WorldWideScience

Sample records for boundary upwelling ecosystems

  1. Under pressure: Climate change, upwelling and eastern boundary upwelling ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol eGarcía-Reyes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The IPCC AR5 provided an overview of the likely effects of climate change on Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS, stimulating increased interest in research examining the issue. We use these recent studies to develop a new synthesis describing climate change impacts on EBUS. We find that model and observational data suggest coastal upwelling-favorable winds in poleward portions of EBUS have intensified and will continue to do so in the future. Although evidence is weak in data that are presently available, future projections show that this pattern might be driven by changes in the positioning of the oceanic high-pressure systems rather than by deepening of the continental low-pressure systems, as previously proposed. There is low confidence regarding the future effects of climate change on coastal temperatures and biogeochemistry due to uncertainty in the countervailing responses to increasing upwelling and coastal warming, the latter of which could increase thermal stratification and render upwelling less effective in lifting nutrient-rich deep waters into the photic zone. Although predictions of ecosystem responses are uncertain, EBUS experience considerable natural variability and may be inherently resilient. However, multi-trophic level, end-to-end (i.e., winds to whales studies are needed to resolve the resilience of EBUS to climate change, especially their response to long-term trends or extremes that exceed pre-industrial ranges.

  2. Role of nutrient recycling in upwelling ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitledge, T E

    1979-01-01

    The regeneration of nitrogen is an important process that increases the efficiency of the upwelling ecosystem by enlarging their spatial scales. Ammonium regeneration was considered to contribute 42 to 72 percent of phytoplankton nitrogen requirements in the northwest Africa, Peru, and Baja California upwelling systems. Zooplankton are responsible for the largest portion of regenerated nitrogen; however, fish and benthic sediments may be nearly as large. Comparisons of the importance of ammonium regeneration in upwelling areas with coastal and open ocean regions indicate that the percentage contributions are similar. Future nutrient regeneration studies are needed to assess the recycling of benthic sediments, microzooplankton, gelatinous zooplankton, demersal fish, bacterioplankton, and mollusks.

  3. Upwelling systems in eastern boundary currents have been ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Differences are found in the location of return, onshore flow. .... eastern boundary currents, downstream of the west wind drift ... show maximum upwelling conditions (equatorward winds) in ..... The work of PTS and CJ was supported by Grant.

  4. Abyssal Upwelling and Downwelling and the role of boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, T. J.; Ferrari, R. M.

    2016-02-01

    The bottom-intensified mixing activity arising from the interaction of internal tides with bottom topography implies that the dianeutral advection in the ocean interior is downwards, rather than upwards as is required by continuity. The upwelling of Bottom Water through density surfaces in the deep ocean is however possible because of the sloping nature of the sea floor. A budget study of the abyss (deeper than 2000m) will be described that shows that while the upwelling of Bottom Water might be 25 Sv, this is achieved by very strong upwelling in the bottom turbulent boundary layer (of thickness 50m) of 100 Sv and strong downwelling in the ocean interior of 75 Sv. This downwelling occurs within 10 degrees of longitude of the continental boundaries. This near-boundary confined strong upwelling and downwelling clearly has implications for the Stommel-Arons circulation.

  5. The Benguela upwelling ecosystem lies adjacent to the south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    The Benguela upwelling ecosystem lies adjacent to the south-western coast of Africa, from southern Angola. (15°S) to Cape Agulhas (35°S; Fig. 1). Ecologically, it is split into separate northern and southern sub- systems by a zone of intense perennial upwelling near. Lüderitz (26–27.5°S; Shannon 1985). As is charac-.

  6. Towards a management perspective for coastal upwelling ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, S.O.; Walsh, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    Data are reviewed from studies on the general distribution of upwelling of coastal waters, associated current patterns, and first order biological effects. Field observations and theory are discussed. Recent research has shown that variability and dynamism are the predominant characteristic features of these regions. Populations related by nonlinear interactions occur in constantly moving patches and swirls subjected to variability in the winds, currents, water chemistry, and solar insolation. Gross stationary features of upwelling communities have been described, but the responses of critical components and their relationships to human or natural perturbations remain poorly defined in this and other types of coastal ecosystems. Large scale research programs recognize that the continental shelf ecosystems are complex event-oriented phenomena. It is postulated that assessment of living resources in an environmental vacuum may lead to mismanagement and hindcasting rather than prescient management. A growing data base encourages the development of computer simulation models of ecosystem relationships and responses will lead to better understanding and management of these and other marine ecosystems in the future. 80 references.

  7. Nutrients, Recycling, and Biological Populations in Upwelling Ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitledge, T. E.

    1980-01-01

    Nutrient recycling has been studied in the upwelling areas of Baja California, Northwest Africa, and Peru. Regeneration by biological populations in these areas contributes significant quantities of recycled nitrogen which is utilized in productivity processes. Each area has a different combination of organisms which leads to differences in the relative contributions of zooplankton, nekton, or benthos to the nutrient cycles. Comparisons of ammonium regeneration rates of zooplankton and nekton-micronekton populations in the three upwelling areas show that zooplankton recycle relatively less nitrogen in the Baja California and Peru systems than nekton. In the Northwest Africa upwelling region, however, zooplankton, fish, and benthic inputs are all substantial. In recent years the Peruvian upwelling system has been altered with the decline of the anchoveta population and an increase in the importance of zooplankton in nutrient recycling. The distribution of recycled nitrogen (ammonium and urea) in transects across the shelf at 10°S and 15°S indicates that regeneration is relatively more important at 10°S in the region of the wide shelf. In both areas the distribution of ammonium and urea are not entirely coincident thereby indicating differences in their production and/or utilization.

  8. Defining seascapes for marine unconsolidated shelf sediments in an eastern boundary upwelling region: The southern Benguela as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karenyi, Natasha; Sink, Kerry; Nel, Ronel

    2016-02-01

    Marine unconsolidated sediment habitats, the largest benthic ecosystem, are considered physically controlled ecosystems driven by a number of local physical processes. Depth and sediment type are recognised key drivers of these ecosystems. Seascape (i.e., marine landscape) habitat classifications are based solely on consistent geophysical features and provide an opportunity to define unconsolidated sediment habitats based on processes which may vary in distribution through space and time. This paper aimed to classify unconsolidated sediment seascapes and explore their diversity in an eastern boundary upwelling region at the macro-scale, using the South African west coast as a case study. Physical variables such as sediment grain size, depth and upwelling-related variables (i.e., maximum chlorophyll concentration, austral summer bottom oxygen concentration and sediment organic carbon content) were included in the analyses. These variables were directly measured through sampling, or collated from existing databases and the literature. These data were analysed using multivariate Cluster, Principal Components Ordination and SIMPER analyses (in PRIMER 6 + with PERMANOVA add-in package). There were four main findings; (i) eight seascapes were identified for the South African west coast based on depth, slope, sediment grain size and upwelling-related variables, (ii) three depth zones were distinguished (inner, middle and outer shelf), (iii) seascape diversity in the inner and middle shelves was greater than the outer shelf, and (iv) upwelling-related variables were responsible for the habitat diversity in both inner and middle shelves. This research demonstrates that the inclusion of productivity and its related variables, such as hypoxia and sedimentary organic carbon, in seascape classifications will enhance the ability to distinguish seascapes on continental shelves, where productivity is most variable.

  9. Surface mixing and biological activity in the four Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rossi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS are characterized by a high productivity of plankton associated with large commercial fisheries, thus playing key biological and socio-economical roles. Since they are populated by several physical oceanic structures such as filaments and eddies, which interact with the biological processes, it is a major challenge to study this sub- and mesoscale activity in connection with the chlorophyll distribution. The aim of this work is to make a comparative study of these four upwelling systems focussing on their surface stirring, using the Finite Size Lyapunov Exponents (FSLEs, and their biological activity, based on satellite data. First, the spatial distribution of horizontal mixing is analysed from time averages and from probability density functions of FSLEs, which allow us to divide each areas in two different subsystems. Then we studied the temporal variability of surface stirring focussing on the annual and seasonal cycle. We also proposed a ranking of the four EBUS based on the averaged mixing intensity. When investigating the links with chlorophyll concentration, the previous subsystems reveal distinct biological signatures. There is a global negative correlation between surface horizontal mixing and chlorophyll standing stocks over the four areas. To try to better understand this inverse relationship, we consider the vertical dimension by looking at the Ekman-transport and vertical velocities. We suggest the possibility of a changing response of the phytoplankton to sub/mesoscale turbulence, from a negative effect in the very productive coastal areas to a positive one in the open ocean. This study provides new insights for the understanding of the variable biological productivity in the ocean, which results from both dynamics of the marine ecosystem and of the 3-D turbulent medium.

  10. On the warm nearshore bias in Pathfinder monthly SST products over Eastern Boundary upwelling systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dufois, F

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using in situ sea surface temperature (SST) data and MODIS/TERRA SST, the monthly AVHRR Pathfinder (version 5.0 and 5.2) SST product was evaluated within the four main Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems. A warm bias in the monthly Pathfinder data...

  11. Warm Bias and Parameterization of Boundary Upwelling in Ocean Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cessi, Paola; Wolfe, Christopher

    2012-11-06

    It has been demonstrated that Eastern Boundary Currents (EBC) are a baroclinic intensification of the interior circulation of the ocean due to the emergence of mesoscale eddies in response to the sharp buoyancy gradients driven by the wind-stress and the thermal surface forcing. The eddies accomplish the heat and salt transport necessary to insure that the subsurface flow is adiabatic, compensating for the heat and salt transport effected by the mean currents. The EBC thus generated occurs on a cross-shore scale of order 20-100 km, and thus this scale needs to be resolved in climate models in order to capture the meridional transport by the EBC. Our result indicate that changes in the near shore currents on the oceanic eastern boundaries are linked not just to local forcing, such as coastal changes in the winds, but depend on the basin-wide circulation as well.

  12. Resource partitioning within major bottom fish species in a highly productive upwelling ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellaoui, Souad; El Halouani, Hassan; Tai, Imane; Masski, Hicham

    2017-09-01

    The Saharan Bank (21-26°N) is a wide subtropical continental shelf and a highly productive upwelling ecosystem. The bottom communities are dominated by octopus and sparid fish, which are the main targets of bottom-trawl fishing fleets. To investigate resource partitioning within the bottom fish community, adult fish from 14 of the most abundant species were investigated for stomach content analysis. Samples were collected during two periods: October 2003 and May 2007. The diet of the analysed species showed more variation between periods than between size classes, suggesting that temporal or spatial variability in prey availability appears to play a significant role in their diet. Multivariate analysis and subsequent clustering led to a grouping of the species within five trophic guilds. Two species were fish feeders, and the others mainly fed on benthic invertebrates, where epibenthic crustaceans, lamellibranchs and fish were the most important groups in defining trophic guilds. We found that the studied species had a high rate of overlapping spatial distributions and overlapping trophic niches. In this highly productive upwelling ecosystem, where food resources may not be a limiting factor, inter-specific competition did not appear to be an important factor in structuring bottom fish communities. For the species that showed differences in the proportions of prey categories in comparison with other ecosystems, the rise of the proportion of epibenthic crustaceans in their diet was a common feature; a possible consequence of the benthic productivity of this highly productive upwelling ecosystem.

  13. Future changes in coastal upwelling ecosystems with global warming: The case of the California Current System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Peng; Chai, Fei; Curchitser, Enrique N; Castruccio, Frederic S

    2018-02-12

    Coastal upwelling ecosystems are among the most productive ecosystems in the world, meaning that their response to climate change is of critical importance. Our understanding of climate change impacts on marine ecosystems is largely limited to the open ocean, mainly because coastal upwelling is poorly reproduced by current earth system models. Here, a high-resolution model is used to examine the response of nutrients and plankton dynamics to future climate change in the California Current System (CCS). The results show increased upwelling intensity associated with stronger alongshore winds in the coastal region, and enhanced upper-ocean stratification in both the CCS and open ocean. Warming of the open ocean forces isotherms downwards, where they make contact with water masses with higher nutrient concentrations, thereby enhancing the nutrient flux to the deep source waters of the CCS. Increased winds and eddy activity further facilitate upward nutrient transport to the euphotic zone. However, the plankton community exhibits a complex and nonlinear response to increased nutrient input, as the food web dynamics tend to interact differently. This analysis highlights the difficulty in understanding how the marine ecosystem responds to a future warming climate, given to range of relevant processes operating at different scales.

  14. Persistence of trophic hotspots and relation to human impacts within an upwelling marine ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santora, Jarrod A; Sydeman, William J; Schroeder, Isaac D; Field, John C; Miller, Rebecca R; Wells, Brian K

    2017-03-01

    Human impacts (e.g., fishing, pollution, and shipping) on pelagic ecosystems are increasing, causing concerns about stresses on marine food webs. Maintaining predator-prey relationships through protection of pelagic hotspots is crucial for conservation and management of living marine resources. Biotic components of pelagic, plankton-based, ecosystems exhibit high variability in abundance in time and space (i.e., extreme patchiness), requiring investigation of persistence of abundance across trophic levels to resolve trophic hotspots. Using a 26-yr record of indicators for primary production, secondary (zooplankton and larval fish), and tertiary (seabirds) consumers, we show distributions of trophic hotspots in the southern California Current Ecosystem result from interactions between a strong upwelling center and a productive retention zone with enhanced nutrients, which concentrate prey and predators across multiple trophic levels. Trophic hotspots also overlap with human impacts, including fisheries extraction of coastal pelagic and groundfish species, as well as intense commercial shipping traffic. Spatial overlap of trophic hotspots with fisheries and shipping increases vulnerability of the ecosystem to localized depletion of forage fish, ship strikes on marine mammals, and pollution. This study represents a critical step toward resolving pelagic areas of high conservation interest for planktonic ecosystems and may serve as a model for other ocean regions where ecosystem-based management and marine spatial planning of pelagic ecosystems is warranted. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  15. Geochemistry and magnetic sediment distribution at the western boundary upwelling system of southwest Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Anna P. S.; Barbosa, Catia F.; Ayres-Neto, Arthur; Munayco, Pablo; Scorzelli, Rosa B.; Amorim, Nívea Santos; Albuquerque, Ana L. S.; Seoane, José C. S.

    2018-02-01

    In order to investigate the chemical and magnetic characteristics of sediments of the western boundary upwelling system of Southwest Atlantic we analyzed magnetic susceptibility, grain size distribution, total organic carbon, heavy mineral abundance, Fe associated with Mössbauer spectra, and Fe and Mn of pore water to evaluate the deposition patterns of sediments. Four box-cores were collected along a cross-shelf transect. Brazil Current and coastal plume exert a primary control at the inner and outer shelf cores, which exhibited similar depositional patterns characterized by a high abundance of heavy minerals (mean 0.21% and 0.08%, respectively) and very fine sand, whereas middle shelf cores presented low abundances of heavy minerals (mean 0.03%) and medium silt. The inner shelf was dominated by sub-angular grains, while in middle and outer shelf cores well-rounded grains were found. The increasing Fe3+:Fe2+ ratio from the inner to the outer shelf reflects farther distance to the sediment source. The outer shelf presented well-rounded minerals, indicating abrasive processes as a result of transport by the Brazil Current from the source areas. In the middle shelf, cold-water intrusion of the South Atlantic Central Water contributes to the primary productivity, resulting in higher deposition of fine sediment and organic carbon accumulation. The high input of organic carbon and the decreased grain size are indicative of changes in the hydrodynamics and primary productivity fueled by the western boundary upwelling system, which promotes loss of magnetization due to the induction of diagenesis of iron oxide minerals.

  16. Spatio-Temporal Variation in Effects of Upwelling on the Fatty Acid Composition of Benthic Filter Feeders in the Southern Benguela Ecosystem: Not All Upwelling Is Equal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Puccinelli

    Full Text Available Variability in mesoscale nearshore oceanographic conditions plays an important role in the distribution of primary production and food availability for intertidal consumers. Advection of nutrient rich waters by upwelling usually allows the proliferation of diatoms, later replaced by dinoflagellates. We examined upwelling effects on the fatty acid (FA signature of a benthic intertidal filter feeder to identify its response to pulsed variability in food availability. The study took place in two contrasting seasons and at two upwelling and two non-upwelling sites interspersed within the southern Benguela upwelling system of South Africa. We investigated the FA composition of the adductor muscles and gonads of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis to assess how FA are apportioned to the different tissues and whether this changes between upwelling and non-upwelling conditions. In situ temperature loggers used to identify upwelling conditions at the four sites indicated that such events occurred only at the upwelling centres and only in summer. Tissues differed strongly, with gonads presenting a higher proportion of essential FAs. This could reflect the faster turnover rate of gonad tissue or preferential retention of specific FA for reproductive purposes. FA composition did not vary as a direct function of upwelling, but there were strong dissimilarities among sites. Upwelling influenced mussel diets at one upwelling site while at the other, the expected signature of upwelling was displaced downstream of the core of upwelling. Condition Index (CI and Gonad Index (GI differed among sites and were not influenced by upwelling, with GI being comparable among sites. In addition, FA proportions were consistent among sites, indicating similar food quality and quantity over time and under upwelling and non-upwelling conditions. This suggests that the influence of upwelling on the west coast of South Africa is pervasive and diffuse, rather than discrete; while

  17. Regeneration of nitrogen by zooplankton and fish in the Northwest Africa and Peru upwelling ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitledge, T E

    1976-01-01

    The availability of nutrients and light are the dominant controlling factors of the levels of primary production in the ocean. In the lower latitudes where most coastal upwelling areas are located, the amount of light is seldom below the critical level to inhibit productivity so nutrients are often the limiting factor in phytoplankton growth. Nutrients utilized in primary productivity are derived from two sources in upwelling areas. Nutrients are introduced to the euphotic zone from depth by the physical processes that create upwelling and nutrients are recycled by biological organisms that inhabit the area. Nitrate introduced into the euphotic zone by upwelling supports new productivity while ammonium and other excretory products regenerated by zooplankton and nekton supports regenerated productivity. Results are reported from studies off the coast of Northwest Africa and Peru using /sup 15/N as a tracer that showed that recycled ammonium may fulfill nearly half of the daily nitrogen requirement of phytoplankton and upwelled nitrate may provide the other half.

  18. Wind-driven coastal upwelling along the western boundary of the Bay of Bengal during the southwest monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Gouveia, A.D.; Michael, G.S.; Sundar, D.; Nampoothiri, G.

    The western boundary regions of the world's oceans generally show the influence of remote forcing by the presence of a western boundary current. On the continental shelf off Florida, U.S.A., influence of the Gulf Stream is felt at locations as shallow as 75... upwelling on the Bay of Bengal 1403 ee" ~t 32 i i* Fig. 6. bo" , e.5, , , to" Salinity (ppt) at the surface. Dots indicate station locations. using available climatologies. The charts for 10-day mean ship-drift averaged over 1 ° x 1 ° given...

  19. Coastal upwelling south of Madagascar: Temporal and spatial variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanantsoa, Juliano D.; Krug, M.; Penven, P.; Rouault, M.; Gula, J.

    2018-02-01

    Madagascar's southern coastal marine zone is a region of high biological productivity which supports a wide range of marine ecosystems, including fisheries. This high biological productivity is attributed to coastal upwelling. This paper provides new insights on the structure, variability and drivers of the coastal upwelling south of Madagascar. Satellite remote sensing is used to characterize the spatial extent and strength of the coastal upwelling. A front detection algorithm is applied to thirteen years of Multi-scale Ultra-high Resolution (MUR) Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) and an upwelling index is calculated. The influence of winds and ocean currents as drivers of the upwelling is investigated using satellite, in-situ observations, and a numerical model. Results reveal the presence of two well-defined upwelling cells. The first cell (Core 1) is located in the southeastern corner of Madagascar, and the second cell (Core 2) is west of the southern tip of Madagascar. These two cores are characterized by different seasonal variability, different intensities, different upwelled water mass origins, and distinct forcing mechanisms. Core 1 is associated with a dynamical upwelling forced by the detachment of the East Madagascar Current (EMC), which is reinforced by upwelling favourable winds. Core 2 appears to be primarily forced by upwelling favourable winds, but is also influenced by a poleward eastern boundary flow coming from the Mozambique Channel. The intrusion of Mozambique Channel warm waters could result in an asynchronicity in seasonality between upwelling surface signature and upwelling favourables winds.

  20. Modelling Ecosystem Dynamics of the Oxygen Minimum Zones in the Angola Gyre and the Northern Benguela Upwelling System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M.; Eggert, A.

    2016-02-01

    The Angola Gyre and the Northern Benguela Upwelling System are two major oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) of different kind connected by the system of African Eastern Boundary Currents. We discuss results from a 3-dimensional coupled biogeochemical model covering both oxygen-deficient systems. The biogeochemical model component comprises trophic levels up to zooplankton. Physiological properties of organisms are parameterized from field data gained mainly in the course of the project "Geochemistry and Ecology of the Namibian Upwelling System" (GENUS). The challenge of the modelling effort is the different nature of both systems. The Angola Gyre, located in a "shadow zone" of the tropical Atlantic, has a low productivity and little ventilation, hence a long residence time of water masses. In the northern Benguela Upwelling System, trade winds drive an intermittent, but permanent nutrient supply into the euphotic zone which fuels a high coastal productivity, large particle export and high oxygen consumption from dissimilatory processes. In addition to the local processes, oxygen-deficient water formed in the Angola Gyre is one of the source water masses of the poleward undercurrent, which feeds oxygen depleted water into the Benguela system. In order to simulate the oxygen distribution in the Benguela system, both physical transport as well as local biological processes need to be carefully adjusted in the model. The focus of the analysis is on the time scale and the relative contribution of the different oxygen related processes to the oxygen budgets in both the oxygen minimum zones. Although these are very different in both the OMZ, the model is found as suitable to produce oxygen minimum zones comparable with observations in the Benguela and the Angola Gyre as well. Variability of the oxygen concentration in the Angola Gyre depends strongly on organismic oxygen consumption, whereas the variability of the oxygen concentration on the Namibian shelf is governed mostly by

  1. El Niño and similar perturbation effects on the benthos of the Humboldt, California, and Benguela Current upwelling ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. E. Arntz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To a certain degree, Eastern Boundary Current (EBC ecosystems are similar: Cold bottom water from moderate depths, rich in nutrients, is transported to the euphotic zone by a combination of trade winds, Coriolis force and Ekman transport. The resultant high primary production fuels a rich secondary production in the upper pelagic and nearshore zones, but where O2 exchange is restricted, it creates oxygen minimum zones (OMZs at shelf and upper slope (Humboldt and Benguela Current or slope depths (California Current. These hypoxic zones host a specifically adapted, small macro- and meiofauna together with giant sulphur bacteria that use nitrate to oxydise H2S. In all EBC, small polychaetes, large nematodes and other opportunistic benthic species have adapted to the hypoxic conditions and co-exist with sulphur bacteria, which seem to be particularly dominant off Peru and Chile. However, a massive reduction of macrobenthos occurs in the core of the OMZ. In the Humboldt Current area the OMZ ranges between <100 and about 600 m, with decreasing thickness in a poleward direction. The OMZ merges into better oxygenated zones towards the deep sea, where large cold-water mega- and macrofauna occupy a dominant role as in the nearshore strip. The Benguela Current OMZ has a similar upper limit but remains shallower. It also hosts giant sulphur bacteria but little is known about the benthic fauna. However, sulphur eruptions and intense hypoxia might preclude the coexistence of significant mega- und macrobenthos. Conversely, off North America the upper limit of the OMZ is considerably deeper (e.g., 500–600 m off California and Oregon, and the lower boundary may exceed 1000m. The properties described are valid for very cold and cold (La Niña and "normal" ENSO conditions with effective upwelling of nutrient-rich bottom water. During warm (El Niño episodes, warm water masses of low oxygen concentration from oceanic and equatorial regions enter the upwelling

  2. Scales and sources of pH and dissolved oxygen variability in a shallow, upwelling-driven ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, C. A.; Martz, T.; Levin, L. A.

    2011-12-01

    In the coastal zone extreme variability in carbonate chemistry and oxygen is driven by fluctuations in temperature, salinity, air-sea gas exchange, mixing processes, and biology. This variability appears to be magnified in upwelling-driven ecosystems where low oxygen and low pH waters intrude into shallow depths. The oxygen and carbon chemistry signal can be further confounded by highly productive ecosystems such as kelp beds where photosynthesis and respiration consume and release significant amounts of dissolved inorganic carbon and oxygen. This variability poses a challenge for scientists assessing the impacts of climate change on nearshore ecosystems. We deployed physical & biogeochemical sensors in order to observe these processes in situ. The "SeapHOx" instruments used in this study consist of a modified Honeywell Durafet° ISFET pH sensor, an Aanderra Optode Oxygen sensor, and a SBE-37 conductivity, temperature, pressure sensor. The instruments were deployed on and around the La Jolla Kelp Forest at a variety of depths. Our goals were to (a) characterize the link between pH and oxygen and identify the magnitude of pH and oxygen variability over a range of intra-annual time scales and (b) investigate spatial patterns of pH and oxygen variability associated with depth, proximity to shore, and presence of kelp. Results thus far reveal a strong relationship between oxygen and pH. Temporal variability is greatest at the semidiurnal frequency where pH (at 7 m) can range up to 0.3 units and oxygen can change 50% over 6 h. Diurnal variability is a combination of the diurnal tidal component and diel cycles of production and respiration. Event-scale dynamics associated with upwelling can maintain pH and oxygen below 7.8 units and 200 μmol kg-1, respectively, for multiple days. Frequent current reversals drive changes in the observed oxygen and pH variability. When alongshore currents are flowing southward, driven by upwelling-favorable winds, the magnitude of

  3. Emergy evaluation of benthic ecosystems influenced by upwelling in northern Chile: Contributions of the ecosystems to the regional economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emergy evaluations of three benthic ecosystem networks found in Mejillones, Antofagasta and Tongoy Bays, located on the coast of northern Chile, were carried out with the intent of documenting the contributions of these coastal ecosystems to the economy. The productivity of these...

  4. Herbivores Enforce Sharp Boundaries Between Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarneel, Judith M.; Huig, N.; Veen, G. F.; Rip, W.; Bakker, E. S.

    2014-01-01

    The transitions between ecosystems (ecotones) are often biodiversity hotspots, but we know little about the forces that shape them. Today, often sharp boundaries with low diversity are found between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This has been attributed to environmental factors that hamper

  5. Latitudinal variation in the reproductive cycle of two bivalves with contrasting biogeographical origin along the Humboldt Current Upwelling Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto A. Uribe

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819 and Mesodesma donacium (Lamarck, 1818 are bivalves that inhabit the Humboldt Current Upwelling Ecosystem. They have contrasting biogeographical origins, suggesting that their responses to exogenous factors should differ. Using circular statistics, we examine synchrony/asynchrony in the reproductive cycle between populations of each species. The results indicate that there is reproductive asynchrony in both species along their distributional range. However, there was synchrony for A. purpuratus in several location-pairs, including Paita-Chimbote, Chimbote-Callao, Callao-Pisco and Pisco-Antofagasta. For M. donacium, there were only two synchronic groups: Camaná-Capellanía-Mehuín and Hornitos-Peñuelas-Longotoma-La Ligua-Cucao-Quilanlar. A. purpuratus showed gametogenenic activity throughout the year. In contrast, M. donacium showed strong seasonality, with gametogenesis in winter and spawning in spring/summer. In conclusion, the patterns observed for these sympatric species suggest that on a large scale the reproductive cycles follow the expected patterns for the contrasting biogeographic origin of each species, so it could be argued that they are modulated by endogenous factors. However, at a local scale, the reproductive cycles of these species show variation, likely determined by local oceanographic or hydrographic processes.

  6. Seasonal cycle of N:P:TA stoichiometry as a modulator of CO2 buffering in eastern boundary upwelling systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gregor, L

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available of water as it upwelled. Deviations from the Redfield ratio were dominated by denitrification and sulfate reduction in the subsurface waters. The N:P ratio was lowest (7.2) during autumn once anoxic waters had formed. Total alkalinity (TA) generation...

  7. Anoxic sediments off Central Peru record interannual to multidecadal changes of climate and upwelling ecosystem during the last two centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, D.; Sifeddine, A.; Reyss, J. L.; Vargas, G.; Velazco, F.; Salvatteci, R.; Ferreira, V.; Ortlieb, L.; Field, D.; Baumgartner, T.; Boussafir, M.; Boucher, H.; Valdés, J.; Marinovic, L.; Soler, P.; Tapia, P.

    2006-01-01

    High-resolution paleo-environmental and paleo-ecological archives in laminated sequences are present in selected areas from the upper continental Peruvian margin within the oxygen minimum zone. We present initial results of a multidisciplinary study (the PALEOPECES project) that aims to reconstruct environmental and ecosystem variability during the past 200 years from high-resolution records. We report chronology development, sediment structure, elemental, organic, and mineralogical compositions of a box core collected at 300 m depth off Pisco, central Peru. An average sedimentation rate of 2.2 mm y-1 was estimated from downcore excess 210Pb activities for the last 100-150 years. Extending this rate further downcore indicates that a slump located at 52 cm depth from the top of the core can be correlated with a large tsunami that struck the coast of central Peru in 1746. X-ray analyses reveal laminated structures composed of couplets of light and dark laminae. Observations under polarized microscope show that light laminae are dominated by more dense, detrital and terrigenous material, while dark laminae are less dense with greater concentrations of amorphous biogenic silica. Downcore variations in dry bulk density and X-ray radioscopy of gray level show similar patterns, including a major shift at 34 cm depth (ca. mid-nineteenth century). A finely laminated sequence, which may include annual varves, is present between 34 cm depth and the slump layer. Sediment characteristics of the sequence suggest increased seasonality of terrigenous versus biogenous sedimentation during the corresponding period. In addition to a mid-nineteenth century change and considerable multidecadal variability in TOC, there is a positive trend in the past 50 years. Mineralogical analyses from a Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) of the upper core covering the last 25 years, indicate higher concentrations of the mineral fraction (quartz, feldspar, kaolinite and illite) in

  8. Anoxic sediments off Central Peru record interannual to multidecadal changes of climate and upwelling ecosystem during the last two centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gutiérrez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution paleo-environmental and paleo-ecological archives in laminated sequences are present in selected areas from the upper continental Peruvian margin within the oxygen minimum zone. We present initial results of a multidisciplinary study (the PALEOPECES project that aims to reconstruct environmental and ecosystem variability during the past 200 years from high-resolution records. We report chronology development, sediment structure, elemental, organic, and mineralogical compositions of a box core collected at 300 m depth off Pisco, central Peru. An average sedimentation rate of 2.2 mm y-1 was estimated from downcore excess 210Pb activities for the last 100-150 years. Extending this rate further downcore indicates that a slump located at 52 cm depth from the top of the core can be correlated with a large tsunami that struck the coast of central Peru in 1746. X-ray analyses reveal laminated structures composed of couplets of light and dark laminae. Observations under polarized microscope show that light laminae are dominated by more dense, detrital and terrigenous material, while dark laminae are less dense with greater concentrations of amorphous biogenic silica. Downcore variations in dry bulk density and X-ray radioscopy of gray level show similar patterns, including a major shift at 34 cm depth (ca. mid-nineteenth century. A finely laminated sequence, which may include annual varves, is present between 34 cm depth and the slump layer. Sediment characteristics of the sequence suggest increased seasonality of terrigenous versus biogenous sedimentation during the corresponding period. In addition to a mid-nineteenth century change and considerable multidecadal variability in TOC, there is a positive trend in the past 50 years. Mineralogical analyses from a Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR of the upper core covering the last 25 years, indicate higher concentrations of the mineral fraction (quartz, feldspar, kaolinite and

  9. Temporal variability and phylogenetic characterization of planktonic anammox bacteria in the coastal upwelling ecosystem off central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, Alexander; Molina, Verónica; Belmar, Lucy; Ulloa, Osvaldo

    2012-01-01

    The phylogenetic affiliation and temporal variability in the abundance of planktonic anammox bacteria were studied at a time-series station above the continental shelf off central Chile (∼36°S; bottom depth 93 m), a wind-driven, seasonal upwelling area, between August 2006 and April 2008. The study was carried out by cloning and sequencing the 16S rRNA gene and by using catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH). Our results showed the presence of a single anammox bacteria-like ribotype during both upwelling and non-upwelling seasons, which was phylogenetically associated with a recently described oxygen-minimum-zone subcluster within the Candidatus Scalindua clade. Moreover, clear differences were observed in the temporal and vertical distribution of anammox cells. During the upwelling season (austral spring-summer), relatively high abundances (∼5500 cells mL -1) and large cells (0.8 μm 3-75.7 fg C cell -1) were found below 20 m depth. In contrast, during the non-upwelling season (austral fall-winter), lower abundances (∼600 cells mL -1) and smaller cells (0.1 μm 3-22.8 fg C cell -1) were found, predominantly associated with the bottom layer. Overall, our results indicate that the abundance and vertical distribution of anammox planktonic assemblages are related to the occurrence of seasonal, wind-driven, coastal upwelling, which in turn appears to offer favorable conditions for the development of these microorganisms. The dominance of a unique anammox bacteria-like ribotype could be related to the high environmental variability observed in the system, which prevents the establishment of other anammox lineages.

  10. Combined fishing and climate forcing in the southern Benguela upwelling ecosystem: an end-to-end modelling approach reveals dampened effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgane Travers-Trolet

    Full Text Available The effects of climate and fishing on marine ecosystems have usually been studied separately, but their interactions make ecosystem dynamics difficult to understand and predict. Of particular interest to management, the potential synergism or antagonism between fishing pressure and climate forcing is analysed in this paper, using an end-to-end ecosystem model of the southern Benguela ecosystem, built from coupling hydrodynamic, biogeochemical and multispecies fish models (ROMS-N2P2Z2D2-OSMOSE. Scenarios of different intensities of upwelling-favourable wind stress combined with scenarios of fishing top-predator fish were tested. Analyses of isolated drivers show that the bottom-up effect of the climate forcing propagates up the food chain whereas the top-down effect of fishing cascades down to zooplankton in unfavourable environmental conditions but dampens before it reaches phytoplankton. When considering both climate and fishing drivers together, it appears that top-down control dominates the link between top-predator fish and forage fish, whereas interactions between the lower trophic levels are dominated by bottom-up control. The forage fish functional group appears to be a central component of this ecosystem, being the meeting point of two opposite trophic controls. The set of combined scenarios shows that fishing pressure and upwelling-favourable wind stress have mostly dampened effects on fish populations, compared to predictions from the separate effects of the stressors. Dampened effects result in biomass accumulation at the top predator fish level but a depletion of biomass at the forage fish level. This should draw our attention to the evolution of this functional group, which appears as both structurally important in the trophic functioning of the ecosystem, and very sensitive to climate and fishing pressures. In particular, diagnoses considering fishing pressure only might be more optimistic than those that consider combined effects

  11. El Niño and similar perturbation effects on the benthos of the Humboldt, California, and Benguela Current upwelling ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arntz, W. E.; Gallardo, V. A.; Gutiérrez, D.; Isla, E.; Levin, L. A.; Mendo, J.; Neira, C.; Rowe, G. T.; Tarazona, J.; Wolff, M.

    2006-03-01

    To a certain degree, Eastern Boundary Current (EBC) ecosystems are similar: Cold bottom water from moderate depths, rich in nutrients, is transported to the euphotic zone by a combination of trade winds, Coriolis force and Ekman transport. The resultant high primary production fuels a rich secondary production in the upper pelagic and nearshore zones, but where O2 exchange is restricted, it creates oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) at shelf and upper slope (Humboldt and Benguela Current) or slope depths (California Current). These hypoxic zones host a specifically adapted, small macro- and meiofauna together with giant sulphur bacteria that use nitrate to oxydise H2S. In all EBC, small polychaetes, large nematodes and other opportunistic benthic species have adapted to the hypoxic conditions and co-exist with sulphur bacteria, which seem to be particularly dominant off Peru and Chile. However, a massive reduction of macrobenthos occurs in the core of the OMZ. In the Humboldt Current area the OMZ ranges between immigrants. The autochthonous benthic fauna emigrates to deeper water or poleward, or suffers mortality. However, some local macrofaunal species experience important population proliferations, presumably due to improved oxygenation (in the southern hemisphere), higher temperature tolerance, reduced competition or the capability to use different food. Both these negative and positive effects of El Niño influence local artisanal fisheries and the livelihood of coastal populations. In the Humboldt Current system the hypoxic seafloor at outer shelf depths receives important flushing from the equatorial zone, causing havoc on the sulphur bacteria mats and immediate recolonisation of the sediments by mega- and macrofauna. Conversely, off California, the intruding equatorial water masses appear to have lower oxygen than ambient waters, and may cause oxygen deficiency at upper slope depths. Effects of this change have not been studied in detail, although shrimp and other

  12. Coastal upwelling seasonality and variability of temperature and chlorophyll in a small coastal embayment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Ryan K.; Armenta, Kevin J.; Shearer, Brandon; Robbins, Ian; Steinbeck, John

    2018-02-01

    While the seasonality of wind-driven coastal upwelling in eastern boundary upwelling systems has long been established, many studies describe two distinct seasons (upwelling and non-upwelling), a generalized framework that does not capture details relevant to marine ecosystems. In this contribution, we present a more detailed description of the annual cycle and upwelling seasonality for an understudied location along the central California coast. Using both the mean monthly upwelling favorable wind stress and the monthly standard deviation, we define the following seasons (contiguous months) and a transitional period (non-contiguous months): "Winter Storms" season (Dec-Jan-Feb), "Upwelling Transition" period (Mar and Jun), "Peak Upwelling" season (Apr-May), "Upwelling Relaxation" season (Jul-Aug-Sep), and "Winter Transition" season (Oct-Nov). In order to describe the oceanic response to this upwelling wind seasonality, we take advantage of nearly a decade of full water-column measurements of temperature and chlorophyll made using an automated profiling system at the end of the California Polytechnic State University Pier in San Luis Obispo Bay, a small ( 2 km wide near study site) and shallow ( 10 m average bay depth) coastal embayment. Variability and average-year patterns are described inside the bay during the various upwelling seasons. Moreover, the role of the local coastline orientation and topography on bay dynamics is also assessed using long-term measurements collected outside of the bay. The formation of a seasonally variable upwelling shadow system and potential nearshore retention zone is discussed. The observations presented provide a framework on which to study interannual changes to the average-year seasonal cycle, assess the contribution of higher-frequency features to nearshore variability, and better predict dynamically and ecologically important events.

  13. Evaluation of the ecological integrity and ecosystem health of three benthic networks influenced by coastal upwelling in the northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ecological health of ecosystems relates to the maintenance or restoration of optimal system function when confronted with a disturbance. A healthy ecosystem is a prerequisite for ecological sustainability. Ecological integrity has been defined as an emergent property of ecosy...

  14. Ecosystem Services as a Boundary Concept: Arguments from Social Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schleyer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services (ES are defined as the interdependencies between society and nature. Despite several years of conceptual discussions, some challenges of the ES concept are far from being resolved. In particular, the usefulness of the concept for nature protection is questioned, and a strong critique is expressed concerning its contribution towards the neoliberal commodification of nature. This paper argues that these challenges can be addressed by dealing more carefully with ES as a boundary concept between different disciplines and between science and society. ES are neither about nature nor about human wellbeing, but about the mutual dependencies between nature and human wellbeing. These mutual interdependencies, however, create tensions and contradictions that manifest themselves in the boundary negotiations between different scientific disciplines and between science and society. This paper shows that approaches from Social Ecology can address these boundary negotiations and the power relations involved more explicitly. Finally, this implies the urgent need for more inter- and transdisciplinary collaboration in ES research. We conclude (1 that the social–ecological nature of ES must be elaborated more carefully while explicitly focussing on the interdependencies between nature and society; (2 to better implement inter- and transdisciplinary methods into ES research; and (3 that such ES research can—and to some extent already does—substantially enhance international research programmes such as Future Earth.

  15. Pulses, linkages, and boundaries of coupled aquatic-terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tockner, K.

    2009-04-01

    Riverine floodplains are linked ecosystems where terrestrial and aquatic habitats overlap, creating a zone where they interact, the aquatic-terrestrial interface. The interface or boundary between aquatic and terrestrial habitats is an area of transition, contact or separation; and connectivity between these habitats may be defined as the ease with which organisms, matter or energy traverse these boundaries. Coupling of aquatic and terrestrial systems generates intertwining food webs, and we may predict that coupled systems are more productive than separated ones. For example, riparian consumers (aquatic and terrestrial) have alternative prey items external to their respective habitats. Such subsidized assemblages occupy a significant higher trophic position than assemblages in unsubsidized areas. Further, cross-habitat linkages are often pulsed; and even small pulses of a driver (e.g. short-term increases in flow) can cause major resource pulses (i.e. emerging aquatic insects) that control the recipient community. For example, short-term additions of resources, simulating pulsed inputs of aquatic food to terrestrial systems, suggest that due to resource partitioning and temporal separation among riparian arthropod taxa the resource flux from the river to the riparian zone increases with increasing riparian consumer diversity. I will discuss the multiple transfer and transformation processes of matter and organisms across aquatic-terrestrial habitats. Key landscape elements along river corridors are vegetated islands that function as instream riparian areas. Results from Central European rivers demonstrate that islands are in general more natural than fringing riparian areas, contribute substantially to total ecotone length, and create diverse habitats in the aquatic and terrestrial realm. In braided rivers, vegetated islands are highly productive landscape elements compared to the adjacent aquatic area. However, aquatic habitats exhibit a much higher decomposition

  16. The future of coastal upwelling in the Humboldt current from model projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, Damián; Brierley, Chris M.

    2018-03-01

    The Humboldt coastal upwelling system in the eastern South Pacific ocean is one of the most productive marine ecosystems in the world. A weakening of the upwelling activity could lead to severe ecological impacts. As coastal upwelling in eastern boundary systems is mainly driven by wind stress, most studies so far have analysed wind patterns change through the 20th and 21st Centuries in order to understand and project the phenomenon under specific forcing scenarios. Mixed results have been reported, and analyses from General Circulation Models have suggested even contradictory trends of wind stress for the Humboldt system. In this study, we analyse the ocean upwelling directly in 13 models contributing to phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) in both the historical simulations and an extreme climate change scenario (RCP8.5). The upwelling is represented by the upward ocean mass flux, a newly-included variable that represents the vertical water transport. Additionally, wind stress, ocean stratification, Ekman layer depth and thermocline depth were also analysed to explore their interactions with coastal upwelling throughout the period studied. The seasonal cycle of coastal upwelling differs between the Northern and Southern Humboldt areas. At lower latitudes, the upwelling season spans most of the autumn, winter and spring. However, in the Southern Humboldt area the upwelling season takes place in spring and the summertime with downwelling activity in winter. This persists throughout the Historical and RCP8.5 simulations. For both the Northern and Southern Humboldt areas an increasing wind stress is projected. However, different trends of upwelling intensity are observed away from the sea surface. Whereas wind stress will continue controlling the decadal variability of coastal upwelling on the whole ocean column analysed (surface to 300 m depth), an increasing disconnect with upwelling intensity is projected below 100 m depth throughout the 21

  17. Prototyping global Earth System Models at high resolution: Representation of climate, ecosystems, and acidification in Eastern Boundary Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, J. P.; John, J. G.; Stock, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    The world's major Eastern Boundary Currents (EBC) such as the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME) are critically important areas for global fisheries. Computational limitations have divided past EBC modeling into two types: high resolution regional approaches that resolve the strong meso-scale structures involved, and coarse global approaches that represent the large scale context for EBCs, but only crudely resolve only the largest scales of their manifestation. These latter global studies have illustrated the complex mechanisms involved in the climate change and acidification response in these regions, with the CCLME response dominated not by local adjustments but large scale reorganization of ocean circulation through remote forcing of water-mass supply pathways. While qualitatively illustrating the limitations of regional high resolution studies in long term projection, these studies lack the ability to robustly quantify change because of the inability of these models to represent the baseline meso-scale structures of EBCs. In the present work, we compare current generation coarse resolution (one degree) and a prototype next generation high resolution (1/10 degree) Earth System Models (ESMs) from NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory in representing the four major EBCs. We review the long-known temperature biases that the coarse models suffer in being unable to represent the timing and intensity of upwelling-favorable winds, along with lack of representation of the observed high chlorophyll and biological productivity resulting from this upwelling. In promising contrast, we show that the high resolution prototype is capable of representing not only the overall meso-scale structure in physical and biogeochemical fields, but also the appropriate offshore extent of temperature anomalies and other EBC characteristics. Results for chlorophyll were mixed; while high resolution chlorophyll in EBCs were strongly enhanced over the coarse resolution

  18. Managing SMEs’ Collaboration Across Organizational Boundaries Within a Regional Business Ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Agnieszka; Bogers, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    ’ perspective on managing and organizing inter-company collaboration within a regional business ecosystem. We explore how purposefully managed mutual knowledge flows across organizational boundaries applied by SMEs contribute to the development of the ecosystem they are immersed in. Our key findings include...... insights into the advantages offered by being embedded within regional ecosystem boundaries, such as low transaction costs and reduced risks of opportunistic behaviors, environmental opportunities for external knowledge sourcing or increase of the sphere of influence. We also highlight accompanied...

  19. (abstract) Seasonal Variability in Coastal Upwelling: A Comparison of Four Coastal Upwelling Sites from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Mary-Elena

    1996-01-01

    Coastal upwelling of subsurface nutrient-rich water occurs along the eastern boundary of the ocean basins and leads to high primary production and fish catches. In this study satellite observations are used to compare the seasonal cycle in wind forcing and in the oceanic and biological response of the major coastal upwelling regions associated with the Canary, Benguela, California, and Humboldt Currents.

  20. Managing SMEs’ Collaboration Across Organizational Boundaries Within a Regional Business Ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Agnieszka; Bogers, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    autonomy and control over the partners and indicate shared issues and responsibilities crucial for further ecosystem development. As a conclusion, we offer a set of recommendations both for managers and policymakers concerning general organizational requirements and governing structures.......’ perspective on managing and organizing inter-company collaboration within a regional business. We explore how purposefully managed mutual knowledge flows across organizational boundaries applied by SMEs contribute to the development of the ecosystem they are immersed in. Our key findings include insights...

  1. Managing SMEs’ Collaboration Across Organizational Boundaries Within a Regional Business Ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Agnieszka; Bogers, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    ’ perspective on managing and organizing inter-company collaboration within a regional business ecosystem. We explore how purposefully managed mutual knowledge flows across organizational boundaries applied by SMEs contribute to the development of the ecosystem they are immersed in. Our key findings include...... challenges, such as low autonomy and control over the partners and indicate shared issues and responsibilities crucial for further ecosystem development. As a conclusion, we offer a set of recommendations both for managers and policymakers concerning general organizational requirements and governing...... structures....

  2. Patterns of copepod diversity in the Chilean coastal upwelling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Pamela; Escribano, Ruben; Vergara, Odette; Jorquera, Erika; Donoso, Katty; Mendoza, Paula

    2010-12-01

    The copepod community structure from the Northern and Central/southern upwelling regions off Chile was studied and compared. The derived community descriptors were species abundance (N), species richness (R) and the Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H'). These descriptors were related to distinct habitats and conditions, sea surface temperature (SST) and depth of the upper boundary of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). From 159 samples, obtained between 2002 and 2008, a total number of 118 species were found of which the calanoids Paracalanus indicus, Acartia tonsa and Eucalanus inermis, along with the cyclopoid Oithona similis, and the poecilostomatoids Triconia conifera and Oncaea media were the dominant species. H' was higher in the northern region, but no differences in N and R were detected between regions. N was higher in the epipelagic vs the deep habitat, but R and H' did not differ. N, R and H' correlated positively to SST and negatively to OMZ depth. The ascent of the OMZ to the upper layer forced by upwelling was proposed as a mechanism that aggregates and increases copepod diversity in the food-rich photic zone. All these findings suggest a fundamental role of upwelling variation for modulating copepod dynamics and community structure in this highly productive but strongly variable marine ecosystem.

  3. Compound-specific δ15N amino acid measurements in littoral mussels in the California upwelling ecosystem: a new approach to generating baseline δ15N Isoscapes for coastal ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha L Vokhshoori

    Full Text Available We explored δ(15N compound-specific amino acid isotope data (CSI-AA in filter-feeding intertidal mussels (Mytilus californianus as a new approach to construct integrated isoscapes of coastal primary production. We examined spatial δ(15N gradients in the California Upwelling Ecosystem (CUE, determining bulk δ(15N values of mussel tissue from 28 sites between Port Orford, Oregon and La Jolla, California, and applying CSI-AA at selected sites to decouple trophic effects from isotopic values at the base of the food web. Bulk δ(15N values showed a strong linear trend with latitude, increasing from North to South (from ∼ 7‰ to ∼ 12‰, R(2 = 0.759. In contrast, CSI-AA trophic position estimates showed no correlation with latitude. The δ(15N trend is therefore most consistent with a baseline δ(15N gradient, likely due to the mixing of two source waters: low δ(15N nitrate from the southward flowing surface California Current, and the northward transport of the California Undercurrent (CUC, with (15N-enriched nitrate. This interpretation is strongly supported by a similar linear gradient in δ(15N values of phenylalanine (δ(15NPhe, the best AA proxy for baseline δ(15N values. We hypothesize δ(15N(Phe values in intertidal mussels can approximate annual integrated δ(15N values of coastal phytoplankton primary production. We therefore used δ(15N(Phe values to generate the first compound-specific nitrogen isoscape for the coastal Northeast Pacific, which indicates a remarkably linear gradient in coastal primary production δ(15N values. We propose that δ(15N(Phe isoscapes derived from filter feeders can directly characterize baseline δ(15N values across major biochemical provinces, with potential applications for understanding migratory and feeding patterns of top predators, monitoring effects of climate change, and study of paleo- archives.

  4. The NAO Influence on the Early to Mid-Holocene North Atlantic Coastal Upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, A.; Cachão, M.; Sousa, P.; Trigo, R. M.; Freitas, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal upwelling regions yield some of the oceanic most productive ecosystems, being crucial for the worldwide social and economic development. Most upwelling systems, emerging cold nutrient-rich deep waters, are located in the eastern boundaries of the Atlantic and Pacific basins, and are driven by meridional wind fields parallel to the coastal shore. These winds are associated with the subsiding branch of the large-scale Anticyclonic high pressure systems that dominate the subtropical ocean basins, and therefore can be displaced or intensified within the context of past and future climate changes. However, the role of the current global warming influencing the coastal upwelling is, as yet, unclear. Therefore it is essential to derive a long-term perspective, beyond the era of instrumental measurements, to detect similar warm periods in the past that have triggered changes in the upwelling patterns. In this work, the upwelling dynamics in the Iberian North Atlantic margin during the early and mid-Holocene is reconstructed, using calcareous nannofossils from a decadally resolved estuarine sediment core located in southwestern Portugal. Results suggest that the coastal dynamics reflects changes in winds direction likely related to shifts in the NAO-like conditions. Furthermore, the reconstructed centennial-scale variations in the upwelling are synchronous with changes in solar irradiance, a major external forcing factor of the climate system that is known to exert influence in atmospheric circulation patterns. In addition, these proxy-based data interpretations are in agreement with wind field and solar irradiance simulation modelling for the mid-Holocene. Therefore, the conclusion that the solar activity via the NAO modulation controlled the North Atlantic upwelling of western Iberia during the early and mid-Holocene at decadal to centennial timescales can be derived. The financial support for attending this meeting was possible through FCT project UID/GEO/50019

  5. Ecological features of harmful algal blooms in coastal upwelling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mass mortalities that accompany anoxia, common to the Benguela and Peru upwelling systems, may be a trophic control mechanism to maintain biogeochemical balance and regional homeostasis, which are vital to upwelling ecosystem dynamics. Some traditional concepts of phytoplankton ecology may not completely

  6. Intensification of Chile-Peru upwelling under climate change: diagnosing the impact of natural and anthropogenic forcing from the IPSL-CM5 model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebri, B.; Khodri, M.; Gastineau, G.; Echevin, V.; Thiria, S.

    2017-12-01

    Upwelling is critical to the biological production, acidification, and deoxygenation of the ocean's major eastern boundary current ecosystems. A conceptual hypothesis suggests that the winds that favour coastal upwelling intensify with anthropogenic global warming due to increased land-sea temperature contrast. We examine this hypothesis for the dynamics of the Peru-Chile upwelling using a set of four large ensembles of coupled, ocean-atmosphere model simulations with the IPSL model covering the 1940-2014 period. In one large ensemble we prescribe the standard CMIP5 greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations, anthropogenic aerosol, ozone and volcanic forcings, following the historical experiments through 2005 and RCP8.5 from 2006-2014, while the other ensembles consider separately the GHG, ozone and volcanic forcings. We find evidence for intensification of upwelling-favourable winds with however little evidence of atmospheric pressure gradients in response to increasing land-sea temperature differences. Our analyses reveal poleward migration and intensification of the South Pacific Anticyclone near poleward boundaries of climatological Peruvian and Chilean upwelling zones. This contribution further investigates the physical mechanisms for the Peru-Chile upwelling intensification and the relative role of natural and anthropogenic forcings.

  7. Disruption of the terrestrial plant ecosystem at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, western interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschudy, R.H.; Pillmore, C.L.; Orth, C.J.; Gilmore, J.S.; Knight, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    The palynologically defined Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the western interior of North America occurs at the top of an iridium-rich clay layer. The boundary is characterized by the abrupt disappearance of certain pollen species, immediately followed by a pronounced, geologically brief change in the ratio of fern spores to angiosperm pollen. The occurrence of these changes at two widely separated sites implies continentwide disruption of the terrestrial ecosystem, probably caused by a major catastrophic event at the end of the period.

  8. Factors structuring the phytoplankton community in the upwelling site off El Loa River in northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Liliana; Escribano, Ruben

    2006-06-01

    Understanding processes affecting the structure of the autotrophic community in marine ecosystems is relevant because species-dependent characters may affect productivity and carbon fluxes of the ocean. In this work, we studied the influence of oceanographic variability on phytoplankton species composition at a coastal upwelling site off northern Chile. Four seasonal cruises carried out during 2003 off El Loa River (21°S) showed that upwelling occurs year-round supporting a large number of diatoms, dinoflagellates, naked nanoflagellates, and silicoflagellates. The analysis of species composition showed that changes in the structure of the autotrophic community are expressed both in abundance and in differences in species assemblages. These changes occurred not only over the seasonal scale but also over the spatial pattern of distribution, and they correlated well to temporal variability of upwelling and spatial variation of upwelling conditions over the cross-shelf axis. A K-means clustering and principal component analyses showed that species assemblages can be represented by few dominant species strongly coupled to alternate upwelling vs. non-upwelling conditions. Both conditions are well defined, and mostly explained by changes in depth of the upper boundary of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) (a prominent feature in northern Chile), surface temperature and water column stratification. Abundance of dominant phytoplankton species were strongly correlated to both OMZ depth and water column stratification. Processes through which OMZ depth might influence species abundance and composition are unknown, although they may relate to changes in redox conditions which affect the nutrient field. Another explanation may relate to changes in grazing pressure derived from the effect of low oxygen water on zooplankton vertical distribution.

  9. The Benguela upwelling system lying off southern Africa's west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Africa's west coast is one of the world's four main upwelling ..... Regions of current shear, convergence and divergence, as well ..... between Cape Point and Danger Point in 1975. .... processes in relation to eastern boundary current pelagic.

  10. Vertical segregation among pathways mediating nitrogen loss (N2 and N2O production) across the oxygen gradient in a coastal upwelling ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, Alexander; Thamdrup, Bo; Saldías, Gonzalo S.; Farías, Laura

    2017-10-01

    The upwelling system off central Chile (36.5° S) is seasonally subjected to oxygen (O2)-deficient waters, with a strong vertical gradient in O2 (from oxic to anoxic conditions) that spans a few metres (30-50 m interval) over the shelf. This condition inhibits and/or stimulates processes involved in nitrogen (N) removal (e.g. anammox, denitrification, and nitrification). During austral spring (September 2013) and summer (January 2014), the main pathways involved in N loss and its speciation, in the form of N2 and/or N2O, were studied using 15N-tracer incubations, inhibitor assays, and the natural abundance of nitrate isotopes along with hydrographic information. Incubations were developed using water retrieved from the oxycline (25 m depth) and bottom waters (85 m depth) over the continental shelf off Concepción, Chile. Results of 15N-labelled incubations revealed higher N removal activity during the austral summer, with denitrification as the dominant N2-producing pathway, which occurred together with anammox at all times. Interestingly, in both spring and summer maximum potential N removal rates were observed in the oxycline, where a greater availability of oxygen was observed (maximum O2 fluctuation between 270 and 40 µmol L-1) relative to the hypoxic bottom waters ( multiple N-cycling processes are modulating the isotopic nitrate composition over the shelf off central Chile during spring and summer. N removal processes in this coastal system appear to be related to the availability and distribution of oxygen and particles, which are a source of organic matter and the fuel for the production of other electron donors (i.e. ammonium) and acceptors (i.e. nitrate and nitrite) after its remineralization. These results highlight the links between several pathways involved in N loss. They also establish that different mechanisms supported by alternative N substrates are responsible for substantial accumulation of N2O, which are frequently observed as hotspots in the

  11. Practice Alignment and intent as distinctions for understanding cross-boundary knowledge creation practices in knowledge ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Mathias

    This paper explores how practice alignment and intent across organizational boundaries may serve as an explanation for collaborative knowledge creation in a knowledge ecosystem. The paper is based on a longitudinal case study of a large multinational knowledge ecosystem consisting of many...... communities of practices and organisations. By applying a practice theory approach to five data sets collected over a five-year period, the study investigates how two distinctions may serve as a potential gateway into understanding knowledge creation across boundaries. The two distinctions – practice...... are identified and discussed. Potential implications for organisational and knowledge ecosystem conceptions are identified and discussed for further research....

  12. Terrestrial ecosystem collapse associated to the K-Pg boundary and dinosaur extinction: palynological evidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, A.; Vajda, V.; Lyson, T. R.; Chester, S. G. B.; Sargis, E. J.; Pearson, D. A.; Joyce, W. G.

    2012-04-01

    We report here the discovery of the stratigraphically youngest in situ dinosaur specimen. This ceratopsian brow horn was found in southeastern Montana, in the Western Interior of the United States in a poorly rooted, silty mudstone floodplain deposit and only 13 centimeters below the palynologically defined K-Pg boundary. The boundary is identified using three criteria: 1) substantial decrease in diversity and abundance of Cretaceous pollen and spore taxa that completely disappear from the palynological record a few meters above the boundary, 2) the presence of a "fern spike", and 3) palynostratigraphical correlation to a nearby section where primary extraterrestrial impact markers are present (e.g., iridium anomaly, spherules and shocked quartz). The palynological record in the rock sequence immediately following the K-Pg boundary consistently indicates a sudden and major loss of the Cretaceous components across the North American record. During this rapid decline, the palynological assemblages are dominated by freshwater ferns (Azolla) and algae (usually Pediastrum sp. and Penetetrapites sp.) indicating generalized flooding in the area. The onset of the Paleocene sedimentation is subsequently announced by the presence of variegated beds, multiple lignite seams and small scale meandering river systems, starting with palynological associations that attest for reworking and erosion. The destabilization of terrestrial ecosystems is coincident with the markers of the K-Pg boundary, supporting a catastrophic event taking place over a very short duration. The in situ ceratopsian brow horn demonstrates that a gap devoid of non-avian dinosaur fossils in the last meters of the Cretaceous is artificial and thus inconsistent with the hypothesis that non-avian dinosaurs were extinct prior to the K-Pg boundary asteroid impact event.

  13. Activity and phylogenetic diversity of bacterial cells with high and low nucleic acid content and electron transport system activity in an upwelling ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longnecker, K; Sherr, B F; Sherr, E B

    2005-12-01

    We evaluated whether bacteria with higher cell-specific nucleic acid content (HNA) or an active electron transport system, i.e., positive for reduction of 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC), were responsible for the bulk of bacterioplankton metabolic activity. We also examined whether the phylogenetic diversity of HNA and CTC-positive cells differed from the diversity of Bacteria with low nucleic acid content (LNA). Bacterial assemblages were sampled both in eutrophic shelf waters and in mesotrophic offshore waters in the Oregon coastal upwelling region. Cytometrically sorted HNA, LNA, and CTC-positive cells were assayed for their cell-specific [3H]leucine incorporation rates. Phylogenetic diversity in sorted non-radioactively labeled samples was assayed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes. Cell-specific rates of leucine incorporation of HNA and CTC-positive cells were on average only slightly greater than the cell-specific rates of LNA cells. HNA cells accounted for most bacterioplankton substrate incorporation due to high abundances, while the low abundances of CTC-positive cells resulted in only a small contribution by these cells to total bacterial activity. The proportion of the total bacterial leucine incorporation attributable to LNA cells was higher in offshore regions than in shelf waters. Sequence data obtained from DGGE bands showed broadly similar phylogenetic diversity across HNA, LNA, and CTC-positive cells, with between-sample and between-region variability in the distribution of phylotypes. Our results suggest that LNA bacteria are not substantially different from HNA bacteria in either cell-specific rates of substrate incorporation or phylogenetic composition and that they can be significant contributors to bacterial metabolism in the sea.

