Stability of Boundary Layer Flow.
1980-03-01
and Teske (1975). We can conclude (as in the case of ducting) that theoretical models of boundary layer structure and associated radar structure...FI33 (Secret). Hitney, (1978) "Surface Duct Effects," Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, Calif., Report No. TD144. Lewellen, W. S., and M. E. Teske
Boundary Layers in Laminar Vortex Flows.
Baker, Glenn Leslie
A detailed experimental study of the flow in an intense, laminar, axisymmetric vortex has been conducted in the Purdue Tornado Vortex Simulator. The complicated nature of the flow in the boundary layer of laboratory vortices and presumably on that encountered in full-scale tornadoes has been examined. After completing a number of modifications to the existing facility to improve the quality of the flow in the simulator, hot-film anemometry was employed for making velocity-component and turbulence-intensity measurements of both the free-stream and boundary layer portions of the flow. The measurements represent the first experimental boundary layer investigation of a well-defined vortex flow to appear in the literature. These results were compared with recent theoretical work by Burggraf, Stewartson and Belcher (1971) and with an exact similarity solution for line-sink boundary layers developed by the author. A comparison is also made with the numerical simulation of Wilson (1981) in which the boundary conditions were matched to those of the present experimental investigation. Expressions for the vortex core radius, the maximum tangential velocity and the maximum pressure drop are given in terms of dimensionless modeling parameters. References. Burggraf, O. R., K. Stewartson and R. Belcher, Boundary layer. induced by a potential vortex. Phys. Fluids 14, 1821-1833 (1971). Wilson, T., M. S. thesis, Vortex Boundary Layer Dynamics, Univ. Calif. Davis (1981).
Three dimensional boundary layers in internal flows
Bodonyi, R. J.
1987-01-01
A numerical study of the effects of viscous-inviscid interactions in three-dimensional duct flows is presented. In particular interacting flows for which the oncoming flow is not fully-developed were considered. In this case there is a thin boundary layer still present upstream of the surface distortion, as opposed to the fully-developed pipe flow situation wherein the flow is viscous across the cross section.
Leaky waves in boundary layer flow
Pralits, Jan
2005-11-01
Linear stability analysis of boundary layer flow is traditionally performed by solving the Orr-Sommerfeld equation (OSE), either in a temporal or a spatial framework. The mode structure of the OSE is in both cases composed of a finite number of discrete modes which decay at infinity in the wall- normal direction y, and a continuous spectrum of propagating modes behaving as (±ik y) when y->∞, with real k. A peculiarity of this structure is that the number of discrete modes changes with the Reynolds number, Re. They indeed seem to disappear behind the continuous spectrum at certain Re. This phenomenon is here investigated by studying the response of the Blasius boundary layer forced instantaneously in space and time. Since the solution of the forced and homogeneous Laplace-transformed problem both depend on the free-stream boundary conditions, it is shown here that a suitable change of variables can remove the branch cut in the Laplace plane. As a result, integration of the inverse Laplace transform along the two sides of the branch cut, which gives rise to the continuous spectrum, can be replaced by a sum of residues corresponding to an additional set of discrete eigenvalues. These new modes grow at infinity in the y direction, and are analogous to the leaky waves found in the theory of optical waveguides, i.e. optical fibers, which are attenuated in the direction of the waveguide but grow unbounded in the direction perpendicular to it.
Magnetohydrodynamic cross-field boundary layer flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. B. Ingham
1982-01-01
Full Text Available The Blasius boundary layer on a flat plate in the presence of a constant ambient magnetic field is examined. A numerical integration of the MHD boundary layer equations from the leading edge is presented showing how the asymptotic solution described by Sears is approached.
Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow over Superhydrophobic Surfaces
2013-05-10
Figure 1 were a highly viscous fluid, such as honey , the boundary layer would be thick while if the fluid were water, a low-viscosity fluid, the boundary...drag has become even more important. In response to this need, and with the benefit of modern technology, the drag-reduction field is replete with...manufactured with “riblets,” small ridges on the order of fractions of millimeters, built-into the hull or skin that seek to reduce frictional drag. The
Boundary layers interactions in the plane parallel incompressible flows
Nguyen, Toan
2011-01-01
We study the inviscid limit problem of the incompressible flows in the presence of both impermeable regular boundaries and a hypersurface transversal to the boundary across which the inviscid flow has a discontinuity jump. In the former case, boundary layers have been introduced by Prandtl as correctors near the boundary between the inviscid and viscous flows. In the latter case, the viscosity smoothes out the discontinuity jump by creating a transition layer which has the same amplitude and thickness as the Prandtl layer. In the neighborhood of the intersection of the impermeable boundary and of the hypersurface, interactions between the boundary and the transition layers must then be considered. In this paper, we initiate a mathematical study of this interaction and carry out a strong convergence in the inviscid limit for the case of the plane parallel flows introduced by Di Perna and Majda in \\cite{DM}.
Secondary instability in boundary-layer flows
Nayfeh, A. H.; Bozatli, A. N.
1979-01-01
The stability of a secondary Tollmien-Schlichting wave, whose wavenumber and frequency are nearly one half those of a fundamental Tollmien-Schlichting instability wave is analyzed using the method of multiple scales. Under these conditions, the fundamental wave acts as a parametric exciter for the secondary wave. The results show that the amplitude of the fundamental wave must exceed a critical value to trigger this parametric instability. This value is proportional to a detuning parameter which is the real part of k - 2K, where k and K are the wavenumbers of the fundamental and its subharmonic, respectively. For Blasius flow, the critical amplitude is approximately 29% of the mean flow, and hence many other secondary instabilities take place before this parametric instability becomes significant. For other flows where the detuning parameter is small, such as free-shear layer flows, the critical amplitude can be small, thus the parametric instability might play a greater role.
CONTINUOUS WAVELET TRANSFORM OF TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER FLOW
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Ying-zheng; KE Feng; CHEN Han-ping
2005-01-01
The spatio-temporal characteristics of the velocity fluctuations in a fully-developed turbulent boundary layer flow was investigated using hotwire. A low-speed wind tunnel was established. The experimental data was extensively analyzed in terms of continuous wavelet transform coefficients and their auto-correlation. The results yielded a potential wealth of information on inherent characteristics of coherent structures embedded in turbulent boundary layer flow. Spatial and temporal variations of the low- and high- frequency motions were revealed.
Flow visualization of swept wing boundary layer transition
Serpieri, J.; Kotsonis, M.
2015-01-01
In this work the flow visualization of the transition pattern occurring on a swept wing in a subsonic flow is presented. This is done by means of fluorescent oil flow technique and boundary layer hot-wire scans. The experiment was performed at Reynolds number of 2:15 . 106 and at angle of attack of
Goertler instability. [for boundary layer flow over curved walls
Ragab, S. A.; Nayfeh, A. H.
1981-01-01
Goertler instability for boundary-layer flows over generally curved walls is considered. The full-linearized disturbance equations are obtained in an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. A perturbation procedure to account for second-order effects is used to determine the effects of the displacement thickness and the variation of the streamline curvature on the neutral stability of the Blasius flow. The streamwise pressure gradient in the mean flow is accounted for by solving the nonsimilar boundary-layer equations. Growth rates are obtained for the actual mean flow and compared with those for the Blasius flow and the Falkner-Skan flows. The results demonstrate the strong influence of the streamwise pressure gradient and the nonsimilarity of the basic flow on the stability characteristics.
Sound from boundary layer flow over steps and gaps
Ryan Catlett, M.; Devenport, William; Glegg, Stewart A. L.
2014-09-01
This study is concerned with the radiated sound from boundary layer flows over small forward and backward steps and gap configurations of similar dimension. These measurements were performed in the Virginia Tech Anechoic Wall Jet Facility for step heights that ranged from approximately 10 percent to 100 percent of the incoming boundary layer height. The results show the influence of step height and boundary layer edge velocity on the far-field sound from forward and backward steps. Neither source shows clear dipole directivity and at least the larger step heights considered in this study are shown to not be acoustically compact. A new mixed scaling normalization is proposed for the far-field spectra from both types of step. Backward steps are shown to be much weaker producers of far-field sound than similarly sized forward steps. The implications of this behavior are discussed with respect to the far-field sound measured from various gap flows.
Analysis of diabatic flow modification in the internal boundary layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Floors, Rogier; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Pena Diaz, Alfredo
2011-01-01
is controlled by a combination of both downstream and upstream stability and surface roughness conditions. A model based on a diffusion analogy is able to predict the internal boundary layer height well. Modeling the neutral and long-term wind profile with a 3 layer linear interpolation scheme gives good......Measurements at two meteorological masts in Denmark, Horns Rev in the sea and Høvsøre near the coastline on land, are used to analyze the behaviour of the flow after a smooth-to-rough change in surface conditions. The study shows that the wind profile within the internal boundary layer...... results at Høvsøre. Based on a comparison with a numerical model and the measurements, the constants in the interpolation scheme are slightly adjusted, which yields an improvement for the description of the wind profile in the internal boundary layer....
Vortex Generator Induced Flow in a High Re Boundary Layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Velte, Clara Marika; Braud, C.; Coudert, S.
2012-01-01
Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry measurements have been conducted in cross-planes behind three different geometries of Vortex Generators (VGs) in a high Reynolds number boundary layer. The VGs have been mounted in a cascade producing counter-rotating vortices and the downstream flow...
Vortex Generator Induced Flow in a High Re Boundary Layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Velte, Clara Marika; Braud, C.; Coudert, S.
2014-01-01
Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry measurements have been conducted in cross-planes behind three different geometries of Vortex Generators (VGs) in a high Reynolds number boundary layer. The VGs have been mounted in a cascade producing counter-rotating vortices and the downstream flow...
Turbulent Boundary Layer on a Cylinder in Axial Flow
1988-09-29
wall- norma 6caling or Rao’s wall-normal scaling. Other measurements of the mean velocity in a cylindrical boundary layer should be mentioned for...located near the wall at three azimuthal locations that wre 900 apa ,-t and at several streamwise spacings for flow conditions resulting in 8/a=8
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
El Khoury, George K; Schlatter, Philipp; Brethouwer, Geert; Johansson, Arne V
2014-01-01
Direct numerical simulation data of fully developed turbulent pipe flow are extensively compared with those of turbulent channel flow and zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer flow for Re-tau up to 1 000...
Neutral stability calculations for boundary-layer flows
Nayfeh, A. H.; Padhye, A.
1980-01-01
An analysis is presented of the parallel neutral stability of three-dimensional incompressible, isothermal boundary-layer flows. A Taylor-series expansion of the dispersion relation is used to derive the general eigenvalues. These equations are functions of the complex group velocity. These relations are verified by numerical results obtained for two- and three-dimensional disturbances in two- and three-dimensional flows.
An interactive boundary layer modelling methodology for aerodynamic flows
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Smith, L
2013-01-01
Full Text Available between the two flow regions, whereby a fictitious velocity is induced into the boundary layer to simulate its effect. The drawback of this scheme, however, is that it does not strictly conserve mass. The objective of this study is to develop a method... and turbulent flows, which eliminate the direct link between the profile shape and the pressure gradient, making them suitable for flow with strong interaction. The resulting two equations read: ( ) 2 2 2 fe e e C d dU U MH d d =−++ ξ θ ξ θ...
Nonlinear interaction of two waves in boundary-layer flows
Nayfeh, A. H.; Bozatli, A. N.
1980-01-01
First-order nonlinear interactions of Tollmien-Schlichting waves of different frequencies and initial amplitudes in boundary-layer flows are analyzed using the method of multiple scales. Numerical results for flow past a flat plate show that the spatial detuning wipes out resonant interactions unless the initial amplitudes are very large. Thus, a wave having a moderate amplitude has little influence on its subharmonic although it has a strong influence on its second harmonic. Moreover, two waves having moderate amplitudes have a strong influence on their difference frequency. The results show that the difference frequency can be very unstable when generated by the nonlinear interaction, even though it may be stable when introduced by itself in the boundary layer.
Preliminary experimental investigation of boundary layer in decelerating flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Příhoda J.
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Investigations of characteristics of turbulence inside boundary layer under decelerating flow were studied by means of constant temperature anemometer. The decelerating flow was simulated in the closed circuit wind tunnel 0.9 m × 0.5 m at IT AS CR. The free stream turbulence was either natural o risen up by square mesh plane grid. The details of experimental settings and measurement procedures of the instantaneous longitudinal velocity component are described and the distributions of intensity, skewness and kurtosis of turbulent fluctuations are discussed in the contribution.
A Nonlinear Stability Theory for Plane Boundary-Layer Flows
1980-07-01
flows , Poiseuille flows and Couette flows . For example, 3 for plane Polseutlle flow with...published results for plane Poiseuille flow and the Orr-Sonunerfeld solutions for ~lasius flow and a numerical solution of Navier-Stokes flow along a flat...TWO-POINT BOUNDARY-VALUE PROBLEM .......... 21 4. NUMERICAL RESULTS ............................................. 44 4.1 Plane Poiseuille Flow
Logarithmic boundary layers in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow
Huisman, Sander G; Cierpka, Christian; Kahler, Christian J; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao
2013-01-01
We provide direct measurements of the boundary layer properties in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow up to $\\text{Ta}=6.2 \\times 10^{12}$ using high-resolution particle image velocimetry (PIV). We find that the mean azimuthal velocity profile at the inner and outer cylinder can be fitted by the von K\\'arm\\'an log law $u^+ = \\frac 1\\kappa \\ln y^+ +B$. The von K\\'arm\\'an constant $\\kappa$ is found to depend on the driving strength $\\text{Ta}$ and for large $\\text{Ta}$ asymptotically approaches $\\kappa \\approx 0.40$. The variance profiles of the local azimuthal velocity have a universal peak around $y^+ \\approx 12$ and collapse when rescaled with the driving velocity (and not with the friction velocity), displaying a log-dependence of $y^+$ as also found for channel and pipe flows [1,2].
ON NONLINEAR STABILITY IN NONPARALLEL BOUNDARY LAYER FLOW
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TANG Deng-bin; WANG Wei-zhi
2004-01-01
The nonlinear stability problem in nonparallel boundary layer flow for two-dimensional disturbances was studied by using a newly presented method called Parabolic Stability Equations (PSE). A series of new modes generated by the nonlinear interaction of disturbance waves were tabulately analyzed, and the Mean Flow Distortion (MFD) was numerically given. The computational techniques developed, including the higher-order spectral method and the more effective algebraic mapping, increased greatly the numerical accuracy and the rate of convergence. With the predictor-corrector approach in the marching procedure, the normalization condition was satisfied, and the stability of numerical calculation could be ensured. With different initial amplitudes, the nonlinear stability of disturbance wave was studied. The results of examples show good agreement with the data given by the DNS using the full Navier-Stokes equations.
Laminar boundary-layer flow of non-Newtonian fluid
Lin, F. N.; Chern, S. Y.
1979-01-01
A solution for the two-dimensional and axisymmetric laminar boundary-layer momentum equation of power-law non-Newtonian fluid is presented. The analysis makes use of the Merk-Chao series solution method originally devised for the flow of Newtonian fluid. The universal functions for the leading term in the series are tabulated for n from 0.2 to 2. Equations governing the universal functions associated with the second and the third terms are provided. The solution together with either Lighthill's formula or Chao's formula constitutes a simple yet general procedure for the calculation of wall shear and surface heat transfer rate. The theory was applied to flows over a circular cylinder and a sphere and the results compared with published data.
Nanoscale Hot-Wire Probes for Boundary-Layer Flows
Tedjojuwono, Ken T.; Herring, Gregory C.
2003-01-01
Hot-wire probes having dimensions of the order of nanometers have been proposed for measuring temperatures (and possibly velocities) in boundary-layer flows at spatial resolutions much finer and distances from walls much smaller than have been possible heretofore. The achievable resolutions and minimum distances are expected to be of the order of tens of nanometers much less than a typical mean free path of a molecule and much less than the thickness of a typical flow boundary layer in air at standard temperature and pressure. An additional benefit of the small scale of these probes is that they would perturb the measured flows less than do larger probes. The hot-wire components of the probes would likely be made from semiconducting carbon nanotubes or ropes of such nanotubes. According to one design concept, a probe would comprise a single nanotube or rope of nanotubes laid out on the surface of an insulating substrate between two metallic wires. According to another design concept, a nanotube or rope of nanotubes would be electrically connected and held a short distance away from the substrate surface by stringing it between two metal electrodes. According to a third concept, a semiconducting nanotube or rope of nanotubes would be strung between the tips of two protruding electrodes made of fully conducting nanotubes or ropes of nanotubes. The figure depicts an array of such probes that could be used to gather data at several distances from a wall. It will be necessary to develop techniques for fabricating the probes. It will also be necessary to determine whether the probes will be strong enough to withstand the aerodynamic forces and impacts of micron-sized particles entrained in typical flows of interest.
Bubble and boundary layer behaviour in subcooled flow boiling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maurus, Reinhold; Sattelmayer, Thomas [Lehrstuhl fuer Thermodynamik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85747 Garching (Germany)
2006-03-15
Subcooled flow boiling is a commonly applied technique for achieving efficient heat transfer. In the study, an experimental investigation in the nucleate boiling regime was performed for water circulating in a closed loop at atmospheric pressure. The horizontal orientated test-section consists of a rectangular channel with a one side heated copper strip and good optical access. Various optical observation techniques were applied to study the bubble behaviour and the characteristics of the fluid phase. The bubble behaviour was recorded by the high-speed cinematography and by a digital high resolution camera. Automated image processing and analysis algorithms developed by the authors were applied for a wide range of mass flow rates and heat fluxes in order to extract characteristic length and time scales of the bubbly layer during the boiling process. Using this methodology, the bubbles were automatically analysed and the bubble size, bubble lifetime, waiting time between two cycles were evaluated. Due to the huge number of observed bubbles a statistical analysis was performed and distribution functions were derived. Using a two-dimensional cross-correlation algorithm, the averaged axial phase boundary velocity profile could be extracted. In addition, the fluid phase velocity profile was characterised by means of the particle image velocimetry (PIV) for the single phase flow as well as under subcooled flow boiling conditions. The results indicate that the bubbles increase the flow resistance. The impact on the flow exceeds by far the bubbly region and it depends on the magnitude of the boiling activity. Finally, the ratio of the averaged phase boundary velocity and of the averaged fluid velocity was evaluated for the bubbly region. (authors)
Modification of Turbulent Boundary Layer Flows by Superhydrophobic Surfaces
Gose, James W.; Golovin, Kevin; Barros, Julio; Schultz, Michael P.; Tuteja, Anish; Perlin, Marc; Ceccio, Steven L.
2016-11-01
Measurements of near zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer (TBL) flow over several superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) are presented and compared to those for a hydraulically smooth baseline. The surfaces were developed at the University of Michigan as part of an ongoing research thrust to investigate the feasibility of SHSs for skin-friction drag reduction in turbulent flow. The SHSs were previously evaluated in fully-developed turbulent channel flow and have been shown to provide meaningful drag reduction. The TBL experiments were conducted at the USNA in a water tunnel with a test section 2.0 m (L) x 0.2 m (W) x 0.2 m (H). The free-stream speed was set to 1.26 m/s which corresponded to a friction Reynolds number of 1,500. The TBL was tripped at the test section inlet with a 0.8 mm diameter wire. The upper and side walls provided optical access, while the lower wall was either the smooth baseline or a spray coated SHS. The velocity measurements were obtained with a TSI FSA3500 two-component Laser-Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) and custom-designed beam displacer operated in coincidence mode. The LDV probe volume diameter was 45 μm (approx. one wall-unit). The measurements were recorded 1.5 m downstream of the trip. When the measured quantities were normalized using the inner variables, the results indicated a significant reduction in the near wall viscous and total stresses with little effect on the flow outside the inner layer.
CFD simulation of neutral ABL flows; Atmospheric Boundary Layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xiaodong Zhang
2009-04-15
This work is to evaluate the CFD prediction of Atmospheric Boundary Layer flow field over different terrains employing Fluent 6.3 software. How accurate the simulation could achieve depend on following aspects: viscous model, wall functions, agreement of CFD model with inlet wind velocity profile and top boundary condition. Fluent employ wall function roughness modifications based on data from experiments with sand grain roughened pipes and channels, describe wall adjacent zone with Roughness Height (Ks) instead of Roughness Length (z{sub 0}). In a CFD simulation of ABL flow, the mean wind velocity profile is generally described with either a logarithmic equation by the presence of aerodynamic roughness length z{sub 0} or an exponential equation by the presence of exponent. As indicated by some former researchers, the disagreement between wall function model and ABL velocity profile description will result in some undesirable gradient along flow direction. There are some methods to improve the simulation model in literatures, some of them are discussed in this report, but none of those remedial methods are perfect to eliminate the streamwise gradients in mean wind speed and turbulence, as EllipSys3D could do. In this paper, a new near wall treatment function is designed, which, in some degree, can correct the horizontal gradients problem. Based on the corrected model constants and near wall treatment function, a simulation of Askervein Hill is carried out. The wind condition is neutrally stratified ABL and the measurements are best documented until now. Comparison with measured data shows that the CFD model can well predict the velocity field and relative turbulence kinetic energy field. Furthermore, a series of artificial complex terrains are designed, and some of the main simulation results are reported. (au)
Air-flow sensitive hairs: boundary layers in oscillatory flows around arthropod appendages
Steinmann, T.; Casas, J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Dangles, O.
2006-01-01
The aim of this work is to characterize the boundary layer over small appendages in insects in longitudinal and transverse oscillatory flows. The problem of immediate interest is the early warning system in crickets perceiving flying predators using air-flow-sensitive hairs on cerci, two long
Air-flow sensitive hairs: boundary layers in oscillatory flows around arthropod appendages
Steinmann, T.; Casas, J.; Krijnen, G.J.M.; Dangles, O.
2006-01-01
The aim of this work is to characterize the boundary layer over small appendages in insects in longitudinal and transverse oscillatory flows. The problem of immediate interest is the early warning system in crickets perceiving flying predators using air-flow-sensitive hairs on cerci, two long append
Nonlinear interaction of waves in boundary-layer flows
Nayfeh, A. H.; Bozatli, A. N.
1979-01-01
First-order nonlinear interactions of Tollmien-Schlichting waves of different frequencies and initial amplitudes in boundary-layer flows are analyzed by using the method of multiple scales. For the case of two waves, a strong nonlinear interaction exists if one of the frequencies w2 is twice the other frequency w1. Numerical results for flow past a flat plate show that this interaction mechanism is strongly destabilizing even in regions where either the fundamental or its harmonic is damped in the absence of the interaction. For the case of three waves, a strong nonlinear interaction exists when w3 = w2- w1. This combination resonance causes the amplitude of the wave with the difference frequency w3 to multiply many times in magnitude in a short distance even if it is damped in the absence of the interaction. The initial amplitudes play a dominant role in determining the changes in the amplitudes of the waves in both of these mechanisms.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kazutaka Yanase
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The boundary layers of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss [0.231±0.016 m total body length (L (mean±s.d.; N=6], swimming at 1.6±0.09 L s−1 (N=6 in an experimental flow channel (Reynolds number, Re=4×105 with medium turbulence (5.6% intensity were examined using the particle image velocimetry technique. The tangential flow velocity distributions in the pectoral and pelvic surface regions (arc length from the rostrum, lx=71±8 mm, N=3, and lx=110±13 mm, N=4, respectively were approximated by a laminar boundary layer model, the Falkner−Skan equation. The flow regime over the pectoral and pelvic surfaces was regarded as a laminar flow, which could create less skin-friction drag than would be the case with turbulent flow. Flow separation was postponed until vortex shedding occurred over the posterior surface (lx=163±22 mm, N=3. The ratio of the body-wave velocity to the swimming speed was in the order of 1.2. This was consistent with the condition of the boundary layer laminarization that had been confirmed earlier using a mechanical model. These findings suggest an energy-efficient swimming strategy for rainbow trout in a turbulent environment.
Gelled propellant flow: Boundary layer theory for power-law fluids in a converging planar channel
Kraynik, Andrew M.; Geller, A. S.; Glick, J. H.
1989-10-01
A boundary layer theory for the flow of power-law fluids in a converging planar channel has been developed. This theory suggests a Reynolds number for such flows, and following numerical integration, a boundary layer thickness. This boundary layer thickness has been used in the generation of a finite element mesh for the finite element code FIDAP. FIDAP was then used to simulate the flow of power-law fluids through a converging channel. Comparison of the analytic and finite element results shows the two to be in very good agreement in regions where entrance and exit effects (not considered in the boundary layer theory) can be neglected.
Mclean, J. D.; Randall, J. L.
1979-01-01
A system of computer programs for calculating three dimensional transonic flow over wings, including details of the three dimensional viscous boundary layer flow, was developed. The flow is calculated in two overlapping regions: an outer potential flow region, and a boundary layer region in which the first order, three dimensional boundary layer equations are numerically solved. A consistent matching of the two solutions is achieved iteratively, thus taking into account viscous-inviscid interaction. For the inviscid outer flow calculations, the Jameson-Caughey transonic wing program FLO 27 is used, and the boundary layer calculations are performed by a finite difference boundary layer prediction program. Interface programs provide communication between the two basic flow analysis programs. Computed results are presented for the NASA F8 research wing, both with and without distributed surface suction.
Boundary Layer Flows in Porous Media with Lateral Mass Flux
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nemati, H; H, Bararnia; Noori, F;
2015-01-01
Solutions for free convection boundary layers on a heated vertical plate with lateral mass flux embedded in a saturated porous medium are presented using the Homotopy Analysis Method and Shooting Numerical Method. Homotopy Analysis Method yields an analytic solution in the form of a rapidly...
Efficient modelling of aerodynamic flows in the boundary layer for high performance computing
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Smith, L
2011-01-01
Full Text Available full viscous solution. The boundary-layer solution is coupled to an existing inviscid solver. Coupling occurs by moving the wall to a streamline at the computed boundary layer thickness and treating it as a slip boundary, then solving the flow again...
The influence of boundary layers on supersonic inlet flow unstart induced by mass injection
Do, Hyungrok; Im, Seong-Kyun; Mungal, M. Godfrey; Cappelli, Mark A.
2011-09-01
A transverse jet is injected into a supersonic model inlet flow to induce unstart. Planar laser Rayleigh scattering from condensed CO2 particles is used to visualize flow dynamics during the unstart process, while in some cases, wall pressure traces are simultaneously recorded. Studies conducted over a range of inlet configurations reveal that the presence of turbulent wall boundary layers strongly affect the unstart dynamics. It is found that relatively thick turbulent boundary layers in asymmetric wall boundary layer conditions prompt the formation of unstart shocks; in symmetric boundary conditions lead to the propagation of pseudo-shocks; and in both cases facilitate fast inlet unstart, when compared with thin, laminar boundary layers. Incident shockwaves and associated reflections are found to affect the speed of pressure disturbances. These disturbances, which induce boundary layer separation, are found to precede the formation of unstart shocks. The results confirm the importance of and need to better understand shock-boundary layer interactions in inlet unstart dynamics.
A method for calculating turbulent boundary layers and losses in the flow channels of turbomachines
Schumann, Lawrence F.
1987-01-01
An interactive inviscid core flow-boundary layer method is presented for the calculation of turbomachine channel flows. For this method, a one-dimensional inviscid core flow is assumed. The end-wall and blade surface boundary layers are calculated using an integral entrainment method. The boundary layers are assumed to be collateral and thus are two-dimensional. The boundary layer equations are written in a streamline coordinate system. The streamwise velocity profiles are approximated by power law profiles. Compressibility is accounted for in the streamwise direction but not in the normal direction. Equations are derived for the special cases of conical and two-dimensional rectangular diffusers. For these cases, the assumptions of a one-dimensional core flow and collateral boundary layers are valid. Results using the method are compared with experiment and good quantitative agreement is obtained.
Turbulence measurements in axisymmetric supersonic boundary layer flow in adverse pressure gradients
Gootzait, E.; Childs, M. E.
1977-01-01
Mean flow and turbulence measurements are presented for adiabatic compressible turbulent boundary layer flow in adverse pressure gradients. The gradients were induced on the wall of an axially symmetric wind tunnel by contoured centerbodies mounted on the wind tunnel centerline. The boundary layer turbulence downstream of a boundary layer bleed section in a zero pressure gradient was also examined. The measurements were obtained using a constant temperature hot-wire anemometer. The adverse pressure gradients were found to significantly alter the turbulence properties of the boundary layer. With flow through the bleed holes there was a measureable decrease in the rms longitudinal velocity fluctuations near the wall and the turbulent shear stress in the boundary layer was reduced.
Strong, Stuart L.; Meade, Andrew J., Jr.
1992-01-01
Preliminary results are presented of a finite element/finite difference method (semidiscrete Galerkin method) used to calculate compressible boundary layer flow about airfoils, in which the group finite element scheme is applied to the Dorodnitsyn formulation of the boundary layer equations. The semidiscrete Galerkin (SDG) method promises to be fast, accurate and computationally efficient. The SDG method can also be applied to any smoothly connected airfoil shape without modification and possesses the potential capability of calculating boundary layer solutions beyond flow separation. Results are presented for low speed laminar flow past a circular cylinder and past a NACA 0012 airfoil at zero angle of attack at a Mach number of 0.5. Also shown are results for compressible flow past a flat plate for a Mach number range of 0 to 10 and results for incompressible turbulent flow past a flat plate. All numerical solutions assume an attached boundary layer.
Unsteady separated boundary layer in a transonic diffuser flow with self-excited oscillations
Hsieh, T.; Coakley, T. J.
1986-01-01
A numerical investigation of two-dimensional unsteady boundary layer in a transonic diffuser flow with self-excited oscillations and strong flow separation by solving the compressible, Reynolds-averaged, thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations with two-equations turbulence model is described. Three different meshes with constant streamwise mesh distribution and varying vertical mesh distribution were used. Results obtained indicate that a refinement of mesh studied here has minimal effect on the mean boundary layer flow but significantly increases the amplitude of oscillation of all flow variables. Comparisons of unsteady wall pressure, velocity profile, terminal shock, and separation pocket among computations and with experiment are presented.
Factors influencing flow steadiness in laminar boundary layer shock interactions
Tumuklu, Ozgur; Levin, Deborah A.; Gimelshein, Sergey F.; Austin, Joanna M.
2016-11-01
The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method has been used to model laminar shock wave boundary interactions of hypersonic flow over a 30/55-deg double-wedge and "tick-shaped" model configurations studied in the Hypervelocity Expansion Tube facility and T-ADFA free-piston shock tunnel, respectively. The impact of thermochemical effects on these interactions by changing the chemical composition from nitrogen to air as well as argon for a stagnation enthalpy of 8.0 MJ/kg flow are investigated using the 2-D wedge model. The simulations are found to reproduce many of the classic features related to Edney Type V strong shock interactions that include the attached, oblique shock formed over the first wedge, the detached bow shock from the second wedge, the separation zone, and the separation and reattachment shocks that cause complex features such as the triple point for both cases. However, results of a reacting air flow case indicate that the size of the separation length, and the movement of the triple point toward to the leading edge is much less than the nitrogen case.
Boundary Layer Flow of Second Grade Fluid in a Cylinder with Heat Transfer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Nadeem
2012-01-01
Full Text Available An analysis is carried out to obtain the similarity solution of the steady boundary layer flow and heat transfer of a second grade through a horizontal cylinder. The governing partial differential equations along with the boundary conditions are reduced to dimensionless form by using the boundary layer approximation and applying suitable similarity transformation. The resulting nonlinear coupled system of ordinary differential equations subject to the appropriate boundary conditions is solved by homotopy analysis method (HAM. The effects of the physical parameters on the flow and heat transfer characteristics of the model are presented. The behavior of skin friction coefficient and Nusselt numbers is studied for different parameters.
2014-12-16
Shock Wave /Turbulent Boundary Layer Interaction in Conical Flows FA9550-11-1-0203 Dr. Charles E. Tinney, Aerospace Engineering and Engineering...Low-Dimensional Dynamical Characteristics of Shock Wave /Turbulent Boundary Layer Interaction in Conical Flows Contract/Grant Number: FA9550-11-1-0203...driven by transonic resonance (Zaman et al, 2002). What is common about many of these planar nozzle studies is that there is just one single
MHD Boundary Layer Slip Flow and Heat Transfer over a Flat Plate
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Krishnendu Bhattacharyya; Swati Mukhopadhyay; G.C.Layek
2011-01-01
An analysis of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a flat plate with slip condition at the boundary is presented. A complete self-similar set of equations are obtained from the governing equations using similarity transformations and are solved by a shooting method. In the boundary slip condition no local similarity occurs. Velocity and temperature distributions within the boundary layer are presented. Our analysis reveals that the increase of magnetic and slip parameters reduce the boundary layer thickness and also enhance the heat transfer from the plate.%@@ An analysis of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a flat plate with slip condition at the boundary is presented.A complete self-similar set of equations are obtained from the governing equations using similarity transformations and are solved by a shooting method.In the boundary slip condition no local similarity occurs.Velocity and temperature distributions within the boundary layer are presented.Our analysis reveals that the increase of magnetic and slip parameters reduce the boundary layer thickness and also enhance the heat transfer from the plate.
A Note on the bottom shear stress in oscillatory planetary boundary layer flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dag Myrhaug
1988-07-01
Full Text Available A simple analytical theory is presented, which describes the motion in a turbulent oscillatory planetary boundary layer near a rough seabed using a two-layer, time-invariant eddy viscosity model. The bottom shear stress is outlined, and comparison is made with Pingree and Griffiths' (1974 measurements of turbulent tidal planetary boundary layer flow on the continental shelf south-west of Lands End, England.
Locomotion of bacteria in liquid flow and the boundary layer effect on bacterial attachment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Chao, E-mail: zhangchao@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems (Chongqing University), Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400030 (China); Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Liao, Qiang, E-mail: lqzx@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems (Chongqing University), Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400030 (China); Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Chen, Rong, E-mail: rchen@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems (Chongqing University), Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400030 (China); Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Zhu, Xun, E-mail: zhuxun@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems (Chongqing University), Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400030 (China); Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China)
2015-06-12
The formation of biofilm greatly affects the performance of biological reactors, which highly depends on bacterial swimming and attachment that usually takes place in liquid flow. Therefore, bacterial swimming and attachment on flat and circular surfaces with the consideration of flow was studied experimentally. Besides, a mathematical model comprehensively combining bacterial swimming and motion with flow is proposed for the simulation of bacterial locomotion and attachment in flow. Both experimental and theoretical results revealed that attached bacteria density increases with decreasing boundary layer thickness on both flat and circular surfaces, the consequence of which is inherently related to the competition between bacterial swimming and the non-slip motion with flow evaluated by the Péclet number. In the boundary layer, where the Péclet number is relatively higher, bacterial locomotion mainly depends on bacterial swimming. Thinner boundary layer promotes bacterial swimming towards the surface, leading to higher attachment density. To enhance the performance of biofilm reactors, it is effective to reduce the boundary layer thickness on desired surfaces. - Highlights: • Study of bacterial locomotion in flow as an early stage in biofilm formation. • Mathematical model combining bacterial swimming and the motion with flow. • Boundary layer plays a key role in bacterial attachment under flow condition. • The competition between bacterial swimming and the motion with flow is evaluated.
Behavior of Boundary Layer in Supersonic Flow with Applied Lorentz Force
Udagawa, Keisuke; Saito, Shinya; Kawaguchi, Kenji; Tomioka, Sadatake; Yamasaki, Hiroyuki
Experimental study on behavior of boundary layer in supersonic flow with applied Lorentz force was carried out. In the experiment, Mach 1.5 supersonic wind tunnel driven by a shock-tube was used. At the test section, the current from the external DC power supply and the magnetic field of 2.4 Tesla were applied to the boundary layer developing on the bottom wall. Argon seeded with cesium was used as an electrically conducting gas. Effect of the direction of the Lorentz force on static pressure distribution was investigated, and the remarkable increase of static pressure at the test section was observed for the decelerating Lorentz force. It is noted that the acceleration of the flow inside the boundary layer was demonstrated for the first time without accelerating the main flow when the accelerating Lorentz force was applied. At the same time, the acceleration efficiency defined by a ratio of work done by the Lorentz force to energy input into the flow was found 54-61%. These results have suggested the possibility of the boundary layer separation control by applying the accelerating Lorentz force. In the case of the decelerating Lorentz force, the significant reduction of Mach number was observed not only inside the boundary layer but also in the main flow. The reduction of Mach number could be ascribed to the growth of the boundary layer due to gas heating inside the boundary layer. When the direction of the current was changed, the difference of light emission from the discharge inside the boundary layer was observed, and this was due to the difference of the electromotive force induced in the supersonic flow.
Nonlinear stability of non-stationary cross-flow vortices in compressible boundary layers
Gajjar, J. S. B.
1995-01-01
The nonlinear evolution of long wavelength non-stationary cross-flow vortices in a compressible boundary layer is investigated and the work extends that of Gajjar (1994) to flows involving multiple critical layers. The basic flow profile considered in this paper is that appropriate for a fully three-dimensional boundary layer with O(1) Mach number and with wall heating or cooling. The governing equations for the evolution of the cross-flow vortex are obtained and some special cases are discussed. One special case includes linear theory where exact analytic expressions for the growth rate of the vortices are obtained. Another special case is a generalization of the Bassom & Gajjar (1988) results for neutral waves to compressible flows. The viscous correction to the growth rate is derived and it is shown how the unsteady nonlinear critical layer structure merges with that for a Haberman type of viscous critical layer.
Analytical solution of conjugate turbulent forced convection boundary layer flow over plates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joneydi Shariatzadeh Omid
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A conjugate (coupled forced convection heat transfer from a heated conducting plate under turbulent boundary layer flow is considered. A heated plate of finite thickness is cooled under turbulent forced convection boundary layer flow. Because the conduction and convection boundary layer flow is coupled (conjugated in the problem, a semi-analytical solution based on Differential Transform Method (DTM is presented for solving the non-linear integro-differential equation occurring in the problem. The main conclusion is that in the conjugate heat transfer case the temperature distribution of the plate is flatter than the one in the non-conjugate case. This feature is more pronounced under turbulent flow when compared with the laminar flow.
Physical modeling of the atmospheric boundary layer in the UNH Flow Physics Facility
Taylor-Power, Gregory; Gilooly, Stephanie; Wosnik, Martin; Klewicki, Joe; Turner, John
2016-11-01
The Flow Physics Facility (FPF) at UNH has test section dimensions W =6.0m, H =2.7m, L =72m. It can achieve high Reynolds number boundary layers, enabling turbulent boundary layer, wind energy and wind engineering research with exceptional spatial and temporal instrument resolution. We examined the FPF's ability to experimentally simulate different types of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) using upstream roughness arrays. The American Society for Civil Engineers defines standards for simulating ABLs for different terrain types, from open sea to dense city areas (ASCE 49-12). The standards require the boundary layer to match a power law shape, roughness height, and power spectral density criteria. Each boundary layer type has a corresponding power law exponent and roughness height. The exponent and roughness height both increase with increasing roughness. A suburban boundary layer was chosen for simulation and a roughness element fetch was created. Several fetch lengths were experimented with and the resulting boundary layers were measured and compared to standards in ASCE 49-12: Wind Tunnel Testing for Buildings and Other Structures. Pitot tube and hot wire anemometers were used to measure average and fluctuating flow characteristics. Velocity profiles, turbulence intensity and velocity spectra were found to compare favorably.
Off-Body Boundary-Layer Measurement Techniques Development for Supersonic Low-Disturbance Flows
Owens, Lewis R.; Kegerise, Michael A.; Wilkinson, Stephen P.
2011-01-01
Investigations were performed to develop accurate boundary-layer measurement techniques in a Mach 3.5 laminar boundary layer on a 7 half-angle cone at 0 angle of attack. A discussion of the measurement challenges is presented as well as how each was addressed. A computational study was performed to minimize the probe aerodynamic interference effects resulting in improved pitot and hot-wire probe designs. Probe calibration and positioning processes were also developed with the goal of reducing the measurement uncertainties from 10% levels to less than 5% levels. Efforts were made to define the experimental boundary conditions for the cone flow so comparisons could be made with a set of companion computational simulations. The development status of the mean and dynamic boundary-layer flow measurements for a nominally sharp cone in a low-disturbance supersonic flow is presented.
El Khoury, George K.; Schlatter, Philipp; Brethouwer, Geert; Johansson, Arne V.
2014-04-01
Direct numerical simulation data of fully developed turbulent pipe flow are extensively compared with those of turbulent channel flow and zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer flow for Reτ up to 1000. In the near-wall region, a high degree of similarity is observed in the three flow cases in terms of one-point statistics, probability density functions of the wall-shear stress and pressure, spectra, Reynolds stress budgets and advection velocity of the turbulent structures. This supports the notion that the near-wall region is universal for pipe and channel flow. Probability density functions of the wall shear stress, streamwise turbulence intensities, one-dimensional spanwise/azimuthal spectra of the streamwise velocity and Reynolds-stress budgets are very similar near the wall in the three flow cases, suggesting that the three canonical wall-bounded flows share many features. In the wake region, the mean streamwise velocity and Reynolds stress budgets show some expected differences.
Boundary layer flow and heat transfer to Carreau fluid over a nonlinear stretching sheet
Masood Khan; Hashim
2015-01-01
This article studies the Carreau viscosity model (which is a generalized Newtonian model) and then use it to obtain a formulation for the boundary layer equations of the Carreau fluid. The boundary layer flow and heat transfer to a Carreau model over a nonlinear stretching surface is discussed. The Carreau model, adequate for many non-Newtonian fluids, is used to characterize the behavior of the fluids having shear thinning properties and fluids with shear thickening properties for numerical ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taha Aziz
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The simplest equation method is employed to construct some new exact closed-form solutions of the general Prandtl's boundary layer equation for two-dimensional flow with vanishing or uniform mainstream velocity. We obtain solutions for the case when the simplest equation is the Bernoulli equation or the Riccati equation. Prandtl's boundary layer equation arises in the study of various physical models of fluid dynamics. Thus finding the exact solutions of this equation is of great importance and interest.
A numerical method for computing unsteady 2-D boundary layer flows
Krainer, Andreas
1988-01-01
A numerical method for computing unsteady two-dimensional boundary layers in incompressible laminar and turbulent flows is described and applied to a single airfoil changing its incidence angle in time. The solution procedure adopts a first order panel method with a simple wake model to solve for the inviscid part of the flow, and an implicit finite difference method for the viscous part of the flow. Both procedures integrate in time in a step-by-step fashion, in the course of which each step involves the solution of the elliptic Laplace equation and the solution of the parabolic boundary layer equations. The Reynolds shear stress term of the boundary layer equations is modeled by an algebraic eddy viscosity closure. The location of transition is predicted by an empirical data correlation originating from Michel. Since transition and turbulence modeling are key factors in the prediction of viscous flows, their accuracy will be of dominant influence to the overall results.
Flow Modification over Rotor Blade with Suction Boundary Layer Control Technique
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Navneet Kumar
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The efficiency of transonic aircraft engines depend upon the performance of compressor rotor. To increase compressor rotors performance flow separation around rotor blades must be delayed and controlled. The aim was to control the flow separation of blades using suction boundary layer control method. Rotor blade has been modelled in designing software CATIA and then a suction surface has been created on blade and then import these geometries to ANSYS-CFX 14.5 for computational analysis of flow around blades. Suction slot has been applied at the trailing edge of suction surface and Shear stress transport model has been used for computational analysis. Two different suction mass flow rates 1 kg/s and 1.5 kg/s have been used here and boundary layer separation effects have been changed and this could be readily seen that the velocity vectors have reattached, preventing the boundary layer separation at the suction surface of the blade.
Experimental study of the turbulent boundary layer in acceleration-skewed oscillatory flow
A, van der D.A.; O'Donoghue, T.; Davies, A.G.; Ribberink, J.S.
2011-01-01
Experiments have been conducted in a large oscillatory flow tunnel to investigate the effects of acceleration skewness on oscillatory boundary layer flow over fixed beds. As well as enabling experimental investigation of the effects of acceleration skewness, the new experiments add substantially to
The three-dimensional flow organization past a micro-ramp in a supersonic boundary layer
Sun, Z.; Schrijer, F.F.J.; Scarano, F.; Van Oudheusden, B.W.
2012-01-01
The three-dimensional instantaneous flow organization in the near wake of a micro-ramp interacting with a Mach 2.0 supersonic turbulent boundary layer is studied using tomographic particle image velocimetry. The mean flow reveals a wake with approximately circular cross section dominated by a pair o
High Enthalpy Effects on Two Boundary Layer Disturbances in Supersonic and Hypersonic Flow
2012-05-01
178 C.1 Modified Millikan and White relaxation times...131 6.30 This plot shows the LST stability diagram for the case of cold carbon dioxide injection at a rate of 6 g/s. The sharp drop in amplified...boundary layer. Whitehead[77] used surface oil flow to visualize CHAPTER 2. BACKGROUND 21 the flow features around isolated roughness elements in
Ene, Remus-Daniel; Marinca, Vasile; Marinca, Bogdan
2016-01-01
Analytic approximate solutions using Optimal Homotopy Perturbation Method (OHPM) are given for steady boundary layer flow over a nonlinearly stretching wall in presence of partial slip at the boundary. The governing equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equation by means of similarity transformations. Some examples are considered and the effects of different parameters are shown. OHPM is a very efficient procedure, ensuring a very rapid convergence of the solutions after only two iterations.
A New Spectral Local Linearization Method for Nonlinear Boundary Layer Flow Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. S. Motsa
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a simple and efficient method for solving highly nonlinear systems of boundary layer flow problems with exponentially decaying profiles. The algorithm of the proposed method is based on an innovative idea of linearizing and decoupling the governing systems of equations and reducing them into a sequence of subsystems of differential equations which are solved using spectral collocation methods. The applicability of the proposed method, hereinafter referred to as the spectral local linearization method (SLLM, is tested on some well-known boundary layer flow equations. The numerical results presented in this investigation indicate that the proposed method, despite being easy to develop and numerically implement, is very robust in that it converges rapidly to yield accurate results and is more efficient in solving very large systems of nonlinear boundary value problems of the similarity variable boundary layer type. The accuracy and numerical stability of the SLLM can further be improved by using successive overrelaxation techniques.
Thermocouple Rakes for Measuring Boundary Layer Flows Extremely Close to Surface
Hwang, Danny P.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Martin, Lisa C.; Blaha, Charles A.
2001-01-01
Of vital interest to aerodynamic researchers is precise knowledge of the flow velocity profile next to the surface. This information is needed for turbulence model development and the calculation of viscous shear force. Though many instruments can determine the flow velocity profile near the surface, none of them can make measurements closer than approximately 0.01 in. from the surface. The thermocouple boundary-layer rake can measure much closer to the surface than conventional instruments can, such as a total pressure boundary layer rake, hot wire, or hot film. By embedding the sensors (thermocouples) in the region where the velocity is equivalent to the velocity ahead of a constant thickness strut, the boundary-layer flow profile can be obtained. The present device fabricated at the NASA Glenn Research Center microsystem clean room has a heater made of platinum and thermocouples made of platinum and gold. Equal numbers of thermocouples are placed both upstream and downstream of the heater, so that the voltage generated by each pair at the same distance from the surface is indicative of the difference in temperature between the upstream and downstream thermocouple locations. This voltage differential is a function of the flow velocity, and like the conventional total pressure rake, it can provide the velocity profile. In order to measure flow extremely close to the surface, the strut is made of fused quartz with extremely low heat conductivity. A large size thermocouple boundary layer rake is shown in the following photo. The latest medium size sensors already provide smooth velocity profiles well into the boundary layer, as close as 0.0025 in. from the surface. This is about 4 times closer to the surface than the previously used total pressure rakes. This device also has the advantage of providing the flow profile of separated flow and also it is possible to measure simultaneous turbulence levels within the boundary layer.
Theoretical Analysis of Stationary Potential Flows and Boundary Layers at High Speed
Oswaititsch, K.; Wieghardt, K.
1948-01-01
The present report consists of two parts. The first part deals with the two-dimensional stationary flow in the presence of local supersonic zones. A numerical method of integration of the equation of gas dynamics is developed. Proceeding from solutions at great distance from the body the flow pattern is calculated step by step. Accordingly the related body form is obtained at the end of the calculation. The second part treats the relationship between the displacement thickness of laminar and turbulent boundary layers and the pressure distribution at high speeds. The stability of the boundary layer is investigated, resulting in basic differences in the behavior of subsonic and supersonic flows. Lastly, the decisive importance of the boundary layer for the pressure distribution, particularly for thin profiles, is demonstrated.
Boundary Layer Flow and Heat Transfer over an Exponentially Shrinking Sheet
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Krishnendu Bhattacharyya
2011-01-01
An analysis is made to study boundary layer flow and heat transfer over an exponentially shrinking sheet.Using similarity transformations in exponential form,the governing boundary layer equations are transformed into self-similar nonlinear ordinary differential equations,which are then solved numerically using a very effcient shooting method. The analysis reveals the conditions for the existence of steady boundary layer flow due to exponential shrinking of the sheet and it is found that when the mass suction parameter exceeds a certain critical value,steady flow is possible.The dual solutions for velocity and temperature distributions are obtained.With increasing values of the mass suction parameter,the skin friction coefficient increases for the first solution and decreases for the second solution.
Boundary layer development in the flow field between a rotating and a stationary disk
van Eeten, K. M. P.; van der Schaaf, J.; Schouten, J. C.; van Heijst, G. J. F.
2012-03-01
This paper discusses the development of boundary layers in the flow of a Newtonian fluid between two parallel, infinite disks. One of the disks is rotating at a constant angular velocity while the other remains stationary. An analytical series approximation and a numerical solution method are used to describe the velocity profiles of the flow. Both methods rely on the commonly used similarity transformation first proposed by Von Kármán [T. von Kármán, ZAMM 1, 233 (1921)], 10.1002/zamm.19210010401. For Reh Batchelor type of flow was observed for Reh > 300, with two boundary layers near the disks and a non-viscous core in the middle. A remarkable conclusion of the current work is the coincidence of the power series' radius of convergence, a somewhat abstract mathematical notion, with the physically tangible concept of the boundary layer thickness. The coincidence shows a small deviation of only 2% to 4%.
Stability of compressible three-dimensional boundary-layer flows
Reed, H. L.; Nayfeh, A. H.
1982-01-01
For compressible three-dimensional flow, the method of multiple scales to formulate the three-dimensional stability problem and determine the partial-differential equations governing variations of the amplitude and complex wavenumbers is used. A method for following one specific wave along its trajectory to ascertain the characteristics of the most unstable disturbance is proposed. Numerical results using the flow over the X-21 wing as calculated from the Kaups-Cebeci code will be presented.
Froessling, Nils
1958-01-01
The fundamental boundary layer equations for the flow, temperature and concentration fields are presented. Two dimensional symmetrical and unsymmetrical and rotationally symmetrical steady boundary layer flows are treated as well as the transfer boundary layer. Approximation methods for the calculation of the transfer layer are discussed and a brief survey of an investigation into the validity of the law that the Nusselt number is proportional to the cube root of the Prandtl number is presented.
Boundary-layer turbulence in experiments of quasi-Keplerian flows
Lopez, Jose M
2016-01-01
Most flows in nature and engineering are turbulent because of their large velocities and spatial scales. Laboratory experiments of rotating quasi-Keplerian flows, for which the angular velocity decreases radially but the angular momentum increases, are however laminar at Reynolds numbers exceeding one million. This is in apparent contradiction to direct numerical simulations showing that in these experiments turbulence transition is triggered by the axial boundaries. We here show numerically that as the Reynolds number increases turbulence becomes progressively confined to the boundary layers and the flow in the bulk fully relaminarizes. Our findings support that hydrodynamic turbulence cannot drive accretion in astrophysical disks.
Analysis of boundary layer flow over a porous nonlinearly stretching sheet with partial slip at
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Swati Mukhopadhyay
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The boundary layer flow of a viscous incompressible fluid toward a porous nonlinearly stretching sheet is considered in this analysis. Velocity slip is considered instead of no-slip condition at the boundary. Similarity transformations are used to convert the partial differential equation corresponding to the momentum equation into nonlinear ordinary differential equation. Numerical solution of this equation is obtained by shooting method. It is found that the horizontal velocity decreases with increasing slip parameter.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rauf, A., E-mail: raufamar@ciitsahiwal.edu.pk [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Siddiq, M.K. [Centre for Advanced Studies in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 63000 (Pakistan); Abbasi, F.M. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Meraj, M.A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Ashraf, M. [Centre for Advanced Studies in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 63000 (Pakistan); Shehzad, S.A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan)
2016-10-15
The present work deals with the steady laminar three-dimensional mixed convective magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow of Casson nanofluid over a bidirectional stretching surface. A uniform magnetic field is applied normal to the flow direction. Similarity variables are implemented to convert the non-linear partial differential equations into ordinary ones. Convective boundary conditions are utilized at surface of the sheet. A numerical technique of Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg (RFK45) is used to obtain the results of velocity, temperature and concentration fields. The physical dimensionless parameters are discussed through tables and graphs. - Highlights: • Mixed convective boundary layer flow of Casson nanofluid is taken into account. • Impact of magnetic field is examined. • Convective heat and mass conditions are imposed. • Numerical solutions are presented and discussed.
Numerical Solution of Boundary Layer MHD Flow with Viscous Dissipation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. R. Mishra
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The present paper deals with a steady two-dimensional laminar flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid over a shrinking sheet in the presence of uniform transverse magnetic field with viscous dissipation. Using suitable similarity transformations the governing partial differential equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations and then solved numerically by fourth-order Runge-Kutta method with shooting technique. Results for velocity and temperature profiles for different values of the governing parameters have been discussed in detail with graphical representation. The numerical evaluation of skin friction and Nusselt number are also given in this paper.
