.

  9. Effect of upwelling on the pelagic environment and bloom-forming cyanobacteria in the western Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahtera, E.; Laanemets, J.; Pavelson, J.; Huttunen, M.; Kononen, K.

    2005-10-01

    The effect of coastal upwelling on the late summer pelagic environment, focusing on the two main bloom-forming filamentous cyanobacteria species, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Nodularia spumigena, was evaluated on the basis of field observations in July and August 1999 in the western Gulf of Finland. The study consisted of biological (chlorophyll a, phytoplankton, primary production), chemical (phosphate, nitrate, silicate), and CTD measurements at a fixed station and ten horizontal mesoscale surveys over the surrounding area. Available meteorological and open sea environment monitoring data (surface layer temperature and cyanobacteria biomass), as well as satellite data, were used for further interpretation of the results. An upwelling event was observed along the northern coast of the Gulf. It caused a 10 °C temperature drop and phosphate enrichment of the upper layer. The total biomass of phytoplankton declined in the area affected by the upwelled water. Within five days from the start of the upwelling chlorophyll a normalized primary production showed a slight increase, which was caused by a brief Mesodinium rubrum bloom. An observed initial decline of cyanobacteria biomass was due to offshore transport of the surface-dwelling populations. Due to the accumulation of N. spumigenacloser to the surface its biomass decrease was more pronounced than the biomass decrease observed for A. flos-aquae. The A. flos-aquae population residing in the upper part of the seasonal thermocline was brought up to the surface layer and growth of this inoculum was promoted by the phosphate input. An increase of A. flos-aquae biomass near the northern coast of the Gulf was observed after a three-week time lag when the upwelling had subsided. The structure of the phytoplankton community in the upwelling zone changed due to the upwelling, but was re-established within five days after the relaxation of upwelling. The growth of other phytoplankton species was most likely limited by

  10. Coral reefs - Specialized ecosystems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.

    This paper discusses briefly some aspects that characterize and differentiate coral reef ecosystems from other tropical marine ecosystems. A brief account on the resources that are extractable from coral reefs, their susceptibility to natural...

  11. Technology for Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Kristensen, Jannie Friis; Nielsen, Christina

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a study of an organisation, which is undergoing a process transforming organisational and technological boundaries. In particular, we shall look at three kinds of boundaries: the work to maintain and change the boundary between the organisation and its customers; boundaries.......After analysing the history and the current boundary work, the paper will propose new technological support for boundary work. In particular the paper will suggest means of supporting boundaries when these are productive and for changing boundaries when this seems more appropriate. In total, flexible technologies...... seem a core issue when dealing with technology for boundaries....

  12. Changes in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the Mauritanian–Cap Vert upwelling region between 2005 and 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. González-Dávila

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Coastal upwellings along the eastern margins of major ocean basins represent regions of large ecological and economic importance due to the high biological productivity. The role of these regions for the global carbon cycle makes them essential in addressing climate change. The physical forcing of upwelling processes that favor production in these areas are already being affected by global warming, which will modify the intensity of upwelling and, consequently, the carbon dioxide cycle. Here, we present monthly high-resolution surface experimental data for temperature and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in one of the four most important upwelling regions of the planet, the Mauritanian–Cap Vert upwelling region, from 2005 to 2012. This data set provides direct evidence of seasonal and interannual changes in the physical and biochemical processes. Specifically, we show an upwelling intensification and an increase of 0.6 Tg yr−1 in CO2 outgassing due to increased wind speed, despite increased primary productivity. This increase in CO2 outgassing together with the observed decrease in sea surface temperature at the location of the Mauritanian Cap Blanc, 21° N, produced a pH rate decrease of −0.003 ± 0.001 yr−1.

  13. Changes in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the Mauritanian-Cap Vert upwelling region between 2005 and 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Dávila, Melchor; Magdalena Santana Casiano, J.; Machín, Francisco

    2017-08-01

    Coastal upwellings along the eastern margins of major ocean basins represent regions of large ecological and economic importance due to the high biological productivity. The role of these regions for the global carbon cycle makes them essential in addressing climate change. The physical forcing of upwelling processes that favor production in these areas are already being affected by global warming, which will modify the intensity of upwelling and, consequently, the carbon dioxide cycle. Here, we present monthly high-resolution surface experimental data for temperature and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in one of the four most important upwelling regions of the planet, the Mauritanian-Cap Vert upwelling region, from 2005 to 2012. This data set provides direct evidence of seasonal and interannual changes in the physical and biochemical processes. Specifically, we show an upwelling intensification and an increase of 0.6 Tg yr-1 in CO2 outgassing due to increased wind speed, despite increased primary productivity. This increase in CO2 outgassing together with the observed decrease in sea surface temperature at the location of the Mauritanian Cap Blanc, 21° N, produced a pH rate decrease of -0.003 ± 0.001 yr-1.

  14. A physical view of La Guajira Upwelling System, Colombian Basin, Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, G.; Beier, E.; Barton, E. D.; Ruiz-Ochoa, M.; Correa, J. G.

    2013-05-01

    La Guajira Peninsula lies within a large upwelling system along the South Caribbean Coast, created by the NE trade winds. In this location, sea surface temperature (SST) exhibits the lowest mean value and the highest variability in the whole Colombian Basin. The seasonal variation of SST explains up to 75 % of the total variability. La Guajira coastal zone also experiences the highest values of wind stress and wind stress curl, with the greatest annual and semiannual variability in the Colombian Basin. It has been shown that wind stress curl enhances the upwelling over the region. Near 90% of the variability of SST in La Guajira can be explained by the seasonality plus the first three EOFs interannual modes: the first, synchronous throughout the Basin, is dominant, and consists of a uniform interannual variation in phase with the North Tropical Atlantic Index; the second co-varies strongly with the second mode of wind stress curl; and the third reflects the role of the vertical atmospheric circulation cell associated with the Caribbean Low Level Jet off Central America. The inclusion of wind stress curl with its maximum offshore of La Guajira explains in part the extension of cool coastal water into the Colombian Basin, with advection in filaments, eddies and meanders. In order to complement the physical knowledge of La Guajira upwelling system, an analysis of water masses, sea surface height, Ekman suction, Ekman transport and coastal upwelling index (CUI) was performed. Hydrographic data was obtained from gridded climatologies from the National Oceanographic Data Center (WOD01); sea surface height anomalies from the Archiving, Validation, and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanography (AVISO) data; and wind data from the Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform Ocean Surface Wind Velocity Product for Meteorological and Oceanographic Applications (CCMP). The upwelling forms a local water mass, La Guajira surface water (LGSW), with the mixing of subtropical underwater and

  15. Nutrient regime and upwelling in the northern Benguela since the middle Holocene in a global context – a multi-proxy approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Meisel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The last 5500 years of climate change and environmental response in the northern Benguela Coastal Upwelling are reconstructed by means of three sediment cores from the inner shelf off central Namibia. The study is based on nutrient (δ15N, δ13C and productivity proxies (accumulation rates of total organic carbon; ARTOC. Reconstructed sea surface temperatures (alkenone-derived SST and temperatures at subsurface depths (Tδ18O; based on tests of planktonic foraminifers reflect the physical boundary conditions. The selection of proxy indicators proved a valuable basis for robust palaeo-climatic reconstructions, with the resolution ranging from multi-decadal (NAM1 over centennial (core 178 to millennial scale (core 226620. The northern Benguela experienced pronounced and rapid perturbation during the middle and late Holocene, and apparently, not all are purely local in character. In fact, numerous correlations with records from the adjacent South African subcontinent and the northern hemisphere testify to global climatic teleconnections. The Holocene Hypsithermal, for instance, is just as evident as the Little Ice Age (LIA and the Roman Warm Period. The marked SST-rise associated with the latter is substantiated by other marine and terrestrial data from the South African realm. The LIA (at least its early stages manifests itself in intensified winds and upwelling, which accords with increased rainfall receipts above the continental interior. It appears that climate signals are transferred both via the atmosphere and ocean. The combined analysis of SST and Tδ18O proved a useful tool in order to differentiate between both pathways. SSTs are primarily controlled by the intensity of atmospheric circulation features, reflecting changes of upwelling-favourable winds. Tδ18O records the temperature of the source water and often correlates with global ocean conveyor speed due to varying inputs of warm Agulhas Water. It seems as though conveyor slowdown or

  16. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  17. Rights to ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, M.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem services are the benefits people obtain from ecosystems. Many of these services are provided outside the borders of the land where they are produced; this article investigates who is entitled to these non-excludable ecosystem services from two libertarian perspectives. Taking a

  18. Towards ecosystem accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duku, C.; Rathjens, H.; Zwart, S.J.; Hein, L.

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem accounting is an emerging field that aims to provide a consistent approach to analysing environment-economy interactions. One of the specific features of ecosystem accounting is the distinction between the capacity and the flow of ecosystem services. Ecohydrological modelling to support

  19. Changes in optical characteristics of surface microlayers hint to photochemically and microbially-mediated DOM turnover in the upwelling region off Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgani, L.; Engel, A.

    2015-12-01

    The coastal upwelling system off Peru is characterized by high biological activity and a pronounced subsurface oxygen minimum zone, as well as associated emissions of atmospheric trace gases such as N2O, CH4 and CO2. During the Meteor (M91) cruise to the Peruvian upwelling system in 2012, we investigated the composition of the sea-surface microlayer (SML), the oceanic uppermost boundary directly subject to high solar radiation, often enriched in specific organic compounds of biological origin like Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) and marine gels. In the SML, the continuous photochemical and microbial recycling of organic matter may strongly influence gas exchange between marine systems and the atmosphere. In order to understand organic matter cycling in surface films, we analyzed SML and underlying water samples at 38 stations determining DOC concentration, amino acid composition, marine gels, CDOM and bacterial and phytoplankton abundance as indicators of photochemical and microbial alteration processes. CDOM composition was characterized by spectral slope (S) values and Excitation-Emission Matrix fluorescence (EEMs), which allow to track changes in molecular weight (MW) of DOM, and to determine potential DOM sources and sinks. We identified five fluorescent components of the CDOM pool, of which two had excitation/emission characteristics of protein-like fluorophores and were highly enriched in the SML. CDOM composition and changes in spectral slope properties suggested a local microbial release of HMW DOM directly in the SML as a response to light exposure in this extreme environment. Our results suggest that microbial and photochemical processes play an important role for the production, alteration and loss of optically active substances in the SML.

  20. Impingement of Deep Mantle-Derived Upwelling Beneath Northern, Subducted Extension of the East Pacific Rise and Palinspastically Restored Cenozoic Mafic Magmatism in Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, D. B.; Moucha, R.; Forte, A. M.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Simmons, N. A.; Grand, S. P.

    2009-12-01

    Reconstruction of the retrodicted whole mantle flow, based on presently imaged distribution of variations in seismic velocity and its correlation to density (Simmons et al. 2009), over the past 30 Ma, in the North American fixed frame of reference, reveals that the northern, now subducted, extension of the East Pacific Rise is coincident with mantle buoyancy arising from near the core-mantle boundary and extending to the base of the lithosphere (Moucha et al. 2009 GRL, in press). Divergence of the reconstructed flow near the surface is independent of the surface plate(s) and results in predicted geological manifestations distinct from those predicted by traditional plate driven models of flow. Most particularly the retrodicted flow-related dynamic topography results in progressive west to east sweep of surface uplift, that is now centered on the Colorado Plateau (Moucha et al. 2008, 2009 GRL, in press). In addition, and the primary focus of the current study is the relationship between this retrodicted mantle-wide flow and the history of magmatism within the western U.S. and adjacent Mexico. There is a close spatial correlation between the impingement of upwelling with palinspastic restored western North America (McQuarrie and Wernicke, 2005) and onset and distribution of magmatism, particularly of mafic compositions as revealed in the Navdat (www.navdat.org) database. Although often attributed to effects of opening of a slab window (Snyder and Dickinson, 1979, McQuarrie and Oskins, 2008) associated with continued plate-driven separation, this model predicts active mantle flow induced upwelling and divergence resulting in mantle melting that sweeps across east-northeast across southern Basin and Range to the Rio Grande Rift with time and as seen in the distribution of magmatism in this region.

  1. Climatic Impacts and resilience of coastal ecosystems and fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, F.

    2012-12-01

    Marine and coastal ecosystems and human communities around the world are impacted by local anthropogenic pressures and by climate change, resulting in decreased ocean productivity, altered food web dynamics, habitat degradation, economic losses, and health and safety risks as a consequence of the changing and more variable climate. Climatic impacts occur both through altered physical conditions and variability, e.g., seawater temperature and sea level, and through a suite of chemical changes, including ocean acidification and hypoxia. In particular, time series analyses have highlighted declines in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in the ocean over the last several decades. In addition to these global trends of decreasing DO, hypoxic conditions have been documented at several coastal locations within productive upwelling-driven ecosystems, including the California Current region, resulting in high mortality of ecologically and commercially important nearshore marine species and significant economic losses. The capacity of local ecosystems and associated human communities to adapt to these pressures depends on their resilience, that is the ability of ecosystems to absorb disturbance while retaining function and continuing to provide ecosystem services, and the ability of people to adapt to change in their environment by altering their behaviors and interactions. I will present global assessments of the cumulative impacts of climatic and local anthropogenic pressures on marine ecosystems, and results of interdisciplinary research investigating the current impacts of climate change on coastal marine ecosystems and human communities of the Pacific coast of Baja California, Mexico, and the influences of local and global feedbacks on the resilience and adaptive capacity of these systems.

  2. Ecosystem services in ECOCLIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lise Lotte; Boegh, Eva; Bendtsen, J;

    that actions initiated to reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions are sustainable and not destructive to existing ecosystem services. Therefore it is important to address i.e. land use change in relation to the regulating services of the ecosystems, such as carbon sequestration and climate regulation. At present...... a thorough understanding of the ecosystem processes controlling the uptake or emissions of GHG is fundamental. Here we present ECOCLIM in the context of ecosystem services and the experimental studies within ECOCLIM which will lead to an enhanced understanding of Danish ecosystems....

  3. Microplankton biomass and diversity in the Vietnamese upwelling area during SW monsoon under normal conditions and after an ENSO event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loick-Wilde, Natalie; Bombar, Deniz; Doan, Hai Nhu; Nguyen, Lam Ngoc; Nguyen-Thi, Anh Mai; Voss, Maren; Dippner, Joachim W.

    2017-04-01

    Investigating microplankton biomass and diversity under different climatological conditions is key to the understanding of cascading effects of climate change on nutrient cycles and biological productivity. Here we have used data collected during two contrasting summers along the coast of Viet Nam to show how climatological-driven changes can have a significant influence on the distribution of microplankton communities and their biomass via its impact on nutrient concentrations in the water column. The first summer in July 2003 followed a weak El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event and was characterized by weak coastal upwelling, in the second summer during July 2004, upwelling was normal. Very low silicate (SiO4) concentrations and SiO4:DIN ratios characterized the source water mass for upwelling in July 2004, and dynamic SiO4 to dissolved inorganic nitrogen ratios (SiO4:DIN) mainly below the Redfield-Brzezinski ratio and DIN to phosphate ratios (DIN:PO43-) below the Redfield ratio were a common feature off Viet Nam. Much higher particle concentrations and PSi/PC ratios during normal upwelling revealed major changes in the microplankton community structure among summers. Small dinoflagellates (10-20 μm) prevailed ubiquitously during reduced upwelling. During normal upwelling, the diatom Rhizosolenia sp. dominated the cell-carbon biomass in the silicate poor upwelling waters. Trichodesmium erythraeum dominated in the Mekong-influenced and nutrient depleted offshore waters, where it co-occurred with Rhizosolenia sp. Both species were directly associated with the much higher primary production (PP) and N2 fixation rates that were quantified in earlier studies, as well as with much higher diversities at these offshore sites. Along the coast, the correlation between Rhizosolenia sp. and PP rates was less clear and the factors regulating the biomass of Rhizosolenia sp. in the upwelling waters are discussed. The very low silicate concentrations in the source water

  4. Ground water dependence of endangered ecosystems: Nebraska's eastern saline wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, F Edwin; Ayers, Jerry F; Gosselin, David C

    2007-01-01

    Many endangered or threatened ecosystems depend on ground water for their survival. Nebraska's saline wetlands, home to a number of endangered species, are ecosystems whose development, sustenance, and survival depend on saline ground water discharge at the surface. This study demonstrates that the saline conditions present within the eastern Nebraska saline wetlands result from the upwelling of saline ground water from within the underlying Dakota Aquifer and deeper underlying formations of Pennsylvanian age. Over thousands to tens of thousands of years, saline ground water has migrated over regional scale flowpaths from recharge zones in the west to the present-day discharge zones along the saline streams of Rock, Little Salt, and Salt Creeks in Lancaster and Saunders counties. An endangered endemic species of tiger beetle living within the wetlands has evolved under a unique set of hydrologic conditions, is intolerant to recent anthropogenic changes in hydrology and salinity, and is therefore on the brink of extinction. As a result, the fragility of such systems demands an even greater understanding of the interrelationships among geology, hydrology, water chemistry, and biology than in less imperiled systems where adaptation is more likely. Results further indicate that when dealing with ground water discharge-dependent ecosystems, and particularly those dependent on dissolved constituents as well as the water, wetland management must be expanded outside of the immediate surface location of the visible ecosystem to include areas where recharge and lateral water movement might play a vital role in wetland hydrologic and chemical mixing dynamics.

  5. Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification Ecosystem Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Estuarine ecosystems are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these...

  6. The emergence of ecosystem management as a tool for meeting people`s needs and sustaining ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szaro, Robert C.; Sexton, William T. [USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Malone, Charles R. [Nuclear Waste Project Office, Capitol Complex, Carson City, NV (United States)

    1998-03-31

    Ecosystem management is an approach that attempts to involve all stakeholders in defining sustainable alternatives for the interactions of people and the environments in which they live. Its goal is to restore and sustain the health, productivity, and biodiversity of ecosystems and the overall quality of life through a natural resource management approach that is fully integrated with social and economic needs. For practical purposes, ecosystem management is generally synonymous with sustainable development, sustainable management, sustainable forestry and a number of other terms being used to identify an ecological approach to land and resource management. Ecosystem management emphasizes place- or region-based objectives, with scopes and approaches defined appropriately for each given situation. Because natural ecosystems typically cross administrative and jurisdictional boundaries, managing them requires interactions among different stakeholders and institutions. Ecosystem management remains an evolving force that must yet respond and adapt to numerous challenges

  7. Enhanced benthic response to upwelling of the Indonesian Throughflow onto the southern shelf of Timor-Leste, Timor Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alongi, Daniel M.; Brinkman, Richard; Trott, Lindsay A.; da Silva, Fernando; Pereira, Francisco; Wagey, Tonny

    2013-03-01

    Benthic microbial metabolism and bacterial diagenetic pathways were measured along the southern shelf of Timor-Leste during an upwelling event in the winter SE monsoon season. Vertical profiles of water properties and bottom water nutrient concentrations, and operational ocean modeling showed subsurface upwelling from the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) along the southern shelf west of longitude 126°25'E and surface upwelling at the far eastern end of the shelf. Warm surface waters above the halocline had salinities of 33.6 to 33.9 overlying cooler ITF water with salinities of 34.4 to 34.6. Beneath the zone of subsurface upwelling and stratification, sediment chlorophyll a (range: 2.8-4.4 µg g-1) and phaeopigment (range: 4.5-7.0 µg g-1) concentrations were sufficient to fuel very rapid rates of benthic oxygen consumption (range: 89.9-142.3 mmol m-2 day-1) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) release (range: 108.1-148.9 mmol m-2 day-1) across the sediment-water interface, and DIC (range: 94.7-142.5 mmol m-2 day-1) and NH4+ (range: 13.3-19.9 mmol m-2 day-1) production from incubated surface (0-10 cm) sediments. Molar ratios of DIC/NH4+ production were lower (range: 6.6-7.7) in fine-grained sediments under the subsurface upwelling regime than in sandy, possibly scoured sediments under surface upwelling (range: 11.9-21.2) where there was no evidence of benthic enrichment. It is proposed that subsurface upwelling along the widest portions of the shelf stimulates phytoplankton production, leading to deposition of fresh phytodetritus that is rapidly decomposed on the seafloor. These zones of high biological activity may attract and support large populations of pelagic fish and cetaceans that have been caught for centuries along the south coast.

