Boundary Layer Control on Airfoils.
Gerhab, George; Eastlake, Charles
1991-01-01
A phenomena, boundary layer control (BLC), produced when visualizing the fluidlike flow of air is described. The use of BLC in modifying aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils, race cars, and boats is discussed. (KR)
Active control of ionized boundary layers
Mendes, R V
1997-01-01
The challenging problems, in the field of control of chaos or of transition to chaos, lie in the domain of infinite-dimensional systems. Access to all variables being impossible in this case and the controlling action being limited to a few collective variables, it will not in general be possible to drive the whole system to the desired behaviour. A paradigmatic problem of this type is the control of the transition to turbulence in the boundary layer of fluid motion. By analysing a boundary layer flow for an ionized fluid near an airfoil, one concludes that active control of the transition amounts to the resolution of an generalized integro-differential eigenvalue problem. To cope with the required response times and phase accuracy, electromagnetic control, whenever possible, seems more appropriate than mechanical control by microactuators.
Vortex Generators to Control Boundary Layer Interactions
Babinsky, Holger (Inventor); Loth, Eric (Inventor); Lee, Sang (Inventor)
2014-01-01
Devices for generating streamwise vorticity in a boundary includes various forms of vortex generators. One form of a split-ramp vortex generator includes a first ramp element and a second ramp element with front ends and back ends, ramp surfaces extending between the front ends and the back ends, and vertical surfaces extending between the front ends and the back ends adjacent the ramp surfaces. A flow channel is between the first ramp element and the second ramp element. The back ends of the ramp elements have a height greater than a height of the front ends, and the front ends of the ramp elements have a width greater than a width of the back ends.
Bristled shark skin: a microgeometry for boundary layer control?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lang, A W; Hidalgo, P; Westcott, M [Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics Department, University of Alabama, Box 870280, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Motta, P [Biology Department, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States)], E-mail: alang@eng.ua.edu
2008-12-01
There exists evidence that some fast-swimming shark species may have the ability to bristle their scales during fast swimming. Experimental work using a water tunnel facility has been performed to investigate the flow field over and within a bristled shark skin model submerged within a boundary layer to deduce the possible boundary layer control mechanisms being used by these fast-swimming sharks. Fluorescent dye flow visualization provides evidence of the formation of embedded cavity vortices within the scales. Digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) data, used to evaluate the cavity vortex formation and boundary layer characteristics close to the surface, indicate increased momentum in the slip layer forming above the scales. This increase in flow velocity close to the shark's skin is indicative of boundary layer control mechanisms leading to separation control and possibly transition delay for the bristled shark skin microgeometry.
Turbulent boundary layer under the control of different schemes
Qiao, Z. X.; Zhou, Y.; Wu, Z.
2017-06-01
This work explores experimentally the control of a turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate based on wall perturbation generated by piezo-ceramic actuators. Different schemes are investigated, including the feed-forward, the feedback, and the combined feed-forward and feedback strategies, with a view to suppressing the near-wall high-speed events and hence reducing skin friction drag. While the strategies may achieve a local maximum drag reduction slightly less than their counterpart of the open-loop control, the corresponding duty cycles are substantially reduced when compared with that of the open-loop control. The results suggest a good potential to cut down the input energy under these control strategies. The fluctuating velocity, spectra, Taylor microscale and mean energy dissipation are measured across the boundary layer with and without control and, based on the measurements, the flow mechanism behind the control is proposed.
Turbulent boundary layer under the control of different schemes.
Qiao, Z X; Zhou, Y; Wu, Z
2017-06-01
This work explores experimentally the control of a turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate based on wall perturbation generated by piezo-ceramic actuators. Different schemes are investigated, including the feed-forward, the feedback, and the combined feed-forward and feedback strategies, with a view to suppressing the near-wall high-speed events and hence reducing skin friction drag. While the strategies may achieve a local maximum drag reduction slightly less than their counterpart of the open-loop control, the corresponding duty cycles are substantially reduced when compared with that of the open-loop control. The results suggest a good potential to cut down the input energy under these control strategies. The fluctuating velocity, spectra, Taylor microscale and mean energy dissipation are measured across the boundary layer with and without control and, based on the measurements, the flow mechanism behind the control is proposed.
Optimal control of wind turbines in a turbulent boundary layer
Yilmaz, Ali Emre; Meyers, Johan
2016-11-01
In recent years, optimal control theory was combined with large-eddy simulations to study the optimal control of wind farms and their interaction with the atmospheric boundary layer. The individual turbine's induction factors were dynamically controlled in time with the aim of increasing overall power extraction. In these studies, wind turbines were represented using an actuator disk method. In the current work, we focus on optimal control on a much finer mesh (and a smaller computational domain), representing turbines with an actuator line method. Similar to Refs., optimization is performed using a gradient-based method, and gradients are obtained employing an adjoint formulation. Different cases are investigated, that include a single and a double turbine case both with uniform inflow, and with turbulent-boundary-layer inflow. The authors acknowledge support from the European Research Council (FP7-Ideas, Grant No. 306471).
Simulation and optimal control of wind-farm boundary layers
Meyers, Johan; Goit, Jay
2014-05-01
In large wind farms, the effect of turbine wakes, and their interaction leads to a reduction in farm efficiency, with power generated by turbines in a farm being lower than that of a lone-standing turbine by up to 50%. In very large wind farms or `deep arrays', this efficiency loss is related to interaction of the wind farms with the planetary boundary layer, leading to lower wind speeds at turbine level. Moreover, for these cases it has been demonstrated both in simulations and wind-tunnel experiments that the wind-farm energy extraction is dominated by the vertical turbulent transport of kinetic energy from higher regions in the boundary layer towards the turbine level. In the current study, we investigate the use of optimal control techniques combined with Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) of wind-farm boundary layer interaction for the increase of total energy extraction in very large `infinite' wind farms. We consider the individual wind turbines as flow actuators, whose energy extraction can be dynamically regulated in time so as to optimally influence the turbulent flow field, maximizing the wind farm power. For the simulation of wind-farm boundary layers we use large-eddy simulations in combination with actuator-disk and actuator-line representations of wind turbines. Simulations are performed in our in-house pseudo-spectral code SP-Wind that combines Fourier-spectral discretization in horizontal directions with a fourth-order finite-volume approach in the vertical direction. For the optimal control study, we consider the dynamic control of turbine-thrust coefficients in an actuator-disk model. They represent the effect of turbine blades that can actively pitch in time, changing the lift- and drag coefficients of the turbine blades. Optimal model-predictive control (or optimal receding horizon control) is used, where the model simply consists of the full LES equations, and the time horizon is approximately 280 seconds. The optimization is performed using a
Robust Controller for Turbulent and Convective Boundary Layers
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Speyer, Jason L; Kim, J. John
2006-01-01
Linear feedback controllers and estimators have been designed from the governing equations of a channel flow, linearized about the laminar mean flow, and a layer of heated fluid, linearized about the no-motion state...
Large-Eddy Simulation of Shock-Wave Boundary Layer Interaction and its Control Using Sparkjet
Yang, Guang; Yao, Yufeng; Fang, Jian; Gan, Tian; Lu, Lipeng
2016-06-01
Large-eddy simulation (LES) of an oblique shock-wave generated by an 8° sharp wedge impinging onto a spatially-developing Mach 2.3 turbulent boundary layer and their interactions has been carried out in this study. The Reynolds number based on the incoming flow property and the boundary layer displacement thickness at the impinging point without shock-wave is 20,000. The detailed numerical approaches are described and the inflow turbulence is generated using the digital filter method to avoid artificial temporal or streamwise periodicity. Numerical results are compared with the available wind tunnel PIV measurements of the same flow conditions. Further LES study on the control of flow separation due to the strong shock-viscous interaction is also conducted by using an active control actuator “SparkJet” concept. The single-pulsed characteristics of the control device are obtained and compared with the experiments. Instantaneous flowfield shows that the “SparkJet” promotes the flow mixing in the boundary layer and enhances its ability to resist the flow separation. The time and spanwise averaged skin friction coefficient distribution demonstrates that the separation bubble length is reduced by maximum 35% with the control exerted.
Control of Boundary Layers for Aero-optical Applications
2015-06-23
Tunnel ( TWT ) facility located in Hessert Laboratory for Aerospace Research at the University of 8 Notre Dame. The TWT is composed of an inlet...4.2 Results One set of measurements were conducted in the Hessert Transonic Wind Tunnel ( TWT ) at the University of Notre Dame. The total length...Boundary Layer Wall Heating Conditions Facility V∞ [m/s] M δ [cm] Reθ ΔT [K] fsamp [kHz] Caltech MWT 9.4 0.03 2.7 1,700 21 30 ND TWT 64.8 0.18 1.2
Micro-actuators for Turbulent Boundary Layer Control
Lee, Conrad; Colmenero, Gerardo; Goldstein, David; Wu, Kevin; Breuer, Kenneth
2003-11-01
We present direct numerical simulations and experiments on micro-jet control of a turbulent channel flow. The simulation code is pseudo-spectral and uses a virtual surface approach (immersed boundaries created with body forces) to model arrays of individually controlled rectangular slots in a doubly-periodic domain. Flush-mounted sensors are positioned either upstream (to detect gradients of streamwise vorticity) or directly over the actuators (to detect wall-normal velocity). The results emphasize the differences between earlier simulations using continuously variable blowing and suction and what is physically attainable using discrete actuators and sensors. Results show small drag reductions occur with the discrete actuators. Comparisons are made with physical experiments designed to closely match the simulations. Here, arrays of flush-mounted actuators force a low-Reynolds number turbulent channel flow in response to upstream-mounted shear sensors. The response of the flow is measured using PIV.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yang Guang
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The efficiency and mechanism of an active control device “SparkJet” and its application in shock-induced separation control are studied using large-eddy simulation in this paper. The base flow is the interaction of an oblique shock-wave generated by 8° wedge and a spatially-developing Ma = 2.3 turbulent boundary layer. The Reynolds number based on the incoming flow property and the boundary layer displacement thickness at the impinging point without shock-wave is 20000. The detailed numerical approaches were presented. The inflow turbulence was generated using the digital filter method to avoid artificial temporal or streamwise periodicity. The numerical results including velocity profile, Reynolds stress profile, skin friction, and wall pressure were systematically validated against the available wind tunnel particle image velocimetry (PIV measurements of the same flow condition. Further study on the control of flow separation due to the strong shock-viscous interaction using an active control actuator “SparkJet” was conducted. The single-pulsed characteristic of the device was obtained and compared with the experiment. Both instantaneous and time-averaged flow fields have shown that the jet flow issuing from the actuator cavity enhances the flow mixing inside the boundary layer, making the boundary layer more resistant to flow separation. Skin friction coefficient distribution shows that the separation bubble length is reduced by about 35% with control exerted.
Control Parameters for Boundary-Layer Instabilities in Unsteady Shock Interactions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
LaVar King Isaacson
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This article presents the computation of a set of control parameters for the deterministic prediction of laminar boundary-layer instabilities induced by an imposed unsteady shock interaction. The objective of the study is exploratory in nature by computing a supersonic flight environment for flow over a blunt body and the deterministic prediction of the spectral entropy rates for the boundary layer subjected to an unsteady pressure disturbance. The deterministic values for the spectral entropy rate within the instabilities are determined for each control parameter. Computational results imply that the instabilities are of a span-wise vortex form, that the maximum vertical velocity wave vector components are produced in the region nearest the wall and that extended transient coherent structures are produced in the boundary layer at a vertical location slightly below the mid-point of the boundary layer.
Steeneveld, G.J.
2012-01-01
Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The development of robust stable boundary layer parameterizations for use in NWP and climate models is hampered by the multiplicity of processes and their unknown interactions. As a result, these models suffer ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kazutaka Yanase
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The boundary layers of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss [0.231±0.016 m total body length (L (mean±s.d.; N=6], swimming at 1.6±0.09 L s−1 (N=6 in an experimental flow channel (Reynolds number, Re=4×105 with medium turbulence (5.6% intensity were examined using the particle image velocimetry technique. The tangential flow velocity distributions in the pectoral and pelvic surface regions (arc length from the rostrum, lx=71±8 mm, N=3, and lx=110±13 mm, N=4, respectively were approximated by a laminar boundary layer model, the Falkner−Skan equation. The flow regime over the pectoral and pelvic surfaces was regarded as a laminar flow, which could create less skin-friction drag than would be the case with turbulent flow. Flow separation was postponed until vortex shedding occurred over the posterior surface (lx=163±22 mm, N=3. The ratio of the body-wave velocity to the swimming speed was in the order of 1.2. This was consistent with the condition of the boundary layer laminarization that had been confirmed earlier using a mechanical model. These findings suggest an energy-efficient swimming strategy for rainbow trout in a turbulent environment.
Yanase, Kazutaka; Saarenrinne, Pentti
2016-12-15
The boundary layers of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss [0.231±0.016 m total body length (L) (mean±s.d.); N=6], swimming at 1.6±0.09 L s -1 (N=6) in an experimental flow channel (Reynolds number, Re=4×10 5 ) with medium turbulence (5.6% intensity) were examined using the particle image velocimetry technique. The tangential flow velocity distributions in the pectoral and pelvic surface regions (arc length from the rostrum, l x =71±8 mm, N=3, and l x =110±13 mm, N=4, respectively) were approximated by a laminar boundary layer model, the Falkner-Skan equation. The flow regime over the pectoral and pelvic surfaces was regarded as a laminar flow, which could create less skin-friction drag than would be the case with turbulent flow. Flow separation was postponed until vortex shedding occurred over the posterior surface (l x =163±22 mm, N=3). The ratio of the body-wave velocity to the swimming speed was in the order of 1.2. This was consistent with the condition of the boundary layer laminarization that had been confirmed earlier using a mechanical model. These findings suggest an energy-efficient swimming strategy for rainbow trout in a turbulent environment. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Goodrich, John W.