Hot-Film and Hot-Wire Anemometry for a Boundary Layer Active Flow Control Test
Lenahan, Keven C.; Schatzman, David M.; Wilson, Jacob Samuel
2013-01-01
Unsteady active flow control (AFC) has been used experimentally for many years to minimize bluff-body drag. This technology could significantly improve performance of rotorcraft by cleaning up flow separation. It is important, then, that new actuator technologies be studied for application to future vehicles. A boundary layer wind tunnel was constructed with a 1ft-x-3ft test section and unsteady measurement instrumentation to study how AFC manipulates the boundary layer to overcome adverse pressure gradients and flow separation. This unsteady flow control research requires unsteady measurement methods. In order to measure the boundary layer characteristics, both hot-wire and hot-film Constant Temperature Anemometry is used. A hot-wire probe is mounted in the flow to measure velocity while a hot-film array lays on the test surface to measure skin friction. Hot-film sensors are connected to an anemometer, a Wheatstone bridge circuit with an output that corresponds to the dynamic flow response. From this output, the time varying flow field, turbulence, and flow reversal can be characterized. Tuning the anemometers requires a fan test on the hot-film sensors to adjust each output. This is a delicate process as several variables drastically affect the data, including control resistance, signal input, trim, and gain settings.
Seasonality of submesoscale flows in the ocean surface boundary layer
Buckingham, Christian E.; Naveira Garabato, Alberto C.; Thompson, Andrew F.; Brannigan, Liam; Lazar, Ayah; Marshall, David P.; George Nurser, A. J.; Damerell, Gillian; Heywood, Karen J.; Belcher, Stephen E.
2016-03-01
A signature of submesoscale flows in the upper ocean is skewness in the distribution of relative vorticity. Expected to result for high Rossby number flows, such skewness has implications for mixing, dissipation, and stratification within the upper ocean. An array of moorings deployed in the Northeast Atlantic for 1 year as part of the experiment of the Ocean Surface Mixing, Ocean Submesoscale Interaction Study (OSMOSIS) reveals that relative vorticity is positively skewed during winter even though the scale of the Rossby number is less than 0.5. Furthermore, this skewness is reduced to zero during spring and autumn. There is also evidence of modest seasonal variations in the gradient Rossby number. The proposed mechanism by which relative vorticity is skewed is that the ratio of lateral to vertical buoyancy gradients, as summarized by the inverse gradient Richardson number, restricts its range during winter but less so at other times of the year. These results support recent observations and model simulations suggesting that the upper ocean is host to a seasonal cycle in submesoscale turbulence.
Direct Numerical Simulation of Zero-Pressure Gradient and Sink Flow Turbulent Boundary Layers
Ramesh, O.; Patwardhan, Saurabh
2010-11-01
Direct Numerical Simulations have been performed for the zero pressure gradient (ZPG) (600 < Reθ< 900) and for the sink flow turbulent boundary layers (K = 7.71x10-7). A finite difference code on Cartesian grid was used to perform the simulations. Inflow generation method developed by Lund et al. was used to generate inflow boundary condition for the ZPG case. This method was slightly modified for the case of sink flow in view of self-similarity it possesses in the inner co-ordinates. Hence, there was no need to use empirical relations for the calculation of inlet θ or δ and rescaling in outer co-ordinates. The average statistics obtained from the simulations are in close agreement with the experimental as well as DNS data available in the literature. The intermittency distribution in the case of sink flow approaches zero inside the boundary layer (y = 0.8δ), an observation which is also confirmed by the experiments. This effect could be due to the acceleration near the boundary layer edge which suppresses the turbulent fluctuations near the boundary layer edge.
Relating instantaneous structures and mean flow characteristics of turbulent boundary layers
de Silva, Charitha; Philip, Jimmy; Hutchins, Nicholas; Marusic, Ivan
2016-11-01
Recent works have highlighted the presence of thin interfacial layers of high shear that demarcate regions of relatively uniform streamwise momentum in turbulent boundary layers. Here, we aim to further our understanding of how such a zonal-like structural arrangement manifests in the averaged flow statistics. To this end, we start by identifying high shear interfaces in turbulent boundary layers employing particle image velocimetry databases that span more than an order of magnitude of friction Reynolds number (Reτ =103 -104). Inspection of these recurrent features reveal that their geometry is highly contorted and exhibits self-similarity across a wide range of scales. The Reynolds number dependence of these features is also investigated, together with their associated scaling. Based on these findings and the persistent presence of sharp changes in momentum in turbulent boundary layers, a simple model is presented towards reconstructing the mean velocity profile.
Intermittent boundary layers and torque maxima in Taylor-Couette flow
Brauckmann, H.J.; Eckhardt, B.E.
2013-01-01
Turbulent Taylor-Couette flow between counter-rotating cylinders develops intermittently fluctuating boundary layers for sufficient counter-rotation. We demonstrate the phenomenon in direct numerical simulations for radius ratios η=0.5 and 0.71 and propose a theoretical model for the critical value
Embedded-LES and experiment of turbulent boundary layer flow around a floor-mounted cube
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Nina Gall; Koss, Holger; Bennetsen, Jens Chr.
An Embedded LES approach is used to numerically simulate fluctuating surface pressures on a floor-mounted cube in a turbulent boundary layer flow and compared to wind tunnel experiments. The computation were performed with the CFD software ANSYS FLUENT at a Reynolds number at cube height of Reh = 1...
Fundamental interactions of vortical structures with boundary layers in two-dimensional flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Coutsias, E.A.; Lynov, Jens-Peter
1991-01-01
in the vorticity-stream function representation for bounded geometries. Fundamental processes connected to vorticity detachment from the boundary layers caused by the proximity of vortical structures are described. These processes include enstrophy enhancement of the main flow during bursting events, and pinning...
Prediction of mean flow data for adiabatic 2-D compressible turbulent boundary layers
Motallebi, F.
1997-01-01
This book presents a method for the prediction of mean flow data (i.e. skin friction, velocity profile and shape parameter) for adiabatic two-dimensional compressible turbulent boundary layers at zero pressure gradient. The transformed law of the wall, law of the lake, the van Driest model for the
Prediction of mean flow data for adiabatic 2-D compressible turbulent boundary layers
Motallebi, F.
1997-01-01
This book presents a method for the prediction of mean flow data (i.e. skin friction, velocity profile and shape parameter) for adiabatic two-dimensional compressible turbulent boundary layers at zero pressure gradient. The transformed law of the wall, law of the lake, the van Driest model for the c
Unsteady Flow Organization of a Shock Wave/Boundary Layer Interaction
Humble, R.A.
2009-01-01
A fundamental experimental study is carried out to investigate the unsteady flow organization of an incident shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction at Mach 2.1. Planar and tomographic particle image velocimetry (PIV) are used in combination with data processing using the proper orthogonal d
Tomographic-PIV measurement of the flow around a zigzag boundary layer trip
Elsinga, G.E.; Westerweel, J.
2012-01-01
Tomographic-PIV was used to measure the boundary layer transition forced by a zigzag trip. The resulting instantaneous three-dimensional velocity distributions are used to quantitatively visualize the flow structures. They reveal undulating spanwise vortices directly behind the trip, which break up
On the Study of Viscoelastic Walters' B Fluid in Boundary Layer Flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seyed Ali Madani Tonekaboni
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Viscoelastic Walters' B fluid flows for three problems, stagnation-point flow, Blasius flow, and Sakiadis flow, have been investigated. In each problem, Cauchy equations are changed to a nondimensional differential equations using stream functions and with assumption of boundary layer flow. The fourth-order predictor-corrector finite-difference method for solving these nonlinear differential equations has been employed. The results that have been obtained using this method are compared with the results of the last studies, and it is clarified that this method is more accurate. It is also shown that the results of last study about Sakiadis flow of Walter's B fluid are not true. In addition, the effects of order of discretization in the boundaries are investigated. Moreover, it has been discussed about the valid region of Weissenberg numbers for the second-order approximation of viscoelastic fluids in each case of study.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liansuo AN; Zhi WANG; Zhonghe HAN
2009-01-01
The spontaneous nucleation flow in turbine cascade was numerically studied. The model was imple-mented within a full Navier-Stokes viscous flow solution procedure and the process of condensation was calculated by the quadrature method of moments that shows good accuracy with very broad size distributions.Results were presented for viscous and inviscous flow,showing the influence of boundary layer separation and wake vortices on spontaneous nucleation. The results show that the degree of flow separation in wet steam flow is greater than that in superheated steam flow due to condensation shock and that the loss cannot be neglected.Furthermore, the impact of boundary layer separation and wake vortices on velocity profiles and its implications for profile loss were considered. The calculations showed that layer separation and wake vortices influence nucleation rate, leading to different droplet distributions. A method for controlling homogeneous nucleation and for reducing degree of flow separation in high-speed transonic wet steam flow was presented. The liquid phase parameter distribution is sensitive to the suction side profile of turbine cascade, which impacts the nucleation rate distribution leading to different droplet distributions and affects the degree of flow separation. The numerical study provides a practical design method for turbine blade to reduce wetness losses.
Unsteady Boundary-Layer Flow over Jerked Plate Moving in a Free Stream of Viscoelastic Fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sufian Munawar
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the unsteady boundary-layer flow of a viscoelastic non-Newtonian fluid over a flat surface. The plate is suddenly jerked to move with uniform velocity in a uniform stream of non-Newtonian fluid. Purely analytic solution to governing nonlinear equation is obtained. The solution is highly accurate and valid for all values of the dimensionless time 0≤τ<∞. Flow properties of the viscoelastic fluid are discussed through graphs.
Boundary layer separation and reattachment detection on airfoils by thermal flow sensors.
Sturm, Hannes; Dumstorff, Gerrit; Busche, Peter; Westermann, Dieter; Lang, Walter
2012-10-24
A sensor concept for detection of boundary layer separation (flow separation, stall) and reattachment on airfoils is introduced in this paper. Boundary layer separation and reattachment are phenomena of fluid mechanics showing characteristics of extinction and even inversion of the flow velocity on an overflowed surface. The flow sensor used in this work is able to measure the flow velocity in terms of direction and quantity at the sensor's position and expected to determine those specific flow conditions. Therefore, an array of thermal flow sensors has been integrated (flush-mounted) on an airfoil and placed in a wind tunnel for measurement. Sensor signals have been recorded at different wind speeds and angles of attack for different positions on the airfoil. The sensors used here are based on the change of temperature distribution on a membrane (calorimetric principle). Thermopiles are used as temperature sensors in this approach offering a baseline free sensor signal, which is favorable for measurements at zero flow. Measurement results show clear separation points (zero flow) and even negative flow values (back flow) for all sensor positions. In addition to standard silicon-based flow sensors, a polymer-based flexible approach has been tested showing similar results.
Validation of Large Eddy Simulation in a Relaminarizing Boundary Layer Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianbo Jiang
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Coexistence of laminar, transitional and turbulent flow regimes is very common in blood flows through arteries, airflows in human respiratory systems, and indoor airflow etc. Due to the complexity of flow physics involved, most Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS turbulence models are not suitable for these flows because they are designed primarily for high Reynolds number turbulent flows. In this paper, large eddy simulation with dynamic subgrid scale model has been applied to simulate the flow in a relaminarizing boundary layer that undergoes reverse transition from turbulent state to laminar one. Simulated mean velocities and turbulent intensities are in good agreement with corresponding experimental data at different streamwise positions where different flow regimes exist. The appropriateness of dynamic subgrid scale model for the study of relaminarizing boundary layer flow is demonstrated by the variation of subgrid constant: it is somewhat constant in fully turbulent regime, decreases in transitional regime and reaches zero in laminar regime. Comparison of the experimental data and computational results from three low Reynolds number RANS models shows that they do not adequately predict the flow relaminarization. The present study suggests the use of large eddy simulation with dynamic model in the study of complex flows where a combination of flow regimes (laminar, transitional, and turbulent may exist.
MHD Boundary Layer Flow of Dilatant Fluid in a Divergent Channel with Suction or Blowing
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Krishnendu Bhattacharyya; G.C.Layek
2011-01-01
@@ An analysis is carried out to study a steady magnetohydrodynamic(MHD) boundary layer How of an electrically conducting incompressible power-law non-Newtonian fluid through a divergent channel.The channel walls are porous and subjected to either suction or blowing of equal magnitude of the same kind of fluid on both walls.The fluid is permeated by a magnetic field produced by electric current along the line of intersection of the channel walls.The governing partial differential equation is transformed into a self-similar nonlinear ordinary differential equation using similarity transformations.The possibility of boundary layer flow in a divergent channel is analyzed with the power-law fluid model.The analysis reveals that the boundary layer flow (without separation) is possible for the case of the dilatant fluid model subjected to suitable suction velocity applied through its porous walls,even in the absence of a magnetic field.Further, it is found that the boundary layer flow is possible even in the presence of blowing for a suitable value of the magnetic parameter.It is found that the velocity increases with increasing values of the power-law index for the case of dilatant fluid.The effects of suction/blowing and magnetic field on the velocity are shown graphically and discussed physical尔
Stability analysis of Boundary Layer in Poiseuille Flow Through A Modified Orr-Sommerfeld Equation
Monwanou, A V; Orou, J B Chabi; 10.5539/apr.v4n4p138
2013-01-01
For applications regarding transition prediction, wing design and control of boundary layers, the fundamental understanding of disturbance growth in the flat-plate boundary layer is an important issue. In the present work we investigate the stability of boundary layer in Poiseuille flow. We normalize pressure and time by inertial and viscous effects. The disturbances are taken to be periodic in the spanwise direction and time. We present a set of linear governing equations for the parabolic evolution of wavelike disturbances. Then, we derive modified Orr-Sommerfeld equations that can be applied in the layer. Contrary to what one might think, we find that Squire's theorem is not applicable for the boundary layer. We find also that normalization by inertial or viscous effects leads to the same order of stability or instability. For the 2D disturbances flow ($\\theta=0$), we found the same critical Reynolds number for our two normalizations. This value coincides with the one we know for neutral stability of the k...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Malvandi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to consider both effects of slip and convective heat boundary conditions on steady two-dimensional boundary layer flow of a nanofluid over a stretching sheet in the presence of blowing/suction simultaneously. Flow meets the Navier's slip condition at the surface and Biot number is also used to consider the effects of convective heat transfer. The employed model for nanofluid includes two-component four-equation nonhomogeneous equilibrium model that incorporates the effects of nanoparticle migration owing to Brownian motion and thermophoresis. The basic partial boundary layer equations have been transformed into a two-point boundary value problem via similarity variables. Results for impermeable isothermal surface and also no-slip boundary condition were in best agreements with those existing in literatures. Effects of governing parameters such as Biot number (Bi, slip parameter (λ, thermophoresis (Nt, Prandtl number (Pr, Lewis number (Le, Brownian motion (Nb and blowing/suction (S on reduced Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are analyzed and discussed in details. The obtained results indicate that unlike heat transfer rate, concentration rate is very sensitive to all parameters among which Le, S and Pr are the most effective ones.
Comparison two different LES closure models of the transitional boundary layer flow
Ivanov, Dimitry; Chorny, Andrei
2016-11-01
The goal of the present research is to measure the velocity profile in the thin boundary layer of a flat plate at zero angle of attack. We consider a flow over a flat plate with a uniform velocity profile. The uniform velocity fluid hits the leading edge of the flat plate, and a laminar boundary layer begins to develop. The near-wall, subgrid-scale (SGS) model is used to perform Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of the incompressible developing, smooth-wall, flat-plate turbulent boundary layer. In this model, the stretched-vortex, SGS closure is utilized in conjunction with a tailored, near-wall model designed to incorporate anisotropic vorticity scales in the presence of the wall. The composite SGS-wall model is presently incorporated into a computer code suitable for the LES of developing flat-plate boundary layers. Presently this model is extended to the LES of the zero-pressure gradient, flat-plate turbulent boundary layer. LES solver using Smagorinsky and the One-equation LES turbulence models. Results show that the normalized mean velocity profile is in good agreement with the universal law-of-the-wall and previous published data. In order to ensure the quality of the numerical results a convergence study was performed.
Boundary layer flow on a moving surface in otherwise quiescent pseudo-plastic non-Newtonian fluids
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liancun Zheng; Liu Ting; Xinxin Zhang
2008-01-01
A theoretical analysis for the boundary layer flow over a continuous moving surface in an otherwise quiescent pseudo-plastic non-Newtonian fluid medium was presented. The types of potential flows necessary for similar solutions to the boundary layer equations were determined and the solutions were numerically presented for different values of power law exponent.
Barnwell, R. W.
1981-01-01
The development of a potential-flow/boundary-layer method for calculating subsonic and transonic turbulent flow past airfoils with trailing-edge separation is reported. A moment-of-momentum integral boundary-layer method is used which employs the law-of-the-wall/law-of-the-wake velocity profile and a two-layer eddy-viscosity model and ignores the laminar sublayer. All integrals across the boundary layer are obtained in closed form. Separation is assumed to occur when the shearing-stress velocity vanishes. A closed-form solution is derived for separated-flow regions where the shearing stress is negligible. In the potential-flow method, the exact form of the airfoil boundary condition is used, but it is applied at the chord line rather than the airfoil surface. This allows the accurate computation of flow about airfoils at large angles of attack but permits the use of body-oriented Cartesian computational grids. The governing equation for the perturbation velocity potential contains several terms in addition to the classical small-disturbance terms.
Frequency selection mechanisms in the flow of a laminar boundary layer over a shallow cavity
Qadri, Ubaid Ali; Schmid, Peter J.
2017-01-01
We investigate the flow over shallow cavities as a representative configuration for modeling small surface irregularities in wall-bounded shear flows. Due to the globally stable nature of the flow, we perform a frequency response analysis, which shows a significant potential for the amplification of disturbance kinetic energy by harmonic forcing within a certain frequency band. Shorter and more shallow cavities exhibit less amplified responses, while energy from the base flow can be extracted predominantly from forcing that impacts the cavity head on. A structural sensitivity analysis, combined with a componentwise decomposition of the sensitivity tensor, reveals the regions of the flow that act most effectively as amplifiers. We find that the flow inside the cavity plays a negligible role, whereas boundary layer modifications immediately upstream and downstream of the cavity edges contribute significantly to the frequency response. The same regions constitute preferred locations for implementing active or passive control strategies to manipulate the frequency response of the flow.
Heat transfer in nonequilibrium boundary layer flow over a partly catalytic wall
Wang, Zhi-Hui
2016-11-01
Surface catalysis has a huge influence on the aeroheating performance of hypersonic vehicles. For the reentry flow problem of a traditional blunt vehicle, it is reasonable to assume a frozen boundary layer surrounding the vehicles' nose, and the catalytic heating can be decoupled with the heat conduction. However, when considering a hypersonic cruise vehicle flying in the medium-density near space, the boundary layer flow around its sharp leading-edge is likely to be nonequilibrium rather than frozen due to rarefied gas effects. As a result, there will be a competition between the heat conduction and the catalytic heating. In this paper, the theoretical modeling and the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method are employed to study the corresponding rarefied nonequilibrium flow and heat transfer phenomena near the leading edge of the near space hypersonic vehicles. It is found that even under identical rarefication degree, the nonequilibrium degree of the flow and the corresponding heat transfer performance of the sharp leading edges could be different from that of the big blunt noses. A generalized model is preliminarily proposed to describe and to evaluate the competitive effects between the homogeneous recombination of atoms inside the nonequilibrium boundary layer and the heterogeneous recombination of atoms on the catalytic wall surface. The introduced nonequilibrium criterion and the analytical formula are validated and calibrated by the DSMC results, and the physical mechanism is discussed.
Nonparallel stability of two-dimensional nonuniformly heated boundary-layer flows
Nayfeh, A. H.; El-Hady, N. M.
1979-01-01
An analysis is presented for the linear stability of water boundary-layer flows over nonuniformly flat plates. Included in the analysis are disturbances due to velocity, pressure, temperatures, density, and transport properties as well as variations of the liquid properties with temperature. The method of multiple scales is used to account for the nonparallelism of the mean flow. In contrast with previous analyses, the nonsimilarity of the mean flow is taken into account. No analysis agrees, even qualitatively, with the experimental data when similar profiles are used. However, both the parallel and nonparallel results qualitatively agree with the experimental results of Strazisar and Reshotko when nonsimilar profiles are used.
RESEARCH ON THE FLOW STABILITY IN A CYLINDRICAL PARTICLE TWO-PHASE BOUNDARY LAYER
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
林建忠; 聂德明
2003-01-01
Based on the momentum and constitutive equations, the modified Orr-Sommerfeld equation describing the flow stability in a cylindrical particle two-phase flow was derived. For a cylindrical particle two-phase boundary layer, the neutral stability curves and critical Reynolds number were given with numerical simulation. The results show that the cylindrical particles have a suppression effect on the flow instability, the larger the particle volume fraction and the particle aspect-ratio are, the more obvious the suppression effect is.
Similarity Solutions of Marangoni Convection Boundary Layer Flow with Gravity and External Pressure
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张艳; 郑连存
2014-01-01
This study is focused on a steady dissipative layer, which is generated by Marangoni convection flow over the surface resulted from an imposed temperature gradient, coupled with buoyancy effects due to gravity and external pressure. A model is proposed with Marangoni condition in the boundary conditions at the interface. The similarity equations are determined and approximate analytical solutions are obtained by an efficient transformation, asymptotic expansion and Padé approximant technique. For the cases that buoyancy force is favorable or unfavor-able to Marangoni flow, the features of flow and temperature fields are investigated in terms of Marangoni mixed convection parameter and Prantl number.
Leading-edge boundary layer flow : Prandtl's vision, current developments and future perspectives.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Collis, Samuel Scott; Theofilis, Vassilis (U. Politecnica de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid, Spain); Fedorov, Alexander V. (Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 141700 Moscow Region, Russia)
2004-09-01
The first viscous compressible three-dimensional BiGlobal linear instability analysis of leading-edge boundary layer flow has been performed. Results have been obtained by independent application of asymptotic analysis and numerical solution of the appropriate partial-differential eigenvalue problem. It has been shown that the classification of three-dimensional linear instabilities of the related incompressible flow [13] into symmetric and antisymmetric mode expansions in the chordwise coordinate persists for compressible, subsonic flow-regime at sufficiently large Reynolds numbers.
Vegetation Effects on Turbulent Boundary Layer Flows and their Role in Lotic Ecosystems
Neary, V. S.
2009-12-01
The effects of vegetation on fully developed turbulent boundary layer flows are profound and play an important role in lotic ecosystems. Recent experiments on flow past isolated plant stems (e.g. tree trunks in flood plains), alternating vegetation patches (e.g. Justicia americana in gravel bed rivers), and simulated emergent and submerged plant stem arrays in laboratory flumes are reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to fully developed turbulent flows through submerged vegetation modeled by large eddy simulation (LES), with a focus on understanding the role of the coherent structures on the momentum transfer across the water-plant interface. Comparisons are made with fully developed turbulent boundary layer flows in unobstructed (unvegetated) channels to show how the vegetation significantly changes the mean flow, Reynolds shear stress, turbulence intensities, turbulence event frequencies and the energy budget within and above the vegetation layer. The results demonstrate how vegetation in the lotic environment delineates ecotones with edge effects that are beneficial to mobile organisms (e.g. macroinvertebrates and fish), and how it alters mean flow and turbulence characteristics near the bed to promote desirable physical habitat conditions, e.g. substrate composition and stability, for benthic organisms such as mussels and crayfish. Vincent Neary, Ph.D., P.E. President, Springburn LLC Natural Engineering and Restoration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cavar, Dalibor; Meyer, Knud Erik
2011-01-01
A large eddy simulation (LES) study of turbulent non-equilibrium boundary layer flow over 2 D Bump, at comparatively low Reynolds number Reh = U∞h/ν = 1950, was conducted. A well-known LES issue of obtaining and sustaining turbulent flow inside the computational domain at such low Re, is addresse...... partially confirm a close interdependency between generation and evolution of internal layers and the abrupt changes in the skin friction, previously reported in the literature. © 2011 American Society of Mechanical Engineers......., showed a good agreement with the available laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) measurements. Analysis of the flow was directly able to identify and confirm the existence of internal layers at positions related to the vicinity of the upstream and downstream discontinuities in the surface curvature and also...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chandaneswar Midya
2012-01-01
An analytical study of the distribution of a reactant solute undergoing a first-order chemical reaction in the boundary layer flow of an electrically conducting incompressible Buid over a linearly shrinking surface is presented. The Row is permeated by an externally applied magnetic Geld normal to the plane of the flow. The equations governing the Row and concentration Reid are reduced into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using similarity variables. Closed form exact solutions of the reduced concentration equation are obtained for both prescribed power-law surface concentration (PSC) and power-law wall mass flux (PMF) as boundary conditions. The study reveals that the concentration over a shrinking sheet is signiRcantly different from that of a stretching surface. It s found that te solute boundary layer thickness is enhanced with the increasing values of the Schmidt number and the power-law index parameter, but decreases with enhanced vaJues of magnetic and reaction rate parameters for the PSC case. For the PMF case, the solute boundary layer thickness decreases with the increase of the Schmidt number, magnetic and reaction rate parameter for power-law index parameter n = 0. Negative solute boundary layer thickness is observed for the PMF case when n = 1 and 2, and these facts may not be realized in real-world applications.%An analytical study of the distribution of a reactant solute undergoing a first-order chemical reaction in the boundary layer flow of an electrically conducting incompressible fluid over a linearly shrinking surface is presented.The flow is permeated by an externally applied magnetic field normal to the plane of the flow.The equations governing the flow and concentration field are reduced into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using similarity variables.Closed form exact solutions of the reduced concentration equation are obtained for both prescribed power-law surface concentration (PSC) and power-law wall
Global instabilities and transient growth in Blasius boundary-layer flow over a compliant panel
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
K Tsigklifis; A D Lucey
2015-05-01
We develop a hybrid of computational and theoretical approaches suited to study the fluid–structure interaction (FSI) of a compliant panel, flush between rigid upstream and downstream wall sections, with a Blasius boundary-layer flow. The ensuing linear-stability analysis is focused upon global instability and transient growth of disturbances. The flow solution is developed using a combination of vortex and source boundary-element sheets on a computational grid while the dynamics of a plate-spring compliant wall are couched in finite-difference form. The fully coupled FSI system is then written as an eigenvalue problem and the eigenvalues of the various flow- and wall-based instabilities are analysed. It is shown that coalescence or resonance of a structural eigenmode with either a flow-based Tollmien–Schlichting Wave (TSW) or wall-based travelling-wave flutter (TWF) modes can occur. This can render the nature of these well-known convective instabilities to become global for a finite compliant wall giving temporal growth of system disturbances. Finally, a non-modal analysis based on the linear superposition of the extracted temporal modes is presented. This reveals a high level of transient growth when the flow interacts with a compliant panel that has structural properties which render the FSI system prone to global instability. Thus, to design stable finite compliant panels for applications such as boundary-layer transition postponement, both global instabilities and transient growth must be taken into account.
A high-resolution code for large eddy simulation of incompressible turbulent boundary layer flows
Cheng, Wan
2014-03-01
We describe a framework for large eddy simulation (LES) of incompressible turbulent boundary layers over a flat plate. This framework uses a fractional-step method with fourth-order finite difference on a staggered mesh. We present several laminar examples to establish the fourth-order accuracy and energy conservation property of the code. Furthermore, we implement a recycling method to generate turbulent inflow. We use the stretched spiral vortex subgrid-scale model and virtual wall model to simulate the turbulent boundary layer flow. We find that the case with Reθ ≈ 2.5 × 105 agrees well with available experimental measurements of wall friction, streamwise velocity profiles and turbulent intensities. We demonstrate that for cases with extremely large Reynolds numbers (Reθ = 1012), the present LES can reasonably predict the flow with a coarse mesh. The parallel implementation of the LES code demonstrates reasonable scaling on O(103) cores. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Stability of solutions in boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a stretching cylinder
Najib, Najwa; Bachok, Norfifah; Arifin, Norihan Md.
2017-08-01
The boundary layer flow and heat transfer in viscous fluid passing through a stretching cylinder with present of mass suction are investigated. The governing equations of boundary layer in the form of partial differential equation are transformed into ordinary differential equations using appropriate similarity variables. The systems of ordinary differential equations are then reduced to first order system before being solved numerically. The results for skin friction coeffiecient, local Nusselt number, velocity and temperature profiles are presented. The effects of mass suction with different values of curvature parameter on the flow and heat transfer characteristics indicate that the dual solutions are found to exist. The stability analysis is performed to verify which solution (first or second solution) is linearly stable and thus the physical meaning is realizable. In the presence of mass suction, the dual solutions exist along stretching cylinder.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krishnendu Bhattacharyya
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A mathematical model of the steady boundary layer flow of nanofluid due to an exponentially permeable stretching sheet with external magnetic field is presented. In the model, the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis on heat transfer and nanoparticle volume friction are considered. Using shooting technique with fourth-order Runge-Kutta method the transformed equations are solved. The study reveals that the governing parameters, namely, the magnetic parameter, the wall mass transfer parameter, the Prandtl number, the Lewis number, Brownian motion parameter, and thermophoresis parameter, have major effects on the flow field, the heat transfer, and the nanoparticle volume fraction. The magnetic field makes enhancement in temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction, whereas the wall mass transfer through the porous sheet causes reduction of both. For the Brownian motion, the temperature increases and the nanoparticle volume fraction decreases. Heat transfer rate becomes low with increase of Lewis number. For thermophoresis effect, the thermal boundary layer thickness becomes larger.
UNSTEADY BOUNDARY LAYER FLOW ALONG A STRETCHING CYLINDER AN ANALYTICAL SOLUTION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Y. Akl
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The axisymetric laminar boundary layer unsteady flow along a continuously stretching cylinder immersed in a viscous and incompressible fluid is studied. The governing partial boundary layer equations in cylindrical form are first transformed into ordinary differential equations these equations are solved analytically using the optimal modified Homotopy Asymptotic method in order to get a closed form solution for the dimensionless functions f and è. The main object of this study is to investigate the effect of an unsteady motion of a stretching cylinder on the flow and heat transfer characteristics such as surface skin friction and surface heat flux. These characteristics have a direct effect on the quality of the final product of the fiber manufacturing and extrusion processes. Considerable effects were found for the dynamic parameter (γ, the curvature parameter (ρ and the prandtl number (pr on the velocity and the heat transfer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oluwole Daniel Makinde
2011-08-01
Full Text Available The present paper is concerned with the analysis of inherent irreversibility in hydromagnetic boundary layer flow of variable viscosity fluid over a semi-infinite flat plate under the influence of thermal radiation and Newtonian heating. Using local similarity solution technique and shooting quadrature, the velocity and temperature profiles are obtained numerically and utilized to compute the entropy generation number. The effects of magnetic field parameter, Brinkmann number, the Prandtl number, variable viscosity parameter, radiation parameter and local Biot number on the fluid velocity profiles, temperature profiles, local skin friction and local Nusselt number are presented. The influences of the same parameters and the dimensionless group parameter on the entropy generation rate in the flow regime and Bejan number are calculated, depicted graphically and discussed quantitatively. It is observed that the peak of entropy generation rate is attained within the boundary layer region and plate surface act as a strong source of entropy generation and heat transfer irreversibility.
Schneider, Steven P.
1991-01-01
Laminar-turbulent transition in high speed boundary layers is a complicated problem which is still poorly understood, partly because of experimental ambiguities caused by operating in noisy wind tunnels. The NASA Langley experience with quiet tunnel design has been used to design a quiet flow tunnel which can be constructed less expensively. Fabrication techniques have been investigated, and inviscid, boundary layer, and stability computer codes have been adapted for use in the nozzle design. Construction of such a facility seems feasible, at a reasonable cost. Two facilities have been proposed: a large one, with a quiet flow region large enough to study the end of transition, and a smaller and less expensive one, capable of studying low Reynolds number issues such as receptivity. Funding for either facility remains to be obtained, although key facility elements have been obtained and are being integrated into the existing Purdue supersonic facilities.
Structure and dynamics of turbulent boundary layer flow over healthy and algae-covered corals
Stocking, Jonathan B.; Rippe, John P.; Reidenbach, Matthew A.
2016-09-01
Fine-scale velocity measurements over healthy and algae-covered corals were collected in situ to characterize combined wave-current boundary layer flow and the effects of algal canopies on turbulence hydrodynamics. Data were collected using acoustic Doppler velocimetry and particle image velocimetry. Flow over healthy corals is well described by traditional wall-bounded shear layers, distinguished by a logarithmic velocity profile, a local balance of turbulence production and dissipation, and high levels of bed shear stress. Healthy corals exhibit significant spatial heterogeneity in boundary layer flow structure resulting from variations in large-scale coral topography. By contrast, the turbulence structure of algae-covered corals is best represented by a plane mixing layer, with a sharp inflection point in mean velocity at the canopy top, a large imbalance of turbulence production and dissipation, and strongly damped flow and shear stresses within the canopy. The presence of an algal canopy increases turbulent kinetic energy within the roughness sublayer by ~2.5 times compared to healthy corals while simultaneously reducing bed shear stress by nearly an order of magnitude. Reduced bed shear at the coral surface and within-canopy turbulent stresses imply reduced mass transfer of necessary metabolites (e.g., oxygen, nutrients), leading to negative impacts on coral health.
Porous Media and Immersed Boundary Hybrid-Modelling for Simulating Flow in Stone Cover-Layers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Bjarne; Liu, Xiaofeng; Christensen, Erik Damgaard
2017-01-01
In this paper we present a new numerical modelling approach for coastal and marine applications where a porous media conceptual model was combined with a free surface volume-of-fluid (VOF) model and an immersed boundary method (IBM). The immersed boundary model covers the method of describing a s....... In this paper, the model is applied to investigate two practical cases in terms of a cover layer of stones on a flat bed under oscillatory flow at different packing densities, and a rock toe structure at a breakwater....
Measurements of laminar and turbulent flow in a curved duct with thin inlet boundary layers
Taylor, A. M. K. P.; Whitelaw, J. H.; Yianneskis, M.
1981-01-01
Laser Doppler velocimetry was used to measure the laminar and turbulent flow in a 90 deg square bend of strong curvature. The boundary layers at the inlet to the bend were approximately 25 percent and 15 percent of the hydraulic diameter for the laminar and turbulent flows, respectively. The development of the pressure driven secondary motion is more rapid for laminar flow: the maximum cross stream component measured was 60 percent of the bulk velocity in contrast to 40 percent for turbulent flow. The streamwise isotachs show that, for laminar flow, large velocities are found progressively nearer to the outer radius of the bend and along the sidewalls. For turbulent flow, the isotachs move towards the inner radius until about 60 deg around the bend where strong secondary motion results in a similar redistribution. Turbulence level and shear stress measurements are also presented.
Group classification of steady two-dimensional boundary-layer stagnation-point flow equations
Nadjafikhah, Mehdi; Hejazi, Seyed Reza
2010-01-01
Lie symmetry group method is applied to study the boundary-layer equations for two-dimensional steady flow of an incompressible, viscous fluid near a stagnation point at a heated stretching sheet placed in a porous medium equation. The symmetry group and its optimal system are given, and group invariant solutions associated to the symmetries are obtained. Finally the structure of the Lie algebra symmetries is determined.
Analysis of turbulent boundary layers
Cebeci, Tuncer
1974-01-01
Analysis of Turbulent Boundary Layers focuses on turbulent flows meeting the requirements for the boundary-layer or thin-shear-layer approximations. Its approach is devising relatively fundamental, and often subtle, empirical engineering correlations, which are then introduced into various forms of describing equations for final solution. After introducing the topic on turbulence, the book examines the conservation equations for compressible turbulent flows, boundary-layer equations, and general behavior of turbulent boundary layers. The latter chapters describe the CS method for calculati
Nonlinear optimal control of bypass transition in a boundary layer flow
Xiao, Dandan; Papadakis, George
2016-11-01
Bypass transition is observed in a flat-plate boundary-layer flow when high levels of free stream turbulence are present. This scenario is characterized by the formation of streamwise elongated streaks inside the boundary layer, their break down into turbulent spots and eventually fully turbulent flow. In the current work, we perform DNS simulations of control of bypass transition in a zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer. A non-linear optimal control algorithm is developed that employs the direct-adjoint approach to minimise a quadratic cost function based on the deviation from the Blasius velocity profile. Using the Lagrange variational approach, the distribution of the blowing/suction control velocity is found by solving iteratively the non-linear Navier-Stokes and its adjoint equations in a forward/backward loop. The optimisation is performed over a finite time horizon during which the Lagrange functional is to be minimised. Large values of optimisation horizon result in instability of the adjoint equations. The results show that the controller is able to reduce the turbulent kinetic energy of the flow in the region where the objective function is defined and the velocity profile is seen to approach the Blasius solution. Significant drag reduction is also achieved.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Liang; FU Song
2009-01-01
Based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes approach, a laminar-turbulence transition model is proposed in this study that takes into account the effects of different instability modes associated with the variations in Mach numbers of compressible boundary layer flows. The model is based on k-ω-γ three-equation eddy-viscosity concept with k representing the fluctuating kinetic energy, ωthe specific dissipation rate and the intermittency factor γ.The particular features of the model are that: 1) k includes the non-turbulent, as well as turbulent fluctuations; 2) a transport equation for the intermittency factor γis proposed here with a source term set to trigger the transition onset; 3) through the introduction of a new length scale normal to wall, the present model employs the local variables only avoiding the use of the integral parameters, like the boundary layer thickness δ,which are often cost-ineffective with the modern CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) methods; 4) in the fully turbulent region, the model retreats to the well-known k-ωSST (Shear Stress Transport) model. This model is validated with a number of available experiments on boundary layer transitions including the incompressible, supersonic and hypersonic flows past flat plates, straight/flared cones at zero incidences, etc. It is demonstrated that the present model can be successfully applied to the engineering calculations of a variety of aerodynamic flow transition.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
Based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes approach,a laminar-turbulence transition model is proposed in this study that takes into account the effects of different instability modes associated with the variations in Mach numbers of compressible boundary layer flows.The model is based on k-ω-γ three-equation eddy-viscosity concept with k representing the fluctuating kinetic energy,ωthe specific dissipation rate and the intermittency factorγ.The particular features of the model are that:1)k includes the non-turbulent,as well as turbulent fluctuations;2)a transport equation for the intermittency factorγis proposed here with a source term set to trigger the transition onset;3)through the introduction of a new length scale normal to wall,the present model employs the local variables only avoiding the use of the integral parameters,like the boundary layer thicknessδ,which are often cost-ineffective with the modern CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics)methods;4)in the fully turbulent region,the model retreats to the well-known k-ωSST(Shear Stress Transport)model.This model is validated with a number of available experiments on boundary layer transitions including the incompressible,supersonic and hypersonic flows past flat plates,straight/flared cones at zero incidences,etc.It is demonstrated that the present model can be successfully applied to the engineering calculations of a variety of aerodynamic flow transition.
Nonlinear Excitation of Inviscid Stationary Vortex in a Boundary-Layer Flow
Choudhari, Meelan; Duck, Peter W.
1996-01-01
We examine the excitation of inviscid stationary crossflow instabilities near an isolated surface hump (or indentation) underneath a three-dimensional boundary layer. As the hump height (or indentation depth) is increased from zero, the receptivity process becomes nonlinear even before the stability characteristics of the boundary layer are modified to a significant extent. This behavior contrasts sharply with earlier findings on the excitation of the lower branch Tollmien-Schlichting modes and is attributed to the inviscid nature of the crossflow modes, which leads to a decoupling between the regions of receptivity and stability. As a result of this decoupling, similarity transformations exist that allow the nonlinear receptivity of a general three-dimensional boundary layer to be studied with a set of canonical solutions to the viscous sublayer equations. The parametric study suggests that the receptivity is likely to become nonlinear even before the hump height becomes large enough for flow reversal to occur in the canonical solution. We also find that the receptivity to surface humps increases more rapidly as the hump height increases than is predicted by linear theory. On the other hand, receptivity near surface indentations is generally smaller in comparison with the linear approximation. Extension of the work to crossflow receptivity in compressible boundary layers and to Gortler vortex excitation is also discussed.
Boundary layer structure and decoupling from synoptic scale flow during NAMBLEX
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. G. Norton
2006-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the meteorology and planetary boundary layer structure observed during the NAMBLEX field campaign to aid interpretation of the chemical and aerosol measurements. The campaign has been separated into five periods corresponding to the prevailing synoptic condition. Comparisons between meteorological measurements (UHF wind profiler, Doppler sodar, sonic aneometers mounted on a tower at varying heights and a standard anemometer and the ECMWF analysis at 10m and 1100 m identified days when the internal boundary layer was decoupled from the synoptic flow aloft. Generally the agreement was remarkably good apart from during period one and on a few days during period four when the diurnal swing in wind direction implies a sea/land breeze circulation near the surface. During these periods the origin of air sampled at Mace Head would not be accurately represented by back trajectories following the winds resolved in ECMWF analyses. The wind profiler observations give a detailed record of boundary layer structure including an indication of its depth, average wind speed and direction. Turbulence statistics have been used to assess the height to which the developing internal boundary layer, caused by the increased surface drag at the coast, reaches the sampling location under a wide range of marine conditions. Sampling conducted below 10 m will be impacted by emission sources at the shoreline in all wind directions and tidal conditions, whereas sampling above 15 m is unlikely to be affected in any of the wind directions and tidal heights sampled during the experiment.
Wake structures of two side by side spheres in a tripped boundary layer flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Canli Eyüb
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Two independent spheres were placed in a side by side arrangement and flow structure in the wake region of the spheres was investigated with a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV system when the spheres were in a boundary layer over a flat plate as a special case. Reynolds number was 5000 based on the sphere diameter which was 42.5 mm. Boundary layer was tripped 8mm away from the leading edge of the flat plate with a 5 mm trip wire. The thickness of the hydrodynamically developed boundary layer was determined as 63mm which was larger than the sphere diameter of D=42.5mm. Wake region of the spheres was examined from point of flow physics for the different sphere locations in the ranges of 0≤G/D ≤1.5 and 0≤S/D ≤1.5 where G and S were the distance between the spheres and the distance between the bottom point of the spheres and the flat plate surface, respectively. Depending on the different sphere locations, instantaneous and time averaged vorticity data, scalar values of time-averaged velocity components and their root mean square (rms values and time averaged vorticity data are presented in the study for the evaluation of wake region of the spheres. It is demonstrated that the gap between the two spheres and the interaction between the gap and the boundary layer greatly affects flow pattern, especially when spheres are located near to the flat plate surface, i.e. S/D=0.1 for 0≤G/D ≤1.5. Different distances between the spheres resulted in various flow patterns as the spheres were approached to the flat plate. The distance S/D=0.1 for all gap values has the strongest effect on the wake structures. Beyond G/D=1.0, the sphere wakes tend to be similar to single sphere case. The instantaneous vorticity fields of the side by side arrangements comprised wavy structures in higher level comparing to an individual sphere case. The gap flow intensifies the occurrence of small scale eddies in the wake region. The submersion rate of the spheres
Wake structures of two side by side spheres in a tripped boundary layer flow
Canli, Eyüb; Özgören, Muammer; Dogan, Sercan; Hilmi Aksoy, Muharrem; Akilli, Huseyin
2014-03-01
Two independent spheres were placed in a side by side arrangement and flow structure in the wake region of the spheres was investigated with a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system when the spheres were in a boundary layer over a flat plate as a special case. Reynolds number was 5000 based on the sphere diameter which was 42.5 mm. Boundary layer was tripped 8mm away from the leading edge of the flat plate with a 5 mm trip wire. The thickness of the hydrodynamically developed boundary layer was determined as 63mm which was larger than the sphere diameter of D=42.5mm. Wake region of the spheres was examined from point of flow physics for the different sphere locations in the ranges of 0≤G/D ≤1.5 and 0≤S/D ≤1.5 where G and S were the distance between the spheres and the distance between the bottom point of the spheres and the flat plate surface, respectively. Depending on the different sphere locations, instantaneous and time averaged vorticity data, scalar values of time-averaged velocity components and their root mean square (rms) values and time averaged vorticity data are presented in the study for the evaluation of wake region of the spheres. It is demonstrated that the gap between the two spheres and the interaction between the gap and the boundary layer greatly affects flow pattern, especially when spheres are located near to the flat plate surface, i.e. S/D=0.1 for 0≤G/D ≤1.5. Different distances between the spheres resulted in various flow patterns as the spheres were approached to the flat plate. The distance S/D=0.1 for all gap values has the strongest effect on the wake structures. Beyond G/D=1.0, the sphere wakes tend to be similar to single sphere case. The instantaneous vorticity fields of the side by side arrangements comprised wavy structures in higher level comparing to an individual sphere case. The gap flow intensifies the occurrence of small scale eddies in the wake region. The submersion rate of the spheres actually determines the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bhupesh Kumar Mahatha
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Two dimensional steady hydromagnetic boundary layer flow of a viscous, incompressible, and electrically conducting nanofluid past a stretching sheet with Newtonian heating, in the presence of viscous and Joule dissipations is studied. The transport equations include the combined effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are transformed to a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations which are then solved using Spectral Relaxation Method (SRM and the results are validated by comparison with numerical approximations obtained using the Matlab in-built boundary value problem solver bvp4c, and with existing results available in literature. Numerical values of fluid velocity, fluid temperature and species concentration are displayed graphically versus boundary layer coordinate for various values of pertinent flow parameters whereas those of skin friction, rate of heat transfer and rate of mass transfer at the plate are presented in tabular form for various values of pertinent flow parameters. Such nanofluid flows are useful in many applications in heat transfer, including microelectronics, fuel cells, pharmaceutical processes, and hybrid-powered engines, engine cooling/vehicle thermal management, domestic refrigerator, chiller, heat exchanger, in grinding, machining and in boiler flue gas temperature reduction.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammed J Uddin
Full Text Available Steady two dimensional MHD laminar free convective boundary layer flows of an electrically conducting Newtonian nanofluid over a solid stationary vertical plate in a quiescent fluid taking into account the Newtonian heating boundary condition is investigated numerically. A magnetic field can be used to control the motion of an electrically conducting fluid in micro/nano scale systems used for transportation of fluid. The transport equations along with the boundary conditions are first converted into dimensionless form and then using linear group of transformations, the similarity governing equations are developed. The transformed equations are solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. The effects of different controlling parameters, namely, Lewis number, Prandtl number, buoyancy ratio, thermophoresis, Brownian motion, magnetic field and Newtonian heating on the flow and heat transfer are investigated. The numerical results for the dimensionless axial velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction as well as the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood number have been presented graphically and discussed. It is found that the rate of heat and mass transfer increase as Newtonian heating parameter increases. The dimensionless velocity and temperature distributions increase with the increase of Newtonian heating parameter. The results of the reduced heat transfer rate is compared for convective heating boundary condition and found an excellent agreement.
Uddin, Mohammed J; Khan, Waqar A; Ismail, Ahmed I
2012-01-01
Steady two dimensional MHD laminar free convective boundary layer flows of an electrically conducting Newtonian nanofluid over a solid stationary vertical plate in a quiescent fluid taking into account the Newtonian heating boundary condition is investigated numerically. A magnetic field can be used to control the motion of an electrically conducting fluid in micro/nano scale systems used for transportation of fluid. The transport equations along with the boundary conditions are first converted into dimensionless form and then using linear group of transformations, the similarity governing equations are developed. The transformed equations are solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. The effects of different controlling parameters, namely, Lewis number, Prandtl number, buoyancy ratio, thermophoresis, Brownian motion, magnetic field and Newtonian heating on the flow and heat transfer are investigated. The numerical results for the dimensionless axial velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction as well as the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood number have been presented graphically and discussed. It is found that the rate of heat and mass transfer increase as Newtonian heating parameter increases. The dimensionless velocity and temperature distributions increase with the increase of Newtonian heating parameter. The results of the reduced heat transfer rate is compared for convective heating boundary condition and found an excellent agreement.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Savić Slobodan
2006-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates ionized gas flow in the boundary layer when its electroconductivity is varied. The flow is planar and the contour is porous. At first, it is assumed that the ionized gas electroconductivity σ depends only on the longitudinal variable. Then we adopt that it is a function of the ratio of the longitudinal velocity and the velocity at the outer edge of the boundary layer. For both electroconductivity variation laws, by application of the general similarity method, the governing boundary layer equations are brought to a generalized form and numerically solved in a four-parametric three times localized approximation. Based on many tabular solutions, we have shown diagrams of the most important nondimensional values and characteristic boundary layer functions for both of the assumed laws. Finally, some conclusions about influence of certain physical values on ionized gas flow in the boundary layer have been drawn. .
Flow noise predictions of a submerged cylinder under turbulent boundary layer excitations
Wu, Kuangcheng; Vlahopoulos, Nickolas
2002-05-01
The unsteady fluctuated pressure underneath turbulent boundary layers (TBL) is one of major noise sources in moving vehicles. Recently, discretized TBL forcing functions have been applied to planar structures in air [Y. F. Hwang and S. A. Hambric, Noise-Con, 2000; M. Allen and N. Vlahopoulos, Computers and Structures, 2000; M. Allen and N. Vlahopoulos, Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, 2001; M. Allen, R. Sbragio, and N. Vlahopoulos, AIAA J. 2001]. This paper discusses prediction of the flow-induced radiated noise and surface responses of a submerged hemisphere-capped cylindrical shell (L/D=11). The FEM/IFEM (infinite finite element method) approach is used to calculate structural acoustic transfer functions and to accurately account for the fluid loading effects. The effect on TBL due to the curvature of a cylinder is captured by utilizing the potential flow-boundary layer theory to determine key boundary layer parameters. Predictions of the surface intensity and far field responses are developed through stochastic analysis due to the natural of the TBL excitations. A MATLAB script is generated to determine the power spectral density of the responses. [Work supported by ONR Code 334.
Boundary layer flow and heat transfer to Carreau fluid over a nonlinear stretching sheet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masood Khan
2015-10-01
Full Text Available This article studies the Carreau viscosity model (which is a generalized Newtonian model and then use it to obtain a formulation for the boundary layer equations of the Carreau fluid. The boundary layer flow and heat transfer to a Carreau model over a nonlinear stretching surface is discussed. The Carreau model, adequate for many non-Newtonian fluids, is used to characterize the behavior of the fluids having shear thinning properties and fluids with shear thickening properties for numerical values of the power law exponent n. The modeled boundary layer conservation equations are converted to non-linear coupled ordinary differential equations by a suitable transformation. Numerical solution of the resulting equations are obtained by using the Runge-Kutta Fehlberg method along with shooting technique. This analysis reveals many important physical aspects of flow and heat transfer. Computations are performed for different values of the stretching parameter (m, the Weissenberg number (We and the Prandtl number (Pr. The obtained results show that for shear thinning fluid the fluid velocity is depressed by the Weissenberg number while opposite behavior for the shear thickening fluid is observed. A comparison with previously published data in limiting cases is performed and they are in excellent agreement.
Miner, E. W.; Lewis, C. H.
1972-01-01
An implicit finite difference method has been applied to tangential slot injection into supersonic turbulent boundary layer flows. In addition, the effects induced by the interaction between the boundary layer displacement thickness and the external pressure field are considered. In the present method, three different eddy viscosity models have been used to specify the turbulent momentum exchange. One model depends on the species concentration profile and the species conservation equation has been included in the system of governing partial differential equations. Results are compared with experimental data at stream Mach numbers of 2.4 and 6.0 and with results of another finite difference method. Good agreement was generally obtained for the reduction of wall skin friction with slot injection and with experimental Mach number and pitot pressure profiles. Calculations with the effects of pressure interaction included showed these effects to be smaller than effects of changing eddy viscosity models.
Interaction between a shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer in transonic flow
Adamson, T. C., Jr.; Feo, A.
1975-01-01
Interaction between a shock wave and an unseparated turbulent boundary layer is considered. The method of matched asymptotic expansions is used, with solutions valid in the double limit as Reynolds number tends to infinity and Mach number tends to unity. The shock is weak enough that interaction effects can be considered as perturbations to the undisturbed flow; the case considered is that where the sonic line is near the outer edge of the boundary layer. It is shown that, with order estimates for Reynolds stress perturbations, the induced wall pressure distribution can be calculated using only the two outer interaction regions, independent of a specific closure condition and that this solution is in fact a turbulent free interaction solution. A detailed analysis of the inner regions, for which an eddy viscosity model for the Reynolds shear stress is used, provides a description of the variations in velocity, temperature and density near and at the wall.
On a boundary layer problem related to the gas flow in shales
Barenblatt, G. I.
2013-01-16
The development of gas deposits in shales has become a significant energy resource. Despite the already active exploitation of such deposits, a mathematical model for gas flow in shales does not exist. Such a model is crucial for optimizing the technology of gas recovery. In the present article, a boundary layer problem is formulated and investigated with respect to gas recovery from porous low-permeability inclusions in shales, which are the basic source of gas. Milton Van Dyke was a great master in the field of boundary layer problems. Dedicating this work to his memory, we want to express our belief that Van Dyke\\'s profound ideas and fundamental book Perturbation Methods in Fluid Mechanics (Parabolic Press, 1975) will live on-also in fields very far from the subjects for which they were originally invented. © 2013 US Government.
Boundary Layer Flow and Heat Transfer of FMWCNT/Water Nanofluids over a Flat Plate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Reza Safaei
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In the present study, the heat transfer and flow of water/FMWCNT (functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube nanofluids over a flat plate was investigated using a finite volume method. Simulations were performed for velocity ranging from 0.17 mm/s to 1.7 mm/s under laminar regime and nanotube concentrations up to 0.2%. The 2-D governing equations were solved using an in-house FORTRAN code. For a specific free stream velocity, the presented results showed that increasing the weight percentage of nanotubes increased the Nusselt number. However, an increase in the solid weight percentage had a negligible effect on the wall shear stress. The results also indicated that increasing the free stream velocity for all cases leads to thinner boundary layer thickness, while increasing the FMWCNT concentration causes an increase in the boundary layer thickness.
Analytic Study of Magnetohydrodynamic Flow and Boundary Layer Control Over a Wedge
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
M. Chandrasekar; S. Baskaran
2008-01-01
A genuine variational principle developed by Gyarmati, in the field of thermodynamics of irreversible processes unifying the theoretical requirements of technical, environmental and biological sciences is employed to study the effects of uniform suction and injection on MHD flow adjacent to an isothermal wedge with pressure gradient in the presence of a transverse magnetic field. The velocity distribution inside the boundary layer has been considered as a simple polynomial function and the variational principle is formulated. The Euler-Lagrange equation is reduced to a simple polynomial equation in terms of momentum boundary layer thickness. The velocity profiles, displacement thickness and the coefficient of skin friction are calculated for various values of wedge angle parameter m, magnetic parameter ε and suction/injection parameter H. The present results are compared with known available results and the comparison is found to be satisfactory. The present study establishes high accuracy of results obtained by this variational technique.