  8. The Gutenberg discontinuity: melt at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmerr, Nicholas

    2012-03-23

    The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath ocean basins separates the upper thermal boundary layer of rigid, conductively cooling plates from the underlying ductile, convecting mantle. The origin of a seismic discontinuity associated with this interface, known as the Gutenberg discontinuity (G), remains enigmatic. High-frequency SS precursors sampling below the Pacific plate intermittently detect the G as a sharp, negative velocity contrast at 40- to 75-kilometer depth. These observations lie near the depth of the LAB in regions associated with recent surface volcanism and mantle melt production and are consistent with an intermittent layer of asthenospheric partial melt residing at the lithospheric base. I propose that the G reflectivity is regionally enhanced by dynamical processes that produce melt, including hot mantle upwellings, small-scale convection, and fluid release during subduction.

  9. Modern sedimentation in the Cabo Frio upwelling system, Southeastern Brazilian shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel M. de Mahiques

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The analyses of Uk'37 paleotemperatures and sedimentological parameters in box cores from the Cabo Frio upwelling zone, southeastern Brazil, were used to understand the modern sedimentation as well as to evaluate the role played by the upwelling process in the sedimentary patterns. Three box-cores located closer to the upwelling area show a general trend of cooling waters taking place in the last 700 years. Since the present upwelling is dependent on local and remote wind regime, a phase of dominating NE winds favors a more effective upward transport of the cold thermocline level South Atlantic CentralWater towards the coast. The intensification in the upwelling regime for the last ca. 700 years can be associated with the strengthening of the NE winds off the area and a possible increase of the Brazil Current mesoscale activity. Nevertheless, the lack of significant correlation of the paleotemperatures and most of sedimentological parameters indicate that upwelling is not the only sedimentation mechanism in the area. Also, the comparison of sedimentological parameters reveals that eventual temporal changes are superimposed by the geographical variability. Sedimentation rates vary from 0.26 mm.yr-1 to 0.66 mm.yr-1.As análises de Uk'37 paleotemperaturas e de parâmetros sedimentológicos em amostras de box-core da zona de ressurgência de Cabo Frio, sudeste do Brasil, foram usadas para compreender os processos de sedimentação moderna na área, bem como avaliar o papel desempenhado pela ressurgência no estabelecimento dos padrões sedimentológicos principais. Como observado em três box-cores localizados nas proximidades da área de ressurgência, é possível verificar uma tendência geral de resfriamento das águas nos últimos 700 anos (idade calibrada. Uma vez que o processo de ressurgência é dependente do regime de ventos local e remoto, uma fase de ventos predominantes de NE favorece um deslocamento mais efetivo das águas frias da

  10. Discriminating the biophysical impacts of coastal upwelling and mud banks along the southwest coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnan, C.; Jyothibabu, R.; Arunpandi, N.; Jagadeesan, L.; Muraleedharan, K. R.; Pratihari, A. K.; Balachandran, K. K.; Naqvi, S. W. A.

    2017-08-01

    Coastal upwelling and mud banks are two oceanographic processes concurrently operating along certain stretches of the southwest (Kerala) coast of India during the Southwest Monsoon period (June-September), facilitating significant enhancement in plankton biomass. Mud banks have scientific and societal attention from time immemorial, predominantly due to the large fisheries associated with them. In this paper, for the first time, the specific biophysical roles of these oceanographic processes have been discriminated, based on a focused 18 weekly/fortnightly time-series study (April to September 2014) in a mud bank-upwelling area (off Alappuzha, southwest coast of India). In conjunction with standard hydrographical and satellite remote sensing data, we utilised a FlowCAM to track the biophysical linkage in terms of plankton composition abundance and size structure at three locations (M1, M2 and M3) in the study area. During the Pre-Southwest Monsoon (April-May), the entire study area was warmer with low nitrate concentration in the surface waters, which caused lower biomass of autotrophs compared to the Southwest Monsoon (June-September). By the onset of the Southwest Monsoon (June), drastic hydrographical transformations took place in the study domain due to the Coastal upwelling, reflected as the surfacing of significantly cool, high nutrient and hypoxic waters. Concurrently, mud bank formed at location M2 due to the presence of relatively high-suspended sediments in the region, creating a localised calm environment conducive for fishing activities. In response to the hydrographical transformations in the entire study area during the Southwest Monsoon, the autotrophic plankton biomass and size structure experienced significant change. The micro-autotrophs biomass that was low during the Pre-Southwest Monsoon (av. 0.33 ± 0.2 mgC L- 1 at surface and av. 0.07 ± 0.04 mgC L- 1 at subsurface) noticeably increased during the Southwest Monsoon (av. 1.6 ± 0.4 mgC L- 1 at

  11. Seasonal variability of phytoplankton fluorescence in relation to the Straits of Messina (Sicily tidal upwelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Azzaro

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Straits of Messina the large gradients of tidal displacements as well as the topographic constrictions determine the upwelling of deeper waters in the surface layer. This work describes the seasonal variability of surface distribution of phytoplankton biomass depending on upwelling phenomena. Temperature, salinity, nitrates and phytoplankton fluorescence were measured in 1994 and 1995 by continuous underway surface real-time measurements on board dedicated research boats. Each survey was performed following the dynamic phases of flooding and ebbing tides. Tidal currents are essentially southward during the high tide and northward during the low tide.

    During the low water slack, large spatial gradients of physical-chemical and biological parameters were mainly found, while in the high water slack a diffused phytoplankton fluorescence was observed only in autumn, in coincidence of a seasonal thermocline. Salinity, nitrate and chlorophyll-a fluorescence data revealed a significant positive intercorrelation, whereas they are inversely correlated with temperature. Generally, during winter, the upwelling distribution was limited to narrow zones, while in summer it involved the middle of the Straits and southern zones. During spring in the southern zone of the Straits, maximum of chlorophyll-a fluorescence was detected (May 1995, 0.32 µg-Chla l-1; in summer, when back and forth tidal movements become intense between the Tyrrhenian and the Ionian seas, values was everywhere lower.

    The data set from continuous and repeatable acquisition has allowed the study of different time-space scales in the Straits of Messina, a very strong dynamic environment.

    The Straits system can be compared to an "intermittent pump" which, during the different seasons, before enriched itself and then it provides nutrients to the surrounding basins.

  12. Phytoplankton stimulation in frontal regions of Benguela upwelling filaments by internal factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Wasmund

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Filaments are intrusions of upwelling water into the sea, separated from the surrounding water by fronts. Current knowledge explains the enhanced primary production and phytoplankton growth found in frontal areas by external factors like nutrient input. The question is whether this enhancement is also caused by intrinsic factors, i.e. simple mixing without external forcing. In order to study the direct effect of frontal mixing on organisms, disturbing external influx has to be excluded. Therefore mixing was simulated by joining waters originating from inside and outside the filament in mesocosms (tanks. These experiments were conducted during two cruises in the northern Benguela upwelling system in September 2013 and January 2014. The mixed waters reached a much higher net primary production and chlorophyll a (chla concentration than the original waters already 2-3 days after their merging. The peak in phytoplankton biomass stays longer than the chla peak. After their maxima, primary production rates decreased quickly due to depletion of the nutrients. The increase in colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM may indicate excretion and degradation. Zooplankton is not quickly reacting on the changed conditions. We conclude that already simple mixing of two water bodies, which occurs generally at fronts between upwelled and ambient water, leads to a short-term stimulation of the phytoplankton growth. However, after the exhaustion of the nutrient stock, external nutrient supply is necessary to maintain the enhanced phytoplankton growth in the frontal area. Based on these data, some generally important ecological factors are discussed as for example nutrient ratios and limitations, silicate requirements and growth rates.

  13. Seasonal variability of phytoplankton fluorescence in relation to the Straits of Messina (Sicily) tidal upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzaro, F.; Decembrini, F.; Raffa, F.; Crisafi, E.

    2007-10-01

    In the Straits of Messina, large gradients of tidal displacements, as well as the topographic constrictions, determine the upwelling of deeper waters in the surface layer. This work describes the seasonal variability in the surface distribution of phytoplankton biomass depending on the upwelling phenomena. Temperature, salinity, nitrates and phytoplankton fluorescence were measured in 1994 and 1995 by continuous underway surface real-time measurements onboard dedicated research boats. Each survey was performed following the dynamic phases of flooding and ebbing tides. Tidal currents are essentially southward during high tide and northward during low tide. During the low water slack tide, large spatial gradients of physical-chemical and biological parameters were found, while at the high water slack tide, a diffused phytoplankton fluorescence was observed only in autumn due to a seasonal thermocline. Salinity, nitrate and chlorophyll-a fluorescence data revealed a significant positive intercorrelation, whereas they were inversely correlated with temperature. Generally, the upwelling distribution was limited to narrow zones during winter, while in summer it was found in the middle of the Straits and in the southern zones. During spring in the southern zone of the Straits, the maximum chlorophyll-a fluorescence was detected (May 1995, 0.32 μg-Chla l-1); in summer, when back and forth tidal movements between the Tyrrhenian and the Ionian seas intensify, decreased values were observed throughout the study area. The data set obtained through continuous and repeatable samplings has allowed the study of different time-space scales in the Straits of Messina, a very strong and dynamic environment. The Straits system could be compared to an "intermittent pump" which, during the different seasons, initially enriches itself and subsequently provides nutrients to the surrounding basins.

  14. Submesoscale structures related to upwelling events in the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea (numerical experiments)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väli, Germo; Zhurbas, Victor; Lips, Urmas; Laanemets, Jaan

    2017-07-01

    The appearance of submesoscale structures in the Gulf of Finland was investigated using model simulations for series of coastal upwelling events in July-September 2006. We applied the Princeton Ocean Model. The horizontal step of the model grid was refined to 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 nautical miles in the gulf and reached 4 times the resolution in the rest of the Baltic Sea; there were 60 σ-levels in the vertical direction for all simulations. The contribution of salinity to the strength of baroclinic front of upwelling along the northern and southern coasts and thereby to the submesoscale dynamics of the gulf's surface layer was analyzed. Model results with refinement of the grid size to 0.125 nautical miles revealed different forms of submesoscale structures in the gulf's surface layer such as the high Rossby number (Ro) threads (elongated spots of Ro > 1 with typical width and length of 2-3 km and 10-50 km, respectively), cyclonic vortices with Ro > 1 core of 4-6 km diameter, and spiral cyclonic eddies (spirally wrapped high Rossby number threads) of 10-15 km diameter. The high potential vorticity threads presumably formed during the development phase, while the cyclonic vortices and spiral cyclonic eddies during the relaxation phase of upwelling. One of the simulated submesoscale cyclonic eddies, at the beginning with the Ro > 1 core extension as deep as 31-66 m was traced for the period of 33 days. The power spectral density of temperature and velocity fluctuations in the surface layer pointed at some increase of spectral levels and shallowing of spectral slopes towards - 2 on the shorter (submesoscale) wavelengths with the refinement of model grid.

  15. Melt-peridotite reactions in upwelling EM1-type eclogite bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin

    2013-01-01

    the Payenia volcanic province (34–38 °S) in Argentina, for which Sr, Nd and double-spike Pb isotope ratios are presented, and from other north Patagonian volcanic fields may provide details of the eclogite melt–peridotite reactions taking place in the melting column of an upwelling OIB-type mantle....... The isotopic composition of the uncontaminated lavas is highly restricted but the Payenia basalts fall in two distinct trace element groups termed the high and low Nb/U groups, which both have EM1-type trace element patterns but with subtle differences that cannot be explained by contamination, fractionation...

  16. U and sr isotopes in ground water and calcite, yucca mountain, nevada: evidence against upwelling water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckless, J S; Peterman, Z E; Muhs, D R

    1991-10-25

    Hydrogenic calcite and opaline silica deposits in fault zones at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have created considerable public and scientific controversy because of the possible development of a high-level nuclear waste repository at this location. Strontium and uranium isotopic compositions of hydrogenic materials were used to test whether the veins could have formed by upwelling of deep-seated waters. The vein deposits are isotopically distinct from ground water in the two aquifers that underlie Yucca Mountain, indicating that the calcite could not have precipitated from ground water. The data are consistent with a surficial origin for the hydrogenic deposits.

  17. Electrical properties of the mantle upwelling zone beneath a mid-ocean ridge: An application of vertical gradient sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegen, Marion Dorothea

    On mid-ocean ridges, as adjacent plates move apart, the mantle material rises to fill the void created. During its ascent the solidus of the material is crossed and melting occurs. The melt itself is eventually emplaced at the ridge axis producing new oceanic crust. The understanding of the flow of the solid and molten material is hampered by the lack of knowledge of vital model parameters such as the connectivity of the partial melt. Connectivity is related to the permeability in the upwelling region. It therefore controls the migration pattern of the buoyant melt, the flow of the solid phase material, and the mantle upwelling mechanism. Changes in the geometry of the distribution of melt in the solid material have a large impact on the electrical conductivity. I have measured the conductivity of the upwelling region to constrain possible partial melt geometries. I present results of vertical gradient sounding (VGS) experiments on the Endeavour and Explorer ridge, which are part of the Juan de Fuca and its northern extension, the Explorer ridge, respectively. The VGS method is a natural source EM method based entirely on measurements of the magnetic fields. Electrical responses of the 1D layered normal seafloor combined with a 2D region representing the mantle upwelling zone and proposed upwelling mechanisms are derived. A comparison of the synthetic response of a range of models with data measured on the Endeavour segment shows that the conductivity in the upwelling region is very high (in the order of 1 to 5 ohm m depending on the shape of the upwelling region). The results of this experiment suggest that the pore space containing the conductive melt is well connected. The melt must be able to move freely through the upwelling region. The experiments support so called melt migration models. The data measured on the Explorer segment yielded a different conductivity model. The data do not require the presence of a pronounced 2D conductivity anomaly at depth and

  18. Slab-rollback induced upper mantle upwelling near lateral slab edges: A new mechanism for generating intra-plate magmatism in the central Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellart, W. P.

    2010-12-01

    Most volcanism on Earth is associated with plate boundaries and can thus be explained in a plate tectonic framework. Intra-plate volcanism, however, cannot directly be explained with plate tectonic theory. Intraplate volcanism is frequently explained with the plume model, in which a relatively fixed buoyant plume rises from the lower mantle to the surface and, as the overlying plate moves with respect to the plume source, produces a linear hotspot track along which the age of volcanoes progressively changes. This model has been applied to linear volcanic chains such as the Hawaii-Emperor Ridge in the Pacific and the Walvis Ridge in the Atlantic Ocean. Other intra-plate volcanism that does not occur in linear chains and does not show a preferred age progression in a specific geographical direction is more difficult to explain with the plume model, and might require an alternative explanation. There are several examples of intraplate volcanism on Earth located close to lateral slab edges, suggesting that they might be genetically related to these slab edges. One example of such volcanism is located in Sicily in the Mediterranean, which took place at ~7.0-1.1 Ma on the Iblean plateau and at 0.5 Ma to Present to form Mount Etna. The volcanics are located in close proximity but are laterally offset with respect to the Eolian magmatic arc and the Calabrian subduction zone, where Ionian oceanic lithosphere is subducting west-northwestward below Calabria. The volcanics in Sicily can therefore not be interpreted as arc volcanism. Previous work, primarily based on the geochemistry and petrology of the volcanics, suggests that the volcanism resulted from a plume. The volcanics in Sicily and surrounding seas, however, do not align along a linear chain and show no lateral age progression. Here it is proposed that Mount Etna and the Iblean volcanics are related to decompression melting of upper mantle material that is flowing around the southern Ionian slab edge to accommodate

  19. Emergy and ecosystem complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulgiati, Sergio; Brown, Mark T.

    2009-01-01

    The question "What drives complexity?" is addressed in this paper. To answer this question, we explore the way energy and material resources of different quality flow through ecosystems and support, directly and indirectly, ecosystems growth and development. Processes of resource transformation throughout the ecosystem build order, cycle materials, generate and sustain information. Energy drives all these processes and energetic principles explain much of what is observed, including energy degradation according to the laws of thermodynamics. Emergy, a quantitative measure of the global environmental work supporting ecosystem dynamics, is used here in order to provide a deeper understanding of complexity growth and decline in ecosystems. Ecosystem complexity is discussed in this paper in relation to changes in structure, organization and functional capacity, as explained by changes in emergy, empower, and transformity.

  20. Initial observation of upwelling along east coast of Peninsular Malaysia musica-gratis.softonic.it/ >musica gratis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhir, M.; Tanggang, F.

    2013-12-01

    There is no published evidence of upwelling in coastal area along the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. However numbers of recent cruise data collected during the southwest monsoon found features of thermocline lifting and isolated cooler temperature water along the coast, These sign was observed along the 104°E from numbers of parallel transects. To confirm the presence of upwelling, satellite remote sensing data was used, and numerical model experiments were conducted. Cooler sea-surface temperature along the coast was observed from both in-situ and satellite data, while upward movement in the vertical profiles agreed with the location of upwelling from both in-situ and satellite data. Moreover, these data also show that the upwelled water band along the 104°E longitude stretch approximately 650 km long. Initially, southwesterly wind during this season is believed to be the important mechanism that contributed to this wind-induced Ekman upwelling. musica-gratis.softonic.it/ >musica gratis

  1. Numerical simulation of the structure and variation of upwelling off the east coast of Hainan Island using QuikSCAT winds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yineng; PENG Shiqiu; YANG Wei; WANG Dongxiao

    2012-01-01

    The spatial structure and variation of the upwelling in the waters east and northeast of Hainan Island,China during 2000-2007 were investigated using a nested high-resolution Princeton Ocean Model (POM) forced by QuikSCAT winds.The model produced good simulations of the summer upwelling and the seasonal and annual variability.Strong upwelling occurs from mid-July to mid-August with a peak east of Hainan Island associated with the southwesterly monsoon in the South China Sea.Sensitivity experiments indicated that when the local wind stress controls the variability of the upwelling,the large-scale circulation significantly enhances the upwelling northeast of Hainan Island by inducing a local upwelling and transporting cold water northeast-ward along the island's east coast.The joint effects of the local wind stress and large-scale circulation result in stronger upwelling northeast of Hainan Island.This implies that the annual variation of the upwelling northeast of Hainan Island is controlled not only by the local alongshore wind stress but also by the large-scale circulation.This result will help us investigate the decadal variation of the upwelling in this region in the future.