2017-01-01
This paper presents results from numerical experiments for controlling the error caused by a damping layer boundary treatment when simulating the propagation of an acoustic signal from a continuous pressure source. The computations are with the 2D Linearized Euler Equations (LEE) for both a uniform mean flow and a steady parallel jet. The numerical experiments are with algorithms that are third, fifth, seventh and ninth order accurate in space and time. The numerical domain is enclosed in a damping layer boundary treatment. The damping is implemented in a time accurate manner, with simple polynomial damping profiles of second, fourth, sixth and eighth power. At the outer boundaries of the damping layer the propagating solution is uniformly set to zero. The complete boundary treatment is remarkably simple and intrinsically independant from the dimension of the spatial domain. The reported results show the relative effect on the error from the boundary treatment by varying the damping layer width, damping profile power, damping amplitude, propagtion time, grid resolution and algorithm order. The issue that is being addressed is not the accuracy of the numerical solution when compared to a mathematical solution, but the effect of the complete boundary treatment on the numerical solution, and to what degree the error in the numerical solution from the complete boundary treatment can be controlled. We report maximum relative absolute errors from just the boundary treatment that range from O[10-2] to O[10-7].
Steeneveld, G.J.
2012-01-01
Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The
Experimental Investigation of Normal Shock Boundary-Layer Interaction with Hybrid Flow Control
Vyas, Manan A.; Hirt, Stefanie M.; Anderson, Bernhard H.
2012-01-01
Hybrid flow control, a combination of micro-ramps and micro-jets, was experimentally investigated in the 15x15 cm Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Full factorial, a design of experiments (DOE) method, was used to develop a test matrix with variables such as inter-ramp spacing, ramp height and chord length, and micro-jet injection flow ratio. A total of 17 configurations were tested with various parameters to meet the DOE criteria. In addition to boundary-layer measurements, oil flow visualization was used to qualitatively understand shock induced flow separation characteristics. The flow visualization showed the normal shock location, size of the separation, path of the downstream moving counter-rotating vortices, and corner flow effects. The results show that hybrid flow control demonstrates promise in reducing the size of shock boundary-layer interactions and resulting flow separation by means of energizing the boundary layer.
Thompson, Stephen C; LoPresti, Janice L
2008-03-01
Expressions are derived for the acoustical impedance of a rectangular enclosure and of a finite annular cylindrical enclosure. The derivation is valid throughout the frequency range in which all dimensions of the enclosure are much less than the wavelength. The results are valid throughout the range from adiabatic to isothermal conditions in the enclosure. The effect is equivalent to placing an additional, frequency-dependent complex impedance in parallel with the adiabatic compliance. As the thermal boundary layer grows to fill the cavity, the reactive part of the impedance varies smoothly from the adiabatic value to the isothermal value. In some microphones, this change in cavity stiffness is sufficient to modify the sensitivity. The resistive part of the additional cavity impedance varies as the inverse square root of frequency at high frequencies where the boundary layer has not grown to fill the enclosure. The thermal modification gives rise to a thermal noise whose spectral density varies asymptotically as l/f(3/2) above the isothermal transition frequency.
Effects of boundary-layer separation controllers on a desktop fume hood.
Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Jia-Kun; Hsu, Ching Min; Hung, Shuo-Fu
2016-10-02
A desktop fume hood installed with an innovative design of flow boundary-layer separation controllers on the leading edges of the side plates, work surface, and corners was developed and characterized for its flow and containment leakage characteristics. The geometric features of the developed desktop fume hood included a rearward offset suction slot, two side plates, two side-plate boundary-layer separation controllers on the leading edges of the side plates, a slanted surface on the leading edge of the work surface, and two small triangular plates on the upper left and right corners of the hood face. The flow characteristics were examined using the laser-assisted smoke flow visualization technique. The containment leakages were measured by the tracer gas (sulphur hexafluoride) detection method on the hood face plane with a mannequin installed in front of the hood. The results of flow visualization showed that the smoke dispersions induced by the boundary-layer separations on the leading edges of the side plates and work surface, as well as the three-dimensional complex flows on the upper-left and -right corners of the hood face, were effectively alleviated by the boundary-layer separation controllers. The results of the tracer gas detection method with a mannequin standing in front of the hood showed that the leakage levels were negligibly small (≤0.003 ppm) at low face velocities (≥0.19 m/s).
Trowbridge, John H; Lentz, Steven J
2018-01-03
The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and (c) the remaining challenges include the interaction of waves and currents with the erodible seabed, the impact of layer-scale two- and three-dimensional instabilities, and the role of the bottom boundary layer in shelf-slope exchange.
Plasma-based actuators for turbulent boundary layer control in transonic flow
Budovsky, A. D.; Polivanov, P. A.; Vishnyakov, O. I.; Sidorenko, A. A.
2017-10-01
The study is devoted to development of methods for active control of flow structure typical for the aircraft wings in transonic flow with turbulent boundary layer. The control strategy accepted in the study was based on using of the effects of plasma discharges interaction with miniature geometrical obstacles of various shapes. The conceptions were studied computationally using 3D RANS, URANS approaches. The results of the computations have shown that energy deposition can significantly change the flow pattern over the obstacles increasing their influence on the flow in boundary layer region. Namely, one of the most interesting and promising data were obtained for actuators basing on combination of vertical wedge with asymmetrical plasma discharge. The wedge considered is aligned with the local streamlines and protruding in the flow by 0.4-0.8 of local boundary layer thickness. The actuator produces negligible distortion of the flow at the absence of energy deposition. Energy deposition along the one side of the wedge results in longitudinal vortex formation in the wake of the actuator providing momentum exchange in the boundary layer. The actuator was manufactured and tested in wind tunnel experiments at Mach number 1.5 using the model of flat plate. The experimental data obtained by PIV proved the availability of the actuator.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ali Saghafinia
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Physical sensors have a key role in implementation of real-time vector control for an induction motor (IM drive. This paper presents a novel boundary layer fuzzy controller (NBLFC based on the boundary layer approach for speed control of an indirect field-oriented control (IFOC of an induction motor (IM drive using physical sensors. The boundary layer approach leads to a trade-off between control performances and chattering elimination. For the NBLFC, a fuzzy system is used to adjust the boundary layer thickness to improve the tracking performance and eliminate the chattering problem under small uncertainties. Also, to eliminate the chattering under the possibility of large uncertainties, the integral filter is proposed inside the variable boundary layer. In addition, the stability of the system is analyzed through the Lyapunov stability theorem. The proposed NBLFC based IM drive is implemented in real-time using digital signal processor (DSP board TI TMS320F28335. The experimental and simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed NBLFC based IM drive at different operating conditions.
Saghafinia, Ali; Ping, Hew Wooi; Uddin, Mohammad Nasir
2013-01-01
Physical sensors have a key role in implementation of real-time vector control for an induction motor (IM) drive. This paper presents a novel boundary layer fuzzy controller (NBLFC) based on the boundary layer approach for speed control of an indirect field-oriented control (IFOC) of an induction motor (IM) drive using physical sensors. The boundary layer approach leads to a trade-off between control performances and chattering elimination. For the NBLFC, a fuzzy system is used to adjust the boundary layer thickness to improve the tracking performance and eliminate the chattering problem under small uncertainties. Also, to eliminate the chattering under the possibility of large uncertainties, the integral filter is proposed inside the variable boundary layer. In addition, the stability of the system is analyzed through the Lyapunov stability theorem. The proposed NBLFC based IM drive is implemented in real-time using digital signal processor (DSP) board TI TMS320F28335. The experimental and simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed NBLFC based IM drive at different operating conditions.
Numerical study of wingtip shed vorticity reduction by wing Boundary Layer Control
Posada, Jose Alejandro
Wingtip vortex reductions have been obtained by Boundary Layer Control application to an AR=1.5 rectangular wing using a NACA 0012 airfoil. If wingtip shed vorticity could be reduced significantly, then so would induced drag resulting in improved cruise fuel economy. Power savings would be even more impressive at low flight speed or in climb. A two dimensional wing produces lift without wingtip vorticity. Its bound vorticity, Gamma, equals the contour integral of the boundary layer vorticity gamma or Gamma = ∮gamma · dl. Where the upper and lower boundary layers meet at the cusped TE, their local static pressure pu=pl then the boundary layer outer edge inviscid velocity Vupper=Vlower and gammalower=-gamma upper. This explains the 2-D wing self cancellation of the upper and lower surface boundary layer vorticity when they meet upon shedding at the trailing edge. In finite wings, the presence of spanwise pressure gradients near the wing tips misaligns gammalower and gammaupper at the wingtip TE preventing the upper and lower surface boundary layers from completely canceling each other. To prevent them from generating wing tip vortices, the local boundary layers need to be captured in suction slots. Once vorticity is captured, it can be eliminated by viscous mixing prior to venting over board. The objective of this dissertation was to use a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics code (Fluent) to search for the best configuration to locate BLC suction slots to capture non-parallel boundary layer vorticity prior to shedding near the wingtips. The configuration selected for running the simulations was tested by trying to duplicate a 3D wing for which sufficient experimental and computational models by others are available. The practical case selected was done by Chow et al in the 32 x 48 in. low speed wind tunnel at the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory of NASA Ames Research Center, and computationally analyzed by Dacles-Mariani et al, and Khim and Rhee. The present
Hot-Film and Hot-Wire Anemometry for a Boundary Layer Active Flow Control Test
Lenahan, Keven C.; Schatzman, David M.; Wilson, Jacob Samuel
2013-01-01
Unsteady active flow control (AFC) has been used experimentally for many years to minimize bluff-body drag. This technology could significantly improve performance of rotorcraft by cleaning up flow separation. It is important, then, that new actuator technologies be studied for application to future vehicles. A boundary layer wind tunnel was constructed with a 1ft-x-3ft test section and unsteady measurement instrumentation to study how AFC manipulates the boundary layer to overcome adverse pressure gradients and flow separation. This unsteady flow control research requires unsteady measurement methods. In order to measure the boundary layer characteristics, both hot-wire and hot-film Constant Temperature Anemometry is used. A hot-wire probe is mounted in the flow to measure velocity while a hot-film array lays on the test surface to measure skin friction. Hot-film sensors are connected to an anemometer, a Wheatstone bridge circuit with an output that corresponds to the dynamic flow response. From this output, the time varying flow field, turbulence, and flow reversal can be characterized. Tuning the anemometers requires a fan test on the hot-film sensors to adjust each output. This is a delicate process as several variables drastically affect the data, including control resistance, signal input, trim, and gain settings.
Separation control in a hypersonic shock wave / turbulent boundary-layer interaction
Schreyer, Anne-Marie; Bermejo-Moreno, Ivan; Kim, Jeonglae; Urzay, Javier
2016-11-01
Hypersonic vehicles play a key role for affordable access to space. The associated flow fields are strongly affected by shock wave/turbulent boundary-layer interactions, and the inherent separation causes flow distortion and low-frequency unsteadiness. Microramp sub-boundary layer vortex generators are a promising means to control separation and diminish associated detrimental effects. We investigate the effect of a microramp on the low-frequency unsteadiness in a fully separated interaction. A large eddy simulation of a 33 ∘ -compression-ramp interaction was performed for an inflow Mach number of 7.2 and a Reynolds number based on momentum thickness of Reθ = 3500 , matching the experiment of Schreyer et al. (2011). For the control case, we introduced a counter-rotating vortex pair, as induced by a single microramp, into the boundary layer through the inflow conditions. We applied a dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) on both cases to identify coherent structures that are responsible for the dynamic behavior. Based on the DMD, we discuss the reduction of the separation zone and the stabilization of the shock motion achieved by the microramp, and contribute to the description of the governing mechanisms. Pursued during the 2016 CTR Summer Program at Stanford University.
Boundary Layer Flow Control by an Array of Ramp-Shaped Vortex Generators
Zaman, K. B. M. Q.; Hirt, S. M.; Bencic, T. J.
2012-01-01
Flow field survey results for the effect of ramp-shaped vortex generators (VG) on a turbulent boundary layer are presented. The experiments are carried out in a low-speed wind tunnel and the data are acquired primarily by hot-wire anemometry. Distributions of mean velocity and turbulent stresses as well as streamwise vorticity, on cross-sectional planes at various downstream locations, are obtained. These detailed flow field properties, including the boundary layer characteristics, are documented with the primary objective of aiding possible computational investigations. The results show that VG orientation with apex upstream, that produces a downwash directly behind it, yields a stronger pair of streamwise vortices. This is in contrast to the case with apex downstream that produces a pair of vortices of opposite sense. Thus, an array of VG s with the former orientation, usually considered for film-cooling application, may also be superior for mixing enhancement and boundary layer separation control. The data files can be found on a supplemental CD.
Schlichting (Deceased), Hermann
2017-01-01
This new edition of the near-legendary textbook by Schlichting and revised by Gersten presents a comprehensive overview of boundary-layer theory and its application to all areas of fluid mechanics, with particular emphasis on the flow past bodies (e.g. aircraft aerodynamics). The new edition features an updated reference list and over 100 additional changes throughout the book, reflecting the latest advances on the subject.
Stagg, G W; Parker, N G; Barenghi, C F
2017-03-31
We model the superfluid flow of liquid helium over the rough surface of a wire (used to experimentally generate turbulence) profiled by atomic force microscopy. Numerical simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation reveal that the sharpest features in the surface induce vortex nucleation both intrinsically (due to the raised local fluid velocity) and extrinsically (providing pinning sites to vortex lines aligned with the flow). Vortex interactions and reconnections contribute to form a dense turbulent layer of vortices with a nonclassical average velocity profile which continually sheds small vortex rings into the bulk. We characterize this layer for various imposed flows. As boundary layers conventionally arise from viscous forces, this result opens up new insight into the nature of superflows.