Complexity of localised coherent structures in a boundary-layer flow
Khapko, Taras; Kreilos, Tobias; Schlatter, Philipp; Eckhardt, Bruno; Henningson, Dan S
2013-01-01
We study numerically transitional coherent structures in a boundary-layer flow with homogeneous suction at the wall (the so-called asymptotic suction boundary layer ASBL). The dynamics restricted to the laminar-turbulent separatrix is investigated in a spanwisely extended domain that allows for robust localisation of all edge states. We work at fixed Reynolds number and study the edge states as a function of the streamwise period. We demonstrate the complex spatio-temporal dynamics of these localised states, which exhibits multistability and undergoes complex bifurcations leading from periodic to chaotic regimes. It is argued that in all regimes the dynamics restricted to the edge is essentially low-dimensional and non-extensive.
Edge states as mediators of bypass transition in boundary-layer flows
Khapko, Taras; Schlatter, Philipp; Duguet, Yohann; Eckhardt, Bruno; Henningson, Dan S
2016-01-01
The concept of edge state is investigated in the asymptotic suction boundary layer in relation with the receptivity process to noisy perturbations and the nucleation of turbulent spots. Edge tracking is first performed numerically, without imposing any discrete symmetry, in a large computational domain allowing for full spatial localisation of the perturbation velocity. The edge state is a three-dimensional localised structure recurrently characterised by a single low-speed streak that experiences erratic bursts and planar shifts. This recurrent streaky structure is then compared with predecessors of individual spot nucleation events, triggered by non-localised initial noise. The present results suggest a nonlinear picture, rooted in dynamical systems theory, of the nucleation process of turbulent spots in boundary-layer flows, in which the localised edge state play the role of state-space mediator.
Edge states as mediators of bypass transition in boundary-layer flows
Khapko, T.; Kreilos, T.; Schlatter, P.; Duguet, Y.; Eckhardt, B.; Henningson, D. S.
2016-08-01
The concept of edge state is investigated in the asymptotic suction boundary layer in relation with the receptivity process to noisy perturbations and the nucleation of turbulent spots. Edge tracking is first performed numerically, without imposing any discrete symmetry, in a large computational domain allowing for full spatial localisation of the perturbation velocity. The edge state is a three-dimensional localised structure recurrently characterised by a single low-speed streak that experiences erratic bursts and planar shifts. This recurrent streaky structure is then compared with predecessors of individual spot nucleation events, triggered by non-localised initial noise. The present results suggest a nonlinear picture, rooted in dynamical systems theory, of the nucleation process of turbulent spots in boundary-layer flows, in which the localised edge state play the role of state-space mediator.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Syahira Mansur
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The unsteady boundary layer flow of a nanofluid past a stretching/shrinking sheet with a convective surface boundary condition is studied. The effects of the unsteadiness parameter, stretching/shrinking parameter, convective parameter, Brownian motion parameter and thermophoresis parameter on the local Nusselt number are investigated. Numerical solutions to the governing equations are obtained using a shooting method. The results for the local Nusselt number are presented for different values of the governing parameters. The local Nusselt number decreases as the stretching/shrinking parameter increases. The local Nusselt number is consistently higher for higher values of the convective parameter but lower for higher values of the unsteadiness parameter, Brownian motion parameter and thermophoresis parameter.
DNS Study for the origin of the flow Randomization in Late Boundary Layer Transition
Thapa, Manoj; Liu, Chaoqun
2014-01-01
This paper is devoted to the investigation of the origin and mechanism of randomization in late boundary layer transition over a flat plate without pressure gradient. The flow randomization is a crucial phase before flow transition to the turbulent state. According to existing literatures, the randomization was caused by the big background noises and non-periodic spanwise boundary conditions. It was assumed that the large ring structure is affected by background noises first, and then the change of large ring structure affects the small length scales quickly, which directly leads to randomization and formation of turbulence. However, by careful analysis of our high order DNS results, we believe that the internal instability of multiple ring cycles structure is the main reason. What we observed is that randomization begins when the third cycle overlaps the first and second cycles. A significant asymmetric phenomenon is originated from the second cycle in the middle of both streamwise and spanwise directions. M...
The impact of plasma induced flow on the boundary layer in a narrow channel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Procházka P.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The induced flow generated by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD actuator working in steady and unsteady regime will be used to modify properties of naturally developed boundary layer (BL in short and long rectangular perspex channel which is connected to the blow-down wind tunnel. The actuator is placed in spanwise configuration and the inlet velocities will range between 5 and 20 m•s-1. Previously, mean flow field and statistical quantities were subjugated to investigation. In this paper, there will be presented dynamical features of the BL. Oscillation pattern decomposition (OPD of influenced flow field and frequency analysis will be presented. These results should be taken into account regarding to use in the flow around a bluff body.
Tomas, J. M.; Pourquie, M. J. B. M.; Jonker, H. J. J.
2016-05-01
Large-eddy simulations (LES) are used to investigate the effect of stable stratification on rural-to-urban roughness transitions. Smooth-wall turbulent boundary layers are subjected to a generic urban roughness consisting of cubes in an in-line arrangement. Two line sources of pollutant are added to investigate the effect on pollutant dispersion. Firstly, the LES method is validated with data from wind-tunnel experiments on fully-developed flow over cubical roughness. Good agreement is found for the vertical profiles of the mean streamwise velocity component and mean Reynolds stress. Subsequently, roughness transition simulations are done for both neutral and stable conditions. Results are compared with fully-developed simulations with conventional double-periodic boundary conditions. In stable conditions, at the end of the domain the streamwise velocity component has not yet reached the fully-developed state even though the surface forces are nearly constant. Moreover, the internal boundary layer is shallower than in the neutral case. Furthermore, an investigation of the turbulence kinetic energy budget shows that the buoyancy destruction term is reduced in the internal boundary layer, above which it is equal to the undisturbed (smooth wall) value. In addition, in stable conditions pollutants emitted above the urban canopy enter the canopy farther downstream due to decreased vertical mixing. Pollutants emitted below the top of the urban canopy are 85 % higher in concentration in stable conditions mostly due to decreased advection. If this is taken into account concentrations remain 17 % greater in stable conditions due to less rapid internal boundary-layer growth. Finally, it is concluded that in the first seven streets the vertical advective pollutant flux is significant, in contrast to the fully-developed case.
Stagg, G. W.; Parker, N. G.; Barenghi, C. F.
2017-03-01
We model the superfluid flow of liquid helium over the rough surface of a wire (used to experimentally generate turbulence) profiled by atomic force microscopy. Numerical simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation reveal that the sharpest features in the surface induce vortex nucleation both intrinsically (due to the raised local fluid velocity) and extrinsically (providing pinning sites to vortex lines aligned with the flow). Vortex interactions and reconnections contribute to form a dense turbulent layer of vortices with a nonclassical average velocity profile which continually sheds small vortex rings into the bulk. We characterize this layer for various imposed flows. As boundary layers conventionally arise from viscous forces, this result opens up new insight into the nature of superflows.
PIV experiments in rough-wall, laminar-to-turbulent, oscillatory boundary-layer flows
Mujal-Colilles, Anna; Mier, Jose M.; Christensen, Kenneth T.; Bateman, Allen; Garcia, Marcelo H.
2014-01-01
Exploratory measurements of oscillatory boundary layers were conducted over a smooth and two different rough beds spanning the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow regimes using a multi-camera 2D-PIV system in a small oscillatory-flow tunnel (Admiraal et al. in J Hydraul Res 44(4):437-450, 2006). Results show how the phase lag between bed shear stress and free-stream velocity is better defined when the integral of the momentum equation is used to estimate the bed shear stress. Observed differences in bed shear stress and phase lag between bed shear stress and free-stream velocity are highly sensitive to the definition of the bed position ( y = b). The underestimation of turbulent stresses close to the wall is found to explain such differences when using the addition of Reynolds and viscous stresses to define both the bed shear stress and the phase lag. Regardless of the flow regime, in all experiments, boundary-layer thickness reached its maximum value at a phase near the flow reversal at the wall. Friction factors in smooth walls are better estimated using a theoretical equation first proposed by Batchelor (An introduction to fluid dynamics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1967) while the more recent empirical predictor of Pedocchi and Garcia (J Hydraul Res 47(4):438-444, 2009a) was found to be appropriate for estimating friction coefficients in the laminar-to-turbulent transition regime.
MHD flow in a cylindrical vessel of finite size with turbulent boundary layers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gorbachev, L.P.; Nikitin, N.V.
1979-01-01
The hydrodynamic characteristics of flows generated by electromagnetic forces in a cylindrical vessel of finite size, for the case of large values of the hydrodynamic and small values of the magnetic Reynolds numbers have been inadequately analyzed in previous literature, since neither the nonlinear nor the linear theory adequately accounts for secondary flows due to the strong action of boundary layers formed at the end faces of the cylinders at large Reynolds numbers and the results do not agree with experimental data. This paper generalizes the previously more accurate nonlinear scheme of the same authors, the basis for which was the fact that viscosity at large Reynolds numbers is manifest only close to solid surfaces. Two cases are treated: crossed fields and a rotating magnetic field in the cylindrical vessel, where the entire flow region is broken down into an inviscid core and end face boundary layers. It is assumed that the velocity distribution near the end surfaces obeys an empirical one-seventh power law, which is applicable to turbulent liquid flow in a tube in a range of Re = 3 x 10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 5/ simple engineering formulas are derived for the angular velocity, which exhibit good agreement with the experimental data for Hartmann numbers less than 10. The procedure can be generalized to the case of a rotating magnetic field having several pairs of poles. 6 references, 2 figures.
Heat transfer and fluid mechanics measurements in transitional boundary layer flows
Wang, T.; Simon, T. W.; Buddhavarapu, J.
1985-01-01
Experimental results are presented to document hydrodynamic and thermal development of flat-plate boundary layers undergoing natural transition. Local heat transfer coefficients, skin friction coefficients and profiles of velocity, temperature and Reynolds normal and shear stresses are presented. A case with no transition and transitional cases with 0.68 percent and 2.0 percent free-stream disturbance intensities were investigated. The locations of transition are consistent with earlier data. A late-laminar state with significant levels of turbulence is documented. In late-transitional and early-turbulent flows, turbulent Prandtl number and conduction layer thickness values exceed, and the Reynolds analogy factor is less than, values previously measured in fully turbulent flows.
Schlichting (Deceased), Hermann
2017-01-01
This new edition of the near-legendary textbook by Schlichting and revised by Gersten presents a comprehensive overview of boundary-layer theory and its application to all areas of fluid mechanics, with particular emphasis on the flow past bodies (e.g. aircraft aerodynamics). The new edition features an updated reference list and over 100 additional changes throughout the book, reflecting the latest advances on the subject.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khairy Zaimi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper concerns with the boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a permeable stretching/shrinking sheet in a viscous fluid, with the bottom surface of the plate is heated by convection from a hot fluid. The partial differential equations governing the flow and heat transfer are converted into ordinary differential equations using a similarity transformation, before being solved numerically. The effects of the suction, convection and stretching/shrinking parameters on the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number are examined and graphically illustrated. Dual solutions are found to exist for a certain range of the suction and stretching/shrinking parameters. The numerical results also show that suction widens the range of the stretching/shrinking parameter for which the solution exists.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lundquist, K A [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
2010-05-12
use of flux (non-zero) boundary conditions. This anabatic flow set-up is further coupled to atmospheric physics parameterizations, which calculate surface fluxes, demonstrating that the IBM can be coupled to various land-surface parameterizations in atmospheric models. Additionally, the IB method is extended to three dimensions, using both trilinear and inverse distance weighted interpolations. Results are presented for geostrophic flow over a three-dimensional hill. It is found that while the IB method using trilinear interpolation works well for simple three-dimensional geometries, a more flexible and robust method is needed for extremely complex geometries, as found in three-dimensional urban environments. A second, more flexible, immersed boundary method is devised using inverse distance weighting, and results are compared to the first IBM approach. Additionally, the functionality to nest a domain with resolved complex geometry inside of a parent domain without resolved complex geometry is described. The new IBM approach is used to model urban terrain from Oklahoma City in a one-way nested configuration, where lateral boundary conditions are provided by the parent domain. Finally, the IB method is extended to include wall model parameterizations for rough surfaces. Two possible implementations are presented, one which uses the log law to reconstruct velocities exterior to the solid domain, and one which reconstructs shear stress at the immersed boundary, rather than velocity. These methods are tested on the three-dimensional canonical case of neutral atmospheric boundary layer flow over flat terrain.
Marginally stable and turbulent boundary layers in low-curvature Taylor-Couette flow
Brauckmann, Hannes J
2016-01-01
Marginal stability arguments are used to describe the rotation-number dependence of torque in Taylor-Couette (TC) flow for radius ratios $\\eta \\geq 0.9$ and shear Reynolds number $Re_S=2\\times 10^4$. With an approximate representation of the mean profile by piecewise linear functions, characterized by the boundary-layer thicknesses at the inner and outer cylinder and the angular momentum in the center, profiles and torques are extracted from the requirement that the boundary layers represent marginally stable TC subsystems and that the torque at the inner and outer cylinder coincide. This model then explains the broad shoulder in the torque as a function of rotation number near $R_\\Omega\\approx 0.2$. For rotation numbers $R_\\Omega < 0.07$ the TC stability conditions predict boundary layers in which shear Reynolds numbers are very large. Assuming that the TC instability is bypassed by some shear instability, a second maximum in torque appears, in very good agreement with numerical simulations. The results s...
Mixed convection boundary layer flow over a horizontal circular cylinder in a Jeffrey fluid
Zokri, S. M.; Arifin, N. S.; Mohamed, M. K. A.; Salleh, M. Z.; Kasim, A. R. M.; Mohammad, N. F.
2017-05-01
In this paper, the mixed convection boundary layer flow and heat transfer of Jeffrey fluid past a horizontal circular cylinder with viscous dissipation effect and constant heat flux is discussed. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are transformed into dimensionless forms using the appropriate non-similar transformation. Numerical solutions are obtained by using the Keller-box method, which is proven well-tested, flexible, implicit and unconditionally stable. The numerical results for the velocity, temperature, skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number are attained for various values of mixed convection parameter.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Freidooni Mehr N.
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the semi-analytical/numerical technique known as the homotopy analysis method (HAM is employed to derive solutions for the laminar axisymmetric mixed convection boundary-layer nanofluid flow past a vertical cylinder. The similarity solutions are employed to transform the parabolic partial differential conservation equations into system of nonlinear, coupled ordinary differential equations, subject to appropriate boundary conditions. A comparison has been done to verify the obtained results with the purely numerical results of Grosan and Pop (2011 with excellent correlation achieved. The effects of nanoparticle volume fraction, curvature parameter and mixed convection or buoyancy parameter on the dimensionless velocity and temperature distributions, skin friction and wall temperature gradients are illustrated graphically. HAM is found to demonstrate excellent potential for simulating nanofluid dynamics problems. Applications of the study include materials processing and also thermal enhancement of energy systems.
Bell, James H.; Heineck, James T.; Zilliac, Gregory; Mehta, Rabindra D.; Long, Kurtis R.
2016-01-01
An important goal for modern fluid mechanics experiments is to provide datasets which present a challenge for Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations to reproduce. Such "CFD validation experiments" should be well-characterized and well-documented, and should investigate flows which are difficult for CFD to calculate. It is also often convenient for the experiment to be challenging for CFD in some aspects while simple in others. This report is part of the continuing documentation of a series of experiments conducted to characterize the flow around an axisymmetric, modified-cosine-shaped, wall-mounted hill named "FAITH" (Fundamental Aero Investigates The Hill). Computation of this flow is easy in some ways - subsonic flow over a simple shape - while being complex in others - separated flow and boundary layer interactions. The primary set of experiments were performed on a 15.2 cm high, 45.7 cm base diameter machined aluminum model that was tested at mean speeds of 50 m/s (Reynolds Number based on height = 500,000). The ratio of model height to boundary later height was approximately 3. The flow was characterized using surface oil flow visualization, Cobra probe to determine point-wise steady and unsteady 3D velocities, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to determine 3D velocities and turbulence statistics along specified planes, Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) to determine mean surface pressures, and Fringe Imaging Skin Friction (FISF) to determine surface skin friction magnitude and direction. A set of pathfinder experiments were also performed in a water channel on a smaller scale (5.1 cm high, 15.2 cm base diameter) sintered nylon model. The water channel test was conducted at a mean test section speed of 3 cm/s (Reynolds Number of 1500), but at the same ratio of model height to boundary layer thickness. Dye injection from both the model and an upstream rake was used to visualize the flow. This report summarizes the experimental set-up, techniques used, and data
Large eddy simulation of atmospheric boundary layer flows and application to pollen dispersal
Chamecki, Marcelo
This work presents a framework for simulating pollen dispersal by wind based on Large Eddy Simulation. Important phenomena such as pollen emission by plants and ground deposition are modeled through the boundary condition. An expression for the vertical equilibrium concentration profile of pollen particles, including the effect of the canopy on the eddy diffusivity as well as corrections for atmospheric stability, is proposed for this purpose. This expression is validated against measurements of vertical concentration profiles of corn pollen above a corn field. The numerical discretization of the evolution equations follows a new approach in which different discretization schemes are used for the velocity and concentration fields. A new interpolation scheme is proposed to couple the two discretizations. The numerical model is validated against previously published experiments of point-source releases of glass beads and pollen grains in the atmospheric boundary layer. The numerical model is used together with experimental data of pollen emission and downwind deposition from a natural field obtained near Washington DC in the summer of 2006. The combined analysis of experimental and numerical data elucidates the emission, transport, and deposition processes in considerable detail. In particular, the relative fractions of pollen deposited inside the source field and airborne at the edge of the field can be quantified. Investigations based on experimental data and direct numerical simulation of the effects of the local structure of the flow on subgrid scale models for simulations of the atmospheric boundary layer are also presented.
Investigation of Effect of Boundary Layer on Flow Structure Around a Cylinder with a Strip
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yayla Sedat
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, the flow characteristic of the circular cylinder was placed vertically in channel which has dimensions as 8000 mm, 1000 mm, 750 mm, lenght, width and height repectively, was investigated. The cylinder was located in boundary layer with a diameter of 60 mm (D and a elastic stripwhich has a 1400 N/mm2 modulus of elasticity vinyl PVC transperent film was attached behind the cylinder. Lenght of the strip (L was 240 mm L/D=4. The Reynolds number was fixed at Re=7500. The time-averaged and instantaneous velocity vector maps, vorticity contours, Reynold shear and normal stresses, turbulent kinetic energy and frequency of shedding were obtained using the particle image velocimetry (PIV technique. It was found that the elastic plate which exists behind the cylinder has a slight influence on the flow structure of the wake-boundary layer interaction. Values of turbulent kinetic energy, streamwise Reynold stress, transverse Reynold stresses were decreased by attaching strip.
Natural convective boundary layer flow of a nano-fluid past a convectively heated vertical plate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aziz, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Gonzaga University, Spokane, WA 99258 (United States); Khan, W.A. [Department of Engineering Sciences, PN Engineering College, National University of Sciences and Technology, Karachi 75350 (Pakistan)
2012-03-15
Natural convective flow of a nano-fluid over a convectively heated vertical plate is investigated using a similarity analysis of the transport equations followed by their numerical computations. The transport model employed includes the effect of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. The analysis shows that velocity, temperature and solid volume fraction of the nano-fluid profiles in the respective boundary layers depend, besides the Prandtl and Lewis numbers, on four additional dimensionless parameters, namely a Brownian motion parameter Nb, a thermophoresis parameter Nt, a buoyancy-ratio parameter Nr and convective parameter Nc. In addition to the study of these parameters on the boundary layer flow characteristics (velocity, temperature, solid volume fraction of the nano-fluid, skin friction, and heat transfer), correlations for the Nusselt and Sherwood numbers have been developed based on a regression analysis of the data. These linear regression models provide a highly accurate (with a maximum standard error of 0.004) representation of the numerical data and can be conveniently used in engineering practice. (authors)
Wosnik, Martin
2015-11-01
Recently an analytical and experimental investigation of the turbulent axisymmetric wake with rotation found a new asymptotic scaling function for the mean swirl, Wmax ~Uo3/ 2 ~x-1 (Dufresne and Wosnik, Mar Technol Soc J, 47, no.4, 193-205, 2013). An equilibrium similarity theory derived scaling functions from the conditions for the existence of similarity directly from the equations of motion. Axial and azimuthal (swirl) velocities were measured in the wake of a single 3-bladed wind turbine in a free stream up to 20 diameters downstream, and the data were found to support the theoretical results. The scaling implies that the mean swirl decays faster, with x-1, than the mean velocity deficit, with x - 2 / 3. Real wind turbines, however, operate in the atmospheric boundary layer. They are subjected to mean shear and turbulence, both have been observed to improve wake recovery. Similarity considerations are extended to place a turbulent axisymmetric wake with rotation in a boundary layer flow, and the scaling implications are examined. Corresponding experiments were carried out in the UNH Flow Physics Facility, using model wind turbines of various sizes as swirling wake generators. Supported by NSF CBET grant 1150797.
New Findings by High-Order DNS for Late Flow Transition in a Boundary Layer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chaoqun Liu
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper serves as a summary of new discoveries by DNS for late stages of flow transition in a boundary layer. The widely spread concept “vortex breakdown” is found theoretically impossible and never happened in practice. The ring-like vortex is found the only form existing inside the flow field. The ring-like vortex formation is the result of the interaction between two pairs of counter-rotating primary and secondary streamwise vortices. Following the first Helmholtz vortex conservation law, the primary vortex tube rolls up and is stretched due to the velocity gradient. In order to maintain vorticity conservation, a bridge must be formed to link two Λ-vortex legs. The bridge finally develops as a new ring. This process keeps going on to form a multiple ring structure. The U-shaped vortices are not new but existing coherent vortex structure. Actually, the U-shaped vortex, which is a third level vortex, serves as a second neck to supply vorticity to the multiple rings. The small vortices can be found on the bottom of the boundary layer near the wall surface. It is believed that the small vortices, and thus turbulence, are generated by the interaction of positive spikes and other higher level vortices with the solid wall. The mechanism of formation of secondary vortex, second sweep, positive spike, high shear distribution, downdraft and updraft motion, and multiple ring-circle overlapping is also investigated.
Open-loop control of noise amplification in a separated boundary layer flow
Boujo, Edouard; Gallaire, François
2014-01-01
Linear optimal gains are computed for the subcritical two-dimensional separated boundary-layer flow past a bump. Very large optimal gain values are found, making it possible for small-amplitude noise to be strongly amplified and to destabilize the flow. The optimal forcing is located close to the summit of the bump, while the optimal response is the largest in the shear layer. The largest amplification occurs at frequencies corresponding to eigenvalues which first become unstable at higher Reynolds number. Nonlinear direct numerical simulations show that a low level of noise is indeed sufficient to trigger random flow unsteadiness, characterized here by large-scale vortex shedding. Next, a variational technique is used to compute efficiently the sensitivity of optimal gains to steady control (through source of momentum in the flow, or blowing/suction at the wall). A systematic analysis at several frequencies identifies the bump summit as the most sensitive region for control with wall actuation. Based on thes...
Intermittent boundary layers and torque maxima in Taylor-Couette flow
Brauckmann, Hannes J
2012-01-01
Turbulent Taylor-Couette flow between counter-rotating cylinders develops intermittently fluctuating boundary layers for sufficient counter-rotation. We demonstrate the phenomenon in direct numerical simulations for radius ratios \\eta=0.5 and 0.71 and propose a theoretical model for the critical value in the rotation ratio. Numerical results as well as experiments show that the onset of this intermittency coincides with the maximum in torque. The variations in torque correlate with the variations in mean Taylor vortex flow which is first enhanced for weak counter-rotation, and then reduced as intermittency sets in. To support the model, we compare to numerical results, experiments at higher Reynolds numbers, and to Wendt's data.
Similarity Solution of Marangoni Convection Boundary Layer Flow over a Flat Surface in a Nanofluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Norihan Md. Arifin
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of steady Marangoni boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a flat plate in a nanofluid is studied using different types of nanoparticles. The general governing partial differential equations are transformed into a set of two nonlinear ordinary differential equations using unique similarity transformation. Numerical solutions of the similarity equations are obtained using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg (RKF method. Three different types of nanoparticles are considered, namely, Cu, Al2O3, and TiO2, by using water as a base fluid with Prandtl number Pr=6.2. The effects of the nanoparticle volume fraction ϕ and the constant exponent m on the flow and heat transfer characteristics are obtained and discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohd Hafizi Mat Yasin
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We present the numerical investigation of the steady mixed convection boundary layer flow over a vertical surface embedded in a thermally stratified porous medium saturated by a nanofluid. The governing partial differential equations are reduced to the ordinary differential equations, using the similarity transformations. The similarity equations are solved numerically for three types of metallic or nonmetallic nanoparticles, namely, copper (Cu, alumina (Al2O3, and titania (TiO2, in a water-based fluid to investigate the effect of the solid volume fraction or nanoparticle volume fraction parameter φ of the nanofluid on the flow and heat transfer characteristics. The skin friction coefficient and the velocity and temperature profiles are presented and discussed.
Boundary layer characterization and acoustic measurements of flow-aligned trailing edge serrations
Arce León, Carlos; Merino-Martínez, Roberto; Ragni, Daniele; Avallone, Francesco; Snellen, Mirjam
2016-12-01
Trailing edge serrations designed to reduce airfoil self-noise are retrofitted on a NACA 0018 airfoil. An investigation of the boundary layer flow statistical properties is performed using time-resolved stereoscopic PIV. Three streamwise locations over the edge of the serrations are compared. An analysis of the results indicates that, while there is no upstream effect, the flow experiences significant changes as it convects over the serrations and toward its edges. Among the most important, a reduced shear stress and modifications of the turbulence spectra suggest beneficial changes in the unsteady surface pressure that would result in a reduction of trailing edge noise. Microphone array measurements are additionally performed to confirm that noise reduction is indeed observed by the application of the chosen serration design over the unmodified airfoil.
Intermittent boundary layers and torque maxima in Taylor-Couette flow
Brauckmann, Hannes J.; Eckhardt, Bruno
2013-03-01
Turbulent Taylor-Couette flow between counter-rotating cylinders develops intermittently fluctuating boundary layers for sufficient counter-rotation. We demonstrate the phenomenon in direct numerical simulations for radius ratios η=0.5 and 0.71 and propose a theoretical model for the critical value in the rotation ratio. Numerical results as well as experiments show that the onset of this intermittency coincides with the maximum in torque. The variations in torque correlate with the variations in mean Taylor vortex flow, which is first enhanced for weak counter-rotation and then is reduced as intermittency sets in. To support the model, we compare it to numerical results, to experiments at higher Reynolds numbers, and to Wendt's data.
Schröder, A.; Geisler, R.; Elsinga, G.E.; Scarano, F.; Dierksheide, U.
2007-01-01
In this feasibility study the tomographic PIV technique has been applied to time resolved PIV recordings for the study of the growth of a turbulent spot in a laminar flat plate boundary layer and to visualize the topology of coherent flow structures within a tripped turbulent flat plate boundary lay
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed Ali
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The mixed laminar boundary layer flow and heat transfer on a permeable stretched surface moving with prescribed skin friction are studied. Three major cases, which correspond to complete similarity solutions, are considered. The cases are combinations of power law indices n and m representing temperature and skin friction distributions, respectively. The first case (n = 0, m = 0.5 corresponds to isothermal stretched surface with skin friction at the surface scales as x 1/4. The second case (n = 1, m = 1 is a linear temperature and skin friction distribution along the vertical stretched surface. The third case (n = −1, m = 0 represents inverse temperature variation along the surface with prescribed skin friction of the order of x −1/2. Similarity solutions are obtained for the surface stretched in a stagnant air with Prandtl number = 0.72. The effect of suction/injection velocity (fw and the buoyancy parameter (λ is studied in detail. The results show that the heat transfer coefficient along the surface is enhanced for assisting flow (λ > 0 at any value of fw for the first and second cases, while it is reduced for the third case. However, the opposite is true for the opposing flow (λ < 0. Furthermore, suction enhances the heat transfer coefficient, whereas injection degrades it at any fixed λ for the first and second prescribed skin friction boundary conditions, and the opposite is true for the third case.
The hub wall boundary layer development and losses in an axial flow compressor rotor passage
Murthy, K. N. S.; Lakshminarayana, B.
1987-02-01
The hub wall boundary layer development in a compressor stage including the rotor passage is experimentally investigated. A miniature five-hole probe was employed to measure the hub wall boundary layer inside the inlet guide vane passage, upstream and far downstream of the rotor. The hub wall boundary layer inside the rotor passage was acquired using a rotating miniature five-hole probe. The boundary layer is well behaved upstream and far downstream of the rotor. The migration of the hub wall boundary layer towards the suction surface corner is observed. The limiting streamline angles and static pressure distribution across the stage were also measured. The mean velocity profiles and the integral properties upstream, inside and downstream of the rotor, and the losses are presented and interpreted.
Numerical simulations of sink-flow boundary layers over rough surfaces
Yuan, J.; Piomelli, U.
2014-01-01
Turbulent sink flows over smooth or rough walls with sand-grain roughness are studied using large-eddy and direct numerical simulations. Mild and strong levels of acceleration are applied, yielding a wide range of Reynolds number (Reθ = 372 - 2748) and cases close to the reverse-transitional state. Flow acceleration and roughness are shown to exert opposite effects on boundary-layer integral parameters, on the Reynolds stresses, budgets of turbulent kinetic energy, and properties of turbulent structures in the vicinity of the rough surface; statistics exhibit similarity when plotted using inner scaling for cases with the same roughness Reynolds number, k+. Acceleration leads to a decrease of k+, while roughness increases it. For cases with higher k+, the low-speed streaks become destabilized, and turbulent structures near the wall are distributed more uniformly in the wall-parallel plane; they are less extended in the streamwise direction, but more densely packed. Higher k+ also causes decorrelation of the outer-layer hairpin packets with the near-wall structures, probably due to the direct impact of random roughness elements on the hairpin legs. Wall-similarity applies for the fully turbulent cases, in which the outer-layer turbulent statistics are affected by acceleration only. It is shown that being in the hydraulically smooth regime is a necessary condition for reverse-transition, supporting the idea that relaminarization starts from the inner region, where roughness effects dominate.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Syahira Mansur
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD boundary layer flow of a nanofluid past a stretching/shrinking sheet with velocity, thermal, and solutal slip boundary conditions is studied. Numerical solutions to the governing equations were obtained using a shooting method. The skin friction coefficient and the local Sherwood number increase as the stretching/shrinking parameter increases. However, the local Nusselt number decreases with increasing the stretching/shrinking parameter. The range of the stretching/shrinking parameter for which the solution exists increases as the velocity slip parameter and the magnetic parameter increase. For the shrinking sheet, the skin friction coefficient increases as the velocity slip parameter and the magnetic parameter increase. For the stretching sheet, it decreases when the velocity slip parameter and the magnetic parameter increase. The local Nusselt number diminishes as the thermal slip parameter increases while the local Sherwood number decreases with increasing the solutal slip parameter. The local Nusselt number is lower for higher values of Lewis number, Brownian motion parameter, and thermophoresis parameter.
Active Control of Panel Vibrations Induced by a Boundary Layer Flow
Chow, Pao-Liu
1998-01-01
In recent years, active and passive control of sound and vibration in aeroelastic structures have received a great deal of attention due to many potential applications to aerospace and other industries. There exists a great deal of research work done in this area. Recent advances in the control of sound and vibration can be found in the several conference proceedings. In this report we will summarize our research findings supported by the NASA grant NAG-1-1175. The problems of active and passive control of sound and vibration has been investigated by many researchers for a number of years. However, few of the articles are concerned with the sound and vibration with flow-structure interaction. Experimental and numerical studies on the coupling between panel vibration and acoustic radiation due to flow excitation have been done by Maestrello and his associates at NASA/Langley Research Center. Since the coupled system of nonlinear partial differential equations is formidable, an analytical solution to the full problem seems impossible. For this reason, we have to simplify the problem to that of the nonlinear panel vibration induced by a uniform flow or a boundary-layer flow with a given wall pressure distribution. Based on this simplified model, we have been able to study the control and stabilization of the nonlinear panel vibration, which have not been treated satisfactorily by other authors. The vibration suppression will clearly reduce the sound radiation power from the panel. The major research findings will be presented in the next three sections. In Section II we shall describe our results on the boundary control of nonlinear panel vibration, with or without flow excitation. Section III is concerned with active control of the vibration and sound radiation from a nonlinear elastic panel. A detailed description of our work on the parametric vibrational control of nonlinear elastic panel will be presented in Section IV. This paper will be submitted to the Journal
Edlund, E M
2014-01-01
We present measurements of quasi-Keplerian flows in a Taylor-Couette device that identify the boundary conditions required to generate near-ideal flows that exhibit self-similarity under scaling of the Reynolds number. These experiments are contrasted with alternate boundary configurations that result in flows that progressively deviate from ideal Couette rotation as the Reynolds number is increased. These behaviors are quantitatively explained in terms of the tendency to generate global Ekman circulation and the balance of angular momentum fluxes through the axial and radial boundary layers.
Gohari, Iman; Korobenko, Artem; Yan, Jinhui; Bazilevs, Yuri; Sarkar, Sutanu
2016-11-01
Wind is a renewable energy resource that offers several advantages including low pollutant emission and inexpensive construction. Wind turbines operate in conditions dictated by the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) and that motivates the study of coupling ABL simulations with wind turbine dynamics. The ABL simulations can be used for realistic modeling of the environment which, with the use of fluid-structure interaction, can give realistic predictions of extracted power, rotor loading, and blade structural response. The ABL simulations provide inflow boundary conditions to the wind-turbine simulator which uses arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian variational multiscale formulation. In the present work, ABL simulations are performed to examine two different scenarios: (i) A neutral ABL with zero heat-flux and inversion layer at 350m, in which the wind turbine experiences maximum mean shear; (2) A shallow ABL with the surface cooling-rate of -1 K/hr, in which the wind turbine experiences maximum mean velocity at the low-level-jet nose height. We will discuss differences in the unsteady flow between the two different ABL conditions and their impact on the performance of the wind turbine cluster in the coupled ABL-wind turbine simulations.
Magnetohydrodynamic boundary layer nanofluid flow and heat transfer over a stretching surface
Ali, M.; Alim, M. A.; Nasrin, R.; Alam, M. S.; Chowdhury, M. Z. U.
2017-06-01
The present study is performed to investigate the effect of unsteadiness, stretching ratio, Brownian motion, thermophoresis and magnetic parameter on boundary layer such as momentum, thermal and nanoparticle concentration. In this respect we have considered the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) unsteady boundary layer nanofluid flow and heat - mass transfer over a stretching surface. The dimensionless governing equations are unsteady, two-dimensional coupled and non-linear ordinary differential equations. The numerical solution is taken by applying the Nachtsgeim-Swigert shooting iteration technique along with Runge-Kutta integration scheme. The effects of various dimensionless parameters on velocity, temperature and nanoparticle concentration are discussed numerically and shown graphically. Therefore, from the figures it is observed that the results of velocity profile increases for increasing values of magnetic parameter and unsteadiness parameter but decreases for stretching ratio parameter, the temperature profile decreases in presence of Brownian motion, unsteadiness parameter, stretching ratio parameter and thermophoresis parameter but increases for magnetic parameter and, the nanoparticle concentration decreases for increasing values of thermophoresis parameter, unsteadiness parameter and stretching ratio parameter whereas the reverse trend arises for Brownian motion & magnetic parameter. For validity and accuracy the present results are compared with previously published work and found good agreement.
Boundary layer transition studies
Watmuff, Jonathan H.
1995-02-01
A small-scale wind tunnel previously used for turbulent boundary layer experiments was modified for two sets of boundary layer transition studies. The first study concerns a laminar separation/turbulent reattachment. The pressure gradient and unit Reynolds number are the same as the fully turbulent flow of Spalart and Watmuff. Without the trip wire, a laminar layer asymptotes to a Falkner & Skan similarity solution in the FPG. Application of the APG causes the layer to separate and a highly turbulent and approximately 2D mean flow reattachment occurs downstream. In an effort to gain some physical insight into the flow processes a small impulsive disturbance was introduced at the C(sub p) minimum. The facility is totally automated and phase-averaged data are measured on a point-by-point basis using unprecedently large grids. The evolution of the disturbance has been tracked all the way into the reattachment region and beyond into the fully turbulent boundary layer. At first, the amplitude decays exponentially with streamwise distance in the APG region, where the layer remains attached, i.e. the layer is viscously stable. After separation, the rate of decay slows, and a point of minimum amplitude is reached where the contours of the wave packet exhibit dispersive characteristics. From this point, exponential growth of the amplitude of the disturbance is observed in the detached shear layer, i.e. the dominant instability mechanism is inviscid. A group of large-scale 3D vortex loops emerges in the vicinity of the reattachment. Remarkably, the second loop retains its identify far downstream in the turbulent boundary layer. The results provide a level of detail usually associated with CFD. Substantial modifications were made to the facility for the second study concerning disturbances generated by Suction Holes for laminar flow Control (LFC). The test section incorporates suction through interchangeable porous test surfaces. Detailed studies have been made using isolated
Boundary layer transition studies
Watmuff, Jonathan H.
1995-01-01
A small-scale wind tunnel previously used for turbulent boundary layer experiments was modified for two sets of boundary layer transition studies. The first study concerns a laminar separation/turbulent reattachment. The pressure gradient and unit Reynolds number are the same as the fully turbulent flow of Spalart and Watmuff. Without the trip wire, a laminar layer asymptotes to a Falkner & Skan similarity solution in the FPG. Application of the APG causes the layer to separate and a highly turbulent and approximately 2D mean flow reattachment occurs downstream. In an effort to gain some physical insight into the flow processes a small impulsive disturbance was introduced at the C(sub p) minimum. The facility is totally automated and phase-averaged data are measured on a point-by-point basis using unprecedently large grids. The evolution of the disturbance has been tracked all the way into the reattachment region and beyond into the fully turbulent boundary layer. At first, the amplitude decays exponentially with streamwise distance in the APG region, where the layer remains attached, i.e. the layer is viscously stable. After separation, the rate of decay slows, and a point of minimum amplitude is reached where the contours of the wave packet exhibit dispersive characteristics. From this point, exponential growth of the amplitude of the disturbance is observed in the detached shear layer, i.e. the dominant instability mechanism is inviscid. A group of large-scale 3D vortex loops emerges in the vicinity of the reattachment. Remarkably, the second loop retains its identify far downstream in the turbulent boundary layer. The results provide a level of detail usually associated with CFD. Substantial modifications were made to the facility for the second study concerning disturbances generated by Suction Holes for laminar flow Control (LFC). The test section incorporates suction through interchangeable porous test surfaces. Detailed studies have been made using isolated
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huerst, C.; Schulz, A.; Wittig, S. [Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Inst. fuer Thermische Stroemungsmaschinen
1995-04-01
The present study compares measured and computed heat transfer coefficients for high-speed boundary layer nozzle flows under engine Reynolds number conditions (U{sub {infinity}} = 230 {divided_by} 880 m/s, Re* = 0.37 {divided_by} 1.07 {times} 10{sup 6}). Experimental data have been obtained by heat transfer measurements in a two-dimensional, nonsymmetric, convergent-divergent nozzle. The nozzle wall is convectively cooled using water passages. The coolant heat transfer data and nozzle surface temperatures are used as boundary conditions for a three-dimensional finite-element code, which is employed to calculate the temperature distribution inside the nozzle wall. Heat transfer coefficients along the hot gas nozzle wall are derived from the temperature gradients normal to the surface. The results are compared with numerical heat transfer predictions using the low-Reynolds-number {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model by Lam and Bremhorst. Influence of compressibility in the transport equations for the turbulence properties is taken into account by using the local averaged density. The results confirm that this simplification leads to good results for transonic and low supersonic flows.
The effect of temperature on the boundary of polymer melts in the modeling of two-layers flow
Bondarenko, A. V.; Kozitsyna, M. V.; Trufanova, N. M.
2016-10-01
The article is devoted to determine the velocity fields, temperatures and boundary flows of bi layers of polymer coating when both of them are applied simultaneously. The mathematical model of the flow was developed using finite - elements method with was the part of Ansys Cfx software packet.
Boundary layer flow near a stagnation point on a permeable vertical surface immersed in a nanofluid
Othman, Noor Adila; Yacob, Nor Azizah; Bachok, Norfifah; Ramli, Nazirah; Ishak, Anuar
2015-10-01
A steady mixed convection boundary layer flow near a stagnation point on a permeable vertical surface immersed in a nanofluid is investigated. The velocity of the external flow is assumed to vary linearly with the distance from the stagnation-point. The governing partial differential equations are first transformed into ordinary differential equations, before being solved numerically using the Keller box method with the help of MATLAB software. The effects of physical parameters such as the suction/injection parameter, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis parameter and Lewis number on the heat and mass transfer rate at the surface as well as the temperature and concentration profiles are analyzed and discussed. Both assisting and opposing flows are considered. It is found that, increasing the thermophoresis parameter, Brownian motion parameter and Lewis number are to decrease the heat transfer rate at the surface, but on the other hand increase the mass transfer rate at the surface for both assisting and opposing flows. In addition, increasing suction parameter tends to increase the heat transfer rate at the surface. However, the opposite behavior occurs for the effect of mass transfer rate at the surface.
Gajjar, J. S. B.
1995-01-01
We consider the nonlinear stability of a fully three-dimensional boundary layer flow in an incompressible fluid and derive an equation governing the nonlinear development of a stationary cross-flow vortex. The amplitude equation is a novel integro-differential equation which has spatial derivatives of the amplitude occurring in the kernal function. It is shown that the evolution of the cross-flow vortex is strongly coupled to the properties of an unsteady wall layer which is in fact driven by an unknown slip velocity, proportional to the amplitude of the cross-flow vortex. The work is extended to obtain the corresponding equation for rotating disk flow. A number of special cases are examined and the numerical solution for one of cases, and further analysis, demonstrates the existence of finite-distance as well as focussing type singularities. The numerical solutions also indicate the presence of a new type of nonlinear wave solution for a certain set of parameter values.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
anjali devi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The effects of nonlinear radiation on hydromagnetic boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a shrinking surface is investigated in the present work. Using suitable similarity transformations, the governing nonlinear partial differential equations are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The resultant equations which are highly nonlinear are solved numerically using Nachtsheim Swigert shooting iteration scheme together with Fourth Order Runge Kutta method. Numerical solutions for velocity, skin friction coefficient and temperature are obtained for various values of physical parameters involved in the study namely Suction parameter, Magnetic parameter, Prandtl number, Radiation parameter and Temperature ratio parameter. Numerical values for dimensionless rate of heat transfer are also obtained for various physical parameters and are shown through tables. The analytical solution of the energy equation when the radiation term is taken in linear form is obtained using Confluent hypergeometric function.
Mixed convection boundary layer flow over a horizontal elliptic cylinder with constant heat flux
Javed, Tariq; Ahmad, Hussain; Ghaffari, Abuzar
2015-12-01
Mixed convection boundary layer flow of a viscous fluid over a horizontal elliptic cylinder with a constant heat flux is investigated numerically. The governing partial differential equations are transformed to non-dimensional form and then are solved by an efficient implicit finite different scheme known as Keller-box method. The solutions are expressed in the form of skin friction and Nusselt number, which are plotted against the eccentric angle. The effect of pertinent parameters such as mixed convection parameter, aspect ratio (ratio of lengths of minor axis to major axis), and Prandtl number on skin friction and Nusselt number are illustrated through graphs for both blunt and slender orientations. The increase in the value of mixed convection parameter results in increase in skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number for blunt as well as slender orientations.
Influence of aligned MHD on convective boundary layer flow of viscoelastic fluid
Aziz, Laila Amera; Kasim, Abdul Rahman Mohd; Al-Sharifi, H. A. M.; Salleh, Mohd Zuki; Mohammad, Nurul Farahain; Shafie, Sharidan; Ali, Anati
2017-05-01
Effects of aligned Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) on the mixed convection boundary layer flow of viscoelastic fluid past a circular cylinder with Newtonian heating is investigated. Appropriate transformation is applied to the governing partial differential equations to transform them into dimensionless forms which are then solved using finite difference method known as Keller box. For verification purpose, the preliminary numerical solutions of the model are compared with previous study with a particular condition that the magnetic and viscosity effect are both absent. With strong agreement between the previous and current results, the authors believe that the extended outcome produced from the present model is accurate. Findings from the study will be presented in tabular and graphical form.
Three dimensional boundary layer flow of a viscoelastic nanofluid with Soret and Dufour effects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Ramzan
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The present research focuses on the three-dimensional flow of viscoelastic fluid in the presence of Soret and Dufour effects. Effects of thermophoresis and Brownian motion are taken into account. Appropriate similarity transformations lead to nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Solution expressions of velocity, temperature and nanoparticle concentration are computed via homotopy analysis method (HAM. Convergence of obtained solutions is analyzed graphically and numerically. Results are plotted and analyzed for the dimensionless velocities, temperature and nanoparticle concentration. Values of local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are examined through tabular form. It is observed that Temperature field is enhanced for the larger Brownian motion parameter and an increase in Dufour number gives rise to the temperature and thermal boundary layer thickness.
UNSTEADY PLANE MHD BOUNDARY LAYER FLOW OF A FLUID OF VARIABLE ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zoran B Boričić
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the analysis of unsteady plane laminar magnetohydrodynamic (MHD boundary layer flow of incompressible and variable electrical conductivity fluid. The present magnetic field is homogenous and perpendicular to the body surface. Outer electric filed is neglected and magnetic Reynolds number is significantly lower then one i.e. considered problem is in induction-less approximation. Free stream velocity is an arbitrary differentiable function. Fluid electrical conductivity is decreasing function of velocity ratio. In order to solve the described problem multiparametric (generalized similarity method is used and so-called universal equations are obtained. Obtained universal equations are solved numerically in appropriate approximation and a part of obtained results is given in the form of figures and corresponding conclusions.
Boundary layer flow and heat transfer of Cross fluid over a stretching sheet
Khan, Masood; Rahman, Masood ur
2016-01-01
The current study is a pioneering work in presenting the boundary layer equations for the two-dimensional flow and heat transfer of the Cross fluid over a linearly stretching sheet. The system of partial differential equations is turned down into highly non-linear ordinary differential equations by applying suitable similarity transformations. The stretching sheet solutions are presented via. a numerical technique namely the shooting method and graphs are constructed for the shear-thinning as well as shear-thickening regime. The impact of the emerging parameters namely the power-law index , the local Weissenberg number and the Prandtl number on the velocity and temperature fields are investigated through graphs. Numerical values of the local skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number are also presented in tabular form. For some limiting cases, comparisons with previously available results in the literature are made and an excellent agreement is achieved.
Effects of Joule Heating and Viscous Dissipation on MHD Marangoni Convection Boundary Layer Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rohana Abdul Hamid
2011-09-01
Full Text Available An analysis is performed to study the effects of the Joule heating and viscous dissipation on the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD Marangoni convection boundary layer flow. The governing partial differential equations are reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations via the similarity transformations. Numerical results of the similarity equations are obtained using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method. Effects of the magnetic field parameter, and the combined effects of the Joule heating and the viscous dissipation are investigated and the numerical results are tabulated in tables and figures. It is found that the magnetic field reduces the fluid velocity but increases the fluid temperature. On the other hand, the combined effects of the Joule heating and viscous dissipation have significantly influenced the surface temperature gradient.
Turbulent flow over a house in a simulated hurricane boundary layer
Taylor, Zachary; Gurka, Roi; Kopp, Gregory
2009-01-01
Every year hurricanes and other extreme wind storms cause billions of dollars in damage worldwide. For residential construction, such failures are usually associated with roofs, which see the largest aerodynamic loading. However, determining aerodynamic loads on different portions of North American houses is complicated by the lack of clear load paths and non-linear load sharing in wood frame roofs. This problem of fluid-structure interaction requires both wind tunnel testing and full-scale structural testing. A series of wind tunnel tests have been performed on a house in a simulated atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), with the resulting wind-induced pressures applied to the full-scale structure. The ABL was simulated for flow over open country terrain where both velocity and turbulence intensity profiles, as well as spectra, were matched with available full scale measurements for this type of terrain. The first set of measurements was 600 simultaneous surface pressure measurements over the entire house. A key...
Numerical Analysis of Effect of Boundary Layer Characteristics on the Flow Field in S-shaped Inlet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ren Jia
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In order to explore the effect of boundary layer thickness and pressure gradient on the performance of the flow field in the inlet, we design a high offset rate S-shaped inlet based on a certain unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV, and its author has analyzed the effect of boundary layer characteristics on the inlet with numerical simulation method. The suction of boundary layer which leads to separation zone not only becomes longer in the inlet, but also moves to the center plane of symmetry, the separation point of boundary layer appears in advance as pressure gradient increases. Considering the influence of the boundary layer, various performance parameters all exceeds that of the uniform entrance inlet conditions, especially the circumferential total pressure distortion of outlet increased by 58.2% at most, obviously can’t meet the engine to work properly, so we must consider and pay attention to the effect of the boundary layer characteristics on the flow field in the S-shaped inlet.
Hall, P.
1985-01-01
The Taylor-Gortler vortex instability equations are formulated for steady and unsteady interacting boundary layer flows of the type which arise in triple-deck theory. The effective Gortler number is shown to be a function of the all shape in the boundary layer and the possibility of both steady and unsteady Taylor-Gortler modes exists. As an example the steady flow in a symmetrically constricted channel is considered and it is shown that unstable Gortler vortices exist before the boundary layers at the wall develop the Goldstein singularity. As an example of an unsteady spatially varying basic state the instability of high frequency large amplitude Tollmien-Schlichting waves in a curved channel were considered. It is shown that they are unstable in the first Stokes layer stage of the hierarchy of nonlinear states. The Tollmien-Schlichting waves are shown to be unstable in the presence of both convex and concave curvature.
RANS-based simulation of turbulent wave boundary layer and sheet-flow sediment transport processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fuhrman, David R.; Schløer, Signe; Sterner, Johanna
2013-01-01
suspended sediment concentrations, (2) turbulence suppression due to density gradients in the water–sand mixture, (3) boundary layer streaming due to convective terms, and (4) converging–diverging effects due to a sloping bed. The present model therefore provides a framework for simultaneous inclusion...... of a number of local factors important within cross-shore wave boundary layer and sediment transport dynamics. The hydrodynamic model is validated for both hydraulically smooth and rough conditions, based on wave friction factor diagrams and boundary layer streaming profiles, with the results in excellent...... to investigate the importance of boundary layer streaming effects on sediment transport in selected velocity-skewed conditions. For the medium sand grain conditions considered, the model results suggest that streaming effects can enhance onshore sediment transport rates by asmuch as a factor of two...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Jesper Grønnegaard; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Kelly, Mark C.
2014-01-01
A range of large-eddy simulations, with differing free atmosphere stratification and zero or slightly positive surface heat flux, is investigated to improve understanding of the neutral and near-neutral, inversion-capped, horizontally homogeneous, barotropic atmospheric boundary layer with emphasis...... on the upper region. We find that an adjustment time of at least 16 h is needed for the simulated flow to reach a quasi-steady state. The boundary layer continues to grow, but at a slow rate that changes little after 8 h of simulation time. A common feature of the neutral simulations is the development...... of a super-geostrophic jet near the top of the boundary layer. The analytical wind-shear models included do not account for such a jet, and the best agreement with simulated wind shear is seen in cases with weak stratification above the boundary layer. Increasing the surface heat flux decreases the magnitude...
Visualization of pre-set vortices in boundary layer flow over wavy surface in rectangular channel
Budiman, Alexander Christantho
2014-12-04
Abstract: Smoke-wire flow visualization is used to study the development of pre-set counter-rotating streamwise vortices in boundary layer flow over a wavy surface in a rectangular channel. The formation of the vortices is indicated by the vortical structures on the cross-sectional plane normal to the wavy surface. To obtain uniform spanwise vortex wavelength which will result in uniform vortex size, two types of spanwise disturbances were used: a series of perturbation wires placed prior and normal to the leading edge of the wavy surface, and a jagged pattern in the form of uniform triangles cut at the leading edge. These perturbation wires and jagged pattern induce low-velocity streaks that result in the formation of counter-rotating streamwise vortices that evolve downstream to form the mushroom-like structures on the cross-sectional plane of the flow. The evolution of the most amplified disturbances can be attributed to the formation of these mushroom-like structures. It is also shown that the size of the mushroom-like structures depends on the channel entrance geometry, Reynolds number, and the channel gap.Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.
Mixed convection boundary-layer flow about an isothermal solid sphere in a nanofluid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tham, L [Faculty of Agro Industry and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Kelantan (Malaysia); Nazar, R [School of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor (Malaysia); Pop, I, E-mail: rmn72my@yahoo.com [Faculty of Mathematics, University of Cluj, Cluj (Romania)
2011-08-01
The steady mixed convection boundary-layer flow of a nanofluid about a solid sphere with constant surface temperature has been studied for cases of both assisting and opposing flows. The resulting system of nonlinear partial differential equations is solved numerically using an implicit finite-difference scheme known as the Keller-box method. The solutions for the flow and heat-transfer characteristics are evaluated numerically for various values of the parameters, namely the nanoparticle volume fraction {psi} and the mixed convection parameter {lambda} at Prandtl numbers Pr=0.7 and 6.2. The three different types of nanoparticles considered are Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Cu and TiO{sub 2}, using water-based fluid with Pr=6.2. It is found that for each particular nanoparticle, as the nanoparticle volume fraction {psi} increases, the skin friction coefficient and the heat-transfer rate at the surface also increase. This leads to an increase in the value of the mixed convection parameter {lambda}, which at first gives no separation.