  14. Design and impact assessment of watershed investments: An approach based on ecosystem services and boundary work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adem Esmail, Blal; Geneletti, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Watershed investments, whose main aim is to secure water for cities, represent a promising opportunity for large-scale sustainability transitions in the near future. If properly designed, they promote activities in the watershed that enhance ecosystem services while protecting nature and biodiversity, as well as achieving other societal goals. In this paper, we build on the concepts of ecosystem services and boundary work, to develop and test an operative approach for designing and assessing the impact of watershed investments. The approach is structured to facilitate negotiations among stakeholders. Its strategic component includes setting the agenda; defining investment scenarios; and assessing the performance of watershed investments as well as planning for a follow-up. Its technical component concerns data processing; tailoring spatially explicit ecosystem service models; hence their application to design a set of “investment portfolios”, generate future land use scenarios, and model impacts on selected ecosystem services. A case study illustrates how the technical component can be developed in a data scarce context in sub-Saharan Africa in a way that is functional to support the steps of the strategic component. The case study addresses soil erosion and water scarcity-related challenges affecting Asmara, a medium-sized city in Eritrea, and considers urban water security and rural poverty alleviation as two illustrative objectives, within a ten-year planning horizon. The case study results consist in spatially explicit data (investment portfolio, land use scenario, impact on ecosystem services), which were aggregated to quantitatively assess the performance of different watershed investments scenarios, in terms of changes in soil erosion control. By addressing stakeholders' concerns of credibility, saliency, and legitimacy, the approach is expected to facilitate negotiation of objectives, definition of scenarios, and assessment of alternative watershed

  15. Design and impact assessment of watershed investments: An approach based on ecosystem services and boundary work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adem Esmail, Blal, E-mail: blal.ademesmail@unitn.it; Geneletti, Davide

    2017-01-15

    Watershed investments, whose main aim is to secure water for cities, represent a promising opportunity for large-scale sustainability transitions in the near future. If properly designed, they promote activities in the watershed that enhance ecosystem services while protecting nature and biodiversity, as well as achieving other societal goals. In this paper, we build on the concepts of ecosystem services and boundary work, to develop and test an operative approach for designing and assessing the impact of watershed investments. The approach is structured to facilitate negotiations among stakeholders. Its strategic component includes setting the agenda; defining investment scenarios; and assessing the performance of watershed investments as well as planning for a follow-up. Its technical component concerns data processing; tailoring spatially explicit ecosystem service models; hence their application to design a set of “investment portfolios”, generate future land use scenarios, and model impacts on selected ecosystem services. A case study illustrates how the technical component can be developed in a data scarce context in sub-Saharan Africa in a way that is functional to support the steps of the strategic component. The case study addresses soil erosion and water scarcity-related challenges affecting Asmara, a medium-sized city in Eritrea, and considers urban water security and rural poverty alleviation as two illustrative objectives, within a ten-year planning horizon. The case study results consist in spatially explicit data (investment portfolio, land use scenario, impact on ecosystem services), which were aggregated to quantitatively assess the performance of different watershed investments scenarios, in terms of changes in soil erosion control. By addressing stakeholders' concerns of credibility, saliency, and legitimacy, the approach is expected to facilitate negotiation of objectives, definition of scenarios, and assessment of alternative watershed

  16. Life cycle strategies of copepods in coastal upwelling zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, W.

    1998-06-01

    Life cycles of copepods of coastal upwelling zones are of the multigenerational type—as many as 10 or more generations may be produced each year, depending upon water temperature, food concentration and length of the upwelling season. Abundant food resources and moderate temperature convey advantages to those copepods living in coastal upwelling zones, however, there is a clear disadvantage in that coastal upwelling zones are highly advective environments. Typically, water circulation patterns are such that surface waters are carried offshore, deeper waters carried onshore and most of the water column over the continental shelf is moving equatorward. The challenge to copepod species that inhabit upwelling systems is life cycle closure—how do eggs, nauplii, juveniles and adults avoid being swept out of these ecosystems in the face of persistent transport out of the system? In this review, I first list the species which dominate coastal upwelling ecosystems then discuss three variations on the multigenerational life cycle scheme that are observed in upwelling systems. The latter part of the review is devoted to discussion of how individuals are retained in the productive continental shelf waters within coastal upwelling ecosystems. The suggestion is made that the only copepod species that successfully achieve life cycle closure in such systems are those that are preadapted to upwelling circulation patterns. Our quantitative understanding of the relative importance of physical factors (such as advection) and biological factors (birth, growth, and mortality) on life cycle strategies and population dynamics is quite rudimentary. It would help our understanding if there were more field studies and more computer modeling studies that focused on seasonal cycles of abundance, development times and vertical distribution of life cycle stages, and measurements of water circulation patterns.

  17. The circulation dynamics associated with a northern Benguela upwelling filament during October 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Annethea A.; Mohrholz, Volker; Schmidt, Martin

    2013-07-01

    Upwelling filaments, a common feature in all the major upwelling systems, are also regularly observed in the Benguela upwelling system and are thought to provide an effective mechanism for the exchange of matter between the shelf and the open ocean. The mesoscale dynamics of a northern Benguela upwelling filament located at approximately 18.5°S were examined and the associated transport was quantified. The development of the filament was tracked using optimal interpolated SST satellite data and two transects were consequently sampled across the feature using a towed undulating CTD (ScanFish). Additional hydrographic, nutrient and biological parameters were investigated at several stations along each transect. Following 7 days of strong upwelling favorable winds, sampling coincided with a period of relative wind relaxation and the filament was presumably in a decaying state. The basic mesoscale structure of the investigated filament corresponded well to what had previously been described for filaments from other eastern boundary current systems. The cross-shore transport associated with the filament was found to be significantly greater than the integrated Ekman transport in the region. With the combination of the high resolution dataset and a MOM-4 ecosystem model the complex mesoscale flow field associated with the feature could be observed and the counterbalancing onshore transport, associated with subsurface dipole eddies, was revealed within the filament. The results further suggest that an interaction between the offshore bending of flow at the Angola-Benguela Front (ABF), the detachment of the strong poleward flow from the coast as the thermal front meanders and the observed dipole eddies may be driving filament occurrence in the region off Cape Frio.

  18. Coastal Upwelling Drives Intertidal Assemblage Structure and Trophic Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddin, Carl J; Docmac, Felipe; O'Connor, Nessa E; Bothwell, John H; Harrod, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Similar environmental driving forces can produce similarity among geographically distant ecosystems. Coastal oceanic upwelling, for example, has been associated with elevated biomass and abundance patterns of certain functional groups, e.g., corticated macroalgae. In the upwelling system of Northern Chile, we examined measures of intertidal macrobenthic composition, structure and trophic ecology across eighteen shores varying in their proximity to two coastal upwelling centres, in a hierarchical sampling design (spatial scales of >1 and >10 km). The influence of coastal upwelling on intertidal communities was confirmed by the stable isotope values (δ13C and δ15N) of consumers, including a dominant suspension feeder, grazers, and their putative resources of POM, epilithic biofilm, and macroalgae. We highlight the utility of muscle δ15N from the suspension feeding mussel, Perumytilus purpuratus, as a proxy for upwelling, supported by satellite data and previous studies. Where possible, we used corrections for broader-scale trends, spatial autocorrelation, ontogenetic dietary shifts and spatial baseline isotopic variation prior to analysis. Our results showed macroalgal assemblage composition, and benthic consumer assemblage structure, varied significantly with the intertidal influence of coastal upwelling, especially contrasting bays and coastal headlands. Coastal topography also separated differences in consumer resource use. This suggested that coastal upwelling, itself driven by coastline topography, influences intertidal communities by advecting nearshore phytoplankton populations offshore and cooling coastal water temperatures. We recommend the isotopic values of benthic organisms, specifically long-lived suspension feeders, as in situ alternatives to offshore measurements of upwelling influence.

  19. Aerosolization of cyanobacterial cells across ecosystem boundaries in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout-Haney, J.; Heindel, R. C.; Virginia, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    Cyanobacteria play a major ecological role in polar freshwaters, occurring predominately as small single cells in the water column, i.e., picocyanobacteria, or large multicellular colonies and mats that reside on the lake bottom. Cyanobacteria are also present in terrestrial polar habitats, including within soils, soil crusts, rocks, and glacial ice. Despite their predominance in polar ecosystems, the extent to which cyanobacteria move between terrestrial and aquatic landscape units remains poorly understood. In polar deserts such as the McMurdo Dry Valleys, aeolian processes influence terrestrial landscape morphology and drive the transport of sediments and other particles. Water surfaces can also act as a source of aerosolized particles, such as the production of sea spray aerosols through wave breaking in marine environments. However, aerosolization from freshwater bodies has been far less studied, especially in polar regions. We conducted a field-study to examine the transport of aerosolized cyanobacterial cells from ponds and soils in the McMurdo Dry Valleys. We used highly portable aerosol collection devices fitted with GF/F filters combusted at 500°C (0.3 µm) to collect small particles, such as picocyanobacteria (0.2 - 2 µm), from near-shore water and adjacent soil. We used epifluorescence microscopy to quantify aerosolized cells, with excitation filters for chlorophyll a (435 nm) and phycobilin pigments (572 nm), to distinguish cyanobacterial cells. We detected aerosolized picocyanobacterial cells from all ponds and soils sampled, indicating that these cells may be quite mobile and transported across ecosystem boundaries. We observed cyanobacterial cells individually, clustered, and associated with other organic material, suggesting multiple modes of cell transport. Further, we investigated the potential for aerosolization of toxin-producing cyanobacterial taxa (or unbound cyanotoxins), and the ecological and ecosystem-scale implications of

  20. Assessment of ecosystem services provided by urban trees: public lands within the Urban Growth Boundary of Corvallis, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public lands within the Urban Growth Boundary of Corvallis, Oregon contain a diverse population of about 440,000 trees that include over 300 varieties and have an estimated tree cover of 31%. While often unrecognized, urban trees provide a variety of “ecosystem services” or dire...

  1. Radiative transfer modeling of upwelling light field in coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundarabalan, Balasubramanian; Shanmugam, Palanisamy; Manjusha, Sadasivan

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the radiance distribution in coastal waters are a complex problem, but playing a growingly important role in optical oceanography and remote sensing applications. The present study attempts to modify the Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs) to allow the phase function to vary with depth, and the bottom boundary to take into account a sloping/irregular surface and the effective reflectance of the bottom material. It then uses the Hydrolight numerical model to compute Apparent Optical Properties (AOPs) for modified IOPs and bottom boundary conditions compared to the default values available in the standard Hydrolight model. The comparison of the profiles of upwelling radiance simulated with depth-dependent IOPs as well as modified bottom boundary conditions for realistic cases of coastal waters off Point Calimere of southern India shows a good match between the simulated and measured upwelling radiance profile data, whereas there is a significant drift between the upwelling radiances simulated from the standard Hydrolight model (with default values) and measured data. Further comparison for different solar zenith conditions at a coastal station indicates that the upwelling radiances simulated with the depth-dependent IOPs and modified bottom boundary conditions are in good agreement with the measured radiance profile data. This simulation captures significant changes in the upwelling radiance field influenced by the bottom boundary layer as well. These results clearly emphasize the importance of using realistic depth-dependent IOPs as well as bottom boundary conditions as input to Hydrolight in order to obtain more accurate AOPs in coastal waters. -- Highlights: ► RT model with depth-dependent IOPs and modified bottom boundary conditions provides accurate L u profiles in coastal waters. ► The modified phase function model will be useful for coastal waters. ► An inter-comparison with measured upwelling radiance gives merits of the

  2. Dinoflagellate blooms in upwelling systems: Seeding, variability, and contrasts with diatom bloom behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smayda, T. J.; Trainer, V. L.

    2010-04-01

    The influence of diatom bloom behaviour, dinoflagellate life cycles, propagule type and upwelling bloom cycles on the seeding of dinoflagellate blooms in eastern boundary current upwelling systems is evaluated. Winter-spring diatom bloom behaviour is contrasted with upwelling bloom behaviour because their phenology impacts dinoflagellate blooms. The winter-spring diatom bloom is usually sustained, whereas the classical upwelling diatom bloom occurs as a series of separate, recurrent mini-blooms intercalated by upwelling-relaxation periods, during which dinoflagellates often bloom. Four sequential wind-regulated phases characterize upwelling cycles, with each phase having different effects on diatom and dinoflagellate bloom behaviour: bloom “spin up”, bloom maximum, bloom “spin down”, and upwelling relaxation. The spin up - bloom maximum is the period of heightened diatom growth; the spin down - upwelling-relaxation phases are the periods when dinoflagellates often bloom. The duration, intensity and ratio of the upwelling and relaxation periods making up upwelling cycles determine the potential for dinoflagellate blooms to develop within a given upwelling cycle and prior to the subsequent “spin up” of upwelling that favours diatom blooms. Upwelling diatoms and meroplanktonic dinoflagellates have three types of propagules available to seed blooms: vegetative cells, resting cells and resting cysts. However, most upwelling dinoflagellates are holoplanktonic, which indicates that the capacity to form resting cysts is not an absolute requirement for growth and survival in upwelling systems. The long-term (decadal) gaps in bloom behaviour of Gymnodinium catenatum and Lingulodinium polyedrum, and the unpredictable bloom behaviour of dinoflagellates generally, are examined from the perspective of seeding strategies. Mismatches between observed and expected in situ bloom behaviour and resting cyst dynamics are common among upwelling dinoflagellates. This

  3. Baseflow vs floods: Linking geomorphology and ecology by blurring disciplinary and ecosystem boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, M. W.; Stanley, E. H.; Small, M.

    2011-12-01

    emerge from drawing in geomorphology or hydrology into ecology, or vice versa. We suggest two approaches to continuing to bridge disciplines and potentially push forward river science. First, by looking for concepts formative in one discipline for which there are no analogous counter-parts in the other discipline, we may be able to re-analyze existing data in ways that are more conducive to interpretation by other disciplines. Converting nutrient spiraling metrics into effective discharge metrics is one such example. Another example worth exploring is Schumm and Licthy's classic time, space, and causality, but applied to stream ecology or biogeochemistry. A second approach is to blur the boundaries of ecosystems studied, either temporally or spatially. For example, expanding the spatial scale beyond the 'obvious' boundary of the streambed led to the discovery of the hyporheic zone; expanding traditional ecology study reaches led to the spate of research on tributary junctions network geometry. We suspect that there are similar opportunities for new discoveries or concepts through the intentional blurring of oft-used boundaries to stream studies.

  4. Entrepreneurial behaviour and the development of entrepreneurial ecosystems under uncertainty: essays on regenerative medicine venturing at the university-industry boundary

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, David

    2016-01-01

    Entrepreneurial ecosystems are an important economic consideration but remain an understudied phenomenon. In particular, research emphasising the role of the entrepreneur within entrepreneurial ecosystems is scant. Entrepreneurial universities, particularly the commercialisation activities by academic entrepreneurs, contribute to both the emergence and development of entrepreneurial ecosystems at the university-industry (U-I) boundary. Yet, an understanding of the links between...

  5. Effects of future land use and ecosystem changes on boundary-layer meteorology and air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, A. P. K.; Wang, L.; Sadeke, M.

    2017-12-01

    Land vegetation plays key roles shaping boundary-layer meteorology and air quality via various pathways. Vegetation can directly affect surface ozone via dry deposition and biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Transpiration from land plants can also influence surface temperature, soil moisture and boundary-layer mixing depth, thereby indirectly affecting surface ozone. Future changes in the distribution, density and physiology of vegetation are therefore expected to have major ramifications for surface ozone air quality. In our study, we examine two aspects of potential vegetation changes using the Community Earth System Model (CESM) in the fully coupled land-atmosphere configuration, and evaluate their implications on meteorology and air quality: 1) land use change, which alters the distribution of plant functional types and total leaf density; and 2) ozone damage on vegetation, which alters leaf density and physiology (e.g., stomatal resistance). We find that, following the RCP8.5 scenario for 2050, global cropland expansion induces only minor changes in surface ozone in tropical and subtropical regions, but statistically significant changes by up to +4 ppbv in midlatitude North America and East Asia, mostly due to higher surface temperature that enhances biogenic VOC emissions, and reduced dry deposition to a lesser degree. These changes are in turn to driven mostly by meteorological changes that include a shift from latent to sensible heat in the surface energy balance and reduced soil moisture, reflecting not only local responses but also a northward expansion of the Hadley Cell. On the other hand, ozone damage on vegetation driven by rising anthropogenic emissions is shown to induce a further enhancement of ozone by up to +6 ppbv in midlatitude regions by 2050. This reflects a strong localized positive feedback, with severe ozone damage in polluted regions generally inducing stomatal closure, which in turn reduces transpiration, increases

  6. Trends in the number of extreme hot SST days along the Canary Upwelling System due to the influence of upwelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xurxo Costoya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Trends in the number of extreme hot days (days with SST anomalies higher than the 95% percentile were analyzed along the Canary Upwelling Ecosystem (CUE over the period 1982- 2012 by means of SST data retrieved from NOAA OI1/4 Degree. The analysis will focus on the Atlantic Iberian sector and the Moroccan sub- region where upwelling is seasonal (spring and summer are permanent, respectively. Trends were analyzed both near coast and at the adjacent ocean where the increase in the number of extreme hot days is higher. Changes are clear at annual scale with an increment of 9.8±0.3 (9.7±0.1 days dec-1 near coast and 11.6±0.2 (13.5±0.1 days dec-1 at the ocean in the Atlantic Iberian sector (Moroccan sub-region. The differences between near shore and ocean trends are especially patent for the months under intense upwelling conditions. During that upwelling season the highest differences in the excess of extreme hot days between coastal and ocean locations (Δn(#days dec-1 occur at those regions where coastal upwelling increase is high. Actually, Δn and upwelling trends have shown to be significantly correlated in both areas, R=0.88 (p<0.01 at the Atlantic Iberian sector and R=0.67 (p<0.01 at the Moroccan sub-region.

  7. Identifying Shifts in Leaf-Litter Ant Assemblages (Hymenoptera: Formicidae across Ecosystem Boundaries Using Multiple Sampling Methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Wiezik

    Full Text Available Global or regional environmental changes in climate or land use have been increasingly implied in shifts in boundaries (ecotones between adjacent ecosystems such as beech or oak-dominated forests and forest-steppe ecotones that frequently co-occur near the southern range limits of deciduous forest biome in Europe. Yet, our ability to detect changes in biological communities across these ecosystems, or to understand their environmental drivers, can be hampered when different sampling methods are required to characterize biological communities of the adjacent but ecologically different ecosystems. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae have been shown to be particularly sensitive to changes in temperature and vegetation and they require different sampling methods in closed vs. open habitats. We compared ant assemblages of closed-forests (beech- or oak-dominated and open forest-steppe habitats in southwestern Carpathians using methods for closed-forest (litter sifting and open habitats (pitfall trapping, and developed an integrated sampling approach to characterize changes in ant assemblages across these adjacent ecosystems. Using both methods, we collected 5,328 individual ant workers from 28 species. Neither method represented ant communities completely, but pitfall trapping accounted for more species (24 than litter sifting (16. Although pitfall trapping characterized differences in species richness and composition among the ecosystems better, with beech forest being most species poor and ecotone most species rich, litter sifting was more successful in identifying characteristic litter-dwelling species in oak-dominated forest. The integrated sampling approach using both methods yielded more accurate characterization of species richness and composition, and particularly so in species-rich forest-steppe habitat where the combined sample identified significantly higher number of species compared to either of the two methods on their own. Thus, an integrated

  8. Identifying Shifts in Leaf-Litter Ant Assemblages (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) across Ecosystem Boundaries Using Multiple Sampling Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiezik, Michal; Svitok, Marek; Wieziková, Adela; Dovčiak, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Global or regional environmental changes in climate or land use have been increasingly implied in shifts in boundaries (ecotones) between adjacent ecosystems such as beech or oak-dominated forests and forest-steppe ecotones that frequently co-occur near the southern range limits of deciduous forest biome in Europe. Yet, our ability to detect changes in biological communities across these ecosystems, or to understand their environmental drivers, can be hampered when different sampling methods are required to characterize biological communities of the adjacent but ecologically different ecosystems. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) have been shown to be particularly sensitive to changes in temperature and vegetation and they require different sampling methods in closed vs. open habitats. We compared ant assemblages of closed-forests (beech- or oak-dominated) and open forest-steppe habitats in southwestern Carpathians using methods for closed-forest (litter sifting) and open habitats (pitfall trapping), and developed an integrated sampling approach to characterize changes in ant assemblages across these adjacent ecosystems. Using both methods, we collected 5,328 individual ant workers from 28 species. Neither method represented ant communities completely, but pitfall trapping accounted for more species (24) than litter sifting (16). Although pitfall trapping characterized differences in species richness and composition among the ecosystems better, with beech forest being most species poor and ecotone most species rich, litter sifting was more successful in identifying characteristic litter-dwelling species in oak-dominated forest. The integrated sampling approach using both methods yielded more accurate characterization of species richness and composition, and particularly so in species-rich forest-steppe habitat where the combined sample identified significantly higher number of species compared to either of the two methods on their own. Thus, an integrated sampling

  9. Artificial Light at Night Affects Organism Flux across Ecosystem Boundaries and Drives Community Structure in the Recipient Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Manfrin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Artificial light at night (ALAN is a widespread alteration of the natural environment that can affect the functioning of ecosystems. ALAN can change the movement patterns of freshwater animals that move into the adjacent riparian and terrestrial ecosystems, but the implications for local riparian consumers that rely on these subsidies are still unexplored. We conducted a 2-year field experiment to quantify changes of freshwater-terrestrial linkages by installing streetlights in a previously light-naïve riparian area adjacent to an agricultural drainage ditch. We compared the abundance and community composition of emerging aquatic insects, flying insects, and ground-dwelling arthropods with an unlit control site. Comparisons were made within and between years using two-way generalized least squares (GLS model and a BACI design (Before-After Control-Impact. Aquatic insect emergence, the proportion of flying insects that were aquatic in origin, and the total abundance of flying insects all increased in the ALAN-illuminated area. The abundance of several night-active ground-dwelling predators (Pachygnatha clercki, Trochosa sp., Opiliones increased under ALAN and their activity was extended into the day. Conversely, the abundance of nocturnal ground beetles (Carabidae decreased under ALAN. The changes in composition of riparian predator and scavenger communities suggest that the increase in aquatic-to-terrestrial subsidy flux may cascade through the riparian food web. The work is among the first studies to experimentally manipulate ALAN using a large-scale field experiment, and provides evidence that ALAN can affect processes that link adjacent ecosystems. Given the large number of streetlights that are installed along shorelines of freshwater bodies throughout the globe, the effects could be widespread and represent an underestimated source of impairment for both aquatic and riparian systems.

  10. Short commentary on marine productivity at Arctic shelf breaks: upwelling, advection and vertical mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Randelhoff

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The future of Arctic marine ecosystems has received increasing attention in recent years as the extent of the sea ice cover is dwindling. Although the Pacific and Atlantic inflows both import huge quantities of nutrients and plankton, they feed into the Arctic Ocean in quite diverse regions. The strongly stratified Pacific sector has a historically heavy ice cover, a shallow shelf and dominant upwelling-favourable winds, while the Atlantic sector is weakly stratified, with a dynamic ice edge and a complex bathymetry. We argue that shelf break upwelling is likely not a universal but rather a regional, albeit recurring, feature of the new Arctic. It is the regional oceanography that decides its importance through a range of diverse factors such as stratification, bathymetry and wind forcing. Teasing apart their individual contributions in different regions can only be achieved by spatially resolved time series and dedicated modelling efforts. The Northern Barents Sea shelf is an example of a region where shelf break upwelling likely does not play a dominant role, in contrast to the shallower shelves north of Alaska where ample evidence for its importance has already accumulated. Still, other factors can contribute to marked future increases in biological productivity along the Arctic shelf break. A warming inflow of nutrient-rich Atlantic Water feeds plankton at the same time as it melts the sea ice, permitting increased photosynthesis. Concurrent changes in sea ice cover and zooplankton communities advected with the boundary currents make for a complex mosaic of regulating factors that do not allow for Arctic-wide generalizations.

  11. Short commentary on marine productivity at Arctic shelf breaks: upwelling, advection and vertical mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randelhoff, Achim; Sundfjord, Arild

    2018-04-01

    The future of Arctic marine ecosystems has received increasing attention in recent years as the extent of the sea ice cover is dwindling. Although the Pacific and Atlantic inflows both import huge quantities of nutrients and plankton, they feed into the Arctic Ocean in quite diverse regions. The strongly stratified Pacific sector has a historically heavy ice cover, a shallow shelf and dominant upwelling-favourable winds, while the Atlantic sector is weakly stratified, with a dynamic ice edge and a complex bathymetry. We argue that shelf break upwelling is likely not a universal but rather a regional, albeit recurring, feature of the new Arctic. It is the regional oceanography that decides its importance through a range of diverse factors such as stratification, bathymetry and wind forcing. Teasing apart their individual contributions in different regions can only be achieved by spatially resolved time series and dedicated modelling efforts. The Northern Barents Sea shelf is an example of a region where shelf break upwelling likely does not play a dominant role, in contrast to the shallower shelves north of Alaska where ample evidence for its importance has already accumulated. Still, other factors can contribute to marked future increases in biological productivity along the Arctic shelf break. A warming inflow of nutrient-rich Atlantic Water feeds plankton at the same time as it melts the sea ice, permitting increased photosynthesis. Concurrent changes in sea ice cover and zooplankton communities advected with the boundary currents make for a complex mosaic of regulating factors that do not allow for Arctic-wide generalizations.

  12. Iberian and California-Oregon Upwelling Systems: trends and status of two upwelling systems at the same latitude over the last four decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro, B.; Barton, E. D.

    2012-04-01

    The study of Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems is of vital importance, given the interest in rational management of the fisheries resources. The high level of biogeochemical activity associated with the physical process of upwelling increases primary production and enriches the living resources of these areas. This presentation focuses on the variability of these physical processes on daily to interdecadal scales, in an investigation of the effects of climate change in the Iberian and California-Oregon Upwelling Systems. The Upwelling Index (UI) was analysed for the period 1967-2010 at 35.5-44.5°N in both areas. The two systems differ in that the magnitudes of upwelling intensity off California-Oregon are 3.3 higher than off Iberia but they show a similar latitudinal behaviour. The annual/interannual scale variability of upwelling can be represented by the recently introduced Cumulative Upwelling Index (CUI) based on summing the mean daily UI. The seasonal cycle results show the length of upwelling season increases southwards from 180 to 300 days and a net upwelling occurs only for latitudes lower than 43°N. On the interannual scales, the CUI showed a roughly linear change at high and low latitudes (R>0.9), with slopes between 250 and -130 m3 s-1 km-1 day-1 in Iberian and 620 and -290 m3 s-1 km-1 day-1 in California-Oregon. The central areas (40.5-42.5°N) are less stable and shifted between net upwelling and downwelling over extended periods. This information helps us contextualize the present state of the study area and interpreted ongoing intensive process-oriented studies within the longer term variability.

  13. Linking planetary boundaries and ecosystem accounting, with an illustration for the Colombian Orinoco river basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas, Leonardo; Willemen, L.; Hein, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Economic development has increased pressures on natural resources during the last decades. The concept of planetary boundaries has been developed to propose limits on human activities based on earth processes and ecological thresholds. However, this concept was not developed to downscale planetary

  14. Zooplankton Responses to Low-Oxygen Condition upon a Shallow Oxygen Minimum Zone in the Upwelling Region off Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, P.; Escribano, R.

    2015-12-01

    A shallow oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) is a critical component in the coastal upwelling ecosystem off Chile. This OMZ causes oxygen-deficient water entering the photic layer and affecting plankton communities having low tolerance to hypoxia. Variable, and usually species-dependent, responses of zooplankton to hypoxia condition can be found. Most dominant species avoid hypoxia by restricting their vertical distribution, while others can temporarily enter and even spent part of their life cycle within the OMZ. Whatever the case, low-oxygen conditions appear to affect virtually all vital rates of zooplankton, such as mortality, fecundity, development and growth and metabolism, and early developmental stages seem more sensitive, with significant consequences for population and community dynamics. For most study cases, these effects are negative at individual and population levels. Observations and predictions upon increasing upwelling intensity over the last 20-30 years indicate a gradual shoaling of the OMZ, and so that an expected enhancement of these negative effects of hypoxia on the zooplankton community. Unknown processes of adaptation and community-structure adjustments are expected to take place with uncertain consequences for the food web of this highly productive eastern boundary current ecosystem.

  15. Community response of zooplankton to oceanographic changes (2002-2012) in the central/southern upwelling system of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medellín-Mora, Johanna; Escribano, Ruben; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    A 10-year time series (2002-2012) at Station 18 off central/southern Chile allowed us to study variations in zooplankton along with interannual variability and trends in oceanographic conditions. We used an automated analysis program (ZooImage) to assess changes in the mesozooplankton size structure and the composition of the taxa throughout the entire community. Oceanographic conditions changed over the decade: the water column became less stratified, more saline, and colder; the mixed layer deepened; and the oxygen minimum zone became shallower during the second half of the time series (2008-2012) in comparison with the first period (2002-2007). Both the size structure and composition of the zooplankton were significantly associated with oceanographic changes. Taxonomic and size diversity of the zooplankton community increased to the more recent period. For the second period, small sized copepods (1.5 mm) and medium size copepods (1-1.5 mm), whereas euphausiids, decapod larvae, appendicularian and ostracods increased their abundance during the second period. These findings indicated that the zooplankton community structure in this eastern boundary ecosystem was strongly influenced by variability of the upwelling process. Thus, climate-induced forcing of upwelling trends can alter the zooplankton community in this highly productive region with potential consequences for the ecosystem food web.

  16. Determination of wetland ecosystem boundaries and validation of land use maps using remote sensing: Fuente de Piedra case study (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Antonio; Malak, Dania Abdul; Schröder, Christoph; Martinez-Murillo, Juan F.

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing techniques (SRS) are valid tools for wetland monitoring that could support wetland managers in assessing the spatial and temporal changes in wetland ecosystems as well as in understanding their condition and the ecosystem services they provide. This study focuses on the one hand, on drawing hydro-ecological guidelines for the delimitation of wetland ecosystems; and on the other hand, to assess the reliability of widely available satellite images (Landsat) in estimating the land use/ land cover types covering wetlands. This research develops comprehensive guidelines to determine the boundaries of the Fuente de Piedra wetland ecosystem located in Andalusia, Spain and defines the main land use/ land cover classes covering this ecosystem using Landsat 8 images. An accuracy of the SRS results delivered is tested using the regional inventory of land use produced by the regional government of Andalusia in 2011. By using the ecological and hydrological settings of the area, the boundaries of the Fuente de Piedra wetland ecosystem are determined as an alternative to improve the current delimitations methodology (the Ramsar and Natura 2000 delineations), used by the local authorities so far and based mainly on administrative reasoning. In terms of the land use land cover definition in the area, Fuente de Piedra wetland ecosystem shows to cover a total area of 195 km2 composed mainly by agricultural areas (81.46%): olive groves, non-irrigated arable land and pastures, being 54.82%, 25.71% and 0.93% of the surface respectively. Wetland related land covers (water surface, wetland vegetation) represent 6.85% while natural vegetation is distributed in forest, 1.67%, and shrub areas, 4.14%, being 5.81% in total. 4.58% of the area corresponds to urban and other artificial surfaces. The rest, 1.30%, is composed of different areas without vegetation (sands, bare rock, dumps, etc.). The classification of the Landsat images made with the newly developed SWOS toolbox

  17. Spatio-temporal variability of upwelling along the southwest coast of India based on satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaram, Chiranjivi; Kumar, P. K. Dinesh

    2018-03-01

    Upwelling phenomenon along the eastern boundaries of global ocean has received greater attention in the recent times due to its environmental and economic significance in the global warming and the scenario of changing climate as opined by IPCC AR5. In this context, the availabile satellite data on sea surface winds, sea surface temperature (SST), sea level anomaly (SLA) and chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a), for the period 1981-2016 were analyzed to identify the coastal upwelling pattern in the Southeastern Arabian Sea (SEAS). Synergistic approach, using winds, SST, SLA and Chl-a revealed that strong upwelling was prevailing between 8°N and 12°N. During the study period, geographical differences existed in the peak values of upwelling favorable conditions considered for study. Analysis of the alongshore winds which are conducive for upwelling were observed to be curtailed towards the northern part of the study region between 2005 and 2010. Also, the strength of upwelling reduced during the strong ENSO years of 1997 and 2015. Linear regression based trend analysis of upwelling indices like Ekman transport, SST and chlorophyll along the coast, during the upwelling period, revealed slight increase in the strength towards the southern region while it decreased to the north during the study period.

  18. Meteorological constraints on oceanic halocarbons above the Peruvian Upwelling

    OpenAIRE

    S. Fuhlbrügge; B. Quack; E. Atlas; A. Fiehn; H. Hepach; K. Krüger

    2015-01-01

    Halogenated very short lived substances (VSLS) are naturally produced in the ocean and emitted to the atmosphere. Recently, oceanic upwelling regions in the tropical East Atlantic were identified as strong sources of brominated halocarbons to the atmosphere. During a cruise of R/V METEOR in December 2012 the oceanic sources and emissions of various halogenated trace gases and their mixing ratios in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (M...

  19. Meteorological constraints on oceanic halocarbons above the Peruvian upwelling

    OpenAIRE

    Fuhlbrügge, Steffen; Quack, Birgit; Atlas, Elliot; Fiehn, Alina; Hepach, Helmke; Krüger, Kirstin

    2016-01-01

    During a cruise of R/V METEOR in December 2012 the oceanic sources and emissions of various halogenated trace gases and their mixing ratios in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) were investigated above the Peruvian upwelling. This study presents novel observations of the three very short lived substances (VSLSs) – bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide – together with high-resolution meteorological measurements, Lagrangian transport and source–loss calculations. ...

  20. Dynamics of a "low-enrichment high-retention" upwelling center over the southern Senegal shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndoye, Siny; Capet, Xavier; Estrade, Philippe; Sow, Bamol; Machu, Eric; Brochier, Timothée.; Döring, Julian; Brehmer, Patrice

    2017-05-01

    Senegal is the southern tip of the Canary upwelling system. Its coastal ocean hosts an upwelling center which shapes sea surface temperatures between latitudes 12° and 15°N. Near this latter latitude, the Cape Verde headland and a sudden change in shelf cross-shore profile are major sources of heterogeneity in the southern Senegal upwelling sector (SSUS). SSUS dynamics is investigated by means of Regional Ocean Modeling System simulations. Configuration realism and resolution (Δx≈ 2 km) are sufficient to reproduce the SSUS frontal system. Our main focus is on the 3-D upwelling circulation which turns out to be profoundly different from 2-D theory: cold water injection onto the shelf and upwelling are strongly concentrated within a few tens of kilometers south of Cape Verde and largely arise from flow divergence in the alongshore direction; a significant fraction of the upwelled waters are retained nearshore over long distances while travelling southward under the influence of northerly winds. Another source of complexity, regional-scale alongshore pressure gradients, also contributes to the overall retention of upwelled waters over the shelf. Varying the degree of realism of atmospheric and oceanic forcings does not appreciably change these conclusions. This study sheds light on the dynamics and circulation underlying the recurrent sea surface temperature pattern observed during the upwelling season and offers new perspectives on the connections between the SSUS physical environment and its ecosystems. It also casts doubt on the validity of upwelling intensity estimations based on simple Ekman upwelling indices at such local scales.

  1. Physical structure and algae community of summer upwelling off eastern Hainan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H.; Liu, S.; Xie, Q.; Hong, B.; Long, T.

    2017-12-01

    The upwelling system is the most productive ecosystem along the continental shelf of the northern South China Sea Shelf. It brings nutrient from bottom to surface and blooms biotic community driven by summer monsoon. In this study, we present observed results of physical and biotic community structures during August, 2015 in the upwelling system along Hainan eastern coast, which is one the strongest upwelling systems in the northern South China Sea. By using hydrological data collected by CTD, we found a significant cold water tongue with high salinity which extended from offshore to 100 m isobaths. However, dissolved oxygen (DO) showed a sandwich structure in which high core of DO concentration appeared at the layer from 5 m to 30 m. It possibly was caused by the advection transport of high DO from adjacent area. Basically, this upwelling system was constrained at northern area of 18.8ºN in horizontal due to the weakening summer monsoon in August. In addition, we collected water sample at the upwelling area and measured algae categories and concentration by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results show the biotic community was dominated by five types of algae mainly, they were diatoms, dinoflagellates, green algae, prokaryotes and prochlorococcus. And different patterns of different algae were demonstrated. In the upwelling area, diatoms and prokaryotes show opposite structures, and more complex pattern for the rest three algae indicating an active biotic community in the upwelling system.

  2. Spatial analyses of benthic habitats to define coral reef ecosystem regions and potential biogeographic boundaries along a latitudinal gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K Walker

    Full Text Available Marine organism diversity typically attenuates latitudinally from tropical to colder climate regimes. Since the distribution of many marine species relates to certain habitats and depth regimes, mapping data provide valuable information in the absence of detailed ecological data that can be used to identify and spatially quantify smaller scale (10 s km coral reef ecosystem regions and potential physical biogeographic barriers. This study focused on the southeast Florida coast due to a recognized, but understudied, tropical to subtropical biogeographic gradient. GIS spatial analyses were conducted on recent, accurate, shallow-water (0-30 m benthic habitat maps to identify and quantify specific regions along the coast that were statistically distinct in the number and amount of major benthic habitat types. Habitat type and width were measured for 209 evenly-spaced cross-shelf transects. Evaluation of groupings from a cluster analysis at 75% similarity yielded five distinct regions. The number of benthic habitats and their area, width, distance from shore, distance from each other, and LIDAR depths were calculated in GIS and examined to determine regional statistical differences. The number of benthic habitats decreased with increasing latitude from 9 in the south to 4 in the north and many of the habitat metrics statistically differed between regions. Three potential biogeographic barriers were found at the Boca, Hillsboro, and Biscayne boundaries, where specific shallow-water habitats were absent further north; Middle Reef, Inner Reef, and oceanic seagrass beds respectively. The Bahamas Fault Zone boundary was also noted where changes in coastal morphologies occurred that could relate to subtle ecological changes. The analyses defined regions on a smaller scale more appropriate to regional management decisions, hence strengthening marine conservation planning with an objective, scientific foundation for decision making. They provide a framework

  3. Pathways of upwelling deep waters to the surface of the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamsitt, Veronica; Drake, Henri; Morrison, Adele; Talley, Lynne; Dufour, Carolina; Gray, Alison; Griffies, Stephen; Mazloff, Matthew; Sarmiento, Jorge; Wang, Jinbo; Weijer, Wilbert

    2017-04-01

    Upwelling of Atlantic, Indian and Pacific deep waters to the sea surface in the Southern Ocean closes the global overturning circulation and is fundamentally important for oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon and heat, nutrient resupply for sustaining oceanic biological production, and the melt rate of ice shelves. Here we go beyond the two-dimensional view of Southern Ocean upwelling, to show detailed Southern Ocean upwelling pathways in three dimensions, using hydrographic observations and particle tracking in high-resolution ocean and climate models. The northern deep waters enter the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) via narrow southward currents along the boundaries of the three ocean basins, before spiraling southeastward and upward through the ACC. Upwelling is greatly enhanced at five major topographic features, associated with vigorous mesoscale eddy activity. Deep water reaches the upper ocean predominantly south of the southern ACC boundary, with a spatially nonuniform distribution, regionalizing warm water supply to Antarctic ice shelves and the delivery of nutrient and carbon-rich water to the sea surface. The timescale for half of the deep water to upwell from 30°S to the mixed layer is on the order of 60-90 years, which has important implications for the timescale for signals to propagate through the deep ocean. In addition, we quantify the diabatic transformation along particle trajectories, to identify where diabatic processes are important along the upwelling pathways.

  4. Warm water upwelling in the Cenozoic Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Modern observations show that the occurrence of wind-driven upwelling is often tied to cold sea surface temperatures (SSTs). However, SST reconstructions indicate that globally, the upwelling regions were much warmer in the Miocene and Pliocene. This questions the overall strength of deep-water upwelling in the geological past, with important implications for the associated atmospheric, climatic and biogeochemical processes, and the fate of upwelling regions in a high-CO2 world. We recently showed that the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) was characterized by strong air-sea disequilibrium of CO2 during the late Miocene - Pliocene. Combined with export productivity proxies, we interpreted these as signs of vigorous upwelling. The upwelled waters were nutrient- and CO2-rich, but warm. The cause of the "excess" warming in the upwelling regions is linked to the source waters which originated from the higher latitudes. In other words, the reduced east (upwelling) to west (non-upwelling) temperature gradients along the equator in major ocean basins are rooted in the reduced meridional temperature gradients. To further test this hypothesis, we examine the history of the EEP and temperature gradients during the even-warmer Eocene - middle Miocene.

  5. Connecting pigment composition and dissolved trace elements to phytoplankton population in the southern Benguela Upwelling zone (St. Helena Bay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Supriyo Kumar; Routh, Joyanto; Roychoudhury, Alakendra N.; Veldhuis, Marcel J. W.; Ismail, Hassan E.

    2017-12-01

    Rich in upwelled nutrients, the Southern Benguela is one of the most productive ecosystems in the world ocean. However, despite its ecological significance the role of trace elements influencing phytoplankton population in the Southern Benguela Upwelling System (SBUS) has not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we report pigment composition, macronutrients (nitrate, phosphate and silicate) and concentrations of dissolved Cd, Co, Fe and Zn during late austral summer and winter seasons in 2004 to understand the relationship between the selected trace elements and phytoplankton biomass in St. Helena Bay (SHB), which falls within the southern boundary of the SBUS. Chlorophyll a concentrations indicate higher phytoplankton biomass associated with high primary production during late summer in SHB where high diatom population is inferred from the presence of fucoxanthin. Diminished phytoplankton biomass and a shift from diatoms to dinoflagellates as the dominant phytoplankton taxa are indicated by diagnostic pigments during late winter. Dissolved trace elements (Cd, Co and Zn) and macronutrients play a significant role in phytoplankton biomass, and their distribution is affected by biological uptake and export of trace elements. Continuous uptake of Zn by diatoms may cause an onset of Zn depletion leading to a period of extended diatom proliferation during late summer. Furthermore, the transition from diatom to dinoflagellate dominated phytoplankton population is most likely facilitated by depletion of trace elements (Cd and Co) in the water column.

  6. Differential responses of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of a brown macroalga to present-day and future upwelling pCO2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Saderne

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are key species of the Baltic Sea benthic ecosystems. They are the substratum of numerous fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Several of these epibionts bear calcified structures and could be impacted by the high pCO2 events of the late summer upwellings in the Baltic nearshores. Those events are expected to increase in strength and duration with global change and ocean acidification. If calcifying epibionts are impacted by transient acidification as driven by upwelling events, their increasing prevalence could cause a shift of the fouling communities toward fleshy species. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of selected seaweed macrofoulers to transient elevation of pCO2 in their natural microenvironment, i.e. the boundary layer covering the thallus surface of brown seaweeds. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing an epibiotic community composed of the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium hirsutum (Bryozoa were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460 ± 59 µatm, present-day upwelling1193 ± 166 µatm and future upwelling 3150 ± 446 µatm. Only the highest pCO2 caused a significant reduction of growth rates and settlement of S. spirorbis individuals. Additionally, S. spirorbis settled juveniles exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during daylight hours compared to dark hours, possibly reflecting a day-night alternation of an acidification-modulating effect by algal photosynthesis as opposed to an acidification-enhancing effect of algal respiration. E. pilosa colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at intermediate pCO2 (1193 µatm but no response to higher pCO2. No effect of acidification on A. hirsutum colonies growth rates was observed. The results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibionts to levels of acidification occurring at present day upwellings in the Baltic

  7. Alpine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.W. Rundel; C.I. Millar

    2016-01-01

    Alpine ecosystems are typically defined as those areas occurring above treeline, while recognizing that alpine ecosystems at a local scale may be found below this boundary for reasons including geology, geomorphology, and microclimate. The lower limit of the alpine ecosystems, the climatic treeline, varies with latitude across California, ranging from about 3500 m in...

  8. Meteorological constraints on oceanic halocarbons above the Peruvian upwelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fuhlbrügge

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During a cruise of R/V METEOR in December 2012 the oceanic sources and emissions of various halogenated trace gases and their mixing ratios in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL were investigated above the Peruvian upwelling. This study presents novel observations of the three very short lived substances (VSLSs – bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide – together with high-resolution meteorological measurements, Lagrangian transport and source–loss calculations. Oceanic emissions of bromoform and dibromomethane were relatively low compared to other upwelling regions, while those for methyl iodide were very high. Radiosonde launches during the cruise revealed a low, stable MABL and a distinct trade inversion above acting as strong barriers for convection and vertical transport of trace gases in this region. Observed atmospheric VSLS abundances, sea surface temperature, relative humidity and MABL height correlated well during the cruise. We used a simple source–loss estimate to quantify the contribution of oceanic emissions along the cruise track to the observed atmospheric concentrations. This analysis showed that averaged, instantaneous emissions could not support the observed atmospheric mixing ratios of VSLSs and that the marine background abundances below the trade inversion were significantly influenced by advection of regional sources. Adding to this background, the observed maximum emissions of halocarbons in the coastal upwelling could explain the high atmospheric VSLS concentrations in combination with their accumulation under the distinct MABL and trade inversions. Stronger emissions along the nearshore coastline likely added to the elevated abundances under the steady atmospheric conditions. This study underscores the importance of oceanic upwelling and trade wind systems on the atmospheric distribution of marine VSLS emissions.

  9. Meteorological constraints on oceanic halocarbons above the Peruvian upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhlbrügge, Steffen; Quack, Birgit; Atlas, Elliot; Fiehn, Alina; Hepach, Helmke; Krüger, Kirstin

    2016-09-01

    During a cruise of R/V METEOR in December 2012 the oceanic sources and emissions of various halogenated trace gases and their mixing ratios in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) were investigated above the Peruvian upwelling. This study presents novel observations of the three very short lived substances (VSLSs) - bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide - together with high-resolution meteorological measurements, Lagrangian transport and source-loss calculations. Oceanic emissions of bromoform and dibromomethane were relatively low compared to other upwelling regions, while those for methyl iodide were very high. Radiosonde launches during the cruise revealed a low, stable MABL and a distinct trade inversion above acting as strong barriers for convection and vertical transport of trace gases in this region. Observed atmospheric VSLS abundances, sea surface temperature, relative humidity and MABL height correlated well during the cruise. We used a simple source-loss estimate to quantify the contribution of oceanic emissions along the cruise track to the observed atmospheric concentrations. This analysis showed that averaged, instantaneous emissions could not support the observed atmospheric mixing ratios of VSLSs and that the marine background abundances below the trade inversion were significantly influenced by advection of regional sources. Adding to this background, the observed maximum emissions of halocarbons in the coastal upwelling could explain the high atmospheric VSLS concentrations in combination with their accumulation under the distinct MABL and trade inversions. Stronger emissions along the nearshore coastline likely added to the elevated abundances under the steady atmospheric conditions. This study underscores the importance of oceanic upwelling and trade wind systems on the atmospheric distribution of marine VSLS emissions.

  10. Diffusive boundary layers over varying topography

    KAUST Repository

    Dell, R.  W.; Pratt, L.  J.

    2015-01-01

    Diffusive bottom boundary layers can produce upslope flows in a stratified fluid. Accumulating observations suggest that these boundary layers may drive upwelling and mixing in mid-ocean ridge flank canyons. However, most studies of diffusive bottom

  11. Upwelling along the east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, C.S.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    the premonsoon and monsoon periods. Waters from deeper layers of the shelf appear to reach the surface causing considerable fall of surface temperature near the coast. The probable causes for these differences in upwelling along the coast are discussed...

  12. On the presence of coastal upwelling along the northeastern Tyrrhenian coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martellucci, Riccardo; Melchiorri, Cristiano; Costanzo, Lorenzo; Marcelli, Marco

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean region shows a high climate variability due to the interactions between mid-latitude and tropical processes. This variability makes the Mediterranean a potentially vulnerable region to climatic changes. The present research aims to investigate the hydrographical response to Northerly wind in the northeastern Tyrrhenian coast, to identify the relations between upwelling events and teleconnection patterns. In the Tyrrhenian basin northerly winds flow between North-East and North-West and could be considered upwelling favorable winds. This atmospheric circulation can causes a divergent flow near the coast that generates a subsurface water flows inshore toward the coast up to the surface layer that is upwelling. This phenomenon strongly influence the marine ecosystems, contributing to the supply of nutrients and affecting the primary producers. In this context multi-platform observing system is an important tool to follow the evolution of these phenomena. Sea temperature and wind field acquired by the C-CEMS Observing system were used to identify upwelling phenomena between 2012 and 2016, in the coastal area of Civitavecchia, Northern Tyrrhenian sea, Italy. Moreover a thirty years' wind-driven upwelling conditions have been studied in the area. ERA-Interim (ECMWF) wind data for the period 1982-2012 have been used to compute the distribution of upwelling favorable wind events. These have been compared to "Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service" Sea Surface Temperature (SST) to compute upwelling events. Upwelling favorable wind has been defined in the sector between Northwest and Northeast (Wd >330°N & Wd analysis. An increase of upwelling events in the Tyrrhenian coast is observed in the last thirty years; the occurrence of upwelling events has a seasonal oscillation, with a maximum frequency during winter and spring seasons. In the last decade an increase of these events in winter and a decrease in spring is observed; also a recurrence of

  13. Does mesoscale matters in decadal changes observed in the northern Canary upwelling system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relvas, P.; Luís, J.; Santos, A. M. P.

    2009-04-01

    The Western Iberia constitutes the northern limb of the Canary Current Upwelling System, one of the four Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems of the world ocean. The strong dynamic link between the atmosphere and the ocean makes these systems highly sensitive to global change, ideal to monitor and investigate its effects. In order to investigate decadal changes of the mesoscale patterns in the Northern Canary upwelling system (off Western Iberia), the field of the satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) trends was built at the pixel scale (4x4 km) for the period 1985-2007, based on the monthly mean data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on board NOAA series satellites, provided by the NASA Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The time series were limited to the nighttime passes to avoid the solar heating effect and a suite of procedures were followed to guarantee that the temperature trends were not biased towards the seasonally more abundant summer data, when the sky is considerably clear. A robust linear fit was applied to each individual pixel, crossing along the time the same pixel in all the processed monthly mean AVHRR SST images from 1985 until 2007. The field of the SST trends was created upon the slopes of the linear fits applied to each pixel. Monthly mean SST time series from the one degree enhanced International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) and from near-shore measurements collected on a daily basis by the Portuguese Meteorological Office (IM) are also used to compare the results and extend the analysis back until 1960. A generalized warming trend is detected in the coastal waters off Western Iberia during the last decades, no matter which data set we analyse. However, significant spatial differences in the warming rates are observed in the satellite-derived SST trends. Remarkably, off the southern part of the Western Iberia the known

  14. Four large coastal upwelling areas are created by eastern boundary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    large deep-water hake Merluccius paradoxus, 2.7% small M. paradoxus, 1.3% ... hake in the Benguela region, the shallow-water species. Merluccius capensis .... sharks are not included in the estimate, and neither is the proportion of sharks ...

  15. The physical structure of a cold filament in a Chilean upwelling zone (Península de Mejillones, Chile, 23°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobarzo, Marcus; Figueroa, Dante

    2001-12-01

    Cold filaments associated with Eastern Boundary Currents are typically narrower than 100 km but can be several hundred kilometers long, extending from the coast to the open ocean in upwelling areas. One such structure, observed off Península de Mejillones (23°S, Chile), was studied with both satellite images and two 5-days hydrographic cruises carried out during January 1997. The study used a coastal grid of 31 stations in an area of 165 ×155 km 2, approximately. The spatial distribution of the filament and its change between cruises are described from the horizontal distributions of dynamic height, temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen. The filament was a shallow feature (thickness zone show the ascent of the shallow salinity minimum (SSM), and its extension toward the ocean, bound to the filament. It is concluded that Subantarctic Water ((SAAW) distinguish by low salinity, high dissolved oxygen) and Equatorial Subsurface Water ((ESSW) high salinity, low dissolved oxygen, high nutrient content) form this filament, and that their relative proportions depend on the strength of the coastal upwelling. Thus, the knowledge of the dynamics of these structures is fundamental to better understanding of the spatial distribution of important biological variables, such as nutrients and chlorophyll, in the coastal ecosystem.

  16. Natural ocean acidification at Papagayo upwelling system (north Pacific Costa Rica: implications for reef development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sánchez-Noguera

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous experiments have shown that ocean acidification impedes coral calcification, but knowledge about in situ reef ecosystem response to ocean acidification is still scarce. Bahía Culebra, situated at the northern Pacific coast of Costa Rica, is a location naturally exposed to acidic conditions due to the Papagayo seasonal upwelling. We measured pH and pCO2 in situ during two non-upwelling seasons (June 2012, May–June 2013, with a high temporal resolution of every 15 and 30 min, respectively, using two Submersible Autonomous Moored Instruments (SAMI-pH, SAMI-CO2. These results were compared with published data from the 2009 upwelling season. Findings revealed that the carbonate system in Bahía Culebra shows a high temporal variability. Incoming offshore waters drive intra- and interseasonal changes. Lowest pH (7.8 and highest pCO2 (658.3 µatm values measured during a cold-water intrusion event in the non-upwelling season were similar to those minimum values reported from upwelling season (pH  =  7.8, pCO2  =  643.5 µatm, unveiling that natural acidification also occurs sporadically in the non-upwelling season. This affects the interaction of photosynthesis, respiration, calcification and carbonate dissolution and the resulting diel cycle of pH and pCO2 in the reefs of Bahía Culebra. During the non-upwelling season, the aragonite saturation state (Ωa rises to values of  >  3.3 and during the upwelling season falls below 2.5. The Ωa threshold values for coral growth were derived from the correlation between measured Ωa and coral linear extension rates which were obtained from the literature and suggest that future ocean acidification will threaten the continued growth of reefs in Bahía Culebra. These data contribute to building a better understanding of the carbonate system dynamics and coral reefs' key response (e.g., coral growth to natural low-pH conditions, in upwelling areas in the eastern tropical

  17. Natural ocean acidification at Papagayo upwelling system (north Pacific Costa Rica): implications for reef development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Noguera, Celeste; Stuhldreier, Ines; Cortés, Jorge; Jiménez, Carlos; Morales, Álvaro; Wild, Christian; Rixen, Tim

    2018-04-01

    Numerous experiments have shown that ocean acidification impedes coral calcification, but knowledge about in situ reef ecosystem response to ocean acidification is still scarce. Bahía Culebra, situated at the northern Pacific coast of Costa Rica, is a location naturally exposed to acidic conditions due to the Papagayo seasonal upwelling. We measured pH and pCO2 in situ during two non-upwelling seasons (June 2012, May-June 2013), with a high temporal resolution of every 15 and 30 min, respectively, using two Submersible Autonomous Moored Instruments (SAMI-pH, SAMI-CO2). These results were compared with published data from the 2009 upwelling season. Findings revealed that the carbonate system in Bahía Culebra shows a high temporal variability. Incoming offshore waters drive intra- and interseasonal changes. Lowest pH (7.8) and highest pCO2 (658.3 µatm) values measured during a cold-water intrusion event in the non-upwelling season were similar to those minimum values reported from upwelling season (pH = 7.8, pCO2 = 643.5 µatm), unveiling that natural acidification also occurs sporadically in the non-upwelling season. This affects the interaction of photosynthesis, respiration, calcification and carbonate dissolution and the resulting diel cycle of pH and pCO2 in the reefs of Bahía Culebra. During the non-upwelling season, the aragonite saturation state (Ωa) rises to values of > 3.3 and during the upwelling season falls below 2.5. The Ωa threshold values for coral growth were derived from the correlation between measured Ωa and coral linear extension rates which were obtained from the literature and suggest that future ocean acidification will threaten the continued growth of reefs in Bahía Culebra. These data contribute to building a better understanding of the carbonate system dynamics and coral reefs' key response (e.g., coral growth) to natural low-pH conditions, in upwelling areas in the eastern tropical Pacific and beyond.

  18. Coastal upwelling ecosystems are often identified as regions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    ... are often identified as regions susceptible to seasonal blooms of harmful ... that the bay acts as a net importer of bottom water and net exporter of surface waters over a synoptic cycle. This ... waves or wind stress on the surface friction layer.

  19. The Benguela upwelling ecosystem lies adjacent to the south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    increase, but it is still below the levels of the early ... variability but no trends in either subsystem, and the seasonal pattern was similar for both ..... good spatial coverage of sardine landings, with a sig- ..... periods of simultaneous change in environmental pa- ..... monotypic sardines, Sardina and Sardinops: their taxonomy,.

  20. The spawning products of fish living in upwelling ecosystems have ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    Normally, hake spawn offshore near the bottom at depths of. 150–400 m. ... eyes or mouth, and display little swimming activity during their first hours, but laboratory observations have revealed subsequent ... Based on current field observations, on buoyancy measure- ...... wind-induced turbulence will not influence their ver-.

  1. Atmosphere-ocean feedbacks in a coastal upwelling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, J. M. R.; Peliz, A.; Caldeira, R. M. A.; Miranda, P. M. A.

    2018-03-01

    The COAWST (Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport) modelling system is used in different configurations to simulate the Iberian upwelling during the 2012 summer, aiming to assess the atmosphere-ocean feedbacks in the upwelling dynamics. When model results are compared with satellite measurements and in-situ data, two-way coupling is found to have a moderate impact in data-model statistics. A significant reinforcement of atmosphere-ocean coupling coefficients is, however, observed in the two-way coupled run, and in the WRF and ROMS runs forced by previously simulated SST and wind fields, respectively. The increasing in the coupling coefficient is associated with slight, but potentially important changes in the low-level coastal jet in the atmospheric marine boundary layer. While these results do not imply the need for fully coupled simulations in many applications, they show that in seasonal numerical studies such simulations do not degrade the overall model performance, and contribute to produce better dynamical fields.

  2. Hot-spots of primary productivity: An Alternative interpretation to Conventional upwelling models

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ruth, Paul D.; Ganf, George G.; Ward, Tim M.

    2010-12-01

    The eastern Great Australian Bight (EGAB) forms part of the Southern and Indian Oceans and is an area of high ecological and economic importance. Although it supports a commercial fishery, quantitative estimates of the primary productivity underlying this industry are open to debate. Estimates range from 500 mg C m -2 day -1. Part of this variation may be due to the unique upwelling circulation of shelf waters in summer/autumn (November-April), which shares some similarities with highly productive eastern boundary current upwelling systems, but differs due to the influence of a northern boundary current, the Flinders current, and a wide continental shelf. This study examines spatial variations in primary productivity in the EGAB during the upwelling seasons of 2005 and 2006. Daily integral productivity calculated using the vertically generalised production model (VGPM) showed a high degree of spatial variation. Productivity was low (modelled with the VGPM, which uses surface measures of phytoplankton biomass to calculate productivity. Macro-nutrient concentrations could not be used to explain the difference in the low and high productivities (silica > 1 μmol L -1, nitrate/nitrite > 0.4 μmol L -1, phosphate > 0.1 μmol L -1). Mixing patterns or micro-nutrient concentrations are possible explanations for spatial variations in primary productivity in the EGAB. On a global scale, daily rates of primary productivity of the EGAB lie between the highly productive eastern boundary current upwelling systems, and less productive coastal regions of western and south eastern Australia, and the oligotrophic ocean. However, daily productivity rates in the upwelling hotspots of the EGAB rival productivities in Benguela and Humboldt currents.

  3. TNT Degradation by Natural Microbial Assemblages at Frontal Boundaries Between Water Masses in Coastal Ecosystems (ER-2124)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-20

    receptor protein) and reduce substrate mineralization depending on how long it would take to disassociate the humic from the substrate upon dilution...geochemical samples . Anal. Chem. 72:3116-3121. Han, L., Sun, K., Jin, J., and B. Xing. 2016. Some concepts of soil organic carbon characteristics and...capacity for energetics released into hydrodynamically similar, UXO-impacted ecosystems where access to site samples may be limited. During samplings in

  4. Interactions between trophic levels in upwelling and non-upwelling regions during summer monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Malik, A; Fernandes, C.E.G.; Gonsalves, M.J.B.D.; Subina, N.S.; Mamatha, S.S.; Krishna, K.S.; Varik, S.; RituKumari; Gauns, M.; Cejoice, R.P.; Pandey, S.S.; Jineesh, V.K.; Kamaleson, A; Vijayan, V.; Mukherjee, I.; Subramanyan, S.; Nair, S.; Ingole, B.S.; LokaBharathi, P.A

    Coastal upwelling is a regular phenomenon occurring along the southwest coast of India during summer monsoon (May–September). We hypothesize that there could be a shift in environmental parameters along with changes in the network of interactions...

  5. Comparative study of potential transfer of natural and anthropogenic cadmium to plankton communities in the North-West African upwelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger, P.A.; Machu, E.; Gorgues, T.; Grima, N.; Waeles, M.

    2015-01-01

    A Lagrangian approach based on a physical–biogeochemical modeling was used to compare the potential transfer of cadmium (Cd) from natural and anthropogenic sources to plankton communities (Cd-uptake) in the North-West African upwelling. In this region, coastal upwelling was estimated to be the main natural source of Cd while the most significant anthropogenic source for marine ecosystem is provided by phosphate industry. In our model experiment, Cd-uptake (natural or anthropogenic) in the North-West African upwelling is the result of an interplay between the Cd dispersion (by advection processes) and the simulated biological productivity. In the Moroccan waters, advection processes limit the residence time of water masses resulting in a low natural Cd-uptake by plankton communities while anthropogenic Cd-uptake is high. As expected, the situation is reversed in the Senegalo-Mauritanian upwelling where natural Cd-uptake is higher than anthropogenic Cd-uptake. Based upon an estimate of Cd sources, our modeling study shows, unexpectedly, that the anthropogenic signal of potential Cd-bioaccumulation in the Moroccan upwelling is of the same order of magnitude as the natural signal mainly present in the Senegalo-Mauritanian upwelling region. A comparison with observed Cd levels in mollusk and fishes, which shows overall agreement with our simulations, is confirming our estimates. - Highlights: • We model the physical–biogeochemical dynamics in the North-West African upwelling. • We model the transport of cadmium from natural and anthropogenic sources. • We derive proxies of potential cadmium absorption and bioaccumulation in the plankton food chain. • The anthropogenic signal off Morocco at least equals the natural upwelling signal off Mauritania. • We compare our results with observed cadmium levels in mollusks and fishes

  6. Comparative study of potential transfer of natural and anthropogenic cadmium to plankton communities in the North-West African upwelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auger, P.A., E-mail: pierreamael.auger@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Physique des Océans (LPO), UMR-CNRS 6523/IFREMER/IRD/UBO, BP70, 29280 Plouzané (France); Machu, E.; Gorgues, T.; Grima, N. [Laboratoire de Physique des Océans (LPO), UMR-CNRS 6523/IFREMER/IRD/UBO, BP70, 29280 Plouzané (France); Waeles, M. [Université de Bretagne Occidentale (UBO), Laboratoire de l' Environnement Marin (LEMAR), UMR-CNRS 6539/IRD/UBO, place N. Copernic, 29280 Plouzané (France)

    2015-02-01

    A Lagrangian approach based on a physical–biogeochemical modeling was used to compare the potential transfer of cadmium (Cd) from natural and anthropogenic sources to plankton communities (Cd-uptake) in the North-West African upwelling. In this region, coastal upwelling was estimated to be the main natural source of Cd while the most significant anthropogenic source for marine ecosystem is provided by phosphate industry. In our model experiment, Cd-uptake (natural or anthropogenic) in the North-West African upwelling is the result of an interplay between the Cd dispersion (by advection processes) and the simulated biological productivity. In the Moroccan waters, advection processes limit the residence time of water masses resulting in a low natural Cd-uptake by plankton communities while anthropogenic Cd-uptake is high. As expected, the situation is reversed in the Senegalo-Mauritanian upwelling where natural Cd-uptake is higher than anthropogenic Cd-uptake. Based upon an estimate of Cd sources, our modeling study shows, unexpectedly, that the anthropogenic signal of potential Cd-bioaccumulation in the Moroccan upwelling is of the same order of magnitude as the natural signal mainly present in the Senegalo-Mauritanian upwelling region. A comparison with observed Cd levels in mollusk and fishes, which shows overall agreement with our simulations, is confirming our estimates. - Highlights: • We model the physical–biogeochemical dynamics in the North-West African upwelling. • We model the transport of cadmium from natural and anthropogenic sources. • We derive proxies of potential cadmium absorption and bioaccumulation in the plankton food chain. • The anthropogenic signal off Morocco at least equals the natural upwelling signal off Mauritania. • We compare our results with observed cadmium levels in mollusks and fishes.