National Aerospace Laboratory; 航空宇宙技術研究所
1996-01-01
The following topics were discussed: vortex shedding, laminar boundary layer measurement, vortex ring, turbulent flow measurement, high Reynolds number turbulence, pulsed flow, boundary layer instability, Ekman boundary layer, sound receptivity, Tollmien-Schlichting wave in supersonic boundary layer, flow field instability, turbulent flow pattern, vorticity distribution in shear flow, turbulence wedge, streamwise vortex mixing, thermal convection, oblique wave generation in boundary layer, in...
Controlled meteorological (CMET) balloon profiling of the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer
Roberts, Tjarda; Hole, Lars; Voss, Paul
2017-04-01
We demonstrate profiling of the atmospheric boundary layer over Arctic ice-free and sea-ice covered regions by free-floating controllable CMET balloons. The CMET observations (temperature, humidity, wind-speed, pressure) provide in-situ meteorological datasets in very remote regions for comparison to atmospheric models. Controlled Meteorological (CMET) balloons are small airborne platforms that use reversible lift-gas compression to regulate altitude. These balloons have approximately the same payload mass as standard weather balloons but can float for many days, change altitude on command, and transmit meteorological and system data in near-real time via satellite. Five Controlled Meteorological (CMET) balloons were launched from Ny-Ålesund in Svalbard (Spitsbergen) over 5-12 May 2011 and measured vertical atmospheric profiles (temperature, humidity, wind) over coastal and remote areas to both the east and west. One notable CMET flight achieved a suite of 18 continuous soundings that probed the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) over a period of more than 10 h. Profiles from two CMET flights are compared to model output from ECMWF Era-Interim reanalysis (ERA-I) and to a high-resolution (15 km) Arctic System Reanalysis (ASR) product. To the east of Svalbard over sea-ice, the CMET observed a stable ABL profile with a temperature inversion that was reproduced by ASR but not captured by ERA-I. In a coastal ice-free region to the west of Svalbard, the CMET observed a stable ABL with strong wind-shear. The CMET profiles document increases in ABL temperature and humidity that are broadly reproduced by both ASR and ERA-I. The ASR finds a more stably stratified ABL than observed but captured the wind shear in contrast to ERA-I. Detailed analysis of the coastal CMET-automated soundings identifies small-scale temperature and humidity variations with a low-level flow and provides an estimate of local wind fields. We show that CMET balloons are a valuable approach for
Control of shock-wave boundary layer interaction using steady micro-jets
Verma, S. B.; Manisankar, C.; Akshara, P.
2015-09-01
An experimental investigation was conducted to control the amplitude of shock unsteadiness associated with the interaction induced by a cylindrical protuberance on a flat plate in a Mach 2.18 flow. The control was applied in the form of an array of steady micro air-jets of different configurations with variation in pitch and skew angle of the jets. The effect of air-jet supply pressure on control was also studied. Each of the micro-jet configurations was placed 20 boundary layer thicknesses upstream of the leading edge of the cylinder. The overall interaction is seen to get modified for all control configurations and shows a reduction in both separation- and bow-shock strengths and in triple-point height. A significant reduction in the peak rms value is also observed in the intermittent region of separation for each case. For pitched jets placed in a zig-zag configuration, good control effectiveness is achieved at control pressures similar to the stagnation pressure of the freestream. At higher control pressures, however, their obstruction component increases and if these jets are not spaced sufficiently far apart, the effectiveness of their control begins to drop due to the beginning of spanwise jet-to-jet interaction. On the other hand, pitching or skewing the jets to reduces the obstruction component considerably which at lower control pressures shows lower effectiveness. But at higher control pressure, the effectiveness of these configurations continues to increase unlike the pitched jets.
Analysis of turbulent boundary layers
Cebeci, Tuncer
1974-01-01
Analysis of Turbulent Boundary Layers focuses on turbulent flows meeting the requirements for the boundary-layer or thin-shear-layer approximations. Its approach is devising relatively fundamental, and often subtle, empirical engineering correlations, which are then introduced into various forms of describing equations for final solution. After introducing the topic on turbulence, the book examines the conservation equations for compressible turbulent flows, boundary-layer equations, and general behavior of turbulent boundary layers. The latter chapters describe the CS method for calculati
The Plasmasphere Boundary Layer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. L. Carpenter
2004-12-01
Full Text Available As an inner magnetospheric phenomenon the plasmapause region is of interest for a number of reasons, one being the occurrence there of geophysically important interactions between the plasmas of the hot plasma sheet and of the cool plasmasphere. There is a need for a conceptual framework within which to examine and discuss these interactions and their consequences, and we therefore suggest that the plasmapause region be called the Plasmasphere Boundary Layer, or PBL. Such a term has been slow to emerge because of the complexity and variability of the plasma populations that can exist near the plasmapause and because of the variety of criteria used to identify the plasmapause in experimental data. Furthermore, and quite importantly in our view, a substantial obstacle to the consideration of the plasmapause region as a boundary layer has been the longstanding tendency of textbooks on space physics to limit introductory material on the plasmapause phenomenon to zeroth order descriptions in terms of ideal MHD theory, thus implying that the plasmasphere is relatively well understood. A textbook may introduce the concept of shielding of the inner magnetosphere from perturbing convection electric fields, but attention is not usually paid to the variety of physical processes reported to occur in the PBL, such as heating, instabilities, and fast longitudinal flows, processes which must play roles in plasmasphere dynamics in concert with the flow regimes associated with the major dynamo sources of electric fields. We believe that through the use of the PBL concept in future textbook discussions of the plasmasphere and in scientific communications, much progress can be made on longstanding questions about the physics involved in the formation of the plasmapause and in the cycles of erosion and recovery of the plasmasphere. Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasmasphere; plasma convection; MHD waves and instabilities
The Plasmasphere Boundary Layer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. L. Carpenter
2004-12-01
Full Text Available As an inner magnetospheric phenomenon the plasmapause region is of interest for a number of reasons, one being the occurrence there of geophysically important interactions between the plasmas of the hot plasma sheet and of the cool plasmasphere. There is a need for a conceptual framework within which to examine and discuss these interactions and their consequences, and we therefore suggest that the plasmapause region be called the Plasmasphere Boundary Layer, or PBL. Such a term has been slow to emerge because of the complexity and variability of the plasma populations that can exist near the plasmapause and because of the variety of criteria used to identify the plasmapause in experimental data. Furthermore, and quite importantly in our view, a substantial obstacle to the consideration of the plasmapause region as a boundary layer has been the longstanding tendency of textbooks on space physics to limit introductory material on the plasmapause phenomenon to zeroth order descriptions in terms of ideal MHD theory, thus implying that the plasmasphere is relatively well understood. A textbook may introduce the concept of shielding of the inner magnetosphere from perturbing convection electric fields, but attention is not usually paid to the variety of physical processes reported to occur in the PBL, such as heating, instabilities, and fast longitudinal flows, processes which must play roles in plasmasphere dynamics in concert with the flow regimes associated with the major dynamo sources of electric fields. We believe that through the use of the PBL concept in future textbook discussions of the plasmasphere and in scientific communications, much progress can be made on longstanding questions about the physics involved in the formation of the plasmapause and in the cycles of erosion and recovery of the plasmasphere.
Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasmasphere; plasma convection; MHD waves and instabilities
Active Control of Panel Vibrations Induced by a Boundary Layer Flow
Chow, Pao-Liu
1998-01-01
In recent years, active and passive control of sound and vibration in aeroelastic structures have received a great deal of attention due to many potential applications to aerospace and other industries. There exists a great deal of research work done in this area. Recent advances in the control of sound and vibration can be found in the several conference proceedings. In this report we will summarize our research findings supported by the NASA grant NAG-1-1175. The problems of active and passive control of sound and vibration has been investigated by many researchers for a number of years. However, few of the articles are concerned with the sound and vibration with flow-structure interaction. Experimental and numerical studies on the coupling between panel vibration and acoustic radiation due to flow excitation have been done by Maestrello and his associates at NASA/Langley Research Center. Since the coupled system of nonlinear partial differential equations is formidable, an analytical solution to the full problem seems impossible. For this reason, we have to simplify the problem to that of the nonlinear panel vibration induced by a uniform flow or a boundary-layer flow with a given wall pressure distribution. Based on this simplified model, we have been able to study the control and stabilization of the nonlinear panel vibration, which have not been treated satisfactorily by other authors. The vibration suppression will clearly reduce the sound radiation power from the panel. The major research findings will be presented in the next three sections. In Section II we shall describe our results on the boundary control of nonlinear panel vibration, with or without flow excitation. Section III is concerned with active control of the vibration and sound radiation from a nonlinear elastic panel. A detailed description of our work on the parametric vibrational control of nonlinear elastic panel will be presented in Section IV. This paper will be submitted to the Journal
Goit, Jay P.; Meyers, Johan
2014-06-01
In the present work our focus is to improve the performance of a wind farm by coordinated control of all turbines with the aim to increase the overall energy extraction by the farm. To this end, we couple flow simulations performed using Large Eddy Simulations (LES) with gradient based optimization to control individual turbines in a farm. The control parameters are the disk-based thrust coefficient of individual turbines as a function of time. They indirectly represent the effect of control actions that would correspond to blade-pitching of the turbines. We employ a receding-horizon predictive control setting and solve the optimization problem iteratively at each time horizon based on the gradient information obtained from the evolution of the flow field and the adjoint computation. We find that the extracted farm power increases by approximately 16% for a cost functional that is based on total energy extraction. However, this energy is gained from a slow deceleration of the boundary layer which is sustained for approximately 1 hour. We further analyze the turbulent stresses and compare to wind farms without optimal control.
Costigliola, V.
2010-09-01
It has long been known that specific atmospheric processes, such as weather and longer-term climatic fluctuations, affect human health. The biometeorological literature refers to this relationship as meteorotropism, defined as a change in an organism that is correlated with a change in atmospheric conditions. Plenty of (patho)physiological functions are affected by those conditions - like the respiratory diseases - and currently it is difficult to put any limits for pathologies developed in reply. Nowadays the importance of atmospheric boundary layer and health is increasingly recognised. A number of epidemiologic studies have reported associations between ambient concentrations of air pollution, specifically particulate pollution, and adverse health effects, even at the relatively low concentrations of pollution found. Since 1995 there have been over twenty-one studies from four continents that have explicitly examined the association between ambient air pollutant mixes and daily mortality. Statistically significant and positive associations have been reported in data from various locations around the world, all with varying air pollutant concentrations, weather conditions, population characteristics and public health policies. Particular role has been given to atmospheric boundary layer processes, the impact of which for specific patient-cohort is, however, not well understood till now. Assessing and monitoring air quality are thus fundamental to improve Europe's welfare. One of current projects run by the "European Medical Association" - PASODOBLE will develop and demonstrate user-driven downstream information services for the regional and local air quality sectors by combining space-based and in-situ data with models in 4 thematic service lines: - Health community support for hospitals, pharmacies, doctors and people at risk - Public information for regions, cities, tourist industry and sporting event organizers - Compliance monitoring support on particulate
Optimal control of wind-farm boundary layers: effect of turbine response time
Munters, Wim; Meyers, Johan
2016-11-01
Complex turbine wake interactions play an important role in overall energy extraction in large wind farms. Current control strategies optimize individual turbine power, and lead to significant energy losses in wind farms compared to lone-standing turbines. In recent work, an optimal control framework for dynamic induction control of wind farms and their interaction with the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) was introduced, with the aim of mitigating such losses. The framework applies a receding horizon methodology, in which the ABL state is modeled through large-eddy simulations. Previously, the framework was applied to both fully-developed and spatially developing wind farms, for which respective energy gains of 16% and 7% were obtained, albeit at the cost of additional turbine loading variability. Here, we quantify the trade-off between increased power extraction and smoothed turbine dynamics by varying the turbine response time in the control framework. We consider simulation cases restricted to underinduction compared to Betz-optimal induction, as well as cases that also allow overinduction. In addition, efforts on replicating optimized power gains with practical controllers are presented. The authors are supported by the ERC (ActiveWindFarms, Grant No.: 306471).
Liu, Zhao; Zheng, Chaorong; Wu, Yue
2017-09-01
Wind profilers have been widely adopted to observe the wind field information in the atmosphere for different purposes. But accuracy of its observation has limitations due to various noises or disturbances and hence need to be further improved. In this paper, the data measured under strong wind conditions, using a 1290-MHz boundary layer profiler (BLP), are quality controlled via a composite quality control (QC) procedure proposed by the authors. Then, through the comparison with the data measured by radiosonde flights (balloon observations), the critical thresholds in the composite QC procedure, including consensus average threshold T 1 and vertical shear threshold T 3 , are systematically discussed. And the performance of the BLP operated under precipitation is also evaluated. It is found that to ensure the high accuracy and high data collectable rate, the optimal range of subsets is determined to be 4 m/s. Although the number of data rejected by the combined algorithm of vertical shear examination and small median test is quite limited, it is proved that the algorithm is quite useful to recognize the outlier with a large discrepancy. And the optimal wind shear threshold T 3 can be recommended as 5 ms -1 /100m. During patchy precipitation, the quality of data measured by the four oblique beams (using the DBS measuring technique) can still be ensured. After the BLP data are quality controlled by the composite QC procedure, the output can show good agreement with the balloon observation.
Turbulent Control Of The Ocean Surface Boundary Layer During The Onset Of Seasonal Stratification
Palmer, M.; Hopkins, J.; Wihsgott, J. U.