  2. Study of Boundary Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    THEORY OF ABC-CBA STACKING BOUNDARY IN fcc STRUCTURE .......... 11 - 4 TRANSITIONS AND PHASE EQUILIBRIA AMONG GRAIN BOUNDARY STRUCTURES...19 B THEORY OF ABC-CBA STACKING BOUNDARY IN fcc STRUCTURE .......... 37 C TRANSITIONS AND PHASE EQUILIBRIA AMONG GRAIN BOUNDARY...layer structure. 10 SECTION 3 THEORY OF ABC-CBA STACKING BOUNDARY IN fcc STRUCTURE The (111) planes of the fcc structure is stacked as ABCABC... as

  3. Generalized Supersymetric Boundary State

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Following our previous paper (hep-th/9909027), we generalize a supersymmetric boundary state so that arbitrary configuration of the gauge field coupled to the boundary of the worldsheet is incorpolated. This generalized boundary state is BRST invariant and satisfy the non-linear boundary conditions with non-constant gauge field strength. This boundary state contains divergence which is identical with the loop divergence in a superstring sigma model. Hence vanishing of the beta function in the...

  4. Managed island ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Kathryn; Atwater, Tanya; Collins, Paul W.; Faulkner, Kate R.; Richards, Daniel V.

    2016-01-01

    This long-anticipated reference and sourcebook for California’s remarkable ecological abundance provides an integrated assessment of each major ecosystem type—its distribution, structure, function, and management. A comprehensive synthesis of our knowledge about this biologically diverse state, Ecosystems of California covers the state from oceans to mountaintops using multiple lenses: past and present, flora and fauna, aquatic and terrestrial, natural and managed. Each chapter evaluates natural processes for a specific ecosystem, describes drivers of change, and discusses how that ecosystem may be altered in the future. This book also explores the drivers of California’s ecological patterns and the history of the state’s various ecosystems, outlining how the challenges of climate change and invasive species and opportunities for regulation and stewardship could potentially affect the state’s ecosystems. The text explicitly incorporates both human impacts and conservation and restoration efforts and shows how ecosystems support human well-being. Edited by two esteemed ecosystem ecologists and with overviews by leading experts on each ecosystem, this definitive work will be indispensable for natural resource management and conservation professionals as well as for undergraduate or graduate students of California’s environment and curious naturalists.

  5. Spatial modelling and ecosystem accounting for land use planning: addressing deforestation and oil palm expansion in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumarga, E.

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem accounting is a new area of environmental economic accounting that aims to measure ecosystem services in a way that is in line with national accounts. The key characteristics of ecosystem accounting include the extension of the valuation boundary of the System of National Accounts, allowin

  6. Spatial modelling and ecosystem accounting for land use planning: addressing deforestation and oil palm expansion in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumarga, E.

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem accounting is a new area of environmental economic accounting that aims to measure ecosystem services in a way that is in line with national accounts. The key characteristics of ecosystem accounting include the extension of the valuation boundary of the System of National Accounts,

  7. Stability of active mantle upwelling revealed by net characteristics of plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Clinton P; Steinberger, Bernhard; Torsvik, Trond H

    2013-06-27

    Viscous convection within the mantle is linked to tectonic plate motions and deforms Earth's surface across wide areas. Such close links between surface geology and deep mantle dynamics presumably operated throughout Earth's history, but are difficult to investigate for past times because the history of mantle flow is poorly known. Here we show that the time dependence of global-scale mantle flow can be deduced from the net behaviour of surface plate motions. In particular, we tracked the geographic locations of net convergence and divergence for harmonic degrees 1 and 2 by computing the dipole and quadrupole moments of plate motions from tectonic reconstructions extended back to the early Mesozoic era. For present-day plate motions, we find dipole convergence in eastern Asia and quadrupole divergence in both central Africa and the central Pacific. These orientations are nearly identical to the dipole and quadrupole orientations of underlying mantle flow, which indicates that these 'net characteristics' of plate motions reveal deeper flow patterns. The positions of quadrupole divergence have not moved significantly during the past 250 million years, which suggests long-term stability of mantle upwelling beneath Africa and the Pacific Ocean. These upwelling locations are positioned above two compositionally and seismologically distinct regions of the lowermost mantle, which may organize global mantle flow as they remain stationary over geologic time.

  8. Currents and upwelling along the Latium coasts in the Central Tyrrhenian Sea (western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rossi

    Full Text Available In this study, springtime coastal currents along the Latium coast and their relation to external forcings, mainly wind stress curl and atmospheric pressure, are analysed. As a main result, we find that hydrographical measurements reveal currents parallel to the bottom isobaths, but with isopycnal sloping upwards towards the coast, suggesting the importance of upwellings in determining the coastal currents. This is confirmed by thermal satellite data showing the presence of a ~10-km-wide patch of cold water east of Mount Argentario, i.e. a cyclonic vortex. The current meter data give rather small values of the time-averaged alongshore velocities (~2 cm s–1 for most current meters and ~3 cm s–1 for the current meter placed immediately off the Argentario and also smaller values for the offshore velocities. The correlation between these two types of currents is rather poor; this is also due to the variability characteristic of a wind-induced upwelling. Finally, we obtain a value of 0.74 for the correlation between the alongshore current (first mode of Empirical Orthogonal Functions decomposition and the wind stress if a 23-h time lag is assumed.

  9. The impact of Southern Ocean residual upwelling on atmospheric CO2 on centennial and millennial timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauderdale, Jonathan M.; Williams, Richard G.; Munday, David R.; Marshall, David P.

    2017-03-01

    The Southern Ocean plays a pivotal role in climate change by exchanging heat and carbon, and provides the primary window for the global deep ocean to communicate with the atmosphere. There has been a widespread focus on explaining atmospheric CO2 changes in terms of changes in wind forcing in the Southern Ocean. Here, we develop a dynamically-motivated metric, the residual upwelling, that measures the primary effect of Southern Ocean dynamics on atmospheric CO2 on centennial to millennial timescales by determining the communication with the deep ocean. The metric encapsulates the combined, net effect of winds and air-sea buoyancy forcing on both the upper and lower overturning cells, which have been invoked as explaining atmospheric CO2 changes for the present day and glacial-interglacial changes. The skill of the metric is assessed by employing suites of idealized ocean model experiments, including parameterized and explicitly simulated eddies, with online biogeochemistry and integrated for 10,000 years to equilibrium. Increased residual upwelling drives elevated atmospheric CO2 at a rate of typically 1-1.5 parts per million/106 m3 s-1 by enhancing the communication between the atmosphere and deep ocean. This metric can be used to interpret the long-term effect of Southern Ocean dynamics on the natural carbon cycle and atmospheric CO2, alongside other metrics, such as involving the proportion of preformed nutrients and the extent of sea ice cover.

  10. Living benthic foraminiferal species as indicators of cold-warm water masses interaction and upwelling areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Patrícia P. B.; Pimenta, Felipe M.; Eichler, Beatriz B.; Vital, Helenice

    2016-03-01

    The western South Atlantic continental margin, between 27° and 37°S, is dominated by four main water masses: cold-fresh Subantarctic Shelf Water (SASW), warm-salty Subtropical Shelf Water (STSW), cold upwelled South Atlantic Central Water (SACW), and fresh Plata Plume Water (PPW). Despite the large seasonal variability of PPW extension along the shelf, an intense and relatively stable temperature-salinity gradient separates the SASW and the STSW forming the Subtropical Shelf Front (STSF) around 32°S. The two dominant shelf water masses (SASW and STSW) arise from the process of mixing of oceanic waters. The SASW originates from the dilution of Subantarctic Water due to excess precipitation and continental runoff, and the STSW consists of modified warm tropical waters and South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) diluted below PPW. A previous article demonstrates distribution of Bulimina marginata, a shelf environment and deep-sea species of benthic foraminifera, is influenced by the front location and it can be used as a proxy of the STSF in sediment core analysis. Here we show three other infaunal living species inhabiting at the Continental margin: Buccella peruviana, Globocassidulina subglobosa and Uvigerina peregrina and their distribution limits show the interaction of Subantartic Shelf Water, Subtropical Shelf Water, and upwelling of SACW, in the bottom sediment of coastal studied areas.

  11. Joint effect of freshwater plume and coastal upwelling on phytoplankton growth off the Changjiang River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-F. Tseng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Changjiang River discharges vast amount of unbalanced nutrients (dissolved inorganic nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P with N / P > 80 in general into the East China Sea during summertime. To explore nutrient dynamics and P stress potential for phytoplankton, a cruise was conducted in the Changjiang plume during summer 2011. With 3-D observations of nutrients, chlorophyll a (Chl a, and bulk alkaline phosphatase activity (APA, we concluded that the Changjiang Diluted Water (CDW and coastal upwelling significantly influenced the horizontal and vertical heterogeneities of phytoplankton P-deficiency in the plume. Allochthonous APA was detected at nutrient-enriched freshwater end. Excessive N (~10 to 112 µM was obserevd throughout the entire plume surface. In the plume fringe where featured by stratification and excess N, diapycnal phosphate supply was blocked to stimulate APA for phytoplankton growth. We observed upwelling outcrops just attaching the turbidity front at seaward side, where Chl a peaked yet much less APA was detected. An external phosphate supply from subsurface, which stimulated phytoplankton growth but inhibited APA, was suggested and the supply was likely sourced from the Nearshore Kuroshio Branch Current. In such hydrographically complicated Changjiang plume, phosphate supply instead of its concentration was more important determining the expression of APA. Meanwhile, allochthounous APA may also alter the usefulness of APA as a P-stress indicator.

  12. A comparison of Globigerinoides ruber calcification between upwelling and nonupwelling regions in the Arabian Sea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sushant S Naik; Shital P Godad; P Divakar Naidu; V Ramaswamy

    2013-08-01

    Shell weights of planktonic foraminifera species Globigerinoides ruber in the size range of 300–355 μm were measured from sediment traps in the western and eastern Arabian Sea which represent upwelling and non-upwelling conditions respectively. In the Western Arabian Sea Trap (WAST), G. ruber flux ranged from 33.3 to 437.3#/m2/day and shell weights ranged from 6.7 to 14.2 g. Whereas, in the Eastern Arabian Sea Trap (EAST), flux ranged from 0.7 to 164.6#/m2/day and shell weights ranged from 10.4 to 14.8 g. Shell weights of G. ruber versus flux showed significant correlation at both the sites which reveals that shell calcification mainly depends on optimal growth conditions. Though the WAST and EAST location have distinct difference in pCO2 and sea surface temperature (SST), the shell weights of G. ruber are similar in these two regions which suggest that surface water pCO2 and SST do not show dominant influence on shell calcification on a seasonal timescale.

  13. Water-column cooling and sea surface salinity increase in the upwelling region off central-south Chile driven by a poleward displacement of the South Pacific High

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Wolfgang; Donoso, David; Garcés-Vargas, José; Escribano, Rubén

    2017-02-01

    Here we present results of direct observations of seawater temperature and salinity over the continental shelf off central-south Chile that shows an unprecedented cooling of the entire water column and an increase in upper layer salinity during 2002 to 2013. We provide evidence that this phenomenon is related to the intensification but mostly to a recent southward displacement of the South Pacific High over the same period, from 2007 on. This in turn has accelerated alongshore, equatorward, subtropical coastal upwelling favorable winds, particularly during winter, injecting colder water from below into the upper water column. Consequently, the environmental conditions on the shelf off central-south Chile shifted from a warmer (fresher) to a cooler (saltier) phase; water column temperature dropped from 11.7 °C (2003-2006) to 11.3 °C (2007-2012) and upper layer salinity rose by 0.25; water column stratification gradually decreased. The biological impacts of such abrupt cooling are apparently already happening in this coastal ecosystem, as recent evidence shows substantial changes in the plankton community and negative trends in zooplankton biomass over the same period.

  14. Capturing optically important constituents and properties in a marine biogeochemical and ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, S.; Hickman, A. E.; Jahn, O.; Gregg, W. W.; Mouw, C. B.; Follows, M. J.

    2015-02-01

    We present a numerical model of the ocean that couples a three-stream radiative transfer component with a marine biogeochemical-ecosystem in a dynamic three-dimensional physical framework. The radiative transfer component resolves spectral irradiance as it is absorbed and scattered within the water column. We explicitly include the effect of several optically important water constituents (the phytoplankton community, detrital particles, and coloured dissolved organic matter, CDOM). The model is evaluated against in situ observed and satellite derived products. In particular we compare to concurrently measured biogeochemical, ecosystem and optical data along a north-south transect of the Atlantic Ocean. The simulation captures the patterns and magnitudes of these data, and estimates surface upwelling irradiance analogous to that observed by ocean colour satellite instruments. We conduct a series of sensitivity experiments to demonstrate, globally, the relative importance of each of the water constituents, and the crucial feedbacks between the light field and the relative fitness of phytoplankton types, and the biogeochemistry of the ocean. CDOM has proportionally more importance at short wavelengths and in more productive waters, phytoplankton absorption is especially important at the deep chlorophyll a (Chl a) maximum, and absorption by water molecules is relatively most important in the highly oligotrophic gyres. Sensitivity experiments in which absorption by any of the optical constituents was increased led to a decrease in the size of the oligotrophic regions of the subtropical gyres: lateral nutrient supplies were enhanced as a result of decreasing high latitude productivity. Scattering does not as strongly affect the ecosystem and biogeochemistry fields within the water column but is important for setting the surface upwelling irradiance, and hence sea surface reflectance. Having a model capable of capturing bio-optical feedbacks will be important for

  15. Nitrogen transfers and air-sea N2O fluxes in the upwelling off Namibia within the oxygen minimum zone: a 3-D model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paulmier

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available As regions of high primary production and being often associated to Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs, Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS represent key regions for the oceanic nitrogen (N cycle. Indeed, by exporting the Organic Matter (OM and nutrients produced in the coastal region to the open ocean, EBUS can play an important role in sustaining primary production in subtropical gyres. Losses of fixed inorganic N, through denitrification and anammox processes and through nitrous oxide (N2O emissions to the atmosphere, take place in oxygen depleted environments such as EBUS, and alleviate the role of these regions as a source of N. In the present study, we developed a 3-D coupled physical/biogeochemical (ROMS/BioBUS model for investigating the full N budget in the Namibian sub-system of the Benguela Upwelling System (BUS. The different state variables of a climatological experiment have been compared to different data sets (satellite and in situ observations and show that the model is able to represent this biogeochemical oceanic region. The N transfer is investigated in the Namibian upwelling system using this coupled model, especially in the Walvis Bay area between 22° S and 24° S where the OMZ is well developed (O2 2 l−1. The upwelling process advects 24.2 × 1010 mol N yr−1 of nitrate enriched waters over the first 100 m over the slope and over the continental shelf. The meridional advection by the alongshore Benguela current brings also nutrient-rich waters with 21.1 × 1010 mol N yr−1. 10.5 × 1010 mol N yr−1 of OM are exported outside of the continental shelf (between 0 and 100-m depth. 32.4% and 18.1% of this OM are exported by advection in the form of Dissolved and Particulate Organic Matters (DOM and POM, respectively, however vertical sinking of POM represents the main contributor (49.5% to OM export outside of the first 100-m depth of the water column on the continental shelf. The continental slope also represents a net N

  16. Climate projections for selected large marine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Muyin; Overland, James E.; Bond, Nicholas A.

    2010-02-01

    In preparation for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) modeling centers from around the world carried out sets of global climate simulations under various emission scenarios with a total of 23 coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models. We evaluated the models' 20th century hindcasts of selected variables relevant to several large marine ecosystems and examined 21st century projections by a subset of these models under the A1B (middle range) emission scenario. In general we find that a subset (about half) of the models are able to simulate large-scale aspects of the historical observations reasonably well, which provides some confidence in their application for projections of ocean conditions into the future. Over the North Pacific by the mid-21st century, the warming due to the trend in wintertime sea surface temperature (SST) will be 1°-1.5 °C, which is as large as the amplitude of the major mode of variability, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). For areas northwest of the Hawaiian Islands, these models projected a steady increase of 1.2 °C in summer SST over the period from 2000 to 2050. For the Bering and Barents seas, a subset of models selected on the basis of their ability to simulate sea-ice area in late 20th century yield an average decrease in sea-ice coverage of 43% and 36%, respectively, by the decade centered on 2050 with a reasonable degree of consistency. On the other hand, model simulations of coastal upwelling for the California, Canary and Humboldt Currents, and of bottom temperatures in the Barents Sea, feature a relatively large degree of uncertainty. These results illustrate that 21st century projections for marine ecosystems in certain regions using present-generation climate models require additional analysis.

  17. BUSINESS ECOSYSTEMS VS BUSINESS DIGITAL ECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela Lazarica

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available E-business is often described as the small organisations’ gateway to global business and markets. The adoption of Internet-based technologies for e-business is a continuous process, with sequential steps of evolution. The latter step in the adoption of Internet-based technologies for business, where the business services and the software components are supported by a pervasive software environment, which shows an evolutionary and self-organising behaviour are named digital business ecosystems. The digital business ecosystems are characterized by intelligent software components and services, knowledge transfer, interactive training frameworks and integration of business processes and e-government models.

  18. Net primary productivity, upwelling and coastal currents in the Gulf of Ulloa, Baja California, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. González-Rodríguez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Gulf of Ulloa, a highly productive area off the western coast of the Baja California Peninsula, is examined for five successive years (2003–2007 by using satellite data and seasonal net primary productivity (NPP estimates obtained from a vertical generalised production model. The results identify that northwestern winds blow parallel to the coast throughout the year. However, highest NPP occurs from March to June. During this period, an equatorward coastal current transports water from neighbouring upwelling areas to the northern Gulf of Ulloa and in combination with local upwelling, which injects nutrients into the euphotic zone, produce the observed increase in NPP. The opposite situation occurs in late summer when a warm poleward current of tropical characteristics arrives and inhibits the productivity in the whole region and generates the yearly lowest NPP levels. Our findings reveal the importance of lateral advection in the modulation of the primary productivity in this subtropical upwelling region.