  7. Does deep ocean mixing drive upwelling or downwelling of abyssal waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, R. M.; McDougall, T. J.; Mashayek, A.; Nikurashin, M.; Campin, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    It is generally understood that small-scale mixing, such as is caused by breaking internal waves, drives upwelling of the densest ocean waters that sink to the ocean bottom at high latitudes. However the observational evidence that the turbulent fluxes generated by small-scale mixing in the stratified ocean interior are more vigorous close to the ocean bottom than above implies that small-scale mixing converts light waters into denser ones, thus driving a net sinking of abyssal water. Using a combination of numerical models and observations, it will be shown that abyssal waters return to the surface along weakly stratified boundary layers, where the small-scale mixing of density decays to zero. The net ocean meridional overturning circulation is thus the small residual of a large sinking of waters, driven by small-scale mixing in the stratified interior, and a comparably large upwelling, driven by the reduced small-scale mixing along the ocean boundaries.

  8. Microbial and biogeochemical responses to projected future nitrate enrichment in the California upwelling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rose Marie Mackey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Coastal California is a dynamic upwelling region where nitrogen (N and iron (Fe can both limit productivity and influence biogeochemistry over different spatial and temporal scales. With global change, the flux of nitrate from upwelling is expected to increase over the next century, potentially driving additional oceanic regions toward Fe limitation. In this study we explored the effect of changes in Fe/N ratio on native phytoplankton from five currently Fe-replete sites near the major California upwelling centers at Bodega Bay and Monterey Bay using nutrient addition incubation experiments. Despite the high nitrate levels (13-30 M in the upwelled water, phytoplankton at three of the five sites showed increased growth when 10 M nitrate was added. None of the sites showed enhanced growth following addition of 10 nM Fe. Nitrate additions favored slow sinking single-celled diatoms over faster sinking chain-forming diatoms, suggesting that future increases in nitrate flux could affect carbon and silicate export and alter grazer populations. In particular, solitary cells of Cylindrotheca were more abundant than the toxin-producing genus Pseudonitzschia following nitrate addition. These responses suggest the biogeochemistry of coastal California could change in response to future increases in nitrate, and multiple stressors like ocean acidification and hypoxia may further result in ecosystem shifts.

  9. Spatial and temporal patterns across an ecological boundary: Allochthonous effects of a young saltwater lake on a desert ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehme, C.S.; Boarman, W.I.; Hathaway, S.A.; Herring, A.; Lyren, L.; Mendelsohn, M.; Pease, K.; Rahn, M.; Rochester, C.; Stokes, D.; Turschak, G.; Fisher, R.N.

    2009-01-01

    We documented changes in the abundance and composition of terrestrial flora and fauna with respect to distance from the sea edge and timing of large allochthonous inputs from the Salton Sea, California. We found significant effects that were most pronounced within 300 m of the shore, but extended 3 km inland via coyote scat deposition. The zone within 300 m of the sea had a higher density of vegetation with a distinctly different plant composition. The denser vegetation supported higher abundances of birds and reptiles. Coyotes exhibited spatial and temporal responses to marine subsidies of fish, while birds were likely subsidized by aquatic aerial insects. Top-down control, as well as dietary and habitat preferences, may have resulted in reduced number of ants, beetles, and small mammals near the sea. Species responses to the habitat edge appeared to be associated with life history, as the near shore habitat favored habitat generalists and shore specialists, while inland desert habitat favored many sand and open desert specialists. Ecosystem responses support current theories of allochthonous spatial subsidies and consumer-resource dynamics but were limited in scope, magnitude, and distance.

  10. Baseline data on wild flora of crop field boundaries in the agro-ecosystem of pothwar plateau, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Hussain, I.; Anwar, M.; Ashraf, N.; Mirza, S.N.

    2017-01-01

    Wild flora along crop field boundaries in farmlands not only increases habitat heterogeneity but also serves multiple beneficial functions. We collected baseline data on wild flora bordering the crop fields of Pothwar plateau. Overall we selected four study sites including two sites of wheat-maize/millet and two of wheat-groundnut cropping system. We recorded 51 species of plants including 12 species of trees, 14 species of shrubs and 25 species of grasses/herbs. Two tree species namely Acacia modesta and Zizyphus mauritiana and two shrub species namely Calotropis procera and Ziziphus nummularia were common indicating their widespread presence in the area. Among herbs/grasses Abutilon indicum, Amaranthus spp., Cyperus rotundus and Erogrostis poroles were common at sites with wheat-maize/millet cropping pattern while Chenopodium album, Datura stramonium and Tribulus terrestris were common at sites with wheat-groundnut cropping system. The tree and shrub densities did not differ significantly among the study sites. Wheat-groundnut cropping system had higher populations/diversity/species of shrubs as compared to wheat-maize/millet cropping system. Density of grasses/herbs significantly differed across the study sites but there was no association of herb/grass density with cropping practice. (author)

  11. Biología poblacional de huirales submareales de Macrocystis integrifolia y Lessonia trabeculata (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae en un ecosistema de surgencia del norte de Chile: variabilidad interanual y El Niño 1997-1998 Population biology of the subtidal kelps Macrocystis integrifolia and Lessonia trabeculata (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae in an upwelling ecosystem of northern Chile: interannual variability and El Niño 1997-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. ALONSO VEGA

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the population biology of Lessonia trabeculata and Macrocystis integrifolia during and after the 1997-1998 El Niño in an area of permanent coastal upwelling in northern Chile. Spatial and temporal patterns of distribution were evaluated seasonally for adult and juvenile sporophytes of both species between 1996 and 2003. These two kelp form an assemblage distributed between 2 and 15 m depth, with disjunct patterns along a bathymetric gradient, including two morphs of L. trabeculata, the occurrence of which depends on the presence or absence of M. integrifolia. During the 1997-1998 El Niño the spatial-temporal patterns of abundance of the kelp assemblage were maintained by the continuity of coastal upwelling, which buffered and moderated superficial warming of the sea and depletion of nutrients. In this context, localities associated with coastal upwelling areas could function as "sources" of reproductive propagules after passage of El Niño, thus increasing kelp recolonization rates in "sink" localities, which suffered local kelp extinctions. Intensification of upwelling processes after the 1998-2000 La Niña increased nutrient inputs into subtidal habitats, favoring the productivity of the kelp assemblage. However, an abrupt change in the spatial-temporal patterns of abundance of the black sea urchin Tetrapygus niger, the most conspicuous benthic grazer in northern Chile, produced local extinctions of M. integrifolia and compression of the range of bathymetric distribution of L. trabeculata. Top-down (mortality of benthic carnivores during the 1997-1998 El Niño and bottom-up effects (intensity and frequency of upwelling in this subtidal coastal ecosystem appear to regulate the kelp-herbivore interactions in the study area. The main sources of reproductive propagules for the re-establishment of the assemblage kelp were fertile sporophytes which included isolated, low density patches of M.integrifolia located within the bed

  12. A trans-ecosystem fishery: Environmental effects on the small-scale gillnet fishery along the Río de la Plata boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaureguizar, Andrés Javier; Cortés, Federico; Milessi, Andrés Conrado; Cozzolino, Ezequiel; Allega, Lucrecia

    2015-12-01

    To improve the understanding of the environmental processes affecting small-scale gillnet fisheries along neighboring waters of estuaries, we analyzed the main climatic forcing and the environmental conditions, the fishery landing spatial and temporal variation, including the relative importance of site, distance to coast, temperature and salinity in the structuring of landed species profile. Data were collected monthly in two sites along the adjacent south coast of the Río de la Plata between October 2009 and September 2010. The gillnet fishery was dominated by four species (Cynoscion guatucupa, Micropogonias furnieri, Mustelus schmitti and Parona signata) from a total of 38 species landed, which accounted for 98.6% of total landings. The fishing effort and landings by the fishery were largely conditioned by the availability of fish species in the fishing grounds resulting from the combination of the species reproductive behavior and the predominant environmental conditions. The highest abundances for some species occurred before (M. furnieri, C. guatucupa, P. signata) or during the reproductive period (M. schmitti, Squatina guggenheim), while in other species it was associated with favorable environmental conditions during cold months (Squalus acanthias, Callorhinchus callorhynchus, Galeorhinus galeus) or warm months (Trichiurus lepturus). The predominant seasonal environmental conditions along the coast were mainly determined by the location of Río de la Plata boundary, whose spatial extent was forced by the wind patterns and freshwater discharge. The strong environmental dependence means that the small-scale fishery is in fact a seasonal trans-ecosystem fishery. This attribute, together that shared the resources with the industrial fishery and the overlap of the fishery ground with essential habitat of sharks, make this kind of small-scale gillnet fishery particularly relevant to be included in the development of a coastal ecosystem-based management approach.

  13. Biogenic halocarbons from coastal oceanic upwelling regions as tropospheric halogen source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Kirstin; Fuhlbrügge, Steffen; Hepach, Helmke; Fiehn, Alina; Atlas, Elliot; Quack, Birgit

    2016-04-01

    Halogenated very short lived substances (VSLS) are naturally produced in the ocean and emitted to the atmosphere. Recently, oceanic upwelling regions in the tropical East Atlantic were identified as strong sources of brominated halocarbons to the troposphere. During a cruise of R/V METEOR in December 2012 the oceanic sources and emissions of various halogenated trace gases and their mixing ratios in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) were investigated above the Peruvian Upwelling for the first time. This study presents novel observations of the three VSLS bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide together with high resolution meteorological measurements and Lagrangian transport modelling. Although relatively low oceanic emissions were observed, except for methyl iodide, surface atmospheric abundances were elevated. Radiosonde launches during the cruise revealed a low, stable MABL and a distinct trade inversion above acting both as strong barriers for convection and trace gas transport in this region. Significant correlations between observed atmospheric VSLS abundances, sea surface temperature, relative humidity and MABL height were found. We used a simple source-loss estimate to identify the contribution of oceanic emissions to observed atmospheric concentrations which revealed that the observed marine VSLS abundances were dominated by horizontal advection below the trade inversion. The observed VSLS variations can be explained by the low emissions and their accumulation under different MABL and trade inversion conditions. Finally, observations from a second Peruvian Upwelling cruise with R/V SONNE during El Nino in October 2015 will be compared to highlight the role of different El Nino Southern Oscillation conditions. This study confirms the importance of coastal oceanic upwelling and trade wind systems on creating effective transport barriers in the lowermost atmosphere controlling the distribution of VSLS abundances above coastal ocean upwelling

  14. Ekman estimates of upwelling at cape columbine based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ekman estimates of upwelling at cape columbine based on measurements of longshore wind from a 35-year time-series. AS Johnson, G Nelson. Abstract. Cape Columbine is a prominent headland on the south-west coast of Africa at approximately 32°50´S, where there is a substantial upwelling tongue, enhancing the ...

  15. Upwelling features near Sri Lanka in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ShreeRam, P.; Rao, L.V.G.

    , the southwest monsoon in summer and the northeast monsoon in winter. The wind stress associated with these winds cause mass drift of oceanic waters leading to upwelling and downwelling. The upwelling features in the Bay of Bengal with a special mention about...

  16. Biological consequences of environmental changes related to coastal upwelling: a simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, S.O.

    1979-05-01

    Two simulation models of marine ecosystem dynamics are formulated and applied to field data. The first is a time-dependent model of phytoplankton growth in nutrient-enriched batch cultures where spatial gradients of dependent variables and the effects of higher tropic level processes are not included. Rates of photosynthesis, nutrient uptake, chlorophyll synthesis and cell division for a single phytoplankton functional group are simulated as functions of photosynthetically active solar radiation, dissolved nutrient concentrations and cell quotas of carbon, nitrogen and silica. The second model combines the phytoplankton growth model with a time dependent, two-dimensional model of coastal upwelling off northwest Africa.

  17. L' upwelling de la côte atlantique du Maroc entre 1994 et 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makaoui, Ahmed; Orbi, Abdelattif; Hilmi, Karim; Zizah, Soukaina; Larissi, Jamila; Talbi, Mohammed

    2005-12-01

    The pelagic ecosystem of the Moroccan Atlantic coast is influenced by the spatiotemporal variability of upwelling. The changes in the physicochemical and biological parameters as well as their interrelationship and regrouping by the principal components analysis allowed us to subdivide the Atlantic coast in four active areas: two areas located at the north of Cape Juby (28°N), characterised by a summery activity and two areas located at the south, active permanently, with a variable intensity. To cite this article: A. Makaoui et al., C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

  18. Quantifying the impact of an upwelling filament on the physical-chemical-biological interactions off SW Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravo, A.; Sanchez, R.; Monteiro, C.; Cardeira, S.; Madureira, M.; Rita, F.; Relvas, P.

    2017-12-01

    Upwelling filaments are mesoscale structures of cold water that stretch seaward in a tongue-like shape with origin in the coastal upwelling zone. Filaments off the Iberian Peninsula are recurrent, showing similarities with those in the Californian coast. The Cape São Vicente, the SW tip of the Iberian Peninsula, is the root of recurrent filaments observed in the satellite imagery during the upwelling season. However, the understanding of its physical and chemical impact on the biological productivity is rather limited. There, a relatively small filament ( 80 km long) was investigated through remote sensing and in situ multidisciplinary observations during an upwelling favourable wind relaxation event, but just after an intense upwelling period. A total of 42 CTD+Rosette casts up to 400 m depth were distributed on an almost regular grid of 15 km mean spacing guided by guided by satellite SST imagery transmitted to the ship in near-real time. The parameters sampled during the sea campaign included: velocity field sampled along the ship track through a hull-mounted 38 kHz RDI ADCP, meteorological variables, temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, phosphate, silicate, cadmium, lead and zinc. The extent of the impact of the filament was evaluated by quantifying the cross-shelf transports of several properties. The amounts conveyed by the filament were much stronger than those expected by the wind-driven Ekman mechanism, showing that it represents an efficient feature for the exchange of water, dissolved and particulate matter from the productive shelf towards the oligotrophic offshore region. Considering the periods of strong upwelling events and the extent of their duration along the year, the amounts of exported matter will certainly enhance the biological productivity of these waters, including its fisheries. These filament data contribute to better understand the physical-chemical-biological interactions of this regional ecosystem.

  19. Spatiotemporal variation of vertical particle fluxes and modelled chlorophyll a standing stocks in the Benguela Upwelling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorrath, Maria-Elena; Lahajnar, Niko; Fischer, Gerhard; Libuku, Viktor Miti; Schmidt, Martin; Emeis, Kay-Christian

    2018-04-01

    Marine particle fluxes from high productive coastal upwelling systems return upwelled CO2 and nutrients to the deep ocean and sediments and have a substantial impact on the global carbon cycle. This study examines relations between production regimes on the shelf and over the continental margin of the Benguela Upwelling System (BUS) in the SE Atlantic Ocean. Data of composition and timing of vertical particle flux come from sediment trap time series (deployed intermittently between 1988 and 2014) in the regions Walvis Ridge, Walvis Bay, Luederitz and Orange River. We compare their seasonal variability to modelled patterns of chlorophyll concentrations in a 3-D ecosystem model. Both modelled seasonal chlorophyll a standing stocks and sampled particle flux patterns are highly correspondent with a bimodal seasonal cycle offshore the BUS. The material in the particle flux in offshore traps is dominantly carbonate (40-70%), and flux peaks in offshore particle flux originate from two independent events: in austral autumn thermocline shoaling and vertical mixing are decoupled from coastal upwelling, while fluxes in spring coincide with the upwelling season, indicated by slightly elevated biogenic opal values at some locations. Coastal particle fluxes are characterized by a trimodal pattern and are dominated by biogenic opal (22-35%) and organic matter (30-60%). The distinct seasonality in observed fluxes on the shelf is caused by high variability in production, sinking behaviour, wind stress, and hydrodynamic processes. We speculate that global warming will increase ocean stratification and alter coastal upwelling, so that consequences for primary production and particle flux in the BUS are inevitable.

  20. Contrasting biogeochemical responses of ENSO induced upwelling variability in the Humboldt Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Ana C.; Gruber, Nicolas; Münnich, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    The Humboldt Current System (HCS) is one of the most productive ecosystems in the world. This high productivity is supported by a large input of nutrients from the subsurface layers to the surface due to year-round upwelling. However, upwelling also supplies waters with low pH and low aragonite saturation state potentially affecting many organisms, especially those that calcify. The influence, extent and source of upwelled water vary substantially on interannual timescales in association with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, generating natural contrasting responses on the biogeochemistry of this system. Here we analyze these responses using an eddy resolving, basin-scale ocean model that covers the whole Pacific Ocean with high resolution (4 km) on the west coast of South America. We performed a simulation of the last 30 years (hindcast simulation) that allows us to investigate the influence of at least eight El Niño episodes and eight La Niña episodes on productivity variations and changes in oxygen concentration and aragonite saturation state. An absolute change in surface omega aragonite of almost 2 units, as well as an absolute change of the aragonite saturation depth of 200 m result from the change of an El Niño phase to a La Niña phase. This variability is on the same order of magnitude as the projected change in the aragonite saturation state in a centennial timescale. During La Niña events, a lower aragonite saturation state values and reduced oxygen concentration in the surface layer are a direct consequence of enhanced upwelling and increased net primary productivity. The opposite is true during El Niño events, where high values of omega aragonite occur in concordance with extraordinarily low net primary productivity values.

  1. Changes in upwelling and surface productivity in the Eastern Pacific during Terminations I and II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Z.; De Bar, M.; Stolwijk, D.; Schneider, R. R.; S Sinninghe Damsté, J.; Schouten, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Eastern Pacific coastal system is characterized by intense upwelling and consequently by an enhanced surface primary productivity. Combination of this high organic matter flux with sluggish bottom water ventilation results in one of the most pronounced oxygen minimum zones reaching from offshore California in the North to offshore Chile in the South. As a result of this process, the region is particularly interesting in view of nutrient and carbon cycling as well as ecosystem dynamics. The dynamics of the upwelling and oxygen concentrations are closely related to climatic conditions. Therefore, paleo-reconstructions of different settings are crucial in order to improve our understanding of the response of these nutrient-rich, oxygen-deficient, environments in relation to the recent global ocean warming, acidification and deoxygenation. In this study, we present downcore results from three different sites in the Eastern Pacific: offshore California (IODP site 1012), Peru (M77/2-52-2) and Chile (IODP site 1234). We applied different biomarkers as proxies to decipher changes in phytoplankton community composition, including the upwelling index based on long chain diols, and other common productivity indicators such as bulk organic carbon, carbonate and biogenic opal. In addition, application of carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of total organic carbon and benthic foraminifera complement our multiproxy approach. Herewith we aim to compare at least two glacial-interglacial transitions with different magnitudes of deglacial warming along the Eastern Pacific upwelling systems at different latitudes. The data presented will cover the last 160 ka BP offshore California and Chile, and 30 ka BP offshore Peru enabling comparison between glacial Terminations I and II.

  2. The Triassic upwelling system of Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, I.; Graham, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Middle to Upper Triassic Shublik Formation of Arctic Alaska is a laterally and vertically heterogeneous rock unit that has been analyzed both in outcrop and in the subsurface. The Shublik Formation sediments are distinguished by a characteristic set of lithologies that include glauconitic, phosphatic, organic-rich, and cherty facies consistent with a coastal upwelling zone deposition interpretation. It is often recognized by abundance of impressions and shells of distinctive Triassic bivalves. To understand main controls on lithofacies distributions, this study reviews and refines lithologic and paleoenvironmental interpretations of the Shublik Formation, and incorporates the newly acquired detailed geochemical analyses of two complete Shublik cores. This work focuses on organic geochemistry (analyses of biomarkers and diamondoids), chemostratigraphy (hand-held XRF), and iron speciation analysis to reconstruct paleoproductivity and redox conditions. Based on the available evidence, during Shublik deposition, an upwelling-influenced open shelf resulted in high nutrient supply that stimulated algal blooms leading to high net organic productivity, reduced water transparency, oxygen deficiency, and water column stratification. Evidence of such eutrophic conditions is indicated by the lack of photic benthic organisms, bioturbation and trace fossils, and dominance of the monospecific light-independent epibenthic bivalves. The flat, subcircular, thin shells of these carbonate-secreting organisms allowed them to adapt to dysoxic conditions, and float on soft, soupy, muddy substrate. The distinctive clay- and organic-rich facies with abundant bivalves occurred on the mid to outer stable broad shelf, and were deposited when organic productivity at times overlapped with periods of increased siliciclastic input controlled by sea level and changes in local sediment dispersal systems, and therefore are more spatially and temporally localized than the widespread clay

  3. Role of physical forcings and nutrient availability on the control of satellite-based chlorophyll a concentration in the coastal upwelling area of the Sicilian Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Patti

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The northern sector of the Sicilian Channel is an area of favourable upwelling winds, which ought to support primary production. However, the values for primary production are low when compared with other Mediterranean areas and very low compared with the most biologically productive regions of the world’s oceans: California, the Canary Islands, Humboldt and Benguela. The aim of this study was to identify the main factors that limit phytoplankton biomass in the Sicilian Channel and modulate its monthly changes. We compared satellite-based estimates of chlorophyll a concentration in the Strait of Sicily with those observed in the four Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems mentioned above and in other Mediterranean wind-induced coastal upwelling systems (the Alboran Sea, the Gulf of Lions and the Aegean Sea. Our results show that this low level of chlorophyll is mainly due to the low nutrient level in surface and sub-surface waters, independently of wind-induced upwelling intensity. Further, monthly changes in chlorophyll are mainly driven by the mixing of water column and wind-induced and/or circulation-related upwelling processes. Finally, primary production limitation due to the enhanced stratification processes resulting from the general warming trend of Mediterranean waters is not active over most of the coastal upwelling area off the southern Sicilian coast.

  4. Interregional flows of ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröter, Matthias; Koellner, Thomas; Alkemade, Rob; Arnhold, Sebastian; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Erb, Karl Heinz; Frank, Karin; Kastner, Thomas; Kissinger, Meidad; Liu, Jianguo; López-Hoffman, Laura; Maes, Joachim; Marques, Alexandra; Martín-López, Berta; Meyer, Carsten; Schulp, Catharina J.E.; Thober, Jule; Wolff, Sarah; Bonn, Aletta

    2018-01-01

    Conserving and managing global natural capital requires an understanding of the complexity of flows of ecosystem services across geographic boundaries. Failing to understand and to incorporate these flows into national and international ecosystem assessments leads to incomplete and potentially

  5. Rising synchrony controls western North American ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan A. Black; Peter van der Sleen; Emanuele Di Lorenzo; Daniel Griffin; William J. Sydeman; Jason B. Dunham; Ryan R. Rykaczewski; Marisol García-Reyes; Mohammad Safeeq; Ivan Arismendi; Steven J. Bograd

    2018-01-01

    Along the western margin of North America, the winter expression of the North Pacific High (NPH) strongly influences interannual variability in coastal upwelling, storm track position, precipitation, and river discharge. Coherence among these factors induces covariance among physical and biological processes across adjacent marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we...

  6. Seasonal and annual variability of coastal sulphur plumes in the northern Benguela upwelling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohde, Thomas; Dadou, Isabelle

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the seasonal and annual variability of surface sulphur plumes in the northern Benguela upwelling system off Namibia because of their significant impacts on the marine ecosystem, fishing industry, aquaculture farming and tourism due to their toxic properties. We identified the sulphur plumes in ocean colour satellite data of the medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS) for the 2002-2012 time period using the differences in the spectral properties of Namibian Benguela optical water types. The sulphur events have a strong seasonal cycle with pronounced main and off-seasons forced by local and remote-driven processes. The main peak season is in late austral summer and early austral autumn at the beginning of the annual upwelling cycle caused by increasing equatorwards alongshore winds. The sulphur plume activity is high between February and April during the seasonal oxygen minimum associated with the seasonal reduction of cross-shore ventilation of the bottom waters, the seasonal southernmost position of the Angola Benguela Frontal Zone, the seasonal maximum of water mass fractions of South Atlantic and Angola Gyre Central Waters as well as the seasonal arrival of the downwelling coastal trapped waves. The off-season is in austral spring and early austral summer during increased upwelling intensity and enhanced oxygen supply. The annual variability of sulphur events is characterized by very high activities in years 2004, 2005 and 2010 interrupted by periods of lower activity in years 2002 to 2003, 2006 to 2009 and 2011 to 2012. This result can be explained by the relative contributions or adding effects of local and remote-driven forces (from the equatorial area). The probability for the occurrence of sulphur plumes is enhanced in years with a lower annual mean of upwelling intensity, decreased oxygen supply associated with decreased lateral ventilation of bottom waters, more southern position of the Angola Benguela Frontal Zone, increased mass

  7. Seasonal and annual variability of coastal sulphur plumes in the northern Benguela upwelling system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ohde

    Full Text Available We investigated the seasonal and annual variability of surface sulphur plumes in the northern Benguela upwelling system off Namibia because of their significant impacts on the marine ecosystem, fishing industry, aquaculture farming and tourism due to their toxic properties. We identified the sulphur plumes in ocean colour satellite data of the medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS for the 2002-2012 time period using the differences in the spectral properties of Namibian Benguela optical water types. The sulphur events have a strong seasonal cycle with pronounced main and off-seasons forced by local and remote-driven processes. The main peak season is in late austral summer and early austral autumn at the beginning of the annual upwelling cycle caused by increasing equatorwards alongshore winds. The sulphur plume activity is high between February and April during the seasonal oxygen minimum associated with the seasonal reduction of cross-shore ventilation of the bottom waters, the seasonal southernmost position of the Angola Benguela Frontal Zone, the seasonal maximum of water mass fractions of South Atlantic and Angola Gyre Central Waters as well as the seasonal arrival of the downwelling coastal trapped waves. The off-season is in austral spring and early austral summer during increased upwelling intensity and enhanced oxygen supply. The annual variability of sulphur events is characterized by very high activities in years 2004, 2005 and 2010 interrupted by periods of lower activity in years 2002 to 2003, 2006 to 2009 and 2011 to 2012. This result can be explained by the relative contributions or adding effects of local and remote-driven forces (from the equatorial area. The probability for the occurrence of sulphur plumes is enhanced in years with a lower annual mean of upwelling intensity, decreased oxygen supply associated with decreased lateral ventilation of bottom waters, more southern position of the Angola Benguela Frontal Zone

  8. Upwelling filaments are cold, typically narrow features in surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    They are defined by strong ... transporting coastally upwelled water to the deep ... surface temperature anomaly up to 2°C. The cool temperature signal was restricted to a shallow surface ... towards the important process of exchanges between.

  9. Pliocene Warm Period Upwelling in the Southern Benguela Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, B. F.; McClymont, E.; Felder, S.; Leng, M. J.; Rosell Mele, A.; Rueda, G.

    2014-12-01

    The mid-Pliocene has been proposed as a possible analogue for understanding future climate change and testing climate models. Previous work has shown that during the Pliocene the major upwelling systems were relatively warm, and thus either inactive, contracted, or upwelling warmer waters than present. Here we examine evidence from a core site located on the margins of the modern Benguela upwelling system, to test whether the upwelling cells had migrated or contracted relative to present during the Pliocene. We applied several organic geochemistry proxies and foraminiferal analyses to reconstruct the Pliocene history of ODP site 1087 (31º28'S, 15º19'E, 1374m water depth), including the UK37' index and TEX86 index (for reconstructing sea surface temperatures), chlorins (for estimating primary productivity) and planktonic foraminifera assemblages (for inferring water mass changes). These proxies show that between 3.5 and 3.0 Ma the southern Benguela region was significantly cooler than the northern Benguela region, the latter where the main upwelling cells are found today. Coupled with higher primary production, a shift in planktonic foraminifera assemblage, and an offset between the UK37' index and TEX86 index, we infer that more extensive upwelling was present in the southern Benguela region during the Pliocene. We infer that the main Benguela upwelling cells had shifted southward relative to today, as a result of changes in the local wind field. We find evidence for pronounced cooling and a shift in the planktonic foraminifera assemblage during the M2 and KM2 glacial stages, showing a sensitivity of Benguela upwelling to these short-lived climate events.

  10. A Vegetation Database for the Colorado River Ecosystem from Glen Canyon Dam to the Western Boundary of Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Barbara E.; Davis, Philip A.; Weber, Robert M.; Rundall, Jill M.

    2008-01-01

    A vegetation database of the riparian vegetation located within the Colorado River ecosystem (CRE), a subsection of the Colorado River between Glen Canyon Dam and the western boundary of Grand Canyon National Park, was constructed using four-band image mosaics acquired in May 2002. A digital line scanner was flown over the Colorado River corridor in Arizona by ISTAR Americas, using a Leica ADS-40 digital camera to acquire a digital surface model and four-band image mosaics (blue, green, red, and near-infrared) for vegetation mapping. The primary objective of this mapping project was to develop a digital inventory map of vegetation to enable patch- and landscape-scale change detection, and to establish randomized sampling points for ground surveys of terrestrial fauna (principally, but not exclusively, birds). The vegetation base map was constructed through a combination of ground surveys to identify vegetation classes, image processing, and automated supervised classification procedures. Analysis of the imagery and subsequent supervised classification involved multiple steps to evaluate band quality, band ratios, and vegetation texture and density. Identification of vegetation classes involved collection of cover data throughout the river corridor and subsequent analysis using two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN). Vegetation was classified into six vegetation classes, following the National Vegetation Classification Standard, based on cover dominance. This analysis indicated that total area covered by all vegetation within the CRE was 3,346 ha. Considering the six vegetation classes, the sparse shrub (SS) class accounted for the greatest amount of vegetation (627 ha) followed by Pluchea (PLSE) and Tamarix (TARA) at 494 and 366 ha, respectively. The wetland (WTLD) and Prosopis-Acacia (PRGL) classes both had similar areal cover values (227 and 213 ha, respectively). Baccharis-Salix (BAXX) was the least represented at 94 ha. Accuracy assessment of the

  11. Spawning of the chilean hake (Merluccius gayi in the upwelling system off Talcahuano in relation to oceanographic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian A. Vargas

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the upwelling area off Talcahuano, in central-south Chile, is an important spawning zone for the hake Merluccius gayi. We document the results of a study designed to assess the importance of oceanographic features on the horizontal and vertical distribution of hake eggs and larvae. Ichthyoplankton samples and oceanographic data (CTDO casts, and wind speed and direction were collected during a cruise carried out off Talcahuano (36º22´S-37º10´S in early spring (October 1996, which included a grid of 61 stations up to 60 nm offshore. The oceanographic information obtained revealed the presence of an upwelling plume at Lavapie Point (southern zone extending northward over the shelf, and the presence of a warmer water parcel close to shore in the northern area. Peak egg densities occurred in this northern area over the shelf, in a nucleus located at the shoreward moving deeper layer (40-100 m deep and associated with the upwelling front about 20-30 nm from shore. The highest larval abundance also occurred in the northern area over the shelf and in the deeper layer but closer to shore than the egg nucleus. Because the timing (early spring and location of spawning (at depth, over the shelf and in association with frontal structures are also shared by other hake species in upwelling areas, we propose that they may be part of a more commonly developed strategy to enhance offspring survival in coastal upwelling areas of eastern boundary currents.

  12. Seasonal and inter-annual variation of mesozooplankton in the coastal upwelling zone off central-southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano, Ruben; Hidalgo, Pamela; González, Humberto; Giesecke, Ricardo; Riquelme-Bugueño, Ramiro; Manríquez, Karen

    2007-11-01

    Zooplankton sampling at Station 18 off Concepción (36°30‧S and 73°07‧W), on an average frequency of 30 days (August 2002 to December 2005), allowed the assessment of seasonal and inter-annual variation in zooplankton biomass, its C and N content, and the community structure in relation to upwelling variability. Copepods contributed 79% of the total zooplankton community and were mostly represented by Paracalanus parvus, Oithona similis, Oithona nana, Calanus chilensis, and Rhincalanus nasutus. Other copepod species, euphausiids (mainly Euphausia mucronata), gelatinous zooplankton, and crustacean larvae comprised the rest of the community. Changes in the depth of the upper boundary of the oxygen minimum zone indicated the strongly seasonal upwelling pattern. The bulk of zooplankton biomass and total copepod abundance were both strongly and positively associated with a shallow (oxygen minimum zone; these values increased in spring/summer, when upwelling prevailed. Gelatinous zooplankton showed positive abundance anomalies in the spring and winter, whereas euphausiids had no seasonal pattern and a positive anomaly in the fall. The C content and the C/N ratio of zooplankton biomass significantly increased during the spring when chlorophyll- a was high (>5 mg m -3). No major changes in zooplankton biomass and species were found from one year to the next. We concluded that upwelling is the key process modulating variability in zooplankton biomass and its community structure in this zone. The spring/summer increase in zooplankton may be largely the result of the aggregation of dominant copepods within the upwelling region; these may reproduce throughout the year, increasing their C content and C/N ratios given high diatom concentrations.

  13. Fishing for ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kevin L; Pegg, Mark A; Cole, Nicholas W; Siddons, Stephen F; Fedele, Alexis D; Harmon, Brian S; Ruskamp, Ryan L; Turner, Dylan R; Uerling, Caleb C

    2016-12-01

    Ecosystems are commonly exploited and manipulated to maximize certain human benefits. Such changes can degrade systems, leading to cascading negative effects that may be initially undetected, yet ultimately result in a reduction, or complete loss, of certain valuable ecosystem services. Ecosystem-based management is intended to maintain ecosystem quality and minimize the risk of irreversible change to natural assemblages of species and to ecosystem processes while obtaining and maintaining long-term socioeconomic benefits. We discuss policy decisions in fishery management related to commonly manipulated environments with a focus on influences to ecosystem services. By focusing on broader scales, managing for ecosystem services, and taking a more proactive approach, we expect sustainable, quality fisheries that are resilient to future disturbances. To that end, we contend that: (1) management always involves tradeoffs; (2) explicit management of fisheries for ecosystem services could facilitate a transition from reactive to proactive management; and (3) adaptive co-management is a process that could enhance management for ecosystem services. We propose adaptive co-management with an ecosystem service framework where actions are implemented within ecosystem boundaries, rather than political boundaries, through strong interjurisdictional relationships. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Anomalous Upwelling in Nan Wan: July 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Head Ruth H. Preller 7300 Security, Code 1226 Office of Couns sl.Code 1008.3 ADOR/Director NCST E. R. Franchi , 7000 Public Affairs (Unclassified...State University (OSU) tidal forcing drives the tidal currents. A global weather forecast model (Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction...system derives its open ocean boundary conditions from NRL global NCOM (Navy Co- astal Ocean Model) (Rhodes et al. 2002) that operates daily

  15. Bowhead whale body condition and links to summer sea ice and upwelling in the Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, John C.; Druckenmiller, Matthew L.; Laidre, Kristin L.; Suydam, Robert; Person, Brian

    2015-08-01

    We examined the response of bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) body condition to summer sea ice conditions and upwelling-favorable winds. We used a long-term dataset collected from whales of the Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort Seas (BCB) stock to estimate various body condition indices (BCI's) for individual whales that were harvested by Alaskan Eskimos. A series of offshore regions frequented by bowhead whales in summer were delineated and used to quantify interannual summertime environmental conditions including: (a) mean open water fraction, (b) duration of melt season, (c) date of continuous freeze-up, and (d) mean upwelling-favorable wind stress. Body condition was analyzed relative to these metrics for both the preceding summer feeding season and the previous three seasons combined. Our analysis indicates a significant increase in the long-term trend in an axillary girth-based body condition index (BCIG) over the study period (1989-2011). The increase in BCIG is likely associated with the trend in overall reduction of sea ice, including increased duration of open water, changes in upwelling potential (wind stress), and possibly higher primary production in the Pacific Arctic marine ecosystem favoring water-column invertebrates. We found strong significant positive correlations between BCIG and late summer open water fraction in the Beaufort Sea and smaller nearshore areas off the Mackenzie Delta and west of Banks Island. Additionally, BCIG was positively and significantly correlated with duration of melt season, later date of freeze-up in the Beaufort Sea, and upwelling-favorable winds on the Mackenzie shelf and west of Banks Island. A strong seasonal difference in BCI's was noted for subadult bowheads, presumably associated with summer feeding; however, yearlings were found to drop in BCI over at least the first summer after weaning. Our results indicate an overall increase in bowhead whale body condition and a positive correlation with summer sea ice loss over the

  16. Total and mesoscale long-range offshore transport of organic carbon from the Canary Upwelling System to the open North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovecchio, Elisa; Gruber, Nicolas; Münnich, Matthias; Byrne, David; Lachkar, Zouhair

    2017-04-01

    The ocean's biological pump is often simplified to a purely vertical process. Nevertheless, the horizontal transport of organic carbon can be substantial, especially in coastal regions such as the Canary Upwelling System (CanUS), one of the four major Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems, characterized by high shelf productivity and an intense lateral exchange of mass and tracers with the adjacent oligotrophic waters. Despite its importance, the magnitude of this lateral flux has not yet been constrained. Here, we quantify the lateral export of organic carbon from the CanUS to the open North Atlantic using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) coupled to a biogeochemical ecosystem module. The model is run on an Atlantic telescopic grid with a strong refinement towards the north-western African shelf, to combine an eddy-resolving resolution in the region of study with a full Atlantic basin perspective. Our results reveal that over the whole CanUS more than a third of the Net Community Production (NCP) in the nearshore 100 km is transported offshore, amounting to about 19 Tg C yr-1. The offshore transport dominates the lateral fluxes up to 1500 km into the subtropical North Atlantic, along the way adding organic carbon to the upper 100 m at rates of between 8% and 34% of the alongshore average NCP. The remineralization at depth of this extra organic carbon leads to strongly negative vertically-integrated NCP throughout the whole offshore region of the CanUS, i.e. it makes the offshore region net heterotrophic. Substantial subregional variability shapes the spatial pattern of the fluxes in the CanUS. In particular, the central subregion surrounding Cape Blanc is the most efficient in terms of collecting and laterally exporting the organic carbon, resulting in a sharp peak of watercolumn heterotrophy. A decomposition of the organic carbon fluxes into a time-mean component and a time-variable, i.e., mesoscale component reveals a large contribution of the mesoscale

  17. Upwelling regions, the most fertile of the seas' habitats, are also ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    apply to dinoflagellate bloom events in coastal upwelling systems. * Graduate School of ..... exclusive of coccolithophorids (Smayda 1997b). Group. Daily growth rates ..... route taken partly dependent on the duration of the upwelling relaxation ...

  18. Influence of monsoon upwelling on the planktonic foraminifera off Oman during Late Quaternary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.

    Planktonic foraminifer abundances, fluxes, test sizes, and coiling properties are influenced in various ways by the southwest monsoon winds and associated upwelling in the western Arabian Sea. The influence of monsoon driven upwelling...

  19. Alkaline phosphatase activity at the southwest coast of India: A comparison of locations differently affected by upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamatha, S. S.; Malik, Ashish; Varik, Sandesh; Parvathi, V.; Jineesh, V. K.; Gauns, Mangesh U.; LokaBharathi, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    The realization of the potential importance of phosphorus (P) as a limiting nutrient in marine ecosystem is increasing globally. Hence, the contribution of biotic variables in mobilizing this nutrient would be relevant especially in productive coastal waters. As alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) indicates the status of P for primary production in aquatic environments, we asked the following question: is the level of APA indicative of P sufficiency or deficiency in coastal waters, especially, where upwelling is a regular phenomenon? Therefore, we have examined the total APA, chlorophyll a along with phosphatase producing bacteria (PPB) and related environmental parameters from nearshore to offshore in coastal waters off Trivandrum and Kochi regions differently affected by upwelling during the onset of monsoon. Off Trivandrum, APA in the offshore waters of 5-m layer at 2.23 μM P h- 1 was > 4 times higher than nearshore. Thus, low APA could be indicative of P sufficiency in coastal waters and higher activity suggestive of deficiency in offshore waters off Trivandrum. In contrast, there was less difference in APA between near and offshore surface waters off Kochi. Our results show that the regions differently affected by upwelling respond differently according to ambient P concentration, distance from shore or depth of water. These observations could apparently be applicable to other coastal systems as well, where gradients in upwelling and phosphate runoff have been noticed. Further studies on other transects would throw more light on the extent and direction of the relationship between APA and ambient P concentration. Such studies would help in understanding the level of control of this nutrient on the productivity of coastal waters.

  20. Upwelling Index, 30N 119W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N. The...

  1. Upwelling Index, 42N 125W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N. The...

  2. Upwelling Index, 54N 134W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N. The...

  3. Upwelling Index, 60N 149W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N. The...

  4. Upwelling Index, 39N 125W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N. The...

  5. Upwelling Index, 36N 122W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N. The...

  6. Upwelling Index, 24N 113W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N. The...

  7. Upwelling Index, 21N 107W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N. The...

  8. Upwelling Index, 48N 125W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N. The...

  9. Upwelling Index, 45N 125W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N. The...

  10. Upwelling Index, 27N 116W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N. The...

  11. Upwelling Index, 57N 137W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N. The...

  12. Upwelling Index, 60N 146W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N. The...

  13. Upwelling Index, 33N 119W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N. The...

  14. Upwelling Index, 51N 131W, 6-hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling index computed from 1-degree FNMOC sea level pressure for 15 locations off the North American West Coast at each 3 degrees of latitude from 21N to 60N. The...

  15. Although most of the phytoplankton of the Benguela upwelling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    The Benguela upwelling system is subjected to blooms of harmful and toxic algae, the incidence and consequences of which are ... the coupling between this physical environment and ... Gordons Bay) and the 24 stations at which Fisheries Control Officers are located ... Oil Pollution vessels and aircraft, the Air Force.

  16. Nitrate reducing activity pervades surface waters during upwelling.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, S.O.; Halarnekar, R.; Malik, A.; Vijayan, V.; Varik, S.; RituKumari; Jineesh V.K.; Gauns, M.U.; Nair, S.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    .A., Roson, G., Perez, F.F., Figueiras, F.G., Pazos, Y., 1996. Nitrogen cycling in an estuarine upwelling system, the Ria de Arousa (NW Spain). Short-time-scale patterns of hydrodynamic and biogeochemical circulation. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 135, 259...

  17. Spatial structure of the zooplankton community in the coastal upwelling system off central-southern Chile in spring 2004 as assessed by automated image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manríquez, Karen; Escribano, Ruben; Riquelme-Bugueño, Ramiro

    2012-01-01

    Size spectra of the mesozooplankton community was studied under the influence of coastal upwelling during austral spring 2004 in the coastal upwelling zone off central-southern Chile. Size spectra were derived from the ZooImage analysis of digitalized zooplankton samples obtained from the upper 200 m during a survey carried out under active upwelling (November 2004). An upwelling filament extended up to 180 km offshore, and the upper boundary of the oxygen minimum zone (1 mL O 2 L -1) varied between 20 m (nearshore) and 300 m depth (oceanic). The community descriptors (slope of the size spectra, size class index, abundance of size classes) were derived from the size spectra. Stepwise multiple regression analysis found significant correlations between these descriptors and oceanographic variables (temperature, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll-a, OMZ depth). These data suggest an upwelling-dependent zooplankton distribution characterized by aggregations in a mid-shelf zone, where the log-normalized size spectra become flatter due to an increased abundance of larger size classes (>3 mm). In contrast, the inshore and offshore zones were dominated by small (zone coincided with moderate levels of chlorophyll-a (ca. 1 μg L -1) and the OMZ depth near 200 m. These spatial patterns and slopes of the size spectra however, were subjected to a significant day vs. night effect mostly explained by the diel vertical migration of the euphausiid Euphausia mucronata. This migration can descend below 200 m during the daylight, causing the larger size classes to disappear from the size spectrum and resulting in a steeper slope. Time-dependent effects must, therefore, be considered when examining the spatial patterns of zooplankton in coastal upwelling zones.

  18. Kinematics and dynamics of the East Pacific Rise linked to a stable, deep-mantle upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, David B.; Forte, Alessandro M.; Rowan, Christopher J.; Glišović, Petar; Moucha, Robert; Grand, Stephen P.; Simmons, Nathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Earth’s tectonic plates are generally considered to be driven largely by negative buoyancy associated with subduction of oceanic lithosphere. In this context, mid-ocean ridges (MORs) are passive plate boundaries whose divergence accommodates flow driven by subduction of oceanic slabs at trenches. We show that over the past 80 million years (My), the East Pacific Rise (EPR), Earth’s dominant MOR, has been characterized by limited ridge-perpendicular migration and persistent, asymmetric ridge accretion that are anomalous relative to other MORs. We reconstruct the subduction-related buoyancy fluxes of plates on either side of the EPR. The general expectation is that greater slab pull should correlate with faster plate motion and faster spreading at the EPR. Moreover, asymmetry in slab pull on either side of the EPR should correlate with either ridge migration or enhanced plate velocity in the direction of greater slab pull. Based on our analysis, none of the expected correlations are evident. This implies that other forces significantly contribute to EPR behavior. We explain these observations using mantle flow calculations based on globally integrated buoyancy distributions that require core-mantle boundary heat flux of up to 20 TW. The time-dependent mantle flow predictions yield a long-lived deep-seated upwelling that has its highest radial velocity under the EPR and is inferred to control its observed kinematics. The mantle-wide upwelling beneath the EPR drives horizontal components of asthenospheric flows beneath the plates that are similarly asymmetric but faster than the overlying surface plates, thereby contributing to plate motions through viscous tractions in the Pacific region. PMID:28028535

  19. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Ecosystems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Ecosystems provides data and information on the extent and classification of ecosystems circa 2000, including coastal,...

  20. On an upwelling front, propagation of upwelling and vertical velocity in the eastern Arabian sea during monsoon, 1987

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Antony, M.K.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    A coastal upwelling front parallel to the coast and identifiable upto a depth of 75 m was observed between 12.5 and 16 degrees N along the eastern Arabian Sea in September, 1987 from closely spaced digital BT data. With a north-south slope...

  1. a Numerical Study of Basic Coastal Upwelling Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhihong

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3 -D) numerical models with a second order turbulence closure are developed for the study of coastal upwelling processes. A logarithmic coordinate system is introduced to obtain increased resolution in the regions near the surface and bottom where high velocity shear occurs and in the upwelling zone where its width is confined to the coast. In the experiments performed in the 2-D model an ocean initially at rest is driven by a spatially uniform alongshore wind-stress. There is a development of an offshore flow in the surface layer and an onshore flow below the surface layer. In the wind-stress direction there is a development of a coastal surface jet. The neglect of the alongshore pressure gradient leads to the intensification of the jet, and the concentration of the onshore flow in an over-developed Ekman layer yielding an unrealistic deepening of a bottom mixed layer. When bathymetric variations are introduced, some modifications in the dynamics of upwelling are observed. On the shelf region there is another upwelling zone and isotherms are interested with the bottom topography. When an alongshore pressure gradient is added externally into the model, the strength of the coastal jet decreases and a coastal undercurrent exists at greater depth. In addition the return onshore flow is largely independent of depth and the deepening of the bottom mixed layer disappears. In the experiments performed in the 3-D model a wind-stress with limited domain is used. Coastally trapped waves are generated and propagate along the coastline leading to a development of an alongshore pressure gradient, which has a significant effect on upwelling. The evolution of the alongshore flow, vertical velocity and the temperature is determined by both remote and local wind due to the propagation of waves. As the integration proceeds, the flow pattern becomes remarkably 3-dimensional

  2. Implications of Upwells as Hydrodynamic Jets in a Pulse Jet Mixed System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pease, Leonard F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bamberger, Judith A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Minette, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-02-28

    This report evaluates the physics of the upwell flow in pulse jet mixed systems in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Although the initial downward flow and radial flow from jets characteristic of pulse jet mixers (PJMs) has been analyzed, the upwells have received considerably less attention despite having significant implications for vessel mixing. Do the upwells behave like jets? How do the upwells scale? When will the central upwell break through? What proportion of the vessel is blended by the upwells themselves? Indeed, how the physics of the central upwell is affected by multiple PJMs (e.g., six in the proposed mixing vessels), non-Newtonian rheology, and significant multicomponent solids loadings remain unexplored.

  3. Coastal upwelling in the Gelendzhik area of the Black Sea: Effect of wind and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestrova, K. P.; Zatsepin, A. G.; Myslenkov, S. A.

    2017-07-01

    Long series data of a thermistor chain in the Black Sea coastal zone near Gelendzhik were analyzed. A thermistor chain installed 1 km offshore and at a depth of 22 m. There are full and incomplete upwelling events observed. The study of upwelling genesis based on: wind speed data from the NCEP/CFSR reanalysis and Gelendzhik weather station, velocity and direction of coastal currents measured by ADCP profiler moored on the bottom near the thermistor chain. Over the whole observation period (warm seasons of 2013-2015), more than 40 events of upwelling were registered four of them were full upwellings, when presence of under-thermocline water was observed near the sea surface. For every upwelling event, conditions prior to the changes in thermic structure, were analyzed. It is found that full upwelling generally occur under synergistic wind and current forcing. Fairly strong forcing of one of these factors is sufficient for partial upwelling to occur.

  4. Surface distribution of brachyuran megalopae and ichthyoplankton in the Columbia River plume during transition from downwelling to upwelling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roegner, G. Curtis; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Brodeur, Richard D.

    2013-06-01

    In the California Current coastal boundary zone, the spring transition between downwelling and upwelling conditions, along with the fluctuating structure of the Columbia River plume, creates highly dynamic interactions. In this study, we investigated whether the surface distribution of brachyuran larvae and ichthyoplankton would track the dynamics of the Columbia River plume. By happenstance, the cruise period coincided with the spring transition from downwelling to sustained upwelling conditions in 2010, a year when the transition was delayed and Columbia River flow was substantially higher than average. We used time series of wind and freshwater input to evaluate the influence of physical forcing on oceanographic patterns, and sampled hydrography and surface plankton concentrations within a 182 km2 grid off Willapa Bay, WA. Additionally, two longer transects, one cross-shelf and the other along-shore, were made to discern the extent of plume influence on larval crab and fish abundance. We found that plume waters that were trapped in a northward-flowing coastal-boundary current during downwelling conditions were advected offshore after several days of upwelling-favorable winds. Neustonic collections of brachyuran larvae and ichthyoplankton varied in response to this large seaward advective event. Megalopae of cancrid crabs exhibited patterns of both offshore transport (Cancer oregonensis/productus) and nearshore retention (C. magister). Additionally, abundant numbers of large juvenile widow (Sebastes entomelas) and yellowtail (S. flavidus) rockfish of a size appropriate for settlement were sampled during a period when ocean conditions favored high recruitment success. These results demonstrated that the response of planktonic crab larvae and ichthyoplankton to large-scale advection varied by species, with larger and more vagile fish exhibiting less evidence of passive transport than smaller crab larvae. Importantly, portions of the planktonic fish and crab

  5. Nutrient pumping by submesoscale circulations in the mauritanian upwelling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosegood, P. J.; Nightingale, P. D.; Rees, A. P.; Widdicombe, C. E.; Woodward, E. M. S.; Clark, D. R.; Torres, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Observations made within a cold filament in the Mauritanian upwelling system demonstrate that intense submesoscale circulations at the peripheral edges of the filament are likely responsible for anomalously high levels of observed primary productivity by resupplying nutrients to the euphotic zone. Measurements made on the shelf within the recently upwelled water reveal that primary production (PP) of 8.2 gC/m-2 day-1 was supported by nitrate concentrations (NC) of 8 mmol m-3. Towards the front that defined the edge of the filament containing the upwelled water as it was transported offshore, PP dropped to 1.6 gC m-2 day-1 whilst NC dropped to 5.5 mmol m-3. Thus, whilst the observed nutrients on the shelf accounted for 90% of new production, this value dropped to ∼60% near the filament's front after accounting for vertical turbulent fluxes and Ekman pumping. We demonstrate that the N15 was likely to have been supplied at the front by submesoscale circulations that were directly measured as intense vertical velocities ⩾100 m day-1 by a drifting acoustic Doppler current profiler that crossed a submesoscale surface temperature front. At the same time, a recently released tracer was subducted out of the mixed layer within 24 h of release, providing direct evidence that the frontal circulations were capable of accessing the reservoir of nutrients beneath the pycnocline. The susceptibility of the filament edge to submesoscale instabilities was demonstrated by O(1) Rossby numbers at horizontal scales of 1-10 km. The frontal circulations are consistent with instabilities arising from a wind-driven nonlinear Ekman buoyancy flux generated by the persistent northerly wind stress that has a down-front component at the northern edge of the inshore section of the filament. The prevalence of submesoscale instabilities and their associated vertical circulations are proposed to be a key mechanism operating at sub-grid scales and sustaining new production throughout the upwelling

  6. Isotopic evidences of past upwelling intensity in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.

    and understand the history of upwelling as it is recorded in deep-sea sediments. The southwest (SW) monsoon strongly influences the climatic conditions in South and Southeast Asia and biological productivity in the Arabian Sea. ability at the ODP Site 728... climatic change and ocean history (McCrea, 1950; Epstein et al., 1953; Emiliani, 1955). The isotopic role of planktic forami- nifera expanded, it was recognized that foraminifera did not secret their shells in isotopic equilibrium with ambient water (Be...

  7. Boundary issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Alan R.; Porder, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    What is our point of no return? Caesar proclaimed 'the die is cast' while crossing the Rubicon, but rarely does modern society find so visible a threshold in our continued degradation of ecosystems and the services they provide. Humans have always used their surroundings to make a living— sometimes successfully, sometimes not (Diamond 2005)—and we intuitively know that there are boundaries to our exploitation. But defining these boundaries has been a challenge since Malthus first prophesied that nature would limit the human population (Malthus 1798). In 2009, Rockström and colleagues tried to quantify what the 6.8 billion (and counting) of us could continue to get away with, and what we couldn't (Rockström et al 2009). In selecting ten 'planetary boundaries', the authors contend that a sustainable human enterprise requires treating a number of environmental thresholds as points of no return. They suggest we breach these Rubicons at our own peril, and that we've already crossed three: biodiversity loss, atmospheric CO2, and disruption of the global nitrogen (N) cycle. As they clearly hoped, the very act of setting targets has provoked scientific inquiry about their accuracy, and about the value of hard targets in the first place (Schlesinger 2009). Such debate is a good thing. Despite recent emphasis on the science of human-ecosystem interactions, understanding of our planetary boundaries is still in its infancy, and controversy can speed scientific progress (Engelhardt and Caplan 1987). A few weeks ago in this journal, Carpenter and Bennett (2011) took aim at one of the more controversial boundaries in the Rockström analysis: that for human alteration of the global phosphorus (P) cycle. Rockström's group chose riverine P export as the key indicator, suggesting that humans should not exceed a value that could trigger widespread marine anoxic events—and asserting that we have not yet crossed this threshold. There are defensible reasons for a marine

  8. Large Topographic Rises on Venus: Implications for Mantle Upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stofan, Ellen R.; Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Bindschandler, Duane L.; Senske, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Topographic rises on Venus have been identified that are interpreted to be the surface manifestation of mantle upwellings. These features are classified into groups based on their dominant morphology. Atla and Beta Regiones are classified as rift-dominated, Dione, western Eistla, Bell, and Imdr Regiones as volcano-dominated, and Themis, eastern Eistla, and central Eistla Regiones as corona-dominated. At several topographic rises, geologic indicators were identified that may provide evidence of uplifted topography (e.g., volcanic flow features trending upslope). We assessed the minimum contribution of volcanic construction to the topography of each rise, which in general represents less than 5% of the volume of the rise, similar to the volumes of edifices at terrestrial hotspot swells. The total melt volume at each rise is approximated to be 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 6) cu km. The variations in morphology, topography, and gravity signatures at topographic rises are not interpreted to indicate variations in stage of evolution of a mantle upwelling. Instead, the morphologic variations between the three classes of topographic rises are interpreted to indicate the varying influences of lithospheric structure, plume characteristics, and regional tectonic environment. Within each class, variations in topography, gravity, and amount of volcanism may be indicative of differing stages of evolution. The similarity between swell and volcanic volumes for terrestrial and Venusian hotspots implies comparable time-integrated plume strengths for individual upwellings on the two planets.

  9. Oceanic upwelling and productivity in the eastern tropical Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedler, P.C.; Philbrick, V.; Chavez, F.P.

    1991-01-01

    An oceanographic survey of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean in August-November 1990 found a productive, nutrient-rich, moderately high-chlorophyll surface layer in two oceanic upwelling regions: the equatorial divergence, especially east of the Galapagos, and the countercurrent divergence out to 105 degree W, > 1,000 km west of the Costa Rica Dome. Although NO 3 is not depleted in upwelling regions, relationships among nutrient concentrations and temperature in 1986-1988 data from the same area show that NO 3 is the first macronutrient to be depleted in adjacent, less-productive regions. A three-dimensional, two-layer box model of NO 3 flux within and into the euphotic zone gives estimated rates of new production that are ∼29% of measured rates of 14 C phytoplankton production. Persistence of excess NO 3 in the euphotic zone exceeds 1 yr under high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll conditions off the equator where weak upwelling, or downwelling, occurs. These results indicate substantial control or limitation of NO 3 utilization and productivity in nutrient-rich oceanic regions of the eastern tropical Pacific

  10. Upwelling to Outflowing Oxygen Ions at Auroral Latitudes during Quiet Times: Exploiting a New Satellite Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmon, Robert J.

    The mechanisms by which thermal O+ escapes from the top of the ionosphere and into the magnetosphere are not fully understood even with 30 years of active research. This thesis introduces a new database, builds a simulation framework around a thermospheric model and exploits these tools to gain new insights into the study of O+ ion outflows. A dynamic auroral boundary identification system is developed using Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft observations at 850 km to build a database characterizing the oxygen source region. This database resolves the ambiguity of the expansion and contraction of the auroral zone. Mining this new dataset, new understanding is revealed. We describe the statistical trajectory of the cleft ion fountain return flows over the polar cap as a function of activity and the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field y-component. A substantial peak in upward moving O+ in the morning hours is discovered. Using published high altitude data we demonstrate that between 850 and 6000 km altitude, O+ is energized predominantly through transverse heating; and acceleration in this altitude region is relatively more important in the cusp than at midnight. We compare data with a thermospheric model to study the effects of solar irradiance, electron precipitation and neutral wind on the distribution of upward O+ at auroral latitudes. EUV irradiance is shown to play a dominant role in establishing a dawn-focused source population of upwelling O+ that is responsible for a pre-noon feature in escaping O+ fluxes. This feature has been corroborated by observations on platforms including the Dynamics Explorer 1 (DE-1), Polar, and Fast Auroral Snapshot SnapshoT (FAST) spacecraft. During quiet times our analysis shows that the neutral wind is more important than electron precipitation in establishing the dayside O+ upwelling distribution. Electron precipitation is found to play a relatively modest role in controlling dayside, and a

  11. Surface circulation and upwelling patterns around Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, A.; Pattiaratchi, C. B.; Wijeratne, E. M. S.

    2013-09-01

    Sri Lanka occupies a unique location within the equatorial belt in the northern Indian Ocean with the Arabian Sea on its western side and the Bay of Bengal on its eastern side. The region is characterised by bi-annually reversing monsoon winds resulting from seasonal differential heating and cooling of the continental land mass and the ocean. This study explored elements of the dynamics of the surface circulation and coastal upwelling in the waters around Sri Lanka using satellite imagery and the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) configured to the study region and forced with ECMWF interim data. The model was run for 2 yr to examine the seasonal and shorter term (∼10 days) variability. The results confirmed the presence of the reversing current system in response to the changing wind field: the eastward flowing Southwest Monsoon Current (SMC) during the Southwest (SW) monsoon transporting 11.5 Sv and the westward flowing Northeast Monsoon Current (NMC) transporting 9.5 Sv during the Northeast (NE) monsoon, respectively. A recirculation feature located to the east of Sri Lanka during the SW monsoon, the Sri Lanka Dome, is shown to result from the interaction between the SMC and the Island of Sri Lanka. Along the eastern and western coasts, during both monsoon periods, flow is southward converging along the south coast. During the SW monsoon the Island deflects the eastward flowing SMC southward whilst along the east coast the southward flow results from the Sri Lanka Dome recirculation. The major upwelling region, during both monsoon periods, is located along the south coast and is shown to be due to flow convergence and divergence associated with offshore transport of water. Higher surface chlorophyll concentrations were observed during the SW monsoon. The location of the flow convergence and hence the upwelling centre was dependent on the relative strengths of wind driven flow along the east and west coasts: during the SW (NE) monsoon the flow along the

  12. Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem goods and services are the many life-sustaining benefits we receive from nature and contribute to environmental and human health and well-being. Ecosystem-focused research will develop methods to measure ecosystem goods and services.

  13. Observations of the Hawaiian Mesopelagic Boundary Community in Daytime and Nighttime Habitats Using Estimated Backscatter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comfort CM

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Hawaiian mesopelagic boundary community is a slope-associated assemblage of micronekton that undergoes diel migrations along the slopes of the islands, residing at greater depths during the day and moving upslope to forage in shallower water at night. The timing of these migrations may be influenced by environmental factors such as moon phase or ambient light. To investigate the movements of this community, we examined echo intensity data from acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs deployed at shallow and deep sites on the southern slope of Oahu, Hawaii. Diel changes in echo intensity (and therefore in estimated backscatter were observed and determined to be caused, at least in part, by the horizontal migration of the mesopelagic boundary community. Generalized additive modeling (GAM was used to assess the impact of environmental factors on the migration timing. Sunset time and lunar illumination were found to be significant factors. Movement speeds of the mesopelagic boundary community were estimated at 1.25–1.99 km h-1 (35–55 cm s-1. The location at which the migrations were observed is the future site of a seawater air conditioning system, which will cause artificial upwelling at our shallow observation site and may cause animal entrainment at the seawater intake near our deep water observation site. This study is the first to observe the diel migration of the mesopelagic boundary community on southern Oahu in both deep and shallow parts of the habitat, and it is also the first to examine migration trends over long time scales, which allows a better assessment of the effects of seasons and lunar illumination on micronekton migrations. Understanding the driving mechanisms of mesopelagic boundary community behavior will increase our ability to assess and manage coastal ecosystems in the face of increasing anthropogenic impacts.

  14. Lipid biomarker patterns of phosphogenic sediments from upwelling regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arning, Esther T.; Birgel, Daniel; Schultz-Vogt, Heide N.

    2008-01-01

    Sediments of upwelling regions off Namibia, Peru, and Chile contain dense populations of large nitrate-storing sulfide-oxidizing bacteria, Thiomargarita, Beggiatoa, and Thioploca. Increased contents of monounsaturated C16 and C18 fatty acids have been found at all stations studied, especially when...... these bacteria. As a consequence, the distributions of sulfate reducers in sediments of Namibia, Peru, and Chile are closely related to differences in the motility of the various sulfide oxidizers at the three study sites. Depth profiles of mono-O-alkyl glycerol ethers have been found to correlate best...

  15. Rare earth elements in pore waters from Cabo Friós western boundary upwelling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoak, J. M.; Silva-Filho, E. V.; Rousseau, T.; Albuquerque, A. L.; Caldeira, P. P.; Moreira, M.