2016-02-01
To provide accurate predictions of global carbon cycles we must first understand the mechanistic control of ocean surface boundary layer (OSBL) temperature and the timing and depth of ocean thermal stratification, which are critical controls on oceanic carbon sequestration via the solubility and biological pumps. Here we present an exciting new series of measurements of the fine-scale physical structure and dynamics of the OSBL that provide fresh insight into the turbulent control of upper ocean structure. This study was made in the centre of the Celtic Sea, a broad section of the NW European continental shelf, and represents one of only a handful of measurements of near-surface turbulence in our shelf seas. Data are provided by an ocean microstructure glider (OMG) that delivers estimates of turbulent dissipation rates and mixing from 100m depth to within 2-3m of the sea surface, approximately every 10 minutes and continually for 21 days during April 2015. The OMG successfully captures the onset of spring stratification as solar radiation finally overcomes the destabilising effects of turbulent surface processes. Using coincident meteorological and wave observations from a nearby mooring, and full water column current velocity data we are able to close the near surface energy budget and provide a valuable test for proposed parameterisations of OSBL turbulence based on wind, wave and buoyancy inputs. We verify recent hypotheses that even very subtle thermal stratification, below often assumed limits of 0.1°C, are sufficient to establish sustained stratification even during active surface forcing. We also find that while buoyant production (convection) is not an efficient mechanism for mixing beyond the base of the mixed layer it does play an important role in modification of surface structure, acting to precondition the OSBL for enhanced (deeper) impacts from wind and wave driven turbulence.
Nonlinear optimal control of bypass transition in a boundary layer flow
Xiao, Dandan; Papadakis, George
2017-05-01
The central aim of the paper is to apply and assess a nonlinear optimal control strategy to suppress bypass transition, due to bimodal interactions [T. A. Zaki and P. A. Durbin, "Mode interaction and the bypass route to transition," J. Fluid Mech. 531, 85 (2005)] in a zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer. To this end, a Lagrange variational formulation is employed that results in a set of adjoint equations. The optimal wall actuation (blowing and suction from a control slot) is found by solving iteratively the nonlinear Navier-Stokes and the adjoint equations in a forward/backward loop using direct numerical simulation. The optimization is performed in a finite time horizon. Large values of optimization horizon result in the instability of the adjoint equations. The control slot is located exactly in the region of transition. The results show that the control is able to significantly reduce the objective function, which is defined as the spatial and temporal integral of the quadratic deviation from the Blasius profile plus a term that quantifies the control cost. The physical mechanism with which the actuation interacts with the flow field is investigated and analysed in relation to the objective function employed. Examination of the joint probability density function shows that the control velocity is correlated with the streamwise velocity in the near wall region but this correlation is reduced as time elapses. The spanwise averaged velocity is distorted by the control action, resulting in a significant reduction of the skin friction coefficient. Results are presented with and without zero-net mass flow constraint of the actuation velocity. The skin friction coefficient drops below the laminar value if there is no mass constraint; it remains however larger than laminar when this constraint is imposed. Results are also compared with uniform blowing using the same time-average velocity obtained from the nonlinear optimal algorithm.
Investigation of Materials for Boundary Layer Control in a Supersonic Wind Tunnel
Braafladt, Alexander; Lucero, John M.; Hirt, Stefanie M.
2013-01-01
During operation of the NASA Glenn Research Center 15- by 15-Centimeter Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT), a significant, undesirable corner flow separation is created by the three-dimensional interaction of the wall and floor boundary layers in the tunnel corners following an oblique-shock/ boundary-layer interaction. A method to minimize this effect was conceived by connecting the wall and floor boundary layers with a radius of curvature in the corners. The results and observations of a trade study to determine the effectiveness of candidate materials for creating the radius of curvature in the SWT are presented. The experiments in the study focus on the formation of corner fillets of four different radii of curvature, 6.35 mm (0.25 in.), 9.525 mm (0.375 in.), 12.7 mm (0.5 in.), and 15.875 mm (0.625 in.), based on the observed boundary layer thickness of 11.43 mm (0.45 in.). Tests were performed on ten candidate materials to determine shrinkage, surface roughness, cure time, ease of application and removal, adhesion, eccentricity, formability, and repeatability. Of the ten materials, the four materials which exhibited characteristics most promising for effective use were the heavy body and regular type dental impression materials, the basic sculpting epoxy, and the polyurethane sealant. Of these, the particular material which was most effective, the heavy body dental impression material, was tested in the SWT in Mach 2 flow, and was observed to satisfy all requirements for use in creating the corner fillets in the upcoming experiments on shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction.
Reversing direction of galvanotaxis by controlled increases in boundary layer viscosity.
Kobylkevich, Brian M; Sarkar, Anyesha; Carlberg, Brady R; Huang, Ling; Ranjit, Suman; Graham, David M; Messerli, Mark A
2018-02-07
Weak external electric fields (EFs) polarize cellular structure and direct most migrating cells (galvanotaxis) toward the cathode, making it a useful tool during tissue engineering and healing of epidermal wounds. However, the biophysical mechanisms for sensing weak EFs remain elusive. We have reinvestigated the mechanism of cathode-directed water flow (electro-osmosis) in the boundary layer of cells, by reducing it with neutral, viscous polymers. We report that increasing viscosity with low molecular weight polymers decreases cathodal migration and promotes anodal migration in a concentration dependent manner. In contrast, increased viscosity with high molecular weight polymers does not affect directionality. We explain the contradictory results in terms of porosity and hydraulic permeability between the polymers rather than in terms of bulk viscosity. These results provide the first evidence for controlled reversal of galvanotaxis using viscous agents and position the field closer to identifying the putative electric field receptor, a fundamental, outside-in signaling receptor that controls cellular polarity for different cell types. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Photoluminescence-based quality control for thin film absorber layers of photovoltaic devices
Repins, Ingrid L.; Kuciauskas, Darius
2015-07-07
A time-resolved photoluminescence-based system providing quality control during manufacture of thin film absorber layers for photovoltaic devices. The system includes a laser generating excitation beams and an optical fiber with an end used both for directing each excitation beam onto a thin film absorber layer and for collecting photoluminescence from the absorber layer. The system includes a processor determining a quality control parameter such as minority carrier lifetime of the thin film absorber layer based on the collected photoluminescence. In some implementations, the laser is a low power, pulsed diode laser having photon energy at least great enough to excite electron hole pairs in the thin film absorber layer. The scattered light may be filterable from the collected photoluminescence, and the system may include a dichroic beam splitter and a filter that transmit the photoluminescence and remove scattered laser light prior to delivery to a photodetector and a digital oscilloscope.
Closed-loop control of boundary layer streaks induced by free-stream turbulence
Papadakis, George; Lu, Liang; Ricco, Pierre
2016-08-01
The central aim of the paper is to carry out a theoretical and numerical study of active wall transpiration control of streaks generated within an incompressible boundary layer by free-stream turbulence. The disturbance flow model is based on the linearized unsteady boundary-region (LUBR) equations, studied by Leib, Wundrow, and Goldstein [J. Fluid Mech. 380, 169 (1999), 10.1017/S0022112098003504], which are the rigorous asymptotic limit of the Navier-Stokes equations for low-frequency and long-streamwise wavelength. The mathematical formulation of the problem directly incorporates the random forcing into the equations in a consistent way. Due to linearity, this forcing is factored out and appears as a multiplicative factor. It is shown that the cost function (integral of kinetic energy in the domain) is properly defined as the expectation of a random quadratic function only after integration in wave number space. This operation naturally introduces the free-stream turbulence spectral tensor into the cost function. The controller gains for each wave number are independent of the spectral tensor and, in that sense, universal. Asymptotic matching of the LUBR equations with the free-stream conditions results in an additional forcing term in the state-space system whose presence necessitates the reformulation of the control problem and the rederivation of its solution. It is proved that the solution can be obtained analytically using an extension of the sweep method used in control theory to obtain the standard Riccati equation. The control signal consists of two components, a feedback part and a feed-forward part (that depends explicitly on the forcing term). Explicit recursive equations that provide these two components are derived. It is shown that the feed-forward part makes a negligible contribution to the control signal. We also derive an explicit expression that a priori (i.e., before solving the control problem) leads to the minimum of the objective cost
Active control of turbulent boundary layer sound transmission into a vehicle interior
Caiazzo, A.; Alujević, N.; Pluymers, B.; Desmet, W.
2016-09-01
In high speed automotive, aerospace, and railway transportation, the turbulent boundary layer (TBL) is one of the most important sources of interior noise. The stochastic pressure distribution associated with the turbulence is able to excite significantly structural vibration of vehicle exterior panels. They radiate sound into the vehicle through the interior panels. Therefore, the air flow noise becomes very influential when it comes to the noise vibration and harshness assessment of a vehicle, in particular at low frequencies. Normally, passive solutions, such as sound absorbing materials, are used for reducing the TBL-induced noise transmission into a vehicle interior, which generally improve the structure sound isolation performance. These can achieve excellent isolation performance at higher frequencies, but are unable to deal with the low-frequency interior noise components. In this paper, active control of TBL noise transmission through an acoustically coupled double panel system into a rectangular cavity is examined theoretically. The Corcos model of the TBL pressure distribution is used to model the disturbance. The disturbance is rejected by an active vibration isolation unit reacting between the exterior and the interior panels. Significant reductions of the low-frequency vibrations of the interior panel and the sound pressure in the cavity are observed.
Shaw, R. J.
1979-01-01
The forced mixing process of a turbulent boundary layer in an axisymmetric annular diffuser using conventional wing-like vortex generators was studied. Flow field measurements were made at four axial locations downstream of the vortex generators. At each axial location, a total of 25 equally spaced profiles were measured behind three consecutive vortex generators which formed two pairs of vortex generators. Hot film anemometry probes measured the boundary layer turbulence structure at the same locations where pressure measurements were made. Both single and cross film probes were used. The diffuser turbulence data was teken only for a nominal inlet Mach number of 0.3. Three vortex generator configurations were tested. The differences between configurations involved changes in size and relative vortex generator positions. All three vortex generator configurations tested provided increases in diffuser performance. Distinct differences in the boundary layer integral properties and skin friction levels were noted between configurations. The axial turbulence intensity and Reynolds stress profiles measured displayed similarities in trends but differences in levels for the three configurations.
Alvi, Farrukh S.; Gorton, Susan (Technical Monitor)
2005-01-01
Inlets to aircraft propulsion systems must supply flow to the compressor with minimal pressure loss, flow distortion or unsteadiness. Flow separation in internal flows such as inlets and ducts in aircraft propulsion systems and external flows such as over aircraft wings, is undesirable as it reduces the overall system performance. The aim of this research has been to understand the nature of separation and more importantly, to explore techniques to actively control this flow separation. In particular, the use of supersonic microjets as a means of controlling boundary layer separation was explored. The geometry used for the early part of this study was a simple diverging Stratford ramp, equipped with arrays of supersonic microjets. Initial results, based on the mean surface pressure distribution, surface flow visualization and Planar Laser Scattering (PLS) indicated a reverse flow region. We implemented supersonic microjets to control this separation and flow visualization results appeared to suggest that microjets have a favorable effect, at least to a certain extent. However, the details of the separated flow field were difficult to determine based on surface pressure distribution, surface flow patterns and PLS alone. It was also difficult to clearly determine the exact influence of the supersonic microjets on this flow. In the latter part of this study, the properties of this flow-field and the effect of supersonic microjets on its behavior were investigated in further detail using 2-component (planar) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The results clearly show that the activation of microjets eliminated flow separation and resulted in a significant increase in the momentum of the fluid near the ramp surface. Also notable is the fact that the gain in momentum due to the elimination of flow separation is at least an order of magnitude larger (two orders of magnitude larger in most cases) than the momentum injected by the microjets and is accomplished with very
Sathyanadh, Anusha; Prabhakaran, Thara; Patil, Chetana; Karipot, Anandakumar
2017-10-01
Planetary boundary layer (PBL) height characteristics over the Indian sub-continent at diurnal to seasonal scales and its controlling factors in relation to monsoon are investigated. The reanalysis (Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, MERRA) PBL heights (PBLH) used for the study are validated against those derived from radiosonde observations and radio occultation air temperature and humidity profiles. The radiosonde observations include routine India Meteorological Department observations at two locations (coastal and an inland) for one full year and campaign based early afternoon radiosonde observations at six inland locations over the study region for selected days from May-September 2011. The temperature and humidity profiles from radio occultations spread over the sub-continent at irregular timings during the year 2011. The correlations and root mean square errors are in the range 0.74-0.83 and 407 m-643 m, respectively. Large pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon variations in PBL maximum height (1000 m-4000 m), time of occurrence of maximum height (11:00 LST-17:00 LST) and growth rate (100 to 400 m h- 1) are noted over the land, depending on geographical location and more significantly on the moisture availability which influences the surface sensible and latent heat fluxes. The PBLH variations associated with active-break intra-seasonal monsoon oscillations are up to 1000 m over central Indian locations. Inter relationship between the PBLH and the controlling factors, i.e. Evaporative Fraction, net radiation, friction velocity, surface Richardson number, and scalar diffusivity fraction, show significant variation between dry and wet PBL regimes, which also varies with geographical location. Evaporative fraction has dominant influence on the PBLH over the region. Enhanced entrainment during monsoon contributes to reduction in PBLH, whereas the opposite effect is noted during dry period. Linear regression, cross wavelet and
The laminar boundary layer equations
Curle, N
2017-01-01
Thorough introduction to boundary layer problems offers an ordered, logical presentation accessible to undergraduates. The text's careful expositions of the limitations and accuracy of various methods will also benefit professionals. 1962 edition.
Sathyanadh, A.; Karipot, A.; Prabhakaran, T.