  19. Isotopic and enzymatic analyses of planktonic nitrogen utilisation in the vicinity of Cape Sines (Portugal) during weak upwelling activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawyk, Gerd; Coste, Bernard; Collos, Yves; Rodier, Martine

    1997-01-01

    Using measurements of 15N uptake and activities of nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase, the utilization of nitrogenous nutrients by microplankton in the Portuguese upwelling area was investigated. During this cruise the euphotic zone of coastal waters was in most cases bisected by a nitracline forming two layers. Total inorganic nitrogen uptake rates (NH 4+ + NO 3-) in the upper mixed and nitrate-impoverished layer ranged from 0.1 to 0.8 nM h -1 and were primarily supported by regenerated (ammonium) nitrogen (62-97%), whereas they varied between 0.9 and 10.4 nM h -1 in the deep nitrate-rich layer and were mainly driven by new (nitrate) nitrogen (52-82%). Depth profiles of Chl a-specific uptake rates for ammonium and nitrate paralleled those of absolute uptake rates, i.e. values of VNH 4+Chl were highest (up to 16.1 nmol μg -1 h -1) in nitrate-poor surface waters while values of VNO 3-Chl were maximum (up to 8.4 nmol μg -1 h -1)within the nitracline. This latter vertical ordering of planktonic nitrogen nutrition was consistent with an aged upwelling situation. However, applying several indices of cell metabolism and nutritional status, such as 15N uptake/enzyme activity, surge uptake internally controlled uptake, and V maxChl/K t ratios, we were able to demonstrate that the phytoplankton assemblages inhabiting the nutrient-impoverished upper layer still bore the signature of physically mediated nitrogen (nitrate) supply generated by active upwelling that had occurred during the week before our visit to the area. This signature was the most evident in samples from the station furthest inshore and faded with distance from shore as a result of the deepening of the nitrate isopleths (weakening of upwelling activity), which showed the same offshore trend. The appearance of nitrate-rich waters at the surface, after a strong pulse of upwelling favourable winds just before the end of the cruise, led to a five-fold increase in average (over the euphotic zone

  20. Habitat characteristics influence macrofaunal communities in coralline turf more than mesoscale coastal upwelling on the coast of Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelaher, Brendan P.; Carlos Castilla, Juan

    2005-04-01

    Rocky shore communities are often influenced by near-shore coastal upwelling. For macrofauna in algal turf, these effects may be caused directly by well-studied bottom-up mechanisms or indirectly via changes in habitat structure provided by algal turf associated high nutrient loads. Here, we investigated possible interactions between upwelling and habitat structure by sampling diverse faunal assemblages in coralline algal turf on seven rocky intertidal shores in northern Chile, ranging from El Cobre [23°17'1″S, 70°31'40″W] to La Lobería [23°03'40″S, 70°33'14″W]. Some of these shores were located adjacent to strong upwelling centers, while others were in areas rarely affected. On each shore, we sampled four (2 × 2 m) sites separated by 15-50 m. In each site, we collected three replicate cores (80 mm in diameter) from which we measured macrofauna greater than 850 μm, biomass of sediment and epiphytes, frond density and average frond length. We used mean water temperature and its variation at 1-1.5 m water depth (below Extreme Low Water Spring, ELWS) to represent local upwelling intensity because long-term data have shown that these variables make excellent indicators for this region. In total, we found 94 macrofaunal taxa in coralline turf, which is almost three times higher than has previously been reported in Chile. Although macrofaunal assemblages varied significantly among shores, there were no patterns to suggest mesoscale variation in upwelling intensity affected either faunal assemblages or local habitat characteristics. In contrast, multivariate and univariate correlations highlighted sediment and frond density as strong determinants of community structure. We therefore conclude that traditionally studied habitat characteristics, such as structural complexity and habitat heterogeneity, have greater influence on faunal assemblages in mat-like habitats on rocky shores than environmental variables associated with mesoscale coastal upwelling.

  1. Time series analysis of data for sea surface temperature and upwelling components from the southwest coast of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goela, Priscila Costa; Cordeiro, Clara; Danchenko, Sergei; Icely, John; Cristina, Sónia; Newton, Alice

    2016-11-01

    This study relates sea surface temperature (SST) to the upwelling conditions off the southwest coast of Portugal using statistical analyses of publically available data. Optimum Interpolation (OI) of daily SST data were extracted from the United States (US) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and data for wind speed and direction were from the US National Climatic Data Center. Time series were extracted at a daily frequency for a time horizon of 26 years. Upwelling indices were estimated using westerly (Qx) and southerly (Qy) Ekman transport components. In the first part of the study, time series were inspected for trend and seasonality over the whole period. The seasonally adjusted time series revealed an increasing slope for SST (0.15 °C per decade) and decreasing slopes for Qx (- 84.01 m3 s- 1 km- 1 per decade) and Qy (- 25.20 m3 s- 1 km- 1 per decade), over the time horizon. Structural breaks analysis applied to the time series showed that a statistically significant incremental increase in SST was more pronounced during the last decade. Cross-correlation between upwelling indices and SST revealed a time delay of 5 and 2 days between Qx and SST, and between Qy and SST, respectively. A spectral analysis combined with the previous analysis enabled the identification of four oceanographic seasons. Those seasons were later recognised over a restricted time period of 4 years, between 2008 and 2012, when there was an extensive sampling programme for the validation of ocean colour remote sensing imagery. The seasons were defined as: summer, with intense and regular events of upwelling; autumn, indicating relaxation of upwelling conditions; and spring and winter, showing high interannual variability in terms of number and intensity of upwelling events.

  2. Microzooplankton feeding impact in a coastal upwelling system on the NW Iberian margin: The Ría de Vigo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Isabel G.; Figueiras, Francisco G.; Crespo, Bibiana G.; Piedracoba, Sílvia

    2011-01-01

    The dilution technique, combined with identification and enumeration of pico-, nano- and micro-plankton by microscopy, was used to estimate microzooplankton impact on the microbial community in surface waters of a coastal embayment on the NW Iberian upwelling system. Microzooplankton were important consumers of autotrophic and heterotrophic plankton in this system, feeding up to 93% of standing stock and more than 100% of production of several groups. Heterotrophic bacteria and heterotrophic picoflagellates experienced the highest and constant impact, with 75-84% of their standing stocks and 85-102% of their production being channelled through the microbial food web. Pico- and nano-phytoplankton were also consumed, although maximum grazing occurred on diatoms during upwelling events, coinciding with highest primary production. Predation on pico-nano-heterotrophs was especially relevant under downwelling conditions, when consumption of total carbon and particularly autotrophic carbon was considerably lower than during upwelling. The results suggest that the existence of a multivorous food web, extending from the microbial loop to the herbivorous food web, could be a major feature in this coastal upwelling system. The microbial loop, which occurs as a permanent background in the system, would contribute to sustain the microbial food web during downwelling, whereas the herbivorous food web could coexist with a microbial food web based on large diatoms during upwelling. The multivorous food web would partially divert diatoms from sinking and hence favour the retention of organic matter in the water column. This could enhance the energy transfer to higher pelagic trophic levels in coastal upwelling systems.

  3. On the Karst Ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁道先

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the author gives a definition of the karst ecosystem and discusses the characteristics of the karst environment and karst ecosystem and the relationship between life and the karst environment. Finally he clarifies the structure, driving force and functions of the karst system.``

  4. Response of zooplankton to physical changes in the environment: coastal upwelling along central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Nair, S.R.S.; Haridas, P.; Padmavati, G.

    Research 413-426 Fort Lauderdale, Florida Response of Zooplankton to Physical Changes in the Environment: Coastal Upwelling Along the Central West Coast of India b~ M. Madhupratap,t S.R. Sreekumaran Nair/ P. Haridas,* and Gadi PadmavatP tNational Institute... of zooplankton to physical changes in the environment: COlistlil upwelling along the central west coast of India. Journal of Coastal Research, 6(2), 413-426. Fort Lauderdale (Florida). ISSN 0749-0208. Zooplankton composition lind abundance were studied in a...

  5. Seasonal variability of the Ekman transport and pumping in the upwelling system off central-northern Chile (˜ 30° S) based on a high-resolution atmospheric regional model (WRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Luis; Ramos, Marcel; Astudillo, Orlando; Dewitte, Boris; Goubanova, Katerina

    2016-09-01

    Two physical mechanisms can contribute to coastal upwelling in eastern boundary current systems: offshore Ekman transport due to the predominant alongshore wind stress and Ekman pumping due to the cyclonic wind stress curl, mainly caused by the abrupt decrease in wind stress (drop-off) in a cross-shore band of 100 km. This wind drop-off is thought to be an ubiquitous feature in coastal upwelling systems and to regulate the relative contribution of both mechanisms. It has been poorly studied along the central-northern Chile region because of the lack in wind measurements along the shoreline and of the relatively low resolution of the available atmospheric reanalysis. Here, the seasonal variability in Ekman transport, Ekman pumping and their relative contribution to total upwelling along the central-northern Chile region (˜ 30° S) is evaluated from a high-resolution atmospheric model simulation. As a first step, the simulation is validated from satellite observations, which indicates a realistic representation of the spatial and temporal variability of the wind along the coast by the model. The model outputs are then used to document the fine-scale structures in the wind stress and wind curl in relation to the topographic features along the coast (headlands and embayments). Both wind stress and wind curl had a clear seasonal variability with annual and semiannual components. Alongshore wind stress maximum peak occurred in spring, second increase was in fall and minimum in winter. When a threshold of -3 × 10-5 s-1 for the across-shore gradient of alongshore wind was considered to define the region from which the winds decrease toward the coast, the wind drop-off length scale varied between 8 and 45 km. The relative contribution of the coastal divergence and Ekman pumping to the vertical transport along the coast, considering the estimated wind drop-off length, indicated meridional alternation between both mechanisms, modulated by orography and the intricate

  6. Ecosystem approach in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabiullin, Iskander

    2017-04-01

    Environmental education is a base for sustainable development. Therefore, in our school we pay great attention to environmental education. Environmental education in our school is based on ecosystem approach. What is an ecosystem approach? Ecosystem is a fundamental concept of ecology. Living organisms and their non-living environments interact with each other as a system, and the biosphere planet functions as a global ecosystem. Therefore, it is necessary for children to understand relationships in ecosystems, and we have to develop systems thinking in our students. Ecosystem approach and systems thinking should help us to solve global environmental problems. How do we implement the ecosystem approach? Students must understand that our biosphere functions as a single ecosystem and even small changes can lead to environmental disasters. Even the disappearance of one plant or animal species can lead to irreversible consequences. So in the classroom we learn the importance of each living organism for the nature. We pay special attention to endangered species, which are listed in the Red Data List. Kids are doing projects about these organisms, make videos, print brochures and newspapers. Fieldwork also plays an important role for ecosystem approach. Every summer, we go out for expeditions to study species of plants and animals listed in the Red Data List of Tatarstan. In class, students often write essays on behalf of any endangered species of plants or animals, this also helps them to understand the importance of each living organism in nature. Each spring we organise a festival of environmental projects among students. Groups of 4-5 students work on a solution of environmental problems, such as water, air or soil pollution, waste recycling, the loss of biodiversity, etc. Participants shoot a clip about their project, print brochures. Furthermore, some of the students participate in national and international scientific Olympiads with their projects. In addition to

  7. Mercury speciation in fish of the Cabo Frio upwelling region, SE-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mercury distribution in the oceans is controlled by complex biogeochemical cycles, resulting in retention of trace amounts of this metal in marine biota. The impact of upwelling processes in this metal behavior has been overlooked. Data from literature are insufficient to evaluate the risks associated with the presence of mercury in the fish collected in upwelling areas and its consumers. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to perform a study of mercury speciation in four fish species belonging to different trophic levels from Cabo Frio-Brazil upwelling region. The total mercury content vary of 53 ng g-1 (Sardinella brasiliensis -sardine to 1215 ng g-1 (Cynoscion striatus -striped weakfish and, with exception of the planktivorous fish, methylmercury levels reaches circa 90% of total mercury concentration.A distribuição de Mercúrio nos oceanos é controlada por um complexo ciclo biogeoquímico, resultando na retenção de pequenas quantidades na biota marinha. O impacto dos processos de ressurgência costeira no comportamento desse metal tem sido negligenciado. Dados da literatura são insuficientes para elucidar o risco associado com a presença de mercúrio em peixes capturados em áreas de ressurgência e seus consumidores. Portanto o objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar um estudo de especiação de mercúrio em quatro espécies de peixes pertencentes a diferentes níveis tróficos da região de ressurgência de Cabo Frio-Brasil. O conteúdo total de mercúrio variou de 53 ng g-1 (Sardinella brasiliensis -sardinha to 1215 ng g-1 (Cynoscion striatus -pescada e, com exceção da espécie planctivora, os níveis de metilmercúrio atingem cerca de 90% da concentração total de mercúrio.

  8. Coastal upwelling fluxes of O2, N2O, and CO2 assessed from continuous atmospheric observations at Trinidad,California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Lueker

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Continuous atmospheric records of O2/N2, CO2 and N2O obtained at Trinidad, California document the effects of air-sea exchange during coastal upwelling and plankton bloom events. The atmospheric records provide continuous observations of air-sea fluxes related to synoptic scale upwelling events over several upwelling seasons. Combined with satellite, buoy and local meteorology data, calculated anomalies in O2/N2 and N2O were utilized in a simple atmospheric transport model to compute air-sea fluxes during coastal upwelling. CO2 fluxes were linked to the oceanic component of the O2 fluxes through local hydrographic data and estimated as a function of upwelling intensity (surface ocean temperature and wind speed. Regional air-sea fluxes of O2/N2O, and CO2 during coastal upwelling were estimated with the aid of satellite wind and SST data. Upwelling CO2 fluxes were found to represent ~10% of export production along the northwest coast of North America. Synoptic scale upwelling events impact the net exchange of atmospheric CO2 along the coastal margin, and will vary in response to the frequency and duration of alongshore winds that are subject to climate change.

  9. HUD GIS Boundary Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The HUD GIS Boundary Files are intended to supplement boundary files available from the U.S. Census Bureau. The files are for community planners interested in...

  10. Political State Boundary (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — State boundaries with political limit - boundaries extending into the ocean (NTAD). The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an...

  11. State Agency Administrative Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database comprises 28 State agency boundaries and point of contact. The Kansas Geological Survey collected legal descriptions of the boundaries for various...

  12. Mingo Wilderness boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document gives information as to the exact legal boundaries of the Mingo Wilderness area. It also includes a map showing the boundaries visually.

  13. County Political Boundaries (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — County boundaries with political limit - boundaries extending into the ocean (NTAD 2015). The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract...

  14. Allegheny County Municipal Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the municipal boundaries in Allegheny County. Data was created to portray the boundaries of the 130 Municipalities in Allegheny County the...

  15. Allegheny County Municipal Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the municipal boundaries in Allegheny County. Data was created to portray the boundaries of the 130 Municipalities in Allegheny County the...

  16. Alkenone-based temperature patterns along the eastern South Pacific Coastal Ocean: the effect of upwelling and advection on the sedimentary alkenone unsaturation-index (U37K'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Garcés-Vargas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report that the sedimentary record of alkenone unsaturation-index (U37K' in the eastern South Pacific displays a wide range of temperatures, in response to sea surface temperature (SST, as well as nutrient concentrations. The U37K' inshore-offshore trend shows low-correlation with SSTs at many transitional sites (50–200 km offshore, and in one oligotrophic coastal site (~20° S. In contrast, in open-ocean sites SSTs play the expected dominant role. The latitudinal trend shows that nitrate, phosphate and/or temperature affect distinctively the U37K', suggesting progressive high-impacts in areas with permanent nutrient-stress conditions (~20° S, which is consistent with previous experiments. In contrast, this impact is slightly and not observable in transitional and open-ocean areas, respectively, where the coupling between offshore propagation of mesoscale eddies and upwelling filaments supply additional chlorophyll/nutrient. This study is a first field approximation to the impacts of thermal/non-thermal factors over the unsaturation-index in eastern Boundary Current systems, which would help in future temperature reconstructions.

  17. Quantum and Ecosystem Entropies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Kirwan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystems and quantum gases share a number of superficial similarities including enormous numbers of interacting elements and the fundamental role of energy in such interactions. A theory for the synthesis of data and prediction of new phenomena is well established in quantum statistical mechanics. The premise of this paper is that the reason a comparable unifying theory has not emerged in ecology is that a proper role for entropy has yet to be assigned. To this end, a phase space entropy model of ecosystems is developed. Specification of an ecosystem phase space cell size based on microbial mass, length, and time scales gives an ecosystem uncertainty parameter only about three orders of magnitude larger than Planck’s constant. Ecosystem equilibria is specified by conservation of biomass and total metabolic energy, along with the principle of maximum entropy at equilibria. Both Bose - Einstein and Fermi - Dirac equilibrium conditions arise in ecosystems applications. The paper concludes with a discussion of some broader aspects of an ecosystem phase space.

  18. An equilibrium model for the coupled ocean-atmosphere boundary layer in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, C.-H.; Lau, K.-M.; Betts, Alan K.

    A coupled model is used to study the equilibrium state of the ocean-atmosphere boundary layer in the tropics. The atmospheric model is a one-dimensional thermodynamic model for a partially mixed, partly cloudy convective boundary layer (CBL), including the effects of cloud-top subsidence, surface momentum and heat (latent and sensible) fluxes, and realistic radiative transfer for both shortwaves and longwaves (Betts and Ridgway, 1988; 1989). The oceanic model is a thermodynamic model for a well-mixed layer, with a closure constraint based on a one-dimensional turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) equation following Kraus and Turner (1967). Results of several sets of experiments are reported in this paper. In the first two sets of experiments, with sea surface temperature (SST) specified, we solve the equilibrium state of the coupled system as a function of SST for a given surface wind (case 1) and as a function of surface wind for a given SST (case 2). In both cases the depth of the CBL and the ocean mixed layer (OML) increases and the upwelling below the OML decreases, corresponding to either increasing SST or increasing surface wind. The deepening of the equilibrium CBL is primarily linked to the increase of CBL moisture with increasing SST and surface wind. The increase of OML depth and decrease of upwelling are due to a decrease of net downward heat flux with increasing SST and the generation of TKE by increasing wind. In another two sets of experiments, we solve for the coupled ocean-atmosphere model iteratively as a function of surface wind for a fixed upwelling (case 3) and a fixed OML depth (case 4). SST falls with increasing wind in both cases, but the fall is steeper in case 4, because the OML depth is fixed, whereas in case 3 the depth is allowed to deepen and the cooling is spread over a larger mass of water. The decrease of evaporation with increasing wind in case 4 leads to a very dry and shallow CBL. Results of further experiments with surface wind and SST

  19. The Case against Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borck, Howard

    1977-01-01

    In this tongue-in-cheek article, sociological boundaries are on trial in a simulated courtroom. It is argued that sociologists concerned with establishing boundaries are neglecting the significant issues facing social scientists whereas the defense contends that boundaries are essential to the discipline. (Author/JR)

  20. Oxygen: a fundamental property regulating pelagic ecosystem structure in the coastal southeastern tropical Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Bertrand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the southeastern tropical Pacific anchovy (Engraulis ringens and sardine (Sardinops sagax abundance have recently fluctuated on multidecadal scales and food and temperature have been proposed as the key parameters explaining these changes. However, ecological and paleoecological studies, and the fact that anchovies and sardines are favored differently in other regions, raise questions about the role of temperature. Here we investigate the role of oxygen in structuring fish populations in the Peruvian upwelling ecosystem that has evolved over anoxic conditions and is one of the world's most productive ecosystems in terms of forage fish. This study is particularly relevant given that the distribution of oxygen in the ocean is changing with uncertain consequences. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A comprehensive data set is used to show how oxygen concentration and oxycline depth affect the abundance and distribution of pelagic fish. We show that the effects of oxygen on anchovy and sardine are opposite. Anchovy flourishes under relatively low oxygen conditions while sardine avoid periods/areas with low oxygen concentration and restricted habitat. Oxygen consumption, trophic structure and habitat compression play a fundamental role in fish dynamics in this important ecosystem. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: For the ocean off Peru we suggest that a key process, the need to breathe, has been neglected previously. Inclusion of this missing piece allows the development of a comprehensive conceptual model of pelagic fish populations and change in an ocean ecosystem impacted by low oxygen. Should current trends in oxygen in the ocean continue similar effects may be evident in other coastal upwelling ecosystems.