A numerical study of turbulent boundary layer flow over a dimpled surface
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kithcart, M.E. [North Carolina A and T State Univ., CAR, Greensboro, North Carolina (United States)]. E-mail: kithcart@ncat.edu; Klett, D.E. [North Carolina A and T State Univ., Mechanical Engineering, Greensboro, North Carolina (United States)]. E-mail: klett@ncat.edu
2002-07-01
Turbulent boundary layer flow over a flat surface with a single dimple, and a surface with two dimples in tandem has been investigated numerically using the FLUENT CFD software package, and compared to an experiment, which studied the same configuration. The impetus for this work came as a result of previous studies, which indicate that dimple surfaces enhance heat transfer comparably to protrusion roughness elements, but the heat transfer augmentation does come with the penalty of increased drag. However, the exact physical mechanisms involved in the effects associated with dimples were not well known prior this study. Results for the single dimple configuration are in good agreement with an experiment, which studied the same configuration, particularly the confirmation of the existence of a region of enhanced heat transfer created by the dimple. In addition, it can be determined from the numerical study that the heat transfer enhancement is a consequence of the development of a stagnation flow region within the dimple geometry. In the two-dimple roughness simulation, the elements were spaced one half diameter apart, in order to observe any possible interaction. The results of the simulation indicate that the local flow-field in the vicinity of a dimple is unaffected by the presence of a neighboring element. (author)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Aurang Zaib; Krishnendu Bhattacharyya; Sharidan Shafie
2015-01-01
An analysis of unsteady boundary layer flow and heat transfer over an exponentially shrinking porous sheet filled with a copper-water nanofluid is presented. Water is treated as a base fluid. In the investigation, non-uniform mass suction through the porous sheet is considered. Using Keller-box method the transformed equations are solved numerically. The results of skin friction coefficient, the local Nusselt number as well as the velocity and temperature profiles are presented for different flow parameters. The results showed that the dual non-similar solutions exist only when certain amount of mass suction is applied through the porous sheet for various unsteady parameters and nanoparticle volume fractions. The ranges of suction where dual non-similar solution exists, become larger when values of unsteady parameter as well as nanoparticle volume fraction increase. So, due to unsteadiness of flow dynamics and the presence of nanoparticles in flow field, the requirement of mass suction for existence of solution of boundary layer flow past an exponentially shrinking sheet is less. Furthermore, the velocity boundary layer thickness decreases and thermal boundary layer thickness increases with increasing of nanoparticle volume fraction in both non-similar solutions. Whereas, for stronger mass suction, the velocity boundary layer thickness becomes thinner for the first solution and the effect is opposite in the case of second solution. The temperature inside the boundary layer increases with nanoparticle volume fraction and decreases with mass suction. So, for the unsteadiness and for the presence of nanoparticles, the flow separation is delayed to some extent.
Bassom, Andrew P.; Hall, Philip
1990-01-01
Recently there has been much work devoted to considering some of the many and varied interaction mechanisms which may be operative in three-dimensional boundary layer flows. This paper is concerned with resonant triads of crossflow vortices. The effects of interactions upon resonant triads is examined where each member of the triad has the property of being linearly neutrally stable so that the importance of the interplay between modes can be relatively easily assessed. Modes within the boundary layer flow above a rotating disc are investigated because of the similarity between this disc flow and many important practical flows and, secondly, because the selected flow is an exact solution of the Navier-Stokes equations which makes its theoretical analysis especially attractive. It is demonstrated that the desired triads of linearly neutrally stable modes can exist within the chosen boundary layer flow. Evolution equations are obtained to describe the development of the amplitudes of these modes once the interaction mechanism is accounted for. It is found that the coefficients of the interaction terms within the evolution equations are, in general, given by quite intricate expressions although some elementary numerical work shows that the evaluation of these coefficients is practicable. The basis of the work lends itself to generalization to more complicated boundary layers, and effects of detuning or non-parallelism could be provided for within the asymptotic framework.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shen, Bingyu; Zheng, Liancun, E-mail: liancunzheng@ustb.edu.cn; Chen, Shengting [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)
2015-10-15
This paper presents an investigation for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) viscoelastic fluid boundary layer flow and radiation heat transfer over an unsteady stretching sheet in presence of heat source. Time dependent fractional derivative is first introduced in formulating the boundary layer equations. Numerical solutions are obtained by using the finite difference scheme and L1-algorithm approximation. Results indicate that the proposed model describes a basic delaying times framework for viscoelastic flow and radiation heat transfer. The effects of involved parameters on velocity and temperature fields are shown graphically and analyzed in detail.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yoichi Kinoue; Toshiaki Setoguchi; Kenji Kaneko; Mamun Mohammad; Masahiro Inoue
2003-01-01
An experimental apparatus was developed to study the three dimensional separated flow with spiral-foci. The internal decelerating flow was generated by the air suction from a side wall to produce the separation on an opposite-side wall. The relation between the upstream boundary layer and the generation of spiral-foci in the separation region was observed by a tuft method. As a result, it was clarified that the spiral-focus type separation could be produced on the side wall and its behavior was closely related to the vortices supplied into the separation region from the boundary layer developing along top wall or bottom one.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bingyu Shen
2015-10-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD viscoelastic fluid boundary layer flow and radiation heat transfer over an unsteady stretching sheet in presence of heat source. Time dependent fractional derivative is first introduced in formulating the boundary layer equations. Numerical solutions are obtained by using the finite difference scheme and L1-algorithm approximation. Results indicate that the proposed model describes a basic delaying times framework for viscoelastic flow and radiation heat transfer. The effects of involved parameters on velocity and temperature fields are shown graphically and analyzed in detail.
Understanding the Flow Physics of Shock Boundary-Layer Interactions Using CFD and Numerical Analyses
Friedlander, David J.
2013-01-01
Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses of the University of Michigan (UM) Shock/Boundary-Layer Interaction (SBLI) experiments were performed as an extension of the CFD SBLI Workshop held at the 48th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting in 2010. In particular, the UM Mach 2.75 Glass Tunnel with a semi-spanning 7.75deg wedge was analyzed in attempts to explore key physics pertinent to SBLI's, including thermodynamic and viscous boundary conditions as well as turbulence modeling. Most of the analyses were 3D CFD simulations using the OVERFLOW flow solver, with additional quasi-1D simulations performed with an in house MATLAB code interfacing with the NIST REFPROP code to explore perfect verses non-ideal air. A fundamental exploration pertaining to the effects of particle image velocimetry (PIV) on post-processing data is also shown. Results from the CFD simulations showed an improvement in agreement with experimental data with key contributions including adding a laminar zone upstream of the wedge and the necessity of mimicking PIV particle lag for comparisons. Results from the quasi-1D simulation showed that there was little difference between perfect and non-ideal air for the configuration presented.
Computational Fluid Dynamics model of stratified atmospheric boundary-layer flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Koblitz, Tilman; Bechmann, Andreas; Sogachev, Andrey;
2015-01-01
For wind resource assessment, the wind industry is increasingly relying on computational fluid dynamics models of the neutrally stratified surface-layer. So far, physical processes that are important to the whole atmospheric boundary-layer, such as the Coriolis effect, buoyancy forces and heat...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. GANGADHAR
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This study is devoted to investigate the radiation, heat generation viscous dissipation and magnetohydrodynamic effects on the laminar boundary layer about a flat-plate in a uniform stream of fluid (Blasius flow, and about a moving plate in a quiescent ambient fluid (Sakiadis flow both under a convective surface boundary condition. Using a similarity variable, the governing nonlinear partial differential equations have been transformed into a set of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations, which are solved numerically by using shooting technique alongside with the forth order of Runge-Kutta method and the variations of dimensionless surface temperature and fluid-solid interface characteristics for different values of Magnetic field parameter M, Grashof number Gr, Prandtl number Pr, radiation parameter NR, Heat generation parameter Q, Convective parameter and the Eckert number Ec, which characterizes our convection processes are graphed and tabulated. Quite different and interesting behaviors were encountered for Blasius flow compared with a Sakiadis flow. A comparison with previously published results on special cases of the problem shows excellent agreement.
Zhang, Wei; Markfort, Corey; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2014-05-01
Turbulent boundary-layer flows over complex topography have been extensively studied in the atmospheric sciences and wind engineering communities. The upwind turbulence level, the atmospheric thermal stability and the shape of the topography as well as surface characteristics play important roles in turbulent transport of momentum and scalar fluxes. However, to the best of our knowledge, atmospheric thermal stability has rarely been taken into account in laboratory simulations, particularly in wind-tunnel experiments. Extension of such studies in thermally-stratified wind tunnels will substantially advance our understanding of thermal stability effects on the physics of flow over complex topography. Additionally, high-resolution experimental data can be used for development of new parameterization of surface fluxes and validation of numerical models such as Large-Eddy Simulation (LES). A series of experiments of neutral and thermally-stratified boundary-layer flows over a wall-mounted 2-D block were conducted at the Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory boundary-layer wind tunnel. The 2-D block, with a width to height ratio of 2:1, occupied the lowest 25% of the turbulent boundary layer. Stable and convective boundary layers were simulated by independently controlling the temperature of air flow, the test section floor, and the wall-mounted block surfaces. Measurements using high-resolution Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), x-wire/cold-wire anemometry, thermal-couples and surface heat flux sensors were made to quantify the turbulent properties and surface fluxes in distinct macroscopic flow regions, including the separation/recirculation zones, evolving shear layer and the asymptotic far wake. Emphasis will be put on addressing thermal stability effects on the spatial distribution of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and turbulent fluxes of momentum and scalar from the near to far wake region. Terms of the TKE budget equation are also inferred from measurements and
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Bhaskar Reddy
2014-01-01
Full Text Available An analysis is carried out to investigate the influence of variable thermal conductivity and partial velocity slip on hydromagnetic two-dimensional boundary layer flow of a nanofluid with Cu nanoparticles over a stretching sheet with convective boundary condition. Using similarity transformation, the governing boundary layer equations along with the appropriate boundary conditions are transformed to a set of ordinary differential equations. Employing Runge-kutta fourth-order method along with shooting technique, the resultant system of equations is solved. The influence of various pertinent parameters such as nanofluid volume fraction parameter, the magnetic parameter, radiation parameter, thermal conductivity parameter, velocity slip parameter, Biot number, and suction or injection parameter on the velocity of the flow field and heat transfer characteristics is computed numerically and illustrated graphically. The present results are compared with the existing results for the case of regular fluid and found an excellent agreement.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jian Zhong Lin; Ke Sun; Weifeng Zhang
2008-01-01
A model relating the translational and rotational transport of orientation distribution function (ODF) of fibers to the gradient of mean ODF and the dispersion coefficients is proposed to derive the mean equation for the ODE Then the ODF of fibers is predicted by numerically solving the mean equation for the ODF together with the equations of turbulent boundary layer flow. Finally the shear stress and first normal stress difference of fiber suspensions are obtained. The results, some of which agree with the available relevant experimental data, show that the most fibers tend to orient to the flow direction. The fiber aspect ratio and Reynolds number have significant and negligible effects on the orientation distribution of fibers, respectively. The additional normal stress due to the presence of fibers is anisotropic. The shear stress of fiber suspension is larger than that of Newtonian solvent, and the first normal stress difference is much less than the shear stress. Both the additional shear stress and the first normal stress difference increase with increasing the fiber concentration and decreasing fiber aspect ratio.
Turbulent transitions in the stable boundary layer: Couette and Poiseuille flow
Holdsworth, Amber M.; Monahan, Adam H.
2016-11-01
The stable boundary layer (SBL) can be classified into two distinct regimes. The weakly stable regime (WSBL) which occurs in the presence of moderate to strong pressure gradients or cloudy skies and is characterized by continuous turbulent mixing, and the very stable regime (VSBL) which occurs in the presence of weak pressure gradients or clear skies and turbulence weakens to the point of collapse. Modelling and observational results indicate that transitions from the WSBL to the VSBL occur when the maximum sustainable heat flux (MSHF), or shear capacity, is exceeded. The collapse of turbulence in the SBL is investigated using a one dimensional model of Couette flow with a constant heat flux. We show that the MSHF framework for predicting turbulent collapse is qualitatively robust to the choice of turbulence parameterization and extend these earlier stability analyses by numerically determining the unstable modes along the unstable branch. To explore transitions between the VSBL and the WSBL we extend the model to include a horizontal pressure gradient and a surface radiation scheme. Analysis of the Poiseuille flow demonstrates how the idealized energy/momentum budget model with parameterized turbulence can reproduce the regime transitions present in atmospheric data. We acknowledge support from NSERC and the computing facilities of Westgrid and Compute Canada.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Norfifah Bachok
Full Text Available The steady boundary layer flow of a viscous and incompressible fluid over a moving vertical flat plate in an external moving fluid with viscous dissipation is theoretically investigated. Using appropriate similarity variables, the governing system of partial differential equations is transformed into a system of ordinary (similarity differential equations, which is then solved numerically using a Maple software. Results for the skin friction or shear stress coefficient, local Nusselt number, velocity and temperature profiles are presented for different values of the governing parameters. It is found that the set of the similarity equations has unique solutions, dual solutions or no solutions, depending on the values of the mixed convection parameter, the velocity ratio parameter and the Eckert number. The Eckert number significantly affects the surface shear stress as well as the heat transfer rate at the surface.
The Plasmasphere Boundary Layer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. L. Carpenter
2004-12-01
Full Text Available As an inner magnetospheric phenomenon the plasmapause region is of interest for a number of reasons, one being the occurrence there of geophysically important interactions between the plasmas of the hot plasma sheet and of the cool plasmasphere. There is a need for a conceptual framework within which to examine and discuss these interactions and their consequences, and we therefore suggest that the plasmapause region be called the Plasmasphere Boundary Layer, or PBL. Such a term has been slow to emerge because of the complexity and variability of the plasma populations that can exist near the plasmapause and because of the variety of criteria used to identify the plasmapause in experimental data. Furthermore, and quite importantly in our view, a substantial obstacle to the consideration of the plasmapause region as a boundary layer has been the longstanding tendency of textbooks on space physics to limit introductory material on the plasmapause phenomenon to zeroth order descriptions in terms of ideal MHD theory, thus implying that the plasmasphere is relatively well understood. A textbook may introduce the concept of shielding of the inner magnetosphere from perturbing convection electric fields, but attention is not usually paid to the variety of physical processes reported to occur in the PBL, such as heating, instabilities, and fast longitudinal flows, processes which must play roles in plasmasphere dynamics in concert with the flow regimes associated with the major dynamo sources of electric fields. We believe that through the use of the PBL concept in future textbook discussions of the plasmasphere and in scientific communications, much progress can be made on longstanding questions about the physics involved in the formation of the plasmapause and in the cycles of erosion and recovery of the plasmasphere.
Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasmasphere; plasma convection; MHD waves and instabilities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
KHEM CHAND
2011-07-01
Full Text Available The heat transfer and hydromagnetic boundary layer flow of an electrically conducting viscous ,incompressible fluid over a continuous flat surface moving in a parallel free stream is investigated. The porous infinite surface is subjected to a slightly sinusoidal transverse suction velocity distribution. The flow becomes three dimensional due to this type of suction velocity without taking into account the induced magnetic field; the mathematical analysis is presented for the hydromagnetic laminar boundary layer flow. For the asymptotic flow condition, the components of the surface skin friction and the rate of heat transfer are obtained. During discussion it is found that with the increase of Hartmann number M, the skin friction factor F1 increase sharply for lower values of theReynolds number, but for the large value it increases steadily. But if the surface velocity is more than that of free stream velocity then the reverse trend is observed.
Munir, Asif; Shahzad, Azeem; Khan, Masood
2014-01-01
The major focus of this article is to analyze the forced convective heat transfer in a steady boundary layer flow of Sisko fluid over a nonlinear stretching sheet. Two cases are studied, namely (i) the sheet with variable temperature (PST case) and (ii) the sheet with variable heat flux (PHF case). The heat transfer aspects are investigated for both integer and non-integer values of the power-law index. The governing partial differential equations are reduced to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using appropriate similarity variables and solved numerically. The numerical results are obtained by the shooting method using adaptive Runge Kutta method with Broyden's method in the domain[Formula: see text]. The numerical results for the temperature field are found to be strongly dependent upon the power-law index, stretching parameter, wall temperature parameter, material parameter of the Sisko fluid and Prandtl number. In addition, the local Nusselt number versus wall temperature parameter is also graphed and tabulated for different values of pertaining parameters. Further, numerical results are validated by comparison with exact solutions as well as previously published results in the literature.
Munir, Asif; Shahzad, Azeem; Khan, Masood
2014-01-01
The major focus of this article is to analyze the forced convective heat transfer in a steady boundary layer flow of Sisko fluid over a nonlinear stretching sheet. Two cases are studied, namely (i) the sheet with variable temperature (PST case) and (ii) the sheet with variable heat flux (PHF case). The heat transfer aspects are investigated for both integer and non-integer values of the power-law index. The governing partial differential equations are reduced to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using appropriate similarity variables and solved numerically. The numerical results are obtained by the shooting method using adaptive Runge Kutta method with Broyden’s method in the domain. The numerical results for the temperature field are found to be strongly dependent upon the power-law index, stretching parameter, wall temperature parameter, material parameter of the Sisko fluid and Prandtl number. In addition, the local Nusselt number versus wall temperature parameter is also graphed and tabulated for different values of pertaining parameters. Further, numerical results are validated by comparison with exact solutions as well as previously published results in the literature. PMID:24949738
Alam, M. S.; Ali, M.; Alim, M. A.; Munshi, M. J. Haque
2017-06-01
The present study is performed to find the similarity solution like Blasius solution and also analyzed the effect of various dimensionless parameters on the momentum, thermal and nanoparticle concentration. In this respect we have considered the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) unsteady boundary layer nanofluid flow and heat - mass transfer along a porous stretching surface. So the governing partial differential equations are transformed to ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformations. The numerical solution is taken by applying the Nachtsgeim-Swigert shooting iteration technique along with Runge-Kutta integration scheme. The effects of various dimensionless parameters on velocity, temperature and nanoparticle concentration are discussed numerically and shown graphically. Therefore, from the figures it is observed that the results of velocity profile increases for increasing values of unsteadiness parameter, permeability parameter and stretching ratio parameter but there is no effect for magnetic parameter, the temperature profile decreases for increasing values of Brownian motion, unsteadiness, thermophoresis and stretching ratio but increases for magnetic parameter, the nanoparticle concentration decreases for increasing values of unsteadiness parameter, thermophoresis parameter, suction parameter, stretching ratio parameter and Lewis number but increases for magnetic parameter and Brownian motion parameter. For validity and accuracy the present results are compared with previously published work and found to in good agreement.
Active control of panel vibrations induced by boundary-layer flow
Chow, Pao-Liu
1991-01-01
Some problems in active control of panel vibration excited by a boundary layer flow over a flat plate are studied. In the first phase of the study, the optimal control problem of vibrating elastic panel induced by a fluid dynamical loading was studied. For a simply supported rectangular plate, the vibration control problem can be analyzed by a modal analysis. The control objective is to minimize the total cost functional, which is the sum of a vibrational energy and the control cost. By means of the modal expansion, the dynamical equation for the plate and the cost functional are reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations and the cost functions for the modes. For the linear elastic plate, the modes become uncoupled. The control of each modal amplitude reduces to the so-called linear regulator problem in control theory. Such problems can then be solved by the method of adjoint state. The optimality system of equations was solved numerically by a shooting method. The results are summarized.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Seiichi KIMURA; Mizue MUNEKATA; Hiroaki KURISHIMA; Kazuyoshi MATSUZAKI; Hideki OHBA
2005-01-01
@@ Recently, development of high technology has been required for the formation of thin uniform film in manufacturing processes of semiconductor as the semiconductor become more sophisticated. Spin coating is usually used for spreading photoresist on a wafer surface. However, since rotating speed of the disk is very high in spin coating, the dropped resist scatters outward and reattaches to the film surface. So, the scattered resist is removed by the exhaust flow generated at the gap between the wafer edge and the catch cup. It is seriously concemed that the stripes called Ekman spiral vortices appears on the disk in the case of high rotating speed and the film thickness increases near the wafer edge in the case of low rotating speed, because it prevent the formation of uniform film. The purpose of this study is to make clear the generation mechanism of Ekman spiral vortices and the influence of exhaust flow on it. Moreover the influence of the catch cup geometry on the wafer surface boundary layer flow is investigated.
Hussanan, Abid; Zuki Salleh, Mohd; Tahar, Razman Mat; Khan, Ilyas
2014-01-01
In this paper, the heat transfer effect on the unsteady boundary layer flow of a Casson fluid past an infinite oscillating vertical plate with Newtonian heating is investigated. The governing equations are transformed to a systems of linear partial differential equations using appropriate non-dimensional variables. The resulting equations are solved analytically by using the Laplace transform method and the expressions for velocity and temperature are obtained. They satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and reduce to some well-known solutions for Newtonian fluids. Numerical results for velocity, temperature, skin friction and Nusselt number are shown in various graphs and discussed for embedded flow parameters. It is found that velocity decreases as Casson parameters increases and thermal boundary layer thickness increases with increasing Newtonian heating parameter.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. RAHIMI EOSBOEE,
2010-12-01
Full Text Available In this study magnetohydrodynamics (MHD boundary layer flow of an upper-convected Maxwell fluid has been investigated. Similarity transformation has been used to reduce the governing differential equations into an ordinary non-linear differential equation. homotopy perturbation Method (HPM has applied to solve this developed nonlinear equation. In this article firstly, the basic idea of the HPM for solving nonlinear differential equations is briefly ntroduced and then it is employed to derive solution of nonlinear governing equation of MHD boundary layer flow with highly nonlinear term. The obtained results from HPM have been compared with numerical Boundary Value problem Method (BVP to verify the accuracy of the proposed method. The effects of the Hartman number (M and Deborah number (β for various conditions have been shown through graphs.
Nonlinear optimal control of bypass transition in a boundary layer flow
Xiao, Dandan; Papadakis, George
2017-05-01
The central aim of the paper is to apply and assess a nonlinear optimal control strategy to suppress bypass transition, due to bimodal interactions [T. A. Zaki and P. A. Durbin, "Mode interaction and the bypass route to transition," J. Fluid Mech. 531, 85 (2005)] in a zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer. To this end, a Lagrange variational formulation is employed that results in a set of adjoint equations. The optimal wall actuation (blowing and suction from a control slot) is found by solving iteratively the nonlinear Navier-Stokes and the adjoint equations in a forward/backward loop using direct numerical simulation. The optimization is performed in a finite time horizon. Large values of optimization horizon result in the instability of the adjoint equations. The control slot is located exactly in the region of transition. The results show that the control is able to significantly reduce the objective function, which is defined as the spatial and temporal integral of the quadratic deviation from the Blasius profile plus a term that quantifies the control cost. The physical mechanism with which the actuation interacts with the flow field is investigated and analysed in relation to the objective function employed. Examination of the joint probability density function shows that the control velocity is correlated with the streamwise velocity in the near wall region but this correlation is reduced as time elapses. The spanwise averaged velocity is distorted by the control action, resulting in a significant reduction of the skin friction coefficient. Results are presented with and without zero-net mass flow constraint of the actuation velocity. The skin friction coefficient drops below the laminar value if there is no mass constraint; it remains however larger than laminar when this constraint is imposed. Results are also compared with uniform blowing using the same time-average velocity obtained from the nonlinear optimal algorithm.
Effects of flow and colony morphology on the thermal boundary layer of corals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jimenez, Isabel M; Kühl, Michael; Larkum, Anthony W D
2011-01-01
measurements at the surface of illuminated stony corals with uneven surface topography (Leptastrea purpurea and Platygyra sinensis) revealed millimetre-scale variations in surface temperature and thermal boundary layer (TBL) that may help understand the patchy nature of coral bleaching within single colonies...
Eulerian and Lagrangian views of a turbulent boundary layer flow using time-resolved tomographic PIV
Schröder, A.; Geisler, R.; Staack, K.; Elsinga, G.E.; Scarano, F.; Wieneke, B.; Henning, A.; Poelma, C.; Westerweel, J.
2010-01-01
Coherent structures and their time evolution in the logarithmic region of a turbulent boundary layer investigated by means of 3D space–time correlations and time-dependent conditional averaging techniques are the focuses of the present paper. Experiments have been performed in the water tunnel at TU
Near Continuum Velocity and Temperature Coupled Compressible Boundary Layer Flow over a Flat Plate
He, Xin; Cai, Chunpei
2017-04-01
The problem of a compressible gas flows over a flat plate with the velocity-slip and temperature-jump boundary conditions are being studied. The standard single- shooting method is applied to obtain the exact solutions for velocity and temperature profiles when the momentum and energy equations are weakly coupled. A double-shooting method is applied if these two equations are closely coupled. If the temperature affects the velocity directly, more significant velocity slip happens at locations closer to the plate's leading edge, and inflections on the velocity profiles appear, indicating flows may become unstable. As a consequence, the temperature-jump and velocity-slip boundary conditions may trigger earlier flow transitions from a laminar to a turbulent flow state.
Hall, Philip; Bennett, James
1986-01-01
The Taylor-Goertler vortex instability equations are formulated for steady and unsteady interacting boundary-layer flows. The effective Goertler number is shown to be a function of the wall shape in the boundary layer and the possibility of both steady and unsteady Taylor-Goertler modes exists. As an example the steady flow in a symmetrically constricted channel is considered and it is shown that unstable Goertler vortices exist before the boundary layers at the wall develop the Goldstein singularity discussed by Smith and Daniels (1981). As an example of an unsteady spatially varying basic state, it is considered the instability of high-frequency large-amplitude two- and three-dimensional Tollmien-Schlichting waves in a curved channel. It is shown that they are unstable in the first 'Stokes-layer stage' of the hierarchy of nonlinear states discussed by Smith and Burggraf (1985). This instability of Tollmien-Schlichting waves in an internal flow can occur in the presence of either convex or concave curvature. Some discussion of this instability in external flows is given.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Möhlenkamp Stefan
2006-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The pressure drop – flow relations in myocardial bridges and the assessment of vascular heart disease via fractional flow reserve (FFR have motivated many researchers the last decades. The aim of this study is to simulate several clinical conditions present in myocardial bridges to determine the flow reserve and consequently the clinical relevance of the disease. From a fluid mechanical point of view the pathophysiological situation in myocardial bridges involves fluid flow in a time dependent flow geometry, caused by contracting cardiac muscles overlying an intramural segment of the coronary artery. These flows mostly involve flow separation and secondary motions, which are difficult to calculate and analyse. Methods Because a three dimensional simulation of the haemodynamic conditions in myocardial bridges in a network of coronary arteries is time-consuming, we present a boundary layer model for the calculation of the pressure drop and flow separation. The approach is based on the assumption that the flow can be sufficiently well described by the interaction of an inviscid core and a viscous boundary layer. Under the assumption that the idealised flow through a constriction is given by near-equilibrium velocity profiles of the Falkner-Skan-Cooke (FSC family, the evolution of the boundary layer is obtained by the simultaneous solution of the Falkner-Skan equation and the transient von-Kármán integral momentum equation. Results The model was used to investigate the relative importance of several physical parameters present in myocardial bridges. Results have been obtained for steady and unsteady flow through vessels with 0 – 85% diameter stenosis. We compare two clinical relevant cases of a myocardial bridge in the middle segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD. The pressure derived FFR of fixed and dynamic lesions has shown that the flow is less affected in the dynamic case, because the distal
A three-dimensional boundary-layer method for flow over delta wings with leading-edge separation
Woodson, S. H.; Dejarnette, F. R.
1985-01-01
A three-dimensional, laminar boundary-layer method is applied to the incompressible flow over a slender delta wing at incidence. The predictor-corrector finite-difference scheme of Matsuno is used to difference the governing equations. The method has the advantages that no iterations are required to advance the solution and the cross-flow derivatives are formed independent of the cross-field direction. The difference scheme is demonstrated to yield accurate numerical results when compared to the exact solution of the three-dimensional boundary-layer equations for parabolic flow over a moving flat plate. The method is applied to delta wings of various sweep angles at angles of attack up to 20 deg., with the inviscid solution determined using a higher-order, three-dimensional panel method.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lok, Yian Yian [Academic Service Center, Kolej Universiti Teknikal Kebangsaan Malaysia, 75450 Ayer Keroh, Melaka (Malaysia); Amin, Norsarahaida [Department of Mathematics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Pop, Ioan [Faculty of Mathematics, University of Cluj, R-3400, CP 253, Cluj (Romania)
2003-11-01
The growth of the boundary layer flow of a viscous and incompressible micro-polar fluid started impulsively from rest near the rear stagnation point of a two-dimensional plane surface is studied theoretically. The transformed non-similar boundary-layer equations are solved numerically using a very efficient finite-difference method known as Keller-box method. This method may present well-behaved solutions for the transient (small time) solution up to the separation boundary layer flow. Numerical results are given for the reduced velocity and micro-rotation profiles, as well as for the skin friction coefficient when the material parameter K takes the values K=0 (Newtonian fluid), 0.5, 1, 1.1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 with the boundary condition for micro-rotation n=0 (strong concentration of microelements) and n=1/2 (weak concentration of microelements), respectively. Important features of these flow characteristics are shown on graphs and in tables. (authors)
Hari Prasad, K. B. R. R.; Srinivas, C. V.; Rao, T. Narayana; Naidu, C. V.; Baskaran, R.
2017-03-01
In this study the evolution of the topographic flows and boundary layer features over a tropical hilly station Gadanki in southern India were simulated using Advanced Research WRF (ARW) mesoscale model for fair weather days during southwest monsoon (20-22 July 2011) and winter (18-20 Jan. 2011). Turbulence measurements from an Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Wind Profiler, Ultra Sonic Anemometer, GPS Sonde and meteorological tower were used for comparison. Simulations revealed development of small-scale slope winds in the lower boundary layer (below 800 m) at Gadanki which are more prevalent during nighttime. Stronger slope winds during winter and weaker flows in the monsoon season are simulated indicating the sensitivity of slope winds to the background synoptic flows and radiative heating/cooling. Higher upward surface fluxes (sensible, latent heat) and development of very deep convective boundary layer ( 2500 m) is simulated during summer monsoon relative to the winter season in good agreement with observations. Four PBL parameterizations (YSU, MYJ, MYNN and ACM) were evaluated to simulate the above characteristics. Large differences were noticed in the simulated boundary layer features using different PBL schemes in both the seasons. It is found that the TKE-closures (MYJ, MYNN) produced extremities in daytime PBL depth, surface fluxes, temperature, humidity and winds. The differences in the simulations are attributed to the eddy diffusivities, buoyancy and entrainment fluxes which were simulated differently in the respective schemes. The K-based YSU followed by MYNN best produced the slope winds as well as daytime boundary layer characteristics realistically in both the summer and winter synoptic conditions at Gadanki hilly site though with slight overestimation of nocturnal PBL height.
Shockwave-boundary layer interactions
Glepman, R.
2014-01-01
Shock wave-boundary layer interactions are a very common feature in both transonic and supersonic flows. They can be encountered on compressor and turbine blades, in supersonic jet inlets, on transonic wings, on the stabilization fins of missiles and in many more situations. Because of their major i
Pierce, F. J.; Mcallister, J. E.
1982-01-01
Ten of eleven proposed three-dimensional similarity models identified in the literature are evaluated with direct wall shear, velocity field, and pressure gradient data from a three-dimensional shear-driven boundary layer flow. Results define an upper limit on velocity vector skewing for each model's predictive ability. When combined with earlier results for pressure-driven flows, each model's predictive ability with and without pressure gradients is summarized. The utility of some two-dimensional type indirect wall shear measurement methods and wall shear inference methods from near-wall velocity measurements for three-dimensional flows is also discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, Woo Seog; Lee, Seung Bae [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dong Shin [Hongik University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Na, Yang [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2006-11-15
The piezoelectric bimorph film, which, as an actuator, can generate more effective displacement than the usual PVDF film, is used to control the turbulent boundary-layer flow. The change of wall pressures inside the turbulent boundary layer is observed by using the multi-channel microphone array flush-mounted on the surface when actuation at the non-dimensional frequency f{sub b}{sup +} =0.008 and 0.028 is applied to the turbulent boundary layer. The wall pressure characteristics by the actuation to produce local displacement are more dominantly influenced by the size of the actuator module than the actuation frequency. The movement of large-scale turbulent structures to the upper layer is found to be the main mechanism of the reduction in the wall-pressure energy spectrum when the 700{nu}/u{sub {tau}}-long bimorph film is periodically actuated at the non-dimensional frequency f{sub b}{sup +} =0.008 and 0.028. The bimorph actuator is triggered with the time delay for the active forcing at a single frequency when a 1/8' pressure-type, pin-holed microphone sensor detects the large-amplitude pressure event by the turbulent spot. The wall-pressure energy in the late-transitional boundary layer is partially reduced near the convection wavenumber by the open-loop control based on the large amplitude event.
Stability of compressible boundary layers
Nayfeh, Ali H.
1989-01-01
The stability of compressible 2-D and 3-D boundary layers is reviewed. The stability of 2-D compressible flows differs from that of incompressible flows in two important features: There is more than one mode of instability contributing to the growth of disturbances in supersonic laminar boundary layers and the most unstable first mode wave is 3-D. Whereas viscosity has a destabilizing effect on incompressible flows, it is stabilizing for high supersonic Mach numbers. Whereas cooling stabilizes first mode waves, it destabilizes second mode waves. However, second order waves can be stabilized by suction and favorable pressure gradients. The influence of the nonparallelism on the spatial growth rate of disturbances is evaluated. The growth rate depends on the flow variable as well as the distance from the body. Floquet theory is used to investigate the subharmonic secondary instability.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xuehui Chen; Liancun Zheng; Xinxin Zhang
2006-01-01
An efficient Adomian analytical decomposition technique for studying the momentum and heat boundary layer equations with exponentially stretching surface conditions was presented and an approximate analytical solution was obtained, which can be represented in terms of a rapid convergent power series with elegantly computable terms. The reliability and efficiency of the approximate solution were verified using numerical solutions in the literature. The approximate solution can be successfully applied to provide the values of skin friction and the temperature gradient coefficient.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Malvandi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Steady two-dimensional boundary layer flow of a nanofluid past a nonlinear stretching sheet is investigated analytically using the Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM. The employed model for nanofluid includes twocomponent four-equation non-homogeneous equilibrium model that incorporates the effects of Brownian motion ( Nb , thermophoresis ( Nt and Lewis number ( Le simultaneously. The basic partial boundary layer equations have been reduced to a two-point boundary value problem via the similarity variables. Analytical results are in best agreements with those existing in the literatures. The outcomes signify the decreasing trend of heat transfer rate with thermophoresis, Brownian motion and Lewis number. However, concentration rate has a sensitive behavior with parameters, especially the Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameters. Also, the weak points of numerical methods in such problems have been mentioned and the efficiency of HAM, as an alternative approach, in solving these kinds of nonlinear coupled problems has been shown.
Cheng, Wai Chi; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2015-04-01
Accurate prediction of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow and its interaction with urban surfaces is critical for understanding the transport of momentum and scalars within and above cities. This, in turn, is essential for predicting the local climate and pollutant dispersion patterns in urban areas. Large-eddy simulation (LES) explicitly resolves the large-scale turbulent eddy motions and, therefore, can potentially provide improved understanding and prediction of flows and scalar transport inside and above urban canopies. In this study, LES is used to simulate the dispersion of passive scalar over idealized urban surfaces represented by uniform arrays of cubes. A modulated gradient subgird-scale (SGS) model is used to parametrize the SGS fluxes of momentum and scalar, and an immersed boundary method is used to model the presence of cubes. A similar LES framework for flow was validated in our previous studies in simulations of turbulent boundary-layer flow past a 2D block and a uniform array of cubes. Here, the LES framework is further validated with wind tunnel experimental data of passive scalar dispersion within and above a staggered array of cubes with a localized scalar source at ground level. Good agreement between the simulation results and experimental data are found in the vertical and horizontal profiles of scalar concentration in different streamwise locations. After the validation, the LES framework is used to simulate the scalar transport at rural-to-urban flow transition region and the results obtained are presented.
Ferdows, M.
2012-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow of a nanofluid over an exponentially stretching sheet was studied. The governing boundary layer equations are reduced into ordinary differential equations by a similarity transformation. The transformed equations are solved numerically using the Nactsheim-Swigert shooting technique together with Runge-Kutta six-order iteration schemes. The effects of the governing parameters on the flow field and heat transfer characteristics were obtained and discussed. The numerical solutions for the wall skin friction coefficient, the heat and mass transfer coefficient, and the velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles are computed, analyzed, and discussed graphically. Comparison with previously published work is performed and excellent agreement is observed. 2012 M. Ferdows et al.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Ferdows
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD boundary layer flow of a nanofluid over an exponentially stretching sheet was studied. The governing boundary layer equations are reduced into ordinary differential equations by a similarity transformation. The transformed equations are solved numerically using the Nactsheim-Swigert shooting technique together with Runge-Kutta six-order iteration schemes. The effects of the governing parameters on the flow field and heat transfer characteristics were obtained and discussed. The numerical solutions for the wall skin friction coefficient, the heat and mass transfer coefficient, and the velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles are computed, analyzed, and discussed graphically. Comparison with previously published work is performed and excellent agreement is observed.
Double-diffusive natural convective boundary-layer flow of a nano-fluid past a vertical plate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuznetsov, A.V. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7910, Raleigh, NC 27695-7910 (United States); Nield, D.A. [Department of Engineering Science, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)
2011-05-15
The double-diffusive natural convective boundary-layer flow of a nano-fluid past a vertical plate is studied analytically. The model used for the binary nano-fluid incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. In addition the thermal energy equations include regular diffusion and cross-diffusion terms. A similarity solution is presented. Numerical calculations were performed in order to obtain correlation formulas giving the reduced Nusselt number as a function of the various relevant parameters. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Randelia, R.R.; Sahai, V.
1987-01-01
A numerical analysis of a two-phase, laminar boundary layer is carried out using the Keller Box method. The two phases are assumed to be immiscible. The problem considered involves the boundary layer flow of a compressible gas with variable properties over a flat surface in the presence of a thin liquid film with power law temperature dependent viscosity. Both zero and nonzero pressure gradients are considered. The main purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of the presence of the liquid layer on the velocity and temperature distributions. A limited set of results are presented in terms of varying liquid Prandtl numbers, film thickness, and viscosity exponents on these distributions as well as the shear stress and heat transfer parameters at the wall and at the interface between the two fluids.
Asymptotic analysis and boundary layers
Cousteix, Jean
2007-01-01
This book presents a new method of asymptotic analysis of boundary-layer problems, the Successive Complementary Expansion Method (SCEM). The first part is devoted to a general comprehensive presentation of the tools of asymptotic analysis. It gives the keys to understand a boundary-layer problem and explains the methods to construct an approximation. The second part is devoted to SCEM and its applications in fluid mechanics, including external and internal flows. The advantages of SCEM are discussed in comparison with the standard Method of Matched Asymptotic Expansions. In particular, for the first time, the theory of Interactive Boundary Layer is fully justified. With its chapter summaries, detailed derivations of results, discussed examples and fully worked out problems and solutions, the book is self-contained. It is written on a mathematical level accessible to graduate and post-graduate students of engineering and physics with a good knowledge in fluid mechanics. Researchers and practitioners will estee...
Mean flow structure of non-equilibrium boundary layers with adverse pressure gradient
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
B C Mandal; H P Mazumdar; S S Dutta
2014-10-01
In this paper Spalding’s formulation for the law of the wall with constants modified by Persen is used to describe the inner region (viscous sub-layer and certain portion of logarithmic layer) and a wake law due to Persen is used to describe the wake region (outer region). These two laws are examined in the light of measured data by Marušić and Perry for non-equilibrium adverse pressure gradient layers. It is observed that structure of turbulence for this flow is well-described by these two laws. From the known structure of turbulence eddy viscosity for the flow under consideration is calculated. Self similarity in eddy viscosity is observed in the wall region.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdelhalim Ebaid
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The main feature of the boundary layer flow problems of nanofluids or classical fluids is the inclusion of the boundary conditions at infinity. Such boundary conditions cause difficulties for any of the series methods when applied to solve such a kind of problems. In order to solve these difficulties, the authors usually resort to either Padé approximants or the commercial numerical codes. However, an intensive work is needed to perform the calculations using Padé technique. Due to the importance of the nanofluids flow as a growing field of research and the difficulties caused by using Padé approximants to solve such problems, a suggestion is proposed in this paper to map the semi-infinite domain into a finite one by the help of a transformation. Accordingly, the differential equations governing the fluid flow are transformed into singular differential equations with classical boundary conditions which can be directly solved by using the differential transformation method. The numerical results obtained by using the proposed technique are compared with the available exact solutions, where excellent accuracy is found. The main advantage of the present technique is the complete avoidance of using Padé approximants to treat the infinity boundary conditions.
Goradia, S. H.; Mehta, J. M.; Shrewsbury, G. S.
1977-01-01
The viscous flow phenomena associated with sharp and blunt trailing edge airfoils were investigated. Experimental measurements were obtained for a 17 percent thick, high performance GAW-1 airfoil. Experimental measurements consist of velocity and static pressure profiles which were obtained by the use of forward and reverse total pressure probes and disc type static pressure probes over the surface and in the wake of sharp and blunt trailing edge airfoils. Measurements of the upper surface boundary layer were obtained in both the attached and separated flow regions. In addition, static pressure data were acquired, and skin friction on the airfoil upper surface was measured with a specially constructed device. Comparison of the viscous flow data with data previously obtained elsewhere indicates reasonable agreement in the attached flow region. In the separated flow region, considerable differences exist between these two sets of measurements.
The Effect of Heat Transfer on MHD Marangoni Boundary Layer Flow Past a Flat Plate in Nanofluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. R. V. S. R. K. Sastry
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of heat transfer on the Marangoni convection boundary layer flow in an electrically conducting nanofluid is studied. Similarity transformations are used to transform the set of governing partial differential equations of the flow into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Numerical solutions of the similarity equations are then solved through the MATLAB “bvp4c” function. Different nanoparticles like Cu, Al2O3, and TiO2 are taken into consideration with water as base fluid. The velocity and temperature profiles are shown in graphs. Also the effects of the Prandtl number and solid volume fraction on heat transfer are discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Jeong Min; Moon, Joo Hyun; Park, Jae Yong; Kim, Dae Yun; Lee, Seong Hyuk [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2015-02-15
This study numerically investigated the influence of spanwise pressure gradient on heat transfer of a 3D turbulent boundary layer with longitudinal vortices. A 30° bend in the passage provided the spanwise pressure gradient. The longitudinal pair vortices were generated using a pair of delta winglets. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes and energy equations based on the conventional Reynolds stress model were used. The predictions agreed well with the experimental data for the straight plate. The turbulent boundary layer was significantly perturbed with the longitudinal vortices. The spanwise pressure gradient contributed to faster degradation of the longitudinal vortices and widened the perturbed flow region. The local Stanton number distributions were asymmetric because of the difference in the evolution of the longitudinal vortices in the curved region. Moreover, comparison showed that the local Stanton number in the downstream of the straight channel increased near the surface because of the secondary re-circulating vortex. The thickness of the thermal boundary layers increased in the streamwise direction because of the significant flow mixing and heat transfer.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ohk, Seung Min; Chung, Bum Jin [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)
2016-05-15
The Passive Cooling System (PCS) driven by natural forces drew research attention since Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. This study investigated the natural convection heat transfer inside of vertical pipe with emphasis on the phenomena regarding the boundary layer interaction. Numerical calculations were carried out using FLUENT 6.3. Experiments were performed for the parts of the cases to explore the accuracy of calculation. Based on the analogy, heat transfer experiment is replaced by mass transfer experiment using sulfuric acid copper sulfate (CuSO{sub 4}. H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) electroplating system. The natural convection heat transfer inside a vertical pipe is studied experimentally and numerically. Experiments were carried out using sulfuric acid-copper sulfate (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-CuSO{sub 4}) based on the analogy concept between heat and mass transfer system. Numerical analysis was carried out using FLUENT 6.3. It is concluded that the boundary layer interaction along the flow passage influences the heat transfer, which is affected by the length, diameter, and Prandtl number. For the large diameter and high Prandtl number cases, where the thermal boundary layers do not interfered along the pipe, the heat transfer agreed with vertical flat plate for laminar and turbulent natural convection correlation within 8%. When the flow becomes steady state, the forced convective flow appears in the bottom of the vertical pipe and natural convection flow appears near the exit. It is different behavior from the flow on the parallel vertical flat plates. Nevertheless, the heat transfer was not different greatly compared with those of vertical plate.
Turbulent Flow and Large Surface Wave Events in the Marine Boundary Layers
2013-08-22
equilibrium with wave age ∼ 1.4. The wave spectrum at the bot-827 tom of the PBLs is the same. Notice the range of the color bar is different828 between...and can interact with gravity waves and trigger Kelvin-Helmholtz insta- bilities leading to intermittent loads that fatigue turbine components ( Kelley ...model with a flat lower bot- tom , outlined in Section 2.1, to an atmospheric PBL flow with a varying boundary shape we apply a conventional grid
Estimation of boundary-layer flow of a nanofluid past a stretching sheet：A revised model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Naeema ISHFAQ; Zafar Hayat KHAN; Waqar Ahmad KHAN; Richard J CULHAM
2016-01-01
The previous model for the boundary layer nanofluid flow past a stretching surface with a specified nanoparticle volume fraction on the surface is revisited. The major limitation of the previous model is the active control of the nanoparticle volume fraction on the surface. In a revised model proposed in this paper, the nanoparticle volume fraction on the surface is passively contro- lled, which accounts for the effects of both the Brownian motion and the thermophoresis under the boundary condition, whereas the Buongiorno’s model considers both effects in the governing equations. The assumption of zero nanoparticle flux on the surface makes the model physically more realistic. In the revised model, the dimensionless heat transfer rates are found to be higher whereas the dimensionless mass transfer rates are identically zero due to the passive boundary condition. It is also found that the Brownian motion parameter has a negligible effect on the Nusselt number.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asmat Ara
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine the steady boundary layer flow of an Eyring–Powell model fluid due to an exponentially shrinking sheet. In addition, the heat transfer process in the presence of thermal radiation is considered. Using usual similarity transformations the governing equations have been transformed into non-linear ordinary differential equations. Homotopy analysis method (HAM is employed for the series solutions. The convergence of the obtained series solutions is carefully analyzed. Numerical values of the temperature gradient are presented and discussed. It is observed that velocity increases with an increase in mass suction S. In addition, for the temperature profiles opposite behavior is observed for increment in suction. Moreover, the thermal boundary layer thickness decreases due to increase in Prandtl number Pr and thermal radiation R.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.S Uddin
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The paper is concerned to find the distribution of the chemically reactant solute in the MHD flow of an electrically conducting viscous incompressible fluid over a stretching surface. The first order chemical reaction and the variable solute distribution along the surface are taken into consideration. The governing partial differential equations along with appropriate boundary conditions for flow field and reactive solute are transformed into a set of non-linear self-similar ordinary differential equations by using scaling group of transformations. An exact analytic solution is obtained for the velocity field. Using this velocity field, we obtain numerical solution for the reactant concentration field. It reveals from the study that the values of concentration profile enhances with the increase of the magnetic field and decreases with increase of Schmidt number as well as the reaction rate parameter. Most importantly, when the solute distribution along the surface increases then the concentration profile decreases.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
R. TRˆIMBIT¸AS¸; T.GROSAN; I.POP
2015-01-01
An analysis is carried out to investigate the steady mixed convection bound-ary layer flow of a water based nanofluid past a vertical semi-infinite flat plate. Using an appropriate similarity transformation, the governing partial differential equations are transformed into the coupled, nonlinear ordinary (similar) differential equations, which are then solved numerically for the Prandtl number Pr = 6.2. The skin friction coeﬃ-cient, the local Nusselt number, and the velocity and temperature profiles are presented graphically and discussed. Effects of the solid volume fractionφand the mixed convection parameterλon the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are thoroughly examined. Different from an assisting flow, it is found that the solutions for an opposing flow are non-unique. In order to establish which solution branch is stable and physically realizable in practice, a stability analysis is performed.
Frankl, F.; Voishel, V.
1943-01-01
In the present report an investigation is made on a flat plate in a two-dimensional compressible flow of the effect of compressibility and heating on the turbulent frictional drag coefficient in the boundary layer of an airfoil or wing radiator. The analysis is based on the Prandtl-Karman theory of the turbulent boundary later and the Stodola-Crocco, theorem on the linear relation between the total energy of the flow and its velocity. Formulas are obtained for the velocity distribution and the frictional drag law in a turbulent boundary later with the compressibility effect and heat transfer taken into account. It is found that with increase of compressibility and temperature at full retardation of the flow (the temperature when the velocity of the flow at a given point is reduced to zero in case of an adiabatic process in the gas) at a constant R (sub x), the frictional drag coefficient C (sub f) decreased, both of these factors acting in the same sense.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.K. Parida
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This work considers the two-dimensional steady MHD boundary layer flow of heat and mass transfer over a flat plate with partial slip at the surface subjected to the convective heat flux. The particular attraction lies in searching the effects of variable viscosity and variable thermal diffusivity on the behavior of the flow. In addition, non-linear thermal radiation effects and thermophoresis are taken into account. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations for the flow, heat and mass transfer are transformed into a set of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using similarity variable, which are solved numerically by applying Runge–Kutta fourth–fifth order integration scheme in association with quasilinear shooting technique. The novel results for the dimensionless velocity, temperature, concentration and ambient Prandtl number within the boundary layer are displayed graphically for various parameters that characterize the flow. The local skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are shown graphically. The numerical results obtained for the particular case are fairly in good agreement with the result of Rahman [6].
Legallais, Ph.; Hureau, J.
1994-06-01
A free streamline wake model based on singularity distribution is proposed in order to treat the flow past an arbitrary curved obstacle with Helmholtz's wake. The slipping condition gives the vortex distribution on the obstacle and the steady evolution condition is written on the first part of the free streamlines in order to find their locations, the geometry of the second part being fixed by an asymptotic study. The validity of the method is judged by comparing results with those obtained by a formulation, to be used as a standard, which encloses conformal mapping and is an adaptation of Levi-Civita's method. Good agreement leads us to envisage extending the method to multi-element systems. Correlatively, we show a coupling procedure with a boundary layer calculation. Applied to the circular cylinder, it allows to bring out the existence of sub-and supercritical ranges. Although the latter is well predicted for the separation angle and the drag coefficient, the former is only approximately approached, with an overestimate of the critical Reynolds number as an immediate consequence. Nous mettons en œuvre une méthode de singularités pour calculer l'écoulement autour d'un obstacle à paroi courbe quelconque en présence d'un sillage de Helmholtz. La répartition de densité tourbillonnaire sur la paroi baignée de l'obstacle est calculée par l'application de la condition de glissement. La condition d'évolution stationnaire est écrite sur la première partie des lignes de glissement afin de déterminer leur position, la géométrie de la seconde partie provenant d'une étude asymptotique. Nous jugeons de la validité de la méthode en comparant les résultats avec ceux obtenus par une méthode étalon utilisant la transformation conforme, et qui est une adaptation de la méthode de Levi-Civita. Le bon accord entre les deux nous permet d'envisager l'extension de la méthode au cas multi-obstacles. Nous proposons ensuite une procédure de couplage avec un calcul
Esau, Igor
2009-01-01
The present study gives an overview and emphasizes principal moments of the applications of the turbulence-resolving modeling with large-eddy simulation (LES) numerical technique to planetary boundary layer (PBL) research and climate studies. LES proved to be very useful in understanding of the atmospheric and ocean turbulent exchange and ultimately in parameterization improvement in traditional meteorological models. LES have played a key role in recognizing the importance of previously ignored self-organized structures in the geophysical turbulence. LES assisted theoreticians and weather/climate modelers with reliable information about the averaged vertical structure of the PBL in convection and shear regimes as well as with better estimations of key PBL parameters, e.g. an entrainment rate, for model calibrations. At present, LES are an essential, indispensible part of geosciences, while the mainstream of the LES research still deals with idealized case studies with rather simple micro-physics.
Bifurcation Behaviour in the Reverse-Flow Boundary Layer with Special Injection or Suction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHENG Lian-Cun; ZHANG Xin-Xin; HE Ji-Cheng
2003-01-01
Bifurcation solutions are numerically presented for reverse Bow boundary layer equations with special suction/injection by utilizing similarity transformation and shooting technique. The results indicate that both superior solution and inferior solution are noticeable. The skin friction and shear stress for the superior solution decrease with the increases of the ratio of surface velocity to free stream velocity and suction/injection. The behaviour is opposite to that for the inferior solution. Both the skin frictions for the superior and inferior solutions decrease with increasing the power law parameter. The inferior solution approaches the superior solution with increasing the velocity ratio and suction/injection. When power law is unit and suction/injection is zero, the superior solution approaches the classical Blasius solution as the velocity ratio approaches zero.
Distribution of Orientations in Fibre Suspension Flowing in a Turbulent Boundary Layer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIN Jian-Zhong; SUN Ke; LIN Jiang
2005-01-01
@@ The equation of probability distribution function for mean fibre orientation in a turbulent boundary layer is derived, in which the correlation terms of the fluctuating velocity, fluctuating angular velocity with the fluctuating probability distribution function are related to the gradient of mean probability distribution function and the dispersion coefficients in order to make the equation be solvable. The finite-difference method is used to solve the equation numerically. The results show that the fibres tend to align with the streamline, which is in agreement qualitatively with the experimental result given by visualization. The fibre aspect-ratio has a significant effect on the orientation distribution of fibres, while the effect of the distance from the wall is negligible.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fernando Porté-Agel
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Large-eddy simulation is used to study the influence of free-atmosphere stratification on the structure of atmospheric boundary-layer flow inside and above very large wind farms, as well as the power extracted by the wind turbines. In the simulations, tuning-free Lagrangian scale-dependent dynamic models are used to model the subgrid-scale turbulent fluxes, while the turbine-induced forces are parameterized with an actuator-disk model. It is shown that for a given surface cover (with and without turbines thermal stratification of the free atmosphere reduces the entrainment from the flow above compared with the unstratified case, leading to lower boundary-layer depth. Due to the fact that in very large wind farms vertical energy transport associated with turbulence is the only source of kinetic energy, lower entrainment leads to lower power production by the wind turbines. In particular, for the wind-turbine arrangements considered in the present work, the power output from the wind farms is reduced by about 35% when the potential temperature lapse rate in the free atmosphere increases from 1 to 10 K/km (within the range of values typically observed in the atmosphere. Moreover, it is shown that the presence of the turbines has significant effect on the growth of the boundary layer. Inspired by the obtained results, a simple one-dimensional model is developed to account for the effect of free-atmosphere stability on the mean flow and the power output from very large wind farms.