2016-12-01
Planetary boundary layer (PBL) height and its controlling factors undergo large variations at different spatio-temporal scales over land regions. In the present study, Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data products are used to investigate variations of PBL height and its controls in relation to different phases of Indian monsoon. MERRA PBL height validations carried out against those estimated from radiosonde and Global Positioning System Radio Occultation atmospheric profiles revealed fairly good agreement. Different PBL patterns are identified in terms of maximum height, its time of occurrence and growth rate, and they vary with respect to geographical locations, terrain characteristics and monsoon circulation. The pre-monsoon boundary layers are the deepest over the region, often exceeding 4 km and grow at a rate of approximately 400 m hr-1. Large nocturnal BL depths, possibly related to weakly convective residual layers, are another feature noted during dry conditions. Monsoon BLs are generally shallower, except where rainfall is scanty. The break-monsoon periods have slightly deeper BLs than the active monsoon phase. The controlling factors for the observed boundary layer behaviour are investigated using supplementary MERRA datasets. Evaporative fraction is found to have dominant control on the PBL height varying with seasons and regions. The characteristics and controls of wet and dry boundary layer regimes over inland and coastal locations are different. The fractional diffusion (ratio of non-local and total diffusion) coefficient analyses indicated that enhanced entrainment during monsoon contributes to reduction in PBLH unlike in the dry period. The relationship between controls and PBLH are better defined over inland than coastal regions. The wavelet cross spectral analysis revealed temporal variations in dominant contributions from the controlling factors at different periodicities during the course of the year.
Numerical investigation on boundary layer control through moving surface in NACA 0012 airfoil
Islam, Md. Sadiqul; Hakim, Shaik Merkatur; Ali, Mohammad; Islam, Md. Quamrul
2017-06-01
This study focuses on the drag reduction by reducing adverse pressure gradient and delaying the flow separation of 2D NACA 0012 airfoil by moving surface through numerical simulation. Two particular cases are considered here. When `single moving surface' is considered, only one moving surface of 10% of the chord length(c) is placed at upper surface of the airfoil starting from 0.05c to 0.15c. When `double moving surface' is considered, one moving surface of 10% of the chord length is placed at upper surface starting from 0.05c to 0.15c and one moving surface of same size is placed at lower surface from 0.05c to 0.15c. Momentum injection into the flow field moves the separation of boundary layer in the vicinity of trailing edge of the airfoil. By momentum injection through single moving surface with the surface velocity twice the free stream velocity and for different angle of attack it is possible to reduce the average drag coefficient by 23.9%. And for same condition with double moving surface it is possible to reduce the average drag coefficient by 25.9%. For moving surface boundary condition, boundary-layer separation is delayed along the chord length on the upper surface of the airfoil.
Asymptotic analysis and boundary layers
Cousteix, Jean
2007-01-01
This book presents a new method of asymptotic analysis of boundary-layer problems, the Successive Complementary Expansion Method (SCEM). The first part is devoted to a general comprehensive presentation of the tools of asymptotic analysis. It gives the keys to understand a boundary-layer problem and explains the methods to construct an approximation. The second part is devoted to SCEM and its applications in fluid mechanics, including external and internal flows. The advantages of SCEM are discussed in comparison with the standard Method of Matched Asymptotic Expansions. In particular, for the first time, the theory of Interactive Boundary Layer is fully justified. With its chapter summaries, detailed derivations of results, discussed examples and fully worked out problems and solutions, the book is self-contained. It is written on a mathematical level accessible to graduate and post-graduate students of engineering and physics with a good knowledge in fluid mechanics. Researchers and practitioners will estee...
Tropical cyclone boundary layer shocks
Slocum, Christopher J.; Williams, Gabriel J.; Taft, Richard K.; Wayne H. Schubert
2014-01-01
This paper presents numerical solutions and idealized analytical solutions of axisymmetric, $f$-plane models of the tropical cyclone boundary layer. In the numerical model, the boundary layer radial and tangential flow is forced by a specified pressure field, which can also be interpreted as a specified gradient balanced tangential wind field $v_{\\rm gr}(r)$ or vorticity field $\\zeta_{\\rm gr}(r)$. When the specified $\\zeta_{\\rm gr}(r)$ field is changed from one that is radially concentrated i...
Liu, Xiaosong; Shan, Zebiao; Li, Yuanchun
2017-04-01
Pinpoint landing is a critical step in some asteroid exploring missions. This paper is concerned with the descent trajectory control for soft touching down on a small irregularly-shaped asteroid. A dynamic boundary layer based neural network quasi-sliding mode control law is proposed to track a desired descending path. The asteroid's gravitational acceleration acting on the spacecraft is described by the polyhedron method. Considering the presence of input constraint and unmodeled acceleration, the dynamic equation of relative motion is presented first. The desired descending path is planned using cubic polynomial method, and a collision detection algorithm is designed. To perform trajectory tracking, a neural network sliding mode control law is given first, where the sliding mode control is used to ensure the convergence of system states. Two radial basis function neural networks (RBFNNs) are respectively used as an approximator for the unmodeled term and a compensator for the difference between the actual control input with magnitude constraint and nominal control. To improve the chattering induced by the traditional sliding mode control and guarantee the reachability of the system, a specific saturation function with dynamic boundary layer is proposed to replace the sign function in the preceding control law. Through the Lyapunov approach, the reachability condition of the control system is given. The improved control law can guarantee the system state move within a gradually shrinking quasi-sliding mode band. Numerical simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.
Experimental Study of Boundary Layer Flow Control Using an Array of Ramp-Shaped Vortex Generators
Hirt, Stefanie M.; Zaman, Khairul B.M.Q.; Bencic, Tomothy J.
2012-01-01
The objective of this study was to obtain a database on the flowfield past an array of vortex generators (VGs) in a turbulent boundary layer. All testing was carried out in a low speed wind tunnel with a flow velocity of 29 ft/sec, giving a Reynolds number of 17,500 based on the width of the VG. The flowfield generated by an array of five ramp-shaped vortex generators was examined with hot wire anemometry and smoke flow visualization. The magnitude and extent of the velocity increase near the wall, the penetration of the velocity deficit into the core flow, and the peak streamwise vorticity are examined. Influence of various parameters on the effectiveness of the array is considered on the basis of the ability to pull high momentum fluid into the near wall region.
Vets, Robert
An experimental study was conducted to assess the application of a moving surface to affect boundary layers and circulation around airfoils for the purpose of altering and enhancing aerodynamic performance of finite wings at moderate Reynolds numbers. The moving surface was established by a wide, lightweight, nylon belt that enveloped a wing's symmetric airfoil profile articulated via a friction drive cylinder such that the direction of the upper surface was in the direction of the free stream. A water tunnel visualization study accompanied wind tunnel testing at the University of Washington, Kirsten Wind Tunnel of finite wings. An experimental study was conducted to assess the application of a moving surface to affect boundary layers and circulation around airfoils for the purpose of altering and enhancing aerodynamic performance of finite wings at moderate Reynolds numbers. The moving surface was established by a wide, lightweight, nylon belt that enveloped a wing's symmetric airfoil profile articulated via a friction drive cylinder such that the direction of the upper surface was in the direction of the free stream. A water tunnel visualization study accompanied wind tunnel testing at the University of Washington, Kirsten Wind Tunnel of finite wings. The defining non-dimensional parameter for the system is the ratio of the surface velocity to the free stream velocity, us/Uo. Results show a general increase in lift with increasing us/Uo. The endurance parameter served as an additional metric for the system's performance. Examining the results of the endurance parameter shows general increase in endurance and lift with the moving surface activated. Peak performance in terms of increased endurance along with increased lift occurs at or slightly above us/Uo = 1. Water tunnel visualization showed a marked difference in the downwash for velocity ratios greater than 1, supporting the measured data. Reynolds numbers for this investigation were 1.9E5 and 4.3E5, relevant
the Martian atmospheric boundary layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petrosyan, A.; Galperin, B.; Larsen, Søren Ejling
2011-01-01
The planetary boundary layer (PBL) represents the part of the atmosphere that is strongly influenced by the presence of the underlying surface and mediates the key interactions between the atmosphere and the surface. On Mars, this represents the lowest 10 km of the atmosphere during the daytime...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Horton, Elmer
1950-01-01
A two-dimensional wind-tunnel investigation has been made of the relative effectiveness of two methods of boundary-layer control in increasing the maximum lift coefficient of an NACA airfoil section...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pick Petr
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The present contribution summarizes the power efficiency of the active flow control of the boundary layer of air around a hump. The synthetic jet generator with a rectangular output part, i.e. a slot, is actuated using a modulated signal. The actuation of the synthetic jet is carried out by modulating the input voltage of acoustic transducers of the generator. This causes the decrease of the loss coefficient and the change of the mixing size area (e.g. wake. A comparison of three types of modulating signals and their influence on the loss coefficient is performed. The main advantages of modulated signal are then described.
In-Flight Active Wave Cancelation with Delayed-x-LMS Control Algorithm in a Laminar Boundary Layer
Simon, Bernhard; Fabbiane, Nicolo; Nemitz, Timotheus; Bagheri, Shervin; Henningson, Dan; Grundmann, Sven
2016-11-01
This manuscript demonstrates the first successful application of the delayed-x-LMS (dxLMS) control algorithm for TS-wave cancelation. Active wave cancelation of two-dimensional broad-band Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) disturbances is performed with a single DBD plasma actuator. The experiments are conducted in flight on the pressure side of a laminar flow wing glove, mounted on a manned glider. The stability properties of the controller are investigated in detail with experimental flight data, DNS and stability analysis of the boundary layer. Finally, a model-free approach for dxLMS operation is introduced to operate the controller as a "black box" system, which automatically adjusts the controller settings based on a group speed measurement of the disturbance wave packets. The modified dxLMS controller is operated without a model and is able to adapt to varying conditions that may occur during flight in atmosphere. DFG No.GR3524/4-1.
Viscous drag reduction in boundary layers
Bushnell, Dennis M. (Editor); Hefner, Jerry N. (Editor)
1990-01-01
The present volume discusses the development status of stability theory for laminar flow control design, applied aspects of laminar-flow technology, transition delays using compliant walls, the application of CFD to skin friction drag-reduction, active-wave control of boundary-layer transitions, and such passive turbulent-drag reduction methods as outer-layer manipulators and complex-curvature concepts. Also treated are such active turbulent drag-reduction technique applications as those pertinent to MHD flow drag reduction, as well as drag reduction in liquid boundary layers by gas injection, drag reduction by means of polymers and surfactants, drag reduction by particle addition, viscous drag reduction via surface mass injection, and interactive wall-turbulence control.
A barotropic planetary boundary layer
Yordanov, D.; Syrakov, D.; Djolov, G.
1983-04-01
The temperature and wind profiles in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) are investigated. Assuming stationary and homogeneous conditions, the turbulent state in the PBL is uniquely determined by the external Rossby number and the stratification parameters. In this study, a simple two-layer barotropic model is proposed. It consists of a surface (SL) and overlying Ekman-type layer. The system of dynamic and heat transfer equations is closed using K theory. In the SL, the turbulent exchange coefficient is consistent with the results of similarity theory while in the Ekman layer, it is constant. Analytical solutions for the wind and temperature profiles in the PBL are obtained. The SL and thermal PBL heights are properly chosen functions of the stratification so that from the solutions for wind and temperature, the PBL resistance laws can be easily deduced. The internal PBL characteristics necessary for the calculation (friction velocity, angle between surface and geostrophic winds and internal stratification parameter) are presented in terms of the external parameters. Favorable agreement with experimental data and model results is demonstrated. The simplicity of the model allows it to be incorporated in large-scale weather prediction models as well as in the solution of various other meteorological problems.
Sescu, A.; Meneveau, C. V.
2012-12-01
Recent LES studies of the interaction between neutral atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and infinitely large arrays of wind turbines have led to derivations of new similarity relations within the surface layer. A similar analysis in non-neutral conditions is not trivial, since achieving statistically stationary conditions in LES is challenging. For example, the heat flux at the ground forces vertical profiles of mean temperature to vary significantly over time. The focus of this work is on using an artificial heat source or sink, in a region located above ABL, that maintains the overall temperature field inside the ABL stationary. This goal is achieved by using a PI control algorithm, designed to keep constant the initial horizontally averaged temperature at a specified height and above. Another controller is used to drive the flow within the ABL, causing the mean velocity to achieve a prescribed direction at a specified height. This is done by controlling a source term in the momentum equations. This term is deactivated once the flow becomes statistically stationary and the geostrophic wind aligns with the desired direction at a given height. A suite of simulations at various resolutions, with and without wind turbines, and with different levels of thermal stratification are presented to test the effectiveness of the control algorithm. Streamwise velocity contours in unstable ABL interacting with 24 wind turbines. Streamwise velocity contours in stable ABL interacting with 24 wind turbines.
Active Control of Instabilities in Laminar Boundary Layers-Overview and Concept Validation
Joslin, Ronald D.; Erlebacher, Gordon; Hussaini, M. Yoursuff
1997-01-01
This paper (the first in a series) focuses on using active-control methods to maintain laminar flow in a region of the flow in which the natural instabilities, if left unattended, lead to turbulent flow. The authors review previous studies that examine wave cancellation (currently the most prominent method) and solve the unsteady, nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations to evaluate this method of controlling instabilities. It is definitively shown that instabilities are controlled by the linear summation of waves (i.e., wave cancellation). Although a mathematically complete method for controlling arbitrary instabilities has been developed, the review, duplication, and physical explanation of previous studies are important steps for providing an independent verification of those studies, for establishing a framework for the work which will involve automated transition control, and for detailing the phenomena by-which the automated studies can be used to expand knowledge of flow control.
Boundary layer thickness effect on boattail drag
Blaha, B. J.; Chamberlain, R.; Bober, L. J.
1976-01-01
A combined experimental and analytical program was conducted to investigate the effects of boundary layer changes on the flow over high angle boattail nozzles. The tests were run on an isolated axisymmetric sting mounted model. Various boattail geometries were investigated at high subsonic speeds over a range of boundary layer thicknesses. In general, boundary layer effects were small at speeds up to Mach 0.8. However, at higher speeds significant regions of separated flow were present on the boattail. When separation was present large reductions in boattail drag resulted with increasing boundary layer thickness. The analysis predicts both of these trends.
