Steeneveld, G.J.
2012-01-01
Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The
Development of boundary layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herbst, R.
1980-01-01
Boundary layers develop along the blade surfaces on both the pressure and the suction side in a non-stationary flow field. This is due to the fact that there is a strongly fluctuating flow on the downstream blade row, especially as a result of the wakes of the upstream blade row. The author investigates the formation of boundary layers under non-stationary flow conditions and tries to establish a model describing the non-stationary boundary layer. For this purpose, plate boundary layers are measured, at constant flow rates but different interferent frequency and variable pressure gradients. By introducing the sample technique, measurements of the non-stationary boundary layer become possible, and the flow rate fluctuation can be divided in its components, i.e. stochastic turbulence and periodical fluctuation. (GL) [de
Trowbridge, John H.; Lentz, Steven J.
2018-01-01
The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and (c) the remaining challenges include the interaction of waves and currents with the erodible seabed, the impact of layer-scale two- and three-dimensional instabilities, and the role of the bottom boundary layer in shelf-slope exchange.
Physics of magnetospheric boundary layers
Cairns, Iver H.
1995-01-01
This final report was concerned with the ideas that: (1) magnetospheric boundary layers link disparate regions of the magnetosphere-solar wind system together; and (2) global behavior of the magnetosphere can be understood only by understanding its internal linking mechanisms and those with the solar wind. The research project involved simultaneous research on the global-, meso-, and micro-scale physics of the magnetosphere and its boundary layers, which included the bow shock, the magnetosheath, the plasma sheet boundary layer, and the ionosphere. Analytic, numerical, and simulation projects were performed on these subjects, as well as comparisons of theoretical results with observational data. Other related activity included in the research included: (1) prediction of geomagnetic activity; (2) global MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) simulations; (3) Alfven resonance heating; and (4) Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) effect. In the appendixes are list of personnel involved, list of papers published; and reprints or photocopies of papers produced for this report.
Schlichting (Deceased), Hermann
2017-01-01
This new edition of the near-legendary textbook by Schlichting and revised by Gersten presents a comprehensive overview of boundary-layer theory and its application to all areas of fluid mechanics, with particular emphasis on the flow past bodies (e.g. aircraft aerodynamics). The new edition features an updated reference list and over 100 additional changes throughout the book, reflecting the latest advances on the subject.
Asymptotic analysis and boundary layers
Cousteix, Jean
2007-01-01
This book presents a new method of asymptotic analysis of boundary-layer problems, the Successive Complementary Expansion Method (SCEM). The first part is devoted to a general comprehensive presentation of the tools of asymptotic analysis. It gives the keys to understand a boundary-layer problem and explains the methods to construct an approximation. The second part is devoted to SCEM and its applications in fluid mechanics, including external and internal flows. The advantages of SCEM are discussed in comparison with the standard Method of Matched Asymptotic Expansions. In particular, for the first time, the theory of Interactive Boundary Layer is fully justified. With its chapter summaries, detailed derivations of results, discussed examples and fully worked out problems and solutions, the book is self-contained. It is written on a mathematical level accessible to graduate and post-graduate students of engineering and physics with a good knowledge in fluid mechanics. Researchers and practitioners will estee...
2016-10-01
Xenon arc lamp from Newport, and we are planning to replace the 200 W QTH lamp with the arc lamp. In addition, Photron SA-Z camera with a 180-mm FL...Effects on Cone Frustum Boundary Layer Transition in Hypersonic Flow,” 16th AIAA Fluid and Plasma Dynamics Conference, AIAA-83-1763, Danvers...Indiana, 2015. 52 Johnson, H. B. and Candler, G. V., “Hypersonic boundary layer stability analysis using PSE- Chem,” 35th Fluid Dynamics Conference
Blumenthal, Brennan
2016-01-01
This thesis will examine potential propulsive and aerodynamic benefits of integrating a boundary-layer ingestion (BLI) propulsion system with a typical commercial aircraft using the Common Research Model geometry and the NASA Tetrahedral Unstructured Software System (TetrUSS). The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) environment will be used to generate engine conditions for CFD analysis. Improvements to the BLI geometry will be made using the Constrained Direct Iterative Surface Curvature (CDISC) design method. Previous studies have shown reductions of up to 25% in terms of propulsive power required for cruise for other axisymmetric geometries using the BLI concept. An analysis of engine power requirements, drag, and lift coefficients using the baseline and BLI geometries coupled with the NPSS model are shown. Potential benefits of the BLI system relating to cruise propulsive power are quantified using a power balance method and a comparison to the baseline case is made. Iterations of the BLI geometric design are shown and any improvements between subsequent BLI designs presented. Simulations are conducted for a cruise flight condition of Mach 0.85 at an altitude of 38,500 feet and an angle of attack of 2deg for all geometries. A comparison between available wind tunnel data, previous computational results, and the original CRM model is presented for model verification purposes along with full results for BLI power savings. Results indicate a 14.3% reduction in engine power requirements at cruise for the BLI configuration over the baseline geometry. Minor shaping of the aft portion of the fuselage using CDISC has been shown to increase the benefit from boundary-layer ingestion further, resulting in a 15.6% reduction in power requirements for cruise as well as a drag reduction of eighteen counts over the baseline geometry.
Blumenthal, Brennan T.; Elmiligui, Alaa; Geiselhart, Karl A.; Campbell, Richard L.; Maughmer, Mark D.; Schmitz, Sven
2016-01-01
The present paper examines potential propulsive and aerodynamic benefits of integrating a Boundary-Layer Ingestion (BLI) propulsion system into a typical commercial aircraft using the Common Research Model (CRM) geometry and the NASA Tetrahedral Unstructured Software System (TetrUSS). The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) environment is used to generate engine conditions for CFD analysis. Improvements to the BLI geometry are made using the Constrained Direct Iterative Surface Curvature (CDISC) design method. Previous studies have shown reductions of up to 25% in terms of propulsive power required for cruise for other axisymmetric geometries using the BLI concept. An analysis of engine power requirements, drag, and lift coefficients using the baseline and BLI geometries coupled with the NPSS model are shown. Potential benefits of the BLI system relating to cruise propulsive power are quantified using a power balance method, and a comparison to the baseline case is made. Iterations of the BLI geometric design are shown and any improvements between subsequent BLI designs presented. Simulations are conducted for a cruise flight condition of Mach 0.85 at an altitude of 38,500 feet and an angle of attack of 2 deg for all geometries. A comparison between available wind tunnel data, previous computational results, and the original CRM model is presented for model verification purposes along with full results for BLI power savings. Results indicate a 14.4% reduction in engine power requirements at cruise for the BLI configuration over the baseline geometry. Minor shaping of the aft portion of the fuselage using CDISC has been shown to increase the benefit from Boundary-Layer Ingestion further, resulting in a 15.6% reduction in power requirements for cruise as well as a drag reduction of eighteen counts over the baseline geometry.
Reshotko, E.
1974-01-01
Review of the nature and goals of the NASA Transition Study program aimed at developing procedures yielding information relevant to anomalies in boundary layer transition data and future estimation of transition Reynolds numbers. Specific experimental programs have been formulated that emphasize careful and redundant measurements, documentation of the disturbance environment, and elimination of facility induced transition, whenever possible.
Analysis of turbulent boundary layers
Cebeci, Tuncer
1974-01-01
Analysis of Turbulent Boundary Layers focuses on turbulent flows meeting the requirements for the boundary-layer or thin-shear-layer approximations. Its approach is devising relatively fundamental, and often subtle, empirical engineering correlations, which are then introduced into various forms of describing equations for final solution. After introducing the topic on turbulence, the book examines the conservation equations for compressible turbulent flows, boundary-layer equations, and general behavior of turbulent boundary layers. The latter chapters describe the CS method for calculati
Kleczek, M.A.; Steeneveld, G.J.; Holtslag, A.A.M.
2014-01-01
We evaluated the performance of the three-dimensional Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model, specifically the performance of the planetary boundary-layer (PBL) parametrizations. For this purpose, Cabauw tower observations were used, with the study extending beyond the third GEWEX
Costigliola, V.
2010-09-01
It has long been known that specific atmospheric processes, such as weather and longer-term climatic fluctuations, affect human health. The biometeorological literature refers to this relationship as meteorotropism, defined as a change in an organism that is correlated with a change in atmospheric conditions. Plenty of (patho)physiological functions are affected by those conditions - like the respiratory diseases - and currently it is difficult to put any limits for pathologies developed in reply. Nowadays the importance of atmospheric boundary layer and health is increasingly recognised. A number of epidemiologic studies have reported associations between ambient concentrations of air pollution, specifically particulate pollution, and adverse health effects, even at the relatively low concentrations of pollution found. Since 1995 there have been over twenty-one studies from four continents that have explicitly examined the association between ambient air pollutant mixes and daily mortality. Statistically significant and positive associations have been reported in data from various locations around the world, all with varying air pollutant concentrations, weather conditions, population characteristics and public health policies. Particular role has been given to atmospheric boundary layer processes, the impact of which for specific patient-cohort is, however, not well understood till now. Assessing and monitoring air quality are thus fundamental to improve Europe's welfare. One of current projects run by the "European Medical Association" - PASODOBLE will develop and demonstrate user-driven downstream information services for the regional and local air quality sectors by combining space-based and in-situ data with models in 4 thematic service lines: - Health community support for hospitals, pharmacies, doctors and people at risk - Public information for regions, cities, tourist industry and sporting event organizers - Compliance monitoring support on particulate
The laminar boundary layer equations
Curle, N
2017-01-01
Thorough introduction to boundary layer problems offers an ordered, logical presentation accessible to undergraduates. The text's careful expositions of the limitations and accuracy of various methods will also benefit professionals. 1962 edition.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Draxl, Caroline; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Pena Diaz, Alfredo
2014-01-01
with different PBL parameterizations at one coastal site over western Denmark. The evaluation focuses on determining which PBL parameterization performs best for wind energy forecasting, and presenting a validation methodology that takes into account wind speed at different heights. Winds speeds at heights...... regarding wind energy at these levels partly depends on the formulation and implementation of planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterizations in these models. This study evaluates wind speeds and vertical wind shears simulated by theWeather Research and Forecasting model using seven sets of simulations...
Todd, Martin; Cavazos, Carolina; Wang, Yi
2013-04-01
The Saharan atmospheric boundary layer (SABL) during summer is one of the deepest on Earth, and is crucial in controlling the vertical redistribution and long-range transport of dust in the Sahara. The SABL is typically made up of an actively growing convective layer driven by high sensible heating at the surface, with a deep, near-neutrally stratified Saharan residual layer (SRL) above it, which is mostly well mixed in humidity and temperature and reaches a height of ˜5-6km. These two layers are usually separated by a weak (≤1K) temperature inversion. Model representation of the SPBL structure and evolution is important for accurate weather/climate and aerosol prediction. In this work, we evaluate model performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) to represent key multi-scale processes in the SABL during summer 2011, including depiction of the diurnal cycle. For this purpose, a sensitivity analysis is performed to examine the performance of seven PBL schemes (YSU, MYJ, QNSE, MYNN, ACM, Boulac and MRF) and two land-surface model (Noah and RUC) schemes. In addition, the sensitivity to the choice of lateral boundary conditions (ERA-Interim and NCEP) and land use classification maps (USGS and MODIS-based) is tested. Model outputs were confronted upper-air and surface observations from the Fennec super-site at Bordj Moktar and automatic weather station (AWS) in Southern Algeria Vertical profiles of wind speed, potential temperature and water vapour mixing ratio were examined to diagnose differences in PBL heights and model efficacy to reproduce the diurnal cycle of the SABL. We find that the structure of the model SABL is most sensitive the choice of land surface model and lateral boundary conditions and relatively insensitive to the PBL scheme. Overall the model represents well the diurnal cycle in the structure of the SABL. Consistent model biases include (i) a moist (1-2 gkg-1) and slightly cool (~1K) bias in the daytime convective boundary layer (ii
Exploring the magnetospheric boundary layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hapgood, M.A.; Bryant, D.A.
1992-01-01
We show how, for most crossings of the boundary layer, one can construct a 'transition parameter', based on electron density and temperature, which orders independent plasma measurements into well-defined patterns which are consistent from case to case. We conclude that there is a gradual change in the balance of processes which determine the structure of the layer and suggest that there is no advantage in dividing the layer into different regions. We further conclude that the mixing processes in layer act in an organised way to give the consistent patterns revealed by the transition parameter. More active processes must sometimes take to give the extreme values (e.g. in velocity) which are seen in some crossings
Fisher, Andrew M.
The late spring and summer low-level wind field along the California coast is primarily controlled by the pressure gradient between the Pacific high and the thermal low over the desert southwest. Strong northwesterly winds within the marine boundary layer (MBL) are common and the flow is often described as a two-layer shallow water hydraulic system, capped above by subsidence and bounded laterally by high coastal topography. Hydraulic features such as an expansion fan can occur near major coastal headlands. Numerical simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modeling system were conducted over a two-month period and compared to observations from several buoy stations and aircraft measurements from the Precision Atmospheric Marine Boundary Layer Experiment (PreAMBLE). Model performance of the atmospheric adjustment near the Point Arguello and Point Conception (PAPC) headlands and into the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC) is assessed. Substantial inconsistencies are revealed, especially in the SBC. The strength of the synoptic forcing impacts model performance upstream of PAPC. The model maintains stronger winds than observed under weak forcing regimes, inadequately representing periods of wind relaxation. The large-scale forcing has minimal impact on the flow in the SBC, where poor modeling of the MBL characteristics exists throughout the entire period. Similar results are found in the coarser North American Mesoscale (NAM) model. In general, WRF overestimates the wind speed around PAPC and the expansion fan extends too far into the SBC. Previous conceptual models were based on similar flawed model results and limited observations. PreAMBLE measurements reveal a more complex lower atmosphere in the SBC than the simulations can represent. Mischaracterization of surface wind stress in the SBC has implications for forcing ocean models with WRF. Understanding model biases of the vertical profile of temperature and humidity are also critical to several
Ferrero, Enrico; Alessandrini, Stefano; Vandenberghe, Francois
2018-03-01
We tested several planetary-boundary-layer (PBL) schemes available in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model against measured wind speed and direction, temperature and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) at three levels (5, 9, 25 m). The Urban Turbulence Project dataset, gathered from the outskirts of Turin, Italy and used for the comparison, provides measurements made by sonic anemometers for more than 1 year. In contrast to other similar studies, which have mainly focused on short-time periods, we considered 2 months of measurements (January and July) representing both the seasonal and the daily variabilities. To understand how the WRF-model PBL schemes perform in an urban environment, often characterized by low wind-speed conditions, we first compared six PBL schemes against observations taken by the highest anemometer located in the inertial sub-layer. The availability of the TKE measurements allows us to directly evaluate the performances of the model; results of the model evaluation are presented in terms of quantile versus quantile plots and statistical indices. Secondly, we considered WRF-model PBL schemes that can be coupled to the urban-surface exchange parametrizations and compared the simulation results with measurements from the two lower anemometers located inside the canopy layer. We find that the PBL schemes accounting for TKE are more accurate and the model representation of the roughness sub-layer improves when the urban model is coupled to each PBL scheme.
Control of a boundary layer separation
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Uruba, Václav; Knob, Martin; Popelka, Lukáš
2007-01-01
Roč. 7, - (2007), s. 4140019-4140020 ISSN 1617-7061 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2076403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : boundary layer * control * dynamics Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/societies/gamm/
DYNAMICS OF A BOUNDARY LAYER SEPARATION
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Uruba, Václav; Knob, Martin
2009-01-01
Roč. 16, č. 1 (2009), s. 29-38 ISSN 1802-1484 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/08/1112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : boundary layer * triple-deck theory * Time-Resolved PIV Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Suomi, Irene; Lüpkes, Christof; Hartmann, Jörg
2016-01-01
exceeding those at upper levels. Furthermore, we found gust factors to be strongly dependent on surface roughness conditions, which differed between the open ocean and sea ice in the Arctic marine environment. The roughness effect on the gust factor was stronger than the effect of boundary-layer stability....... at multiple levels over the same track. This is a significant advance, as gust measurements are usually limited to heights reached by weather masts. In unstable conditions over the open ocean, the gust factor was nearly constant with height throughout the boundary layer, the near-surface values only slightly...
Thaxton, C.; Sherman, J. P.; Krintz, I. A.; Scher, A.; Ross, D.; Schlesselman, D.
2017-12-01
Atmospheric aerosol and contaminant transport and mixing over complex terrain are influenced by a broad-spectrum of turbulence production and dissipation mechanisms that are not, at present, considered in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model v3.9 numerical schemes that are constrained to parameterize the dynamic effects of small-scale turbulent structures. Unresolved thermally-driven processes, such slope and valley flows and associated recirculations, as well as orographically-produced or enhanced mechanical turbulence structures, may express as systematic yet potentially predictable model biases in the diurnal evolution of measurables and diagnostic parameters such as planetary boundary layer (PBL) height. Herein, we present an assessment of the (non-LES) WRF PBL schemes - YSU, MYJ, MYNNx, and ACM2 - over a range of synoptic conditions in the warm months of 2013 through comparison to a subset of 76 radiosonde launches taken at various times throughout the day, as well as continuous ground weather station data and ground-based lidar-derived diagnostics. Preliminary results, many of which may be explained by known passive and active mechanisms in complex terrain, include an over-prediction of PBL heights for non-local PBL schemes; an enhanced surface layer cold bias and under-prediction of PBL heights for local PBL schemes; and peak variance in potential temperature, specific humidity, and wind speed for all schemes at or near the entrainment zone. Suppressed amplitudes in the diurnal lidar-derived PBL height time series also suggest enhanced turbulence production during a range of nocturnal flow conditions. The aim of this investigation is to develop a recommended suite of coupled WRF PBL-surface layer parameterizations optimized to support modeling of aerosol load dynamics, aerosol-meteorology coupling, and operational forecasting in the Southern Appalachians, as well as to inform future WRF PBL scheme use and development.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Ben; Qian, Yun; Berg, Larry K.; Ma, Po-Lun; Wharton, Sonia; Bulaevskaya, Vera; Yan, Huiping; Hou, Zhangshuan; Shaw, William J.
2016-07-21
We evaluate the sensitivity of simulated turbine-height winds to 26 parameters applied in a planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme and a surface layer scheme of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over an area of complex terrain during the Columbia Basin Wind Energy Study. An efficient sampling algorithm and a generalized linear model are used to explore the multiple-dimensional parameter space and quantify the parametric sensitivity of modeled turbine-height winds. The results indicate that most of the variability in the ensemble simulations is contributed by parameters related to the dissipation of the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE), Prandtl number, turbulence length scales, surface roughness, and the von Kármán constant. The relative contributions of individual parameters are found to be dependent on both the terrain slope and atmospheric stability. The parameter associated with the TKE dissipation rate is found to be the most important one, and a larger dissipation rate can produce larger hub-height winds. A larger Prandtl number results in weaker nighttime winds. Increasing surface roughness reduces the frequencies of both extremely weak and strong winds, implying a reduction in the variability of the wind speed. All of the above parameters can significantly affect the vertical profiles of wind speed, the altitude of the low-level jet and the magnitude of the wind shear strength. The wind direction is found to be modulated by the same subset of influential parameters. Remainder of abstract is in attachment.
Yang, Ben; Qian, Yun; Berg, Larry K.; Ma, Po-Lun; Wharton, Sonia; Bulaevskaya, Vera; Yan, Huiping; Hou, Zhangshuan; Shaw, William J.
2017-01-01
We evaluate the sensitivity of simulated turbine-height wind speeds to 26 parameters within the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino (MYNN) planetary boundary-layer scheme and MM5 surface-layer scheme of the Weather Research and Forecasting model over an area of complex terrain. An efficient sampling algorithm and generalized linear model are used to explore the multiple-dimensional parameter space and quantify the parametric sensitivity of simulated turbine-height wind speeds. The results indicate that most of the variability in the ensemble simulations is due to parameters related to the dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), Prandtl number, turbulent length scales, surface roughness, and the von Kármán constant. The parameter associated with the TKE dissipation rate is found to be most important, and a larger dissipation rate produces larger hub-height wind speeds. A larger Prandtl number results in smaller nighttime wind speeds. Increasing surface roughness reduces the frequencies of both extremely weak and strong airflows, implying a reduction in the variability of wind speed. All of the above parameters significantly affect the vertical profiles of wind speed and the magnitude of wind shear. The relative contributions of individual parameters are found to be dependent on both the terrain slope and atmospheric stability.
the Martian atmospheric boundary layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petrosyan, A.; Galperin, B.; Larsen, Søren Ejling
2011-01-01
The planetary boundary layer (PBL) represents the part of the atmosphere that is strongly influenced by the presence of the underlying surface and mediates the key interactions between the atmosphere and the surface. On Mars, this represents the lowest 10 km of the atmosphere during the daytime...... atmosphere. To date, this region of the atmosphere has been studied directly, by instrumented lander spacecraft, and from orbital remote sensing, though not to the extent that is necessary to fully constrain its character and behavior. Current data strongly suggest that as for the Earth's PBL, classical...... of the modeling techniques used for the PBL on Earth are also being applied to the Martian PBL, including novel uses of very high resolution large eddy simulation methods. We conclude with those aspects of the PBL that require new measurements in order to constrain models and discuss the extent to which...
Experimental investigation of wave boundary layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sumer, B. Mutlu
2003-01-01
A review is presented of experimental investigation of wave boundary layer. The review is organized in six main sections. The first section describes the wave boundary layer in a real-life environment and its simulation in the laboratory in an oscillating water tunnel and in a water tank...... with an oscillating seabed. A brief account is given of measured quantities, measurement techniques (LDA, PIV, flow visualization) and limitations/constraints in the experimental investigation of the wave boundary layer in the laboratory. The second section concentrates on uniform oscillating boundary layers...
Boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere
Eastman, T. E.; Frank, L. A.
1984-01-01
The magnetospheric boundary layer and the plasma-sheet boundary layer are the primary boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere. Recent satellite observations indicate that they provide for more than 50 percent of the plasma and energy transport in the outer magnetosphere although they constitute less than 5 percent by volume. Relative to the energy density in the source regions, plasma in the magnetospheric boundary layer is predominantly deenergized whereas plasma in the plasma-sheet boundary layer has been accelerated. The reconnection hypothesis continues to provide a useful framework for comparing data sampled in the highly dynamic magnetospheric environment. Observations of 'flux transfer events' and other detailed features near the boundaries have been recently interpreted in terms of nonsteady-state reconnection. Alternative hypotheses are also being investigated. More work needs to be done, both in theory and observation, to determine whether reconnection actually occurs in the magnetosphere and, if so, whether it is important for overall magnetospheric dynamics.
Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow
Sterk, H.A.M.
2015-01-01
Thesis entitled:
Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow
H.A.M. Sterk
Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015
Summary
The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs
Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow
Sterk, H.A.M.
2015-01-01
Thesis entitled: Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow H.A.M. Sterk Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015 Summary The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs typically form at night and in polar
Boundary layer computations using a generalized formulation
Bergeron, D.; Zingg, D. W.
A numerical solution procedure for a generalized form of the boundary-layer equations based on the formulation of Steger and Van Dalsem is described. The formulation, which is intended for use in a fortified Navier-Stokes procedure, uses the boundary-layer equations expressed in body-confromal coordinates but transformed into generalized coordinates for the solution process. Results are presented for attached and separated transonic airfoil flows with external pressure gradient given from a Navier-Stokes solution in the boundary layers. Discrepancies are noted near shocks and trailing edges, where normal pressure gradients can be appreciable and streamwise velocity gradients can be high.
Boundary layer physics over snow and ice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. S. Anderson
2008-07-01
Full Text Available Observations of the unique chemical environment over snow and ice in recent decades, particularly in the polar regions, have stimulated increasing interest in the boundary layer processes that mediate exchanges between the ice/snow interface and the atmosphere. This paper provides a review of the underlying concepts and examples from recent field studies in polar boundary layer meteorology, which will generally apply to atmospheric flow over snow and ice surfaces. It forms a companion paper to the chemistry review papers in this special issue of ACP that focus on processes linking halogens to the depletion of boundary layer ozone in coastal environments, mercury transport and deposition, snow photochemistry, and related snow physics. In this context, observational approaches, stable boundary layer behavior, the effects of a weak or absent diurnal cycle, and transport and mixing over the heterogeneous surfaces characteristic of coastal ocean environments are of particular relevance.
Boundary layer physics over snow and ice
Anderson, P. S.; Neff, W. D.
2008-01-01
Observations of the unique chemical environment over snow and ice in recent decades, particularly in the polar regions, have stimulated increasing interest in the boundary layer processes that mediate exchanges between the ice/snow interface and the atmosphere. This paper provides a review of the underlying concepts and examples from recent field studies in polar boundary layer meteorology, which will generally apply to atmospheric flow over snow and ice surfaces. It forms a companion paper t...
BUBBLE - an urban boundary layer meteorology project
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rotach, M.W.; Vogt, R.; Bernhofer, C.
2005-01-01
The Basel urban Boundary Layer Experiment (BUBBLE) was a year-long experimental effort to investigate in detail the boundary layer structure in the City of Basel, Switzerland. At several sites over different surface types (urban, sub-urban and rural reference) towers up to at least twice the main...... a very detailed physical scale-model in a wind tunnel. In the present paper details of all these activities are presented together with first results....
The Ocean Boundary Layer beneath Hurricane Frances
Dasaro, E. A.; Sanford, T. B.; Terrill, E.; Price, J.
2006-12-01
The upper ocean beneath the peak winds of Hurricane Frances (57 m/s) was measured using several varieties of air-deployed floats as part of CBLAST. A multilayer structure was observed as the boundary layer deepened from 20m to 120m in about 12 hours. Bubbles generated by breaking waves create a 10m thick surface layer with a density anomaly, due to the bubbles, of about 1 kg/m3. This acts to lubricate the near surface layer. A turbulent boundary layer extends beneath this to about 40 m depth. This is characterized by large turbulent eddies spanning the boundary layer. A stratified boundary layer grows beneath this reaching 120m depth. This is characterized by a gradient Richardson number of 1/4, which is maintained by strong inertial currents generated by the hurricane, and smaller turbulent eddies driven by the shear instead of the wind and waves. There is little evidence of mixing beneath this layer. Heat budgets reveal the boundary layer to be nearly one dimensional through much of the deepening, with horizontal and vertical heat advection becoming important only after the storm had passed. Turbulent kinetic energy measurements support the idea of reduced surface drag at high wind speeds. The PWP model correctly predicts the degree of mixed layer deepening if the surface drag is reduced at high wind speed. Overall, the greatest uncertainty in understanding the ocean boundary layer at these extreme wind speeds is a characterization of the near- surface processes which govern the air-sea fluxes and surface wave properties.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chivaee, Hamid Sarlak; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming
2012-01-01
Large eddy simulation (LES) of flow in a wind farm is studied in neutral as well as thermally stratified atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). An approach has been practiced to simulate the flow in a fully developed wind farm boundary layer. The approach is based on the Immersed Boundary Method (IBM......) and involves implementation of an arbitrary prescribed initial boundary layer (See [1]). A prescribed initial boundary layer profile is enforced through the computational domain using body forces to maintain a desired flow field. The body forces are then stored and applied on the domain through the simulation...... and the boundary layer shape will be modified due to the interaction of the turbine wakes and buoyancy contributions. The implemented method is capable of capturing the most important features of wakes of wind farms [1] while having the advantage of resolving the wall layer with a coarser grid than typically...
Modeling the summertime Arctic cloudy boundary layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Curry, J.A.; Pinto, J.O. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); McInnes, K.L. [CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Mordialloc (Australia)
1996-04-01
Global climate models have particular difficulty in simulating the low-level clouds during the Arctic summer. Model problems are exacerbated in the polar regions by the complicated vertical structure of the Arctic boundary layer. The presence of multiple cloud layers, a humidity inversion above cloud top, and vertical fluxes in the cloud that are decoupled from the surface fluxes, identified in Curry et al. (1988), suggest that models containing sophisticated physical parameterizations would be required to accurately model this region. Accurate modeling of the vertical structure of multiple cloud layers in climate models is important for determination of the surface radiative fluxes. This study focuses on the problem of modeling the layered structure of the Arctic summertime boundary-layer clouds and in particular, the representation of the more complex boundary layer type consisting of a stable foggy surface layer surmounted by a cloud-topped mixed layer. A hierarchical modeling/diagnosis approach is used. A case study from the summertime Arctic Stratus Experiment is examined. A high-resolution, one-dimensional model of turbulence and radiation is tested against the observations and is then used in sensitivity studies to infer the optimal conditions for maintaining two separate layers in the Arctic summertime boundary layer. A three-dimensional mesoscale atmospheric model is then used to simulate the interaction of this cloud deck with the large-scale atmospheric dynamics. An assessment of the improvements needed to the parameterizations of the boundary layer, cloud microphysics, and radiation in the 3-D model is made.
Boundary-layer effects in droplet splashing
Riboux, Guillaume; Gordillo, Jose Manuel
2017-11-01
A drop falling onto a solid substrate will disintegrate into smaller parts when its impact velocity exceeds the so called critical velocity for splashing. Under these circumstances, the very thin liquid sheet ejected tangentially to the solid after the drop touches the substrate, lifts off as a consequence of the aerodynamic forces exerted on it and finally breaks into smaller droplets, violently ejected radially outwards, provoking the splash. Here, the tangential deceleration experienced by the fluid entering the thin liquid sheet is investigated making use of boundary layer theory. The velocity component tangent to the solid, computed using potential flow theory provides the far field boundary condition as well as the pressure gradient for the boundary layer equations. The structure of the flow permits to find a self similar solution of the boundary layer equations. This solution is then used to calculate the boundary layer thickness at the root of the lamella as well as the shear stress at the wall. The splash model presented in, which is slightly modified to account for the results obtained from the boundary layer analysis, provides a very good agreement between the measurements and the predicted values of the critical velocity for the splash.
The Boundary Layer in compact binaries
Hertfelder, Marius; Kley, Wilhelm; Suleimanov, Valery; Werner, Klaus
2013-01-01
Disk accretion onto stars leads to the formation of a Boundary Layer (BL) near the stellar surface where the disk makes contact with the star. Albeit a large fraction of the total luminosity of the system originates from this tiny layer connecting the accretion disk and the accreting object, its structure has not been fully understood yet. It is the aim of this work, to obtain more insight into the Boundary Layer around the white dwarf in compact binary systems. There are still many uncertain...
On the modeling of electrical boundary layer (electrode layer) and ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In the first part of the paper, equations and methodology are discussed and in the second, we discuss results. 2. Methodology. In the atmospheric electricity, the earth's surface is one electrode and electrode layer or electrical boundary layer is a region near the surface of the earth in which profiles of atmospheric electrical.
High enthalpy hypersonic boundary layer flow
Yanow, G.
1972-01-01
A theoretical and experimental study of an ionizing laminar boundary layer formed by a very high enthalpy flow (in excess of 12 eV per atom or 7000 cal/gm) with allowance for the presence of helium driver gas is described. The theoretical investigation has shown that the use of variable transport properties and their respective derivatives is very important in the solution of equilibrium boundary layer equations of high enthalpy flow. The effect of low level helium contamination on the surface heat transfer rate is minimal. The variation of ionization is much smaller in a chemically frozen boundary layer solution than in an equilibrium boundary layer calculation and consequently, the variation of the transport properties in the case of the former was not essential in the integration. The experiments have been conducted in a free piston shock tunnel, and a detailed study of its nozzle operation, including the effects of low levels of helium driver gas contamination has been made. Neither the extreme solutions of an equilibrium nor of a frozen boundary layer will adequately predict surface heat transfer rate in very high enthalpy flows.
Boundary layer heights derived from velocity spectra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoejstrup, J.; Barthelmie, R.J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Kaellstrand, B. [Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden)
1997-10-01
It is a well-known fact that the height of the mixed layer determines the size of the largest and most energetic eddies that can be observed in the unstable boundary layer, and consequently a peak can be observed in the power spectra of the along-wind velocity component at scales comparable to the mixed layer depth. We will now show how the mixed layer depth can be derived from the u-specta and the results will be compared with direct measurements using pibal and tethersonde measurements. (au)
Unconditionally stable perfectly matched layer boundary conditions
De Raedt, H.; Michielsen, K.
2007-01-01
A brief review is given of a systematic, product-formula based approach to construct unconditionally stable algorithms for solving the time-dependent Maxwell equations. The fundamental difficulties that arise when we want to incorporate uniaxial perfectly matched layer boundary conditions into this
Radiative cooling in the nocturnal boundary layer
Tjemkes, S.A.
1988-01-01
In this thesis the transfer of infrared radiation (electromagnetic waves with a wavelength between 3.6 and 100 μm) through a cloudfree nocturnal boundary layer is studied. To simulate the transfer of infrared radiation an accurate narrow band model which simulates the absorption and
Instabilities and transition in boundary layers
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Figure 1. Sequence of events in the laminar–turbulent transition process on a boundary layer formed by the flow past a semi-infinite flat plate. The. Reynolds number R ≡ δU/ν is an increasing function of the downstream distance. the flow is laminar and far downstream (large x) the flow asymptotically goes to fully developed ...
Towards Natural Transition in Compressible Boundary Layers
2016-06-29
0.9 were observed to be completely different. In the incompressible boundary layer localized lambda vortex struc- tures were observed, that could be...10 2 Physical problem and computational setup 11 2.1 Governing equations...studies on secondary instability. This coincides with a noticeable improvement in the calculation capacity and the cost reduction of the computational
Numerical methods for hypersonic boundary layer stability
Malik, M. R.
1990-01-01
Four different schemes for solving compressible boundary layer stability equations are developed and compared, considering both the temporal and spatial stability for a global eigenvalue spectrum and a local eigenvalue search. The discretizations considered encompass: (1) a second-order-staggered finite-difference scheme; (2) a fourth-order accurate, two-point compact scheme; (3) a single-domain Chebychev spectral collocation scheme; and (4) a multidomain spectral collocation scheme. As Mach number increases, the performance of the single-domain collocation scheme deteriorates due to the outward movement of the critical layer; a multidomain spectral method is accordingly designed to furnish superior resolution of the critical layer.
Accretion disk boundary layers in cataclysmic variables. 1: Optically thick boundary layers
Popham, Robert; Narayan, Ramesh
1995-01-01
We develop numerical models of accretions disks in cataclysmic variables (CVs), including and emphasizing the boundary layer region where the accretion disk meets the accreting white dwarf. We confine ourselves to solutions where the boundary layer region is vertically optically thick, and find that these solutions share several common features. The angular and radial velocities of the accreting material drop rapidly in a dynamical boundary layer, which has a radial width approximately 1%-3% of the white dwarf radius. The energy dissipated in this region diffuses through the inner part of the disk and is radiated from the disk surface in a thermal boundary layer, which has a radial width comparable to the disk thickness, approximately 5%-15% of the white dwarf radius. We examine the dependence of the boundary layer structure on the mass accretion rate, the white dwarf mass and rotation rate, and the viscosity parameter alpha. We delineate the boundary between optically thick and optically thin boundary layer solutions as a function of these parameters and suggest that by means of a careful comparison with observations it may be possible to estimate alpha in CVs. We derive an expression for the total boundary layer luminosities as a function of the parameters and show that it agrees well with the luminosites of our numerical solutions. Finally, we calcuate simple blackbody continuum spectra of the boundary layer and disk emission for our solutions and compare these to soft X-ray, EUV, and He II emission-line observations of CVs. We show that, through such comparisons, it may be possible to determine the rotation rates of the accreting stars in CVs, and perhaps also the white dwarf masses and the accretion rates. The spectra are quite insensitive to alpha, so the uncertainty in this parameter does not affect such comparisons.
Bursting frequency prediction in turbulent boundary layers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
LIOU,WILLIAM W.; FANG,YICHUNG
2000-02-01
The frequencies of the bursting events associated with the streamwise coherent structures of spatially developing incompressible turbulent boundary layers were predicted using global numerical solution of the Orr-Sommerfeld and the vertical vorticity equations of hydrodynamic stability problems. The structures were modeled as wavelike disturbances associated with the turbulent mean flow. The global method developed here involves the use of second and fourth order accurate finite difference formula for the differential equations as well as the boundary conditions. An automated prediction tool, BURFIT, was developed. The predicted resonance frequencies were found to agree very well with previous results using a local shooting technique and measured data.
Physical problems of the benthic boundary layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bowden, K.F.
1978-09-01
Since the boundary layer at the sea bed has a number of features in common with boundary layers found in laboratory scale flows and in meteorology, a brief review is given first of the properties that may be inferred from experience in these fields or from theroetical studies. Measurements of velocity profiles, turbulence, and shearing stress, which have been made near the bottom, in deep water, and on the continental shelf, are described in relation to this background. In particular, the logarithmic form of the velocity profile near the bed and deductions from it appear to be valid in certain conditions, but the occurrence of ripples and other bed forms is a complicating feature. The relation of the dynamical aspects of the flow to the transport of sediment as bed load and in suspension is discussed. The diffusive properties of the layer are then considered, in relation to fluxes near the sea-sediment interface and to the formation of nepheloid layers or layers well mixed in temperature and salinity. 90 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.
Hydrocarbon transport in a plasma boundary layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Langer, W.D.; Ehrhardt, A.B.
1989-01-01
The theory of carbon transport in a plasma boundary layers is important for understanding the impurity penetration, and carbon and hydrogen recycling, in tokamaks using carbon compounds as limiters and as wall coatings. Neutral carbon kinetics and transport at the edge of plasma devices where chemical release is a source of carbon are modeled. Plasma reactions with carbon and hydrocarbons are important for such modeling, and these collisional processes are summarized. Combining the reaction schemes and kinetics in the DEGAS code makes it possible to treat the neutral transport at the plasma boundary layer. Results of such modeling of the atomic carbon and methane distribution at the edge are presented for comparison with recent carbon probe experiments performed on the Divertor and Injection Tokamak Experiment (DITE)
Boundary layer control of rotating convection systems.
King, Eric M; Stellmach, Stephan; Noir, Jerome; Hansen, Ulrich; Aurnou, Jonathan M
2009-01-15
Turbulent rotating convection controls many observed features of stars and planets, such as magnetic fields, atmospheric jets and emitted heat flux patterns. It has long been argued that the influence of rotation on turbulent convection dynamics is governed by the ratio of the relevant global-scale forces: the Coriolis force and the buoyancy force. Here, however, we present results from laboratory and numerical experiments which exhibit transitions between rotationally dominated and non-rotating behaviour that are not determined by this global force balance. Instead, the transition is controlled by the relative thicknesses of the thermal (non-rotating) and Ekman (rotating) boundary layers. We formulate a predictive description of the transition between the two regimes on the basis of the competition between these two boundary layers. This transition scaling theory unifies the disparate results of an extensive array of previous experiments, and is broadly applicable to natural convection systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schlichting, Hermann [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Stroemungsmechanik; Gersten, Klaus [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Thermodynamik und Stroemungsmechanik
2017-03-01
This new edition of the near-legendary textbook by Schlichting and revised by Gersten presents a comprehensive overview of boundary-layer theory and its application to all areas of fluid mechanics, with particular emphasis on the flow past bodies (e.g. aircraft aerodynamics). The new edition features an updated reference list and over 100 additional changes throughout the book, reflecting the latest advances on the subject.
Boundary layer structure of an explosive cyclone
Steeley, Glen D.
1990-01-01
Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited A detailed analysis of the horizontal boundary layer structure of the warm front of an open ocean explosive cyclone in Intensive Observation Period (IOP) 2 of the Experiment on Rapidly Intensifying Cyclones in the Atlantic (ERICA) is conducted. Data for this study consists of aircraft data averaged over one minute supplimented by satellite and drifting buoy observations. Analysis of surface winds and fluxes was done using the Brown-Liu...
Scaling the heterogeneously heated convective boundary layer
Van Heerwaarden, C.; Mellado, J.; De Lozar, A.
2013-12-01
We have studied the heterogeneously heated convective boundary layer (CBL) by means of large-eddy simulations (LES) and direct numerical simulations (DNS). What makes our study different from previous studies on this subject are our very long simulations in which the system travels through multiple states and that from there we have derived scaling laws. In our setup, a stratified atmosphere is heated from below by square patches with a high surface buoyancy flux, surrounded by regions with no or little flux. By letting a boundary layer grow in time we let the system evolve from the so-called meso-scale to the micro-scale regime. In the former the heterogeneity is large and strong circulations can develop, while in the latter the heterogeneity is small and does no longer influence the boundary layer structure. Within each simulation we can now observe the formation of a peak in kinetic energy, which represents the 'optimal' heterogeneity size in the meso-scale, and the subsequent decay of the peak and the development towards the transition to the micro-scale. We have created a non-dimensional parameter space that describes all properties of this system. By studying the previously described evolution for different combinations of parameters, we have derived three important conclusions. First, there exists a horizontal length scale of the heterogeneity (L) that is a function of the boundary layer height (h) and the Richardson (Ri) number of the inversion at the top of the boundary layer. This relationship has the form L = h Ri^(3/8). Second, this horizontal length scale L allows for expressing the time evolution, and thus the state of the system, as a ratio of this length scale and the distance between two patches Xp. This ratio thus describes to which extent the circulation fills up the space that exists between two patch centers. The timings of the transition from the meso- to the micro-scale collapse under this scaling for all simulations sharing the same flux
Separation bubbles dynamics in turbulent boundary layer separation region
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Janeček, Vladislav; Uruba, Václav
2010-01-01
Roč. 55, č. 4 (2010), s. 345-355 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/08/1112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : boundary layer * separation * bubble * dynamics Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics
Hundred years of the boundary layer – Some aspects
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2005-08-02
Aug 2, 2005 ... Boundary layers; centenary; history; Prandtl. 1. Introduction. Towards the end of nineteenth century, researchers in fluid mechanics were divided into two broad groups, viz. those engaged in the study of hydrodynamics, which dealt with inviscid fluid flow, and those studying hydraulics. Hydrodynamics ...
Numerical Simulations of Hypersonic Boundary Layer Transition
Bartkowicz, Matthew David
Numerical schemes for supersonic flows tend to use large amounts of artificial viscosity for stability. This tends to damp out the small scale structures in the flow. Recently some low-dissipation methods have been proposed which selectively eliminate the artificial viscosity in regions which do not require it. This work builds upon the low-dissipation method of Subbareddy and Candler which uses the flux vector splitting method of Steger and Warming but identifies the dissipation portion to eliminate it. Computing accurate fluxes typically relies on large grid stencils or coupled linear systems that become computationally expensive to solve. Unstructured grids allow for CFD solutions to be obtained on complex geometries, unfortunately, it then becomes difficult to create a large stencil or the coupled linear system. Accurate solutions require grids that quickly become too large to be feasible. In this thesis a method is proposed to obtain more accurate solutions using relatively local data, making it suitable for unstructured grids composed of hexahedral elements. Fluxes are reconstructed using local gradients to extend the range of data used. The method is then validated on several test problems. Simulations of boundary layer transition are then performed. An elliptic cone at Mach 8 is simulated based on an experiment at the Princeton Gasdynamics Laboratory. A simulated acoustic noise boundary condition is imposed to model the noisy conditions of the wind tunnel and the transitioning boundary layer observed. A computation of an isolated roughness element is done based on an experiment in Purdue's Mach 6 quiet wind tunnel. The mechanism for transition is identified as an instability in the upstream separation region and a comparison is made to experimental data. In the CFD a fully turbulent boundary layer is observed downstream.
The surface roughness and planetary boundary layer
Telford, James W.
1980-03-01
Applications of the entrainment process to layers at the boundary, which meet the self similarity requirements of the logarithmic profile, have been studied. By accepting that turbulence has dominating scales related in scale length to the height above the surface, a layer structure is postulated wherein exchange is rapid enough to keep the layers internally uniform. The diffusion rate is then controlled by entrainment between layers. It has been shown that theoretical relationships derived on the basis of using a single layer of this type give quantitatively correct factors relating the turbulence, wind and shear stress for very rough surface conditions. For less rough surfaces, the surface boundary layer can be divided into several layers interacting by entrainment across each interface. This analysis leads to the following quantitatively correct formula compared to published measurements. 1 24_2004_Article_BF00877766_TeX2GIFE1.gif {σ _w }/{u^* } = ( {2/{9Aa}} )^{{1/4}} ( {1 - 3^{{1/2}{ a/k{d_n }/z{σ _w }/{u^* }z/L} )^{{1/4}} = 1.28(1 - 0.945({{σ _w }/{u^* }}}) {{z/L}})^{{1/4 where u^* = ( {{tau/ρ}}^{{1/2}}, σ w is the standard deviation of the vertical velocity, z is the height and L is the Obukhov scale lenght. The constants a, A, k and d n are the entrainment constant, the turbulence decay constant, Von Karman's constant, and the layer depth derived from the theory. Of these, a and A, are universal constants and not empirically determined for the boundary layer. Thus the turbulence needed for the plume model of convection, which resides above these layers and reaches to the inversion, is determined by the shear stress and the heat flux in the surface layers. This model applies to convection in cool air over a warm sea. The whole field is now determined except for the temperature of the air relative to the water, and the wind, which need a further parameter describing sea surface roughness. As a first stop to describing a surface where roughness elements
A global boundary-layer height climatology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dop, H. van; Krol, M.; Holtslag, B. [Inst. for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht, IMAU, Utrecht (Netherlands)
1997-10-01
In principle the ABL (atmospheric boundary layer) height can be retrieved from atmospheric global circulation models since they contain algorithms which determine the intensity of the turbulence as a function of height. However, these data are not routinely available, or on a (vertical) resolution which is too crude in view of the application. This justifies the development of a separate algorithm in order to define the ABL. The algorithm should include the generation of turbulence by both shear and buoyancy and should be based on readily available atmospheric parameters. There is obviously a wide application for boundary heights in off-line global and regional chemistry and transport modelling. It is also a much used parameter in air pollution meteorology. In this article we shall present a theory which is based on current insights in ABL dynamics. The theory is applicable over land and sea surfaces in all seasons. The theory is (for various reasons) not valid in mountainous areas. In areas where boundary-layer clouds or deep cumulus convection are present the theory does not apply. However, the same global atmospheric circulation models contain parameterizations for shallow and deep convection from which separate estimates can be obtained for the extent of vertical mixing. (au)
Vortices in the Prandtl boundary layer induced by irregularities on a plate
Danilov, V. G.; Gaydukov, R. K.
2015-04-01
A fluid flow along a plate with small irregularities on the surface is considered for large Reynolds numbers. The boundary layer has a double-deck structure, i.e., both a thin boundary layer and the classical Prandtl boundary layer are present. It is proved that the solution of the boundary-value problem thus obtained exists and is unique in the Prandtl boundary layer, and the stability of the solution is investigated at large times. The results of numerical modeling are given. Supported by the Basic Research Program of the National Research University "Higher School of Economics."
A case study of atmospheric boundary layer features during winter ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jess/118/04/0281-0293. Keywords. Atmospheric boundary layer; nocturnal boundary layer; virtual potential temperature; ventilation coefficient. Abstract. The local weather and air quality over a region are greatly influenced by the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) structure and dynamics.
Numerical solution of atmospheric boundary layer flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benes, L.; Kozel, K. [Czech Technical Univ. (Czech Republic). Dept. of Technical Mathematics; Sladek, I. [Czech Technical Univ. (Czech Republic). Dept. of Mathematics
2000-07-01
The work deals with numerical solution of the 3D viscous turbulent steady flows in the atmospheric boundary layer including pollution propagation. The theoretical model consists of a system of Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flows (continuity and momentum equations) and two equations for concentration and potential temperature in conservative form. Turbulent flow is considered using an algebraic model of turbulence. Numerical solution is based on artificial compressibility method. Numerically is realized using by the finite volume method and multistage Runge-Kutta scheme. The work presents 3D flow for high Re{proportional_to}10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} over a hill or a system of hills. (orig.)
Conference on Boundary and Interior Layers : Computational and Asymptotic Methods
Stynes, Martin; Zhang, Zhimin
2017-01-01
This volume collects papers associated with lectures that were presented at the BAIL 2016 conference, which was held from 14 to 19 August 2016 at Beijing Computational Science Research Center and Tsinghua University in Beijing, China. It showcases the variety and quality of current research into numerical and asymptotic methods for theoretical and practical problems whose solutions involve layer phenomena. The BAIL (Boundary And Interior Layers) conferences, held usually in even-numbered years, bring together mathematicians and engineers/physicists whose research involves layer phenomena, with the aim of promoting interaction between these often-separate disciplines. These layers appear as solutions of singularly perturbed differential equations of various types, and are common in physical problems, most notably in fluid dynamics. This book is of interest for current researchers from mathematics, engineering and physics whose work involves the accurate app roximation of solutions of singularly perturbed diffe...
Cebeci, Tuncer
2005-01-01
This second edition of our book extends the modeling and calculation of boundary-layer flows to include compressible flows. The subjects cover laminar, transitional and turbulent boundary layers for two- and three-dimensional incompressible and compressible flows. The viscous-inviscid coupling between the boundary layer and the inviscid flow is also addressed. The book has a large number of homework problems.
Optimal Growth in Hypersonic Boundary Layers
Paredes, Pedro; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei; Chang, Chau-Lyan
2016-01-01
The linear form of the parabolized linear stability equations is used in a variational approach to extend the previous body of results for the optimal, nonmodal disturbance growth in boundary-layer flows. This paper investigates the optimal growth characteristics in the hypersonic Mach number regime without any high-enthalpy effects. The influence of wall cooling is studied, with particular emphasis on the role of the initial disturbance location and the value of the spanwise wave number that leads to the maximum energy growth up to a specified location. Unlike previous predictions that used a basic state obtained from a self-similar solution to the boundary-layer equations, mean flow solutions based on the full Navier-Stokes equations are used in select cases to help account for the viscous- inviscid interaction near the leading edge of the plate and for the weak shock wave emanating from that region. Using the full Navier-Stokes mean flow is shown to result in further reduction with Mach number in the magnitude of optimal growth relative to the predictions based on the self-similar approximation to the base flow.
Silent inflow condition for turbulent boundary layers
Gloerfelt, X.; Robinet, J.-C.
2017-12-01
The generation of a turbulent inflow is a tricky problem. In the framework of aeroacoustics, another important constraint is that the numerical strategy used to reach a turbulent state induces a spurious noise which is lower than the acoustic field of interest. For the study of noise radiated directly by a turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate, this constraint is severe since wall turbulence is a very inefficient source. That is why a method based on a transition by modal interaction using a base flow with an inflection point is proposed to cope with that. The base flow must be a solution of the equations so we use a profile behind a backward-facing step representative of experimental trip bands. A triad of resonant waves is selected by a local stability analysis of the linearized compressible equations and is added with a weak amplitude in the inlet plane. The compressible stability calculation allows the specification of the thermodynamic quantities at the inlet, which turns out to be fundamental to ensure a quiet inflow. A smooth transition is achieved with the rapid formation of Λ -shape vortices in a staggered organization as in subharmonic transition. The dominance of oblique waves promotes a rapid breakdown by the liftup mechanism of low-speed streaks. The quality of the fully turbulent state is assessed and the direct noise radiation from a turbulent boundary layer at Mach 0.5 is obtained with a very low level of spurious noise.
Exchange Processes in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Over Mountainous Terrain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefano Serafin
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The exchange of heat, momentum, and mass in the atmosphere over mountainous terrain is controlled by synoptic-scale dynamics, thermally driven mesoscale circulations, and turbulence. This article reviews the key challenges relevant to the understanding of exchange processes in the mountain boundary layer and outlines possible research priorities for the future. The review describes the limitations of the experimental study of turbulent exchange over complex terrain, the impact of slope and valley breezes on the structure of the convective boundary layer, and the role of intermittent mixing and wave–turbulence interaction in the stable boundary layer. The interplay between exchange processes at different spatial scales is discussed in depth, emphasizing the role of elevated and ground-based stable layers in controlling multi-scale interactions in the atmosphere over and near mountains. Implications of the current understanding of exchange processes over mountains towards the improvement of numerical weather prediction and climate models are discussed, considering in particular the representation of surface boundary conditions, the parameterization of sub-grid-scale exchange, and the development of stochastic perturbation schemes.
HIFiRE-5 Boundary Layer Transition and HIFiRE-1 Shock Boundary Layer Interaction
2015-10-01
ballistic trajectory , with no active attitude control. The elliptic cone test article remained attached to the second stage booster at all times...Page Figure 1 Rollup of Boundary-layer into Streamwise Vortex on 2:1 Sharp Elliptic Cone, Similar to HIFiRE-5 (from Ref...Bulge of 2:1 Elliptic Cone13 ..............6 Figure 4 Photograph of Model
Role of residual layer and large-scale phenomena on the evolution of the boundary layer
Blay, E.; Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Boer, van de A.; Coster, de O.; Faloona, I.; Garrouste, O.; Hartogensis, O.K.
2012-01-01
Mixed-layer theory and large-eddy simulations are used to analyze the dynamics of the boundary layer on two intensive operational periods during the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) campaign: 1st and 2nd of July 2011, when convective boundary layers (CBLs) were observed.
Physics of a fusion plasma boundary layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jensen, B.K.
1977-03-01
A theoretical and computational study has been made of plasma phenomena occurring when a hot, dense plasma containing a transverse magnetic field is brought into sudden contact with a cold metal wall; thermal and magnetic boundary layers develop. The time evolution of the plasma temperature, pressure, the charged and neutral particle concentration, magnetic and electric field strengths, and the plasma current density in the neighborhood of the solid surface are investigated. The rate of energy transfer from the plasma to the wall is calculated, and the conditions under which wall surface melting occurs are estimated. The physical conditions previously studied experimentally by Feinberg, are calculated, and the predicted rate of energy transfer from the plasma to the wall is found to be in good agreement.
A high-order accurate, collocated boundary element method for wave propagation in layered media
Sundkvist, Elena
2011-01-01
The ultimate goal of this research is to construct a hybrid model for sound propagation in layered underwater environments with curved boundaries by employing a differential formulation for inhomogeneous layers and a boundary integral formulation for homogeneous layers. The discretization of the new hybrid model is a combination of a finite difference method for the Helmholtz equation for inhomogeneous media and a collocated boundary element method (BEM) for the integral equation for homogene...
Numerical Simulation of Roughness Induced Boundary Layer Transition
2016-03-30
13] and Fu Song [14] etc. In 2004, Langtry and Menter [15] developed an γ-Reθ four-equation transition model, which has satisfactory accuracy on...of Mechanical Engineers, 2004: 105-118. 6 . LI Benwei, LI Dong , SHEN Wei, et al., “Research on Turbine Lamina Roughness Influence on Its Performance...point RANS Approach”, Journal of Turbomachinery, 2004, 126(1):193-202. 14. FU Song , WANG Liang. “Simulation of Hypersonic Boundary-Layer Transition
Dynamical structure of the turbulent boundary layer on rough surface
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Uruba, Václav; Jonáš, Pavel; Hladík, Ondřej
2011-01-01
Roč. 11, č. 1 (2011), s. 603-604 ISSN 1617-7061 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/08/1112; GA ČR GAP101/10/1230 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : turbulent boundary layer * rough wall * hairpin vortex Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pamm.201110291/abstract
Transition to turbulence in the Hartmann boundary layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thess, A.; Krasnov, D.; Boeck, T.; Zienicke, E. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Ilmenau Univ. of Tech. (Germany); Zikanov, O. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Michigan, Dearborn, MI (United States); Moresco, P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, The Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Alboussiere, T. [Lab. de Geophysique Interne et Tectonophysique, Observatoire des Science de l' Univers de Grenoble, Univ. Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France)
2007-07-01
The Hartmann boundary layer is a paradigm of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows. Hartmann boundary layers develop when a liquid metal flows under the influence of a steady magnetic field. The present paper is an overview of recent successful attempts to understand the mechanisms by which the Hartmann layer undergoes a transition from laminar to turbulent flow. (orig.)