Olsson, Peter Q.; Harrington, Jerry Y.
2000-05-01
The case under consideration occurred on March 4, 1993, and was observed as part of the Radiation and Eddy Flux Experiment (REFLEX II) 1993 observational campaign northwest of Spitsbergen. The off-ice flow on this day brought very cold surface air temperatures (-35°C) over a relatively warm ocean surface. The resultant latent and sensible surface heat fluxes produced intense convection and a thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) which deepened with distance from the ice edge. Two-dimensional cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations were performed to determine the impact of various cloud parameterizations on the structure and evolution of the TIBL. The model was able to reproduce the observed thermal structure of the boundary layer to within the acknowledged limitations of the CRM approach. Sensitivity studies of cloud type showed that inclusion of mixed-phase microphysics had a large impact of BL depth and structure. Radiative heating of the cloud near cloud base and cooling near cloud top along with latent heat release were found to be significant sources of turbulence kinetic energy even in the present case where very strong surface heat fluxes occur. Ice-phase precipitation processes rapidly depleted the BL of condensate, weakening the radiative thermal forcing. A further consequence of condensate depletion in the mixed-phase cloud was a less humid boundary layer that was able to maintain a larger surface latent heat flux and continuously extract heat through condensation and deposition. Not surprisingly, the presence of clouds had a profound impact on the radiative budget at the surface, with the cloudy BL reducing surface radiative losses more that 60% over clear-sky values. Inclusion of the ice phase significantly affected the radiative budget as compared to purely liquid clouds, illustrating the importance of ice-phase-radiative couplings for accurate simulations of arctic clouds and boundary layer dynamics.
Kumar, Vijayant
Large-eddy simulation (LES) studies of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) have historically modeled the daytime (convective), nighttime (stable) and dawn/dusk windy (neutral) regimes separately under the assumption of a quasi-steady ABL. The real-world ABL however, continuously transitions between the different stability regimes and development of an LES capable of simulating the entire diurnal evolution of the ABL is needed. We have developed an LES tool (The JHU-LES code) with the new-generation Lagrangian dynamic models capable of dynamic adjustment of the subgrid-scale stresses thereby, making it apt for LES over entire diurnal cycles of the ABL. Preliminary LES studies demonstrate that the JHU-LES code reproduces well-known features of the quasi-steady convective and stable boundary layers, such as the well-known spectral scalings for production and inertial subranges. LES of the entire 24-hour diurnal evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer is then performed and compared successfully to field observations (HATS dataset). Important features of the diurnal ABL such as entrainment-based growth of the CBL, development of the stable boundary layer and evolution of the nocturnal low-level jet are well reproduced. The advantages of using a local Obukhov length-scale to normalize the results are highlighted. To investigate the role of surface boundary conditions and geostrophic wind forcing, LES investigations of multi-day evolution of the ABL flow are then performed with several combinations of surface boundary conditions (imposed temperature and heat flux) and geostrophic forcing (constant, time-varying, time and height varying). The variable geostrophic forcing significantly improves the agreement of LES results with surface flux observations but shows poor agreement with daytime surface fluxes and, daytime and nighttime mean profiles. The LES setup using an imposed surface temperature almost always yields better results than cases where the heat flux is
Shalaev, V. I.
2016-10-01
Singularities appearing in solutions of 3D laminar boundary layer (BL) equations, when two streamline families are collided, are discussed. For conical bodies, equations are investigated using asymptotic methods. Analytical solutions are obtained for the outer BL region; their singularities in the runoff plane are studied. The asymptotic flow structure near the singularity is constructed on the base of Navier-Stokes equations at large Reynolds numbers. For different flow regions analytical solutions are found and are matched with BL equation solutions. Properties of BL equations for the near-wall region in the runoff plane are investigated and a criterion of the solution disappearing is found. It is shown that this criterion separates two different topological flow structures and corresponds to the singularity appearance in this plane in solutions of full equations. Calculations confirmed obtained results are presented.
Goyal, M.; Bhargava, R.
2014-05-01
This paper deals with the double-diffusive boundary layer flow of non-Newtonian nanofluid over a stretching sheet. In this model, where binary nanofluid is used, the Brownian motion and thermophoresis are classified as the main mechanisms which are responsible for the enhancement of the convection features of the nanofluid. The boundary layer equations governed by the partial differential equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations with the help of group theory transformations. The variational finite element method (FEM) is used to solve these ordinary differential equations. We have examined the effects of different controlling parameters, namely, the Brownian motion parameter, the thermophoresis parameter, modified Dufour number, viscoelastic parameter, Prandtl number, regular Lewis number, Dufour Lewis number, and nanofluid Lewis number on the flow field and heat transfer characteristics. Graphical display of the numerical examine are performed to illustrate the influence of various flow parameters on the velocity, temperature, concentration, reduced Nusselt, reduced Sherwood and reduced nanofluid Sherwood number distributions. The present study has many applications in coating and suspensions, movement of biological fluids, cooling of metallic plate, melt-spinning, heat exchangers technology, and oceanography.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mabood, F., E-mail: mabood1971@yahoo.com [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800 (Malaysia); Khan, W.A., E-mail: wkhan_2000@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Ismail, A.I.M., E-mail: izani@cs.usm.my [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800 (Malaysia)
2015-01-15
The MHD laminar boundary layer flow with heat and mass transfer of an electrically conducting water-based nanofluid over a nonlinear stretching sheet with viscous dissipation effect is investigated numerically. This is the extension of the previous study on flow and heat transfer of a nanofluid over nonlinear stretching sheet (Rana and Bhargava, Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simul. 17 (2012) 212–226). The governing equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equations using suitable similarity transformation. The effects of the governing parameters on dimensionless quantities like velocity, temperature, nanoparticle concentration, friction factor, local Nusselt, and Sherwood numbers are explored. It is found that the dimensionless velocity decreases and temperature increases with magnetic parameter, and the thermal boundary layer thickness increases with Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameters. - Highlights: • MHD flow of nanofluid and heat transfer over a nonlinear stretching sheet has not been studied yet. • Numerical solutions are computed with Runge–Kutta Fehlberg fourth–fifth order method. • Previous published results can be obtained from present study. • Reduced Nusselt and Sherwood numbers decrease with magnetic parameter.
Introduction to computational techniques for boundary layers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blottner, F.G.
1979-09-01
Finite-difference procedures to solve boundary layer flows in fluid mechanics are explained. The governing equations and the transformations utilized are described. Basic solution techniques are illustrated with the similar boundary layer equations. Nonsimilar solutions are developed for the incompressible equations. Various example problems are solved, and the numerical results in the Fortran listing of the computer codes are presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.S. Idowu
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Radiation on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD boundary layer flow of a viscous fluid over an exponentially stretching sheet was considered together with it’s effects. The new technique of homotopy analysis method (nHAM was used to obtain the convergent series expressions for velocity and temperature, where the governig system of partial differential equations has been transformed into ordinary differential equations. The interpretation to these expressions is shown physically through graphs. We observed that the effects of Prandtl and Magnetic number acts in opposite to each other on the temperature.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shizawa, T. [Science Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Eaton, J.K. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
1990-12-31
The interaction of a longitudinal vortex with a pressure-driven, three dimensional turbulent boundary layer was investigated experimentally. The vortex was attenuated much more rapidly in the three dimensional layer than in a two-dimensional boundary layer. The persistence for the vortex-induced perturbation was strongly dependent on the sign of the vortex.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Krishnendu Bhattacharyya
2013-01-01
In this paper,the effect of non-uniform heat flux on heat transfer in boundary layer stagnation-point flow over a shrinking sheet is studied.The variable boundary heat fluxes are considered of two types:direct power-law variation with the distance along the sheet and inverse power-law variation with the distance.The governing partial differential equations (PDEs) are transformed into non linear self-similar ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by similarity transformations,and then those are solved using very efficient shooting method.The direct variation and inverse variation of heat flux along the sheet have completely different effects on the temperature distribution.Moreover,the heat transfer characteristics in the presence of non-uniform heat flux for several values of physical parameters are also found to be interesting.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Swati Mukhopadhyay
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The boundary layer flow and heat transfer towards a porous exponential stretching sheet in presence of a magnetic field is presented in this analysis. Velocity slip and thermal slip are considered instead of no-slip conditions at the boundary. Thermal radiation term is incorporated in the temperature equation. Similarity transformations are used to convert the partial differential equations corresponding to the momentum and energy equations into non-linear ordinary differential equations. Numerical solutions of these equations are obtained by shooting method. It is found that the horizontal velocity decreases with increasing slip parameter as well as with the increasing magnetic parameter. Temperature increases with the increasing values of magnetic parameter. Temperature is found to decrease with an increase of thermal slip parameter. Thermal radiation enhances the effective thermal diffusivity and the temperature rises.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SUBBARAO ANNASAGARAM
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The laminar boundary layer flow and heat transfer of Casson non-Newtonian fluid from an inclined (solar collector plate in the presence of thermal and hydrodynamic slip conditions is analysed. The inclined plate surface is maintained at a constant temperature. The boundary layer conservation equations, which are parabolic in nature, are normalized into non-similar form and then solved numerically with the well-tested, efficient, implicit, stable Keller-box finite-difference scheme. Increasing velocity slip induces acceleration in the flow near the inclined plate surface. Increasing velocity slip consistently enhances temperatures throughout the boundary layer regime. An increase in thermal slip parameter strongly decelerates the flow and also reduces temperatures in the boundary layer regime. An increase in Casson rheological parameter acts to elevate considerably the velocity and this effect is pronounced at higher values of tangential coordinate. Temperatures are however very slightly decreased with increasing values of Casson rheological parameter.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Gangadhar
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of laminar radiation and viscous dissipation effects on laminar boundary layer flow over a vertical plate with a convective surface boundary condition is studied using different types of nanoparticles. The general governing partial differential equations are transformed into a set of two nonlinear ordinary differential equations using unique similarity transformation. Numerical solutions of the similarity equations are obtained using the Nachtsheim-Swigert Shooting iteration technique along with the fourth order Runga Kutta method. Two different types of nanoparticles copper water nanofluid and alumina water nanofluid are studied. The effects of radiation and viscous dissipation on the heat transfer characteristics are discussed in detail. It is observed that as Radiation parameter increases, temperature decreases for copper water and alumina water nanofluid and the heat transfer coefficient of nanofluids increases with the increase of convective heat transfer parameter for copper water and alumina water nanofluids.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
A A AFIFY; M J UDDIN; M FERDOWS
2014-01-01
Taking into account the slip flow effects, Newtonian heating, and thermal radiation, two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows and heat transfer past a permeable stretching sheet are investigated numerically. We use one parameter group transformation to develop similarity transformation. By using the similarity transfor-mation, we transform the governing boundary layer equations along with the boundary conditions into ordinary differential equations with relevant boundary conditions. The ob-tained ordinary differential equations are solved with the fourth-fifth order Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method using MAPLE 13. The present paper is compared with a published one. Good agreement is obtained. Numerical results for dimensionless velocity, temperature distributions, skin friction factor, and heat transfer rates are discussed for various values of controlling parameters.
Boundary layer control device for duct silencers
Schmitz, Fredric H. (Inventor); Soderman, Paul T. (Inventor)
1993-01-01
A boundary layer control device includes a porous cover plate, an acoustic absorber disposed under the porous cover plate, and a porous flow resistive membrane interposed between the porous cover plate and the acoustic absorber. The porous flow resistive membrane has a flow resistance low enough to permit sound to enter the acoustic absorber and high enough to damp unsteady flow oscillations.
Sui, Jize; Zhao, Peng; Cheng, Zhengdong; Zheng, Liancun; Zhang, Xinxin
2017-02-01
The rheological and heat-conduction constitutive models of micropolar fluids (MFs), which are important non-Newtonian fluids, have been, until now, characterized by simple linear expressions, and as a consequence, the non-Newtonian performance of such fluids could not be effectively captured. Here, we establish the novel nonlinear constitutive models of a micropolar fluid and apply them to boundary layer flow and heat transfer problems. The nonlinear power law function of angular velocity is represented in the new models by employing generalized "n-diffusion theory," which has successfully described the characteristics of non-Newtonian fluids, such as shear-thinning and shear-thickening fluids. These novel models may offer a new approach to the theoretical understanding of shear-thinning behavior and anomalous heat transfer caused by the collective micro-rotation effects in a MF with shear flow according to recent experiments. The nonlinear similarity equations with a power law form are derived and the approximate analytical solutions are obtained by the homotopy analysis method, which is in good agreement with the numerical solutions. The results indicate that non-Newtonian behaviors involving a MF depend substantially on the power exponent n and the modified material parameter K 0 introduced by us. Furthermore, the relations of the engineering interest parameters, including local boundary layer thickness, local skin friction, and Nusselt number are found to be fitted by a quadratic polynomial to n with high precision, which enables the extraction of the rapid predictions from a complex nonlinear boundary-layer transport system.
Irshad, Ranah; Bowles, N. E.; Calcutt, S. B.; Hurley, J.
2010-10-01
The Boundary Layer Radiometer is a small, low mass (<1kg) radiometer with only a single moving part - a scan/calibration mirror. The instrument consists of a three mirror telescope system incorporating an intermediate focus for use with miniature infrared and visible filters. It also has an integrated low power blackbody calibration target to provide long-term calibration stability The instrument may be used as an upward looking boundary layer radiometer for both the terrestrial and Martian atmospheres with appropriate filters for the mid-infrared carbon dioxide band, as well as a visible channel for the detection of aerosol components such as dust. The scan mirror may be used to step through different positions from the local horizon to the zenith, allowing the vertical temperature profile of the atmosphere to be retrieved. The radiometer uses miniature infrared filter assemblies developed for previous space-based instruments by Oxford, Cardiff and Reading Universities. The intermediate focus allows for the use of upstream blocking filters and baffles, which not only simplifies the design of the filters and focal plane assembly, but also reduces the risk of problems due to stray light. Combined with the calibration target this means it has significant advantages over previous generations of small radiometers.
Reduced-Basis Determination of Planetary Boundary-Layer Flow Statistics for a Novel Turbulence Model
Skitka, Joseph; Marston, Brad; Fox-Kemper, Baylor
2016-11-01
Uncertainty in climate modeling and weather forecasting can largely be attributed to the omission or inaccurate representation of oceanic and atmospheric subgrid processes. Existing subgrid turbulence models are built on assumptions of isotropy, homogeneity, and the locality of correlations. Direct statistical simulation (DSS) using expansion in equal-time cumulants is a novel approach to subgrid modeling that does not make these assumptions. In prior work, a second-order closure, CE2, was shown to capture important vertical turbulent transports in Langmuir turbulence and Rayleigh-Bénard convection, but to run efficiently, this approach to turbulence modeling requires a drastic reduction in dimensionality. The present work addresses how accurately these systems can be represented with a truncated principal orthogonal decomposition (POD). The representation of turbulent transports by truncated POD bases are studied by static projection of fully resolved statistics and dynamical evolution of a reduced model. Results indicate the projected truncated turbulent statistics in these flows are less sensitive to flow details, like mixed-layer depth, than the truncated basis itself. The question of whether POD is an optimal truncation technique for these purposes is considered. NSF DMR 1306806, NSF GCE 1350795, The Institute at Brown for Environment and Society Graduate Student Fellowship.
Large-Eddy Simulation of Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Flow Through a Wind Farm Sited on Topography
Shamsoddin, Sina; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2017-04-01
Large-eddy simulation (LES) has recently been well validated and applied in the context of wind turbines over flat terrain; however, to date its accuracy has not been tested systematically in the case of turbine-wake flows over topography. Here, we investigate the wake flow in a wind farm situated on hilly terrain using LES for a case where wind-tunnel experimental data are available. To this end, first boundary-layer flow is simulated over a two-dimensional hill in order to characterize the spatial distribution of the mean velocity and the turbulence statistics. A flow simulation is then performed through a wind farm consisting of five horizontal-axis wind turbines sited over the same hill in an aligned layout. The resulting flow characteristics are compared with the former case, i.e., without wind turbines. To assess the validity of the simulations, the results are compared with the wind-tunnel measurements. It is found that LES can reproduce the flow field effectively, and, specifically, the speed-up over the hilltop and the velocity deficit and turbulence intensity enhancement induced by the turbines are well captured by the simulations. Besides, the vertical profiles of the mean velocity and turbulence intensity at different streamwise positions match well those for the experiment. In addition, another numerical experiment is carried out to show how higher (and more realistic) thrust coefficients of the turbines lead to stronger wakes and, at the same time, higher turbulence intensities.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chivaee, Hamid Sarlak; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming
2012-01-01
Large eddy simulation (LES) of flow in a wind farm is studied in neutral as well as thermally stratified atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). An approach has been practiced to simulate the flow in a fully developed wind farm boundary layer. The approach is based on the Immersed Boundary Method (IBM......) and involves implementation of an arbitrary prescribed initial boundary layer (See [1]). A prescribed initial boundary layer profile is enforced through the computational domain using body forces to maintain a desired flow field. The body forces are then stored and applied on the domain through the simulation...... and the boundary layer shape will be modified due to the interaction of the turbine wakes and buoyancy contributions. The implemented method is capable of capturing the most important features of wakes of wind farms [1] while having the advantage of resolving the wall layer with a coarser grid than typically...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Ramzan
2015-05-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with steady three dimensional boundary layer flow of an incompressible viscoelastic nanofluid flow in the presence of Newtonian heating. An appropriate transformation is employed to convert the highly non linear partial differential equations into ordinary differential equations. Homotopy Analysis method (HAM is used to find series solution of the obtained coupled highly non linear differential equations. The convergence of HAM solutions is discussed via h-curves. Graphical illustrations displaying the influence of emerging parameters on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are given. It is observed that γ the conjugate parameter for Newtonian heating show increasing behavior on both temperature and concentration profiles. However, the temperature and concentration profiles are increasing and decreasing functions of Brownian motion parameter Nb respectively.
Joshi, Vimal Kumar; Ram, Paras; Sharma, Ravi Kumar; Tripathi, Dharmendra
2017-06-01
The aim of this paper is to study the Bodewadt flow of a magnetic nanofluid in the presence of geothermal viscosity. The effects of porosity on an unsteady boundary layer flow of water-based magnetic nanofluids over a uniformly heated stationary disk are discussed numerically. Fluid viscosity is considered as a function of both depth and temperature. The Runge-Kutta fourth-order method along with the shooting technique is employed for solving a set of coupled ordinary differential equations. The computed results reveal that heat transfer is appreciably enhanced with more porosity and rotation of the fluid. Also, varying the fluids Prandtl number from 20 to 80, the rate of heat transfer increases by 93.35% and faster cooling of the system occurs.
Guo, H.; Huang, Q. M.; Liu, P. Q.; Feng, T.
2015-08-01
The effects of localized unsteady ejection by synthetic jet with slot-type exit on a turbulent boundary layer at zero pressure gradient conditions were investigated downstream of the slot using hot-wire anemometry. This work is to investigate the influence of unsteady disturbance on turbulent structures at small scales, i.e., in the isotropy recovery range (IRR) and the shear-dominated range (SDR). In the near-slot region, our results show that IRR is extended and SDR is shortened for the perturbed flow in the near-wall region, which contributes to the decrease in anisotropy and intermittency. For the perturbed flow, only one scaling behavior of the longitudinal structure functions similar to the classical Kolmogorov-like scaling is observed in IRR.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wissink, Jan G. [School of Engineering and Design, Howell Building, Brunel University, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: jan.wissink@brunel.ac.uk; Rodi, Wolfgang [Institute for Hydromechanics, University of Karlsruhe, Kaiserstr. 12, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)
2009-10-15
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of flow over and heat transfer from a flat plate affected by free-stream fluctuations were performed. A contoured upper wall was employed to generate a favourable streamwise pressure gradient along a large portion of the flat plate. The free-stream fluctuations originated from a separate LES of isotropic turbulence in a box. In the laminar portions of the accelerating boundary layer flow the formation of streaks was observed to induce an increase in heat transfer by the exchange of hot fluid near the surface of the plate and cold fluid from the free-stream. In the regions where the streamwise pressure gradient was only mildly favourable, intermittent turbulent spots were detected which relaminarised downstream as the streamwise pressure gradient became stronger. The relaminarisation of the turbulent spots was reflected by a slight decrease in the friction coefficient, which converged to its laminar value in the region where the streamwise pressure gradient was strongest.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Krishnendu Bhattacharyya; Tasawar Hayat; Ahmed Alsaedi
2013-01-01
In this analysis,the magnetohydrodynamic boundary layer flow of Casson fluid over a permeable stretching/shrinking sheet in the presence of wall mass transfer is studied.Using similarity transformations,the governing equations are converted to an ordinary differential equation and then solved analytically.The introduction of a magnetic field changes the behavior of the entire flow dynamics in the shrinking sheet case and also has a major impact in the stretching sheet case.The similarity solution is always unique in the stretching case,and in the shrinking case the solution shows dual nature for certain values of the parameters.For stronger magnetic field,the similarity solution for the shrinking sheet case becomes unique.
Cluster view of the plasma sheet boundary layer and bursty bulk flow connection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. W. Lennartsson
2009-04-01
Full Text Available The high-latitude boundaries of the plasma sheet (PSBL are dynamic latitude zones of recurring and transient (minutes to tens of minutes earthward and magnetic field-aligned bursts of plasma, each being more or less confined in longitude as well, whose ionic component is dominated by protons with flux, energies and density that are consistent with a central plasma sheet (CPS source at varying distance (varying rates of energy time dispersion, sometimes as close as the ~19 R_{E} Cluster apogees, or closer still. The arguably most plausible source consists of so called "bursty bulk flows" (BBFs, i.e. proton bulk flow events with large, positive and bursty GSE v_{x}. Known mainly from CPS observations made at GSE x>−30 R_{E}, the BBF type events probably take place much further downtail as well. What makes the BBFs an especially plausible source are (1 their earthward bulk flow, which helps explain the lack of distinctive latitudinal PSBL energy dispersion, and (2 their association with a transient strong increase of the local tail B_{z} component ("local dipolarization". The enhanced B_{z} provides intermittent access to higher latitudes for the CPS plasma, resulting in local density reductions in the tail midplane, as illustrated here by proton data from the Cluster CIS CODIF instruments. Another sign of kinship between the PSBL bursts and the BBFs is their similar spatial fine structure. The PSBL bursts have prominent filaments aligned along the magnetic field with transverse flux gradients that are often characterized by local ~10 keV proton gyroradii scale size (or even smaller, as evidenced by Cluster measurements. The same kind of fine structure is also found during Cluster near-apogee traversals of the tail midplane, as illustrated here and implied by recently published statistics on BBFs obtained with Cluster multipoint observations at varying satellite
Experimental investigation of wave boundary layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sumer, B. Mutlu
2003-01-01
A review is presented of experimental investigation of wave boundary layer. The review is organized in six main sections. The first section describes the wave boundary layer in a real-life environment and its simulation in the laboratory in an oscillating water tunnel and in a water tank...... with an oscillating seabed. A brief account is given of measured quantities, measurement techniques (LDA, PIV, flow visualization) and limitations/constraints in the experimental investigation of the wave boundary layer in the laboratory. The second section concentrates on uniform oscillating boundary layers...... with a smooth bed. The boundary layer process is described over the entire range of the Reynolds number (Re from practically nil to Re = O(107)), from the laminar regime to the transitional regime and to the fully developed turbulent regime. The third section focuses on the effect of the boundary roughness...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lucic, Anita; Emans, Maximilian; Mayinger, Franz; Zenger, Christoph
2004-04-01
An interferometric study and a numerical simulation are presented of the combined process of the bulk turbulent convection and the dynamic of a vapor bubble which is formed in the superheated boundary layer of a subcooled flowing liquid, in order to determine the heat transfer to the flowing subcooled liquid. In this investigation focus has been given on a single vapor bubble at a defined cavity site to provide reproducible conditions. In the experimental study single bubbles were generated at a single artificial cavity by means of a CO{sub 2}-laser as a spot heater at a uniformly heated wall of a vertical rectangular channel with water as the test fluid. The experiments were performed at various degrees of subcooling and mass flow rates. The bubble growth and the temporal decrease of the bubble volume were captured by means of the high-speed cinematography. The thermal boundary layer and the temperature field at the phase-interface between fluid and bubble were visualized by means of the optical measurement method holographic interferometry with a high temporal and spatial resolution, and thus the local and temporal heat transfer could be quantified. The experimental results form a significant data basis for the description of the mean as well as the local heat transfer as a function of the flow conditions. According to the experimental configuration and the obtained data the numerical simulations were performed. A numerical method has been developed to simulate the influence of single bubbles on the surrounding fluid which is based on a Lagrangian approach to describe the motion of the bubbles. The method is coupled to a large-eddy simulations by the body force term which is locally evaluated based on the density field. The obtained experimental data correspond well with the numerical predictions, both of which demonstrate the thermo- and fluiddynamic characteristics of the interaction between the vapor bubble and the subcooled liquid.
Birrer, Marcel; Stemmer, Christian; Adams, Nikolaus N.
2011-05-01
Investigations of hypersonic boundary-layer flows around a cubical obstacle with a height in the order of half the boundary layer thickness were carried out in this work. Special interest was laid on the influence of chemical non-equilibrium effects on the wake flow of the obstacle. Direct numerical simulations were conducted using three different gas models, a caloric perfect, an equilibrium and a chemical non-equilibrium gas model. The geometry was chosen as a wedge with a six degree half angle, according to the aborted NASA HyBoLT free flight experiment. At 0.5 m downstream of the leading edge, a surface trip was positioned. The free-stream flow was set to Mach 8.5 with air conditions taken from the 1976 standard atmosphere at an altitude of 42 km according to the predicted flight path. The simulations were done in three steps for all models. First, two-dimensional calculations of the whole configuration including the leading edge and the obstacle were conducted. These provide constant span-wise profiles for detailed, steady three-dimensional simulations around the close vicinity of the obstacle. A free-stream Mach number of about 6.3 occurs behind the shock. A cross-section in the wake of the object then delivers the steady inflow for detailed unsteady simulations of the wake. Perturbations at unstable frequencies, obtained from a bi-global secondary stability analysis, were added to these profiles. The solutions are time-Fourier transformed to investigate the unsteady downstream development of the different modes due to the interaction with the base-flow containing two counter-rotating vortices. Results will be presented that show the influence of the presence of chemical non-equilibrium on the instability in the wake of the object leading to a laminar or a turbulent wake.
Heinemann, Günther; Drüe, Clemens
2016-04-01
Gap flows and the stable boundary layer (SBL) were studied in northwest Greenland during the aircraft-based experiment IKAPOS (Investigation of Katabatic winds and Polynyas during Summer) in June 2010. The measurements were performed using the research aircraft POLAR 5 of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI, Bremerhaven). Besides navigational and basic meteorological instrumentation, the aircraft was equipped with radiation and surface temperature sensors, two laser altimeters, and video and digital cameras. In order to determine turbulent heat and momentum fluxes, POLAR 5 was instrumented with a turbulence measurement system collecting data on a nose boom with a sampling rate of 100 Hz. In the area of the Nares Strait a stable, but fully turbulent boundary layer with strong winds of 15 m s-1 to 20 m s-1 was found during conditions of relatively warm synoptically induced northerly winds through the Nares Strait. Strong surface inversions were present in the lowest 100 m to 200 m. As a consequence of channeling effects a well-pronounced low-level jet (LLJ) system was documented. The channeling process is consistent with gap flow theory and can be shown to occur at the topographic gap between Greenland and Canada represented by the Smith Sound. While the flow through the gap and over the surrounding mountains leads to the lowering of isotropic surfaces and the acceleration of the flow, the strong turbulence associated with the LLJ leads to the development of an internal thermal SBL past the gap. Turbulence statistics in this fully turbulent SBL can be shown to follow the local scaling behaviour.
Allan Brian G.; Owens, Lewis, R.
2006-01-01
This paper will investigate the validation of a NASA developed, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) flow solver, OVERFLOW, for a boundary-layer-ingesting (BLI) offset (S-shaped) inlet in transonic flow with passive and active flow control devices as well as the baseline case. Numerical simulations are compared to wind tunnel results of a BLI inlet conducted at the NASA Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. Comparisons of inlet flow distortion, pressure recovery, and inlet wall pressures are performed. The numerical simulations are compared to the BLI inlet data at a freestream Mach number of 0.85 and a Reynolds number of approximately 2 million based on the length of the fan-face diameter. The numerical simulations with and without wind tunnel walls are performed, quantifying effects of the tunnel walls on the BLI inlet flow measurements. The wind tunnel test evaluated several different combinations of jet locations and mass flow rates as well as a vortex generator (VG) vane case. The numerical simulations will be performed on a single jet configuration for varying actuator mass flow rates at a fix inlet mass flow condition. Validation of the numerical simulations for the VG vane case will also be performed for varying inlet mass flow rates. Overall, the numerical simulations were able to predict the baseline circumferential flow distortion, DPCPavg, very well for comparisons made within the designed operating range of the BLI inlet. However the CFD simulations did predict a total pressure recovery that was 0.01 lower than the experiment. Numerical simulations of the baseline inlet flow also showed good agreement with the experimental inlet centerline surface pressures. The vane case showed that the CFD predicted the correct trends in the circumferential distortion for varying inlet mass flow but had a distortion level that was nearly twice as large as the experiment. Comparison to circumferential distortion measurements for a 15 deg clocked 40 probe
Gibbs, J.A.; Fedorovich, E.; Eijk, A.M.J. van
2011-01-01
Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model predictions using different boundary layer schemes and horizontal grid spacings were compared with observational and numerical large-eddy simulation data for conditions corresponding to a dry atmospheric convective boundary layer (CBL) over the southern
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. N. Esau
2006-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the resistance law for the planetary boundary layer (PBL from the point of view of the similarity theory. In other words, we select the set of the PBL governing parameters and search for an optimal way to express through these parameters the geostrophic drag coefficient Cg=u* /Ug and the cross isobaric angle α (where u* is the friction velocity and Ug is the geostrophic wind speed. By this example, we demonstrate how to determine the 'parameter space' in the most convenient way, so that make independent the dimensionless numbers representing co-ordinates in the parameter space, and to avoid (or at least minimise artificial self-correlations caused by the appearance of the same factors (such as u* in the examined dimensionless combinations (e.g. in Cg=u* /Ug and in dimensionless numbers composed of the governing parameters. We also discuss the 'completeness' of the parameter space from the point of view of large-eddy simulation (LES modeller creating a database for a specific physical problem. As recognised recently, very large scatter of data in prior empirical dependencies of Cg and α on the surface Rossby number Ro=Ug| fz0|-1 (where z0 is the roughness length and the stratification characterised by µ was to a large extent caused by incompactness of the set of the governing parameters. The most important parameter overlooked in the traditional approach is the typical value of the Brunt-Väisälä frequency N in the free atmosphere (immediately above the PBL, which involves, besides Ro and µ, one more dimensionless number: µN=N/ | f |. Accordingly, we consider Cg and α as dependent on the three (rather then two basic dimensionless numbers (including µN using LES database DATABASE64. By these means we determine the form of the dependencies under consideration in the part of the parameter space representing typical atmospheric PBLs, and provide analytical expressions for Cg and α.
Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow Through a Gap in a Wall-Mounted Roughness Element,
1980-09-01
smallest gap settings considered here the gap edge separation vortices dominate the gap flow , the centreline flow is brought nearly to separation and much...of the "through gap " flow is diverted up and over the gap, increasing mean flow velocities at distances greater than the element height. The gap edge...lines and hence reliable values of skin friction coefficient could be inferred. Early profiles in the small gap flows did show sinuousity as was
Wake Turbulence of Two NREL 5-MW Wind Turbines Immersed in a Neutral Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Flow
Bashioum, Jessica L; Schmitz, Sven; Duque, Earl P N
2013-01-01
The fluid dynamics video considers an array of two NREL 5-MW turbines separated by seven rotor diameters in a neutral atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The neutral atmospheric boundary-layer flow data were obtained from a precursor ABL simulation using a Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) framework within OpenFOAM. The mean wind speed at hub height is 8m/s, and the surface roughness is 0.2m. The actuator line method (ALM) is used to model the wind turbine blades by means of body forces added to the momentum equation. The fluid dynamics video shows the root and tip vortices emanating from the blades from various viewpoints. The vortices become unstable and break down into large-scale turbulent structures. As the wakes of the wind turbines advect further downstream, smaller-scale turbulence is generated. It is apparent that vortices generated by the blades of the downstream wind turbine break down faster due to increased turbulence levels generated by the wake of the upstream wind turbine.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Poornima
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A mathematical model is presented for an optically dense fluid past an isothermal circular cylinder with chemical reaction taking place in it. A constant, static, magnetic field is applied transverse to the cylinder surface. The cylinder surface is maintained at a constant temperature. New variables are introduced to transform the complex geometry into a simple shape and the boundary layer conservation equations, which are parabolic in nature, are normalized into non-similar form and then solved numerically with the well-tested, efficient, implicit, Crank-Nicolson finite difference scheme. Numerical computations are made and the effects of the various material parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration as well as the surface skin friction and surface heat and mass transfer rates are illustrated graphs and tables. Increasing magnetohydrodynamic body force parameter (M is found to decelerate the flow but enhance temperatures. Thermal radiation is seen to reduce both velocity and temperature in the boundary layer. Local Nusselt number is also found to be enhanced with increasing radiation parameter.
Shepherd, Micah R; Hambric, Stephen A
2014-11-01
In order to address noise control problems in the design stage, structural-acoustic optimization procedures can be used to find the optimal design for reduced noise or vibration. However, most structural-acoustic optimization procedures are not general enough to include both heavy fluid loading and complex forcing functions. Additionally, it can be difficult to determine and assess trade-offs between weight and sound radiation. A structural-acoustic optimization approach is presented for minimizing the radiated power of structures with heavy fluid loading excited by complex forcing functions. The procedure is demonstrated on a curved underwater panel excited by a point drive and by turbulent boundary layer flow. To facilitate more efficient analysis, an uncorrelated pressure assumption is made for the turbulent boundary layer forcing function. The thicknesses of groups of elements were used as the design variables with an adaptive covariance matrix evolutionary strategy as the search algorithm. The objective function was a weighted sum of total sound power and panel mass and the Pareto front was computed to show the optimum trade-off between the two objectives. The optimal designs are presented which illustrate the best methods for reducing radiated sound and mass simultaneously.
Outer layer effects in wind-farm boundary layers: Coriolis forces and boundary layer height
Allaerts, Dries; Meyers, Johan
2015-11-01
In LES studies of wind-farm boundary layers, scale separation between the inner and outer region of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is frequently assumed, i.e., wind turbines are presumed to fall within the inner layer and are not affected by outer layer effects. However, modern wind turbine and wind farm design tends towards larger rotor diameters and farm sizes, which means that outer layer effects will become more important. In a prior study, it was already shown for fully-developed wind farms that the ABL height influences the power performance. In this study, we use the in-house LES code SP-Wind to investigate the importance of outer layer effects on wind-farm boundary layers. In a suite of LES cases, the ABL height is varied by imposing a capping inversion with varying inversion strengths. Results indicate the growth of an internal boundary layer (IBL), which is limited in cases with low inversion layers. We further find that flow deceleration combined with Coriolis effects causes a change in wind direction throughout the farm. This effect increases with decreasing boundary layer height, and can result in considerable turbine wake deflection near the end of the farm. The authors are supported by the ERC (ActiveWindFarms, grant no: 306471). Computations were performed on VSC infrastructiure (Flemish Supercomputer Center), funded by the Hercules Foundation and the Flemish Government-department EWI.
Goyal, Mania; Bhargava, Rama
2014-08-01
The aim of the paper is to analyze the effect of velocity slip boundary condition on the flow and heat transfer of non-Newtonian nanofluid over a stretching sheet. The Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects are also considered. The boundary layer equations governed by the partial differential equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations with the help of group theory transformations. The obtained ordinary differential equations are solved by variational finite element method (FEM). The effects of different controlling parameters, namely, the Brownian motion parameter, the thermophoresis parameter, viscoelastic parameter, Prandtl number, Lewis number and the slip parameter on the flow field and heat transfer characteristics are examined. The numerical results for the dimensionless velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction as well as the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood number have been presented graphically. The present study is of great interest in the fields of coatings and suspensions, cooling of metallic plates, oils and grease, paper production, coal water or coal-oil slurries, heat exchangers' technology, and materials' processing and exploiting.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, C.; Liu, Z. [Univ. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)
1994-12-31
A new multilevel technology was developed in this study which provides a successful numerical simulation for the whole process of flow transition in 3-D flat plate boundary layers, including linear growth, secondary instability, breakdown, and transition on a relatively coarse grid with low CPU cost. A fourth-order finite difference scheme on stretched and staggered grids, a fully implicit time-marching technique, a semi-coarsening multigrid based on the so-called approximate line-box relaxation, and a buffer domain for the outflow boundary conditions were all employed for high-order accuracy, good stability, and fast convergence. A new fine-coarse-fine grid mapping technique was developed to catch the large eddies and represent main roles of small eddies to keep the code running after the laminar flow breaks down. The computational results are in good agreement with linear stability theory, secondary instability theory, and some experiments. The computation also reproduced the K-type and C-type transition observed by laboratory experiments. The CPU cost for a typical case is around 2-9 CRAY-YMP hours.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ezad Hafidzuddin
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the steady laminar boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a permeable exponentially stretching/shrinking sheet with generalized slip velocity is studied. The flow and heat transfer induced by stretching/shrinking sheets are important in the study of extrusion processes and is a subject of considerable interest in the contemporary literature. Appropriate similarity variables are used to transform the governing nonlinear partial differential equations to a system of nonlinear ordinary (similarity differential equations. The transformed equations are then solved numerically using the bvp4c function in MATLAB. Dual (upper and lower branch solutions are found for a certain range of the suction and stretching/shrinking parameters. Stability analysis is performed to determine which solutions are stable and physically realizable and which are not stable. The effects of suction parameter, stretching/shrinking parameter, velocity slip parameter, critical shear rate and Prandtl number on the skin friction and heat transfer coefficients as well as the velocity and temperature profiles are presented and discussed in detail. It is found that the introduction of the generalized slip boundary condition resulted in the reduction of the local skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number. Finally, it is concluded from the stability analysis that the first (upper branch solution is stable while the second (lower branch solution is not stable.
Aljoufi, Mona D.; Ebaid, Abdelhalim
2016-12-01
The exact solutions of a nonlinear differential equations system, describing the boundary layer flow over a stretching sheet with a convective boundary condition and a slip effect have been obtained in this paper. This problem has been numerically solved by using the shooting method in literature. The aim of the current paper is to check the accuracy of these published numerical results. This goal has been achieved via first obtaining the exact solutions of the governing nonlinear differential equations and then, by comparing them with the approximate numerical results reported in literature. The effects of the physical parameters on the flow field and the temperature distribution have been re-investigated through the new exact solutions. The main advantage of the current paper is the simple computational approach that has been introduced to analyze exactly the present physical problem. This simple analytical approach can be further applied to investigate similar problems. Although no remarkable differences have been detected between the current figures and those obtained in literature, the authors believe that if some numerical calculations were available for the fluid velocity and the temperature in literature then the convergence criteria and the accuracy of the shooting method used in Ref. [15] can be validated in view of the current exact expressions.
Willert, Christian E
2015-01-01
This study reports on experimentally observed near-wall reverse flow events in a fully developed flat plate boundary layer at zero pressure gradient with Reynolds numbers between $Re_\\tau = 1000$ and $Re_\\tau = 2700$. The reverse flow events are captured using high magnification particle image velocimetry sequences with record lengths varying from 50,000 to 126,000 samples. Time resolved particle image sequences allow singular reverse flow events to be followed over several time steps whereas long records of nearly statistically independent samples provide a variety of single snapshots at a higher spatial resolution. The probability of occurrence lies in the range of 0.01% to 0.1% which matches predictions made with direct numerical simulations (DNS). The self-similar size of the reverse flow bubble is about 30-50 wall units in length and 5 wall units in height which also agrees well to DNS data provided by Lenaers et al. (ETC13, Journal of Physics: Conference Series 318 (2011) 022013).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dinarvand Saeed
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This article deals with the study of the steady axisymmetric mixed convective boundary layer flow of a nanofluid over a vertical circular cylinder with prescribed external flow and surface temperature. By means of similarity transformation, the governing partial differential equations are reduced into highly non-linear ordinary differential equations. The resulting non-linear system has been solved analytically using an efficient technique namely homotopy analysis method (HAM. Expressions for velocity and temperature fields are developed in series form. In this study, three different types of nanoparticles are considered, namely alumina (, titania (, and copper ( with water as the base fluid. For copper-water nanofluid, graphical results are presented to describe the influence of the nanoparticle volume fraction on the velocity and temperature fields for the forced and mixed convection flows. Moreover, the features of the flow and heat transfer characteristics are analyzed and discussed for foregoing nanofluids. It is found that the skin friction coefficient and the heat transfer rate at the surface are highest for copper-water nanofluid compared to the alumina-water and titania-water nanofluids.
Structure of relaminarizing turbulent boundary layers
Ramesh, O.; Patwardhan, Saurabh
2014-11-01
Relaminarization of a turbulent boundary layer in a strongly accelerated flow has received a great attention in recent times. It has been found that such relaminarization is a general and regularly occurring phenomenon in the leading-edge region of a swept wing of an airplane (van Dam et al., 1993). In this work, we investigate the effect of initial Reynolds number on the process of relaminarization in turbulent boundary layers. The experimental and numerical investigation of relaminarizing turbulent boundary layers undergoing same history reveals that the boundary layer with higher initial Reynolds number relaminarizes at a lower pressure gradient value compared to the one with lower Reynolds number. This effect can be explained on the inviscid theory proposed earlier in the literature. Further, various parameter criteria proposed to predict relaminarization, are assessed and the structure of relaminarizing boundary layers is investigated. A mechanism for stabilization of near-wall low speed streaks is proposed.
THERMAL BOUNDARY LAYER IN CFB BOILER RISER
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jinwei; Wang; Xinmu; Zhao; Yu; Wang; Xing; Xing; Jiansheng; Zhang; Guangxi; Yue
2006-01-01
Measurement of temperature profiles of gas-solid two-phase flow at different heights in commercial-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers was carried out. Experimental results showed that the thickness of thermal boundary layer was generally independent of the distance from the air distributor, except when close to the riser outlet. Through analysis of flow and combustion characteristics in the riser, it was found that the main reasons for the phenomena were: 1) the hydrodynamic boundary layer was thinner than the thermal layer and hardly changed along the CFB boiler height, and 2) both radial and axial mass and heat exchanges were strong in the CFB boiler. Numerical simulation of gas flow in the outlet zone confirmed that the distribution of the thermal boundary layer was dominated by the flow field characteristics.
Costigliola, V.
2010-09-01
It has long been known that specific atmospheric processes, such as weather and longer-term climatic fluctuations, affect human health. The biometeorological literature refers to this relationship as meteorotropism, defined as a change in an organism that is correlated with a change in atmospheric conditions. Plenty of (patho)physiological functions are affected by those conditions - like the respiratory diseases - and currently it is difficult to put any limits for pathologies developed in reply. Nowadays the importance of atmospheric boundary layer and health is increasingly recognised. A number of epidemiologic studies have reported associations between ambient concentrations of air pollution, specifically particulate pollution, and adverse health effects, even at the relatively low concentrations of pollution found. Since 1995 there have been over twenty-one studies from four continents that have explicitly examined the association between ambient air pollutant mixes and daily mortality. Statistically significant and positive associations have been reported in data from various locations around the world, all with varying air pollutant concentrations, weather conditions, population characteristics and public health policies. Particular role has been given to atmospheric boundary layer processes, the impact of which for specific patient-cohort is, however, not well understood till now. Assessing and monitoring air quality are thus fundamental to improve Europe's welfare. One of current projects run by the "European Medical Association" - PASODOBLE will develop and demonstrate user-driven downstream information services for the regional and local air quality sectors by combining space-based and in-situ data with models in 4 thematic service lines: - Health community support for hospitals, pharmacies, doctors and people at risk - Public information for regions, cities, tourist industry and sporting event organizers - Compliance monitoring support on particulate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khairy Zaimi
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The steady two-dimensional boundary layer flow of a nanofluid over a shrinking sheet with thermal radiation and suction effects is studied. The resulting system of ordinary differential equations is solved numerically using a shooting method for three different types of nanoparticles, namely, copper (Cu, alumina (Al2O3, and titania (TiO2. The results obtained for the velocity and temperature profiles as well as the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number for some values of the governing parameters, namely, the nanoparticle volume fraction, shrinking, suction, and viscous dissipation parameters, are discussed. The numerical results show that dual solutions exist in a certain range of suction parameter.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Waqar A Khan
Full Text Available In this study, the steady forced convection flow and heat transfer due to an impermeable stretching surface in a porous medium saturated with a nanofluid are investigated numerically. The Brinkman-Forchheimer model is used for the momentum equations (porous medium, whereas, Bongiorno's model is used for the nanofluid. Uniform temperature and nanofluid volume fraction are assumed at the surface. The boundary layer equations are transformed to ordinary differential equations in terms of the governing parameters including Prandtl and Lewis numbers, viscosity ratio, porous medium, Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameters. Numerical results for the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles, as well as for the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are obtained and presented graphically.
Bakar, Nor Ashikin Abu; Bachok, Norfifah; Arifin, Norihan Md.
2016-06-01
The study of the steady two dimensional boundary layer flow of a copper (Cu)-water nanofluid on a moving plate is investigated. The assumption is the plate moves in the same or opposite direction to the free stream. The nonlinear partial differential equations are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equations using a similarity variables,then a shooting technique is used to solved it numerically. The numerical results for skin friction coefficient, the local Nusselt number, the local Sherwood number as well as the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are obtained. The effect of nanoparticle volume fraction, Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameters on heat transfer are examined. The results show that the local Nusselt number and the local Sherwood number increase with increasing in the Brownian motion parameter Nb and thermophoresis parameter Nt.
Hall Effect on Falkner—Skan Boundary Layer Flow of FENE-P Fluid over a Stretching Sheet
Maqbool, Khadija; Sohail, Ayesha; Manzoor, Naeema; Ellahi, Rahmat
2016-11-01
The Falkner—Skan boundary layer steady flow over a flat stretching sheet is investigated in this paper. The mathematical model consists of continuity and the momentum equations, while a new model is proposed for MHD Finitely Extensible Nonlinear Elastic Peterlin (FENE-P) fluid. The effects of Hall current with the variation of intensity of non-zero pressure gradient are taken into account. The governing partial differential equations are first transformed to ordinary differential equations using appropriate similarity transformation and then solved by Adomian decomposition method (ADM). The obtained results are validated by generalized collocation method (GCM) and found to be in good agreement. Effects of pertinent parameters are discussed through graphs and tables. Comparison with the existing studies is made as a limiting case of the considered problem at the end.
Cheng, Wai Chi; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2014-05-01
Accurate prediction of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow and its interaction with urban surfaces is critical for understanding the transport of momentum and scalars within and above cities. This, in turn, is essential for predicting the local climate and pollutant dispersion patterns in urban areas. Large-eddy simulation (LES) explicitly resolves the large-scale turbulent eddy motions and, therefore, can potentially provide improved understanding and prediction of flows inside and above urban canopies. This study focuses on the validation and the use of a recently-developed LES framework to simulate a turbulent boundary layer flow through idealized urban canopies represented by uniform arrays of cubes. The LES framework is first validated with wind tunnel experimental data. Good agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data are found in the vertical and spanwise profiles of mean velocities and velocity standard deviations at different streamwise locations. Next, the model is used to simulate ABL flows over surface transitions from a flat homogeneous terrain to aligned and staggered arrays of cubes with height h. For both configurations, five different frontal area densities (Λf), equal to 0.028, 0.063, 0.111, 0.174 and 0.250, are considered. Within the arrays, the flow is found to adjust quickly and shows similar structure of the wake of the cubes after the second row. Above the arrays, an internal boundary layer (IBL) is identified. No significant difference in the depth of the IBL among different cases is observed. The drag exerted by the cubes on the flow (Df) and the drag coefficients of the cubes (Cd) are calculated explicitly using the LES results. For the downstream cubes, Df is found to increases with decreasing density for both configurations, and larger values of Cd are found for the cubes of staggered arrays than those of the aligned arrays with the same Λf. At a downstream location where the flow immediately above the cube
Calantoni, Joseph; Holland, K Todd; Drake, Thomas G
2004-09-15
Sediment transport in oscillatory boundary layers is a process that drives coastal geomorphological change. Most formulae for bed-load transport in nearshore regions subsume the smallest-scale physics of the phenomena by parametrizing interactions amongst particles. In contrast, we directly simulate granular physics in the wave-bottom boundary layer using a discrete-element model comprised of a three-dimensional particle phase coupled to a one-dimensional fluid phase via Newton's third law through forces of buoyancy, drag and added mass. The particulate sediment phase is modelled using discrete particles formed to approximate natural grains by overlapping two spheres. Both the size of each sphere and the degree of overlap can be varied for these composite particles to generate a range of non-spherical grains. Simulations of particles having a range of shapes showed that the critical angle--the angle at which a grain pile will fail when tilted slowly from rest--increases from approximately 26 degrees for spherical particles to nearly 39 degrees for highly non-spherical composite particles having a dumbbell shape. Simulations of oscillatory sheet flow were conducted using composite particles with an angle of repose of approximately 33 degrees and a Corey shape factor greater than about 0.8, similar to the properties of beach sand. The results from the sheet-flow simulations with composite particles agreed more closely with laboratory measurements than similar simulations conducted using spherical particles. The findings suggest that particle shape may be an important factor for determining bed-load flux, particularly for larger bed slopes.
Human convective boundary layer and its interaction with room ventilation flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Licina, Dusan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Sekhar, Chandra;
2015-01-01
of an average person. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) andpseudocolor visualization (PCV) are applied to identify the flow around themanikin’s body. The findings show that the direction and magnitude ofthe surrounding airflows considerably influence the airflow distribution aroundthe human body. Downward flow...
Modeling hypersonic boundary-layer flows with second-moment closure
Huang, P. George
1991-01-01
An ongoing research effort designed to apply the best possible second-moment-closure model to simulate complex hypersonic flows is presented. The baseline model under consideration is the Launder-Reece-Rodi Reynolds stress transport turbulence model. Two add-ons accounting for wall effects, namely, the Launder-Shima low-Reynolds-number model and the compressible wall-function technique, are tested. Results are reported for flow over a flat plate, both adiabatic-wall and cooled-wall cases. It has been found that further improvements of the existing models are necessary to achieve accurate prediction in high Mach number flow range.
Hurricane Boundary-Layer Theory
2010-01-01
2501. Kundu PK. 1990. Fluid Mechanics . Academic Press: San Diego, USA. Kuo HL. 1982. Vortex boundary layer under quadratic surface stress. Boundary...identification of two mechanisms for the spin-up of the mean tangential circulation of a hurricane. The first involves convergence of absolute angular...momentum above the boundary layer, where this quantity is approximately conserved. This mechanism acts to spin up the outer circulation at radii
Self-similar magnetohydrodynamic boundary layers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nunez, Manuel; Lastra, Alberto, E-mail: mnjmhd@am.uva.e [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)
2010-10-15
The boundary layer created by parallel flow in a magnetized fluid of high conductivity is considered in this paper. Under appropriate boundary conditions, self-similar solutions analogous to the ones studied by Blasius for the hydrodynamic problem may be found. It is proved that for these to be stable, the size of the Alfven velocity at the outer flow must be smaller than the flow velocity, a fact that has a ready physical explanation. The process by which the transverse velocity and the thickness of the layer grow with the size of the Alfven velocity is detailed.
DSMC simulations of leading edge flat-plate boundary layer flows at high Mach number
Pradhan, Sahadev, , Dr.
2017-01-01
The flow over a 2D leading-edge flat plate is studied at Mach number Ma = (Uinf /√{kBTinf / m }) in the range Boltzmann constant. The variation of streamwise velocity, temperature, number-density, and mean free path along the wall normal direction away from the plate surface is studied. The qualitative nature of the streamwise velocity at high Mach number is similar to those in the incompressible limit (parabolic profile). However, there are important differences. The amplitudes of the streamwise velocity increase as the Mach number increases and turned into a more flatter profile near the wall. There is significant velocity and temperature slip at the surface of the plate, and the slip increases as the Mach number is increased. It is interesting to note that for the highest Mach numbers considered here, the streamwise velocity at the wall exceeds the sound speed, and the flow is supersonic throughout the flow domain.
Melting heat transfer in boundary layer stagnation-point flow towards a stretching/shrinking sheet
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bachok, Norfifah [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ishak, Anuar [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Pop, Ioan, E-mail: popm.ioan@yahoo.co.u [Faculty of Mathematics, University of Cluj, CP 253 (Romania)
2010-09-06
An analysis is carried out to study the steady two-dimensional stagnation-point flow and heat transfer from a warm, laminar liquid flow to a melting stretching/shrinking sheet. The governing partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential equations by similarity transformation, before being solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method. Results for the skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number, velocity profiles as well as temperature profiles are presented for different values of the governing parameters. Effects of the melting parameter, stretching/shrinking parameter and Prandtl number on the flow and heat transfer characteristics are thoroughly examined. Different from a stretching sheet, it is found that the solutions for a shrinking sheet are non-unique.