Shock Wave Boundary Layer Interaction Control Using Pulsed DBD Plasma Actuators Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Active flow control using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators is an attractive option for both reduction of complexity of aircraft systems required...
Experimental investigation of wave boundary layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sumer, B. Mutlu
2003-01-01
A review is presented of experimental investigation of wave boundary layer. The review is organized in six main sections. The first section describes the wave boundary layer in a real-life environment and its simulation in the laboratory in an oscillating water tunnel and in a water tank...... with an oscillating seabed. A brief account is given of measured quantities, measurement techniques (LDA, PIV, flow visualization) and limitations/constraints in the experimental investigation of the wave boundary layer in the laboratory. The second section concentrates on uniform oscillating boundary layers...... with a smooth bed. The boundary layer process is described over the entire range of the Reynolds number (Re from practically nil to Re = O(107)), from the laminar regime to the transitional regime and to the fully developed turbulent regime. The third section focuses on the effect of the boundary roughness...
HIFiRE-5 Boundary Layer Transition and HIFiRE-1 Shock Boundary Layer Interaction
2015-10-01
ballistic trajectory , with no active attitude control. The elliptic cone test article remained attached to the second stage booster at all times...Page Figure 1 Rollup of Boundary-layer into Streamwise Vortex on 2:1 Sharp Elliptic Cone, Similar to HIFiRE-5 (from Ref...Bulge of 2:1 Elliptic Cone13 ..............6 Figure 4 Photograph of Model
Saric, William S; Carpenter, Andrew L; Reed, Helen L
2011-04-13
A brief review of laminar flow control techniques is given and a strategy for achieving laminarization for transonic transport aircraft is discussed. A review of some flight-test results on swept-wing transition is presented. It is also shown that polished leading edges can create large regions of laminar flow because the flight environment is relatively turbulence free and the surface finish reduces the initial amplitude of the stationary crossflow vortex.
Bandgap tunability at single-layer molybdenum disulphide grain boundaries
Huang, Yu Li
2015-02-17
Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides have emerged as a new class of semiconductor materials with novel electronic and optical properties of interest to future nanoelectronics technology. Single-layer molybdenum disulphide, which represents a prototype two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide, has an electronic bandgap that increases with decreasing layer thickness. Using high-resolution scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy, we measure the apparent quasiparticle energy gap to be 2.40±0.05 eV for single-layer, 2.10±0.05 eV for bilayer and 1.75±0.05 eV for trilayer molybdenum disulphide, which were directly grown on a graphite substrate by chemical vapour deposition method. More interestingly, we report an unexpected bandgap tunability (as large as 0.85±0.05 eV) with distance from the grain boundary in single-layer molybdenum disulphide, which also depends on the grain misorientation angle. This work opens up new possibilities for flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices with tunable bandgaps that utilize both the control of two-dimensional layer thickness and the grain boundary engineering.
Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow
Sterk, H.A.M.
2015-01-01
Thesis entitled: Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow H.A.M. Sterk Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015 Summary The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs typically form at night and in polar
BUBBLE - an urban boundary layer meteorology project
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rotach, M.W.; Vogt, R.; Bernhofer, C.
2005-01-01
The Basel urban Boundary Layer Experiment (BUBBLE) was a year-long experimental effort to investigate in detail the boundary layer structure in the City of Basel, Switzerland. At several sites over different surface types (urban, sub-urban and rural reference) towers up to at least twice the main...
Magnetohydrodynamic cross-field boundary layer flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. B. Ingham
1982-01-01
Full Text Available The Blasius boundary layer on a flat plate in the presence of a constant ambient magnetic field is examined. A numerical integration of the MHD boundary layer equations from the leading edge is presented showing how the asymptotic solution described by Sears is approached.
Silvestri, Anton; Ghanadi, Farzin; Arjomandi, Maziar; Chin, Rey; Cazzolato, Benjamin; Zander, Anthony
2017-11-01
Cavity arrays have been previously identified to disrupt the sweep events and consequently the bursting cycle in the boundary layer by capturing the structures responsible for the Reynolds stresses. In the present study, the sensitivity of a flushed-surface cavity array in reducing the turbulent energy production has been investigated. Two plates of varying thicknesses and four different backing cavity volumes were considered, at three different Reynolds numbers. The volume of the backing cavity was shown to be the most important characteristic in determining the attenuation of streamwise velocity fluctuations within the logarithmic region of the turbulent boundary layer. However, the results also demonstrated that the orifice length of the cavity array had negligible effect in modifying the reduction of the turbulent energy by the cavity array in this investigation. The results show that the maximum reduction in turbulence generation achieved for this study occurs when the backing volume is 3.1 × 106 times greater than the viscous length scale at Reθ = 3771. The reduction in turbulence intensity, sweep intensity, and energy spectrum were shown to be 5.6%, 6.3%, and 13.4%, respectively. By decreasing the cavity volume to zero, no change in the turbulent boundary layer turbulence statistics was found. The results suggest a larger reduction in turbulence intensity, sweep intensity, and energy spectrum that can be achieved with a larger backing volume.
A global climatology of boundary layer ventilation
McNamara, David; Plant, Robert; Belcher, Stephen
2013-04-01
The general circulation pattern of the Earth's atmosphere is well known, however there has been relatively little effort to quantify the climatological effects of the buffer zone known as the atmospheric boundary layer. Turbulent motions in the atmospheric boundary layer act to mix the layer along with its constituent pollutants, below a temperature inversion which separates it from the free troposphere. Exchanges between the boundary layer and free troposphere can occur through the mechanisms of convection, isentropic uplift, and coastal and orographic venting. In particular the rate at which pollutants are removed from the atmosphere can be different depending on whether or not they are resident within the boundary layer or the free troposphere. Thus the limiting factor on the concentrations of, for example, certain eg NOx, pollutants in the free troposphere will be the rate at which they are vented from the boundary layer. A global climatology (spanning 10 years between 1995 and 2005) of boundary layer venting is presented here using the ERA-interim dataset which has a grid scale resolution of 0.7 degrees x 0.7 degrees. The boundary layer height is first calculated using a bulk Richardson number method and then an associated vertical velocity is found by linearly interpolating between the two model levels either side of the boundary layer height. This value along with the change in height of the boundary layer over a 3 hour period is used to give an estimate of the rate of venting. The climatology of this rate allows us to describe and quantify the areas of the globe that are responsible for boundary layer entrainment and boundary layer venting, which could be used as a basis for further comparisons with other suitable datasets. We will also present results for the climatology of the boundary layer height itself. [possibly? That could be attractive for a BL audience anyway] Furthermore we will present and discuss results from a method designed to isolate the
Ishii, Kohei; Saito, Itsuro; Isoyama, Takashi; Nakagawa, Hidemoto; Emiko, Nakano; Ono, Toshiya; Shi, Wei; Inoue, Yusuke; Abe, Yusuke
2012-09-01
It is desirable to obtain the maximum assist without suction in ventricular assist devices (VADs). However, high driving power of a VAD may cause severe ventricle suction that can induce arrhythmia, hemolysis, and pump damage. In this report, an appropriate VAD driving level that maximizes the assist effect without severe systolic suction was explored. The target driving level was set at the boundary between low driving power without suction and high driving power with frequent suction. In the boundary range, intermittent mild suction may occur. Driving power was regulated by the suction occurrence. The normal-suction boundary control method was evaluated in a female goat implanted with an undulation pump ventricular assist device (UPVAD). The UPVAD was driven in a semipulsatile mode with heartbeat synchronization control. Systolic driving power was adjusted using a normal-suction boundary control method developed for this study. We confirmed that driving power could be maintained in the boundary range. Occurrences of suction were evaluated using the suction ratio. We defined this ratio as the number of suction occurrences divided by the number of heartbeats. The suction ratio decreased by 70% when the normal-suction boundary control method was used. © 2012, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2012, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
On the modeling of electrical boundary layer (electrode layer) and ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 119; Issue 1. On the modeling of electrical boundary layer (electrode layer) and derivation of atmospheric electrical profiles, eddy diffusion coeffcient and scales of electrode layer. Madhuri N Kulkarni. Volume 119 Issue 1 February 2010 pp 75-86 ...
Popelka, Lukas; Kuklova, Jana; Simurda, David; Souckova, Natalie; Matejka, Milan; Uruba, Vaclav
2012-04-01
Infrared camera, Particle Image Velocimetry, smoke-wire, tuft filaments and oil-flow visualization techniques were used for wind-tunnel and in-flight investigation of boundary layer separation, both stall and separation bubbles, related to the low-Reynolds numbers transition mechanism. Airfoils of Wortmann FX66 series and FX66 series wing-fuselage interaction, as well as modern airfoils and their wing-fuselage geometry were subject to study. The presence of previously identified structures in the CFD modelling, such as horse-shoe vortices, was confirmed in the flow. Wind-tunnels and in-flight measurements on sailplanes were carried out and effect of passive flow control devices - vortex generators - was surveyed; namely counter-rotating vortex generators and Zig-zag type turbulators were applied. Separation suppression and consequent drag coefficient reduction of test aircrafts was reached. PIV investigation was further extended by Time-Resolved techniques. An important study on structure of the turbulent flow in the lower atmosphere, creating an environment of the soaring flight, was presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matejka Milan
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Infrared camera, Particle Image Velocimetry, smoke-wire, tuft filaments and oil-flow visualization techniques were used for wind-tunnel and in-flight investigation of boundary layer separation, both stall and separation bubbles, related to the low-Reynolds numbers transition mechanism. Airfoils of Wortmann FX66 series and FX66 series wing-fuselage interaction, as well as modern airfoils and their wing-fuselage geometry were subject to study. The presence of previously identified structures in the CFD modelling, such as horse-shoe vortices, was confirmed in the flow. Wind-tunnels and in-flight measurements on sailplanes were carried out and effect of passive flow control devices - vortex generators - was surveyed; namely counter-rotating vortex generators and Zig-zag type turbulators were applied. Separation suppression and consequent drag coefficient reduction of test aircrafts was reached. PIV investigation was further extended by Time-Resolved techniques. An important study on structure of the turbulent flow in the lower atmosphere, creating an environment of the soaring flight, was presented.
The Ocean Boundary Layer beneath Hurricane Frances
Dasaro, E. A.; Sanford, T. B.; Terrill, E.; Price, J.
2006-12-01
The upper ocean beneath the peak winds of Hurricane Frances (57 m/s) was measured using several varieties of air-deployed floats as part of CBLAST. A multilayer structure was observed as the boundary layer deepened from 20m to 120m in about 12 hours. Bubbles generated by breaking waves create a 10m thick surface layer with a density anomaly, due to the bubbles, of about 1 kg/m3. This acts to lubricate the near surface layer. A turbulent boundary layer extends beneath this to about 40 m depth. This is characterized by large turbulent eddies spanning the boundary layer. A stratified boundary layer grows beneath this reaching 120m depth. This is characterized by a gradient Richardson number of 1/4, which is maintained by strong inertial currents generated by the hurricane, and smaller turbulent eddies driven by the shear instead of the wind and waves. There is little evidence of mixing beneath this layer. Heat budgets reveal the boundary layer to be nearly one dimensional through much of the deepening, with horizontal and vertical heat advection becoming important only after the storm had passed. Turbulent kinetic energy measurements support the idea of reduced surface drag at high wind speeds. The PWP model correctly predicts the degree of mixed layer deepening if the surface drag is reduced at high wind speed. Overall, the greatest uncertainty in understanding the ocean boundary layer at these extreme wind speeds is a characterization of the near- surface processes which govern the air-sea fluxes and surface wave properties.
Sarlak, H.; Sørensen, J. N.; Mikkelsen, R.
2012-09-01
Large eddy simulation (LES) of flow in a wind farm is studied in neutral as well as thermally stratified atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). An approach has been practiced to simulate the flow in a fully developed wind farm boundary layer. The approach is based on the Immersed Boundary Method (IBM) and involves implementation of an arbitrary prescribed initial boundary layer (See [1]). A prescribed initial boundary layer profile is enforced through the computational domain using body forces to maintain a desired flow field. The body forces are then stored and applied on the domain through the simulation and the boundary layer shape will be modified due to the interaction of the turbine wakes and buoyancy contributions. The implemented method is capable of capturing the most important features of wakes of wind farms [1] while having the advantage of resolving the wall layer with a coarser grid than typically required for such problems.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chivaee, Hamid Sarlak; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming
2012-01-01
Large eddy simulation (LES) of flow in a wind farm is studied in neutral as well as thermally stratified atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). An approach has been practiced to simulate the flow in a fully developed wind farm boundary layer. The approach is based on the Immersed Boundary Method (IBM......) and involves implementation of an arbitrary prescribed initial boundary layer (See [1]). A prescribed initial boundary layer profile is enforced through the computational domain using body forces to maintain a desired flow field. The body forces are then stored and applied on the domain through the simulation...... and the boundary layer shape will be modified due to the interaction of the turbine wakes and buoyancy contributions. The implemented method is capable of capturing the most important features of wakes of wind farms [1] while having the advantage of resolving the wall layer with a coarser grid than typically...
Modeling the summertime Arctic cloudy boundary layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Curry, J.A.; Pinto, J.O. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); McInnes, K.L. [CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Mordialloc (Australia)
1996-04-01
Global climate models have particular difficulty in simulating the low-level clouds during the Arctic summer. Model problems are exacerbated in the polar regions by the complicated vertical structure of the Arctic boundary layer. The presence of multiple cloud layers, a humidity inversion above cloud top, and vertical fluxes in the cloud that are decoupled from the surface fluxes, identified in Curry et al. (1988), suggest that models containing sophisticated physical parameterizations would be required to accurately model this region. Accurate modeling of the vertical structure of multiple cloud layers in climate models is important for determination of the surface radiative fluxes. This study focuses on the problem of modeling the layered structure of the Arctic summertime boundary-layer clouds and in particular, the representation of the more complex boundary layer type consisting of a stable foggy surface layer surmounted by a cloud-topped mixed layer. A hierarchical modeling/diagnosis approach is used. A case study from the summertime Arctic Stratus Experiment is examined. A high-resolution, one-dimensional model of turbulence and radiation is tested against the observations and is then used in sensitivity studies to infer the optimal conditions for maintaining two separate layers in the Arctic summertime boundary layer. A three-dimensional mesoscale atmospheric model is then used to simulate the interaction of this cloud deck with the large-scale atmospheric dynamics. An assessment of the improvements needed to the parameterizations of the boundary layer, cloud microphysics, and radiation in the 3-D model is made.