  1. Modelling shelf-ocean exchange and its biogeochemical consequences in coastal upwelling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchamad, Al Azhar

    reactions and biological respiration of marine organic matter (remineralization) under oxic and anoxic conditions. The developed model was coupled into a three-dimensional physical circulation model called the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). Then, the coupled model was employed and calibrated...... to relatively wide shelf areas because more sinking organic matter reach the shelf sea-floor and remineralize there, enhancing the nutrient trapping effect of the shelf circulation system. These results highlight the important role of the continental shelf bathymetry in modulating the shelf–ocean exchange......The biogeochemical cycles of organic carbon, nutrients, oxygen, and sulfur in the oceans have been suggested to dominantly occur across the shelf–ocean transition over the continental margin, although this zone represents only a small percentage of the global ocean area. Coastal upwelling zones...

  2. Lead in the western South China Sea: Evidence of atmospheric deposition and upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengli; Goodkin, Nathalie F.; Boyle, Edward A.; Switzer, Adam D.; Bolton, Annette

    2016-05-01

    In recent decades, rapid industrial developments have increased lead (Pb) inputs to the South China Sea. To quantify the increasing variability, we investigated 170 years of skeletal Pb and Pb isotopes from an offshore, central Vietnamese coral. The Pb/Ca in the coral was 10-16 nmol/mol before the mid-1950s and increased to more than 30 nmol/mol by 2000. While the regional phaseout of leaded petrol commenced in 2000, coral Pb/Ca continued increasing until 2004, possibly due to regional upwelling and the transport of previously emitted Pb from tropical Pacific waters. The 206Pb/207Pb ratio in the coral was 1.191-1.195 before mid-1950s, suggesting natural sources. Since then, the ratio decreased, reaching ~1.165 in 2004. Lead isotopes show high linearity between natural and Chinese emitted Pb, with the latter contributing ~40%~60% of the skeletal Pb after 2000.

  3. Is copper an inhibiting factor for primary production in the upwelling waters of Cabo Frio?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diniz Antônia G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present work was to test the hypothesis that inorganic species of copper may inhibit primary production in upwelling waters from the Cabo Frio region. Water samples were collected from four different depths up to 50 m at three stations of Cabo Frio and nutrient concentration, pH, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, seston, chlorophyll a, primary production, NPP, copper speciation, Cu(II and Cu(I and complexing capacity were determined. The results indicate that the rate of photosynthesis in nutrient rich waters with higher copper content and lower complexing capacity is significantly reduced. Cu(I made up 2-15% of the total copper, however, there was no evidence to suggest that the photochemical production of Cu(I affects NPP.

  4. The reduction of biological production induced by mesoscale mixing: a modelling study in the Benguela upwelling

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández-Carrasco, Ismael; Hernández-García, Emilio; Garçon, Veronique; López, Cristóbal

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies, both based on remote sensed data and coupled models, showed a reduction of biological productivity due to vigorous horizontal mixing in upwelling systems. In order to better understand this phenomenon, we have considered a system of oceanic flow in the Benguela area coupled with a simple biogeochemical model of Nutrient-Phyto-Zooplankton (NPZ) type. For the flow three different surface velocity fields are considered: one derived from satellite altimetry data, and the other two from a regional numerical model at two different spatial resolutions. We computed horizontal particle dispersion in terms of Lyapunov Exponents, and analyzed their correlations with phytoplankton concentrations. Our modelling approach confirms that in the south Benguela, there is a reduction of biological activity when stirring is increased. Two-dimensional offshore advection seems to be the dominant process involved. In the northern area, other factors not taken into account in our simulation are influencing the ecosyst...

  5. Oceanic three-dimensional Lagrangian Coherent Structures: A study in the Benguela upwelling region

    CERN Document Server

    Bettencourt, João H; Hernández-García, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    We study three dimensional oceanic Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs) in the Benguela region, as obtained from an output from the ROMS model. To this end we first compute Finite-Size Lyapunov exponent (FSLE) fields in the region volume, characterizing mesoscale stirring and mixing there. Average FSLE values show a general decreasing trend with depth, but there is a local maximum at about 100m depth. LCSs are extracted as ridges of the calculated FSLE fields. They present a "curtain-like" geometry in which the strongest attracting and repelling structures appear as quasivertical surfaces. LCSs around a particular cyclonic eddy, pinched off from the upwelling front are also calculated. The LCSs are confirmed to provide pathways and barriers to transport in and out of the eddy.

  6. Short-term changes in the northwest African Upwelling System induced by Saharan dust deposition events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, A G; Coca, J; Redondo, A [SeaSnet Canarias. Dpto. de Biologia (University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria), Canary Islands (Spain); Cuevas, E; Alonso-Perez, S; Bustos, J J [Izana Atmospheric Research Center, Agencia Estatal de Meteorologia, Tenerife (Spain); Perez, C; Baldasano, J M [Earth Sciences Department. Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Barcelona (Spain); Nickovic, S [Atmospheric Research and Environment Branch, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva (Switzerland)], E-mail: aramos@pesca.gi.ulpgc.es

    2009-03-01

    During the last 7-year period (2000-2006) atmosphere circulation changes show strong influences on the dust storm deposition dynamics and, as a result, on the primary production dynamics of the northwest African Upwelling System. From 2000 to 2006, the annual mean sea level pressure became higher ranging from 1014 to 1015 mb. Mean annual zonal wind intensity became higher (from 1.1 to 1.8 m s{sup -1}), while the mean annual meridional was reduced from 6.2 to 5.3 m s{sup -1} at the north of the Canary Islands. Mean annual satellite-derived AVHRR/NOAA SST recorded in the northwest African Upwelling became warmer in both locations, from 18.3 deg. C to 18.8 deg. C in Cape Ghir and from 19.5 deg. C to 20.3 deg. C north Canary Islands waters. CHL records from the SeaWiFS/OV-2 showed a different pattern trend. Mean annual CHL levels increased at Cape Ghir from 0.65 mg m-3 to 0.9 mg m-3 and significantly reduced from 0.59 mg m{sup -3} to 0.31 mg m{sup -3} at the north of the Canary Islands. Changes observed in the role of CHL during the last 7-years period could be associated to intensive dust deposition and exceptional weather warming observed in this area since 2000. However, this study focused on a 7-year period and conclusions on possible links between dust deposition and marine biochemistry activity cannot be generalized.

  7. [Medusae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from a coastal upwelling zone, Culebra Bay, Pacific, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sáenz, Karina; Vargas-Zamora, José A; Segura-Puertas, Lourdes

    2012-12-01

    The hydromedusae have an important role in marine trophic webs due to their predatory feeding habits. This is the first study of this group of gelatinous marine zooplankton in a coastal upwelling area of Central America. The composition and abundance variability of hydromedusae were studied during six months in 1999 at four stations in Culebra Bay, Gulf of Papagayo, Pacific coast of Costa Rica (10 degrees 37' N-85 degrees 40' W). A total of 53 species were identified, of which 26 are new records for Costa Rica, 21 are new records for Central America, and eight are new records for the Eastern Tropical Pacific. The more abundant species (more than 30% of the total abundance) were Liriope tetraphylla, Solmundella bitentaculata and Aglaura hemistoma. Six species occurred throughout the sampling period, 10 were present only during the dry season (December-April), and 17 were so during the rainy season (May-November). Significant differences of medusan abundances were found between seasons (dry vs. rainy). Maximum abundance (2.1 +/- 4.3ind./m3) was recorded when upwelled deeper water influenced the Bay, as indicated by local higher oxygen concentrations and lower water temperatures. The relatively high species richness of medusae found in Culebra Bay is probably related to factors like the pristine condition of the Bay, the arrival of oceanic species transported by the Equatorial Counter Current (ECC), the eastward shoaling of the Costa Rica Dome, and local currents. Illustrations of the 15 more important species are included to facilitate their identification and foster future work in the region.

  8. Watershed Boundaries - Watershed Boundary Database for Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer of the Subbasins (8-digit), Watersheds (10-digit), and Subwatersheds (12-digit) for Montana. This...

  9. A statistical approach to coastal upwelling in the Baltic Sea based on the analysis of satellite data for 1990-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lehmann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A statistical analysis of Baltic Sea upwelling has been carried out to cover, for the first time, the entire sea area for the period 1990-2009. Weekly composite SST maps based on NOAA/AVHRR satellite data were used to evaluate the location and frequency of upwelling. The results obtained were analysed and compared with earlier studies with excellent agreement. Our study enables the most intense upwelling areas in the entire Baltic Sea to be evaluated. According to the analysis of 443 SST maps, the most common upwelling regions are found off the Swedish south and east coasts (frequency 10-25%, the Swedish coast of the Bothnian Bay (16%, the southern tip of Gotland (up to 15%, and the Finnish coast of the Gulf of Finland (up to 15%. Pronounced upwelling also occurs off the Estonian coast and the Baltic east coast (up to 15%, the Polish coast and the west coast of Rügen (10-15%; otherwise the upwelling frequency was between 5 and 10%. Additionally, simulated SST distributions derived from a Baltic Sea numerical model were analysed for the same period. Furthermore, at specific positions close to the coastline, surface winds based on the SMHI meteorological data base were analysed for the same 20-year period. Wind components parallel to the coast were discriminated into favourable and unfavourable winds forcing upwelling. The obtained frequencies of upwelling-favourable winds fit very well the observed upwelling frequencies derived from satellite SST maps. A positive trend of upwelling frequencies along the Swedish east coast and the Finnish coast of the Gulf of Finland was calculated for the period 1990-2009.

  10. Two Years of Plankton Tows in a Seasonal Upwelling Region: Foraminiferal Abundances and Implications for the Fossil Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C. V.; Hill, T. M.; Jahncke, J.

    2014-12-01

    Planktic foraminifera have a long history of use as paleoceaographic proxies due to their environmental sensitivity, cosmopolitan distribution and extensive fossil record. The seasonal, spatial and water mass affinities of foraminifera species have implications for the interpretation of fossil assemblages and the interpretation of shell geochemistry. Two years (2012-2014) of shallow (dynamics of planktic foraminifera in an upwelling regime. Tows along with intensive hydrologic monitoring by CTD casts and discrete bottle sampling (temperature, salinity, oxygen, thermocline depth, carbonate saturation state) have spanned two complete seasonal upwelling-relaxation cycles. We present the results from these tows as well as preliminary models linking environmental drivers and foraminifera assemblages in this highly dynamic environment. Species abundances appear to be highly seasonal, in keeping with water column structure, with a seasonal upwelling to relaxation trade off between the non-spinose foraminifers Neogloboquadrina pachyderma and Neogloboquadrina incompta. We focus on the implications of species seasonality and hydrologic affinities to the interpretation of the fossil record in upwelling regions.

  11. Food-web composition affects cross-ecosystem interactions and subsidies

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    P>1. Ecosystems may affect each other through trophic interactions that cross ecosystem boundaries as well as via the transfer of subsidies, but these effects can vary depending on the identity of species involved in the interaction.2. In this study, we manipulated two terrestrial bromeliad-living spider species (Aglaoctenus castaneus, Corinna gr. rubripes) that have variable hunting modes, to test their individual and combined effects on aquatic invertebrate community structure and ecosystem...

  12. Revisiting software ecosystems research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    ‘Software ecosystems’ is argued to first appear as a concept more than 10 years ago and software ecosystem research started to take off in 2010. We conduct a systematic literature study, based on the most extensive literature review in the field up to date, with two primarily aims: (a) to provide...... an updated overview of the field and (b) to document evolution in the field. In total, we analyze 231 papers from 2007 until 2014 and provide an overview of the research in software ecosystems. Our analysis reveals a field that is rapidly growing both in volume and empirical focus while becoming more mature...... from evolving. We propose means for future research and the community to address them. Finally, our analysis shapes the view of the field having evolved outside the existing definitions of software ecosystems and thus propose the update of the definition of software ecosystems....

  13. Chinese Ecosystem Research Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Tieqing; Liu Jian; Chen Panqin; Fu Bojie

    2002-01-01

    The article analyzes the development of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, and its mission, mandate, and management mechanisms, with examples of research, demonstration and consultation for policy-setting.

  14. Formation of Service Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonas, Julia M.; Sörhammar, David; Satzger, Gerhard

    Purpose: Researchers in several different academic disciplines (such as marketing, information systems, and organization) have focused on investigating service and business ecosystems (e.g. Lusch and Nambisan, 2015; Gawer and Cusumano, 2014; Kude et al. 2012). We reviewed 69 papers in service...... – i.e. the “birth phase” (Moore, 2009) of a service ecosystem. This paper, therefore, aims to explore how the somewhat “magic” processes of service ecosystem formation that are being taken for granted actually occur. Methodology/Approach: Building on a review of core elements in the definitions...... proposition; a value proposition (e.g., a business opportunity or a business idea) may form the starting point for actors to collaborate and integrate resources in order realize the value proposition. The initiator of a service ecosystem could for example be an actor (Mark Zuckerberg), resources (website...

  15. Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Total ecosystem carbon includes above- and below-ground live plant components (such as leaf, branch, stem and root), dead biomass (such as standing dead wood, down...

  16. What Are Ecosystem Services?

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, James; Banzhaf, H. Spencer

    2006-01-01

    This paper advocates consistently defined units of account to measure the contributions of nature to human welfare. We argue that such units have to date not been defined by environmental accounting advocates and that the term “ecosystem services” is too ad hoc to be of practical use in welfare accounting. We propose a definition, rooted in economic principles, of ecosystem service units. A goal of these units is comparability with the definition of conventional goods and services found in GD...

  17. Reconsideration of the planetary boundary for phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, Stephen R [Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bennett, Elena M, E-mail: srcarpen@wisc.edu, E-mail: Elena.Bennett@mcgill.ca [Department of Natural Resource Sciences and McGill School of Environment, McGill University, 21 111 Lakeshore Road, Ste-Anne de Bellevue, QC, H9X 3V9 (Canada)

    2011-01-15

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical factor for food production, yet surface freshwaters and some coastal waters are highly sensitive to eutrophication by excess P. A planetary boundary, or upper tolerable limit, for P discharge to the oceans is thought to be ten times the pre-industrial rate, or more than three times the current rate. However this boundary does not take account of freshwater eutrophication. We analyzed the global P cycle to estimate planetary boundaries for freshwater eutrophication. Planetary boundaries were computed for the input of P to freshwaters, the input of P to terrestrial soil, and the mass of P in soil. Each boundary was computed for two water quality targets, 24 mg P m{sup -3}, a typical target for lakes and reservoirs, and 160 mg m{sup -3}, the approximate pre-industrial P concentration in the world's rivers. Planetary boundaries were also computed using three published estimates of current P flow to the sea. Current conditions exceed all planetary boundaries for P. Substantial differences between current conditions and planetary boundaries demonstrate the contrast between large amounts of P needed for food production and the high sensitivity of freshwaters to pollution by P runoff. At the same time, some regions of the world are P-deficient, and there are some indications that a global P shortage is possible in coming decades. More efficient recycling and retention of P within agricultural ecosystems could maintain or increase food production while reducing P pollution and improving water quality. Spatial heterogeneity in the global P cycle suggests that recycling of P in regions of excess and transfer of P to regions of deficiency could mitigate eutrophication, increase agricultural yield, and delay or avoid global P shortage.

  18. Bleaching Susceptibility and Recovery of Colombian Caribbean Corals in Response to Water Current Exposure and Seasonal Upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktarov, Elisa; Pizarro, Valeria; Eidens, Corvin; Wilke, Thomas; Wild, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Coral bleaching events are globally occurring more frequently and with higher intensity, mainly caused by increases in seawater temperature. In Tayrona National Natural Park (TNNP) in the Colombian Caribbean, local coral communities are subjected to seasonal wind-triggered upwelling events coinciding with stronger water currents depending on location. This natural phenomenon offers the unique opportunity to study potential water current-induced mitigation mechanisms of coral bleaching in an upwelling influenced region. Therefore, coral bleaching susceptibility and recovery patterns were compared during a moderate and a mild bleaching event in December 2010 and 2011, and at the end of the subsequent upwelling periods at a water current-exposed and -sheltered site of an exemplary bay using permanent transect and labeling tools. This was accompanied by parallel monitoring of key environmental variables. Findings revealed that in 2010 overall coral bleaching before upwelling was significantly higher at the sheltered (34%) compared to the exposed site (8%). Whereas 97% of all previously bleached corals at the water current-exposed site had recovered from bleaching by April 2011, only 77% recovered at the sheltered site, but 12% had died there. In December 2011, only mild bleaching (corals recovered significantly at both sites in the course of upwelling. No differences in water temperatures between sites occurred, but water current exposure and turbidity were significantly higher at the exposed site, suggesting that these variables may be responsible for the observed site-specific mitigation of coral bleaching. This indicates the existence of local resilience patterns against coral bleaching in Caribbean reefs. PMID:24282551

  19. Effects of upwelling, tides and biological processes on the inorganic carbon system of a coastal lagoon in Baja California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Ribas, M.; Hernández-Ayón, J. M.; Camacho-Ibar, V. F.; Cabello-Pasini, A.; Mejia-Trejo, A.; Durazo, R.; Galindo-Bect, S.; Souza, A. J.; Forja, J. M.; Siqueiros-Valencia, A.

    2011-12-01

    The role of coastal lagoons and estuaries as sources or sinks of inorganic carbon in upwelling areas has not been fully understood. During the months of May-July, 2005, we studied the dissolved inorganic carbon system in a coastal lagoon of northwestern Mexico during the strongest period of upwelling events. Along the bay, different scenarios were observed for the distributions of pH, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) as a result of different combinations of upwelling intensity and tidal amplitude. DIC concentrations in the outer part of the bay were controlled by mixing processes. At the inner part of the bay DIC was as low as 1800 μmol kg -1, most likely due to high water residence times and seagrass CO 2 uptake. It is estimated that 85% of San Quintín Bay, at the oceanic end, acted as a source of CO 2 to the atmosphere due to the inflow of CO 2-rich upwelled waters from the neighboring ocean with high positive fluxes higher than 30 mmol C m -2 d -1. In contrast, there was a net uptake of CO 2 and HCO 3- by the seagrass bed Zostera marina in the inner part of the bay, so the pCO 2 in this zone was below the equilibrium value and slightly negative CO 2 fluxes of -6 mmol C m -2 d -1. Our positive NEP and ΔDIC values indicate that Bahía San Quintín was a net autotrophic system during the upwelling season during 2005.