Self-sustained Flow-acoustic Interactions in Airfoil Transitional Boundary Layers
2015-07-09
all tested airfoils multiple tones were observed. Tracking the dominant tone at increasing flow speed produces the so-called ladder-type tonal...anecho c w nd tunne of Eco e Centra e de Lyon. Measurements of wa pressure, far- f e d acoust c pressure and ve oc ty f uctuat ons us ng the hot-w re
An interactive boundary layer modeling methodology for aerodynamic flows[Presentation
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Smith, L
2011-11-01
Full Text Available The authors propose to develop a new method to couple Drela’s twointegral equations with a generic outer flow solver in an iterative fashion. They introduce an auxiliary equation which is solved along with the displacement thickness to overcome...
Micropolar boundary layer flow at a stagnation point on a moving wall with suction and injection
Hassanien, I. A.; Hady, F. M.
1988-10-01
The flow of a micropolar fluid at a two-dimensional stagnation point on a moving wall with suction and injection is studied. Numerical computations were carried out on a VME-2955 computer. The effects of the suction/injection parameter and dimensionless material parameters are discussed.
Lubricating grease shear flow and boundary layers in a concentric cylinder configuration
Li, J.X.; Westerberg, L.G.; Höglund, E.; Lugt, P.M.; Baart, P.
2014-01-01
Grease is extensively used to lubricate various machine elements such as rolling bearings, seals, and gears. Understanding the flow dynamics of grease is relevant for the prediction of grease distribution for optimum lubrication and for the migration of wear and contaminant particles. In this study,
Lubricating grease shear flow and boundary layers in a concentric cylinder configuration
Li, J.X.; Westerberg, L.G.; Höglund, E.; Lugt, Pieter Martin; Baart, P.
2014-01-01
Grease is extensively used to lubricate various machine elements such as rolling bearings, seals, and gears. Understanding the flow dynamics of grease is relevant for the prediction of grease distribution for optimum lubrication and for the migration of wear and contaminant particles. In this study,
Effect of Catch Cup Geometry on 3D Boundary Layer Flow over the Wafer Surface in a Spin Coating
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Mizue MUNEKATA; Seiichi KIMURA; Hiroaki KURISHIMA; Jinsuke TANAKA; Sohei YAMAMOTO; Hiroyuki YOSHIKAWA; Kazuyoshi MATSUZAKI; Hideki OHBA
2008-01-01
Recently, development of high technology has been required for the formation of thin uniform fdm in manufacturing processes of semiconductor as the semiconductor instruments become more sophisticated. Spin coating is usually used for spreading photoresist on a wafer surface. However, since rotating speed of the disk is very high in spin coating, the dropped photoresist scatters outward and reattaches on the film surface. A catch cup is set up outside the wafer in spin coating, and scattered photoresist mist is removed from the wafer edge by the exhaust flow generated at the gap between the wafer edge and the catch cup. In the dry process of a spin coating, it is a serious concern that the film thickness increases near the wafer edge in the case of low rotating speed. The purpose of this study is to make clear the effect of the catch cup geometry on the 3D boundary layer flow over the wafer surface and the drying rate of liquid film.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raju CSK
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this study we analyzed the momentum and heat transfer characteristics of MHD boundary layer flow over an exponentially stretching surface in porous medium in the presence of radiation, non-uniform heat source/sink, external pressure and suction/injection. Dual solutions are presented for both suction and injection cases. The heat transfer analysis is carried out for both prescribed surface temperature (PST and prescribed heat flux (PHF cases. The governing equations of the flow are transformed into system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformation and solved numerically using bvp4c Matlab package. The impact of various non-dimensional governing parameters on velocity, temperature profiles for both PST and PHF cases, friction factor and rate of heat transfer is discussed and presented with the help of graphs and tables. Results indicate that dual solutions exist only for certain range of suction or injection parameters. It is also observed that the exponential parameter have tendency to increase the heat transfer rate for both PST and PHF cases.
An experimental study of the edge effect on transition of the rotating-disk boundary-layer flow
Imayama, Shintaro; Lingwood, R. J.; Alfredsson, P. Henrik
2011-11-01
Lingwood [J. Fluid Mech., 299, 17 (1995)] showed that the flow instability in the rotating-disk boundary layer is not only of convective nature but also that the flow becomes absolutely unstable. Furthermore, in the absence of bypass mechanisms, the absolute instability triggers nonlinearity and transition to turbulence at a fixed Reynolds number (Re). Healey [J. Fluid Mech., 663, 148 (2010)] suggested that the observed spread (albeit small) in transition Re in different experiments is an effect of the Re at the disk edge and provided a nonlinear model to take this effect into account. Here, we further investigate this problem experimentally with hot-wire measurements on a rotating polished glass disk with a diameter of 474 mm and a total imbalance and surface roughness less than 10 μm. To investigate the influence of the disk edge, we vary Re at the disk edge by changing the rotational speed and map the development of the disturbance velocity in the radial direction. Furthermore, the effect of a stationary annular plate around the edge of the rotating disk is also investigated. Our experiments show no effect of the disk edge Re on the stability and transition, however there was a shift of both the growth curve and the transition Re by about 10 units with and without the outer stationary plate, with the lower Re observed with the plate.
Unsteady three-dimensional boundary layer flow due to a permeable shrinking sheet
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
N.BACHOK; A.ISHAK; I.POP
2010-01-01
The unsteady viscous flow over a continuously permeable shrinking surface is studied.Similarity equations are obtained through the application of similar transformation techniques.Numerical techniques are used to solve the similarity equations for different values of the unsteadiness parameter,the mass suction parameter,the shrinking parameter and the Prandtl number on the velocity and temperature profiles as well as the skin friction coefficient and the Nusselt number.It is found that,different from an unsteady stretching sheet,dual solutions exist in a certain range of mass suction and unsteadiness parameters.
Boundary layers in stochastic thermodynamics.
Aurell, Erik; Mejía-Monasterio, Carlos; Muratore-Ginanneschi, Paolo
2012-02-01
We study the problem of optimizing released heat or dissipated work in stochastic thermodynamics. In the overdamped limit these functionals have singular solutions, previously interpreted as protocol jumps. We show that a regularization, penalizing a properly defined acceleration, changes the jumps into boundary layers of finite width. We show that in the limit of vanishing boundary layer width no heat is dissipated in the boundary layer, while work can be done. We further give an alternative interpretation of the fact that the optimal protocols in the overdamped limit are given by optimal deterministic transport (Burgers equation).
Numerical Investigation on Two-dimensional Boundary Layer Flow with Transition
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yong Zhao; Tianlin Wang; Zhi Zong
2014-01-01
As a basic problem in many engineering applications, transition from laminar to turbulence still remains a difficult problem in computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A numerical study of one transitional flow in two-dimensional is conducted by Reynolds averaged numerical simulation (RANS) in this paper. Turbulence model plays a significant role in the complex flows’ simulation, and four advanced turbulence models are evaluated. Numerical solution of frictional resistance coefficient is compared with the measured one in the transitional zone, which indicates that Wilcox (2006) k-ω model with correction is the best candidate. Comparisons of numerical and analytical solutions for dimensionless velocity show that averaged streamwise dimensionless velocity profiles correct the shape rapidly in transitional region. Furthermore, turbulence quantities such as turbulence kinetic energy, eddy viscosity, and Reynolds stress are also studied, which are helpful to learn the transition’s behavior.
Zhang, Wei; Markfort, Corey; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2014-11-01
Turbulent flows over complex surface topography have been of great interest in the atmospheric science and wind engineering communities. The geometry of the topography, surface roughness and temperature characteristics as well as the atmospheric thermal stability play important roles in determining momentum and scalar flux distribution. Studies of turbulent flow over simplified topography models, under neutrally stratified boundary-layer conditions, have provided insights into fluid dynamics. However, atmospheric thermal stability has rarely been considered in laboratory experiments, e.g., wind-tunnel experiments. Series of wind-tunnel experiments of thermally-stratified boundary-layer flow over a surface-mounted 2-D block, in a well-controlled boundary-layer wind tunnel, will be presented. Measurements using high-resolution PIV, x-wire/cold-wire anemometry and surface heat flux sensors were conducted to quantify the turbulent flow properties, including the size of the recirculation zone, coherent vortex structures and the subsequent boundary layer recovery. Results will be shown to address thermal stability effects on momentum and scalar flux distribution in the wake, as well as dominant mechanism of turbulent kinetic energy generation and consumption. The authors gratefully acknowledge funding from the Swiss National Foundation (Grant 200021-132122), the National Science Foundation (Grant ATM-0854766) and NASA (Grant NNG06GE256).
Evolutions of hairpin vortexes over a superhydrophobic surface in turbulent boundary layer flow
Zhang, Jingxian; Tian, Haiping; Yao, Zhaohui; Hao, Pengfei; Jiang, Nan
2016-09-01
Turbulent flows over a superhydrophobic surface and a smooth surface have been measured and studied by particle image velocimetry technology at Reθ = 990. The Reynolds shear stress distributions over the two surfaces are significantly different. Specifically, for the superhydrophobic surface, the Reynolds shear stress is suppressed in the near-wall region (y/δ curve. Evolutions of hairpin vortexes are analyzed to interpret differences in the Reynolds shear stress, based on some comparisons in the low-speed streaks and Q2/Q4 (ejection/sweep) events. The results show that, in the near wall region, the turbulent coherent structures (low-speed streaks and hairpin vortex) over the superhydrophobic surface are more stable and flat, due to the suppression in the strength and the lifting effect of the hairpin vortex. In the outer region, the superhydrophobic surface lifts the hairpin vortex away from the wall with a value of 0.14δ in our experiment, which makes the Q4 events occur further from the wall and contribute less to skin friction.
A Coordinate Transformation for Unsteady Boundary Layer Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paul G. A. CIZMAS
2011-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new coordinate transformation for unsteady, incompressible boundary layer equations that applies to both laminar and turbulent flows. A generalization of this coordinate transformation is also proposed. The unsteady boundary layer equations are subsequently derived. In addition, the boundary layer equations are derived using a time linearization approach and assuming harmonically varying small disturbances.
Global stability analysis of axisymmetric boundary layers
Vinod, N
2016-01-01
This paper presents the linear global stability analysis of the incompressible axisymmetric boundary layer on a circular cylinder. The base flow is parallel to the axis of the cylinder at inlet. The pressure gradient is zero in the streamwise direction. The base flow velocity profile is fully non-parallel and non-similar in nature. The boundary layer grows continuously in the spatial directions. Linearized Navier-Stokes(LNS) equations are derived for the disturbance flow quantities in the cylindrical polar coordinates. The LNS equations along with homogeneous boundary conditions forms a generalized eigenvalues problem. Since the base flow is axisymmetric, the disturbances are periodic in azimuthal direction. Chebyshev spectral collocation method and Arnoldi's iterative algorithm is used for the solution of the general eigenvalues problem. The global temporal modes are computed for the range of Reynolds numbers and different azimuthal wave numbers. The largest imaginary part of the computed eigenmodes are nega...
Experimental studies on transitional separated boundary layers
Serna Serrano, José
2013-01-01
Separated transitional boundary layers appear on key aeronautical processes such as the flow around wings or turbomachinery blades. The aim of this thesis is the study of these flows in representative scenarios of technological applications, gaining knowledge about phenomenology and physical processes that occur there and, developing a simple model for scaling them. To achieve this goal, experimental measurements have been carried out in a low speed facility, ensuring the flow homogeneity and...
Hamilton, H. Harris, II; Millman, Daniel R.; Greendyke, Robert B.
1992-01-01
A computer code was developed that uses an implicit finite-difference technique to solve nonsimilar, axisymmetric boundary layer equations for both laminar and turbulent flow. The code can treat ideal gases, air in chemical equilibrium, and carbon tetrafluoride (CF4), which is a useful gas for hypersonic blunt-body simulations. This is the only known boundary layer code that can treat CF4. Comparisons with experimental data have demonstrated that accurate solutions are obtained. The method should prove useful as an analysis tool for comparing calculations with wind tunnel experiments and for making calculations about flight vehicles where equilibrium air chemistry assumptions are valid.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hajmohammadi Mohammad R.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper documents two reliable methods to cope with the rising temperature in an array of heated segments with a known overall heat load and exposed to forced convective boundary layer flow. Minimization of the hot spots (peak temperatures in the array of heated segments constitutes the primary goal that sets the platform to develop the methods. The two proposed methods consist of: 1 Designing an array of unequal heaters so that each heater has a different size and generates heat at different rates, and 2 Distancing the unequal heaters from each other using an insulated spacing. Multi-scale design based on constructal theory is applied to estimate the optimal insulated spacing, heaters size and heat generation rates, such that the minimum hot spots temperature is achieved when subject to space constraint and fixed overall heat load. It is demonstrated that the two methods can considerably reduce the hot spot temperatures and consequently, both can be utilized with confidence in industry to achieve optimized heat transfer.
Yang, X I A; Meneveau, C
2017-04-13
In recent years, there has been growing interest in large-eddy simulation (LES) modelling of atmospheric boundary layers interacting with arrays of wind turbines on complex terrain. However, such terrain typically contains geometric features and roughness elements reaching down to small scales that typically cannot be resolved numerically. Thus subgrid-scale models for the unresolved features of the bottom roughness are needed for LES. Such knowledge is also required to model the effects of the ground surface 'underneath' a wind farm. Here we adapt a dynamic approach to determine subgrid-scale roughness parametrizations and apply it for the case of rough surfaces composed of cuboidal elements with broad size distributions, containing many scales. We first investigate the flow response to ground roughness of a few scales. LES with the dynamic roughness model which accounts for the drag of unresolved roughness is shown to provide resolution-independent results for the mean velocity distribution. Moreover, we develop an analytical roughness model that accounts for the sheltering effects of large-scale on small-scale roughness elements. Taking into account the shading effect, constraints from fundamental conservation laws, and assumptions of geometric self-similarity, the analytical roughness model is shown to provide analytical predictions that agree well with roughness parameters determined from LES.This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'.
Alpha models and boundary-layer turbulence
Cheskidov, Alexey
We study boundary-layer turbulence using the Navier-Stokes-alpha model obtaining an extension of the Prandtl equations for the averaged flow in a turbulent boundary layer. In the case of a zero pressure gradient flow along a flat plate, we derive a nonlinear fifth-order ordinary differential equation, an extension of the Blasius equation. We study it analytically and prove the existence of a two-parameter family of solutions satisfying physical boundary conditions. From this equation we obtain a theoretical prediction of the skin-friction coefficient in a wide range of Reynolds numbers based on momentum thickness, and deduce the maximal value of the skin-friction coefficient in the turbulent boundary layer. The two-parameter family of solutions to the equation matches experimental data in the transitional boundary layers with different free stream turbulence intensity. A one-parameter sub-family of solutions, obtained using our skin-friction coefficient law, matches experimental data in the turbulent boundary layer for moderately large Reynolds numbers.
Ramachandra Prasad, V.; Gaffar, S. Abdul; Keshava Reddy, E.; Bég, O. Anwar
2014-07-01
Polymeric enrobing flows are important in industrial manufacturing technology and process systems. Such flows are non-Newtonian. Motivated by such applications, in this article we investigate the nonlinear steady state boundary layer flow, heat, and mass transfer of an incompressible Jefferys non-Newtonian fluid past a vertical porous plate in a non-Darcy porous medium. The transformed conservation equations are solved numerically subject to physically appropriate boundary conditions using a versatile, implicit, Keller-box finite-difference technique. The numerical code is validated with previous studies. The influence of a number of emerging non-dimensional parameters, namely Deborah number (De), Darcy number (Da), Prandtl number (Pr), ratio of relaxation to retardation times (λ), Schmidt number (Sc), Forchheimer parameter (Λ), and dimensionless tangential coordinate (ξ) on velocity, temperature, and concentration evolution in the boundary layer regime are examined in detail. Furthermore, the effects of these parameters on surface heat transfer rate, mass transfer rate, and local skin friction are also investigated. It is found that the boundary layer flow is decelerated with increasing De and Forchheimer parameter, whereas temperature and concentration are elevated. Increasing λ and Da enhances the velocity but reduces the temperature and concentration. The heat transfer rate and mass transfer rates are found to be depressed with increasing De and enhanced with increasing λ. Local skin friction is found to be decreased with a rise in De, whereas it is elevated with increasing λ. An increasing Sc decreases the velocity and concentration but increases temperature.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hossein Tamim
2013-07-01
Full Text Available In this study, the steady laminar mixed convection boundary layer flow of a nanofluid near the stagnation-point on a vertical plate with prescribed surface temperature is investigated. Here, both assisting and opposing flows are considered and studied. Using appropriate transformations, the system of partial differential equations is transformed into an ordinary differential system of two equations, which is solved numerically by shooting method, coupled with Runge-Kutta scheme. Three different types of nanoparticles, namely copper Cu, alumina Al2O3 and titania TiO2 with water as the base fluid are considered. Numerical results are obtained for the skin-friction coefficient and Nusselt number as well as for the velocity and temperature profiles for some values of the governing parameters, namely, the nanoparticle volume fraction parameter &Phiand mixed convection parameter &lambda It is found that the highest rate of heat transfer occurs in the mixed convection with assisting flow while the lowest one occurs in the mixed convection with opposing flow. Moreover, the skin friction coefficient and the heat transfer rate at the surface are highest for copper–water nanofluid compared to the alumina–water and titania–water nanofluids.
Allan, Brian G.; Owens, Lewis R., Jr.; Lin, John C.
2006-01-01
This research will investigate the use of Design-of-Experiments (DOE) in the development of an optimal passive flow control vane design for a boundary-layer-ingesting (BLI) offset inlet in transonic flow. This inlet flow control is designed to minimize the engine fan face distortion levels and first five Fourier harmonic half amplitudes while maximizing the inlet pressure recovery. Numerical simulations of the BLI inlet are computed using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) flow solver, OVERFLOW, developed at NASA. These simulations are used to generate the numerical experiments for the DOE response surface model. In this investigation, two DOE optimizations were performed using a D-Optimal Response Surface model. The first DOE optimization was performed using four design factors which were vane height and angles-of-attack for two groups of vanes. One group of vanes was placed at the bottom of the inlet and a second group symmetrically on the sides. The DOE design was performed for a BLI inlet with a free-stream Mach number of 0.85 and a Reynolds number of 2 million, based on the length of the fan face diameter, matching an experimental wind tunnel BLI inlet test. The first DOE optimization required a fifth order model having 173 numerical simulation experiments and was able to reduce the DC60 baseline distortion from 64% down to 4.4%, while holding the pressure recovery constant. A second DOE optimization was performed holding the vanes heights at a constant value from the first DOE optimization with the two vane angles-of-attack as design factors. This DOE only required a second order model fit with 15 numerical simulation experiments and reduced DC60 to 3.5% with small decreases in the fourth and fifth harmonic amplitudes. The second optimal vane design was tested at the NASA Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel in a BLI inlet experiment. The experimental results showed a 80% reduction of DPCPavg, the circumferential distortion level at the engine
Stability of separating subsonic boundary layers
Masad, Jamal A.; Nayfeh, Ali H.
1994-01-01
The primary and subharmonic instabilities of separating compressible subsonic two-dimensional boundary layers in the presence of a two-dimensional roughness element on a flat plate are investigated. The roughness elements considered are humps and forward- and backward-facing steps. The use of cooling and suction to control these instabilities is studied. The similarities and differences between the instability characteristics of separating boundary layers and those of the boundary layer over a flat plate with a zero pressure gradient are pointed out and discussed. The theoretical results agree qualitatively and quantitatively with the experimental data of Dovgal and Kozlov. Cooling and suction decrease the growth rates of primary and subharmonic waves in the attached-flow regions but increase them in the separated-flow regions.
Thermocouple Boundary Layer Rake
Hwang, Danny P. (Inventor); Will, Herbert A. (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave C. (Inventor)
2002-01-01
Apparatus and method for providing a velocity flow profile near a reference surface. A measuring device utilizes a plurality of thermojunction pairs to provide the velocity flow profile in accordance with behavior of a gas relative to a constant thickness strut which stands vertically from the reference surface such that the span is normal to the surface, and the chord is parallel to the surface along the initial flow direction. Each thermojunction is carried on either side of a heater formed on a measuring surface in a constant thickness portion of a strut. Additionally, each thermojunction of a given pair is located at a predetermined height from the reference surface. Gas velocity data obtained from temperature differentials from one side of the heater to the other at each successive height is utilized to generate the velocity and turbulence level profiles.
Vadyak, J.; Hoffman, J. D.
1982-01-01
A computer program was developed which is capable of calculating the flow field in the supersonic portion of a mixed compression aircraft inlet operating at angle of attack. The supersonic core flow is computed using a second-order three dimensional method-of-characteristics algorithm. The bow shock and the internal shock train are treated discretely using a three dimensional shock fitting procedure. The boundary layer flows are computed using a second-order implicit finite difference method. The shock wave-boundary layer interaction is computed using an integral formulation. The general structure of the computer program is discussed, and a brief description of each subroutine is given. All program input parameters are defined, and a brief discussion on interpretation of the output is provided. A number of sample cases, complete with data listings, are provided.
Boundary layer control for airships
Pake, F. A.; Pipitone, S. J.
1975-01-01
An investigation is summarized of the aerodynamic principle of boundary layer control for nonrigid LTA craft. The project included a wind tunnel test on a BLC body of revolution at zero angle of attack. Theoretical analysis is shown to be in excellent agreement with the test data. Methods are evolved for predicting the boundary layer development on a body of revolution and the suction pumping and propulsive power requirements. These methods are used to predict the performance characteristics of a full-scale airship. The analysis indicates that propulsive power reductions of 15 to 25 percent and endurance improvements of 20 to 40 percent may be realized in employing boundary-layer control to nonrigid airships.
The aqueous thermal boundary layer
Katsaros, Kristina B.
1980-02-01
This article reviews the available data, measurement techniques, and present understanding of the millimeter thick aqueous thermal boundary layer. A temperature difference between the surface and lower strata, δT, of the order of a few tenths to -1 °C have been observed. Techniques ranging from miniature mercury thermometers and electrical point sensors to optical interferometry and infrared radiometry have been employed. Many processes influence the temperature structure in this thin boundary layer. Among them are: the net upward heat flux due to evaporation and sensible heat transfer; infrared and solar radiation; and the turbulence near the interface due to wind mixing, wave breaking and current shear. Presence of solute and surface-active materials stimulate or dampen these mixing processes thereby influencing boundary-layer thickness and temperature structure.
Wang, C. R.; Hingst, W. R.; Porro, A. R.
1991-01-01
The properties of 2-D shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction flows were calculated by using a compressible turbulent Navier-Stokes numerical computational code. Interaction flows caused by oblique shock wave impingement on the turbulent boundary layer flow were considered. The oblique shock waves were induced with shock generators at angles of attack less than 10 degs in supersonic flows. The surface temperatures were kept at near-adiabatic (ratio of wall static temperature to free stream total temperature) and cold wall (ratio of wall static temperature to free stream total temperature) conditions. The computational results were studied for the surface heat transfer, velocity temperature correlation, and turbulent shear stress in the interaction flow fields. Comparisons of the computational results with existing measurements indicated that (1) the surface heat transfer rates and surface pressures could be correlated with Holden's relationship, (2) the mean flow streamwise velocity components and static temperatures could be correlated with Crocco's relationship if flow separation did not occur, and (3) the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model should be modified for turbulent shear stress computations in the interaction flows.
Nonparallel stability of boundary layers
Nayfeh, Ali H.
1987-01-01
The asymptotic formulations of the nonparallel linear stability of incompressible growing boundary layers are critically reviewed. These formulations can be divided into two approaches. The first approach combines a numerical method with either the method of multiple scales, or the method of averaging, of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation; all these methods yield the same result. The second approach combined a multi-structure theory with the method of multiple scales. The first approach yields results that are in excellent agreement with all available experimental data, including the growth rates as well as the neutral stability curve. The derivation of the linear stability of the incompressible growing boundary layers is explained.
2014-09-26
fit to the turbulence data discussed in Section B .2 and the analytical expression for the mean shear discussed in Section B .2. A cubic spline fit to the...functions) interpolation schemes. The inner integral in Eqs. 16 and 17 is evaluated using Simpson’s rule. B . Turbulent Boundary Layer Data 1. Data Sources...the data points. Once such a curve has been defined, the data can be interpolated at any location between measurement points. Spline interpolation is
Samyuktha, N.; Ravindran, R.; Ganapathirao, M.
2017-01-01
An analysis is performed to study the effects of the chemical reaction and heat generation or absorption on a steady mixed convection boundary layer flow over a vertical stretching sheet with nonuniform slot mass transfer. The governing boundary layer equations with boundary conditions are transformed into the dimensionless form by a group of nonsimilar transformations. Nonsimilar solutions are obtained numerically by solving the coupled nonlinear partial differential equations using the quasi-linearization technique combined with an implicit finite difference scheme. The numerical computations are carried out for different values of dimensionless parameters to display the distributions of the velocity, temperature, concentration, local skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number, and local Sherwood number. The results obtained indicate that the local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers increase with nonuniform slot suction, but nonuniform slot injection produces the opposite effect. The local Nusselt number decreases with heat generation and increases with heat absorption.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. M. Rashidi
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, a steady, incompressible, and laminar-free convective flow of a two-dimensional electrically conducting viscoelastic fluid over a moving stretching surface through a porous medium is considered. The boundary-layer equations are derived by considering Boussinesq and boundary-layer approximations. The nonlinear ordinary differential equations for the momentum and energy equations are obtained and solved analytically by using homotopy analysis method (HAM with two auxiliary parameters for two classes of visco-elastic fluid (Walters’ liquid B and second-grade fluid. It is clear that by the use of second auxiliary parameter, the straight line region in ℏ-curve increases and the convergence accelerates. This research is performed by considering two different boundary conditions: (a prescribed surface temperature (PST and (b prescribed heat flux (PHF. The effect of involved parameters on velocity and temperature is investigated.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
JHANKAL ANUJ
2015-01-01
Full Text Available MHD boundary layer flow near stagnation point of linear stretching sheet with variable thermal conductivity are solved using He’s Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM, which is one of the semi-exact method. Similarity transformation has been used to reduce the governing differential equations into an ordinary non-linear differential equation. The main advantage of HPM is that it does not require the small parameter in the equations and hence the limitations of traditional perturbations can be eliminated. In this paper firstly, the basic idea of the HPM for solving nonlinear differential equations is briefly introduced and then it is employed to derive solution of nonlinear governing equations of MHD boundary layer flow with nonlinear term. The influence of various relevant physical characteristics are presented and discussed.
Boundary layer physics over snow and ice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. S. Anderson
2007-06-01
Full Text Available A general understanding of the physics of advection and turbulent mixing within the near surface atmosphere assists the interpretation and predictive power of air chemistry theory. The theory of the physical processes involved in diffusion of trace gas reactants in the near surface atmosphere is still incomplete. Such boundary layer theory is least understood over snow and ice covered surfaces, due in part to the thermo-optical properties of the surface. Polar boundary layers have additional aspects to consider, due to the possibility of long periods without diurnal forcing and enhanced Coriolis effects.
This paper provides a review of present concepts in polar boundary layer meteorology, which will generally apply to atmospheric flow over snow and ice surfaces. It forms a companion paper to the chemistry review papers in this special issue of ACP.
the Martian atmospheric boundary layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petrosyan, A.; Galperin, B.; Larsen, Søren Ejling
2011-01-01
The planetary boundary layer (PBL) represents the part of the atmosphere that is strongly influenced by the presence of the underlying surface and mediates the key interactions between the atmosphere and the surface. On Mars, this represents the lowest 10 km of the atmosphere during the daytime...
收缩喷嘴中的湍流(I)——边界层解%Turbulent Flow in Converging Nozzles Part(Ⅰ)-Boundary Layer Solution
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
R·马达核安; B·法哈涅; B·费入扎巴迪; 吴承平
2011-01-01
应用边界层积分法,研究锥形喷嘴入口区域中湍动涡流的发展.球面坐标系中的控制方程,通过边界层的假定得到简化,并对边界层进行了积分.应用4阶Adams预测校正法求解该微分方程组.入口区域的切向和轴向速度,分别应用自由涡流和均匀速度分布来表示.由于缺乏收缩喷嘴中涡流的实验数据,需要用数值模拟对该发展模式进行逆向验证.数值模拟的结果证明,该解析模型在预测边界层参数中的能力,例如边界层的生长、剪切率和边界层厚度,以及不同锥度角时的涡流强度衰减率等.为所提出的方法引进一个简明而有效的程序,用以研究几何形状收缩设备内的边界层参数.%In this research the boundary layer integral method was used to investigate the development of turbulent swirling flow at the entrance region of a conical nozzle.The governing equations in the spherical coordinate system were simplified with the boundary layer assumptions and integrated through the boundary layer.The resulting sets of differential equations were then solved by the forth-order Adams predictor-corrector method.The free vortex and uniform velocity profiles were applied for tangential and axial velocities at the inlet region respectively.Due to the lack of experimental data for swirling flow in converging nozzles, the developed model was validated against the numerical simulations.The results of numerical simulations demonstrate the capability of the analytical model in predicting boundary layer parameters, such as boundary layer growth, shear rate and boundary layer thickness, as well as the swirl intensity decay rate for different cone angles.The proposed method introduces a simple and robust procedure in order to investigate the boundary layer parameters inside converging geometries.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ma Li
2014-04-01
Full Text Available It is of great significance to improve the accuracy of turbulence models in shock-wave/boundary layer interaction flow. The relationship between the pressure gradient, as well as the shear layer, and the development of turbulent kinetic energy in impinging shock-wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction flow at Mach 2.25 is analyzed based on the data of direct numerical simulation (DNS. It is found that the turbulent kinetic energy is amplified by strong shear in the separation zone and the adverse pressure gradient near the separation point. The pressure gradient was non-dimensionalised with local density, velocity, and viscosity. Spalart–Allmaras (S–A model is modified by introducing the non-dimensional pressure gradient into the production term of the eddy viscosity transportation equation. Simulation results show that the production and dissipation of eddy viscosity are strongly enhanced by the modification of S–A model. Compared with DNS and experimental data, the wall pressure and the wall skin friction coefficient as well as the velocity profile of the modified S–A model are obviously improved. Thus it can be concluded that the modification of S–A model with the pressure gradient can improve the predictive accuracy for simulating the shock-wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction.
Simulation of Wind turbines in the atmospheric boundary layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chivaee, Hamid Sarlak; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming
Large eddy simulation of an arbitrary wind farm is studied in the neutral and thermally stratified atmospheric boundary Layer. Large eddy simulations of industrial flows usually requires full resolution of the flow near the wall and this is believed to be one of the main deficiencies of LES because...... layer. In the current study, another approach has been implemented to simulate the flow in a fully developed wind farm boundary layer. The approach is based on Immersed Boundary Method and involves implementation of an arbitrary prescribed initial boundary layer. An initial boundary layer is enforced...... height and the flow development is seen based on the temperature variations and wind turbine wake generations and interactions of wakes occurs as soon as the wakes of the upwind turbine reach the downwind turbines. References: [1] U. Piomelli, Wall-layer models for large-eddy simulations, Progress...
Cyclone with boundary layer displacement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gorton-Huelgerth, A.; Hoffmann, D.; Staudinger, G. [Technische Universitaet Graz, Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik, Abt. fuer Apparatebau und Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik
1998-12-31
In a cyclone the boundary layers at the cover plate and outside of the vortex finder are considered to affect the separation efficiency of a cyclone. To improve separation efficiency, the boundary layers at and the space between vortex finder and cover plate were investigated. Two identical cyclones, 400 mm diameter and 990 mm long were manufactured with high precision from stainless steel. One was equipped with openings for insertion of velocity probes; the opening could be closed with glass windows to allow Laser Doppler Anemometry. The other cyclone was used for testing separation efficiency. Velocity measurements by both conventional pressure probes and Laser Doppler Anemometry revealed that only a minor part of the boundary layer at the outside of the vortex finder reaches the lower end of it, because the axial velocity is slowed down drastically. Light sheet visualization showed that there exists a heavily particle loaded boundary layer at the cover plate. There are no particles at the lower part of the vortex finder. This can be explained by the radial mass exchange. The effect of vortex finder length on separation efficiency was investigated by varying the length of the vortex finder and measuring the separation efficiency using a limestone powder as test material. It was found that the separation efficiency is not sensitive to the length of the vortex finder. Particle slip increases only where the vortex finder is definitely shorter than its diameter. It was tried to improve the separation efficiency by introducing an air curtain along the vortex finder. The positive effect on separation efficiency and particle cut size is minimal. Results from velocity measurements with cylinder pressure probes in the boundary layer do not fit the results from other measurement techniques. Many older measurements were made with these probes. The conclusions drawn and the design rules deduced are to be questioned. 17 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.
Allaerts, Dries; Meyers, Johan
2016-11-01
In wind farms, power deficits are directly related to ambient turbulence levels. Power deficits will therefore increase during the transition from a daytime, conventionally neutral boundary layer (CNBL) to the stable boundary layer (SBL) at night. Besides turbulent decay, a multitude of effects occurs during this transition. For instance, low-level jets may cause strong winds at high elevations, while the velocity near the surface generally decreases. Consequently, Coriolis forces induce a change in wind direction, which alters the apparent wind-farm layout in streamwise direction. In this study, we perform LES of a large onshore wind farm in the late-afternoon transition from an equilibrium CNBL to a surface-cooled SBL. The results of two different cooling rates are compared with the wind-farm performance in the CNBL. The power output decrease during the transition, with faster decrease for stronger surface cooling. However, the initial decrease is dominated by the reduction in wind speed, and the relative power deficits do not increase. Further, considerable wake deflection occurs, and a spatially heterogeneous distribution of temperature and heat flux is observed. The authors acknowledge support from the European Research Council (FP7-Ideas, Grant No. 306471).
Mustafa, Meraj; Mushtaq, Ammar; Hayat, Tasawar; Ahmad, Bashir
2014-01-01
The problem of natural convective boundary layer flow of nanofluid past a vertical plate is discussed in the presence of nonlinear radiative heat flux. The effects of magnetic field, Joule heating and viscous dissipation are also taken into consideration. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations via similarity transformations and then solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. The results reveal an existence of point of inflection for the temperature distribution for sufficiently large wall to ambient temperature ratio. Temperature and thermal boundary layer thickness increase as Brownian motion and thermophoretic effects intensify. Moreover temperature increases and heat transfer from the plate decreases with an increase in the radiation parameter.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meraj Mustafa
Full Text Available The problem of natural convective boundary layer flow of nanofluid past a vertical plate is discussed in the presence of nonlinear radiative heat flux. The effects of magnetic field, Joule heating and viscous dissipation are also taken into consideration. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations via similarity transformations and then solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. The results reveal an existence of point of inflection for the temperature distribution for sufficiently large wall to ambient temperature ratio. Temperature and thermal boundary layer thickness increase as Brownian motion and thermophoretic effects intensify. Moreover temperature increases and heat transfer from the plate decreases with an increase in the radiation parameter.
Transition in hypersonic boundary layers
Zhang, Chuanhong; Zhu, Yiding; Chen, Xi; Yuan, Huijing; Wu, Jiezhi; Chen, Shiyi; Lee, Cunbiao; Gad-el-Hak, Mohamed
2015-10-01
Transition and turbulence production in a hypersonic boundary layer is investigated in a Mach 6 wind tunnel using Rayleigh-scattering visualization, fast-response pressure measurements, and particle image velocimetry. It is found that the second-mode instability is a key modulator of the transition process. Although the second-mode is primarily an acoustic wave, it causes the formation of high-frequency vortical waves, which triggers a fast transition to turbulence.
Transition in hypersonic boundary layers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chuanhong Zhang
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Transition and turbulence production in a hypersonic boundary layer is investigated in a Mach 6 wind tunnel using Rayleigh-scattering visualization, fast-response pressure measurements, and particle image velocimetry. It is found that the second-mode instability is a key modulator of the transition process. Although the second-mode is primarily an acoustic wave, it causes the formation of high-frequency vortical waves, which triggers a fast transition to turbulence.
Turbulent boundary layer over flexible plates
Rostami, Parand; Ioppolo, Tindaro
2016-11-01
This research describes the structure of a turbulent boundary layer flow with a zero pressure gradient over elastic plates. The elastic plates made of a thin aluminum sheets with thickness between 50 and 500 microns were placed on the floor of a subsonic wind tunnel and exposed to a turbulent boundary layer flow with a free stream velocity between 20m/s and 100m/s. The ceiling of the test section of the wind tunnel is adjustable so that a nearly zero pressure gradient is obtained in the test section. Hot-wire anemometry was used to measure the velocity components. Mean, fluctuating velocities and Reynolds stresses will be presented and compared with the values of a rigid plate.
Bursting frequency prediction in turbulent boundary layers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
LIOU,WILLIAM W.; FANG,YICHUNG
2000-02-01
The frequencies of the bursting events associated with the streamwise coherent structures of spatially developing incompressible turbulent boundary layers were predicted using global numerical solution of the Orr-Sommerfeld and the vertical vorticity equations of hydrodynamic stability problems. The structures were modeled as wavelike disturbances associated with the turbulent mean flow. The global method developed here involves the use of second and fourth order accurate finite difference formula for the differential equations as well as the boundary conditions. An automated prediction tool, BURFIT, was developed. The predicted resonance frequencies were found to agree very well with previous results using a local shooting technique and measured data.
Particulate plumes in boundary layers with obstacles
Petrosyan, Arakel; Karelsky, Kirill
2013-04-01
This presentation is aimed at creating and realization of new physical model of impurity transfer (solid particles and heavy gases) in areas with non-flat and/or nonstationary boundaries. The main idea of suggested method is to use non-viscous equations for solid particles transport modeling in the vicinity of complex boundary. In viscous atmosphere with as small as one likes coefficient of molecular viscosity, the non-slip boundary condition on solid surface must be observed. This postulates the reduction of velocity to zero at a solid surface. It is unconditionally in this case Prandtle hypothesis must be observed: for rather wide range of conditions in the surface neighboring layers energy dissipation of atmosphere flows is comparable by magnitude with manifestation of inertia forces. That is why according to Prandtle hypothesis in atmosphere movement characterizing by a high Reynolds number the boundary layer is forming near a planet surface, within which the required transition from zero velocities at the surface to magnitudes at the external boundary of the layer that are quite close to ones in ideal atmosphere flow. In that layer fast velocity gradients cause viscous effects to be comparable in magnitude with inertia forces influence. For conditions considered essential changes of hydrodynamic fields near solid boundary caused not only by non-slip condition but also by a various relief of surface: mountains, street canyons, individual buildings. Transport of solid particles, their ascent and precipitation also result in dramatic changes of meteorological fields. As dynamic processes of solid particles transfer accompanying the flow past of complex relief surface by wind flows is of our main interest we are to use equations of non-viscous hydrodynamic. We should put up with on the one hand idea of big wind gradients in the boundary layer and on the other hand disregard of molecular viscosity in two-phase atmosphere equations.We deal with describing big field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asterios Pantokratoras
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Exact analytical solutions of boundary layer flows along a vertical porous plate with uniform suction are derived and presented in this paper. The solutions concern the Blasius, Sakiadis, and Blasius-Sakiadis flows with buoyancy forces combined with either MHD Lorentz or EMHD Lorentz forces. In addition, some exact solutions are presented specifically for water in the temperature range of 0∘C≤≤8∘C, where water density is nearly parabolic. Except for their use as benchmarking means for testing the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations, the presented exact solutions with EMHD forces have use in flow separation control in aeronautics and hydronautics, whereas the MHD results have applications in process metallurgy and fusion technology. These analytical solutions are valid for flows with strong suction.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rahman, M.M., E-mail: mansurdu@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, PO Box 36, PC 123 Al-Khod, Muscat (Oman); Al-Rashdi, Maryam H. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, PO Box 36, PC 123 Al-Khod, Muscat (Oman); Pop, I. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca 400084 (Romania)
2016-02-15
Highlights: • Convective boundary layer flow and heat transfer in a nanofluid is investigated. • Second order slip increases the rate of shear stress and decreases the rate of heat transfer in a nanofluid. • In nanofluid flow zero normal flux of the nanoparticles at the surface is realistic to apply. • Multiple solutions are identified for certain values of the parameter space. • The upper branch solution is found to be stable, hence physically realizable. - Abstract: In this work, the effects of the second order slip, constant heat flux, and zero normal flux of the nanoparticles due to thermophoresis on the convective boundary layer flow and heat transfer characteristics in a nanofluid using Buongiorno's model over a permeable shrinking sheet is studied theoretically. The nonlinear coupled similarity equations are solved using the function bvp4c using Matlab. Similarity solutions of the flow, heat transfer and nanoparticles volume fraction are presented graphically for several values of the model parameters. The results show that the application of second order slip at the interface is found to be increased the rate of shear stress and decreased the rate of heat transfer in a nanofluid, so need to be taken into account in nanofluid modeling. The results further indicate that multiple solutions exist for certain values of the parameter space. The stability analysis provides guarantee that the lower branch solution is unstable, while the upper branch solution is stable and physically realizable.
Schroeder, Philipp W
2016-01-01
This paper presents heavily grad-div and pressure jump stabilised, equal- and mixed-order discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods for non-isothermal incompressible flows based on the Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation. In this framework, the enthalpy-porosity model for multiphase flow in melting and solidification problems can be employed. By considering the differentially heated cavity and the melting of pure gallium in a rectangular enclosure, it is shown that both boundary layers and sharp moving interior layers can be handled naturally by the proposed class of non-conforming methods. Due to the stabilising effect of the grad-div term and the robustness of discontinuous Galerkin methods, it is possible to solve the underlying problems accurately on coarse, non-adapted meshes. The interaction of heavy grad-div stabilisation and discontinuous Galerkin methods significantly improves the mass conservation properties and the overall accuracy of the numerical scheme which is observed for the first time. Hen...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Das, S.S. [Department of Physics, K.B.D.A.V. College, Nirakarpur, Khordha-752 019 (Odisha) (India); Saran, M.R. [Department of Physics, Maharishi College of Natural Law, Sahid Nagar, Bhubaneswar-751 007 (Odisha) (India); Mohanty, S. [Department of Chemistry, Christ College, Mission Road, Cuttack-753 001 (Odisha) (India); Padhy, R.K. [Department of Physics, ODM Public School, Shishu Vihar, Patia, Bhubaneswar-751 024 (Odisha) (India)
2013-07-01
This paper focuses on the unsteady hydromagnetic mixed convective heat and mass transfer boundary layer flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid past an accelerated infinite vertical porous flat plate in a porous medium with suction in presence of foreign species such as H2, He, H2O vapour and NH3. The governing equations are solved both analytically and numerically using error function and finite difference scheme. The flow phenomenon has been characterized with the help of flow parameters such as magnetic parameter (M), suction parameter (a), permeability parameter (Kp), Grashof number for heat and mass transfer (Gr, Gc), Schmidt number (Sc) and Prandtl number (Pr). The effects of the above parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature, concentration distribution, skin friction and heat flux have been analyzed and the results are presented graphically and discussed quantitatively for Grashof number Gr>0 corresponding to cooling of the plate. It is observed that a growing magnetic parameter (M) retards the velocity of the flow field at all points and a greater suction leads to a faster reduction in the velocity of the flow field. Further, as we increase the permeability parameter (Kp) and the Grashof numbers for heat and mass transfer (Gr, Gc) the velocity of the flow field enhances at all points, while a greater suction/Prandtl number leads to a faster cooling of the plate. It is also observed that a more diffusive species has a significant decrease in the concentration boundary layer of the flow field and a growing suction parameter enhances both skin friction (T') and heat flux (Nu) at the wall corresponding to cooling of the plate (Gr>0).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hussain Ahmad
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In the present article, radiation effect on mixed convection boundary layer flow of a viscoelastic fluid over a horizontal circular cylinder with constant heat flux has been numerically analyzed. The governing boundary layer equations are transformed to dimensionless nonlinear partial differential equations. The equations are solved numerically by using Keller-box method. The computed results are in excellent agreement with the previous studies. Skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are emphasized specifically. These quantities are displayed against the curvature parameter. The effects of pertinent parameters involved in the problem namely effective Prandtl number and mixed convection parameter on skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are shown through graphs and table. Boundary layer separation points are also calculated with and without radiation and a comparison is shown. The presence of radiation helps to decrease or increase the skin friction coefficient for the negative or positive values of the mixed convection parameter accordingly. The decrease in value of effective Prandtl number helps to increase the value of skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number for viscoelastic fluids.
De Filippis, Giovanna; Foglia, Laura; Giudici, Mauro; Mehl, Steffen; Margiotta, Stefano; Negri, Sergio L.
2017-05-01
The evaluation of the accuracy or reasonableness of numerical models of groundwater flow is a complex task, due to the uncertainties in hydrodynamic properties and boundary conditions and the scarcity of good-quality field data. To assess model reliability, different calibration techniques are joined to evaluate the effects of different kinds of boundary conditions on the groundwater flow in a coastal multi-layered aquifer in southern Italy. In particular, both direct and indirect approaches for inverse modeling were joined through the calibration of one of the most uncertain parameters, namely the hydraulic conductivity of the karst deep hydrostratigraphic unit. The methodology proposed here, and applied to a real case study, confirmed that the selection of boundary conditions is among the most critical and difficult aspects of the characterization of a groundwater system for conceptual analysis or numerical simulation. The practical tests conducted in this study show that incorrect specification of boundary conditions prevents an acceptable match between the model response to the hydraulic stresses and the behavior of the natural system. Such effects have a negative impact on the applicability of numerical modeling to simulate groundwater dynamics in complex hydrogeological situations. This is particularly important for management of the aquifer system investigated in this work, which represents the only available freshwater resource of the study area, and is threatened by overexploitation and saltwater intrusion.
The Boundary Layer Interaction with Shock Wave and Expansion Fan
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MaratA.Goldfeld; RomanV.Nestoulia; 等
2000-01-01
The results of experimental investigation of a turbulent boundary layer on compression and expansion surfaces are presented.They include the study of the shock wave and /or expansion fan action upon the boundary layer,boundary layer sepqartion and its relaxation.Complex events of paired interactions and the flow on compression convex-concave surfaces were studied.The posibility and conditions of the boundary layer relaminarization behind the expansion fan and its effect on the relaxation length are presented.Different model configurations for wide range conditions were investigated.Comparison of results for different interactions was carried out.
Nonparallel stability of boundary layers with pressure gradients and suction
Saric, W. S.; Nayfeh, A. H.
1977-01-01
An analysis is presented for the linear nonparallel stability of boundary layer flows with pressure gradients and suction. The effect of the boundary layer growth is included by using the method of multiple scales. The present analysis is compared with those of Bouthier and Gaster and the roles of the different definitions of the amplification rates are discussed. The results of these theories are compared with experimental data for the Blasius boundary layer. Calculations are presented for stability characteristics of boundary layers with pressure gradients and nonsimilar suction distributions.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ankit SACHDEVA; Francis LEBOEUF
2011-01-01
This paper presents a numerical study of the flow topologies of three-dimensional(3D)flows in a high pressure compressor stator blade row without and with boundary layer aspiration on the hub wall.The stator blade is representative of the first stage operating under transonic inlet conditions and the blade design encourages development of highly complex 3D flows.The blade has a small tip clearance.The computational fluid dynamics(CFD)studies show progressive increase of hub comer stall with the increase in incidence.Aspiration is implemented on the hub wall via a slot in the comer between the hub wall and the suction surface.The CFD studies show aspiration to be sensitive to the suction flow rate; lower rate leads to very complex flow structures and increased level of losses whereas higher rate renders aspiration effective for control of hub comer separation.The flow topologies are studied by trace of skin friction lines on the walls.The nature of flow can be explained by the topological rules of closed separation.Furthermore,a deeper analysis is done for a particular case with advanced criterion to test the non-degeneracy of critical points in the flow field.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sarkhosh Seddighi Chaharborj
2013-01-01
Full Text Available An analysis for the mixed convection boundary layers in the stagnation-point flow toward a stretching vertical sheet is carried out via symmetry analysis. By employing Lie group method to the given system of nonlinear partial differential equations, we can obtain information about the invariants and symmetries of these equations. This information can be used to determine the similarity variables that will reduce the number of independent variables in the system. The transformed ordinary differential equations are solved numerically for some values of the parameters involved using fifth-order Improved Runge-Kutta Method (IRK5 coupled with shooting method. The features of the flow and heat transfer characteristics are analyzed and discussed in detail. Both cases of assisting and opposing flows are considered. This paper' results in comparison with known results are excellent.
Krishnamurthy, M. R.; Gireesha, B. J.; Prasannakumara, B. C.; Gorla, Rama Subba Reddy
2016-09-01
A theoretically investigation has been performed to study the effects of thermal radiation and chemical reaction on MHD velocity slip boundary layer flow and melting heat transfer of nanofluid induced by a nonlinear stretching sheet. The Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects are incorporated in the present nanofluid model. A set of proper similarity variables is used to reduce the governing equations into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. An efficient numerical method like Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg-45 order is used to solve the resultant equations for velocity, temperature and volume fraction of the nanoparticle. The effects of different flow parameters on flow fields are elucidated through graphs and tables. The present results have been compared with existing one for some limiting case and found excellent validation.
Chiles, Harry R.
1988-01-01
An airborne temperature-compensated hot-film anemometer system has been designed, fabricated, and used to obtain in-flight airfoil boundary-layer flow transition data by the NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility. Salient features of the anemometer include near constant sensitivity over the full flight envelope, installation without coaxial wiring, low-noise outputs, and self-contained signal conditioning with dynamic and steady-state outputs. The small size, low-power dissipation, and modular design make the anemometer suitable for use in modern high-performance research aircraft. Design of the temperature-compensated hot-film anemometer and its use for flow transition detection on a laminar flow flight research project are described. Also presented are data gathered in flight which is representative of the temperature-compensated hot-film anemometer operation at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic flight conditions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Md. Jashim Uddin
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Steady viscous incompressible MHD laminar boundary layer slip flow of an electrically conducting nanofluid over a convectively heated permeable moving linearly stretching sheet has been investigated numerically. The effects of Brownian motion, thermophoresis, magnetic field, and heat generation/absorption are included in the nanofluid model. The similarity transformations for the governing equations are developed. The effects of the pertinent parameters, Lewis number, magnetic field, Brownian motion, heat generation, thermophoretic, momentum slip and Biot number on the flow field, temperature, skin friction factor, heat transfer rate, and nanoparticle, volume fraction rate are displayed in both graphical and tabular forms. Comparisons of analytical (for special cases and numerical solutions with the existing results in the literature are made and is found a close agreement, that supports the validity of the present analysis and the accuracy of our numerical computations. Results for the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are provided in tabular and graphical forms for various values of the flow controlling parameters which govern the momentum, energy, and the nanoparticle volume fraction transport in the MHD boundary layer.
Hamid, Rohana Abdul; Nazar, Roslinda
2017-08-01
In this paper, the problem of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow and heat transfer of a nanofluid with the influences of the chemical reaction and thermal radiation over an exponentially shrinking sheet is studied numerically. The model used for the nanofluid is called the Buongiorno model which incorporates the effects of the Brownian motion and thermophoresis. The governing dimensionless ordinary differential equations are solved using the bvp4c method. The effects of the magnetic field parameter, thermal radiation parameter and chemical reaction parameter on the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles of the nanofluid over an exponentially permeable shrinking sheet are discussed and presented through graphs and tables.
Zokri, S. M.; Arifin, N. S.; Mohamed, M. K. A.; Salleh, M. Z.; Kasim, A. R. M.; Mohammad, N. F.
2017-08-01
This paper discusses the viscous dissipation effect with constant heat flux on the mixed convection boundary layer flow past a horizontal circular cylinder in a Jeffrey fluid. The transformed partial differential equations are solved numerically by using the well-tested, flexible, implicit and unconditionally stable Keller-box method. Numerical results for the velocity and temperature profiles are attained in the form of graph for different values of parameters such as Prandtl number, ratio of relaxation to retardation times and Deborah number. It is found that the velocity profile is noticeably decreased with an increase in Deborah number while the temperature profile is slightly increased.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Ferdows
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Natural convective boundary-layer flow of a nanofluid on a heated vertical cylinder embedded in a nanofluid-saturated porous medium is studied. The model used for the nanofluid incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. Lie groups analysis is used to get the similarity transformations, which transform the governing partial differential equations to a system of ordinary differential equations. Two groups of similarity transformations are obtained. Numerical solutions of the resulting ordinary differential systems are obtained and discussed for various values of the governing parameters.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CAO; Wei; ZHOU; Heng
2004-01-01
The evolution of 2-D disturbances in hypersonic boundary layer with Mach number 6,8, and 10 was investigated numerically by three different numerical schemes.At the entrance, second mode T-S waves with different amplitudes were introduced, and the relation between the Mach number and the amplitude of the disturbance when shocklets started to appear was investigated. By comparing the disturbance velocity profiles with those provided by linear stability theory, the effects of shocklets on flow structures were also investigated.
1975-10-01
Moore and Erdos (Ref. 28) in solving the boundary layer equations for dissoci- tion and ionizing air in a nonequilibrium flow. * 21 Another powerful...8217 =o g =o ’ =o(4.31b) fit = 0 g" = 0 Zt =0 fi’ = 0 git = 0 where, the prime denotes differentiation with respect to 1. The edge of the sheath is now the...i LX ] (4.37e) where, C = pR/Pee and the prime denotes differentiation with respect to T. Equations 4.31 and 4.37 produce seven, seven, and five
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Muhaimin; R. Kandasamy; Azme B. Khamis
2008-01-01
This work is concerned with Magnetohydrodynamic viscous flow due to a shrinking sheet in the presence of suction. The cases of two dimensional and axisymmetric shrinking are discussed. The governing boundary layer equations are written into a dimensionless form by similarity transformations. The transformed coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations are numerically solved by using an advanced numeric technique. Favorability comparisons with previously published work are presented. Numerical results for the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration profiles as well as for the skin friction, heat and mass transfer and deposition rate are obtained and displayed graphically for pertinent parameters to show interesting aspects of the solution.