Flow Visualization in Supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layers.
Smith, Michael Wayne
This thesis is a collection of novel flow visualizations of two different flat-plate, zero pressure gradient, supersonic, turbulent boundary layers (M = 2.8, Re _theta ~ 82,000, and M = 2.5, Re_ theta ~ 25,000, respectively). The physics of supersonic shear flows has recently drawn increasing attention with the renewed interest in flight at super and hypersonic speeds. This work was driven by the belief that the study of organized, Reynolds -stress producing turbulence structures will lead to improved techniques for the modelling and control of high-speed boundary layers. Although flow-visualization is often thought of as a tool for providing qualitative information about complex flow fields, in this thesis an emphasis is placed on deriving quantitative results from image data whenever possible. Three visualization techniques were applied--'selective cut-off' schlieren, droplet seeding, and Rayleigh scattering. Two experiments employed 'selective cut-off' schlieren. In the first, high-speed movies (40,000 fps) were made of strong density gradient fronts leaning downstream at between 30^circ and 60^ circ and travelling at about 0.9U _infty. In the second experiment, the same fronts were detected with hot-wires and imaged in real time, thus allowing the examination of the density gradient fronts and their associated single-point mass -flux signals. Two experiments employed droplet seeding. In both experiments, the boundary layer was seeded by injecting a stream of acetone through a single point in the wall. The acetone is atomized by the high shear at the wall into a 'fog' of tiny (~3.5mu m) droplets. In the first droplet experiment, the fog was illuminated with copper-vapor laser sheets of various orientations. The copper vapor laser pulses 'froze' the fog motion, revealing a variety of organized turbulence structures, some with characteristic downstream inclinations, others with large-scale roll-up on the scale of delta. In the second droplet experiment, high
Enescu (Balaş, M. L.; Alexandru, C.
2016-08-01
The paper deals with the optimal design of the control system for a 6-DOF robot used in thin layers deposition. The optimization is based on parametric technique, by modelling the design objective as a numerical function, and then establishing the optimal values of the design variables so that to minimize the objective function. The robotic system is a mechatronic product, which integrates the mechanical device and the controlled operating device.The mechanical device of the robot was designed in the CAD (Computer Aided Design) software CATIA, the 3D-model being then transferred to the MBS (Multi-Body Systems) environment ADAMS/View. The control system was developed in the concurrent engineering concept, through the integration with the MBS mechanical model, by using the DFC (Design for Control) software solution EASY5. The necessary angular motions in the six joints of the robot, in order to obtain the imposed trajectory of the end-effector, have been established by performing the inverse kinematic analysis. The positioning error in each joint of the robot is used as design objective, the optimization goal being to minimize the root mean square during simulation, which is a measure of the magnitude of the positioning error varying quantity.
Hwang, D. P.; Boldman, D. R.; Hughes, C. E.
1994-01-01
An axisymmetric panel code and a three dimensional Navier-Stokes code (used as an inviscid Euler code) were verified for low speed, high angle of attack flow conditions. A three dimensional Navier-Stokes code (used as an inviscid code), and an axisymmetric Navier-Stokes code (used as both viscous and inviscid code) were also assessed for high Mach number cruise conditions. The boundary layer calculations were made by using the results from the panel code or Euler calculation. The panel method can predict the internal surface pressure distributions very well if no shock exists. However, only Euler and Navier-Stokes calculations can provide a good prediction of the surface static pressure distribution including the pressure rise across the shock. Because of the high CPU time required for a three dimensional Navier-Stokes calculation, only the axisymmetric Navier-Stokes calculation was considered at cruise conditions. The use of suction and tangential blowing boundary layer control to eliminate the flow separation on the internal surface was demonstrated for low free stream Mach number and high angle of attack cases. The calculation also shows that transition from laminar flow to turbulent flow on the external cowl surface can be delayed by using suction boundary layer control at cruise flow conditions. The results were compared with experimental data where possible.
Boundary layer heights derived from velocity spectra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoejstrup, J.; Barthelmie, R.J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Kaellstrand, B. [Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden)
1997-10-01
It is a well-known fact that the height of the mixed layer determines the size of the largest and most energetic eddies that can be observed in the unstable boundary layer, and consequently a peak can be observed in the power spectra of the along-wind velocity component at scales comparable to the mixed layer depth. We will now show how the mixed layer depth can be derived from the u-specta and the results will be compared with direct measurements using pibal and tethersonde measurements. (au)
Munters, W.; Meyers, J.
2017-03-01
Complex turbine wake interactions play an important role in overall energy extraction in large wind farms. Current control strategies optimize individual turbine power, and lead to significant energy losses in wind farms compared with lone-standing wind turbines. In recent work, an optimal coordinated control framework was introduced (Goit & Meyers 2015 J. Fluid Mech. 768, 5-50 (doi:10.1017/jfm.2015.70)). Here, we further elaborate on this framework, quantify the influence of optimization parameters and introduce new simulation results for which gains in power production of up to 21% are observed. This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'.
Munters, W; Meyers, J
2017-04-13
Complex turbine wake interactions play an important role in overall energy extraction in large wind farms. Current control strategies optimize individual turbine power, and lead to significant energy losses in wind farms compared with lone-standing wind turbines. In recent work, an optimal coordinated control framework was introduced (Goit & Meyers 2015 J. Fluid Mech.768, 5-50 (doi:10.1017/jfm.2015.70)). Here, we further elaborate on this framework, quantify the influence of optimization parameters and introduce new simulation results for which gains in power production of up to 21% are observed.This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'. © 2017 The Authors.
Munters, W.
2017-01-01
Complex turbine wake interactions play an important role in overall energy extraction in large wind farms. Current control strategies optimize individual turbine power, and lead to significant energy losses in wind farms compared with lone-standing wind turbines. In recent work, an optimal coordinated control framework was introduced (Goit & Meyers 2015 J. Fluid Mech. 768, 5–50 (doi:10.1017/jfm.2015.70)). Here, we further elaborate on this framework, quantify the influence of optimization parameters and introduce new simulation results for which gains in power production of up to 21% are observed. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Wind energy in complex terrains’. PMID:28265024
Processes for multi-layer devices utilizing layer transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nielson, Gregory N; Sanchez, Carlos Anthony; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Kim, Bongsang; Cederberg, Jeffrey; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J
2015-02-03
A method includes forming a release layer over a donor substrate. A plurality of devices made of a first semiconductor material are formed over the release layer. A first dielectric layer is formed over the plurality of devices such that all exposed surfaces of the plurality of devices are covered by the first dielectric layer. The plurality of devices are chemically attached to a receiving device made of a second semiconductor material different than the first semiconductor material, the receiving device having a receiving substrate attached to a surface of the receiving device opposite the plurality of devices. The release layer is etched to release the donor substrate from the plurality of devices. A second dielectric layer is applied over the plurality of devices and the receiving device to mechanically attach the plurality of devices to the receiving device.
Orbiter Boundary Layer Transition Prediction Tool Enhancements
Berry, Scott A.; King, Rudolph A.; Kegerise, Michael A.; Wood, William A.; McGinley, Catherine B.; Berger, Karen T.; Anderson, Brian P.
2010-01-01
Updates to an analytic tool developed for Shuttle support to predict the onset of boundary layer transition resulting from thermal protection system damage or repair are presented. The boundary layer transition tool is part of a suite of tools that analyze the local aerothermodynamic environment to enable informed disposition of damage for making recommendations to fly as is or to repair. Using mission specific trajectory information and details of each d agmea site or repair, the expected time (and thus Mach number) of transition onset is predicted to help define proper environments for use in subsequent thermal and stress analysis of the thermal protection system and structure. The boundary layer transition criteria utilized within the tool were updated based on new local boundary layer properties obtained from high fidelity computational solutions. Also, new ground-based measurements were obtained to allow for a wider parametric variation with both protuberances and cavities and then the resulting correlations were calibrated against updated flight data. The end result is to provide correlations that allow increased confidence with the resulting transition predictions. Recently, a new approach was adopted to remove conservatism in terms of sustained turbulence along the wing leading edge. Finally, some of the newer flight data are also discussed in terms of how these results reflect back on the updated correlations.
Measurements of a Separating Turbulent Boundary Layer.
1980-04-01
the uncertainties of most of the dominant terms are less than 30% 40% at many points. In general, the terms involving derivatives with re spect to y...34 DISA Information, no. 13, pp. 29-33. Perry, A.E. and Schofield, W.H. 1973 "Mean Velocity and Shear Stress Distribu- tions in Turbulent Boundary Layers
Nonlinear Transient Growth and Boundary Layer Transition
Paredes, Pedro; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei
2016-01-01
Parabolized stability equations (PSE) are used in a variational approach to study the optimal, non-modal disturbance growth in a Mach 3 at plate boundary layer and a Mach 6 circular cone boundary layer. As noted in previous works, the optimal initial disturbances correspond to steady counter-rotating streamwise vortices, which subsequently lead to the formation of streamwise-elongated structures, i.e., streaks, via a lift-up effect. The nonlinear evolution of the linearly optimal stationary perturbations is computed using the nonlinear plane-marching PSE for stationary perturbations. A fully implicit marching technique is used to facilitate the computation of nonlinear streaks with large amplitudes. To assess the effect of the finite-amplitude streaks on transition, the linear form of plane- marching PSE is used to investigate the instability of the boundary layer flow modified by spanwise periodic streaks. The onset of bypass transition is estimated by using an N- factor criterion based on the amplification of the streak instabilities. Results show that, for both flow configurations of interest, streaks of sufficiently large amplitude can lead to significantly earlier onset of transition than that in an unperturbed boundary layer without any streaks.
Diagnosis of boundary-layer circulations.
Beare, Robert J; Cullen, Michael J P
2013-05-28
Diagnoses of circulations in the vertical plane provide valuable insights into aspects of the dynamics of the climate system. Dynamical theories based on geostrophic balance have proved useful in deriving diagnostic equations for these circulations. For example, semi-geostrophic theory gives rise to the Sawyer-Eliassen equation (SEE) that predicts, among other things, circulations around mid-latitude fronts. A limitation of the SEE is the absence of a realistic boundary layer. However, the coupling provided by the boundary layer between the atmosphere and the surface is fundamental to the climate system. Here, we use a theory based on Ekman momentum balance to derive an SEE that includes a boundary layer (SEEBL). We consider a case study of a baroclinic low-level jet. The SEEBL solution shows significant benefits over Ekman pumping, including accommodating a boundary-layer depth that varies in space and structure, which accounts for buoyancy and momentum advection. The diagnosed low-level jet is stronger than that determined by Ekman balance. This is due to the inclusion of momentum advection. Momentum advection provides an additional mechanism for enhancement of the low-level jet that is distinct from inertial oscillations.
Instabilities and transition in boundary layers
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Some recent developments in boundary layer instabilities and transition are reviewed. Background disturbance levels determine the instability mechanism that ulti- mately leads to turbulence. At low noise levels, the traditional Tollmien–Schlichting route is followed, while at high levels, a 'by-pass' route is more ...
Numerical methods for hypersonic boundary layer stability
Malik, M. R.
1990-01-01
Four different schemes for solving compressible boundary layer stability equations are developed and compared, considering both the temporal and spatial stability for a global eigenvalue spectrum and a local eigenvalue search. The discretizations considered encompass: (1) a second-order-staggered finite-difference scheme; (2) a fourth-order accurate, two-point compact scheme; (3) a single-domain Chebychev spectral collocation scheme; and (4) a multidomain spectral collocation scheme. As Mach number increases, the performance of the single-domain collocation scheme deteriorates due to the outward movement of the critical layer; a multidomain spectral method is accordingly designed to furnish superior resolution of the critical layer.
Analysis of diabatic flow modification in the internal boundary layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Floors, Rogier; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Pena Diaz, Alfredo
2011-01-01
Measurements at two meteorological masts in Denmark, Horns Rev in the sea and Høvsøre near the coastline on land, are used to analyze the behaviour of the flow after a smooth-to-rough change in surface conditions. The study shows that the wind profile within the internal boundary layer...... is controlled by a combination of both downstream and upstream stability and surface roughness conditions. A model based on a diffusion analogy is able to predict the internal boundary layer height well. Modeling the neutral and long-term wind profile with a 3 layer linear interpolation scheme gives good...... results at Høvsøre. Based on a comparison with a numerical model and the measurements, the constants in the interpolation scheme are slightly adjusted, which yields an improvement for the description of the wind profile in the internal boundary layer....
Wind and boundary layers in Rayleigh-Bénard convection. II. Boundary layer character and scaling.
van Reeuwijk, Maarten; Jonker, Harm J J; Hanjalić, Kemo
2008-03-01
The scaling of the kinematic boundary layer thickness lambda(u) and the friction factor C(f) at the top and bottom walls of Rayleigh-Bénard convection is studied by direct numerical simulation (DNS). By a detailed analysis of the friction factor, a new parameterisation for C(f) and lambda(u) is proposed. The simulations were made of an L/H=4 aspect-ratio domain with periodic lateral boundary conditions at Ra=(10(5), 10(6), 10(7), 10(8)) and Pr=1. The continuous spectrum, as well as significant forcing due to Reynolds stresses, clearly indicates a turbulent character of the boundary layer, while viscous effects cannot be neglected, judging from the scaling of classical integral boundary layer parameters with Reynolds number. Using a conceptual wind model, we find that the friction factor C(f) should scale proportionally to the thermal boundary layer thickness as C(f) proportional variant lambda(Theta)/H, while the kinetic boundary layer thickness lambda(u) scales inversely proportionally to the thermal boundary layer thickness and wind Reynolds number lambda(u)/H proportional variant (lambda(Theta)/H)(-1)Re(-1). The predicted trends for C(f) and lambda(u) are in agreement with DNS results.