The height of the atmospheric boundary layer during unstable conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gryning, S.E.
2005-11-01
over land, especially extensive data sets from the Lower Fraser Valley in Vancouver, Canada were useful. The performance of the model over water was examined on measurements of marine boundary layer developments over Christiansoe in the Baltic Sea. The model is found to perform relative well for both small and large distance downwind from the shoreline. The validation covers a scale of 100 km. In some practical applications meteorological data are taken as the output from operational Numerical Weather Prediction models. The mixing height is not a part of the model output but has to be determined from the available data. This aspect is dealt with in chapter 4. Methods that are used to determine the mixing height from the available data are examined and improvements suggested. Numerical Weather Prediction models have a rather coarse resolution. The issue of grid resolution and its effect on the estimated mixing height is discussed. It is found that the mixing height in the coastal zone is not resolved. In chapter 5 a new method for determining the regional fluxes of momentum and sensible heat over chessboard type patchy landscapes is presented. It is based on inversion of the model for the growth of the mixed-layer in combination with a parameterized form of the blending height concept. An example from sub-arctic Lapland illustrates that the forest dominates both the aggregated (area averaged) momentum and heat fluxes, but in quite different ways. Chapter 6 provides a description of present problems and gives an outlook for future research in the field. (au)
Prediction of boundary-layer transition caused by crossflow disturbances
Nomura, Toshiyuki; 野村 聡幸
1999-01-01
A prediction system for boundary layer transition is developed which consists of the Navier-Stokes code computing a compressible boundary layer, the linear PSE (Parabolized Stability Equations) code computing the spatial growth of a disturbance, and the N-factor code integrating the growth rate. The system is applied to the case that the transition of the compressible boundary layer on a swept cylinder is caused by cross flow disturbances which have the same spanwise wavelength as observed in...
Nowotarski, Christopher J.
Nearly all previous numerical simulations of supercell thunderstorms have neglected surface uxes of heat, moisture, and momentum as well as horizontal inhomogeneities in the near-storm environment from resulting dry boundary layer convection. This investigation uses coupled radiation and land-surface schemes within an idealized cloud model to identify the effects of organized boundary layer convection in the form of horizontal convective rolls (HCRs) on the strength, structure, and evolution of simulated supercell thunderstorms. The in uence of HCRs and the importance of their orientation relative to storm motion is tested by comparing simulations with a convective boundary layer (CBL) against those with a horizontally homogeneous base state having the same mean environment. The impact of anvil shading on the CBL is tested by comparing simulations with and without the effects of clouds in the radiative transfer scheme. The results of these simulations indicate that HCRs provide a potentially important source of environmental vertical vorticity in the sheared, near-storm boundary layer. These vorticity perturbations are amplified both beneath the main supercell updraft and along the trailing out ow boundary, leading to the formation of occasionally intense misovortices. HCRs perpendicular to storm motion are found to have a detrimental effect on the strength and persistence of the lowlevel mesocyclone, particularly during its initial development. Though the mean environment is less supportive of low-level rotation with a wind profile conducive to HCRs oriented parallel to storm motion, such HCRs are found to often enhance the low-level mesocyclone circulation. When anvil shading is included, stabilization results in generally weaker low-level mesocyclone circulation, regardless of HCR orientation. Moreover, HCRs diminish in the near-storm environment such that the effects of HCRs on the supercell are mitigated. HCRs are also shown to be a necessary condition for the
Khani, Sina; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2017-12-01
The performance of the modulated-gradient subgrid-scale (SGS) model is investigated using large-eddy simulation (LES) of the neutral atmospheric boundary layer within the weather research and forecasting model. Since the model includes a finite-difference scheme for spatial derivatives, the discretization errors may affect the simulation results. We focus here on understanding the effects of finite-difference schemes on the momentum balance and the mean velocity distribution, and the requirement (or not) of the ad hoc canopy model. We find that, unlike the Smagorinsky and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) models, the calculated mean velocity and vertical shear using the modulated-gradient model, are in good agreement with Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, without the need for an extra near-wall canopy model. The structure of the near-wall turbulent eddies is better resolved using the modulated-gradient model in comparison with the classical Smagorinsky and TKE models, which are too dissipative and yield unrealistic smoothing of the smallest resolved scales. Moreover, the SGS fluxes obtained from the modulated-gradient model are much smaller near the wall in comparison with those obtained from the regular Smagorinsky and TKE models. The apparent inability of the LES model in reproducing the mean streamwise component of the momentum balance using the total (resolved plus SGS) stress near the surface is probably due to the effect of the discretization errors, which can be calculated a posteriori using the Taylor-series expansion of the resolved velocity field. Overall, we demonstrate that the modulated-gradient model is less dissipative and yields more accurate results in comparison with the classical Smagorinsky model, with similar computational costs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mirocha, Jeff D.; Simpson, Matthew D.; Fast, Jerome D.; Berg, Larry K.; Baskett, R.
2016-04-01
Simulations of two periods featuring three consecutive low level jet (LLJ) events in the US Upper Great Plains during the autumn of 2011 were conducted to explore the impacts of various setup configurations and physical process models on simulated flow parameters within the lowest 200 m above the surface, using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Sensitivities of simulated flow parameters to the horizontal and vertical grid spacing, planetary boundary layer (PBL) and land surface model (LSM) physics options, were assessed. Data from a Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) system, deployed to the Weather Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP; Finley et al. 2013) were used to evaluate the accuracy of simulated wind speed and direction at 80 m above the surface, as well as their vertical distributions between 120 and 40 m, covering the typical span of contemporary tall wind turbines. All of the simulations qualitatively captured the overall diurnal cycle of wind speed and stratification, producing LLJs during each overnight period, however large discrepancies occurred at certain times for each simulation in relation to the observations. 54-member ensembles encompassing changes of the above discussed configuration parameters displayed a wide range of simulated vertical distributions of wind speed and direction, and potential temperature, reflecting highly variable representations of stratification during the weakly stable overnight conditions. Root mean square error (RMSE) statistics show that different ensemble members performed better and worse in various simulated parameters at different times, with no clearly superior configuration . Simulations using a PBL parameterization designed specifically for the stable conditions investigated herein provided superior overall simulations of wind speed at 80 m, demonstrating the efficacy of targeting improvements of physical process models in areas of known deficiencies. However, the considerable magnitudes of the
Reactive boundary layers in metallic rolling contacts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burbank, John
2016-01-01
thorough investigation into the effects of residual austenite on the properties of this material. The high-performance alternative steels, 36NiCrMoV1-5-7 (hot working steel) and 45SiCrMo6 (spring steel), were heat treated as recommended by their respective manufacturers, and were not case-hardened. The selection of materials with and materials without case-hardening allows for an investigation into whether or not case-hardening is even necessary to deliver acceptable friction behaviour and wear performance. Elemental analyses were conducted by multiple methods to ensure accurate results. Residual austenite contents of the steels and the depth profiles of residual stresses were determined by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), for 20MnCr5 ranging from approximately 6 - 14 vol.%, and under 2 vol.% for the alternative alloys. Hardness profiles were taken from the testing surfaces into the material core. The carburization of 20MnCr5 led to higher hardness and the greater concentration of carbon in the carburization zone more representative of a hardened SAE E52100, or 100Cr6/102Cr6, than of a non-case-hardened 20MnCr5. Residual stresses from machining and case-hardening were measured directly at the sample surface. The high-performance steels fulfilled manufacturer expectations in terms of elemental content, with hardness values between 50 - 55 HRC and strongly martensitic microstructure character. With characterization of the chosen materials complete, the materials could then be subjected to pre-conditioning. The first pre-conditioning method involved targeted generation of cold work hardening as induced boundary layers to protect the contact zone against wear. Work hardening was identified both by variations in residual stress profiles, i.e. the introduction of beneficial compressive residual stresses, and hardness increases in the contact zone, providing enhanced wear resistance. Parameters for work hardening were further optimized to reduce damage to the surface substrates of the
Reactive boundary layers in metallic rolling contacts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burbank, John
2016-05-01
more thorough investigation into the effects of residual austenite on the properties of this material. The high-performance alternative steels, 36NiCrMoV1-5-7 (hot working steel) and 45SiCrMo6 (spring steel), were heat treated as recommended by their respective manufacturers, and were not case-hardened. The selection of materials with and materials without case-hardening allows for an investigation into whether or not case-hardening is even necessary to deliver acceptable friction behaviour and wear performance. Elemental analyses were conducted by multiple methods to ensure accurate results. Residual austenite contents of the steels and the depth profiles of residual stresses were determined by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), for 20MnCr5 ranging from approximately 6 - 14 vol.%, and under 2 vol.% for the alternative alloys. Hardness profiles were taken from the testing surfaces into the material core. The carburization of 20MnCr5 led to higher hardness and the greater concentration of carbon in the carburization zone more representative of a hardened SAE E52100, or 100Cr6/102Cr6, than of a non-case-hardened 20MnCr5. Residual stresses from machining and case-hardening were measured directly at the sample surface. The high-performance steels fulfilled manufacturer expectations in terms of elemental content, with hardness values between 50 - 55 HRC and strongly martensitic microstructure character. With characterization of the chosen materials complete, the materials could then be subjected to pre-conditioning. The first pre-conditioning method involved targeted generation of cold work hardening as induced boundary layers to protect the contact zone against wear. Work hardening was identified both by variations in residual stress profiles, i.e. the introduction of beneficial compressive residual stresses, and hardness increases in the contact zone, providing enhanced wear resistance. Parameters for work hardening were further optimized to reduce damage to the surface substrates
Pre-LBA Rondonia Boundary Layer Experiment (RBLE) Data
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is the layer of air closest to the ground which is directly influenced on a daily basis by the heating and cooling of the...
Pre-LBA Rondonia Boundary Layer Experiment (RBLE) Data
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is the layer of air closest to the ground which is directly influenced on a daily basis by the heating and cooling of...
Boundary-layer effects in droplet splashing
Riboux, Guillaume; Gordillo, José Manuel
2017-07-01
A drop falling onto a solid substrate will disintegrate into smaller parts when its impact velocity V exceeds the so-called critical velocity for splashing, i.e., when V >V* . Under these circumstances, the very thin liquid sheet, which is ejected tangentially to the solid after the drop touches the substrate, lifts off as a consequence of the aerodynamic forces exerted on it. Subsequently, the growth of capillary instabilities breaks the toroidal rim bordering the ejecta into smaller droplets, violently ejected radially outward, provoking the splash [G. Riboux and J. M. Gordillo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 024507 (2014)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.024507. In this contribution, the effect of the growth of the boundary layer is included in the splash model presented in Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 024507 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.024507, obtaining very good agreement between the measured and the predicted values of V* for wide ranges of liquid and gas material properties, atmospheric pressures, and substrate wettabilities. Our description also modifies the way at when the liquid sheet is first ejected, which can now be determined in a much more straightforward manner than that proposed in Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 024507 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.024507.
3D LDV Measurements in Oscillatory Boundary Layers
Mier, J. M.; Garcia, M. H.
2012-12-01
The oscillatory boundary layer represents a particular case of unsteady wall-bounded flows in which fluid particles follow a periodic sinusoidal motion. Unlike steady boundary layer flows, the oscillatory flow regime and bed roughness character change in time along the period for every cycle, a characteristic that introduces a high degree of complexity in the analysis of these flows. Governing equations can be derived from the general Navier-Stokes equations for the motion of fluids, from which the exact solution for the laminar oscillatory boundary layer is obtained (also known as the 2nd Stokes problem). No exact solution exists for the turbulent case, thus, understanding of the main flow characteristics comes from experimental work. Several researchers have reported experimental work in oscillatory boundary layers since the 1960's; however, larger scale facilities and the development of newer measurement techniques with improved temporal and spatial resolution in recent years provides a unique opportunity to achieve a better understanding about this type of flows. Several experiments were performed in the Large Oscillatory Water and Sediment Tunnel (LOWST) facility at the Ven Te Chow Hydrosystems Laboratory, for a range of Reynolds wave numbers between 6x10^4 3D Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) system was used to measure instantaneous flow velocities with a temporal resolution up to ~ 1,000 Hz. It was mounted on a 3-axis traverse with a spatial resolution of 0.01 mm in all three directions. The closest point to the bottom was measured at z = 0.2 mm (z+ ≈ 4), which allowed to capture boundary layer features with great detail. In order to achieve true 3D measurements, 2 probes were used on a perpendicular configuration, such that u and w components were measured from a probe on the side of the flume and v component was measured from a probe pointing down through and access window on top of the flume. The top probe was submerged in a water container, such that the
Simulation and optimal control of wind-farm boundary layers
Meyers, Johan; Goit, Jay
2014-05-01
nonlinear conjugate gradient method, and the gradients are calculated by solving the adjoint LES equations. We find that the extracted farm power increases by approximately 20% when using optimal model-predictive control. However, the increased power output is also responsible for an increase in turbulent dissipation, and a deceleration of the boundary layer. Further investigating the energy balances in the boundary layer, it is observed that this deceleration is mainly occurring in the outer layer as a result of higher turbulent energy fluxes towards the turbines. In a second optimization case, we penalize boundary-layer deceleration, and find an increase of energy extraction of approximately 10%. In this case, increased energy extraction is balanced by a reduction in of turbulent dissipation in the boundary layer. J.M. acknowledges support from the European Research Council (FP7-Ideas, grant no. 306471). Simulations were performed on the computing infrastructure of the VSC Flemish Supercomputer Center, funded by the Hercules Foundation and the Flemish Government.
Hundred years of the boundary layer – Some aspects
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2005-08-02
Aug 2, 2005 ... Abstract. The concept of the boundary layer was proposed by Ludwig Prandtl in 1904. This concept has allowed prediction of skin friction drag, heat transfer from the wall and separation of the boundary layer, which in turn enables proper design of airplanes, ships, other vehicles and equipment ...
Numerical Simulation of tsunami-scale wave boundary layers
Williams, Isaac A.; Fuhrman, David R.
2016-01-01
This paper presents a numerical study of the boundary layer flow and properties induced by tsunami-scale waves. For this purpose, an existing one-dimensional vertical (1DV) boundary layer model, based on the horizontal component of the incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations,
Overview of the GEWEX Atmospheric Boundary Layer Study (GABLS)
Holtslag, A.A.M.; Svensson, G.; Basu, S.; Beare, B.; Bosveld, F.C.; Cuxart, J.
2012-01-01
In 2001 the steering group of GEWEX (formally known as the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment) initiated the GEWEX Atmospheric Boundary Layer Study (GABLS). The objective of GABLS is to improve the representation of the atmospheric boundary layer in regional and large-scale atmospheric models.
Numerical simulation of the marine boundary layer characteristics ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A one-dimensional multi- level atmospheric boundary layer with TKE- closure scheme is employed to study the marine boundary layer characteristics. In this study two synoptic situations are chosen: one represents an active convection case and the other a suppressed convection. In the present article the marine ...
Motion of particles in a thermal boundary layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schefer, R.W.; Agrawal, Y.; Cheng, R.K.; Robben, F.; Talbot, L.
1978-06-15
In the course of using laser Doppler velocimetry to study combustion in a thermal boundary layer, the particle count rate was found to decrease abruptly to zero inside the boundary layer. Experimental and theoretical investigation of this phenomenon was carried out. The motion of the particles may be due to the combined effects of thermophoresis and radiative heating.
On hairpin vortices in a transitional boundary layer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Uruba Václav
2012-04-01
Full Text Available In the presented paper the results of experiments on transitional boundary layer are presented. The boundary layer was generated on smooth flat wall with zero pressure gradient forming one side of the channel of rectangular cross section. The hairpin vortices, packets of hairpin vortices, turbulent spots and calmed regions were experimentally investigated using time-resolved PIV technique.
Destiny of earthward streaming plasma in the plasmasheet boundary layer
Green, J. L.; Horwitz, J. L.
1986-01-01
The dynamics of the earth's magnetotail have been investigated, and it has become clear that the plasmasheet boundary layer field lines map into the Region I Field-Aligned Currents (FAC) of the auroral zone. It is pointed out that the role of earthward streaming ions in the plasmasheet boundary layer may be of fundamental importance in the understanding of magnetotail dynamics, auroral zone physics, and especially for ionospheric-magnetospheric interactions. The present paper has the objective to evaluate propagation characteristics for the earthward streaming ions observed in the plasmasheet boundary layer. An investigation is conducted of the propagation characteristics of protons in the plasmasheet boundary layer using independent single particle dynamics, and conclusions are discussed. The density of earthward streaming ions found in the plasmasheet boundary layer should include the ring current as well as the auroral zone precipitaiton and inner plasmasheet regions of the magnetosphere.
Linear stability analysis of interactions between mixing layer and boundary layer flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fengjun LIU
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The linear instabilities of incompressible confluent mixing layer and boundary layer were analyzed. The mixing layers include wake, shear layer and their combination. The mean velocity profile of confluent flow is taken as a superposition of a hyperbolic and exponential function to model a mixing layer and the Blasius similarity solution for a flat plate boundary layer. The stability equation of confluent flow was solved by using the global numerical method. The unstable modes associated with both the mixing and boundary layers were identified. They are the boundary layer mode, mixing layer mode 1 (nearly symmetrical mode and mode 2 (nearly anti-symmetrical mode. The interactions between the mixing layer stability and the boundary layer stability were examined. As the mixing layer approaches the boundary layer, the neutral curves of the boundary layer mode move to the upper left, the resulting critical Reynolds number decreases, and the growth rate of the most unstable mode increases. The wall tends to stabilize the mixing layer modes at low frequency. In addition, the mode switching behavior of the relative level of the spatial growth rate between the mixing layer mode 1 and mode 2 with the velocity ratio is found to occur at low frequency.
Diffusive boundary layers over varying topography
Dell, R. W.
2015-03-25
Diffusive bottom boundary layers can produce upslope flows in a stratified fluid. Accumulating observations suggest that these boundary layers may drive upwelling and mixing in mid-ocean ridge flank canyons. However, most studies of diffusive bottom boundary layers to date have concentrated on constant bottom slopes. We present a study of how diffusive boundary layers interact with various idealized topography, such as changes in bottom slope, slopes with corrugations and isolated sills. We use linear theory and numerical simulations in the regional ocean modeling system (ROMS) model to show changes in bottom slope can cause convergences and divergences within the boundary layer, in turn causing fluid exchanges that reach far into the overlying fluid and alter stratification far from the bottom. We also identify several different regimes of boundary-layer behaviour for topography with oceanographically relevant size and shape, including reversing flows and overflows, and we develop a simple theory that predicts the regime boundaries, including what topographies will generate overflows. As observations also suggest there may be overflows in deep canyons where the flow passes over isolated bumps and sills, this parameter range may be particularly significant for understanding the role of boundary layers in the deep ocean.
Characteristics of the magnetospheric boundary layer and magnetopause layer as observed by Imp 6
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eastman, T.E.; Hones, E.W. Jr.
1979-01-01
Imp 6 observations of the low-latitude magnetospheric boundary layer indicate that the plasma within it is supplied primarily by direct entry of magnetosheath plasma across the magnetopause layer. We define the magnetopause layer as the current layer (separating the magnetosheath from the boundary layer) through which the magnetic field shifts in direction. High temporal resolution (3-s average) data reveal that in a majority of Imp 6 magnetopause crossing, no distinct changes in electron density or energry spectra are observed at the magne opause layer. In all Imp 6 crossings, some magnetosheathlike plasma is observed earthward of the magnetopause layer, implying the existence of a boundary layer. Boundary layer electron energy spectra are often virtually indistinguishable from the adjacent magnetosheath spectra. Low-latitude boundary layer bulk plasma flow as observed by Imp 6 almost always has an antisunward component and often has a significant cross-field component. The boundary layer thickness is highly variable and is generally much larger than the magnetopause layer thickness. Energetic electron pitch angle distributions indicate that the low-latitude boundary layers is normally on closed field lines. We conclude that diffusive as well as nondiffusive processes probably contribute to the entry of magnetosheath plasma into the boundary layer
Acoustic emissions from unsteady transitional boundary layer flow structures
Marboe, Richard Chostner
The acoustic radiation contribution of boundary layer flow structures has long been the subject of debate. The research described critically examines the popular approaches to modeling the radiation mechanisms and attempts to bring some degree of closure to the physical and practical significance of noise and pseudo-noise originating in the laminar-to-turbulent transition zone within a natural boundary layer. This includes improving models to include recent computational and experimental statistics, evaluation of model sensitivities to input parameters, and applicability to situations of engineering relevance. Prior efforts to model wall pressure fluctuation statistics resulting from boundary layer transition zone flow structures allow further development of direct radiation prediction codes. Several refinements were made to theoretical models for directly radiated noise based upon the Liepmann analogy for fluctuating displacement thickness including the incorporation of a semi- empirically derived space-time correlation function for the intermittency indicator. A similar two-fluids model uses a Lighthill acoustic analogy. Radiation by vortex structures and direct numerical simulation methods are reviewed to help define their useful role in predicting sound radiation from transition. The role of pressure gradient in axisymmetric body flows, flat plate flows, and over hydrofoils is investigated. A quiet airflow facility was developed to measure the direct acoustic radiation from a naturally transitioning boundary layer. Real-time acoustic intensity measurement instrumentation was developed if measurements of isolated spots in otherwise laminar flow had been necessary. This technique uses a hot film signal from the transition structure to obtain the coherent output intensity (COI). Model predictions are compared to the measured acoustic radiation from a naturally transitioning boundary layer. Radiated noise measurements isolating the direct transition zone radiation
Dynamics of turbulent spots in transitional boundary layer
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hladík, Ondřej; Jonáš, Pavel; Uruba, Václav
2011-01-01
Roč. 318, č. 032028 (2011), s. 1-5 E-ISSN 1742-6596. [European turbulence conference /13./. Warsaw, 12.09.2011-15.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/08/1112; GA ČR GAP101/10/1230 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : boundary layer transition * hairpin vortex * calmed region Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics http://iopscience.iop.org/1742-6596/318/3/032028?fromSearchPage=true
Belyaev, Mikhail A.; Quataert, Eliot
2018-04-01
We present unstratified 3D MHD simulations of an accretion disk with a boundary layer (BL) that have a duration ˜1000 orbital periods at the inner radius of the accretion disk. We find the surprising result that angular momentum piles up in the boundary layer, which results in a rapidly rotating belt of accreted material at the surface of the star. The angular momentum stored in this belt increases monotonically in time, which implies that angular momentum transport mechanisms in the BL are inefficient and do not couple the accretion disk to the star. This is in spite of the fact that magnetic fields are advected into the BL from the disk and supersonic shear instabilities in the BL excite acoustic waves. In our simulations, these waves only carry a small fraction (˜10%) of the angular momentum required for steady state accretion. Using analytical theory and 2D viscous simulations in the R - ϕ plane, we derive an analytical criterion for belt formation to occur in the BL in terms of the ratio of the viscosity in the accretion disk to the viscosity in the BL. Our MHD simulations have a dimensionless viscosity (α) in the BL that is at least a factor of ˜100 smaller than that in the disk. We discuss the implications of these results for BL dynamics and emission.
The interaction of synthetic jets with turbulent boundary layers
Cui, Jing
In recent years, a promising approach to the control of wall bounded as well as free shear flows, using synthetic jet (oscillatory jet with zero-net-mass-flux) actuators, has received a great deal of attention. A variety of impressive flow control results have been achieved experimentally by many researchers including the vectoring of conventional propulsive jets, modification of aerodynamic characteristics of bluff bodies, control of lift and drag of airfoils, reduction of skin-friction of a flat plate boundary layer, enhanced mixing in circular jets, and control of external as well as internal flow separation and of cavity oscillations. More recently, attempts have been made to numerically simulate some of these flowfields. Numerically several of the above mentioned flow fields have been simulated primarily by employing the Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (URANS) equations with a turbulence model and a limited few by Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). In simulations, both the simplified boundary conditions at the exit of the jet as well as the details of the cavity and lip have been included. In this dissertation, I describe the results of simulations for several two- and three-dimensional flowfields dealing with the interaction of a synthetic jet with a turbulent boundary layer and control of separation. These simulations have been performed using the URANS equations in conjunction with either one- or a two-equation turbulence model. 2D simulations correspond to the experiments performed by Honohan at Georgia Tech. and 3D simulations correspond to the CFD validation test cases proposed in the NASA Langley Research Center Workshop---"CFD Validation of Synthetic Jets and Turbulent Separation Control" held at Williamsburg VA in March 2004. The sources of uncertainty due to grid resolution, time step, boundary conditions, turbulence modeling etc. have been examined during the computations. Extensive comparisons for various flow variables are made with the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Gee Yong; Yoon, Ji Sup; Hong, Dong Hee; Jeong, Jae Hoo
2002-01-01
In this paper, the robust control scheme with the improved control performance within the boundary layer is proposed. In the control scheme, the robust controller based on the traditional variable structure control method is modified to have the adaptation within the boundary layer. From this controller, the width of the boundary layer where the robust control input is smoothened out can be given by an appropriate value. But the improve control performance within the boundary layer can be achieved without the so-called control chattering because the role of adaptive control is to compensate for the uncovered portions of the robust control occurred from the continuous approximation within the boundary layer. Simulation tests for circular navigation of an underwater wall-ranging robot developed for inspection of wall surfaces in the research reactor, TRIGA MARK III, confirm the performance improvement
Bristled shark skin: a microgeometry for boundary layer control?
Lang, A W; Motta, P; Hidalgo, P; Westcott, M
2008-12-01
There exists evidence that some fast-swimming shark species may have the ability to bristle their scales during fast swimming. Experimental work using a water tunnel facility has been performed to investigate the flow field over and within a bristled shark skin model submerged within a boundary layer to deduce the possible boundary layer control mechanisms being used by these fast-swimming sharks. Fluorescent dye flow visualization provides evidence of the formation of embedded cavity vortices within the scales. Digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) data, used to evaluate the cavity vortex formation and boundary layer characteristics close to the surface, indicate increased momentum in the slip layer forming above the scales. This increase in flow velocity close to the shark's skin is indicative of boundary layer control mechanisms leading to separation control and possibly transition delay for the bristled shark skin microgeometry.
Bristled shark skin: a microgeometry for boundary layer control?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lang, A W; Hidalgo, P; Westcott, M; Motta, P
2008-01-01
There exists evidence that some fast-swimming shark species may have the ability to bristle their scales during fast swimming. Experimental work using a water tunnel facility has been performed to investigate the flow field over and within a bristled shark skin model submerged within a boundary layer to deduce the possible boundary layer control mechanisms being used by these fast-swimming sharks. Fluorescent dye flow visualization provides evidence of the formation of embedded cavity vortices within the scales. Digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) data, used to evaluate the cavity vortex formation and boundary layer characteristics close to the surface, indicate increased momentum in the slip layer forming above the scales. This increase in flow velocity close to the shark's skin is indicative of boundary layer control mechanisms leading to separation control and possibly transition delay for the bristled shark skin microgeometry
Bristled shark skin: a microgeometry for boundary layer control?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lang, A W; Hidalgo, P; Westcott, M [Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics Department, University of Alabama, Box 870280, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Motta, P [Biology Department, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States)], E-mail: alang@eng.ua.edu
2008-12-01
There exists evidence that some fast-swimming shark species may have the ability to bristle their scales during fast swimming. Experimental work using a water tunnel facility has been performed to investigate the flow field over and within a bristled shark skin model submerged within a boundary layer to deduce the possible boundary layer control mechanisms being used by these fast-swimming sharks. Fluorescent dye flow visualization provides evidence of the formation of embedded cavity vortices within the scales. Digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) data, used to evaluate the cavity vortex formation and boundary layer characteristics close to the surface, indicate increased momentum in the slip layer forming above the scales. This increase in flow velocity close to the shark's skin is indicative of boundary layer control mechanisms leading to separation control and possibly transition delay for the bristled shark skin microgeometry.
Cloud-Scale Numerical Modeling of the Arctic Boundary Layer
Kruegen, Steven K.; Delnore, Victor E. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The research objective of this NASA grant-funded project was to determine in detail how large-scale processes. in combination with cloud-scale radiative, microphysical, and dynamical processes, govern the formation and multi-layered structure of Arctic stratus clouds. This information will be useful for developing and improving 1D (one dimensional) boundary layer models for the Arctic. Also, to quantitatively determine the effects of leads on the large-scale budgets of sensible heat, water vapor, and condensate in a variety of Arctic winter conditions. This information will be used to identify the most important lead-flux processes that require parameterization in climate models. Our approach was to use a high-resolution numerical model, the 2D (two dimensional) University of Utah Cloud Resolving Model (UU CRM), and its 1D version, the University of Utah Turbulence Closure Model (UU TCM), a boundary layer model based on third-moment turbulence closure, as well as a large-eddy simulation (LES) model originally developed by C.H. Moeng.
The boundary layer of Tropical Storm Erika (2015) observed by airborne Doppler Wind Lidar
Zhang, J.; Emmitt, G. D.; Atlas, R. M.; Bucci, L. R.; Ryan, K. E.; O'Handley, C.; Marks, F.
2016-12-01
This talk presents analysis of the Doppler Wind Lidar (DWL) measured wind profiles in Tropical Storm (TS) Erika (2015) by NOAA's P3 aircraft. This work was funded by NOAA's Sandy Supplemental Program that supports new technologies such as the DWL for hurricane research. It is for the first time, the DWL onboard a NOAA P3 has become operational in hurricane reconnaissance missions and collected high-quality wind profile data. The DWL wind profiles were first verified against the collocated dropsonde and Doppler radar observations, showing good agreement. To the authors' knowledge, the DWL data collected in TS Erika provided the best data coverage in the boundary layer of any given TS. This data set allows us to investigate the detailed boundary layer structure, including the boundary layer height, the strength of the inflow and outflow, and their asymmetric distributions. Composite analysis of the DWL data shows that the axisymmetric boundary layer structure of TS Erika is largely different from that of a typical hurricane from previous dropsonde observations. The vorticity budget conducted using the DWL data suggests that the boundary layer of TS Erika is far from being in vorticity balance. The large magnitude of boundary-layer divergence and the small magnitude of mass flux above the boundary layer may explain why TS Erika did not intensify during the period of observation. The boundary-layer structure asymmetry is found to be tied to the vortex tilt that is induced by the environmental vertical wind shear.
Stable Boundary Layer Education (STABLE) Final Campaign Summary
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turner, David D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
2016-03-01
The properties of, and the processes that occur in, the nocturnal stable boundary layer are not well understood, making it difficult to represent adequately in numerical models. The nocturnal boundary layer often is characterized by a temperature inversion and, in the Southern Great Plains region, a low-level jet. To advance our understanding of the nocturnal stable boundary layer, high temporal and vertical resolution data on the temperature and wind properties are needed, along with both large-eddy simulation and cloud-resolving modeling.
Linear Stability of the boundary layer under a solitary wave
Verschaeve, Joris C. G.; Pedersen, Geir K.
2013-01-01
A theoretical and numerical analysis of the linear stability of the boundary layer flow under a solitary wave is presented. In the present work, the nonlinear boundary layer equations are solved. The result is compared to the linear boundary layer solution in Liu et al. (2007) reveal- ing that both profiles are disagreeing more than has been found before. A change of frame of reference has been used to allow for a classical linear stability analysis without the need to redefine the notion of ...
Size distributions of boundary-layer clouds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stull, R.; Berg, L.; Modzelewski, H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
1996-04-01
Scattered fair-weather clouds are triggered by thermals rising from the surface layer. Not all surface layer air is buoyant enough to rise. Also, each thermal has different humidities and temperatures, resulting in interthermal variability of their lifting condensation levels (LCL). For each air parcel in the surface layer, it`s virtual potential temperature and it`s LCL height can be computed.
Vertical pressure gradient and particle motions in wave boundary layers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Karsten Lindegård
weight of sediment. This revels that the upward directed vertical pressure gradient on average has a magnitude that yields in a contribution to the force needed to overcome the submerged weight of the water-sediment mixture. Secondly particle motion in the oscillatory boundary layer is investigated......The present study covers both a numerical and experimental investigation of the processes in the oscillatory boundary layer. In the first part a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is conducted to study the vertical pressure gradient, and its role in relation to laminar to turbulent transition...... and its role in the fully turbulent boundary layer. The pressure in the flow is obtained from the flow fields of the oscillatory boundary layer. What differs, the vertical pressure gradient, from other turbulent quantities, like e.g. velocity fluctuations is that it can detect newly generated turbulence...
Acoustic Emissions from Unsteady Transitional Boundary Layer Flow Structures
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Marboe, R
2000-01-01
...-empirically derived space-time correlation function for the intermittency indicator. A quiet airflow facility was developed to measure the direct acoustic radiation from a naturally transitioning boundary layer...
Understanding Micro-Ramp Control for Shock Boundary Layer Interactions
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Loth, Eric; Lee, Sang
2008-01-01
.... Of several candidate micro-VGs, micro-ramps have been found to significantly impact shock boundary layer interaction flows, while being cost-effective, physically robust, and requiring no power sources...
Augmented Control of Rocket Diffuser Boundary Layer Separation
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Evaluate the feasibility of the following active and passive methods of boundary layer control using Computational Fluid Dynamics: 1) Reduce the adverse pressure...
Responses of boundary layers to strong external disturbances
Asai, Masahito
1990-10-01
The transition from laminar flow to turbulent flow of the boundary layer is an important phenomenon for various problems in astronautical engineering. When the turbulence in the flow is weak, the boundary layer transition starts from the spatial amplification of a viscous T-S (Tollmien Schlichting) wave. The initial wave starts as a two dimensional wave and grows rapidly to a three dimensional wave with amplification. Finally, it corrupts to small scale hairpin eddies. The transitions starting from these wave amplifications are studied, and instability mechanisms are analyzed. In order to analyze the mechanism, the strength of turbulence (eddies) in the air flow that develops a transitional structure in the boundary layer and leads to a turbulent flow transition is analyzed. The responses of the boundary layers to the strong external disturbances are studied experimentally by introducing sonic wave which simulates hairpin eddies in the lower part of the front edge of a flat plate.
On Hydromagnetic Stresses in Accretion Disk Boundary Layers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pessah, Martin Elias; Chan, Chi-kwan
2012-01-01
Detailed calculations of the physical structure of accretion disk boundary layers, and thus their inferred observational properties, rely on the assumption that angular momentum transport is opposite to the radial angular frequency gradient of the disk. The standard model for turbulent shear...... of efficient angular momentum transport in the inner disk regions. This suggests that the detailed structure of turbulent MHD accretion disk boundary layers could differ appreciably from those derived within the standard framework of turbulent shear viscosity...
Forced and free convection turbulent boundary layers in gas lasers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woodroffe, J.A.
1975-01-01
Approximate expressions for the effect on optical path length through a turbulent vertical boundary layer caused by the combined presence of forced and free convection were obtained to first order in the asymptotic cases of dominant forced convection and dominant free convection. The effect in both cases is a reduction of the boundary-layer thickness. Characteristic scaling lengths are presented which aid in the optical analysis of the flowfield
DNS Study on Physics of Late Boundary Layer Transition
Liu, Chaoqun; Lu, Ping
2014-01-01
This paper serves as a review of our recent new DNS study on physics of late boundary layer transition. This includes mechanism of the large coherent vortex structure formation, small length scale generation and flow randomization. The widely spread concept vortex breakdown to turbulence,which was considered as the last stage of flow transition, is not observed and is found theoretically incorrect. The classical theory on boundary layer transition is challenged and we proposed a new theory wi...
Leading edge effects on boundary layers behind weak shock waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deckker, B.E.L.; Singh, D.
1985-01-01
This paper discusses experiments carried out in which normal shock waves of strength M s =1.22 and M s =1.30 were made to impinge on plates of three different thicknesses in order to examine the effects of leading edge thickness on the boundary layers growing from the foot of the shock and from the leading edge. The work describes the anomalous growth of these boundary layers on a slender wedge, supported as a cantilever
Numerical simulation of turbulent atmospheric boundary layer flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bennes, L.; Bodnar, T.; Kozel, K.; Sladek, I. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Technical Mathematics; Fraunie, P. [Universite Toulon et du Var, La Garde (France). Lab. de Sondages Electromagnetiques de l' Environment Terrestre
2001-07-01
The work deals with the numerical solution of viscous turbulent steady flows in the atmospheric boundary layer including pollution propagation. For its description we use two different mathematical models: - a model based on the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flows - a model based on a system of boundary layer equations. These systems are completed by two transport equations for the concentration of passive pollutants and the potential temperature in conservative form, respectively, and by an algebraic turbulence model. (orig.)
GLAS/ICESat L2 Global Planetary Boundary Layer & Elevated Aerosol Layer Heights V033
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The level 2 planetary boundary layer and elevated aerosol layer height data will be provided at a minimum of once per 4 seconds. Data granules will contain...
Turbulent Boundary Layer at Large Re
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Horia DUMITRESCU
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The fluids as deformable bodies without own shape, when starting from rest, experience interactions between the flowing fluid and the physical surfaces marking the bounds of flow. These interactions are a kind of impact process where there is a momentum exchange between two colliding bodies, i.e. the flow and its boundary surfaces. Within a short time of contact a post-impact shear flow occurs where two main effects are triggered off by the flow-induced collision: dramatic redistribution of the momentum and the boundary vorticity followed by the shear stress/viscosity change in the microstructure of the fluid which at the beginning behaves as linear reactive medium and latter as nonlinear dispersive medium. The disturbance of the starting flow induces the entanglement of the wall-bounded flow in the form of point-vortices or concentrated vorticity balls whence waves are emitted and propagated through flow field. The paper develops a wave mechanism for the transport of the concentrated boundary vorticity, directly related to the fascinating turbulence phenomenon, using the torsion concept of vorticity filaments associated with the hypothesis of thixotropic/nonlinear viscous fluid.
Characterization of the atmospheric boundary layer from radiosonde ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
on a sunny day creates thermals of warmer air that rise over colder air causing vertical mixing and tur- bulence. ... ture, humidity, wind, and pollutants such as aerosol particles. These profiles can be derived from differ- ... use high-resolution upper air meteorological data. Keywords. Boundary layer; GPS sonde; mixed layer ...
FOREWORD: International Conference on Planetary Boundary Layer and Climate Change
Djolov, G.; Esau, I.
2010-05-01
structural uncertainties is hard to reduce and this could be one of the reasons determining slow progress in narrowing the climate model uncertainty range over the last 30 years (Knutti and Hagerl, Nature Geoscience, 2008). One of the most prominent structural uncertainties in the ongoing transient climate change is related to poor understanding and hence incorrect modelling of the turbulent physics and dynamics processes in the planetary boundary layer. Nevertheless, the climate models continue to rely on physically incorrect boundary layer parameterizations (Cuxart et al., BLM, 2006), whose erroneous dynamical response in the climate models may lead to significant abnormalities in simulated climate. At present, international efforts in theoretical understanding of the turbulent mixing have resulted in significant progress in turbulence simulation, measurements and parameterizations. However, this understanding has not yet found its way to the climate research community. Vice versa, climate research is not usually addressed by the boundary layer research community. The gap needs to be closed in order to crucially complete the scientific basis of climate change studies. The focus of the proposed forum could be formulated as follows: The planetary boundary layer determines several key parameters controlling the Earth's climate system but being a dynamic sub-system, just a layer of turbulent mixing in the atmosphere/ocean, it is also controlled by the climate system and its changes. Such a dynamic relationship causes a planetary boundary layer feedback (PBL-feedback) which could be defined as the response of the surface air temperature on changes in the vertical turbulent mixing. The forum participants have discussed both climatological and fluid dynamic aspects of this response, in order to quantify their role in the Earth's transient heat uptake and its representation in climate models. The choice of the forum location and dates are motivated by the role of tropical oceans
Physical modeling of the atmospheric boundary layer in the UNH Flow Physics Facility
Taylor-Power, Gregory; Gilooly, Stephanie; Wosnik, Martin; Klewicki, Joe; Turner, John
2016-11-01
The Flow Physics Facility (FPF) at UNH has test section dimensions W =6.0m, H =2.7m, L =72m. It can achieve high Reynolds number boundary layers, enabling turbulent boundary layer, wind energy and wind engineering research with exceptional spatial and temporal instrument resolution. We examined the FPF's ability to experimentally simulate different types of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) using upstream roughness arrays. The American Society for Civil Engineers defines standards for simulating ABLs for different terrain types, from open sea to dense city areas (ASCE 49-12). The standards require the boundary layer to match a power law shape, roughness height, and power spectral density criteria. Each boundary layer type has a corresponding power law exponent and roughness height. The exponent and roughness height both increase with increasing roughness. A suburban boundary layer was chosen for simulation and a roughness element fetch was created. Several fetch lengths were experimented with and the resulting boundary layers were measured and compared to standards in ASCE 49-12: Wind Tunnel Testing for Buildings and Other Structures. Pitot tube and hot wire anemometers were used to measure average and fluctuating flow characteristics. Velocity profiles, turbulence intensity and velocity spectra were found to compare favorably.
Definition of Turbulent Boundary-Layer with Entropy Concept
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhao Rui
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The relationship between the entropy increment and the viscosity dissipation in turbulent boundary-layer is systematically investigated. Through theoretical analysis and direct numerical simulation (DNS, an entropy function fs is proposed to distinguish the turbulent boundary-layer from the external flow. This approach is proved to be reliable after comparing its performance in the following complex flows, namely, low-speed airfoil flows with different wall temperature, supersonic cavity-ramp flow dominated by the combination of free-shear layer, larger recirculation and shocks, and the hypersonic flow past an aeroplane configuration. Moreover, fs is deduced from the point of energy, independent of any particular turbulent quantities. That is, this entropy concept could be utilized by other engineering applications related with turbulent boundary-layer, such as turbulence modelling transition prediction and engineering thermal protection.
Analysis of diabatic flow modification in the internal boundary layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Floors, Rogier; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Pena Diaz, Alfredo
2011-01-01
is controlled by a combination of both downstream and upstream stability and surface roughness conditions. A model based on a diffusion analogy is able to predict the internal boundary layer height well. Modeling the neutral and long-term wind profile with a 3 layer linear interpolation scheme gives good......Measurements at two meteorological masts in Denmark, Horns Rev in the sea and Høvsøre near the coastline on land, are used to analyze the behaviour of the flow after a smooth-to-rough change in surface conditions. The study shows that the wind profile within the internal boundary layer...... results at Høvsøre. Based on a comparison with a numerical model and the measurements, the constants in the interpolation scheme are slightly adjusted, which yields an improvement for the description of the wind profile in the internal boundary layer....
Coherent structures in wave boundary layers. Part 1. Oscillatory motion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carstensen, Stefan; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen
2010-01-01
) Vortex tubes, essentially two-dimensional vortices close to the bed extending across the width of the boundary-layer flow, caused by an inflectional-point shear layer instability. The imprint of these vortices in the bed shear stress is a series of small, insignificant kinks and dips. (ii) Turbulent......This work concerns oscillatory boundary layers over smooth beds. It comprises combined visual and quantitative techniques including bed shear stress measurements. The experiments were carried out in an oscillating water tunnel. The experiments reveal two significant coherent flow structures: (i...... spots, isolated arrowhead-shaped areas close to the bed in an otherwise laminar boundary layer where the flow ‘bursts’ with violent oscillations. The emergence of the turbulent spots marks the onset of turbulence. Turbulent spots cause single or multiple violent spikes in the bed shear stress signal...
Vortex Generators to Control Boundary Layer Interactions
Babinsky, Holger (Inventor); Loth, Eric (Inventor); Lee, Sang (Inventor)
2014-01-01
Devices for generating streamwise vorticity in a boundary includes various forms of vortex generators. One form of a split-ramp vortex generator includes a first ramp element and a second ramp element with front ends and back ends, ramp surfaces extending between the front ends and the back ends, and vertical surfaces extending between the front ends and the back ends adjacent the ramp surfaces. A flow channel is between the first ramp element and the second ramp element. The back ends of the ramp elements have a height greater than a height of the front ends, and the front ends of the ramp elements have a width greater than a width of the back ends.
Turbulence models for compressible boundary layers
Huang, P. G.; Bradshaw, P.; Coakley, T. J.
1994-01-01
It is shown that to satisfy the general accepted compressible law of the wall derived from the Van Driest transformation, turbulence modeling coefficients must actually be functions of density gradients. The transformed velocity profiles obtained by using standard turbulence model constants have too small a value of the effective von Karman constant kappa in the log-law region (inner layer). Thus, if the model is otherwise accurate, the wake component is overpredicted and the predicted skin friction is lower than the expected value.
Turbulence models for compressible boundary layers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, P.G.; Bradshaw, P.; Coakley, T.J. [Eloret Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)]|[Stanford Univ., CA (United States)]|[NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, CA (United States)
1994-04-01
It is shown that to satisfy the general accepted compressible law of the wall derived from the Van Driest transformation, turbulence modeling coefficients must actually be functions of density gradients. The transformed velocity profiles obtained by using standard turbulence model constants have too small a value of the effective von Karman constant kappa in the log-law region (inner layer). Thus, if the model is otherwise accurate, the wake component is overpredicted and the predicted skin friction is lower than the expected value.
Particle motion in atmospheric boundary layers of Mars and Earth
White, B. R.; Iversen, J. D.; Greeley, R.; Pollack, J. B.
1975-01-01
To study the eolian mechanics of saltating particles, both an experimental investigation of the flow field around a model crater in an atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel and numerical solutions of the two- and three-dimensional equations of motion of a single particle under the influence of a turbulent boundary layer were conducted. Two-dimensional particle motion was calculated for flow near the surfaces of both Earth and Mars. For the case of Earth both a turbulent boundary layer with a viscous sublayer and one without were calculated. For the case of Mars it was only necessary to calculate turbulent boundary layer flow with a laminar sublayer because of the low values of friction Reynolds number; however, it was necessary to include the effects of slip flow on a particle caused by the rarefied Martian atmosphere. In the equations of motion the lift force functions were developed to act on a single particle only in the laminar sublayer or a corresponding small region of high shear near the surface for a fully turbulent boundary layer. The lift force functions were developed from the analytical work by Saffman concerning the lift force acting on a particle in simple shear flow.
On the modeling of electrical boundary layer (electrode layer) and ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
is discussed to determine all the characteristic scales and an average electrical and meteorologi- cal state of an electrode layer. The results obtained are in good agreement with the previous studies. So, it is suggested that an exponential space charge density profile will no longer be an assumption in the case of electrode ...
Coupled vs. decoupled boundary layers in VOCALS-REx
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. R. Jones
2011-07-01
Full Text Available We analyze the extent of subtropical stratocumulus-capped boundary layer decoupling and its relation to other boundary-layer characteristics and forcings using aircraft observations from VOCALS-REx along a swath of the subtropical southeast Pacific Ocean running west 1600 km from the coast of Northern Chile. We develop two complementary and consistent measures of decoupling. The first is based on boundary layer moisture and temperature stratification in flight profiles from near the surface to above the capping inversion, and the second is based the difference between the lifted condensation level (LCL and a mean lidar-derived cloud base measured on flight legs at 150 m altitude. Most flights took place during early-mid morning, well before the peak in insolation-induced decoupling.
We find that the boundary layer is typically shallower, drier, and well mixed near the shore, and tends to deepen, decouple, and produce more drizzle further offshore to the west. Decoupling is strongly correlated to the "mixed layer cloud thickness", defined as the difference between the capping inversion height and the LCL; other factors such as wind speed, cloud droplet concentration, and inversion thermodynamic jumps have little additional explanatory power. The results are broadly consistent with the deepening-warming theory of decoupling.
In the deeper boundary layers observed well offshore, there was frequently nearly 100 % boundary-layer cloud cover despite pronounced decoupling. The cloud cover was more strongly correlated to a κ parameter related to the inversion jumps of humidity and temperature, though the exact functional relation is slightly different than found in prior large-eddy simulation studies.
Structure of reconnection boundary layers in incompressible MHD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sonnerup, B.U.Oe.; Wang, D.J.
1987-01-01
The incompressible MHD equations with nonvanishing viscosity and resistivity are simplified by use of the boundary layer approximation to describe the flow and magnetic field in the exit flow regions of magnetic field reconnection configurations when the reconnection rate is small. The conditions are derived under which self-similar solutions exist of the resulting boundary layer equations. For the case of zero viscosity and resistivity, the equations describing such self-similar layers are then solved in terms of quadratures, and the resulting flow and field configurations are described. Symmetric solutions, relevant, for example, to reconnection in the geomagnetic tail, as well as asymmetric solutions, relevant to reconnection at the earth's magnetopause, are found to exist. The nature of the external solutions to which the boundary layer solutions should be matched is discussed briefly, but the actual matching, which is to occur at Alfven-wave characteristic curves in the boundary layer solutions, is not carried out. Finally, it is argued that the solutions obtained may also be used to describe the structure of the intense vortex layers observed to occur at magnetic separatrices in computer simulations and in certain analytical models of the reconnection process
An investigation of the effects of the propeller slipstream of a laminar wing boundary layer
Howard, R. M.; Miley, S. J.; Holmes, B. J.
1985-01-01
A research program is in progress to study the effects of the propeller slipstream on natural laminar flow. Flight and wind tunnel measurements of the wing boundary layer have been made using hot-film velocity sensor probes. The results show the boundary layer, at any given point, to alternate between laminar and turbulent states. This cyclic behavior is due to periodic external flow turbulence originating from the viscous wake of the propeller blades. Analytic studies show the cyclic laminar/turbulent boundary layer to result in a significantly lower wing section drag than a fully turbulent boundary layer. The application of natural laminar flow design philosophy yields drag reduction benefits in the slipstream affected regions of the airframe, as well as the unaffected regions.
Entropy Generation in Steady Laminar Boundary Layers with Pressure Gradients
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Donald M. McEligot
2014-07-01
Full Text Available In an earlier paper in Entropy [1] we hypothesized that the entropy generation rate is the driving force for boundary layer transition from laminar to turbulent flow. Subsequently, with our colleagues we have examined the prediction of entropy generation during such transitions [2,3]. We found that reasonable predictions for engineering purposes could be obtained for flows with negligible streamwise pressure gradients by adapting the linear combination model of Emmons [4]. A question then arises—will the Emmons approach be useful for boundary layer transition with significant streamwise pressure gradients as by Nolan and Zaki [5]. In our implementation the intermittency is calculated by comparison to skin friction correlations for laminar and turbulent boundary layers and is then applied with comparable correlations for the energy dissipation coefficient (i.e., non-dimensional integral entropy generation rate. In the case of negligible pressure gradients the Blasius theory provides the necessary laminar correlations.
Large Eddy Simulation of the ventilated wave boundary layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lohmann, Iris P.; Fredsøe, Jørgen; Sumer, B. Mutlu
2006-01-01
A Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of (1) a fully developed turbulent wave boundary layer and (2) case 1 subject to ventilation (i.e., suction and injection varying alternately in phase) has been performed, using the Smagorinsky subgrid-scale model to express the subgrid viscosity. The model was found...... to reproduce experimental results well. However, in case 1, the near-bed ensemble averaged velocity is underestimated during the acceleration stage, probably due to the Smagorinsky subgrid-scale model not being able to capture the physics well in that region. Also, there is a general overestimation...... slows down the flow in the full vertical extent of the boundary layer, destabilizes the flow and decreases the mean bed shear stress significantly; whereas suction generally speeds up the flow in the full vertical extent of the boundary layer, stabilizes the flow and increases the mean bed shear stress...
Numerical simulation of tsunami-scale wave boundary layers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Williams, Isaac A.; Fuhrman, David R.
2016-01-01
This paper presents a numerical study of the boundary layer flow and properties induced by tsunami-scalewaves. For this purpose, an existing one-dimensional vertical (1DV) boundary layer model, based on the horizontal component of the incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations...... demonstrating the ability to reproduce accurate velocity profiles, turbulence, and bed shear stresses on both smooth and rough beds.The validated model is then employed for the study of transient wave boundary layers at full tsunami scales,covering a wide and realistic geophysical range in terms of the flow...... duration, bottom roughness, and associated Reynolds numbers. For this purpose, three different “synthetic” (idealised) tsunami wave descriptions are considered i.e., invoking: (1) single wave (solitary-like, but with independent period and wave height),(2) sinusoidal, and (3) N-wave descriptions. The flow...
Influence of wall permeability on turbulent boundary-layer properties
Wilkinson, S. P.
1983-01-01
Experimental boundary-layer studies of a series of low pressure drop, permeable surfaces have been conducted to characterize their surface interaction with a turbulent boundary layer. The models were flat and tested at nominally zero pressure gradient in low speed air. The surfaces were thin metal sheets with discrete perforations. Direct drag balance measurements of skin friction indicate that the general effect of surface permeability is to increase drag above that of a smooth plate reference level. Heuristic arguments are presented to show that this type of behavior is to be expected. Other boundary-layer data are also presented including mean velocity profiles and conditionally sampled streamwise velocity fluctuations (hot wire) for selected models.
Boundary layer for non-newtonian fluids on curved surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stenger, N.
1981-04-01
By using the basic equation of fluid motion (conservation of mass and momentum) the boundary layer parameters for a Non-Newtonian, incompressible and laminar fluid flow, has been evaluated. As a test, the flat plate boundary layer is first analized and afterwards, a case with pressure gradient, allowing separation, is studied. In the case of curved surfaces, the problem is first developed in general and afterwards particularized to a circular cylinder. Finally suction and slip in the flow interface are examined. The power law model is used to represent the stress strain relationship in Non-Newtonian flow. By varying the fluid exponent one can then, have an idea of how the Non-Newtonian behavior of the flow influences the parameters of the boundary layer. Two equations, in an appropriate coordinate system have been obtained after an order of magnitude analysis of the terms in the equations of motion is performed. (Author) [pt
An interactive boundary layer modelling methodology for aerodynamic flows
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Smith, L
2013-01-01
Full Text Available -of-boundary layer flow, with the inviscid flow approximation: Continuity 0= ∂ ∂ j j u x ρ (1) Conservation of momentum (Newton’s second law) ( ) ( ) ∂ ∂ − ∂ ∂ + ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ += ∂ ∂ + ∂ ∂ + ∂ ∂ ij k k i j j i j i i ji j i...-integral boundary layer solutions to a generic inviscid solver in an iterative fashion. Design/methodology/approach –The boundary layer solution is obtained using the two-integral method to solve displacement thickness point by point with a local Newton method...
Asymptotic analysis: Working note {number_sign}3, boundary layers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garbey, M. [Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France). Laboratoire d`Analyse Numerique; Kaper, H.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)
1993-09-01
In this chapter the authors discuss the asymptotic approximation of functions that display boundary-layer behavior. The purpose here is to introduce the basic concepts underlying the phenomenon, to illustrate its importance, and to describe some of the fundamental tools available for its analysis. To achieve their purpose in the clearest way possible, the authors will work with functions that are assumed to be given explicitly -- that is, functions f : (0,{epsilon}{sub 0}) {yields} X whose expressions are known, at least in principle. Only in the following chapter will they begin the study of functions that are given implicitly as solutions of boundary value problems -- the real stuff of which singular perturbation theory is made. Boundary-layer behavior is associated with asymptotic expansions that are regular {open_quotes}almost everywhere{close_quotes} -- that is, expansions that are regular on every compact subset of the domain of definition, but not near the boundary. These regular asymptotic expansions can be continued in a certain sense all the way up to the boundary, but a separate analysis is still necessary in the boundary layer. The boundary-layer analysis is purely local and aims at constructing local approximations in the neighborhood of each point of the singular part of the boundary. The problem of finding an asymptotic approximation is thus reduced to matching the various local approximations to the existing regular expansion valid in the interior of the domain. The authors are thinking, for example, of fluid flow (viscosity), combustion (Lewis number), and superconductivity (Ginzburg-Landau parameter) problems. Their solution may remain smooth over a wide range of parameter values, but as the parameters approach critical values, complicated patterns may emerge.