    2015-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are a group of reactive trace elements in aqueous media, they have a coherent chemical behavior with however a subtle and gradual shift in physicochemical properties allowing their use as tracers of sources and processes. Uncertainties on their oceanic inputs and outputs still remains [Arsouze et al., 2009; Siddall et al., 2008; Tachikawa et al., 2003]. The water-sediment interface were early on identified as a relevant REE source due to the high distribution coefficient between sediments and pore waters [Elderfield and Sholkovitz, 1987] and substantially higher concentration then the water column [Abbott et al., 2015; Haley et al., 2004; Sholkovitz et al., 1989; Soyol-Erdene and Huh, 2013]. Here we present a cross shelf transect of 4 short pore waters REE profiles on a 680 km2 mud bank located in the region of Cabo Frio, Brazil. This study reveals similar trends at the four sites: a REE production zone reflected by a maximum in concentration at the top of the sediment evolving with depth toward a REE consumption zone reflected by a minimum in REE concentrations. PAAS normalized patterns shows 1) a progressive depletion in LREE with depth with HREE/LREE ratios comprised between 1.1 and 1.6 in the 2 first centimeters evolving gradually to ratios comprised between 2.8 and 4.7 above 7 cm 2) A sharp gradient in negative Ce anomaly with Ce/Ce* values reaching 0.3. With maximum Nd concentrations comprised between 780 and 1200 pmol.kg and considering that seawater Nd concentrations of Brazilian shelf bottom waters are comprised between 24 and 50 pmol.Kg-1 we apply the Fick´s First Law of diffusion and estimate that 340 +/- 90 nmol. m-2 Y-1 of Nd is released in the Cabo frio´s mudbank. This flux is in the same order of magnitude of recent estimates by [Abbott et al., 2015] in the slope of Oregon´s margin. Unraveling processes responsible for the REE production zone will help to refine the global REE fluxes estimates.

  16. Boundary Influences on HAB Phytoplankton Ecology in a Stratification-Enhanced Upwelling Shadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-13

    localization, tracking and sampling during djal AUV operations (Figs. 12-15). coincident with the cool side of a front (Fig. 12). Abundant gelatinous ...Busse, LB., Mazzillo, F., Silver , M.W.. 2008. The emergence of Cochtodinium along the California Coast (USA). Harmful Algae 7, 337-346. Das, J...p. 89-92. Mazzillo F.F.M.. Ryan J.P.. Silver M.W., 2011 Parasitism as a biological control agent of dino flagellate blooms in the California

  17. Downscaling biogeochemistry in the Benguela eastern boundary current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machu, E.; Goubanova, K.; Le Vu, B.; Gutknecht, E.; Garçon, V.

    2015-06-01

    Dynamical downscaling is developed to better predict the regional impact of global changes in the framework of scenarios. As an intermediary step towards this objective we used the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) to downscale a low resolution coupled atmosphere-ocean global circulation model (AOGCM; IPSL-CM4) for simulating the recent-past dynamics and biogeochemistry of the Benguela eastern boundary current. Both physical and biogeochemical improvements are discussed over the present climate scenario (1980-1999) under the light of downscaling. Despite biases introduced through boundary conditions (atmospheric and oceanic), the physical and biogeochemical processes in the Benguela Upwelling System (BUS) have been improved by the ROMS model, relative to the IPSL-CM4 simulation. Nevertheless, using coarse-resolution AOGCM daily atmospheric forcing interpolated on ROMS grids resulted in a shifted SST seasonality in the southern BUS, a deterioration of the northern Benguela region and a very shallow mixed layer depth over the whole regional domain. We then investigated the effect of wind downscaling on ROMS solution. Together with a finer resolution of dynamical processes and of bathymetric features (continental shelf and Walvis Ridge), wind downscaling allowed correction of the seasonality, the mixed layer depth, and provided a better circulation over the domain and substantial modifications of subsurface biogeochemical properties. It has also changed the structure of the lower trophic levels by shifting large offshore areas from autotrophic to heterotrophic regimes with potential important consequences on ecosystem functioning. The regional downscaling also improved the phytoplankton distribution and the southward extension of low oxygen waters in the Northern Benguela. It allowed simulating low oxygen events in the northern BUS and highlighted a potential upscaling effect related to the nitrogen irrigation from the productive BUS towards the tropical

  18. The Effect of Alongcoast Advection on Pacific Northwest Shelf and Slope Water Properties in Relation to Upwelling Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Hally B.; Banas, Neil S.; MacCready, Parker

    2018-01-01

    The Northern California Current System experiences highly variable seasonal upwelling in addition to larger basin-scale variability, both of which can significantly affect its water chemistry. Salinity and temperature fields from a 7 year ROMS hindcast model of this region (43°N-50°N), along with extensive particle tracking, were used to study interannual variability in water properties over both the upper slope and the midshelf bottom. Variation in slope water properties was an order of magnitude smaller than on the shelf. Furthermore, the primary relationship between temperature and salinity anomalies in midshelf bottom water consisted of variation in density (cold/salty versus warm/fresh), nearly orthogonal to the anomalies along density levels (cold/fresh versus warm/salty) observed on the upper slope. These midshelf anomalies were well-explained (R2 = 0.6) by the combination of interannual variability in local and remote alongshore wind stress, and depth of the California Undercurrent (CUC) core. Lagrangian analysis of upper slope and midshelf bottom water shows that both are affected simultaneously by large-scale alongcoast advection of water through the northern and southern boundaries. The amplitude of anomalies in bottom oxygen and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) on the shelf associated with upwelling variability are larger than those associated with typical variation in alongcoast advection, and are comparable to observed anomalies in this region. However, a large northern intrusion event in 2004 illustrates that particular, large-scale alongcoast advection anomalies can be just as effective as upwelling variability in changing shelf water properties on the interannual scale.

  19. Submesoscale CO2 variability across an upwelling front off Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhn, Eike E.; Thomsen, Sören; Arévalo-Martínez, Damian L.; Kanzow, Torsten

    2017-12-01

    As a major source for atmospheric CO2, the Peruvian upwelling region exhibits strong variability in surface fCO2 on short spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the physical processes driving the strong variability is of fundamental importance for constraining the effect of marine emissions from upwelling regions on the global CO2 budget. In this study, a frontal decay on length scales of 𝒪(10 km) was observed off the Peruvian coast following a pronounced decrease in down-frontal (equatorward) wind speed with a time lag of 9 h. Simultaneously, the sea-to-air flux of CO2 on the inshore (cold) side of the front dropped from up to 80 to 10 mmol m-2 day-1, while the offshore (warm) side of the front was constantly outgassing at a rate of 10-20 mmol m-2 day-1. Based on repeated ship transects the decay of the front was observed to occur in two phases. The first phase was characterized by a development of coherent surface temperature anomalies which gained in amplitude over 6-9 h. The second phase was characterized by a disappearance of the surface temperature front within 6 h. Submesoscale mixed-layer instabilities were present but seem too slow to completely remove the temperature gradient in this short time period. Dynamics such as a pressure-driven gravity current appear to be a likely mechanism behind the evolution of the front.

  20. Effects of structural factors on upwelling fouling community, Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Pereira Masi

    Full Text Available Abstract To assess the successional pattern of fouling organisms three hypotheses were tested: 1 a thermocline is caused by seasonal upwelling events, and therefore, depth influences the successional trajectory of the fouling community; 2 a reduction in the intensity of natural light of the substrate influences the fouling composition and the successional trajectory; 3 fish predation influences the community composition and its successional trajectory. During one year, up-facing and down-facing PVC panels on open, partially caged or fully caged, and placed at depths of 1.5 and 3.5 meters were monthly sampled by digital photograph to determine the community composition and by contact point to estimate the percent coverage of organisms. The upwelling impact provided different water masses, and light intensity was also a determining factor of the overall successional trajectory of the fouling community. After the installation of full and partial cages, differences were identified in the respective successional trajectories. The results of this study suggest that each physical factor or biological process can change the successional trajectory of the community, and the successional model (e.g., convergent, divergent, parallel, or cyclic depends on the magnitudes of the determinants that act on the community at each stage of its trajectory.

  1. The OMZ and nutrient features as a signature of interannual and low-frequency variability in the Peruvian upwelling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Graco

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the Humboldt Current upwelling ecosystem, particularly the northern component off the coast of Peru, has drawn the interest of the scientific community because of its unique characteristics: it is the upwelling system with the biggest catch productivity despite the fact it is embedded in a shallow and intense oxygen minimum zone (OMZ. It is also an area of intense nitrogen loss and anammox activity and experiences large interannual variability associated with the equatorial remote forcing. In this context, we examined the oceanographic and biogeochemical variability associated with the OMZ off central Peru from a monthly time series (1996–2011 recorded off the coast of Callao (12° 02′ S, 77° 29′ W. The data reveal a rich spectrum of variability in the OMZ that includes frequencies ranging from seasonal to interannual scales. Due to the efficient oceanic teleconnection off Peru, the observed variability is interpreted in the light of an estimate of the equatorial Kelvin wave contribution to sea level anomalies considering the peculiarities of its vertical structure (i.e., the first two baroclinic modes. The span of the data set allows us to contrast two OMZ regimes. The strong regime is associated with the strong 1997–1998 equatorial Pacific El Niño, during which the OMZ adjusted to Kelvin-wave-induced downwelling conditions that switched off the upwelling and drastically reduced nutrient availability. The weak regime corresponds to the post-2000 period associated with the occurrence of moderate central Pacific El Niño events and enhanced equatorial Kelvin wave activity, in which mean upwelling conditions are maintained. It is shown that the characteristics of the coupling between physics and biogeochemistry is distinct between the two regimes with the weak regime being associated with a larger explained variance in biogeochemical properties not linearly related to the ENSO oceanic teleconnection. The

  2. Coastal upwelling ecosystems are known to be parts of the most ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    very high rate of primary production, but they are ... However, in areas such as Peru, Senegal and Côte ... mixed layer off Peru in winter is taken into account, the speed of surface ..... Fish Resources, San José, Costa Rica, April 1983. Sharp,.

  3. Modeling the Central California Coastal Upwelling System: Physics, Ecosystems and Resource Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chavez, Francisco P; Barber, Richard T; Chai, Fei; Chao, Yi; De Vogelaere, Andrew P; Kindle, John C; Maffione, Robert A; Marinovic, Baldo; McWilliams, James C; Paduan, Jeffrey D

    2003-01-01

    To develop a coupled physical-biological model that can utilize available data to accurately simulate physical, chemical and biological processes within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS...

  4. How marine upwelling influences the distribution of Artemesia longinaris (Decapoda: Penaeoidea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo S Sancinetti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Upwelling events can occur in most of the oceans altering the water physical, chemical and sediment conditions and consequently the species communities dwelling the areas. For better understanding the behavior of populations inhabiting upwelling regions, the spatial and temporal distribution of a Penaeoidea shrimp was studied correlating it with the abiotic factors that vary during upwelling and non-upwelling periods in an area under influence of Cabo Frio upwelling. Bottom salinity and temperature, organic matter and sediment type from each station were sampled from March 2008 to February 2010, in six stations located between 5 and 45 m depth. The lowest temperatures were recorded during spring and summer for both years with temperature values lower than 19ºC. A total of 26,466 Artemesia longinaris shrimps were captured mainly in 10-35 m depth. Upwelling periods showed significant differences in abundance in relation to non-upwelling periods. The spatial distribution among stations varied according to the temperature with higher abundance in stations with values between 19 and 21ºC. The highest abundance of A. longinaris was recorded in spring and summer when intrusions of the cold waters of South Atlantic Central Waters (SACW were frequent. Thus, the effect of cold water of SACW boosted by the upwelling was a determinant factor in the spatial and temporal distribution of A. longinaris in the studied region.

  5. An upwelling-induced retention area off Senegal: A mechanism to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlorophyll distribution peaks nearshore. This unique surface structure is interpreted as the result of a “double cell” structure in the upwelling vertical circulation: a first cell located at the shelf break, the main upwelling cell that brings cold and nutrient-rich subsurface water to the surface, and a second cell located inshore of ...

  6. Response of Mytilus edulis to enhanced phytoplankton availibility by controlled upwelling in an oligographic fjord

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strohmeier, T.; Strand, Ø.; Alunno-Bruscia, M.; Duinker, A.; Rosland, R.; Jansen, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    The controlled upwelling of nutrient-rich deep water in oligotrophic coastal regions has been proposed as a means of increasing phytoplankton and, subsequently, bivalve aquaculture production. This was tested as part of a large-scale upwelling experiment in an oligotrophic environment (Lysefjord,

  7. Variability of Iberian upwelling implied by ERA-40 and ERA-Interim reanalyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. R. Alves

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Regional Ocean Modeling System ocean model is used to simulate the decadal evolution of the regional waters in offshore Iberia in response to atmospheric fields given by ECMWF ERA-40 (1961–2001 and ERA-Interim (1989–2008 reanalyses. The simulated sea surface temperature (SST fields are verified against satellite AVHRR SST, and they are analysed to characterise the variability and trends of coastal upwelling in the region. Opposing trends in upwelling frequency are found at the northern limit, where upwelling has been decreasing in recent decades, and at its southern edge, where there is some evidence of increased upwelling. These results confirm previous observational studies and, more importantly, indicate that observed SST trends are not only due to changes in radiative or atmospheric heat fluxes alone but also due to changes in upwelling dynamics, suggesting that such a process may be relevant in climate change scenarios.

  8. Nutrient supply, surface currents, and plankton dynamics predict zooplankton hotspots in coastal upwelling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messié, Monique; Chavez, Francisco P.

    2017-09-01

    A simple combination of wind-driven nutrient upwelling, surface currents, and plankton growth/grazing equations generates zooplankton patchiness and hotspots in coastal upwelling regions. Starting with an initial input of nitrate from coastal upwelling, growth and grazing equations evolve phytoplankton and zooplankton over time and space following surface currents. The model simulates the transition from coastal (large phytoplankton, e.g., diatoms) to offshore (picophytoplankton and microzooplankton) communities, and in between generates a large zooplankton maximum. The method was applied to four major upwelling systems (California, Peru, Northwest Africa, and Benguela) using latitudinal estimates of wind-driven nitrate supply and satellite-based surface currents. The resulting zooplankton simulations are patchy in nature; areas of high concentrations coincide with previously documented copepod and krill hotspots. The exercise highlights the importance of the upwelling process and surface currents in shaping plankton communities.

  9. Ecosystem Jenga!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umphlett, Natalie; Brosius, Tierney; Laungani, Ramesh; Rousseau, Joe; Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra L.

    2009-01-01

    To give students a tangible model of an ecosystem and have them experience what could happen if a component of that ecosystem were removed; the authors developed a hands-on, inquiry-based activity that visually demonstrates the concept of a delicately balanced ecosystem through a modification of the popular game Jenga. This activity can be…

  10. Long-time observation of annual variation of Taiwan Strait upwelling in summer season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, D. L.; Kawamura, H.; Guan, L.

    The Taiwan Strait is between Taiwan Island and Mainland China, where several upwelling zones are well known for good fishing grounds. Earlier studies in the strait have been conducted on detecting upwelling by ship measurements with short-term cruises, but long-term variations of upwelling in this region are not understood. The present paper examines satellite images for a long-time observation of two major upwelling zones in the Taiwan Strait: Taiwan Bank Upwelling (TBU) and Dongshan Upwelling (DSU). Sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll a (Chl-a) images have been analyzed for summer months (June, July, and August) from 1980 to 2002. Results reveal annual variation of two upwelling zones. These two upwelling zones occur every year characterized with distinct low water temperature and high Chl-a concentrations. During the period from 1989 to 1998, SST is found to be 1.15 °C lower in TBU, and 1.42 °C lower in the DSU than the Taiwan Strait. The size of DSU has been found to be larger during summer of 1989, 1990, 1993 and 1995; TBU has been found to be weak during summer of 1994 and 1997. Ocean color images obtained from CZCS, OCI, and SeaWiFS also show high Chl-a concentrations (0.8-2.5 mg m-3) in two upwelling zones, which coincide with low SST in terms of location, shape, and time. These high Chl-a concentrations in TBU and DSU may be related to upwelling waters that bring nutrients from bottom to surface. The present results also show the potential of using satellite data for monitoring of ocean environment for long time period.

  11. Hot upwelling conduit beneath the Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Daoyuan; Miller, Meghan S.; Holt, Adam F.; Becker, Thorsten W.

    2014-11-01

    The Atlas Mountains of Morocco display high topography, no deep crustal root, and regions of localized Cenozoic alkaline volcanism. Previous seismic imaging and geophysical studies have implied a hot mantle upwelling as the source of the volcanism and high elevation. However, the existence, shape, and physical properties of an associated mantle anomaly are debated. Here we use seismic waveform analysis from a broadband deployment and geodynamic modeling to define the physical properties and morphology of the anomaly. The imaged low-velocity structure extends to ~200 km beneath the Atlas and appears ~350 K hotter than the ambient mantle with possible partial melting. It includes a lateral conduit, which suggests that the Quaternary volcanism arises from the upper mantle. Moreover, the shape and temperature of the imaged anomaly indicate that the unusually high topography of the Atlas Mountains is due to active mantle support.

  12. A numerical investigation of the atmosphere-ocean thermal contrast over the coastal upwelling region of Cabo Frio, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourado, M. [Departamento de Meteorologia, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: marcelo_dourado@ufpel.edu.br; Pereira de Oliveira, A. [Departamento de Ciencias Atmosfericas, Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    An one-dimensional atmospheric second order closure model, coupled to an oceanic mixed layer model, is used to investigate the short term variation of the atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers in the coastal upwelling area of Cabo Frio, Brazil (23 degrees Celsius S, 42 degrees Celsius 08' W). The numerical simulations were carried out to evaluate the impact caused by the thermal contrast between atmosphere and ocean on the vertical extent and other properties of both atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers. The numerical simulations were designed taking as reference the observations carried out during the passage of a cold front that disrupted the upwelling regime in Cabo Frio in July of 1992. The simulations indicated that in 10 hours the mechanical mixing, sustained by a constant background flow of 10 m s-1, increases the atmospheric boundary layer in 214 m when the atmosphere is initially 2 K warmer than the ocean (positive thermal contrast observed during upwelling regime). For an atmosphere initially -2 K colder than the ocean (negative thermal contrast observed during passage of the cold front), the incipient thermal convection intensifies the mechanical mixing increasing the vertical extent of the atmospheric boundary layer in 360 m. The vertical evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer is consistent with the observations carried out in Cabo Frio during upwelling condition. When the upwelling is disrupted, the discrepancy between the simulated and observed atmospheric boundary layer heights in Cabo Frio during July of 1992 increases considerably. During the period of 10 hours, the simulated oceanic mixed layer deepens 2 m and 5.4 m for positive and negative thermal contrasts of 2 K and -2 K, respectively. In the latter case, the larger vertical extent of the oceanic mixed layer is due to the presence of thermal convection in the atmospheric boundary layer, which in turn is associated to the absence of upwelling caused by the passage of cold fronts

  13. Relative contributions of local wind and topography to the coastal upwelling intensity in the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongxiao; Shu, Yeqiang; Xue, Huijie; Hu, Jianyu; Chen, Ju; Zhuang, Wei; Zu, TingTing; Xu, Jindian

    2014-04-01

    Topographically induced upwelling caused by the interaction between large-scale currents and topography was observed during four cruises in the northern South China Sea (NSCS) when the upwelling favorable wind retreated. Using a high-resolution version of the Princeton Ocean Model, we investigate relative contributions of local wind and topography to the upwelling intensity in the NSCS. The results show that the topographically induced upwelling is sensitive to alongshore large-scale currents, which have an important contribution to the upwelling intensity. The topographically induced upwelling is comparable with the wind-driven upwelling at surface and has a stronger contribution to the upwelling intensity than the local wind does at bottom in the near-shore shelf region. The widened shelf to the southwest of Shanwei and west of the Taiwan Banks intensifies the bottom friction, especially off Shantou, which is a key factor for topographically induced upwelling in terms of bottom Ekman transport and Ekman pumping. The local upwelling favorable wind enhances the bottom friction as well as net onshore transport along the 50 m isobath, whereas it has less influence along the 30 m isobath. This implies the local wind is more important in upwelling intensity in the offshore region than in the nearshore region. The contribution of local upwelling favorable wind on upwelling intensity is comparable with that of topography along the 50 m isobath. The effects of local upwelling favorable wind on upwelling intensity are twofold: on one hand, the wind transports surface warm water offshore, and as a compensation of mass the bottom current transports cold water onshore; on the other hand, the wind enhances the coastal current, and the bottom friction in turn increases the topographically induced upwelling intensity.

  14. Influence of ocean acidification and deep water upwelling on oligotrophic plankton communities in the subtropical North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taucher, Jan; Bach, Lennart T.; Boxhammer, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) causes pronounced shifts in marine carbonate chemistry and a decrease in seawater pH. Increasing evidence indicates that these changes-summarized by the term ocean acidification (OA)-can significantly affect marine food webs and biogeochemical...... cycles. However, current scientific knowledge is largely based on laboratory experiments with single species and artificial boundary conditions, whereas studies of natural plankton communities are still relatively rare. Moreover, the few existing community-level studies were mostly conducted in rather...... and successfully simulated a deep water upwelling event that induced a pronounced plankton bloom. Our study revealed significant effects of OA on the entire food web, leading to a restructuring of plankton communities that emerged during the oligotrophic phase, and was further amplified during the bloom...

  15. Artificial upwelling using offshore wind energy for mariculture applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Viúdez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Offshore wind is proposed as an energy source to upwell nutrient-rich deep water to the ocean photic layers. A spar-buoy wind turbine with a rigid tube about 300 m long is proposed as a pipe to drive deep water up to the surface. The minimum energy required to uplift the water is the potential energy difference between surface waters inside and outside the pipe, which depends on the background density profile. The corresponding surface jump or hydraulic head, h, calculated for several analytical and experimental density profiles, is of the order of 10 cm. If the complete turbine power (of the order of several MW is used for raising the water (assuming a 100% pump efficiency, in a frictionless flow, very large water volumes, of the order of thousands of m3 s-1, will be transported to the photic layers. In a more realistic case, taking into account pipe friction in wide pipes, of the order of 10 m radius, and a power delivered to the fluid of 1 MW, the volume transport is still very large, about 500 m3 s-1. However, such a large amount of dense water could sink fast to aphotic layers due to vertical static instability (the fountain effect, ruining the enhancement of primary production. Hence, some ways to increase the turbulent entrainment and avoid the fountain effect are proposed. From the energetic viewpoint, artificial upwelling using offshore wind energy is a promising way to fertilize large open sea regions. This mariculture application is, however, severely subjected to atmosphere and ocean climatology, as well as to ecological dynamics. The general problem is multidisciplinary, and some important physical, engineering and ecological questions need to be seriously addressed to improve our confidence in the approach presented here.

  16. Oceanographic, Air-sea Interaction, and Environmental Aspects of Artificial Upwelling Produced by Wave-Inertia Pumps for Potential Hurricane Intensity Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, A.; Dean, C.

    2017-12-01

    The artificial upwelling system consisting of the wave-inertia pumps driven by surface waves can produce flow of cold deep water to the surface. One of the recently proposed potential applications of the artificial upwelling system is the hurricane intensity mitigation. Even relatively small reduction of intensity may provide significant benefits. The ocean heat content (OHC) is the "fuel" for hurricanes. The OHC can be reduced by mixing of the surface layer with the cold water produced by wave-inertia pumps. Implementation of this system for hurricane mitigation has several oceanographic and air-sea interaction aspects. The cold water brought to the surface from a deeper layer has higher density than the surface water and, therefore, tends to sink back down. The mixing of the cold water produced by artificial upwelling depends on environmental conditions such as stratification, regional ocean circulation, and vertical shear. Another aspect is that as the sea surface temperature drops below the air temperature, the stable stratification develops in the atmospheric boundary layer. The stable atmospheric stratification suppresses sensible and latent heat air-sea fluxes and reduces the net longwave irradiance from the sea surface. As a result, the artificial upwelling may start increasing the OHC (though still reducing the sea surface temperature). In this work, the fate of the cold water in the stratified environment with vertical shear has been studied using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. A 3D large eddy simulation model is initialized with observational temperature, salinity, and current velocity data from a sample location in the Straits of Florida. A periodic boundary condition is set along the direction of the current, which allows us to simulate infinite fetch. The model results indicate that the cold water brought to the sea surface by a wave-inertia pump forms a convective jet. This jet plunges into the upper ocean mixed layer and penetrates the

  17. Combined impact of ocean acidification and corrosive waters in a river-influenced coastal upwelling area off Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, C.; De La Hoz, M.; San Martin, V.; Contreras, P.; Navarro, J. M.; Lagos, N. A.; Lardies, M.; Manríquez, P. H.; Torres, R.

    2012-12-01

    Elevated CO2 in the atmosphere promotes a cascade of physical and chemical changes affecting all levels of biological organization, and the evidence from local to global scales has shown that such anthropogenic climate change has triggered significant responses in the Earth's biota. The increased concentration of CO2 is likely to cause a corresponding increase in ocean acidification (OA). In addition, economically valuable shellfish species predominantly inhabit coastal regions both in natural stocks and/or in managed stocks and farming areas. Many coastal ecosystems may experience seawater pCO2 levels significantly higher than expected from equilibrium with the atmosphere, which in this case are strongly linked to biological processes and/or the impact of two important processes; river plumes and coastal upwelling events, which indeed interplay in a very dynamic way on continental shelves, resulting in both source or sink of CO2 to the atmosphere. Coastal ecosystems receive persistent acid inputs as a result of freshwater discharges from river basins into the coastal domain. In this context, since shellfish resources and shellfish aquaculture activities predominantly occur in nearshore areas, it is expected that shellfish species inhabiting river-influenced benthic ecosystems will be exposed persistently to acidic conditions that are suboptimal for its development. In a wider ecological context, little is also known about the potential impacts of acid waters on the performance of larvae and juveniles of almost all the marine species inhabiting this benthic ecosystem in Eastern Southern Pacific Ocean. We present here the main results of a research study aimed to investigate the environmental conditions to which economically valuable calcifiers shellfish species are exposed in a river-influenced continental shelf off Central Chile. By using isotopic measurements in the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) pool (d13C-DIC) we showed the effect of the remineralization of

  18. Upwelling events, coastal offshore exchange, links to biogeochemical processes - Highlights from the Baltic Sea Science Congress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Ołdakowski

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic Sea Science Congress was held at Rostock University, Germany, from 19 to 22 March 2007. In the session entitled"Upwelling events, coastal offshore exchange, links to biogeochemical processes" 20 presentations were given,including 7 talks and 13 posters related to the theme of the session.This paper summarises new findings of the upwelling-related studies reported in the session. It deals with investigationsbased on the use of in situ and remote sensing measurements as well as numerical modelling tools. The biogeochemicalimplications of upwelling are also discussed.Our knowledge of the fine structure and dynamic considerations of upwelling has increased in recent decades with the advent ofhigh-resolution modern measurement techniques and modelling studies. The forcing and the overall structure, duration and intensity ofupwelling events are understood quite well. However, the quantification of related transports and the contribution to the overall mixingof upwelling requires further research. Furthermore, our knowledge of the links between upwelling and biogeochemical processes is stillincomplete. Numerical modelling has advanced to the extent that horizontal resolutions of c. 0.5 nautical miles can now be applied,which allows the complete spectrum of meso-scale features to be described. Even the development of filaments can be describedrealistically in comparison with high-resolution satellite data.But the effect of upwelling at a basin scale and possible changes under changing climatic conditions remain open questions.

  19. A Holocene record of ocean productivity and upwelling from the northern California continental slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Jason A.; Barron, John A.; Finney, Bruce P.; Kusler, Jennifer E.; Bukry, David; Heusser, Linda E.; Alexander, Clark R.

    2018-01-01

    The Holocene upwelling history of the northern California continental slope is examined using the high-resolution record of TN062-O550 (40.9°N, 124.6°W, 550 m water depth). This 7-m-long marine sediment core spans the last ∼7500 years, and we use it to test the hypothesis that marine productivity in the California Current System (CCS) driven by coastal upwelling has co-varied with Holocene millennial-scale warm intervals. A combination of biogenic sediment concentrations (opal, total organic C, and total N), stable isotopes (organic matter δ13C and bulk sedimentary δ15N), and key microfossil indicators of upwelling were used to test this hypothesis. The record of biogenic accumulation in TN062-O550 shows considerable Holocene variability despite being located within 50 km of the mouth of the Eel River, which is one of the largest sources of terrigenous sediment to the Northeast Pacific Ocean margin. A key time interval beginning at ∼2900 calibrated years before present (cal yr BP) indicates the onset of modern upwelling in the CCS, and this period also corresponds to the most intense period of upwelling in the last 7500 years. When these results are placed into a regional CCS context during the Holocene, it was found that the timing of upwelling intensification at TN062-O550 corresponds closely to that seen at nearby ODP Site 1019, as well as in the Santa Barbara Basin of southern California. Other CCS records with less refined age control show similar results, which suggest late Holocene upwelling intensification may be synchronous throughout the CCS. Based on the strong correspondence between the alkenone sea surface temperature record at ODP Site 1019 and the onset of late Holocene upwelling in northern California, we suggest that CCS warming may be conducive to upwelling intensification, though future changes are unclear as the mechanisms forcing SST variability may differ.

  20. Emerging boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvschal, Mette

    2014-01-01

    of temporal and material variables have been applied as a means of exploring the processes leading to their socioconceptual anchorage. The outcome of this analysis is a series of interrelated, generative boundary principles, including boundaries as markers, articulations, process-related devices, and fixation...

  1. Changing Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodkin, Evelyn; Larsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    project that is altering the boundary between the democratic welfare state and the market economy. We see workfare policies as boundary-changing with potentially profound implications both for individuals disadvantaged by market arrangements and for societies seeking to grapple with the increasing...

  2. Negotiating boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarhus, Rikke; Ballegaard, Stinne Aaløkke

    2010-01-01

    to maintain the order of the home when managing disease and adopting new healthcare technology. In our analysis we relate this boundary work to two continuums of visibility-invisibility and integration-segmentation in disease management. We explore five factors that affect the boundary work: objects......, activities, places, character of disease, and collaboration. Furthermore, the processes are explored of how boundary objects move between social worlds pushing and shaping boundaries. From this we discuss design implications for future healthcare technologies for the home.......To move treatment successfully from the hospital to that of technology assisted self-care at home, it is vital in the design of such technologies to understand the setting in which the health IT should be used. Based on qualitative studies we find that people engage in elaborate boundary work...

  3. Biological and oceanographic upwelling indicators at Cabo Frio (RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleyci A. O. Moser

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton biomass, chemical parameters and hydrology were studied in a transect 101.6 km long off Cabo Frio (RJ, Southeast Brazil, during summer (December 29 to 31, 1991 and winter (June 27 to 30, 1992. Wind induced upwelling events are frequently observed in the area during summer, becoming rare during winter. By the summer cruise a bloom of phytoplankton was observed in surface, close to the coast, with chlorophyll concentrations reaching 25.55 mg Chl-a m-3, uncoupled from the cold, nutrient rich waters of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW, found below 40 m depth. During the winter cruise, the SACW raised at the surface waters in front of Cabo Frio depicting an upwelling event. However, in spite of high surface nitrate concentrations (up to 7.7 f.1M chlorophyll-a were lower than 2 mg Chl-a m-3. The phytoplankton biomass, meteorological and hydrological data suggest a probable upwelling event immediately before the summer cruise, and an ongoing one during winter time. Cluster analyses and principal component analyses (PCA were applied to summer and winter data, pointing out multidimensional fronts in the area during both seasons.A biomassa fitoplanctônica, parâmetros químicos e hidrologia foram estudadas em um transecto de 101,6 Km ao largo de Cabo Frio, (RJ Brasil, durante o verão (Dezembro 29 a 31, 1991 e inverno (Junho 27 a 30, 1992. Nesta área, eventos de ressurgência induzidos pelo vento são comuns durante o verão, tornando-se mais raros durante o inverno. Durante o período de verão uma floração de fitoplâncton foi observada na superfície próximo ao continente, apresentando um máximo de clorofila-a igual a 25,55 mg Cl-a m'3 desacoplado das águas frias e ricas em nutrientes da Água Central do Atlântico Sul (ACAS, presente abaixo de 40 m. Durante o inverno, a ACAS alcançou a superflcie em frente a Cabo Frio, caracterizando um evento de ressurgência. Entretanto, apesar das altas concentrações de nitrato na superf

  4. Preface: Biogeochemistry–ecosystem interaction on changing continental margins in the Anthropocene

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Liu, K-K.; Emeis, K.-C.; Levin, L.A.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Roman, M.

    and hypercapnia in upwelling systems • Interactions between natural and social sciences for better steward- ship of continental margins. It has long been acknowledged (e.g., Doney, 2010; Liu et al., 2010) that marine ecosystems on continental margins, including... and possibly manage margin ecosystems in a changing world. Effective governance of social–ecological systems on continental margins is key to reducing the pervasive over- exploitation, depletion and destruction of marine resources and http://dx.doi.org/10...

  5. Sardine (Sardina pilchardus) larval dispersal in the Iberian upwelling system, using coupled biophysical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. M. P.; Nieblas, A.-E.; Verley, P.; Teles-Machado, A.; Bonhommeau, S.; Lett, C.; Garrido, S.; Peliz, A.

    2018-03-01

    The European sardine (Sardina pilchardus) is the most important small pelagic fishery of the Western Iberia Upwelling Ecosystem (WIUE). Recently, recruitment of this species has declined due to changing environmental conditions. Furthermore, controversies exist regarding its population structure with barriers thought to exist between the Atlantic-Iberian Peninsula, Northern Africa, and the Mediterranean. Few studies have investigated the transport and dispersal of sardine eggs and larvae off Iberia and the subsequent impact on larval recruitment variability. Here, we examine these issues using a Regional Ocean Modeling System climatology (1989-2008) coupled to the Lagrangian transport model, Ichthyop. Using biological parameters from the literature, we conduct simulations that investigate the effects of spawning patchiness, diel vertical migration behaviors, and egg buoyancy on the transport and recruitment of virtual sardine ichthyoplankton on the continental shelf. We find that release area, release depth, and month of release all significantly affect recruitment. Patchiness has no effect and diel vertical migration causes slightly lower recruitment. Egg buoyancy effects are significant and act similarly to depth of release. As with other studies, we find that recruitment peaks vary by latitude, explained here by the seasonal variability of offshore transport. We find weak, continuous alongshore transport between release areas, though a large proportion of simulated ichthyoplankton transport north to the Cantabrian coast (up to 27%). We also show low level transport into Morocco (up to 1%) and the Mediterranean (up to 8%). The high proportion of local retention and low but consistent alongshore transport supports the idea of a series of metapopulations along this coast.

  6. Egg production and hatching success of Calanus chilensis and Acartia tonsa in the northern Chile upwelling zone (23°S), Humboldt Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruz, Paula M.; Hidalgo, Pamela; Yáñez, Sonia; Escribano, Rubén; Keister, Julie E.

    2015-08-01

    Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZ's) are expanding and intensifying as result of climate change, affecting Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems. Local effects of vertical movements of OMZ's that result from changes in upwelling intensity could reduce or expand the oxygenated surface layer that most zooplanktonic species inhabit in coastal areas. Using the copepods Calanus chilensis and Acartia tonsa as model organisms, an experimental test of the impact of different dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations (between 0.5 and 5 ml L- 1) on egg production and hatching success was carried out and compared with field estimations of egg production, female and egg abundance in Mejillones Bay (23°S). Abundance of C. chilensis was highly variability and no consistent pattern in egg production and hatching success was found across DO levels, whereas A. tonsa egg production had maximum values between 2.6 and 4.7 ml O2 L- 1 and hatching success was positively correlated with DO (r = 0.75). In the field, temperature was the main factor controlling the dynamics of both species, while Chl-a and DO were also correlated with C. chilensis and A. tonsa, respectively. Principal Component Analysis showed that abundances of both copepods were controlled by temperature, stratification, OMZ depth, and Ekman transport, which together explained more than 70% of the total variance and were the main factors that modulated the populations of C. chilensis and A. tonsa in the upwelling zone of northern Chile (23°S). The differential responses of C. chilensis and A. tonsa to changes in DO concentrations associated with vertical movements of the OMZ suggest that C. chilensis may be better adapted to hypoxic conditions than A. tonsa, however both species are successful and persistent all year-round. We suggest that physiological responses of copepods could be used to evaluate population dynamics affected by the shoaling of OMZ's and the repercussions to trophic food webs of eastern boundary current systems.

  7. Near-surface temperature gradient in a coastal upwelling regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, H.; Ochoa, J.; Almeda-Jauregui, C. O.; Ruiz-de la Torre, M. C.; Cruz-López, R.; Villegas-Mendoza, J. R.

    2014-08-01

    In oceanography, a near homogeneous mixed layer extending from the surface to a seasonal thermocline is a common conceptual basis in physics, chemistry, and biology. In a coastal upwelling region 3 km off the coast in the Mexican Pacific, we measured vertical density gradients with a free-rising CTD and temperature gradients with thermographs at 1, 3, and 5 m depths logging every 5 min during more than a year. No significant salinity gradient was observed down to 10 m depth, and the CTD temperature and density gradients showed no pronounced discontinuity that would suggest a near-surface mixed layer. Thermographs generally logged decreasing temperature with depth with gradients higher than 0.2 K m-1 more than half of the time in the summer between 1 and 3 m, 3 and 5 m and in the winter between 1 and 3 m. Some negative temperature gradients were present and gradients were generally highly variable in time with high peaks lasting fractions of hours to hours. These temporal changes were too rapid to be explained by local heating or cooling. The pattern of positive and negative peaks might be explained by vertical stacks of water layers of different temperatures and different horizontal drift vectors. The observed near-surface gradient has implications for turbulent wind energy transfer, vertical exchange of dissolved and particulate water constituents, the interpretation of remotely sensed SST, and horizontal wind-induced transport.

  8. Lagrangian pathways of upwelling in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viglione, Giuliana A.; Thompson, Andrew F.

    2016-08-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of upwelling into the mixed layer in the Southern Ocean is studied using a 1/10° ocean general circulation model. Virtual drifters are released in a regularly spaced pattern across the Southern Ocean at depths of 250, 500, and 1000 m during both summer and winter months. The drifters are advected along isopycnals for a period of 4 years, unless they outcrop into the mixed layer, where lateral advection and a parameterization of vertical mixing are applied. The focus of this study is on the discrete exchange between the model mixed layer and the interior. Localization of interior-mixed layer exchange occurs downstream of major topographic features across the Indian and Pacific basins, creating "hotspots" of outcropping. Minimal outcropping occurs in the Atlantic basin, while 59% of drifters outcrop in the Pacific sector and in Drake Passage (the region from 140° W to 40° W), a disproportionately large amount even when considering the relative basin sizes. Due to spatial and temporal variations in mixed layer depth, the Lagrangian trajectories provide a statistical measure of mixed layer residence times. For each exchange into the mixed layer, the residence time has a Rayleigh distribution with a mean of 30 days; the cumulative residence time of the drifters is 261 ± 194 days, over a period of 4 years. These results suggest that certain oceanic gas concentrations, such as CO2 and 14C, will likely not reach equilibrium with the atmosphere before being resubducted.

  9. Ekman Upwelling, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes science quality Ekman current (in zonal, meridional, and modulus sets) and Ekman upwelling data. This data begins with wind velocity...

  10. Observed anomalous upwelling in the Lakshadweep Sea during the summer monsoon season of 2005

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Rao, R.R.; Nisha, K.; GirishKumar, M.S.; Pankajakshan, T.; Ravichandran, M.; Johnson, Z.; Girish, K.; Aneeshkumar, N.; Srinath, M.; Rajesh, S.; Rajan, C.K.

    of local and remote forcings are examined to explain the observed anomalous upwelling during SMS of 2005. The equatorward alongshore wind stress (WS) along the KK XBT transect persisted in a transient manner beyond September only during SMS of 2005...

  11. Upwelling along the western Indian continental margin and its geological record - a summary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G

    sediment components can be correlated to the characteristics of the water masses and, thereby, to the intensity and magnitude of upwelling. Benthic and planktonic foraminifers are particularly useful indicators; e.g., the invasion of immigrant populations...

  12. Ekman Upwelling, METOP ASCAT, 0.25 degrees, Global, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes near real time Ekman current (in zonal, meridional, and modulus sets) and Ekman upwelling data. This data begins with wind velocity...

  13. Upwelling and associated hydrography along the west coast of india during southwest monsoon, 1999

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Maheswaran, P.A.; Rajesh, G.; Revichandran, C.; Nair, K.K.C.

    ) and 1.2 degrees C (off Mangalore) from the farthest stations, indicating the presence of upwelled water near the coast. Well defined thermal, saline and density fronts were visible. Relatively high offshore transport was observed off Kanyakumari...

  14. On an upwelling front along the west coast of India during later part of southwest monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Antony, M.K.

    A coastal front, associated with upwelling, is identified from the observed thermal field along the west coast of India during September, 1987. The front, which is seen very clearly upto a depth of about 75 m, has a horizontal gradient...

  15. Observational evidence of upwelling off the southwest coast of India during June-July 2006

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Lekshmi, S.; Smitha, B.R.; Revichandran, C.

    transects off Thiruvananthapuram (8.5 degrees N) and off Koilam (9 degrees N), during June 25th-6th July 2006. Observed upwelling parameters (local temperature anomalies, salinity, isothermal layer depth (ILD), Mixed Layer Depth (MLD), isotherm slope...

  16. Discriminating the biophysical impacts of coastal upwelling and mud banks along the southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karnan, C.; Jyothibabu, R.; Arunpandi, N.; Jagadeesan, L.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Pratihary, A.K.; Balachandran, K.K.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    Coastal upwelling and mud banks are two oceanographic processes concurrently operating along certain stretches of the southwest (Kerala) coast of India during the Southwest Monsoon period (June-September), facilitating significant enhancement...

  17. Intensive aggregate formation with low vertical flux during an upwelling-induced diatom bloom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Tiselius, P.; Mitchell-Innes, B.

    1998-01-01

    of turbulent shear in the ocean such stickiness coefficients predict very high specific coagulation rates (0.3 d(-1)). In situ video observation demonstrated the occurrence of abundant diatom aggregates with surface water concentrations between 1,000 and 3,000 ppm. Despite the very high concentration......The surfaces of most pelagic diatoms are sticky at times and may therefore form rapidly settling aggregates by physical coagulation. Stickiness and aggregate formation may be particularly adaptive in upwelling systems by allowing the retention of diatom populations in the vicinity of the upwelling...... center. We therefore hypothesized that upwelling diatom blooms are terminated by aggregate formation and rapid sedimentation. We monitored the development of a maturing diatom (mainly Chaetoceros spp.) bloom in the Benguela upwelling current during 7 d in February. Chlorophyll concentrations remained...

  18. Entrepreneurial Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, F.C.; Spigel, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the emergent entrepreneurial ecosystem approach. Entrepreneurial ecosystems are defined as a set of interdependent actors and factors coordinated in such a way that they enable productive entrepreneurship within a particular territory. The purpose of this paper is to

  19. A long history of equatorial deep-water upwelling in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi Ge; Pagani, Mark; Henderiks, Jorijntje; Ren, Haojia

    2017-06-01

    Cold, nutrient- and CO2-rich waters upwelling in the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) give rise to the Pacific cold tongue. Quasi-periodic subsidence of the thermocline and attenuation in wind strength expressed by El Niño conditions decrease upwelling rates, increase surface-water temperatures in the EEP, and lead to changes in regional climates both near and far from the equatorial Pacific. EEP surface waters have elevated CO2 concentrations during neutral (upwelling) or La Niña (strong upwelling) conditions. In contrast, approximate air-sea CO2 equilibrium characterizes El Niño events. One hypothesis proposes that changes in physical oceanography led to the establishment of a deep tropical thermocline and expanded mixed-layer prior to 3 million years ago. These effects are argued to have substantially reduced deep-water upwelling rates in the EEP and promoted a "permanent El Niño-like" climate state. For this study, we test this supposition by reconstructing EEP "excess CO2" and upwelling history for the past 6.5 million years using the alkenone-pCO2 methodology. Contrary to previous assertions, our results indicate that average temporal conditions in the EEP over the past ∼6.5 million years were characterized by substantial CO2 disequilibrium and high nutrient delivery to surface waters - characteristics that imply strong upwelling of deep waters. Upwelling appears most vigorous between ∼6.5 to 4.5 million years ago coinciding with high accumulation rates of biogenic material during the late Miocene - early Pliocene "biogenic bloom".

  20. Upwelling and Other Environmental Influences on Growth of a Nearshore Benthic Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Biela, V. R.; Zimmerman, C. E.; Kruse, G. H.; Mueter, F. J.; Black, B.; Douglas, D. C.; Bodkin, J. L.

    2016-02-01

    The role of upwelling in nearshore benthic systems is more uncertain compared to the relatively strong positive associations with pelagic production. To understand how upwelling and other environmental conditions influence nearshore benthic production, we developed an annual index of production from growth increments recorded in otoliths of kelp greenling (Hexagrammos decagrammus) at nine sites in the seasonally-upwelling California Current and downwelling Alaska Coastal currents. Kelp greenling are a benthic-feeding fish common in kelp forests with food webs sustained by both kelp and phytoplankton primary production. We explored the influence of basin- and local-scale conditions, including upwelling, across all seasons at lags up to two years taken to represent changes in the quantity and quality of prey. Upwelling strength was positively related to fish growth in both current systems, although relationships in the Alaska Coastal Current were indicative of faster growth with relaxed downwelling, rather than upwelling. Looking across a suite of basin- and local-scale environmental indicators, complex relationships emerged in the California Current, with faster growth related to within-year warm conditions and lagged-year cool conditions. In contrast, fish in the downwelling system grew faster both during and subsequent to warm conditions. The complex lag-dependent dynamics in the upwelling system may reflect differences in conditions that promote quantity versus quality of benthic invertebrate prey. Thus, we hypothesize that benthic production is maximized when cool and warm years alternate during periods of high frequency climate variability in the California Current. Such a pattern is consistent with previous findings suggesting that benthic invertebrate abundance (e.g., recruitment) is food-limited during warm years with reduced upwelling, while quality (e.g., energy content) is temperature-limited during cool years.

  1. Boundary Spanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zølner, Mette

    The paper explores how locals span boundaries between corporate and local levels. The aim is to better comprehend potentialities and challenges when MNCs draws on locals’ culture specific knowledge. The study is based on an in-depth, interpretive case study of boundary spanning by local actors in...... approach with pattern matching is a way to shed light on the tacit local knowledge that organizational actors cannot articulate and that an exclusively inductive research is not likely to unveil....

  2. Upwelling Dynamic Based on Satellite and INDESO Data in the Flores Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Reski; Suriamihardja, D. A.; Hamzah Assegaf, Alimuddin

    2018-03-01

    Upwelling phenomenon is crucial to be forecasted, mainly concerning the information of potential fishery areas. Utilization of calibrated model for recorded upwelling such as INDESO gives benefit for historical result up to the present time. The aim of this study is to estimate areas and seasons of upwelling occurrences in the Flores Sea using data assimilation of satellite and modeling result. This study uses sea surface temperature, chlorophyll-a data from level 3 of MODIS image and sea surface height from satellite Jason-2 monthly for three years (2014-2016) and INDESO model data for sea surface temperature, sea surface height, and chlorophyll-a daily for three years (2014-2016). The upwelling is indicated by declining of sea surface temperature, sea surface height and increasing of chlorophyll-a. Verification is conducted by comparing the model result with recorded MODIS satellite image. The result shows that the area of southern Makassar Strait having occurrences of upwelling phenomenon every year starting in June, extended to July and August. The strongest upwelling occurred in 2015 covering more or less the area of 23,000 km2. The relation of monthly data of satellite has significantly correlated with daily data of INDESO model

  3. Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca in Glycymeris glycymeris (Bivalvia) shells from the Iberian upwelling system: Ontogeny and environmental control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Pedro; Richardson, Christopher; Chenery, Simon; Monteiro, Carlos; Butler, Paul; Reynolds, David; Scourse, James; Gaspar, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    Bivalve shells have a great potential as high-resolution geochemical proxy archives of marine environmental conditions. In addition, sclerochronology of long-lived bivalve species (e.g. Arctica islandica) provides a timeline of absolutely dated shell material for geochemical analysis that can extend into the past beyond the lifetime of single individuals through the use of replicated crossmatched centennial to millennial chronologies. However, the interpretation of such records remains extremely challenging and complex, with multiple environmental and biological processes affecting element incorporation in the shell (e.g. crystal fabrics, organic matrix, biomineralization mechanisms and physiological processes). As a result, the effective use of bivalve shell elemental/Ca ratios as palaeoenvironmental proxies has been limited, often to species-specific applications or applications restricted to particular environmental settings. The dog-cockle, Glycymeris glycymeris, is a relatively long-lived bivalve (up to 200 years) that occurs in coarse-grained subtidal sediments of coastal shelf seas of Europe and North West Africa. Glycymeris glycymeris shells provide a valuable, albeit not fully explored, archive to reconstruct past environmental variability in an area lacking sclerochronological studies due to the rarity of long-lived bivalves and lack of coral reefs. In this study, we evaluate the potential of Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios in G. glycymeris shells as geochemical proxies of upwelling conditions in the Iberian Upwelling System, the northern section of the Canary Current Eastern Boundary Upwelling System. Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca generally co-varied significantly and a clear ontogenetic, non-environmental related change in Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca variability was observed. High Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios in older shells (> 10 years old) were found to be associated with the occurrence of growth lines deposited during the winter reduction in shell growth. Nevertheless, Sr/Ca and Mg

  4. Implications of Upwells as Hydrodynamic Jets in a Pulse Jet Mixed System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pease, Leonard F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bamberger, Judith A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Minette, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report evaluates the physics of the upwell flow in pulse jet mixed systems in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Although the initial downward flow and radial flow from pulse jet mixers (PJMs) has been analyzed in some detail, the upwells have received considerably less attention despite having significant implications for vessel mixing. Do the upwells behave like jets? How do the upwells scale? When will the central upwell breakthrough? What proportion of the vessel is blended by the upwells themselves? Indeed, how the physics of the central upwell is affected by multiple PJMs (e.g., six in the proposed mixing vessels), non-Newtonian rheology, and significant multicomponent solids loadings remain unexplored. The central upwell must satisfy several criteria to be considered a free jet. First, it must travel for several diameters in a nearly constant direction. Second, its velocity must decay with the inverse of elevation. Third, it should have an approximately Gaussian profile. Fourth, the influence of surface or body forces must be negligible. A combination of historical data in a 12.75 ft test vessel, newly analyzed data from the 8 ft test vessel, and conservation of momentum arguments derived specifically for PJM operating conditions demonstrate that the central upwell satisfies these criteria where vigorous breakthrough is achieved. An essential feature of scaling from one vessel to the next is the requirement that the underlying physics does not change adversely. One may have confidence in scaling if (1) correlations and formulas capture the relevant physics; (2) the underlying physics does not change from the conditions under which it was developed to the conditions of interest; (3) all factors relevant to scaling have been incorporated, including flow, material, and geometric considerations; and (4) the uncertainty in the relationships is sufficiently narrow to meet required specifications. Although the central upwell

  5. Ecosystem thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Palacio, German Rau

    1998-01-01

    Ecology is no more a descriptive and self-sufficient science. Many viewpoints are needed simultaneously to give a full coverage of such complex systems: ecosystems. These viewpoints come from physics, chemistry, and nuclear physics, without a new far from equilibrium thermodynamics and without new mathematical tools such as catastrophe theory, fractal theory, cybernetics and network theory, the development of ecosystem science would never have reached the point of today. Some ideas are presented about the importance that concept such as energy, entropy, exergy information and none equilibrium have in the analysis of processes taking place in ecosystems

  6. Urban ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duvigneaud, P

    1974-01-01

    The author considers the town as an ecosystem. He examines its various subdivisions (climate, soil, structure, human and non-human communities, etc.) for which he chooses examples with particular reference to the city of Brussels.

  7. Blurring Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla; Nielsen, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    of welfare functions into EU law both from an internal market law and a constitutional law perspective. The main problem areas covered by the Blurring Boundaries project were studied in sub-projects on: 1) Internal market law and welfare services; 2) Fundamental rights and non-discrimination law aspects......; and 3) Services of general interest. In the Blurring Boundaries project, three aspects of the European Social Model have been particularly highlighted: the constitutionalisation of the European Social Model, its multi-level legal character, and the clash between market access justice at EU level...... and distributive justice at national level....

  8. A Lagrangian study tracing water parcel origins in the Canary Upwelling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Mason

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The regional ocean circulation within the Canary Upwelling System between 31°N and 35°N is studied using numerical tools. Seasonal mean and near-instantaneous velocity fields from a previously-generated climatological Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS solution of the Canary Basin are used to force a series of offline Lagrangian particle-tracking experiments. The primary objective is to identify the pathways through which water parcels arrive at the upwelling region north of Cape Ghir. Examining year-long pathways, the Azores Current contributes over 80% of particles annually, of which a large proportion arrive directly from offshore (from the northwest, while others travel along the shelf and slope from the Gulf of Cadiz. The remaining ~20% originate within the Gulf of Cadiz or come from the south, although the southern contribution is only significant in autumn and winter. When season-long pathways are considered, the alongshore contributions become increasingly important: northern contributions reach 40% in spring and summer, while southern values exceed 35% in winter. This study also shows that coastal upwelling changes both spatially and temporally. Upwelling becomes intensified near Cape Beddouza, with most upwelling occurring within ~40 km from shore although significant values may reach as far as 120 km offshore north of Cape Beddouza; at these locations the offshore integrated upwelling reaches as much as 4 times the offshore Ekman transport. In the Cape Beddouza area (32°N to 33°N, upwelling is negligible in February but intensifies in autumn, reaching as much as 3 times the offshore Ekman transport.

  9. Statistical downscaling of sea-surface wind over the Peru-Chile upwelling region: diagnosing the impact of climate change from the IPSL-CM4 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goubanova, K. [CNES/CNRS/IRD/UPS, Laboratoire d' Etudes en Geophysique et Oceanographie Spatiale, Toulouse (France); Instituto del Mar del Peru, Callao (Peru); Echevin, V.; Terray, P. [IPSL/UPMC/IRD, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et de Climatologie, Experimentation et Approches Numeriques, Paris (France); Dewitte, B. [CNES/CNRS/IRD/UPS, Laboratoire d' Etudes en Geophysique et Oceanographie Spatiale, Toulouse (France); Instituto del Mar del Peru, Callao (Peru); Instituto Geofisico del Peru, Lima (Peru); Codron, F. [UPMC/CNRS, Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Paris (France); Takahashi, K. [Instituto Geofisico del Peru, Lima (Peru); Vrac, M. [IPSL/CNRS/CEA/UVSQ, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2011-04-15

    The key aspect of the ocean circulation off Peru-Chile is the wind-driven upwelling of deep, cold, nutrient-rich waters that promote a rich marine ecosystem. It has been suggested that global warming may be associated with an intensification of upwelling-favorable winds. However, the lack of high-resolution long-term observations has been a limitation for a quantitative analysis of this process. In this study, we use a statistical downscaling method to assess the regional impact of climate change on the sea-surface wind over the Peru-Chile upwelling region as simulated by the global coupled general circulation model IPSL-CM4. Taking advantage of the high-resolution QuikSCAT wind product and of the NCEP reanalysis data, a statistical model based on multiple linear regressions is built for the daily mean meridional and zonal wind at 10 m for the period 2000-2008. The large-scale 10 m wind components and sea level pressure are used as regional circulation predictors. The skill of the downscaling method is assessed by comparing with the surface wind derived from the ERS satellite measurements, with in situ wind observations collected by ICOADS and through cross-validation. It is then applied to the outputs of the IPSL-CM4 model over stabilized periods of the pre-industrial, 2 x CO{sub 2} and 4 x CO{sub 2} IPCC climate scenarios. The results indicate that surface along-shore winds off central Chile (off central Peru) experience a significant intensification (weakening) during Austral winter (summer) in warmer climates. This is associated with a general decrease in intra-seasonal variability. (orig.)

  10. Diversity and Transcriptional Levels of RuBisCO Form II of Sulfur-Oxidizing γ-Proteobacteria in Coastal-Upwelling Waters with Seasonal Anoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Léniz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal wind-driven upwelling, high primary production in surface waters, and oxygen deficiency in subsurface waters characterize the coastal ecosystem of the subtropical eastern South Pacific (ESP, and shape the nature and dynamics of the microbial community structure and function. We investigated the diversity, abundance, and transcriptional levels of the gene encoding the large subunit form II of the RuBisCO enzyme (cbbM in the pelagic microbial community at a continental-shelf site off central Chile over 2 years. We focused on cbbM genes affiliated with the sulfur-oxidizing γ-proteobacteria cluster, whose members are known to dominate in oxygen-deficient marine environments and are highly abundant in the study area. Phylogenetic analysis of cbbM sequences suggests the presence of a novel group of chemolithoautotrophs, closely related to the SUP05/ARCTIC96BD-19 clade. Through (RT-qPCR, we studied the cbbM gene abundance and transcript dynamics over an annual cycle, finding a significantly higher number of cbbM copies per unit volume in months of active upwelling and at depths in which oxygen was scarce or absent. The same temporal pattern was observed at the transcriptional level. We also analyzed the relative expression of key genes for carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycling in six metatranscriptomic datasets, for two characteristic periods within the annual cycle: the anoxic upwelling and the suboxic downwelling. Our results indicate that coastal waters of the subtropical ESP contain transcriptionally active populations of carbon fixing pelagic bacteria, whose dynamics is controlled, in large part, by fluctuations in oxygen levels. They also suggest that chemolithoautotrophic processes coupled to the sulfur and nitrogen cycles become increasingly important for the carbon economy of marine coastal waters as oxygen concentrations decline.

  11. Summertime sea surface temperature fronts associated with upwelling around the Taiwan Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Kuo-Wei; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Lee, Ming-An; Chang, Yi; Chan, Jui-Wen; Liao, Cheng-Hsin

    2009-04-01

    It is well known that upwelling of subsurface water is dominant around the Taiwan Bank (TB) and the Penghu (PH) Islands in the southern Taiwan Strait in summertime. Sea surface temperature (SST) frontal features and related phenomena around the TB upwelling and the PH upwelling were investigated using long-term AVHRR (1996-2005) and SeaWiFS (1998-2005) data received at the station of National Taiwan Ocean University. SST and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) images with a spatial resolution of 0.01° were generated and used for the monthly SST and Chl-a maps. SST fronts were extracted from each SST images and gradient magnitudes (GMs); the orientations were derived for the SST fronts. Monthly maps of cold fronts where the cooler SSTs were over a shallower bottom were produced from the orientation. Areas with high GMs (0.1-0.2 °C/km) with characteristic shapes appeared at geographically fixed positions around the TB/PH upwelling region where SSTs were lower than the surrounding waters. The well-shaped high GMs corresponded to cold fronts. Two areas with high Chl-a were found around the TB and PH Islands. The southern border of the high-Chl-a area in the TB upwelling area was outlined by the high-GM area. Shipboard measurements of snapshot vertical sections of temperature (T) and salinity (S) along the PH Channel showed a dome structure east of PH Islands, over which low SST and high GM in the maps of the corresponding month were present. Clear evidence of upwelling (vertically uniform distributions of T and S) was indicated at the TB edge in the T and S sections close to TB upwelling. This case of upwelling may be caused by bottom currents ascending the TB slope as pointed out by previous studies. The position of low SSTs in the monthly maps matched the upwelling area, and the high GMs corresponded to the area of eastern surface fronts in the T/S sections.

  12. Strategic ecosystems of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez Calle German

    2002-01-01

    The author relates the ecosystems in Colombia, he makes a relationship between ecosystems and population, utility of the ecosystems, transformation of the ecosystems and poverty and he shows a methodology of identification of strategic ecosystems

  13. Open Informational Ecosystems: The Missing Link for Sharing Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerres, Michael; Heinen, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Open educational resources are not available "as such". Their provision relies on a technological infrastructure of related services that can be described as an informational ecosystem. A closed informational ecosystem keeps educational resources within its boundary. An open informational ecosystem relies on the concurrence of…

  14. An observational study of the evolution of the atmospheric boundary-layer over Cabo Frio, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Franchito

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of coastal upwelling on the evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL in Cabo Frio (Brazil is investigated. For this purpose, radiosounding data collected in two experiments made during the austral summer (upwelling case and austral winter (no upwelling case are analysed. The results show that during the austral summer, cold waters that crop up near the Cabo Frio coast favour the formation of an atmospheric stable layer, which persists during the upwelling episode. Due to the low SSTs, the descending branch of the sea-breeze circulation is located close to the coast, inhibiting the development of a mixed layer mainly during the day. At night, with the reduction of the land-sea thermal contrast the descending motion is weaker, allowing a vertical mixing. The stable ABL favours the formation of a low level jet, which may also contribute to the development of a nocturnal atmospheric mixed layer. During the austral winter, due to the higher SSTs observed near the coast, the ABL is less stable compared with that in the austral summer. Due to warming, a mixed layer is observed during the day. The observed vertical profiles of the zonal winds show that the easterlies at low levels are stronger in the austral summer, indicating that the upwelling modulates the sea-breeze signal, thus confirming model simulations.

  15. Octopus vulgaris paralarvae vertical distribution in a fluctuating upwelling-downwelling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Olmos Pérez

    2014-06-01

    - Upwelling situation: superficial waters (0-20m enter through the northern mouth of the Ría and are washed through the southern mouth. This water movement promotes the entrance of cold, bottom upwelled water through the southern mouth of the Ría. Under this scenario, Octopus paralarvae are concentrated at the surface (10-0m, thus leaving the Ría. This difference is bigger after strong upwelling during the previous days. Abundances inside the Ría are the highest, maybe because it acts as a temporal retention area, or because cold upwelled waters might stimulate hatching inside the Ría. Day/night changes under strong upwelling conditions: paralarvae abundance in both mouths was quite similar, except that during the day they were in sub-surficial waters (10-5 m, while at night paralarvae were mainly found close to the surface (0-5 m. This vertical distribution during the day is remarkable because paralarvae may select offward surface waters.

  16. Lagrangian Timescales of Southern Ocean Upwelling in a Hierarchy of Model Resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Henri F.; Morrison, Adele K.; Griffies, Stephen M.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Weijer, Wilbert; Gray, Alison R.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we study upwelling pathways and timescales of Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) in a hierarchy of models using a Lagrangian particle tracking method. Lagrangian timescales of CDW upwelling decrease from 87 years to 31 years to 17 years as the ocean resolution is refined from 1° to 0.25° to 0.1°. We attribute some of the differences in timescale to the strength of the eddy fields, as demonstrated by temporally degrading high-resolution model velocity fields. Consistent with the timescale dependence, we find that an average Lagrangian particle completes 3.2 circumpolar loops in the 1° model in comparison to 0.9 loops in the 0.1° model. These differences suggest that advective timescales and thus interbasin merging of upwelling CDW may be overestimated by coarse-resolution models, potentially affecting the skill of centennial scale climate change projections.

  17. Upwelling regime off the Cabo Frio region in Brazil and impact on acoustic propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Leandro; Camargo Rodríguez, Orlando; Codato, Gabriel; Contrera Xavier, Fabio

    2018-03-01

    This work introduces a description of the complex upwelling regime off the Cabo Frio region in Brazil and shows that ocean modeling, based on the feature-oriented regional modeling system (FORMS) technique, can produce reliable predictions of sound speed fields for the corresponding shallow water environment. This work also shows, through the development of simulations, that the upwelling regime can be responsible for the creation of shadow coastal zones, in which the detection probability is too low for an acoustic source to be detected. The development of the FORMS technique and its validation with real data, for the particular region of coastal upwelling off Cabo Frio, reveals the possibility of a sustainable and reliable forecast system for the corresponding (variable in space and time) underwater acoustic environment.