Active control of ionized boundary layers
Mendes, R V
1997-01-01
The challenging problems, in the field of control of chaos or of transition to chaos, lie in the domain of infinite-dimensional systems. Access to all variables being impossible in this case and the controlling action being limited to a few collective variables, it will not in general be possible to drive the whole system to the desired behaviour. A paradigmatic problem of this type is the control of the transition to turbulence in the boundary layer of fluid motion. By analysing a boundary layer flow for an ionized fluid near an airfoil, one concludes that active control of the transition amounts to the resolution of an generalized integro-differential eigenvalue problem. To cope with the required response times and phase accuracy, electromagnetic control, whenever possible, seems more appropriate than mechanical control by microactuators.
Analytic prediction for planar turbulent boundary layers
Chen, Xi
2016-01-01
Analytic predictions of mean velocity profile (MVP) and streamwise ($x$) development of related integral quantities are presented for flows in channel and turbulent boundary layer (TBL), based on a symmetry analysis of eddy length and total stress. Specific predictions are the friction velocity $u_\\tau$: ${ U_e/u_\\tau }\\approx 2.22\\ln Re_x+2.86-3.83\\ln(\\ln Re_x)$; the boundary layer thickness $\\delta_e$: $x/\\delta_e \\approx 7.27\\ln Re_x-5.18-12.52\\ln(\\ln Re_x)$; the momentum thickness Reynolds number: $Re_x/Re_\\theta=4.94[{(\\ln {{\\mathop{\\rm Re}\
Jamaludin, Anuar; Nazar, Roslinda; Shafie, Sharidan
2017-08-01
This study presents the numerical solutions of boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a stretching sheet with viscous dissipation and internal heat generation. Thermal boundary condition on the surface, namely prescribed heat flux (PHF) is used. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equations by applying the similarity transformations before reduced to the system of first order ordinary differential equations. Then the system of first order ordinary differential equations is solved numerically using an implicit finite difference scheme, known as the Keller-box method. The numerical solutions are generated using MATLAB. Temperature profiles and the temperature gradient for some values of the Prandtl number, Eckert number and heat/source sink parameter are presented in figures and discussed in details.
Schuele, Chan Yong
Spanwise-periodic roughness designed to excite selected wavelengths of stationary cross-flow modes was investigated in a 3-D boundary layer at Mach 3.5. The test model was a sharp-tipped 14° right-circular cone. The model and integrated sensor traversing system were placed in the Mach 3.5 Supersonic Low Disturbance Tunnel (SLDT) equipped with a "quiet design" nozzle at the NASA Langley Research Center. The model was oriented at a 4.2 angle of attack to produce a mean cross-flow velocity component in the boundary layer over the cone. Five removable cone tips have been investigated. One has a smooth surface that is used to document the baseline ("natural") conditions. Two had minute (20 - 40 mum) "dimples" that are equally spaced around the circumference, at a streamwise location that is just upstream of the linear stability neutral growth branch for cross-flow modes. The azimuthal mode numbers of the dimpled tips were selected to either enhance the most amplified wave numbers, or to suppress the growth of the most amplified wave numbers. Two of the cone tips had an array of plasma streamwise vortex generators that were designed to simulate the disturbances produced by the passive patterned roughness. The results indicate that the stationary cross-flow modes were highly receptive to the patterned roughness of both passive and active types. The patterned passive roughness that was designed to suppress the growth of the most amplified modes had an azimuthal wavelength that was 66% smaller that that of the most amplified stationary cross-flow mode. This had the effect to increase the transition Reynolds number from 25% to 50% depending on the measurement technique. The application of the research is on turbulent transition control on swept wings of supersonic aircraft. The plasma-based roughness has the advantage over the passive roughness of being able to be adaptable to different conditions that would occur during a flight mission.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ramachandra Prasad
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this article, we investigate the nonlinear steady boundary layer flow and heat transfer of an incompressible Tangent Hyperbolicnon-Newtonian fluid from a vertical porous plate. The transformed conservation equations are solved numerically subject to physically appropriate boundary conditions using a second-order accurate implicit finite-difference Keller Box technique. The numerical code is validated with previous studies. The influence of a number of emerging non-dimensional parameters, namely the Weissenberg number (We, the power law index (n, Prandtl number (Pr, Biot number (, and dimensionless local suction parameter(on velocity and temperature evolution in the boundary layer regime are examined in detail. Furthermore the effects of these parameters on surface heat transfer rate and local skin friction are also investigated. Validation with earlier Newtonian studies is presented and excellent correlation achieved. It is found that velocity, Skin friction and Nusselt number (heat transfer rate are reduced with increasing Weissenberg number (We, whereas, temperature is enhanced. Increasing power law index (n enhances velocity and Nusselt number (heat transfer rate but temperature and Skin friction decrease. An increase in the Biot number ( is observed to enhance velocity, temperature, local skin friction and Nusselt number. An increasing Prandtl number, Pr, is found to decrease both velocity, temperature and skin friction but elevates heat transfer rate (Nusselt number. The study is relevant to chemical materials processing applications.
Bristled shark skin: a microgeometry for boundary layer control?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lang, A W; Hidalgo, P; Westcott, M [Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics Department, University of Alabama, Box 870280, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Motta, P [Biology Department, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States)], E-mail: alang@eng.ua.edu
2008-12-01
There exists evidence that some fast-swimming shark species may have the ability to bristle their scales during fast swimming. Experimental work using a water tunnel facility has been performed to investigate the flow field over and within a bristled shark skin model submerged within a boundary layer to deduce the possible boundary layer control mechanisms being used by these fast-swimming sharks. Fluorescent dye flow visualization provides evidence of the formation of embedded cavity vortices within the scales. Digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) data, used to evaluate the cavity vortex formation and boundary layer characteristics close to the surface, indicate increased momentum in the slip layer forming above the scales. This increase in flow velocity close to the shark's skin is indicative of boundary layer control mechanisms leading to separation control and possibly transition delay for the bristled shark skin microgeometry.
Johnson, D. A.; Rose, W. C.
1976-01-01
Quantitative measurements of the turbulence fluctuations in velocity and mass flux have been obtained in Mach 0.6 and 0.8 turbulent boundary layer and free-shear layer flows by laser velocimetry and hot-wire anemometry techniques. To evaluate the effects of compressibility, these transonic data are compared to available incompressible and supersonic results. Based on some simplifying assumptions, estimates of the rms density fluctuations are made for which error bounds are given. In addition to these fluctuation data, the compressible mean velocity data obtained with the laser velocimeter are presented and compared to pitot tube results. The investigation was conducted in the Ames 6- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel at free-stream Mach numbers of 0.6 and 0.8 for a unit Reynolds number of about 10,000,000 per meter.
Qasim, Muhammad; Khan, Zafar Hayat; Khan, Waqar Ahmad; Ali Shah, Inayat
2014-01-01
This study investigates the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of ferrofluid along a stretching cylinder. The velocity slip and prescribed surface heat flux boundary conditions are employed on the cylinder surface. Water as conventional base fluid containing nanoparticles of magnetite (Fe3O4) is used. Comparison between magnetic (Fe3O4) and non-magnetic (Al2O3) nanoparticles is also made. The governing non-linear partial differential equations are reduced to non-linear ordinary differential equations and then solved numerically using shooting method. Present results are compared with the available data in the limiting cases. The present results are found to be in an excellent agreement. It is observed that with an increase in the magnetic field strength, the percent difference in the heat transfer rate of magnetic nanoparticles with Al2O3 decreases. Surface shear stress and the heat transfer rate at the surface increase as the curvature parameter increases, i.e curvature helps to enhance the heat transfer.
Uddin, Md Jashim; Khan, Waqar A; Ismail, A I Md
2013-01-01
A two-dimensional steady forced convective flow of a Newtonian fluid past a convectively heated permeable vertically moving plate in the presence of a variable magnetic field and radiation effect has been investigated numerically. The plate moves either in assisting or opposing direction to the free stream. The plate and free stream velocities are considered to be proportional to x(m) whilst the magnetic field and mass transfer velocity are taken to be proportional to x((m-1)/2) where x is the distance along the plate from the leading edge of the plate. Instead of using existing similarity transformations, we use a linear group of transformations to transform the governing equations into similarity equations with relevant boundary conditions. Numerical solutions of the similarity equations are presented to show the effects of the controlling parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration profiles as well as on the friction factor, rate of heat and mass transfer. It is found that the rate of heat transfer elevates with the mass transfer velocity, convective heat transfer, Prandtl number, velocity ratio and the magnetic field parameters. It is also found that the rate of mass transfer enhances with the mass transfer velocity, velocity ratio, power law index and the Schmidt number, whilst it suppresses with the magnetic field parameter. Our results are compared with the results existing in the open literature. The comparisons are satisfactory.
A Compilation of Unsteady Turbulent Boundary Layer Experimental Data,
1981-11-01
HIRSCH KITAet ai, GOSTELOW EHERENSBERGER LU HO & CHEN KOBASHI & HAYAKAWA MAINARDI & PANDAY MARVIN* LORBER & COVERT MIZUSHINA I SAXENA RAMAPRIAN & TU...Laminar Boundary Layer by a Moving Belt. AIAA Paj_2r 69-40, New York, N.Y., 1969. (LT) Mainardi , H. and Panday, P. K.: A Study of Turbulent Pulsating...Flow in a (-cular Pipe. Eurovisc 77 - Unsteady Turbulent Boundary Layers and Shear Flows, Toulouse, France, Jar,. 2977. (TE-D) Mainardi , H. and Panday
Diffusive boundary layers over varying topography
Dell, R. W.
2015-03-25
Diffusive bottom boundary layers can produce upslope flows in a stratified fluid. Accumulating observations suggest that these boundary layers may drive upwelling and mixing in mid-ocean ridge flank canyons. However, most studies of diffusive bottom boundary layers to date have concentrated on constant bottom slopes. We present a study of how diffusive boundary layers interact with various idealized topography, such as changes in bottom slope, slopes with corrugations and isolated sills. We use linear theory and numerical simulations in the regional ocean modeling system (ROMS) model to show changes in bottom slope can cause convergences and divergences within the boundary layer, in turn causing fluid exchanges that reach far into the overlying fluid and alter stratification far from the bottom. We also identify several different regimes of boundary-layer behaviour for topography with oceanographically relevant size and shape, including reversing flows and overflows, and we develop a simple theory that predicts the regime boundaries, including what topographies will generate overflows. As observations also suggest there may be overflows in deep canyons where the flow passes over isolated bumps and sills, this parameter range may be particularly significant for understanding the role of boundary layers in the deep ocean.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. GANGADHAR
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A mathematical model is presented for a two-dimensional, steady, incompressible electrically conducting, laminar free convection boundary layer flow of a continuously moving vertical porous plate in a chemically reactive and porous medium in the presence of a transverse magnetic field. The basic equations governing the flow are in the form of partial differential equations and have been reduced to a set of non-linear ordinary differential equations by applying suitable similarity transformations. The problem is tackled numerically using shooting techniques with the forth order Runga-Kutta method. Pertinent results with respect to embedded parameters are displayed graphically for the velocity,temperature and concentration profiles and were discussed quantitatively.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roy N.C.
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The unsteady laminar boundary layer characteristics of mixed convection flow past a vertical wedge have been investigated numerically. The free-stream velocity and surface temperature are assumed to be oscillating in the magnitude but not in the direction of the oncoming flow velocity. The governing equations have been solved by two distinct methods, namely, the straightforward finite difference method for the entire frequency range, and the extended series solution for low frequency range and the asymptotic series expansion method for high frequency range. The results demonstrate the effects of the Richardson number, Ri, introduced to quantify the influence of mixed convection and the Prandtl number, Pr, on the amplitudes and phase angles of the skin friction and heat transfer. In addition, the effects of these parameters are examined in terms of the transient skin friction and heat transfer.
Aziz, Asim; Ali, Yasir; Aziz, Taha; Siddique, J I
2015-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the slip effects on the boundary layer flow and heat transfer characteristics of a power-law fluid past a porous flat plate embedded in the Darcy type porous medium. The nonlinear coupled system of partial differential equations governing the flow and heat transfer of a power-law fluid is transformed into a system of nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations by applying a suitable similarity transformation. The resulting system of ordinary differential equations is solved numerically using Matlab bvp4c solver. Numerical results are presented in the form of graphs and the effects of the power-law index, velocity and thermal slip parameters, permeability parameter, suction/injection parameter on the velocity and temperature profiles are examined.
Definition of Turbulent Boundary-Layer with Entropy Concept
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhao Rui
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The relationship between the entropy increment and the viscosity dissipation in turbulent boundary-layer is systematically investigated. Through theoretical analysis and direct numerical simulation (DNS, an entropy function fs is proposed to distinguish the turbulent boundary-layer from the external flow. This approach is proved to be reliable after comparing its performance in the following complex flows, namely, low-speed airfoil flows with different wall temperature, supersonic cavity-ramp flow dominated by the combination of free-shear layer, larger recirculation and shocks, and the hypersonic flow past an aeroplane configuration. Moreover, fs is deduced from the point of energy, independent of any particular turbulent quantities. That is, this entropy concept could be utilized by other engineering applications related with turbulent boundary-layer, such as turbulence modelling transition prediction and engineering thermal protection.
Linear Controllers for Turbulent Boundary Layers
Lim, Junwoo; Kim, John; Kang, Sung-Moon; Speyer, Jason
2000-11-01
Several recent studies have shown that controllers based on a linear system theory work surprisingly well in turbulent flows, suggesting that a linear mechanism may play an important role even in turbulent flows. It has been also shown that non-normality of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations is an essential characteristic in the regeneration of near-wall turbulence structures in turbulent boundary layers. A few controllers designed to reduce the role of different linear mechanisms, including that to minimize the non-normality of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations, have been developed and applied to a low Reynolds nubmer turbulent channel flow. A reduced-order model containing the most controllable and observables modes is derived for each system. Other existing control schemes, such as Choi et al's opposition control, have been examined from the point of a linear system control. Further discussion on controller design, such as choice of cost function and other control parameters, will be presented.
Turbulent boundary layer over a chine.
Panchapakesan, N. R.; Joubert, P. N.
1999-11-01
The flow over an edge aligned with the streamwise direction is studied as a representative of the turbulent boundary layers developing over hard chines found on the hulls of ships and catamarans. We present results of a traditional experimental investigation of this geometry in a wind tunnel with pitot tubes and hot-wires. The chine model consisted of two surfaces made of varnished fibre boards with leading edges of airfoil sections and a 90 degree corner. The boundary layer was tripped with wires close to the leading edge. The model was housed in a test section of length 6.5 m in a closed circuit wind tunnel. The experiments were conducted at a unit Reynolds number of 680,000 /m corresponding to a nominal free stream velocity of 10 m/s. The mean velocity field and the associated integral parameters obtained with pitot tube measurements are presented for different streamwise locations from 0.2 to 4.7 m from the trip wire. The flow at the two farthest locations were also studied with single and 'x' hot-wires. The secondary mean flow and the turbulence field in the corner region are described with these measurements.
Boccio, J.; Economos, C.
1972-01-01
An analysis of the incompressible turbulent boundary layer, developing under the combined effects of mass transfer and pressure gradient, is presented in this paper. A strip-integral method is employed whereby two of the three governing equations are obtained by integrating the combined momentum and continuity equation to 50 percent and 100 percent, respectively, of the boundary-layer height. The latter equation is the usual momentum-integral equation; the former equation requires specification of shear. Accordingly, Clauser's equilibrium eddy-viscosity law is assumed valid at this point. The third and final equation is obtained by specifying that Stevenson's velocity profiles apply throughout the domain of interest, from which a skin-friction law can be derived. Comparisons of the numerical results with the experiments of McQuaid, which include combined effects of variable pressure gradient and mass transfer, show good agreement.
Some measurements in synthetic turbulent boundary layers
Savas, O.
1980-01-01
Synthetic turbulent boundary layers are examined which were constructed on a flat plate by generating systematic moving patterns of turbulent spots in a laminar flow. The experiments were carried out in a wind tunnel at a Reynolds number based on plate length of 1,700,000. Spots were generated periodically in space and time near the leading edge to form a regular hexagonal pattern. The disturbance mechanism was a camshaft which displaced small pins momentarily into the laminar flow at frequencies up to 80 Hz. The main instrumentation was a rake of 24 hot wires placed across the flow in a line parallel to the surface. The main measured variable was local intermittency; i.e., the probability of observing turbulent flow at a particular point in space and time. The results are reported in x-t diagrams showing the evolution of various synthetic flows along the plate. The dimensionless celerity or phase velocity of the large eddies is found to be 0.88, independent of eddy scale. All patterns with sufficiently small scales eventually showed loss of coherence as they moved downstream. A novel phenomenon called eddy transposition was observed in several flows which contained appreciable laminar regions. The large eddies shifted in formation to new positions, intermediate to their original ones, while preserving their hexagonal pattern. The present results, together with some empirical properties of a turbulent spot, are used to estimate the best choice of scales for constructing a synthetic boundary layer suitable for detailed study. The values recommended are: spanwise scale/thickness = 2.5, streamwise scale/thickness = 8.
Numerical simulation of tsunami-scale wave boundary layers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Williams, Isaac A.; Fuhrman, David R.
2016-01-01
demonstrating the ability to reproduce accurate velocity profiles, turbulence, and bed shear stresses on both smooth and rough beds.The validated model is then employed for the study of transient wave boundary layers at full tsunami scales,covering a wide and realistic geophysical range in terms of the flow......, is newly extended to incorporate a transitional variant of the standard two-equation k–ω turbulence closure. The developed numerical model is successfully validated against recent experimental measurements involving transient solitary wave boundary layers as well as for oscillatory flows, collectively......This paper presents a numerical study of the boundary layer flow and properties induced by tsunami-scalewaves. For this purpose, an existing one-dimensional vertical (1DV) boundary layer model, based on the horizontal component of the incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations...
A Cautionary Note on the Thermal Boundary Layer Similarity Scaling for the Turbulent Boundary Layer
Weyburne, David
2016-01-01
Wang and Castillo have developed empirical parameters for scaling the temperature profile of the turbulent boundary layer flowing over a heated wall in the paper X. Wang and L. Castillo, J. Turbul., 4, 1(2003). They presented experimental data plots that showed similarity type behavior when scaled with their new scaling parameters. However, what was actually plotted, and what actually showed similarity type behavior, was not the temperature profile but the defect profile formed by subtracting the temperature in the boundary layer from the temperature in the bulk flow. We show that if the same data and same scaling is replotted as just the scaled temperature profile, similarity is no longer prevalent. This failure to show both defect profile similarity and temperature profile similarity is indicative of false similarity. The nature of this false similarity problem is discussed in detail.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. H.M. Yasin
2013-01-01
Full Text Available An analysis of the steady mixed convection boundary layer flow past a vertical permeable surface embedded in a porous medium saturated by a nanofluid is performed in this study. Numerical solutions of the similarity equations are obtained using the shooting method. Three types of metallic or nonmetallic nanoparticles, namely Copper (Cu, Alumina (Al2O3 and Titania (TiO2 are considered by using a water-based fluid to investigate the effect of the solid volume fraction or nanoparticle volume fraction parameter ï Ï of the nanofluid. The numerical results of the skin friction coefficient and the velocity profiles are presented and discussed. It is found that the imposition of suction is to increase the velocity profiles and to delay the separation of boundary layer, while the injection parameter decreases the velocity profiles. On the other hand, the range of solutions for the injection case is largest for Al2O3 nanoparticles and smallest for Cu nanoparticles.
Compressibility Effects in Turbulent Boundary Layers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CAO Yu-Hui; PEI Jie; CHEN Jun; SHE Zhen-Su
2008-01-01
Local cascade (LC) scheme and space-time correlations are used to study turbulent structures and their convection behaviour in the near-wall region of compressible boundary layers at Ma = 0.8 and 1.3. The convection velocities of fluctuating velocity components u (streamwise) and v (vertical) are investigated by statistically analysing scale-dependent ensembles of LC structures. The results suggest that u is convected with entropy perturbations while v with an isentropic process. An abnormal thin layer distinct from the conventional viscous sub-layer is discovered in the immediate vicinity of the wall (y+≤1) in supersonic flows. While in the region 1 ＜ y+ ＜ 30,streamwise streaks dominate velocity, density and temperature fluctuations, the abnormal thin layer is dominated by spanwise streaks in vertical velocity and density fluctuations, where pressure and density fluctuations are strongly correlated. The LC scheme is proven to be effective in studying the nature of supersonic flows and compressibility effects on wall-bounded motions.
Popelka, Lukas; Kuklova, Jana; Simurda, David; Souckova, Natalie; Matejka, Milan; Uruba, Vaclav
2012-04-01
Infrared camera, Particle Image Velocimetry, smoke-wire, tuft filaments and oil-flow visualization techniques were used for wind-tunnel and in-flight investigation of boundary layer separation, both stall and separation bubbles, related to the low-Reynolds numbers transition mechanism. Airfoils of Wortmann FX66 series and FX66 series wing-fuselage interaction, as well as modern airfoils and their wing-fuselage geometry were subject to study. The presence of previously identified structures in the CFD modelling, such as horse-shoe vortices, was confirmed in the flow. Wind-tunnels and in-flight measurements on sailplanes were carried out and effect of passive flow control devices - vortex generators - was surveyed; namely counter-rotating vortex generators and Zig-zag type turbulators were applied. Separation suppression and consequent drag coefficient reduction of test aircrafts was reached. PIV investigation was further extended by Time-Resolved techniques. An important study on structure of the turbulent flow in the lower atmosphere, creating an environment of the soaring flight, was presented.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
A.NAYAK; S.PANDA; D.K.PHUKAN
2014-01-01
This paper studies the thermal-diffusion and diffusion thermo-effects in the hydro-magnetic unsteady flow by a mixed convection boundary layer past an imperme-able vertical stretching sheet in a porous medium in the presence of chemical reaction. The velocity of the stretching surface, the surface temperature, and the concentration are assumed to vary linearly with the distance along the surface. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into self-similar unsteady equations using similarity transformations and solved numerically by the Runge-Kutta fourth order scheme in as-sociation with the shooting method for the whole transient domain from the initial state to the final steady state flow. Numerical results for the velocity, the temperature, the concentration, the skin friction, and the Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are shown graph-ically for various flow parameters. The results reveal that there is a smooth transition of flow from unsteady state to the final steady state. A special case of our results is in good agreement with an earlier published work.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matejka Milan
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Infrared camera, Particle Image Velocimetry, smoke-wire, tuft filaments and oil-flow visualization techniques were used for wind-tunnel and in-flight investigation of boundary layer separation, both stall and separation bubbles, related to the low-Reynolds numbers transition mechanism. Airfoils of Wortmann FX66 series and FX66 series wing-fuselage interaction, as well as modern airfoils and their wing-fuselage geometry were subject to study. The presence of previously identified structures in the CFD modelling, such as horse-shoe vortices, was confirmed in the flow. Wind-tunnels and in-flight measurements on sailplanes were carried out and effect of passive flow control devices - vortex generators - was surveyed; namely counter-rotating vortex generators and Zig-zag type turbulators were applied. Separation suppression and consequent drag coefficient reduction of test aircrafts was reached. PIV investigation was further extended by Time-Resolved techniques. An important study on structure of the turbulent flow in the lower atmosphere, creating an environment of the soaring flight, was presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Bala Anki Reddy
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the prediction of the magnetohydrodynamic boundary layer slip flow over a permeable stretched cylinder with chemical reaction is investigated by using some mathematical techniques, namely Runge–Kutta fourth order method along with shooting technique and artificial neural network (ANN. A numerical method is implemented to approximate the flow of heat and mass transfer characteristics as a function of some input parameters, explicitly the curvature parameter, magnetic parameter, permeability parameter, velocity slip, Grashof number, solutal Grashof number, Prandtl number, temperature exponent, Schmidt number, concentration exponent and chemical reaction parameter. The non-linear partial differential equations of the governing flow are converted into a system of highly non-linear ordinary differential equations by using the suitable similarity transformations, which are then solved numerically by a Runge–Kutta fourth order along with shooting technique and then ANN is applied to them. The Back Propagation Neural Network is applied for forecasting the desired outputs. The reported numerical values and the ANN values are in good agreement than those published works on various special cases. According to the findings of this study, the ANN approach is reliable, effective and easily applicable for simulating heat and mass transfer flow over a stretched cylinder.
Hudy, Laura; Naguib, Ahmed; Humphreys, William; Bartram, Scott
2004-11-01
The spatio-temporal characteristics of a separating/reattaching flow region were investigated. The experimental set-up consisted of an axisymmetric backward-facing step with a section upstream of the step that could rotate to create a 3D boundary layer at separation. Beneath the flow region, 32 flush-mounted microphones detected the pressure signature that was acquired simultaneously with PIV measurements, which captured the velocity field above the surface. Data were obtained for different Reynolds numbers (Re), based on step height: five Re for the 2D flow case, ranging from 6100 to 33200, and two Re, 6100 and 8300, for the 3D case. Multi-point stochastic estimation was used to estimate the dominant flow structures above the wall from the wall-pressure signature and the results were compared with the instantaneous structures obtained from the PIV measurements. In addition, Re effects were explored in the 2D case. Supported by NSF grant CTS0116907 and partial support from ONR
1979-08-15
prominent are: pclysaccharides (Guar), polyethylene oxide, polyacrylamides, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose . For the most part, investigators have...length of reticulated Scott foam quieted and steadied the flow, removing any remaining flow disturbances. The final settling chamber design consisting
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hady, F. M.; Ibrahim, F. S. [Assiut University, Assiut (Egypt); Abdel-Gaied, S. M.; Eid, M. R. [Assiut University, The New Valley (Egypt)
2011-08-15
The effect of yield stress on the free convective heat transfer of dilute liquid suspensions of nanofluids flowing on a vertical plate saturated in porous medium under laminar conditions is investigated considering the nanofluid obeys the mathematical model of power-law. The model used for non-Newtonian nanofluid incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. The governing boundary- layer equations are cast into dimensionless system which is solved numerically using a deferred correction technique and Newton iteration. This solution depends on yield stress parameter {Omega}, a power-law index n, Lewis number Le, a buoyancy-ratio number Nr, a Brownian motion number Nb, and a thermophoresis number Nt. Analyses of the results found that the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are decreasing functions of the higher yield stress parameter for each dimensionless numbers, n and Le, except the reduced Sherwood number is an increasing function of higher Nb for different values of yield stress parameter.
Khan, Md Shakhaoath; Karim, Ifsana; Ali, Lasker Ershad; Islam, Ariful
2012-10-01
In this work, we study the unsteady free convection boundary-layer flow of a nanofluid along a stretching sheet with thermal radiation in the presence of magnetic field. To obtain non-similar equations, continuity, momentum, energy, and concentration equations have been non-dimensionalized by usual transformation. The non-similar solutions are considered here which depend on the magnetic parameter M, radiation parameter R, Prandtl number P r, Eckert number E c, Lewis number L e, Brownian motion parameter N b, thermophoresis parameter N t, and Grashof number G r. The obtained equations have been solved by an explicit finite difference method with stability and convergence analysis. The velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles are discussed for different time steps and for the different values of the parameters of physical and engineering interest.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rashidi Mohammad Mehdi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The similar solution on the equations of the revised Cheng-Minkowycz problem for natural convective boundary layer flow of nanofluid through a porous medium gives (using an analytical method, a system of non-linear partial differential equations which are solved by optimal homotopy analysis method. Effects of various drastic parameters on the fluid and heat transfer characteristics have been analyzed. A very good agreement is observed between the obtained results and the numerical ones. The entropy generation has been derived and a comprehensive parametric analysis on that has been done. Each component of the entropy generation has been analyzed separately and the contribution of each one on the total value of entropy generation has been determined. It is found that the entropy generation as an important aspect of the industrial applications has been affected by various parameters which should be controlled to minimize the entropy generation.
Boundary-layer predictions for small low-speed contractions
Mehta, Rabindra D.; Bell, James H.
1989-01-01
The present scheme for the prediction of boundary-layer development in small, low-speed wind tunnel contraction sections proceeds by calculating the wall pressure distributions, and hence the wall velocity distributions, by means of a three-dimensional potential-flow method. For the family of contractions presently treated, the assumption of a laminar boundary layer appears to be justified; the measured boundary layer momentum thicknesses at the exit of the four contractions were found to lie within 10 percent of predicted values.
Structure of turbulence in three-dimensional boundary layers
Subramanian, Chelakara S.
1993-01-01
This report provides an overview of the three dimensional turbulent boundary layer concepts and of the currently available experimental information for their turbulence modeling. It is found that more reliable turbulence data, especially of the Reynolds stress transport terms, is needed to improve the existing modeling capabilities. An experiment is proposed to study the three dimensional boundary layer formed by a 'sink flow' in a fully developed two dimensional turbulent boundary layer. Also, the mean and turbulence field measurement procedure using a three component laser Doppler velocimeter is described.
Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow
Sterk, H.A.M.
2015-01-01
Thesis entitled: Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow H.A.M. Sterk Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015 Summary The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs typically form at night and in polar re
Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow
Sterk, H.A.M.
2015-01-01
Thesis entitled: Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow H.A.M. Sterk Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015 Summary The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs typically form at night and in polar re
Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow
Sterk, H.A.M.
2015-01-01
Thesis entitled: Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow H.A.M. Sterk Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015 Summary The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs typically form at night and in polar
Non-Darcy effect on boundary layer flow of TiO2-water/kerosene nanofluid over an extensible sheet
Tausif Sk, Md; Das, Kalidas; Kundu, Prabir Kumar
2016-09-01
An analytical and numerical enquiry has been executed to measure up to the numerical data and graphical figures of two different types of nanofluid boundary layer flow in a non-Darcy porous medium with TiO2 nanoparticles in the fluid. The current surface is continuously protracted under a fixed law and the base liquids are water and kerosene. A mathematical model of the stream has been developed and after renovating the non-linear partial differential equations into a system of ODE, it has been solved both analytically by Differential Transformation Method (DTM) in cooperation with Padé Approximant and numerically by Runge-Kutta 4th order shooting technique. The aggregate of the relations between various flow parameters with the skin friction and the heat transfer rate of two different fluids have been gauged by correlation coefficients and the impact of the relation has been verified using Fisher's t-Test. One of the most interesting verdicts of the progress survey is that the rate of heat transfer rate in the TiO2 -kerosene nanofluid is almost 83-88% higher than that of TiO2 -water nanofluid. Also the relation between various pertinent parameters with the Nusselt number and the skin friction coefficient are highly significant and they can be regulated according to our requirement by controlling these parameters of the flow.
Coherent structures in wave boundary layers. Part 1. Oscillatory motion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carstensen, Stefan; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen
2010-01-01
This work concerns oscillatory boundary layers over smooth beds. It comprises combined visual and quantitative techniques including bed shear stress measurements. The experiments were carried out in an oscillating water tunnel. The experiments reveal two significant coherent flow structures: (i......) Vortex tubes, essentially two-dimensional vortices close to the bed extending across the width of the boundary-layer flow, caused by an inflectional-point shear layer instability. The imprint of these vortices in the bed shear stress is a series of small, insignificant kinks and dips. (ii) Turbulent...
Turbulence in the Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer
Fernando, Harindra; Kit, Eliezer; Conry, Patrick; Hocut, Christopher; Liberzon, Dan
2016-11-01
During the field campaigns of the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) Program, fine-scale measurements of turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) were made using a novel sonic and hot-film anemometer dyad (a combo probe). A swath of scales, from large down to Kolmogorov scales, was covered. The hot-film was located on a gimbal within the sonic probe volume, and was automated to rotate in the horizontal plane to align with the mean flow measured by sonic. This procedure not only helped satisfy the requirement of hot-film alignment with the mean flow, but also allowed in-situ calibration of hot-films. This paper analyzes a period of nocturnal flow that was similar to an idealized stratified parallel shear flow. Some new phenomena were identified, which included the occurrence of strong bursts in the velocity records indicative of turbulence generation at finer scales that are not captured by conventional sonic anemometers. The spectra showed bottleneck effect, but its manifestation did not fit into the framework of previous bottleneck-effect theories and was unequivocally related to bursts of turbulence. The measurements were also used to evaluate the energetics of stratified shear flows typical of the environment. ONR # N00014-11-1-0709; NSF # AGS-1528451; ISF 408/15.
On the global existence and uniqueness of solutions to the nonstationary boundary layer system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG; Jianwen; ZHAO; Junning
2006-01-01
In this paper, we study the problem of boundary layer for nonstationary flows of viscous incompressible fluids. There are some open problems in the field of boundary layer. The method used here is mainly based on a transformation which reduces the boundary layer system to an initial-boundary value problem for a single quasilinear parabolic equation. We prove the existence of weak solutions to the modified nonstationary boundary layer system. Moreover, the stability and uniqueness of weak solutions are discussed.
Boundary layer effects on liners for aircraft engines
Gabard, Gwénaël
2016-10-01
The performance of acoustic treatments installed on aircraft engines is strongly influenced by the boundary layer of the grazing flow on the surface of the liner. The parametric study presented in this paper illustrates the extent of this effect and identifies when it is significant. The acoustic modes of a circular duct with flow are calculated using a finite difference method. The parameters are representative of the flow conditions, liners and sound fields found in current turbofan engines. Both the intake and bypass ducts are considered. Results show that there is a complex interplay between the boundary layer thickness, the direction of propagation and the liner impedance and that the boundary layer can have a strong impact on liner performance for typical configurations (including changes of the order of 30 dB on the attenuation of modes associated with tonal fan noise). A modified impedance condition including the effect of a small but finite boundary layer thickness is considered and compared to the standard Myers condition based on an infinitely thin boundary layer. We show how this impedance condition can be implemented in a mode calculation method by introducing auxiliary variables. This condition is able to capture the trends associated with the boundary layer effects and in most cases provides improved predictions of liner performance.
1983-11-01
element u.-lei is readily applied to such flows. For lully developed flow V = 0, and U and H are functions of y only (i.e., J ■ U(y) and H ■ H(y...included, application of the basic momentum theorem yields T b |£| . / w+ Jb \\ T r ’dx’ I W < s,av where T is the average shear stress
Druzhinin, Oleg; Troitskaya, Yliya; Zilitinkevich, Sergej
2015-04-01
Detailed knowledge of the interaction of surface water waves with the wind flow is of primary importance for correct parameterization of turbulent momentum and heat fluxes which define the energy and momentum transfer between the atmosphere and hydrosphere. The objective of the present study is to investigate the properties of the stably stratified turbulent boundary-layer (BL) air-flow over waved water surface by direct numerical simulation (DNS) at a bulk Reynolds number varying from 15000 to 80000 and the surface-wave slope up to ka = 0.2. The DNS results show that the BL-flow remains in the statistically stationary, turbulent regime if the Reynolds number (ReL) based on the Obukhov length scale and friction velocity is sufficiently large (ReL > 100). In this case, mean velocity and temperature vertical profiles are well predicted by log-linear asymptotic solutions following from the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory provided the velocity and temperature roughness parameters, z0U and z0T, are appropriately prescribed. Both z0U and z0T increase for larger surface-wave slope. DNS results also show that turbulent momentum and heat fluxes and turbulent velocity and temperature fluctuations are increased for larger wave slope (ka) whereas the mean velocity and temperature derivatives remain practically the same for different ka. Thus, we conclude that the source of turbulence enhancement in BL-flow are perturbations induced by the surface wave, and not the shear instability of the bulk flow. On the other hand, if stratification is sufficiently strong, and the surface-wave slope is sufficiently small, the BL-flow over waved surface relaminarizes in the bulk of the domain. However, if the surface-wave slope exceeds a threshold value, the velocity and temperature fluctuations remain finite in the vicinity of the critical-layer level, where the surface-wave phase velocity coincides with the mean flow velocity. We call this new stably-stratified BL-flow regime observed in
HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER FOR VISCO-ELASTIC MHD BOUNDARY LAYER FLOW PAST A VERTICAL FLAT PLATE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rita Choudhury
2012-07-01
Full Text Available The two-dimensional free convection flow of visco-elastic and electrically conducting fluid past a vertical impermeable flat plate is considered in presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field. The governing equations are reduced to ordinary differential equation by introducing appropriate co-ordinate transformation. The analytical expressions for the velocity, temperature and species concentration fields have been obtained. The corresponding expressions for the non-dimensional rates of heat transfer and mass transfer have beenobtained. The velocity profile and the shearing stress have been illustrated graphically, for various values of flow parameters involved in the solution to observe the effect of visco-elastic parameter.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sohail Nadeem
Full Text Available In the present article, we considered two-dimensional steady incompressible Oldroyd-B nanofluid flow past a stretching sheet. Using appropriate similarity variables, the partial differential equations are transformed to ordinary (similarity equations, which are then solved numerically. The effects of various parameters, namely, Deborah numbers [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], Prandtl parameter [Formula: see text], Brownian motion [Formula: see text], thermophoresis parameter [Formula: see text] and Lewis number [Formula: see text], on flow and heat transfer are investigated. To see the validity of the present results, we have made the comparison of present results with the existing literature.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Nina Gall; Koss, Holger; Bennetsen, Jens Chr.
2014-01-01
experiments. The computations were performed with the commercial CFD software ANSYS FLUENT at a Reynolds number at the cube height of Reh = 1.3x105. The object was to evaluate the numerically generated flow upstream and around the cube and the accuracy of the timeaveraged surface pressure on the cube...
Surface modes in sheared boundary layers over impedance linings
Brambley, E. J.
2013-08-01
Surface modes, being duct modes localized close to the duct wall, are analysed within a lined cylindrical duct with uniform flow apart from a thin boundary layer. As well as full numerical solutions of the Pridmore-Brown equation, simplified mathematical models are given where the duct lining and boundary layer are lumped together and modelled using a single boundary condition (a modification of the Myers boundary condition previously proposed by the author), from which a surface mode dispersion relation is derived. For a given frequency, up to six surface modes are shown to exist, rather than the maximum of four for uniform slipping flow. Not only is the different number and behaviour of surface modes important for frequency-domain mode-matching techniques, which depend on having found all relevant modes during matching, but the thin boundary layer is also shown to lead to different convective and absolute stability than for uniform slipping flow. Numerical examples are given comparing the predictions of the surface mode dispersion relation to full solutions of the Pridmore-Brown equation, and the accuracy with which surface modes are predicted is shown to be significantly increased compared with the uniform slipping flow assumption. The importance of not only the boundary layer thickness but also its profile (tanh or linear) is demonstrated. A Briggs-Bers stability analysis is also performed under the assumption of a mass-spring-damper or Helmholtz resonator impedance model.
1993-08-12
position sensing technique was employed that utilized one sensing device for the near-wall region (y < 0.18 in, y/8 < 0.191, y+ < 169) and a second...0.0005 in. that mounted on an external optical stand. The sensing device for the outer portions of the ’noundary layer was an Enco vernier caliper that...represern ±0. I 0 S S 6 0 S 0 0 0 4, 187 X), U00 3/8-in. -Diamneter Cylindrical ModelO .022-in.-O.D. ~ Stainless Steel Tube Brass 3/8 in. 0-Ring Half-Ring
Kunkel, Gary J.; Marusic, Ivan
2006-02-01
Data from the near-wall-turbulent region of the high-Reynolds-number atmospheric surface layer are used to analyse the attached-eddy model of wall turbulence. All data were acquired during near-neutral conditions at the Surface Layer Turbulence and Environmental Science Test (SLTEST) facility located in the western Utah Great Salt Lake Desert. Instantaneous streamwise and wall-normal components of velocity were collected with a wall-normal array of two-component hot wires within the first 2 m above the surface of the salt flats. Streamwise and wall-normal turbulence intensities and spectra are directly compared to corresponding laboratory data and similarity formulations hypothesized from the attached-eddy model of wall turbulence. This affords the opportunity to compare results with Reynolds numbers varying over three orders of magnitude. The wall-normal turbulence-intensity similarity formulation is extended. The results show good support for the similarity arguments forwarded by the attached-eddy model as well as Townsend's (1956) Reynolds-number similarity hypothesis and lack of the ‘inactive’ motion influence on the wall-normal velocity component. The effects of wall roughness and the spread in the convection velocity due to this roughness are also discussed.
Bypass transition and spot nucleation in boundary layers
Kreilos, Tobias; Schlatter, Philipp; Duguet, Yohann; Henningson, Dan S; Eckhardt, Bruno
2016-01-01
The spatio-temporal aspects of the transition to turbulence are considered in the case of a boundary layer flow developing above a flat plate exposed to free-stream turbulence. Combining results on the receptivity to free-stream turbulence with the nonlinear concept of a transition threshold, a physically motivated model suggests a spatial distribution of spot nucleation events. To describe the evolution of turbulent spots a probabilistic cellular automaton is introduced, with all parameters directly fitted from numerical simulations of the boundary layer. The nucleation rates are then combined with the cellular automaton model, yielding excellent quantitative agreement with the statistical characteristics for different free-stream turbulence levels. We thus show how the recent theoretical progress on transitional wall-bounded flows can be extended to the much wider class of spatially developing boundary-layer flows.
Bypass transition and spot nucleation in boundary layers
Kreilos, Tobias; Khapko, Taras; Schlatter, Philipp; Duguet, Yohann; Henningson, Dan S.; Eckhardt, Bruno
2016-08-01
The spatiotemporal aspects of the transition to turbulence are considered in the case of a boundary-layer flow developing above a flat plate exposed to free-stream turbulence. Combining results on the receptivity to free-stream turbulence with the nonlinear concept of a transition threshold, a physically motivated model suggests a spatial distribution of spot nucleation events. To describe the evolution of turbulent spots a probabilistic cellular automaton is introduced, with all parameters directly obtained from numerical simulations of the boundary layer. The nucleation rates are then combined with the cellular automaton model, yielding excellent quantitative agreement with the statistical characteristics for different free-stream turbulence levels. We thus show how the recent theoretical progress on transitional wall-bounded flows can be extended to the much wider class of spatially developing boundary-layer flows.
Coherent structures in wave boundary layers. Part 2. Solitary motion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sumer, B. Mutlu; Jensen, Palle Martin; Sørensen, Lone B.;
2010-01-01
in an oscillating water tunnel. Two kinds of measurements were made: bed shear stress measurements and velocity measurements. The experiments show that the solitary-motion boundary layer experiences three kinds of flow regimes as the Reynolds number is increased: (i) laminar regime; (ii) laminar regime where...... the boundary-layer flow experiences a regular array of vortex tubes near the bed over a short period of time during the deceleration stage; and (iii) transitional regime characterized with turbulent spots, revealed by single/multiple, or, sometimes, quite dense spikes in the bed shear stress traces...
Calculation of a boundary layer with phase transformations
Dorosh, N. D.; Kharitonov, A. A.
A method for the analysis of a laminar boundary layer with phase transformations is developed. It is noted that volume gas condensation can occur in the case of flow past a cooled surface, drops becoming aggregated in groups in the process of condensation. The concept of group density and concentration is proposed, and this approach is used to investigate a boundary layer near the stagnation point of a two-dimensional blunt body in a flow of molecular oxygen. Profiles of temperature, stream function, and concentration of liquid-oxygen droplet groups are determined for various values of the condensation rate.
Turbulent boundary layer on perforated surfaces with vector injection
Eroshenko, V. M.; Zaichik, L. I.; Klimov, A. A.; Ianovskii, L. S.; Kondratev, V. I.
1980-10-01
The paper presents an experimental investigation of a turbulent boundary layer on perforated plates with uniform vector injection at various angles to gas flow. It was shown that with strong injection at angles oriented in the flow direction the intensity of turbulent pulsation is decreased, while injection at angles in the opposite direction increase the intensity. A relationship was established between the critical parameters of the boundary layer injection angles; it was concluded that the asymptotic theory of Kutateladze and Leontiev can be used for determining the coefficient of friction of vector injection.
BUBBLE - an urban boundary layer meteorology project
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rotach, M.W.; Vogt, R.; Bernhofer, C.
2005-01-01
The Basel urban Boundary Layer Experiment (BUBBLE) was a year-long experimental effort to investigate in detail the boundary layer structure in the City of Basel, Switzerland. At several sites over different surface types (urban, sub-urban and rural reference) towers up to at least twice the main...... a very detailed physical scale-model in a wind tunnel. In the present paper details of all these activities are presented together with first results....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Awais
Full Text Available Analysis has been done to investigate the heat generation/absorption effects in a steady flow of non-Newtonian nanofluid over a surface which is stretching linearly in its own plane. An upper convected Maxwell model (UCM has been utilized as the non-Newtonian fluid model in view of the fact that it can predict relaxation time phenomenon which the Newtonian model cannot. Behavior of the relaxations phenomenon has been presented in terms of Deborah number. Transport phenomenon with convective cooling process has been analyzed. Brownian motion "Db" and thermophoresis effects "Dt" occur in the transport equations. The momentum, energy and nanoparticle concentration profiles are examined with respect to the involved rheological parameters namely the Deborah number, source/sink parameter, the Brownian motion parameters, thermophoresis parameter and Biot number. Both numerical and analytic solutions are presented and found in nice agreement. Comparison with the published data is also made to ensure the validity. Stream lines for Maxwell and Newtonian fluid models are presented in the analysis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mirkov Nikola S.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we validate an improved finite volume approximation of Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations for simulation of wind flows in body-fitted grids generated by algebraic extrusion from digital terrain elevation data, proposed in N. Mirkov et. al. J. Comput. Phys. 287, 18-45(2015, [1]. The approach is based on second-order accurate finite volume method with collocated variable arrangement and pressure-velocity coupling trough SIMPLE algorithm. The main objective is the attenuation of spurious pressure field oscillations in regions with discontinuity in grid line slopes, as encountered in grids representing highly non-uniform terrains. Moreover, the approach relaxes the need for grid generation based on elliptic PDEs or grid smoothing by applying fixed point iterations (i.e. Gauss-Seidel to initial grid node positions resulting from algebraic grid generators. Drawbacks of previous approaches which ignored treatment of finite volume grid cell cases with intersection point offset in non-orthogonality corrections are removed. Application to real-life wind farm project at Dobrič (Srvljig, Serbia is used to assess the effectiveness of the method. The results validate the view in which accurate discretization of governing equations play more important role than the choice of turbulence modelling closures. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33036
Awais, Muhammad; Hayat, Tasawar; Irum, Sania; Alsaedi, Ahmed
2015-01-01
Analysis has been done to investigate the heat generation/absorption effects in a steady flow of non-Newtonian nanofluid over a surface which is stretching linearly in its own plane. An upper convected Maxwell model (UCM) has been utilized as the non-Newtonian fluid model in view of the fact that it can predict relaxation time phenomenon which the Newtonian model cannot. Behavior of the relaxations phenomenon has been presented in terms of Deborah number. Transport phenomenon with convective cooling process has been analyzed. Brownian motion "Db" and thermophoresis effects "Dt" occur in the transport equations. The momentum, energy and nanoparticle concentration profiles are examined with respect to the involved rheological parameters namely the Deborah number, source/sink parameter, the Brownian motion parameters, thermophoresis parameter and Biot number. Both numerical and analytic solutions are presented and found in nice agreement. Comparison with the published data is also made to ensure the validity. Stream lines for Maxwell and Newtonian fluid models are presented in the analysis.
The Ocean Boundary Layer beneath Hurricane Frances
Dasaro, E. A.; Sanford, T. B.; Terrill, E.; Price, J.
2006-12-01
The upper ocean beneath the peak winds of Hurricane Frances (57 m/s) was measured using several varieties of air-deployed floats as part of CBLAST. A multilayer structure was observed as the boundary layer deepened from 20m to 120m in about 12 hours. Bubbles generated by breaking waves create a 10m thick surface layer with a density anomaly, due to the bubbles, of about 1 kg/m3. This acts to lubricate the near surface layer. A turbulent boundary layer extends beneath this to about 40 m depth. This is characterized by large turbulent eddies spanning the boundary layer. A stratified boundary layer grows beneath this reaching 120m depth. This is characterized by a gradient Richardson number of 1/4, which is maintained by strong inertial currents generated by the hurricane, and smaller turbulent eddies driven by the shear instead of the wind and waves. There is little evidence of mixing beneath this layer. Heat budgets reveal the boundary layer to be nearly one dimensional through much of the deepening, with horizontal and vertical heat advection becoming important only after the storm had passed. Turbulent kinetic energy measurements support the idea of reduced surface drag at high wind speeds. The PWP model correctly predicts the degree of mixed layer deepening if the surface drag is reduced at high wind speed. Overall, the greatest uncertainty in understanding the ocean boundary layer at these extreme wind speeds is a characterization of the near- surface processes which govern the air-sea fluxes and surface wave properties.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jha, Pankaj [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Churchfield, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moriarty, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schmitz, Sven [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)
2014-01-13
When using an actuator-line representation of a wind turbine for computational fluid dynamics, it is common practice to volumetrically project the line force onto the flow field to create a body force in the fluid momentum equation. The objective of this study is to investigate how different volumetric projection techniques of the body force created by an actuator-line wind turbine rotor model affect the generated wake characteristics and blade loads in a turbine-turbine interaction problem. Two techniques for the body-force projection width are used , and they are based on either i) the grid spacing, or ii) the combination of grid spacing and an equivalent elliptic blade planform. An array of two NREL 5-MW turbines separated by seven rotor diameters is simulated within a large-eddy simulation solver subject to offshore neutral and moderately-convective atmospheric boundary-layer inflow. Power, thrust,and bending moment histories of both turbines, the statistics of angle of attack and blade loads over 2000 sec, variations in the mean and fluctuating velocity components, and turbulent kinetic energy and selected Reynolds stresses along vertical and spanwise sampling locations in the wake are analyzed. Comparisons for the different techniques of determining the body-force projection width of the actuator-line method are made and their effect on different physical quantities are assessed.
Daba, Mitiku; Devaraj, P.
2016-05-01
In this paper, we investigated numerically an unsteady boundary layer flow of a nanofluid over a stretching sheet in the presence of thermal radiation with variable fluid properties. Using a set of suitable similarity transformations, the governing partial differential equations are reduced into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. System of the nonlinear ordinary differential equations are then solved by the Keller-box method. The physical parameters taken into consideration for the present study are: Prandtl number Pr, Lewis number Le, Brownian motion parameter N b, thermophoresis parameter N t, radiation parameter N r, unsteady parameter M. In addition to these parameters, two more new parameters namely variable thermophoretic diffusion coefficient parameter e and variable Brownian motion diffusion coefficient parameter β have been introduced in the present study. Effects of these parameters on temperature, volume fraction of the nanoparticles, surface heat and mass transfer rates are presented graphically and discussed briefly. To validate our method, we have compared the present results with some previously reported results in the literature. The results are found to be in a very good agreement.
Licata, Nicholas A
2014-01-01
A central challenge for organisms during development is determining a means to efficiently export toxic molecules from inside the developing embryo. For aquatic microorganisms, the strategies employed should be robust with respect to the variable ocean environment and limit the chances that exported toxins are reabsorbed. As a result, the problem of toxin export is closely related to the physics of mass transport in a fluid. In this paper we consider a model first-passage problem for the uptake of exported toxins by a spherical embryo. By considering how macroscale fluid turbulence manifests itself on the microscale of the embryo, we determine that fluid flow enhances the effectiveness of toxin export as compared to the case of diffusion-limited transport. In the regime of large P\\'eclet number, a perturbative solution of the advection-diffusion equation reveals that a concentration boundary layer forms at the surface of the embryo. The model results suggest a functional role for cell surface roughness in the...
Modeling the summertime Arctic cloudy boundary layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Curry, J.A.; Pinto, J.O. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); McInnes, K.L. [CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Mordialloc (Australia)
1996-04-01
Global climate models have particular difficulty in simulating the low-level clouds during the Arctic summer. Model problems are exacerbated in the polar regions by the complicated vertical structure of the Arctic boundary layer. The presence of multiple cloud layers, a humidity inversion above cloud top, and vertical fluxes in the cloud that are decoupled from the surface fluxes, identified in Curry et al. (1988), suggest that models containing sophisticated physical parameterizations would be required to accurately model this region. Accurate modeling of the vertical structure of multiple cloud layers in climate models is important for determination of the surface radiative fluxes. This study focuses on the problem of modeling the layered structure of the Arctic summertime boundary-layer clouds and in particular, the representation of the more complex boundary layer type consisting of a stable foggy surface layer surmounted by a cloud-topped mixed layer. A hierarchical modeling/diagnosis approach is used. A case study from the summertime Arctic Stratus Experiment is examined. A high-resolution, one-dimensional model of turbulence and radiation is tested against the observations and is then used in sensitivity studies to infer the optimal conditions for maintaining two separate layers in the Arctic summertime boundary layer. A three-dimensional mesoscale atmospheric model is then used to simulate the interaction of this cloud deck with the large-scale atmospheric dynamics. An assessment of the improvements needed to the parameterizations of the boundary layer, cloud microphysics, and radiation in the 3-D model is made.
Effect of externally generated turbulence on wave boundary layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fredsøe, Jørgen; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Kozakiewicz, A.
2003-01-01
This experimental study deals with the effect of externally generated turbulence on the oscillatory boundary layer to simulate the turbulence in the wave boundary layer under broken waves in the swash zone. The subject has been investigated experimentally in a U-shaped, oscillating water tunnel...... with a smooth bottom. Turbulence was generated ´externally´ as the flow in the oscillator was passed through a series of grids, that extended from the cover of the water tunnel to about mid-depth. Two different types of grid porosities were used. Direct measurements of the bed shear stress and velocity...... results. The mean and turbulence quantities in the outer flow region are increased substantially with the introduction of the grids. It is shown that the externally generated turbulence is able to penetrate the bed boundary layer, resulting in an increase in the bed shear stress, and therefore...
Vertical pressure gradient and particle motions in wave boundary layers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Karsten Lindegård
The present study covers both a numerical and experimental investigation of the processes in the oscillatory boundary layer. In the first part a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is conducted to study the vertical pressure gradient, and its role in relation to laminar to turbulent transition...... and its role in the fully turbulent boundary layer. The pressure in the flow is obtained from the flow fields of the oscillatory boundary layer. What differs, the vertical pressure gradient, from other turbulent quantities, like e.g. velocity fluctuations is that it can detect newly generated turbulence....... This is in contrast to velocity fluctuations that are diffusive, so they can also contain residual turbulence from the previous half cycle until they are dissipated. Furthermore, the magnitude of the mean value of conditionally averaged vertical pressure gradient (for −∂p∗/∂x∗ 2 > 0) is compared to the submerged...