  20. Bleaching susceptibility and recovery of Colombian Caribbean corals in response to water current exposure and seasonal upwelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktarov, Elisa; Pizarro, Valeria; Eidens, Corvin; Wilke, Thomas; Wild, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Coral bleaching events are globally occurring more frequently and with higher intensity, mainly caused by increases in seawater temperature. In Tayrona National Natural Park (TNNP) in the Colombian Caribbean, local coral communities are subjected to seasonal wind-triggered upwelling events coinciding with stronger water currents depending on location. This natural phenomenon offers the unique opportunity to study potential water current-induced mitigation mechanisms of coral bleaching in an upwelling influenced region. Therefore, coral bleaching susceptibility and recovery patterns were compared during a moderate and a mild bleaching event in December 2010 and 2011, and at the end of the subsequent upwelling periods at a water current-exposed and -sheltered site of an exemplary bay using permanent transect and labeling tools. This was accompanied by parallel monitoring of key environmental variables. Findings revealed that in 2010 overall coral bleaching before upwelling was significantly higher at the sheltered (34%) compared to the exposed site (8%). Whereas 97% of all previously bleached corals at the water current-exposed site had recovered from bleaching by April 2011, only 77% recovered at the sheltered site, but 12% had died there. In December 2011, only mild bleaching (corals recovered significantly at both sites in the course of upwelling. No differences in water temperatures between sites occurred, but water current exposure and turbidity were significantly higher at the exposed site, suggesting that these variables may be responsible for the observed site-specific mitigation of coral bleaching. This indicates the existence of local resilience patterns against coral bleaching in Caribbean reefs.

  1. Bleaching susceptibility and recovery of Colombian Caribbean corals in response to water current exposure and seasonal upwelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Bayraktarov

    Full Text Available Coral bleaching events are globally occurring more frequently and with higher intensity, mainly caused by increases in seawater temperature. In Tayrona National Natural Park (TNNP in the Colombian Caribbean, local coral communities are subjected to seasonal wind-triggered upwelling events coinciding with stronger water currents depending on location. This natural phenomenon offers the unique opportunity to study potential water current-induced mitigation mechanisms of coral bleaching in an upwelling influenced region. Therefore, coral bleaching susceptibility and recovery patterns were compared during a moderate and a mild bleaching event in December 2010 and 2011, and at the end of the subsequent upwelling periods at a water current-exposed and -sheltered site of an exemplary bay using permanent transect and labeling tools. This was accompanied by parallel monitoring of key environmental variables. Findings revealed that in 2010 overall coral bleaching before upwelling was significantly higher at the sheltered (34% compared to the exposed site (8%. Whereas 97% of all previously bleached corals at the water current-exposed site had recovered from bleaching by April 2011, only 77% recovered at the sheltered site, but 12% had died there. In December 2011, only mild bleaching (<10% at both sites was observed, but corals recovered significantly at both sites in the course of upwelling. No differences in water temperatures between sites occurred, but water current exposure and turbidity were significantly higher at the exposed site, suggesting that these variables may be responsible for the observed site-specific mitigation of coral bleaching. This indicates the existence of local resilience patterns against coral bleaching in Caribbean reefs.

  2. Top 10 principles for designing healthy coastal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, Joseph K.; Dierauf, Leslie; Kirby, Grant; Brosnan, Deborah; Gilardi, Kirsten; Davis, Gary E.

    2008-01-01

    Like other coastal zones around the world, the inland sea ecosystem of Washington (USA) and British Columbia (Canada), an area known as the Salish Sea, is changing under pressure from a growing human population, conversion of native forest and shoreline habitat to urban development, toxic contamination of sediments and species, and overharvest of resources. While billions of dollars have been spent trying to restore other coastal ecosystems around the world, there still is no successful model for restoring estuarine or marine ecosystems like the Salish Sea. Despite the lack of a guiding model, major ecological principles do exist that should be applied as people work to design the Salish Sea and other large marine ecosystems for the future. We suggest that the following 10 ecological principles serve as a foundation for educating the public and for designing a healthy Salish Sea and other coastal ecosystems for future generations: (1) Think ecosystem: political boundaries are arbitrary; (2) Account for ecosystem connectivity; (3) Understand the food web; (4) Avoid fragmentation; (5) Respect ecosystem integrity; (6) Support nature's resilience; (7) Value nature: it's money in your pocket; (8) Watch wildlife health; (9) Plan for extremes; and (10) Share the knowledge.

  3. A new method to infer vegetation boundary movement from 'snapshot' data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eppinga, M.B.; Pucko, C.A.; Baudena, M.; Beckage, B.; Molofsky, J.

    2012-01-01

    Global change may induce shifts in plant community distributions at multiple spatial scales. At the ecosystem scale, such shifts may result in movement of ecotones or vegetation boundaries. Most indicators for ecosystem change require timeseries data, but here a new method is proposed enabling infer

  4. A new method to infer vegetation boundary movement from 'snapshot' data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eppinga, M.B.; Pucko, C.A.; Baudena, M.; Beckage, B.; Molofsky, J.

    Global change may induce shifts in plant community distributions at multiple spatial scales. At the ecosystem scale, such shifts may result in movement of ecotones or vegetation boundaries. Most indicators for ecosystem change require timeseries data, but here a new method is proposed enabling

  5. Monetary accounting of ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remme, R.P.; Edens, Bram; Schröter, Matthias; Hein, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem accounting aims to provide a better understanding of ecosystem contributions to the economy in a spatially explicit way. Ecosystem accounting monitors ecosystem services and measures their monetary value using exchange values consistent with the System of National Accounts (SNA). We pil

  6. Monetary accounting of ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remme, R.P.; Edens, Bram; Schröter, Matthias; Hein, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem accounting aims to provide a better understanding of ecosystem contributions to the economy in a spatially explicit way. Ecosystem accounting monitors ecosystem services and measures their monetary value using exchange values consistent with the System of National Accounts (SNA). We

  7. Changes in optical characteristics of surface microlayers hint to photochemically and microbially mediated DOM turnover in the upwelling region off the coast of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgani, Luisa; Engel, Anja

    2016-04-01

    The coastal upwelling system off the coast of Peru is characterized by high biological activity and a pronounced subsurface oxygen minimum zone, as well as associated emissions of atmospheric trace gases such as N2O, CH4 and CO2. From 3 to 23 December 2012, R/V Meteor (M91) cruise took place in the Peruvian upwelling system between 4.59 and 15.4° S, and 82.0 to 77.5° W. During M91 we investigated the composition of the sea-surface microlayer (SML), the oceanic uppermost boundary directly subject to high solar radiation, often enriched in specific organic compounds of biological origin like chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and marine gels. In the SML, the continuous photochemical and microbial recycling of organic matter may strongly influence gas exchange between marine systems and the atmosphere. We analyzed SML and underlying water (ULW) samples at 38 stations focusing on CDOM spectral characteristics as indicator of photochemical and microbial alteration processes. CDOM composition was characterized by spectral slope (S) values and excitation-emission matrix fluorescence (EEMs), which allow us to track changes in molecular weight (MW) of DOM, and to determine potential DOM sources and sinks. Spectral slope S varied between 0.012 to 0.043 nm-1 and was quite similar between SML and ULW, with no significant differences between the two compartments. Higher S values were observed in the ULW of the southern stations below 15° S. By EEMs, we identified five fluorescent components (F1-5) of the CDOM pool, of which two had excitation/emission characteristics of amino-acid-like fluorophores (F1, F4) and were highly enriched in the SML, with a median ratio SML : ULW of 1.5 for both fluorophores. In the study region, values for CDOM absorption ranged from 0.07 to 1.47 m-1. CDOM was generally highly concentrated in the SML, with a median enrichment with respect to the ULW of 1.2. CDOM composition and changes in spectral slope properties suggested a local

  8. The biogeochemical sulfur cycle in the marine boundary layer over the Northeast Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, T. S.; Johnson, J. E.; Quinn, P. K.; Goldan, P. D.; Kuster, W. C.

    1990-01-01

    The major components of the marine boundary layer biogeochemical sulfur cycle were measured simultaneously onshore and off the coast of Washington State, U.S.A. during May 1987. Seawater dimethysulfide (DMS) concentrations on the continental shelf were strongly influenced by coastal upwelling. Concentration further offshore were typical of summer values (2.2 nmol/l) at this latitude. Although seawater DMS concentrations were high on the biologically productive continental shelf (2-12 nmol/l), this region had no measurable effect on atmospheric DMS concentrations. Atmospheric DMS concentrations (0.1-12 nmol/l), however, were extremely dependent upon wind speed and boundary layer height. Although there appeared to be an appreciable input of nonsea-salt sulfate to the marine boundary layer from the free troposphere, the local flux of DMS from the ocean to the atmosphere was sufficient to balance the remainder of the sulfur budget.

  9. The biogeochemical sulfur cycle in the marine boundary layer over the Northeast Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, T. S.; Johnson, J. E.; Quinn, P. K.; Goldan, P. D.; Kuster, W. C.

    1990-01-01

    The major components of the marine boundary layer biogeochemical sulfur cycle were measured simultaneously onshore and off the coast of Washington State, U.S.A. during May 1987. Seawater dimethysulfide (DMS) concentrations on the continental shelf were strongly influenced by coastal upwelling. Concentration further offshore were typical of summer values (2.2 nmol/l) at this latitude. Although seawater DMS concentrations were high on the biologically productive continental shelf (2-12 nmol/l), this region had no measurable effect on atmospheric DMS concentrations. Atmospheric DMS concentrations (0.1-12 nmol/l), however, were extremely dependent upon wind speed and boundary layer height. Although there appeared to be an appreciable input of nonsea-salt sulfate to the marine boundary layer from the free troposphere, the local flux of DMS from the ocean to the atmosphere was sufficient to balance the remainder of the sulfur budget.

  10. Characterizations of boundary pluripolar hulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djire, I.K.; Wiegerinck, J.

    2016-01-01

    We present some basic properties of the so-called boundary relative extremal function and discuss boundary pluripolar sets and boundary pluripolar hulls. We show that for B-regular domains the boundary pluripolar hull is always trivial on the boundary of the domain and present a “boundary version” o

  11. Characterizations of boundary pluripolar hulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djire, I.K.; Wiegerinck, J.

    2016-01-01

    We present some basic properties of the so-called boundary relative extremal function and discuss boundary pluripolar sets and boundary pluripolar hulls. We show that for B-regular domains the boundary pluripolar hull is always trivial on the boundary of the domain and present a “boundary version” o

  12. Ecosystem Services Connect Environmental Change to Human Health Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayles, Brett R.; Brauman, Kate A.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Allan, Brian F.; Ellis, Alicia M.; Goldberg, Tony L.; Golden, Christopher D.; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S.; Myers, Samuel S.; Ofosky, Steven A.; Ricketts, Taylor H.; Ristaino, Jean B.

    2016-06-29

    Global environmental change, driven in large part by human activities, profoundly impacts the structure and functioning of Earth’s ecosystems (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005). We are beginning to push beyond planetary boundaries (Steffan et al. 2015), and the consequences for human health remain largely unknown (Myers et al. 2013). Growing evidence suggests that ecological transformations can dramatically affect human health in ways that are both obvious and obscure (Myers and Patz 2009; Myers et al. 2013). The framework of ecosystem services, designed to evaluate the benefits that people derive from ecosystem products and processes, provides a compelling framework for integrating the many factors that influence the human health response to global change, as well as for integrating health impacts into broader analyses of the impacts of this change

  13. BoundaryOther_BNDHASH

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The BNDHASH dataset depicts Vermont villages, towns, counties, Regional Planning Commissions (RPC), and LEPC (Local Emergency Planning Committee) boundaries. It is a...

  14. Consumer-driven nutrient dynamics in freshwater ecosystems: from individuals to ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Carla L; Capps, Krista A; Rugenski, Amanda T; Vanni, Michael J

    2016-12-23

    The role of animals in modulating nutrient cycling [hereafter, consumer-driven nutrient dynamics (CND)] has been accepted as an important influence on both community structure and ecosystem function in aquatic systems. Yet there is great variability in the influence of CND across species and ecosystems, and the causes of this variation are not well understood. Here, we review and synthesize the mechanisms behind CND in fresh waters. We reviewed 131 articles on CND published between 1973 and 1 June 2015. The rate of new publications in CND has increased from 1.4 papers per year during 1973-2002 to 7.3 per year during 2003-2015. The majority of investigations are in North America with many concentrating on fish. More recent studies have focused on animal-mediated nutrient excretion rates relative to nutrient demand and indirect impacts (e.g. decomposition). We identified several mechanisms that influence CND across levels of biological organization. Factors affecting the stoichiometric plasticity of consumers, including body size, feeding history and ontogeny, play an important role in determining the impact of individual consumers on nutrient dynamics and underlie the stoichiometry of CND across time and space. The abiotic characteristics of an ecosystem affect the net impact of consumers on ecosystem processes by influencing consumer metabolic processes (e.g. consumption and excretion/egestion rates), non-CND supply of nutrients and ecosystem nutrient demand. Furthermore, the transformation and transport of elements by populations and communities of consumers also influences the flow of energy and nutrients across ecosystem boundaries. This review highlights that shifts in community composition or biomass of consumers and eco-evolutionary underpinnings can have strong effects on the functional role of consumers in ecosystem processes, yet these are relatively unexplored aspects of CND. Future research should evaluate the value of using species traits and abiotic

  15. Radon hazard in shallow groundwaters II: Dry season fracture drainage and alluvial fan upwelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tommasone, F. Pascale [Office of Civil Protection, Meteorology, Climatology and Natural Hazards, Piazza Municipio, 81051 Pietramelara, Caserta (Italy); De Francesco, S., E-mail: stefano.defrancesco@unina2.it [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Caserta, Via Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Cuoco, E.; Verrengia, G.; Santoro, D. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Caserta, Via Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Tedesco, D. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Caserta, Via Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); C.N.R. (Italian National Council), Institute of Environmental Geology and Geological Engineering, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 00100 Roma (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    {sup 222}Rn concentrations have been measured in a well located on the edge of a large Pleistocene-Holocene fan and belonging to the shallow pyroclastic aquifer of the Pietramelara Plain, southern Italy. The aim of this study has been both to characterise the hydrological inputs that determine the influx of {sup 222}Rn to the shallow aquifer and to understand the correlations between {sup 222}Rn, major ions, physical-chemical parameters and rainfall. Results obtained from the time series indicate that the studied well shows a {sup 222}Rn variability that is inconsistent with a mechanism of pure hydrological amplification, such as described in Radon hazard in shallow groundwaters: Amplification and long term variability induced by rainfall (De Francesco et al., 2010a). On the contrary, in this well hydrological amplification appears to be mainly tied to the upwelling of alluvial fan waters, rich in radon, in response to pistoning from recharge in the carbonate substrate. This upwelling of alluvial fan waters occurs during almost the whole period of the annual recharge and is also responsible of the constant increase in {sup 222}Rn levels during the autumn-spring period, when both the water table level and weekly rainfall totals drop. Furthermore, a rapid delivery mechanism for {sup 222}Rn likely operates through fracture drainage in concomitance with the very first late summer-early autumn rains, when rainfall totals appear largely insufficient to saturate the soil storage capacity. Results obtained from this study appear to be particularly significant in both radon hazard zoning in relation to the shallow aquifer and possibly also for indoor radon, owing to possible shallow aquifer-soil-building exchanges. Moreover, both the spike-like events and the long wave monthly scale background fluctuations detected can also have potential significance in interpreting {sup 222}Rn time series data as seismic and/or volcanic precursors. Finally, {sup 222}Rn has proved to be an

  16. The Characteristics of Near-surface Velocity During the Upwelling Season on the Northern Portugal Shelf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Observations made on the northern Portugal mid-shelf between May 13 and June 15, 2002 were used to characterise the near-surface velocity during one upwelling season. It was found that in the surface mixed layer, the 'tidal current' was diurnal, but the tidal elevation was semi-diurnal. Both the residual current and the major axes of all tidal constituents were nearly perpendicular to the isobaths and the tidal current ellipses rotated clockwise; the major axis of the major tidal ellipse was about 3 cm s-1. The extremely strong diurnal current in the surface layer was probably due to diurnal heating, cooling, and wind mixing that induced diurnal oscillations, including the diurnal oscillation of wind stress. This is a case different from the results measured in the other layers in this area. The near-inertial spectral peaks occurred with periods ranging from 1 047 min to 1 170 min, the longest periods being observed in deeper layers, and the shortest in the surface layer. Weak inertial events appeared during strong upwelling events, while strong inertial events appeared during downwelling or weak subinertial events. The near-inertial currents were out of phase between 5 m and 35 m layers for almost the entire measurement period, but such relationship was very weak during periods of irregular weak wind. Strong persistent southerly wind blew from May 12 to 17 and forced a significant water transport onshore and established a strong barotropic poleward jet with a surface speed exceeding 20 cm s-1. The subinertial current was related to wind variation, especially in the middle layers of 15 m and 35 m, the maximum correlation between alongshore current and alongshore wind was about 0.5 at the 5 m layer and 0.8 at the 35 m layer. The alongshore current reacted more rapidly than the cross-shore current. The strongest correlation was found at a time lag of 20 h in the upper layer and of 30 h in the deeper layer. The wind-driven surface velocity obtained from the PWP model

  17. Mapping cultural ecosystem services:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paracchini, Maria Luisa; Zulian, Grazia; Kopperoinen, Leena

    2014-01-01

    is required to address the issue, since by definition cultural services (encompassing physical, intellectual, spiritual interactions with biota) need to be analysed from multiple perspectives (i.e. ecological, social, behavioural). A second reason is the lack of data for large-scale assessments, as detailed......Research on ecosystem services mapping and valuing has increased significantly in recent years. However, compared to provisioning and regulating services, cultural ecosystem services have not yet been fully integrated into operational frameworks. One reason for this is that transdisciplinarity...... surveys are a main source of information. Among cultural ecosystem services, assessment of outdoor recreation can be based on a large pool of literature developed mostly in social and medical science, and landscape and ecology studies. This paper presents a methodology to include recreation...

  18. Nutrient budget in ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titlyanova, A. A.

    2007-12-01

    Methods to calculate nutrient budgets in forest and grassland ecosystems are analyzed on the basis of a large number of published materials and original data. New estimates of the belowground production in forest ecosystems with due account for the growth of fine roots are suggested. Nutrient retranslocation from senescent plant tissues to growing plant tissues and nutrient leaching from the forest canopy are discussed. The budgets of major nutrients (N, P, K, and Ca) in tundra, forest, and steppe ecosystems are calculated. Nutrient cycles in two forest ecosystems—a coniferous stand dominated by Picea abies and a broad-leaved stand dominated by Quercus robur—are analyzed in detail. It is shown that the more intensive turnover of nutrients in the oak stand is also characterized by a more closed character of the nutrient cycles.

  19. Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Marten; Carpenter, Steve; Foley, Jonathan A.; Folke, Carl; Walker, Brian

    2001-10-01

    All ecosystems are exposed to gradual changes in climate, nutrient loading, habitat fragmentation or biotic exploitation. Nature is usually assumed to respond to gradual change in a smooth way. However, studies on lakes, coral reefs, oceans, forests and arid lands have shown that smooth change can be interrupted by sudden drastic switches to a contrasting state. Although diverse events can trigger such shifts, recent studies show that a loss of resilience usually paves the way for a switch to an alternative state. This suggests that strategies for sustainable management of such ecosystems should focus on maintaining resilience.

  20. Bioenergetics in ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Farrell, Anthony P.

    2011-01-01

    A bioenergetics model for a fish can be defined as a quantitative description of the fish’s energy budget. Bioenergetics modeling can be applied to a fish population in a lake, river, or ocean to estimate the annual consumption of food by the fish population; such applications have proved to be useful in managing fisheries. In addition, bioenergetics models have been used to better understand fish growth and consumption in ecosystems, to determine the importance of the role of fish in cycling nutrients within ecosystems, and to identify the important factors regulating contaminant accumulation in fish from lakes, rivers, and oceans.