  18. Combining tower mixing ratio and community model data to estimate regional-scale net ecosystem carbon exchange by boundary layer inversion over four flux towers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xueri Dang; Chun-Ta Lai; David Y. Hollinger; Andrew J. Schauer; Jingfeng Xiao; J. William Munger; Clenton Owensby; James R. Ehleringer

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated an idealized boundary layer (BL) model with simple parameterizations using vertical transport information from community model outputs (NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis and ECMWF Interim Analysis) to estimate regional-scale net CO2 fluxes from 2002 to 2007 at three forest and one grassland flux sites in the United States. The BL modeling...

  19. Gradients in microbial methanol uptake: productive coastal upwelling waters to oligotrophic gyres in the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Joanna L; Sargeant, Stephanie; Nightingale, Philip D; Colin Murrell, J

    2013-01-01

    Methanol biogeochemistry and its importance as a carbon source in seawater is relatively unexplored. We report the first microbial methanol carbon assimilation rates (k) in productive coastal upwelling waters of up to 0.117±0.002 d−1 (∼10 nmol l−1 d−1). On average, coastal upwelling waters were 11 times greater than open ocean northern temperate (NT) waters, eight times greater than gyre waters and four times greater than equatorial upwelling (EU) waters; suggesting that all upwelling waters upon reaching the surface (⩽20 m), contain a microbial population that uses a relatively high amount of carbon (0.3–10 nmol l−1 d−1), derived from methanol, to support their growth. In open ocean Atlantic regions, microbial uptake of methanol into biomass was significantly lower, ranging between 0.04–0.68 nmol l−1 d−1. Microbes in the Mauritanian coastal upwelling used up to 57% of the total methanol for assimilation of the carbon into cells, compared with an average of 12% in the EU, and 1% in NT and gyre waters. Several methylotrophic bacterial species were identified from open ocean Atlantic waters using PCR amplification of mxaF encoding methanol dehydrogenase, the key enzyme in bacterial methanol oxidation. These included Methylophaga sp., Burkholderiales sp., Methylococcaceae sp., Ancylobacter aquaticus, Paracoccus denitrificans, Methylophilus methylotrophus, Methylobacterium oryzae, Hyphomicrobium sp. and Methylosulfonomonas methylovora. Statistically significant correlations for upwelling waters between methanol uptake into cells and both chlorophyll a concentrations and methanol oxidation rates suggest that remotely sensed chlorophyll a images, in these productive areas, could be used to derive total methanol biological loss rates, a useful tool for atmospheric and marine climatically active gas modellers, and air–sea exchange scientists. PMID:23178665

  20. The development and decline of phytoplankton blooms in the southern Benguela upwelling region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.C.

    1986-10-01

    Productivity/chlorophyll a relationship are investigated with a view to estimating phytoplankton productivity from extensive chlorophyll a measurements in the southern Benguela region. Phytoplankton bloom dynamics in newly upwelled water off the Cape Peninsula are investigated on five different occasions during the upwelling season. A drogue was used to tag a 'parcel' of upwelled water which was monitored for between 4 and 8 days. In upwelling source water, mean chlorophyll a concentrations were typically low (0.7 mg.m -3 ) and nutrient concentrations were high (nitrates, silicates and phosphates were 20.8, 16.6 and 1.88 mmol.m -3 respectively). Along the drogue tracks nutrients decreased rapidly in the euphotic zone as chlorophyll increased to peak at concentrations of up to 26 mg.m -3 . Elemental changes in nitrates, silicates, phosphates and oxygen were used to estimate primary productivity. These 'Redfield productivity estimates' were similar to 14 C-uptake productivity but lower than estimates obtained from changes in particle volume. Daily rates of 14 C-uptake water column productivity ranged between 0.94 and 14.01 g C.m -2 .d -1 (mean 3.80 g C.m -2 .d -1 ) and were similar to or higher than productivity estimates reported for other upwelling areas. Phytoplankton biomass in the upper 50 metres ranged between 8 and 506 mg chll a. m -2 (mean 208 mg chll a.m -2 ). The temporal scale of phytoplankton bloom development was investigated in terms of changes in chlorophyll a concentrations in the euphotic zone. The build up and decline of the primary phytoplankton (diatom) bloom in newly upwelled water occurred within 6-8 days. The initiation of blooming was controlled by the stability of the water body. The decline of the bloom was associated with reduced nutrient levels and is considered to result mainly from phytoplankton cells sinking out of the surface layers

  1. The role of Southern Ocean mixing and upwelling in glacial-interglacial atmospheric CO2 change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Andrew J.; Naveira Garabato, Alberto C.

    2006-01-01

    Decreased ventilation of the Southern Ocean in glacial time is implicated in most explanations of lower glacial atmospheric CO 2 . Today, the deep (>2000 m) ocean south of the Polar Front is rapidly ventilated from below, with the interaction of deep currents with topography driving high mixing rates well up into the water column. We show from a buoyancy budget that mixing rates are high in all the deep waters of the Southern Ocean. Between the surface and 2000 m depth, water is upwelled by a residual meridional overturning that is directly linked to buoyancy fluxes through the ocean surface. Combined with the rapid deep mixing, this upwelling serves to return deep water to the surface on a short time scale. We propose two new mechanisms by which, in glacial time, the deep Southern Ocean may have been more isolated from the surface. Firstly, the deep ocean appears to have been more stratified because of denser bottom water resulting from intense sea ice formation near Antarctica. The greater stratification would have slowed the deep mixing. Secondly, subzero atmospheric temperatures may have meant that the present-day buoyancy flux from the atmosphere to the ocean surface was reduced or reversed. This in turn would have reduced or eliminated the upwelling (contrary to a common assumption, upwelling is not solely a function of the wind stress but is coupled to the air/sea buoyancy flux too). The observed very close link between Antarctic temperatures and atmospheric CO 2 could then be explained as a natural consequence of the connection between the air/sea buoyancy flux and upwelling in the Southern Ocean, if slower ventilation of the Southern Ocean led to lower atmospheric CO 2 . Here we use a box model, similar to those of previous authors, to show that weaker mixing and reduced upwelling in the Southern Ocean can explain the low glacial atmospheric CO 2 in such a formulation

  2. The use of circulation weather types to predict upwelling activity along the Western Iberian Peninsula coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Alexandre M.; Cordeiro Pires, Ana; Sousa, Pedro M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2013-04-01

    Coastal upwelling is a phenomenon that occurs in most western oceanic coasts due to the presence of mid-latitude high-pressure systems that generate equatorward winds along the coast and consequent offshore displacement of surface waters that in turn cause deeper, colder, nutrient-rich waters to arise. In western Iberian Peninsula (IP) the high-pressure system associated to northerly winds occurs mainly during spring and summer. Upwelling systems are economically relevant, being the most productive regions of the world ocean and crucial for fisheries. In this work, we evaluate the intra- and inter-annual variability of the Upwelling Index (UI) off the western coast of the IP considering four locations at various latitudes: Rias Baixas, Aveiro, Figueira da Foz and Cabo da Roca. In addition, the relationship between the variability of the occurrence of several circulation weather types (Ramos et al., 2011) and the UI variability along this coast was assessed in detail, allowing to discriminate which types are frequently associated with strong and weak upwelling activity. It is shown that upwelling activity is mostly driven by wind flow from the northern quadrant, for which the obtained correlation coefficients (for the N and NE types) are higher than 0.5 for the four considered test locations. Taking into account these significant relationships, we then developed statistical multi-linear regression models to hindcast upwelling series (April to September) at the four referred locations, using monthly frequencies of circulation weather types as predictors. Modelled monthly series reproduce quite accurately observational data, with correlation coefficients above 0.7 for all locations, and relatively small absolute errors. Ramos AM, Ramos R, Sousa P, Trigo RM, Janeira M, Prior V (2011) Cloud to ground lightning activity over Portugal and its association with Circulation Weather Types. Atmospheric Research 101:84-101. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2011.01

  3. Metals content in surface waters of an upwelling system of the northern Humboldt Current (Mejillones Bay, Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Jorge; Román, Domingo; Alvarez, Gabriel; Ortlieb, Luc; Guiñez, Marcos

    Physical-chemical parameters (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, and chlorophyll concentration) of surface waters were used to evaluate the influence of biological and physical processes over the metal concentrations (Cd, Ni, V, Mo, Mn, and Fe) in different periods of a normal annual cycle (June 2002 and April 2003), in Mejillones Bay (23° S), one of northern Chile's strongest upwelling cells. Two points were sampled every 2 months, but statistical analysis of these parameters did not show any spatial differences in surface water composition (annual average) in this bay. The order of total and dissolved metals by abundance (annual mean) in the Mejillones Bay surface waters during the sampling period was Cd Oxygen Minimum Zone which characterizes the Mejillones bay should have an important influence on surface distribution of trace metals and can explain the high temporal variability observed in most of the metals analyzed in this work. A two-box conceptual model is proposed to suggest possible influences on metals in surface waters of this coastal ecosystem.

  4. Designer ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awasthi, Ashutosh; Singh, Kripal; O'Grady, Audrey; Courtney, Ronan; Kalra, Alok; Singh, Rana Pratap; Cerda Bolinches, Artemio; Steinberger, Yosef; Patra, D.D.

    2016-01-01

    Increase in human population is accelerating the rate of land use change, biodiversity loss and habitat degradation, triggering a serious threat to life supporting ecosystem services. Existing strategies for biological conservation remain insufficient to achieve a sustainable human-nature

  5. Spatial and temporal variability in coccolithophore abundance and distribution in the NW Iberian coastal upwelling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ausín

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic investigation of the spatial and temporal variability in coccolithophore abundance and distribution through the water column of the NW Iberian coastal upwelling system was performed. From July 2011 to June 2012, monthly sampling at various water depths was conducted at two parallel stations located at 42° N. Total coccosphere abundance was higher at the outer-shelf station, where warmer, nutrient-depleted waters favoured coccolithophore rather than phytoplanktonic diatom blooms, which are known to dominate the inner-shelf location. In seasonal terms, higher coccosphere and coccolith abundances were registered at both stations during upwelling seasons, coinciding with high irradiance levels. This was typically in conjunction with stratified, nutrient-poor conditions (i.e. relaxing upwelling conditions. However, it also occurred during some upwelling events of colder, nutrient-rich subsurface waters onto the continental shelf. Minimum abundances were generally found during downwelling periods, with unexpectedly high coccolith abundance registered in subsurface waters at the inner-shelf station. This finding can only be explained if strong storms during these downwelling periods favoured resuspension processes, thus remobilizing deposited coccoliths from surface sediments, and hence hampering the identification of autochthonous coccolithophore community structure. At both locations, the major coccolithophore assemblages were dominated by Emiliania huxleyi, small Gephyrocapsa group, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Florisphaera profunda, Syracosphaera spp., Coronosphaera mediterranea, and Calcidiscus leptoporus. Ecological preferences of the different taxa were assessed by exploring the relationships between environmental conditions and temporal and vertical variability in coccosphere abundance. These findings provide relevant information for the use of fossil coccolith assemblages in marine sediment records, in order to infer past

  6. Spatial and temporal variability in coccolithophore abundance and distribution in the NW Iberian coastal upwelling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausín, Blanca; Zúñiga, Diana; Flores, Jose A.; Cavaleiro, Catarina; Froján, María; Villacieros-Robineau, Nicolás; Alonso-Pérez, Fernando; Arbones, Belén; Santos, Celia; de la Granda, Francisco; Castro, Carmen G.; Abrantes, Fátima; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Salgueiro, Emilia

    2018-01-01

    A systematic investigation of the spatial and temporal variability in coccolithophore abundance and distribution through the water column of the NW Iberian coastal upwelling system was performed. From July 2011 to June 2012, monthly sampling at various water depths was conducted at two parallel stations located at 42° N. Total coccosphere abundance was higher at the outer-shelf station, where warmer, nutrient-depleted waters favoured coccolithophore rather than phytoplanktonic diatom blooms, which are known to dominate the inner-shelf location. In seasonal terms, higher coccosphere and coccolith abundances were registered at both stations during upwelling seasons, coinciding with high irradiance levels. This was typically in conjunction with stratified, nutrient-poor conditions (i.e. relaxing upwelling conditions). However, it also occurred during some upwelling events of colder, nutrient-rich subsurface waters onto the continental shelf. Minimum abundances were generally found during downwelling periods, with unexpectedly high coccolith abundance registered in subsurface waters at the inner-shelf station. This finding can only be explained if strong storms during these downwelling periods favoured resuspension processes, thus remobilizing deposited coccoliths from surface sediments, and hence hampering the identification of autochthonous coccolithophore community structure. At both locations, the major coccolithophore assemblages were dominated by Emiliania huxleyi, small Gephyrocapsa group, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Florisphaera profunda, Syracosphaera spp., Coronosphaera mediterranea, and Calcidiscus leptoporus. Ecological preferences of the different taxa were assessed by exploring the relationships between environmental conditions and temporal and vertical variability in coccosphere abundance. These findings provide relevant information for the use of fossil coccolith assemblages in marine sediment records, in order to infer past environmental conditions, of

  7. A Fortran-77 program for Monte Carlo simulation of upwelling light from the sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sathe, P.V.; Sathyendranath, S.

    for Monte Carlo simulation of spectral and angular composition of upwelling light emerging from a wind-roughened sea under given physical conditions and for a given water quality. The program also simulates the light field prevailing immediately below... constituents of the sea which influence the quality of upwelling light. Because the program is a direct simulation of radiative transfer from the atmosphere to the sea and vice versa, it may be put to a variety of uses in studies in marine optics. Simulated...

  8. Evaluation of ERTS data for certain oceanographic uses. [upwelling, water circulation, and pollution in Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, A. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Upwelling along the eastern shore of Lake Michigan was occurring during the 3 and 21 August 1973 visits by ERTS-1. The NOAA-2 VHRR thermal-IR data are being digitized for comparison. Early indications are that these upwellings induced a calcium carbonate precipitate to form in the surface waters. It is most pronounced in the MSS-4 channel. On the lake bottom this jell-like sediment is known as marl and adds to the eutrophication of the lake. This phenomenon may help to explain the varve-like nature of bottom cores that have been observed in the Great Lakes.

  9. Coastal upwelling fluxes of O2, N2O, and CO2 assessed from continuous atmospheric observations at Trinidad, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Lueker

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous atmospheric records of O2/N2, CO2 and N2O obtained at Trinidad, California document the effects of air-sea exchange during coastal upwelling and plankton bloom events. The atmospheric records provide continuous observations of air-sea fluxes related to synoptic scale upwelling events over several upwelling seasons. Combined with satellite, buoy and local meteorology data, calculated anomalies in O2/N2 and N2O were utilized in a simple atmospheric transport model to compute air-sea fluxes during coastal upwelling. CO2 fluxes were linked to the oceanic component of the O2 fluxes through local hydrographic data and estimated as a function of upwelling intensity (surface ocean temperature and wind speed. Regional air-sea fluxes of O2/N2, N2O, and CO2 during coastal upwelling were estimated with the aid of satellite wind and SST data. Upwelling CO2 fluxes were found to represent ~10% of export production along the northwest coast of North America. Synoptic scale upwelling events impact the net exchange of atmospheric CO2 along the coastal margin, and will vary in response to the frequency and duration of alongshore winds that are subject to climate change.

  10. Development of upwelling on pathway and freshwater transport of Pearl River plume in northeastern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaoyun; Jiang, Yuwu; Liu, James T.; Gong, Wenping

    2017-08-01

    In situ observations, satellite images, and numerical modeling results have shown that the Pearl River plume axis extends alongshore and passes through two separate upwelling regions—one off the Guangdong and Fujian coasts (the Yuedong upwelling) and the other in the Taiwan Bank during the initial and medium stages of the Yuedong upwelling, while it is directed offshore when the Yuedong upwelling is strong. Model experiments are conducted to examine the effects of wind strength and baroclinicity on the upwelling and the corresponding pathway and freshwater transport of the Pearl River plume. The baroclinic effect is important to intensifying the horizontal velocity at the upwelling front and freshwater transport in the northeastern South China Sea. The freshwater transport flux is further decomposed into advection, vertical shear, and tidal pumping components, and advection is the dominant contributor. As the Yuedong upwelling develops, the zone with a relatively high-pressure gradient moves offshore due to offshore Ekman transport and the shift in the upwelling front, which is responsible for the offshore transport of the river plume. When the river plume is transported to the outer-shelf, sometimes it can be further entrained into eddies, allowing its export to the open sea.

  11. boundary dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Camurdan

    1998-01-01

    are coupled by appropriate trace operators. This overall model differs from those previously studied in the literature in that the elastic chamber floor is here more realistically modeled by a hyperbolic Kirchoff equation, rather than by a parabolic Euler-Bernoulli equation with Kelvin-Voight structural damping, as in past literature. Thus, the hyperbolic/parabolic coupled system of past literature is replaced here by a hyperbolic/hyperbolic coupled model. The main result of this paper is a uniform stabilization of the coupled PDE system by a (physically appealing boundary dissipation.

  12. The Ecology and Evolution of Constructed Ecosystems as Green Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy eLundholm

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Green infrastructure consists of ecosystems that provide valuable services to urban areas. Constructed ecosystems, including green roofs, bioretention systems, constructed wetlands and bioreactors are artificial, custom-built components of green infrastructure that are becoming more common in cities. Small size, strong spatial boundaries, ecological novelty and the role of human design characterize all constructed ecosystems, influencing their functions and interactions with other urban ecosystems. Here I outline the relevance of ecology and evolution in understanding the functioning of constructed ecosystems. In turn, a research focus on the distinctive aspects of constructed ecosystems can contribute to fundamental science.

  13. Exploring the planetary boundary for chemical pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, Miriam L.; de Wit, Cynthia A.; Molander, Sverker

    2015-01-01

    Rockström et al. (2009a, 2009b) have warned that humanity must reduce anthropogenic impacts defined by nine planetary boundaries if "unacceptable global change" is to be avoided. Chemical pollution was identified as one of those boundaries for which continued impacts could erode the resilience...... of ecosystems and humanity. The central concept of the planetary boundary (or boundaries) for chemical pollution (PBCP or PBCPs) is that the Earth has a finite assimilative capacity for chemical pollution, which includes persistent, as well as readily degradable chemicals released at local to regional scales......, which in aggregate threaten ecosystem and human viability. The PBCP allows humanity to explicitly address the increasingly global aspects of chemical pollution throughout a chemical's life cycle and the need for a global response of internationally coordinated control measures. We submit that sufficient...

  14. An upwelling filament North-West of Cape Town, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One is the sporadic advection of warm water from the Agulhas Bank onto the southern shelf. The cruise took place following such an event. The anticipated shelf-edge jet was greatly diminished and forced inshore. The possible effect of barotropic shelf waves on the configuration of the upwelling tongue and the formation of ...

  15. Coastal upwelling along the southwest coast of India – ENSO modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Muni Krishna

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available An index of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO in the Pacific during pre monsoon season is shown to account for a significant part of the variability of coastal Sea Surface Temperature (SST anomalies measured a few months later within the wind driven southwest coast of India coastal upwelling region 7° N–14° N. This teleconnection is thought to result from an atmospheric bridge between the Pacific and north Indian Oceans, leading to warm (cold ENSO events being associated with relaxation (intensification of the Indian trade winds and of the wind-induced coastal upwelling. This ENSO related modulation of the wind-driven coastal upwelling appears to contribute to the connection observed at the basin-scale between ENSO and SST in the Arabian Sea. The ability to use this teleconnection to give warning of large changes in the southwest coast of India coastal upwelling few months in advance is successfully tested using data from 1998 and 1999 ENSO events.

  16. Riverine influence on nitrogen fixation in the upwelling region off Vietnam, South China Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Maren; Bombar, Deniz; Loick, Natalie

    2006-01-01

    with the intermonsoon season and find that nitrogen fixation rates are app. 10 times higher during the monsoon season. However, this was not the case in the actual upwelling region - a 40-50 km wide strip along the coast - but further offshore, where the Mekong plume was noticeable. Therefore, we hypothesize...

  17. Impact of Equatorial Waves on the Variability of Upwelling Process Along West Coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, K. R.; Nigam, T.; Pant, V.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal upwelling is a seasonal phenomenon along the south eastern Arabian Sea (SEAS) due to favourable wind setup during Indian Summer Monsoon Season (June-September). This upwelling brings subsurface cold and nutrient rich water to the surface layers. The cold water transported northward by the altered along shore current of west coast of India in the post-monsoon season. The different climatological forcing of positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and normal years were utilised to simulate the upwelling off the west coast of India using a three dimensional Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS). Strength of upwelling and the northward transport were found to be weaken for positive IOD simulations as compared to normal years. Analysis suggests that the meridional wind stress weakening resulted into a decrease in strength of West India Coastal Current (WICC) and, therefore, reduced magnitude of offshore Ekman transport. The mixed layer heat budget calculation also supports the findings by showing dominated vertical process in comparison to net heat flux effect. The post-monsoon northward transport of cold water was found to be correlated with the coastally trapped downwelling Kelvin waves. These waves are the only remote forcing from the Bay of Bengal that reaches to the south-eastern Arabian Sea during the months of October-December. The composite of sea surface height anomalies for the positive IOD and normal years shows that the downwelling Kelwin wave was absent during October-December.

  18. Environmental changes associated with monsoon induced upwelling, off central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSousa, S.N.; Sawkar, K.; Rao, P.V.S.S.D.P.

    in response to prevailing equatorward winds. High salinity ocean waters of rich nutrient contents were observed at the coast in some locations. However, the effect of upwelling on the surface distribution of properties was reduced to some extent due to coastal...

  19. Why coastal upwelling is expected to increase along the western Iberian Peninsula over the next century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Magda Catarina; deCastro, Maite; Alvarez, Ines; Gomez-Gesteira, Moncho; Dias, João Miguel

    2017-08-15

    Former studies about coastal upwelling along the Western Iberian Peninsula (WIP) using historical data indicated contradictory results, showing either its strengthening or reduction, while previous studies using Global Climate Models (GCMs) indicated that global warming is likely to intensify this phenomenon although predicting different rates and not justifying the patterns found. Taking advantage of the recent high spatial resolution Regional Climate Models (RCMs) projections from EURO-CORDEX project (Representative Concentration Pathway, RCP 8.5), detailed higher accuracy estimations of the spatio-temporal trends of Upwelling Index (UI) along the WIP coast were performed in this study, integrating the coastal mesoscale effects within the framework of climate change. Additionally, this research brings new insights about the origin of the WIP coastal upwelling intensification over the next century. These new projections clarified the upwelling strengthening rates predicted along the coast of the WIP from 2006 to 2099 revealing more prominent changes in the northern limit of the region (25-30m 3 s -1 km -1 per decade between 41.5 and 42.5°N). Trends observed at high latitudes of the region were found to be induced by the displacement of the Azores High, which will intensify (0.03hPa per decade) and drift northeastward (10km per decade) during the 21st century. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Spatial distribution of upwelling off the central east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.V.N.

    of the data collected along the five sections. At all the sections, a decrease in water temperature and an increase in salinity from the offshore stations to the stations closest to the shore indicated coastal upwelling. The Rossby radii of deformation...

  1. Insights into the Microbial and Viral Dynamics of a Coastal Downwelling-Upwelling Transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bueno Gregoracci

    Full Text Available Although previous studies have described opposing states in upwelling regions, i.e., the rise of cold nutrient-rich waters and prevalence of surface warm nutrient-poor waters, few have addressed the transition from one state to the other. This study aimed to describe the microbial and viral structure during this transition and was able to obtain the taxonomic and metabolic compositions as well as physical-chemical data. This integrated approach allowed for a better understanding of the dynamics of the downwelling upwelling transition, suggesting that a wealth of metabolic processes and ecological interactions are occurring in the minute fractions of the plankton (femto, pico, nano. These processes and interactions included evidence of microbial predominance during downwelling (with nitrogen recycling and aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis, different viral predation pressures over primary production in different states (cyanobacteria vs eukaryotes, and a predominance of diatoms and selected bacterial and archaeal groups during upwelling (with the occurrence of a wealth of nitrogen metabolism involving ammonia. Thus, the results provided insights into which microbes, viruses and microbial-mediated processes are probably important in the functioning of upwelling systems.

  2. Internal structure of the upwelling events at Punta Gallinas (Colombian Caribbean) from modis-sst imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, J.; Blázquez, E.; Isaza-Toro, E.; Vidal, J.

    2015-10-01

    The upwelling at Punta Gallinas in the Guajira Peninsula (Colombian Caribbean) was studied from the point of view of the Mathematical Morphology using 10 years of monthly composite MODIS-SST imagery. Among all the morphological operators, the skeleton is widely used to compute the axis of the of the SST fields for the observed upwelling events. The skeleton is characterized by means of the Geometrical Theory of Measurement using the fractal dimension. The upwelling in the area is driven by the dynamic of the ITCZ (InterTropical Convergence Zone) and the relationship between the area and the East-West component of the trade winds has a lag of about 4 months. It has been found that the fractal dimension of the skeleton and the area of the upwelling are related. Some relationship was found between the fractal dimension of the skeleton (its complexity) and the Southern Oscillation Index by means of linear regression and cross-spectral analysis finding coherent energy at 1 year, 6 months and in the low frequency band. Finally, a sensitivity analysis between fractal dimension and threshold SST points out to take an extreme care at the time of fixing the last one.

  3. The physical structure of an upwelling filament off the North-west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in dispersal of material originating in the region of active coastal upwelling. The location of the filament studied appears repeatable from year to year, suggestive of a strong relation with the topographically trapped eddy, which was situated downstream of a lateral ridge between the. Canary Islands and the African coast.

  4. Arabian Sea upwelling - A comparison between coastal and open ocean regions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    The response of the eastern Arabian Sea to prevailing winds during an upwelling event, in the peak of southwest monsoon, was studied at both coastal and open ocean environment based on the data collected as a part of the Indian Joint Global Ocean...

  5. Sources of new nitrogen in the Vietnamese upwelling region of the South China Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bombar, Deniz; Dippner, Joachim W.; Doan, Hai Nhu

    2010-01-01

    In the South China Sea, the southwest monsoon between June and September induces upwelling off the southern central Vietnamese coast. During field campaigns in July 2003 and 2004 we evaluated the importance of nitrate and nitrogen fixation as sources of new nitrogen for phytoplankton primary...

  6. Climate change and ocean deoxygenation within intensified surface-driven upwelling circulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakun, Andrew

    2017-09-13

    Ocean deoxygenation often takes place in proximity to zones of intense upwelling. Associated concerns about amplified ocean deoxygenation arise from an arguable likelihood that coastal upwelling systems in the world's oceans may further intensify as anthropogenic climate change proceeds. Comparative examples discussed include the uniquely intense seasonal Somali Current upwelling, the massive upwelling that occurs quasi-continuously off Namibia and the recently appearing and now annually recurring 'dead zone' off the US State of Oregon. The evident 'transience' in causal dynamics off Oregon is somewhat mirrored in an interannual-scale intermittence in eruptions of anaerobically formed noxious gases off Namibia. A mechanistic scheme draws the three examples towards a common context in which, in addition to the obvious but politically problematic remedy of actually reducing 'greenhouse' gas emissions, the potentially manageable abundance of strongly swimming, finely gill raker-meshed small pelagic fish emerges as a plausible regulating factor.This article is part of the themed issue 'Ocean ventilation and deoxygenation in a warming world'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Nearshore currents on the southern Namaqua shelf of the Benguela upwelling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, A. L.; Pitcher, G. C.; Shillington, F. A.

    2008-05-01

    Nearshore currents of the southern Namaqua shelf were investigated using data from a mooring situated three and a half kilometres offshore of Lambert's Bay, downstream of the Cape Columbine upwelling cell, on the west coast of South Africa. This area is susceptible to harmful algal blooms (HABs) and wind-forced variations in currents and water column structure are critical in determining the development, transport and dissipation of blooms. Time series of local wind data, and current and temperature profile data are described for three periods, considered to be representative of the latter part of the upwelling season (27 January-22 February), winter conditions (5-29 May) and the early part of the upwelling season (10 November-12 December) in 2005. Differences observed in mean wind strength and direction between data sets are indicative of seasonal changes in synoptic meteorological conditions. These quasi-seasonal variations in wind forcing affect nearshore current flow, leading to mean northward flow in surface waters early in the upwelling season when equatorward, upwelling-favourable winds are persistent. Mean near-surface currents are southward during the latter part of the upwelling season, consistent with more prolonged periods of relaxation from equatorward winds, and under winter conditions when winds were predominantly poleward. Within these seasonal variations in mean near-surface current direction, two scales of current variability were evident within all data sets: strong inertial oscillations were driven by diurnal winds and introduced vertical shear into the water column enhancing mixing across the thermocline, while sub-inertial current variability was driven by north-south wind reversals at periods of 2-5 days. Sub-inertial currents were found to lag wind reversals by approximately 12 h, with a tendency for near-surface currents to flow poleward in the absence of wind forcing. Consistent with similar sites along the Californian and Iberian coasts

  8. Diffusive boundary layers over varying topography

    KAUST Repository

    Dell, R. W.

    2015-03-25

    Diffusive bottom boundary layers can produce upslope flows in a stratified fluid. Accumulating observations suggest that these boundary layers may drive upwelling and mixing in mid-ocean ridge flank canyons. However, most studies of diffusive bottom boundary layers to date have concentrated on constant bottom slopes. We present a study of how diffusive boundary layers interact with various idealized topography, such as changes in bottom slope, slopes with corrugations and isolated sills. We use linear theory and numerical simulations in the regional ocean modeling system (ROMS) model to show changes in bottom slope can cause convergences and divergences within the boundary layer, in turn causing fluid exchanges that reach far into the overlying fluid and alter stratification far from the bottom. We also identify several different regimes of boundary-layer behaviour for topography with oceanographically relevant size and shape, including reversing flows and overflows, and we develop a simple theory that predicts the regime boundaries, including what topographies will generate overflows. As observations also suggest there may be overflows in deep canyons where the flow passes over isolated bumps and sills, this parameter range may be particularly significant for understanding the role of boundary layers in the deep ocean.

  9. BSRs Elevated by Fluid Upwelling on the Upper Amazon Fan : Bottom-up Controls on Gas Hydrate Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praeg, D.; Silva, C. G.; dos Reis, A. T.; Ketzer, J. M.; Unnithan, V.; Perovano Da Silva, R. J.; Cruz, A. M.; Gorini, C.

    2017-12-01

    The stability of natural gas hydrate accumulations on continental margins has mainly been considered in terms of changes in seawater pressures and temperatures driven from above by climate. We present evidence from the Amazon deep-sea fan for stability zone changes driven from below by fluid upwelling. A grid of 2D and 3D multichannel seismic data show the upper Amazon fan in water depths of 1200-2000 m to contain a discontinuous bottom-simulating seismic reflection (BSR) that forms `patches' 10-50 km wide and up to 140 km long, over a total area of at least 5000 km2. The elongate BSR patches coincide with anticlinal thrust-folds that record on-going gravitational collapse of the fan above décollements at depths of up to 10 km. The BSR lies within 100-300 m of seafloor, in places rising beneath features that seafloor imagery show to be pockmarks and mud volcanoes, some venting gas to the water column. The BSR patches are up to 500 m shallower than predicted for methane hydrate based on geothermal gradients as low as 17˚C/km measured within the upper fan, and inversion of the BSR to obtain temperatures at the phase boundary indicates gradients 2-5 times background levels. We interpret the strongly elevated BSR patches to record upwelling of warm gas-rich fluids through thrust-fault zones 101 km wide. We infer this process to favour gas hydrate occurrences that are concentrated in proportion to flux and locally pierced by vents, and that will be sensitive to temporal variations in the upward flux of heat and gas. Thus episodes of increased flux, e.g. during thrusting, could dissociate gas hydrates to trigger slope failures and/or enhanced gas venting to the ocean. Structurally-driven fluid flow episodes could account for evidence of recurrent large-scale failures from the compressive belt on the upper fan during its Neogene collapse, and provide a long-term alternative to sea level triggering. The proposed mechanism of upward flux links the distribution and

  10. Particle Fluxes and Bulk Geochemical Characterization of the Cabo Frio Upwelling System in Southeastern Brazil: Sediment Trap Experiments between Spring 2010 and Summer 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA LUIZA S. ALBUQUERQUE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical and biogeochemical processes in continental shelves act synergistically in both transporting and transforming suspended material, and ocean dynamics control the dispersion of particles by the coastal zone and their subsequent mixing and dilution within the shelf area constrained by oceanic boundary currents, followed by their gradual settling in a complex sedimentary scenario. One of these regions is the Cabo Frio Upwelling System located in a significantly productive area of Southeastern Brazil, under the control of the nutrient-poor western boundary Brazil Current but also with a wind-driven coastal upwelling zone, inducing cold-water intrusions of South Atlantic Central Water on the shelf. To understand these synergic interactions among physical and biogeochemical processes in the Cabo Frio shelf, a series of four experiments with a total of 98 discrete samples using sediment traps was performed from November 2010 to March 2012, located on the 145 m isobath on the edge of the continental shelf. The results showed that lateral transport might be relevant in some cases, especially in deep layers, although no clear seasonal cycle was detected. Two main physical-geochemical coupling scenarios were identified: singular downwelling events that can enhance particles fluxes and are potentially related to the Brazil Current oscillations; and events of significant fluxes related to the intrusion of the 18°C isotherm in the euphotic zone. The particulate matter settling in the Cabo Frio shelf area seems to belong to multiple marine and terrestrial sources, in which both Paraiba do Sul River and Guanabara Bay could be potential land-sources, although the particulate material might subject intense transformation (diagenesis during its trajectory to the shelf edge.

  11. Particle Fluxes and Bulk Geochemical Characterization of the Cabo Frio Upwelling System in Southeastern Brazil: Sediment Trap Experiments between Spring 2010 and Summer 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Ana Luiza S; Belém, André L; Zuluaga, Francisco J B; Cordeiro, Livia G M; Mendoza, Ursula; Knoppers, Bastiaan A; Gurgel, Marcio H C; Meyers, Philip A; Capilla, Ramsés

    2014-05-14

    Physical and biogeochemical processes in continental shelves act synergistically in both transporting and transforming suspended material, and ocean dynamics control the dispersion of particles by the coastal zone and their subsequent mixing and dilution within the shelf area constrained by oceanic boundary currents, followed by their gradual settling in a complex sedimentary scenario. One of these regions is the Cabo Frio Upwelling System located in a significantly productive area of Southeastern Brazil, under the control of the nutrient-poor western boundary Brazil Current but also with a wind-driven coastal upwelling zone, inducing cold-water intrusions of South Atlantic Central Water on the shelf. To understand these synergic interactions among physical and biogeochemical processes in the Cabo Frio shelf, a series of four experiments with a total of 98 discrete samples using sediment traps was performed from November 2010 to March 2012, located on the 145 m isobath on the edge of the continental shelf. The results showed that lateral transport might be relevant in some cases, especially in deep layers, although no clear seasonal cycle was detected. Two main physical-geochemical coupling scenarios were identified: singular downwelling events that can enhance particles fluxes and are potentially related to the Brazil Current oscillations; and events of significant fluxes related to the intrusion of the 18°C isotherm in the euphotic zone. The particulate matter settling in the Cabo Frio shelf area seems to belong to multiple marine and terrestrial sources, in which both Paraiba do Sul River and Guanabara Bay could be potential land-sources, although the particulate material might subject intense transformation (diagenesis) during its trajectory to the shelf edge.

  12. Upwelling characteristics in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) as revealed by Ferrybox measurements in 2007-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikas, Villu; Lips, Urmas

    2016-07-01

    Ferrybox measurements have been carried out between Tallinn and Helsinki in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) on a regular basis since 1997. The system measures autonomously water temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a fluorescence and turbidity and takes water samples for further analyses at a predefined time interval. We aimed to show how the Ferrybox technology could be used to study the coastal upwelling events in the Gulf of Finland. Based on the introduced upwelling index and related criteria, 33 coastal upwelling events were identified in May-September 2007-2013. The number of events, as well as the frequency of their occurrence and intensity expressed as a sum of daily average temperature deviations in the 20 km wide coastal area, were almost equal near the northern and southern coasts. Nevertheless, the wind impulse, which was needed to generate upwelling events of similar intensity, differed between the northern and southern coastal areas. It is suggested that the general thermohaline structure adapted to the prevailing forcing and the estuarine character of the basin weaken the upwelling created by the westerly to southwesterly (up-estuary) winds and strengthen the upwelling created by the easterly to northeasterly (down-estuary) winds. Two types of upwelling events were identified - one characterized by a strong temperature front and the other revealing gradual decrease in temperature from the open sea to the coastal area, with maximum temperature deviation close to the shore.

  13. Phytoplankton community and environmental correlates in a coastal upwelling zone along western Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Kang, Jian-hua; Ye, You-yin; Lin, Geng-ming; Yang, Qing-liang; Lin, Mao

    2016-02-01

    Upwelling system in western Taiwan Strait is important for facilitating the fishery production. This study investigated hydro-chemical properties, phytoplankton biomass, phytoplankton species composition, three-dimensional (horizontal, vertical and transect) distribution of phytoplankton abundance, as well as phytoplankton annual variation and the correlation of phytoplankton community with the upwelling of underlying current and nutrients according to samples of Fujian-Guangdong coastal upwelling zone in western Taiwan Strait from August 27 to September 8, 2009. The results manifest that the nutrient-rich cold and high salinity current on the continental shelf of South China Sea upwells to the Fujian-Guangdong coastal waters through Taiwan Bank and the surging strength to surface is weak while strong at 30-m layer. The thermohaline center of coastal upwelling shifts to the east of Dongshan Island and expanded to offshore waters in comparison with previous records. A total of 137 phytoplankton species belonging to 59 genera in 4 phyla are identified excluding the unidentified species. Diatom is the first major group and followed by dinoflagellate. Cyanobacteria mainly composed by three Trichodesmium species account for a certain proportions, while Chrysophyta are only found in offshore waters. The dominant species include Thalassionema nitzschioides, Pseudo-nitzschia pungens, Thalassionema frauenfeldii, Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima, Rhizosolenia styliformis, Chaetoceros curvisetus, Diplopsalis lenticula and Trichodesmium thiebautii. Phytoplankton community mainly consists of eurythermal and eurytopic species, followed by warm-water species, tropic high-salinity species and oceanic eurythermic species in order. Phytoplankton abundance ranges from 1.00 × 102 ind./L ~ 437.22 × 102 ind./L with an average of 47.36 × 102 ind./L. For vertical distribution, maximum abundance is found at 30 m-depth and the surface comes second. Besides, the abundance below 30 m

  14. Heterotrophic bacterial production, respiration, and growth efficiency associated with upwelling intensity in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bomina; Kim, Sung-Han; Kwak, Jung Hyun; Kang, Chang-Keun; Lee, Sang Heon; Hyun, Jung-Ho

    2017-09-01

    We investigated bacterial production (BP) and respiration (BR), as well as the physico-chemical properties of the water column, to elucidate the effect of upwelling on heterotrophic bacterial metabolic activities and growth efficiency (BGE) in July 2012 and May 2013 in the Ulleung Basin (UB), East/Japan Sea. The upwelled conditions were characterized by higher chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations resulting from the upward shift of the nitracline compared to that of the non-upwelled condition. Analyses of the size fractions of Chl-a and pigment composition revealed that large size phytoplankton (> 20 μm), mainly consisting of diatoms, appeared to be the major phytoplankton component. BP and BR were significantly correlated with Chl-a (P 0.05). These results suggest that bacterial metabolic activities are stimulated by the availability of organic resources enhanced by upwelling in the UB. Further statistical analysis showed that the difference in BP and BGE with variations in upwelling intensity were significant (P = 0.018 for BP, P = 0.035 for BGE), but the difference in BR was not significant (P = 0.321). These results suggest that metabolic energy is partitioned more for BP under a strong upwelling condition, i.e. high nutrient and Chl-a conditions. In contrast, the energy generated via respiration was partitioned more for maintaining metabolism rather than for biomass production under weakly or non-upwelled conditions, i.e. stratified and low Chl-a conditions. Overall, our results suggest that any changes in upwelling intensity would significantly affect the carbon cycle associated with the fate of primary production, and the role of the microbial loop in the UB where changes in the intensity and frequency of upwelling associated with climatic changes are in progress.

  15. Rising synchrony controls western North American ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Bryan A.; van der Sleen, Peter; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Griffin, Daniel; Sydeman, William J.; Dunham, Jason B.; Rykaczewski, Ryan R.; Garcia-Reyes, Marisol; Safeeq, Mohammad; Arismendi, Ivan; Bograd, Steven J.

    2018-01-01

    Along the western margin of North America, the winter expression of the North Pacific High (NPH) strongly influences interannual variability in coastal upwelling, storm track position, precipitation, and river discharge. Coherence among these factors induces covariance among physical and biological processes across adjacent marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we show that over the past century the degree and spatial extent of this covariance (synchrony) has substantially increased, and is coincident with rising variance in the winter NPH. Furthermore, centuries‐long blue oak (Quercus douglasii) growth chronologies sensitive to the winter NPH provide robust evidence that modern levels of synchrony are among the highest observed in the context of the last 250 years. These trends may ultimately be linked to changing impacts of the El Niño Southern Oscillation on mid‐latitude ecosystems of North America. Such a rise in synchrony may destabilize ecosystems, expose populations to higher risks of extinction, and is thus a concern given the broad biological relevance of winter climate to biological systems.

  16. Planetary boundaries : Governing emerging risks and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galaz, V.; de Zeeuw, Aart; Shiroyama, Hideaki; Tripley, Debbie

    The climate, ecosystems and species, ozone layer, acidity of the oceans, the flow of energy and elements through nature, landscape change, freshwater systems, aerosols, and toxins—these constitute the planetary boundaries within which humanity must find a safe way to live and prosper. These are

  17. Modelling shelf-ocean exchange and its biogeochemical consequences in coastal upwelling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchamad, Al Azhar

    margin bathymetry, and 3) what processes determine the observed variability of total organic carbon (TOC) content in shelf sediments underlying the upwelling system, with implications for the formation of petroleum source rocks. Here, a numerical ocean modeling approach is used in this thesis to explore...... processes and the development of anoxia/euxinia under the present day or past geological conditions. Thirdly and last, processes controlling distribution of total organic carbon (TOC) content in sediments across the continental margin is evaluated by application of the model to the Benguela upwelling system....... In the model, biological primary production and shelf bottom-water anoxia result in enhanced sedimentary TOC concentrations on the mid shelf and upper slope. The simulated TOCs implicate that bottom lateral transport only has a significant effect on increasing the deposition of the organic carbon on the mid...

  18. Fish species composition, density-distribution patterns, and impingement during upwelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spigarelli, S.A.; Sharma, R.K.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of cooling system intakes and discharges on Lake Michigan fishes are highly dependent on inshore species composition and spatial distribution which, in turn, are affected by natural hydrological conditions. Significant (5 to 10 C) short-term decreases in water temperature (due to upwelling) could cause cold shock in fish equilibrated to either ambient or plume temperatures; substantial changes in distribution due to avoidance or attraction responses; and resultant changes in susceptibility to impingement. The objectives of this study are to characterize the changes in fish species composition, density, and thermal distribution as a result of natural upwellings, and to relate these factors to intake and discharge effects. Day and night sampling was conducted in ambient (reference) and thermal plume waters near the Zion Nuclear Plant on four occasions between 17 July and 11 September 1975. Density-distribution patterns and species composition of fish were determined by means of gill nets, bottom trawls, seines, and a sonic fish locater

  19. Technology for Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Kristensen, Jannie Friis; Nielsen, Christina

    2003-01-01

    .After analysing the history and the current boundary work, the paper will propose new technological support for boundary work. In particular the paper will suggest means of supporting boundaries when these are productive and for changing boundaries when this seems more appropriate. In total, flexible technologies......This paper presents a study of an organisation, which is undergoing a process transforming organisational and technological boundaries. In particular, we shall look at three kinds of boundaries: the work to maintain and change the boundary between the organisation and its customers; boundaries...... seem a core issue when dealing with technology for boundaries....

  20. Episodic Upwelling of Zooplankton within a Bowhead Whale Feeding Area Near Barrow, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    recorders. 4. Determine the correlations between exchange events and wind speed and direction , wind duration, ice cover, shelf water column...sample over longer time periods in that region in order to better describe the impact of the strength and magnitude of the wind on upwelling along the...oceanography of the shelf is complex, dynamic, and highly variable and that advection is closely coupled to the direction and magnitude of the winds . In

  1. Interspecific differences in depth preference: Regulation of larval transport in an upwelling system

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, SH; Morgan, SG

    2013-01-01

    Dispersal is fundamental to understanding the ecology and evolution of species and effectively managing resources, but information on dispersal is rare for the vast majority of marine life that develops as miniscule larvae in the plankton. Until recent evidence to the contrary, it was widely suspected that larvae developing in productive upwelling regimes along eastern ocean margins are susceptible to cross-shelf transport by strong, dynamic currents and often are unable to replenish populati...

  2. Convergent tectonics and coastal upwelling: a history of the Peru continental margin ( Pacific).

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Huene, Roland E.; Suess, E.; Emeis, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    Late in 1986, scientists on the ODP drillship JOIDES Resolution confirmed that the upper slope of the Peruvian margin consists of continental crust whereas the lower slope comprises an accretionary complex. An intricate history of horizontal and vertical movements can be detected, and the locations of ancient centers of upwelling appear to have varied, partly due to tectonic movements of the margin. In this review of Leg 112, the 3 scientific leaders on this cruise discuss their results. -from Journal Editor

  3. Shifts between gelatinous and crustacean plankton in a coastal upwelling region

    OpenAIRE

    Bode, Antonio; Álvarez-Ossorio, Maria Teresa; Miranda, Ana; Ruiz-Villarreal, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    proyectos RADIALES (IEO) y EURO-BASIN (Ref. 264933, 7FP) Variability in the dominance of copepods vs. gelatinous plankton was analysed using monthly time-series covering the last 55 years and related to changes in climatic, oceanographic, and fishery conditions in the upwelling region of Galicia (NW Spain). Seasonality was generally the main component of variability in all groups, both along the coast and in the nearby ocean, but no common long-term trend was found. Coastal copepo...

  4. Biogenic halocarbons from the Peruvian upwelling region as tropospheric halogen source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hepach

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Halocarbons are produced naturally in the oceans by biological and chemical processes. They are emitted from surface seawater into the atmosphere, where they take part in numerous chemical processes such as ozone destruction and the oxidation of mercury and dimethyl sulfide. Here we present oceanic and atmospheric halocarbon data for the Peruvian upwelling zone obtained during the M91 cruise onboard the research vessel METEOR in December 2012. Surface waters during the cruise were characterized by moderate concentrations of bromoform (CHBr3 and dibromomethane (CH2Br2 correlating with diatom biomass derived from marker pigment concentrations, which suggests this phytoplankton group is a likely source. Concentrations measured for the iodinated compounds methyl iodide (CH3I of up to 35.4 pmol L−1, chloroiodomethane (CH2ClI of up to 58.1 pmol L−1 and diiodomethane (CH2I2 of up to 32.4 pmol L−1 in water samples were much higher than previously reported for the tropical Atlantic upwelling systems. Iodocarbons also correlated with the diatom biomass and even more significantly with dissolved organic matter (DOM components measured in the surface water. Our results suggest a biological source of these compounds as a significant driving factor for the observed large iodocarbon concentrations. Elevated atmospheric mixing ratios of CH3I (up to 3.2 ppt, CH2ClI (up to 2.5 ppt and CH2I2 (3.3 ppt above the upwelling were correlated with seawater concentrations and high sea-to-air fluxes. During the first part of the cruise, the enhanced iodocarbon production in the Peruvian upwelling contributed significantly to tropospheric iodine levels, while this contribution was considerably smaller during the second part.

  5. REGIONAL AIR-SEA INTERACTION (RASI) GAP WIND AND COASTAL UPWELLING EVENTS CLIMATOLOGY GULF OF PAPAGAYO, COSTA RICA V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Regional Air-Sea Interactions (RASI) Gap Wind and Coastal Upwelling Events Climatology Gulf of Papagayo, Costa Rica dataset was created using an automated...

  6. Influence of upwelling induced near shore hypoxia on the Alappuzha mud banks, South West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    GireeshKumar, T.R.; Mathew, D.; Pratihary, A.K.; Naik, H.; Narvekar, K.U.; Araujo, J.; Balachandran, K.K.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Thorat, B.R.; Nair, M.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    The results of the first time-series measurements spanning 18-weeks (22 April to 20 September 2014) from a coastal environment (Alappuzha, southwest India), where two process of upwelling and mud banks are concurrent during summer monsoon...

  7. Estimates of upwelling rates in the Arabian Sea and the equatorial Indian Ocean based on bomb radiocarbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, R; Dutta, K; Somayajulu, B L K

    2008-10-01

    Radiocarbon measurements were made in the water column of the Arabian Sea and the equatorial Indian Ocean during 1994, 1995 and 1997 to assess the temporal variations in bomb 14C distribution and its inventory in the region with respect to GEOSECS measurements made during 1977-1978. Four GEOSECS stations were reoccupied (three in the Arabian Sea and one in the equatorial Indian Ocean) during this study, with all of them showing increased penetration of bomb 14C along with decrease in its surface water activity. The upwelling rates derived by model simulation of bomb 14C depth profile using the calculated exchange rates ranged from 3 to 9 m a(-1). The western region of the Arabian Sea experiencing high wind-induced upwelling has higher estimated upwelling rates. However, lower upwelling rates obtained for the stations occupied during this study could be due to reduced 14C gradient compared to that during GEOSECS.

  8. Actively heated high-resolution fiber-optic-distributed temperature sensing to quantify streambed flow dynamics in zones of strong groundwater upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Martin A.; Buckley, Sean F.; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C.; Werkema, Dale D.; Lane, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Zones of strong groundwater upwelling to streams enhance thermal stability and moderate thermal extremes, which is particularly important to aquatic ecosystems in a warming climate. Passive thermal tracer methods used to quantify vertical upwelling rates rely on downward conduction of surface temperature signals. However, moderate to high groundwater flux rates (>−1.5 m d−1) restrict downward propagation of diurnal temperature signals, and therefore the applicability of several passive thermal methods. Active streambed heating from within high-resolution fiber-optic temperature sensors (A-HRTS) has the potential to define multidimensional fluid-flux patterns below the extinction depth of surface thermal signals, allowing better quantification and separation of local and regional groundwater discharge. To demonstrate this concept, nine A-HRTS were emplaced vertically into the streambed in a grid with ∼0.40 m lateral spacing at a stream with strong upward vertical flux in Mashpee, Massachusetts, USA. Long-term (8–9 h) heating events were performed to confirm the dominance of vertical flow to the 0.6 m depth, well below the extinction of ambient diurnal signals. To quantify vertical flux, short-term heating events (28 min) were performed at each A-HRTS, and heat-pulse decay over vertical profiles was numerically modeled in radial two dimension (2-D) using SUTRA. Modeled flux values are similar to those obtained with seepage meters, Darcy methods, and analytical modeling of shallow diurnal signals. We also observed repeatable differential heating patterns along the length of vertically oriented sensors that may indicate sediment layering and hyporheic exchange superimposed on regional groundwater discharge.

  9. Macro-Scale Patterns in Upwelling/Downwelling Activity at North American West Coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Saldívar-Lucio

    Full Text Available The seasonal and interannual variability of vertical transport (upwelling/downwelling has been relatively well studied, mainly for the California Current System, including low-frequency changes and latitudinal heterogeneity. The aim of this work was to identify potentially predictable patterns in upwelling/downwelling activity along the North American west coast and discuss their plausible mechanisms. To this purpose we applied the min/max Autocorrelation Factor technique and time series analysis. We found that spatial co-variation of seawater vertical movements present three dominant low-frequency signals in the range of 33, 19 and 11 years, resembling periodicities of: atmospheric circulation, nodal moon tides and solar activity. Those periodicities might be related to the variability of vertical transport through their influence on dominant wind patterns, the position/intensity of pressure centers and the strength of atmospheric circulation cells (wind stress. The low-frequency signals identified in upwelling/downwelling are coherent with temporal patterns previously reported at the study region: sea surface temperature along the Pacific coast of North America, catch fluctuations of anchovy Engraulis mordax and sardine Sardinops sagax, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, changes in abundance and distribution of salmon populations, and variations in the position and intensity of the Aleutian low. Since the vertical transport is an oceanographic process with strong biological relevance, the recognition of their spatio-temporal patterns might allow for some reasonable forecasting capacity, potentially useful for marine resources management of the region.

  10. Mantle upwellings and convective instabilities revealed by seismic tomography and helium isotope geochemistry beneath eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagner, Jean-Paul; Marty, Bernard; Stutzmann, Eléonore; Sicilia, Déborah; Cara, Michel; Pik, Raphael; Lévêque, Jean-Jacques; Roult, Geneviève; Beucler, Eric; Debayle, Eric

    2007-11-01

    The relationship between intraplate volcanism and continental tectonics has been investigated for North and East Africa using a high resolution three-dimensional anisotropic tomographic model derived from seismic data of a French experiment ``Horn of Africa'' and existing broadband data. The joint inversion for seismic velocity and anisotropy of the upper 400 km of the mantle, and geochemical data reveals a complex interaction between mantle upwellings, and lithosphere. Two kinds of mantle upwellings can be distinguished: The first one, the Afar ``plume'' originates from deeper than 400 km and is characterized by enrichment in primordial 3He and 3He/4He ratios higher than those along mid-ocean ridges (MOR). The second one, associated with other Cenozoic volcanic provinces (Darfur, Tibesti, Hoggar, Cameroon), with 3He/4He ratios similar to, or lower than MOR, is a consequence of shallower upwelling. The presumed asthenospheric convective instabilities are oriented in an east-west direction, resulting from interaction between south-north asthenospheric mantle flow, main plume head and topography on the base of lithosphere.

  11. Response of the Benguela upwelling systems to spatial variations in the wind stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennel, Wolfgang; Junker, Tim; Schmidt, Martin; Mohrholz, Volker

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we combine field observations, numerical modeling and an idealized analytical theory to study some features of the Benguela upwelling system. The current system can be established through a combination of observations and realistic simulations with an advanced numerical model. The poleward undercurrent below the equator-ward coastal jet is often found as a countercurrent that reaches the sea surface seaward of the coastal jet. The coastal band of cold upwelled water appears to broaden from south to north and at the northern edge of the wind band an offshore flow is often detected, which deflects the coastal Angola current to the west. These features can be explained and understood with an idealized analytical model forced by a spatially variable wind. A crucial role is played by the wind stress curl, which shapes the oceanic response through Ekman-pumping. The interplay of the curl driven effects and the coastal Ekman upwelling together with the coastal jet, Kelvin waves, and the undercurrent is the key to understand the formation of the three-dimensional circulation patterns in the Benguela system. While the numerical model is based on the full set of primitive equations, realistic topography and forcing, the analytic model uses a linear, flat-bottomed f-plane ocean, where the coast is a straight wall and the forcing is represented by an alongshore band of dome-shaped wind stress. Although the analytical model is highly idealized it is very useful to grasp the basic mechanisms leading to the response patterns.

  12. Far-reaching transport of Pearl River plume water by upwelling jet in the northeastern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaoyun; Pan, Jiayi; Jiang, Yuwu; Lin, Hui

    2017-09-01

    Satellite images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) show that there was a belt of turbid water appearing along an upwelling front near the Chinese coast of Guangdong, and indicate that the turbid water of the Pearl River plume water could be transported to a far-reaching area east of the Taiwan Bank. Numerical modeling results are consistent with the satellite observations, and reveal that a strong jet exists at the upwelling front with a speed as high as 0.8 m s- 1, which acts as a pathway for transporting the high-turbidity plume water. The dynamical analysis suggests that geostrophic equilibrium dominates in the upwelling front and plume areas, and the baroclinicity of the upwelling front resulting from the horizontal density gradient is responsible for the generation of the strong jet, which enhances the far-reaching transport of the terrigenous nutrient-rich water of the Pearl River plume. Model sensitivity analyses also confirm that this jet persists as long as the upwelling front exists, even when the wind subsides and becomes insignificant. Further idealized numerical model experiments indicate that the formation and persistence of the upwelling front jet depend on the forcing strength of the upwelling-favorable wind. The formation time of the jet varies from 15 to 158 h as the stress of the upwelling-favorable wind changes from 0.2 to 0.01 N m- 2. With the persistent transport of the nutrient-rich plume water, biophysical activities can be promoted significantly in the far-reaching destination area of the oligotrophic water.

  13. Changes in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the Mauritanian–Cap Vert upwelling region between 2005 and 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. González-Dávila

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Coastal upwellings along the eastern margins of major ocean basins represent regions of large ecological and economic importance due to the high biological productivity. The role of these regions for the global carbon cycle makes them essential in addressing climate change. The physical forcing of upwelling processes that favor production in these areas are already being affected by global warming, which will modify the intensity of upwelling and, consequently, the carbon dioxide cycle. Here, we present monthly high-resolution surface experimental data for temperature and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in one of the four most important upwelling regions of the planet, the Mauritanian–Cap Vert upwelling region, from 2005 to 2012. This data set provides direct evidence of seasonal and interannual changes in the physical and biochemical processes. Specifically, we show an upwelling intensification and an increase of 0.6 Tg yr−1 in CO2 outgassing due to increased wind speed, despite increased primary productivity. This increase in CO2 outgassing together with the observed decrease in sea surface temperature at the location of the Mauritanian Cap Blanc, 21° N, produced a pH rate decrease of −0.003 ± 0.001 yr−1.

  14. Nutrient regime and upwelling in the northern Benguela since the middle Holocene in a global context – a multi-proxy approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Meisel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The last 5500 years of climate change and environmental response in the northern Benguela Coastal Upwelling are reconstructed by means of three sediment cores from the inner shelf off central Namibia. The study is based on nutrient (δ15N, δ13C and productivity proxies (accumulation rates of total organic carbon; ARTOC. Reconstructed sea surface temperatures (alkenone-derived SST and temperatures at subsurface depths (Tδ18O; based on tests of planktonic foraminifers reflect the physical boundary conditions. The selection of proxy indicators proved a valuable basis for robust palaeo-climatic reconstructions, with the resolution ranging from multi-decadal (NAM1 over centennial (core 178 to millennial scale (core 226620. The northern Benguela experienced pronounced and rapid perturbation during the middle and late Holocene, and apparently, not all are purely local in character. In fact, numerous correlations with records from the adjacent South African subcontinent and the northern hemisphere testify to global climatic teleconnections. The Holocene Hypsithermal, for instance, is just as evident as the Little Ice Age (LIA and the Roman Warm Period. The marked SST-rise associated with the latter is substantiated by other marine and terrestrial data from the South African realm. The LIA (at least its early stages manifests itself in intensified winds and upwelling, which accords with increased rainfall receipts above the continental interior. It appears that climate signals are transferred both via the atmosphere and ocean. The combined analysis of SST and Tδ18O proved a useful tool in order to differentiate between both pathways. SSTs are primarily controlled by the intensity of atmospheric circulation features, reflecting changes of upwelling-favourable winds. Tδ18O records the temperature of the source water and often correlates with global ocean conveyor speed due to varying inputs of warm Agulhas Water. It seems as though conveyor slowdown or

  15. Astronomical Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, D. E.; Finkenbinder, L. R.

    2004-05-01

    Just as quetzals and jaguars require specific ecological habitats to survive, so too must planets occupy a tightly constrained astronomical habitat to support life as we know it. With this theme in mind we relate the transferable features of our elementary astronomy course, "The Astronomical Basis of Life on Earth." Over the last five years, in a team-taught course that features a spring break field trip to Costa Rica, we have introduced astronomy through "astronomical ecosystems," emphasizing astronomical constraints on the prospects for life on Earth. Life requires energy, chemical elements, and long timescales, and we emphasize how cosmological, astrophysical, and geological realities, through stabilities and catastrophes, create and eliminate niches for biological life. The linkage between astronomy and biology gets immediate and personal: for example, studies in solar energy production are followed by hikes in the forest to examine the light-gathering strategies of photosynthetic organisms; a lesson on tides is conducted while standing up to our necks in one on a Pacific beach. Further linkages between astronomy and the human timescale concerns of biological diversity, cultural diversity, and environmental sustainability are natural and direct. Our experience of teaching "astronomy as habitat" strongly influences our "Astronomy 101" course in Oklahoma as well. This "inverted astrobiology" seems to transform our student's outlook, from the universe being something "out there" into something "we're in!" We thank the SNU Science Alumni support group "The Catalysts," and the SNU Quetzal Education and Research Center, San Gerardo de Dota, Costa Rica, for their support.

  16. Changes in optical characteristics of surface microlayers hint to photochemically and microbially-mediated DOM turnover in the upwelling region off Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgani, L.; Engel, A.

    2015-12-01

    The coastal upwelling system off Peru is characterized by high biological activity and a pronounced subsurface oxygen minimum zone, as well as associated emissions of atmospheric trace gases such as N2O, CH4 and CO2. During the Meteor (M91) cruise to the Peruvian upwelling system in 2012, we investigated the composition of the sea-surface microlayer (SML), the oceanic uppermost boundary directly subject to high solar radiation, often enriched in specific organic compounds of biological origin like Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) and marine gels. In the SML, the continuous photochemical and microbial recycling of organic matter may strongly influence gas exchange between marine systems and the atmosphere. In order to understand organic matter cycling in surface films, we analyzed SML and underlying water samples at 38 stations determining DOC concentration, amino acid composition, marine gels, CDOM and bacterial and phytoplankton abundance as indicators of photochemical and microbial alteration processes. CDOM composition was characterized by spectral slope (S) values and Excitation-Emission Matrix fluorescence (EEMs), which allow to track changes in molecular weight (MW) of DOM, and to determine potential DOM sources and sinks. We identified five fluorescent components of the CDOM pool, of which two had excitation/emission characteristics of protein-like fluorophores and were highly enriched in the SML. CDOM composition and changes in spectral slope properties suggested a local microbial release of HMW DOM directly in the SML as a response to light exposure in this extreme environment. Our results suggest that microbial and photochemical processes play an important role for the production, alteration and loss of optically active substances in the SML.

  17. Changes in optical characteristics of surface microlayers in the Peruvian upwelling region hint to photochemically and microbially-mediated DOM turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, A.; Galgani, L.