Receptivity of Hypersonic Boundary Layers over Straight and Flared Cones
Balakumar, Ponnampalam; Kegerise, Michael A.
2010-01-01
The effects of adverse pressure gradients on the receptivity and stability of hypersonic boundary layers were numerically investigated. Simulations were performed for boundary layer flows over a straight cone and two flared cones. The steady and the unsteady flow fields were obtained by solving the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in axi-symmetric coordinates using the 5th order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme for space discretization and using third-order total-variation-diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme for time integration. The mean boundary layer profiles were analyzed using local stability and non-local parabolized stability equations (PSE) methods. After the most amplified disturbances were identified, two-dimensional plane acoustic waves were introduced at the outer boundary of the computational domain and time accurate simulations were performed. The adverse pressure gradient was found to affect the boundary layer stability in two important ways. Firstly, the frequency of the most amplified second-mode disturbance was increased relative to the zero pressure gradient case. Secondly, the amplification of first- and second-mode disturbances was increased. Although an adverse pressure gradient enhances instability wave growth rates, small nose-tip bluntness was found to delay transition due to the low receptivity coefficient and the resulting weak initial amplitude of the instability waves. The computed and measured amplitude-frequency spectrums in all three cases agree very well in terms of frequency and the shape except for the amplitude.
An Innovative Flow-Measuring Device: Thermocouple Boundary Layer Rake
Hwang, Danny P.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Martin, Lisa C.; Wrbanek, John D.; Blaha, Charles A.
2001-01-01
An innovative flow-measuring device, a thermocouple boundary layer rake, was developed. The sensor detects the flow by using a thin-film thermocouple (TC) array to measure the temperature difference across a heater strip. The heater and TC arrays are microfabricated on a constant-thickness quartz strut with low heat conductivity. The device can measure the velocity profile well into the boundary layer, about 65 gm from the surface, which is almost four times closer to the surface than has been possible with the previously used total pressure tube.
Effect of externally generated turbulence on wave boundary layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fredsøe, Jørgen; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Kozakiewicz, A.
2003-01-01
This experimental study deals with the effect of externally generated turbulence on the oscillatory boundary layer to simulate the turbulence in the wave boundary layer under broken waves in the swash zone. The subject has been investigated experimentally in a U-shaped, oscillating water tunnel w...... the friction coefficient. Other features related to the bed shear stress, such as transition, the friction factor and phase lead are discussed. The range of the Reynolds number studied is 10.000 - 2.000.000...
Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (LABLE) Final Campaign Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klein, P [University of Oklahoma - School of Meteorology; Bonin, TA; Newman, JF [National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Turner, DD [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Chilson, P [University of Oklahoma; Blumberg, WG [University of Oklahoma; Mishra, S; Wainwright, CE; Carney, M [University of Oklahoma - School of Meteorology; Jacobsen, EP [University of Oklahoma; Wharton, S [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
2015-11-01
The Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (LABLE) included two measurement campaigns conducted at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains site in Oklahoma during 2012 and 2013. LABLE was designed as a multi-phase, low-cost collaboration among the University of Oklahoma, the National Severe Storms Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the ARM program. A unique aspect was the role of graduate students in LABLE. They served as principal investigators and took the lead in designing and conducting experiments using different sampling strategies to best resolve boundary-layer phenomena.
Vortex Generator Induced Flow in a High Re Boundary Layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Velte, Clara Marika; Braud, C.; Coudert, S.
2012-01-01
Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry measurements have been conducted in cross-planes behind three different geometries of Vortex Generators (VGs) in a high Reynolds number boundary layer. The VGs have been mounted in a cascade producing counter-rotating vortices and the downstream flow...... development was examined. Three VG geometries were investigated: rectangular, triangular and cambered. The various VG geometries tested are seen to produce different impacts on the boundary layer flow. Helical symmetry of the generated vortices is confirmed for all investigated VG geometries in this high...
Vortex Generator Induced Flow in a High Re Boundary Layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Velte, Clara Marika; Braud, C.; Coudert, S.
2014-01-01
Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry measurements have been conducted in cross-planes behind three different geometries of Vortex Generators (VGs) in a high Reynolds number boundary layer. The VGs have been mounted in a cascade producing counter-rotating vortices and the downstream flow...... development was examined. Three VG geometries were investigated: rectangular, triangular and cambered. The various VG geometries tested are seen to produce different impacts on the boundary layer flow. Helical symmetry of the generated vortices is confirmed for all investigated VG geometries in this high...
Rough-wall turbulent boundary layers with constant skin friction
Sridhar, A.
2017-03-28
A semi-empirical model is presented that describes the development of a fully developed turbulent boundary layer in the presence of surface roughness with length scale ks that varies with streamwise distance x . Interest is centred on flows for which all terms of the von Kármán integral relation, including the ratio of outer velocity to friction velocity U+∞≡U∞/uτ , are streamwise constant. For Rex assumed large, use is made of a simple log-wake model of the local turbulent mean-velocity profile that contains a standard mean-velocity correction for the asymptotic fully rough regime and with assumed constant parameter values. It is then shown that, for a general power-law external velocity variation U∞∼xm , all measures of the boundary-layer thickness must be proportional to x and that the surface sand-grain roughness scale variation must be the linear form ks(x)=αx , where x is the distance from the boundary layer of zero thickness and α is a dimensionless constant. This is shown to give a two-parameter (m,α) family of solutions, for which U+∞ (or equivalently Cf ) and boundary-layer thicknesses can be simply calculated. These correspond to perfectly self-similar boundary-layer growth in the streamwise direction with similarity variable z/(αx) , where z is the wall-normal coordinate. Results from this model over a range of α are discussed for several cases, including the zero-pressure-gradient ( m=0 ) and sink-flow ( m=−1 ) boundary layers. Trends observed in the model are supported by wall-modelled large-eddy simulation of the zero-pressure-gradient case for Rex in the range 108−1010 and for four values of α . Linear streamwise growth of the displacement, momentum and nominal boundary-layer thicknesses is confirmed, while, for each α , the mean-velocity profiles and streamwise turbulent variances are found to collapse reasonably well onto z/(αx) . For given α , calculations of U+∞ obtained from large-eddy simulations are streamwise
2007 Program of Study: Boundary Layers
2008-06-01
Instability of flow with temperature -dependent viscosity: A model of magma dynamics. Journal of Geophysical Research, 96:4145–455, 1991. [17] Wylie...Hazewinkel, Amsterdam University ................................................................108 Variations in sea surface temperature due to near...exact temperature equation for a compressible fluid George Veronis, Yale University July 27 - 10:30 AM Barefoot oceanic convection: twelve years
Analysis of differential infrared thermography for boundary layer transition detection
Gardner, A. D.; Eder, C.; Wolf, C. C.; Raffel, M.
2017-09-01
This paper presents an analysis of the differential infrared thermography (DIT) technique, a contactless method of measuring the unsteady movement of the boundary layer transition position on an unprepared surface. DIT has been shown to measure boundary layer transition positions which correlate well with those from other measurement methods. In this paper unsteady aerodynamics from a 2D URANS solution are used and the resulting wall temperatures computed. It is shown that the peak of the temperature difference signal correlates well with the boundary layer transition position, but that the start and end of boundary layer transition cannot be extracted. A small systematic time-lag cannot be reduced by using different surface materials, but the signal strength can be improved by reducing the heat capacity and heat transfer of the surface layer, for example by using a thin plastic coating. Reducing the image time separation used to produce the difference images reduces the time-lag and also the signal level, thus the optimum is when the signal to noise ratio is at the minimum which can be evaluated.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vijayakumar, Ganesh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Brasseur, James [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Lavely, Adam; Jayaraman, Balaji; Craven, Brent
2016-01-04
We describe the response of the NREL 5 MW wind turbine blade boundary layer to the passage of atmospheric turbulence using blade-boundary-layer-resolved computational fluid dynamics with hybrid URANS-LES modeling.
Atmospheric boundary layers in storms: advanced theory and modelling applications
S. S. Zilitinkevich; S. S. Zilitinkevich; S. S. Zilitinkevich; I. N. Esau; A. Baklanov
2005-01-01
Turbulent planetary boundary layers (PBLs) control the exchange processes between the atmosphere and the ocean/land. The key problems of PBL physics are to determine the PBL height, the momentum, energy and matter fluxes at the surface and the mean wind and scalar profiles throughout the layer in a range of regimes from stable and neutral to convective. Until present, the PBLs typical of stormy weather were always considered as neutrally stratified. Recent works have disclosed that such PBLs ...
Physical description of boundary-layer transition: Experimental evidence
Saric, William S.
1994-01-01
The problems of understanding the origins of turbulent flow and transition to turbulent flow are the most important unsolved problems of fluid mechanics and aerodynamics. It is well known that the stability, transition, and turbulent characteristics of bounded shear layers are fundamentally different from those of free shear layers. Likewise, the stability, transition, and turbulent characteristics of open systems are fundamentally different from those of closed systems. Because of the influence of indigenous disturbances, surface geometry and roughness, sound, heat transfer, and ablation, it is not possible to develop general prediction schemes for transition location and the nature of turbulent structures in boundary-layer flows. At the present time no mathematical model exists that can predict the transition Reynolds number on a flat plate. The recent progress in this area is encouraging, in that a number of distinct transition mechanisms have been found experimentally. The theoretical work finds them to be amplitude and Reynolds-number dependent. The theory remains rather incomplete with regard to predicting transition. Amplitude and spectral characteristics of the disturbances inside the laminar viscous layer strongly influence which type of transition occurs. The major need in this area is to understand how freestream disturbances are entrained into the boundary layer, i.e., to answer the question of receptivity. We refer receptivity to the mechanism(s) that cause freestream disturbances to enter the boundary layer and create the initial amplitudes for unstable waves.
Turbulence in rough-wall boundary layers: universality issues
Amir, Mohammad; Castro, Ian P.
2011-08-01
Wind tunnel measurements of turbulent boundary layers over three-dimensional rough surfaces have been carried out to determine the critical roughness height beyond which the roughness affects the turbulence characteristics of the entire boundary layer. Experiments were performed on three types of surfaces, consisting of an urban type surface with square random height elements, a diamond-pattern wire mesh and a sand-paper type grit. The measurements were carried out over a momentum thickness Reynolds number ( Re θ) range of 1,300-28,000 using two-component Laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and hot-wire anemometry (HWA). A wide range of the ratio of roughness element height h to boundary layer thickness δ was covered (0.04 ≤ h/δ ≤ 0.40). The results confirm that the mean profiles for all the surfaces collapse well in velocity defect form up to surprisingly large values of h/δ, perhaps as large as 0.2, but with a somewhat larger outer layer wake strength than for smooth-wall flows, as previously found. At lower h/δ, at least up to 0.15, the Reynolds stresses for all surfaces show good agreement throughout the boundary layer, collapsing with smooth-wall results outside the near-wall region. With increasing h/δ, however, the turbulence above the near-wall region is gradually modified until the entire flow is affected. Quadrant analysis confirms that changes in the rough-wall boundary layers certainly exist but are confined to the near-wall region at low h/δ; for h/δ beyond about 0.2 the quadrant events show that the structural changes extend throughout much of the boundary layer. Taken together, the data suggest that above h/δ ≈ 0.15, the details of the roughness have a weak effect on how quickly (with rising h/δ) the turbulence structure in the outer flow ceases to conform to the classical boundary layer behaviour. The present results provide support for Townsend's wall similarity hypothesis at low h/δ and also suggest that a single critical roughness
Combined Wave and Current Bottom Boundary Layers: A Review
2016-03-01
agreement with grab samples and laser diffraction instruments designed to measure particle size spectra (Lynch et al. 1994). 2.2 U.S. East Coast While...Boundary layers, Models, Near-shore processes, Review article , Sediment transport, Wave and current interaction 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF
Influence of micrometeorological features on coastal boundary layer ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging Solutions)
structure of number density shows three distinct zones depending on the prevailing boundary layer feature; viz, the well-mixed region, ... to persist for about 4–5 hrs. after the sunset and thereafter the altitude structure is governed by vertical structure of ...... Organisation, Dept of Space, Bangalore 73–85. Parameswaran K ...
Temperature boundary layer profiles in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection
Ching, Emily S. C.; Emran, Mohammad S.; Horn, Susanne; Shishkina, Olga
2017-11-01
Classical boundary-layer theory for steady flows cannot adequately describe the boundary layer profiles in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection. We have developed a thermal boundary layer equation which takes into account fluctuations in terms of an eddy thermal diffusivity. Based on Prandtl's mixing length ideas, we relate the eddy thermal diffusivity to the stream function. With this proposed relation, we can solve the thermal boundary layer equation and obtain a closed-form expression for the dimensionless mean temperature profile in terms of two independent parameters: θ(ξ) =1/b∫0b ξ [ 1 +3a3/b3(η - arctan(η)) ] - c dη , where ξ is the similarity variable and the parameters a, b, and c are related by the condition θ(∞) = 1 . With a proper choice of the parameters, our predictions of the temperature profile are in excellent agreement with the results of our direct numerical simulations for a wide range of Prandtl numbers (Pr), from Pr=0.01 to Pr=2547.9. OS, ME and SH acknowledge the financial support by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under Grants Sh405/4-2 (Heisenberg fellowship), Sh405/3-2 and Ho 5890/1-1, respectively.
Global instabilities and transient growth in Blasius boundary-layer ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We develop a hybrid of computational and theoretical approaches suited to study the fluid–structure interaction (FSI) of a compliant panel, flush between rigid upstream and downstream wall sections, with a Blasius boundary-layer flow. The ensuing linear-stability analysis is focused upon global instability and transient ...
Thermal Internal Boundary Layer characteristics at a tropical coastal ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
mail: rv@igcar.ernet.in. 3Boundary Layer Meteorology Division, Institut fuer Meteorologie und ..... result of maritime air coming over the land due to the sea breeze. The radiosonde temperature profile. (not shown here) shows the presence of a ...
Hair receptor sensitivity to changes in laminar boundary layer shape
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dickinson, B T
2010-01-01
Biologists have shown that bat wings contain distributed arrays of flow-sensitive hair receptors. The hair receptors are hypothesized to feedback information on airflows over the bat wing for enhanced stability or maneuverability during flight. Here, we study the geometric specialization of hair-like structures for the detection of changes in boundary layer velocity profiles (shapes). A quasi-steady model that relates the flow velocity profile incident on the longitudinal axis of a hair to the resultant moment and shear force at the hair base is developed. The hair length relative to the boundary layer momentum thickness that maximizes the resultant moment and shear-force sensitivity to changes in boundary layer shape is determined. The sensitivity of the resultant moment and shear force is shown to be highly dependent on hair length. Hairs that linearly taper to a point are shown to provide greater output sensitivity than hairs of uniform cross-section. On an order of magnitude basis, the computed optimal hair lengths are in agreement with the range of hair receptor lengths measured on individual bat species. These results support the hypothesis that bats use hair receptors for detecting changes in boundary layer shape and provide geometric guidelines for artificial hair sensor design and application.
Marine boundary layer simulation and verification during BOBMEX ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Marine boundary layer simulation and verification during BOBMEX-Pilot using NCMRWF model. Swati Basu. Volume 109 Issue 2 June 2000 pp 285-292 ... Author Affiliations. Swati Basu1. National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting, INSAT Building, Mausam Bhavan Complex, Lodi Road, New Delhi, India.
Influence of micrometeorological features on coastal boundary layer ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging Solutions)
Characteristics of aerosols in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) obtained from a bistatic. CW lidar at Trivandrum for the last one decade are used to investigate the role of ABL micro- meteorological processes in controlling the altitude distribution and size spectrum. The altitude structure of number density shows three ...
Wave boundary layer hydrodynamics during onshore bar migration
Henriquez, M.; Reniers, A.; Ruessink, G.; Stive, M.J.F.
2010-01-01
To study onshore bar migration and the accompanying intra-wave sediment transport a wave flume experiment was conducted. The wave flume had a rigid bottom with a single bar profile. The focus of the experiment was to measure the hydrodynamics in the wave bottom boundary layer. The results show that
Hair receptor sensitivity to changes in laminar boundary layer shape
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dickinson, B T, E-mail: btdickinson@lifetime.oregonstate.ed [Air Force Research Laboratory, Munitions Directorate, Eglin Air Force Base, FL 32542 (United States)
2010-03-15
Biologists have shown that bat wings contain distributed arrays of flow-sensitive hair receptors. The hair receptors are hypothesized to feedback information on airflows over the bat wing for enhanced stability or maneuverability during flight. Here, we study the geometric specialization of hair-like structures for the detection of changes in boundary layer velocity profiles (shapes). A quasi-steady model that relates the flow velocity profile incident on the longitudinal axis of a hair to the resultant moment and shear force at the hair base is developed. The hair length relative to the boundary layer momentum thickness that maximizes the resultant moment and shear-force sensitivity to changes in boundary layer shape is determined. The sensitivity of the resultant moment and shear force is shown to be highly dependent on hair length. Hairs that linearly taper to a point are shown to provide greater output sensitivity than hairs of uniform cross-section. On an order of magnitude basis, the computed optimal hair lengths are in agreement with the range of hair receptor lengths measured on individual bat species. These results support the hypothesis that bats use hair receptors for detecting changes in boundary layer shape and provide geometric guidelines for artificial hair sensor design and application.
Turbulent Boundary Layer on a Cylinder in Axial Flow
1988-09-29
wall- norma 6caling or Rao’s wall-normal scaling. Other measurements of the mean velocity in a cylindrical boundary layer should be mentioned for...located near the wall at three azimuthal locations that wre 900 apa ,-t and at several streamwise spacings for flow conditions resulting in 8/a=8
On the marine atmospheric boundary layer characteristics over Bay ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Detailed measurements were carried out in the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer (MABL) during the Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB) which covered both Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal during March to May 2006. In this paper, we present the meteorological observations made ...
Sun–Earth connection: Boundary layer waves and auroras
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena,. California .... Typical electric and magnetic field spectra of the magnetopause boundary layer waves are shown in figure ... measurements generally fit power law spectra for both electric and magnetic components. Tsurutani et al ...
Influence of micrometeorological features on coastal boundary layer ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Characteristics of aerosols in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) obtained from a bistatic CW lidar at Trivandrum for the last one decade are used to investigate the role of ABL micro- meteorological processes in controlling the altitude distribution and size spectrum. The altitude structure of number density shows three ...
Body surface adaptations to boundary-layer dynamics
Videler, J.J.
1995-01-01
Evolutionary processes have adapted nektonic animals to interact efficiently with the water that surrounds them. Not all these adaptations serve the same purpose. This paper concentrates on reduction of drag due to friction in the boundary layer close to the body surface. Mucus, compliant skins,
Response of neutral boundary-layers to changes of roughness
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sempreviva, Anna Maria; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Mortensen, Niels Gylling
1990-01-01
When air blows across a change in surface roughness, an internal boundary layer (IBL) develops within which the wind adapts to the new surface. This process is well described for short fetches, > 1 km. However, few data exist for large fetches on how the IBL grows to become a new equilibrium boun...
Full-Scale Spectrum of Boundary-Layer Winds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Lundtang Petersen, Erik
2016-01-01
Extensive mean meteorological data and high frequency sonic anemometer data from two sites in Denmark, one coastal onshore and one offshore, have been used to study the full-scale spectrum of boundary-layer winds, over frequencies f from about 1 yr−1 to10 Hz. 10-min cup anemometer data are used t...
Conserved variable analysis of the marine boundary layer and air ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The present study is based on the observed features of the MBL (Marine Boundary Layer) during the Bay of Bengal and Monsoon Experiment (BOBMEX) - Pilot phase. Conserved Variable Analysis (CVA) of the conserved variables such as potential temperature, virtual potential temperature, equivalent potential temperature ...
Conserved variable analysis of the marine boundary layer and air
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The present study is based on the observed features of the MBL (Marine Boundary Layer) during the Bay of Bengal and Monsoon Experiment (BOBMEX) - Pilot phase. Conserved Variable Analysis (CVA) of the conserved variables such as potential temperature, virtual potential temperature, equivalent potential temperature ...
Change of Surface Roughness and Planetary Boundary Layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Niels Otto
1978-01-01
The ratio between upstream and far downstream surface friction velocities relative to a change in surface roughness is given on the basis of results from surface Rossby number similarity theory. By simple theories for the internal boundary layer, which are found to compare quite well with recent ...
Multiscale Variability of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer during DYNAMO
Johnson, R. H.; Ciesielski, P. E.
2017-12-01
Properties of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) over the central Indian Ocean are investigated using sounding data obtained during the Dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) field campaign in 2011-12. Observations from Gan Island on Addu Atoll, the R/V Revelle, and Male' in the Maldives are used to determine the frequency of well-mixed layers, as well as their mean thermodynamic and wind profiles. Well-mixed boundary layers or mixed layers were observed 68% of the time from the three sites, ranging from 100-m depth in recovering convective downdraft wakes to 925 m in undisturbed conditions, with a mean depth of 508 m. At Revelle, the site most representative of the open ocean, the ABL displayed a distinct signal of modulation by the October and November MJOs, with mixed layer depths gradually increasing through the suppressed phases as the sea surface temperature (SST) increased leading up to the active phases, followed by frequent ABL stabilization and shallow mixed layers in recovering wakes. A distinct diurnal cycle of mixed layer depths and properties was observed during the MJO suppressed phases in response to a diurnal cycle of the SST under the mostly light-wind, clear-sky conditions. The daytime growth of the mixed layer contributed to an afternoon maximum in cumulus cloud development and rainfall during the suppressed periods by allowing more boundary layer thermals to reach their condensation levels. The variability of the ABL on time scales ranging from convective to diurnal to monthly poses significant challenges for numerical simulations of the MJO and the tropical circulation in general.
Pressure Fluctuations Induced by a Hypersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer
Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Zhang, Chao
2016-01-01
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to examine the pressure fluctuations generated by a spatially-developed Mach 5.86 turbulent boundary layer. The unsteady pressure field is analyzed at multiple wall-normal locations, including those at the wall, within the boundary layer (including inner layer, the log layer, and the outer layer), and in the free stream. The statistical and structural variations of pressure fluctuations as a function of wall-normal distance are highlighted. Computational predictions for mean velocity pro les and surface pressure spectrum are in good agreement with experimental measurements, providing a first ever comparison of this type at hypersonic Mach numbers. The simulation shows that the dominant frequency of boundary-layer-induced pressure fluctuations shifts to lower frequencies as the location of interest moves away from the wall. The pressure wave propagates with a speed nearly equal to the local mean velocity within the boundary layer (except in the immediate vicinity of the wall) while the propagation speed deviates from the Taylor's hypothesis in the free stream. Compared with the surface pressure fluctuations, which are primarily vortical, the acoustic pressure fluctuations in the free stream exhibit a significantly lower dominant frequency, a greater spatial extent, and a smaller bulk propagation speed. The freestream pressure structures are found to have similar Lagrangian time and spatial scales as the acoustic sources near the wall. As the Mach number increases, the freestream acoustic fluctuations exhibit increased radiation intensity, enhanced energy content at high frequencies, shallower orientation of wave fronts with respect to the flow direction, and larger propagation velocity.
Fifty Years of Boundary-Layer Theory and Experiment
Dryden, Hugh L.
1955-01-01
The year 1954 marked the 50th anniversary of the Prandtl boundary-layer theory from which we may date the beginning of man's understanding of the dynamics of real fluids. A backward look at this aspect of the history of the last 50 years may be instructive. This paper (1) attempts to compress the events of those 50 years into a few thousand words, to tell in this brief space the interesting story of the development of a new concept, its slow acceptance and growth, its spread from group to group within its country of origin, and its diffusion to other countries of the world. The original brief paper of Prandtl (2) was presented at the Third International Mathematical Congress at Heidelberg in 1904 and published in the following year. It was an attempt to explain the d'Alembert paradox, namely, that the neglect of the small friction of air in the theory resulted in the prediction of zero resistance to motion. Prandtl set himself the task of computing the motion of a fluid of small friction, so small that its effect could be neglected everywhere except where large velocity differences were present or a cumulative effect of friction occurred This led to the concept of boundary layer, or transition layer, near the wall of a body immersed in a fluid stream in which the velocity rises from zero to the free-stream value. It is interesting that Prandtl used the term Grenzsehicht (boundary layer) only once and the term Ubergangsschicht (transition layer) seven times in the brief article. Later writers also used Reibungsschicht (friction layer), but most writers today use Grenzschicht (boundary layer).
Research, Boundaries, and Policy in Networked Learning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
This book presents cutting-edge, peer reviewed research on networked learning organized by three themes: policy in networked learning, researching networked learning, and boundaries in networked learning. The "policy in networked learning" section explores networked learning in relation to policy...... networks, spaces of algorithmic governance and more. The "boundaries in networked learning" section investigates frameworks of students' digital literacy practices, among other important frameworks in digital learning. Lastly, the "research in networked learning" section delves into new research methods...
Effects of boundary layer forcing on wing-tip vortices
Shaw-Ward, Samantha
The nature of turbulence within wing-tip vortices has been a topic of research for decades, yet accurate measurements of Reynolds stresses within the core are inherently difficult due to the bulk motion wandering caused by initial and boundary conditions in wind tunnels. As a result, characterization of a vortex as laminar or turbulent is inconclusive and highly contradicting. This research uses several experimental techniques to study the effects of broadband turbulence, introduced within the wing boundary layer, on the development of wing-tip vortices. Two rectangular wings with a NACA 0012 profile were fabricated for the use of this research. One wing had a smooth finish and the other rough, introduced by P80 grade sandpaper. Force balance measurements showed a small reduction in wing performance due to surface roughness for both 2D and 3D configurations, although stall characteristics remained relatively unchanged. Seven-hole probes were purpose-built and used to assess the mean velocity profiles of the vortices five chord lengths downstream of the wing at multiple angles of attack. Above an incidence of 4 degrees, the vortices were nearly axisymmetric, and the wing roughness reduced both velocity gradients and peak velocity magnitudes within the vortex. Laser Doppler velocimetry was used to further assess the time-resolved vortex at an incidence of 5 degrees. Evidence of wake shedding frequencies and wing shear layer instabilities at higher frequencies were seen in power spectra within the vortex. Unlike the introduction of freestream turbulence, wing surface roughness did not appear to increase wandering amplitude. A new method for removing the effects of vortex wandering is proposed with the use of carefully selected high-pass filters. The filtered data revealed that the Reynolds stress profiles of the vortex produced by the smooth and rough wing were similar in shape, with a peak occurring away from the vortex centre but inside of the core. Single hot
New Theories on Boundary Layer Transition and Turbulence Formation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chaoqun Liu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is a short review of our recent DNS work on physics of late boundary layer transition and turbulence. Based on our DNS observation, we propose a new theory on boundary layer transition, which has five steps, that is, receptivity, linear instability, large vortex structure formation, small length scale generation, loss of symmetry and randomization to turbulence. For turbulence generation and sustenance, the classical theory, described with Richardson's energy cascade and Kolmogorov length scale, is not observed by our DNS. We proposed a new theory on turbulence generation that all small length scales are generated by “shear layer instability” through multiple level ejections and sweeps and consequent multiple level positive and negative spikes, but not by “vortex breakdown.” We believe “shear layer instability” is the “mother of turbulence.” The energy transferring from large vortices to small vortices is carried out by multiple level sweeps, but does not follow Kolmogorov's theory that large vortices pass energy to small ones through vortex stretch and breakdown. The loss of symmetry starts from the second level ring cycle in the middle of the flow field and spreads to the bottom of the boundary layer and then the whole flow field.
Provenance of the K/T boundary layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hildebrand, A.R.; Boynton, W.V.
1988-01-01
An array of chemical, physical and isotopic evidence indicates that an impact into oceanic crust terminated the Cretaceous Period. Approximately 1500 cu km of debris, dispersed by the impact fireball, fell out globally in marine and nonmarine environments producing a 2 to 4 mm thick layer (fireball layer). In North American locales, the fireball layer overlies a 15 to 25 mm thick layer of similar but distinct composition. This 15 to 25 mm layer (ejecta layer) may represent approximately 1000 cu km of lower energy ejecta from a nearby impact site. Isotopic and chemical evidence supports a mantle provenance for the bulk of the layers. The extraordinary REE pattern of the boundary clays was modelled as a mixture of oceanic crust, mantle, and approximately 10 percent continental material. The results are presented. If the siderophiles of the ejecta layer were derived solely from the mantle, a test may be available to see if the siderophile element anomaly of the fireball layer had an extraterrestrial origin. Radiogenic Os-187 is depleted in the mantle relative to an undifferentiated chondritic source. Os-187/Os-186 ratios of 1.049 and 1.108 were calculated for the ejecta and fireball layers, respectively
Examination of uniform momentum zones in hypersonic turbulent boundary layers
Williams, Owen; Helm, Clara; Martin, Pino
2017-11-01
The presence of uniform momentum zones (UMZs) separated by regions of high shear is now well-established in incompressible flows, with the mean number of such zones increasing in a log-linear fashion with Reynolds number. While known to be present in supersonic and hypersonic boundary layers, the properties of these UMZs and the appropriate Reynolds number for comparison with incompressible results have not previously been investigated. A large, previously published DNS database of hypersonic boundary layers is used in this investigation, with Mach numbers up to 12 and wall temperatures from cold to adiabatic, resulting in a wide range of outer layer Reynolds numbers. UMZs are examined using a range of parameters in both conventional inner and semi-local scalings, and Reynolds number trends examined.
Streamline correction for the analysis of boundary layer turbulence
Lee, Zoë S.; Baas, Andreas C. W.
2012-10-01
Improvements in the design and affordability of ultrasonic anemometers have provided significant contributions to aeolian research, by facilitating high frequency monitoring of three dimensional wind velocities. From these data it is possible to calculate quasi-instantaneous Reynolds stresses to evaluate boundary layer turbulence, moving beyond time-averaged measures, such as shear velocity (U*). As ultrasonic anemometry is used more frequently in aeolian geomorphology it is important to question accepted conventions concerning data processing and analysis. This paper examines data processing questions associated with the application of ultrasonic anemometry to field studies in aeolian geomorphology, through an investigation of three streamline correction routines, the two-step, three-step and planar-fit methods, on data recorded on a gently sloping beach at Magilligan Strand, Northern Ireland in May 2010. The planar-fit technique has not previously been used in aeolian geomorphology. Results are compared with data that have been corrected only for wind direction (yaw). The effects that these different methods have on quadrant analysis and Reynolds stress calculation are discussed. Streamline correction is applied as a time-variable procedure using a characteristic timescale of 8 s following analysis of the resultant wind speed energy spectrum. It is found that Reynolds shear stress is dependent on streamline correction method, with run mean estimates of resultant horizontal shear stress ranging from 0.05 to 0.11 N m- 2 depending on the technique. The two-step method consistently maximises the shear stress and when the resultant horizontal shear is calculated, it produces the most robust estimate for application to aeolian research. In contrast, the different methods have little effect on the identification or sequencing of turbulent structures using quadrant analysis. Streamline correction is an essential processing step when using Reynolds decomposition, however
Boundary Layer Effect on Behavior of Discrete Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jan Eliáš
2017-02-01
Full Text Available The paper studies systems of rigid bodies with randomly generated geometry interconnected by normal and tangential bonds. The stiffness of these bonds determines the macroscopic elastic modulus while the macroscopic Poisson’s ratio of the system is determined solely by the normal/tangential stiffness ratio. Discrete models with no directional bias have the same probability of element orientation for any direction and therefore the same mechanical properties in a statistical sense at any point and direction. However, the layers of elements in the vicinity of the boundary exhibit biased orientation, preferring elements parallel with the boundary. As a consequence, when strain occurs in this direction, the boundary layer becomes stiffer than the interior for the normal/tangential stiffness ratio larger than one, and vice versa. Nonlinear constitutive laws are typically such that the straining of an element in shear results in higher strength and ductility than straining in tension. Since the boundary layer tends, due to the bias in the elemental orientation, to involve more tension than shear at the contacts, it also becomes weaker and less ductile. The paper documents these observations and compares them to the results of theoretical analysis.
A Study of stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer over highveld South Africa
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luhunga, P; Djolov, G [University of Pretoria (South Africa); Esau, I, E-mail: george.djolov@up.ac.z
2010-08-15
The study is part of the South African - Norwegian Programme for Research and Co-operation Phase II 'Analysis and Possibility for Control of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Processes to Facilitate Adaptation to Environmental Changes'. The research strategy of the project is based on 4 legged approach. 1) Application and further development of contemporary atmospheric boundary layer theory. 2) Use of modeling based on large eddy simulation techniques. 3) Experimental investigation of turbulent fluxes. 4) Training and developing academics capable of dealing with the present and new challenges. The paper presents some preliminary results on the micrometeorological variability of the basic meteorological parameters and turbulent fluxes.
CFD simulation of neutral ABL flows; Atmospheric Boundary Layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xiaodong Zhang
2009-04-15
This work is to evaluate the CFD prediction of Atmospheric Boundary Layer flow field over different terrains employing Fluent 6.3 software. How accurate the simulation could achieve depend on following aspects: viscous model, wall functions, agreement of CFD model with inlet wind velocity profile and top boundary condition. Fluent employ wall function roughness modifications based on data from experiments with sand grain roughened pipes and channels, describe wall adjacent zone with Roughness Height (Ks) instead of Roughness Length (z{sub 0}). In a CFD simulation of ABL flow, the mean wind velocity profile is generally described with either a logarithmic equation by the presence of aerodynamic roughness length z{sub 0} or an exponential equation by the presence of exponent. As indicated by some former researchers, the disagreement between wall function model and ABL velocity profile description will result in some undesirable gradient along flow direction. There are some methods to improve the simulation model in literatures, some of them are discussed in this report, but none of those remedial methods are perfect to eliminate the streamwise gradients in mean wind speed and turbulence, as EllipSys3D could do. In this paper, a new near wall treatment function is designed, which, in some degree, can correct the horizontal gradients problem. Based on the corrected model constants and near wall treatment function, a simulation of Askervein Hill is carried out. The wind condition is neutrally stratified ABL and the measurements are best documented until now. Comparison with measured data shows that the CFD model can well predict the velocity field and relative turbulence kinetic energy field. Furthermore, a series of artificial complex terrains are designed, and some of the main simulation results are reported. (au)
Boundary layer studies related to fusion theory. Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1981-01-01
The described work studied the boundary between closed and open field lines in EBT geometry, with emphasis on the microstability properties. These properties were established primarily for drift waves in the lower hybrid range of frequencies. The transport due to these modes was evaluated by a self-consistent treatment, using quasilinear models in a plasma diffusion code. The model was benchmarked against the EDT experimental results from ORNL and the sensitivity to transport model established. Viscosity was estimated to be negligible compared with anomalous transport. Drift wave turbulence gave a boundary layer size much more consistent with experiment than either collisional transport or Bohm diffusion
Urban atmospheric boundary layer height in Seoul Metropolitan Area, KOREA
Choi, Min-Hyeok; Park, Moon-Soo
2017-04-01
Atmospheric boundary-layer height (ABLH) is important parameter in meteorological model for weather forecasting and it's used to model verification. In this study, temporal and spatial variations of ABLH obtained by aerosol lidars and ceilometers deployed at urban commercial area (Gwanghwamun, urban center) and urban residential area (Jungnang, eastern part) of Seoul Metropolitan Area in 2014 are analyzed. The ABLH is determined as the height corresponding to a minimum vertical gradient of backscattered signals observed by an aerosol lidar (532 nm) and a ceilometer (910 nm), respectively. It is found that the ABLH determined by an aerosol lidar shows nearly the same seasonal and diurnal variation as that by a ceilometer. But the ABLH observed at downwind (Jungnang) station is generally higher than that observed at urban center (Gwanghwamun) station. The stable boundary layer (SBL) height in nighttime ranges 10 500 m, and a residual layer is often located over the top of SBL. The unstable boundary layer height grows during the daytime and shows a daily maximum in late afternoon. The daily maximum ABLH has a higher value in spring and a lower value in winter according to surface sensible heat flux, cloud, and precipitation.
Wall-attached structures of streamwise velocity fluctuations in turbulent boundary layer
Hwang, Jinyul; Sung, Hyung Jin
2017-11-01
The wall-attached structures of streamwise velocity fluctuations (u) are explored using direct numerical simulation data of turbulent boundary layer at Reτ = 1000 . We identify the structures of u, which are extended close to the wall. Their height (ly) ranges from the near-wall region to the edge of turbulent boundary layer. They are geometrically self-similar in a sense that the length and width of the structures are proportional to the distance from the wall. The population density of the attached structures shows that the tall attached structures (290 wall. The wall-attached structures of u identified in the present work are a proper candidate for Townsend's attached eddy hypothesis and these structures exist in the low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer. This work was supported by the Creative Research Initiatives (No. 2017-013369) program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (MSIP) and supported by the Supercomputing Center (KISTI).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghate, Virendra P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Miller, Mark [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)
2016-11-01
The overall goal of this project was to improve the understanding of marine boundary clouds by using data collected at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites, so that they can be better represented in global climate models (GCMs). Marine boundary clouds are observed regularly over the tropical and subtropical oceans. They are an important element of the Earth’s climate system because they have substantial impact on the radiation budget together with the boundary layer moisture, and energy transports. These clouds also have an impact on large-scale precipitation features like the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Because these clouds occur at temporal and spatial scales much smaller than those relevant to GCMs, their effects and the associated processes need to be parameterized in GCM simulations aimed at predicting future climate and energy needs. Specifically, this project’s objectives were to (1) characterize the surface turbulent fluxes, boundary layer thermodynamics, radiation field, and cloudiness associated with cumulus-topped marine boundary layers; (2) explore the similarities and differences in cloudiness and boundary layer conditions observed in the tropical and trade-wind regions; and (3) understand similarities and differences by using a simple bulk boundary layer model. In addition to working toward achieving the project’s three objectives, we also worked on understanding the role played by different forcing mechanisms in maintaining turbulence within cloud-topped boundary layers We focused our research on stratocumulus clouds during the first phase of the project, and cumulus clouds during the rest of the project. Below is a brief description of manuscripts published in peer-reviewed journals that describe results from our analyses.
1979-03-06
301)0, Boulder , Colorado 80303. Markson, R., 1977: Secular decrease in ionospheric potential , in-: H. Dolezalek and R. Reiter (Editors), Electrica l...Processes in Atmospheres, Dietrich • Steinkopff, Darmstadt, Germany. Markson, R., 1977: Airlmrni’ atmo !;pheric electrica ] measu rements of the...variation of’ ionospheric potential arid electrica l ~t rurture through the atmosphericexchange layer over the n,’enn, —in: H. Dolcia l ek and R. Reiter
Boundary layer ozone - An airborne survey above the Amazon Basin
Gregory, Gerald L.; Browell, Edward V.; Warren, Linda S.
1988-01-01
Ozone data obtained over the forest canopy of the Amazon Basin during July and August 1985 in the course of NASA's Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment 2A are discussed, and ozone profiles obtained during flights from Belem to Tabatinga, Brazil, are analyzed to determine any cross-basin effects. The analyses of ozone data indicate that the mixed layer of the Amazon Basin, for the conditions of undisturbed meteorology and in the absence of biomass burning, is a significant sink for tropospheric ozone. As the coast is approached, marine influences are noted at about 300 km inland, and a transition from a forest-controlled mixed layer to a marine-controlled mixed layer is noted.
Low speed streak formation in a separating turbulent boundary layer
Santos, Leonardo; Lang, Amy; Wahidi, Redha; Bonacci, Andrew
2017-11-01
Separation control mechanisms present on the skin of the shortfin mako shark may permit higher swimming speeds. The morphology of the scales varies over the entire body, with maximum scale flexibility found on the flank region with an adverse pressure gradient(APG). It is hypothesized that reversing flow close the skin bristles the scales inhibiting further flow reversal and controlling flow separation. Experiments are conducted in water tunnel facility and the flow field of a separating turbulent boundary layer(TBL) is measured using DPIV and Insight V3V. Flow separation is induced by a rotating cylinder which generates a controlled APG over a flat plate (Re = 510000 and 620000). Specifically, the low speed streak(LSS) formation is documented and matches predicted sizing based on viscous length scale calculations. It is surmised that shark scale width corresponds to this LSS sizing for real swimming TBL conditions. However, flow separation control has been demonstrated over real skin specimens under much lower speed conditions which indicates the mechanism is fairly Re independent if multiple scales are bristled as the width of the LSS increases. The formation of reversing flow within the streaks is studied specifically to better understand the process by which this flow initiates scale bristling on shortfin mako skin as a passive, flow actuated separation control mechanism. The authors would like to greatefully acknowledge the Army Research Office for funding this project.
The influence of viscosity stratification on boundary-layer turbulence
Lee, Jin; Jung, Seo Yoon; Sung, Hyung Jin; Zaki, Tamer A.
2012-11-01
Direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows over isothermally-heated walls were performed to investigate the influence of viscosity stratification on boundary-layer turbulence and drag. The adopted model for temperature-dependent viscosity was typical of water. The free-stream temperature was set to 30°C, and two wall temperatures, 70°C and 99°C, were simulated. In the heated flows, the mean shear-rate is enhanced near the wall and reduced in the buffer region, which induces a reduction in turbulence production. On the other hand, the turbulence dissipation is enhanced near the wall, despite the the reduction in fluid viscosity. The higher dissipation is attributed to a decrease in the smallest length scales and near-wall fine-scale motions. The combined effect of the reduced production and enhanced dissipation leads to lower Reynolds shear stresses and, as a result, reduction of the skin-friction coefficient. Supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (Grant EP/F034997/1) and partially supported by the Erasmus Mundus Build on Euro-Asian Mobility (EM-BEAM) programme.
Initializing a Mesoscale Boundary-Layer Model with Radiosonde Observations
Berri, Guillermo J.; Bertossa, Germán
2018-01-01
A mesoscale boundary-layer model is used to simulate low-level regional wind fields over the La Plata River of South America, a region characterized by a strong daily cycle of land-river surface-temperature contrast and low-level circulations of sea-land breeze type. The initial and boundary conditions are defined from a limited number of local observations and the upper boundary condition is taken from the only radiosonde observations available in the region. The study considers 14 different upper boundary conditions defined from the radiosonde data at standard levels, significant levels, level of the inversion base and interpolated levels at fixed heights, all of them within the first 1500 m. The period of analysis is 1994-2008 during which eight daily observations from 13 weather stations of the region are used to validate the 24-h surface-wind forecast. The model errors are defined as the root-mean-square of relative error in wind-direction frequency distribution and mean wind speed per wind sector. Wind-direction errors are greater than wind-speed errors and show significant dispersion among the different upper boundary conditions, not present in wind speed, revealing a sensitivity to the initialization method. The wind-direction errors show a well-defined daily cycle, not evident in wind speed, with the minimum at noon and the maximum at dusk, but no systematic deterioration with time. The errors grow with the height of the upper boundary condition level, in particular wind direction, and double the errors obtained when the upper boundary condition is defined from the lower levels. The conclusion is that defining the model upper boundary condition from radiosonde data closer to the ground minimizes the low-level wind-field errors throughout the region.
Bandgap tunability at single-layer molybdenum disulphide grain boundaries
Huang, Yu Li
2015-02-17
Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides have emerged as a new class of semiconductor materials with novel electronic and optical properties of interest to future nanoelectronics technology. Single-layer molybdenum disulphide, which represents a prototype two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide, has an electronic bandgap that increases with decreasing layer thickness. Using high-resolution scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy, we measure the apparent quasiparticle energy gap to be 2.40±0.05 eV for single-layer, 2.10±0.05 eV for bilayer and 1.75±0.05 eV for trilayer molybdenum disulphide, which were directly grown on a graphite substrate by chemical vapour deposition method. More interestingly, we report an unexpected bandgap tunability (as large as 0.85±0.05 eV) with distance from the grain boundary in single-layer molybdenum disulphide, which also depends on the grain misorientation angle. This work opens up new possibilities for flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices with tunable bandgaps that utilize both the control of two-dimensional layer thickness and the grain boundary engineering.
Acoustic Calculation for Supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xin-Liang, Li; De-Xun, Fu; Yan-Wen, Ma; Hui, Gao
2009-01-01
An approach which combines direct numerical simulation (DNS) with the Lighthill acoustic analogy theory is used to study the potential noise sources during the transition process of a Mach 2.25 flat plate boundary layer. The quadrupole sound sources due to the now fluctuations and the dipole sound sources due to the fluctuating surface stress are obtained. Numerical results suggest that formation of the high shear layers leads to a dramatic amplification of amplitude of the fluctuating quadrupole sound sources. Compared with the quadrupole sound source, the energy of dipole sound source is concentrated in the relatively low frequency range
Finite-element numerical modeling of atmospheric turbulent boundary layer
Lee, H. N.; Kao, S. K.
1979-01-01
A dynamic turbulent boundary-layer model in the neutral atmosphere is constructed, using a dynamic turbulent equation of the eddy viscosity coefficient for momentum derived from the relationship among the turbulent dissipation rate, the turbulent kinetic energy and the eddy viscosity coefficient, with aid of the turbulent second-order closure scheme. A finite-element technique was used for the numerical integration. In preliminary results, the behavior of the neutral planetary boundary layer agrees well with the available data and with the existing elaborate turbulent models, using a finite-difference scheme. The proposed dynamic formulation of the eddy viscosity coefficient for momentum is particularly attractive and can provide a viable alternative approach to study atmospheric turbulence, diffusion and air pollution.
Turbulent boundary layer under the control of different schemes
Qiao, Z. X.; Zhou, Y.; Wu, Z.
2017-06-01
This work explores experimentally the control of a turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate based on wall perturbation generated by piezo-ceramic actuators. Different schemes are investigated, including the feed-forward, the feedback, and the combined feed-forward and feedback strategies, with a view to suppressing the near-wall high-speed events and hence reducing skin friction drag. While the strategies may achieve a local maximum drag reduction slightly less than their counterpart of the open-loop control, the corresponding duty cycles are substantially reduced when compared with that of the open-loop control. The results suggest a good potential to cut down the input energy under these control strategies. The fluctuating velocity, spectra, Taylor microscale and mean energy dissipation are measured across the boundary layer with and without control and, based on the measurements, the flow mechanism behind the control is proposed.
Construction of a Non-Equilibrium Thermal Boundary Layer Facility
Biles, Drummond; Ebadi, Alireza; Ma, Allen; White, Christopher
2015-11-01
A thermally conductive, electrically heated wall-plate forming the bottom wall of a wind tunnel has been constructed and validation tests have been performed. The wall-plate is a sectioned wall design, where each section is independently heated and controlled. Each section consists of an aluminum 6061 plate, an array of resistive heaters affixed to the bottom of the aluminum plate, and a calcium silicate holder used for thermal isolation. Embedded thermocouples in the aluminum plates are used to monitor the wall temperature and for feedback control of wall heating. The wall-plate is used to investigate thermal transport in both equilibrium and non-equilibrium boundary layers. The non-equilibrium boundary layer flow investigated is oscillatory flow produced by a rotor-stator mechanism placed downstream of the test section of the wind tunnel.
Compressible stability of growing boundary layers using parabolized stability equations
Chang, Chau-Lyan; Malik, Mujeeb R.; Erlebacher, Gordon; Hussaini, M. Y.
1991-01-01
The parabolized stability equation (PSE) approach is employed to study linear and nonlinear compressible stability with an eye to providing a capability for boundary-layer transition prediction in both 'quiet' and 'disturbed' environments. The governing compressible stability equations are solved by a rational parabolizing approximation in the streamwise direction. Nonparallel flow effects are studied for both the first- and second-mode disturbances. For oblique waves of the first-mode type, the departure from the parallel results is more pronounced as compared to that for the two-dimensional waves. Results for the Mach 4.5 case show that flow nonparallelism has more influence on the first mode than on the second. The disturbance growth rate is shown to be a strong function of the wall-normal distance due to either flow nonparallelism or nonlinear interactions. The subharmonic and fundamental types of breakdown are found to be similar to the ones in incompressible boundary layers.
Heat conduction boundary layers of condensed clumps in cooling flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boehringer, H.; Fabian, A.C.
1989-01-01
The structure of heat conduction boundary layers of gaseous condensations embedded in the hot intergalactic gas in clusters of galaxies is investigated by means of steady, one-dimensional, hydrodynamic models. It is assumed that heat conduction is effective only on scales much smaller than the total region of the cooling flow. Models are calculated for an arbitrary scaling factor, accounting for the reduction in heat conduction efficiency compared to the classical Spitzer case. The results imply a lower limit to the size spectrum of the condensations. The enhancement of cooling in the ambient medium due to heat conduction losses is calculated for a range of clump parameters. The luminosity of several observable emission lines, the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray emission spectrum, and the column density of some important ions are determined for the model boundary layers and compared with observations. (author)
Leading-edge effects on boundary-layer receptivity
Gatski, Thomas B.; Kerschen, Edward J.
1990-01-01
Numerical calculations are presented for the incompressible flow over a parabolic cylinder. The computational domain extends from a region upstream of the body downstream to the region where the Blasius boundary-layer solution holds. A steady mean flow solution is computed and the results for the scaled surface vorticity, surface pressure and displacement thickness are compared to previous studies. The unsteady problem is then formulated as a perturbation solution starting with and evolving from the mean flow. The response to irrotational time harmonic pulsation of the free-stream is examined. Results for the initial development of the velocity profile and displacement thickness are presented. These calculations will be extended to later times to investigate the initiation of instability waves within the boundary-layer.
Physics of the atmospheric boundary layer. Fizika pogranichnogo sloia atmosfery
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Orlenko, L.R.; Malevskii-Malevich, S.P.
1987-01-01
Papers are presented on such topics as the determination of wind velocity and direction in the lower part of the atmospheric boundary layer on the basis of ground data; the evaluation of wind velocity and shears at low altitudes on the basis of ground data; calculation of the evolution of the nocturnal boundary with allowance for radiative heat transfer; universal functions of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory for stable stratification; and the variability of mean-monthly values of ocean-atmosphere energy transfer characteristics in the North Atlantic region. Consideration is also given to the effect of water pollution on spray generation, the calculation of turbulent fluxes above the thermally inhomogeneous and nonstationary sea surface, and wind-profile characteristics in the lower air layer above the ocean.
Stereoscopic PIV measurement of boundary layer affected by DBD actuator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Procházka Pavel
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The effect of ionic wind generated by plasma actuator on developed boundary layer inside a narrow channel was investigated recently. Since the main investigated plane was parallel to the channel axis, the description of flow field was not evaluated credibly. This paper is dealing with cross-section planes downstream the actuator measured via 3D time-resolved PIV. The actuator position is in spanwise or in streamwise orientation so that ionic wind is blown in the same direction as the main flow or in opposite direction or perpendicularly. The interaction between boundary layer and ionic wind is evaluated for three different velocities of main flow and several parameters of plasma actuation (steady and unsteady regime, frequency etc.. Statistical properties of the flow are shown as well as dynamical behaviour of arising longitudinal vortices are discussed via phase-locked measurement and decomposition method.
Numerical solution of the resistive magnetohydrodynamic boundary layer equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glasser, A.H.; Jardin, S.C.; Tesauro, G.
1984-05-01
Three different techniques are presented for numerical solution of the equations governing the boundary layer of resistive magnetohydrodynamic tearing and interchange instabilities in toroidal geometry. Good agreement among these methods and with analytical results provides confidence in the correctness of the results. Solutions obtained in regimes where analytical methods fail indicate a new scaling for the tearing mode as well as the existence of a new regime of stability.
Boundary Layer Flows in Porous Media with Lateral Mass Flux
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nemati, H; H, Bararnia; Noori, F
2015-01-01
Solutions for free convection boundary layers on a heated vertical plate with lateral mass flux embedded in a saturated porous medium are presented using the Homotopy Analysis Method and Shooting Numerical Method. Homotopy Analysis Method yields an analytic solution in the form of a rapidly...... modulus. Also, the Shooting Method is used as a numerical method for solution of the problem. The obtained solutions are compared together and admit a remarkable accuracy....
Numerical solution of the resistive magnetohydrodynamic boundary-layer equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glasser, A.H.; Jardin, S.C.; Tesauro, G.
1983-10-01
Three different techniques are presented for numerical solution of the equations governing the boundary layer of resistive magnetohydrodynamic tearing and interchange instabilities in toroidal geometry. Excellent agreement among these methods and with analytical results provides confidence in the correctness of the results. Solutions obtained in regimes where analytical medthods fail indicate a new scaling for the tearing mode as well as the existence of a new regime of stability.
Surface roughness effects on the hypersonic turbulent boundary layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berg, D.E.
1977-09-01
An experimental investigation of the response of a hypersonic turbulent boundary layer to a step change in surface roughness has been performed. The boundary layer on a flat nozzle wall of a Mach 6 wind tunnel was subjected to abrupt changes in surface roughness and its adjustment to the new surface conditions was examined. Both mean and fluctuating flow properties were acquired for smooth-to-rough and rough-to-smooth surface configurations. The boundary layer was found to respond gradually and to attain new equilibrium profiles, for both the mean and the fluctuating properties, some 10 to 25 delta downstream of the step change. Mean flow self-similarity was the first to establish itself, followed by the mass flux fluctuations, followed in turn by the total temperature fluctuations. Use of a modified Van Driest transformation resulted in good correlations of smooth and rough wall data in the form of the incompressible law of the wall. This is true even in the nonequilibrium vicinity of the step for small roughness heights. The present data are found to correlate well with previously published roughness effect data from low and high speed flows when the roughnesses are characterized by an equivalent sand grain roughness height.
Physical processes within the nocturnal stratus-topped boundary layer
Moeng, Chin-Hoh; Shen, Shaohua; Randall, David A.
1992-01-01
There are many physical processes involved in the stratus-topped boundary layer: longwave radiation cooling, entrainment, latent heating, surface heating, solar heating, and drizzling, for example. The manner in which the processes combine to maintain the turbulence within the stratus-topped boundary layer remains an unsolved problem. The large eddy simulation technique is used to examine the first four physical processes mentioned above. First, the contribution of each physical process to the thermodynamic differences between the updraft and downdraft branches of turbulent circulations is examined through a conditional sampling. Second, these mean thermodynamic differences are shown to express well the vertical distributions of heat and moisture fluxes within stratus-topped boundary layers. These provide a method to validate the process partitioning technique. (This technique assumes that the net flux profile can be partitioned into different component-flux profiles according to physical processes, and that each partitioned component flux is linear in height.) In this paper, the heat and moisture fluxes are process partitioned, and each component-flux is found to contribute to the net flux in a way that is consistent with its corresponding process contribution to the mean thermodynamic differences between updrafts and downdrafts. Also, the net flux obtained by summing all component-fluxes agrees very well with that obtained directly from the large-eddy simulations.
Physical processes within the nocturnal stratus-topped boundary layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moeng, C.H.; Shen, S. (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)); Randall, D.A. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (United States))
1992-12-15
Within the stratus-topped boundary layer many physical processes are involved: longwave radiation cooling, entrainment, latent heating, surface heating, solar heating, drizzling, etc. How all processes combine to maintain the turbulence within the stratus-topped boundary layer remains an unsolved problem. The large-eddy simulation technique is used to examine the first four physical processes mentioned. First, the contribution of each physical process to the thermodynamic differences between the updraft and downdraft branches of turbulent circulations is examined through a conditional sampling. Second, these mean thermodynamic differences are shown to express well the vertical distributions of heat and moisture fluxes within stratus-topped boundary layers. These provide a method to validate the process-partitioning technique. (This technique assumes that the net flux profile can be partitioned into different component-flux profiles according to physical processes and that each partitioned component flux is linear in height.) In this paper, the heat and moisture fluxes are process partitioned, and each component flux is found to contribute to the net flux in a way that is consistent with its corresponding process contribution to the mean thermodynamic differences between updrafts and downdrafts. Also, the net flux obtained by summing all component fluxes agrees well with that obtained directly from the large-eddy simulations.