  1. Dynamo tests for stratification below the core-mantle boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Peter; Landeau, Maylis; Reynolds, Evan

    2017-10-01

    Evidence from seismology, mineral physics, and core dynamics suggests a layer with an overall stable stratification in the Earth's outer core, possibly thermal in origin, extending below the core-mantle boundary (CMB) for several hundred kilometers. Yet vigorous deep mantle convection with locally elevated heat flux implies locally unstable thermal stratification below the CMB, consistent with interpretations of non-dipole geomagnetic field behavior that favor upwelling flows in places below the CMB. To resolve this apparent inconsistency, we investigate the structure of convection and magnetic fields in the core using numerical dynamos with laterally heterogeneous boundary heat flux. Strongly heterogeneous boundary heat flux generates localized convection beneath the CMB that coexists with an overall stable stratification there. Our partially stratified dynamos are distinguished by their time average magnetic field structures. Without stratification or with stratification confined to a thin layer, the octupole component is small and the CMB magnetic field structure includes polar intensity minima. With more extensive stratification, the octupole component is large and the magnetic field structure includes intense patches or high intensity lobes in the polar regions. Comparisons with the time-averaged geomagnetic field are generally favorable for partial stratification in a thin (<400 km) layer but unfavorable for stratification in a thick (∼1000 km) layer beneath the CMB.

  2. Causes and projections of abrupt climate-driven ecosystem shifts in the North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beaugrand, G.; Edwards, M.; Brander, Keith

    2008-01-01

    Warming of the global climate is now unequivocal and its impact on Earth' functional units has become more apparent. Here, we show that marine ecosystems are not equally sensitive to climate change and reveal a critical thermal boundary where a small increase in temperature triggers abrupt...... ecosystem shifts seen across multiple trophic levels. This large-scale boundary is located in regions where abrupt ecosystem shifts have been reported in the North Atlantic sector and thereby allows us to link these shifts by a global common phenomenon. We show that these changes alter the biodiversity...... and carrying capacity of ecosystems and may, combined with fishing, precipitate the reduction of some stocks of Atlantic cod already severely impacted by exploitation. These findings offer a way to anticipate major ecosystem changes and to propose adaptive strategies for marine exploited resources such as cod...

  3. Formation of the thermal-driven boundary jet in an f-plane mesoscale basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The paper adopts an f-plane quasi-geostrophic inertial model without linearization to investigate the perturbation temperature, boundary jet and upwelling (downwelling) in an idealized rectangular basin, under the consideration of west side friction layer and heat conservation. There is net heat input on the upper surface and equal quality heat dissipation on the west boundary, and without heat exchange on other boundaries, then the heat is conservation in the whole basin. Results show that there is thermal front due to denseness of the perturbation temperature in the west side boundary, the perturbation pressure and flow field are reversal on the upper layer and bottom layer. On the bottom layer, the west coastal current is northward, and the maximum perturbation pressure center is on the west, however, on the upper layer, the east coastal current is southward, and the maximum perturbation pressure center is on the east. There is strong vertical flow in narrow western boundary layer, and also in the central zone. The effect of different upper thermal forcings is also studied, and it can be concluded that there is always temperature denseness and boundary jet near the west boundary, and the appearance of flow field reversal, but the distribution of vertical flow is rather different.

  4. Generalized Supersymetric Boundary State

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, K

    2000-01-01

    Following our previous paper (hep-th/9909027), we generalize a supersymmetric boundary state so that arbitrary configuration of the gauge field coupled to the boundary of the worldsheet is incorpolated. This generalized boundary state is BRST invariant and satisfy the non-linear boundary conditions with non-constant gauge field strength. This boundary state contains divergence which is identical with the loop divergence in a superstring sigma model. Hence vanishing of the beta function in the superstring sigma model corresponds to a well-defined boundary state with no divergence. The coupling of a single closed superstring massless mode with multiple open string massless modes is encoded in the boundary state, and we confirm that derivative correction to the D-brane action in this sector vanishes up to the first non-trivial order O(alpha'(derivative)^2). Combining T-dualities, we incorpolate also general configurations of the scalar fields on the D-brane, and construct boundary states representing branes stuc...

  5. On the formulation of open boundary conditions at the mouth of a bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greatbatch, Richard J.; Otterson, Timm

    1991-10-01

    We describe our experience in formulating open boundary conditions to apply at the mouth of a reduced-gravity model of a bay. Our objective is to find a way to calculate the response of the bay to wind forcing over the bay itself, without being concerned about the influence of regions beyond. We show that open boundaries from which Kelvin waves can propagate along the coast into the model domain ("upstream" boundaries) must be treated with care. We begin by considering an "upstream" boundary which runs perpendicular to the coast. We find that if a radiation condition is applied on such a boundary, then spurious Kelvin waves of near-inertial period can propagate in from the boundary and contaminate the solution in the interior of the model domain. Also, if there is Ekman transport at the "upstream" boundary away from (toward) the coast, then upwelling (downwelling) will occur indefinitely and completely swamp the model solution in the bay. This is similar to the solution we expect when the coastline is straight and extends to infinity in the "upstream" direction. However, it is not the same, since the rate of upwelling (downwelling) is roughly half the theoretical value for that case. For the problem of a bay we suggest that the way to deal with this is to extend the coastline out to sea on the "upstream" side of the mouth and apply a condition on the artificial stretch of the boundary which suppresses Kelvin wave propagation but is also not prohibitively reflective to outgoing Poincaré waves. For our problem a condition of zero normal gradient in interface displacement seems to be sufficient. This condition also captures reasonably well the near-inertial Kelvin waves that are generated by the northwest corner of the bay (which are a genuine part of the solution) as long as the other boundaries are sufficiently far from the bay. We have also experimented with using sponge layers rather than radiation conditions on the other boundaries. We find that sponging only

  6. Modelling an alkenone-like proxy record in the NW African upwelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Giraud

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A regional biogeochemical model is applied to the NW African coastal upwelling between 19° N and 27° N to investigate how a water temperature proxy, alkenones, are produced at the sea surface and recorded in the slope sediments. The biogeochemical model has two phytoplankton groups: an alkenone producer group, considered to be coccolithophores, and a group comprising other phytoplankton. The Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS is used to simulate the ocean circulation and takes advantage of the Adaptive Grid Refinement in Fortran (AGRIF package to set up an embedded griding system. In the simulations the alkenone temperature records in the sediments are between 1.1 and 2.3°C colder than the annual mean SSTs. Despite the seasonality of the coccolithophore production, this temperature difference is not mainly due to a seasonal bias, nor to the lateral advection of phytoplankton and phytodetritus seaward from the cold near-shore waters, but to the production depth of the coccolithophores. If coretop alkenone temperatures are effectively recording the annual mean SSTs, the amount of alkenone produced must vary among the coccolithophores in the water column and depend on physiological factors (e.g. growth rate, nutrient stress.

  7. Modelling an alkenone-like proxy record in the NW African upwelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Giraud

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A regional biogeochemical model is applied to the NW African coastal upwelling between 19° N and 27° N to investigate how a water temperature proxy is produced at the sea surface and recorded in the slope sediments. The biological model has two phytoplankton groups, to distinguish an alkenone producer group (considered as coccolithophores from other phytoplankton. The Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS is used to simulate the ocean circulation, and takes advantage of the Adaptive Grid Refinement in Fortran (AGRIF package to set up an embedded griding system. The results show that the alkenone-like temperature records in the sediments are between 1.1 and 2.1°C colder compared to the annual mean SSTs. Despite the seasonality of the coccolithophorid production, this temperature difference is not mainly due to a seasonal bias, nor to the lateral advection of phytoplankton and phytodetritus from the cold water domain to most offshore locations, but to the production depth of the coccolithophores. If core-top sediment alkenone-derived temperatures are effectively recording the annual mean SSTs, the quantitative alkenone production in the water column must be inhomogeneous among the coccolithophore population and depend on physiological factors (growth rate, nutrient stress.

  8. Modelling an alkenone-like proxy record in the NW African upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, X.

    2006-06-01

    A regional biogeochemical model is applied to the NW African coastal upwelling between 19° N and 27° N to investigate how a water temperature proxy, alkenones, are produced at the sea surface and recorded in the slope sediments. The biogeochemical model has two phytoplankton groups: an alkenone producer group, considered to be coccolithophores, and a group comprising other phytoplankton. The Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) is used to simulate the ocean circulation and takes advantage of the Adaptive Grid Refinement in Fortran (AGRIF) package to set up an embedded griding system. In the simulations the alkenone temperature records in the sediments are between 1.1 and 2.3°C colder than the annual mean SSTs. Despite the seasonality of the coccolithophore production, this temperature difference is not mainly due to a seasonal bias, nor to the lateral advection of phytoplankton and phytodetritus seaward from the cold near-shore waters, but to the production depth of the coccolithophores. If coretop alkenone temperatures are effectively recording the annual mean SSTs, the amount of alkenone produced must vary among the coccolithophores in the water column and depend on physiological factors (e.g. growth rate, nutrient stress).

  9. Sporadic Groundwater Upwelling in Deep Martian Craters: Evidence for Lacustrine Clays and Carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, J. R.; Rogers, A. D.; Wright, S. P.; Niles, P.; Cuadros, J.

    2012-01-01

    While the surface of Mars may have had an active hydrosphere early in its history [1], it is likely that this water retreated to the subsurface early on due to loss of the magnetic field and early atmosphere [2]. This likely resulted in the formation of two distinct aqueous regimes for Mars from the Late Noachian onward: one dominated by redistribution of surface ice and occasional melting of snow/ice [3], and one dominated by groundwater activity [4]. The excavation of alteration minerals from deep in the crust by impact craters points to an active, ancient, deep hydrothermal system [5]. Putative sapping features [6] may occur where the groundwater breached the surface. Upwelling groundwater may also have played a critical role in the formation of massive, layered, cemented sediments in Sinus Meridiani [7,8], in the Valles Marineris [9], and possibly in Gale Crater [10], where the Curiosity Rover will land later this year. Understanding the past distribution, geochemistry, and significance of groundwater on Mars is critical to untangling the origins of deep alteration minerals, Hesperian sulfate deposits, and crater fill deposits at Gale Crater or in other locations.

  10. Mantle upwelling beneath Madagascar: evidence from receiver function analysis and shear wave splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Jonathan D.; Eakin, Caroline M.

    2017-07-01

    Crustal receiver functions have been calculated from 128 events for two three-component broadband seismomenters located on the south coast (FOMA) and in the central High Plateaux (ABPO) of Madagascar. For each station, crustal thickness and V p / V s ratio were estimated from H- κ plots. Self-consistent receiver functions from a smaller back-azimuthal range were then selected, stacked and inverted to determine shear wave velocity structure as a function of depth. These results were corroborated by guided forward modeling and by Monte Carlo error analysis. The crust is found to be thinner (39 ± 0.7 km) beneath the highland center of Madagascar compared to the coast (44 ± 1.6 km), which is the opposite of what would be expected for crustal isostasy, suggesting that present-day long wavelength topography is maintained, at least in part, dynamically. This inference of dynamic support is corroborated by shear wave splitting analyses at the same stations, which produce an overwhelming majority of null results (>96 %), as expected for vertical mantle flow or asthenospheric upwelling beneath the island. These findings suggest a sub-plate origin for dynamic support.

  11. Distribution of zooplankton biomass and potential metabolic activities across the northern Benguela upwelling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Urruzola, I.; Osma, N.; Packard, T. T.; Gómez, M.; Postel, L.

    2014-11-01

    The distribution of zooplankton biomass and potential metabolic rates, in terms of electron transport system (ETS) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), were analyzed along a cross-shelf transect in waters off Namibia. The highly variable dynamics of upwelling filaments promoted short-term fluctuations in the zooplankton biomass and metabolism. Maximum values were characteristically found over the shelf-break, where zooplankton biomass as dry mass (DM) reached peaks of 64.5 mg m- 3 within the upper 200 m in late August. Two weeks later, the zooplankton-DM decreased by more than a third (19 mg DM m- 3). Zooplankton potential respiration and NH4+ excretion averaged 234 μmol O2 m- 3 d- 1 and 169 μmol NH4+ m- 3 d- 1 in the Namibian shelf, respectively. High protein-specific ETS activities even in the low-chlorophyll waters outside the filament suggested a shift into greater omnivory seaward. In this light, zooplankton elemental and isotopic compositions were used to investigate the pelagic food web interactions. They evidenced spatial changes in the carbon resource for zooplankton as well as changes in the form of nitrogen that fueled the biological production in aging advected waters. Overall, both aspects of zooplankton metabolism impacted the primary productivity at a level less than 10% under all the different oceanographic conditions.

  12. The seasonal cycle of surface chlorophyll in the Peruvian upwelling system: A modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevin, V.; Aumont, O.; Ledesma, J.; Flores, G.

    2008-10-01

    The seasonal variability of surface chlorophyll in the northern Humboldt Current System is studied using satellite data, in situ observations and model simulations. The data show that surface chlorophyll concentration is highest in austral summer and decreases during austral winter, in phase opposition with coastal upwelling intensity. A regional model coupling ocean dynamics and biogeochemical cycles is used to investigate the processes which control this apparently paradoxical seasonal cycle. Model results suggest that the seasonal variability of the mixed layer depth is the main controlling factor of the seasonality. In winter, the mixed layer deepening reduces the surface chlorophyll accumulation because of a dilution effect and light limitation. In summer, biomass concentrates near the surface in the shallow mixed layer and nitrate limitation occurs, resulting in a biomass decrease in the middle of summer. Intense blooms occur during the spring restratification period, when winter light limitation relaxes, and during the fall destratification period, when the surface layer is supplied with new nutrients. Model sensitivity experiments show that the seasonal variations in insolation and surface temperature have little impact on the surface chlorophyll variability.

  13. Quantifying air-sea gas exchange using noble gases in a coastal upwelling zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, C. C.; Stanley, R. H. R.; Nicholson, D. P.; Squibb, M. E.

    2016-05-01

    The diffusive and bubble-mediated components of air-sea gas exchange can be quantified separately using time-series measurements of a suite of dissolved inert gases. We have evaluated the performance of four published air-sea gas exchange parameterizations using a five-day time-series of dissolved He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe concentration in Monterey Bay, CA. We constructed a vertical model including surface air-sea gas exchange and vertical diffusion. Diffusivity was measured throughout the cruise from profiles of turbulent microstructure. We corrected the mixed layer gas concentrations for an upwelling event that occurred partway through the cruise. All tested parameterizations gave similar results for Ar, Kr, and Xe; their air-sea fluxes were dominated by diffusive gas exchange during our study. For He and Ne, which are less soluble, and therefore more sensitive to differences in the treatment of bubble-mediated exchange, the parameterizations gave widely different results with respect to the net gas exchange flux and the bubble flux. This study demonstrates the value of using a suite of inert gases, especially the lower solubility ones, to parameterize air-sea gas exchange.

  14. Renormalized Volumes with Boundary

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2016-01-01

    We develop a general regulated volume expansion for the volume of a manifold with boundary whose measure is suitably singular along a separating hypersurface. The expansion is shown to have a regulator independent anomaly term and a renormalized volume term given by the primitive of an associated anomaly operator. These results apply to a wide range of structures. We detail applications in the setting of measures derived from a conformally singular metric. In particular, we show that the anomaly generates invariant (Q-curvature, transgression)-type pairs for hypersurfaces with boundary. For the special case of anomalies coming from the volume enclosed by a minimal hypersurface ending on the boundary of a Poincare--Einstein structure, this result recovers Branson's Q-curvature and corresponding transgression. When the singular metric solves a boundary version of the constant scalar curvature Yamabe problem, the anomaly gives generalized Willmore energy functionals for hypersurfaces with boundary. Our approach ...

  15. Identification and characterisation of foraging areas of seabirds in upwelling systems: biological and hydrographic implications for foraging at sea

    OpenAIRE

    Ludynia, Katrin

    2007-01-01

    This thesis investigates the foraging behaviour of three seabird species, the African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) and the Cape gannet (Morus capensis) in the Benguela upwelling system as well as the Peruvian booby (Sula variegata) in the Humboldt Current. Biological and hydrographic parameters were considered when evaluating the characteristics of foraging areas and the behaviour of the species studied. Foraging areas used by the birds as well as the birds' diving behaviour were assessed by...

  16. Late Quaternary Planktic Foraminifer Fauna andMonsoon Upwelling Records from the Western South China Sea, Near the Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai-Sen Yu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine sediment core MD012394 from the Vietnam coastal upwelling area in the western South China Sea was investigated in order to reconstruct the last Quaternary monsoon upwelling based on planktic foraminifer fauna assemblages and fauna-based sea surface temperature (SST estimates. The age model of core MD012394 was constructed using oxygen isotope stratigraphy of the planktic foraminifer G. sacculifer, with 10 accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS 14C dating of planktic foraminifers from the sediment samples. Our studies on the relative and absolute abundances of planktic foraminifer assemblages reveal eight dominant species in core MD012394: N. dutertrei + N. pachyderma (right coiling, G. ruber, G. glutinata, G. sacculifer, P. obliquiloculata, G. menardii + G. tumida, G. calida, and G. inflata. In a Q-mode factor analysis of the fauna abundance data, the fauna factors show variations that do not parallel the glacial/interglacial changes throughout the last 135 kyr. The relative abundance patterns of G. inflata and N. dutertrei (including N. pachyderma-R are interpreted as hydrographic proxies for East Asian summer and winter monsoon, respectively, in the current study. We calculated the fluctuations in the SST using the Revised Analog Method (RAM in MD012394 and found that the abundance changes of the summer monsoon upwelling indicator G. inflata were similar and nearly synchronous. This suggests that the summer monsoon-driven upwelling signal was strong near the local summer insolation maximum, which induced low SSTs, particular around ~11, 33, 59, and 83 kya. Our studies support the view that the strengths of both summer insolation and the East Asian summer monsoon have determined the relative abundance of planktic foraminifers and the SSTs in the western SCS during the last 135 kyr.

  17. Hyporheic flow and dissolved oxygen distribution in fish nests: The effects of open channel velocity, permeability patterns, and groundwater upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, M. Bayani; Ford, Aimee E.; Kaufman, Matthew H.; Kessler, Adam J.; Cook, Perran L. M.

    2016-12-01

    Many fish lay their eggs in nests, or redds, which they construct in sediment. The viability of eggs depends on many factors, particularly their oxygenation. Because dissolved oxygen is typically saturated within the stream channel, the dissolved oxygen distribution within the redd depends on whether or not hyporheic flow and transport occur within the sediment. We conducted a series of flume and numerical flow and age transport modeling experiments with the aim of understanding the effects of salmonid redds on the hyporheic transport of young oxygenated water. Hyporheic flow was visualized directly through dye injections. Dissolved oxygen throughout the fish nest was measured using a planar optode. Experiments were conducted at various open channel flow velocities in order to understand their effect on dissolved oxygen, and computational simulations considered various sediment textures and ambient groundwater upwelling rates to add process-level insight. We found that, as also shown by previous studies, the redd topography induces multiscale hyporheic flow that effectively flushes the egg pocket location with younger presumably oxygenated water; older water upwells and forms anoxic zones. This pattern persists even at the lowest channel flow rates and at small upwelling velocities of older ambient groundwater which splits the multiscale hyporheic flow cells into isolated pockets. Large groundwater upwelling rates can shut down all the hyporheic flushing. The relatively coarse texture of the redd further promotes hyporheic flushing of the redd sediment with oxygenated water. Thus, redd morphology and sediment texture optimally combine to induce hyporheic exchange flow that delivers young oxygenated water to the egg pocket.