    2016-02-01

    The coastal upwelling system off Peru is characterized by high biological activity and associated subsurface oxygen minimum zone, leading to an enhanced emission of atmospheric trace gases. High biological productivity in the water column may promote the establishment of enriched organic surface films, key environments for processes regulating gas fluxes across the water-air interface. During M91 cruise to the Peruvian upwelling, we focused our attention on the composition of the sea-surface microlayer (SML), the oceanic uppermost boundary directly subject to high solar radiation, often enriched in specific organic compounds of biological origin like Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) and marine gels. In the SML, the continuous photochemical and microbial recycling of organic matter may strongly influence gas exchange between marine systems and the atmosphere. In order to understand organic matter cycling in surface films, we analyzed SML and underlying water samples in 38 stations determining DOC concentrations, amino acids composition, marine gels, CDOM and bacterial abundance as indicators of photochemical and microbial alteration processes. CDOM composition was characterized by spectral slopes (S) values and Excitation-Emission Matrix fluorescence (EEMs), which allow to track changes in molecular weight (MW) of DOM, and to determine potential DOM sources. Profound changes in spectral slope properties were observed suggesting smaller MW CDOM in the SML compared to underlying water. Microbial and photochemical degradation are likely the main drivers for organic matter cycling in the top layer of the ocean. Consequences on the formation of inorganic and organic species highly relevant for air-sea gas exchange and for climate dynamics will be discussed.

  18. Paleoenvironmental changes across the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary in the northern Clarence valley, southeastern Marlborough, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollis, C.J.; Rodgers, K.A.; Strong, C.P.; Field, B.D.; Rogers, K.M.

    2003-01-01

    Strata outcropping in Mead and Branch Streams, northern Clarence valley, provide important records of pelagic-hemipelagic sedimentation through the Cretaceous-Paleocene transition in a southern high-latitude, upwelling system flanking a carbonate platform. The two stream sections, 13 C) indicate that high biological productivity continued across the K/T boundary and through the biosiliceous episode. Siliceous plankton thrived in the Marlborough upwelling zone during the Early Paleocene. Fluctuations in abundance and lithofacies can be related to significant changes in sea level, which may be the result of local tectonic or global climate changes. The delayed recovery of calcareous plankton after mass extinction at the K/T boundary, in both outer neritic and bathyal settings, indicates a relatively cool oceanic regime for the first 1.5 m.y. of the Paleocene. (author). 68 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs

  19. Rigid supersymmetry with boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaev, D.V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Van Nieuwenhuizen, P. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). C.N. Yang Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    2008-01-15

    We construct rigidly supersymmetric bulk-plus-boundary actions, both in x-space and in superspace. For each standard supersymmetric bulk action a minimal supersymmetric bulk-plus-boundary action follows from an extended F- or D-term formula. Additional separately supersymmetric boundary actions can be systematically constructed using co-dimension one multiplets (boundary superfields). We also discuss the orbit of boundary conditions which follow from the Euler-Lagrange variational principle. (orig.)

  20. Discriminating the biophysical impacts of coastal upwelling and mud banks along the southwest coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnan, C.; Jyothibabu, R.; Arunpandi, N.; Jagadeesan, L.; Muraleedharan, K. R.; Pratihari, A. K.; Balachandran, K. K.; Naqvi, S. W. A.

    2017-08-01

    Coastal upwelling and mud banks are two oceanographic processes concurrently operating along certain stretches of the southwest (Kerala) coast of India during the Southwest Monsoon period (June-September), facilitating significant enhancement in plankton biomass. Mud banks have scientific and societal attention from time immemorial, predominantly due to the large fisheries associated with them. In this paper, for the first time, the specific biophysical roles of these oceanographic processes have been discriminated, based on a focused 18 weekly/fortnightly time-series study (April to September 2014) in a mud bank-upwelling area (off Alappuzha, southwest coast of India). In conjunction with standard hydrographical and satellite remote sensing data, we utilised a FlowCAM to track the biophysical linkage in terms of plankton composition abundance and size structure at three locations (M1, M2 and M3) in the study area. During the Pre-Southwest Monsoon (April-May), the entire study area was warmer with low nitrate concentration in the surface waters, which caused lower biomass of autotrophs compared to the Southwest Monsoon (June-September). By the onset of the Southwest Monsoon (June), drastic hydrographical transformations took place in the study domain due to the Coastal upwelling, reflected as the surfacing of significantly cool, high nutrient and hypoxic waters. Concurrently, mud bank formed at location M2 due to the presence of relatively high-suspended sediments in the region, creating a localised calm environment conducive for fishing activities. In response to the hydrographical transformations in the entire study area during the Southwest Monsoon, the autotrophic plankton biomass and size structure experienced significant change. The micro-autotrophs biomass that was low during the Pre-Southwest Monsoon (av. 0.33 ± 0.2 mgC L- 1 at surface and av. 0.07 ± 0.04 mgC L- 1 at subsurface) noticeably increased during the Southwest Monsoon (av. 1.6 ± 0.4 mgC L- 1 at

  1. Seasonal climatology of hydrographic conditions in the upwelling region off northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, J. L.; Thomas, A. C.; Carr, M.-E.; Strub, P. T.

    2001-06-01

    Over 30 years of hydrographic data from the northern Chile (18°S-24°S) upwelling region are used to calculate the surface and subsurface seasonal climatology extending 400 km offshore. The data are interpolated to a grid with sufficient spatial resolution to preserve cross-shelf gradients and then presented as means within four seasons: austral winter (July-September), spring (October-December), summer (January-March), and fall (April-June). Climatological monthly wind forcing, surface temperature, and sea level from three coastal stations indicate equatorward (upwelling favorable) winds throughout the year, weakest in the north. Seasonal maximum alongshore wind stress is in late spring and summer (December-March). Major water masses of the region are identified in climatological T-S plots and their sources and implied circulation discussed. Surface fields and vertical transects of temperature and salinity confirm that upwelling occurs year-round, strongest in summer and weakest in winter, bringing relatively fresh water to the surface nearshore. Surface geostrophic flow nearshore is equatorward throughout the year. During summer, an anticyclonic circulation feature in the north which extends to at least 200 m depth is evident in geopotential anomaly and in both temperature and geopotential variance fields. Subsurface fields indicate generally poleward flow throughout the year, strongest in an undercurrent near the coast. This undercurrent is strongest in summer and most persistent and organized in the south (south of 21°S). A subsurface oxygen minimum, centered at ˜250 m, is strongest at lower latitudes. Low-salinity subsurface water intrudes into the study area near 100 m, predominantly in offshore regions, strongest during summer and fall and in the southernmost portion of the region. The climatological fields are compared to features off Baja within the somewhat analogous California Current and to measurements from higher latitudes within the Chile

  2. Radiolarian Indices of Paleoproductivity Variation in the late Pleistocene Benguela Upwelling System, ODP Site 1084

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittniok, B. B.; Lazarus, D. B.; Diester-Haass, L.; Billups, K.; Meyers, P.

    2006-12-01

    Changes in export productivity play a significant role in ocean carbon budgets and global climate change. Proxies for export productivity can be difficult to interpret: benthic foraminifera accumulation rates (BFAR) can be affected by carbonate dissolution in organic-carbon rich sediments; bulk opal can be affected by silica limitation of source waters. Recent work (Lazarus et al. 2006; Mar. Micropal.) has shown that a new index based on radiolarian faunal changes (WADE ratio) correlates well to total organic carbon (TOC) values from the same samples over the long term (latest Miocene-Recent) history of productivity in the Benguela Upwelling System (BUS). We present new data on variation in export productivity proxies (WADE, TOC, carbonate, radiolarian opal, BFAR) for the last glacial-interglacial cycle from ODP Site 1084, located just offshore from the main coastal upwelling cells of the BUS. Our age model, from mean Quaternary sedimentation rates (Leg 175 Scientific Results), is in accordance with cyclic variation in other climate sensitive parameters (carbonate and color reflectance). Although opal content and radiolarian preservation is only moderate in our samples, WADE values vary significantly and suggest higher productivity during the last glacial, in accordance with current interpretations of BUS history. Radiolarian opal accumulation is also higher during the last glacial, suggesting that silica limitation (opal paradox) conditions did not dominate over this time period. Similar results for bulk opal have been reported from late Quaternary piston cores from the more northerly Congo upwelling region (Schneider et al, 1997; Paleoc.). We conclude that WADE ratios are a useful proxy for late Pleistocene productivity in the BUS at glacial- interglacial time scales.

  3. Phytoplankton stimulation in frontal regions of Benguela upwelling filaments by internal factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Wasmund

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Filaments are intrusions of upwelling water into the sea, separated from the surrounding water by fronts. Current knowledge explains the enhanced primary production and phytoplankton growth found in frontal areas by external factors like nutrient input. The question is whether this enhancement is also caused by intrinsic factors, i.e. simple mixing without external forcing. In order to study the direct effect of frontal mixing on organisms, disturbing external influx has to be excluded. Therefore mixing was simulated by joining waters originating from inside and outside the filament in mesocosms (tanks. These experiments were conducted during two cruises in the northern Benguela upwelling system in September 2013 and January 2014. The mixed waters reached a much higher net primary production and chlorophyll a (chla concentration than the original waters already 2-3 days after their merging. The peak in phytoplankton biomass stays longer than the chla peak. After their maxima, primary production rates decreased quickly due to depletion of the nutrients. The increase in colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM may indicate excretion and degradation. Zooplankton is not quickly reacting on the changed conditions. We conclude that already simple mixing of two water bodies, which occurs generally at fronts between upwelled and ambient water, leads to a short-term stimulation of the phytoplankton growth. However, after the exhaustion of the nutrient stock, external nutrient supply is necessary to maintain the enhanced phytoplankton growth in the frontal area. Based on these data, some generally important ecological factors are discussed as for example nutrient ratios and limitations, silicate requirements and growth rates.

  4. Measuring Entrepreneurial Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Stam, F.C.

    2017-01-01

    How can entrepreneurial ecosystems and productive entrepreneurship can be traced empirically and how is entrepreneurship related to entrepreneurial ecosystems. The analyses in this chapter show the value of taking a systems view on the context of entrepreneurship. We measure entrepreneurial ecosystem elements and use these to compose an entrepreneurial ecosystem index. Next, we measure the output of entrepreneurial ecosystems with different indicators of high-growth firms. We use the 12 provi...

  5. Mapping Ecosystem Services

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiev,Teodor; Burkhard,Benjamin; Maes,Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystem services are the contributions of ecosystem structure and function (in combination with other inputs) to human well-being. That means, humankind is strongly dependent on well-functioning ecosystems and natural capital that are the base for a constant flow of ecosystem services from nature to society. Therefore ecosystem services have the potential to become a major tool for policy and decision making on global, national, regional and local scales. Possible applications are manifold:...

  6. Biological response to coastal upwelling and dust deposition in the area off Northwest Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohde, T.; Siegel, H.

    2010-05-01

    Nutrient supply in the area off Northwest Africa is mainly regulated by two processes, coastal upwelling and deposition of Saharan dust. In the present study, both processes were analyzed and evaluated by different methods, including cross-correlation, multiple correlation, and event statistics, using remotely sensed proxies of the period from 2000 to 2008 to investigate their influence on the marine environment. The remotely sensed chlorophyll- a concentration was used as a proxy for the phytoplankton biomass stimulated by nutrient supply into the euphotic zone from deeper water layers and from the atmosphere. Satellite-derived alongshore wind stress and sea-surface temperature were applied as proxies for the strength and reflection of coastal upwelling processes. The westward wind and the dust component of the aerosol optical depth describe the transport direction of atmospheric dust and the atmospheric dust column load. Alongshore wind stress and induced upwelling processes were most significantly responsible for the surface chlorophyll- a variability, accounting for about 24% of the total variance, mainly in the winter and spring due to the strong north-easterly trade winds. The remotely sensed proxies allowed determination of time lags between biological response and its forcing processes. A delay of up to 16 days in the surface chlorophyll- a concentration due to the alongshore wind stress was determined in the northern winter and spring. Although input of atmospheric iron by dust storms can stimulate new phytoplankton production in the study area, only 5% of the surface chlorophyll- a variability could be ascribed to the dust component in the aerosol optical depth. All strong desert storms were identified by an event statistics in the time period from 2000 to 2008. The 57 strong storms were studied in relation to their biological response. Six events were clearly detected in which an increase of chlorophyll- a was caused by Saharan dust input and not by

  7. Regulation of bacterial sulfate reduction and hydrogen sulfide fluxes in the central Namibian coastal upwelling zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruchert, V.; Jørgensen, BB; Neumann, K.

    2003-01-01

    The coastal upwelling system off central Namibia is one of the most productive regions of the oceans and is characterized by frequently occurring shelf anoxia with severe effects for the benthic life and fisheries. We present data on water column dissolved oxygen, sulfide, nitrate and nitrite, pore......-depleted bottom waters, the oxygen minimum zone on the continental slope, and the lower continental slope below the oxygen minimum zone. High concentrations of dissolved sulfide, up to 22 mM, in the near-surface sediments of the inner shelf result from extremely high rates of bacterial sulfate reduction...

  8. Initial observation of upwelling along east coast of Peninsular Malaysia musica-gratis.softonic.it/ >musica gratis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhir, M.; Tanggang, F.

    2013-12-01

    There is no published evidence of upwelling in coastal area along the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. However numbers of recent cruise data collected during the southwest monsoon found features of thermocline lifting and isolated cooler temperature water along the coast, These sign was observed along the 104°E from numbers of parallel transects. To confirm the presence of upwelling, satellite remote sensing data was used, and numerical model experiments were conducted. Cooler sea-surface temperature along the coast was observed from both in-situ and satellite data, while upward movement in the vertical profiles agreed with the location of upwelling from both in-situ and satellite data. Moreover, these data also show that the upwelled water band along the 104°E longitude stretch approximately 650 km long. Initially, southwesterly wind during this season is believed to be the important mechanism that contributed to this wind-induced Ekman upwelling. musica-gratis.softonic.it/ >musica gratis

  9. Coastal upwelling by wind-driven forcing in Jervis Bay, New South Wales: A numerical study for 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Youn-Jong; Jalón-Rojas, Isabel; Wang, Xiao Hua; Jiang, Donghui

    2018-06-01

    The Princeton Ocean Model (POM) was used to investigate an upwelling event in Jervis Bay, New South Wales (SE Australia), with varying wind directions and strengths. The POM was adopted with a downscaling approach for the regional ocean model one-way nested to a global ocean model. The upwelling event was detected from the observed wind data and satellite sea surface temperature images. The validated model reproduced the upwelling event showing the input of bottom cold water driven by wind to the bay, its subsequent deflection to the south, and its outcropping to the surface along the west and south coasts. Nevertheless, the behavior of the bottom water that intruded into the bay varied with different wind directions and strengths. Upwelling-favorable wind directions for flushing efficiency within the bay were ranked in the following order: N (0°; northerly) > NNE (30°; northeasterly) > NW (315°; northwesterly) > NE (45°; northeasterly) > ENE (60°; northeasterly). Increasing wind strengths also enhance cold water penetration and water exchange. It was determined that wind-driven downwelling within the bay, which occurred with NNE, NE and ENE winds, played a key role in blocking the intrusion of the cold water upwelled through the bay entrance. A northerly wind stress higher than 0.3 N m-2 was required for the cold water to reach the northern innermost bay.

  10. Open Informational Ecosystems: The Missing Link for Sharing Educational Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kerres

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Open educational resources are not available “as such”. Their provision relies on a technological infrastructure of related services that can be described as an informational ecosystem. A closed informational ecosystem keeps educational resources within its boundary. An open informational ecosystem relies on the concurrence of independent stakeholders that jointly provide (meta- information also beyond its boundaries. Mechanisms of open informational ecosystems are described and how they contribute to the delivery of educational resources and to opening education. The paper describes the case of the German Bildungsserver that aims at establishing a federated network of providers of open and closed educational resources. It points out that the design of (inter-national informational ecosystems has a major influence on the future of open educational resources in education.

  11. Transformation of Digital Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Hedman, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    the Digital Ecosystem Technology Transformation (DETT) framework for explaining technology-based transformation of digital ecosystems by integrating theories of business and technology ecosystems. The framework depicts ecosystem transformation as distributed and emergent from micro-, meso-, and macro- level......In digital ecosystems, the fusion relation between business and technology means that the decision of technical compatibility of the offering is also the decision of how to position the firm relative to the coopetive relations that characterize business ecosystems. In this article we develop...... coopetition. The DETT framework consists an alternative to the existing explanations of digital ecosystem transformation as the rational management of one central actor balancing ecosystem tensions. We illustrate the use of the framework by a case study of transformation in the digital payment ecosystem...

  12. Ecosystem degradation in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, B.N.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental and ecosystem studies have assumed greater relevance in the last decade of the twentieth century than even before. The urban settlements are becoming over-crowded and industries are increasingly polluting the air, water and sound in our larger metropolises. Degradation of different types of ecosystem are discussed in this book, Ecosystem Degradation in India. The book has been divided into seven chapters: Introduction, Coastal and Delta Ecosystem, River Basin Ecosystem, Mountain Ecosystem, Forest Ecosystem, Urban Ecosystem and the last chapter deals with the Environmental Problems and Planning. In the introduction the environmental and ecosystem degradation problems in India is highlighted as a whole while in other chapters mostly case studies by experts who know their respective terrain very intimately are included. The case study papers cover most part of India and deal with local problems, stretching from east coast to west coast and from Kashmir to Kanyakumari. (author)

  13. Adventures in holistic ecosystem modelling: the cumberland basin ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, D. C.; Keizer, P. D.; Daborn, G. R.; Schwinghamer, P.; Silvert, W. L.

    A holistic ecosystem model has been developed for the Cumberland Basin, a turbid macrotidal estuary at the head of Canada's Bay of Fundy. The model was constructed as a group exercise involving several dozen scientists. Philosophy of approach and methods were patterned after the BOEDE Ems-Dollard modelling project. The model is one-dimensional, has 3 compartments and 3 boundaries, and is composed of 3 separate submodels (physical, pelagic and benthic). The 28 biological state variables cover the complete estuarine ecosystem and represent broad functional groups of organisms based on trophic relationships. Although still under development and not yet validated, the model has been verified and has reached the stage where most state variables provide reasonable output. The modelling process has stimulated interdisciplinary discussion, identified important data gaps and produced a quantitative tool which can be used to examine ecological hypotheses and determine critical environmental processes. As a result, Canadian scientists have a much better understanding of the Cumberland Basin ecosystem and are better able to provide competent advice on environmental management.

  14. Opening of the South China Sea and Upwelling of the Hainan Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mengming; Yan, Yi; Huang, Chi-Yue; Zhang, Xinchang; Tian, Zhixian; Chen, Wen-Huang; Santosh, M.

    2018-03-01

    Opening of the South China Sea and upwelling of the Hainan Plume are among the most challenging issues related to the tectonic evolution of East Asia. However, when and how the Hainan Plume affected the opening of the South China Sea remains unclear. Here we investigate the geochemical and isotopic features of the 25 Ma mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) in the Kenting Mélange, southern Taiwan, 16 Ma MORB drilled by the IODP Expedition 349, and 9 Ma ocean island basalt-type dredged seamount basalt. The 25 Ma MORBs reveal a less metasomatic depleted MORB mantle-like source. In contrast, the Miocene samples record progressive mantle enrichment and possibly signal the contribution of the Hainan Plume. We speculate that MORBs of the South China Sea which could have recorded plume-ridge source mixing perhaps appear since 23.8 Ma. On the contrary, the Paleocene-Eocene ocean island basalt-type intraplate volcanism of the South China continental margin is correlated to decompression melting of a passively upwelling fertile asthenosphere due to continental rifting.

  15. Currents and upwelling along the Latium coasts in the Central Tyrrhenian Sea (western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rossi

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, springtime coastal currents along the Latium coast and their relation to external forcings, mainly wind stress curl and atmospheric pressure, are analysed. As a main result, we find that hydrographical measurements reveal currents parallel to the bottom isobaths, but with isopycnal sloping upwards towards the coast, suggesting the importance of upwellings in determining the coastal currents. This is confirmed by thermal satellite data showing the presence of a ~10-km-wide patch of cold water east of Mount Argentario, i.e. a cyclonic vortex. The current meter data give rather small values of the time-averaged alongshore velocities (~2 cm s–1 for most current meters and ~3 cm s–1 for the current meter placed immediately off the Argentario and also smaller values for the offshore velocities. The correlation between these two types of currents is rather poor; this is also due to the variability characteristic of a wind-induced upwelling. Finally, we obtain a value of 0.74 for the correlation between the alongshore current (first mode of Empirical Orthogonal Functions decomposition and the wind stress if a 23-h time lag is assumed.

  16. Joint effect of freshwater plume and coastal upwelling on phytoplankton growth off the Changjiang River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Y.-F.; Lin, J.; Dai, M.; Kao, S.-J.

    2014-01-01

    The Changjiang (Yangtze) River discharges vast amount of unbalanced nutrients (dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus with N / P ratio > 80 in general) into the East China Sea in summer. To study nutrient dynamics and P-stress potential for phytoplankton, a cruise was conducted in the Changjiang plume during summer 2011. With 3-D observations of nutrients, chlorophyll a (Chl a), and bulk alkaline phosphatase activity (APA), we concluded that the Changjiang Diluted Water and coastal upwelling significantly influenced the horizontal and vertical heterogeneities of phytoplankton P deficiency in the Changjiang plume. Allochthonous APA was detected at nutrient-enriched freshwater end. Excessive N (~ 10 to 112 μM) was observed throughout the entire plume surface. In the plume fringe featuring stratification and excess N, diapycnal phosphate supply was blocked and phytoplankton APA was stimulated for growth. We observed an upwelling just attaching to the turbidity front at seaward side where Chl a peaked yet much less APA was detected. An external phosphate supply from subsurface, which promoted phytoplankton growth but inhibited APA, was suggested to be sourced from the Nearshore Kuroshio Branch Current. In the so hydrographically complicated Changjiang plume, phosphate supply instead of its concentration may be more important in determining the expression of APA. Meanwhile, allochthonous APA may also alter the usefulness of APA as a P-stress indicator.

  17. Isotopic and enzymatic analyses of planktonic nitrogen utilisation in the vicinity of Cape Sines (Portugal) during weak upwelling activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawyk, Gerd; Coste, Bernard; Collos, Yves; Rodier, Martine

    1997-01-01

    Using measurements of 15N uptake and activities of nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase, the utilization of nitrogenous nutrients by microplankton in the Portuguese upwelling area was investigated. During this cruise the euphotic zone of coastal waters was in most cases bisected by a nitracline forming two layers. Total inorganic nitrogen uptake rates (NH 4+ + NO 3-) in the upper mixed and nitrate-impoverished layer ranged from 0.1 to 0.8 nM h -1 and were primarily supported by regenerated (ammonium) nitrogen (62-97%), whereas they varied between 0.9 and 10.4 nM h -1 in the deep nitrate-rich layer and were mainly driven by new (nitrate) nitrogen (52-82%). Depth profiles of Chl a-specific uptake rates for ammonium and nitrate paralleled those of absolute uptake rates, i.e. values of VNH 4+Chl were highest (up to 16.1 nmol μg -1 h -1) in nitrate-poor surface waters while values of VNO 3-Chl were maximum (up to 8.4 nmol μg -1 h -1)within the nitracline. This latter vertical ordering of planktonic nitrogen nutrition was consistent with an aged upwelling situation. However, applying several indices of cell metabolism and nutritional status, such as 15N uptake/enzyme activity, surge uptake internally controlled uptake, and V maxChl/K t ratios, we were able to demonstrate that the phytoplankton assemblages inhabiting the nutrient-impoverished upper layer still bore the signature of physically mediated nitrogen (nitrate) supply generated by active upwelling that had occurred during the week before our visit to the area. This signature was the most evident in samples from the station furthest inshore and faded with distance from shore as a result of the deepening of the nitrate isopleths (weakening of upwelling activity), which showed the same offshore trend. The appearance of nitrate-rich waters at the surface, after a strong pulse of upwelling favourable winds just before the end of the cruise, led to a five-fold increase in average (over the euphotic zone

  18. Microplankton biomass and diversity in the Vietnamese upwelling area during SW monsoon under normal conditions and after an ENSO event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loick-Wilde, Natalie; Bombar, Deniz; Doan, Hai Nhu

    2017-01-01

    to show how climatological-driven changes can have a significant influence on the distribution of microplankton communities and their biomass via its impact on nutrient concentrations in the water column. The first summer in July 2003 followed a weak El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event...... (10–20 µm) prevailed ubiquitously during reduced upwelling. During normal upwelling, the diatom Rhizosolenia sp. dominated the cell-carbon biomass in the silicate poor upwelling waters. Trichodesmium erythraeum dominated in the Mekong-influenced and nutrient depleted offshore waters, where it co......Investigating microplankton biomass and diversity under different climatological conditions is key to the understanding of cascading effects of climate change on nutrient cycles and biological productivity. Here we have used data collected during two contrasting summers along the coast of Viet Nam...

  19. Sardine (sardina Pilchardus) Larval Dispersal in Northern Canary Current Upwelling System (iberian Peninsula), Using Coupled Biophysical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. M. P. A.; Nieblas, A. E.; Verley, P.; Teles-Machado, A.; Bonhommeau, S.; Lett, C.; Garrido, S.; Peliz, A.

    2017-12-01

    The European sardine (Sardina pilchardus) is the most important small pelagic fishery of the Western Iberia Upwelling Ecosystem (WIUE). Recently, recruitment of this species has declined due to changing environmental conditions. Furthermore, controversies exist regarding its population structure with barriers thought to exist between the Atlantic-Iberian Peninsula, Northern Africa, and the Mediterranean. Few studies have investigated the transport and dispersal of sardine eggs and larvae off Iberia and the subsequent impact on larval recruitment variability. Here, we examine these issues using a Regional Ocean Modeling System climatology (1989-2008) coupled to the Lagrangian transport model, Ichthyop. Using biological parameters from the literature, we conduct simulations that investigate the effects of spawning patchiness, diel vertical migration behaviors, and egg buoyancy on the transport and recruitment of virtual sardine ichthyoplankton on the continental shelf. We find that release area, release depth, and month of release all significantly affect recruitment. Patchiness has no effect and diel vertical migration causes slightly lower recruitment. Egg buoyancy effects are significant and act similarly to depth of release. As with other studies, we find that recruitment peaks vary by latitude, explained here by the seasonal variability of offshore transport. We find weak, continuous alongshore transport between release areas, though a large proportion of simulated ichthyoplankton transport north to the Cantabrian coast (up to 27%). We also show low level transport into Morocco (up to 1%) and the Mediterranean (up to 8%). The high proportion of local retention and low but consistent alongshore transport supports the idea of a series of metapopulations along this coast. This study was supported by the Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation (FCT) through the research project MODELA (PTDC/MAR/098643/2008) and MedEx (MARIN-ERA/MAR/0002/2008). MedEx is also a

  20. Upwellings mitigated Plio-Pleistocene heat stress for reef corals on the Florida platform (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachert, Thomas C.; Reuter, Markus; Krüger, Stefan; Kirkerowicz, Julia; Klaus, James S.

    2016-03-01

    The fast growing calcareous skeletons of zooxanthellate reef corals (z corals) represent unique environmental proxy archives through their oxygen and carbon stable isotope composition (δ18O, δ13C). In addition, the accretion of the skeleton itself is ultimately linked to the environment and responds with variable growth rates (extension rate) and density to environmental changes. Here we present classical proxy data (δ18O, δ13C) in combination with calcification records from 15 massive z corals. The z corals were sampled from four interglacial units of the Florida carbonate platform (USA) dated approximately 3.2, 2.9, 1.8 and 1.2 Ma (middle Pliocene to early Pleistocene). The z corals (Solenastrea, Orbicella, Porites) derive from unlithified shallow marine carbonates and were carefully screened for primary preservation suited for proxy analysis. We show that skeletal accretion responded with decreasing overall calcification rates (decreasing extension rate but increasing density) to warmer water temperatures. Under high annual water temperatures, inferred from sub-annually resolved δ18O data, skeletal bulk density was high, but extension rates and overall calcification rates were at a minimum (endmember scenario 1). Maximum skeletal density was reached during the summer season giving rise to a growth band of high density within the annually banded skeletons ("high density band", HDB). With low mean annual water temperatures (endmember scenario 2), bulk skeletal density was low but extension rates and calcification rates reached a maximum, and under these conditions the HDB formed during winter. Although surface water temperatures in the Western Atlantic warm pool during the interglacials of the late Neogene were ˜ 2 °C higher than they are in the present day, intermittent upwelling of cool, nutrient-rich water mitigated water temperatures off south-western Florida and created temporary refuges for z coral growth. Based on the sub-annually resolved δ18O and

  1. Average Potential Temperature of the Upper Mantle and Excess Temperatures Beneath Regions of Active Upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putirka, K. D.

    2006-05-01

    The question as to whether any particular oceanic island is the result of a thermal mantle plume, is a question of whether volcanism is the result of passive upwelling, as at mid-ocean ridges, or active upwelling, driven by thermally buoyant material. When upwelling is passive, mantle temperatures reflect average or ambient upper mantle values. In contrast, sites of thermally driven active upwellings will have elevated (or excess) mantle temperatures, driven by some source of excess heat. Skeptics of the plume hypothesis suggest that the maximum temperatures at ocean islands are similar to maximum temperatures at mid-ocean ridges (Anderson, 2000; Green et al., 2001). Olivine-liquid thermometry, when applied to Hawaii, Iceland, and global MORB, belie this hypothesis. Olivine-liquid equilibria provide the most accurate means of estimating mantle temperatures, which are highly sensitive to the forsterite (Fo) contents of olivines, and the FeO content of coexisting liquids. Their application shows that mantle temperatures in the MORB source region are less than temperatures at both Hawaii and Iceland. The Siqueiros Transform may provide the most precise estimate of TpMORB because high MgO glass compositions there have been affected only by olivine fractionation, so primitive FeOliq is known; olivine thermometry yields TpSiqueiros = 1430 ±59°C. A global database of 22,000 MORB show that most MORB have slightly higher FeOliq than at Siqueiros, which translates to higher calculated mantle potential temperatures. If the values for Fomax (= 91.5) and KD (Fe-Mg)ol-liq (= 0.29) at Siqueiros apply globally, then upper mantle Tp is closer to 1485 ± 59°C. Averaging this global estimate with that recovered at Siqueiros yields TpMORB = 1458 ± 78°C, which is used to calculate plume excess temperatures, Te. The estimate for TpMORB defines the convective mantle geotherm, and is consistent with estimates from sea floor bathymetry and heat flow (Stein and Stein, 1992), and

  2. How coastal upwelling influences spatial patterns of size-structured diversity of copepods off central-southern Chile (summer 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Pamela; Escribano, Ruben; Fuentes, Marcelo; Jorquera, Erika; Vergara, Odette

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the structure of the copepod community in the upper 200 m of the coastal upwelling region off central-southern Chile in late summer 2009. Vertically stratified zooplankton samples and hydrographic variables were obtained from 42 stations over the continental shelf and oceanic areas. The survey took place during active upwelling, reflected by a cold upwelling plume extending out to 150 km offshore. A total of 62 copepod species were found. Of these, Oithona similis and Paracalanusindicus accounted for ca. 60% of the whole community. Species richness ( R) and the Shannon-Wiener diversity index ( H‧) were estimated, and the latter was additionally modified to incorporate the effect of copepod size on diversity ( H‧ s). Samples were analyzed for two depth strata (0-50, 50-200 m) and for day vs. night conditions. Significant effects of day vs. night and strata on R, H‧ and H‧ s indicated that diel vertical migration between these two layers was an important source of variation in the zooplankton community. H‧ s seemed to represent copepod diversity better than R and H‧ over the spatial scale. H‧ s was also closely linked to colder upwelled water and the depth of the oxygen minimum zone following a principal component analysis. A positive relationship was even detected between depth of the oxygen minimum zone and H‧ s when strata and day/night effects were excluded. Our findings suggested that the coastal upwelling process could be an important driver of copepod diversity in this region. Upwelling leads to changes in the depth of the oxygen minimum zone and these changes impact the community composition due to species-dependent tolerances to low oxygen water.

  3. Political State Boundary (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — State boundaries with political limit - boundaries extending into the ocean (NTAD). The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an...

  4. Allegheny County Municipal Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the municipal boundaries in Allegheny County. Data was created to portray the boundaries of the 130 Municipalities in Allegheny County the...

  5. HUD GIS Boundary Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The HUD GIS Boundary Files are intended to supplement boundary files available from the U.S. Census Bureau. The files are for community planners interested in...

  6. State Agency Administrative Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database comprises 28 State agency boundaries and point of contact. The Kansas Geological Survey collected legal descriptions of the boundaries for various...

  7. Transport of terrigenous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons affected by the coastal upwelling in the northwestern coast of South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya, Miaolei; Wu, Yuling; Li, Yongyu; Wang, Xinhong

    2017-10-01

    Coastal upwelling prevails in the coast of Hainan Island, the northern South China Sea (SCS) during summer. We studied the influences of the upwelling on the horizontal and vertical transport of terrigenous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs in dissolved and suspended particulate phase of water samples were determined in the upper (depth  10 m). PAH levels decreased sharply from inshore to offshore to open sea. The results showed that terrestrial input was the main source of coastal PAHs. Perylene, an important indicator of land plant-derived PAH, showed the significant correlation with PAHs (p sea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of open ocean boundary forcing on seasonal to decadal-scale variability and long-term change of natural shelf hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Pedro M S; Dewitte, Boris; Paulmier, Aurelien; Scranton, Mary I; Van der Plas, Anja K

    2011-01-01

    In this study we investigate the possible reasons for the widespread differences between the seasonal cycles of carbon production and export compared to those of hypoxia in eastern boundary upwelling systems. An idealized model is proposed that qualitatively characterizes the relative roles of physics and biogeochemical fluxes. The model is tested on three contrasting upwelling systems: the Benguela (from relatively aerated to interannual anoxic), the Humboldt (sub-oxic and interannually anoxic) and the Cariaco (permanently anoxic). Overall we propose that shelf hypoxia variability can be explained on the basis of the interaction between ventilation by ocean boundary forcing through ocean-shelf exchange and the role of shelf geometry in the retention of shelf-based particulate organic carbon (POC) fluxes. We aim to identify the hypoxia regimes associated with low ventilation-wide-shelf systems and high ventilation-narrow-shelf systems, considering them as extremes of conditions controlled by the two factors. We propose that this may help to explain differences in the seasonal cycles of the biogeochemical drivers and responses as well as difference between upwelling systems and within individual upwelling systems. It is suggested that when seasonal hypoxia emerges it does so preferentially at a wide-shelf part of a system.

  9. On boundary superalgebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doikou, Anastasia

    2010-01-01

    We examine the symmetry breaking of superalgebras due to the presence of appropriate integrable boundary conditions. We investigate the boundary breaking symmetry associated with both reflection algebras and twisted super-Yangians. We extract the generators of the resulting boundary symmetry as well as we provide explicit expressions of the associated Casimir operators.

  10. Spatial modelling and ecosystem accounting for land use planning: addressing deforestation and oil palm expansion in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sumarga, E.

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem accounting is a new area of environmental economic accounting that aims to measure ecosystem services in a way that is in line with national accounts. The key characteristics of ecosystem accounting include the extension of the valuation boundary of the System of National Accounts, allowing the inclusion of a broader set of ecosystem services types such regulating services and cultural services. Consistent with the principles of national account, ecosystem accounting focuses on asse...

  11. Production regimes in four eastern boundary current systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M. E.; Kearns, E. J.

    2003-01-01

    High productivity (maxima 3 g C m(sup -2)day(sup -1)) of the Eastern Boundary Currents (EBCs), i.e. the California, Peru-Humboldt, Canary and Benguela Currents, is driven by a combination of local forcing and large-scale circulation. The characteristics of the deep water brought to the surface by upwelling favorable winds depend on the large-scale circulation patterns. Here we use a new hydrographic and nutrient climatology together with satellite measurements ofthe wind vector, sea-surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll concentration, and primary production modeled from ocean color to quantify the meridional and seasonal patterns of upwelling dynamics and biological response. The unprecedented combination of data sets allows us to describe objectively the variability for small regions within each current and to characterize the governing factors for biological production. The temporal and spatial environmental variability was due in most regions to large-scale circulation, alone or in combination with offshore transport (local forcing). The observed meridional and seasonal patterns of biomass and primary production were most highlycorrelated to components representing large-scale circulation. The biomass sustained by a given nutrient concentration in the Atlantic EBCs was twice as large as that of the Pacific EBCs. This apparent greater efficiency may be due toavailability of iron, physical retention, or differences in planktonic community structure.

  12. Measuring Entrepreneurial Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, F.C.

    How can entrepreneurial ecosystems and productive entrepreneurship can be traced empirically and how is entrepreneurship related to entrepreneurial ecosystems. The analyses in this chapter show the value of taking a systems view on the context of entrepreneurship. We measure entrepreneurial

  13. Coral reefs - Specialized ecosystems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.

    This paper discusses briefly some aspects that characterize and differentiate coral reef ecosystems from other tropical marine ecosystems. A brief account on the resources that are extractable from coral reefs, their susceptibility to natural...

  14. Bioturbational structures record environmental changes in the upwelling area off Vietnam (South China Sea) for the last 150,000 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetzel, A.; Tjallingii, R.; Wiesner, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    The sediments in the upwelling area off central Vietnam are totally bioturbated and display a low-diverse assemblage of bioturbational structures. During interglacial times (Marine Isotope Stage MIS 1, 5a, 5c, 5e), summer monsoon leads to pronounced upwelling and seasonally pulsed arrival of organic

  15. Ecosystem classification, Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.J. Robin-Abbott; L.H. Pardo

    2011-01-01

    The ecosystem classification in this report is based on the ecoregions developed through the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) for North America (CEC 1997). Only ecosystems that occur in the United States are included. CEC ecoregions are described, with slight modifications, below (CEC 1997) and shown in Figures 2.1 and 2.2. We chose this ecosystem...

  16. On Man and Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Harold

    1982-01-01

    Distinctions between natural ecosystems and human ecosystems are misleading. Natural and social sciences can be integrated through the concept of a "human-use ecosystem," in which social scientists analyze the community, household, and individual, and natural scientists analyze the land. Includes a case study of St. Kitts. (KC)

  17. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  18. Towards ecosystem accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duku, C.; Rathjens, H.; Zwart, S.J.; Hein, L.

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem accounting is an emerging field that aims to provide a consistent approach to analysing environment-economy interactions. One of the specific features of ecosystem accounting is the distinction between the capacity and the flow of ecosystem services. Ecohydrological modelling to support

  19. Rights to ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, M.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem services are the benefits people obtain from ecosystems. Many of these services are provided outside the borders of the land where they are produced; this article investigates who is entitled to these non-excludable ecosystem services from two libertarian perspectives. Taking a

  20. Mercury speciation in fish of the Cabo Frio upwelling region, SE-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mercury distribution in the oceans is controlled by complex biogeochemical cycles, resulting in retention of trace amounts of this metal in marine biota. The impact of upwelling processes in this metal behavior has been overlooked. Data from literature are insufficient to evaluate the risks associated with the presence of mercury in the fish collected in upwelling areas and its consumers. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to perform a study of mercury speciation in four fish species belonging to different trophic levels from Cabo Frio-Brazil upwelling region. The total mercury content vary of 53 ng g-1 (Sardinella brasiliensis -sardine to 1215 ng g-1 (Cynoscion striatus -striped weakfish and, with exception of the planktivorous fish, methylmercury levels reaches circa 90% of total mercury concentration.A distribuição de Mercúrio nos oceanos é controlada por um complexo ciclo biogeoquímico, resultando na retenção de pequenas quantidades na biota marinha. O impacto dos processos de ressurgência costeira no comportamento desse metal tem sido negligenciado. Dados da literatura são insuficientes para elucidar o risco associado com a presença de mercúrio em peixes capturados em áreas de ressurgência e seus consumidores. Portanto o objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar um estudo de especiação de mercúrio em quatro espécies de peixes pertencentes a diferentes níveis tróficos da região de ressurgência de Cabo Frio-Brasil. O conteúdo total de mercúrio variou de 53 ng g-1 (Sardinella brasiliensis -sardinha to 1215 ng g-1 (Cynoscion striatus -pescada e, com exceção da espécie planctivora, os níveis de metilmercúrio atingem cerca de 90% da concentração total de mercúrio.

  1. Diurnal variability of inner-shelf circulation in the lee of a cape under upwelling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, L.; Peliz, A.; Dias, J.; Oliveira, P. B.; Angélico, M. M.; Castro, J. J.; Fernandes, J. N.; Trindade, A.; Cruz, T.

    2017-07-01

    The nearshore circulation in the lee of a cape under upwelling conditions was studied using in-situ data from 3 consecutive summers (2006-2008). Focus was given to a period between 20 July and 04 August 2006 to study the diurnal variability of the cross-shelf circulation. This period was chosen because it had a steady upwelling-favourable wind condition modulated by a diurnal cycle much similar to sea breeze. The daily variability of the observed cross-shelf circulation consisted of three distinct periods: a morning period with a 3-layer vertical structure with onshore velocities at mid-depth, a mid-day period where the flow is reversed and has a 2-layer structure with onshore velocities at the surface and offshore flow below, and, lastly, in the evening, a 2-layer period with intensified offshore velocities at the surface and onshore flow at the bottom. The observed cross-shelf circulation showed a peculiar vertical shape and diurnal variability different from several other systems described in literature. We hypothesize that the flow reversal of the cross-shelf circulation results as a response to the rapid change of the wind magnitude and direction at mid-day with the presence of the cape north of the mooring site influencing this response. A numerical modelling experiment exclusively forced by winds simulated successfully most of the circulation at the ADCP site, especially the mid-day reversal and the evening's upwelling-type structure. This supports the hypothesis that the cross-shelf circulation at diurnal timescales is mostly wind-driven. By analysing the 3D circulation in the vicinity of Cape Sines we came to the conclusion that the diurnal variability of the wind and the flow interaction with topography are responsible for the circulation variability at the ADCP site, though only a small region in the south of the cape showed a similar diurnal variability. The fact that the wind diurnally undergoes relaxation and intensification strongly affects the

  2. Ecosystem services in ECOCLIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lise Lotte; Boegh, Eva; Bendtsen, J

    that actions initiated to reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions are sustainable and not destructive to existing ecosystem services. Therefore it is important to address i.e. land use change in relation to the regulating services of the ecosystems, such as carbon sequestration and climate regulation. At present...... a thorough understanding of the ecosystem processes controlling the uptake or emissions of GHG is fundamental. Here we present ECOCLIM in the context of ecosystem services and the experimental studies within ECOCLIM which will lead to an enhanced understanding of Danish ecosystems....

  3. A statistical approach to coastal upwelling in the Baltic Sea based on the analysis of satellite data for 1990-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lehmann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A statistical analysis of Baltic Sea upwelling has been carried out to cover, for the first time, the entire sea area for the period 1990-2009. Weekly composite SST maps based on NOAA/AVHRR satellite data were used to evaluate the location and frequency of upwelling. The results obtained were analysed and compared with earlier studies with excellent agreement. Our study enables the most intense upwelling areas in the entire Baltic Sea to be evaluated. According to the analysis of 443 SST maps, the most common upwelling regions are found off the Swedish south and east coasts (frequency 10-25%, the Swedish coast of the Bothnian Bay (16%, the southern tip of Gotland (up to 15%, and the Finnish coast of the Gulf of Finland (up to 15%. Pronounced upwelling also occurs off the Estonian coast and the Baltic east coast (up to 15%, the Polish coast and the west coast of Rügen (10-15%; otherwise the upwelling frequency was between 5 and 10%. Additionally, simulated SST distributions derived from a Baltic Sea numerical model were analysed for the same period. Furthermore, at specific positions close to the coastline, surface winds based on the SMHI meteorological data base were analysed for the same 20-year period. Wind components parallel to the coast were discriminated into favourable and unfavourable winds forcing upwelling. The obtained frequencies of upwelling-favourable winds fit very well the observed upwelling frequencies derived from satellite SST maps. A positive trend of upwelling frequencies along the Swedish east coast and the Finnish coast of the Gulf of Finland was calculated for the period 1990-2009.

  4. Relationship between nitrate reductase and nitrate uptake in phytoplankton in the Peru upwelling region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasco, D.; MacIsaac, J.J.; Packard, T.T.; Dugdale, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    Nitrate reductase (NR) activity and 15 NO 3 - uptake in phytoplankton were compared under different environmental conditions on two cruises in the upwelling region off Peru. The NR activity and NO 3 - uptake rates responded differently to light and nutrients and the differences led to variations in the uptake: reductase ratio. Analysis of these variations suggests that the re-equilibration time of the two processes in response to environmental perturbation is an important source of variability. The nitrate uptake system responds faster than the nitrate reductase system. Considering these differences in response time the basic differences in the two processes, and the differences in their measurement, the authors conclude that the Nr activity measures the current nitrate-reducing potential, which reflects NO 3 - assimilation before the sampling time, while 15 NO 3 - uptake measures NO 3 - assimilation in the 6-h period following sampling

  5. Short-term meso-scale variability of mesozooplankton communities in a coastal upwelling system (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roura, Álvaro; Álvarez-Salgado, Xosé A.; González, Ángel F.; Gregori, María; Rosón, Gabriel; Guerra, Ángel

    2013-02-01

    The short-term, meso-scale variability of the mesozooplankton community present in the coastal upwelling system of the Ría de Vigo (NW Spain) has been analysed. Three well-defined communities were identified: coastal, frontal and oceanic, according to their holoplankton-meroplankton ratio, richness, and total abundance. These communities changed from summer to autumn due to a shift from downwelling to upwelling-favourable conditions coupled with taxa dependent changes in life strategies. Relationships between the resemblance matrix of mesozooplankton and the resemblance matrices of meteorologic, hydrographic and community-derived biotic variables were determined with distance-based linear models (DistLM, 18 variables), showing an increasing amount of explained variability of 6%, 16.1% and 54.5%, respectively. A simplified model revealed that the variability found in the resemblance matrix of mesozooplankton was mainly described by the holoplankton-meroplankton ratio, the total abundance, the influence of lunar cycles, the upwelling index and the richness; altogether accounting for 64% of the total variability. The largest variability of the mesozooplankton resemblance matrix (39.6%) is accounted by the holoplankton-meroplankton ratio, a simple index that describes appropriately the coastal-ocean gradient. The communities described herein kept their integrity in the studied upwelling and downwelling episodes in spite of the highly advective environment off the Ría de Vigo, presumably due to behavioural changes in the vertical position of the zooplankton.

  6. Bleaching Susceptibility and Recovery of Colombian Caribbean Corals in Response to Water Current Exposure and Seasonal Upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktarov, Elisa; Pizarro, Valeria; Eidens, Corvin; Wilke, Thomas; Wild, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Coral bleaching events are globally occurring more frequently and with higher intensity, mainly caused by increases in seawater temperature. In Tayrona National Natural Park (TNNP) in the Colombian Caribbean, local coral communities are subjected to seasonal wind-triggered upwelling events coinciding with stronger water currents depending on location. This natural phenomenon offers the unique opportunity to study potential water current-induced mitigation mechanisms of coral bleaching in an upwelling influenced region. Therefore, coral bleaching susceptibility and recovery patterns were compared during a moderate and a mild bleaching event in December 2010 and 2011, and at the end of the subsequent upwelling periods at a water current-exposed and -sheltered site of an exemplary bay using permanent transect and labeling tools. This was accompanied by parallel monitoring of key environmental variables. Findings revealed that in 2010 overall coral bleaching before upwelling was significantly higher at the sheltered (34%) compared to the exposed site (8%). Whereas 97% of all previously bleached corals at the water current-exposed site had recovered from bleaching by April 2011, only 77% recovered at the sheltered site, but 12% had died there. In December 2011, only mild bleaching (bleaching. This indicates the existence of local resilience patterns against coral bleaching in Caribbean reefs. PMID:24282551

  7. Are large macroalgal blooms necessarily bad? Nutrient impacts on seagrass in upwelling-influenced estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessing-Lewis, Margot L; Hacker, Sally D; Menge, Bruce A; McConville, Sea-oh; Henderson, Jeremy

    2015-07-01

    Knowledge of nutrient pathways and their resulting ecological interactions can alleviate numerous environmental problems associated with nutrient increases in both natural and managed systems. Although not unique, coastal systems are particularly prone to complex ecological interactions resulting from nutrient inputs from both the land and sea. Nutrient inputs to coastal systems often spur ulvoid macroalgal blooms, with negative consequences for seagrasses, primarily through shading, as well as through changes in local biogeochemistry. We conducted complementary field and mesocosm experiments in an upwelling-influenced estuary, where marine-derived nutrients dominate, to understand the direct and indirect effects of nutrients on the macroalgal-eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) interaction. In the field experiment, we found weak evidence that nutrients and/or macroalgal treatments had a negative effect on eelgrass. However, in the mesocosm experiment, we found that a combination of nutrient and macroalgal treatments led to strongly negative eelgrass responses, primarily via indirect effects associated with macroalgal additions. Together, increased total light attenuation and decreased sediment oxygen levels were associated with larger effects on eelgrass than shading alone, which was evaluated using mimic algae treatments that did not alter sediment redox potential. Nutrient addition in the mesocosms directly affected seagrass density; biomass, and morphology, but not as strongly as macroalgae. We hypothesize that the contrary results from these parallel experiments are a consequence of differences in the hydrodynamics between field and mesocosm settings. We suggest that the high rates of water movement and tidal submersion of our intertidal field experiments alleviated the light reduction and negative biogeochemical changes in the sediment associated with macroalgal canopies, as well as the nutrient effects observed in the mesocosm experiments. Furthermore, adaptation

  8. Short-term changes in the northwest African Upwelling System induced by Saharan dust deposition events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, A G; Coca, J; Redondo, A [SeaSnet Canarias. Dpto. de Biologia (University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria), Canary Islands (Spain); Cuevas, E; Alonso-Perez, S; Bustos, J J [Izana Atmospheric Research Center, Agencia Estatal de Meteorologia, Tenerife (Spain); Perez, C; Baldasano, J M [Earth Sciences Department. Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Barcelona (Spain); Nickovic, S [Atmospheric Research and Environment Branch, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva (Switzerland)], E-mail: aramos@pesca.gi.ulpgc.es

    2009-03-01

    During the last 7-year period (2000-2006) atmosphere circulation changes show strong influences on the dust storm deposition dynamics and, as a result, on the primary production dynamics of the northwest African Upwelling System. From 2000 to 2006, the annual mean sea level pressure became higher ranging from 1014 to 1015 mb. Mean annual zonal wind intensity became higher (from 1.1 to 1.8 m s{sup -1}), while the mean annual meridional was reduced from 6.2 to 5.3 m s{sup -1} at the north of the Canary Islands. Mean annual satellite-derived AVHRR/NOAA SST recorded in the northwest African Upwelling became warmer in both locations, from 18.3 deg. C to 18.8 deg. C in Cape Ghir and from 19.5 deg. C to 20.3 deg. C north Canary Islands waters. CHL records from the SeaWiFS/OV-2 showed a different pattern trend. Mean annual CHL levels increased at Cape Ghir from 0.65 mg m-3 to 0.9 mg m-3 and significantly reduced from 0.59 mg m{sup -3} to 0.31 mg m{sup -3} at the north of the Canary Islands. Changes observed in the role of CHL during the last 7-years period could be associated to intensive dust deposition and exceptional weather warming observed in this area since 2000. However, this study focused on a 7-year period and conclusions on possible links between dust deposition and marine biochemistry activity cannot be generalized.

  9. Deglacial upwelling, productivity and CO2 outgassing in the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, William R.; Rae, James W. B.; Wills, Robert C. J.; Shevenell, Amelia E.; Taylor, Ben; Burke, Andrea; Foster, Gavin L.; Lear, Caroline H.

    2018-05-01

    The interplay between ocean circulation and biological productivity affects atmospheric CO2 levels and marine oxygen concentrations. During the warming of the last deglaciation, the North Pacific experienced a peak in productivity and widespread hypoxia, with changes in circulation, iron supply and light limitation all proposed as potential drivers. Here we use the boron-isotope composition of planktic foraminifera from a sediment core in the western North Pacific to reconstruct pH and dissolved CO2 concentrations from 24,000 to 8,000 years ago. We find that the productivity peak during the Bølling-Allerød warm interval, 14,700 to 12,900 years ago, was associated with a decrease in near-surface pH and an increase in pCO2, and must therefore have been driven by increased supply of nutrient- and CO2-rich waters. In a climate model ensemble (PMIP3), the presence of large ice sheets over North America results in high rates of wind-driven upwelling within the subpolar North Pacific. We suggest that this process, combined with collapse of North Pacific Intermediate Water formation at the onset of the Bølling-Allerød, led to high rates of upwelling of water rich in nutrients and CO2, and supported the peak in productivity. The respiration of this organic matter, along with poor ventilation, probably caused the regional hypoxia. We suggest that CO2 outgassing from the North Pacific helped to maintain high atmospheric CO2 concentrations during the Bølling-Allerød and contributed to the deglacial CO2 rise.

  10. Desulfofrigus sp. prevails in sulfate-reducing dilution cultures from sediments of the Benguela upwelling area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Beate; Engelen, Bert; Goldhammer, Tobias; Lin, Yu-Shih; Cypionka, Heribert; Könneke, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Sediments of coastal upwelling areas are generally characterized by a high content of organic carbon that is mainly degraded via anaerobic microbial processes including sulfate reduction as a major terminal oxidation step. Despite the high importance of sulfate reduction in these sediments, the identity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) has remained almost unknown. Here, we applied a cultivation-based approach using selective enrichment conditions to study the diversity and distribution of active SRB in sediments along a transect perpendicular to the continental slope off the coast of Namibia (Meteor-cruise M76/1). To promote growth of the most abundant SRB, dilution series were prepared and amended with hydrogen, acetate, or a mixture of monomers representing typical substrates for SRB. Growth of SRB could be detected in the presence of all electron donors and from sediment down to 4 m depth. 16S rRNA gene-based DGGE analysis and sequencing revealed the predominance of SRB related to psychrophiles in particular to the genus Desulfofrigus, which made up 1 % of the total microbial community, accounting for an absolute abundance of up to 4.8 × 10(7)  cells mL(-1) . In general, the abundance of cultured SRB changed with depth and between the different sampling sites and correlated with the content of organic carbon as previously reported. Growth of chemolithotrophic SRB in relatively high dilution steps and the enrichment of methanogens as well as acetogens from deeper sediment point to a competition between hydrogen-utilizing microbial processes and their biogeochemical significance in deep sediment layers of the Benguela upwelling area. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Short-term changes in the northwest African Upwelling System induced by Saharan dust deposition events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, A G; Coca, J; Redondo, A; Cuevas, E; Alonso-Perez, S; Bustos, J J; Perez, C; Baldasano, J M; Nickovic, S

    2009-01-01

    During the last 7-year period (2000-2006) atmosphere circulation changes show strong influences on the dust storm deposition dynamics and, as a result, on the primary production dynamics of the northwest African Upwelling System. From 2000 to 2006, the annual mean sea level pressure became higher ranging from 1014 to 1015 mb. Mean annual zonal wind intensity became higher (from 1.1 to 1.8 m s -1 ), while the mean annual meridional was reduced from 6.2 to 5.3 m s -1 at the north of the Canary Islands. Mean annual satellite-derived AVHRR/NOAA SST recorded in the northwest African Upwelling became warmer in both locations, from 18.3 deg. C to 18.8 deg. C in Cape Ghir and from 19.5 deg. C to 20.3 deg. C north Canary Islands waters. CHL records from the SeaWiFS/OV-2 showed a different pattern trend. Mean annual CHL levels increased at Cape Ghir from 0.65 mg m-3 to 0.9 mg m-3 and significantly reduced from 0.59 mg m -3 to 0.31 mg m -3 at the north of the Canary Islands. Changes observed in the role of CHL during the last 7-years period could be associated to intensive dust deposition and exceptional weather warming observed in this area since 2000. However, this study focused on a 7-year period and conclusions on possible links between dust deposition and marine biochemistry activity cannot be generalized.

  12. Distribution of dissolved manganese in the Peruvian Upwelling and Oxygen Minimum Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedamati, Jagruti; Chan, Catherine; Moffett, James W.

    2015-05-01

    The geochemistry of manganese (Mn) in seawater is dominated by its redox chemistry, as Mn(II) is soluble and Mn(IV) forms insoluble oxides, and redox transformations are mediated by a variety of processes in the oceans. Dissolved Mn (DMn) accumulates under reducing conditions and is depleted under oxidizing conditions. Thus the Peruvian upwelling region, characterized by highly reducing conditions over a broad continental shelf and a major oxygen minimum zone extending far offshore, is potentially a large source of Mn to the eastern Tropical South Pacific. In this study, DMn was determined on cruises in October 2005 and February 2010 in the Peruvian Upwelling and Oxygen Minimum Zone, to evaluate the relationship between Mn, oxygen and nitrogen cycle processes. DMn concentrations were determined using simple dilution and matrix-matched external standardization inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Surprisingly, DMn was depleted under the most reducing conditions along the Peruvian shelf. Concentrations of dissolved Mn in surface waters increased offshore, indicating that advection of Mn offshore from the Peruvian shelf is a minor source. Subsurface Mn maxima were observed within the oxycline rather than within the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), indicating they arise from remineralization of organic matter rather than reduction of Mn oxides. The distribution of DMn appears to be dominated by non-redox processes and inputs from the atmosphere and from other regions associated with specific water masses. Lower than expected DMn concentrations on the shelf probably reflect limited fluvial inputs from the continent and efficient offshore transport. This behavior is in stark contrast to Fe, reported in a companion study which is very high on the shelf and undergoes dynamic redox cycling.

  13. Bleaching susceptibility and recovery of Colombian Caribbean corals in response to water current exposure and seasonal upwelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktarov, Elisa; Pizarro, Valeria; Eidens, Corvin; Wilke, Thomas; Wild, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Coral bleaching events are globally occurring more frequently and with higher intensity, mainly caused by increases in seawater temperature. In Tayrona National Natural Park (TNNP) in the Colombian Caribbean, local coral communities are subjected to seasonal wind-triggered upwelling events coinciding with stronger water currents depending on location. This natural phenomenon offers the unique opportunity to study potential water current-induced mitigation mechanisms of coral bleaching in an upwelling influenced region. Therefore, coral bleaching susceptibility and recovery patterns were compared during a moderate and a mild bleaching event in December 2010 and 2011, and at the end of the subsequent upwelling periods at a water current-exposed and -sheltered site of an exemplary bay using permanent transect and labeling tools. This was accompanied by parallel monitoring of key environmental variables. Findings revealed that in 2010 overall coral bleaching before upwelling was significantly higher at the sheltered (34%) compared to the exposed site (8%). Whereas 97% of all previously bleached corals at the water current-exposed site had recovered from bleaching by April 2011, only 77% recovered at the sheltered site, but 12% had died there. In December 2011, only mild bleaching (corals recovered significantly at both sites in the course of upwelling. No differences in water temperatures between sites occurred, but water current exposure and turbidity were significantly higher at the exposed site, suggesting that these variables may be responsible for the observed site-specific mitigation of coral bleaching. This indicates the existence of local resilience patterns against coral bleaching in Caribbean reefs.

  14. Bleaching susceptibility and recovery of Colombian Caribbean corals in response to water current exposure and seasonal upwelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Bayraktarov

    Full Text Available Coral bleaching events are globally occurring more frequently and with higher intensity, mainly caused by increases in seawater temperature. In Tayrona National Natural Park (TNNP in the Colombian Caribbean, local coral communities are subjected to seasonal wind-triggered upwelling events coinciding with stronger water currents depending on location. This natural phenomenon offers the unique opportunity to study potential water current-induced mitigation mechanisms of coral bleaching in an upwelling influenced region. Therefore, coral bleaching susceptibility and recovery patterns were compared during a moderate and a mild bleaching event in December 2010 and 2011, and at the end of the subsequent upwelling periods at a water current-exposed and -sheltered site of an exemplary bay using permanent transect and labeling tools. This was accompanied by parallel monitoring of key environmental variables. Findings revealed that in 2010 overall coral bleaching before upwelling was significantly higher at the sheltered (34% compared to the exposed site (8%. Whereas 97% of all previously bleached corals at the water current-exposed site had recovered from bleaching by April 2011, only 77% recovered at the sheltered site, but 12% had died there. In December 2011, only mild bleaching (<10% at both sites was observed, but corals recovered significantly at both sites in the course of upwelling. No differences in water temperatures between sites occurred, but water current exposure and turbidity were significantly higher at the exposed site, suggesting that these variables may be responsible for the observed site-specific mitigation of coral bleaching. This indicates the existence of local resilience patterns against coral bleaching in Caribbean reefs.

  15. Variability of coastal water hydrodynamics in the southern Baltic - hindcast modelling of an upwelling event along the Polish coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Jankowski

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an attempt to reproduce, with theaid of a numerical circulation model, the hydrological conditions observedin the coastal area of the southern Baltic in September 1989.A large fall in surface layer seawater temperature was recordedin September 1989 at two coastal stations in the vicinity ofKolobrzeg and Wladyslawowo. This upwelling-like phenomenon was assumed tobe related to the specific anemobaric situation in September 1989,however typical of this phenomenon to occur along the Polish Baltic coast(Malicki & Mietus 1994. A three-dimensional (3-D sigma-coordinatebaroclinic model of the Baltic Sea, with a horizontal resolution of~5 km and 24 sigma-levels in the vertical, was applied to investigatewater circulation and thermohaline variability. Hindcastnumerical simulation showed that the model provided a good reproductionof the temporal history of the surface seawater temperature and theduration of the upwelling-like fall, but that the model results wereunderestimated. The maxima of this large fall in the surface layertemperature at both coastal stations are closely related to the phase ofchange of the upwelling-favourable wind direction to the opposite one.The results of simulation runs showed details of upwelling developmentdue to wind field fluctuations in time and differences in shaping thetemperature and current patterns in conjunction with the variations intopography and coastline features in some areas along the Polish coast.Two different hydrodynamic regimes of water movements along the coastresulting from topographical features (the Slupsk Bank can be distinguished.From the model simulation the specific conditions for the occurrence anddevelopment of upwelling at the eastern end of the Polish coast(in the vicinity of Wladyslawowo can be deduced.

  16. Transitional boundary layer in low-Prandtl-number convection at high Rayleigh number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Joerg; Bandaru, Vinodh; Pandey, Ambrish; Scheel, Janet

    2016-11-01

    The boundary layer structure of the velocity and temperature fields in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard flows in closed cylindrical cells of unit aspect ratio is revisited from a transitional and turbulent viscous boundary layer perspective. When the Rayleigh number is large enough the boundary layer dynamics at the bottom and top plates can be separated into an impact region of downwelling plumes, an ejection region of upwelling plumes and an interior region (away from side walls) that is dominated by a shear flow of varying orientation. This interior plate region is compared here to classical wall-bounded shear flows. The working fluid is liquid mercury or liquid gallium at a Prandtl number of Pr = 0 . 021 for a range of Rayleigh numbers of 3 ×105 Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

  17. Numerical simulations of the stratified oceanic bottom boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John R.