Improving Wind-Ramp Forecasts in the Stable Boundary Layer
Jahn, David E.; Takle, Eugene S.; Gallus, William A.
2017-06-01
The viability of wind-energy generation is dependent on highly accurate numerical wind forecasts, which are impeded by inaccuracies in model representation of boundary-layer processes. This study revisits the basic theory of the Mellor, Yamada, Nakanishi, and Niino (MYNN) planetary boundary-layer parametrization scheme, focusing on the onset of wind-ramp events related to nocturnal low-level jets. Modifications to the MYNN scheme include: (1) calculation of new closure parameters that determine the relative effects of turbulent energy production, dissipation, and redistribution; (2) enhanced mixing in the stable boundary layer when the mean wind speed exceeds a specified threshold; (3) explicit accounting of turbulent potential energy in the energy budget. A mesoscale model is used to generate short-term (24 h) wind forecasts for a set of 15 cases from both the U.S.A. and Germany. Results show that the new set of closure parameters provides a marked forecast improvement only when used in conjunction with the new mixing length formulation and only for cases that are originally under- or over-forecast (10 of the 15 cases). For these cases, the mean absolute error (MAE) of wind forecasts at turbine-hub height is reduced on average by 17%. A reduction in MAE values on average by 26% is realized for these same cases when accounting for the turbulent potential energy together with the new mixing length. This last method results in an average reduction by at least 13% in MAE values across all 15 cases.
Using UAV's to Measure the Urban Boundary Layer
Jacob, R. L.; Sankaran, R.; Beckman, P. H.
2015-12-01
The urban boundary layer is one of the most poorly studied regions of the atmospheric boundary layer. Since a majority of the world's population now lives in urban areas, it is becoming a more important region to measure and model. The combination of relatively low-cost unmanned aerial vehicles and low-cost sensors can together provide a new instrument for measuring urban and other boundary layers. We have mounted a new sensor and compute platform called Waggle on an off-the-shelf XR8 octo-copter from 3DRobotics. Waggle consists of multiple sensors for measuring pressure, temperature and humidity as well as trace gases such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and ozone. A single board computer running Linux included in Waggle on the UAV allows in-situ processing and data storage. Communication of the data is through WiFi or 3G and the Waggle software can save the data in case communication is lost during flight. The flight pattern is a deliberately simple vertical ascent and descent over a fixed location to provide vertical profiles and so flights can be confined to urban parks, industrial areas or the footprint of a single rooftop. We will present results from test flights in urban and rural areas in and around Chicago.
RANS Modeling of Benchmark Shockwave / Boundary Layer Interaction Experiments
Georgiadis, Nick; Vyas, Manan; Yoder, Dennis
2010-01-01
This presentation summarizes the computations of a set of shock wave / turbulent boundary layer interaction (SWTBLI) test cases using the Wind-US code, as part of the 2010 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) shock / boundary layer interaction workshop. The experiments involve supersonic flows in wind tunnels with a shock generator that directs an oblique shock wave toward the boundary layer along one of the walls of the wind tunnel. The Wind-US calculations utilized structured grid computations performed in Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes mode. Three turbulence models were investigated: the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model, the Menter Shear Stress Transport wavenumber-angular frequency two-equation model, and an explicit algebraic stress wavenumber-angular frequency formulation. Effects of grid resolution and upwinding scheme were also considered. The results from the CFD calculations are compared to particle image velocimetry (PIV) data from the experiments. As expected, turbulence model effects dominated the accuracy of the solutions with upwinding scheme selection indicating minimal effects.!
Sensitivity of boundary-layer stability to base-state distortions at high Mach numbers
Park, Junho; Zaki, Tamer
2017-11-01
The stability diagram of high-speed boundary layers has been established by evaluating the linear instability modes of the similarity profile, over wide ranges of Reynolds and Mach numbers. In real flows, however, the base state can deviate from the similarity profile. Both the base velocity and temperature can be distorted, for example due to roughness and thermal wall treatments. We review the stability problem of high-speed boundary layer, and derive a new formulation of the sensitivity to base-state distortion using forward and adjoint parabolized stability equations. The new formulation provides qualitative and quantitative interpretations on change in growth rate due to modifications of mean-flow and mean-temperature in heated high-speed boundary layers, and establishes the foundation for future control strategies. This work has been funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) Grant: FA9550-16-1-0103.
Collisional boundary layer analysis for neoclassical toroidal plasma viscosity in tokamaks
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Shaing, K.C.; Cahyna, Pavel; Bécoulet, M.; Park, J.-K.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Chu, M.S.
2008-01-01
Roč. 15, č. 8 (2008), 082506-1-7 ISSN 1070-664X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : plasma boundary layers * plasma toroidal confinement * Tokamak devices Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.427, year: 2008 http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2969434
Introduction to the Third GEWEX Atmospheric Boundary Layer Study (GABLS3)
Holtslag, A.A.M.
2014-01-01
The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) plays a dominant role in the exchange of energy, water vapour, trace gases and momentum between the earth’s surface and the overlying atmosphere. Consequently, the ABL is an important part of any numerical model in use for atmospheric and climate research, for
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Reddington, C.L.; Carslaw, K.S.; Spracklen, D.V.; Frontoso, M.G.; Collins, L.; Merikanto, J.; Minikin, A.; Hamburger, T.; Coe, H.; Kulmala, M.; Aalto, P.; Flentje, H.; Plass-Dülmer, C.; Birmili, W.; Wiedensohler, A.; Wehner, B.; Tuch, T.; Sonntag, A.; O'Dowd, C.D.; Jennings, S.G.; Dupuy, R.; Baltensperger, U.; Weingartner, A.; Hansson, H.-C.; Tunved, P.; Laj, P.; Sellegri, K.; Boulon, J.; Putaund, J.-P.; Gruening, C.; Swietlicki, E.; Roldin, P.; Henzing, J.S.; Moerman, M.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Kouvarakis, G.; Ždímal, Vladimír; Zíková, Naděžda; Marinoni, A.; Bonasoni, P.; Duchi, R.
2011-01-01
Roč. 11, č. 23 (2011), s. 12007-12036 ISSN 1680-7316 Grant - others:EUCAARI(XE) 036833-2; GFME(DE) FE370343200 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : primary aerosol * secondary aerosol * boundary layer Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.520, year: 2011
Thermocouple Rakes for Measuring Boundary Layer Flows Extremely Close to Surface
Hwang, Danny P.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Martin, Lisa C.; Blaha, Charles A.
2001-01-01
Of vital interest to aerodynamic researchers is precise knowledge of the flow velocity profile next to the surface. This information is needed for turbulence model development and the calculation of viscous shear force. Though many instruments can determine the flow velocity profile near the surface, none of them can make measurements closer than approximately 0.01 in. from the surface. The thermocouple boundary-layer rake can measure much closer to the surface than conventional instruments can, such as a total pressure boundary layer rake, hot wire, or hot film. By embedding the sensors (thermocouples) in the region where the velocity is equivalent to the velocity ahead of a constant thickness strut, the boundary-layer flow profile can be obtained. The present device fabricated at the NASA Glenn Research Center microsystem clean room has a heater made of platinum and thermocouples made of platinum and gold. Equal numbers of thermocouples are placed both upstream and downstream of the heater, so that the voltage generated by each pair at the same distance from the surface is indicative of the difference in temperature between the upstream and downstream thermocouple locations. This voltage differential is a function of the flow velocity, and like the conventional total pressure rake, it can provide the velocity profile. In order to measure flow extremely close to the surface, the strut is made of fused quartz with extremely low heat conductivity. A large size thermocouple boundary layer rake is shown in the following photo. The latest medium size sensors already provide smooth velocity profiles well into the boundary layer, as close as 0.0025 in. from the surface. This is about 4 times closer to the surface than the previously used total pressure rakes. This device also has the advantage of providing the flow profile of separated flow and also it is possible to measure simultaneous turbulence levels within the boundary layer.
The effects of external conditions in turbulent boundary layers
Brzek, Brian G.
The effects of multiple external conditions on turbulent boundary layers were studied in detail. These external conditions include: surface roughness, upstream turbulence intensity, and pressure gradient. Furthermore, the combined effects of these conditions show the complicated nature of many realistic flow conditions. It was found that the effects of surface roughness are difficult to generalize, given the importance of so many parameters. These parameters include: roughness geometry, roughness regime, roughness height to boundary layer thickness, (k/delta), roughness parameter, ( k+), Reynolds number, and roughness function (Delta B+). A further complication, is the difficulty in computing the wall shear stress, tauw/rho. For the sand grain type roughness, the mean velocity and Reynolds stresses were studied in inner and outer variables, as well as, boundary layer parameters, anisotropy tensor, production term, and viscous stress and form drag contributions. To explore the effects of roughness and Reynolds number dependence in the boundary layer, a new experiment was carefully designed to properly capture the x-dependence of the single-point statistics. It was found that roughness destroys the viscous layer near the wall, thus, reducing the contribution of the viscous stress in the wall region. As a result, the contribution in the skin friction due to form drag increases, while the viscous stress decreases. This yields Reynolds number invariance in the skin friction, near-wall roughness parameters, and inner velocity profiles as k + increases into the fully rough regime. However, in the transitionally rough regime, (i.e., 5 component shows the largest influence of roughness, where the high peak near the wall was decreased and became nearly flat for the fully rough regime profiles. In addition, the Reynolds stresses in outer variables show self-similarity for fixed experimental conditions. However, as the roughness parameter, k +, increases, all Reynolds stress
Reynolds number influences on turbulent boundary layer momentum transport
Priyadarshana, Paththage A.
There are many engineering applications at Reynolds numbers orders of magnitude higher than existing turbulent boundary layer studies. Currently, the mechanisms for turbulent transport and the Reynolds number dependence of these mechanisms are not well understood. This dissertation presents Reynolds number influences on velocity and vorticity statistics, Reynolds shear stress, and velocity-vorticity correlations for turbulent boundary layers. Well resolved hot-wire data for this study were acquired in the atmospheric surface layer at the SLTEST facility in western Utah. It is shown that during near neutral thermal stability, the flow behaves as a canonical zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer, in which the Reynolds number based on momentum thickness, Rtheta, is approximately 2 x 106. The present study also provides information regarding the effects of wall roughness over a limited range of roughness. It is observed that with increasing Rtheta, the inner normalized streamwise intensity increases. This statistic is less sensitive to wall roughness away from the roughness sublayer. In contrast, the inner normalized wall normal intensity is less sensitive to the variation of Rtheta, and it is significantly sensitive to wall roughness. Outside the viscous sublayer, the inner normalized vorticity intensity is less sensitive to both Rtheta and roughness. A primary observation of the Reynolds stress study is that the predominant motions underlying the Reynolds shear stress undergo a significant shift from large to intermediate scales as Rtheta becomes large, irrespective of surface roughness. Quadrant analysis shows that types of motions contributing to the Reynolds stress change significantly at comparable wall normal locations with increasing Rtheta. The mean wall normal gradients of the Reynolds shear stress and the turbulent kinetic energy have direct connections to the transport mechanisms of the turbulent boundary layer. These gradients can be expressed in
Comparison of WRF local and nonlocal boundary layer Physics in Greater Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Ooi, M. C. G.; Chan, A.; Kumarenthiran, S.; Morris, K. I.; Oozeer, M. Y.; Islam, M. A.; Salleh, S. A.
2018-02-01
The urban boundary layer (UBL) is the internal advection layer of atmosphere above urban region which determines the exchanges of momentum, water and other atmospheric constituents between the urban land surface and the free troposphere. This paper tested the performance of three planetary boundary layer (PBL) physics schemes of Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) software to ensure the appropriate representation of vertical structure of UBL in Greater Kuala Lumpur (GKL). Comparison was conducted on the performance of respective PBL schemes to generate vertical and near-surface weather profile and rainfall. Mellor-Yamada- Janjíc (MYJ) local PBL scheme coupled with Eta MM5 surface layer scheme was found to predict the near-surface temperature and wind profile and mixing height better than the nonlocal schemes during the intermonsoonal period with least influences of the synoptic background weather.
Experimental investigation of the flow over three d-type microgeometries for boundary layer control
Hildalgo Ardana, Pablo
2008-04-01
An experimental investigation of the flow over three microgeometries was conducted in order to study its boundary layer control capabilities. Drag reduction and boundary layer control are two of the most researched areas in fluid mechanics. The necessity of reducing drag over vehicles is imperative to reduce the power needed to move a vehicle, or to save millions of gallons of fuel; this can also contribute to a reduction of the emissions of pollutant gases to the atmosphere. It has been estimated that a reduction in drag of 1% on an airplane can save the airlines around 200,000 in fuel costs per airliner per year, and worldwide this could result in total savings in fuel of approximately 1 billion every year. This experimental research was inspired by fast swimming shark species and the denticles present on their skin. Among other purposes, these denticles have some hydrodynamic capabilities that are investigated in this experimental work. Replicas of the denticles of the Shortfin Mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus), which is speculated to be the fastest swimming shark, have been fabricated and they were embedded on a flat plate. Two additional simplified models of the shark skin consisting of embedded cavities, a two-dimensional grooved surface and a squared sawtooth geometry, were also tested. Time-resolved digital particle image velocimetry (TR-DPIV) measurements were taken in order to characterize the cavity vortices formed inside the geometries, as well as velocity profile measurements to identify the stability of the boundary layer over the geometries. The cavity vortices introduce a partial slip condition into the flow which affects the stability of the boundary layer. The results indicate that the shark skin can work as a boundary layer control mechanism by delaying or inhibiting separation over the shark's body, thereby reducing pressure drag. The ribs on the front side of the shark skin denticles promoted secondary vorticity that was measured under both
Turbulent heat flux measurements in thermally stable boundary layers
Williams, Owen J.; van Buren, Tyler; Smits, Alexander J.
2014-11-01
Thermally stable turbulent boundary layers are prevalent in the polar regions and nocturnal atmospheric surface layer but heat and momentum flux measurements in such flow are often difficult. Here, a new method is employed using a nanoscale cold-wire (T-NSTAP) adjacent to a 2D PIV light sheet to measure these fluxes within rough-wall turbulent boundary layer. This method combines the advantages of fast thermal frequency response with measurement of the spatial variation of the velocity field. Resolution is limited solely by the separation of the probe and the light sheet. The new technique is used to examine the applicability of Monin-Obukhov similarity over a range of Richardson numbers from weak to strongly stable. In addition, the velocity fields are conditionally averaged subject to strong deviations of temperature above and below the local average in an effort to determine the relationship between the coherent turbulent motions and the fluctuating temperature field. This work was supported by the Princeton University Cooperative Institute for Climate Science.
Radiative instabilities of atmospheric jets and boundary layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Candelier, J.
2010-01-01
Complex flows occur in the atmosphere and they can be source of internal gravity waves. We focus here on the sources associated with radiative and shear (or Kelvin-Helmholtz) instabilities. Stability studies of shear layers in a stably stratified fluid concern mainly cases where shear and stratification are aligned along the same direction. In these cases, Miles (1961) and Howard (1961) found a necessary condition for stability based on the Richardson number: Ri ≥ 1/4. In this thesis, we show that this condition is not necessary when shear and stratification are not aligned: we demonstrate that a two-dimensional planar Bickley jet can be unstable for all Richardson numbers. Although the most unstable mode remains 2D, we show there exists an infinite family of 3D unstable modes exhibiting a radiative structure. A WKBJ theory is found to provide the main characteristics of these modes. We also study an inviscid and stratified boundary layer over an inclined wall with non-Boussinesq and compressible effects. We show that this flow is unstable as soon as the wall is not horizontal for all Froude numbers and that strongly stratified 3D perturbations behave exactly like compressible 2D perturbations. Applications of the results to the jet stream and the atmospheric boundary layer are proposed. (author) [fr
Vertical ozone characteristics in urban boundary layer in Beijing.
Ma, Zhiqiang; Xu, Honghui; Meng, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoling; Xu, Jing; Liu, Quan; Wang, Yuesi
2013-07-01
Vertical ozone and meteorological parameters were measured by tethered balloon in the boundary layer in the summer of 2009 in Beijing, China. A total of 77 tethersonde soundings were taken during the 27-day campaign. The surface ozone concentrations measured by ozonesondes and TEI 49C showed good agreement, albeit with temporal difference between the two instruments. Two case studies of nocturnal secondary ozone maxima are discussed in detail. The development of the low-level jet played a critical role leading to the observed ozone peak concentrations in nocturnal boundary layer (NBL). The maximum of surface ozone was 161.7 ppbv during the campaign, which could be attributed to abundant precursors storage near surface layer at nighttime. Vertical distribution of ozone was also measured utilizing conventional continuous analyzers on 325-m meteorological observation tower. The results showed the NBL height was between 47 and 280 m, which were consistent with the balloon data. Southerly air flow could bring ozone-rich air to Beijing, and the ozone concentrations exceeded the China's hourly ozone standard (approximately 100 ppb) above 600 m for more than 12 h.
On the nature of the plasma sheet boundary layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hones, E.W. Jr. (Mission Research Corp., Los Alamos, NM (USA) Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))
1990-01-01
The regions of the plasma sheet adjacent to the north and south lobes of the magnetotail have been described by many experimenters as locations of beams of energetic ions and fast-moving plasma directed primarily earthward and tailward along magnetic field lines. Measurements taken as satellites passed through one or the other of these boundary layers have frequently revealed near-earth mirroring of ions and a vertical segregation of velocities of both earthward-moving and mirroring ions with the fastest ions being found nearest the lobe-plasma sheet interface. These are features expected for particles from a distant tail source {bar E} {times} {bar B} drifting in a dawn-to-dusk electric field and are consistent with the source being a magnetic reconnection region. The plasma sheet boundary layers are thus understood as separatrix layers, bounded at their lobeward surfaces by the separatrices from the distant neutral line. This paper will review the observations that support this interpretation. 10 refs., 7 figs.
Dynamical Properties of Vortex Furrows in Transitioning Boundary Layers
Bernard, Peter
2011-11-01
A vortex filament simulation of the spatially growing transitional boundary layer reveals the presence of low speed streaks underlying furrow-like streamwise oriented folds in the surface vorticity layer (AIAA J. Vol. 48, 2010; Proc. ETC13, 2011). The putative hairpin vortices and packets widely observed in boundary layers are found to be an illusion created by assigning the status of structure to the visualized form of regions of rotational motion created by the vortex furrows. Thus, at best, hairpins roughly describe the shape taken by that part of the vorticity within the furrows that directly causes rotation while ignoring the ``invisible'' and considerable non-rotational part. The life history of the furrows is discussed here including a description of how they grow and the dynamics of the vorticity field within them. Long lived furrows represent ``factories'' within which initially spanwise vorticity progresses from arch to either one or two-lobed mushroom-like structures in a continuous stream. Furrows grow by this same process. At the heart of the furrow phenomenon is a self-reinforcing process by which streamwise vorticity begets more streamwise vorticity.
Estimates of the height of the boundary layer using SODAR and rawinsoundings in Amazonia
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fisch, G; Santos, L A R dos
2008-01-01
During the LBA campaign in Amazonia 2002, simultaneous measurements were made of the boundary layer using different instruments (rawinsoundings and SODAR). The profiles of potential temperature and humidity were used to estimates the height of the boundary layer using 3 different techniques. The SODAR's measurements did not capture the shallow morning boundary layer observed at the profiles
Estimates of the height of the boundary layer using SODAR and rawinsoundings in Amazonia
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fisch, G [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, 12228-904 (Brazil); Santos, L A R dos [Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INMET), BrasIlia, 70680-900 (Brazil)], E-mail: gfisch@iae.cta.br, E-mail: landre@inmet.gov.br
2008-05-01
During the LBA campaign in Amazonia 2002, simultaneous measurements were made of the boundary layer using different instruments (rawinsoundings and SODAR). The profiles of potential temperature and humidity were used to estimates the height of the boundary layer using 3 different techniques. The SODAR's measurements did not capture the shallow morning boundary layer observed at the profiles.
Effect of thermal radiation on boundary layer flow and heat transfer ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The aim of this paper is to study the boundary layer flow and heat transfer analysis of an unsteady viscous dusty fluid over a porous stretching surface. Momentum Boundary layer equation considers the effect of transverse magnetic field whereas thermal Boundary layer equation considers the effect of thermal radiation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lauros, J.; Sogachev, Andrey; Smolander, S.
2010-01-01
boundary layer during nucleation days shows highly dynamical picture, where particle formation is coupled with chemistry and turbulent transport. We have demonstrated suitability of our turbulent mixing scheme in reproducing most important characteristics of particle dynamics inside the atmospheric...... boundary layer. Deposition and particle flux simulations show that deposition affects noticeably only the smallest particles at the lowest part of the atmospheric boundary layer....
Comments on deriving the equilibrium height of the stable boundary layer
Steeneveld, G.J.; Wiel, van de B.J.H.; Holtslag, A.A.M.
2007-01-01
Recently, the equilibrium height of the stable boundary layer received much attention in a series of papers by Zilitinkevich and co-workers. In these studies the stable boundary-layer height is derived in terms of inverse interpolation of different boundary-layer height scales, each representing a
Interaction of a Boundary Layer with a Turbulent Wake
Piomelli, Ugo
2004-01-01
The objective of this grant was to study the transition mechanisms on a flat-plate boundary layer interacting with the wake of a bluff body. This is a simplified configuration presented and designed to exemplify the phenomena that occur in multi-element airfoils, in which the wake of an upstream element impinges on a downstream one. Some experimental data is available for this configuration at various Reynolds numbers. The first task carried out was the implementation and validation of the immersed-boundary method. This was achieved by performing calculations of the flow over a cylinder at low and moderate Reynolds numbers. The low-Reynolds number results are discussed, which is enclosed as Appendix A. The high-Reynolds number results are presented in a paper in preparation for the Journal of Fluid Mechanics. We performed calculations of the wake-boundary-layer interaction at two Reynolds numbers, Re approximately equal to 385 and 1155. The first case is discussed and a comparison of the two calculations is reported. The simulations indicate that at the lower Reynolds number the boundary layer is buffeted by the unsteady Karman vortex street shed by the cylinder. This is shown: long streaky structures appear in the boundary layer in correspondence of the three-dimensionalities in the rollers. The fluctuations, however, cannot be self-sustained due to the low Reynolds-number, and the flow does not reach a turbulent state within the computational domain. In contrast, in the higher Reynolds-number case, boundary-layer fluctuations persist after the wake has decayed (due, in part, to the higher values of the local Reynolds number Re achieved in this case); some evidence could be observed that a self-sustaining turbulence generation cycle was beginning to be established. A third simulation was subsequently carried out at a higher Reynolds number, Re=3900. This calculation gave results similar to those of the Re=l155 case. Turbulence was established at fairly low
Marzooqi, Mohamed Al; Basha, Ghouse; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.; Armstrong, Peter; Molini, Annalisa
2014-05-01
Strong sensible heat fluxes and deep turbulent mixing - together with marked dustiness and a low substrate water content - represent a characteristic signature in the boundary layer over hot deserts, resulting in "thicker" mixing layers and peculiar optical properties. Beside these main features however, desert ABLs present extremely complex local structures that have been scarcely addressed in the literature, and whose understanding is essential in modeling processes such as the transport of dust and pollutants, and turbulent fluxes of momentum, heat and water vapor in hyper-arid regions. In this study, we analyze a continuous record of observations of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) height from a single lens LiDAR ceilometer operated at Masdar Institute Field Station (24.4oN, 54.6o E, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates), starting March 2013. We compare different methods for the estimation of the ABL height from Ceilometer data such as, classic variance-, gradient-, log gradient- and second derivation-methods as well as recently developed techniques such as the Bayesian Method and Wavelet covariance transform. Our goal is to select the most suited technique for describing the climatology of the ABL in desert environments. Comparison of our results with radiosonde observations collected at the nearby airport of Abu Dhabi indicate that the WCT and the Bayesian method are the most suitable tools to accurately identify the ABL height in all weather conditions. These two methods are used for the definition of diurnal and seasonal climatologies of the boundary layer conditional to different atmospheric stability classes.
Infrared Imaging of Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiments
Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J., Jr.; Schwartz, Richard; Ross, Martin; Anderson, Brian; Campbell, Charles H.
2008-01-01
The Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurement (HYTHIRM) project is presently focused on near term support to the Shuttle program through the development of an infrared imaging capability of sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to augment existing on-board Orbiter instrumentation. Significant progress has been made with the identification and inventory of relevant existing optical imaging assets and the development, maturation, and validation of simulation and modeling tools for assessment and mission planning purposes, which were intended to lead to the best strategies and assets for successful acquisition of quantitative global surface temperature data on the Shuttle during entry. However, there are longer-term goals of providing global infrared imaging support to other flight projects as well. A status of HYTHIRM from the perspective of how two NASA-sponsored boundary layer transition flight experiments could benefit by infrared measurements is provided. Those two flight projects are the Hypersonic Boundary layer Transition (HyBoLT) flight experiment and the Shuttle Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment (BLT FE), which are both intended for reducing uncertainties associated with the extrapolation of wind tunnel derived transition correlations for flight application. Thus, the criticality of obtaining high quality flight data along with the impact it would provide to the Shuttle program damage assessment process are discussed. Two recent wind tunnel efforts that were intended as risk mitigation in terms of quantifying the transition process and resulting turbulent wedge locations are briefly reviewed. Progress is being made towards finalizing an imaging strategy in support of the Shuttle BLT FE, however there are no plans currently to image HyBoLT.
Turbulent thermal boundary layers with temperature-dependent viscosity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Jin; Jung, Seo Yoon; Sung, Hyung Jin; Zaki, Tamer A.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Turbulent thermal boundary layers with temperature-dependent viscosity are simulated. • Effect of temperature-dependent viscosity on the statistics of the scalar field. • An identity for the Stanton number is derived and analyzed. • Effect of temperature-dependent viscosity on the statistics of scalar transfer rate. • Modification of turbulent flow field leads to an enhanced scalar transfer rate. - Abstract: Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent boundary layers (TBLs) over isothermally heated walls were performed, and the influence of the wall-heating on the thermal boundary layers was investigated. The DNS adopt an empirical relation for the temperature-dependent viscosity of water. The Prandtl number therefore changes with temperature, while the Péclet number is constant. Two wall temperatures (T w = 70 °C and 99 °C) were considered relative to T ∞ = 30 °C, and a reference simulation of TBL with constant viscosity was also performed for comparison. In the variable viscosity flow, the mean and variance of the scalar, when normalized by the friction temperature deficit, decrease relative to the constant viscosity flow. A relation for the mean scalar which takes into account the variable viscosity is proposed. Appropriate scalings for the scalar fluctuations and the scalar flux are also introduced, and are shown to be applicable for both variable and constant viscosity flows. Due to the modification of the near-wall turbulence, the Stanton number and the Reynolds analogy factor are augmented by 10% and 44%, respectively, in the variable viscosity flow. An identity for the Stanton number is derived and shows that the mean wall-normal velocity and wall-normal scalar flux cause the increase in the heat transfer coefficient. Finally, the augmented near-wall velocity fluctuations lead to an increase of the wall-normal scalar flux, which contributes favorably to the enhanced heat transfer at the wall
Planetary boundary layer and circulation dynamics at Gale Crater, Mars
Fonseca, Ricardo M.; Zorzano-Mier, María-Paz; Martín-Torres, Javier
2018-03-01
The Mars implementation of the Planet Weather Research and Forecasting (PlanetWRF) model, MarsWRF, is used here to simulate the atmospheric conditions at Gale Crater for different seasons during a period coincident with the Curiosity rover operations. The model is first evaluated with the existing single-point observations from the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS), and is then used to provide a larger scale interpretation of these unique measurements as well as to give complementary information where there are gaps in the measurements. The variability of the planetary boundary layer depth may be a driver of the changes in the local dust and trace gas content within the crater. Our results show that the average time when the PBL height is deeper than the crater rim increases and decreases with the same rate and pattern as Curiosity's observations of the line-of-sight of dust within the crater and that the season when maximal (minimal) mixing is produced is Ls 225°-315° (Ls 90°-110°). Thus the diurnal and seasonal variability of the PBL depth seems to be the driver of the changes in the local dust content within the crater. A comparison with the available methane measurements suggests that changes in the PBL depth may also be one of the factors that accounts for the observed variability, with the model results pointing towards a local source to the north of the MSL site. The interaction between regional and local flows at Gale Crater is also investigated assuming that the meridional wind, the dynamically important component of the horizontal wind at Gale, anomalies with respect to the daily mean can be approximated by a sinusoidal function as they typically oscillate between positive (south to north) and negative (north to south) values that correspond to upslope/downslope or downslope/upslope regimes along the crater rim and Mount Sharp slopes and the dichotomy boundary. The smallest magnitudes are found in the northern crater floor in a region that
Supersonic Boundary Layer Stability over a Rough Wall.
1985-01-01
Affecting Boundary-Layer Transition", J. of Aero Sciences, Vol. 26, No. 4, April 1959, p. 229. 18. Lees L. and Lin C.C.: "Investigation of the...rc - Ci 4 (-0K4- CJD DlD- 0 0 70 ROUCH WALL Po 5-1 R ’=2g4.0 ’ZL 3 SYMBOL R I I 200 -- __ 400 z ___0_ o 2 _2 I-I < Ci LL _J < F- - 0 Ii C x e =AM
Streaming effect of wall oscillation to boundary layer separation
Wu, X. H.; Wu, J. Z.; Wu, J. M.
1991-01-01
This paper presents a preliminary theoretical result on the time averaged streaming effect of local forcing excitation to the boundary layer separation from smooth surface. The problem is formulated as a periodic disturbance to a basic steady breakaway separating flow, for which the data are taken from a numerical triple-deck solution. The ratio of Strouhal number St and Reynolds number Re plays an important role, both being assumed sufficiently high. The analytical and numerical results show that this streaming effect is quite strong at proper values of St/Re exp 1/4, which may delay or even suppress the separation.
Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer in Transitional Boundary Layers
Wang, Ting
2007-01-01
Experiments have been performed to investigate the effects of elevated free-stream turbulence and streamwise acceleration on flow and thermal structures in transitional boundary layers. The free-stream turbulence ranges from 0.5 to 6.4% and the streamwise acceleration ranges from K = 0 to 0.8 x 10(exp -6). The onset of transition, transition length and the turbulent spot formation rate are determined. The statistical results and conditionally sampled results of th streamwise and cross-stream velocity fluctuations, temperature fluctuations, Reynolds stress and Reynolds heat fluxes are presented.
Boundary-Layer Bypass Transition Over Large-Scale Bodies
2016-12-16
bodies 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA8655-13-1-3073 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) Pierre Ricco 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...normal diffusion and eventually wall-normal diffusion takes over completely. 4.1.3 Inner mean velocity In this section the finite difference solution of...Studying the effects of viscosity on the outer perturbation flow and how these effects change the solution inside the boundary layer. • Studying the
Boundary layer effects above a Himalayan valley near Mount Everest
Sun, Fanglin; Ma, Yaoming; Li, Maoshan; Ma, Weiqiang; Tian, Hui; Metzger, Stefan
2007-04-01
Periodical Wind Profiler and Radio Acoustic Sounding System observations have been commenced at the Himalayas' northern slope nearby Mount Everest in September 2005. Primarily data sets obtained 25 km remote from the glacier edge are utilized for a preliminary discussion of planetary boundary layer circulation resembling high alpine mountainous regions. Substantial findings include the detection of two wind shears and the phenomenon of glacier wind at a distance of 25 km from the glaciers. The latter lead to a reversed compensatory flow in a vertical scale of up to 2000 m above ground level, pointing at supra regional impact.
Lidar Scanning of Momentum Flux in the Marine Boundary Layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Mann, Jakob; Courtney, Michael
Momentum flux measurements are important for describing the wind profile in the atmospheric boundary layer, modeling the atmospheric flow over water, the accounting of exchange processes between air and sea, etc. It is also directly related to the friction velocity, which is a velocity scale...... turbulence measurements from a sonic anemometer, showing high agreement. In this study, a conical scanning lidar is used to derive the momentum flux, which compares well to the estimations from the bulk-derived method, but it also shows a filtering effect due to the large spatial-averaging volume...
Boundary layer flow of nanofluid over an exponentially stretching surface
Nadeem, Sohail; Lee, Changhoon
2012-01-01
The steady boundary layer flow of nanofluid over an exponential stretching surface is investigated analytically. The transport equations include the effects of Brownian motion parameter and thermophoresis parameter. The highly nonlinear coupled partial differential equations are simplified with the help of suitable similarity transformations. The reduced equations are then solved analytically with the help of homotopy analysis method (HAM). The convergence of HAM solutions are obtained by plotting h-curve. The expressions for velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction are computed for some values of the parameters namely, suction injection parameter α, Lewis number Le, the Brownian motion parameter Nb and thermophoresis parameter Nt.
Boundary layer flow of nanofluid over an exponentially stretching surface.
Nadeem, Sohail; Lee, Changhoon
2012-01-30
The steady boundary layer flow of nanofluid over an exponential stretching surface is investigated analytically. The transport equations include the effects of Brownian motion parameter and thermophoresis parameter. The highly nonlinear coupled partial differential equations are simplified with the help of suitable similarity transformations. The reduced equations are then solved analytically with the help of homotopy analysis method (HAM). The convergence of HAM solutions are obtained by plotting h-curve. The expressions for velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction are computed for some values of the parameters namely, suction injection parameter α, Lewis number Le, the Brownian motion parameter Nb and thermophoresis parameter Nt.
Effect of nose bluntness on boundary layer stability and transition
Malik, M. R.; Spall, R. E.; Chang, C.-L.
1990-01-01
The effect of nose bluntness on boundary layer instability is studied theoretically for a Mach 8 flow past a 7 degree semivertex cone. The basic flow is computed by solving the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations. Linear stability analysis of the basic flow reveals that, with small amount of bluntness, the critical Reynolds number for the onset of instability increases by an order of magnitude compared to the sharp cone value. The computed second mode frequencies are also in reasonable agreement with the experimental results. The results are used to explain the effect of unit Reynolds number on transition present in the quiet aeroballistic range data.
Numerical simulation of convective boundary layer above polynyas and leads.
Debolskiy, Andrey; Stepanenko, Victor
2013-04-01
Arctic region is very important as one of drivers for global atmosphere circulation. Meanwhile, results of modern global atmospheric models, both climatic and weather forecasting differs significantly from each other and observations in this region. One of the reasons for these uncertainties can be inaccurate simulation of ice and snow cover distribution, which accuracy depends in turn on variety of factors. Among others, appropriate parameterizations of atmospheric boundary layer over inhomogeneous surface, not explicitly resolved at the atmospheric model grid, can decrease these inaccuracies. The main objective of these parameterizations is to calculate surface heat and water vapor fluxes, averaged over the whole model cell. However, due to great differences in structure of boundary layers formed over cold ice and relatively warm open water, which cause nonlinear dependencies,the parameterizations suggested to the moment can hardly be regarded as applicable for "complete" set of synoptic scenarios . The present paper attempts to improve standard mosaic method of flux aggregation, which is still common in climate models [1]. The main idea is to derive heat fluxes using data from numerical experiments, explicitly reproducing most of sub grid (for global models) turbulence motions spectra, and compare with fluxes calculated using mosaic method implying the part of model domain to be a global model cell. The study is based on idealized high resolution (~10 m) experiments with typically observed surface parameters (temperature and roughness), ice-open water distribution, initial temperature and wind profiles distribution included in Large Eddy Simulation model of Insitute of Numerical Mathematics RAS [2],[3]. Analysis of other boundary layer characteristics such as its height, eddy diffusivity profiles, kinetic energy is presented. The modeling results are compared with field experiments' data gathered at White Sea. References: 1. V.M. Stepanenko, P.M. Miranda, V
Direct simulation of a turbulent oscillating boundary layer
Spalart, Philippe R.; Baldwin, Barrett S.
1987-01-01
The turbulent boundary layer driven by a freestream velocity that varies sinusoidally in time around a zero mean is considered. The flow has a rich behavior including strong pressure gradients, inflection points, and reversal. A theory for the velocity and stress profiles at high Reynolds number is formulated. Well-resolved direct Navier-Stokes simulations are conducted over a narrow range of Reynolds numbers, and the results are compared with the theoretical predictions. The flow is also computed over a wide range of Reynolds numbers using a new algebraic turbulence model; the results are compared with the direct simulations and the theory.
Heat and Moisture Transport in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer.
1987-01-05
rst = r i, there can be isothermal flow. Here ri is defined as: ri = ( pcp /(Ry))(psv-pv), where y is the psychometric constant y = pc/(e) - (usually in...0. Thence, since Dral’t cc - ftlr and Dri/aq -c -8 6F/Fe ~ -Fq/Fq = 0(1/2 Bt/t, (- Pcp /R) (A/ra) 80, Sq/q), depending which term is most significant...Then the "Prandtl transposition theorem " (Rosenhead, sec.V.8, also valid in three dimensions) of laminar boundary layer theory is also applicable to
Preliminary experimental investigation of boundary layer in decelerating flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Příhoda J.
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Investigations of characteristics of turbulence inside boundary layer under decelerating flow were studied by means of constant temperature anemometer. The decelerating flow was simulated in the closed circuit wind tunnel 0.9 m × 0.5 m at IT AS CR. The free stream turbulence was either natural o risen up by square mesh plane grid. The details of experimental settings and measurement procedures of the instantaneous longitudinal velocity component are described and the distributions of intensity, skewness and kurtosis of turbulent fluctuations are discussed in the contribution.
Earth's magnetosphere formed by the low-latitude boundary layer
Heikkila, W J
2011-01-01
The author argues that, after five decades of debate about the interactive of solar wind with the magnetosphere, it is time to get back to basics. Starting with Newton's law, this book also examines Maxwell's equations and subsidiary equations such as continuity, constitutive relations and the Lorentz transformation; Helmholtz' theorem, and Poynting's theorem, among other methods for understanding this interaction. Includes chapters on prompt particle acceleration to high energies, plasma transfer event, and the low latitude boundary layer More than 200 figures illustrate the text Includes a color insert.
The turbulent boundary layer and the closure problem
Persen, L. N.
1980-01-01
Previous attempts to establish a proper phenomenological relation for turbulent flows are reviewed followed by a suggested approach to the problem in the case of a turbulent boundary layer. An attempt is made at showing the extreme flexibility that such a relation must exhibit if it is to account for effects of outside conditions and pre-history of the flow. By selecting proper 'inner variables' as parameters and properly characterizing the outer flow it is shown how a sufficiently general phenomenological relation can be established and how the closure problem may thus be considered in a different perspective.
CFD Modeling of Non-Neutral Atmospheric Boundary Layer Conditions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Koblitz, Tilman
. All implementations in the ABL model are tuning free, and except for standard site specific input parameters, no additional model coefficients need to be specified before the simulation. In summary the results show that the implemented modifications are applicable and reproduce the main flow......For wind resource assessment, the wind industry is increasingly relying on Computational Fluid Dynamics models that focus on modeling the airflow in a neutrally stratified surface-layer. Physical processes like the Coriolis force, buoyancy forces and heat transport, that are important...... to the atmospheric boundary-layer, are mostly ignored so far. In order to decrease the uncertainty of wind resource assessment, the present work focuses on atmospheric flows that include atmospheric stability and the Coriolis effect. Within the present work a RANS model framework is developed and implemented...
Interactions between the thermal internal boundary layer and sea breezes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steyn, D.G. [The Univ. of British Columbia, Dept. of Geography, Atmospheric Science Programme, Vancouver (Canada)
1997-10-01
In the absence of complex terrain, strongly curved coastline or strongly varying mean wind direction, the Thermal Internal Boundary Layer (TIBL) has well known square root behaviour with inland fetch. Existing slab modeling approaches to this phenomenon indicate no inland fetch limit at which this behaviour must cease. It is obvious however that the TIBL cannot continue to grow in depth with increasing fetch, since the typical continental Mixed Layer Depths (MLD) of 1500 to 2000 m must be reached between 100 and 200 km from the shoreline. The anticyclonic conditions with attendant strong convection and light winds which drive the TIBL, also drive daytime Sea Breeze Circulations (SBC) in the coastal zone. The onshore winds driving mesoscale advection of cool air are at the core of TIBL mechanisms, and are invariably part of a SBC. It is to be expected that TIBL and SBC be intimately linked through common mechanisms, as well as external conditions. (au)
Wave boundary layer over a stone-covered bed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dixen, Martin; Hatipoglu, Figen; Sumer, B. Mutlu
2008-01-01
This paper summarizes the results of an experimental investigation on wave boundary layers over a bed with large roughness, simulating stone/rock/armour block cover on the sea bottom. The roughness elements used in the experiments were stones the size of 1.4cm and 3.85cm in one group of experiments...... of the parameter a/ks does not seem to tend to a constant value as a/ks→0 (contrary to the suggestion made by some previous investigators). The present friction-factor data indicates that the friction factor constantly increases with decreasing a/ks. An empirical expression is given for the friction factor...... to the packing pattern, the packing density, the number of layers and the surface roughness of the roughness elements. There exists a steady streaming near the bed in the direction of wave propagation, in agreement with the existing work. The present data indicate that the steady streaming is markedly smaller...
Estimation of evaporation from equilibrium diurnal boundary layer humidity
Salvucci, G.; Rigden, A. J.; Li, D.; Gentine, P.
2017-12-01
Simplified conceptual models of the convective boundary layer as a well mixed profile of potential temperature (theta) and specific humidity (q) impinging on an initially stably stratified linear potential temperature profile have a long history in atmospheric sciences. These one dimensional representations of complex mixing are useful for gaining insights into land-atmosphere interactions and for prediction when state of the art LES approaches are infeasible. As previously shown (e.g. Betts), if one neglects the role of q in bouyancy, the framework yields a unique relation between mixed layer Theta, mixed layer height (h), and cumulative sensible heat flux (SH) throughout the day. Similarly assuming an initially q profile yields a simple relation between q, h, and cumulative latent heat flux (LH). The diurnal dynamics of theta and q are strongly dependent on SH and the initial lapse rates of theta (gamma_thet) and q (gamma q). In the estimation method proposed here, we further constrain these relations with two more assumptions: 1) The specific humidity is the same at the start of the period of boundary layer growth and at the collapse; and 2) Once the mixed layer reaches the LCL, further drying occurs proportionally to the deardorff convective velocity scale (omega) multiplied by q. Assumption (1) is based on the idea that below the cloud layer, there are no sinks of moisture within the mixed layer (neglecting lateral humidity divergence). Thus the net mixing of dry air aloft with evaporation from the surface must balance. Inclusion of the simple model of moisture loss above the LCL into the bulk-CBL model allows definition of an equilibrium humidity (q) condition at which the diurnal cycle of q repeats (i.e. additions of q from surface balance entrainment of dry air from above). Surprisingly, this framework allows estimation of LH from q, theta, and estimated net radiation by solving for the value of Evaporative Fraction (EF) for which the diurnal cycle of q
Preface: GEWEX Atmospheric Boundary-layer Study (GABLS) on Stable Boundary Layers
Holtslag, A.A.M.
2006-01-01
The Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) is a program initiated by the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) to observe, understand and model the hydrological cycle and the related energy fluxes in the atmosphere, at the land surface and in the upper oceans. Consequently the
Qualitative research across boundaries of language: the ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Results: Researchers acknowledged issues of language and developed a range of strategies to ensure the faithful representation of their subjects' beliefs and attitudes in the language of the final dissertation. Conclusions: Working across boundaries of language presents a potential threat to the faithful representation of ...
Transition Delay in Hypersonic Boundary Layers via Optimal Perturbations
Paredes, Pedro; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei
2016-01-01
The effect of nonlinear optimal streaks on disturbance growth in a Mach 6 axisymmetric flow over a 7deg half-angle cone is investigated in an e ort to expand the range of available techniques for transition control. Plane-marching parabolized stability equations are used to characterize the boundary layer instability in the presence of azimuthally periodic streaks. The streaks are observed to stabilize nominally planar Mack mode instabilities, although oblique Mack mode disturbances are destabilized. Experimentally measured transition onset in the absence of any streaks correlates with an amplification factor of N = 6 for the planar Mack modes. For high enough streak amplitudes, the transition threshold of N = 6 is not reached by the Mack mode instabilities within the length of the cone, but subharmonic first mode instabilities, which are destabilized by the presence of the streaks, reach N = 6 near the end of the cone. These results suggest a passive flow control strategy of using micro vortex generators to induce streaks that would delay transition in hypersonic boundary layers.
Numerical wind wave model with a dynamic boundary layer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. G. Polnikov
2002-01-01
Full Text Available A modern version of a numerical wind wave model of the fourth generation is constructed for a case of deep water. The following specific terms of the model source function are used: (a a new analytic parameterization of the nonlinear evolution term proposed recently in Zakharov and Pushkarev (1999; (b a traditional input term added by the routine for an atmospheric boundary layer fitting to a wind wave state according to Makin and Kudryavtsev (1999; (c a dissipative term of the second power in a wind wave spectrum according to Polnikov (1991. The direct fetch testing results showed an adequate description of the main empirical wave evolution effects. Besides, the model gives a correct description of the boundary layer parameters' evolution, depending on a wind wave stage of development. This permits one to give a physical treatment of the dependence mentioned. These performances of the model allow one to use it both for application and for investigation aims in the task of the joint description of wind and wave fields.
Numerical wind wave model with a dynamic boundary layer
Polnikov, V. G.; Volkov, Y. A.; Pogarskii, F. A.
A modern version of a numerical wind wave model of the fourth generation is constructed for a case of deep water. The following specific terms of the model source function are used: (a) a new analytic parameterization of the nonlinear evolution term proposed recently in Zakharov and Pushkarev (1999); (b) a traditional input term added by the routine for an atmospheric boundary layer fitting to a wind wave state according to Makin and Kudryavtsev (1999); (c) a dissipative term of the second power in a wind wave spectrum according to Polnikov (1991). The direct fetch testing results showed an adequate description of the main empirical wave evolution effects. Besides, the model gives a correct description of the boundary layer parameters' evolution, depending on a wind wave stage of development. This permits one to give a physical treatment of the dependence mentioned. These performances of the model allow one to use it both for application and for investigation aims in the task of the joint description of wind and wave fields.
High-frequency boundary layer profiling with reusable radiosondes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Legain
2013-08-01
Full Text Available A new system for high-frequency boundary layer profiling based upon radiosondes and free balloons was tested during the field phases of the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence experiment (BLLAST 2011, Lannemezan, France and of the Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment (HyMeX, 2012. The system consists of a conventional Vaisala receiver and a GPS radiosonde (pressure, wind, humidity and temperature, that is tied to a couple of inflated balloons. The principle of the sounding system is to permit the first balloon to detach from the rawinsonde at a predetermined altitude, allowing for the rawinsonde to slowly descend with the second balloon to perform a second, new sounding. The instrumentation is then eventually recovered. The expecting landing area is anticipated before the flight by estimating the trajectory of the probe from a forecasted wind profile and by specifying both the balloon release altitude and the mean ascent and descent rates of the system. The real landing point is determined by the last transmission of the radiosonde GPS and the visual landmark provided by the second balloon. Seventy-two soundings were performed during BLLAST (62 and HyMeX (10, with a recovery rate of more than 80% during the BLLAST field campaign. Recovered radiosondes were generally reused several times, often immediately after recovery, which definitely demonstrates the high potential of this system.
Aeromechanics Analysis of a Boundary Layer Ingesting Fan
Bakhle, Milind A.; Reddy, T. S. R.; Herrick, Gregory P.; Shabbir, Aamir; Florea, Razvan V.
2013-01-01
Boundary layer ingesting propulsion systems have the potential to significantly reduce fuel burn but these systems must overcome the challe nges related to aeromechanics-fan flutter stability and forced response dynamic stresses. High-fidelity computational analysis of the fan a eromechanics is integral to the ongoing effort to design a boundary layer ingesting inlet and fan for fabrication and wind-tunnel test. A t hree-dimensional, time-accurate, Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes computational fluid dynamics code is used to study aerothermodynamic and a eromechanical behavior of the fan in response to both clean and distorted inflows. The computational aeromechanics analyses performed in th is study show an intermediate design iteration of the fan to be flutter-free at the design conditions analyzed with both clean and distorte d in-flows. Dynamic stresses from forced response have been calculated for the design rotational speed. Additional work is ongoing to expan d the analyses to off-design conditions, and for on-resonance conditions.
Boundary layer structure over areas of heterogeneous heat fluxes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doran, J.C.; Barnes, F.J.; Coulter, R.L.; Crawford, T.L.
1993-01-01
In general circulation models (GCMs), some properties of a grid element are necessarily considered homogeneous. That is, for each grid volume there is associated a particular combination of boundary layer depth, vertical profiles of wind and temperature, surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, etc. In reality, all of these quantities may exhibit significant spatial variations the grid area, and the larger the area the greater the likely variations. In balancing the benefits of higher resolution against increased computational time and expense, it is useful to consider what the consequences of such subgrid-scale variability may be. Moreover, in interpreting the results of a simulation, one must be able to define an appropriate average value over a grid. There are two aspects of this latter problem: (1) in observations, how does one take a set of discrete or volume-averaged measurements and relate these to properties of the entire domain, and (2) in computations, how can subgrid-scale features be accounted for in the model parameterizations? To address these and related issues, two field campaigns were carried out near Boardman, Oregon, in June 1991 and 1992. These campaigns were designed to measure the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat over adjacent areas with strongly contrasting surface types and to measure the response of the boundary layer to those fluxes. This paper discusses some initial findings from those campaigns
Dynamics of Under Ice Boundary Layers Below Floating Ice Shelves
Shaw, W. J.; Stanton, T. P.
2016-02-01
Pine Island Glacier (PIG), a major outlet stream of the Western Antarctic Ice Sheet, has dramatically thinned and accelerated in recent decades. It is believed that a weakening of the floating portion of the glacier, known as the ice shelf, due to increased ocean thermal forcing is a primary cause of the observed increasing discharge of PIG. In order to better understand the controls on the exchange of heat between the PIG shelf and the underlying ocean cavity, a numerical model, MITgcm, has been configured to study the dynamics of the sloping, meltwater-forced, buoyant boundary layer below the ice shelf A 2-D approximation allows for high vertical resolution that resolves well the under shelf ocean boundary layer. We are particularly interested in the dynamical balance between buoyancy along the sloping ice shelf base, drag, and entrainment/detrainment and the associated feedback of basal melting of the ice shelf. Numerical results will be compared to in-situ observations obtained through a field campaign in 2013.
A stable boundary layer perspective on global temperature trends
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McNider, R T; Christy, J R; Biazar, A
2010-01-01
One of the most significant signals in the thermometer-observed temperature record since 1900 is the decrease in the diurnal temperature range over land, largely due to warming of the minimum temperatures. While some data sets have indicated this asymmetrical warming has been reduced since 1979, regional analyses (e.g. East Africa) indicate that the nocturnal warming continues at a pace greater than daytime temperatures. The cause for this night time warming in the observed temperatures has been attributed to a variety of causes. Climate models have in general not replicated the change in diurnal temperature range well. Here we would like to try to distinguish between warming in the nocturnal boundary layer due to a redistribution of heat and warming due to the accumulation of heat. The temperature at night at shelter height is a result of competition between thermal stability and mechanical shear. If stability wins then turbulence is suppressed and the cooling surface becomes cut-off from the warmer air aloft, which leads to sharp decay in surface air temperature. If shear wins, then turbulence is maintained and warmer air from aloft is continually mixed to the surface, which leads to significantly lower cooling rates and warmer temperatures. This warming occurs due to a redistribution of heat. As will be shown by techniques of nonlinear analysis the winner of the stability and shear contest can be very sensitive to changes in greenhouse gas forcing, surface roughness, cloudiness, and surface heat capacity (including soil moisture). Further, the minimum temperatures measured in the nocturnal boundary layer represent only a very shallow layer of the atmosphere which is usually only a few hundred meters thick. It is likely that the observed warming in minimum temperature, whether caused by additional greenhouse forcing or land use changes or other land surface dynamics, is reflecting a redistribution of heat by turbulence-not an accumulation of heat. Because minimum
Randall, D. A.; Abeles, J. A.; Corsetti, T. G.
1985-01-01
The formulation of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and stratocumulus parametrizations in the UCLA general circulation model (GCM) are briefly summarized, and extensive new results are presented illustrating some aspects of the simulated seasonal changes of the global distributions of PBL depth, stratocumulus cloudiness, cloud-top entrainment instability, the cumulus mass flux, and related fields. Results from three experiments designed to reveal the sensitivity of the GCM results to aspects of the PBL and stratocumulus parametrizations are presented. The GCM results show that the layer cloud instability appears to limit the extent of the marine subtropical stratocumulus regimes, and that instability frequently occurs in association with cumulus convection over land. Cumulus convection acts as a very significant sink of PBL mass throughout the tropics and over the midlatitude continents in winter.
Predictions and Verification of an Isotope Marine Boundary Layer Model
Feng, X.; Posmentier, E. S.; Sonder, L. J.; Fan, N.
2017-12-01
A one-dimensional (1D), steady state isotope marine boundary layer (IMBL) model is constructed. The model includes meteorologically important features absent in Craig and Gordon type models, namely height-dependent diffusion/mixing and convergence of subsiding external air. Kinetic isotopic fractionation results from this height-dependent diffusion which starts as pure molecular diffusion at the air-water interface and increases linearly with height due to turbulent mixing. The convergence permits dry, isotopically depleted air subsiding adjacent to the model column to mix into ambient air. In δD-δ18O space, the model results fill a quadrilateral, of which three sides represent 1) vapor in equilibrium with various sea surface temperatures (SSTs) (high d18O boundary of quadrilateral); 2) mixture of vapor in equilibrium with seawater and vapor in the subsiding air (lower boundary depleted in both D and 18O); and 3) vapor that has experienced the maximum possible kinetic fractionation (high δD upper boundary). The results can be plotted in d-excess vs. δ18O space, indicating that these processes all cause variations in d-excess of MBL vapor. In particular, due to relatively high d-excess in the descending air, mixing of this air into the MBL causes an increase in d-excess, even without kinetic isotope fractionation. The model is tested by comparison with seven datasets of marine vapor isotopic ratios, with excellent correspondence; >95% of observational data fall within the quadrilateral area predicted by the model. The distribution of observations also highlights the significant influence of vapor from the nearby converging descending air on isotopic variations in the MBL. At least three factors may explain the affect the isotopic composition of precipitation. The model can be applied to modern as well as paleo- climate conditions.
Simultaneous wall-shear-stress and wide-field PIV measurements in a turbulent boundary layer
Gomit, Guillaume; Fourrie, Gregoire; de Kat, Roeland; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram
2015-11-01
Simultaneous particle image velocimetry (PIV) and hot-film shear stress sensor measurements were performed to study the large-scale structures associated with shear stress events in a flat plate turbulent boundary layer at a high Reynolds number (Reτ ~ 4000). The PIV measurement was performed in a streamwise-wall normal plane using an array of six high resolution cameras (4 ×16MP and 2 ×29MP). The resulting field of view covers 8 δ (where δ is the boundary layer thickness) in the streamwise direction and captures the entire boundary layer in the wall-normal direction. The spatial resolution of the measurement is approximately is approximately 70 wall units (1.8 mm) and sampled each 35 wall units (0.9 mm). In association with the PIV setup, a spanwise array of 10 skin-friction sensors (spanning one δ) was used to capture the footprint of the large-scale structures. This combination of measurements allowed the analysis of the three-dimensional conditional structures in the boundary layer. Particularly, from conditional averages, the 3D organisation of the wall normal and streamwise velocity components (u and v) and the Reynolds shear stress (-u'v') related to a low and high shear stress events can be extracted. European Research Council Grant No-277472-WBT.