On the interaction between turbulence grids and boundary layers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Irps Thomas
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Turbulence grids are widely used in wind tunnels to produce representative turbulence levels when testing aerodynamic phenomena around models. Although the purpose of the grid is to introduce a desired turbulence level in the freestream flow, the wall boundary layers of the tunnel are subjected to modification due to the presence of such grids. This could have major implications to the flow around the models to be tested and hence there is a need to further understand this interaction. The study described in this paper examines wind tunnel wall boundary layer modification by turbulence grids of different mesh sizes and porosities to understand the effect of these parameters on such interaction. Experimental results are presented in the form of pressure loss coefficients, boundary layer velocity profiles and the statistics of turbulence modification.
Body surface adaptations to boundary-layer dynamics.
Videler, J J
1995-01-01
Evolutionary processes have adapted nektonic animals to interact efficiently with the water that surrounds them. Not all these adaptations serve the same purpose. This paper concentrates on reduction of drag due to friction in the boundary layer close to the body surface. Mucus, compliant skins, scales, riblets and roughness may influence the flow velocity gradient, the type of flow and the thickness of the boundary layer around animals, and may seriously affect their drag in a positive or negative way. The long-chain polymers found in mucus decrease the pressure gradient and considerably reduced drag due to friction. The effect is probably due to channelling of the flow particles in the direction of the main flow, resulting in a reduction of turbulence. Compliant surfaces could probably reduce drag by equalising and distributing pressure pulses. However, the existing evidence that drag reduction actually occurs is not convincing. There is no indication that instantaneous heating, reducing the viscosity in the boundary layer, is used by animals as a drag-reducing technique. Small longitudinal ridges on rows of scales on fish can reduce shear stress in the boundary by a maximum of 10% compared with the shear stress of a smooth surface. The mechanism is based on the impedance of cross flow under well-defined conditions. The effect has been visualized with the use of particle image velocimetry techniques. The function of the swords and spears of several fast, pelagic, predatory fish species is still enigmatic. The surface structure of the sword of a swordfish is shown to be both rough and porous. The height of the roughness elements on the tip of the sword is close to the critical value for the induction of a laminar-to-turbulent flow transition at moderate cruising speeds. A flow tank is described that is designed to visualize the effects of surface imperfections on flow in the boundary layer in direct comparison with a smooth flat wall. The flow in a 1 m long, 10 cm
Turbulent oceanic western-boundary layers at low latitude
Quam Cyrille Akuetevi, Cataria; Wirth, Achim
2013-04-01
Low latitude oceanic western-boundary layers range within the most turbulent regions in the worlds ocean. The Somali current system with the Great Whirl and the Brazilian current system with its eddy shedding are the most prominent examples. Results from analytical calculations and integration of a one layer reduced-gravity fine resolution shallow water model is used to entangle this turbulent dynamics. Two types of wind-forcing are applied: a remote Trade wind forcing with maximum shear along the equator and a local Monsoon wind forcing with maximum shear in the vicinity of the boundary. For high values of the viscosity (> 1000m2s-1) the stationary solutions compare well to analytical predictions using Munk and inertial layer theory. When lowering the friction parameter time dependence results. The onset of instability is strongly influenced by inertial effects. The unstable boundary current proceeds as a succession of anti-cyclonic coherent eddies performing a chaotic dynamics in a turbulent flow. The dynamics is governed by the turbulent fluxes of mass and momentum. We determine these fluxes by analyzing the (potential) vorticity dynamics. We demonstrate that the boundary-layer can be separated in four sub-layers, which are (starting from the boundary): (1) the viscous sub-layer (2) the turbulent buffer-layer (3) the layer containing the coherent structures and (4) the extended boundary layer. The characteristics of each sub-layer and the corresponding turbulent fluxes are determined, as are the dependence on latitude and the type of forcing. A new pragmatic method of determining the eddy viscosity, based on Munk-layer theory, is proposed. Results are compared to observations and solutions of the multi-level primitive equation model (DRAKKAR).
Boundary-layer control by electric fields A feasibility study
Mendes, R V
1998-01-01
A problem of great concern in aviation and submarine propulsion is the control of the boundary layer and, in particular, the methods to extend the laminar region as a means to decrease noise and fuel consumption. In this paper we study the flow of air along an airfoil when a layer of ionized gas and a longitudinal electric field are created in the boundary layer region. By deriving scaling solutions and more accurate numerical solutions we discuss the possibility of achieving significant boundary layer control for realistic physical parameters. Practical design formulas and criteria are obtained. We also discuss the perspectives for active control of the laminar-to-turbulent transition fluctuations by electromagnetic field modulation.
Turbulent boundary layer measurements over high-porosity surfaces
Efstathiou, Christoph; Luhar, Mitul
2016-11-01
Porous surfaces are ubiquitous across a variety of turbulent boundary layer flows of scientific and engineering interest. While turbulent flows over smooth and rough walls have been studied extensively, experimental measurements over porous walls have thus far focused on packed beds, which are limited in porosity (Φ = 0 . 3 - 0 . 5) by their geometry. The current project seeks to address this limitation. A two-component laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) is used to generate velocity measurements in turbulent boundary layer flows over commercially available reticulated foams and 3D-printed porous media at Reynolds number Reθ 3000 - 4000 . Smooth wall profiles for mean and turbulent quantities are compared to data over substrates with porosity Φ > 0 . 8 and average pore sizes in the range 0.4-2.5mm (corresponding to 8 - 50 viscous units). Previous analytical and simulation efforts indicate that the effects of porous substrates on boundary layer flows depend on a modified Reynolds number defined using the length scale √{ κ}, where κ is substrate permeability. A custom permeameter is currently being developed to estimate κ for the substrates tested in the boundary layer experiments.
DNS Study on Physics of Late Boundary Layer Transition
Liu, Chaoqun
2014-01-01
This paper serves as a review of our recent new DNS study on physics of late boundary layer transition. This includes mechanism of the large coherent vortex structure formation, small length scale generation and flow randomization. The widely spread concept vortex breakdown to turbulence,which was considered as the last stage of flow transition, is not observed and is found theoretically incorrect. The classical theory on boundary layer transition is challenged and we proposed a new theory with five steps, i.e. receptivity, linear instability, large vortex formation, small length scale generation, loss of symmetry and randomization to turbulence. We have also proposed a new theory about turbulence generation. The new theory shows that all small length scales (turbulence) are generated by shear layer instability which is produced by large vortex structure with multiple level vortex rings, multiple level sweeps and ejections, and multiple level negative and positive spikes near the laminar sub-layers.Therefore,...
Stereoscopic PIV measurement of boundary layer affected by DBD actuator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Procházka Pavel
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The effect of ionic wind generated by plasma actuator on developed boundary layer inside a narrow channel was investigated recently. Since the main investigated plane was parallel to the channel axis, the description of flow field was not evaluated credibly. This paper is dealing with cross-section planes downstream the actuator measured via 3D time-resolved PIV. The actuator position is in spanwise or in streamwise orientation so that ionic wind is blown in the same direction as the main flow or in opposite direction or perpendicularly. The interaction between boundary layer and ionic wind is evaluated for three different velocities of main flow and several parameters of plasma actuation (steady and unsteady regime, frequency etc.. Statistical properties of the flow are shown as well as dynamical behaviour of arising longitudinal vortices are discussed via phase-locked measurement and decomposition method.
Boundary layer heights derived from velocity spectra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoejstrup, J.; Barthelmie, R.J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Kaellstrand, B. [Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden)
1997-10-01
It is a well-known fact that the height of the mixed layer determines the size of the largest and most energetic eddies that can be observed in the unstable boundary layer, and consequently a peak can be observed in the power spectra of the along-wind velocity component at scales comparable to the mixed layer depth. We will now show how the mixed layer depth can be derived from the u-specta and the results will be compared with direct measurements using pibal and tethersonde measurements. (au)
Nature, theory and modelling of geophysical convective planetary boundary layers
Zilitinkevich, Sergej
2015-04-01
Geophysical convective planetary boundary layers (CPBLs) are still poorly reproduced in oceanographic, hydrological and meteorological models. Besides the mean flow and usual shear-generated turbulence, CPBLs involve two types of motion disregarded in conventional theories: 'anarchy turbulence' comprised of the buoyancy-driven plumes, merging to form larger plumes instead of breaking down, as postulated in conventional theory (Zilitinkevich, 1973), large-scale organised structures fed by the potential energy of unstable stratification through inverse energy transfer in convective turbulence (and performing non-local transports irrespective of mean gradients of transporting properties). C-PBLs are strongly mixed and go on growing as long as the boundary layer remains unstable. Penetration of the mixed layer into the weakly turbulent, stably stratified free flow causes turbulent transports through the CPBL outer boundary. The proposed theory, taking into account the above listed features of CPBL, is based on the following recent developments: prognostic CPBL-depth equation in combination with diagnostic algorithm for turbulence fluxes at the CPBL inner and outer boundaries (Zilitinkevich, 1991, 2012, 2013; Zilitinkevich et al., 2006, 2012), deterministic model of self-organised convective structures combined with statistical turbulence-closure model of turbulence in the CPBL core (Zilitinkevich, 2013). It is demonstrated that the overall vertical transports are performed mostly by turbulence in the surface layer and entrainment layer (at the CPBL inner and outer boundaries) and mostly by organised structures in the CPBL core (Hellsten and Zilitinkevich, 2013). Principal difference between structural and turbulent mixing plays an important role in a number of practical problems: transport and dispersion of admixtures, microphysics of fogs and clouds, etc. The surface-layer turbulence in atmospheric and marine CPBLs is strongly enhanced by the velocity shears in
Non-Equilibrium Effects on Hypersonic Turbulent Boundary Layers
Kim, Pilbum
Understanding non-equilibrium effects of hypersonic turbulent boundary layers is essential in order to build cost efficient and reliable hypersonic vehicles. It is well known that non-equilibrium effects on the boundary layers are notable, but our understanding of the effects are limited. The overall goal of this study is to improve the understanding of non-equilibrium effects on hypersonic turbulent boundary layers. A new code has been developed for direct numerical simulations of spatially developing hypersonic turbulent boundary layers over a flat plate with finite-rate reactions. A fifth-order hybrid weighted essentially non-oscillatory scheme with a low dissipation finite-difference scheme is utilized in order to capture stiff gradients while resolving small motions in turbulent boundary layers. The code has been validated by qualitative and quantitative comparisons of two different simulations of a non-equilibrium flow and a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer. With the validated code, direct numerical simulations of four different hypersonic turbulent boundary layers, perfect gas and non-equilibrium flows of pure oxygen and nitrogen, have been performed. In order to rule out uncertainties in comparisons, the same inlet conditions are imposed for each species, and then mean and turbulence statistics as well as near-wall turbulence structures are compared at a downstream location. Based on those comparisons, it is shown that there is no direct energy exchanges between internal and turbulent kinetic energies due to thermal and chemical non-equilibrium processes in the flow field. Instead, these non-equilibria affect turbulent boundary layers by changing the temperature without changing the main characteristics of near-wall turbulence structures. This change in the temperature induces the changes in the density and viscosity and the mean flow fields are then adjusted to satisfy the conservation laws. The perturbation fields are modified according to
Wang, Zhenyu; Tian, Wei; Ozbay, Ahmet; Sharma, Anupam; Hu, Hui
2016-09-01
The aeromechanic performance and wake characteristics of a novel twin-rotor wind turbine (TRWT) design, which has an extra set of smaller, auxiliary rotor blades appended in front of the main rotor, was evaluated experimentally, in comparison with those of a conventional single-rotor wind turbine (SRWT) design. The comparative study was performed in a large-scale wind tunnel with scaled TRWT and SRWT models mounted in the same incoming turbulent boundary layer flow. In addition to quantifying power outputs and the dynamic wind loadings acting on the model turbines, the wake characteristics behind the model turbines were also measured by using a particle image velocimetry system and a Cobra anemometry probe. The measurement results reveal that, while the TRWT design is capable of harnessing more wind energy from the same incoming airflow by reducing the roots losses incurred in the region near the roots of the main rotor blades, it also cause much greater dynamic wind loadings acting on the TRWT model and higher velocity deficits in the near wake behind the TRWT model, in comparison with those of the SRWT case. Due to the existence of the auxiliary rotor, more complex vortex structures were found to be generated in the wake behind the TRWT model, which greatly enhanced the turbulent mixing in the turbine wake, and caused a much faster recovery of the velocity deficits in the turbine far wake. As a result, the TRWT design was also found to enable the same downstream turbine to generate more power when sited in the wake behind the TRWT model than that in the SRWT wake, i.e., by mitigating wake losses in typical wind farm settings.
Matthaios, Vasileios N.; Triantafyllou, Athanassios G.; Garas, Stylianos; Krestou, Athina; Leivaditou, Elena
2017-08-01
The dispersion of air pollutants from multiple industrial stacks located in complex topography is an interesting subject. An attractive case is that of the wider region of Western Macedonia in NW Greece, where the greater amount of electric power of Greece is being produced by lignite power plant stations (LPPS). Considerable amounts of atmospheric pollutants are emitted by those LPPS into the atmosphere due to the quantities of coal burned. The variability of the topographic features and the terrain complexity of the area may lead to the formation of local atmospheric circulations of various types, which affect pollutant's transport and dispersion. In the present work, the dispersion conditions that favor the pollutants accumulation in the area are investigated. For this purpose, 1 year's hourly SO2 concentrations, surface wind measurements and a mesoscale meteorological and air pollution model (The Air Pollution Model, TAPM) were used. The SO2 and wind measurements were collected in situ from monitoring stations located nearby and at a greater distance from the power plants. Yearly and daily variations of SO2 concentrations are analyzed and discussed, and the period with the highest concentrations is selected. During this period, the evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) in the area as well as the pollutants dispersion is examined. Statistical measures between modeled and observed meteorological data were in good agreement and a good correlation coefficient 0.68 and 0.98 was found in the SO2 variations. The analysis of the wind fields indicated better ventilation in the center of the area due to topographic venturi effects, while the dispersion mechanism which resulted in the relatively high ground level concentrations was fumigation. Finally, the evolution of the ABL was affected by the complex interactions between topography and mesoscale flows as it was found by the turbulent kinetic energy cross sections.
Studies of stability of blade cascade suction surface boundary layer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DONG Xue-zhi; YAN Pei-gang; HAN Wan-jin
2007-01-01
Compressible boundary layers stability on blade cascade suction surface was discussed by wind tunnel experiment and numerical solution. Three dimensional disturbance wave Parabolized Stability Equations(PSE) of orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates in compressible flow was deducted. The surface pressure of blade in wind tunnel experiment was measured. The Falkner-Skan equation was solved under the boundary conditions of experiment result, and velocity, pressure and temperature of average flow were obtained. Substituted this result for discretization of the PSE Eigenvalue Problem, the stability problem can be solved.
DNS of stratified spatially-developing turbulent thermal boundary layers
Araya, Guillermo; Castillo, Luciano; Jansen, Kenneth
2012-11-01
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of spatially-developing turbulent thermal boundary layers under stratification are performed. It is well known that the transport phenomena of the flow is significantly affected by buoyancy, particularly in urban environments where stable and unstable atmospheric boundary layers are encountered. In the present investigation, the Dynamic Multi-scale approach by Araya et al. (JFM, 670, 2011) for turbulent inflow generation is extended to thermally stratified boundary layers. Furthermore, the proposed Dynamic Multi-scale approach is based on the original rescaling-recycling method by Lund et al. (1998). The two major improvements are: (i) the utilization of two different scaling laws in the inner and outer parts of the boundary layer to better absorb external conditions such as inlet Reynolds numbers, streamwise pressure gradients, buoyancy effects, etc., (ii) the implementation of a Dynamic approach to compute scaling parameters from the flow solution without the need of empirical correlations as in Lund et al. (1998). Numerical results are shown for ZPG flows at high momentum thickness Reynolds numbers (~ 3,000) and a comparison with experimental data is also carried out.
Turbulent Boundary Layer at Large Re
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Horia DUMITRESCU
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The fluids as deformable bodies without own shape, when starting from rest, experience interactions between the flowing fluid and the physical surfaces marking the bounds of flow. These interactions are a kind of impact process where there is a momentum exchange between two colliding bodies, i.e. the flow and its boundary surfaces. Within a short time of contact a post-impact shear flow occurs where two main effects are triggered off by the flow-induced collision: dramatic redistribution of the momentum and the boundary vorticity followed by the shear stress/viscosity change in the microstructure of the fluid which at the beginning behaves as linear reactive medium and latter as nonlinear dispersive medium. The disturbance of the starting flow induces the entanglement of the wall-bounded flow in the form of point-vortices or concentrated vorticity balls whence waves are emitted and propagated through flow field. The paper develops a wave mechanism for the transport of the concentrated boundary vorticity, directly related to the fascinating turbulence phenomenon, using the torsion concept of vorticity filaments associated with the hypothesis of thixotropic/nonlinear viscous fluid.
Localized travelling waves in the asymptotic suction boundary layer
Kreilos, Tobias; Schneider, Tobias M
2016-01-01
We present two spanwise-localized travelling wave solutions in the asymptotic suction boundary layer, obtained by continuation of solutions of plane Couette flow. One of the solutions has the vortical structures located close to the wall, similar to spanwise-localized edge states previously found for this system. The vortical structures of the second solution are located in the free stream far above the laminar boundary layer and are supported by a secondary shear gradient that is created by a large-scale low-speed streak. The dynamically relevant eigenmodes of this solution are concentrated in the free stream, and the departure into turbulence from this solution evolves in the free stream towards the walls. For invariant solutions in free-stream turbulence, this solution thus shows that that the source of energy of the vortical structures can be a dynamical structure of the solution itself, instead of the laminar boundary layer.
Control of the Transitional Boundary Layer
Belson, Brandt A.
This work makes advances in the delay of boundary layer transition from laminar to turbulent flow via feedback control. The applications include the reduction of drag over streamline bodies (e.g., airplane wings) and the decrease of mixing and heat transfer (e.g., over turbine blades in jet engines). A difficulty in many fields is designing feedback controllers for high-dimensional systems, be they experiments or high-fidelity simulations, because the required time and resources are too large. A cheaper alternative is to approximate the high-dimensional system with a reduced-order model and design a controller for the model. We implement several model reduction algorithms in "modred", an open source and publicly available library that is applicable to a wide range of problems. We use this library to study the role of sensors and actuators in feedback control of transition in the 2D boundary layer. Previous work uses a feedforward configuration in which the sensor is upstream of the actuator, but we show that the actuator-sensor pair is unsuitable for feedback control due to an inability to sense the exponentially-growing Tollmien-Schlichting waves. A new actuator-sensor pair is chosen that more directly affects and measures the TS waves, and as a result it is effective in a feedback configuration. Lastly, the feedback controller is shown to outperform feedforward controllers in the presence of unmodeled disturbances. Next, we focus on a specific type of actuator, the single dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) plasma actuator. An array of these plasma actuators is oriented to produce stream-wise vorticity and thus directly cancel the structures with the largest transient growth (so-called stream-wise streaks). We design a feedback controller using only experimental data by first developing an empirical input-output quasi-steady model. Then, we design feedback controllers for the model such that the controllers perform well when applied to the experiment. Lastly, we
An investigation of streaklike instabilities in laminar boundary layer flames
Miller, Colin; Finney, Mark; Forthofer, Jason; McAllister, Sara; Gollner, Michael
2016-11-01
Observations of coherent structures in boundary layer flames, particularly wildland fires, motivated an investigation on flame instabilities within a boundary layer. This experimental study examined streaklike structures in a stationary diffusion flame stabilized within a laminar boundary layer. Flame streaks were found to align with pre-existing velocity perturbations, enabling stabilization of these coherent structures. Thermocouple measurements were used to quantify streamwise amplification of flame streaks. Temperature mapping indicated a temperature rise in the flame streaks, while the region in between these streaks, the trough, decreased in temperature. The heat flux to the surface was measured with a total heat flux gauge, and the heat flux below the troughs was found to be higher at all measurement locations. This was likely a function of the flame standoff distance, and indicated that the flame streaks were acting to modify the spanwise distribution of heat flux. Instabilities in boundary layer combustion can have an effect on the spanwise distribution of heat transfer. This finding has significant implications for boundary layer combustion, indicating that instantaneous properties can vary significantly in a three-dimensional flow field.
Rough-wall turbulent boundary layers with constant skin friction
Sridhar, A.
2017-03-28
A semi-empirical model is presented that describes the development of a fully developed turbulent boundary layer in the presence of surface roughness with length scale ks that varies with streamwise distance x . Interest is centred on flows for which all terms of the von Kármán integral relation, including the ratio of outer velocity to friction velocity U+∞≡U∞/uτ , are streamwise constant. For Rex assumed large, use is made of a simple log-wake model of the local turbulent mean-velocity profile that contains a standard mean-velocity correction for the asymptotic fully rough regime and with assumed constant parameter values. It is then shown that, for a general power-law external velocity variation U∞∼xm , all measures of the boundary-layer thickness must be proportional to x and that the surface sand-grain roughness scale variation must be the linear form ks(x)=αx , where x is the distance from the boundary layer of zero thickness and α is a dimensionless constant. This is shown to give a two-parameter (m,α) family of solutions, for which U+∞ (or equivalently Cf ) and boundary-layer thicknesses can be simply calculated. These correspond to perfectly self-similar boundary-layer growth in the streamwise direction with similarity variable z/(αx) , where z is the wall-normal coordinate. Results from this model over a range of α are discussed for several cases, including the zero-pressure-gradient ( m=0 ) and sink-flow ( m=−1 ) boundary layers. Trends observed in the model are supported by wall-modelled large-eddy simulation of the zero-pressure-gradient case for Rex in the range 108−1010 and for four values of α . Linear streamwise growth of the displacement, momentum and nominal boundary-layer thicknesses is confirmed, while, for each α , the mean-velocity profiles and streamwise turbulent variances are found to collapse reasonably well onto z/(αx) . For given α , calculations of U+∞ obtained from large-eddy simulations are streamwise
Transient thermal response of turbulent compressible boundary layers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Hongwei; Nalim, M. Razi; Merkle, Charles L.
2011-01-01
and Smith, and the turbulent Prandtl number formulation originally developed by Kays and Crawford. The governing differential equations are discretized with the Keller-box method. The numerical accuracy is validated through grid-independence studies and comparison with the steady state solution......-dimensional semi-infinite flat plate. The compressible Reynolds-averaged boundary layer equations are transformed into incompressible form through the Dorodnitsyn-Howarth transformation and then solved with similarity transformations. Turbulence is modeled using a two-layer eddy viscosity model developed by Cebeci....... In turbulent flow as in laminar, the transient heat transfer rates are very different from that obtained from quasi-steady analysis. It is found that the time scale for response of the turbulent boundary layer to far-field temperature changes is 40% less than for laminar flow, and the turbulent local Nusselt...
Turbulent Boundary Layers - Experiments, Theory and Modelling
1980-01-01
DEVELOPMENT (ORGANISATION DU TRAITE DE L’ATLANTIQUE NORD ) AGARD Conference Proceedings No.271 TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYERS - EXPERIMENTS, THEORY AND...photographs of Figures 21 and 22. In this case, the photographs are taken with a single flash strobe and thus yield the instantaneous positions of the
Comments on Hypersonic Boundary-Layer Transition
1990-09-01
laver transition results from instabilities as described by linear stability theory, then the disturbance growth historias follow a prescribed...mechanism by which boundary-layer disturbance growth is generally initiated and establishes the initial distur- banca amplitude at the onset of disturbance
Atmospheric Boundary Layers: Modeling and Parameterization
Holtslag, A.A.M.
2015-01-01
In this contribution we deal with the representation of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) for modeling studies of weather, climate, and air quality. As such we review the major characteristics of the ABL, and summarize the basic parameterizations for the description of atmospheric turbulence and
Astrophysical Boundary Layers: A New Picture
Belyaev, Mikhail; Rafikov, Roman R.; Mclellan Stone, James
2016-04-01
Accretion is a ubiquitous process in astrophysics. In cases when the magnetic field is not too strong and a disk is formed, accretion can proceed through the mid plane all the way to the surface of the central compact object. Unless that compact object is a black hole, a boundary layer will be formed where the accretion disk touches its surfaces. The boundary layer is both dynamically and observationally significant as up to half of the accretion energy is dissipated there.Using a combination of analytical theory and computer simulations we show that angular momentum transport and accretion in the boundary layer is mediated by waves. This breaks with the standard astrophysical paradigm of an anomalous turbulent viscosity that drives accretion. However, wave-mediated angular momentum transport is a natural consequence of "sonic instability." The sonic instability, which we describe analytically and observe in our simulations, is a close cousin of the Papaloizou-Pringle instability. However, it is very vigorous in the boundary layer due to the immense radial velocity shear present at the equator.Our results are applicable to accreting neutron stars, white dwarfs, protostars, and protoplanets.
Controls on boundary layer ventilation: Boundary layer processes and large-scale dynamics
Sinclair, V. A.; Gray, S. L.; Belcher, S. E.
2010-06-01
Midlatitude cyclones are important contributors to boundary layer ventilation. However, it is uncertain how efficient such systems are at transporting pollutants out of the boundary layer, and variations between cyclones are unexplained. In this study 15 idealized baroclinic life cycles, with a passive tracer included, are simulated to identify the relative importance of two transport processes: horizontal divergence and convergence within the boundary layer and large-scale advection by the warm conveyor belt. Results show that the amount of ventilation is insensitive to surface drag over a realistic range of values. This indicates that although boundary layer processes are necessary for ventilation they do not control the magnitude of ventilation. A diagnostic for the mass flux out of the boundary layer has been developed to identify the synoptic-scale variables controlling the strength of ascent in the warm conveyor belt. A very high level of correlation (R2 values exceeding 0.98) is found between the diagnostic and the actual mass flux computed from the simulations. This demonstrates that the large-scale dynamics control the amount of ventilation, and the efficiency of midlatitude cyclones to ventilate the boundary layer can be estimated using the new mass flux diagnostic. We conclude that meteorological analyses, such as ERA-40, are sufficient to quantify boundary layer ventilation by the large-scale dynamics.
Simulation of Wind turbines in the atmospheric boundary layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chivaee, Hamid Sarlak; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming
and higher moments. As an example, figure (1) shows a 2D snapshot of stream-wise velocity contours (in SI units) in an infinite row of wind turbines simulated in stably stratified flow. Simulations are performed usind the in-house CFD code Ellipsys3D, which is a multi-block general purpose, parallelized...... of the specific turbine, however the method reduces the computational costs significantly while giving accurate prediction of wakes and statistical quantities behind the turbine. The simulations start with a neutral prescribed boundary layer that follows a logarithmic profile with the velocity of 8 m/s at the hub......Large eddy simulation of an arbitrary wind farm is studied in the neutral and thermally stratified atmospheric boundary Layer. Large eddy simulations of industrial flows usually requires full resolution of the flow near the wall and this is believed to be one of the main deficiencies of LES because...
Small Scale Forcing in a Turbulent Boundary Layer
Lorkowski, Thomas; Rathnasingham, Ruben; Breuer, Kenneth S.
1996-11-01
In order to understand the effect of small scale forcing on turbulent flows and its implications on control, an experimental investigation is made into the forcing of the inertial scales in the wall region of a turbulent boundary layer. A wall-mounted resonant actuator is used to produce a local vortical structure in the streamwise direction which is convected downstream by the boundary layer flow. The frequency associated with this structure is governed by the resonant frequency of the device and falls in the range of the inertial scales at the Reynolds number of the experiment (Re_θ = 2000). Hot-wire anemometry is used to map the velocity field at several stations downstream of the actuator. The signals are also conditioned to identify the effect of the actuator on different scales in the flow. Amplitude and modulation effects are also discussed. ^*Supported by ONR Grant N00014-92-J-1910.
Leading-edge effects on boundary-layer receptivity
Gatski, Thomas B.; Kerschen, Edward J.
1990-01-01
Numerical calculations are presented for the incompressible flow over a parabolic cylinder. The computational domain extends from a region upstream of the body downstream to the region where the Blasius boundary-layer solution holds. A steady mean flow solution is computed and the results for the scaled surface vorticity, surface pressure and displacement thickness are compared to previous studies. The unsteady problem is then formulated as a perturbation solution starting with and evolving from the mean flow. The response to irrotational time harmonic pulsation of the free-stream is examined. Results for the initial development of the velocity profile and displacement thickness are presented. These calculations will be extended to later times to investigate the initiation of instability waves within the boundary-layer.
On buffer layers as non-reflecting computational boundaries
Hayder, M. Ehtesham; Turkel, Eli L.
1996-01-01
We examine an absorbing buffer layer technique for use as a non-reflecting boundary condition in the numerical simulation of flows. One such formulation was by Ta'asan and Nark for the linearized Euler equations. They modified the flow inside the buffer zone to artificially make it supersonic in the layer. We examine how this approach can be extended to the nonlinear Euler equations. We consider both a conservative and a non-conservative form modifying the governing equations in the buffer layer. We compare this with the case that the governing equations in the layer are the same as in the interior domain. We test the effectiveness of these buffer layers by a simulation of an excited axisymmetric jet based on a nonlinear compressible Navier-Stokes equations.
Numerical methods for hypersonic boundary layer stability
Malik, M. R.
1990-01-01
Four different schemes for solving compressible boundary layer stability equations are developed and compared, considering both the temporal and spatial stability for a global eigenvalue spectrum and a local eigenvalue search. The discretizations considered encompass: (1) a second-order-staggered finite-difference scheme; (2) a fourth-order accurate, two-point compact scheme; (3) a single-domain Chebychev spectral collocation scheme; and (4) a multidomain spectral collocation scheme. As Mach number increases, the performance of the single-domain collocation scheme deteriorates due to the outward movement of the critical layer; a multidomain spectral method is accordingly designed to furnish superior resolution of the critical layer.
Modeling of particulate plumes transportation in boundary layers with obstacles
Karelsky, K. V.; Petrosyan, A. S.
2012-04-01
This presentation is aimed at creating and realization of new physical model of impurity transfer (solid particles and heavy gases) in areas with non-flat and/or nonstationary boundaries. The main idea of suggested method is to use non-viscous equations for solid particles transport modeling in the vicinity of complex boundary. In viscous atmosphere with as small as one likes coefficient of molecular viscosity, the non-slip boundary condition on solid surface must be observed. This postulates the reduction of velocity to zero at a solid surface. It is unconditionally in this case Prandtle hypothesis must be observed: for rather wide range of conditions in the surface neighboring layers energy dissipation of atmosphere flows is comparable by magnitude with manifestation of inertia forces. That is why according to Prandtle hypothesis in atmosphere movement characterizing by a high Reynolds number the boundary layer is forming near a planet surface, within which the required transition from zero velocities at the surface to magnitudes at the external boundary of the layer that are quite close to ones in ideal atmosphere flow. In that layer fast velocity gradients cause viscous effects to be comparable in magnitude with inertia forces influence. For conditions considered essential changes of hydrodynamic fields near solid boundary caused not only by nonslip condition but also by a various relief of surface: mountains, street canyons, individual buildings. Transport of solid particles, their ascent and precipitation also result in dramatic changes of meteorological fields. As dynamic processes of solid particles transfer accompanying the flow past of complex relief surface by wind flows is of our main interest we are to use equations of non-viscous hydrodynamic. We should put up with on the one hand idea of high wind gradients in the boundary layer and on the other hand disregard of molecular viscosity in two-phase atmosphere equations. We deal with describing high
Transportation of particulate plumes in boundary layer with obstacles
Petrosyan, A.; Karelsky, K.; Smirnov, I.
2010-05-01
This presentation is aimed at creating and realization of new physical model of impurity transfer (solid particles and heavy gases) in areas with non-flat and/or nonstationary boundaries. The main idea of suggested method is to use non-viscous equations for solid particles transport modeling in the vicinity of complex boundary. In viscous atmosphere with as small as one likes coefficient of molecular viscosity, the non-slip boundary condition on solid surface must be observed. This postulates the reduction of velocity to zero at a solid surface. It is unconditionally in this case Prandtle hypothesis must be observed: for rather wide range of conditions in the surface neighboring layers energy dissipation of atmosphere flows is comparable by magnitude with manifestation of inertia forces. That is why according to Prandtle hypothesis in atmosphere movement characterizing by a high Reynolds number the boundary layer is forming near a planet surface, within which the required transition from zero velocities at the surface to magnitudes at the external boundary of the layer that are quite close to ones in ideal atmosphere flow. In that layer fast velocity gradients cause viscous effects to be comparable in magnitude with inertia forces influence. For conditions considered essential changes of hydrodynamic fields near solid boundary caused not only by nonslip condition but also by a various relief of surface: mountains, street canyons, individual buildings. Transport of solid particles, their ascent and precipitation also result in dramatic changes of meteorological fields. As dynamic processes of solid particles transfer accompanying the flow past of complex relief surface by wind flows is of our main interest we are to use equations of non-viscous hydrodynamic. We should put up with on the one hand idea of high wind gradients in the boundary layer and on the other hand disregard of molecular viscosity in two-phase atmosphere equations. We deal with describing high
Transport of Particulates in Boundary Layer with Obstacles
Karelsky, Kirill; Petrosyan, Arakel
2014-05-01
This presentation is aimed at creating and realization of new physical model of impurity transfer (solid particles and heavy gases) in areas with non-flat and/or nonstationary boundaries. The main idea of suggested method is to use non-viscous equations for solid particles transport modeling in the vicinity of complex boundary. In viscous atmosphere with as small as one likes coefficient of molecular viscosity, the non-slip boundary condition on solid surface must be observed. This postulates the reduction of velocity to zero at a solid surface. It is unconditionally in this case Prandtle hypothesis must be observed: for rather wide range of conditions in the surface neighboring layers energy dissipation of atmosphere flows is comparable by magnitude with manifestation of inertia forces. That is why according to Prandtle hypothesis in atmosphere movement characterizing by a high Reynolds number the boundary layer is forming near a planet surface, within which the required transition from zero velocities at the surface to magnitudes at the external boundary of the layer that are quite close to ones in ideal atmosphere flow. In that layer fast velocity gradients cause viscous effects to be comparable in magnitude with inertia forces influence. For conditions considered essential changes of hydrodynamic fields near solid boundary caused not only by nonslip condition but also by a various relief of surface: mountains, street canyons, individual buildings. Transport of solid particles, their ascent and precipitation also result in dramatic changes of meteorological fields. As dynamic processes of solid particles transfer accompanying the flow past of complex relief surface by wind flows is of our main interest we are to use equations of non-viscous hydrodynamic. We should put up with on the one hand idea of high wind gradients in the boundary layer and on the other hand disregard of molecular viscosity in two-phase atmosphere equations. We deal with describing high
Irregularity excitation associated with charged dust cloud boundary layers
Mahmoudian, A.; Scales, W. A.
2012-02-01
Irregularity generation associated with dust cloud expansion through a background plasma along a magnetic field is investigated. Because of the dust charging process, a boundary layer is produced, separating the dusty plasma generated and the background plasma. It is observed that under appropriate conditions, localized plasma irregularities may be generated in this boundary layer. Theoretical and computational models are used to study the evolution of relevant plasma instabilities thought to play a dominant role in irregularity production. An electron flow develops along the boundary layer of the dust cloud, and plasma irregularities are generated in response to this flow. Several aspects of the cloud's structure (thickness of the boundary layer, average particle size and density, collisional processes, and cloud expansion speed) and the ambient plasma are varied to determine the effect of these quantities on the resulting irregularities. The relevance of these results to past experimental observations in space and the laboratory for applications to the expansion of naturally or artificially created dust clouds is discussed.
Boundary-Layer Wind Structure in a Landfalling Tropical Cyclone
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
In this study, a slab boundary layer model with a constant depth is used to analyze the boundary-layer wind structure in a landfalling tropical cyclone. Asymmetry is found in both the tangential and radial components of horizontal wind in the tropical cyclone boundary layer at landfall. For a steady tropical cyclone on a straight coastline at landfall, the magnitude of the radial component is greater in the offshoreflow side and the tangential component is greater over the sea, slightly offshore, therefore the greater total wind speed occurs in the offshore-flow side over the sea. The budget analysis suggests that: (1) a greater surface friction over land produces a greater inflow and the nonlinear effect advects the maximum inflow downstream, and (2) a smaller surface friction over the sea makes the decrease of the tangential wind component less than that over land. Moreover, the boundary layer wind structures in a tropical cyclone are related to the locations of the tropical cyclone relative to the coastline due to the different surface frictions. During tropical cyclone landfall, the impact of rough terrain on the cyclone increases, so the magnitude of the radial component of wind speed increases in the offshore-flow side and the tangential component outside the radius of maximum wind speed decreases gradually.
DNS of compressible turbulent boundary layer around a sharp cone
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI XinLiang; FU DeXun; MA YanWen
2008-01-01
Direct numerical simulation of the turbulent boundary layer over a sharp cone with 20° cone angle (or 10° half-cone angle) is performed by using the mixed seventh-order up-wind biased finite difference scheme and sixth-order central difference scheme.The free stream Mach number is 0.7 and free stream unit Reynolds number is 250000/inch.The characteristics of transition and turbulence of the sharp cone boundary layer are compared with those of the flat plate boundary layer,Statistics of fully developed turbulent flow agree well with the experimental and theoretical data for the turbulent flat-plate boundary layer flow.The near wall streak-like structure is shown and the average space between streaks (normalized by the local wall unit) keeps approximately invariable at different streamwise locations,The turbulent energy equation in the cylindrical coordinate is given and turbulent en-ergy budget is studied.The computed results show that the effect of circumferen-tial curvature on turbulence characteristics is not obvious.
Hair receptor sensitivity to changes in laminar boundary layer shape
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dickinson, B T, E-mail: btdickinson@lifetime.oregonstate.ed [Air Force Research Laboratory, Munitions Directorate, Eglin Air Force Base, FL 32542 (United States)
2010-03-15
Biologists have shown that bat wings contain distributed arrays of flow-sensitive hair receptors. The hair receptors are hypothesized to feedback information on airflows over the bat wing for enhanced stability or maneuverability during flight. Here, we study the geometric specialization of hair-like structures for the detection of changes in boundary layer velocity profiles (shapes). A quasi-steady model that relates the flow velocity profile incident on the longitudinal axis of a hair to the resultant moment and shear force at the hair base is developed. The hair length relative to the boundary layer momentum thickness that maximizes the resultant moment and shear-force sensitivity to changes in boundary layer shape is determined. The sensitivity of the resultant moment and shear force is shown to be highly dependent on hair length. Hairs that linearly taper to a point are shown to provide greater output sensitivity than hairs of uniform cross-section. On an order of magnitude basis, the computed optimal hair lengths are in agreement with the range of hair receptor lengths measured on individual bat species. These results support the hypothesis that bats use hair receptors for detecting changes in boundary layer shape and provide geometric guidelines for artificial hair sensor design and application.
Hair receptor sensitivity to changes in laminar boundary layer shape.
Dickinson, B T
2010-03-01
Biologists have shown that bat wings contain distributed arrays of flow-sensitive hair receptors. The hair receptors are hypothesized to feedback information on airflows over the bat wing for enhanced stability or maneuverability during flight. Here, we study the geometric specialization of hair-like structures for the detection of changes in boundary layer velocity profiles (shapes). A quasi-steady model that relates the flow velocity profile incident on the longitudinal axis of a hair to the resultant moment and shear force at the hair base is developed. The hair length relative to the boundary layer momentum thickness that maximizes the resultant moment and shear-force sensitivity to changes in boundary layer shape is determined. The sensitivity of the resultant moment and shear force is shown to be highly dependent on hair length. Hairs that linearly taper to a point are shown to provide greater output sensitivity than hairs of uniform cross-section. On an order of magnitude basis, the computed optimal hair lengths are in agreement with the range of hair receptor lengths measured on individual bat species. These results support the hypothesis that bats use hair receptors for detecting changes in boundary layer shape and provide geometric guidelines for artificial hair sensor design and application.
Transitional boundary layers in low-Prandtl-number convection
Schumacher, Jörg; Bandaru, Vinodh; Pandey, Ambrish; Scheel, Janet D.
2016-12-01
The boundary layer structure of the velocity and temperature fields in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard flows in closed cylindrical cells of unit aspect ratio is revisited from a transitional and turbulent viscous boundary layer perspective. When the Rayleigh number is large enough, the dynamics at the bottom and top plates can be separated into an impact region of downwelling plumes, an ejection region of upwelling plumes, and an interior region away from the side walls. The latter is dominated by the shear of the large-scale circulation (LSC) roll, which fills the whole cell and continuously varies its orientation. The working fluid is liquid mercury or gallium at a Prandtl number Pr=0.021 for Rayleigh numbers 3 ×105≤Ra≤4 ×108 . The generated turbulent momentum transfer corresponds to macroscopic flow Reynolds numbers with 1.8 ×103≤Re≤4.6 ×104 . In highly resolved spectral element direct numerical simulations, we present the mean profiles of velocity, Reynolds stress, and temperature in inner viscous units and compare our findings with convection experiments and channel flow data. The complex three-dimensional and time-dependent structure of the LSC in the cell is compensated by a plane-by-plane symmetry transformation which aligns the horizontal velocity components and all its derivatives with the instantaneous orientation of the LSC. As a consequence, the torsion of the LSC is removed, and a streamwise direction in the shear flow can be defined. It is shown that the viscous boundary layers for the largest Rayleigh numbers are highly transitional and obey properties that are directly comparable to transitional channel flows at friction Reynolds numbers Reτ≲102 . The transitional character of the viscous boundary layer is also underlined by the strong enhancement of the fluctuations of the wall stress components with increasing Rayleigh number. An extrapolation of our analysis data suggests that the friction Reynolds number Reτ in the velocity boundary
The Lowest Atmosphere: Atmospheric Boundary Layer Including Atmospheric Surface Layer.
1996-04-01
of motion of the atmosphere— "second order closure"—to such applications as the SCIPUFF -PC code for tracer dispersion (see Sykes, 1994). Now, for...Turbulence, Methuen, London, 2nd Ed., 1955. Sykes, R.I., "The SCIPUFF -PC Code," ARAP Draft Report, 1994. Tennekes, H., "The Atmospheric Boundary Layer
Turbulent dispersion in cloud-topped boundary layers
Verzijlbergh, R.A.; Jonker, H.J.J.; Heus, T.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.
2009-01-01
Compared to dry boundary layers, dispersion in cloud-topped boundary layers has received less attention. In this LES based numerical study we investigate the dispersion of a passive tracer in the form of Lagrangian particles for four kinds of atmospheric boundary layers: 1) a dry convective boundary
Spina, Eric F.
1995-01-01
The primary objective in the two research investigations performed under NASA Langley sponsorship (Turbulence measurements in hypersonic boundary layers using constant temperature anemometry and Reynolds stress measurements in hypersonic boundary layers) has been to increase the understanding of the physics of hypersonic turbulent boundary layers. The study began with an extension of constant-temperature thermal anemometry techniques to a Mach 11 helium flow, including careful examinations of hot-wire construction techniques, system response, and system calibration. This was followed by the application of these techniques to the exploration of a Mach 11 helium turbulent boundary layer (To approximately 290 K). The data that was acquired over the course of more than two years consists of instantaneous streamwise mass flux measurements at a frequency response of about 500 kHz. The data are of exceptional quality in both the time and frequency domain and possess a high degree of repeatability. The data analysis that has been performed to date has added significantly to the body of knowledge on hypersonic turbulence, and the data reduction is continuing. An attempt was then made to extend these thermal anemometry techniques to higher enthalpy flows, starting with a Mach 6 air flow with a stagnation temperature just above that needed to prevent liquefaction (To approximately 475 F). Conventional hot-wire anemometry proved to be inadequate for the selected high-temperature, high dynamic pressure flow, with frequent wire breakage and poor system frequency response. The use of hot-film anemometry has since been investigated for these higher-enthalpy, severe environment flows. The difficulty with using hot-film probes for dynamic (turbulence) measurements is associated with construction limitations and conduction of heat into the film substrate. Work continues under a NASA GSRP grant on the development of a hot film probe that overcomes these shortcomings for hypersonic
Large-eddy simulation of the very stable boundary layer
Chinita, M. J.; Matheou, G.
2016-12-01
The stable boundary layer is ubiquitous and typically forms at night when the ground radiatively cools and in polar regions throughout the day. Stable stratification and the associated reduction in the energetic scales in combination with the large anisotropy of turbulent motions challenge numerical models. This modeling difficulty also affects large-eddy simulation (LES) methods leading to scarce LES results for very stable conditions. In contrast, the NWP of convective flows has greatly benefited from the ample availability of high quality LES data. In order to overcome these limitations, a novel LES model setup is developed to enable the modeling of very stable boundary layers. A series of Ekman layer-type boundary layers at various surface cooling rates, geotropic winds and latitudes (rotation rates) is presented. A temperature surface condition is applied in the LES. The surface heat flux is dynamically computed byresolving the surface layer since the often-used Monin-Obukhov similarity theory cannot represent very stable conditions. Depending on the conditions, the LES gracefully transitions to a direct numerical simulation (DNS) where the flow becomes fully resolved. Two stability regimes can be discerned based on vertical profiles of the Richardson number. Overall, the model predicts that turbulence is very resilient with respect to stability. Temperature and velocity fluctuations persist even at high Richardson numbers. The nature of the fluctuations, i.e., due to turbulence/overturning or waves, is discussed. Scaling relations and spectra are also presented and discussed.
New Theories on Boundary Layer Transition and Turbulence Formation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chaoqun Liu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is a short review of our recent DNS work on physics of late boundary layer transition and turbulence. Based on our DNS observation, we propose a new theory on boundary layer transition, which has five steps, that is, receptivity, linear instability, large vortex structure formation, small length scale generation, loss of symmetry and randomization to turbulence. For turbulence generation and sustenance, the classical theory, described with Richardson's energy cascade and Kolmogorov length scale, is not observed by our DNS. We proposed a new theory on turbulence generation that all small length scales are generated by “shear layer instability” through multiple level ejections and sweeps and consequent multiple level positive and negative spikes, but not by “vortex breakdown.” We believe “shear layer instability” is the “mother of turbulence.” The energy transferring from large vortices to small vortices is carried out by multiple level sweeps, but does not follow Kolmogorov's theory that large vortices pass energy to small ones through vortex stretch and breakdown. The loss of symmetry starts from the second level ring cycle in the middle of the flow field and spreads to the bottom of the boundary layer and then the whole flow field.
A bursting phenomenon in a vortex-gas boundary layer
Sekaran, Aarthi; Narasimha, Roddam; Govindarajan, Rama
2014-11-01
Bursts are a central phenomenon in turbulent boundary layers as they are an integral part of turbulent energy and stress production. They have consequently been a continuing area of interest since the 1970s following the detailed investigations of Kline et al. (1967). Despite several attempts to understand their dynamics, it has been difficult to arrive at a consensus even on the scaling of the burst frequency. The present investigation simulates the outer part of a plane turbulent boundary layer using the vortex-gas model, in a first step towards understanding the role of the outer layer in boundary layer dynamics. Preliminary results indicate the formation of regions of concentrated vorticity near the wall, at a frequency that is independent of the initial vortex configuration but a function of the mean velocity profile. Further, comparisons with existing experimental data indicate a burst frequency which when scaled on outer variables, is within the range of scatter among different studies. Quadrant occupancy statistics are also related to those in conventional boundary layers. It appears as if a bursting phenomenon of some kind may be a general feature of an inviscid, wall-bounded shear flow, and does not necessitate inclusion of either viscosity or three-dimensionality.
Advances in Unsteady Boundary Layer Transition Research, Part II: Experimental Verification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. T. Schobeiri
2003-01-01
Full Text Available This two-part article presents recent advances in boundary layer research into the unsteady boundary layer transition modeling and its validation. This, Part II, deals with the results of an inductive approach based on comprehensive experimental and theoretical studies of unsteady wake flow and unsteady boundary layer flow. The experiments were performed on a curved plate at a zero streamwise pressure gradient under periodic unsteady wake flow, in which the frequency of the periodic unsteady flow was varied. To validate the model, systematic experimental investigations were performed on the suction and pressure surfaces of turbine blades integrated into a high-subsonic cascade test facility, which was designed for unsteady boundary layer investigations. The analysis of the experiment's results and comparison with the model's prediction confirm the validity of the model and its ability to predict accurately the unsteady boundary layer transition.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. P. Anjali Devi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A study has been carried out on MHD boundary layer forced convection flow along a shrinking surface with variable heat flux in the presence of heat source. The flow is generated due to linear shrinking of the sheet and is influenced by uniform transverse magnetic field. The basic boundary layer momentum and heat transfer equations, which are nonlinear partial differential equations, are converted into nonlinear ordinary differential equations by means of similarity transformation. Numerical solution of the resulting boundary value problem is obtained using Nachtsheim Swigert shooting iteration scheme for the satisfaction of asymptotic boundary conditions along with the Fourth Order Runge Kutta method. The effects of suction parameter, magnetic parameter, Prandtl number, heat source parameter, stretching/shrinking parameter and heat flux parameter on velocity and temperature are shown in several plots. The results are in good agreement with the earlier published works under some limiting cases. Skin friction coefficient and wall temperature are also explored for typical values of the parameter involved in the study.
Boundary layer control of rotating convection systems.
King, Eric M; Stellmach, Stephan; Noir, Jerome; Hansen, Ulrich; Aurnou, Jonathan M
2009-01-15
Turbulent rotating convection controls many observed features of stars and planets, such as magnetic fields, atmospheric jets and emitted heat flux patterns. It has long been argued that the influence of rotation on turbulent convection dynamics is governed by the ratio of the relevant global-scale forces: the Coriolis force and the buoyancy force. Here, however, we present results from laboratory and numerical experiments which exhibit transitions between rotationally dominated and non-rotating behaviour that are not determined by this global force balance. Instead, the transition is controlled by the relative thicknesses of the thermal (non-rotating) and Ekman (rotating) boundary layers. We formulate a predictive description of the transition between the two regimes on the basis of the competition between these two boundary layers. This transition scaling theory unifies the disparate results of an extensive array of previous experiments, and is broadly applicable to natural convection systems.
MHD Turbulence in Accretion Disk Boundary Layers
Chan, Chi-kwan
2012-01-01
The physical modeling of the accretion disk boundary layer, the region where the disk meets the surface of the accreting star, usually relies on the assumption that angular momentum transport is opposite to the radial angular frequency gradient of the disk. The standard model for turbulent shear viscosity, widely adopted in astrophysics, satisfies this assumption by construction. However, this behavior is not supported by numerical simulations of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accretion disks, which show that angular momentum transport driven by the magnetorotational instability is inefficient in this inner disk region. I will discuss the results of a recent study on the generation of hydromagnetic stresses and energy density in the boundary layer around a weakly magnetized star. Our findings suggest that although magnetic energy density can be significantly amplified in this region, angular momentum transport is rather inefficient. This seems consistent with the results obtained in numerical simulations...
Supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer: DNS and RANS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Jing-Lei; MA Hui-Yang
2007-01-01
We assess the performance of a few turbulence models for Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation of supersonic boundary layers, compared to the direct numerical simulations (DNS) of supersonic flat-plate turbulent boundary layers, carried out by Gao et al. [Chin. Phys. Lett. 22 (2005) 1709] and Huang et al. [Sci.Chin. 48 (2005) 614], as well as some available experimental data. The assessment is made for two test cases, with incoming Mach numbers and Reynolds numbers M = 2.25, Re = 365, 000/in, and M = 4.5, Re - 1.7 × 107/m,respectively. It is found that in the first case the prediction of RANS models agrees well with the DNS and the experimental data, while for the second case the agreement of the DNS models with experiment is less satisfactory.The compressibility effect on the RANS models is discussed.
BOREAS AFM-6 Boundary Layer Height Data
Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 915-MHz wind/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) profiler system in the Southern Study Area (SSA) near the Old Jack Pine (OJP) site. This data set provides boundary layer height information over the site. The data were collected from 21 May 1994 to 20 Sep 1994 and are stored in tabular ASCII files. The boundary layer height data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).
Instabilities and transition in boundary layers
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
N Vinod; Rama Govindarajan
2005-03-01
Some recent developments in boundary layer instabilities and transition are reviewed. Background disturbance levels determine the instability mechanism that ultimately leads to turbulence. At low noise levels, the traditional Tollmien–Schlichting route is followed, while at high levels, a `by-pass' route is more likely. Our recent work shows that spot birth is related to the pattern of secondary instability in either route.
2007 Program of Study: Boundary Layers
2008-06-01
PM Coalescence of charged water droplets Andrew Belmonte, Pennsylvania State University August 9 - 10:30 AM Multiscale analysis of strongly...Properties of Helium Near the Liquid-Vapor Critical Point. J. low Temp. Phys. 46, 115-135. [15] Polezhaev, V. I. and Soboleva, E. B. 2004 Rayleigh...through which potassium permanganate was added in most of the experiments in order to detect a possible appearance of boundary layer separation and
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. S. Motsa
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces two novel numerical algorithms for the efficient solution of coupled systems of nonlinear boundary value problems. The methods are benchmarked against existing methods by finding dual solutions of the highly nonlinear system of equations that model the flow of a viscoelastic liquid of Oldroyd-B type in a channel of infinite extent. The methods discussed here are the spectral relaxation method and spectral quasi-linearisation method. To verify the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed methods a comparative evaluation of the performance of the methods against established numerical techniques is given.
An Analysis of the Characteristics of the Thermal Boundary Layer in Power Law Fluid
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the heat transfer for the boundary layer flow on a continuous moving surface in power law fluid. The expressions of the thermal boundary layer thickness with the different heat conductivity coefficients are obtained according to the theory of the dimensional analysis of fluid dynamics and heat transfer. And the numerical results of CFD agree well with the proposed expressions. The estimate formulas can be successfully applied to giving the thermal boundary layer thickness.