    Numerical simulations are used to consider several problems relevant to the turbulent oceanic bottom boundary layer. In the first study, stratified open channel flow is considered with thermal boundary conditions chosen to approximate a shallow sea. Specifically, a constant heat flux is applied at the free surface and the lower wall is assumed to be adiabatic. When the surface heat flux is strong, turbulent upwellings of low speed fluid from near the lower wall are inhibited by the stable stratification. Subsequent studies consider a stratified bottom Ekman layer over a non-sloping lower wall. The influence of the free surface is removed by using an open boundary condition at the top of the computational domain. Particular attention is paid to the influence of the outer layer stratification on the boundary layer structure. When the density field is initialized with a linear profile, a turbulent mixed layer forms near the wall, which is separated from the outer layer by a strongly stable pycnocline. It is found that the bottom stress is not strongly affected by the outer layer stratification. However, stratification reduces turbulent transport to the outer layer and strongly limits the boundary layer height. The mean shear at the top of the boundary layer is enhanced when the outer layer is stratified, and this shear is strong enough to cause intermittent instabilities above the pycnocline. Turbulence-generated internal gravity waves are observed in the outer layer with a relatively narrow frequency range. An explanation for frequency content of these waves is proposed, starting with an observed broad-banded turbulent spectrum and invoking linear viscous decay to explain the preferential damping of low and high frequency waves. During the course of this work, an open-source computational fluid dynamics code has been developed with a number of advanced features including scalar advection, subgrid-scale models for large-eddy simulation, and distributed memory

  18. Grain boundary migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, O.

    1975-01-01

    Well-established aspects of grain-boundary migration are first briefly reviewed (influences of driving force, temperature, orientation and foreign atoms). Recent developments of the experimental methods and results are then examined, by considering the various driving of resistive forces acting on grain boundaries. Finally, the evolution in the theoretical models of grain-boundary motion is described, on the one hand for ideally pure metals and, on the other hand, in the presence of solute impurity atoms [fr

  19. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The development of robust stable boundary layer parameterizations for use in NWP and climate models is hampered by the multiplicity of processes and their unknown interactions. As a result, these models suffer ...

  20. Spatial modelling and ecosystem accounting for land use planning: addressing deforestation and oil palm expansion in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumarga, E.

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem accounting is a new area of environmental economic accounting that aims to measure ecosystem services in a way that is in line with national accounts. The key characteristics of ecosystem accounting include the extension of the valuation boundary of the System of National Accounts,

  1. Changes in optical characteristics of surface microlayers hint to photochemically and microbially mediated DOM turnover in the upwelling region off the coast of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgani, Luisa; Engel, Anja

    2016-04-01

    The coastal upwelling system off the coast of Peru is characterized by high biological activity and a pronounced subsurface oxygen minimum zone, as well as associated emissions of atmospheric trace gases such as N2O, CH4 and CO2. From 3 to 23 December 2012, R/V Meteor (M91) cruise took place in the Peruvian upwelling system between 4.59 and 15.4° S, and 82.0 to 77.5° W. During M91 we investigated the composition of the sea-surface microlayer (SML), the oceanic uppermost boundary directly subject to high solar radiation, often enriched in specific organic compounds of biological origin like chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and marine gels. In the SML, the continuous photochemical and microbial recycling of organic matter may strongly influence gas exchange between marine systems and the atmosphere. We analyzed SML and underlying water (ULW) samples at 38 stations focusing on CDOM spectral characteristics as indicator of photochemical and microbial alteration processes. CDOM composition was characterized by spectral slope (S) values and excitation-emission matrix fluorescence (EEMs), which allow us to track changes in molecular weight (MW) of DOM, and to determine potential DOM sources and sinks. Spectral slope S varied between 0.012 to 0.043 nm-1 and was quite similar between SML and ULW, with no significant differences between the two compartments. Higher S values were observed in the ULW of the southern stations below 15° S. By EEMs, we identified five fluorescent components (F1-5) of the CDOM pool, of which two had excitation/emission characteristics of amino-acid-like fluorophores (F1, F4) and were highly enriched in the SML, with a median ratio SML : ULW of 1.5 for both fluorophores. In the study region, values for CDOM absorption ranged from 0.07 to 1.47 m-1. CDOM was generally highly concentrated in the SML, with a median enrichment with respect to the ULW of 1.2. CDOM composition and changes in spectral slope properties suggested a local

  2. Enhanced biodiversity beyond marine reserve boundaries: the cup spillith over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Garry R; Alcala, Angel C

    2011-01-01

    Overfishing can have detrimental effects on marine biodiversity and the structure of marine ecosystems. No-take marine reserves (NTMRs) are much advocated as a means of protecting biodiversity and ecosystem structure from overharvest. In contrast to terrestrial protected areas, NTMRs are not only expected to conserve or recover biodiversity and ecosystems within their boundaries, but also to enhance biodiversity beyond their boundaries by exporting species richness and more complex biological communities. Here we show that species richness of large predatory reef fish increased fourfold and 11-fold inside two Philippine no-take marine reserves over 14 and 25 years, respectively. Outside one reserve (Apo) the species richness also increased. This increase beyond the Apo reserve boundary was 78% higher closer to the boundary (200-250 m) than farther from it (250-500 m). The increase in richness beyond the boundary could not be explained by improvements over time in habitat or prey availability. Furthermore, community composition of predatory fish outside but close to (200-250 m) the Apo reserve became very similar to that inside the reserve over time, almost converging with it in multivariate space after 26 years of reserve protection. This is consistent with the suggestion that, as community composition inside Apo reserve increased in complexity, this complexity spilled over the boundary into nearby fished areas. Clearly, the spillover of species richness and community complexity is a direct consequence of the spillover of abundance of multiple species. However, this spillover of species richness and community complexity demonstrates an important benefit of biodiversity and ecosystem export from reserves, and it provides hope that reserves can help to reverse the decline of marine ecosystems and biodiversity.

  3. Ecosystem-based management and the wealth of ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Seong Do; Hutniczak, Barbara; Abbott, Joshua K.; Fenichel, Eli P.

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystems store vast quantities of wealth, but difficulties measuring wealth held in ecosystems prevent its inclusion in accounting systems. Ecosystem-based management endeavors to manage ecosystems holistically. However, ecosystem-based management lacks headline indicators to evaluate performance. We unify the inclusive wealth and ecosystem-based management paradigms, allowing apples-to-apples comparisons between the wealth of the ecosystem and other forms of wealth, while providing a headl...

  4. An Ecosystem Model for the Simulation of Physical and Biological Oceanic Processes-IDAPAK User's Guide and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Charles R.; Arrigo, Kevin; Murtugudde, Ragu; Signorini, Sergio R.; Tai, King-Sheng

    1998-01-01

    This TM describes the development, testing, and application of a 4-component (phytoplankton, zooplankton, nitrate, and ammonium) ecosystem model capable of simulating oceanic biological processes. It also reports and documents an in-house software package (Interactive Data Analysis Package - IDAPAK) for interactive data analysis of geophysical fields, including those related to the forcing, verification, and analysis of the ecosystem model. Two regions were studied in the Pacific: the Warm Pool (WP) in the Equatorial Pacific (165 deg. E at the equator) and at Ocean Weather Station P (OWS P) in the Northeast Pacific (50 deg. N, 145 deg. W). The WP results clearly indicate that the upwelling at 100 meters correlates well with surface blooms. The upwelling events in late 1987 and 1990 produced dramatic increases in the surface layer values of all 4 ecosystem components, whereas the spring-summer deep mixing events, do not seem to incur a significant response in any of the ecosystem quantities. The OWS P results show that the monthly profiles of temperature, the annual cycles of solar irradiance, and 0- to 50-m integrated nitrate accurately reproduce observed values. Annual primary production is 190 gC/m(exp 2)/yr, which is consistent with recent observations but is much greater than earlier estimates.

  5. Dynamo Tests for Stratification Below the Core-Mantle Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, P.; Landeau, M.

    2017-12-01

    Evidence from seismology, mineral physics, and core dynamics points to a layer with an overall stable stratification in the Earth's outer core, possibly thermal in origin, extending below the core-mantle boundary (CMB) for several hundred kilometers. In contrast, energetic deep mantle convection with elevated heat flux implies locally unstable thermal stratification below the CMB in places, consistent with interpretations of non-dipole geomagnetic field behavior that favor upwelling flows below the CMB. Here, we model the structure of convection and magnetic fields in the core using numerical dynamos with laterally heterogeneous boundary heat flux in order to rationalize this conflicting evidence. Strongly heterogeneous boundary heat flux generates localized convection beneath the CMB that coexists with an overall stable stratification there. Partially stratified dynamos have distinctive time average magnetic field structures. Without stratification or with stratification confined to a thin layer, the octupole component is small and the CMB magnetic field structure includes polar intensity minima. With more extensive stratification, the octupole component is large and the magnetic field structure includes intense patches or high intensity lobes in the polar regions. Comparisons with the time-averaged geomagnetic field are generally favorable for partial stratification in a thin layer but unfavorable for stratification in a thick layer beneath the CMB.

  6. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  7. Development of boundary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, R.

    1980-01-01

    Boundary layers develop along the blade surfaces on both the pressure and the suction side in a non-stationary flow field. This is due to the fact that there is a strongly fluctuating flow on the downstream blade row, especially as a result of the wakes of the upstream blade row. The author investigates the formation of boundary layers under non-stationary flow conditions and tries to establish a model describing the non-stationary boundary layer. For this purpose, plate boundary layers are measured, at constant flow rates but different interferent frequency and variable pressure gradients. By introducing the sample technique, measurements of the non-stationary boundary layer become possible, and the flow rate fluctuation can be divided in its components, i.e. stochastic turbulence and periodical fluctuation. (GL) [de

  8. BUSINESS ECOSYSTEMS VS BUSINESS DIGITAL ECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela Lazarica

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available E-business is often described as the small organisations’ gateway to global business and markets. The adoption of Internet-based technologies for e-business is a continuous process, with sequential steps of evolution. The latter step in the adoption of Internet-based technologies for business, where the business services and the software components are supported by a pervasive software environment, which shows an evolutionary and self-organising behaviour are named digital business ecosystems. The digital business ecosystems are characterized by intelligent software components and services, knowledge transfer, interactive training frameworks and integration of business processes and e-government models.

  9. The marine ecosystem services approach in a fisheries management perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Anker; Lassen, Hans; Frost, Hans Staby

    that the concept of marine ecosystem services is not helpful for the two first mentioned types of analysis and that a cost-benefit analysis that is implied by the marine ecosystem services concept is inadequate for the third. We argue that the discussion needs to be divided into two: (1) finding the boundaries......This paper reviews the concepts of marine ecosystem services and their economic valuation in a European fisheries management perspective. We find that the concept is at best cumbersome for advising on how best to regulate fisheries even in an ecosystem context. We propose that operational fisheries...... management must consider three different types of analysis, the yield of and the effect of fishing on the commercial species, the effects of fishing on habitats and non-commercial species and finally an overall analysis of the combined impact of all human activities on the marine ecosystem. We find...

  10. Interregional flows of ecosystem services: Concepts, typology and four cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, Matthias; Koellner, Thomas; Alkemade, Rob; Arnhold, Sebastian; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Frank, Karin; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Kastner, Thomas; Kissinger, Meidad; Liu, Jianguo; López-Hoffman, Laura; Maes, Joachim; Marques, Alexandra; Martín-López, Berta; Meyer, Carsten; Schulp, Catharina J. E.; Thober, Jule; Wolff, Sarah; Bonn, Aletta

    2018-01-01

    Conserving and managing global natural capital requires an understanding of the complexity of flows of ecosystem services across geographic boundaries. Failing to understand and to incorporate these flows into national and international ecosystem assessments leads to incomplete and potentially skewed conclusions, impairing society’s ability to identify sustainable management and policy choices. In this paper, we synthesise existing knowledge and develop a conceptual framework for analysing interregional ecosystem service flows. We synthesise the types of such flows, the characteristics of sending and receiving socio-ecological systems, and the impacts of ecosystem service flows on interregional sustainability. Using four cases (trade of certified coffee, migration of northern pintails, flood protection in the Danube watershed, and information on giant pandas), we test the conceptual framework and show how an enhanced understanding of interregional telecouplings in socio-ecological systems can inform ecosystem service-based decision making and governance with respect to sustainability goals.

  11. A new method to infer vegetation boundary movement from 'snapshot' data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eppinga, M.B.; Pucko, C.A.; Baudena, M.; Beckage, B.; Molofsky, J.

    2012-01-01

    Global change may induce shifts in plant community distributions at multiple spatial scales. At the ecosystem scale, such shifts may result in movement of ecotones or vegetation boundaries. Most indicators for ecosystem change require timeseries data, but here a new method is proposed enabling

  12. Identification and ranking of environmental threats with ecosystem vulnerability distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijp, Michiel C; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Schipper, Aafke M; Mulder, Christian; Posthuma, Leo

    2017-08-24

    Responses of ecosystems to human-induced stress vary in space and time, because both stressors and ecosystem vulnerabilities vary in space and time. Presently, ecosystem impact assessments mainly take into account variation in stressors, without considering variation in ecosystem vulnerability. We developed a method to address ecosystem vulnerability variation by quantifying ecosystem vulnerability distributions (EVDs) based on monitoring data of local species compositions and environmental conditions. The method incorporates spatial variation of both abiotic and biotic variables to quantify variation in responses among species and ecosystems. We show that EVDs can be derived based on a selection of locations, existing monitoring data and a selected impact boundary, and can be used in stressor identification and ranking for a region. A case study on Ohio's freshwater ecosystems, with freshwater fish as target species group, showed that physical habitat impairment and nutrient loads ranked highest as current stressors, with species losses higher than 5% for at least 6% of the locations. EVDs complement existing approaches of stressor assessment and management, which typically account only for variability in stressors, by accounting for variation in the vulnerability of the responding ecosystems.

  13. 'One physical system': Tansley's ecosystem as Earth's critical zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Daniel deB; Billings, Sharon A

    2015-05-01

    Integrative concepts of the biosphere, ecosystem, biogeocenosis and, recently, Earth's critical zone embrace scientific disciplines that link matter, energy and organisms in a systems-level understanding of our remarkable planet. Here, we assert the congruence of Tansley's (1935) venerable ecosystem concept of 'one physical system' with Earth science's critical zone. Ecosystems and critical zones are congruent across spatial-temporal scales from vegetation-clad weathering profiles and hillslopes, small catchments, landscapes, river basins, continents, to Earth's whole terrestrial surface. What may be less obvious is congruence in the vertical dimension. We use ecosystem metabolism to argue that full accounting of photosynthetically fixed carbon includes respiratory CO₂ and carbonic acid that propagate to the base of the critical zone itself. Although a small fraction of respiration, the downward diffusion of CO₂ helps determine rates of soil formation and, ultimately, ecosystem evolution and resilience. Because life in the upper portions of terrestrial ecosystems significantly affects biogeochemistry throughout weathering profiles, the lower boundaries of most terrestrial ecosystems have been demarcated at depths too shallow to permit a complete understanding of ecosystem structure and function. Opportunities abound to explore connections between upper and lower components of critical-zone ecosystems, between soils and streams in watersheds, and between plant-derived CO₂ and deep microbial communities and mineral weathering. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Belowground ecosystems [chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carole Coe Klopatek

    1995-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service defined ecosystem management as "an ecological approach to achieve multiple-use management of national forests and grasslands by blending the needs of people and environmental values in such a way that national forests and grasslands represent diverse, healthy, productive, and sustainable ecosystems" (June 4, 1992, letter from Chief FS...

  15. Payments for Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Kai M.A; Anderson, Emily K.; Chapman, Mollie

    2017-01-01

    Payments for ecosystem services (PES) programs are one prominent strategy to address economic externalities of resource extraction and commodity production, improving both social and ecological outcomes. But do PES and related incentive programs achieve that lofty goal? Along with considerable en...... sustainable relationships with nature, conserving and restoring ecosystems and their benefits for people now and in the future....

  16. Ecosystem Management and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Peine; B.L. Jacobs; K.E. Franzreb; M.R. Stevens

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystem management (EM) promotes an integrated approach to environmental issues; its central goal is the protection of entire ecosystems. By focusing on an interdisciplinary solution to environmental challenges, EM can help to synthesize societal, economic scientific, and governmental goals. Furthermore, as EM becomes part of the foundation of environmental...

  17. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocock, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the distribution and movement of radionuclides in semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems in north-west England with particular emphasis on inputs to, and outputs from ecosystems; on plant and soil aspects; and on radionuclides in fallout and in discharges by the nuclear industry. (author)

  18. Coastal ecosystems, productivity and ecosystem protection: Coastal ecosystem management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngoile, M.A.K.; Horrill, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The coastal zone is a complex ecosystem under the influence of physical, chemical and biological processes. Under natural conditions these processes interact and maintain an equilibrium in the coastal ecosystem. Man makes a variety of important uses of coastal resources, ranging from harvesting of living resources, extraction of nonliving resources, and recreation, to the disposal of wastes. Man's extensive use of the oceans introduces factors which bring about an imbalance in the natural processes, and may result in harmful and hazardous effects to life hindering further use. Man's pressure on the resources of the coastal zone is already manifest and will increase manifold. This calls for an immediate solution to the protection and sustainable use of coastal resources. The current sectorized approach to the management of human activities will not solve the problem because the different resources of the coastal zone interact in such a manner that disturbances in one cause imbalance in the others. This is further complicated by the sectorized approach to research and limited communication between policy makers, managers, and scientists. This paper discusses strategies for managing coastal-resources use through an integrated approach. The coastal zone is presented as a unified ecosystem in equilibrium and shows that man's extensive use of the coastal resources destabilizes this equilibrium. Examples from the East Africa Region are presented. 15 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  19. Mapping cultural ecosystem services:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paracchini, Maria Luisa; Zulian, Grazia; Kopperoinen, Leena

    2014-01-01

    Research on ecosystem services mapping and valuing has increased significantly in recent years. However, compared to provisioning and regulating services, cultural ecosystem services have not yet been fully integrated into operational frameworks. One reason for this is that transdisciplinarity...... surveys are a main source of information. Among cultural ecosystem services, assessment of outdoor recreation can be based on a large pool of literature developed mostly in social and medical science, and landscape and ecology studies. This paper presents a methodology to include recreation...... in the conceptual framework for EU wide ecosystem assessments (Maes et al., 2013), which couples existing approaches for recreation management at country level with behavioural data derived from surveys, and population distribution data. The proposed framework is based on three components: the ecosystem function...

  20. Impacts of Evolutionary History on Endangerment in a Changing Climate: Miocene upwelling, Holocene Pluvial Cycles and Endemics at the Mouth of the Colorado River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, D. K.

    2006-12-01

    The environmental conditions communities experienced during their diversification and recent geologic history informs us as to which environmental changes are most likely to impact species in those communities. Three examples follow: 1) Recent compilation of molecular and paleontological data document that higher aspects of the trophic chain in the Pacific Northwest, including the salmon genus Onchoyrhynchus, alcid birds (Auks & Puffins) and crabs of the genus Cancer speciated dramatically in response to enhanced upwelling of the mid Miocene (Jacobs et al. 2004). Consistent with this evolutionary origin, population dynamics and endangerment of these taxa are associated with the changing productivity regime of the Pacific as well as more direct human impacts. 2) Pluvials in the Eurasian and African continent respond to the precession cycle, as a result wetland habitats were much more expansive in the early and middle Holocene. Late Holocene wetland habitat contraction combines with increasing anthropogenic manipulation of these cyclically limited hydrologic resources to yield a suite of endangered taxa across these continents as is statistically documented by analysis of Redbook data. 3) Our recent work documents the evolution of endemic fish and Molluscan taxa in association with the Colorado River Delta. These endemic taxa are then vulnerable to the to impacts on the Colorado Delta where anthropogenic use of water resources combine with the threat of climate provide combined threats to this ecosystem. The Environmental/Evolutionary history of lineages clearly has strong implications for how anthropogenic changes impacts and endangers those lineages. Jacobs D.K. et al. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 2004. 32:601 52

  1. Administrative Area Boundaries 2 (State Boundaries), Region 9, 2010, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Administrative Area Boundaries 2 (State Boundaries) for Region 9. There are five Administrative Area Boundaries layers (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). These layers contain...

  2. Administrative Area Boundaries 4 (City Boundaries), Region 9, 2010, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Administrative Area Boundaries 4 (City Boundaries) for Region 9. There are five Administrative Area Boundaries layers (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). These layers contain...

  3. Ocean variability over the Agulhas Bank and its dynamical connection with the southern Benguela upwelling system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Blanke, B

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available .8 4.9 South 1.97 �36.86 0.23 �228.5 212.4 35.08 0.20 14.7 4.6 West 0.79 �36.47 0.61 �129.3 149.9 35.10 0.17 15.3 3.7 North 0.35 �36.20 0.73 �78.6 82.6 35.13 0.11 15.9 2.7 Benguela 0.38 �35.84 0.75 �75.9 71.2 35.13 0.11 14.8 2.4 aSD, standard... the shelf edge but excursions into the open ocean do occur, either to the southwest of the Agulhas Bank or west of the Benguela upwelling system. Cross-shore movements take place as eddying pathways, because of capture by coherent structures...

  4. Modelling an alkenone-like proxy record in the NW African upwelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Giraud

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A regional biogeochemical model is applied to the NW African coastal upwelling between 19° N and 27° N to investigate how a water temperature proxy, alkenones, are produced at the sea surface and recorded in the slope sediments. The biogeochemical model has two phytoplankton groups: an alkenone producer group, considered to be coccolithophores, and a group comprising other phytoplankton. The Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS is used to simulate the ocean circulation and takes advantage of the Adaptive Grid Refinement in Fortran (AGRIF package to set up an embedded griding system. In the simulations the alkenone temperature records in the sediments are between 1.1 and 2.3°C colder than the annual mean SSTs. Despite the seasonality of the coccolithophore production, this temperature difference is not mainly due to a seasonal bias, nor to the lateral advection of phytoplankton and phytodetritus seaward from the cold near-shore waters, but to the production depth of the coccolithophores. If coretop alkenone temperatures are effectively recording the annual mean SSTs, the amount of alkenone produced must vary among the coccolithophores in the water column and depend on physiological factors (e.g. growth rate, nutrient stress.

  5. Mantle upwelling beneath Madagascar: evidence from receiver function analysis and shear wave splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Jonathan D.; Eakin, Caroline M.

    2017-07-01

    Crustal receiver functions have been calculated from 128 events for two three-component broadband seismomenters located on the south coast (FOMA) and in the central High Plateaux (ABPO) of Madagascar. For each station, crustal thickness and V p / V s ratio were estimated from H- κ plots. Self-consistent receiver functions from a smaller back-azimuthal range were then selected, stacked and inverted to determine shear wave velocity structure as a function of depth. These results were corroborated by guided forward modeling and by Monte Carlo error analysis. The crust is found to be thinner (39 ± 0.7 km) beneath the highland center of Madagascar compared to the coast (44 ± 1.6 km), which is the opposite of what would be expected for crustal isostasy, suggesting that present-day long wavelength topography is maintained, at least in part, dynamically. This inference of dynamic support is corroborated by shear wave splitting analyses at the same stations, which produce an overwhelming majority of null results (>96 %), as expected for vertical mantle flow or asthenospheric upwelling beneath the island. These findings suggest a sub-plate origin for dynamic support.

  6. Relationship between nitrate reductase and nitrate uptake in phytoplankton in the Peru upwelling region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasco, D.; MacIsaac, J.J.; Packard, T.T.; Dugdale, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    Nitrate reductase (NR) activity and 15 NO 3 - uptake in phytoplankton were compared under different environmental conditions on two cruises in the upwelling region off Peru. The NR activity and NO 3 - uptake rates responded differently to light and nutrients and the differences led to variations in the uptake:reductase ratio. Analysis of these variations suggests that the re-equilibration time of the two processes in response to environmental perturbation is an important source of variability. The nitrate uptake system responds faster than the nitrate reductase system. Considering these differences in response time, the basic differences in the two processes, and the differences in their measurement, the authors conclude that the NR activity measures the current nitrate-reducing potential, which relfects NO 3 - assimilation before the sampling time, while 15 NO 3 - uptake measures NO 3 - assimilation in the 6-h period following sampling. Thus, considering the sampling time as a point of reference, the former is a measure of the past and the latter is a measure of the future

  7. Bleaching Susceptibility and Recovery of Colombian Caribbean Corals in Response to Water Current Exposure and Seasonal Upwelling

    OpenAIRE

    Bayraktarov, Elisa; Pizarro, Valeria; Eidens, Corvin; Wilke, Thomas; Wild, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Coral bleaching events are globally occurring more frequently and with higher intensity, mainly caused by increases in seawater temperature. In Tayrona National Natural Park (TNNP) in the Colombian Caribbean, local coral communities are subjected to seasonal wind-triggered upwelling events coinciding with stronger water currents depending on location. This natural phenomenon offers the unique opportunity to study potential water current-induced mitigation mechanisms of coral bleaching in an u...

  8. Distribution of Euphausia mucronata at the upwelling area of Peninsula Mejillones, northern Chile: The influence of the oxygen minimum layer

    OpenAIRE

    Escribano, R.; Marin, V.; Irribarren, C.

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of zooplankton samples from 53 stations obtained around Peninsula Mejillones (Northern Chile), from two strata: 0-50 m and 150-200 m, during active upwelling in December 1996, allowed the study of horizontal and vertical distribution of Euphausia mucronata, endemic Krill of the Humboldt Current. Information from CTDO and a fluorometer was used to analyze the influence of oceanographic variables on distribution of E. mucronata. E. mucronata was found distributed all around the Peninsu...

  9. Atypical delta sup(13) C signature in Globigerina bulloides at the ODP site 723A (Arabian Sea): Implications of environmental changes caused by upwelling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.; Niitsuma, N.

    Production of Globigerina bulloides generally increases during upwelling in the tropical ocean and, in particular, during southwest monsoon season in the Arabian Sea. We studied the delta sup(13) C signatures of Globigerina bulloides from Ocean...

  10. Exploring the planetary boundary for chemical pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Miriam L; de Wit, Cynthia A; Molander, Sverker; Scheringer, Martin; Backhaus, Thomas; Lohmann, Rainer; Arvidsson, Rickard; Bergman, Åke; Hauschild, Michael; Holoubek, Ivan; Persson, Linn; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Vighi, Marco; Zetzsch, Cornelius

    2015-05-01

    Rockström et al. (2009a, 2009b) have warned that humanity must reduce anthropogenic impacts defined by nine planetary boundaries if "unacceptable global change" is to be avoided. Chemical pollution was identified as one of those boundaries for which continued impacts could erode the resilience of ecosystems and humanity. The central concept of the planetary boundary (or boundaries) for chemical pollution (PBCP or PBCPs) is that the Earth has a finite assimilative capacity for chemical pollution, which includes persistent, as well as readily degradable chemicals released at local to regional scales, which in aggregate threaten ecosystem and human viability. The PBCP allows humanity to explicitly address the increasingly global aspects of chemical pollution throughout a chemical's life cycle and the need for a global response of internationally coordinated control measures. We submit that sufficient evidence shows stresses on ecosystem and human health at local to global scales, suggesting that conditions are transgressing the safe operating space delimited by a PBCP. As such, current local to global pollution control measures are insufficient. However, while the PBCP is an important conceptual step forward, at this point single or multiple PBCPs are challenging to operationalize due to the extremely large number of commercial chemicals or mixtures of chemicals that cause myriad adverse effects to innumerable species and ecosystems, and the complex linkages between emissions, environmental concentrations, exposures and adverse effects. As well, the normative nature of a PBCP presents challenges of negotiating pollution limits amongst societal groups with differing viewpoints. Thus, a combination of approaches is recommended as follows: develop indicators of chemical pollution, for both control and response variables, that will aid in quantifying a PBCP(s) and gauging progress towards reducing chemical pollution; develop new technologies and technical and social

  11. BOREAS AFM-6 Boundary Layer Height Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 915-MHz wind/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) profiler system in the Southern Study Area (SSA) near the Old Jack Pine (OJP) site. This data set provides boundary layer height information over the site. The data were collected from 21 May 1994 to 20 Sep 1994 and are stored in tabular ASCII files. The boundary layer height data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  12. Ecosystem approach in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabiullin, Iskander

    2017-04-01

    Environmental education is a base for sustainable development. Therefore, in our school we pay great attention to environmental education. Environmental education in our school is based on ecosystem approach. What is an ecosystem approach? Ecosystem is a fundamental concept of ecology. Living organisms and their non-living environments interact with each other as a system, and the biosphere planet functions as a global ecosystem. Therefore, it is necessary for children to understand relationships in ecosystems, and we have to develop systems thinking in our students. Ecosystem approach and systems thinking should help us to solve global environmental problems. How do we implement the ecosystem approach? Students must understand that our biosphere functions as a single ecosystem and even small changes can lead to environmental disasters. Even the disappearance of one plant or animal species can lead to irreversible consequences. So in the classroom we learn the importance of each living organism for the nature. We pay special attention to endangered species, which are listed in the Red Data List. Kids are doing projects about these organisms, make videos, print brochures and newspapers. Fieldwork also plays an important role for ecosystem approach. Every summer, we go out for expeditions to study species of plants and animals listed in the Red Data List of Tatarstan. In class, students often write essays on behalf of any endangered species of plants or animals, this also helps them to understand the importance of each living organism in nature. Each spring we organise a festival of environmental projects among students. Groups of 4-5 students work on a solution of environmental problems, such as water, air or soil pollution, waste recycling, the loss of biodiversity, etc. Participants shoot a clip about their project, print brochures. Furthermore, some of the students participate in national and international scientific Olympiads with their projects. In addition to

  13. Mantle Upwellings Below the Ibero-Maghrebian Region with a Common Deep Source from P Travel-time Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civiero, C.; Custodio, S.; Silveira, G. M.; Rawlinson, N.; Arroucau, P.

    2017-12-01

    The processes responsible for the geodynamical evolution of the Ibero-Maghrebian domain are still enigmatic. Several geophysical studies have improved our understanding of the region, but no single model has been accepted yet. This study takes advantage of the dense station networks deployed from France in the north to Canary Islands and Morocco in the south to provide a new high-resolution P-wave velocity model of the structure of the upper-mantle and top of the lower mantle. These images show subvertical small-scale upwellings below Atlas Range, Canary Islands and Central Iberia that seem to cross the transition zone. The results, together with geochemical evidence and a comparison with previous global tomographic models, reveal the ponding or flow of deep-plume material beneath the transition zone, which seems to feed upper-mantle "secondary" pulses. In the upper mantle the plumes, in conjunction with the subduction-related upwellings, allow the hot mantle to rise in the surrounding zones. During its rising, the mantle interacts with horizontal SW slab-driven flow which skirts the Alboran slab and connects with the mantle upwelling below Massif Central through the Valencia Trough rift.

  14. Coastal upwelling linked to toxic Pseudo-nitzschia australis blooms in Los Angeles coastal waters, 2005-2007

    KAUST Repository

    Schnetzer, Astrid; Jones, Burton; Schaffner, Rebecca A.; Cetinić, Ivona; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Miller, Peter E.; Seubert, Erica L.; Caron, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms dominated by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia spp. have become a perennial but variable event within surface waters near the greater Los Angeles area. Toxic blooms during spring seasons from 2005 to 2007 varied strongly in their overall toxicity and duration. Differences in bloom dynamics were linked to differences in storm-induced river discharge following episodic rain events and coastal upwelling, both major coastal processes that led to the injection of nutrients into coastal surface waters. Heavy river runoff during early 2005, a record-rainfall year, favored a phytoplankton community mainly comprised of algal taxa other than Pseudo-nitzschia. The spring bloom during 2005 was associated with low domoic acid surface concentrations and minor contributions of (mainly) P. delicatissima to the diatom assemblage. In contrast, highly toxic P. australis-dominated blooms during spring seasons of 2006 and 2007 were linked to strong upwelling events. River discharge quotas in 2006 and 2007, in contrast to 2005, fell well below annual averages for the region. Surface toxin levels were linked to colder, more saline (i.e. upwelled) water over the 3-year study, but no such consistent relationship between domoic acid levels and other physiochemical parameters, such as macronutrient concentrations or nutrient ratios, was observed. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  15. Distribution of Euphausia mucronata at the upwelling area of Peninsula Mejillones, northern Chile: The influence of the oxygen minimum layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Escribano

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of zooplankton samples from 53 stations obtained around Peninsula Mejillones (Northern Chile, from two strata: 0-50 m and 150-200 m, during active upwelling in December 1996, allowed the study of horizontal and vertical distribution of Euphausia mucronata, endemic Krill of the Humboldt Current. Information from CTDO and a fluorometer was used to analyze the influence of oceanographic variables on distribution of E. mucronata. E. mucronata was found distributed all around the Peninsula, although with greater aggregations in the southern area, especially in the deeper layer. Stepwise multiple regression showed that none of the variables (temperature, salinity and chlorophyll was significantly correlated to numerical abundance of the species. However there was a significant effect of depth of the oxygen minimum layer (OML, defined as 0.5 ml O2 l-1, on integrated abundance of the species, such that individuals are more likely to be found in areas where the OML is deeper. A vertical distribution parameter suggested a diurnal migrational pattern. This parameter was also correlated with distance to shoreline. The OML rises abrutply in nearshore areas because of active upwelling, but there are still nearshore zones where the OML remains deep. Therefore E. mucronata appears to aggregate around the upwelling lenses and filaments, where phytoplankton is more concentrated, but at the same time avoiding places where the OML is too shallow.

  16. Coastal upwelling linked to toxic Pseudo-nitzschia australis blooms in Los Angeles coastal waters, 2005-2007

    KAUST Repository

    Schnetzer, Astrid

    2013-06-10

    Harmful algal blooms dominated by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia spp. have become a perennial but variable event within surface waters near the greater Los Angeles area. Toxic blooms during spring seasons from 2005 to 2007 varied strongly in their overall toxicity and duration. Differences in bloom dynamics were linked to differences in storm-induced river discharge following episodic rain events and coastal upwelling, both major coastal processes that led to the injection of nutrients into coastal surface waters. Heavy river runoff during early 2005, a record-rainfall year, favored a phytoplankton community mainly comprised of algal taxa other than Pseudo-nitzschia. The spring bloom during 2005 was associated with low domoic acid surface concentrations and minor contributions of (mainly) P. delicatissima to the diatom assemblage. In contrast, highly toxic P. australis-dominated blooms during spring seasons of 2006 and 2007 were linked to strong upwelling events. River discharge quotas in 2006 and 2007, in contrast to 2005, fell well below annual averages for the region. Surface toxin levels were linked to colder, more saline (i.e. upwelled) water over the 3-year study, but no such consistent relationship between domoic acid levels and other physiochemical parameters, such as macronutrient concentrations or nutrient ratios, was observed. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  17. Tax Unit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Statewide GIS Tax Unit boundary file was created through a collaborative partnership between the State of Kansas Department of Revenue Property Valuation...

  18. 500 Cities: City Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This city boundary shapefile was extracted from Esri Data and Maps for ArcGIS 2014 - U.S. Populated Place Areas. This shapefile can be joined to 500 Cities...

  19. National Forest Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme shows the USFS national forest boundaries in the state. This data was acquired from the GIS coordinators at both the Chippewa National Forest and the...

  20. Allegheny County Parcel Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains parcel boundaries attributed with county block and lot number. Use the Property Information Extractor for more control downloading a filtered...

  1. Boundary representation modelling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Provides the most complete presentation of boundary representation solid modelling yet publishedOffers basic reference information for software developers, application developers and users Includes a historical perspective as well as giving a background for modern research.

  2. NM School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The dataset represents the boundaries of all public school districts in the state of New Mexico. The source for the data layer is the New Mexico Public Education...

  3. Site Area Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of site boundaries from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  4. HUC 8 Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital hydrologic unit boundary that is at the 4-digit, 6-digit, 8-digit, and 11-digit level. The data set was developed by delineating the...

  5. State Park Statutory Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Legislative statutory boundaries for sixty six state parks, six state recreation areas, and eight state waysides. These data are derived principally from DNR's...

  6. On the ecosystemic network of saliva in healthy young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaura, Egija; Brandt, Bernd W.; Prodan, Andrei; Teixeira De Mattos, Maarten Joost; Imangaliyev, Sultan; Kool, Jolanda; Buijs, Mark J.; Jagers, Ferry L.P.W.; Hennequin-Hoenderdos, Nienke L.; Slot, Dagmar E.; Fernandez Gutierrez, Maria; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2017-01-01

    A dysbiotic state is believed to be a key factor in the onset of oral disease. Although oral diseases have been studied for decades, our understanding of oral health, the boundaries of a healthy oral ecosystem and ecological shift toward dysbiosis is still limited. Here, we present the

  7. Kinetics of N-Utilization By Natural Phytoplankton Assemblages During Upwelling Events At The NW Iberian Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brion, N.; Elskens, M.; Dehairs, F.; Baeyens, W.

    2003-04-01

    The concentration-dependent uptakes of nitrate, ammonium and the effect of ammo-nium on the f-ratio were surveyed in surface waters of the NW Iberian shelf during June 1997, July 1998 and September 1999. Because relationships between rates and substrate concentrations were quite variable, ranging from linear to convex shaped curves, they were fitted to rational functions. Stepwize regression analysis yielded subsequent model equations with reasonable statistical properties which allowed describing all but all a few cases. Differentiating these equations with respect to the concentration gave the slope of the tangent to the curve, i.e., the variation in rate expected for a given perturbation of the ambient substrate concentration. The initial slope value was then used as an index to gauge the "affinity" of the plankton community for the nitrogen substrate utilization. In June 1997, the situation at the Iberian shelf showed no upwelling except near Cape Finistère. Overall, the phytoplankton community displayed a high "affinity" for both nitrate and ammonium and low f-ratio values, which is indicative of a re-generated production regime. High ammonium regeneration rates supported furthermore these observations. It was also demonstrated that the new production rates is only marginally sensitive to changes of the ambient nitrate and/or ammonium concentrations. This indicates that the production regime is rather stable throughout. Only at Cape Finistère, nitrate concentrations were high reflecting the onset of an upwelling event. In this zone, the phytoplankton community, taking advantage of its high affinity for nitrate enhanced both total N-uptake rate and f-ratio. In July 1998, the situation evolved towards an extension to the south of the upwelling event starting at Cape Finistère. In this southern zone of the upwelling the phytoplankton community displayed generally a lower affinity for nitrate (but not for ammonium) than in 1997. In spite of this lower affinity

  8. Oceanographic features of the upwelling in front of Gaira's intent Magdalena Department, minor dry season of 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arevalo Martinez, Damian Leonardo; Franco Herrera, Andres

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine the influence of the ocean and atmospheric coupling dynamics on upwelling events, caused by Ekman's transport and by continental winds, as well as the possible fertilization effect produced by the increasing of the concentration of inorganic nutrients in coastal waters of Gaira's inlet, Magdalena department, during the minor dry season of 2006, atmospheric, oceanographic, and biological variables were measured by the implementation of the Eurelian method. A total of four samplings were carried out, among which two presented atmospheric and oceanic conditions that evidence the occurrence of upwelling events 48 hours before in response to strong winds coming from northeast (trade winds) and from the continent, whereas the other two samplings presented similar characteristics to those typical of rainy seasons. During this study, wind velocity and direction presented expected values during upwelling events caused by Ekman's transport and by continental winds (≥ 4.5 m/s, 26 Celsius degrade and 120 Celsius degrade, respectively), generating enough stress levels in the sea surface layer that could move it offshore (1.2 dynes/cm 2 ). During the days following the upwelling events, anomalies in water physical and chemical characteristics were observed, presenting low temperatures (26.1 +- 1.1 Celsius degrade), high salinity (36.0 +- 0.5) and, as a consequence, high densities (δ 26.31 +- 0.50), as well as low dissolved oxygen levels (4.04 +- 0.29 mL/L) and predominant subsaturation (84.3 +- 6.1 %) Inorganic nutrient concentration showed a relatively homogeneous behavior, keeping low nitrite (0.35 +- 0.02 μM) and phosphate (0.30 +- 0.01 μM) levels during all samplings, whereas the mean ammonium concentration was relatively high (1.08 +- 0.11 μM). In contrast, nitrate levels were high during all samplings, with higher values corresponding to upwelling events (9.48 +- 0.49 μM), although variation was not statistically significative. Phytoplanktonic

  9. The Collapse of Ecosystem Engineer Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Fontanari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans are the ultimate ecosystem engineers who have profoundly transformed the world’s landscapes in order to enhance their survival. Somewhat paradoxically, however, sometimes the unforeseen effect of this ecosystem engineering is the very collapse of the population it intended to protect. Here we use a spatial version of a standard population dynamics model of ecosystem engineers to study the colonization of unexplored virgin territories by a small settlement of engineers. We find that during the expansion phase the population density reaches values much higher than those the environment can support in the equilibrium situation. When the colonization front reaches the boundary of the available space, the population density plunges sharply and attains its equilibrium value. The collapse takes place without warning and happens just after the population reaches its peak number. We conclude that overpopulation and the consequent collapse of an expanding population of ecosystem engineers is a natural consequence of the nonlinear feedback between the population and environment variables.

  10. Ecosystem quality in LCIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, John S.; Damiani, Mattia; Fantke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) results are used to assess potential environmental impacts of different products and services. As part of the UNEP-SETAC life cycle initiative flagship project that aims to harmonize indicators of potential environmental impacts, we provide a consensus...... viewpoint and recommendations for future developments in LCIA related to the ecosystem quality area of protection (AoP). Through our recommendations, we aim to encourage LCIA developments that improve the usefulness and global acceptability of LCIA results. Methods: We analyze current ecosystem quality...... metrics and provide recommendations to the LCIA research community for achieving further developments towards comparable and more ecologically relevant metrics addressing ecosystem quality. Results and discussion: We recommend that LCIA development for ecosystem quality should tend towards species...

  11. List identifies threatened ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) announced on 9 September that it will develop a new Red List of Ecosystems that will identify which ecosystems are vulnerable or endangered. The list, which is modeled on the group's Red List of Threatened Species™, could help to guide conservation activities and influence policy processes such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, according to the group. “We will assess the status of marine, terrestrial, freshwater, and subterranean ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels,” stated Jon Paul Rodriguez, leader of IUCN's Ecosystems Red List Thematic Group. “The assessment can then form the basis for concerted implementation action so that we can manage them sustainably if their risk of collapse is low or restore them if they are threatened and then monitor their recovery.”

  12. Formation of Service Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonas, Julia M.; Sörhammar, David; Satzger, Gerhard

    – i.e. the “birth phase” (Moore, 2009) of a service ecosystem. This paper, therefore, aims to explore how the somewhat “magic” processes of service ecosystem formation that are being taken for granted actually occur. Methodology/Approach: Building on a review of core elements in the definitions...... for Harvard students) or value proposition (share messages, photos, videos, etc. with friends). Processes of configuring actors, resources, and value propositions are influenced by the structural embeddedness of the service ecosystem (e.g., regional infrastructure, existing networks of actors, or resource...... availability) as well as guided by the actors’ own and shared institutions (e.g., rules, norms,and beliefs).We contextualize each starting point with illustrative cases and analyze the service ecosystem configuration process: “Axoon/Trumpf” (initiated by resources), “JOSEPHS – the service manufactory...

  13. Revisiting software ecosystems research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    ‘Software ecosystems’ is argued to first appear as a concept more than 10 years ago and software ecosystem research started to take off in 2010. We conduct a systematic literature study, based on the most extensive literature review in the field up to date, with two primarily aims: (a) to provide...... an updated overview of the field and (b) to document evolution in the field. In total, we analyze 231 papers from 2007 until 2014 and provide an overview of the research in software ecosystems. Our analysis reveals a field that is rapidly growing both in volume and empirical focus while becoming more mature...... from evolving. We propose means for future research and the community to address them. Finally, our analysis shapes the view of the field having evolved outside the existing definitions of software ecosystems and thus propose the update of the definition of software ecosystems....

  14. Ecosystem Analysis Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research programs: analysis and modeling of ecosystems; EDFB/IBP data center; biome analysis studies; land/water interaction studies; and computer programs for development of models

  15. Stakeholder Values and Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Sveinsdottir, Thordis; Wessels, Bridgette; Smallwood, Rod; Linde, Peter; Kalla, Vasso; Tsoukala, Victoria; Sondervan, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    This report is the deliverable for Work Package 1 (WP1), Stakeholder Values and Ecosystems, of the EU FP7 funded project RECODE (Grant Agreement No: 321463), which focuses on developing Policy Recommendations for Open Access to Research Data in Europe. WP1 focuses on understanding stakeholder values and ecosystems in Open Access, dissemination and preservation in the area of scientific and scholarly data (thus not government data). The objectives of this WP are as follows: • Identify and map ...

  16. Terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davis-Reddy, Claire

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecoregions Terrestrial Biomes Protected Areas Climate Risk and Vulnerability: A Handbook for Southern Africa | 75 7.2. Non-climatic drivers of ecosystem change 7.2.1. Land-use change, habitat loss and fragmentation Land-use change and landscape... concentrations of endemic plant and animal species, but these mainly occur in areas that are most threatened by human activity. Diverse terrestrial ecosystems in the region include tropical and sub-tropical forests, deserts, savannas, grasslands, mangroves...

  17. Privacy driven internet ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Trinh, Tuan Anh; Gyarmati, Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    The dominant business model of today's Internet is built upon advertisements; users can access Internet services while the providers show ads to them. Although significant efforts have been made to model and analyze the economic aspects of this ecosystem, the heart of the current status quo, namely privacy, has not received the attention of the research community yet. Accordingly, we propose an economic model of the privacy driven Internet ecosystem where privacy is handled as an asset that c...

  18. Grain boundary structure and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balluffi, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt is made to distinguish those fundamental aspects of grain boundaries which should be relevant to the problem of the time dependent fracture of high temperature structural materials. These include the basic phenomena which are thought to be associated with cavitation and cracking at grain boundaries during service and with the more general microstructural changes which occur during both processing and service. A very brief discussion of the current state of our knowledge of these fundamentals is given. Included are the following: (1) structure of ideal perfect boundaries; (2) defect structure of grain boundaries; (3) diffusion at grain boundaries; (4) grain boundaries as sources/sinks for point defects; (5) grain boundary migration; (6) dislocation phenomena at grain boundaries; (7) atomic bonding and cohesion at grain boundaries; (8) non-equilibrium properties of grain boundaries; and (9) techniques for studying grain boundaries

  19. Ps mantle transition zone imaging beneath the Colorado Rocky Mountains: Evidence for an upwelling hydrous mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhu; Dueker, Kenneth G.; Huang, Hsin-Hua

    2018-06-01

    We analyze teleseismic P-to-S conversions for high-resolution imaging of the mantle transition zone beneath the Colorado Rocky Mountains using data from a dense PASSCAL seismic broadband deployment. A total of 6,021 P-to-S converted receiver functions are constructed using a multi-channel minimum-phase deconvolution method and migrated using the common converted point technique with the 3-D teleseismic P- and S-wave tomography models of Schmandt and Humphreys (2010). The image finds that the average depths of the 410-km discontinuity (the 410) and 660-km discontinuity (the 660) at 408 ± 1.9 km and 649 ± 1.6 km respectively. The peak-to-peak topography of both discontinuities is 33 km and 27 km respectively. Additionally, prominent negative polarity phases are imaged both above and below the 410. To quantify the mean properties of the low-velocity layers about 410 km, we utilize double gradient layer models parameterization to fit the mean receiver function waveform. This waveform fitting is accomplished as a grid-search using anelastic synthetic seismograms. The best-fitting model reveals that the olivine-wadsleyite phase transformation width is 21 km, which is significantly larger than anhydrous mineral physics prediction (4-10 km) (Smyth and Frost, 2002). The findings of a wide olivine-wadsleyite phase transformation and the negative polarity phases above and below the 410, suggest that the mantle, at least in the 350-450 km depth range, is significantly hydrated. Furthermore, a conspicuous negative polarity phase below the 660 is imaged in high velocity region, we speculate the low velocity layer is due to dehydration flux melting in an area of convective downwelling. Our interpretation of these results, in tandem with the tomographic image of a Farallon slab segment at 800 km beneath the region (Schmandt and Humphreys, 2010), is that hydrous and upwelling mantle contributes to the high-standing Colorado Rocky Mountains.

  20. Airborne observations of far-infrared upwelling radiance in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Libois

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The first airborne measurements of the Far-InfraRed Radiometer (FIRR were performed in April 2015 during the panarctic NETCARE campaign. Vertical profiles of spectral upwelling radiance in the range 8–50 µm were measured in clear and cloudy conditions from the surface up to 6 km. The clear sky profiles highlight the strong dependence of radiative fluxes to the temperature inversion typical of the Arctic. Measurements acquired for total column water vapour from 1.5 to 10.5 mm also underline the sensitivity of the far-infrared greenhouse effect to specific humidity. The cloudy cases show that optically thin ice clouds increase the cooling rate of the atmosphere, making them important pieces of the Arctic energy balance. One such cloud exhibited a very complex spatial structure, characterized by large horizontal heterogeneities at the kilometre scale. This emphasizes the difficulty of obtaining representative cloud observations with airborne measurements but also points out how challenging it is to model polar clouds radiative effects. These radiance measurements were successfully compared to simulations, suggesting that state-of-the-art radiative transfer models are suited to study the cold and dry Arctic atmosphere. Although FIRR in situ performances compare well to its laboratory performances, complementary simulations show that upgrading the FIRR radiometric resolution would greatly increase its sensitivity to atmospheric and cloud properties. Improved instrument temperature stability in flight and expected technological progress should help meet this objective. The campaign overall highlights the potential for airborne far-infrared radiometry and constitutes a relevant reference for future similar studies dedicated to the Arctic and for the development of spaceborne instruments.

  1. Ecosystem characterization in Indian Ocean sector, Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Parulekar, A.H.

    is most pronounced, which makes Indian Ocean sector an upwelled area marked by high nutrients, appreciable growth rate of phytoplankton and rich organic matter in the water column. The fractionation studies revealed the importance of picoautotrophs...

  2. The Bottom Boundary Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, John H; Lentz, Steven J

    2018-01-03

    The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and (c) the remaining challenges include the interaction of waves and currents with the erodible seabed, the impact of layer-scale two- and three-dimensional instabilities, and the role of the bottom boundary layer in shelf-slope exchange.

  3. The Bottom Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, John H.; Lentz, Steven J.

    2018-01-01

    The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and (c) the remaining challenges include the interaction of waves and currents with the erodible seabed, the impact of layer-scale two- and three-dimensional instabilities, and the role of the bottom boundary layer in shelf-slope exchange.

  4. Monetary accounting of ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remme, R.P.; Edens, Bram; Schröter, Matthias; Hein, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem accounting aims to provide a better understanding of ecosystem contributions to the economy in a spatially explicit way. Ecosystem accounting monitors ecosystem services and measures their monetary value using exchange values consistent with the System of National Accounts (SNA). We

  5. Altered Ecological Flows Blur Boundaries in Urbanizing Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd R. Lookingbill

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the boundary concept to ecological processes has been recently questioned. Humans in the post-industrial era have created novel lateral transport fluxes that have not been sufficiently considered in watershed studies. We describe patterns of land-use change within the Potomac River basin and demonstrate how these changes have blurred traditional ecosystem boundaries by increasing the movement of people, materials, and energy into and within the basin. We argue that this expansion of ecological commerce requires new science, monitoring, and management strategies focused on large rivers and suggest that traditional geopolitical and economic boundaries for environmental decision making be appropriately revised. Effective mitigation of the consequences of blurred boundaries will benefit from a broad-scale, interdisciplinary framework that can track and explicitly account for ecological fluxes of water, energy, materials, and organisms across human-dominated landscapes.

  6. Dimensions of ecosystem theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, R.V.; Reichle, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    Various dimensions of ecosystem structure and behavior that seem to develop from the ubiquitous phenomena of system growth and persistence were studied. While growth and persistence attributes of ecosystems may appear to be simplistic phenomena upon which to base a comprehensive ecosystem theory, these same attributes have been fundamental to the theoretical development of other biological disciplines. These attributes were explored at a hierarchical level in a self-organizing system, and adaptive system strategies that result were analyzed. Previously developed causative relations (Reichle et al., 1975c) were examined, their theoretical implications expounded upon, and the assumptions tested with data from a variety of forest types. The conclusions are not a theory in themselves, but a state of organization of concepts contributing towards a unifying theory, along the lines promulgated by Bray (1958). The inferences drawn rely heavily upon data from forested ecosystems of the world, and have yet to be validated against data from a much more diverse range of ecosystem types. Not all of the interpretations are logically tight - there is room for other explanations, which it is hoped will provide fruitful grounds for further speculation

  7. Minnesota County Boundaries - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....

  8. Boundary-Object Trimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Jensen, Lotte Groth; Udsen, Flemming Witt

    2014-01-01

    implementation, which also coupled the work of medical secretaries more tightly to that of other staff, and led to task drift among professions. Medical secretaries have been relatively invisible to health informatics and CSCW, and we propose the term ‘boundary-object trimming’ to foreground and conceptualize...

  9. Minnesota County Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....

  10. Boundaries of the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Glasby, John S

    2013-01-01

    The boundaries of space exploration are being pushed back constantly, but the realm of the partially understood and the totally unknown is as great as ever. Among other things this book deals with astronomical instruments and their application, recent discoveries in the solar system, stellar evolution, the exploding starts, the galaxies, quasars, pulsars, the possibilities of extraterrestrial life and relativity.

  11. Consumer-driven nutrient dynamics in freshwater ecosystems: from individuals to ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Carla L; Capps, Krista A; Rugenski, Amanda T; Vanni, Michael J

    2017-11-01

    The role of animals in modulating nutrient cycling [hereafter, consumer-driven nutrient dynamics (CND)] has been accepted as an important influence on both community structure and ecosystem function in aquatic systems. Yet there is great variability in the influence of CND across species and ecosystems, and the causes of this variation are not well understood. Here, we review and synthesize the mechanisms behind CND in fresh waters. We reviewed 131 articles on CND published between 1973 and 1 June 2015. The rate of new publications in CND has increased from 1.4 papers per year during 1973-2002 to 7.3 per year during 2003-2015. The majority of investigations are in North America with many concentrating on fish. More recent studies have focused on animal-mediated nutrient excretion rates relative to nutrient demand and indirect impacts (e.g. decomposition). We identified several mechanisms that influence CND across levels of biological organization. Factors affecting the stoichiometric plasticity of consumers, including body size, feeding history and ontogeny, play an important role in determining the impact of individual consumers on nutrient dynamics and underlie the stoichiometry of CND across time and space. The abiotic characteristics of an ecosystem affect the net impact of consumers on ecosystem processes by influencing consumer metabolic processes (e.g. consumption and excretion/egestion rates), non-CND supply of nutrients and ecosystem nutrient demand. Furthermore, the transformation and transport of elements by populations and communities of consumers also influences the flow of energy and nutrients across ecosystem boundaries. This review highlights that shifts in community composition or biomass of consumers and eco-evolutionary underpinnings can have strong effects on the functional role of consumers in ecosystem processes, yet these are relatively unexplored aspects of CND. Future research should evaluate the value of using species traits and abiotic

  12. Evolution of the earliest mantle caused by the magmatism-mantle upwelling feedback: Implications for the Moon and the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, M.

    2017-12-01

    The two most important agents that cause mantle evolution are magmatism and mantle convection. My earlier 2D numerical models of a coupled magmatism-mantle convection system show that these two agents strongly couple each other, when the Rayleigh number Ra is sufficiently high: magmatism induced by a mantle upwelling flow boosts the upwelling flow itself. The mantle convection enhanced by this positive feedback (the magmatism-mantle upwelling, or MMU, feedback) causes vigorous magmatism and, at the same time, strongly stirs the mantle. I explored how the MMU feedback influences the evolution of the earliest mantle that contains the magma ocean, based on a numerical model where the mantle is hot and its topmost 1/3 is partially molten at the beginning of the calculation: The evolution drastically changes its style, as Ra exceeds the threshold for onset of the MMU feedback, around 107. At Ra 107, however, the mantle remains compositionally more homogeneous in spite of the widespread magmatism, and the deep mantle remains hotter than the shallow mantle, because of the strong convective stirring caused by the feedback. The threshold value suggests that the mantle of a planet larger than Mars evolves in a way substantially different from that in the Moon does. Indeed, in my earlier models, magmatism makes the early mantle compositionally stratified in the Moon, but the effects of strong convective stirring overwhelms that of magmatism to keep the mantle compositionally rather homogeneous in Venus and the Earth. The MMU feedback is likely to be a key to understanding why vestiges of the magma ocean are so scarce in the Earth.

  13. Wind-driven upwelling effects on cephalopod paralarvae: Octopus vulgaris and Loliginidae off the Galician coast (NE Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Jaime; Álvarez-Salgado, X. Antón; González, Ángel F.; Souto, Carlos; Gilcoto, Miguel; Guerra, Ángel

    2016-02-01

    Circulation patterns of coastal upwelling areas may have central consequences for the abundance and cross-shelf transport of the larval stages of many species. Previous studies have provided evidences that larvae distribution results from a combination of subtidal circulation, species-specific behaviour and larval sources. However, most of these works were conducted on organisms characterised by small-sized and abundant early life phases. Here, we studied the influence of the hydrography and circulation of the Ría de Vigo and adjacent shelf (NW Iberian upwelling system) on the paralarval abundance of two contrasting cephalopods, the benthic common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) and the pelagic squids (Loliginidae). We sampled repeatedly a cross-shore transect during the years 2003-2005 and used zero inflated models to accommodate the scarcity and patchy distribution of cephalopod paralarvae. The probability of catching early stages of both cephalopods was higher at night. Octopus paralarvae were more abundant in the surface layer at night whereas loliginids preferred the bottom layer regardless of the sampling time. Abundance of both cephalopods increased when shelf currents flowed polewards, water temperature was high and water column stability was low. The probability of observing an excess of zero catches decreased during the year for octopus and at high current speed for loliginids. In addition, the circulation pattern conditioned the body size distribution of both paralarvae; while the average size of the captured octopuses increased (decreased) with poleward currents at daylight (nighttime), squids were smaller with poleward currents regardless of the sampling time. These results contribute to the understanding of the effects that the hydrography and subtidal circulation of a coastal upwelling have on the fate of cephalopod early life stages.

  14. Ecosystem Vulnerability Review: Proposal of an Interdisciplinary Ecosystem Assessment Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weißhuhn, Peter; Müller, Felix; Wiggering, Hubert

    2018-06-01

    To safeguard the sustainable use of ecosystems and their services, early detection of potentially damaging changes in functional capabilities is needed. To support a proper ecosystem management, the analysis of an ecosystem's vulnerability provide information on its weaknesses as well as on its capacity to recover after suffering an impact. However, the application of the vulnerability concept to ecosystems is still an emerging topic. After providing background on the vulnerability concept, we summarize existing ecosystem vulnerability research on the basis of a systematic literature review with a special focus on ecosystem type, disciplinary background, and more detailed definition of the ecosystem vulnerability components. Using the Web of ScienceTM Core Collection, we overviewed the literature from 1991 onwards but used the 5 years from 2011 to 2015 for an in-depth analysis, including 129 articles. We found that ecosystem vulnerability analysis has been applied most notably in conservation biology, climate change research, and ecological risk assessments, pinpointing a limited spreading across the environmental sciences. It occurred primarily within marine and freshwater ecosystems. To avoid confusion, we recommend using the unambiguous term ecosystem vulnerability rather than ecological, environmental, population, or community vulnerability. Further, common ground has been identified, on which to define the ecosystem vulnerability components exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. We propose a framework for ecosystem assessments that coherently connects the concepts of vulnerability, resilience, and adaptability as different ecosystem responses. A short outlook on the possible operationalization of the concept by ecosystem vulnerabilty indices, and a conclusion section complete the review.

  15. Conformal boundary loop models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, Jesper Lykke; Saleur, Hubert

    2008-01-01

    We study a model of densely packed self-avoiding loops on the annulus, related to the Temperley-Lieb algebra with an extra idempotent boundary generator. Four different weights are given to the loops, depending on their homotopy class and whether they touch the outer rim of the annulus. When the weight of a contractible bulk loop x≡q+q -1 element of (-2,2], this model is conformally invariant for any real weight of the remaining three parameters. We classify the conformal boundary conditions and give exact expressions for the corresponding boundary scaling dimensions. The amplitudes with which the sectors with any prescribed number and types of non-contractible loops appear in the full partition function Z are computed rigorously. Based on this, we write a number of identities involving Z which hold true for any finite size. When the weight of a contractible boundary loop y takes certain discrete values, y r ≡([r+1] q )/([r] q ) with r integer, other identities involving the standard characters K r,s of the Virasoro algebra are established. The connection with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions in the O(n) model is discussed in detail, and new scaling dimensions are derived. When q is a root of unity and y=y r , exact connections with the A m type RSOS model are made. These involve precise relations between the spectra of the loop and RSOS model transfer matrices, valid in finite size. Finally, the results where y=y r are related to the theory of Temperley-Lieb cabling

  16. Synthetic receiver function profiles through the upper mantle and the transition zone for upwelling scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Thorsten; Düsterhöft, Erik; Schiffer, Christian

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the signature relevant mantle lithologies leave in the receiver function record for different adiabatic thermal gradients down to 800 kilometers depth. The parameter space is chosen to target the visibility of upwelling mantle (a plume). Seismic velocities for depleted mantle, primitive mantle, and three pyroxenites are extracted from thermodynamically calculated phases diagrams, which also provide the adiabatic decompression paths. Results suggest that compositional variations, i.e. the presence or absence of considerable amounts of pyroxenites in primitive mantle should produce a clear footprint while horizontal differences in thermal gradients for similar compositions might be more subtle. Peridotites best record the classic discontinuities at around 410 and 650 kilometers depth, which are associated with the olivin-wadsleyite and ringwoodite-perovskite transitions, respectively. Pyroxenites, instead, show the garnet-perovskite transition below 700 kilometers depth and SiO2-supersaturated compositions like MORB display the coesite-stishovite transition between 300 and 340 kilometers depth. The latter shows the strongest temperature-depth dependency of all significant transitions potentially allowing to infer information about the thermal state if the mantle contains a sufficient fraction of MORB-like compositions. For primitive and depleted mantle compositions, the olivin-wadsleyite transition shows a certain temperature-depth dependency reflected in slightly larger delay times for higher thermal gradients. The lower-upper-mantle discontinuity, however, is predicted to display larger delay times for higher thermal gradients although the associated assemblage transition occurs at shallower depths thus requiring a very careful depth migration if a thermal anomaly should be recognized. This counterintuitive behavior results from the downward replacement of the assemblage wadsleyite+garnet with the assemblage garnet+periclase at high temperatures

  17. Local Upper Mantle Upwelling beneath New England: Evidence from Seismic Anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, V. L.; Long, M. D.; Lopez, I.; Li, Y.; Skryzalin, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    The upper mantle beneath eastern North America contains regions where seismic wave speed is significantly reduced. As they cut across the trend of the Appalachian terranes, these anomalies likely post-date the Paleozoic assembly of Pangea. Most prominent of them, the North Appalachian Anomaly (NAA), has been alternatively explained by the localized disruption of lithospheric fabric, the passage of the Great Meteor Hot Spot, and the current local upwelling of the asthenosphere. Comprehensive mapping of shear wave splitting identified a local perturbation of an otherwise uniform regional pattern, with no apparent splitting occurring at a site within the NAA. To evaluate the reality of this apparent localized disruption in the anisotropic fabric of the upper mantle beneath northeastern North America we used observations of shear wave splitting from a set of long-running observatories not included in previous studies. Three methods of evaluating shear wave splitting (rotation-correlation, minimization of the transverse component, and the splitting intensity) yield complementary results. We show that splitting of core-refracted shear waves within the outline of the NAA is significantly weaker than towards its edges and beyond them (Figure 1). Average fast orientations are close to the absolute plate motion in the hot-spot reference frame, thus we can attribute a large fraction of this signal to the coherently sheared sub-lithospheric upper mantle. A decrease in average delay we observe, from 1 s outside the NAA to under 0.2 s within it, translates into a reduction of the vertical extent of the sheared layer from 130 km to 16 km (assuming 4% anisotropy), or alternatively into a weakening of the azimuthal anisotropy from 5% to 0.6% (assuming a 100 km thick layer). The splitting reduction within the NAA is consistent with a localized change in anisotropic fabric that would be expected in case of geologically recent sub-vertical flow overprinting the broadly uniform upper

  18. Causes and projections of abrupt climate-driven ecosystem shifts in the North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beaugrand, G.; Edwards, M.; Brander, Keith

    2008-01-01

    Warming of the global climate is now unequivocal and its impact on Earth' functional units has become more apparent. Here, we show that marine ecosystems are not equally sensitive to climate change and reveal a critical thermal boundary where a small increase in temperature triggers abrupt...... ecosystem shifts seen across multiple trophic levels. This large-scale boundary is located in regions where abrupt ecosystem shifts have been reported in the North Atlantic sector and thereby allows us to link these shifts by a global common phenomenon. We show that these changes alter the biodiversity...... and carrying capacity of ecosystems and may, combined with fishing, precipitate the reduction of some stocks of Atlantic cod already severely impacted by exploitation. These findings offer a way to anticipate major ecosystem changes and to propose adaptive strategies for marine exploited resources such as cod...