The thermodynamic evolution of the hurricane boundary layer during eyewall replacement cycles
Williams, Gabriel J.
2017-12-01
Eyewall replacement cycles (ERCs) are frequently observed during the lifecycle of mature tropical cyclones. Although the kinematic structure and intensity changes during an ERC have been well-documented, comparatively little research has been done to examine the evolution of the tropical cyclone boundary layer (TCBL) during an ERC. This study will examine how the inner core thermal structure of the TCBL is affected by the presence of multiple concentric eyewalls using a high-resolution moist, hydrostatic, multilayer diagnostic boundary layer model. Within the concentric eyewalls above the cloud base, latent heat release and vertical advection (due to the eyewall updrafts) dominate the heat and moisture budgets, whereas vertical advection (due to subsidence) and vertical diffusion dominate the heat and moisture budgets for the moat region. Furthermore, it is shown that the development of a moat region within the TCBL depends sensitively on the moat width in the overlying atmosphere and the relative strength of the gradient wind field in the overlying atmosphere. These results further indicate that the TCBL contributes to outer eyewall formation through a positive feedback process between the vorticity in the nascent outer eyewall, boundary layer convergence, and boundary layer moist convection.
The Physics of Turbulence in the Boundary Layer
Kline, Stephen; Cantwell, Brian
1995-01-01
The geometry of the velocity field in a numerically simulated incompressible turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate at Re theta=670 has been studied using the invariants of the velocity gradient tensor. These invariants are computed at every grid point in the flow and used to form the discriminant. Of primary interest are those regions in the flow where the discriminant is positive; regions where, according to the characteristic equation, the eigenvalues of the velocity gradient tensor are complex. An observer moving with a frame of reference which is attached to a fluid particle lying within such a region would see a local flow pattern of the type stable-focus-stretching or unstable-focus-compressing. When the flow is visualized this way, continuous, connected, large-scale structures are revealed that extend from the point just below the buffer layer out to the beginning of the wake region. These structures are aligned with the mean shear close to the wall and arch in the cross-stream direction away from the wall. In some cases the structures observed are very similar to to the hairpin eddy vision of boundary layer structure proposed by Theodorsen. That the structure of the flow is revealed more effectively by the discriminant rather than by the vorticity is important and adds support to recent observations of the discriminant in a channel flow simulation. Of particular importance is the fact that the procedure does not require the use of an arbitrary threshold in the discriminant. Further analysis using computer flow visualization shows a high degree of spatial correlation between regions of positive discriminant, extreme negative pressure fluctuations and large instantaneous values of Reynolds shear stress.
Internal Layer Hierarchy in Rough-Wall Turbulent Boundary
Mehdi, Faraz; Morrill-Winter, Caleb; Ebner, Rachel; Klewicki, Joseph
2009-11-01
The existence of an internal layer hierarchy is centric to the characteristic properties of wall-bounded turbulent flows. Its presence, which is revealed through an analysis of the mean momentum balance (MMB), accounts for the dynamics undergoing a continuous self-similar variation over a length scale range spanning the viscous length scale to the outer scale, ν/uτSurface roughness introduces multiple new length scales which are often reduced (for simplification and comparison) to a single ``working'' scale given by the equivalent sandgrain roughness ks^+. We report on our continuing efforts to study how this imposition modifies the continuous hierarchy of scaling layers admitted by the MMB. The establishment of log-like behavior closer to the wall in rough-wall flows is one such effect. It is speculated to be the direct consequence of the roughness causing the vorticity field to three-dimensionalize more rapidly compared to a smooth-wall. Data sets comprising of experiments being performed at UNH and high quality data sets available in the literature are being used for this combined roughness--Reynolds number study. The current experiments are conducted in a 8m long boundary layer wind-tunnel. Roughness is introduced in the form of sandpaper attached to the entire lower wall and profiles are taken using hot-wires and two-dimensional laser velocimetry.
Non-linear processes in the Earth atmosphere boundary layer
Grunskaya, Lubov; Valery, Isakevich; Dmitry, Rubay
2013-04-01
The work is connected with studying electromagnetic fields in the resonator Earth-Ionosphere. There is studied the interconnection of tide processes of geophysical and astrophysical origin with the Earth electromagnetic fields. On account of non-linear property of the resonator Earth-Ionosphere the tides (moon and astrophysical tides) in the electromagnetic Earth fields are kinds of polyharmonic nature. It is impossible to detect such non-linear processes with the help of the classical spectral analysis. Therefore to extract tide processes in the electromagnetic fields, the method of covariance matrix eigen vectors is used. Experimental investigations of electromagnetic fields in the atmosphere boundary layer are done at the distance spaced stations, situated on Vladimir State University test ground, at Main Geophysical Observatory (St. Petersburg), on Kamchatka pen., on Lake Baikal. In 2012 there was continued to operate the multichannel synchronic monitoring system of electrical and geomagnetic fields at the spaced apart stations: VSU physical experimental proving ground; the station of the Institute of Solar and Terrestrial Physics of Russian Academy of Science (RAS) at Lake Baikal; the station of the Institute of volcanology and seismology of RAS in Paratunka; the station in Obninsk on the base of the scientific and production society "Typhoon". Such investigations turned out to be possible after developing the method of scanning experimental signal of electromagnetic field into non- correlated components. There was used a method of the analysis of the eigen vectors ofthe time series covariance matrix for exposing influence of the moon tides on Ez. The method allows to distribute an experimental signal into non-correlated periodicities. The present method is effective just in the situation when energetical deposit because of possible influence of moon tides upon the electromagnetic fields is little. There have been developed and realized in program components
Determination of boundary layer top on the basis of the characteristics of atmospheric particles
Liu, Boming; Ma, Yingying; Gong, Wei; Zhang, Ming; Yang, Jian
2018-04-01
The planetary boundary layer (PBL) is the lowest layer of the atmosphere that can be directly influenced with the Earth's surface. This layer can also respond to surface forcing. The determination of the PBL is significant to environmental and climate research. PBL can also serve as an input parameter for further data processing with atmospheric models. Traditional detection algorithms are susceptible to errors associated with the vertical distribution of aerosol concentrations. To overcome this limitation, a maximum difference search (MDS) algorithm was proposed to calculate the top of the boundary layer based on differences in particle characteristics. The top positions of the PBL from MDS algorithm under different convection states were compared with those from conventional methods. Experimental results demonstrated that the MDS method can determine the top of the boundary layer precisely. The proposed algorithm can also be used to calculate the top of the PBL accurately under weak convection conditions where the traditional methods cannot be applied. Finally, experimental data from June 2015 to December 2015 were analysed to verify the reliability of the MDS algorithm. The correlation coefficients R2 (RMSE) between the results of MDS algorithm and radiosonde measurements were 0.53 (115 m), 0.79 (141 m) and 0.96 (43 m) under weak, moderate and strong convections, respectively. These findings indicated that the proposed method possessed a good feasibility and stability.
Investigation of Materials for Boundary Layer Control in a Supersonic Wind Tunnel
Braafladt, Alexander; Lucero, John M.; Hirt, Stefanie M.
2013-01-01
During operation of the NASA Glenn Research Center 15- by 15-Centimeter Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT), a significant, undesirable corner flow separation is created by the three-dimensional interaction of the wall and floor boundary layers in the tunnel corners following an oblique-shock/ boundary-layer interaction. A method to minimize this effect was conceived by connecting the wall and floor boundary layers with a radius of curvature in the corners. The results and observations of a trade study to determine the effectiveness of candidate materials for creating the radius of curvature in the SWT are presented. The experiments in the study focus on the formation of corner fillets of four different radii of curvature, 6.35 mm (0.25 in.), 9.525 mm (0.375 in.), 12.7 mm (0.5 in.), and 15.875 mm (0.625 in.), based on the observed boundary layer thickness of 11.43 mm (0.45 in.). Tests were performed on ten candidate materials to determine shrinkage, surface roughness, cure time, ease of application and removal, adhesion, eccentricity, formability, and repeatability. Of the ten materials, the four materials which exhibited characteristics most promising for effective use were the heavy body and regular type dental impression materials, the basic sculpting epoxy, and the polyurethane sealant. Of these, the particular material which was most effective, the heavy body dental impression material, was tested in the SWT in Mach 2 flow, and was observed to satisfy all requirements for use in creating the corner fillets in the upcoming experiments on shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction.
The large Reynolds number - Asymptotic theory of turbulent boundary layers.
Mellor, G. L.
1972-01-01
A self-consistent, asymptotic expansion of the one-point, mean turbulent equations of motion is obtained. Results such as the velocity defect law and the law of the wall evolve in a relatively rigorous manner, and a systematic ordering of the mean velocity boundary layer equations and their interaction with the main stream flow are obtained. The analysis is extended to the turbulent energy equation and to a treatment of the small scale equilibrium range of Kolmogoroff; in velocity correlation space the two-thirds power law is obtained. Thus, the two well-known 'laws' of turbulent flow are imbedded in an analysis which provides a great deal of other information.
Shock Wave Turbulent Boundary Layer Interaction in Hypersonic Flow
1975-06-01
WORDS (Conllnum on rtvmf tldm II nocfmry Td Idmnllly by block number) Turbulent boundary layers Skin friction, heat transfer and pressure High... tD t{> • y rp < J -o ill ... |i| ;| ilh |I ti i llii ffPtffin i ini I ! til. ;■ ; ’ ! ’ : in •■•: \\1’. T ill j i i i...III [lii 5 ft" t H "H— im BJITT i’i 1 i Mt- B ianj ii ( !l!l Mi IF Ii ig| M»-H J , ■*« J J j 1JJ J 4^ Ul CD S D Z V) D -I O z > Ul QC
Boundary layer height estimation by sodar and sonic anemometer measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Contini, D; Cava, D; Martano, P; Donateo, A; Grasso, F M
2008-01-01
In this paper an analysis of different methods for the calculation of the boundary layer height (BLH) using sodar and ultrasonic anemometer measurements is presented. All the methods used are based on single point surface measurements. In particular the automatic spectral routine developed for Remtech sodar is compared with the results obtained with the parameterization of the vertical velocity variance, with the calculation of a prognostic model and with a parameterization based on horizontal velocity spectra. Results indicate that in unstable conditions the different methods provide similar pattern, with BLH relatively low, even if the parameterization of the vertical velocity variance is affected by a large scatter that limits its efficiency in evaluating the BLH. In stable nocturnal conditions the performances of the Remtech routine are lower with respect to the ones in unstable conditions. The spectral method, applied to sodar or sonic anemometer data, seems to be the most promising in order to develop an efficient routine for BLH determination
Investigation of transition scenarios in boundary-layer flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stolte, A.
1999-11-01
Laminar-turbulent transition mechanisms triggered by crossflow instability in three-dimensional, accelerated boundary-layer flows are investigated using numerical methods of stability analysis. The investigations are based on the DLR swept plate experiment, where stationary and traveling crossflow modes can be selectively introduced into the flow field. Nonlinear instability analyses employing the parabolized stability equations (PSE) show that unique saturation amplitudes do neither exist for stationary crossflow vortices nor for traveling crossflow waves. This phenomenon is explained by means of a spatial bifurcation model. Using Floquet theory, temporal secondary instability analyses are then performed for the mean flow distorted by primary disturbances. In these analyses, secondary high-frequency disturbances with high growth rates are found. The location of these disturbances correlates well with regions of high shear in the primarily distorted flow field, especially on the back of the primary crossflow vortices. (orig.)
On the secondary instability of three-dimensional boundary layers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Janke, E. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Goettingen (Germany). Inst. fuer Stroemungsmechanik; Balakumar, P. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States)
2000-09-01
One of the possible transition scenarios in three-dimensional boundary layers, the saturation of stationary crossflow vortices and their secondary instability to high-frequency disturbances, is studied using the parabolized stability equations (PSE) and Floquet theory. Starting from nonlinear PSE solutions, we investigate the region where a purely stationary crossflow disturbance saturates for its secondary instability characteristics utilizing global and local eigenvalue solvers that are based on the implicitly restarted Arnoldi method and a Newton-Raphson technique, respectively. Results are presented for swept Hiemenz flow and the DLR swept flat plate experiment. The main focuses of this study are on the existence of multiple roots in the eigenvalue spectrum that could explain experimental observations of time-dependent occurrences of an explosive growth of traveling disturbances, on the origin of high-frequency disturbances, as well as on gaining more information about threshold amplitudes of primary disturbances necessary for the growth of secondary disturbances. (orig.)
Simulation of Wind turbines in the atmospheric boundary layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chivaee, Hamid Sarlak; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming
through the whole domain, without wind turbines included, while the body forces that are required to maintain that flow field is calculated. The body forces are then stored and applied on the domain through the simulation of wind turbine and the boundary layer shape will be modified based on the turbine...... as well as turbulent inflow condition. For generating turbulent inflow, a model is used in which a turbulent plane is introduced in the domain and convected in each time step, using Taylor's frozen hypothesis. The results of different simulations are analysed and compared in terms of mean values...... kilometer. For the simulation of wind turbine, the actuator disc (AD) model of Mikkelsen [3] is used. The idea behind the AD is to represent the turbine with an equivalent virtual disc that exerts body forces through the simulation domain. This requires table look up for the drag and lift coefficients...
Temperature and velocity profiles in sooting free boundary layer flames
Ang, J. A.; Pagni, P. J.; Mataga, T. G.; Margle, J. M.; Lyons, V. J.
1986-01-01
Temperature and velocity profiles are presented for cyclohexane, n-heptane, and iso-octane free, laminar, boundary layer, sooting, diffusion flames. Temperatures are measured with 3 mil Pt/Pt-13 percent Rh thermocouples. Corrected gas temperatures are derived by performing an energy balance of convection to and radiation from the thermocouple bead incorporating the variation of air conductivity and platinum emissivity with temperature. Velocities are measured using laser doppler velocimetry techniques. Profiles are compared with previously reported analytic temperature and velocity fields. Comparison of theoretical and experimental temperature profiles suggests improvement in the analytical treatment is needed, which accounts more accurately for the local soot radiation. The velocity profiles are in good agreement, with the departure of the theory from observation partially due to the small fluctuations inherent in these free flows.
Turbulence modeling of shock separated boundary-layer flows
Coakley, T. J.; Viegas, J. R.
1977-01-01
Computations of transonic and hypersonic shock-separated boundary-layer flows using zero-equation (algebraic), one-equation (kinetic energy), and two-equation (kinetic energy plus length scale) turbulence eddy viscosity models are described and compared with measurements. The computations make use of a new Navier-Stokes computer algorithm that has reduced computing times by one to two orders of magnitude. The algorithm, and how the turbulence models are incorporated into it, are described. Results for the transonic flow show that the unmodified one-equation model is superior to the zero-equation model in skin-friction predictions. For the hypersonic flow, a highly modified one-equation model that accurately predicts surface pressure and heat transfer is described. Preliminary two-equation model results are also presented.
Hydromagnetic free convection currents effects on boundary layer thickness
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwanza, J.K., E-mail: kwanzakioko@yahoo.co [Department of Pure and Applied Mathematics, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, P.O. Box 62000-00200, Nairobi (Kenya); Marigi, E.M.; Kinyanjui, M. [Department of Pure and Applied Mathematics, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, P.O. Box 62000-00200, Nairobi (Kenya)
2010-06-15
In this study we discuss an unsteady free convection MHD flow past semi-infinite vertical porous plate. We have considered the flow in the presence of a strong magnetic field and therefore the electromagnetic force is very large. This brings in the phenomenon of Hall and Ion-slip currents. The effects of these two parameters together with that of viscous dissipation and radiation absorption among others on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are presented. The profiles are presented graphically. As the partial differential equations governing this problem are highly non-linear they are solved numerically by a finite difference method. It is found that in presence of heating of the plate by free convection current the velocity boundary layer thickness decreases.
Hydromagnetic free convection currents effects on boundary layer thickness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwanza, J.K.; Marigi, E.M.; Kinyanjui, M.
2010-01-01
In this study we discuss an unsteady free convection MHD flow past semi-infinite vertical porous plate. We have considered the flow in the presence of a strong magnetic field and therefore the electromagnetic force is very large. This brings in the phenomenon of Hall and Ion-slip currents. The effects of these two parameters together with that of viscous dissipation and radiation absorption among others on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are presented. The profiles are presented graphically. As the partial differential equations governing this problem are highly non-linear they are solved numerically by a finite difference method. It is found that in presence of heating of the plate by free convection current the velocity boundary layer thickness decreases.
Effect of boundary layer thickness on the flow characteristics around a rectangular prism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ji, Ho Seong; Kim, Kyung Chun
2001-01-01
Effect of boundary layer thickness on the flow characteristics around a rectangular prism has been investigated by using a PIV(Particle Image Velocimetry) technique. Three different boundary layers (thick, medium and thin) were generated in the atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel at Pusan National University. The thick boundary layer having 670mm thickness was generated by using spires and roughness elements. The medium thickness of boundary layer(δ=270mm) was the natural turbulent boundary layer at the test section with fully long developing length(18m). The thin boundary layer with 36.5mm thickness was generated by on a smooth panel elevated 70cm from the wind tunnel floor. The Reynolds number based on the free stream velocity and the height of the model was 7.9X10 3 . The mean velocity vector fields and turbulent kinetic energy distribution were measured and compared. The effect of boundary layer thickness is clearly observed not only in the length of separation bubble but also in the reattachment points. The thinner boundary layer thickness, the higher turbulent kinetic energy peak around the model roof. It is strongly recommended that the height ratio between model and approaching boundary layer thickness should be a major parameter
The Stokes boundary layer for a thixotropic or antithixotropic fluid
McArdle, Catriona R.
2012-10-01
We present a mathematical investigation of the oscillatory boundary layer in a semi-infinite fluid bounded by an oscillating wall (the so-called \\'Stokes problem\\'), when the fluid has a thixotropic or antithixotropic rheology. We obtain asymptotic solutions in the limit of small-amplitude oscillations, and we use numerical integration to validate the asymptotic solutions and to explore the behaviour of the system for larger-amplitude oscillations. The solutions that we obtain differ significantly from the classical solution for a Newtonian fluid. In particular, for antithixotropic fluids the velocity reaches zero at a finite distance from the wall, in contrast to the exponential decay for a thixotropic or a Newtonian fluid.For small amplitudes of oscillation, three regimes of behaviour are possible: the structure parameter may take values defined instantaneously by the shear rate, or by a long-term average; or it may behave hysteretically. The regime boundaries depend on the precise specification of structure build-up and breakdown rates in the rheological model, illustrating the subtleties of complex fluid models in non-rheometric settings. For larger amplitudes of oscillation the dominant behaviour is hysteretic. We discuss in particular the relationship between the shear stress and the shear rate at the oscillating wall. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Coherence of simulated atmospheric boundary-layer turbulence
Jiadong, Zeng; Zhiguo, Li; Mingshui, Li
2017-12-01
The coherences in a plane perpendicular to incoming flow are measured in wind tunnel simulations of atmospheric turbulent flow. The measured coherences are compared with analytical expressions tailored to field measurements and with theoretical coherence models which assume homogeneous turbulence and the von Kármán’s spectrum. The comparison indicates that the simulated atmospheric boundary layer flow is approximately horizontally homogeneous turbulence. Based on the above assumption and the systematic analysis of lateral coherence, it can be concluded that the lateral coherences of simulated atmospheric boundary turbulence can be determined accurately using the von Kármán spectrum and the turbulence parameters measured by a few measurement points. The measured results also show that the spatial characteristics of vertical coherences are closely related to the dimensionless parameter {{Δ }}z/({\\bar{z}}0.3{L}ux 0.7). The vertical coherence at two heights can be roughly estimated by the ratio to {{Δ }}z/({\\bar{z}}0.3{L}ux 0.7). The relationship between the phase angles of u-, v- and w-components and the vertical separation distance and the height from the ground is further analyzed. Finally, the roles of the type of land surface roughness, the height from the ground, the turbulence intensity and the integral length scale in lateral and vertical coherences are also discussed in this study.
Wang, Chenggang; Cao, Le
2016-04-01
Air pollution occurring in the atmospheric boundary layer is a kind of weather phenomenon which decreases the visibility of the atmosphere and results in poor air quality. Recently, the occurrence of the heavy air pollution events has become more frequent all over Asia, especially in Mid-Eastern China. In December 2015, the most severe air pollution in recorded history of China occurred in the regions of Yangtze River Delta and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei. More than 10 days of severe air pollution (Air Quality Index, AQI>200) appeared in many large cities of China such as Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang and Baoding. Thus, the research and the management of the air pollution has attracted most attentions in China. In order to investigate the formation, development and dissipation of the air pollutions in China, a field campaign has been conducted between January 1, 2015 and January 28, 2015 in Yangtze River Delta of China, aiming at a intensive observation of the vertical structure of the air pollutants in the atmospheric boundary layer during the time period with heavy pollution. In this study, the observation data obtained in the field campaign mentioned above is analyzed. The characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer and the vertical distribution of air pollutants in the city Dongshan located in the center of Lake Taihu are shown and discussed in great detail. It is indicated that the stability of the boundary layer is the strongest during the nighttime and the early morning of Dongshan. Meanwhile, the major air pollutants, PM2.5 and PM10 in the boundary layer, reach their maximum values, 177.1μg m-3 and 285μg m-3 respectively. The convective boundary layer height in the observations ranges from approximately 700m to 1100m. It is found that the major air pollutants tend to be confined in a relatively shallow boundary layer, which represents that the boundary layer height is the dominant factor for controlling the vertical distribution of the air pollutants. In
The Study of Influence of Active and Passive Methods of Boundary Layer Control
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Matějka, Milan; Popelka, Lukáš
2007-01-01
Roč. 31, č. 4 (2007), s. 114-121 ISSN 0744-8996 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06031; GA AV ČR IAA2076403; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200760614 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : vortex generator * synthetic jet generator * boundary layer control Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics
Resonant Excitation of Boundary Layer Instability of DC Arc Plasma Jet by Current Modulation
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kopecký, Vladimír; Hrabovský, Milan
2011-01-01
Roč. 31, č. 6 (2011), s. 827-838 ISSN 0272-4324 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : dc arc jet * plasma jet oscillations * boundary layer instability * frequency spectra Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.602, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/v160841757161758/
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fan, S.; Lakshminarayana, B. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Center for Gas Turbines and Power
1996-01-01
The unsteady pressure and boundary layers on a turbomachinery blade row arising from periodic wakes due to upstream blade rows are investigated in this paper. Numerical simulations are carried out to understand the effects of the wake velocity defect and the wake turbulence intensity on the development of unsteady blade boundary layers. The boundary layer transition on the blade is found to be strongly influenced by the unsteady wake passing. Periodic transitional patches are generated by the high turbulence intensity in the passing wakes and transported downstream. The time-dependent transition results in large unsteadiness in the instantaneous local skin friction coefficient and a smoother time-averaged transition curve than the one observed in the steady boundary layer. A parametric study is then carried out to determine the influence of wake parameters on the development of the unsteady blade boundary layers. It is shown that the unsteadiness in the blade boundary layer increases with a decrease in the axial gap, an increase in wake/blade count ratio, or an increase in the wake traverse speed. The time-averaged boundary layer momentum thickness at the trailing edge of the blade is found to increase significantly for higher wake/blade count ratio and larger wake traverse speed. Increase of the wake/blade count ratio also results in higher frictional drag of the blade.
Uncertainties in the CO2 buget associated to boundary layer dynamics and CO2-advection
Kaikkonen, J.P.; Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.
2012-01-01
The relationship between boundary layer dynamics and carbon dioxide (CO2) budget in the convective boundary layer (CBL) is investigated by using mixed-layer theory. We derive a new set of analytical relations to quantify the uncertainties on the estimation of the bulk CO2 mixing ratio and the
Pietersen, H.P.; Vilà-Guerau De Arellano, J.; Augustin, P.; Boer, van de A.; Coster, de O.; Delbarre, H.; Durand, P.; Fourmentin, M.; Gioli, B.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Lohou, F.; Lothon, M.; Ouwersloot, H.G.; Pino, D.; Reuder, J.
2015-01-01
We study the influence of the large-scale atmospheric contribution to the dynamics of the convective boundary layer (CBL) in a situation observed during the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) field campaign. We employ two modeling approaches, the mixed-layer theory and
Atmospheric boundary layers in storms: advanced theory and modelling applications
Zilitinkevich, S. S.; Esau, I. N.; Baklanov, A.
2005-03-01
Turbulent planetary boundary layers (PBLs) control the exchange processes between the atmosphere and the ocean/land. The key problems of PBL physics are to determine the PBL height, the momentum, energy and matter fluxes at the surface and the mean wind and scalar profiles throughout the layer in a range of regimes from stable and neutral to convective. Until present, the PBLs typical of stormy weather were always considered as neutrally stratified. Recent works have disclosed that such PBLs are in fact very strongly affected by the static stability of the free atmosphere and must be treated as factually stable (we call this type of the PBL "conventionally neutral" in contract to the "truly neutral" PBLs developed against the neutrally stratified free flow). It is common knowledge that basic features of PBLs exhibit a noticeable dependence on the free-flow static stability and baroclinicity. However, the concern of the traditional theory of neural and stable PBLs was almost without exception the barotropic nocturnal PBL, which develops at mid latitudes during a few hours in the night, on the background of a neutral or slightly stable residual layer. The latter separates this type of the PBL from the free atmosphere. It is not surprising that the nature of turbulence in such regimes is basically local and does not depend on the properties of the free atmosphere. Alternatively, long-lived neutral (in fact only conditionally neutral) or stable PBLs, which have much more time to grow up, are placed immediately below the stably stratified free flow. Under these conditions, the turbulent transports of momentum and scalars even in the surface layer - far away from the PBL outer boundary - depend on the free-flow Brunt-Väisälä frequency, N. Furthermore, integral measures of the long-lived PBLs (their depths and the resistance law functions) depend on N and also on the baroclinic shear, S. In the traditional PBL models both non-local parameters N and S were overlooked
Atmospheric boundary layers in storms: advanced theory and modelling applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. S. Zilitinkevich
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Turbulent planetary boundary layers (PBLs control the exchange processes between the atmosphere and the ocean/land. The key problems of PBL physics are to determine the PBL height, the momentum, energy and matter fluxes at the surface and the mean wind and scalar profiles throughout the layer in a range of regimes from stable and neutral to convective. Until present, the PBLs typical of stormy weather were always considered as neutrally stratified. Recent works have disclosed that such PBLs are in fact very strongly affected by the static stability of the free atmosphere and must be treated as factually stable (we call this type of the PBL "conventionally neutral" in contract to the "truly neutral" PBLs developed against the neutrally stratified free flow. It is common knowledge that basic features of PBLs exhibit a noticeable dependence on the free-flow static stability and baroclinicity. However, the concern of the traditional theory of neural and stable PBLs was almost without exception the barotropic nocturnal PBL, which develops at mid latitudes during a few hours in the night, on the background of a neutral or slightly stable residual layer. The latter separates this type of the PBL from the free atmosphere. It is not surprising that the nature of turbulence in such regimes is basically local and does not depend on the properties of the free atmosphere. Alternatively, long-lived neutral (in fact only conditionally neutral or stable PBLs, which have much more time to grow up, are placed immediately below the stably stratified free flow. Under these conditions, the turbulent transports of momentum and scalars even in the surface layer - far away from the PBL outer boundary - depend on the free-flow Brunt-Väisälä frequency, N. Furthermore, integral measures of the long-lived PBLs (their depths and the resistance law functions depend on N and also on the baroclinic shear, S. In the traditional PBL models both non-local parameters N and S
Turbulent Boundary Layer Over Geophysical-like Topographies
Chamorro, L. P.; Hamed, A. M.; Castillo, L.
2016-12-01
An experimental investigation of the flow and the turbulence structure over 2D and 3D large-scale wavy walls was performed using high-resolution planar particle image velocimetry in a refractive-index-matching (RIM) channel. Extensive measurements were performed to characterize the developing and developed flows. The 2D wall is described by a sinusoidal wave in the streamwise direction with amplitude to wavelength ratio a/λx = 0.05, while the 3D wall has an additional wave superimposed in the spanwise direction with a/λy = 0.1. The flow over these walls was characterized at Reynolds numbers of 4000 and 40000, based on the bulk velocity and the channel half height. The walls have an amplitude to boundary layer thickness ratio a/δ99 ≈ 0.1 and resemble large-scale and geophysical-like roughnesses found in rivers beds and natural terrain. Instantaneous velocity fields and time-averaged turbulence quantities reveal strong coupling between large-scale topography and the turbulence dynamics near the wall. Turbulence statistics for both walls show the presence of a well-structured shear layer past the roughness crests. Analysis of the turbulent kinetic energy production rate suggests that the shear layer is responsible for the majority of turbulence production across both walls. However, the 3D wall exhibits preferential spanwise flows that are thought to result in the multiple distinctive flow features for the 3D wall including comparatively reduced spanwise vorticity and decreased turbulence levels. Further insight on the effect of roughness three-dimensionality and Reynolds number is drawn in both the developed and developing regions through proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and quadrant analysis.
Large artificially generated turbulent boundary layers for the study of atmospheric flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guimaraes, Joao Henrique D.; Santos Junior, Sergio J.F. dos; Freire, Atila P. Silva; Jian, Su
1999-01-01
The present work discusses in detail the experimental conditions for the establishment of thick artificially generated turbulent boundary layer which can be classified as having the near characteristics of an atmospheric boundary layer. The paper describes the experimental arrangement, including the features of the designed wind tunnel and of the instrumentation. the boundary layer is made to develop over a surface fitted with wedge generators which are used to yield a very thick boundary layer. The flow conditions were validated against the following features: growth, structure, equilibrium and turbulent transport momentum. Results are presented for the following main flow variables: mean velocity, local skin-friction coefficient, boundary layer momentum thickness and the Clauser factor. The velocity boundary layer characteristics were shown to be in good agreement with the expected trend in view of the classical expressions found in literature. (author)
RACORO long-term, systematic aircraft observations of boundary layer clouds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vogelmann, A.M.; McFarquhar, G.; Ogren, J.; Turner, D. D.; Comstock, J. M.; Feingold, G.; Long, C. N.; Jonsson, H. H.; Bucholtz, A.; Collins, D. R.; Diskin, G.; Gerber, H.; Lawson, R. P.; Woods, R. K.; Hubbe, J.; Tomlinson, J.; Schmid, B.
2010-06-27
Our knowledge of boundary layer cloud processes is insufficient to resolve pressing scientific problems. Boundary layer clouds often have liquid-water paths (LWPs) less than 100 gm{sup 2}, which are defined here as being 'thin' Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths (CLOWD). This type of cloud is common globally, and the Earth's radiative energy balance is particularly sensitive to small changes in their optical properties. However, it is difficult to retrieve accurately their cloud properties via remote sensing because they are tenuous and often occur in partly cloudy skies. This interferes with our ability to obtain the routine, long-term statistics needed to improve their representation in climate models. To address this problem, in-situ data are needed to investigate cloud processes and to evaluate and refine existing retrieval algorithms. Coordinated by the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF), the Routine AAF CLOWD Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) field campaign conducted long-term, systematic flights in boundary layer, liquid-water clouds over the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site between 22 January and 30 June 2009. This was the first time that a long-term aircraft campaign was undertaken for systematic in-situ sampling of cloud properties. Using the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft equipped with a comprehensive set of instruments to measure solar and thermal radiation, cloud microphysics, aerosol properties and atmospheric state, the RACORO team logged an unprecedented 59 flights and 259 research hours above the SGP site. Data gathered during the RACORO campaign will provide researchers with a statistically relevant data set of boundary-layer cloud and aerosol properties for future study. These data can be used to validate retrieval algorithms and support process studies and model simulations of boundary layer clouds and, in particular, CLOWD-type clouds. In addition to cloud observations, complementary clear-sky flight patterns were conducted to map
The Use of Hot-Film Technique for Boundary Layer Studies on a 21% Thick Airfoil.
1987-05-01
Marsters Laboratoire d’aerodynamique a hautes vitesses Director/Directeur 4 Q31, SUMMARY A heat transfer method of studying boundary layer flows over...boundary layer, the heat transfer response from the films, positioned carefully on the model surface, can be studied to determine the boundary layer...6tudier la rdponse thermique des films, soigneusement plac6s i la surface de la maquette, pour determiner les carac- tdristiques de la couche limite
Effect of an isolated semi-arid pine forest on the boundary layer height
Brugger, Peter; Banerjee, Tirtha; Kröniger, Konstantin; Preisler, Yakir; Rotenberg, Eyal; Tatarinov, Fedor; Yakir, Dan; Mauder, Matthias
2017-04-01
Forests play an important role for earth's climate by influencing the surface energy balance and CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. Semi-arid forests and their effects on the local and regional climate are studied within the CliFF project (Climate Feedbacks and benefits of semi-arid Forests). This requires understanding of the atmospheric boundary layer over semi-arid forests, because it links the surface and the free atmosphere and determines the exchange of momentum, heat and trace gases. Our study site, Yatir, is a semi-arid isolated pine forest in the Negev desert in Israel. Higher roughness and lower albedo compared to the surrounding shrubland make it interesting to study the influences of the semi-arid Yatir forest on the boundary layer. Previous studies of the forest focused on the energy balance and secondary circulations. This study focuses on the boundary layer structure above the forest, in particular the boundary layer height. The boundary layer height is an essential parameter for many applications (e.g. construction of convective scaling parameters or air pollution modeling). We measured the boundary layer height upwind, over and downwind of the forest. In addition we measured at two sites wind profiles within the boundary layer and turbulent fluxes at the surface. This allows us to quantify the effects of the forest on boundary layer compared to the surrounding shrubland. Results show that the forest increases the boundary layer height in absence of a strong boundary layer top inversion. A model of the boundary layer height based on eddy-covariance data shows some agreement to the measurements, but fails during anticyclonic conditions and the transition to the nocturnal boundary layer. More complex models accounting for large scale influences are investigated. Further influences of the forest and surrounding shrubland on the turbulent transport of energy are discussed in a companion presentation (EGU2017-2219).
The Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence 2011 field experiment
Lothon, M.; Lohou, F.; Durand, P.; Couvreux, F.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Legain, D.; Pardyjak, E.; Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Boer, van de, A.; Moene, A.F.; Steeneveld, G.J.
2012-01-01
BLLAST (Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence) aims at better understanding the thermodynamical processes that occur during the late afternoon in the lower troposphere. In direct contact with the Earth surface, the atmospheric boundary layer is governed by buoyant and mechanical turbulence, with a strong diurnal cycle. The late afternoon transition, from the daytime dry convection to the night-time stable boundary layer, still raises a lot of issues and is poorly represented in ...
Development of a Rotating Rake Array for Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Fan-Stage Measurements
Wolter, John D.; Arend, David J.; Hirt, Stefanie M.; Gazzaniga, John A.
2017-01-01
The recent Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet/Distortion Tolerant Fan wind tunnel experiment at NASA Glenn Research Center's 8- by 6-foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) examined the performance of a novel inlet and fan stage that was designed to ingest the vehicle boundary layer in order to take advantage of a predicted overall propulsive efficiency benefit. A key piece of the experiment's instrumentation was a pair of rotating rake arrays located upstream and downstream of the fan stage. This paper examines the development of these rake arrays. Pre-test numerical solutions were sampled to determine placement and spacing for rake pressure and temperature probes. The effects of probe spacing and survey density on the repeatability of survey measurements was examined. These data were then used to estimate measurement uncertainty for the adiabatic efficiency.
Multi-layer potentials and boundary problems for higher-order elliptic systems in Lipschitz domains
Mitrea, Irina
2013-01-01
Many phenomena in engineering and mathematical physics can be modeled by means of boundary value problems for a certain elliptic differential operator in a given domain. When the differential operator under discussion is of second order a variety of tools are available for dealing with such problems, including boundary integral methods, variational methods, harmonic measure techniques, and methods based on classical harmonic analysis. When the differential operator is of higher-order (as is the case, e.g., with anisotropic plate bending when one deals with a fourth order operator) only a few options could be successfully implemented. In the 1970s Alberto Calderón, one of the founders of the modern theory of Singular Integral Operators, advocated the use of layer potentials for the treatment of higher-order elliptic boundary value problems. The present monograph represents the first systematic treatment based on this approach. This research monograph lays, for the first time, the mathematical foundation aimed...
In Situ Boundary Layer Coral Metabolism in the Atlantic Ocean Acidification Test Bed
McGillis, Wade
2013-04-01
and Chris Langdon, Brice Loose, Dwight Gledhill, Diana Hsueh, Derek Manzello, Ian Enochs, Ryan Moyer We present net ecosystem productivity (nep) and net ecosystem calcification (nec) in coral and seagrass ecosystems using the boundary layer gradient flux technique (CROSS). Coastal anthropogenic inputs and changes in global ocean chemistry in response to rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide has emerged in recent years as a topic of considerable concern. Coral reefs are particularly vulnerable from eroded environmental conditions including ocean acidification and water pollution. The Atlantic Ocean Acidification Testbed (AOAT) project monitors metabolism to ascertain the continuing health of coral reef ecosystems. The CROSS boundary layer nep/nec approach is one component of this diagnostic program. Certification of CROSS as an operational monitoring tool is underway in the AOAT. CROSS inspects a benthic community and measures productivity/respiration and calcification/dissolution over an area of 10 square meters. Being a boundary layer tool, advection and complex mesoscale flows are not a factor or concern and CROSS is autonomous and can be used at deep benthic sites. The interrogation area is not enclosed therefore exposed to ambient light, flow, and nutrient levels. CROSS is easy to deploy, unambiguous, and affordable. Repeated measurements have been made from 2011-2012 in reefal systems in La Parguera Puerto Rico and the Florida Keys, USA. Diurnal, seasonal and regional metabolism will be compared and discussed. The ability to accurately probe benthic ecosystems provides a powerful management and research tool to policy makers and researchers.
Sensitivity of boundary layer variables to PBL schemes over the central Tibetan Plateau
Xu, L.; Liu, H.; Wang, L.; Du, Q.; Liu, Y.
2017-12-01
Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) parameterization schemes play critical role in numerical weather prediction and research. They describe physical processes associated with the momentum, heat and humidity exchange between land surface and atmosphere. In this study, two non-local (YSU and ACM2) and two local (MYJ and BouLac) planetary boundary layer parameterization schemes in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model have been tested over the central Tibetan Plateau regarding of their capability to model boundary layer parameters relevant for surface energy exchange. The model performance has been evaluated against measurements from the Third Tibetan Plateau atmospheric scientific experiment (TIPEX-III). Simulated meteorological parameters and turbulence fluxes have been compared with observations through standard statistical measures. Model results show acceptable behavior, but no particular scheme produces best performance for all locations and parameters. All PBL schemes underestimate near surface air temperatures over the Tibetan Plateau. By investigating the surface energy budget components, the results suggest that downward longwave radiation and sensible heat flux are the main factors causing the lower near surface temperature. Because the downward longwave radiation and sensible heat flux are respectively affected by atmosphere moisture and land-atmosphere coupling, improvements in water vapor distribution and land-atmosphere energy exchange is meaningful for better presentation of PBL physical processes over the central Tibetan Plateau.
Bodony, Daniel; Ostoich, Christopher; Geubelle, Philippe
2013-11-01
The interaction between a thin metallic panel and a Mach 2.25 turbulent boundary layer is investigated using a direct numerical simulation approach for coupled fluid-structure problems. The solid solution uses a finite-strain, finite-deformation formulation, while the direct numerical simulation of the boundary layer uses a finite-difference compressible Navier-Stokes solver. The initially laminar boundary layer contains low amplitude unstable eigenmodes that grow in time and excite traveling bending waves in the panel. As the boundary layer transitions to a fully turbulent state, with Reθ ~ 1200 , the panel's bending waves coalesce into a standing wave pattern exhibiting flutter with a final amplitude approximately 20 times the panel thickness. The corresponding panel deflection is roughly 25 wall units and reaches across the sonic line in the boundary layer profile. Once it reaches a limit cycle state, the panel/boundary layer system is examined in detail where it is found that turbulence statistics, especially the main Reynolds stress - , appear to be modified by the presence of the compliant panel, the effect of which is forgotten within one integral length downstream of the panel. Supported by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory Air Vehicles Directorate under contract number FA8650-06-2-3620.
Bubble and boundary layer behaviour in subcooled flow boiling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maurus, Reinhold; Sattelmayer, Thomas [Lehrstuhl fuer Thermodynamik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85747 Garching (Germany)
2006-03-15
Subcooled flow boiling is a commonly applied technique for achieving efficient heat transfer. In the study, an experimental investigation in the nucleate boiling regime was performed for water circulating in a closed loop at atmospheric pressure. The horizontal orientated test-section consists of a rectangular channel with a one side heated copper strip and good optical access. Various optical observation techniques were applied to study the bubble behaviour and the characteristics of the fluid phase. The bubble behaviour was recorded by the high-speed cinematography and by a digital high resolution camera. Automated image processing and analysis algorithms developed by the authors were applied for a wide range of mass flow rates and heat fluxes in order to extract characteristic length and time scales of the bubbly layer during the boiling process. Using this methodology, the bubbles were automatically analysed and the bubble size, bubble lifetime, waiting time between two cycles were evaluated. Due to the huge number of observed bubbles a statistical analysis was performed and distribution functions were derived. Using a two-dimensional cross-correlation algorithm, the averaged axial phase boundary velocity profile could be extracted. In addition, the fluid phase velocity profile was characterised by means of the particle image velocimetry (PIV) for the single phase flow as well as under subcooled flow boiling conditions. The results indicate that the bubbles increase the flow resistance. The impact on the flow exceeds by far the bubbly region and it depends on the magnitude of the boiling activity. Finally, the ratio of the averaged phase boundary velocity and of the averaged fluid velocity was evaluated for the bubbly region. (authors)
Sensitivity of mesoscale model urban boundary layer meteorology to the scale of urban representation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. D. Flagg
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Mesoscale modeling of the urban boundary layer requires careful parameterization of the surface due to its heterogeneous morphology. Model estimated meteorological quantities, including the surface energy budget and canopy layer variables, will respond accordingly to the scale of representation. This study examines the sensitivity of the surface energy balance, canopy layer and boundary layer meteorology to the scale of urban surface representation in a real urban area (Detroit-Windsor (USA-Canada during several dry, cloud-free summer periods. The model used is the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model with its coupled single-layer urban canopy model. Some model verification is presented using measurements from the Border Air Quality and Meteorology Study (BAQS-Met 2007 field campaign and additional sources. Case studies span from "neighborhood" (10 s ~308 m to very coarse (120 s ~3.7 km resolution. Small changes in scale can affect the classification of the surface, affecting both the local and grid-average meteorology. Results indicate high sensitivity in turbulent latent heat flux from the natural surface and sensible heat flux from the urban canopy. Small scale change is also shown to delay timing of a lake-breeze front passage and can affect the timing of local transition in static stability.
New Boundary Layer Facility at Andøya, 69N 16E
Gausa, M. A.; Reuder, J.; Blindheim, S.
2016-12-01
The present presentation introduces an inative for a new boundary layer research facility on the island of Andøya (69N,16E) in Norway. The facility will appreciate international cooperation and contributions.Most boundary layer observatories (as e.g. the Lindenberg Observatory in Germany, the Cabauw facility in the Netherlands, or the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory in the US) are located in mid latitudes. Arctic or sub-arctic stations are rare or not representative due to their location in valleys (e.g. Ny Ålesund). In addition, most of the existing sites are representative for a continental boundary layer and do not allow to observe coupling processes to the free troposphere and the upper atmosphere. The island of Andøya has a unique location at 69N. To the West, Andøya is open to the Norwegian Sea. Its orology maintains an almost undisturbed marine boundary on the foreseen location under SW and W wind weather conditions. Due to rugged mountains, other wind directions provide a more transformed PBL. The understanding of the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL), in particular with respect to turbulence and turbulent exchange processes, is crucial for a wide range of science fields and environmental monitoring tasks: To name a few: basic atmospheric science, monitoring of pollutants, weather forecast, and climate projection. The PBL is consequently research focus for several research groups, which investigate the empirical and theoretical description of this complex height region. In particular, in high latitudes this lowermost layer of the atmosphere the understanding is poor. The following research topics of the new facility are foreseen: present climate projections show their largest bias in polar regions; this is mostly attributed to inappropriate parameterization of PBL processes in the numerical models forecasts of extreme weather events at high latitudes, e.g. of Polar lows with their potential of hazards for infrastructure and traffic, are still poor for the
Self-organization in cathode boundary layer discharges in xenon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takano, Nobuhiko; Schoenbach, Karl H
2006-01-01
Self-organization of direct current xenon microdischarges in cathode boundary layer configuration has been studied for pressures in the range 30-140 Torr and for currents in the range 50 μA-1 mA. Side-on and end-on observations of the discharge have provided information on the structure and spatial arrangement of the plasma filaments. The regularly spaced filaments, which appear in the normal glow mode when the current is lowered, have a length which is determined by the cathode fall. It varies, dependent on pressure and current, between 50 and 70 μm. The minimum diameter is approximately 80 μm, as determined from the radiative emission in the visible. The filaments are sources of extensive excimer emission. Measurements of the cathode fall length have allowed us to determine the secondary emission coefficient for the discharge in the normal glow mode and to estimate the cathode fall voltage at the transition from normal glow mode to filamentary mode. It was found that the cathode fall voltage at this transition decreases, indicating the onset of additional electron gain processes at the cathode. The regular arrangement of the filaments, self-organization, is assumed to be due to Coulomb interactions between the positively charged cathode fall channels and positive space charges on the surface of the surrounding dielectric spacer. Calculations based on these assumptions showed good agreement with experimentally observed filament patterns
Turbulent transport of large particles in the atmospheric boundary layer
Richter, D. H.; Chamecki, M.
2017-12-01
To describe the transport of heavy dust particles in the atmosphere, assumptions must typically be made in order to connect the micro-scale emission processes with the larger-scale atmospheric motions. In the context of numerical models, this can be thought of as the transport process which occurs between the domain bottom and the first vertical grid point. For example, in the limit of small particles (both low inertia and low settling velocity), theory built upon Monin-Obukhov similarity has proven effective in relating mean dust concentration profiles to surface emission fluxes. For increasing particle mass, however, it becomes more difficult to represent dust transport as a simple extension of the transport of a passive scalar due to issues such as the crossing trajectories effect. This study focuses specifically on the problem of large particle transport and dispersion in the turbulent boundary layer by utilizing direct numerical simulations with Lagrangian point-particle tracking to determine under what, if any, conditions the large dust particles (larger than 10 micron in diameter) can be accurately described in a simplified Eulerian framework. In particular, results will be presented detailing the independent contributions of both particle inertia and particle settling velocity relative to the strength of the surrounding turbulent flow, and consequences of overestimating surface fluxes via traditional parameterizations will be demonstrated.
Meteodrones - Meteorological Planetary Boundary Layer Measurements by Vertical Drone Soundings
Lauer, Jonas; Fengler, Martin
2017-04-01
As of today, there is a gap in the operational data collection of meteorological observations in the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL). This lack of spatially and temporally reliable knowledge of PBL conditions and energy fluxes with the surface causes shortcomings in the prediction of micro- and mesoscale phenomena such as convection, temperature inversions, local wind systems or fog. The currently used remote sensing instruments share the drawback of only partially covering necessary variables. To fill this data gap, since 2012, Meteomatics has been developing a drone measurement system, the Meteodrone, to measure the parameters wind speed, wind direction, dewpoint, temperature and air pressure of the PBL up to 1.5 km above ground. Both the data quality and the assimilation into a regional numerical weather model could be determined in several pilot studies. Besides, a project in cooperation with the NSSL (National Severe Storms Laboratory) was launched in October 2016 with the goal of capturing pre-convective conditions for improved severe storm forecasts in Oklahoma. Also, related measurements, such as air pollution measurements in the Misox valley to determine LDSP values, were successfully conducted. The main goal of the project is the operational data collection of PBL measurements and the assimilation of this data into regional numerical weather forecast models. Considering the high data quality indicated in all conducted studies as well as the trouble-free execution, this goal is both worthwhile and realistic.
Hybrid Manipulation of Streamwise Vorticity in a Diffuser Boundary Layer
Gissen, Abraham; Vukasinovic, Bojan; Culp, John; Glezer, Ari
2010-11-01
The formation of streamwise vorticity concentrations by exploiting the interaction of surface-mounted passive (micro-vanes) and active (synthetic jets) flow control elements with the cross flow is investigated experimentally in a small-scale serpentine duct at high subsonic speeds (up to M = 0.6). Streamwise vortices can be a key element in the mitigation of the adverse effects on pressure recovery and distortion caused by the naturally occurring secondary flows in embedded propulsion systems with complex inlet geometries. Counter rotating and single-sense vortices are formed using conventional passive micro-vanes and active high-power synthetic jet actuators. Interaction of the flow control elements is examined through a hybrid actuation scheme whereby synthetic jet actuation augments the primary vanes' vortices resulting in dynamic enhancement of their strength. It is shown that such sub-boundary layer individual vortices can merge and evolve into duct-scale vortical structures that counteract the inherent secondary flow and mitigates global flow distortion.
Three-dimensional boundary layer stability and transition
Malik, M. R.; Li, F.
1992-01-01
Nonparallel and nonlinear stability of a three-dimensional boundary layer, subject to crossflow instability, is investigated using parabolized stability equations (PSEs). Both traveling and stationary disturbances are considered and nonparallel effect on crossflow instability is found to be destabilizing. Our linear PSE results for stationary disturbances agree well with the results from direct solution of Navier-Stokes equations obtained by Spalart (1989). Nonlinear calculations have been carried out for stationary vortices and the computed wall vorticity pattern results in streamwise streaks which resemble remarkably well with the surface oil-flow visualizations in swept-wing experiments. Other features of the stationary vortex development (half-mushroom structure, inflected velocity profiles, vortex doubling, etc.) are also captured in our nonlinear calculations. Nonlinear interaction of the stationary amplitude of the stationary vortex is large as compared to the traveling mode, and the stationary vortex dominates most of the downstream development. When the two modes have the same initial amplitude, the traveling mode dominates the downstream development owing to its higher growth rate, and there is a tendency for the stationary mode to be suppressed. The effect of nonlinear wave development on the skin-friction coefficient is also computed.
Non-parallel stability of compressible boundary layers
Chang, Chau-Lyan; Malik, Mujeeb R.
1993-01-01
Linear and nonlinear stability of compressible growing boundary layers is studied using parabolized stability equations (PSE). Linear PSE calculations are performed for Mach 1.6 and 4.5 plate-plate flow, and the results are compared with the predictions of the multiple-scales approach. In general, the nonparallel effect appears to be less significant for oblique waves near the lower neutral branch but it progressively becomes important at higher Reynolds numbers near the upper branch. In contrast, the nonparallel effect is more pronounced near the lower branch for two-dimensional first-mode waves. The PSE and multiple-scales results agree for the first mode waves, but in the first-second mode transition region, the latter approach tends to break down. Comparison with the first (oblique) and second mode growth rate data from Kendall's (1967) experiment shows good agreement; however, the peak second mode growth rate is over-predicted. Similar conclusions are drawn for the second mode experiment of Stetson et al. (1983) for Mach 8 flow past a sharp cone. We conjecture that the lower experimental growth rate is due to nonlinear saturation and provide supporting calculations.
Ground-Based Lidar for Atmospheric Boundary Layer Ozone Measurements
Kuang, Shi; Newchurch, Michael J.; Burris, John; Liu, Xiong
2013-01-01
Ground-based lidars are suitable for long-term ozone monitoring as a complement to satellite and ozonesonde measurements. However, current ground-based lidars are unable to consistently measure ozone below 500 m above ground level (AGL) due to both engineering issues and high retrieval sensitivity to various measurement errors. In this paper, we present our instrument design, retrieval techniques, and preliminary results that focus on the high-temporal profiling of ozone within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) achieved by the addition of an inexpensive and compact mini-receiver to the previous system. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest, consistently achievable observation height has been extended down to 125 m AGL for a ground-based ozone lidar system. Both the analysis and preliminary measurements demonstrate that this lidar measures ozone with a precision generally better than 10% at a temporal resolution of 10 min and a vertical resolution from 150 m at the bottom of the ABL to 550 m at the top. A measurement example from summertime shows that inhomogeneous ozone aloft was affected by both surface emissions and the evolution of ABL structures.
Benthic boundary layer. IOS observational and modelling programme
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saunders, P.M.; Richards, K.J.
1985-01-01
Near bottom currents, measured at three sites in the N.E. Atlantic, reveal the eddying characteristics of the flow. Eddies develop, migrate and decay in ways best revealed by numerical modelling simulations. Eddies control the thickness of the bottom mixed layer by accumulating and thickening or spreading and thinning the bottom waters. At the boundaries of eddies benthic fronts form providing a path for upward displacement of the bottom water. An experiment designed to estimate vertical diffusivity is performed. The flux of heat into the bottom of the Iberian basin through Discovery Gap is deduced from year long current measurements. The flux is supposed balanced by geothermal heating through the sea floor and diapycnal diffusion in the water. A diffusivity of 1.5 to 4 cm 2 s -1 is derived for the bottom few hundred meters of the deep ocean. Experiments to estimate horizontal diffusivity are described. If a tracer is discharged from the sea bed the volume of sea water in which it is found increases with time and after 20 years will fill an ocean basin of side 1000 km to a depth of only 1 to 2 km. (author)
The decay of wake vortices in the convective boundary layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holzaepfel, F.; Gerz, T.; Frech, M.; Doernbrack, A.
2000-03-01
The decay of three wake vortex pairs of B-747 aircraft in a convectively driven atmospheric boundary layer is investigated by means of large-eddy simulations (LES). This situation is considered as being hazardous as the updraft velocities of a thermal may compensate the induced descent speed of the vortex pair resulting in vortices stalled in the flight path. The LES results, however, illustrate that (i) the primary rectilinear vortices are rapidly deformed on the scale of the alternating updraft and downdraft regions; (ii) parts of the vortices stay on flight level but are quickly eroded by the enhanced turbulence of an updraft; (iii) longest living sections of the vortices are found in regions of relatively calm downdraft flow which augments their descent. Strip theory calculations are used to illustrate the temporal and spatial development of lift and rolling moments experienced by a following medium weight class B-737 aircraft. Characteristics of the respective distributions are analysed. Initially, the maximum rolling moments slightly exceed the available roll control of the B-737. After 60 seconds the probability of rolling moments exceeding 50% of the roll control, a value which is considered as a threshold for acceptable rolling moments, has decreased to 1% of its initial probability. (orig.)
Investigation of particle lift off in a turbulent boundary layer
Barros, Diogo; Tee, Yi Hui; Morse, Nicholas; Hiltbrand, Ben; Longmire, Ellen
2017-11-01
Entrainment and suspension of particles within turbulent flows occur widely in environmental and industrial processes. Three-dimensional particle tracking experiments are thus conducted in a water channel to understand the interaction of finite-size particles with a turbulent boundary layer. A neutrally buoyant sphere made of wax and iron oxide is first held in place on the bounding surface by a magnet before being released and tracked. The sphere is marked with dots to monitor rotation as well as translation. By setting up two pairs of cameras in a stereoscopic configuration, the trajectories of the sphere are reconstructed and tracked over a distance of 4 to 6 δ. Sphere diameters ranging from 40 to 130 wall units, initial particle Reynolds numbers of 600 to 2000 and friction Reynolds numbers of 500 to 1800 are considered. For this parameter set, the particle typically lifts off from the wall after release before falling back toward the wall. Aspects of both particle rotation and translation will be discussed. Supported by NSF (CBET-1510154).