  18. Impact of river discharge, upwelling and vertical mixing on the nutrient loading and productivity of the Canadian Beaufort Shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-É. Tremblay

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations and elemental stoichiometry of particulate and dissolved pools of carbon (C, nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and silicon (Si in the southeast Beaufort Sea during summer 2009 were assessed and compared with those of surface waters provided by the Mackenzie river as well as by winter mixing and upwelling of upper halocline waters at the shelf break. Neritic surface waters showed a clear enrichment in dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC and POC, respectively, nitrate, total particulate nitrogen (TPN and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON originating from the river. Silicate as well as bulk DON and DOC declined in a conservative manner away from the delta's outlet, whereas nitrate dropped non-conservatively to very low background concentrations inside the brackish zone. By contrast, the excess of soluble reactive P (SRP present in oceanic waters declined in a non-conservative manner toward the river outlet, where concentrations were very low and consistent with P shortage in the Mackenzie River. These opposite gradients imply that the admixture of Pacific-derived, SRP-rich water is necessary to allow phytoplankton to use river-derived nitrate and to a lesser extent DON. A coarse budget based on concurrent estimates of primary production shows that river N deliveries support a small fraction of primary production when considering the entire shelf, due to the ability of phytoplankton to thrive in the subsurface chlorophyll maximum beneath the thin, nitrate-depleted river plume. Away from shallow coastal bays, local elevations in the concentration of primary production and dissolved organic constituents were consistent with upwelling at the shelf break. By contrast with shallow winter mixing, nutrient deliveries by North American rivers and upwelling relax surface communities from N limitation and permit a more extant utilization of the excess SRP entering through Bering Strait. In this context, increased nitrogen supply by rivers

  19. Zooplankton diel vertical migration and influence of upwelling on the biomass in the Chukchi Sea during summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huiwu; CHEN Hongxia; XUE Liang; LIU Na; LIU Yanliang

    2015-01-01

    The diel vertical migration (DVM) of zooplankton and the influence of upwelling on zooplankton biomass were examined using water column data of current velocity and mean volume backscattering strength (MVBS) collected by moored acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) deployed in the southeastern Chukchi Sea during the 5th Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition (CHINARE) in summer 2012, combined with the satellite observational data such as sea surface temperature (SST), wind, and chlorophylla (Chla). Hourly acoustic data were continuously collected for 49-d in the mooring site. Spectral analysis indicated that there were different migrating patterns of zooplankton, even though precisely classifying the zooplankton taxa was not available. The prevailing 24-h cycle corresponded to the normal DVM with zooplankton swimming upwards at sunrise and returning to deep waters at sunset. There was a clear DVM in the upper 17 m of the water column during the period with distinct day-night cycles, and no active DVM throughout the water column when the sun above the horizon (polar day), suggesting that light intensity was the trigger for DVM. Also there was a second migrating pattern with 12-h cycle. The upwelling event occurring in the northwest of Alaskan coastal area had important influence on zooplankton biomass at the mooring site. During the upwelling, the SST close to the mooring site dropped significantly from maximal 6.35℃ to minimal 1.31℃ within five days. Simultaneously, there was a rapid increase in the MVBS and Chla level, suggesting the aggregation of zooplankton related to upwelling.

  20. Governing ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, René; Selnes, Trond; Verweij, Pita

    2016-01-01

    The TEEB approach to the use of ecosystem services has found its way to policy as a means to biodiversity conservation and greening of the economy. In this paper we analysed the uptake of the TEEB approach at national and local levels by applying a framework that revolves around the problem, appr

  1. Shelf-sea ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J J

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of the food chain dynamics of the Oregon, Alaskan, and New York shelves is made with respect to differences in physical forcing of these ecosystems. The world's shelves are 10% of the area of the ocean, yield 99% of the world's fish catch, and may be a major sink in the global CO/sub 2/ budget.

  2. Environmental Impacts - Coastal Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J.P.; Baas, Andreas C.W.; Bartholdy, Jesper; Jones, Laurence; Ruessink, B.G.; Temmerman, Stijn; van de Pol, Martijn

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines the impacts of climate change on the natural coastal ecosystems in the North Sea region. These comprise sandy shores and dunes and salt marshes in estuaries and along the coast. The chapter starts by describing the characteristic geomorphological features of these systems and t

  3. Governance of Ecosystem Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primmer, Eeva; Jokinen, Pekka; Blicharska, Malgorzata; Barton, David N.; Bugter, Rob; Potschin, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation policies justified with science and intrinsic value arguments have produced disappointing outcomes, and the need for conservation is now being additionally justified with the concept of ecosystem services. However, little, if any empirical attention is paid to ways in wh

  4. Partitioning ecosystems for sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Martyn G

    2016-03-01

    Decline in the abundance of renewable natural resources (RNRs) coupled with increasing demands of an expanding human population will greatly intensify competition for Earth's natural resources during this century, yet curiously, analytical approaches to the management of productive ecosystems (ecological theory of wildlife harvesting, tragedy of the commons, green economics, and bioeconomics) give only peripheral attention to the driving influence of competition on resource exploitation. Here, I apply resource competition theory (RCT) to the exploitation of RNRs and derive four general policies in support of their sustainable and equitable use: (1) regulate resource extraction technology to avoid damage to the resource base; (2) increase efficiency of resource use and reduce waste at every step in the resource supply chain and distribution network; (3) partition ecosystems with the harvesting niche as the basic organizing principle for sustainable management of natural resources by multiple users; and (4) increase negative feedback between consumer and resource to bring about long-term sustainable use. A simple policy framework demonstrates how RCT integrates with other elements of sustainability science to better manage productive ecosystems. Several problem areas of RNR management are discussed in the light of RCT, including tragedy of the commons, overharvesting, resource collapse, bycatch, single species quotas, and simplification of ecosystems.

  5. Biocomplexity in Mangrove Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, I. C.; Lovelock, C. E.; Berger, U.; McKee, K. L.; Joye, S. B.; Ball, M. C.

    2010-01-01

    Mangroves are an ecological assemblage of trees and shrubs adapted to grow in intertidal environments along tropical coasts. Despite repeated demonstration of their economic and societal value, more than 50% of the world's mangroves have been destroyed, 35% in the past two decades to aquaculture and coastal development, altered hydrology, sea-level rise, and nutrient overenrichment. Variations in the structure and function of mangrove ecosystems have generally been described solely on the basis of a hierarchical classification of the physical characteristics of the intertidal environment, including climate, geomorphology, topography, and hydrology. Here, we use the concept of emergent properties at multiple levels within a hierarchical framework to review how the interplay between specialized adaptations and extreme trait plasticity that characterizes mangroves and intertidal environments gives rise to the biocomplexity that distinguishes mangrove ecosystems. The traits that allow mangroves to tolerate variable salinity, flooding, and nutrient availability influence ecosystem processes and ultimately the services they provide. We conclude that an integrated research strategy using emergent properties in empirical and theoretical studies provides a holistic approach for understanding and managing mangrove ecosystems.

  6. BOREAS AFM-6 Boundary Layer Height Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 915-MHz wind/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) profiler system in the Southern Study Area (SSA) near the Old Jack Pine (OJP) site. This data set provides boundary layer height information over the site. The data were collected from 21 May 1994 to 20 Sep 1994 and are stored in tabular ASCII files. The boundary layer height data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  7. Coastal upwelling linked to toxic Pseudo-nitzschia australis blooms in Los Angeles coastal waters, 2005-2007

    KAUST Repository

    Schnetzer, Astrid

    2013-06-10

    Harmful algal blooms dominated by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia spp. have become a perennial but variable event within surface waters near the greater Los Angeles area. Toxic blooms during spring seasons from 2005 to 2007 varied strongly in their overall toxicity and duration. Differences in bloom dynamics were linked to differences in storm-induced river discharge following episodic rain events and coastal upwelling, both major coastal processes that led to the injection of nutrients into coastal surface waters. Heavy river runoff during early 2005, a record-rainfall year, favored a phytoplankton community mainly comprised of algal taxa other than Pseudo-nitzschia. The spring bloom during 2005 was associated with low domoic acid surface concentrations and minor contributions of (mainly) P. delicatissima to the diatom assemblage. In contrast, highly toxic P. australis-dominated blooms during spring seasons of 2006 and 2007 were linked to strong upwelling events. River discharge quotas in 2006 and 2007, in contrast to 2005, fell well below annual averages for the region. Surface toxin levels were linked to colder, more saline (i.e. upwelled) water over the 3-year study, but no such consistent relationship between domoic acid levels and other physiochemical parameters, such as macronutrient concentrations or nutrient ratios, was observed. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  8. [Urban ecosystem services: A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qi-zheng; Huang, Gan-lin; Wu, Jian-guo

    2015-04-01

    Maintaining and improving ecosystem services in urban areas and human well-being are essential for sustainable development and therefore constitute an important topic in urban ecology. Here we reviewed studies on ecosystem services in urban areas. Based on the concept and classification of urban ecosystem services, we summarized characteristics of urban ecosystem services, including the human domination, high demand of ecosystem services in urban areas, spatial heterogeneity and temporal dynamics of ecosystem services supply and demand in urban areas, multi-services of urban green infrastructures, the socio-economic dimension of ecosystem services supply and ecosystem disservices in urban areas. Among different urban ecosystem services, the regulating service and cultural service are particularly indispensable to benefit human health. We pointed out that tradeoffs among different types of ecosystem services mostly occur between supportive service and cultural service, as well as regulating service and cultural service. In particular, we emphasized the relationship between landscape design (i.e. green infrastructure) and ecosystem services supply. Finally, we discussed current gaps to link urban ecosystem services studies to landscape design and management and pointed out several directions for future research in urban ecosystem services.

  9. Does Biodiversity-Ecosystem Function Literature Neglect Tropical Ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David A; York, Paul H; Rasheed, Michael A; Northfield, Tobin D

    2017-05-01

    Current evidence suggests that there is a positive relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, but few studies have addressed tropical ecosystems where the highest levels of biodiversity occur. We develop two hypotheses for the implications of generalizing from temperate studies to tropical ecosystems, and discuss the need for more tropical research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Seeking the boundary of boundary extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDunn, Benjamin A; Siddiqui, Aisha P; Brown, James M

    2014-04-01

    Boundary extension (BE) is a remarkably consistent visual memory error in which participants remember seeing a more wide-angle image of a scene than was actually viewed (Intraub & Richardson, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 15:179-187, 1989). Multiple stimulus factors are thought to contribute to the occurrence of BE, including object recognition, conceptual knowledge of scenes, and amodal perception at the view boundaries (Intraub, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science 3:117-127, 2012). In the present study, we used abstract scenes instead of images of the real world, in order to remove expectations based on semantic associations with objects and the schematic context of the view. Close-angle and wide-angle scenes were created using irregular geometric shapes rated by independent observers as lacking any easily recognizable structure. The abstract objects were tested on either a random-dot or a blank background in order to assess the influence of implied continuation of the image beyond its boundaries. The random-dot background conditions had background occlusion cues either present or absent at the image border, in order to test their influence on BE in the absence of high-level information about the scenes. The results indicate that high-level information about objects and schematic context is unnecessary for BE to occur, and that occlusion information at the image boundary also has little influence on BE. Contrary to previous studies, we also found clear BE for all conditions, despite using scenes depicting undetailed objects on a blank white background. The results highlighted the ubiquitous nature of BE and the adaptability of scene perception processes.

  11. Obliquity along plate boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippon, Mélody; Corti, Giacomo

    2016-12-01

    Most of the plate boundaries are activated obliquely with respect to the direction of far field stresses, as roughly only 8% of the plate boundaries total length shows a very low obliquity (ranging from 0 to 10°, sub-orthogonal to the plate displacement). The obliquity along plate boundaries is controlled by (i) lateral rheological variations within the lithosphere and (ii) consistency with the global plate circuit. Indeed, plate tectonics and magmatism drive rheological changes within the lithosphere and consequently influence strain localization. Geodynamical evolution controls large-scale mantle convection and plate formation, consumption, and re-organization, thus triggering plate kinematics variations, and the adjustment and re-orientation of far field stresses. These geological processes may thus result in plate boundaries that are not perpendicular but oblique to the direction of far field stresses. This paper reviews the global patterns of obliquity along plate boundaries. Using GPlate, we provide a statistical analysis of present-day obliquity along plate boundaries. Within this framework, by comparing natural examples and geological models, we discuss deformation patterns and kinematics recorded along oblique plate boundaries.

  12. Mantle transition zone structure beneath the Changbai volcano: Insight into deep slab dehydration and hot upwelling near the 410 km discontinuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, You; Zhu, Hongxiang; Zhao, Dapeng; Liu, Cai; Feng, Xuan; Liu, Ting; Ma, Jincheng

    2016-08-01

    We study the detailed mantle transition zone structure beneath the active Changbai intraplate volcano in Northeast China by using a receiver-function method. A total of 3005 teleseismic receiver functions recorded by 70 broadband stations are obtained by using a common-conversion-point stacking method. For conducting the time-to-depth conversion, we use a three-dimensional velocity model of the study region so as to take into account the influence of structural heterogeneities. Our results reveal significant depth variations of the 410, 520, and 660 km discontinuities. A broad depression of the 410 km discontinuity and a low-velocity anomaly are revealed beneath the Changbai volcano, which may reflect a large-scale hot mantle upwelling around the 410 km discontinuity with a positive Clapeyron slope. The 520 km discontinuity is identified clearly, and its uplift occurs above the stagnant Pacific slab. We also find a prominent depression of the 660 km discontinuity, which is elongated along the trend of deep earthquake clusters in a range of 39°N-44°N latitude, and the depression area has a lateral extent of about 400 km. Because the 520 and 660 km discontinuities correspond to positive and negative Clapeyron slopes, respectively, we think that the 520 uplift and the 660 depression are caused by the cold subducting Pacific slab. A part of the Pacific slab may have penetrated into the lower mantle and so caused the large-scale 660 depression in front of the deep earthquake clusters. Our results also reveal a part of the upper boundary of the subducting Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone.

  13. Economic viewpoints on ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvis, H.J.; Heide, van der C.M.

    2013-01-01

    to help determine the different values of ecosystems. Ecosystem services are usually divided into four categories: provisioning services, regulating services, cultural services and habitat services (previously denoted as supporting services). This overview highlights economic theories about

  14. Economic viewpoints on ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvis, H.J.; Heide, van der C.M.

    2013-01-01

    to help determine the different values of ecosystems. Ecosystem services are usually divided into four categories: provisioning services, regulating services, cultural services and habitat services (previously denoted as supporting services). This overview highlights economic theories about ecosyste

  15. Boundary Conformal Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cardy, J L

    2004-01-01

    Boundary conformal field theory (BCFT) is simply the study of conformal field theory (CFT) in domains with a boundary. It gains its significance because, in some ways, it is mathematically simpler: the algebraic and geometric structures of CFT appear in a more straightforward manner; and because it has important applications: in string theory in the physics of open strings and D-branes, and in condensed matter physics in boundary critical behavior and quantum impurity models. In this article, however, I describe the basic ideas from the point of view of quantum field theory, without regard to particular applications nor to any deeper mathematical formulations.

  16. Groundwater Sustainability in the Michigan Lowlands - Understanding the Complex Interplay of Natural Brine Upwelling, Human Activity, and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Z. K.; Li, S. G.; Sampath, P. V.; Liao, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    This research investigates a relatively unknown, basin-scale contamination hazard threatening the long-term sustainability of groundwater resources in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan (LPM). Many studies across LPM report elevated chloride concentrations ([Cl-]>250 mg/L) in the near-surface water, including the Michigan lowlands (west LPM), the Saginaw lowlands (east LPM) - where the upwelling of deep brines was inferred as the source - and at discrete points further inland. This begs the question: do the scattered occurrences of elevated [Cl-] share a common underlying mechanism, namely, the upwelling of brine? We addresses this question with data-driven modeling of the [Cl-] dynamics and hydrology across multiple scales, capitalizing on two massive statewide databases with water quality information from over 106 wells and static water levels (SWL) from roughly 500,000 wells. Long-term SWL were mapped at the basin-, regional-, and local-scale to identify recharge/discharge areas. Wells with elevated [Cl-] were overlaid to each map, revealing a consistent pattern of low [Cl-] in recharge areas and elevated [Cl-] in discharge areas. This multi-scale relationship provides compelling evidence for upwelling of brines, a concept supported by the analysis of 450 well samples collected in the Michigan lowlands which showed [Cl-] generally increases with depth. We assessed temporal trends by comparing field results to past records at 249 sampling locations. Most of the sites exhibit an increase of [Cl-] in recent years, which roughly coincides with a time period when Lake Michigan-Huron levels systematically decreased. Moreover, recent increases in [Cl-] are focused to areas where temporal analysis of SWL indicated increased well withdrawals. The results show that the contamination is caused by upwelling brines, and suggest that it is becoming more severe in recent years. Future work will integrate multi-scale, process-based groundwater modeling with further data collection

  17. Food-web composition affects cross-ecosystem interactions and subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Gustavo Q; Srivastava, Diane S

    2010-09-01

    1. Ecosystems may affect each other through trophic interactions that cross ecosystem boundaries as well as via the transfer of subsidies, but these effects can vary depending on the identity of species involved in the interaction. 2. In this study, we manipulated two terrestrial bromeliad-living spider species (Aglaoctenus castaneus, Corinna gr. rubripes) that have variable hunting modes, to test their individual and combined effects on aquatic invertebrate community structure and ecosystem processes (i.e. decomposition rate and nitrogen cycling). We predicted that these terrestrial predators can affect aquatic invertebrates and nutrient dynamics within water-filled bromeliads. 3. Aglaoctenus spiders reduced the richness, abundance and biomass of aquatic insect larvae via consumptive or non-consumptive effects on ovipositing terrestrial adults, but effects of the two spider species in combination were usually the linear average of their monoculture effects. In contrast, invertebrates with entirely aquatic life cycles were unaffected or facilitated by spiders. Spiders did not affect either net detritivore biomass or the flux of detrital nitrogen to the bromeliad. Instead, Corinna spiders contributed allochthonous nitrogen to bromeliads. 4. Our results provide the novel observations that predators in one ecosystem not only directly reduce taxa whose life cycles cross-ecosystem boundaries, but also indirectly facilitate taxa whose life cycles are entirely within the second ecosystem. This compensatory response between cross-ecosystem and within-ecosystem taxa may have led to an attenuation of top-down effects across ecosystem boundaries. In addition, our results add to a growing consensus that species identity is an important determinant of community structure and ecosystem functioning. Thus, the composition of both terrestrial and aquatic food webs may affect the strength of cross-ecosystem interactions.

  18. Large-scale degradation of Amazonian freshwater ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castello, L.; Macedo, M.

    2016-12-01

    ecosystems. Maintaining the integrity of these freshwater ecosystems requires a basin-wide research and policy framework to understand and manage hydrological connectivity across multiple spatial scales and jur