  19. Distribution and burial of organic carbon in sediments from the Indian Ocean upwelling region off Java and Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Anne; Jennerjahn, Tim; Mohtadi, Mahyar; Hebbeln, Dierk

    2010-03-01

    Sediments were sampled and oxygen profiles of the water column were determined in the Indian Ocean off west and south Indonesia in order to obtain information on the production, transformation, and accumulation of organic matter (OM). The stable carbon isotope composition (δ 13C org) in combination with C/N ratios depicts the almost exclusively marine origin of sedimentary organic matter in the entire study area. Maximum concentrations of organic carbon (C org) and nitrogen (N) of 3.0% and 0.31%, respectively, were observed in the northern Mentawai Basin and in the Savu and Lombok basins. Minimum δ 15N values of 3.7‰ were measured in the northern Mentawai Basin, whereas they varied around 5.4‰ at stations outside this region. Minimum bottom water oxygen concentrations of 1.1 mL L -1, corresponding to an oxygen saturation of 16.1%, indicate reduced ventilation of bottom water in the northern Mentawai Basin. This low bottom water oxygen reduces organic matter decomposition, which is demonstrated by the almost unaltered isotopic composition of nitrogen during early diagenesis. Maximum C org accumulation rates (CARs) were measured in the Lombok (10.4 g C m -2 yr -1) and northern Mentawai basins (5.2 g C m -2 yr -1). Upwelling-induced high productivity is responsible for the high CAR off East Java, Lombok, and Savu Basins, while a better OM preservation caused by reduced ventilation contributes to the high CAR observed in the northern Mentawai Basin. The interplay between primary production, remineralisation, and organic carbon burial determines the regional heterogeneity. CAR in the Indian Ocean upwelling region off Indonesia is lower than in the Peru and Chile upwellings, but in the same order of magnitude as in the Arabian Sea, the Benguela, and Gulf of California upwellings, and corresponds to 0.1-7.1% of the global ocean carbon burial. This demonstrates the relevance of the Indian Ocean margin off Indonesia for the global OM burial.

  20. Transmission of the haplosporidian parasite MSX Haplosporidium nelsoni to the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica in an upweller system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunila, I; Karolus, J; Lang, E P; Mroczka, M E; Volk, J

    2000-08-31

    The haplosporidian oyster parasite MSX (Multinucleated Sphere X) Haplosporidium nelsoni was transmitted to eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica. Hatchery-raised, MSX-free juvenile oysters were placed in upweller tanks. Water to the tanks was filtered through a screen with 1 mm2 openings and originated from the water column overlaying naturally infected oysters beds (MSX prevalence 17 to 57%). MSX was diagnosed by histopathological analysis. MSX-disease (57% prevalence) with increased mortality (19%) was observed 11 wk after the beginning of the exposure and mortality of 80% after 16 wk. The study demonstrates transmission of MSX via water-borne infectious agents capable of passing through a 1 mm filter.

  1. Influences of riverine and upwelling waters on the coastal carbonate system off Central Chile and their ocean acidification implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Cristian A.; Contreras, Paulina Y.; Pérez, Claudia A.; Sobarzo, Marcus; Saldías, Gonzalo S.; Salisbury, Joe

    2016-06-01

    A combined data set, combining data from field campaigns and oceanographic cruises, was used to ascertain the influence of both river discharges and upwelling processes, covering spatial and temporal variation in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and aragonite saturation state. This work was conducted in one of the most productive river-influenced upwelling areas in the South Pacific coasts (36°S). Additionally, further work was also conducted to ascertain the contribution of different DIC sources, influencing the dynamics of DIC along the land-ocean range. Six sampling campaigns were conducted across seven stations at the Biobío River basin, covering approximately 200 km. Three research cruises were undertaken simultaneously, covering the adjacent continental shelf, including 12 sampling stations for hydrographic measurements. Additionally, six stations were also sampled for chemical analyses, covering summer, winter, and spring conditions over 2010 and 2011. Our results evidenced that seaward extent of the river plume was more evident during the winter field campaign, when highest riverine DIC fluxes were observed. The carbonate system along the river-ocean continuum was very heterogeneous varying over spatial and temporal scales. High DIC and pCO2 were observed in river areas with larger anthropogenic effects. CO2 supersaturation at the river plume was observed during all campaigns due to the influence of low pH river waters in winter/spring and high-pCO2 upwelling waters in summer. δ13CDIC evidenced that main DIC sources along the river and river plume corresponded to the respiration of terrestrial organic matter. We have linked this natural process to the carbonate saturation on the adjacent river-influenced coastal area, suggesting that Ωaragonite undersaturation in surface/subsurface waters is largely modulated by the influence of both river discharge and coastal upwelling events in this productive coastal area. Conditions of low Ωaragonite might impact

  2. Influence of upwelling on distribution of chaetognath (zooplankton) in the oxygen deficient zone of the eastern Arabian Sea.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kusum, K.K.; Vineetha, G.; Raveendran, T.V.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Biju, A.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    variability of physico-chemical variables and biological components (Escribano and Morales, 2012; Hidalgo et al., 2012). Upwelling regions have immense global significance (Peterson et al., 1988; Bostford et al., 2003) as they form biologically the richest...; Nagai et al., 2006). Recently, the variability in the abiotic and biotic components in the EBCs of Pacific and Atlantic Oceans has been an important area of study (Cornejo and Farías, 2012; Correa- Ramírez et al., 2012; Morales and Anabalón, 2012; Roura...

  3. Note on the shelf break upwelling off the southeast coast of Brazil (lat. 26º30'S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrânio Rubens de Mesquita

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available A western margin frontal zone is described, from measurements of temperature, salinity and currents, in a section taken with R/V "Prof. W. Besnard" in December 1980, crossing the shelf break border at latitude 26º30'S. The analyses of the sections showed consistently the occurrence of an ascension of the T and S isolines over the shelf break. Simultaneous current measurements showed a surface eddy structure with clockwise circulation and anti-clockwise circulation having a common stem over the break characterizing a shelf break upwelling.

  4. Working group 7: Ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verheyen, R.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the environmental impact of nuclear power plants. The effects of ionizing radiations, of the thermal and chemical pollution on aquatic ecosystems as well as on terrestrial ecosystems have been estimated. After a general survey of such effects and their interaction, practical conclusions in regard to determined areas such as Meuse-Escaut marine and the coast have been drawn. The contamination effects of food chains have been evaluted under deliberately pessimistic conditions with regard to the choice of the radionuclide as well as of concentration factors. Following the biodegradation conditions of the surface waters, criteria for the quality of the aquatic ecosystems have been established. Finally, attention has been paid on certain factors affecting the site selection especially within the frame of the nature conservation. The effects of cooling towers have been also considered. (G.C.)

  5. Sea Ice Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters.

  6. Spatial characteristics of sediment trace metals in an eastern boundary upwelling retention area (St. Helena Bay, South Africa): A hydrodynamic-biological pump hypothesis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Monteiro, PMS

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available fluxes from bottom sediments defined by a high sedimentation rate of organic matter. It is proposed that trace metals may play an important role in alleviating part of the ecological stress by forming sulfide complexes in such systems. A spatially...

  7. Yearly variation of bacterial production in the Arraial do Cabo protection area (Cabo Frio upwelling region): an evidence of anthropogenic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho-Souza, Sérgio A; Pereira, Gilberto C; Coutinho, Ricardo; Guimarães, Jean R D

    2013-12-01

    Arraial do Cabo is where upwelling occurs more intensively on the Brazilian coast. Although it is a protection area it suffers anthropogenic pressure such as harbor activities and sporadic sewage emissions. Short-time studies showed a high variability of bacterial production (BP) in this region but none of them evaluated BP during long periods in a large spatial scale including stations under different natural (upwelling and cold fronts) and anthropogenic pressures. During 2006, we sampled surface waters 10 times (5 in upwelling and 5 in subsidence periods) in 8 stations and we measured BP, temperature as well as the concentrations of inorganic nutrients, pigments and particulate organic matter (POM). BP was up to 400 times higher when sewage emissions were observed visually and it had a positive correlation with ammonia concentrations. Therefore, in 2007, we did two samples (each during upwelling and subsidence periods) during sewage emissions in five stations under different anthropogenic pressure and we also measured particles abundance by flow cytometry. The 12 samples in the most impacted area confirmed that BP was highest when ammonia was higher than 2 μM, also reporting the highest concentrations of chlorophyll a and suspended particles. However, considering all measured variables, upwelling was the main disturbing factor but the pressure of fronts should not be neglected since it had consequences in the auto-heterotrophic coupling, increasing the concentrations of non fluorescent particles and POM. Stations clustered in function of natural and anthropogenic pressures degrees and both determined the temporal-spatial variability.

  8. Mechanisms of the intensification of the upwelling-favorable winds during El Niño 1997-1998 in the Peruvian upwelling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Adolfo; Echevin, Vincent; Colas, François; Oerder, Vera; Tam, Jorge; Quispe-Ccalluari, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    The physical processes driving the wind intensification in a coastal band of 100 km off Peru during the intense 1997-1998 El Niño (EN) event were studied using a regional atmospheric model. A simulation performed for the period 1994-2000 reproduced the coastal wind response to local sea surface temperature (SST) forcing and large scale atmospheric conditions. The model, evaluated with satellite data, represented well the intensity, seasonal and interannual variability of alongshore (i.e. NW-SE) winds. An alongshore momentum budget showed that the pressure gradient was the dominant force driving the surface wind acceleration. The pressure gradient tended to accelerate the coastal wind, while turbulent vertical mixing decelerated it. A quasi-linear relation between surface wind and pressure gradient anomalies was found. Alongshore pressure gradient anomalies were caused by a greater increase in near-surface air temperature off the northern coast than off the southern coast, associated with the inhomogeneous SST warming. Vertical profiles of wind, mixing coefficient, and momentum trends showed that the surface wind intensification was not caused by the increase of turbulence in the planetary boundary layer. Moreover, the temperature inversion in the vertical mitigated the development of pressure gradient due to air convection during part of the event. Sensitivity experiments allowed to isolate the respective impacts of the local SST forcing and large scale condition on the coastal wind intensification. It was primarily driven by the local SST forcing whereas large scale variability associated with the South Pacific Anticyclone modulated its effects. Examination of other EN events using reanalysis data confirmed that intensifications of alongshore wind off Peru were associated with SST alongshore gradient anomalies, as during the 1997-1998 event.

  9. Risks of ocean acidification in the California Current food web and fisheries: ecosystem model projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Kristin N; Kaplan, Isaac C; Hodgson, Emma E; Hermann, Albert; Busch, D Shallin; McElhany, Paul; Essington, Timothy E; Harvey, Chris J; Fulton, Elizabeth A

    2017-04-01

    The benefits and ecosystem services that humans derive from the oceans are threatened by numerous global change stressors, one of which is ocean acidification. Here, we describe the effects of ocean acidification on an upwelling system that already experiences inherently low pH conditions, the California Current. We used an end-to-end ecosystem model (Atlantis), forced by downscaled global climate models and informed by a meta-analysis of the pH sensitivities of local taxa, to investigate the direct and indirect effects of future pH on biomass and fisheries revenues. Our model projects a 0.2-unit drop in pH during the summer upwelling season from 2013 to 2063, which results in wide-ranging magnitudes of effects across guilds and functional groups. The most dramatic direct effects of future pH may be expected on epibenthic invertebrates (crabs, shrimps, benthic grazers, benthic detritivores, bivalves), and strong indirect effects expected on some demersal fish, sharks, and epibenthic invertebrates (Dungeness crab) because they consume species known to be sensitive to changing pH. The model's pelagic community, including marine mammals and seabirds, was much less influenced by future pH. Some functional groups were less affected to changing pH in the model than might be expected from experimental studies in the empirical literature due to high population productivity (e.g., copepods, pteropods). Model results suggest strong effects of reduced pH on nearshore state-managed invertebrate fisheries, but modest effects on the groundfish fishery because individual groundfish species exhibited diverse responses to changing pH. Our results provide a set of projections that generally support and build upon previous findings and set the stage for hypotheses to guide future modeling and experimental analysis on the effects of OA on marine ecosystems and fisheries. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Grain Boundary Segregation in Metals

    CERN Document Server

    Lejcek, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Grain boundaries are important structural components of polycrystalline materials used in the vast majority of technical applications. Because grain boundaries form a continuous network throughout such materials, their properties may limit their practical use. One of the serious phenomena which evoke these limitations is the grain boundary segregation of impurities. It results in the loss of grain boundary cohesion and consequently, in brittle fracture of the materials. The current book deals with fundamentals of grain boundary segregation in metallic materials and its relationship to the grain boundary structure, classification and other materials properties.

  11. Reactor pressure boundary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jun Hwa; Chi, S. H.; Lee, B. S.

    2002-04-01

    With a long-term operation of nuclear power plants, the component materials are degraded under severe reactor conditions such as neutron irradiation, high temperature, high pressure and corrosive environment. It is necessary to establish the reliable and practical technologies for improving and developing the component materials and for evaluating the mechanical properties. Especially, it is very important to investigate the technologies for reactor pressure boundary materials such as reactor vessel and pipings in accordance with their critical roles. Therefore, this study was focused on developing and advancing the microstructural/micro-mechanical evaluation technologies, and on evaluating the neutron irradiation characteristics and radiation effects analysis technology of the reactor pressure boundary materials, and also on establishing a basis of nuclear material property database

  12. Activity and Phylogenetic Diversity of Bacterial Cells with High and Low Nucleic Acid Content and Electron Transport System Activity in an Upwelling Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Longnecker, K.; Sherr, B. F.; Sherr, E. B.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated whether bacteria with higher cell-specific nucleic acid content (HNA) or an active electron transport system, i.e., positive for reduction of 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC), were responsible for the bulk of bacterioplankton metabolic activity. We also examined whether the phylogenetic diversity of HNA and CTC-positive cells differed from the diversity of Bacteria with low nucleic acid content (LNA). Bacterial assemblages were sampled both in eutrophic shelf waters...

  13. Grain Boundary Complexions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Cantwell et al. / Acta Materialia 62 (2014) 1–48 challenging from a scientific perspective, but it can also be very technologically rewarding , given the...energy) is a competing explanation that remains to be explored. Strategies to drive the grain boundary energy toward zero have produced some success...Thompson AM, Soni KK, Chan HM, Harmer MP, Williams DB, Chabala JM, et al. J Am Ceram Soc 1997;80:373. [172] Behera SK. PhD dissertation, Materials Science

  14. Boundary-layer theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schlichting (Deceased), Hermann

    2017-01-01

    This new edition of the near-legendary textbook by Schlichting and revised by Gersten presents a comprehensive overview of boundary-layer theory and its application to all areas of fluid mechanics, with particular emphasis on the flow past bodies (e.g. aircraft aerodynamics). The new edition features an updated reference list and over 100 additional changes throughout the book, reflecting the latest advances on the subject.

  15. Governance of Ecosystem Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primmer, Eeva; Jokinen, Pekka; Blicharska, Malgorzata; Barton, David N.; Bugter, Rob; Potschin, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation policies justified with science and intrinsic value arguments have produced disappointing outcomes, and the need for conservation is now being additionally justified with the concept of ecosystem services. However, little, if any empirical attention is paid to ways in

  16. Shelf-sea ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J J

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of the food chain dynamics of the Oregon, Alaskan, and New York shelves is made with respect to differences in physical forcing of these ecosystems. The world's shelves are 10% of the area of the ocean, yield 99% of the world's fish catch, and may be a major sink in the global CO/sub 2/ budget.

  17. Partitioning ecosystems for sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Martyn G

    2016-03-01

    Decline in the abundance of renewable natural resources (RNRs) coupled with increasing demands of an expanding human population will greatly intensify competition for Earth's natural resources during this century, yet curiously, analytical approaches to the management of productive ecosystems (ecological theory of wildlife harvesting, tragedy of the commons, green economics, and bioeconomics) give only peripheral attention to the driving influence of competition on resource exploitation. Here, I apply resource competition theory (RCT) to the exploitation of RNRs and derive four general policies in support of their sustainable and equitable use: (1) regulate resource extraction technology to avoid damage to the resource base; (2) increase efficiency of resource use and reduce waste at every step in the resource supply chain and distribution network; (3) partition ecosystems with the harvesting niche as the basic organizing principle for sustainable management of natural resources by multiple users; and (4) increase negative feedback between consumer and resource to bring about long-term sustainable use. A simple policy framework demonstrates how RCT integrates with other elements of sustainability science to better manage productive ecosystems. Several problem areas of RNR management are discussed in the light of RCT, including tragedy of the commons, overharvesting, resource collapse, bycatch, single species quotas, and simplification of ecosystems.

  18. Payment for ecosystem services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Oddershede, Jakob Stoktoft; Pedersen, Anders Branth

    Research question: Northern Europe experiences an increasingly wet climate, leading to more frequent and severe fluvial flood events. Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) is becoming recognised as a valuable yet under-utilised means to alleviating negative effects of a changing climate. This however,...

  19. Biocomplexity in Mangrove Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, I. C.; Lovelock, C. E.; Berger, U.; McKee, K. L.; Joye, S. B.; Ball, M. C.

    2010-01-01

    Mangroves are an ecological assemblage of trees and shrubs adapted to grow in intertidal environments along tropical coasts. Despite repeated demonstration of their economic and societal value, more than 50% of the world's mangroves have been destroyed, 35% in the past two decades to aquaculture and coastal development, altered hydrology, sea-level rise, and nutrient overenrichment. Variations in the structure and function of mangrove ecosystems have generally been described solely on the basis of a hierarchical classification of the physical characteristics of the intertidal environment, including climate, geomorphology, topography, and hydrology. Here, we use the concept of emergent properties at multiple levels within a hierarchical framework to review how the interplay between specialized adaptations and extreme trait plasticity that characterizes mangroves and intertidal environments gives rise to the biocomplexity that distinguishes mangrove ecosystems. The traits that allow mangroves to tolerate variable salinity, flooding, and nutrient availability influence ecosystem processes and ultimately the services they provide. We conclude that an integrated research strategy using emergent properties in empirical and theoretical studies provides a holistic approach for understanding and managing mangrove ecosystems.

  20. The Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.

    1994-05-01

    A comprehensive and lucid account of the physics and dynamics of the lowest one to two kilometers of the Earth's atmosphere in direct contact with the Earth's surface, known as the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Dr. Garratt emphasizes the application of the ABL problems to numerical modeling of the climate, which makes this book unique among recent texts on the subject. He begins with a brief introduction to the ABL before leading to the development of mean and turbulence equations and the many scaling laws and theories that are the cornerstone of any serious ABL treatment. Modeling of the ABL is crucially dependent for its realism on the surface boundary conditions, so chapters four and five deal with aerodynamic and energy considerations, with attention given to both dry and wet land surfaces and the sea. The author next treats the structure of the clear-sky, thermally stratified ABL, including the convective and stable cases over homogeneous land, the marine ABL, and the internal boundary layer at the coastline. Chapter seven then extends this discussion to the cloudy ABL. This is particularly relevant to current research because the extensive stratocumulus regions over the subtropical oceans and stratus regions over the Arctic have been identified as key players in the climate system. In the final chapters, Dr. Garratt summarizes the book's material by discussing appropriate ABL and surface parameterization schemes in general circulation models of the atmosphere that are being used for climate stimulation.

  1. Regional boundaries study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavatsky, S.; Phaneuf, P.; Topaz, D.; Ward, D.

    1978-02-01

    The NRC Office of Inspection and Enforcement (IE) has elected to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of its existing regional boundary alignment because of the anticipated future growth of nuclear power generating facilities and corresponding inspection requirements. This report documents a management study designed to identify, analyze, and evaluate alternative regional boundary configurations for the NRC/IE regions. Eight boundary configurations were chosen for evaluation. These configurations offered alternatives ranging from two to ten regions, and some included the concepts of subregional or satellite offices. Each alternative configuration was evaluated according to three major criteria: project workload, cost, and office location. Each major criterion included elements such as management control, program uniformity, disruption, costs, and coordination with other agencies. The conclusion reached was that regional configurations with regions of equal and relatively large workloads, combined with the concepts of subregional or satellite offices, may offer a significant benefit to the Office of Inspection and Enforcement and the Commission and are worthy of further study. A phased implementation plan, which is suitable to some configurations, may help mitigate the disruption created by realignment

  2. Shared care and boundaries:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winthereik, Brit Ross

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The paper seeks to examine how an online maternity record involving pregnant women worked as a means to create shared maternity care. Design/methodology/approach – Ethnographic techniques have been used. The paper adopts a theoretical/methodological framework based on science and techno......Purpose – The paper seeks to examine how an online maternity record involving pregnant women worked as a means to create shared maternity care. Design/methodology/approach – Ethnographic techniques have been used. The paper adopts a theoretical/methodological framework based on science...... and technology studies. Findings – The paper shows how a version of “the responsible patient” emerges from the project which is different from the version envisioned by the project organisation. The emerging one is concerned with the boundary between primary and secondary sector care, and not with the boundary......, IT designers and project managers should attend to the specific ways in which boundaries are inevitably enacted and to the ways in which care is already shared. This will provide them with opportunities to use the potentials of new identities and concerns that emerge from changing the organisation...

  3. Late Neogene foraminifera from the northern Namibian continental shelf and the transition to the Benguela Upwelling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, Eugene W.; Compton, John S.; Frenzel, Peter

    2018-05-01

    Middle Miocene to Plio-Pleistocene foraminifera provide insights into the palaeoenvironment on the northern Namibian continental shelf located at the far northern end of the present-day Benguela Upwelling System (BUS). Biostratigraphy and Strontium Isotope Stratigraphy (SIS) of the recovered basal olive-green mud unit indicate an age of 16 to 14 Ma. A sharp, erosional contact separates the basal mud from the overlying Plio-Pleistocene gravelly pelletal phosphorite sands. Grain size data, P/B ratios and benthic diversity indices indicate a change between the middle Miocene and overlying Plio-Pleistocene palaeoenvironments linked to the timing and conditions associated with the initiation of the BUS. The different lithological units and microfossil assemblages in the olive-green mud unit and the overlying pelletal phosphorite units support the late Miocene initiation of the BUS and the northwards migration of the Angola-Benguela Front. Planktic foraminifera indicate a shift from warmer surface water conditions to cooler conditions during the initiation of the BUS. Benthic palaeobathymetric ranges and P/B ratios are consistent with outer shelf water depths suggesting a deeper palaeoenvironment during the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO) than today. Benthic foraminifera in the middle Miocene are dominated by large (>1 mm) taxa and adapted to oligotrophic environments before the initiation of the BUS. The benthic assemblage composition indicates that bottom water conditions changed to eutrophic conditions during the Plio-Pleistocene under intensified upwelling conditions.

  4. Diurnal Variability of the inner-shelf circulation in the lee of a cape under upwelling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Luisa; Peliz, Álvaro; Marchesiello, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    The circulation over the inner-shelf is a key component of shelf dynamics and an important mechanism for cross-shore exchange on most shelves. Yet our understanding of the cross-shore circulation and how it depends on different forcing conditions, bathymetry and stratification remains poor due in part to sparse observations and the difficulty of resolving spatial and temporal scales within the inner-shelf. Most studies of cross-shore transport on the inner-shelf consider only a 2D circulation, due to coastal upwelling or downwelling and assume along-shore uniformity. However, divergence in the along-shore and cross-shore flows may occur with the presence of complex coastline topography or subtle bathymetric features, and can drive substantial horizontal cross-shore exchange, with same order of magnitude as coastal upwelling and downwelling. A recent study using observational data collected near cape Sines, Portugal, showed that not only wind, waves and tides are important forcing mechanisms of the inner-shelf circulation, but also that the along-shore pressure gradient plays a major role on driving cross-shore exchange. A modeling study was conducted in order to study the complexity of the inner-shelf dynamics, in the presence of a cape. A simplified configuration was used in order to isolate the effects of individual processes: wind, heat fluxes, tides and waves. The preliminary results of the effects of these processes on the inner-shelf circulation will be presented.

  5. Bloom dynamics and life cycle strategies of two toxic dinoflagellates in a coastal upwelling system (NW Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Isabel; Fraga, Santiago; Isabel Figueroa, Rosa; Pazos, Yolanda; Massanet, Ana; Ramilo, Isabel

    2010-02-01

    A study of Gymnodinium catenatum and Alexandrium minutum blooms on the Galician coast was conducted from 2005 to 2007 in order to increase knowledge of the mechanisms governing recurrent blooms of these species. Considerable differences in their bloom dynamics were observed. G. catenatum blooms occurred in autumn and winter, following the pattern previously reported in the literature: they began off-shore and were advected to the Galician rias when a relaxation of the coastal upwelling occurred. On the other hand, A. minutum blooms developed inside embayments in spring and summer during the upwelling season and were associated with water stability and stratification. Both the vegetative population and the cyst distribution of A. minutum were related to less saline water from freshwater river outputs, which support a saline-gradient relationship postulated herein for this species. Dinoflagellates may produce both long-term double-walled cysts (resting) and short-term pellicle cysts. Resting cyst deposition and distribution in sediments showed that seeding occurred during the blooms of both species. However, the relationship between the cyst distribution in the sediments in Baiona Bay and the intensity and occurrence of G. catenatum blooms, suggests that the latter are not directly related to resting cyst germination. Moreover, the results presented in the present study point to other difference between the two species, such as the detection of pellicle cysts only for A. minutum. Finally, we discuss how the life cycle strategies of these two species may help to explain the different mechanisms of bloom formation reported herein.

  6. Equatorial Pacific peak in biological production regulated by nutrient and upwelling during the late Pliocene/early Pleistocene cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Etourneau

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The largest increase in export production in the eastern Pacific of the last 5.3 Myr (million years occurred between 2.2 and 1.6 Myr, a time of major climatic and oceanographic reorganization in the region. Here, we investigate the causes of this event using reconstructions of export production, nutrient supply and oceanic conditions across the Pliocene–Pleistocene in the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP for the last 3.2 Myr. Our results indicate that the export production peak corresponds to a cold interval marked by high nutrient supply relative to consumption, as revealed by the low bulk sedimentary 15N/14N (δ15N and alkenone-derived sea surface temperature (SST values. This ∼0.6 million year long episode of enhanced delivery of nutrients to the surface of the EEP was predominantly initiated through the upwelling of nutrient-enriched water sourced in high latitudes. In addition, this phenomenon was likely promoted by the regional intensification of upwelling in response to the development of intense Walker and Hadley atmospheric circulations. Increased nutrient consumption in the polar oceans and enhanced denitrification in the equatorial regions restrained nutrient supply and availability and terminated the high export production event.

  7. Development of Phaeocystis globosa blooms in the upwelling waters of the South Central coast of Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Doan-Nhu; Lam, Nguyen-Ngoc; Dippner, Joachim W.

    2010-11-01

    Blooms of haptophyte algae in the south central coastal waters of Viet Nam often occur in association with upwelling phenomenon during the southwest (SW) monsoon. Depending on the magnitude of the blooms, damage to aquaculture farms may occur. Based on two years of data on biology, oceanography, and marine chemistry, the present study suggests a conceptual model of the growth of the haptophyte Phaeocystis globosa. At the beginning of the bloom, low temperature and abundant nutrient supply, especially nitrate from rain and upwelling, favour bloom development. Diatoms utilize available nitrate and phosphate; subsequently, higher ammonium concentration allows P. globosa to grow faster than the diatoms. At the end of the Phaeocystis bloom, free cells may become available as food for a heterotrophic dinoflagellate species, Noctiluca scintillans. During and after the phytoplankton bloom, remineralization by bacteria reduces dissolved oxygen to a very low concentration at depth, and favors growth of nitrate-reducing bacteria.A Lagrangian Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) model, driven by a circulation model of the area, realistically simulates the transport of microalgae in surface waters during strong and weak SW monsoon periods, suggesting that it may be a good tool for early warning of HABs in Vietnamese coastal waters.

  8. Ocean Drilling Program Leg 112, Peru continental margin: Part 2, Sedimentary history and diagenesis in a coastal upwelling environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, E.; von Huene, R.

    1988-10-01

    On the shelf and upper slope off Peru the signal of coastal upwelling productivity and bottom-water oxygen is well preserved in alternately laminated and bioturbated diatomaceous Quaternary sediments. Global sea-level fluctuations are the ultimate cause for these cyclic facies changes. During late Miocene time, coastal upwelling was about 100 km west of the present centers, along the edge of an emergent structure that subsequently subsided to form the modern slope. The sediments are rich in organic carbon, and intense microbially mediated decomposition of organic matter is evident in sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. These processes are accompanied by the formation of diagenetic carbonates, mostly Ca-rich dolomites and Mg-calcites. The downhole isotopic signatures of these carbonate cements display distinct successions that reflect the vertical evolution of the pore fluid environment. From the association of methane gas hydrates, burial depth, and low-chloride interstitial fluids, we suggest an additional process that could contribute to the characteristic chloride depletion in pore fluids of active margins: release of interlayer water from clays without a mineral phase change. The shelf sediments also contain a subsurface brine that stretches for more than 500 km from north to south over the area drilled. The source of the brine remains uncertain, although the composition of the oxygen isotopes suggests dissolution of evaporites by seawater.

  9. Dynamical implications of bi-directional resource exchange within a meta-ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Marisabel Rodriguez; Kopp, Darin; Allen, Daniel; Kang, Yun

    2018-05-05

    The exchange of resources across ecosystem boundaries can have large impacts on ecosystem structures and functions at local and regional scales. In this article, we develop a simple model to investigate dynamical implications of bi-directional resource exchanges between two local ecosystems in a meta-ecosystem framework. In our model, we assume that (1) Each local ecosystem acts as both a resource donor and recipient, such that one ecosystem donating resources to another results in a cost to the donating system and a benefit to the recipient; and (2) The costs and benefits of the bi-directional resource exchange between two ecosystems are correlated in a nonlinear fashion. Our model could apply to the resource interactions between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems that are supported by the literature. Our theoretical results show that bi-directional resource exchange between two ecosystems can indeed generate complicated dynamical outcomes, including the coupled ecosystems having amensalistic, antagonistic, competitive, or mutualistic interactions, with multiple alternative stable states depending on the relative costs and benefits. In addition, if the relative cost for resource exchange for an ecosystem is decreased or the relative benefit for resource exchange for an ecosystem is increased, the production of that ecosystem would increase; however, depending on the local environment, the production of the other ecosystem may increase or decrease. We expect that our work, by evaluating the potential outcomes of resource exchange theoretically, can facilitate empirical evaluations and advance the understanding of spatial ecosystem ecology where resource exchanges occur in varied ecosystems through a complicated network. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. [Urban ecosystem services: A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qi-zheng; Huang, Gan-lin; Wu, Jian-guo

    2015-04-01

    Maintaining and improving ecosystem services in urban areas and human well-being are essential for sustainable development and therefore constitute an important topic in urban ecology. Here we reviewed studies on ecosystem services in urban areas. Based on the concept and classification of urban ecosystem services, we summarized characteristics of urban ecosystem services, including the human domination, high demand of ecosystem services in urban areas, spatial heterogeneity and temporal dynamics of ecosystem services supply and demand in urban areas, multi-services of urban green infrastructures, the socio-economic dimension of ecosystem services supply and ecosystem disservices in urban areas. Among different urban ecosystem services, the regulating service and cultural service are particularly indispensable to benefit human health. We pointed out that tradeoffs among different types of ecosystem services mostly occur between supportive service and cultural service, as well as regulating service and cultural service. In particular, we emphasized the relationship between landscape design (i.e. green infrastructure) and ecosystem services supply. Finally, we discussed current gaps to link urban ecosystem services studies to landscape design and management and pointed out several directions for future research in urban ecosystem services.

  11. Plants as Indicators of Past and Present Zones of Upwelling Soil CO2 at the ZERT Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, M. E.; Sharma, B.; Zhou, X.; Shaw, J. A.; Dobeck, L.; Cunnningham, A.; Spangler, L.; ZERT Team

    2011-12-01

    By their very nature, photosynthetic plants are sensitive and responsive to CO2, which they fix during the Calvin-Benson cycle. Responses of plants to CO2 are valuable tools in the surface detection of upwelling and leaking CO2 from carbon sequestration fields. Plants exposed to upwelling CO2 rapidly exhibit signs of stress such as changes in stomatal conductance, hyperspectral signatures, pigmentation, and viability (Lakkaraju et al. 2010; Male et al. 2010). The Zero Emission Research and Technology (ZERT) site in Bozeman, MT is an experimental facility for surface detection of CO2 where 0.15 ton/day of CO2 was released (7/19- 8/15/2010, and 7/18 - 8/15/2011) from a 100m horizontal injection well, (HIW), 1.5 m underground with deliberate leaks of CO2 at intervals, and from a vertical injector, (VIW), (6/3-6/24/2010). Soil CO2 concentrations reached 16%. Plants at ZERT include Taraxacum officinale (Dandelion), Dactylis glomerata (Orchard Grass), Poa pratensis, (Kentucky Bluegrass), Phleum pratense (Timothy), Bromus japonicus (Japanese Brome), Medicago sativa (Alfalfa) and Cirsium arvense (Canadian Thistle). Dandelion leaves above the zones of upwelling CO2 at the HIW and the VIW changed color from green to reddish-purple (indicative of an increase in anthocyanins) to brown as they senesced within two weeks of CO2 injection. Their increased stomatal conductance along with their extensive surface area combined to make water loss occur quickly following injection of CO2. Xeromorphic grass leaves were not as profoundly affected, although they did exhibit changes in stomatal conductance, accelerated loss of chlorophyll beyond what would normally occur with seasonal senescence, and altered hyperspectral signatures. Within two weeks of CO2 injection at the HIW and the VIW, hot spots formed, which are circular zones of visible leaf senescence that appear at zones of upwelling CO2. The hot spots became more pronounced as the CO2 injection continued, and were detectable

  12. Influence of glacier runoff on ecosystem structure in Gulf of Alaska fjords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimitsu, Mayumi L.; Piatt, John F.; Mueter, Franz J.

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the influence of glacier runoff on fjord ecosystems, we sampled oceanographic conditions, nutrients, zooplankton, forage fish and seabirds within 4 fjords in coastal areas of the Gulf Alaska. We used generalized additive models and geostatistics to identify the range of glacier runoff influence into coastal waters within fjords of varying estuarine influence and topographic complexity. We also modeled the response of depth-integrated chlorophyll a concentration, copepod biomass, fish and seabird abundance to physical, nutrient and biotic predictor variables. The effects of glacial runoff were traced at least 10 km into coastal fjords by cold, turbid, stratified and generally nutrient-rich near-surface conditions. Glacially modified physical gradients, nutrient availability and among-fjord differences explained 67% of the variation in phytoplankton abundance, which is a driver of ecosystem structure at higher trophic levels. Copepod, euphausiid, fish and seabird distribution and abundance were related to environmental gradients that could be traced to glacial freshwater input, particularly turbidity and temperature. Seabird density was predicted by prey availability and silicate concentrations, which may be a proxy for upwelling areas where this nutrient is in excess. Similarities in ecosystem structure among fjords were attributable to an influx of cold, fresh and sediment-laden water, whereas differences were likely related to fjord topography and local differences in estuarine vs. ocean influence. We anticipate that continued changes in the timing and volume of glacial runoff will ultimately alter coastal ecosystems in the future.

  13. Determination of the Anthropogenic Carbon Signal to the Total Change in Dissolved Carbon in the Coastal Upwelling Region Along the Washington-Oregon-California Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feely, R. A.

    2016-02-01

    The continental shelf region off the Washington-Oregon-California coast is seasonally exposed to water with a low aragonite saturation state by coastal upwelling of CO2-rich waters. To date, the spatial and temporal distribution of anthropogenic CO2 (Canthro) contribution to the CO2-rich waters is largely unknown. Here we use an adaptation of the linear regression approach described in Feely et al (2008) along with the GO-SHIP Repeat Hydrography data sets from the northeast Pacific to establish an annually updated relationship between Canthro and potential density. This relationship was then used with the NOAA Ocean Acidification Program west coast cruise data sets from 2007, 2011, 2012 and 2013 to determine the spatial variations of Canthro in the upwelled water. Our results show large spatial differences in Canthro in surface waters along the coast with the lowest surface values (40-45 µmol kg-1) in strong upwelling regions of off northern California and southern Oregon and higher values (50-70 µmol kg-1) to the north and south. Canthro contributes an average of about 70% of the increased amount of dissolved inorganic carbon in the upwelled waters at the surface. In contrast, at 50 m the Canthro contribution is approximately 31% and at 100 m it averages about 16%. The remaining contributions are primarily due to respiration processes in the water that was upwelled and transported to coastal regions or underwent respiration processes that occurred locally during the course of the upwelling season. The uptake of Canthro has caused the aragonite saturation horizon to shoal by approximately 30-50 m since preindustrial period so that the undersaturated waters are well within the regions that affect the biological communities on the continental shelf.

  14. Cell boundary fault detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Pinnow, Kurt Walter [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian Edward [Rochester, MN

    2009-05-05

    A method determines a nodal fault along the boundary, or face, of a computing cell. Nodes on adjacent cell boundaries communicate with each other, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

  15. Ocean-Atmosphere Coupling associated with Typhoons/ Hurricane and their impacts on marine ecosystem (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    DanLing TANG South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Guangzhou, China Phone (86) 13924282728; Fax/Tel: (86) 020 89023203 (off), 020 89023191 (Lab),Email,lingzistdl@126.com, Typhoon / hurricane activities and their impacts on environments have been strengthening in both intensity and spatial coverage, along with global changes in the past several decades; however, our knowledge about impact of typhoon on the marine ecosystem is very scarce. We have conducted a series studies in the South China Sea (SCS), investigating phytoplankton, sea surface temperature (SST), fishery data and related factors before, during, and after typhoon. Satellite remote sensing and in situ observation data obtained from research cruise were applied. Our study showed that typhoon can support nutrients to surface phytoplankton by inducing upwelling and vertical mixing, and typhoon rain can also nourish marine phytoplankton; both typhoon winds and rain can enhance production of marine phytoplankton. Slow-moving typhoon induced phytoplankton blooms of higher Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), the strong typhoon induced phytoplankton blooms of a large area. We conservatively estimate that typhoon periods may account for 3.5% of the annual primary production in the oligotrophic SCS. It indicated that one typhoon may induce transport of nutrient-rich water from depth and from the coast to offshore regions, nourishing phytoplankton biomass. More observations confirmed that typhoon can induce cold eddy, and cold eddy can support eddy-shape phytoplankton bloom by upwelling. We have suggested a new index to evaluate typhoon impact on marine ecosystem and environment. This is the first time to report moving eddies and eddy-shape phytoplankton blooms associated with tropical cyclone, the relationship among tropical cyclone, cold eddy upwelling and eddy-shape phytoplankton bloom may give some viewpoint on the tropical cyclone's affection on the mesoscale circulation. Those studies may

  16. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Population

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Population data sets provide baseline population information as one of the drivers of ecosystem change. The data helped in...

  17. Economic viewpoints on ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvis, H.J.; Heide, van der C.M.

    2013-01-01

    to help determine the different values of ecosystems. Ecosystem services are usually divided into four categories: provisioning services, regulating services, cultural services and habitat services (previously denoted as supporting services). This overview highlights economic theories about

  18. Evaluation of sediment trace metal records as paleoproductivity and paleoxygenation proxies in the upwelling center off Concepción, Chile (36°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Praxedes; Dezileau, Laurent; Lange, Carina; Cardenas, Lissette; Sellanes, Javier; Salamanca, Marco A.; Maldonado, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the records of several trace metals sensitive to redox conditions in continental shelf sediments off Concepción, Chile (36°S). The continental margin off Concepción (36°S; 73°W) lies beneath an important upwelling center characterized by high primary production rates and, consequently, high fluxes of organic matter. In spring and summer, this material settles to the seafloor where it decays, producing periods of very low oxygen content in bottom waters (oxygen minimum zone develops at ∼100-400 m water depth, where dissolved oxygen levels are oxygen at the bottom increases drastically (>1 mL L -1). The goals of this study were to determine the input of trace metals to the sediment and to decipher how this information can be used to reveal variations in primary productivity or bottom oxygenation. Gravity cores collected at two stations - VG06-2 over the mid-shelf station (88 m water depth, upper boundary of the oxygen minimum zone) and VG06-3 over the outer shelf (120 m water depth, within the oxygen minimum zone) - were sampled for high resolution profiles (1 cm) of trace metals, biogenic opal, stable isotopes, and total organic carbon. The results suggest that the variability in the trace metal distribution on the continental shelf off Concepción is determined by redox conditions and the organic carbon flux to the bottom. Some sections of the sediment cores from the outer shelf showed appreciable authigenic enrichment of U, Cd, and Mo (EF: 5-10, 2-5, and 10-16 respectively) along with heavier values of δ 15N, suggesting periods of suboxic conditions. During these periods, fluxes of organic material to the bottom were higher, as indicated by elevated TOC and opal contents. Alternating periods of higher and lower trace metal contents were not observed mid-shelf as they were on the outer shelf. Rather, the mid-shelf samples showed authigenic enrichment of U, Cd, and Mo (EF: 1-6, 4-5, and 10-20, respectively) throughout the core except in a

  19. Preface: Ecosystem services, ecosystem health and human communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plag, Hans-Peter

    2018-04-01

    This special issue contains a collection of manuscripts that were originally intended to be included in the special issue on "Physics and Economics of Ecosystem Services Flows" (Volume 101, guest editors H. Su, J. Dong and S. Nagarajan) and "Biogeochemical Processes in the Changing Wetland Environment" (Volume 103, guest editors J. Bai, L. Huang and H. Gao). All of them are addressing issues related to ecosystem services in different settings. Ecosystem services are of high value for both the ecosystems and human communities, and understanding the impacts of environmental processes and human activities on ecosystems is of fundamental importance for the preservation of these services.

  20. Promoting Transfer of Ecosystems Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yawen; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Jordan, Rebecca; Eberbach, Catherine; Sinha, Suparna

    2016-01-01

    This study examines to what extent students transferred their knowledge from a familiar aquatic ecosystem to an unfamiliar rainforest ecosystem after participating in a technology-rich inquiry curriculum. We coded students' drawings for components of important ecosystems concepts at pre- and posttest. Our analysis examined the extent to which each…

  1. The Coevolution of Digital Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    SungYong, Um

    2016-01-01

    Digital ecosystems are one of the most important strategic issues in the current digital economy. Digital ecosystems are dynamic and generative. They evolve as new firms join and as heterogeneous systems are integrated into other systems. These features digital ecosystems determine economic and technological success in the competition among…

  2. Dual boundary spanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason

    2016-01-01

    The extant literature runs short in understanding openness of innovation regarding and the different pathways along which internal and external knowledge resources can be combined. This study proposes a unique typology for outside-in innovations based on two distinct ways of boundary spanning......: whether an innovation idea is created internally or externally and whether an innovation process relies on external knowledge resources. This yields four possible types of innovation, which represent the nuanced variation of outside-in innovations. Using historical data from Canada for 1945...

  3. Marine Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Ahtiainen, Heini; Hasselström, Linus

    MARECOS (Marine Ecosystem Services) er et tværfagligt studie, der har haft til formål at tilvejebringe information vedrørende kortlægning og værdisætning af økosystemtjenester, som kan anvendes i forbindelse med udformning af regulering på det marine område såvel nationalt, som regionalt og inter...

  4. Information dynamics of boundary perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragness, Haley; Hansen, Niels Christian; Vuust, Peter

    It has long been noted that expert musicians lengthen notes at phrase boundaries in expressive performance. Recently, we have extended research on this phenomenon by showing that undergraduates with no formal musical training and children as young as 3 years lengthen phrase boundaries during self...... uncertain than low-entropy contexts. Because phrase boundaries tend to afford high-entropy continuations, thus generating uncertain expectations in the listener, one possibility is that boundary perception is directly related to entropy. In other words, it may be hypothesized that entropy underlies...... on predictive uncertainty to the timing domain, as well as potentially answer key questions relating to boundary perception in musical listening....

  5. The river ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descy, J.P.; Lambinon, J.

    1984-01-01

    From the standpoint of the ecologist, a river is an ecosystem characterized by its biocoenosis, in dynamic equilibrium with the abiotic environment. This ecosystem can be envisaged at the structural level by examining its physical, chemical and biological properties, together with the relationships existing between these compartments. The biocoenotic structure of a river is relatively complex: it manifests, among other specific features, the presence of plankton communities which show marked space-time variations. The function of the river ecosystem can be approximated by a study of the relationships between the biotic and abiotic components: primary production, secondary production, recycling of organic matter, etc. Lotic environments are subject to frequent disturbance from various forms of man-made pollution: organic pollution, eutrophization, thermal pollution, mineral pollution, contamination by organic and mineral micropollutants, as well as by radionuclides, mechanical pollution and physical degradation. The biocoenotic effects of these forms of pollution may be evaluated, in particular, using biological indicators (bioindicators): these are either able to show the overall impact of the pollution on the biocoenosis or else they permit the detection and evaluation of certain pollutant forms. (author)

  6. A Energy Balance Analysis of the Climate Sensitivity to Variations in the Rate of Upwelling in the World Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morantine, Michael Creighton

    The climate system of the Earth has been under investigation for many years, and the "Green-House Effect" has introduced a sense of urgency into the effort. The globally averaged temperature of the Earth undergoes what is commonly referred to as natural fluctuations in the climate signal. One effort of climate modellers is to isolate the responses of particular climate forcings in order to better understand each effect. The use of energy balance climate models (EBM's) has been one of the major tools in this respect. Studies conducted on the response of the environment to the "Green-House Effect" predict a warming trend. After experiencing such a trend in the early 1900's, however, the globally averaged temperature of the Earth began to decrease in the 1940's and continued this trend for approximately 20 years before resuming its trend of increase. It will be shown that a reduction of ~10% in the upwelling rate in the oceans could produce a decrease in the globally averaged temperature sufficient to explain this departure from the expected trend. The analysis of paleoclimatic indicators has produced strong evidence that the orbital forcing with periods of approximately 21000, 41000 and 93000 years predicted by the Milankovitch Theory is the primary cause of the glacial cycles known to have occurred on the Earth. However, there is a dynamic interaction between the environment and the ice caps that is not completely understood at this time. The paleoclimatic indicators available for the last deglaciation are abundant and well preserved (relative to the evidence of previous glacial periods), and analysis of the evidence indicates that during the most recent deglaciation a pulsation in the polar front occurred on such a small time scale that Milankovitch forcing is ruled out as a possible cause. It will be shown that an abrupt shutdown in the deep-water formation process which feeds the upwelling in the oceans could produce an influence of appropriate magnitude and time

  7. Characterizing the Danish telemedicine ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Konstantinos; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2013-01-01

    and interoperability issues, silo solutions, and lack of guidelines and standards. In this paper, we characterise the ecosystem evolved around the telemedicine services in Denmark and study the actors involved in this ecosystem. We establish a method for this study, where we define two actor roles and ways...... of characterizing actor contributions, and apply the method to the largest healthcare region of Denmark. Our findings reveal an ecosystem that is relatively closed to new actors, where the actors tend to be related to single telemedicine applications, the applications have low connectivity, and the most influential...... actors of the ecosystem can be characterised as both being beneficial and inhibitory to the ecosystem prosperity....

  8. Resource subsidies between stream and terrestrial ecosystems under global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Stefano; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.; Marti Roca, Maria Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Streams and adjacent terrestrial ecosystems are characterized by permeable boundaries that are crossed by resource subsidies. Although the importance of these subsidies for riverine ecosystems is increasingly recognized, little is known about how they may be influenced by global environmental change. Drawing from available evidence, in this review we propose a conceptual framework to evaluate the effects of global change on the quality and spatiotemporal dynamics of stream–terrestrial subsidies. We illustrate how changes to hydrological and temperature regimes, atmospheric CO2 concentration, land use and the distribution of nonindigenous species can influence subsidy fluxes by affecting the biology and ecology of donor and recipient systems and the physical characteristics of stream–riparian boundaries. Climate-driven changes in the physiology and phenology of organisms with complex life cycles will influence their development time, body size and emergence patterns, with consequences for adjacent terrestrial consumers. Also, novel species interactions can modify subsidy dynamics via complex bottom-up and top-down effects. Given the seasonality and pulsed nature of subsidies, alterations of the temporal and spatial synchrony of resource availability to consumers across ecosystems are likely to result in ecological mismatches that can scale up from individual responses, to communities, to ecosystems. Similarly, altered hydrology, temperature, CO2 concentration and land use will modify the recruitment and quality of riparian vegetation, the timing of leaf abscission and the establishment of invasive riparian species. Along with morphological changes to stream–terrestrial boundaries, these will alter the use and fluxes of allochthonous subsidies associated with stream ecosystems. Future research should aim to understand how subsidy dynamics will be affected by key drivers of global change, including agricultural intensification, increasing water use and biotic

  9. Contrasting Responses of the Humboldt Current Ecosystem between the Holocene and MIS5e Interglacials Revealed from Multiple Sediment Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatteci, R.; Schneider, R. R.; Blanz, T.; Martinez, P.; Crosta, X.

    2016-12-01

    The Humboldt Current Ecosystem (HCE) off Peru yields about 10% of the global fish catch, producing more fish per unit area than any other region in the world. The high productivity is maintained by the upwelling of cold, nutrient-rich water from the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), driven by strong trade winds. However, the potential impacts of climate change on upwelling dynamics and oceanographic conditions in the near future are uncertain, threatening local and global economies. Here, we unravel the response of the HCE to contrasting climatic conditions during the last two interglacials (i.e. Holocene and MIS5e) providing an independent insight about the relation between climatic factors and upwelling and productivity dynamics. For this purpose, we used multiple cores to reconstruct past changes in OMZ and upwelling intensity, productivity and fish biomass variability. Chronologies for the Holocene were obtained by multiple 14C ages and laminae correlations among cores, while for the MIS5e they were mainly done by correlation of prominent features in several proxies with other published records. We used a multiproxy approach including alkenones to reconstruct sea surface temperatures, δ15N as a proxy for water column denitrification, redox sensitive metals as proxies for sediment redox conditions, and diatom and fish debris assemblages to reconstruct ecological changes. The results show a very different response of the HCE to climate conditions during the last 2 interglacials, likely driven by changes in Tropical Pacific dynamics. During the Holocene we find that 1) the Late Holocene exhibits higher multi-centennial scale variability compared to the Early Holocene, 2) increased upwelling and a weak OMZ during the mid-Holocene, and 3) long term increase in productivity (diatoms and fishes) from the Early to the Late Holocene. During the MIS5e we find an 1) intense OMZ, 2) strong water column stratification, 3) high siliceous biomass, and 4) low fish biomass compared

  10. Ecosystem Management. A Management View

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Jonsen, Lars

    The need for management of the marine ecosystem using a broad perspective has been recommended under a variety of names. This paper uses the term Ecosystem Management, which is seen as a convergence between the ecological idea of an organisational hierarchy and the idea of strategic planning...... with a planning hierarchy---with the ecosystem being the strategic planning level. Management planning requires, in order to establish a quantifiable means and ends chain, that the goals at the ecosystem level can be linked to operational levels; ecosystem properties must therefore be reducible to lower...... organisational levels. Emergence caused by constraints at both the component and system levels gives rise to phenomena that can create links between the ecosystem and operational levels. To create these links, the ecosystem's functional elements must be grouped according to their functionality, ignoring any...

  11. Ecosystem-based management and the wealth of ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seong Do; Hutniczak, Barbara; Abbott, Joshua K.; Fenichel, Eli P.

    2017-01-01

    We merge inclusive wealth theory with ecosystem-based management (EBM) to address two challenges in the science of sustainable management of ecosystems. First, we generalize natural capital theory to approximate realized shadow prices for multiple interacting natural capital stocks (species) making up an ecosystem. These prices enable ecosystem components to be better included in wealth-based sustainability measures. We show that ecosystems are best envisioned as portfolios of assets, where the portfolio’s performance depends on the performance of the underlying assets influenced by their interactions. Second, changes in ecosystem wealth provide an attractive headline index for EBM, regardless of whether ecosystem wealth is ultimately included in a broader wealth index. We apply our approach to the Baltic Sea ecosystem, focusing on the interacting community of three commercially important fish species: cod, herring, and sprat. Our results incorporate supporting services embodied in the shadow price of a species through its trophic interactions. Prey fish have greater shadow prices than expected based on market value, and predatory fish have lower shadow prices than expected based on market value. These results are because correctly measured shadow prices reflect interdependence and limits to substitution. We project that ecosystem wealth in the Baltic Sea fishery ecosystem generally increases conditional on the EBM-inspired multispecies maximum sustainable yield management beginning in 2017, whereas continuing the current single-species management generally results in declining wealth. PMID:28588145

  12. Ecosystem-based management and the wealth of ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seong Do; Hutniczak, Barbara; Abbott, Joshua K; Fenichel, Eli P

    2017-06-20

    We merge inclusive wealth theory with ecosystem-based management (EBM) to address two challenges in the science of sustainable management of ecosystems. First, we generalize natural capital theory to approximate realized shadow prices for multiple interacting natural capital stocks (species) making up an ecosystem. These prices enable ecosystem components to be better included in wealth-based sustainability measures. We show that ecosystems are best envisioned as portfolios of assets, where the portfolio's performance depends on the performance of the underlying assets influenced by their interactions. Second, changes in ecosystem wealth provide an attractive headline index for EBM, regardless of whether ecosystem wealth is ultimately included in a broader wealth index. We apply our approach to the Baltic Sea ecosystem, focusing on the interacting community of three commercially important fish species: cod, herring, and sprat. Our results incorporate supporting services embodied in the shadow price of a species through its trophic interactions. Prey fish have greater shadow prices than expected based on market value, and predatory fish have lower shadow prices than expected based on market value. These results are because correctly measured shadow prices reflect interdependence and limits to substitution. We project that ecosystem wealth in the Baltic Sea fishery ecosystem generally increases conditional on the EBM-inspired multispecies maximum sustainable yield management beginning in 2017, whereas continuing the current single-species management generally results in declining wealth.

  13. Evaluation of ERTS data for certain oceanographic uses. [sunglint, algal bloom, water temperature, upwelling, and turbidity of Great Lakes waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, A. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. (1) Sunglint effects over water can be expected in ERTS-1 images whenever solar elevations exceed 55 deg. (2) Upwellings were viewed coincidently by ERTS-1 and NOAA-2 in Lake Michigan on two occasions during August 1973. (3) A large oil slick was identified 100 km off the Maryland coast in the Atlantic Ocean. Volume of the oil was estimated to be least 200,000 liters (50,000 gallons). (4) ERTS-1 observations of turbidity patterns in Lake St. Clair provide circulation information that correlates well with physical model studies made 10 years ago. (5) Good correlation has been established between ERTS-1 water color densities and NOAA-2 thermal infrared surface temperature measurements. Initial comparisons have been made in Lake Erie during March 1973.

  14. Bacterial and Archaeal Communities Variability Associated with Upwelling and Anthropogenic Pressures in the Protection Area of Arraial do Cabo (Cabo Frio region - RJ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho-Souza, Sergio A; Araújo, Fábio V; Cury, Juliano C; Jesus, Hugo E; Pereira, Gilberto C; Guimarães, Jean R D; Peixoto, Raquel S; Dávila, Alberto M R; Rosado, Alexandre S

    2015-09-01

    Upwelling systems contain a high diversity of pelagic microorganisms and their composition and activity are defined by factors like temperature and nutrient concentration. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) technique was used to verify the spatial and temporal genetic variability of Bacteria and Archaea in two stations of the Arraial do Cabo coastal region, one under upwelling pressure and another under anthropogenic pressure. In addition, biotic and abiotic variables were measured in surface and deep waters from three other stations between these stations. Six samplings were done during a year and adequately represented the degrees of upwelling and anthropogenic pressures to the system. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed negative correlations between the concentrations of ammonia and phosphorous with prokaryotic secondary production and the total heterotrophic bacteria. PCA also showed negative correlation between temperature and the abundance of prokaryotic cells. Bacterial and archaeal compositions were changeable as were the oceanographic conditions, and upwelling had a regional pressure while anthropogenic pressure was punctual. We suggest that the measurement of prokaryotic secondary production was associated with both Bacteria and Archaea activities, and that substrate availability and temperature determine nutrients cycling.

  15. Climate warming and estuarine and marine coastal ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, V.S.

    1994-01-01

    Estuaries are physically controlled, resilient coastal ecosystems harboring environmentally tolerant species in diluted seawater. Marine coastal systems are less stressed physically and contain some environmentally less tolerant species. Both systems are biologically productive and economically significant. Because of their complex structure and function, it is difficult to predict accurately the effects of climate change, but some broad generalizations can be made. If climate warming occurs, it will raise sea-level, heat shallow waters, and modify precipitation, wind, and water circulation patterns. Rapid sea-level rise could cause the loss of salt marshes, mangrove swamps, and coral reefs, thus diminishing the ecological roles of these highly productive systems. Warmer waters could eliminate heat-sensitive species from part of their geographical range while allowing heat-tolerant species to expand their range, depending on their ability to disperse. Most thermally influenced losses of species will probably only be local, but changed distributions may lead to changed community function. It is more difficult to predict the effects of modified precipitation, wind, and water circulation patterns, but changes could affect organisms dependent on such patterns for food production (e.g., in upwelling regions) or for retention in estuaries. Aquacultural and fishery-related enterprises would be affected negatively in some regions and positively in others. 73 refs

  16. Challenging the Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Nina

    2004-01-01

    To many people, challenging the boundaries between the traditional disciplines in foreign language studies means doing cultural studies. The aim of this article is to pull in a different direction by suggesting how the interface between linguistics and literature may be another fertile field...... to explore in the study and teaching of foreign languages. Not only may linguistics and literature be employed to shed light on each other, the insights gained may furthermore prove useful in a broader context in our foreign language studies. The article begins with a brief introduction to literary...... linguistics in general and to Hallidayan linguistics in particular. The theoretical framework thus laid out, it is exemplified how Halliday's theory of language may be employed in the analysis of literature. The article concludes by considering the possible status of literary linguistics in a broader...

  17. Negotiating Cluster Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacomin, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    Palm oil was introduced to Malay(si)a as an alternative to natural rubber, inheriting its cluster organizational structure. In the late 1960s, Malaysia became the world’s largest palm oil exporter. Based on archival material from British colonial institutions and agency houses, this paper focuses...... on the governance dynamics that drove institutional change within this cluster during decolonization. The analysis presents three main findings: (i) cluster boundaries are defined by continuous tug-of-war style negotiations between public and private actors; (ii) this interaction produces institutional change...... within the cluster, in the form of cumulative ‘institutional rounds’ – the correction or disruption of existing institutions or the creation of new ones; and (iii) this process leads to a broader inclusion of local actors in the original cluster configuration. The paper challenges the prevalent argument...

  18. Transcending Organizational Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kringelum, Louise Tina Brøns

    by applying the engaged scholarship approach, thereby providing a methodological contribution to both port and business model research. Emphasizing the interplay of intra- and inter-organizational business model innovation, the thesis adds insight into the roles of port authorities, business model trends......This thesis explores how processes of business model innovation can unfold in a port authority by transcending organizational boundaries through inter-organizational collaboration. The findings contribute to two fields of academic inquiry: the study of business model innovation and the study of how...... the roles of port authorities evolve. This contribution is made by combining the two fields, where the study of business model innovation is used as an analytical concept for understanding the evolution of port authorities, and where the study of port authorities is used as a contextual setting...

  19. Superfluid Boundary Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, G W; Parker, N G; Barenghi, C F

    2017-03-31

    We model the superfluid flow of liquid helium over the rough surface of a wire (used to experimentally generate turbulence) profiled by atomic force microscopy. Numerical simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation reveal that the sharpest features in the surface induce vortex nucleation both intrinsically (due to the raised local fluid velocity) and extrinsically (providing pinning sites to vortex lines aligned with the flow). Vortex interactions and reconnections contribute to form a dense turbulent layer of vortices with a nonclassical average velocity profile which continually sheds small vortex rings into the bulk. We characterize this layer for various imposed flows. As boundary layers conventionally arise from viscous forces, this result opens up new insight into the nature of superflows.

  20. The Plasmasphere Boundary Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Carpenter

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available As an inner magnetospheric phenomenon the plasmapause region is of interest for a number of reasons, one being the occurrence there of geophysically important interactions between the plasmas of the hot plasma sheet and of the cool plasmasphere. There is a need for a conceptual framework within which to examine and discuss these interactions and their consequences, and we therefore suggest that the plasmapause region be called the Plasmasphere Boundary Layer, or PBL. Such a term has been slow to emerge because of the complexity and variability of the plasma populations that can exist near the plasmapause and because of the variety of criteria used to identify the plasmapause in experimental data. Furthermore, and quite importantly in our view, a substantial obstacle to the consideration of the plasmapause region as a boundary layer has been the longstanding tendency of textbooks on space physics to limit introductory material on the plasmapause phenomenon to zeroth order descriptions in terms of ideal MHD theory, thus implying that the plasmasphere is relatively well understood. A textbook may introduce the concept of shielding of the inner magnetosphere from perturbing convection electric fields, but attention is not usually paid to the variety of physical processes reported to occur in the PBL, such as heating, instabilities, and fast longitudinal flows, processes which must play roles in plasmasphere dynamics in concert with the flow regimes associated with the major dynamo sources of electric fields. We believe that through the use of the PBL concept in future textbook discussions of the plasmasphere and in scientific communications, much progress can be made on longstanding questions about the physics involved in the formation of the plasmapause and in the cycles of erosion and recovery of the plasmasphere.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasmasphere; plasma convection; MHD waves and instabilities