Large Scale Organization of a Near Wall Turbulent Boundary Layer
Stanislas, Michel; Dekou Tiomajou, Raoul Florent; Foucaut, Jean Marc
2016-11-01
This study lies in the context of large scale coherent structures investigation in a near wall turbulent boundary layer. An experimental database at high Reynolds numbers (Re θ = 9830 and Re θ = 19660) was obtained in the LML wind tunnel with stereo-PIV at 4 Hz and hot wire anemometry at 30 kHz. A Linear Stochastic Estimation procedure, is used to reconstruct a 3 component field resolved in space and time. Algorithms were developed to extract coherent structures from the reconstructed field. A sample of 3D view of the structures is depicted in Figure 1. Uniform momentum regions are characterized with their mean hydraulic diameter in the YZ plane, their life time and their contribution to Reynolds stresses. The vortical motions are characterized by their position, radius, circulation and vorticity in addition to their life time and their number computed at a fixed position from the wall. The spatial organization of the structures was investigated through a correlation of their respective indicative functions in the spanwise direction. The simplified large scale model that arise is compared to the ones available in the literature. Streamwise low (green) and high (yellow) uniform momentum regions with positive (red) and negative (blue) vortical motions. This work was supported by Campus International pour la Sécurité et l'Intermodalité des Transports.
Appraisal of boundary layer trips for landing gear testing
McCarthy, Philip; Feltham, Graham; Ekmekci, Alis
2013-11-01
Dynamic similarity during scaled model testing is difficult to maintain. Forced boundary layer transition via a surface protuberance is a common method used to address this issue, however few guidelines exist for the effective tripping of complex geometries, such as aircraft landing gears. To address this shortcoming, preliminary wind tunnel tests were performed at Re = 500,000. Surface transition visualisation and pressure measurements show that zigzag type trips of a given size and location are effective at promoting transition, thus preventing the formation of laminar separation bubbles and increasing the effective Reynolds number from the critical regime to the supercritical regime. Extension of these experiments to include three additional tripping methods (wires, roughness strips, CADCUT dots) in a range of sizes, at Reynolds number of 200,000 and below, have been performed in a recirculating water channel. Analysis of surface pressure measurements and time resolved PIV for each trip device, size and location has established a set of recommendations for successful use of tripping for future, low Reynolds number landing gear testing.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lundquist, K A [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
2010-05-12
Mesoscale models, such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, are increasingly used for high resolution simulations, particularly in complex terrain, but errors associated with terrain-following coordinates degrade the accuracy of the solution. Use of an alternative Cartesian gridding technique, known as an immersed boundary method (IBM), alleviates coordinate transformation errors and eliminates restrictions on terrain slope which currently limit mesoscale models to slowly varying terrain. In this dissertation, an immersed boundary method is developed for use in numerical weather prediction. Use of the method facilitates explicit resolution of complex terrain, even urban terrain, in the WRF mesoscale model. First, the errors that arise in the WRF model when complex terrain is present are presented. This is accomplished using a scalar advection test case, and comparing the numerical solution to the analytical solution. Results are presented for different orders of advection schemes, grid resolutions and aspect ratios, as well as various degrees of terrain slope. For comparison, results from the same simulation are presented using the IBM. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional immersed boundary methods are then described, along with details that are specific to the implementation of IBM in the WRF code. Our IBM is capable of imposing both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. Additionally, a method for coupling atmospheric physics parameterizations at the immersed boundary is presented, making IB methods much more functional in the context of numerical weather prediction models. The two-dimensional IB method is verified through comparisons of solutions for gentle terrain slopes when using IBM and terrain-following grids. The canonical case of flow over a Witch of Agnesi hill provides validation of the basic no-slip and zero gradient boundary conditions. Specified diurnal heating in a valley, producing anabatic winds, is used to validate the
Lundquist, Katherine Ann
Mesoscale models, such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, are increasingly used for high resolution simulations, particularly in complex terrain, but errors associated with terrain-following coordinates degrade the accuracy of the solution. Use of an alternative Cartesian gridding technique, known as an immersed boundary method (IBM), alleviates coordinate transformation errors and eliminates restrictions on terrain slope which currently limit mesoscale models to slowly varying terrain. In this dissertation, an immersed boundary method is developed for use in numerical weather prediction. Use of the method facilitates explicit resolution of complex terrain, even urban terrain, in the WRF mesoscale model. First, the errors that arise in the WRF model when complex terrain is present are presented. This is accomplished using a scalar advection test case, and comparing the numerical solution to the analytical solution. Results are presented for different orders of advection schemes, grid resolutions and aspect ratios, as well as various degrees of terrain slope. For comparison, results from the same simulation are presented using the IBM. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional immersed boundary methods are then described, along with details that are specific to the implementation of IBM in the WRF code. Our IBM is capable of imposing both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. Additionally, a method for coupling atmospheric physics parameterizations at the immersed boundary is presented, making IB methods much more functional in the context of numerical weather prediction models. The two-dimensional IB method is verified through comparisons of solutions for gentle terrain slopes when using IBM and terrain-following grids. The canonical case of flow over a Witch of Agnesi hill provides validation of the basic no-slip and zero gradient boundary conditions. Specified diurnal heating in a valley, producing anabatic winds, is used to validate the
The structure of turbulent jets, vortices and boundary layer: laboratory and field observations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sekula, E.; Redondo, J.M.
2008-01-01
The main aim of this work is research, understand and describe key aspects of the turbulent jets and effects connected with them such as boundary layer interactions on the effect of a 2D geometry. Work is based principally on experiments but there are also some comparisons between experimental and field results. A series of experiments have been performed consisting in detailed turbulent measurements of the 3 velocity components to understand the processes of interaction that lead to mixing and mass transport between boundaries and free shear layers. The turbulent wall jet configuration occurs often in environmental and industrial processes, but here we apply the laboratory experiments as a tool to understand jet/boundary interactions in the environment. We compare the structure of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images of coastal jets and vortices and experimental jets (plumes) images searching for the relationship between these two kinds of jets at very different Reynolds numbers taking advantage of the self-similarity of the processes. In order to investigate the structure of ocean surface detected jets (SAR) and vortices near the coast, we compare wall and boundary effects on the structure of turbulent jets (3D and 2D) which are non-homogeneous, developing multifractal and spectral techniques useful for environmental monitoring in space.
Kleczek, M.A.; Steeneveld, G.J.; Holtslag, A.A.M.
2012-01-01
Correct forecasting of the diurnal cycle of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is of key importance for many applications like for wind energy, weather forecasting and climate, agriculture and air quality. Previous research has shown models are very sensitive to the selected boundary-layer
Experiments on the flow field physics of confluent boundary layers for high-lift systems
Nelson, Robert C.; Thomas, F. O.; Chu, H. C.
1994-01-01
The use of sub-scale wind tunnel test data to predict the behavior of commercial transport high lift systems at in-flight Reynolds number is limited by the so-called 'inverse Reynolds number effect'. This involves an actual deterioration in the performance of a high lift device with increasing Reynolds number. A lack of understanding of the relevant flow field physics associated with numerous complicated viscous flow interactions that characterize flow over high-lift devices prohibits computational fluid dynamics from addressing Reynolds number effects. Clearly there is a need for research that has as its objective the clarification of the fundamental flow field physics associated with viscous effects in high lift systems. In this investigation, a detailed experimental investigation is being performed to study the interaction between the slat wake and the boundary layer on the primary airfoil which is known as a confluent boundary layer. This little-studied aspect of the multi-element airfoil problem deserves special attention due to its importance in the lift augmentation process. The goal of this research is is to provide an improved understanding of the flow physics associated with high lift generation. This process report will discuss the status of the research being conducted at the Hessert Center for Aerospace Research at the University of Notre Dame. The research is sponsored by NASA Ames Research Center under NASA grant NAG2-905. The report will include a discussion of the models that have been built or that are under construction, a description of the planned experiments, a description of a flow visualization apparatus that has been developed for generating colored smoke for confluent boundary layer studies and some preliminary measurements made using our new 3-component fiber optic LDV system.
Investigation of Gas Seeding for Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence in Hypersonic Boundary Layers
Arisman, C. J.; Johansen, C. T.; Bathel, B. F.; Danehy, P. M.
2015-01-01
Numerical simulations of the gas-seeding strategies required for planar laser-induced fluorescence in a Mach 10 (approximately Mach 8.2 postshock) airflow were performed. The work was performed to understand and quantify the adverse effects associated with gas seeding and to assess various types of seed gas that could potentially be used in future experiments. In prior experiments, NO and NO2 were injected through a slot near the leading edge of a flatplate wedge model used in NASA Langley Research Center's 31 in. Mach 10 air tunnel facility. In this paper, nitric oxide, krypton, and iodine gases were simulated at various injection rates. Simulations showing the deflection of the velocity boundary layer for each of the cases are presented. Streamwise distributions of velocity and concentration boundary-layer thicknesses, as well as vertical distributions of velocity, temperature, and mass distributions, are presented for each of the cases. A comparison between simulated streamwise velocity profiles and experimentally obtained molecular tagging velocimetry profiles using a nitric oxide seeding strategy is performed to verify the influence of such a strategy on the boundary layer. The relative merits of the different seeding strategies are discussed. The results from a custom solver based on OpenFOAM version 2.2.1 are compared against results obtained from ANSYS® Fluent version 6.3.
Hot-Film and Hot-Wire Anemometry for a Boundary Layer Active Flow Control Test
Lenahan, Keven C.; Schatzman, David M.; Wilson, Jacob Samuel
2013-01-01
Unsteady active flow control (AFC) has been used experimentally for many years to minimize bluff-body drag. This technology could significantly improve performance of rotorcraft by cleaning up flow separation. It is important, then, that new actuator technologies be studied for application to future vehicles. A boundary layer wind tunnel was constructed with a 1ft-x-3ft test section and unsteady measurement instrumentation to study how AFC manipulates the boundary layer to overcome adverse pressure gradients and flow separation. This unsteady flow control research requires unsteady measurement methods. In order to measure the boundary layer characteristics, both hot-wire and hot-film Constant Temperature Anemometry is used. A hot-wire probe is mounted in the flow to measure velocity while a hot-film array lays on the test surface to measure skin friction. Hot-film sensors are connected to an anemometer, a Wheatstone bridge circuit with an output that corresponds to the dynamic flow response. From this output, the time varying flow field, turbulence, and flow reversal can be characterized. Tuning the anemometers requires a fan test on the hot-film sensors to adjust each output. This is a delicate process as several variables drastically affect the data, including control resistance, signal input, trim, and gain settings.
Temporal Dynamics of Bacterial and Fungal Community Composition in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer
Emerson, J. B.; Perring, A. E.; Schwarz, J. P.; Fahey, D. W.; Fierer, N.
2014-12-01
There is increasing evidence for significant microbial influences on atmospheric chemistry, cloud condensation, and ice nuclei concentrations, with known health impacts, yet we have a limited understanding of the types, abundances, and spatiotemporal dynamics of bacteria and fungi in the atmosphere. Here we use culture-independent molecular approaches, including targeted gene sequencing and quantitative PCR, to characterize bacterial and fungal community composition and abundance in the atmospheric boundary layer. We present results from 32 air samples, collected via vacuum filtration at 10 m and 250 m on the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory tower (Erie, CO) between November 2013 and April 2014. Samples were collected at night, and each sample was integrated over consecutive nights for approximately two weeks. Significant temporal shifts in bacterial and fungal community composition were observed over the course of the study, corresponding to changing bacterial and fungal concentrations. Within the same sampling time periods, bacterial and fungal communities from the near-surface atmosphere (10 m) were generally similar to those aloft (250 m), although coupled temporal and altitudinal effects were observed in some cases, particularly for fungi. Overall, our results indicate that bacterial and fungal communities exhibit minimal vertical stratification throughout the nocturnal atmospheric boundary layer but show a high degree of variability on two-week timescales. This study paves the way for further research into the connections between boundary layer microbiology, atmospheric dynamics, emissions, and local meteorology.
Air Entrainment and Surface Ripples in a Turbulent Ship Hull Boundary Layer
Masnadi, Naeem; Erinin, Martin; Duncan, James H.
2017-11-01
The air entrainment and free-surface fluctuations caused by the interaction of a free surface and the turbulent boundary layer of a vertical surface-piercing plate is studied experimentally. In this experiment, a meter-wide stainless steel belt travels horizontally in a loop around two rollers with vertically oriented axes. This belt device is mounted inside a large water tank with the water level set just below the top edge of the belt. The belt, rollers, and supporting frame are contained within a sheet metal box to keep the device dry except for one 6-meter-long straight test section. The belt is accelerated suddenly from rest until reaching constant speed in order to create a temporally evolving boundary layer analogous to the spatially evolving boundary layer that would exist along a surface-piercing towed flat plate. Surface ripples are measured using a cinematic laser-induced fluorescence technique with the laser sheet oriented parallel or normal to the belt surface. Air entrainment events and bubble motions are recorded from underneath the water surface using a stereo imaging system. Measurements of small bubbles, that tend to stay submerged for a longer time, are planned via a high-speed digital in-line holographic system. The support of the Office of Naval Research is gratefully acknowledged.
Experimental study of a turbulent boundary layer on a rough wall
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trijoulet, Alexandre
1999-01-01
This research thesis reports the definition and results of an experimental study of a two-dimensional incompressible turbulent boundary layer on a rough wall in presence of pressure gradients. This study is motivated by problems met on pump blades by EDF. The author first reports a detailed bibliographical study on the current knowledge regarding the structure of turbulent boundary layers on smooth and rough walls, while more particularly focusing on the notion of wall law. Based on an analysis of Navier-Stokes equations, the author discusses the elaboration of a local partial similitude between two-dimensional flows obtained in wind tunnel and three-dimensional flows in presence of a uniform rotation for flows present within pumps. Thus, the author reproduces the main characteristics of boundary layers on pump walls in a simplified experimental arrangement in which detailed and reliable measurements are possible. In the next part, the author addresses the case of helical-centrifugal pumps. Based on calculation performed by other authors, the above-mentioned similitude parameters are assessed. Results are used to define experimental arrangements suitable for this study. An experimental installation is then presented, as well as the data processing scheme. Experimental results are presented and discussed for flows without pressure gradient, slowed down or accelerated on different surface conditions [fr
Bathel, Brett F.; Danehy, Paul M.; Jones, Stephen B.; Johansen, Craig T.; Goyne, Christopher P.
2013-01-01
Measurements of mean streamwise velocity, fluctuating streamwise velocity, and instantaneous streamwise velocity profiles in a hypersonic boundary layer were obtained over a 10-degree half-angle wedge model. A laser-induced fluorescence-based molecular tagging velocimetry technique was used to make the measurements. The nominal edge Mach number was 4.2. Velocity profiles were measured both in an untripped boundary layer and in the wake of a 4-mm diameter cylindrical tripping element centered 75.4 mm downstream of the sharp leading edge. Three different trip heights were investigated: k = 0.53 mm, k = 1.0 mm and k = 2.0 mm. The laminar boundary layer thickness at the position of the measurements was approximately 1 mm, though the exact thickness was dependent on Reynolds number and wall temperature. All of the measurements were made starting from a streamwise location approximately 18 mm downstream of the tripping element. This measurement region continued approximately 30 mm in the streamwise direction. Additionally, measurements were made at several spanwise locations. An analysis of flow features show how the magnitude, spatial location, and spatial growth of streamwise velocity instabilities are affected by parameters such as the ratio of trip height to boundary layer thickness and roughness Reynolds number. The fluctuating component of streamwise velocity measured along the centerline of the model increased from approximately 75 m/s with no trip to +/-225 m/s with a 0.53-mm trip, and to +/-240 m/s with a 1-mm trip, while holding the freestream Reynolds number constant. These measurements were performed in the 31-inch Mach 10 Air Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center.
Sastre, Mariano; Román-Cascón, Carlos; Yagüe, Carlos; Arrillaga, Jon A.; Maqueda, Gregorio
2016-04-01
From a typically convective diurnal situation to a stably stratified nocturnal one, the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) experiences the so-called afternoon and evening transition. This period is complex to study due to the presence of many different forcings, usually weak and opposite [1]. In this work, the transitional processes are studied by using 6-year data from permanent instrumentation at CIBA, a research center located in the Spanish Northern plateau. These measurements include particulate matter (PM) and turbulent records. Certain variables display a twin pattern in their time evolution for all the seasons, only differing in their absolute values. On the contrary, the air specific humidity behaves differently for each season, which is distinct to the results from a previous study at a different location [2]. Besides, a common pattern of increasing PM values near sunset is found, with a number of influences playing a role in PM concentrations: stability, turbulence and ABL thickness among others. In particular, the competing thermal and mechanical turbulent effects result in PM concentration reduction (settling on the ground or being advected) or increase, depending in each case on the specific season and particle group. Furthermore, the relative importance of the bigger PM (between 2.5 and 10 μm) is linked to the wind minimum around sunset, especially during summer. [1] Lothon, M. and coauthors (2014): The BLLAST field experiment: Boundary-Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10931-10960. [2] Wingo, S. M. and Knupp, K. R. (2015): Multi-platform observations characterizing the afternoon-to-evening transition of the planetary boundary layer in Northern Alabama, USA, Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 155, 29-53.
Observations of high droplet number concentrations in Southern Ocean boundary layer clouds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Chubb
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Cloud physics data collected during the NSF/NCAR High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO campaigns provide a snapshot of unusual wintertime microphysical conditions in the boundary layer over the Southern Ocean. On 29 June 2011, the HIAPER sampled the boundary layer in a region of pre-frontal warm air advection between 58 and 48° S to the south of Tasmania. Cloud droplet number concentrations were consistent with climatological values in the northernmost profiles but were exceptionally high for wintertime in the Southern Ocean at 100–200 cm−3 in the southernmost profiles. Sub-micron (0.06 < D < 1 µm aerosol concentrations for the southern profiles were up to 400 cm−3. Analysis of back trajectories and atmospheric chemistry observations revealed that while conditions in the troposphere were more typical of a clean remote ocean airmass, there was some evidence of continental or anthropogenic influence. However, the hypothesis of long-range transport of continental aerosol fails to explain the magnitude of the aerosol and cloud droplet concentration in the boundary layer. Instead, the gale force surface winds in this case (wind speed at 167 m above sea level was > 25 m s−1 were most likely responsible for production of sea spray aerosol which influenced the microphysical properties of the boundary layer clouds. The smaller size and higher number concentration of cloud droplets is inferred to increase the albedo of these clouds, and these conditions occur regularly, and are expected to increase in frequency, over windy parts of the Southern Ocean.
Navigating Cross-Boundary Connections in Educational Research
Oikonomidoy, Eleni; Wiest, Lynda R.
2017-01-01
Drawing on insights from reflective research accounts in the social sciences, this paper attends to the complexities of conducting cross-boundary educational research. Cross-boundary research is defined as any type of inquiry that is conducted across cultural and/or structural boundaries, including but not limited to race, class, gender, language,…
Self-Sustained Localized Structures in a Boundary-Layer Flow
Duguet, Y.; Schlatter, P.; Henningson, D.S.; Eckhardt, B.E.
2012-01-01
When a boundary layer starts to develop spatially over a flat plate, only disturbances of sufficiently large amplitude survive and trigger turbulence subcritically. Direct numerical simulation of the Blasius boundary-layer flow is carried out to track the dynamics in the region of phase space
Jong, A.N. de; Eijk, A.M.J. van; Benoist, K.W.; Gunter, W.H.; Vrahimis, G.; October, F.J.
2011-01-01
Knowledge on the marine boundary layer is of importance for the prediction of the optical image quality obtained from long range targets. One property of the boundary layer, that can be studied rather easily by means of optical refraction measurements, is the vertical temperature profile. This
The boundary layers as the primary transport regions of the earth's magnetotail
Eastman, T. E.; Frank, L. A.; Huang, C. Y.
1985-01-01
A comprehensive survey of ISEE and IMP LEPEDEA plasma measurements in the earth's magnetotail reveals that the magnetospheric boundary layer and the plasma sheet boundary layer are the primary transport regions there. These plasma measurements also reveal various components of the plasma sheet, including the central plasma sheet and plasma sheet boundary layer. A significant new result reported here is that of cold- and hot-plasma components that are spatially co-present within the central plasma sheet. Such plasma components cannot be explained merely by temporal variations in spectra involving the entire plasma sheet. Contributions to a low temperature component of the plasma sheet enter directly from the boundary layer located along the magnetotail flanks. Field-aligned flows predominate within the plasma sheet boundary layer which is almost always present and is located near the high- and low-latitude border of the plasma sheet. The plasma sheet boundary layer comprises highly anisotropic ion distributions, including counter-streaming ion beams, that evolve into the hot, isotropic component of the plasma sheet. Tailward acceleration regions generate these ion beams with plasma input from the magnetospheric boundary layer. Antisunward-flowing ion beams, at E/q less than 1 kV and of ionospheric composition, are frequently observed in the plasma sheet boundary layer and in tail lobes. These ion beams are likely accelerated at low altitude over the polar cap and especially along auroral field lines.
Flat Plate Boundary Layer Stimulation Using Trip Wires and Hama Strips
Peguero, Charles; Henoch, Charles; Hrubes, James; Fredette, Albert; Roberts, Raymond; Huyer, Stephen
2017-11-01
Water tunnel experiments on a flat plate at zero angle of attack were performed to investigate the effect of single roughness elements, i.e., trip wires and Hama strips, on the transition to turbulence. Boundary layer trips are traditionally used in scale model testing to force a boundary layer to transition from laminar to turbulent flow at a single location to aid in scaling of flow characteristics. Several investigations of trip wire effects exist in the literature, but there is a dearth of information regarding the influence of Hama strips on the flat plate boundary layer. The intent of this investigation is to better understand the effects of boundary layer trips, particularly Hama strips, and to investigate the pressure-induced drag of both styles of boundary layer trips. Untripped and tripped boundary layers along a flat plate at a range of flow speeds were characterized with multiple diagnostic measurements in the NUWC/Newport 12-inch water tunnel. A wide range of Hama strip and wire trip thicknesses were used. Measurements included dye flow visualization, direct skin friction and parasitic drag force, boundary layer profiles using LDV, wall shear stress fluctuations using hot film anemometry, and streamwise pressure gradients. Test results will be compared to the CFD and boundary layer model results as well as the existing body of work. Conclusions, resulting in guidance for application of Hama strips in model scale experiments and non-dimensional predictions of pressure drag will be presented.
Shooting method for solution of boundary-layer flows with massive blowing
Liu, T.-M.; Nachtsheim, P. R.
1973-01-01
A modified, bidirectional shooting method is presented for solving boundary-layer equations under conditions of massive blowing. Unlike the conventional shooting method, which is unstable when the blowing rate increases, the proposed method avoids the unstable direction and is capable of solving complex boundary-layer problems involving mass and energy balance on the surface.
On boundary layer flow of a sisko fluid over a stretching sheet | Khan ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper, the steady boundary layer flow of a non-Newtonian fluid over a nonlinear stretching sheet is investigated. The Sisko fluid model, which is combination of power-law and Newtonian fluids in which the fluid may exhibit shear thinning/thickening behaviors, is considered. The boundary layer equations are derived ...
Marine boundary layer and turbulent fluxes over the Baltic Sea: Measurements and modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gryning, Sven-Erik; Batchvarova, E.
2002-01-01
Two weeks of measurements of the boundary-layer height over a small island (Christianso) in the Baltic Sea are discussed. The meteorological conditions are characterised by positive heat flux over the sea. The boundary-layer height was simulated with two models, a simple applied high-resolution (...
On the Nature, Theory, and Modeling of Atmospheric Planetary Boundary Layers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baklanov, Alexander A.; Grisogono, Branko; Bornstein, Robert
2011-01-01
The gap between our modern understanding of planetary boundary layer physics and its decades-old representations in current operational atmospheric models is widening, which has stimulated this review of the current state of the art and an analysis of the immediate needs in boundary layer theory,...
The Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence 2011 field experiment
Lothon, M.; Lohou, F.; Durand, P.; Couvreux, F.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Legain, D.; Pardyjak, E.; Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Boer, van de A.; Moene, A.F.; Steeneveld, G.J.
2012-01-01
BLLAST (Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence) aims at better understanding the thermodynamical processes that occur during the late afternoon in the lower troposphere. In direct contact with the Earth surface, the atmospheric boundary layer is governed by buoyant and mechanical
Efficient modelling of aerodynamic flows in the boundary layer for high performance computing
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Smith, L
2011-01-01
Full Text Available A unique technique to couple boundary-layer solutions with an inviscid solver is introduced. The boundary-layer solution is obtained using the two-integral method to solve displacement thickness with Newton’s method, at a fraction of the cost of a...
Rayleigh Imaging of Mach 8 Boundary Layer Flow Around an Elliptic Cone Body
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Miles, Richard
2000-01-01
...) Transition studies on flat plates and elliptic cones at Mach 8. The pulse-burst laser has been shown to be an effective illumination source for capturing high-speed boundary layer and high-speed shock wave/boundary layer images...
Numerical experiments in the stability of leading edge boundary layer flow. A two-dimensional study
Theofilis, Vassilios; Theofilis, V.
1993-01-01
A numerical study is performed in order to gain insight to the stability of the infinite swept attachment line boundary layer. The basic flow is taken to be of the Hiemenz class with an added cross-flow giving rise to a constant thickness boundary layer along the attachment line. The full
de Szoeke, S. P.
2017-12-01
Averaged over the tropical marine boundary layer (BL), 130 W m-2 turbulent surface moist static energy (MSE) flux, 120 W m-2 of which is evaporation, is balanced by upward MSE flux at the BL top due to 1) incorporation of cold air by downdrafts from deep convective clouds, and 2) turbulent entrainment of dry air into the BL. Cold saturated downdraft air, and warm clear air entrained into the BL have distinct thermodynamic properties. This work observationally quantifies their respective MSE fluxes in the central Indian Ocean in 2011, under different convective conditions of the intraseasonal (40-90 day) Madden Julian oscillation (MJO). Under convectively suppressed conditions, entrainment and downdraft fluxes export equal shares (60 W m-2) of MSE from the BL. Downdraft fluxes are more variable, increasing for stronger convection. In the convectively active phase of the MJO, downdrafts export 90 W m-2 from the BL, compared to 40 W m-2 by entrainment. These processes that control the internal, latent (condensation), and MSE of the tropical marine atmospheric BL determine the parcel buoyancy and strength of tropical deep convection.
Boundary-layer interactions in the plane-parallel incompressible flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen, Toan T; Sueur, Franck
2012-01-01
We study the inviscid limit problem of incompressible flows in the presence of both impermeable regular boundaries and a hypersurface transversal to the boundary across which the inviscid flow has a discontinuity jump. In the former case, boundary layers have been introduced by Prandtl as correctors near the boundary between the inviscid and viscous flows. In the latter case, the viscosity smoothes out the discontinuity jump by creating a transition layer which has the same amplitude and thickness as the Prandtl layer. In the neighbourhood of the intersection of the impermeable boundary and of the hypersurface, interactions between the boundary and the transition layers must then be considered. In this paper, we initiate a mathematical study of this interaction and carry out a strong convergence in the inviscid limit for the case of the plane-parallel flows introduced by Di Perna and Majda (1987 Commun. Math. Phys. 108 667–89). (paper)
Active Boundary Layer Control on a Highly Loaded Turbine Exit Case Profile
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julia Kurz
2018-03-01
Full Text Available A highly loaded turbine exit guide vane with active boundary layer control was investigated experimentally in the High Speed Cascade Wind Tunnel at the University of the German Federal Armed Forces, Munich. The experiments include profile Mach number distributions, wake traverse measurements as well as boundary layer investigations with a flattened Pitot probe. Active boundary layer control by fluidic oscillators was applied to achieve improved performance in the low Reynolds number regime. Low solidity, which can be applied to reduce the number of blades, increases the risk of flow separation resulting in increased total pressure losses. Active boundary layer control is supposed to overcome these negative effects. The experiments show that active boundary layer control by fluidic oscillators is an appropriate way to suppress massive open separation bubbles in the low Reynolds number regime.
Boundary-layer height detection with a ceilometer at a coastal site in western Denmark
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hannesdóttir, Ásta; Hansen, Aksel Walle
One year of data from ceilometer measurements is used to estimate the atmospheric boundary-layer height at the coastal site Høvsøre in western Denmark. The atmospheric boundary-layer height is a fundamental parameter for the evaluation of the wind speed profile, and an essential parameter...... in atmospheric transport- and dispersion models. A new method of filtering clouds from the ceilometer data is presented. This allows for the inclusion of more than half of the data in the subsequent analysis, as the presence of clouds would otherwise complicate the boundary-layer height estimations. The boundary......-layer height is estimated with four different detection methods implemented in an automated detection algorithm. Two of the detection methods used have been modified and are shown to improve the detections under certain circumstances. Comparisons of boundary-layer height estimates from ceilometer data are made...
Boundary layer models for calving marine outlet glaciers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Schoof
2017-10-01
Full Text Available We consider the flow of marine-terminating outlet glaciers that are laterally confined in a channel of prescribed width. In that case, the drag exerted by the channel side walls on a floating ice shelf can reduce extensional stress at the grounding line. If ice flux through the grounding line increases with both ice thickness and extensional stress, then a longer shelf can reduce ice flux by decreasing extensional stress. Consequently, calving has an effect on flux through the grounding line by regulating the length of the shelf. In the absence of a shelf, it plays a similar role by controlling the above-flotation height of the calving cliff. Using two calving laws, one due to Nick et al. (2010 based on a model for crevasse propagation due to hydrofracture and the other simply asserting that calving occurs where the glacier ice becomes afloat, we pose and analyse a flowline model for a marine-terminating glacier by two methods: direct numerical solution and matched asymptotic expansions. The latter leads to a boundary layer formulation that predicts flux through the grounding line as a function of depth to bedrock, channel width, basal drag coefficient, and a calving parameter. By contrast with unbuttressed marine ice sheets, we find that flux can decrease with increasing depth to bedrock at the grounding line, reversing the usual stability criterion for steady grounding line location. Stable steady states can then have grounding lines located on retrograde slopes. We show how this anomalous behaviour relates to the strength of lateral versus basal drag on the grounded portion of the glacier and to the specifics of the calving law used.
Global Distribution of Planetary Boundary Layer Height Derived from CALIPSO
Huang, J.
2015-12-01
The global distribution of planetary boundary layer (PBL) height, which was estimated from the attenuated back-scatter observations of Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO), is presented. In general, the PBL is capped by a temperature inversion that tends to trap moisture and aerosols. The gradient of back-scatter observed by lidar is almost always associated with this temperature inversion and the simultaneous decrease of moisture content. Thus, the PBL top is defined as the location of the maximum aerosol scattering gradient, which is analogous to the more conventional thermodynamic definition. The maximum standard deviation method, developed by Jordan et al. (2010), is modified and used to derive the global PBL heights. The derived PBL heights are not only consistent with the results of McGrath-Spangler and Denning (2012) but also agree well with the ground-based lidar measurements. It is found that the correlation between CALIPSO and the ground-based lidar was 0.73. The seasonal mean patterns from 4-year mid-day PBL heights over global are demonstrated. Also it is found that the largest PBL heights occur over the Tibetan Plateau and the coastal areas. The smallest PBL heights appear in the Tarim Basin and the northeast of China during the local winter. The comparison of PBL heights from CALIPSO and ECMWF under different land-cover conditions showed that, over ocean and forest surface, the PBL height estimated from the CALIPSO back-scatter climatology is larger than the ones estimated from ECMWF data. However, the PBL heights from ECMWF, over grass land and bare land surface in spring and summer are larger than the ones from CALIPSO.
Large eddy simulation of the atmospheric boundary layer above a forest canopy
Alam, Jahrul
2017-11-01
A goal of this talk is to discuss large eddy simulation (LES) of atmospheric turbulence within and above a canopy/roughness sublayer, where coherent turbulence resembles a turbulent mixing layer. The proposed LES does not resolve the near wall region. Instead, a near surface canopy stress model has been combined with a wall adapting local eddy viscosity model. The canopy stress is represented as a three-dimensional time dependent momentum sink, where the total kinematic drag of the canopy is adjusted based on the measurements in a forest canopy. This LES has been employed to analyze turbulence structures in the canopy/roughness sublayer. Results indicate that turbulence is more efficient at transporting momentum and scalars in the roughness sublayer. The LES result has been compared with the turbulence profile measured over a forest canopy to predict the turbulence statistics in the inertial sublayer above the canopy. Turbulence statistics between the inertial sublayer, the canopy sublayer, and the rough-wall boundary layer have been compared to characterize whether turbulence in the canopy sublayer resembles a turbulent mixing layer or a boundary layer. The canopy turbulence is found dominated by energetic eddies much larger in scale than the individual roughness elements. Financial support from the National Science and Research Council (NSERC), Canada is acknowledged.
On the marine atmospheric boundary layer characteristics over Bay ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Usually over tropical regions, marine lower atmosphere is characterized by different regions such as surface layer, mixed layer (ML), transition layer, cloud layer, and trade wind inversion. The cause of the trade wind inversion is the presence of the descending limb of the Hadley cell circulation. The trade wind inversion, acts ...
Linear theory of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the low-latitude boundary layer
Rajaram, R.; Sibeck, D. G.; Mcentire, R. W.
1991-01-01
The feasibility is examined of establishing characteristic profiles across the magnetospheric low-latitude boundary layer for the Kelvin-Helmholtz mode so that these profiles can be compared with satellite observations or a latitudinal chain of ground stations. An anisotropic collisionless fluid model is used instead of conventional MHD, and the finite thickness of the boundary layer and the thickness and position of the current layer are taken into account. The instability is found to be enhanced by a decrease in the thickness of the shear layer and of the current layer and by the proximity of the 'current layer' to the outer edge of the shear layer. The velocity threshold for the onset of instability is insensitive to the thickness. Characteristic profiles of the variation of plasma and field parameters across the boundary are obtained, and the importance of parameters specifying the current layer position and thickness is demonstrated.
Slow Manifolds and Multiple Equilibria in Stratocumulus-Capped Boundary Layers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junya Uchida
2010-12-01
Full Text Available In marine stratocumulus-capped boundary layers under strong inversions, the timescale for thermodynamic adjustment is roughly a day, much shorter than the multiday timescale for inversion height adjustment. Slow-manifold analysis is introduced to exploit this timescale separation when boundary layer air columns experience only slow changes in their boundary conditions. Its essence is that the thermodynamic structure of the boundary layer remains approximately slaved to its inversion height and the instantaneous boundary conditions; this slaved structure determines the entrainment rate and hence the slow evolution of the inversion height. Slow-manifold analysis is shown to apply to mixed-layer model and large-eddy simulations of an idealized nocturnal stratocumulus- capped boundary layer; simulations with different initial inversion heights collapse onto single relationships of cloud properties with inversion height. Depending on the initial inversion height, the simulations evolve toward a shallow thin-cloud boundary layer or a deep, well-mixed thick cloud boundary layer. In the large-eddy simulations, these evolutions occur on two separate slow manifolds (one of which becomes unstable if cloud droplet concentration is reduced. Applications to analysis of stratocumulus observations and to pockets of open cells and ship tracks are proposed.
Coastal boundary layers in ocean modelling: an application to the Adriatic Sea
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malanotte Rizzoli, P.; Dell'Orto, F.
1981-01-01
Boundary layers play an important role in modelling geophysical fluid-dynamical flows, in as much as they constitute regions of ageostrophic dynamics in which the physical balances characterizing the main interior of the water mass break down. A short synopsis is given of important boundary layers in ocean circulation modelling with specific emphasis drawn upon side wall boundary layers, namely those adjacent to the coastlines of the considered basin. Application of boundary layer analysis is thereafter made for one specific phenomenological situation, namely the Northern Adriatic Sea and the problem posed by its wintertime seasonal circulation. The analysis furnishes a mathematical model fo the coastal strip adjacent to the Italian shoreline, treated as a boundary layer in the density field, starting from general model equations valid throughout the interior of the Northern Adriatic. The boundary layer model is consequently used to modify the side wall boundary condition for the interior density field. Related numerical experiments are shown and compared with previous standard experiments in which the boundary layer contribution to the density field has not been considered. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Huang
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The planetary boundary layer (PBL is the lowest part of the atmosphere and where its character is directly affected by its contact with the underlying planetary surface. The PBL is responsible for vertical sub-grid-scale fluxes due to eddy transport in the whole atmospheric column. It determines the flux profiles within the well-mixed boundary layer and the more stable layer above. It thus provides an evolutionary model of atmospheric temperature, moisture (including clouds, and horizontal momentum in the entire atmospheric column. For such purposes, several PBL models have been proposed and employed in the weather research and forecasting (WRF model of which the Yonsei University (YSU scheme is one. To expedite weather research and prediction, we have put tremendous effort into developing an accelerated implementation of the entire WRF model using graphics processing unit (GPU massive parallel computing architecture whilst maintaining its accuracy as compared to its central processing unit (CPU-based implementation. This paper presents our efficient GPU-based design on a WRF YSU PBL scheme. Using one NVIDIA Tesla K40 GPU, the GPU-based YSU PBL scheme achieves a speedup of 193× with respect to its CPU counterpart running on one CPU core, whereas the speedup for one CPU socket (4 cores with respect to 1 CPU core is only 3.5×. We can even boost the speedup to 360× with respect to 1 CPU core as two K40 GPUs are applied.
Modelling of bypass transition including the pseudolaminar part of the boundary layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prihoda, J.; Hlava, T. [Ceska Akademie Ved, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Thermomechanics; Kozel, K. [Ceske Vysoke Uceni Technicke, Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
1999-12-01
The boundary-layer transition in turbomachinery is accelerated by a number of parameters, especially by the free-stream turbulence. This so-called bypass transition is usually modelled by means of one-equation or two-equation turbulence models based on turbulent viscosity. Using of transport equations for turbulent energy and for dissipation rate in these models is questionable before the onset of the last stage of the transition, i.e. before the formation of turbulent spots. Used approximations of production and turbulent diffusion are the weak points of turbulence models with turbulent viscosity in the pseudolaminar boundary layer, as the Boussinesq assumption on turbulent viscosity is not fulfilled in this part of the boundary layer. In order to obtain a more reliable prediction of the transitional boundary layer, Mayle and Schulz (1997) proposed for the solution of pseudolaminar boundary layer a special `laminar-kinetic-energy` equation based on the analysis of laminar boundary layer in flows with velocity fluctuations. The effect of production and turbulent diffusion on the development of turbulent energy in the pseudolaminar boundary layer was tested using a two-layer turbulence model. (orig.)
Modelling of bypass transition including the pseudolaminar part of the boundary layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prihoda, J.; Hlava, T. (Ceska Akademie Ved, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Thermomechanics); Kozel, K. (Ceske Vysoke Uceni Technicke, Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering)
1999-01-01
The boundary-layer transition in turbomachinery is accelerated by a number of parameters, especially by the free-stream turbulence. This so-called bypass transition is usually modelled by means of one-equation or two-equation turbulence models based on turbulent viscosity. Using of transport equations for turbulent energy and for dissipation rate in these models is questionable before the onset of the last stage of the transition, i.e. before the formation of turbulent spots. Used approximations of production and turbulent diffusion are the weak points of turbulence models with turbulent viscosity in the pseudolaminar boundary layer, as the Boussinesq assumption on turbulent viscosity is not fulfilled in this part of the boundary layer. In order to obtain a more reliable prediction of the transitional boundary layer, Mayle and Schulz (1997) proposed for the solution of pseudolaminar boundary layer a special 'laminar-kinetic-energy' equation based on the analysis of laminar boundary layer in flows with velocity fluctuations. The effect of production and turbulent diffusion on the development of turbulent energy in the pseudolaminar boundary layer was tested using a two-layer turbulence model. (orig.)
Time-resolved PIV measurements of the atmospheric boundary layer over wind-driven surface waves
Markfort, Corey; Stegmeir, Matt
2017-11-01
Complex interactions at the air-water interface result in two-way coupling between wind-driven surface waves and the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Turbulence generated at the surface plays an important role in aquatic ecology and biogeochemistry, exchange of gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, and it is important for the transfer of energy and controlling evaporation. Energy transferred from the ABL promotes the generation and maintenance of waves. A fraction of the energy is transferred to the surface mixed layer through the generation of turbulence. Energy is also transferred back to the ABL by waves. There is a need to quantify the details of the coupled boundary layers of the air-water system to better understand how turbulence plays a role in the interactions. We employ time-resolved PIV to measure the detailed structure of the air and water boundary layers under varying wind and wave conditions in the newly developed IIHR Boundary-Layer Wind-Wave Tunnel. The facility combines a 30-m long recirculating water channel with an open-return boundary layer wind tunnel. A thick turbulent boundary layer is developed in the 1 m high air channel, over the water surface, allowing for the study of boundary layer turbulence interacting with a wind-driven wave field.
International Conference on Boundary and Interior Layers : Computational and Asymptotic Methods
Kopteva, Natalia; O'Riordan, Eugene; Stynes, Martin
2009-01-01
These Proceedings contain a selection of the lectures given at the conference BAIL 2008: Boundary and Interior Layers – Computational and Asymptotic Methods, which was held from 28th July to 1st August 2008 at the University of Limerick, Ireland. The ?rst three BAIL conferences (1980, 1982, 1984) were organised by Professor John Miller in Trinity College Dublin, Ireland. The next seven were held in Novosibirsk (1986), Shanghai (1988), Colorado (1992), Beijing (1994), Perth (2002),Toulouse(2004),and Got ¨ tingen(2006).With BAIL 2008the series returned to Ireland. BAIL 2010 is planned for Zaragoza. The BAIL conferences strive to bring together mathematicians and engineers whose research involves layer phenomena,as these two groups often pursue largely independent paths. BAIL 2008, at which both communities were well represented, succeeded in this regard. The lectures given were evenly divided between app- cations and theory, exposing all conference participants to a broad spectrum of research into problems e...
A Note on the bottom shear stress in oscillatory planetary boundary layer flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dag Myrhaug
1988-07-01
Full Text Available A simple analytical theory is presented, which describes the motion in a turbulent oscillatory planetary boundary layer near a rough seabed using a two-layer, time-invariant eddy viscosity model. The bottom shear stress is outlined, and comparison is made with Pingree and Griffiths' (1974 measurements of turbulent tidal planetary boundary layer flow on the continental shelf south-west of Lands End, England.
Boundary layer evolution over the central Himalayas from radio wind profiler and model simulations
Singh, Narendra; Solanki, Raman; Ojha, Narendra; Janssen, Ruud H. H.; Pozzer, Andrea; Dhaka, Surendra K.
2016-08-01
We investigate the time evolution of the Local Boundary Layer (LBL) for the first time over a mountain ridge at Nainital (79.5° E, 29.4° N, 1958 m a.m.s.l.) in the central Himalayan region, using a radar wind profiler (RWP) during November 2011 to March 2012, as a part of the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX). We restrict our analysis to clear-sunny days, resulting in a total of 78 days of observations. The standard criterion of the peak in the signal-to-noise ratio (S / N) profile was found to be inadequate in the characterization of mixed layer (ML) top at this site. Therefore, we implemented a criterion of S / N > 6 dB for the characterization of the ML and the resulting estimations are shown to be in agreement with radiosonde measurements over this site. The daytime average (05:00-10:00 UTC) observed boundary layer height ranges from 440 ± 197 m in November (late autumn) to 766 ± 317 m above ground level (a.g.l.) in March (early spring). The observations revealed a pronounced impact of mountain topography on the LBL dynamics during March, when strong winds (> 5.6 m s-1) lead to LBL heights of 650 m during nighttime. The measurements are further utilized to evaluate simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. WRF simulations captured the day-to-day variations up to an extent (r2 = 0.5), as well as the mean diurnal variations (within 1σ variability). The mean biases in the daytime average LBL height vary from -7 % (January) to +30 % (February) between model and observations, except during March (+76 %). Sensitivity simulations using a mixed layer model (MXL/MESSy) indicated that the springtime overestimation of LBL would lead to a minor uncertainty in simulated surface ozone concentrations. However, it would lead to a significant overestimation of the dilution of black carbon aerosols at this site. Our work fills a gap in observations of local boundary layer over this complex terrain in the Himalayas, and highlights the need for
Boundary layer evolution over the central Himalayas from radio wind profiler and model simulations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Singh
2016-08-01
Full Text Available We investigate the time evolution of the Local Boundary Layer (LBL for the first time over a mountain ridge at Nainital (79.5° E, 29.4° N, 1958 m a.m.s.l. in the central Himalayan region, using a radar wind profiler (RWP during November 2011 to March 2012, as a part of the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX. We restrict our analysis to clear–sunny days, resulting in a total of 78 days of observations. The standard criterion of the peak in the signal-to-noise ratio (S ∕ N profile was found to be inadequate in the characterization of mixed layer (ML top at this site. Therefore, we implemented a criterion of S ∕ N > 6 dB for the characterization of the ML and the resulting estimations are shown to be in agreement with radiosonde measurements over this site. The daytime average (05:00–10:00 UTC observed boundary layer height ranges from 440 ± 197 m in November (late autumn to 766 ± 317 m above ground level (a.g.l. in March (early spring. The observations revealed a pronounced impact of mountain topography on the LBL dynamics during March, when strong winds (> 5.6 m s−1 lead to LBL heights of 650 m during nighttime. The measurements are further utilized to evaluate simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. WRF simulations captured the day-to-day variations up to an extent (r2 = 0.5, as well as the mean diurnal variations (within 1σ variability. The mean biases in the daytime average LBL height vary from −7 % (January to +30 % (February between model and observations, except during March (+76 %. Sensitivity simulations using a mixed layer model (MXL/MESSy indicated that the springtime overestimation of LBL would lead to a minor uncertainty in simulated surface ozone concentrations. However, it would lead to a significant overestimation of the dilution of black carbon aerosols at this site. Our work fills a gap in observations of local boundary layer
Modelling and parallel calculation of a kinetic boundary layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perlat, Jean Philippe
1998-01-01
This research thesis aims at addressing reliability and cost issues in the calculation by numeric simulation of flows in transition regime. The first step has been to reduce calculation cost and memory space for the Monte Carlo method which is known to provide performance and reliability for rarefied regimes. Vector and parallel computers allow this objective to be reached. Here, a MIMD (multiple instructions, multiple data) machine has been used which implements parallel calculation at different levels of parallelization. Parallelization procedures have been adapted, and results showed that parallelization by calculation domain decomposition was far more efficient. Due to reliability issue related to the statistic feature of Monte Carlo methods, a new deterministic model was necessary to simulate gas molecules in transition regime. New models and hyperbolic systems have therefore been studied. One is chosen which allows thermodynamic values (density, average velocity, temperature, deformation tensor, heat flow) present in Navier-Stokes equations to be determined, and the equations of evolution of thermodynamic values are described for the mono-atomic case. Numerical resolution of is reported. A kinetic scheme is developed which complies with the structure of all systems, and which naturally expresses boundary conditions. The validation of the obtained 14 moment-based model is performed on shock problems and on Couette flows [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al-Sakka, H; Weill, A; Gac, C Le; Ney, R; Dupont, E
2008-01-01
A new X-band miniradar, the CURIE radar (Canopy Urban Research on Interactions and Exchanges), mainly adapted to low Atmospheric Boundary Layer sounding has been developed at CETP. After a brief description of the opportunity and working conditions in a turbulent atmosphere, main characteristics are presented. Though this radar works in presence of precipitation as all X-band radar can do, this paper is more dedicated to clear air used in the turbulent atmospheric boundary layer. We are presented comparisons with UHF observations and boundary layer information which can be inferred from CURIE as entrainment across the inversion layer
Inviscid/Boundary-Layer Aeroheating Approach for Integrated Vehicle Design
Lee, Esther; Wurster, Kathryn E.
2017-01-01
A typical entry vehicle design depends on the synthesis of many essential subsystems, including thermal protection system (TPS), structures, payload, avionics, and propulsion, among others. The ability to incorporate aerothermodynamic considerations and TPS design into the early design phase is crucial, as both are closely coupled to the vehicle's aerodynamics, shape and mass. In the preliminary design stage, reasonably accurate results with rapid turn-representative entry envelope was explored. Initial results suggest that for Mach numbers ranging from 9-20, a few inviscid solutions could reasonably sup- port surface heating predictions at Mach numbers variation of +/-2, altitudes variation of +/-10 to 20 kft, and angle-of-attack variation of +/- 5. Agreement with Navier-Stokes solutions was generally found to be within 10-15% for Mach number and altitude, and 20% for angle of attack. A smaller angle-of-attack increment than the 5 deg around times for parametric studies and quickly evolving configurations are necessary to steer design decisions. This investigation considers the use of an unstructured 3D inviscid code in conjunction with an integral boundary-layer method; the former providing the flow field solution and the latter the surface heating. Sensitivity studies for Mach number, angle of attack, and altitude, examine the feasibility of using this approach to populate a representative entry flight envelope based on a limited set of inviscid solutions. Each inviscid solution is used to generate surface heating over the nearby trajectory space. A subset of a considered in this study is recommended. Results of the angle-of-attack sensitivity studies show that smaller increments may be needed for better heating predictions. The approach is well suited for application to conceptual multidisciplinary design and analysis studies where transient aeroheating environments are critical for vehicle TPS and thermal design. Concurrent prediction of aeroheating
Shipborne measurements of mercury in the marine boundary layer
Soerensen, A. L.; Skov, H.; Christensen, J.; Glasius, M.; Soerensen, B. T.; Steffen, A.; Jensen, B.; Christoffersen, C.; Madsen, H. W.; Johnson, M. S.
2008-12-01
Mercury accumulates in the human body, for example when consumed through fish and other aquatic animals. While it is poisonous to adults, only low doses are sufficient to cause severe effects in the development of foetuses where the source of mercury is through the mother's blood. From once being a problem restricted to certain populations, the negative effects of mercury consumption are becoming a global problem due to high anthropogenic emissions, long range transport in the atmosphere and bioaccumulation in the food chain after deposition. It is therefore important to understand the atmospheric photochemical pathways of mercury from source to sink. We have used a TEKRAN 2537A mercury vapor analyzer with a TEKRAN 1130 mercury speciation unit to measure gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) during an eight month circumnavigation of the Earth. This is the longest single track time series of mercury concentrations that we know of. This has offered the opportunity to give a global overview of the marine boundary layer (MBL) distribution of both GEM and RGM. Supplemented with earlier cruise measurements, we now have a broader knowledge of global GEM and RGM concentration in the MBL. The Galathea 3 cruise data offers new knowledge of the mechanisms causing the distribution patterns of GEM and RGM in the MBL. The first analysis of the Galathea 3 data indicates that measurements show a concentration difference between the northern and the southern hemispheres. In the northern hemisphere, the mean concentration in the free ocean is 2.06 ng/m3 and, including values down wind of Western Europe, an average value of 2.47 ng/m3 was found. Measurements in the southern hemisphere show a mean concentration of 1.24 ng/m3 and 1.57 ng/m3 where values close to the coast of West Africa are included. In contrast, the concentration levels of RGM are similar for the two hemispheres (northern hemisphere 3.40 pg/m3, southern hemisphere 3.95 pg/m3). Some
Li, Weigang
2012-07-01
This work is aimed at investigating diurnal cycle variability of the planetary boundary layer characteristics over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea region. To fulfill this goal the downscaling simulations are performed using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We analyze planetary boundary layer height, latent and sensible heat fluxes, and surface air temperature. The model results are compared with observations in different areas, for different seasons, and for different model resolutions. The model results are analyzed in order to better quantify the diurnal cycle variability over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea. The specific features of this region are investigated and discussed.
Extreme Diel Fluctuations of Oxygen in Diffusive Boundary Layers Surrounding Stony Corals.
Shashar, N; Cohen, Y; Loya, Y
1993-12-01
The diffusive boundary layers surrounding sessile marine organisms have been implicated in controlling an organism's metabolism and growth. We studied boundary layers surrounding hermatypic corals by monitoring oxygen concentrations on a submillimetric scale. Oxygen concentration within the boundary layers varied from supersaturation during the day to anoxia at night, although the ambient water composition remained constant. Detailed mapping and oxygen measurements revealed diel oxygen fluctuations from supersaturation (373% air saturation) in the light to complete oxygen depletion at darkness in the massive coral Favia favus. Exposure to a 5-cm/s current reduced the boundary layer thickness from 2.44 mm to 1.90 mm, allowing more rapid oxygen exchange across the diffusive boundary layer. Similar patterns were found in the branching coral Stylophora pistillata. In massive corals, the thickness of the diffusive boundary layer was negatively correlated with the size of the polyp. We suggest that the distribution of corals in areas of differential turbulence is related to the thickness of the diffusive boundary layers surrounding them.
The Modelling of Particle Resuspension in a Turbulent Boundary Layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Fan
2011-01-01
lift and drag forces in turbulent boundary layers, the lift and drag we have con sidered and the impact of these data on predictions made by the non-Gaussian R'n'R model are compared with those based on O'Neill formula. The results indicate that, in terms of the long-term resuspension fraction, the difference is minor. It is concluded that as the particle size decreases the L and B method will lead to less-and-less long-term resuspension. Finally the ultimate model that has been developed in this work is a hybrid version of the R'n'R model adapted for application to multilayer deposits based on the Friess and Yadigaroglu multilayer approach. The deposit is modelled in several overlying layers where the coverage effect (masking) of the deposit layers has been studied; in the first instance a monodisperse deposit with a coverage ratio factor was modelled where this was subsequently replaced by the more general case of a polydisperse deposit with a particle size distribution. The results indicate that, in general, as the number of modelled layers increases the resuspension fraction of the whole deposit after a certain time decreases significantly. In other words, it takes a much longer time to re-suspend a thicker deposit. Taking account of the particle size distribution slightly increases the short-term resuspension. However, this change decreases the long-term resuspension significantly. The model results have been compared with data from the STORM SR11 test (ISP-40) and the BISE experiments. In general, both comparisons indicate that with smaller spread of the adhesive force distribution the new multilayer model agrees very well with the experimental data. It can be inferred that multilayer deposits lead to much narrower distributions of adhesive force
Using Intel Xeon Phi to accelerate the WRF TEMF planetary boundary layer scheme
Mielikainen, Jarno; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen
2014-05-01
The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is designed for numerical weather prediction and atmospheric research. The WRF software infrastructure consists of several components such as dynamic solvers and physics schemes. Numerical models are used to resolve the large-scale flow. However, subgrid-scale parameterizations are for an estimation of small-scale properties (e.g., boundary layer turbulence and convection, clouds, radiation). Those have a significant influence on the resolved scale due to the complex nonlinear nature of the atmosphere. For the cloudy planetary boundary layer (PBL), it is fundamental to parameterize vertical turbulent fluxes and subgrid-scale condensation in a realistic manner. A parameterization based on the Total Energy - Mass Flux (TEMF) that unifies turbulence and moist convection components produces a better result that the other PBL schemes. For that reason, the TEMF scheme is chosen as the PBL scheme we optimized for Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC), which ushers in a new era of supercomputing speed, performance, and compatibility. It allows the developers to run code at trillions of calculations per second using the familiar programming model. In this paper, we present our optimization results for TEMF planetary boundary layer scheme. The optimizations that were performed were quite generic in nature. Those optimizations included vectorization of the code to utilize vector units inside each CPU. Furthermore, memory access was improved by scalarizing some of the intermediate arrays. The results show that the optimization improved MIC performance by 14.8x. Furthermore, the optimizations increased CPU performance by 2.6x compared to the original multi-threaded code on quad core Intel Xeon E5-2603 running at 1.8 GHz. Compared to the optimized code running on a single CPU socket the optimized MIC code is 6.2x faster.
Sastre, Mariano; Yagüe, Carlos; Román-Cascón, Carlos; Maqueda, Gregorio; Ander Arrillaga, Jon
2015-04-01
In this work we study the temporal evolution of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) along the transition period from a diurnal typical convection to a nocturnal more frequently stable situation. This period is known as late afternoon or evening transition, depending on the specific definitions employed by different authors [1]. In order to obtain a proper characterization, we try to learn whether or not the behaviour of these transitional boundary layers is strongly dependent on local conditions. To do so, two sets of evening transitions are studied from data collected at two different experimental sites. These locations correspond to research facilities named CIBA (Spain) and CRA (France), which are the places where atmospheric field campaigns have been conducted during the last years, such as CIBA2008 and BLLAST 2011, respectively. In order to get comparable situations, we focus especially on transitions with weak synoptic forcing, and consider daily astronomical sunset as a reference time. A statistical analysis on main parameters related to the transition is carried out for both locations, and the average behaviour is shown as well as extreme values according to the timing. A similar pattern in the qualitative evolution of many variables is found. Nevertheless, several relevant differences in the progress of key variables are obtained too. Moisture, both from the soil and the air, is thought to have great relevance in explaining many of the differences found between the two sites. Some case studies are explored, focusing on the role played by the atmospheric turbulence. Complementary, numerical experiments are also performed using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) mesoscale model, in order to test the role of humidity, by artificially varying it in some of the simulations. [1] Lothon, M. and coauthors (2014): The BLLAST field experiment: Boundary-Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10931-10960.
Geologic Basin Boundaries (Basins_GHGRP) GIS Layer
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a coverage shapefile of geologic basin boundaries which are used by EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. For onshore production, the "facility" includes...
Boundary Layer Flow of Second Grade Fluid in a Cylinder with Heat Transfer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Nadeem
2012-01-01
Full Text Available An analysis is carried out to obtain the similarity solution of the steady boundary layer flow and heat transfer of a second grade through a horizontal cylinder. The governing partial differential equations along with the boundary conditions are reduced to dimensionless form by using the boundary layer approximation and applying suitable similarity transformation. The resulting nonlinear coupled system of ordinary differential equations subject to the appropriate boundary conditions is solved by homotopy analysis method (HAM. The effects of the physical parameters on the flow and heat transfer characteristics of the model are presented. The behavior of skin friction coefficient and Nusselt numbers is studied for different parameters.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Konrad Bärfuss
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The unmanned research aircraft ALADINA (Application of Light-weight Aircraft for Detecting in situ Aerosols has been established as an important tool for boundary layer research. For simplified integration of additional sensor payload, a flexible and reliable data acquisition system was developed at the Institute of Flight Guidance, Technische Universität (TU Braunschweig. The instrumentation consists of sensors for temperature, humidity, three-dimensional wind vector, position, black carbon, irradiance and atmospheric particles in the diameter range of ultra-fine particles up to the accumulation mode. The modular concept allows for straightforward integration and exchange of sensors. So far, more than 200 measurement flights have been performed with the robustly-engineered system ALADINA at different locations. The obtained datasets are unique in the field of atmospheric boundary layer research. In this study, a new data processing method for deriving parameters with fast resolution and to provide reliable accuracies is presented. Based on tests in the field and in the laboratory, the limitations and verifiability of integrated sensors are discussed.
Sircar, A.; Paul, C.; Ferreyro, S.; Imren, A.; Haworth, D. C.; Roy, S.; Ge, W.; Modest, M. F.
2016-11-01
The lack of accurate submodels for in-cylinder radiation and heat transfer has been identified as a key shortcoming in developing truly predictive CFD models that can be used to develop combustion systems for advanced high-efficiency, low-emissions engines. Recent measurements of wall layers in engines show discrepancies of up to 100% with respect to standard CFD boundary-layer models. And recent analysis of in-cylinder radiation based on recent spectral property databases and high-fidelity radiative transfer equation (RTE) solvers has shown that at operating conditions typical of heavy-duty CI engines, radiative emission can be as high as 40% of the wall heat losses, that molecular gas radiation can be more important than soot radiation, and that a significant fraction of the emitted radiation can be reabsorbed before reaching the walls. That is, radiation changes the in-cylinder temperature distribution, which in turn affects combustion and emissions. The goal of this research is to develop models that explicitly account for the potentially strong coupling between radiative and turbulent boundary layer heat transfer. For example, for optically thick conditions, a simple diffusion model might be formulated in terms of an absorption-coefficient-dependent turbulent Prandtl number. NSF, DOE.
Boundary Layer Characterization during Perdigão Field Campaign 2017
Leo, L. S.; Salvadore, J. J.; Belo-Pereira, M.; Menke, R.; Gomes, S.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Brown, W. O. J.; Creegan, E.; Klein, P. M.; Wildmann, N.; Oncley, S.; Fernando, J.; Mann, J.
2017-12-01
The depth and structure of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) significantly impact the performances of wind farms located in complex terrain environments, since low-level jets and other flow structures in the proximity of hills and mountains determine the weather extremes, such as shear layer instabilities, lee/internal wave breaking, etc. which in turn profoundly modify the turbulence profile at wind turbine relevant heights.A suite of instruments was deployed covering a double-ridge in central Portugal near the town of Perdigão in 2016-2017, and they are used here to characterize the ABL structure over complex terrain during the Intensive Observational Period (IOP, May 1- June 15, 2017) of the research field program dubbed "Perdigão". Firstly, the methodology adopted in this work to estimate the BL height will be discussed; secondly, an overview of the BL depth and characteristics during Perdigão-IOP campaign will be provided, with emphasis on case studies of interest for both the wind-power and boundary-layer communities.
CURIE: A low power X-band, low atmospheric boundary layer doppler radar
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Al-Sakka, Hassan; Weill, Alain; Le Gac, Christophe; Ney, Richard; Chardenal, Laurent; Vinson, Jean Paul; Barthes, Laurent [Lab. Atmospheres, Milieux, Observations Spatiales, LATMOS/IPSL, Velizy (France); Dupont, Eric [EDF, R and D, CEREA, Chatou (France)
2009-06-15
A new X-band Doppler miniradar, the CURIE radar (Canopy Urban Research on Interactions and Exchanges), mainly adapted to low Atmospheric Boundary Layer ABL sounding has been developed at LATMOS (Laboratoire Atmospheres, Milieux, Observations Spatiales) formerly CETP (Centre d'etude des Environnements Terrestre et Planetaires). After a brief description of the measurement conditions in a turbulent atmosphere, the main characteristics of the new sensor are presented. As an example, we compare CURIE vertical velocity fluctuations with UHF observations to show the vertical velocity measurement validity. As a prospective area of application in clear air, we focus on a first observation of vertical velocity variance which is supposed to be related to entrainment across the inversion layer. As our objective is to study low boundary layers during different atmospheric conditions and since the radar works in the presence of precipitation (as all X-band radar do), we also show vertical rain soundings in the lower part of the ABL and illustrate our findings with results demonstrating comparable reflectivity and precipitation rates as estimated with a disdrometer and with a rain gauge. (orig.)
Turbulence radiation coupling in boundary layers of heavy-duty diesel engines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sircar, Arpan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Paul, Chandan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Ferreyro-Fernandez, Sebastian [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Imren, Abdurrahman [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Haworth, Daniel C [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Roy, Somesh P [Marquette University (United States); Ge, Wenjun [University of California Merced (United States); Modest, Michael F [University of California Merced (United States)
2017-04-05
The lack of accurate submodels for in-cylinder radiation and heat transfer has been identified as a key shortcoming in developing truly predictive, physics-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models that can be used to develop combustion systems for advanced high-efficiency, low-emissions engines. Recent measurements of wall layers in engines show discrepancies of up to 100% with respect to standard CFD boundary-layer models. And recent analysis of in-cylinder radiation based on the most recent spectral property databases and high-fidelity radiative transfer equation (RTE) solvers has shown that at operating pressures and exhaust-gas recirculation levels typical of modern heavy-duty compression-ignition engines, radiative emission can be as high as 40% of the wall heat losses, that molecular gas radiation (mainly CO2 and H2O) can be more important than soot radiation, and that a significant fraction of the emitted radiation can be reabsorbed before reaching the walls. That is, radiation not only contributes to heat losses, but also changes the in-cylinder temperature distribution, which in turn affects combustion and emissions. The goal of this research is to develop models that explicitly account for the potentially strong coupling between radiative and turbulent boundary layer heat transfer. For example, for optically thick conditions, a simple diffusion model might be formulated in terms of an absorption-coefficient-dependent turbulent Prandtl number.
Ten Years of Boundary-Layer and Wind-Power Meteorology at Høvsøre, Denmark
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Floors, Rogier Ralph; Sathe, Ameya
2016-01-01
has been given to research on boundary-layer flow, where parametrizations of the length scale and wind profile have been developed and evaluated. Atmospheric turbulence studies are continuously conducted at Høvsøre, where spectral tensor models have been evaluated and extended to account...
Stabilization of the hypersonic boundary layer by finite-amplitude streaks
Ren, Jie; Fu, Song; Hanifi, Ardeshir
2016-02-01
Stabilization of two-dimensional disturbances in hypersonic boundary layer flows by finite-amplitude streaks is investigated using nonlinear parabolized stability equations. The boundary-layer flows at Mach numbers 4.5 and 6.0 are studied in which both first and second modes are supported. The streaks considered here are driven either by the so-called optimal perturbations (Klebanoff-type) or the centrifugal instability (Görtler-type). When the streak amplitude is in an appropriate range, i.e., large enough to modulate the laminar boundary layer but low enough to not trigger secondary instability, both first and second modes can effectively be suppressed.
Boundary-layer effects in composite laminates: Free-edge stress singularities, part 6
Wanag, S. S.; Choi, I.
1981-01-01
A rigorous mathematical model was obtained for the boundary-layer free-edge stress singularity in angleplied and crossplied fiber composite laminates. The solution was obtained using a method consisting of complex-variable stress function potentials and eigenfunction expansions. The required order of the boundary-layer stress singularity is determined by solving the transcendental characteristic equation obtained from the homogeneous solution of the partial differential equations. Numerical results obtained show that the boundary-layer stress singularity depends only upon material elastic constants and fiber orientation of the adjacent plies. For angleplied and crossplied laminates the order of the singularity is weak in general.
Three-Dimensional Shock Wave-Turbulent Boundary Layer Interactions at Mach 6
1975-06-01
separation which, in the three-dimensional case, will scavenge off the low energy flow of the boundary layer. The reattaching flow consists of high energy ... energy flow in the boundary layer is scavenged off by the crossflow vortex, and only the outer flow in the boundary layer has sufficient energy to...a I2 01I . . 0.0 1.0 2.0 - 3.0 4.0 y/ s Figure 91. Surface Pressure and Heat Transfer Distributions for Re = 3.0 x 10 7 ft-1 and 6 = L60 30 - BSG
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Václav URUBA
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Separation of the turbulent boundary layer (BL on a flat plate under adverse pressure gradient was studied experimentally using Time-Resolved PIV technique. The results of spatio-temporal analysis of flow-field in the separation zone are presented. For this purpose, the POD (Proper Orthogonal Decomposition and its extension BOD (Bi-Orthogonal Decomposition techniques are applied as well as dynamical approach based on POPs (Principal Oscillation Patterns method. The study contributes to understanding physical mechanisms of a boundary layer separation process. The acquired information could be used to improve strategies of a boundary layer separation control.
Cook, W. J.
1973-01-01
A theoretical study of heat transfer for zero pressure gradient hypersonic laminar boundary layers for various gases with particular application to the flows produced in an expansion tube facility was conducted. A correlation based on results obtained from solutions to the governing equations for five gases was formulated. Particular attention was directed toward the laminar boundary layer shock tube splitter plates in carbon dioxide flows generated by high speed shock waves. Computer analysis of the splitter plate boundary layer flow provided information that is useful in interpreting experimental data obtained in shock tube gas radiation studies.
The Modelling of Particle Resuspension in a Turbulent Boundary Layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Fan
2011-10-20
uncorrelated curve-fitted model. In view of recent numerical data for lift and drag forces in turbulent boundary layers, the lift and drag we have con sidered and the impact of these data on predictions made by the non-Gaussian R'n'R model are compared with those based on O'Neill formula. The results indicate that, in terms of the long-term resuspension fraction, the difference is minor. It is concluded that as the particle size decreases the L and B method will lead to less-and-less long-term resuspension. Finally the ultimate model that has been developed in this work is a hybrid version of the R'n'R model adapted for application to multilayer deposits based on the Friess and Yadigaroglu multilayer approach. The deposit is modelled in several overlying layers where the coverage effect (masking) of the deposit layers has been studied; in the first instance a monodisperse deposit with a coverage ratio factor was modelled where this was subsequently replaced by the more general case of a polydisperse deposit with a particle size distribution.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pereira, Luis Carlos Martins
1998-06-01
New Petrov-Galerkin formulations on the finite element methods for convection-diffusion problems with boundary layers are presented. Such formulations are based on a consistent new theory on discontinuous finite element methods. Existence and uniqueness of solutions for these problems in the new finite element spaces are demonstrated. Some numerical experiments shows how the new formulation operate and also their efficacy. (author)
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Sivakumar, V
2011-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present the preliminary methods for detection of the boundary layer based on backscattered signals from a mobile LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) developed at Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR...
Influence of tall vegetation canopy on turbulence kinetic energy budget in the stable boundary layer
Babić, Karmen; Rotach, Mathias W.
2017-04-01
While a considerable amount of research has been done on turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) budget studies in the surface layer over horizontally homogeneous and flat (HHF) surfaces, little research focused on budgets above heterogeneous and rough surfaces. Only few studies have investigated TKE budgets above fetch-limited forest focusing on statically neutral conditions, while studies in the stable boundary layer (SBL) are still scarce in the literature. Therefore, we present turbulence characteristics above tall, deciduous forest in the wintertime SBL and make a comparison with a well-known results of HHF terrain. Turbulence measurements performed at five levels above the canopy height (approximately h = 18 m) allowed the investigation of combined influence of the roughness sublayer (RSL) found above tall vegetation and the internal boundary layer (IBL) on the TKE budget terms. Each term of the TKE budget is investigated within the framework of local similarity theory. Kolomogorov's similarity hypothesis assumes local isotropy within the inertial subrange. Testing the local isotropy hypothesis more thoroughly resulted in a ratio of the horizontal spectral densities (Sv/Su) approaching the 4/3, while the ratio of the vertical to the longitudinal spectral density (Sw/Su) was less than 1 for all levels indicating an anisotropic turbulence above the canopy. As a consequence, estimated values of TKE dissipation rate (ɛ) for the vertical component (ɛw) were smaller (underestimated) compared to the ɛ estimates obtained from the horizontal velocity components. This finding has a direct influence on the applicability of classical Kansas spectral models valid for HHF terrain as well as on the budget of wind variances. Additionally, the dimensionless wind shear function associated with "Kolmogorov turbulence" (existence of a well-defined inertial subrange with -5/3 slopes) was found to depart from linear prediction suggesting that the stability is a stronger determinant of
Thermal Internal Boundary Layer characteristics at a tropical coastal ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
10th Symposium on Acoustic Remote Sensing, Auckland,. NZ, 26th Nov–1st Dec. Mursch-Radlgruber E, Neff W D, Rengarajan G, Russel. C 1997 Shallow mixed layer during drainage condition along the front range; 12th AMS Symposium on Bound- ary Layer and Turbulence, July 28 – August 1, Vancou- ver, Canada.
A Method for Deriving the Boundary Layer Mixing Height from MODIS Atmospheric Profile Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xueliang Feng
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The planetary boundary layer is the medium of energy, moisture, momentum and pollutant exchange between the surface and the atmosphere. In this paper, a method to derive the boundary layer mixing height (MH was introduced and applied over the Heihe river basin. Atmospheric profiles from the MODerate Resolution Imaging Sepctroradiometer (MODIS instrument onboard the NASA-Aqua satellite were used for the high spatial resolution of this method. A gap-filling method was used to replace missing MODIS data. In situ MH data were also calculated from HIWATER (Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research and WATER (Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research observational radiosonde sounding data from 2008 and 2012 using the Richardson number method combined with a subjective method. The MH occurs where there is an abrupt decrease in the MR (water vapor mixing ratio. The minimum vertical gradient of the MR is used to determine the MH. The method has an average RMSE of 370 m under clear skies and convective conditions. The seasonal variation in the MH at the Gaoya radiosonde station is also presented. The study demonstrates that remote sensing methodologies can successfully estimate the MH without the help of field measurements.
Coupling of HOx, NOx and halogen chemistry in the antarctic boundary layer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. A. Salmon
2010-11-01
Full Text Available A modelling study of radical chemistry in the coastal Antarctic boundary layer, based upon observations performed in the course of the CHABLIS (Chemistry of the Antarctic Boundary Layer and the Interface with Snow campaign at Halley Research Station in coastal Antarctica during the austral summer 2004/2005, is described: a detailed zero-dimensional photochemical box model was used, employing inorganic and organic reaction schemes drawn from the Master Chemical Mechanism, with additional halogen (iodine and bromine reactions added. The model was constrained to observations of long-lived chemical species, measured photolysis frequencies and meteorological parameters, and the simulated levels of HOx, NOx and XO compared with those observed. The model was able to replicate the mean levels and diurnal variation in the halogen oxides IO and BrO, and to reproduce NOx levels and speciation very well. The NOx source term implemented compared well with that directly measured in the course of the CHABLIS experiments. The model systematically overestimated OH and HO2 levels, likely a consequence of the combined effects of (a estimated physical parameters and (b uncertainties within the halogen, particularly iodine, chemical scheme. The principal sources of HOx radicals were the photolysis and bromine-initiated oxidation of HCHO, together with O(1D + H2O. The main sinks for HOx were peroxy radical self- and cross-reactions, with the sum of all halogen-mediated HOx loss processes accounting for 40% of the total sink. Reactions with the halogen monoxides dominated CH3O2-HO2-OH interconversion, with associated local chemical ozone destruction in place of the ozone production which is associated with radical cycling driven by the analogous NO reactions. The analysis highlights the need for observations of physical parameters such as aerosol surface area and boundary layer structure to constrain such calculations, and the dependence of simulated radical levels
On the wall-normal velocity of the compressible boundary-layer equations
Pruett, C. David
1991-01-01
Numerical methods for the compressible boundary-layer equations are facilitated by transformation from the physical (x,y) plane to a computational (xi,eta) plane in which the evolution of the flow is 'slow' in the time-like xi direction. The commonly used Levy-Lees transformation results in a computationally well-behaved problem for a wide class of non-similar boundary-layer flows, but it complicates interpretation of the solution in physical space. Specifically, the transformation is inherently nonlinear, and the physical wall-normal velocity is transformed out of the problem and is not readily recovered. In light of recent research which shows mean-flow non-parallelism to significantly influence the stability of high-speed compressible flows, the contribution of the wall-normal velocity in the analysis of stability should not be routinely neglected. Conventional methods extract the wall-normal velocity in physical space from the continuity equation, using finite-difference techniques and interpolation procedures. The present spectrally-accurate method extracts the wall-normal velocity directly from the transformation itself, without interpolation, leaving the continuity equation free as a check on the quality of the solution. The present method for recovering wall-normal velocity, when used in conjunction with a highly-accurate spectral collocation method for solving the compressible boundary-layer equations, results in a discrete solution which is extraordinarily smooth and accurate, and which satisfies the continuity equation nearly to machine precision. These qualities make the method well suited to the computation of the non-parallel mean flows needed by spatial direct numerical simulations (DNS) and parabolized stability equation (PSE) approaches to the analysis of stability.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Stratmann
2003-01-01
Full Text Available During the SATURN experiment, which took place from 27 May to 14 June 2002, new particle formation in the continental boundary layer was investigated. Simultaneous ground-based and tethered-balloon-borne measurements were performed, including meteorological parameters, particle number concentrations and size distributions, gaseous precursor concentrations and SODAR and LIDAR observations. Newly formed particles were observed inside the residual layer, before the break-up process of the nocturnal inversion, and inside the mixing layer throughout the break-up of the nocturnal inversion and during the evolution of the planetary boundary layer.
Ozone Layer Research and Technical Resources
Access information on research and technical resources related to ozone layer science. This page provides links to research efforts led by organizations such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the United Nations Environment Program, an
Three-Dimensional Unsteady Laminar Shock-Wave/Boundary Layer Interaction
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Boin, J-P; Robinet, Jean-Christophe
2004-01-01
.... To this end, the authors decided to study the evolution of the interaction between an incident shock wave and a laminar boundary layer developing over a flat plate when the incident shock angle...
RACORO Extended-Term Aircraft Observations of Boundary-Layer Clouds
Vogelmann, Andrew M.; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Ogren, John A.; Turner, David D.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Feingold, Graham; Long, Charles N.; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Bucholtz, Anthony; Collins, Don R.;
2012-01-01
Small boundary-layer clouds are ubiquitous over many parts of the globe and strongly influence the Earths radiative energy balance. However, our understanding of these clouds is insufficient to solve pressing scientific problems. For example, cloud feedback represents the largest uncertainty amongst all climate feedbacks in general circulation models (GCM). Several issues complicate understanding boundary-layer clouds and simulating them in GCMs. The high spatial variability of boundary-layer clouds poses an enormous computational challenge, since their horizontal dimensions and internal variability occur at spatial scales much finer than the computational grids used in GCMs. Aerosol-cloud interactions further complicate boundary-layer cloud measurement and simulation. Additionally, aerosols influence processes such as precipitation and cloud lifetime. An added complication is that at small scales (order meters to 10s of meters) distinguishing cloud from aerosol is increasingly difficult, due to the effects of aerosol humidification, cloud fragments and photon scattering between clouds.
Study of the blowing impact on a hot turbulent boundary layer using Thermal Large Eddy Simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brillant, G.; Husson, S.; Bataille, F.; Ducros, F.
2008-01-01
We investigate Thermal Large Eddy Simulation in a complex case using Trio U. We develop a thermal turbulent inflow condition based on parallel flows in order to simulate a turbulent thermal boundary layer. This inflow condition is tested with a turbulent channel flow. We show that it produces fine profiles for velocity and temperature. Later, this inlet condition is used in the case of blowing through a porous plate. Two different blowing regimes are studied: the classical turbulent boundary layer and the blown off boundary layer. Comparisons show that we obtain similar experimental and numerical profiles (Brillant, G., Husson, S., Bataille, F., 2008. Experimental study of the blowing impact on a hot turbulent boundary layer. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 51 (7-8), 1996-2005.). We finish with additional results obtained only through numerical simulations
Study of the blowing impact on a hot turbulent boundary layer using Thermal Large Eddy Simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brillant, G. [CEA/Grenoble DEN/DER/SSTH/LMDL, 17 rue des Martyrs 38054, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); INSA/Centre de Thermique de Lyon (UMR CNRS 5008), Bat. Sadi Carnot 69621, Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Husson, S. [INSA/Centre de Thermique de Lyon (UMR CNRS 5008), Bat. Sadi Carnot 69621, Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Bataille, F. [INSA/Centre de Thermique de Lyon (UMR CNRS 5008), Bat. Sadi Carnot 69621, Villeurbanne Cedex (France)], E-mail: Francoise.Daumas-Bataille@univ-perp.fr; Ducros, F. [CEA/Grenoble DEN/DER/SSTH/LMDL, 17 rue des Martyrs 38054, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)
2008-12-15
We investigate Thermal Large Eddy Simulation in a complex case using Trio U. We develop a thermal turbulent inflow condition based on parallel flows in order to simulate a turbulent thermal boundary layer. This inflow condition is tested with a turbulent channel flow. We show that it produces fine profiles for velocity and temperature. Later, this inlet condition is used in the case of blowing through a porous plate. Two different blowing regimes are studied: the classical turbulent boundary layer and the blown off boundary layer. Comparisons show that we obtain similar experimental and numerical profiles (Brillant, G., Husson, S., Bataille, F., 2008. Experimental study of the blowing impact on a hot turbulent boundary layer. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 51 (7-8), 1996-2005.). We finish with additional results obtained only through numerical simulations.
Advances in CFD Prediction of Shock Wave Turbulent Boundary Layer Interactions
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Knight, Doyle; Yan, Hong; Panaras, Argyris G; Zheltovodov, Alexander
2006-01-01
... on the same topic by Knight and Degrez ("Shock Wave Boundary Layer Interactions in High Mach Number Flows - A Critical Survey of Current CFD Prediction Capabilities," AGARD Advisory Report AR-319, Volume II, December 1998...
Control Parameters for Boundary-Layer Instabilities in Unsteady Shock Interactions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
LaVar King Isaacson
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This article presents the computation of a set of control parameters for the deterministic prediction of laminar boundary-layer instabilities induced by an imposed unsteady shock interaction. The objective of the study is exploratory in nature by computing a supersonic flight environment for flow over a blunt body and the deterministic prediction of the spectral entropy rates for the boundary layer subjected to an unsteady pressure disturbance. The deterministic values for the spectral entropy rate within the instabilities are determined for each control parameter. Computational results imply that the instabilities are of a span-wise vortex form, that the maximum vertical velocity wave vector components are produced in the region nearest the wall and that extended transient coherent structures are produced in the boundary layer at a vertical location slightly below the mid-point of the boundary layer.
Mechanisms of Turbulent Mixing in the Continental Shelf Bottom Boundary Layer
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Shaw, William
2000-01-01
.... In this thesis, the problem of turbulent mixing in the coastal bottom boundary layer is investigated with a unique set of field measurements of velocity and sound speed that span a significant...
Budget of Turbulent Kinetic Energy in a Shock Wave Boundary-Layer Interaction
Vyas, Manan A.; Waindim, Mbu; Gaitonde, Datta V.
2016-01-01
Implicit large-eddy simulation (ILES) of a shock wave/boundary-layer interaction (SBLI) was performed. Quantities present in the exact equation of the turbulent kinetic energy transport were accumulated and used to calculate terms like production, dissipation, molecular diffusion, and turbulent transport. The present results for a turbulent boundary layer were validated by comparison with direct numerical simulation data. It was found that a longer development domain was necessary for the boundary layer to reach an equilibrium state and a finer mesh resolution would improve the predictions. In spite of these findings, trends of the present budget match closely with that of the direct numerical simulation. Budgets for the SBLI region are presented at key axial stations. These budgets showed interesting dynamics as the incoming boundary layer transforms and the terms of the turbulent kinetic energy budget change behavior within the interaction region.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Shock Wave / Turbulent Boundary Layer Flows at High Mach Numbers. This web page provides data from experiments that may be useful for the validation of turbulence...
Turbulence Models: Shock Boundary Layer Interaction at M=2.05
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Exp: Shock Boundary Layer Interaction at M=2.05. This web page provides data from experiments that may be useful for the validation of turbulence models. This...
Stability characteristics of compressible boundary layers over thermo-mechanically compliant walls
Dettenrieder, Fabian; Bodony, Daniel
2017-11-01
Transition prediction at hypersonic flight conditions continues to be a challenge and results in conservative safety factors that increase vehicle weight. The weight and thus cost reduction of the outer skin panels promises significant impact; however, fluid-structure interaction due to unsteady perturbations in the laminar boundary layer regime has not been systematically studied at conditions relevant for reusable, hypersonic flight. In this talk, we develop and apply convective and global stability analyses for compressible boundary layers over thermo-mechanically compliant panels. This compliance is shown to change the convective stability of the boundary layer modes, with both stabilization and destabilization observed. Finite panel lengths are shown to affect the global stability properties of the boundary layer.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Turnick, Arnold
2001-01-01
A one-dimensional, time-dependent computer model of the atmospheric boundary layer was developed to simulate intermittent turbulence and the near-ground microclimate under nighttime stable conditions...
Coastal Stratocumulus-Topped Boundary Layers and the Role of Cloud-Top Entrainment
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Eleuterio, Daniel
2004-01-01
...) to accurately forecast the height and structure of the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) in the coastal zone is analyzed and compared to surface and aircraft observations from the Dynamics and Evolution of Coastal Stratus (DECS...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robben, R.; Schefer, R.; Agrawal, V.; Namer, I.
1977-09-01
A classic fluid mechanics boundary layer problem, flow over a sharp leading edge flat plate, was used to study the effect of a heated surface on combustion in lean hydrogen-air mixtures. The velocity and density profiles of the boundary layer have been measured with laser Doppler velocimetry and Rayleigh scattering, respectively. Preliminary measurements on a silicon dioxide ''non-catalytic'' surface indicate neither boundary layer nor surface combustion for wall temperatures up to 1250/sup 0/K. Measurements on a platinum catalytic surface indicate that, at a surface temperature of 1000/sup 0/K, not only is there significant surface combustion but that homogeneous combustion in the boundary layer is induced by active species generated at the catalytic surface.
Raman spectrum analysis on the solid-liquid boundary layer of BGO crystal growth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Xia; Yin Shaotang; Wan Songming; Zhang Qingli; You Jinglin; Chen Hui; Zhao Sijie
2007-01-01
We study the Raman spectra of Bi 4 Ge 3 O 12 crystal at different temperatures, as well as its melt. The structure characters of the single crystal, melt and growth solid-liquid boundary layer of BGO are investigated by their high-temperature Raman spectra for the first time. The rule of structure change of BGO crystal with increasing temperature is analysed. The results show that there exists [GeO 4 ] polyhedral structure and Bi ion independently in BGO melt. The bridge bonds Bi-O-Bi and Bi-O-Ge appear in the crystal and at the boundary layer, but disappear in the melt. The structure of the growth solid-liquid boundary layer is similar to that of BGO crystal. In the melt, the long-range order structure of the crystal disappears. The thickness of the growth solid-liquid boundary layer of BGO crystal is about 50 μm. (authors)
The effect of the Asian Monsoon to the atmospheric boundary layer over the Tibetan Plateau
Li, Maoshan; Su, Zhongbo; Chen, Xuelong; Zheng, Donghai; Sun, Fanglin; Ma, Yaoming; Hu, Zeyong
2016-04-01
Modulation of the diurnal variations in the convective activities associated with day-by-day changes of surface flux and soil moisture was observed in the beginning of the monsoon season on the central Tibetan plateau (Sugimoto et al., 2008) which indicates the importance of land-atmosphere interactions in determining convective activities over the Tibetan plateau. Detailed interaction processes need to be studied by experiments designed to evaluate a set of hypotheses on mechanisms and linkages of these interactions. A possible function of vegetation to increase precipitation in cases of Tibetan High type was suggested by Yamada and Uyeda (2006). Use of satellite derived plateau scale soil moisture (Wen et al., 2003) enables the verification of these hypotheses (e.g. Trier et al. 2004). To evaluate these feedbacks, the mesoscale WRF model will be used because several numerical experiments are being conducted to improve the soil physical parameterization in the Noah land surface scheme in WRF so that the extreme conditions on the Tibetan plateau could be adequately represented (Van der Velde et al., 2009) such that the impacts on the structure of the atmospheric boundary layer can be assessed and improved. The Tibetan Observational Research Platform (TORP) operated by the Institute of Tibetan Plateau (Ma et al., 2008) will be fully utilized to study the characteristics of the plateau climate and different aspects of the WRF model will be evaluated using this extensive observation platform (e.g. Su et al., 2012). Recently, advanced studies on energy budget have been done by combining field and satellite measurements over the Tibetan Plateau (e.g. Ma et al., 2005). Such studies, however, were based on a single satellite observation and for a few days over an annual cycle, which are insufficient to reveal the relation between the land surface energy budget and the Asian monsoon over the Tibetan plateau. Time series analysis of satellite observations will provide the
Modeling mode interactions in boundary layer flows via the Parabolized Floquet Equations
Ran, Wei; Zare, Armin; Hack, M. J. Philipp; Jovanović, Mihailo R.
2017-01-01
In this paper, we develop a linear model to study interactions between different modes in slowly-growing boundary layer flows. Our method consists of two steps. First, we augment the Blasius boundary layer profile with a disturbance field resulting from the linear Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE) to obtain the modified base flow; and, second, we combine Floquet analysis with the linear PSE to capture the spatial evolution of flow fluctuations. This procedure yields the Parabolized Floque...
Study of cross-spectra of velocity components and temperature series in a nocturnal boundary layer
Maqueda, Gregorio; Sastre, Mariano; Viñas, Carmen; Viana, Samuel; Yagüe, Carlos
2010-05-01
The main characteristic of the Planetary Boundary Layer is the turbulent flow that can be understood as the motions of many superimposed eddies with different scales, which are very irregular and produce mixing among the atmospheric properties. Spectral analysis is a widely used statistical tool to know the size of eddies into the flow. The Turbulent Kinetic Energy is split in fractions for each scale of eddy by mean the power spectrum of the wind velocity components. Also, the fluctuation of the other variables as temperature, humidity, gases concentrations or material particles presents in the atmosphere can be divided according to the importance of different scales in a similar way than the wind. A Cross-spectrum between two time series is used in meteorology to know their correlation in frequency space. Specially, coespectrum, or real part of cross-spectrum, amplitud and coherence give us many information about the low or high correlation between two variables in a particular frecuency or scale (Stull, 1988). In this work we have investigated cross-spectra of velocity components and temperature measured along the summer 2009 at the CIBA, Research Centre for the Lower Atmosphere, located in Valladolid province (Spain), which is on a quite flat terrain (Cuxart et al., 2000; Viana et al., 2009). In these experimental dataset, among other instrumentation, two sonic anemometers (20 Hz, sampling rate) at 1.5 m and 10 m height are available. Cross-spectra between variables of the two levels, specially, wind vertical component and sonic temperature, under stable stratification are studied in order to improve the knowledge of the proprieties of the momentum and heat fluxes near the ground in the PBL. Nevertheless, power spectral of horizontal components of the wind, at both levels, have been also analysed. The spectra and cross-spectra were performed by mean the Blackman-Tukey method, widely utilised in the time series studies (Blackman & Tukey, 1958) and, where it is
Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment in Spain (SABLES 98) : a report
Cuxart, J.; Yague, C.; Morales, G.; Terradelles, E.; Orbe, J.; Calvo, J.; Vilu-Guerau, de J.; Soler, M.R.; Infante, C.; Buenestado, P.; Espinalt, A.; Jorgensem, H.E.
2000-01-01
This paper describes the Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment in Spain (SABLES 98), which took place over the northern Spanish plateau comprising relatively flat grassland, in September 1998. The main objectives of the campaign were to study the properties of the mid-latitude stable boundary
Robust Controller for Turbulent and Convective Boundary Layers
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Speyer, Jason L; Kim, J. John
2006-01-01
Linear feedback controllers and estimators have been designed from the governing equations of a channel flow, linearized about the laminar mean flow, and a layer of heated fluid, linearized about the no-motion state...
Lee, Zoe; Baas, Andreas
2013-04-01
It is widely recognised that boundary layer turbulence plays an important role in sediment transport dynamics in aeolian environments. Improvements in the design and affordability of ultrasonic anemometers have provided significant contributions to studies of aeolian turbulence, by facilitating high frequency monitoring of three dimensional wind velocities. Consequently, research has moved beyond studies of mean airflow properties, to investigations into quasi-instantaneous turbulent fluctuations at high spatio-temporal scales. To fully understand, how temporal fluctuations in shear stress drive wind erosivity and sediment transport, research into the best practice for calculating shear stress is necessary. This paper builds upon work published by Lee and Baas (2012) on the influence of streamline correction techniques on Reynolds shear stress, by investigating the time-averaging interval used in the calculation. Concerns relating to the selection of appropriate averaging intervals for turbulence research, where the data are typically non-stationary at all timescales, are well documented in the literature (e.g. Treviño and Andreas, 2000). For example, Finnigan et al. (2003) found that underestimating the required averaging interval can lead to a reduction in the calculated momentum flux, as contributions from turbulent eddies longer than the averaging interval are lost. To avoid the risk of underestimating fluxes, researchers have typically used the total measurement duration as a single averaging period. For non-stationary data, however, using the whole measurement run as a single block average is inadequate for defining turbulent fluctuations. The data presented in this paper were collected in a field study of boundary layer turbulence conducted at Tramore beach near Rosapenna, County Donegal, Ireland. High-frequency (50 Hz) 3D wind velocity measurements were collected using ultrasonic anemometry at thirteen different heights between 0.11 and 1.62 metres above
Response of a Hypersonic Boundary Layer to Freestream Pulse Acoustic Disturbance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhenqing Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The response of hypersonic boundary layer over a blunt wedge to freestream pulse acoustic disturbance was investigated. The stability characteristics of boundary layer for freestream pulse wave and continuous wave were analyzed comparatively. Results show that freestream pulse disturbance changes the thermal conductivity characteristics of boundary layer. For pulse wave, the number of main disturbance clusters decreases and the frequency band narrows along streamwise. There are competition and disturbance energy transfer among different modes in boundary layer. The dominant mode of boundary layer has an inhibitory action on other modes. Under continuous wave, the disturbance modes are mainly distributed near fundamental and harmonic frequencies, while under pulse wave, the disturbance modes are widely distributed in different modes. For both pulse and continuous waves, most of disturbance modes slide into a lower-growth or decay state in downstream, which is tending towards stability. The amplitude of disturbance modes in boundary layer under continuous wave is considerably larger than pulse wave. The growth rate for the former is also considerably larger than the later the disturbance modes with higher growth are mainly distributed near fundamental and harmonic frequencies for the former, while the disturbance modes are widely distributed in different frequencies for the latter.
Response of a hypersonic boundary layer to freestream pulse acoustic disturbance.
Wang, Zhenqing; Tang, Xiaojun; Lv, Hongqing
2014-01-01
The response of hypersonic boundary layer over a blunt wedge to freestream pulse acoustic disturbance was investigated. The stability characteristics of boundary layer for freestream pulse wave and continuous wave were analyzed comparatively. Results show that freestream pulse disturbance changes the thermal conductivity characteristics of boundary layer. For pulse wave, the number of main disturbance clusters decreases and the frequency band narrows along streamwise. There are competition and disturbance energy transfer among different modes in boundary layer. The dominant mode of boundary layer has an inhibitory action on other modes. Under continuous wave, the disturbance modes are mainly distributed near fundamental and harmonic frequencies, while under pulse wave, the disturbance modes are widely distributed in different modes. For both pulse and continuous waves, most of disturbance modes slide into a lower-growth or decay state in downstream, which is tending towards stability. The amplitude of disturbance modes in boundary layer under continuous wave is considerably larger than pulse wave. The growth rate for the former is also considerably larger than the later the disturbance modes with higher growth are mainly distributed near fundamental and harmonic frequencies for the former, while the disturbance modes are widely distributed in different frequencies for the latter.
Wind tunnel study of a vertical axis wind turbine in a turbulent boundary layer flow
Rolin, Vincent; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2015-04-01
Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) are in a relatively infant state of development when compared to their cousins the horizontal axis wind turbines. Very few studies have been carried out to characterize the wake flow behind VAWTs, and virtually none to observe the influence of the atmospheric boundary layer. Here we present results from an experiment carried out at the EPFL-WIRE boundary-layer wind tunnel and designed to study the interaction between a turbulent boundary layer flow and a VAWT. Specifically we use stereoscopic particle image velocimetry to observe and quantify the influence of the boundary layer flow on the wake generated by a VAWT, as well as the effect the VAWT has on the boundary layer flow profile downstream. We find that the wake behind the VAWT is strongly asymmetric, due to the varying aerodynamic forces on the blades as they change their position around the rotor. We also find that the wake adds strong turbulence levels to the flow, particularly on the periphery of the wake where vortices and strong velocity gradients are present. The boundary layer is also shown to cause greater momentum to be entrained downwards rather than upwards into the wake.
Study of effect of a smooth hump on hypersonic boundary layer instability
Park, Donghun; Park, Seung O.
2016-12-01
Effect of a two-dimensional smooth hump on linear instability of hypersonic boundary layer is studied by using parabolized stability equations. Linear evolution of mode S over a hump is analyzed for Mach 4.5 and 5.92 flat plate and Mach 7.1 sharp cone boundary layers. Mean flow for stability analysis is obtained by solving the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations. Hump with height smaller than local boundary layer thickness is considered. The case of flat plate and sharp cone without the hump are also studied to provide comparable data. For flat plate boundary layers, destabilization and stabilization effect is confirmed for hump located at upstream and downstream of synchronization point, respectively. Results of parametric studies to examine the effect of hump height, location, etc., are also given. For sharp cone boundary layer, stabilization influence of hump is also identified for a specific range of frequency. Stabilization influence of hump on convective instability of mode S is found to be a possible cause of previous experimental observations of delaying transition in hypersonic boundary layers.
A boundary-layer cloud study using Southern Great Plains Cloud and radiation testbed (CART) data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Albrecht, B.; Mace, G.; Dong, X.; Syrett, W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others
1996-04-01
Boundary layer clouds-stratus and fairweather cumulus - are closely coupled involves the radiative impact of the clouds on the surface energy budget and the strong dependence of cloud formation and maintenance on the turbulent fluxes of heat and moisture in the boundary layer. The continuous data collection at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site provides a unique opportunity to study components of the coupling processes associated with boundary layer clouds and to provide descriptions of cloud and boundary layer structure that can be used to test parameterizations used in climate models. But before the CART data can be used for process studies and parameterization testing, it is necessary to evaluate and validate data and to develop techniques for effectively combining the data to provide meaningful descriptions of cloud and boundary layer characteristics. In this study we use measurements made during an intensive observing period we consider a case where low-level stratus were observed at the site for about 18 hours. This case is being used to examine the temporal evolution of cloud base, cloud top, cloud liquid water content, surface radiative fluxes, and boundary layer structure. A method for inferring cloud microphysics from these parameters is currently being evaluated.
Steady Boundary Layer Disturbances Created By Two-Dimensional Surface Ripples
Kuester, Matthew
2017-11-01
Multiple experiments have shown that surface roughness can enhance the growth of Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) waves in a laminar boundary layer. One of the common observations from these studies is a ``wall displacement'' effect, where the boundary layer profile shape remains relatively unchanged, but the origin of the profile pushes away from the wall. The objective of this work is to calculate the steady velocity field (including this wall displacement) of a laminar boundary layer over a surface with small, 2D surface ripples. The velocity field is a combination of a Blasius boundary layer and multiple disturbance modes, calculated using the linearized Navier-Stokes equations. The method of multiple scales is used to include non-parallel boundary layer effects of O (Rδ- 1) ; the non-parallel terms are necessary, because a wall displacement is mathematically inconsistent with a parallel boundary layer assumption. This technique is used to calculate the steady velocity field over ripples of varying height and wavelength, including cases where a separation bubble forms on the leeward side of the ripple. In future work, the steady velocity field will be the input for stability calculations, which will quantify the growth of T-S waves over rough surfaces. The author would like to acknowledge the support of the Kevin T. Crofton Aerospace & Ocean Engineering Department at Virginia Tech.
Receptivity of Boundary Layer over a Blunt Wedge due to Freestream Pulse Disturbances at Mach 6
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianqiang Shi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Direct numerical simulation (DNS of a hypersonic compressible flow over a blunt wedge with fast acoustic disturbances in freestream is performed. The receptivity characteristics of boundary layer to freestream pulse acoustic disturbances are numerically investigated at Mach 6, and the frequency effects of freestream pulse wave on boundary layer receptivity are discussed. Results show that there are several main disturbance mode clusters in boundary layer under acoustic pulse wave, and the number of main disturbance clusters decreases along the streamwise. As disturbance wave propagates from upstream to downstream direction, the component of the modes below fundamental frequency decreases, and the component of the modes above second harmonic components increases quickly in general. There are competition and disturbance energy transfer between different boundary layer modes. The nose boundary layer is dominated by the nearby mode of fundamental frequency. The number of the main disturbance mode clusters decreases as the freestream disturbance frequency increases. The frequency range with larger growth narrows along the streamwise. In general, the amplitudes of both fundamental mode and harmonics become larger with the decreasing of freestream disturbance frequency. High frequency freestream disturbance accelerates the decay of disturbance wave in downstream boundary layer.
Boundary layers as the primary transport regions of the earth's magnetotail
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eastman, T.E.; Frank, L.A.; Huang, C.Y.
1985-01-01
A comprehensive survey of ISEE and IMP LEPEDEA plasma measurements in the earth's magnetotail reveals that the magnetospheric boundary layer and the plasma sheet boundary layer are the primary transport regions there. These plasma measurements also distinguish various components of the plasma sheet, including the central plasma sheet and plasma sheet boundary layer. A significant new result reported here is the existence of cold-and hot-plasma components that are spatially copresent within the central plasma sheet. Such plasma components cannot be explained merely by temporal variations in spectra involving the entire plasma sheet. Contributions to a low-temperature component of the plasma sheet enter directly from the boundary layer located along the magnetotail flanks. Field-aligned flows predominate within the plasma sheet boundary layer, which is almost always present and is located near the northern and southern border of the plasma sheet. The plasma sheet boundary layer comprises highly anisotropic ion distributions, including counteracting ion beams, that evolve into the hot, isotropic component of the plasma sheet
Lash, E. Lara; Schmisseur, John
2017-11-01
Pressure-sensitive paint has been used to evaluate the unsteady dynamics of transitional and turbulent shock wave-boundary layer interactions generated by a vertical cylinder on a flat plate in a Mach 2 freestream. The resulting shock structure consists of an inviscid bow shock that bifurcates into a separation shock and trailing shock. The primary features of interest are the separation shock and an upstream influence shock that is intermittently present in transitional boundary layer interactions, but not observed in turbulent interactions. The power spectral densities, frequency peaks, and normalized wall pressures are analyzed as the incoming boundary layer state changes from transitional to fully turbulent, comparing both centerline and outboard regions of the interaction. The present study compares the scales and frequencies of the dynamics of the separation shock structure in different boundary layer regimes. Synchronized high-speed Schlieren imaging provides quantitative statistical analyses as well as qualitative comparisons to the fast-response pressure sensitive paint measurements. Materials based on research supported by the U.S. Office of Naval Research under Award Number N00014-15-1-2269.
The influence of a chemical boundary layer on the fixity, spacing and lifetime of mantle plumes.
Jellinek, A Mark; Manga, Michael
2002-08-15
Seismological observations provide evidence that the lowermost mantle contains superposed thermal and compositional boundary layers that are laterally heterogeneous. Whereas the thermal boundary layer forms as a consequence of the heat flux from the Earth's outer core, the origin of an (intrinsically dense) chemical boundary layer remains uncertain. Observed zones of 'ultra-low' seismic velocity suggest that this dense layer may contain metals or partial melt, and thus it is reasonable to expect the dense layer to have a relatively low viscosity. Also, it is thought that instabilities in the thermal boundary layer could lead to the intermittent formation and rise of mantle plumes. Flow into ascending plumes can deform the dense layer, leading, in turn, to its gradual entrainment. Here we use analogue experiments to show that the presence of a dense layer at the bottom of the mantle induces lateral variations in temperature and viscosity that, in turn, determine the location and dynamics of mantle plumes. A dense layer causes mantle plumes to become spatially fixed, and the entrainment of low-viscosity fluid enables plumes to persist within the Earth for hundreds of millions of years.
Allabakash, S.; Yasodha, P.; Bianco, L.; Venkatramana Reddy, S.; Srinivasulu, P.; Lim, S.
2017-09-01
This paper presents the efficacy of a "tuned" fuzzy logic method at determining the height of the boundary layer using the measurements from a 1280 MHz lower atmospheric radar wind profiler located in Gadanki (13.5°N, 79°E, 375 mean sea level), India, and discusses the diurnal and seasonal variations of the measured convective boundary layer over this tropical station. The original fuzzy logic (FL) method estimates the height of the atmospheric boundary layer combining the information from the range-corrected signal-to-noise ratio, the Doppler spectral width of the vertical velocity, and the vertical velocity itself, measured by the radar, through a series of thresholds and rules, which did not prove to be optimal for our radar system and geographical location. For this reason the algorithm was tuned to perform better on our data set. Atmospheric boundary layer heights obtained by this tuned FL method, the original FL method, and by a "standard method" (that only uses the information from the range-corrected signal-to-noise ratio) are compared with those obtained from potential temperature profiles measured by collocated Global Positioning System Radio Sonde during years 2011 and 2013. The comparison shows that the tuned FL method is more accurate than the other methods. Maximum convective boundary layer heights are observed between 14:00 and 15:00 local time (LT = UTC + 5:30) for clear-sky days. These daily maxima are found to be lower during winter and postmonsoon seasons and higher during premonsoon and monsoon seasons, due to net surface radiation and convective processes over this region being more intense during premonsoon and monsoon seasons and less intense in winter and postmonsoon seasons.
Laminar boundary layer response to rotation of a finite diameter surface patch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klewicki, J.C.; Hill, R.B.
2003-01-01
The responses of the flat plate laminar boundary layer to perturbations generated by rotating a finite patch of the bounding surface are explored experimentally. The size of the surface patch was of the same order as the boundary layer thickness. The displacement thickness Reynolds number range of the boundary layers explored was 72-527. The rotation rates of the surface patch ranged from 2.14 to 62.8 s-1. Qualitative flow visualizations and quantitative molecular tagging velocimetry measurements revealed that rotation of a finite surface patch generates an asymmetric loop-like vortex. Significant features of this vortex include that, (i) the sign of the vorticity in the vortex head is opposite that of the boundary layer vorticity regardless of the sign of the input rotation, (ii) one leg of the vortex exhibits motion akin to solid body rotation while the other leg is best characterized as a spanwise shear layer, (iii) the vortex leg exhibiting near solid body rotation lifts more rapidly from the surface than the leg more like a shear layer, and (iv) the vortex leg exhibiting near solid body rotation always occurs on the side of the surface patch experiencing downstream motion. These asymmetries switch sides depending on the sign of the input rotation. The present results are interpreted and discussed relative to analytical solutions for infinite geometries. By way of analogy, plausible connections are drawn between the present results and the influences of wall normal vortices in turbulent boundary layer flows
Study on turbulent characteristics and transition behavior of combined-convection boundary layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hattori, Yasuo
2001-01-01
The stabilizing mechanism of the turbulent combined-convection boundary layer along an isothermally-heated flat plate in air aided by a weak freestream are investigated experimentally and theoretically. The turbulent statistics of the combined-convection boundary layer measured with hot- and cold wires at different Grashof numbers indicates that with an increase in the freestream velocity, a similar change in the turbulent quantities appears independently of local Grashof number. Then based on the such experimental results, it is verified that the laminarization of the boundary layer due to an increase in freestream velocity arises at Grx / Rex 6 . Then, through the experiments with a particle image velocimetry (PIV), the spatio-temporal structure of the turbulent combined-convection boundary layer is investigated. For instantaneous velocity vectors obtained with PIV, large-scale fluid motions, which play a predominant role in the generation of turbulence, are frequently observed in the outer layer, while quasi-coherent structures do not exist in the near-wall region. Thus, it is revealed that increasing freestream restricts large-scale fluid motions in the outer layer, and consequently the generation of turbulence is suppressed and the boundary layer becomes laminar. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pu, Zhaoxia [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)
2015-10-06
Most routine measurements from climate study facilities, such as the Department of Energy’s ARM SGP site, come from individual sites over a long period of time. While single-station data are very useful for many studies, it is challenging to obtain 3-dimensional spatial structures of atmospheric boundary layers that include prominent signatures of deep convection from these data. The principal objective of this project is to create realistic estimates of high-resolution (~ 1km × 1km horizontal grids) atmospheric boundary layer structure and the characteristics of precipitating convection. These characteristics include updraft and downdraft cumulus mass fluxes and cold pool properties over a region the size of a GCM grid column from analyses that assimilate surface mesonet observations of wind, temperature, and water vapor mixing ratio and available profiling data from single or multiple surface stations. The ultimate goal of the project is to enhance our understanding of the properties of mesoscale convective systems and also to improve their representation in analysis and numerical simulations. During the proposed period (09/15/2011–09/14/2014) and the no-cost extension period (09/15/2014–09/14/2015), significant accomplishments have been achieved relating to the stated goals. Efforts have been extended to various research and applications. Results have been published in professional journals and presented in related science team meetings and conferences. These are summarized in the report.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Druzhinin, O; Troitskaya, Yu; Zilitinkevich, S
2016-01-01
The processes of turbulent mixing and momentum and heat exchange occur in the upper ocean at depths up to several dozens of meters and in the atmospheric boundary layer within interval of millimeters to dozens of meters and can not be resolved by known large- scale climate models. Thus small-scale processes need to be parameterized with respect to large scale fields. This parameterization involves the so-called bulk coefficients which relate turbulent fluxes with large-scale fields gradients. The bulk coefficients are dependent on the properties of the small-scale mixing processes which are affected by the upper-ocean stratification and characteristics of surface and internal waves. These dependencies are not well understood at present and need to be clarified. We employ Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) as a research tool which resolves all relevant flow scales and does not require closure assumptions typical of Large-Eddy and Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations (LES and RANS). Thus DNS provides a solid ground for correct parameterization of small-scale mixing processes and also can be used for improving LES and RANS closure models. In particular, we discuss the problems of the interaction between small-scale turbulence and internal gravity waves propagating in the pycnocline in the upper ocean as well as the impact of surface waves on the properties of atmospheric boundary layer over wavy water surface. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rai, Raj K.; Berg, Larry K.; Kosović, Branko; Mirocha, Jeffrey D.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Shaw, William J.
2016-11-25
High resolution numerical simulation can provide insight into important physical processes that occur within the planetary boundary layer (PBL). The present work employs large eddy simulation (LES) using the Weather Forecasting and Research (WRF) model, with the LES domain nested within mesoscale simulation, to simulate real conditions in the convective PBL over an area of complex terrain. A multiple nesting approach has been used to downsize the grid spacing from 12.15 km (mesoscale) to 0.03 km (LES). A careful selection of grid spacing in the WRF Meso domain has been conducted to minimize artifacts in the WRF-LES solutions. The WRF-LES results have been evaluated with in situ and remote sensing observations collected during the US Department of Energy-supported Columbia BasinWind Energy Study (CBWES). Comparison of the first- and second-order moments, turbulence spectrum, and probability density function (PDF) of wind speed shows good agreement between the simulations and data. Furthermore, the WRF-LES variables show a great deal of variability in space and time caused by the complex topography in the LES domain. The WRF-LES results show that the flow structures, such as roll vortices and convective cells, vary depending on both the location and time of day. In addition to basic studies related to boundary-layer meteorology, results from these simulations can be used in other applications, such as studying wind energy resources, atmospheric dispersion, fire weather etc.
Natarajan, Murali; Fairlie, T. Duncan; Dwyer Cianciolo, Alicia; Smith, Michael D.
2015-01-01
We use the mesoscale modeling capability of Mars Weather Research and Forecasting (MarsWRF) model to study the sensitivity of the simulated Martian lower atmosphere to differences in the parameterization of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Characterization of the Martian atmosphere and realistic representation of processes such as mixing of tracers like dust depend on how well the model reproduces the evolution of the PBL structure. MarsWRF is based on the NCAR WRF model and it retains some of the PBL schemes available in the earth version. Published studies have examined the performance of different PBL schemes in NCAR WRF with the help of observations. Currently such assessments are not feasible for Martian atmospheric models due to lack of observations. It is of interest though to study the sensitivity of the model to PBL parameterization. Typically, for standard Martian atmospheric simulations, we have used the Medium Range Forecast (MRF) PBL scheme, which considers a correction term to the vertical gradients to incorporate nonlocal effects. For this study, we have also used two other parameterizations, a non-local closure scheme called Yonsei University (YSU) PBL scheme and a turbulent kinetic energy closure scheme called Mellor- Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) PBL scheme. We will present intercomparisons of the near surface temperature profiles, boundary layer heights, and wind obtained from the different simulations. We plan to use available temperature observations from Mini TES instrument onboard the rovers Spirit and Opportunity in evaluating the model results.
The Interaction of a Turbulent Ship-Hull Boundary Layer and a Free Surface
Masnadi, N.; Washuta, N.; Wang, A.; Duncan, J. H.
2013-11-01
The free-surface deformation pattern caused by subsurface turbulent velocity fluctuations in the boundary layer at the mid-length of a naval ship is studied with a novel laboratory scale experimental technique. In this technique, the boundary layer is created in a large tank (13.4 m long, 1.3 m tall, and 2.4 m wide) with a surface-piercing meter-wide stainless steel belt that travels in a horizontal loop around two vertically oriented rollers whose axes are separated by 7.5 m. The device is enclosed in a dry box except for one of the two lengths between the rollers where a straight 6-meter-long section is exposed to the water and represents one side of the ship hull. The belt operates at full-scale ship speeds (up to 15 m/s) in order to match the Reynolds, Froude, and Weber numbers to those of naval ships, thus faithfully modeling the interaction of the turbulence with the free surface at laboratory scale. The water surface profile history midway between the rollers is recorded cinematically in a vertical plane normal to the belt using a Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique. This surface profile data is used to study the near-wall and far-field frequency content and propagation behavior of the surface ripples. The support of the Office of Naval Research is gratefully acknowledged.
Water Surface Ripples Generated by the Turbulent Boundary Layer of a Surface-Piercing Moving Wall
Washuta, N.; Masnadi, N.; Duncan, J. H.
2014-11-01
Free surface ripples created by subsurface turbulence along a surface-piercing moving wall are studied experimentally. In this experiment, a meter-wide stainless steel belt travels horizontally in a loop around two rollers with vertically oriented axes, which are separated by 7.5 meters. One of the two 7.5-m-long belt sections between the rollers is in contact with the water in a large open-surface water tank and the water level is adjusted so that the top of the belt pierces the water free surface. The belt is launched from rest with a 3 g acceleration in order to quickly reach a steady state velocity. This belt motion creates a temporally evolving boundary layer analogous to the spatially evolving boundary layer created along the side of a ship hull moving at the belt velocity, with a length equivalent to the length of belt that has passed the measurement region. The water surface ripples generated by the subsurface turbulence are measured in a plane normal to the belt using a cinematic LIF technique. It is found that the overall RMS surface fluctuations increase linearly with belt speed and that the spatial distributions of the fluctuations show a sharp increase near the wall. The support of the Office of Naval Research is gratefully acknowledged.
Experimental Investigation of Compliant Wall Surface Deformation in Turbulent Boundary Layer
Wang, Jin; Agarwal, Karuna; Katz, Joseph
2017-11-01
On-going research integrates Tomographic PIV (TPIV) with Mach-Zehnder Interferometry (MZI) to measure the correlations between deformation of a compliant wall and a turbulent channel flow or a boundary layer. Aiming to extend the scope to two-way coupling, in the present experiment the wall properties have been designed, based on a theoretical analysis, to increase the amplitude of deformation to several μm, achieving the same order of magnitude as the boundary layer wall unit (5-10 μm). It requires higher speeds and a softer surface that has a Young's modulus of 0.1MPa (vs. 1Mpa before), as well as proper thickness (5 mm) that maximize the wall response to excitation at scales that fall within the temporal and spatial resolution of the instruments. The experiments are performed in a water tunnel extension to the JHU refractive index matched facility. The transparent compliant surface is made of PDMS molded on the tunnel window, and measurements are performed at friction velocity Reynolds numbers in the 1000-7000 range. MZI measures the 2D surface deformation as several magnifications. The time-resolved 3D pressure distribution is determined by calculating to spatial distribution of material acceleration from the TPIV data and integrating it using a GPU-based, parallel-line, omni-directional integration method. ONR.
On the stability of boundary layers in gas mantle systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohlsson, D.
1978-10-01
In this thesis a systematic investigation of the stability properties of the partially ionized boundary regions of gas mantle systems for a large class of dissipative magneto-hydrodynamic modes is presented. In the partially ionized boundary regions of gas mantle systems several strong stabilizing mechanisms arise due to coupling between various dissipative effects in certain parameter regions. The presence of neutral gas strongly enhances the stabilizing effects in a dual fashion. First in an indirect way by cooling the edge region and second in a direct way by enhancing viscous and heat conduction effects. It has, however, to be pointed out that exceptions from this general picture may be found. The stabilizing influence of neutral gas on a large class of electrostatic as well as electromagnetic modes in the boundary regions of gas blanket systems is contrary to what has been found in low density weakly ionized plasmas. In these latter cases presence of neutral gas has even been found to be responsible for the onset of entirely new classes of instabilities. Thus there is no universal stabilizing or destabilizing effect associated with plasma-neutral gas interaction effects. (author)
Riley, Zachary Bryce
The use of thin-gauge, light-weight structures in combination with the severe aero-thermodynamic loading makes reusable hypersonic cruise vehicles prone to fluid-thermal-structural interactions. These interactions result in surface perturbations in the form of temperature changes and deformations that alter the stability and eventual transition of the boundary layer. The state of the boundary layer has a significant effect on the aerothermodynamic loads acting on a hypersonic vehicle. The inherent relationship between boundary-layer stability, aerothermodynamic loading, and surface conditions make the interaction between the structural response and boundary-layer transition an important area of study in high-speed flows. The goal of this dissertation is to examine the interaction between boundary layer transition and the response of aerothermally compliant structures. This is carried out by first examining the uncoupled problems of: (1) structural deformation and temperature changes altering boundary-layer stability and (2) the boundary layer state affecting structural response. For the former, the stability of boundary layers developing over geometries that typify the response of surface panels subject to combined aerodynamic and thermal loading is numerically assessed using linear stability theory and the linear parabolized stability equations. Numerous parameters are examined including: deformation direction, deformation location, multiple deformations in series, structural boundary condition, surface temperature, the combined effect of Mach number and altitude, and deformation mode shape. The deformation-induced pressure gradient alters the boundary-layer thickness, which changes the frequency of the most-unstable disturbance. In regions of small boundary-layer growth, the disturbance frequency modulation resulting from a single or multiple panels deformed into the flowfield is found to improve boundary-layer stability and potentially delay transition. For the
Experimental Study of Unsteady Flow Separation in a Laminar Boundary Layer
Bonacci, Andrew; Lang, Amy; Wahidi, Redha; Santos, Leonardo
2017-11-01
Flow separation, caused by an adverse pressure gradient, is a major problem in many applications. Reversing flow near the wall is the first sign of incipient separation and can bristle shark scales which may be linked to a passive, flow actuated separation control mechanism. An investigation of how this backflow forms and how it interacts with shark skin is of interest due to the fact that this could be used as a bioinspired means of initiating flow control. A water tunnel experiment aims to study unsteady separation with a focus on the reversing flow development near the wall within a flat plate laminar boundary layer (Re on order of 105) as an increasing adverse pressure gradient is induced by a rotating cylinder. Unsteady reversing flow development is documented using DPIV. Funding was provided by the National Science Foundation under the Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program (EEC 1659710) and the Army Research Office.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Keck, Rolf-Erik; Veldkamp, Dick; Wedel-Heinen, Jens Jakob
as a standalone flow-solver for the velocity and turbulence distribution, and power production in a wind farm. The performance of the standalone implementation is validated against field data, higher-order computational fluid dynamics models, as well as the most common engineering wake models in the wind industry...... evolution 4. atmospheric stability effects on wake deficit evolution and meandering The conducted research is to a large extent based on detailed wake investigations and reference data generated through computational fluid dynamics simulations, where the wind turbine rotor has been represented......This thesis describes the further development and validation of the dynamic meandering wake model for simulating the flow field and power production of wind farms operating in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The overall objective of the conducted research is to improve the modelling...
On the Lagrangian description of unsteady boundary layer separation. Part 1: General theory
Vandommelen, Leon L.; Cowley, Stephen J.
1989-01-01
Although unsteady, high-Reynolds number, laminar boundary layers have conventionally been studied in terms of Eulerian coordinates, a Lagrangian approach may have significant analytical and computational advantages. In Lagrangian coordinates the classical boundary layer equations decouple into a momentum equation for the motion parallel to the boundary, and a hyperbolic continuity equation (essentially a conserved Jacobian) for the motion normal to the boundary. The momentum equations, plus the energy equation if the flow is compressible, can be solved independently of the continuity equation. Unsteady separation occurs when the continuity equation becomes singular as a result of touching characteristics, the condition for which can be expressed in terms of the solution of the momentum equations. The solutions to the momentum and energy equations remain regular. Asymptotic structures for a number of unsteady 3-D separating flows follow and depend on the symmetry properties of the flow. In the absence of any symmetry, the singularity structure just prior to separation is found to be quasi 2-D with a displacement thickness in the form of a crescent shaped ridge. Physically the singularities can be understood in terms of the behavior of a fluid element inside the boundary layer which contracts in a direction parallel to the boundary and expands normal to it, thus forcing the fluid above it to be ejected from the boundary layer.
On the Lagrangian description of unsteady boundary-layer separation. I - General theory
Van Dommelen, Leon L.; Cowley, Stephen J.
1990-01-01
Although unsteady, high-Reynolds number, laminar boundary layers have conventionally been studied in terms of Eulerian coordinates, a Lagrangian approach may have significant analytical and computational advantages. In Lagrangian coordinates the classical boundary layer equations decouple into a momentum equation for the motion parallel to the boundary, and a hyperbolic continuity equation (essentially a conserved Jacobian) for the motion normal to the boundary. The momentum equations, plus the energy equation if the flow is compressible, can be solved independently of the continuity equation. Unsteady separation occurs when the continuity equation becomes singular as a result of touching characteristics, the condition for which can be expressed in terms of the solution of the momentum equations. The solutions to the momentum and energy equations remain regular. Asymptotic structures for a number of unsteady 3-D separating flows follow and depend on the symmetry properties of the flow. In the absence of any symmetry, the singularity structure just prior to separation is found to be quasi 2-D with a displacement thickness in the form of a crescent shaped ridge. Physically the singularities can be understood in terms of the behavior of a fluid element inside the boundary layer which contracts in a direction parallel to the boundary and expands normal to it, thus forcing the fluid above it to be ejected from the boundary layer.
Kelvin--Helmholtz-like instability of a shear layer subject to free boundary conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mjolsness, R.C.
1979-01-01
For free boundary conditions a shear layer with linear velocity profile supports irrotational disturbances, one mode being unstable when its wavelength lambda>2.619 times the thickness h of the shear layer. For long wavelengths the dispersion relation of the mode approaches the Kelvin--Helmholtz form
A theory for natural convection turbulent boundary layers next to heated vertical surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
George, W.K. Jr.; Capp, S.P.
1979-01-01
The turbulent natural convection boundary layer next to a heated vertical surface is analyzed by classical scaling arguments. It is shown that the fully developed turbulent boundary layer must be treated in two parts: and outer region consisting of most of the boundary layer in which viscous and conduction terms are negligible and an inner region in which the mean convection terms are negligible. The inner layer is identified as a constant heat flux layer. A similarity analysis yields universal profiles for velocity and temperature in the outer and constant heat flux layers. An asymptotic matching of these profiles in an intermediate layer (the buoyant sublayer) yields analytical expressions for the buoyant sublayer profiles. Asymptotic heat transfer and friction laws are obtained for the fully developed boundary layers. Finally, conductive and thermo-viscous sublayers characterized by a linear variation of velocity and temperature are shown to exist at the wall. All predictions are seen to be in excellent agreement with the abundant experimental data. (author)
Formulation of a Prototype Coupled Atmospheric and Oceanic Boundary Layer Model.
1982-12-01
layers. The approach will be to compare observed evolutions in the oceanic and atmospheric boundary layers with predictions from bulk modelo wherein...Library School of Oceanography Oregon State Universiy Corvallis, OR 97331 22. Commander Oceanoqraphic Sysctems Pacific Box 1 390 Pearl Harbor, HI
Convective instability in a time-dependent buoyancy driven boundary layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brooker, A.M.H.; Patterson, J.C.; Graham, T.; Schoepf, W. [University of Western Australia, Nedlands (Australia). Centre for Water Research
2000-01-01
The stability of the parallel time-dependent boundary layer adjacent to a suddenly heated vertical wall is described. The flow is investigated through experiments in water, through direct numerical simulation and also through linear stability analysis. The full numerical simulation of the flow shows that small perturbations to the wall boundary conditions, that are also present in the experimental study, are responsible for triggering the instability. As a result, oscillatory behaviour in the boundary layer is observed well before the transition to a steady two-dimensional flow begins. The properties of the observed oscillations are compared with those predicted by a linear stability analysis of the unsteady boundary layer using a quasi-stationary assumption and also using non-stationary assumptions by the formulation of parabolized equations (PSE). (Author)
A New Spectral Local Linearization Method for Nonlinear Boundary Layer Flow Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. S. Motsa
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a simple and efficient method for solving highly nonlinear systems of boundary layer flow problems with exponentially decaying profiles. The algorithm of the proposed method is based on an innovative idea of linearizing and decoupling the governing systems of equations and reducing them into a sequence of subsystems of differential equations which are solved using spectral collocation methods. The applicability of the proposed method, hereinafter referred to as the spectral local linearization method (SLLM, is tested on some well-known boundary layer flow equations. The numerical results presented in this investigation indicate that the proposed method, despite being easy to develop and numerically implement, is very robust in that it converges rapidly to yield accurate results and is more efficient in solving very large systems of nonlinear boundary value problems of the similarity variable boundary layer type. The accuracy and numerical stability of the SLLM can further be improved by using successive overrelaxation techniques.
Effects of fluid layer at micropolar orthotropic boundary surface
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The displacement, microrotation and stress components for a micropolar orthotropic elastic solid so obtained in the physical domain are computed numerically by applying the numerical inversion technique. Micropolarity and anisotropy effects along with that of the depth of the ﬂuid layer on various expressions have been ...
Characterization of the atmospheric boundary layer from radiosonde ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
layer (ABL), using balloon-borne GPS radiosonde data is presented. ABL has been .... Data has been used. Figure 2(a–d) shows seasonal average of wind circulation pattern for the sum- mer, monsoon, post-monsoon, and winter respec- tively. Generally, the ..... port in smooth functioning of balloon borne GPS ascents for ...
Effects of fluid layer at micropolar orthotropic boundary surface
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
Abstract. Effects of a fluid layer at a micropolar orthotropic elastic solid inter- face to a moving point load have been studied. After using the Fourier transform an eigen value approach has been employed to solve the problem. The displacement, microrotation and stress components for a micropolar orthotropic elastic solid so.
Marine boundary layer characteristics during a cyclonic storm over ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
of this system and (ii) the lower layer of the atmosphere had become stable during the formative stage of the cyclonic storm. 1. Introduction. A tropical cyclone is the most serious form of nat- ural disasters, both in terms of loss of life and damage to property. Loss of life occurs mostly in coastal areas because the high winds of ...
Ludwig Prandtl and Boundary Layers in Fluid Flow
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
paper by L Prandtl who showed that viscous effects, no ... Reynolds number or nearly frictionless flows, for exam- ple the flow past a .... Just past the leading edge, only the fluid next to the wall is slowed down. Further down the plate the random motion of the molecules slow down adj acent fluid layers away from the.
A theoretical study on the overlap region in a flat plate turbulent boundary layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishioka, Michio
2010-01-01
This paper studies the wall-law defect-law overlap region in a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer. By taking account of the non-parallel flow effect, a system of differential equations is derived, which describes the velocity profile for the overlap layer and the velocity and length scales for the outer layer. Two kinds of solutions are obtained for the velocity profile in combination with corresponding solutions for the outer layer scales. One is of log-law type and the other is of power-law type. These are possible solutions that represent the necessary condition for the existence of the overlap layer. In the light of the present solutions, recent experimental data for a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer are examined. It is found that the observed velocity data follow the log-law solution for momentum thickness Reynolds numbers R θ above 20 000.
Free surface simulation of a two-layer fluid by boundary element method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weoncheol Koo
2010-09-01
Full Text Available A two-layer fluid with free surface is simulated in the time domain by a two-dimensional potential-based Numerical Wave Tank (NWT. The developed NWT is based on the boundary element method and a leap-frog time integration scheme. A whole domain scheme including interaction terms between two layers is applied to solve the boundary integral equation. The time histories of surface elevations on both fluid layers in the respective wave modes are verified with analytic results. The amplitude ratios of upper to lower elevation for various density ratios and water depths are also compared.
Computational Fluid Dynamics model of stratified atmospheric boundary-layer flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Koblitz, Tilman; Bechmann, Andreas; Sogachev, Andrey
2015-01-01
For wind resource assessment, the wind industry is increasingly relying on computational fluid dynamics models of the neutrally stratified surface-layer. So far, physical processes that are important to the whole atmospheric boundary-layer, such as the Coriolis effect, buoyancy forces and heat...... transport, are mostly ignored. In order to decrease the uncertainty of wind resource assessment, the present work focuses on atmospheric flows that include stability and Coriolis effects. The influence of these effects on the whole atmospheric boundary-layer are examined using a Reynolds-averaged Navier...
Comparing wall modeled LES and prescribed boundary layer approach in infinite wind farm simulations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sarlak, Hamid; Mikkelsen, Robert; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2015-01-01
This paper aims at presenting a simple and computationally fast method for simulation of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) and comparing the results with the commonly used wall-modelled Large Eddy Simulation (WMLES). The simple method, called Prescribed Mean Shear and Turbulence (PMST) hereafter...... inexpensive, is high flexibility meaning that the imposed boundary layer can be read from another CFD simulation, or from site measurements. For fundamental studies focusing on the wake structures rather than ABL for example, the grid can be refined in the rotor region and any desired shear layer can...
Unsteady separated boundary layer in a transonic diffuser flow with self-excited oscillations
Hsieh, T.; Coakley, T. J.
1986-01-01
A numerical investigation of two-dimensional unsteady boundary layer in a transonic diffuser flow with self-excited oscillations and strong flow separation by solving the compressible, Reynolds-averaged, thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations with two-equations turbulence model is described. Three different meshes with constant streamwise mesh distribution and varying vertical mesh distribution were used. Results obtained indicate that a refinement of mesh studied here has minimal effect on the mean boundary layer flow but significantly increases the amplitude of oscillation of all flow variables. Comparisons of unsteady wall pressure, velocity profile, terminal shock, and separation pocket among computations and with experiment are presented.
A perspective on coherent structures and conceptual models for turbulent boundary layer physics
Robinson, Stephen K.
1990-01-01
Direct numerical simulations of turbulent boundary layers have been analyzed to develop a unified conceptual model for the kinematics of coherent motions in low Reynolds number canonical turbulent boundary layers. All classes of coherent motions are considered in the model, including low-speed streaks, ejections and sweeps, vortical structures, near-wall and outer-region shear layers, sublayer pockets, and large-scale outer-region eddies. The model reflects the conclusions from the study of the simulated boundary layer that vortical structures are directly associated with the production of turbulent shear stresses, entrainment, dissipation of turbulence kinetic energy, and the fluctuating pressure field. These results, when viewed from the perspective of the large body of published work on the subject of coherent motions, confirm that vortical structures may be considered the central dynamic element in the maintenance of turbulence in the canonical boundary layer. Vortical structures serve as a framework on which to construct a unified picture of boundary layer structure, providing a means to relate the many known structural elements in a consistent way.
Farhat, Charbel; Lakshminarayan, Vinod K.
2014-04-01
Embedded Boundary Methods (EBMs) for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) are usually constructed in the Eulerian setting. They are particularly attractive for complex Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) problems characterized by large structural motions and deformations. They are also critical for flow problems with topological changes and FSI problems with cracking. For all of these problems, the alternative Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) methods are often unfeasible because of the issue of mesh crossovers. However for viscous flows, Eulerian EBMs for CFD do not track the boundary layers around dynamic rigid or flexible bodies. Consequently, the application of these methods to viscous FSI problems requires either a high mesh resolution in a large part of the computational fluid domain, or adaptive mesh refinement. Unfortunately, the first option is computationally inefficient, and the second one is labor intensive. For these reasons, an alternative approach is proposed in this paper for maintaining all moving boundary layers resolved during the simulation of a turbulent FSI problem using an EBM for CFD. In this approach, which is simple and computationally reasonable, the underlying non-body-fitted mesh is rigidly translated and/or rotated in order to track the rigid component of the motion of the dynamic obstacle. Then, the flow computations away from the embedded surface are performed using the ALE framework, and the wall boundary conditions are treated by the chosen Eulerian EBM for CFD. Hence, the solution of the boundary layer tracking problem proposed in this paper can be described as an ALE implementation of a given EBM for CFD. Its basic features are illustrated with the Large Eddy Simulation using a non-body-fitted mesh of a turbulent flow past an airfoil in heaving motion. Its strong potential for the solution of challenging FSI problems at reasonable computational costs is also demonstrated with the simulation of turbulent flows past a family of
König, Jörg; Tschulik, Kristina; Büttner, Lars; Uhlemann, Margitta; Czarske, Jürgen
2013-03-19
To experimentally reveal the correlation between electrodeposited structure and electrolyte convection induced inside the concentration boundary layer, a highly inhomogeneous magnetic field, generated by a magnetized Fe-wire, has been applied to an electrochemical system. The influence of Lorentz and magnetic field gradient force to the local transport phenomena of copper ions has been studied using a novel two-component laser Doppler velocity profile sensor. With this sensor, the electrolyte convection within 500 μm of a horizontally aligned cathode is presented. The electrode-normal two-component velocity profiles below the electrodeposited structure show that electrolyte convection is induced and directed toward the rim of the Fe-wire. The measured deposited structure directly correlates to the observed boundary layer flow. As the local concentration of Cu(2+) ions is enhanced due to the induced convection, maximum deposit thicknesses can be found at the rim of the Fe-wire. Furthermore, a complex boundary layer flow structure was determined, indicating that electrolyte convection of second order is induced. Moreover, the Lorentz force-driven convection rapidly vanishes, while the electrolyte convection induced by the magnetic field gradient force is preserved much longer. The progress for research is the first direct experimental proof of the electrolyte convection inside the concentration boundary layer that correlates to the deposited structure and reveals that the magnetic field gradient force is responsible for the observed structuring effect.
Rozendaal, Rodger A.
1986-01-01
The Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment (VSTFE) was initiated to establish a boundary-layer transition data base for laminar flow wing design. For this experiment, full-span upper-surface gloves will be fitted to a variable sweep F-14 aircraft. The results of two initial tasks are documented: a parametric pressure distribution/boundary-layer stability study and the design of an upper-surface glove for Mach 0.8. The first task was conducted to provide a data base from which wing-glove pressure distributions could be selected for glove designs. Boundary-layer stability analyses were conducted on a set of pressure distributions for various wing sweep angles, Mach numbers, and Reynolds number in the range of those anticipated for the flight-test program. The design procedure for the Mach 0.8 glove is described, and boundary-layer stability calculations and pressure distributions are presented both at design and off-design conditions. Also included is the analysis of the clean-up glove (smoothed basic wing) that will be flight-tested initially and the analysis of a Mach 0.7 glove designed at the NASA Langley Research Center.
A Hybrid Approach to Online and Traditional Learning during a Boundary Layer Meteorology Course
Kelsey, E. P.; Yarker, M. B.; Mesquita, M. D. S.
2014-12-01
This project discusses a case study, where eight graduate students in a Boundary Layer Meteorology course at Plymouth State University collected observation data and ran the WRF model in order to explore the relationships between model output, observation data, and boundary layer theory. At the end of the course, the students drafted a paper highlighting their findings, which has been submitted for publication. As a part of the course, the students were provided with a unique learning opportunity to collect meteorological data for a boundary layer phenomenon of their choice, analyze the data and compare it to theory learned in class, and run a numerical model to test the model forecast skill of the observations. Students had access to the Plymouth State University (PSU) radiosonde system and the Mount Washington Observatory Mesonet stations that measure wind, temperature, and relative humidity. Additionally, they had access to the NCAR Yellowstone supercomputer to run their WRF model simulations. This course used a hybrid approach to learning about running the WRF model, which included the in-class material and an online WRF modelling course. For the purposes of this class, the hybrid approach included having the students take the online tutorial and have weekly videoconference meetings with the online course tutor, who lives in Norway. This, in conjunction with the traditional in-class portion, provided multiple modes of learning WRF, access to more expertise in running numerical models, and an opportunity to meet a foreign researcher. Survey results indicate that the students found it helpful to run the model as a part of understanding the atmosphere. A few students recognized that having experience running a model could help them in their future research if they ever need to run WRF or any other atmospheric research model. Most students report that it was useful to compare model data to observed data in order to evaluate the model and compare their findings to
Modeling Turbulence Generation in the Atmospheric Surface and Boundary Layers
2015-10-01
ZT ). The initial acceleration of the rising buoyant air will be a = g∆T/TA. This is simply Archimedes ’ principle applied to the buoyant air. The... applications . 1 Various rules are employed to model C2n in the surface layer, but a key question is how to extend this estimation technique into the lower...in terms of wind turbulence the structure of the fluctuations produces a Reynolds stress tensor whose principle axes are not equal, meaning that at the
Modeling the feedback between aerosol and boundary layer processes: a case study in Beijing, China.
Miao, Yucong; Liu, Shuhua; Zheng, Yijia; Wang, Shu
2016-02-01
Rapid development has led to frequent haze in Beijing. With mountains and sea surrounding Beijing, the pollution is found to be influenced by the mountain-plain breeze and sea-land breeze in complex ways. Meanwhile, the presence of aerosols may affect the surface energy balance and impact these boundary layer (BL) processes. The effects of BL processes on aerosol pollution and the feedback between aerosol and BL processes are not yet clearly understood. Thus, the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to investigate the possible effects and feedbacks during a haze episode on 23 September 2011. Influenced by the onshore prevailing wind, sea-breeze, and upslope breeze, about 45% of surface particulate matter (PM)2.5 in Beijing are found to be contributed by its neighbor cities through regional transport. In the afternoon, the development of upslope breeze suppresses the growth of BL in Beijing by imposing a relatively low thermal stable layer above the BL, which exacerbates the pollution. Two kinds of feedback during the daytime are revealed as follows: (1) as the aerosols absorb and scatter the solar radiation, the surface net radiation and sensible heat flux are decreased, while BL temperature is increased, resulting in a more stable and shallower BL, which leads to a higher surface PM2.5 concentration in the morning and (2) in the afternoon, as the presence of aerosols increases the BL temperature over plains, the upslope breeze is weakened, and the boundary layer height (BLH) over Beijing is heightened, resulting in the decrease of the surface PM2.5 concentration there.
Thin layers in actinide research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gouder, T.
1998-01-01
Surface science research at the ITU is focused on the synthesis and surface spectroscopy studies of thin films of actinides and actinide compounds. The surface spectroscopies used are X-ray and ultra violet photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and UPS, respectively), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Thin films of actinide elements and compounds are prepared by sputter deposition from elemental targets. Alloy films are deposited from corresponding alloy targets and could be used, in principle, as replicates of these targets. However, there are deviations between alloy film and target composition, which depend on the deposition conditions, such as pressure and target voltage. Mastering of these effects may allow us to study stoichiometric film replicates instead of thick bulk compounds. As an example, we discuss the composition of U-Ni films prepared from a UNi 5 target. (orig.)
Hwang, Hyeon Gyu; Lee, Jae Hwa
2017-11-01
Direct numerical simulations of turbulent boundary layers (TBLs) over spanwise heterogeneous surface roughness are performed to investigate the characteristics of secondary flow. The longitudinal surface roughness, which features lateral change in bed elevation, is described by immersed boundary method. The Reynolds number based on the momentum thickness is varied in the range of Reθ = 300-900. As the TBLs over the roughness elements spatially develop in the streamwise direction, a secondary flow emerges in a form of counter-rotating vortex pair. As the spanwise spacing between the roughness elements and roughness width vary, it is shown that the size of the secondary flow is determined by the valley width between the roughness elements. In addition, the strength of the secondary flow is mostly affected by the spanwise distance between the cores of the secondary flow. Analysis of the Reynolds-averaged turbulent kinetic energy transport equation reveals that the energy redistribution terms in the TBLs over-the ridge type roughness play an important role to derive low-momentum pathways with upward motion over the roughness crest, contrary to the previous observation with the strip-type roughness. This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2017R1D1A1A09000537) and the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (NRF-2017R1A5A1015311).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sadeghy, K.; Sharifi, M.
2002-01-01
The effect of a fluid's elasticity on the characteristics of its boundary layer was investigated in this work. A viscoelastic fluid of Maxwellian type was selected for this purpose and the flow induced in this fluid by a plate withdrawing at a constant velocity was studied. Conventional boundary layer assumptions were invoked to reduce the equations of motion to a simple form incorporating an elastic term in addition to the familiar inertial, viscous and pressure terms. It was shown that for elastic effects to be of an importance in a boundary layer, the fluid's relaxation time should be of an order much larger than its kinematic viscosity. By introducing a stream function, the governing equation was transformed into a nonlinear ODE with x-coordinate still appearing in the equation demonstrating that no similarity solution existed for this flow. The resulting equation was then solved numerically for Deborah numbers as large as 1.0. The results showed a marked formation of boundary layer adjacent to a moving wall for a Maxwellian fluid. The boundary layer thickness and the wall shear stress were found to scale with fluid's elasticity - both decreasing the higher the fluid's elasticity. It is thus anticipated that in free coating processes, the force required to impart a constant velocity to a withdrawing belt or plate would be lower if fluid's elasticity is significant. (author)
First Signs of Flow Reversal Within a Separated Turbulent Boundary Layer
Hammerton, Jared; Lang, Amy
2015-11-01
A shark's skin is covered in millions of microscopic scales that have been shown to be able to bristle in a reversing flow. The motive of this project is to further explore a potential bio-inspired passive separation control mechanism which can reduce drag. To better understand this mechanism, a more complete understanding of flow reversal within the turbulent boundary layer is required. In order to capture this phenomenon, water tunnel testing at The University of Alabama was conducted. Using a long flat plate and a rotating cylinder, a large turbulent boundary layer and adverse pressure gradient were generated. Under our testing conditions the boundary layer had a Reynolds number of 200,000 and a boundary layer height in the testing window of 5.6 cm. The adverse pressure gradient causes the viscous length scale to increase and thus increase the size of the individual components of the turbulent boundary layer. This will make the low speed streaks approximately 1 cm in width and thus large enough to measure. Results will be presented that test our hypothesis that the first signs of flow reversal will occur within the section of lowest momentum located furthest from the wall, or within the low speed streaks. This Project was funded by NSF REU Site Award 1358991.
Dissociation–recombination models in hypersonic boundary layer O2/O flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armenise, I.; Esposito, F.
2012-01-01
Graphical abstract: In hypersonic boundary layers, in which the temperature strongly decreases from the edge to the body surface, the coupling of transport phenomena and chemical kinetics causes a strong vibrational non-equilibrium, as demonstrated by the vibrational distributions and the pseudo-first-order dissociation constants. In this work a pure O2/O mixture has been investigated to evaluate the role of new multiquanta atom-molecule collision rate coefficients, calculated by means of a quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) method. Highlights: ► We evaluate the vibrational non-equilibrium in oxygen hypersonic boundary layer flows. ► We adopt a state-to-state vibrational kinetics model. ► We use updated quasicassical trajectory atom–molecule collision rate coefficients. ► Multiquanta transitions and direct dissociation–recombination are important. ► We calculate the heat flux through the boundary layer. - Abstract: A recent complete set of oxygen atom–molecule collision rate coefficients, calculated by means of a quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) method, has been used to evaluate the vibrational non-equilibrium in hypersonic boundary layer flows. The importance of multiquanta transitions has been demonstrated. Moreover a new ‘direct dissociation–recombination’ (DDR) model has been adopted and the corresponding results differ from the ones obtained with the ladder-climbing (LC) model, characterized by the extrapolation of bound-to-bound transitions to the continuum. The heat flux through the boundary layer and at the surface has been calculated too.
Locomotion of bacteria in liquid flow and the boundary layer effect on bacterial attachment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Chao, E-mail: zhangchao@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems (Chongqing University), Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400030 (China); Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Liao, Qiang, E-mail: lqzx@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems (Chongqing University), Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400030 (China); Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Chen, Rong, E-mail: rchen@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems (Chongqing University), Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400030 (China); Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Zhu, Xun, E-mail: zhuxun@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems (Chongqing University), Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400030 (China); Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China)
2015-06-12
The formation of biofilm greatly affects the performance of biological reactors, which highly depends on bacterial swimming and attachment that usually takes place in liquid flow. Therefore, bacterial swimming and attachment on flat and circular surfaces with the consideration of flow was studied experimentally. Besides, a mathematical model comprehensively combining bacterial swimming and motion with flow is proposed for the simulation of bacterial locomotion and attachment in flow. Both experimental and theoretical results revealed that attached bacteria density increases with decreasing boundary layer thickness on both flat and circular surfaces, the consequence of which is inherently related to the competition between bacterial swimming and the non-slip motion with flow evaluated by the Péclet number. In the boundary layer, where the Péclet number is relatively higher, bacterial locomotion mainly depends on bacterial swimming. Thinner boundary layer promotes bacterial swimming towards the surface, leading to higher attachment density. To enhance the performance of biofilm reactors, it is effective to reduce the boundary layer thickness on desired surfaces. - Highlights: • Study of bacterial locomotion in flow as an early stage in biofilm formation. • Mathematical model combining bacterial swimming and the motion with flow. • Boundary layer plays a key role in bacterial attachment under flow condition. • The competition between bacterial swimming and the motion with flow is evaluated.
Locomotion of bacteria in liquid flow and the boundary layer effect on bacterial attachment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Chao; Liao, Qiang; Chen, Rong; Zhu, Xun
2015-01-01
The formation of biofilm greatly affects the performance of biological reactors, which highly depends on bacterial swimming and attachment that usually takes place in liquid flow. Therefore, bacterial swimming and attachment on flat and circular surfaces with the consideration of flow was studied experimentally. Besides, a mathematical model comprehensively combining bacterial swimming and motion with flow is proposed for the simulation of bacterial locomotion and attachment in flow. Both experimental and theoretical results revealed that attached bacteria density increases with decreasing boundary layer thickness on both flat and circular surfaces, the consequence of which is inherently related to the competition between bacterial swimming and the non-slip motion with flow evaluated by the Péclet number. In the boundary layer, where the Péclet number is relatively higher, bacterial locomotion mainly depends on bacterial swimming. Thinner boundary layer promotes bacterial swimming towards the surface, leading to higher attachment density. To enhance the performance of biofilm reactors, it is effective to reduce the boundary layer thickness on desired surfaces. - Highlights: • Study of bacterial locomotion in flow as an early stage in biofilm formation. • Mathematical model combining bacterial swimming and the motion with flow. • Boundary layer plays a key role in bacterial attachment under flow condition. • The competition between bacterial swimming and the motion with flow is evaluated
Reynolds number effects in DNS of pipe flow and comparison with channels and boundary layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chin, C.; Monty, J.P.; Ooi, A.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • New direct numerical simulations of turbulent pipe flow up to Re τ =2003. • Streamwise and spanwise variances do not exhibit inner scaling due to large-scale. • Transverse velocity statistics show differences between pipes and boundary layers. • Difference in variance of transverse velocities due to higher turbulence production. -- Abstract: Direct numerical simulations of turbulent pipe flow were performed at four Reynolds numbers: Re τ =180,500,1002and2003. Beyond Re τ =1000 viscous scaling holds near the wall for the mean velocity, Reynolds shear stress and wall-normal velocity variance. Streamwise and spanwise velocity variances do not exhibit inner (viscous) scaling due to increasing large-scale energy contributions. A comparison with channel and boundary layer DNS data shows negligible statistical differences between pipes and channels, whereas the transverse velocities for pipes/channels are significantly different when compared with boundary layers. A further comparison displays that the boundary layer pressure fluctuations is greater than pipes/channels. In addition, is it shown that the higher pressure fluctuations in the boundary layer is not the sole mechanism responsible for a stronger wake region in the flow
Experiments on a smooth wall hypersonic boundary layer at Mach 6
Neeb, Dominik; Saile, Dominik; Gülhan, Ali
2018-04-01
The turbulent boundary layer along the surface of high-speed vehicles drives shear stress and heat flux. Although essential to the vehicle design, the understanding of compressible turbulent boundary layers at high Mach numbers is limited due to the lack of available data. This is particularly true if the surface is rough, which is typically the case for all technical surfaces. To validate a methodological approach, as initial step, smooth wall experiments were performed. A hypersonic turbulent boundary layer at Ma = 6 (Ma_e=5.4) along a 7{}° sharp cone model at low Reynolds numbers Re_{θ } ≈ 3000 was characterized. The mean velocities in the boundary layer were acquired by means of Pitot pressure and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. Furthermore, the PIV data were used to extract turbulent intensities along the profile. The mean velocities in the boundary layer agree with numerical data, independent of the measurement technique. Based on the profile data, three different approaches to extract the skin friction velocity were applied and show favorable comparison to literature and numerical data. The extracted values were used for inner and outer scaling of the van Driest transformed velocity profiles which are in good agreement to incompressible theoretical data. Morkovin scaled turbulent intensities show ambiguous results compared to literature data which may be influenced by inflow turbulence level, particle lag and other measurement uncertainties.
Numerical Investigation of PLIF Gas Seeding for Hypersonic Boundary Layer Flows
Johanson, Craig T.; Danehy, Paul M.
2012-01-01
Numerical simulations of gas-seeding strategies required for planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) in a Mach 10 air flow were performed. The work was performed to understand and quantify adverse effects associated with gas seeding and to compare different flow rates and different types of seed gas. The gas was injected through a slot near the leading edge of a flat plate wedge model used in NASA Langley Research Center's 31- Inch Mach 10 Air Tunnel facility. Nitric oxide, krypton, and iodine gases were simulated at various injection rates. Simulation results showing the deflection of the velocity field for each of the cases are presented. Streamwise distributions of velocity and concentration boundary layer thicknesses as well as vertical distributions of velocity, temperature, and mass distributions are presented for each of the cases. Relative merits of the different seeding strategies are discussed.
Heineck, James; Schairer, Edward; Ramasamy, Manikandan; Roozeboom, Nettie
2016-01-01
This paper describes simultaneous optical measurements of a sub-scale helicopter rotor in the U.S. Army Hover Chamber at NASA Ames Research Center. The measurements included thermal imaging of the rotor blades to detect boundary layer transition; retro-reflective background-oriented schlieren (RBOS) to visualize vortices; and stereo photogrammetry to measure displacements of the rotor blades, to compute spatial coordinates of the vortices from the RBOS data, and to map the thermal imaging data to a three-dimensional surface grid. The test also included an exploratory effort to measure flow near the rotor tip by tomographic particle image velocimetry (tomo PIV)an effort that yielded valuable experience but little data. The thermal imaging was accomplished using an image-derotation method that allowed long integration times without image blur. By mapping the thermal image data to a surface grid it was possible to accurately locate transition in spatial coordinates along the length of the rotor blade.
Aircraft measurement of ozone turbulent flux in the atmospheric boundary layer
Affre, Ch.; Carrara, A.; Lefebre, F.; Druilhet, A.; Fontan, J.; Lopez, A.
In May 1995, the "Chimie-Creil 95" experiment was undertaken in the north of France. The field data are first used to validate the methodology for airborne measurement of ozone flux. A certain number of methodological problems due to the location of the fast ozone sensor inside the airplane are, furthermore discussed. The paper describes the instrumentation of the ARAT (Avion de Recherche Atmosphérique et de Télédétection), an atmospheric research and remote-sensing aircraft used to perform the airborne measurements, the area flown over, the meteorological conditions and boundary layer stability conditions. These aircraft measurements are then used to determine ozone deposition velocity and values are proposed for aerodynamic, bulk transfer coefficients (ozone and momentum). The paper also establishes the relationship between the normalised standard deviation and stability parameters ( z/ L) for ozone, temperature, humidity and vertical velocity. The laws obtained are then presented.
Three dimensional boundary layer flow of a viscoelastic nanofluid with Soret and Dufour effects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Ramzan
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The present research focuses on the three-dimensional flow of viscoelastic fluid in the presence of Soret and Dufour effects. Effects of thermophoresis and Brownian motion are taken into account. Appropriate similarity transformations lead to nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Solution expressions of velocity, temperature and nanoparticle concentration are computed via homotopy analysis method (HAM. Convergence of obtained solutions is analyzed graphically and numerically. Results are plotted and analyzed for the dimensionless velocities, temperature and nanoparticle concentration. Values of local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are examined through tabular form. It is observed that Temperature field is enhanced for the larger Brownian motion parameter and an increase in Dufour number gives rise to the temperature and thermal boundary layer thickness.
Emergence of three-dimensional flow structures in shock boundary layer interactions
Gs, Sidharth; Dwivedi, Anubhav; Nichols, Joseph; Jovanovic, Mihailo; Candler, Graham
2017-11-01
Experiments and computations point to the emergence of three-dimensional (3D) flow structures in laminar shock boundary layer interactions in various configurations. We examine a Mach 5 flow over a double compression ramp and reveal the presence of a bifurcation from a steady 2D to a steady 3D flow state. This is done by varying the relative angle of the two ramps which increases the interaction strength. We employ global linear stability analysis and direct numerical simulation to characterize this bifurcation and demonstrate that global instability induces 3D flow structures. We use the direct and adjoint linear equations to further investigate the origin of this instability and examine the influence of uncertainty (including the effect of geometric irregularities in the ramp and free-stream disturbances in wind tunnel) on this bifurcation. This work was supported by Office of Naval Research through Grant Number N00014-15-1-2522.
Towards grid-converged wall-modeled LES of atmospheric boundary layer flows
Yellapantula, Shashank; Vijayakumar, Ganesh; Henry de Frahan, Marc; Churchfield, Matthew; Sprague, Michael
2017-11-01
Accurate characterization of incoming atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) turbulence is a critical factor in improving accuracy and predictive nature of simulation of wind farm flows. Modern commercial wind turbines operate in the log layer of the ABL that are typically simulated using wall-modeled large-eddy simulation (WMLES). One of the long-standing issues associated with wall modeling for LES and hybrid RANS-LES for atmospheric boundary layers is the over-prediction of the mean-velocity gradient, commonly referred to as log-layer mismatch. Kawai and Larsson in 2012, identified under-resolution of the near-wall region and the incorrect information received by the wall model as potential causes for the log-layer mismatch in WMLES of smooth-wall boundary-layer flows. To solve the log layer mismatch issue, they proposed linking the wall model to the LES solution at a physical of height of ym, instead of the first grid point. In this study, we extend their wall modeling approach to LES of the rough-wall ABL to investigate issues of log-layer mismatch and grid convergence. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Wind Energy Technologies Office, under Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
Schaeffer, A.; Roughan, M.; Wood, J. E.
2014-08-01
Western boundary currents strongly influence the dynamics on the adjacent continental shelf and in particular the cross-shelf transport and uplift through the bottom boundary layer. Four years of moored in situ observations on the narrow southeastern Australian shelf (in water depths of between 65 and 140 m) were used to investigate bottom cross-shelf transport, both upstream (30°S) and downstream (34°S) of the separation zone of the East Australian Current (EAC). Bottom transport was estimated and assessed against Ekman theory, showing consistent results for a number of different formulations of the boundary layer thickness. Net bottom cross-shelf transport was onshore at all locations. Ekman theory indicates that up to 64% of the transport variability is driven by the along-shelf bottom stress. Onshore transport in the bottom boundary layer was more intense and frequent upstream than downstream, occurring 64% of the time at 30°S. Wind-driven surface Ekman transport estimates did not balance the bottom cross-shelf flow. At both locations, strong variability was found in bottom water transport at periods of approximately 90-100 days. This corresponds with periodicity in EAC fluctuations and eddy shedding as evidenced from altimeter observations, highlighting the EAC as a driver of variability in the continental shelf waters. Ocean glider and HF radar observations were used to identify the bio-physical response to an EAC encroachment event, resulting in a strong onshore bottom flow, the uplift of cold slope water, and elevated coastal chlorophyll concentrations.
Weigel, A. M.; Griffin, R.; Knupp, K. R.; Molthan, A.; Coleman, T.
2017-12-01
Northern Alabama is among the most tornado-prone regions in the United States. This region has a higher degree of spatial variability in both terrain and land cover than the more frequently studied North American Great Plains region due to its proximity to the southern Appalachian Mountains and Cumberland Plateau. More research is needed to understand North Alabama's high tornado frequency and how land surface heterogeneity influences tornadogenesis in the boundary layer. Several modeling and simulation studies stretching back to the 1970's have found that variations in the land surface induce tornadic-like flow near the surface, illustrating a need for further investigation. This presentation introduces research investigating the hypothesis that horizontal gradients in land surface roughness, normal to the direction of flow in the boundary layer, induce vertically oriented vorticity at the surface that can potentially aid in tornadogenesis. A novel approach was implemented to test this hypothesis using a GIS-based quadrant pattern analysis method. This method was developed to quantify spatial relationships and patterns between horizontal variations in land surface roughness and locations of tornadogenesis. Land surface roughness was modeled using the Noah land surface model parameterization scheme which, was applied to MODIS 500 m and Landsat 30 m data in order to compare the relationship between tornadogenesis locations and roughness gradients at different spatial scales. This analysis found a statistical relationship between areas of higher roughness located normal to flow surrounding tornadogenesis locations that supports the tested hypothesis. In this presentation, the innovative use of satellite remote sensing data and GIS technologies to address interactions between the land and atmosphere will be highlighted.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hall, Alex [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Joint Institute for Regional Earth System Science and Engineering
2013-07-24
Stratocumulus and shallow cumulus clouds in subtropical oceanic regions (e.g., Southeast Pacific) cover thousands of square kilometers and play a key role in regulating global climate (e.g., Klein and Hartmann, 1993). Numerical modeling is an essential tool to study these clouds in regional and global systems, but the current generation of climate and weather models has difficulties in representing them in a realistic way (e.g., Siebesma et al., 2004; Stevens et al., 2007; Teixeira et al., 2011). While numerical models resolve the large-scale flow, subgrid-scale parameterizations are needed to estimate small-scale properties (e.g. boundary layer turbulence and convection, clouds, radiation), which have significant influence on the resolved scale due to the complex nonlinear nature of the atmosphere. To represent the contribution of these fine-scale processes to the resolved scale, climate models use various parameterizations, which are the main pieces in the model that contribute to the low clouds dynamics and therefore are the major sources of errors or approximations in their representation. In this project, we aim to 1) improve our understanding of the physical processes in thermal circulation and cloud formation, 2) examine the performance and sensitivity of various parameterizations in the regional weather model (Weather Research and Forecasting model; WRF), and 3) develop, implement, and evaluate the advanced boundary layer parameterization in the regional model to better represent stratocumulus, shallow cumulus, and their transition. Thus, this project includes three major corresponding studies. We find that the mean diurnal cycle is sensitive to model domain in ways that reveal the existence of different contributions originating from the Southeast Pacific land-masses. The experiments suggest that diurnal variations in circulations and thermal structures over this region are influenced by convection over the Peruvian sector of the Andes cordillera, while
Hazy Boundaries: Virtual Communities and Research Ethics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Helena Kantanen
2016-10-01
Full Text Available This paper examines ethical issues specific to research into virtual communities. Drawing on an empirical case with online forums of education experts, we identify the following key issues: publicity versus privacy of the community; the definition of human subjects research; participant recruitment; informed consent; and ethical questions associated with observing virtual communities, and with reporting and disseminating research results. We maintain that different research cultures in different countries can present challenges when studying global forums. Acknowledging the ephemeral characteristics of Internet contexts, this paper argues that ethical considerations should be more case-based, instead of relying on one model for all solutions. We suggest that local ethics committees or institutional review boards could, with their expert knowledge of ethics, provide valuable support for researchers operating in the complex and dynamic terrain of Internet research, as well as in fields and research settings where an ethical review is not a standard part of the research process.
A simplified technique for determining the boundary layer voltage loss in MHD generators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolson, R.C.; Biblarz, O.
1977-01-01
MHD generator performance predictions require an accurate determination of the voltage losses in the channel; however, most techniques for determining these losses need substantial calculations and/or computer storage space. This paper proposes a simplified method for calculating the ohmic boundary layer contribution to the overall voltage losses. Voltage drop regions are discussed and a description of the turbulent boundary layer contribution is derived. Appropriate simplifying assumptions on the basic transport and MHD concepts are used to express the conductivity as a function of temperature only. Weighting functions for averaging the resistivity in turbulent boundary layers are determined and the nature of these functions is presented. The results are compared with more precise descriptions and with experimental results. (author)
Boundary layer of the troposphere of Western Siberia from the data of lidar measurements in Tomsk
Samoilova, S. V.; Balin, Yu. S.; Kokhanenko, G. P.; Penner, I. E.
2015-11-01
The results are presented of the study of planetary boundary layer of the atmosphere in the Western Siberian region, as well as retrieval of its optical and geometric characteristics from the data of lidar measurements. The basis of the study are 110 seances of sounding by means of the LOSA-S multi-frequency lidar in Tomsk (56°N, 85°E). Measurements of the optical characteristics in the boundary layer caused by transfer of aerosol from different geographic regions are considered. High values of the lidar ratio (66 sr) and the Angstrom exponent (1.62) are observed in the short-wave range in he boundary layer at transfer from Arctic. At the same time, low values of these parameters are characteristic of the transfer from Asia: lidar ratio 54 sr, Angstrom exponent 1.1, that is explained by different ratio of coarse and fine aerosol fractions in an air mass.
Assessment of a transitional boundary layer theory at low hypersonic Mach numbers
Shamroth, S. J.; Mcdonald, H.
1972-01-01
An investigation was carried out to assess the accuracy of a transitional boundary layer theory in the low hypersonic Mach number regime. The theory is based upon the simultaneous numerical solution of the boundary layer partial differential equations for the mean motion and an integral form of the turbulence kinetic energy equation which controls the magnitude and development of the Reynolds stress. Comparisions with experimental data show the theory is capable of accurately predicting heat transfer and velocity profiles through the transitional regime and correctly predicts the effects of Mach number and wall cooling on transition Reynolds number. The procedure shows promise of predicting the initiation of transition for given free stream disturbance levels. The effects on transition predictions of the pressure dilitation term and of direct absorption of acoustic energy by the boundary layer were evaluated.
Mikic, Gregor Veble; Stoll, Alex; Bevirt, JoeBen; Grah, Rok; Moore, Mark D.
2016-01-01
Theoretical and numerical aspects of aerodynamic efficiency of propulsion systems are studied. Focus is on types of propulsion that closely couples to the aerodynamics of the complete vehicle. We discuss the effects of local flow fields, which are affected both by conservative flow acceleration as well as total pressure losses, on the efficiency of boundary layer immersed propulsion devices. We introduce the concept of a boundary layer retardation turbine that helps reduce skin friction over the fuselage. We numerically investigate efficiency gains offered by boundary layer and wake interacting devices. We discuss the results in terms of a total energy consumption framework and show that efficiency gains offered depend on all the elements of the propulsion system.
Observations of amplified roughness from crystal accretion in the sub-ice ocean boundary layer
Robinson, N. J.; Stevens, C. L.; McPhee, M. G.
2017-02-01
Ice crystal accretion on the underside of sea ice and ice shelves, a signature of pressure-induced supercooling, has the potential to alter the energy balance in the ocean boundary layer through enhanced hydrodynamic roughness. Here we present estimates of crystal-driven ocean boundary layer roughness in supercooled water beneath sea ice adjacent to the McMurdo/Ross Ice Shelf. Data were collected from four sites in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, between 2007 and 2015, and represent a range of ice shelf-affected conditions. The results show that drag of the rough ice underside in the presence of platelets is 6-30 times larger than typical levels homogeneously applied in ice-ocean interaction models. The crystal-enhanced drag promotes increased entrainment into the boundary layer from the upper ocean, which has the potential to affect ice shelf evolution and sea ice growth through enhanced turbulent exchange of heat and momentum.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brandon M. Witte
2017-10-01
Full Text Available This paper describes the components and usage of an unmanned aerial vehicle developed for measuring turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer. A method of computing the time-dependent wind speed from a moving velocity sensor data is provided. The physical system built to implement this method using a five-hole probe velocity sensor is described along with the approach used to combine data from the different on-board sensors to allow for extraction of the wind speed as a function of time and position. The approach is demonstrated using data from three flights of two unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs measuring the lower atmospheric boundary layer during transition from a stable to convective state. Several quantities are presented and show the potential for extracting a range of atmospheric boundary layer statistics.
An ultra-high frequency boundary layer Doppler/interferometric profiler
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Baelen, J.S.
1994-01-01
The planetary boundary layer (PBL) is that portion of the earth's atmosphere that is directly influenced by the earth's surface. The PBL can be vigorously turbulent and range in depth from a few hundred meters to a few kilometers. Solar energy is primarily absorbed at the earth's surface and transmitted to the free atmosphere through boundary-layer processes. An accurate portrayal of these transfers within the PBL is crucial to understand and predict many atmospheric processes from pollutant dispersion to numerical weather prediction and numerical simulations of climate change. This paper describes and discusses wind profiling techniques, focusing on the newly developed radio acoustic sounding system (RASS), and reviews past efforts to measure flux within the PBL. A new UHF wind profiling radar, the UHF Doppler/Interferometric Boundary Layer Radar, for accurately measuring both mean and flux quantities, as well as wind divergence and acoustic wave propagation, is outlined
Study on Reflected Shock Wave/Boundary Layer Interaction in a Shock Tube
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Heuy Dong [Andong Nat’l Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)
2017-07-15
The interaction between a shock wave and a boundary layer causes boundary layer separation, shock train, and in some cases, strong unsteadiness in the flow field. Such a situation is also observed in a shock tube, where the reflected shock wave interacts with the unsteady boundary layer. However, only a few studies have been conducted to investigate the shock train phenomenon in a shock tube. In the present study, numerical studies were conducted using the two-dimensional axisymmetric domain of a shock tube, and compressible Navier-Stokes equations were solved to clarify the flow characteristics of shock train phenomenon inside a shock tube. A detailed wave diagram was developed based on the present computational results, which were validated with existing experimental data.
A numerical method for computing unsteady 2-D boundary layer flows
Krainer, Andreas
1988-01-01
A numerical method for computing unsteady two-dimensional boundary layers in incompressible laminar and turbulent flows is described and applied to a single airfoil changing its incidence angle in time. The solution procedure adopts a first order panel method with a simple wake model to solve for the inviscid part of the flow, and an implicit finite difference method for the viscous part of the flow. Both procedures integrate in time in a step-by-step fashion, in the course of which each step involves the solution of the elliptic Laplace equation and the solution of the parabolic boundary layer equations. The Reynolds shear stress term of the boundary layer equations is modeled by an algebraic eddy viscosity closure. The location of transition is predicted by an empirical data correlation originating from Michel. Since transition and turbulence modeling are key factors in the prediction of viscous flows, their accuracy will be of dominant influence to the overall results.
Boundary-layer submerged vortex generators for separation control - An exploratory study
Rao, D. M.; Kariya, T. T.
The effectiveness of 'submerged' vortex generators (VGs) for boundary-layer separation control in regions of rapid pressure rise has been explored. Contained entirely within the boundary-layer thickness, the submerged VGs are expected to cause less parasitic drag than the conventional vane-type VGs which draw energy from external flow. A comparative study was performed of submerged and vane VGs in controlling the separation of a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer entering a region of steep adverse pressure gradient. Measurements of the maximum static pressure recovery attained on the plate and the loss in total pressure were used to evaluate the relative efficiency of a series of submerged VG arrangements. The geometric characteristics of submerged VG designs that are potentially more efficient than vane VGs are indicated.