Turbulent dispersion in cloud-topped boundary layers
Verzijlbergh, R.A.; Jonker, H.J.J.; Heus, T.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.
2009-01-01
Compared to dry boundary layers, dispersion in cloud-topped boundary layers has received less attention. In this LES based numerical study we investigate the dispersion of a passive tracer in the form of Lagrangian particles for four kinds of atmospheric boundary layers: 1) a dry convective boundary
2007 Program of Study: Boundary Layers
2008-06-01
zero. The stream function multiplied by the boundary layer thickness is negligible close to the right hand side. This gives, for we = we(y), 0 = xewe ...δsψx(0)− δ3mψ (0). (2) The first derivative of ψ is zero at the left boundary due to the no slip condition. This gives 0 = xewe + δ3mψ (0), (3...which means that the vorticity inserted by the Ekman pumping must be dissipated by the sublayer. We verify that (1.20) is a solution to Eq. 3 xewe
Boundary layer receptivity phenomena in three-dimensional and high-speed boundary layers
Choudhari, Meelan; Streett, Craig L.
1990-01-01
The process by which the boundary layer internalizes the environmental disturbances in the form of instability waves is known as the boundary-layer receptivity. The paper discusses the importance of receptivity in transition research. The receptivity scenario for three-dimensional and high-speed boundary layers is examined. It is found that, while receptivity mechanisms present in the low-speed case are also operative in these complex flows, certain uniquely 'compressible' receptivity mechanisms may come into play as well. Both numerical, and where convenient, asymptotic procedures are utilized to develop quantitative predictions of the localized generation of a variety of instability types (Tollmien-Schlichting, inflectional, higher modes, crossflow vortices) in boundary layer flows relevant to the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP).
Experimental studies on transitional separated boundary layers
Serna Serrano, José
2013-01-01
Separated transitional boundary layers appear on key aeronautical processes such as the flow around wings or turbomachinery blades. The aim of this thesis is the study of these flows in representative scenarios of technological applications, gaining knowledge about phenomenology and physical processes that occur there and, developing a simple model for scaling them. To achieve this goal, experimental measurements have been carried out in a low speed facility, ensuring the flow homogeneity and...
Boundary Layer Transition Results From STS-114
Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Cassady, Amy M.; Kirk, Benjamin S.; Wang, K. C.; Hyatt, Andrew J.
2006-01-01
The tool for predicting the onset of boundary layer transition from damage to and/or repair of the thermal protection system developed in support of Shuttle Return to Flight is compared to the STS-114 flight results. The Boundary Layer Transition (BLT) Tool is part of a suite of tools that analyze the aerothermodynamic environment of the local thermal protection system to allow informed disposition of damage for making recommendations to fly as is or to repair. Using mission specific trajectory information and details of each damage site or repair, the expected time of transition onset is predicted to help determine the proper aerothermodynamic environment to use in the subsequent thermal and stress analysis of the local structure. The boundary layer transition criteria utilized for the tool was developed from ground-based measurements to account for the effect of both protuberances and cavities and has been calibrated against flight data. Computed local boundary layer edge conditions provided the means to correlate the experimental results and then to extrapolate to flight. During STS-114, the BLT Tool was utilized and was part of the decision making process to perform an extravehicular activity to remove the large gap fillers. The role of the BLT Tool during this mission, along with the supporting information that was acquired for the on-orbit analysis, is reviewed. Once the large gap fillers were removed, all remaining damage sites were cleared for reentry as is. Post-flight analysis of the transition onset time revealed excellent agreement with BLT Tool predictions.
Clidar Mountain Boundary Layer Case Studies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sharma Nimmi C. P.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A CCD Camera Lidar system called the CLidar system images a vertically pointing laser from the side with a spatially separated CCD camera and wide angle optics. The system has been used to investigate case studies of aerosols in mountain boundary layers in in the times following sunset. The aerosols detected by the system demonstrate the wide variation of near ground aerosol structure and capabilities of the CLidar system.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schlichting, Hermann [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Stroemungsmechanik; Gersten, Klaus [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Thermodynamik und Stroemungsmechanik
2017-03-01
This new edition of the near-legendary textbook by Schlichting and revised by Gersten presents a comprehensive overview of boundary-layer theory and its application to all areas of fluid mechanics, with particular emphasis on the flow past bodies (e.g. aircraft aerodynamics). The new edition features an updated reference list and over 100 additional changes throughout the book, reflecting the latest advances on the subject.
Coupled wake boundary layer model of windfarms
Stevens, Richard; Gayme, Dennice; Meneveau, Charles
2014-11-01
We present a coupled wake boundary layer (CWBL) model that describes the distribution of the power output in a windfarm. The model couples the traditional, industry-standard wake expansion/superposition approach with a top-down model for the overall windfarm boundary layer structure. Wake models capture the effect of turbine positioning, while the top-down approach represents the interaction between the windturbine wakes and the atmospheric boundary layer. Each portion of the CWBL model requires specification of a parameter that is unknown a-priori. The wake model requires the wake expansion rate, whereas the top-down model requires the effective spanwise turbine spacing within which the model's momentum balance is relevant. The wake expansion rate is obtained by matching the mean velocity at the turbine from both approaches, while the effective spanwise turbine spacing is determined from the wake model. Coupling of the constitutive components of the CWBL model is achieved by iterating these parameters until convergence is reached. We show that the CWBL model predictions compare more favorably with large eddy simulation results than those made with either the wake or top-down model in isolation and that the model can be applied successfully to the Horns Rev and Nysted windfarms. The `Fellowships for Young Energy Scientists' (YES!) of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter supported by NWO, and NSF Grant #1243482.
Influence of micrometeorological features on coastal boundary layer ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Characteristics of aerosols in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) obtained from a bistatic CW lidar at Trivandrum for the last one decade are used to investigate the role of ABL micro- meteorological processes in controlling the altitude distribution and size spectrum. The altitude structure of number density shows three ...
A global boundary-layer height climatology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dop, H. van; Krol, M.; Holtslag, B. [Inst. for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht, IMAU, Utrecht (Netherlands)
1997-10-01
In principle the ABL (atmospheric boundary layer) height can be retrieved from atmospheric global circulation models since they contain algorithms which determine the intensity of the turbulence as a function of height. However, these data are not routinely available, or on a (vertical) resolution which is too crude in view of the application. This justifies the development of a separate algorithm in order to define the ABL. The algorithm should include the generation of turbulence by both shear and buoyancy and should be based on readily available atmospheric parameters. There is obviously a wide application for boundary heights in off-line global and regional chemistry and transport modelling. It is also a much used parameter in air pollution meteorology. In this article we shall present a theory which is based on current insights in ABL dynamics. The theory is applicable over land and sea surfaces in all seasons. The theory is (for various reasons) not valid in mountainous areas. In areas where boundary-layer clouds or deep cumulus convection are present the theory does not apply. However, the same global atmospheric circulation models contain parameterizations for shallow and deep convection from which separate estimates can be obtained for the extent of vertical mixing. (au)
Gibson, B. A.; Arjomandi, M.; Kelso, R. M.
2012-01-01
The jetting characteristics of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) actuators make these devices suitable for augmenting boundary layer flows. The associated change to the hydrodynamic stability of the fluid arising from the actuator provides a mechanism through which a DBD-based laminar flow control (LFC) system can be developed. Historically, DBD actuators with electrodes arranged parallel to each other have been used for LFC with mixed results. An alternative is to use an actuator with electrodes placed orthogonally to each other. Orthogonally arranged actuators exhibit different jetting characteristics to conventional ones, and as such understanding the effect that these actuators have on the mean velocity profile within a flat plate boundary layer is of significant interest to the development of DBD-based LFC technology. In this investigation, the velocity distribution within a flat plate boundary layer in a zero pressure gradient is measured in response to the operation of an orthogonally arranged actuator. The results suggest that significant thinning of the boundary layer can be realized with an orthogonally arranged actuator, over a short distance downstream of the device, and used in conjunction with a subtle suction effect, this thinning can be exacerbated. However, further downstream, rapid thickening of the layer, supported by a decrease in the shape factor of the flow suggests that the layer becomes unstable, in an accelerated fashion, to the presence of the actuator. Hence the stability of the layer is found to be significantly altered by the presence of the orthogonally arranged actuator, a requisite for a LFC system. However, since the actuator produces a destabilizing effect, the development of a successful LFC system based on orthogonal actuators will require further work.
A Coordinate Transformation for Unsteady Boundary Layer Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paul G. A. CIZMAS
2011-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new coordinate transformation for unsteady, incompressible boundary layer equations that applies to both laminar and turbulent flows. A generalization of this coordinate transformation is also proposed. The unsteady boundary layer equations are subsequently derived. In addition, the boundary layer equations are derived using a time linearization approach and assuming harmonically varying small disturbances.
Cebeci, Tuncer
2005-01-01
This second edition of our book extends the modeling and calculation of boundary-layer flows to include compressible flows. The subjects cover laminar, transitional and turbulent boundary layers for two- and three-dimensional incompressible and compressible flows. The viscous-inviscid coupling between the boundary layer and the inviscid flow is also addressed. The book has a large number of homework problems.
Optimal Growth in Hypersonic Boundary Layers
Paredes, Pedro; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei; Chang, Chau-Lyan
2016-01-01
The linear form of the parabolized linear stability equations is used in a variational approach to extend the previous body of results for the optimal, nonmodal disturbance growth in boundary-layer flows. This paper investigates the optimal growth characteristics in the hypersonic Mach number regime without any high-enthalpy effects. The influence of wall cooling is studied, with particular emphasis on the role of the initial disturbance location and the value of the spanwise wave number that leads to the maximum energy growth up to a specified location. Unlike previous predictions that used a basic state obtained from a self-similar solution to the boundary-layer equations, mean flow solutions based on the full Navier-Stokes equations are used in select cases to help account for the viscous- inviscid interaction near the leading edge of the plate and for the weak shock wave emanating from that region. Using the full Navier-Stokes mean flow is shown to result in further reduction with Mach number in the magnitude of optimal growth relative to the predictions based on the self-similar approximation to the base flow.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. J. Roberts
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Observations from CMET (Controlled Meteorological balloons are analysed to provide insights into tropospheric meteorological conditions (temperature, humidity, wind around Svalbard, European High Arctic. Five Controlled Meteorological (CMET balloons were launched from Ny-Ålesund in Svalbard (Spitsbergen over 5–12 May 2011 and measured vertical atmospheric profiles over coastal areas to both the east and west. One notable CMET flight achieved a suite of 18 continuous soundings that probed the Arctic marine boundary layer (ABL over a period of more than 10 h. Profiles from two CMET flights are compared to model output from ECMWF Era-Interim reanalysis (ERA-I and to a high-resolution (15 km Arctic System Reanalysis (ASR product. To the east of Svalbard over sea ice, the CMET observed a stable ABL profile with a temperature inversion that was reproduced by ASR but not captured by ERA-I. In a coastal ice-free region to the west of Svalbard, the CMET observed a stable ABL with strong wind shear. The CMET profiles document increases in ABL temperature and humidity that are broadly reproduced by both ASR and ERA-I. The ASR finds a more stably stratified ABL than observed but captured the wind shear in contrast to ERA-I. Detailed analysis of the coastal CMET-automated soundings identifies small-scale temperature and humidity variations with a low-level flow and provides an estimate of local wind fields. We demonstrate that CMET balloons are a valuable approach for profiling the free atmosphere and boundary layer in remote regions such as the Arctic, where few other in situ observations are available for model validation.
Martin, Alexis; Margoum, Christelle; Jolivet, Antoine; Assoumani, Azziz; El Moujahid, Bachir; Randon, Jérôme; Coquery, Marina
2017-11-28
There is a need to determine time-weighted average concentrations of polar contaminants such as pesticides by passive sampling in environmental waters. Calibration data for silicone rubber-based passive samplers are lacking for this class of compounds. The calibration data, sampling rate (R s ), and partition coefficient between silicone rubber and water (K sw ) were precisely determined for 23 pesticides and 13 candidate performance reference compounds (PRCs) in a laboratory calibration system over 14 d for 2 water flow velocities, 5 and 20 cm s -1 . The results showed that an in situ exposure duration of 7 d left a silicone rubber rod passive sampler configuration in the linear or curvilinear uptake period for 19 of the pesticides studied. A change in the transport mechanism from polymer control to water boundary layer control was observed for pesticides with a log K sw of approximately 3.3. The PRC candidates were not fully relevant to correct the impact of water flow velocity on R s . We therefore propose an alternative method based on an overall resistance to mass transfer model to adjust R s from laboratory experiments to in situ hydrodynamic conditions. We estimated diffusion coefficients (D s ) and thickness of water boundary layer (δ w ) as adjustable model parameters. Log D s values ranged from -12.13 to -10.07 m 2 s -1 . The estimated δ w value showed a power function correlation with water flow velocity. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;9999:1-11. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.
Exploring Isothermal Layers in the Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer
Wilkins, Joseph
2011-03-01
Simulating the stable atmospheric boundary-layer presents a significant challenge to numerical models due to the interactions of several processes with widely varying scales. The goal of this project is to more clearly define the cause of isothermal layers observed during the Meteorological Experiment in Arizona's Meteor Crater and to test the National Taiwan University/Purdue University (NTU/P) model in stable environments with complex terrain. The NTU/P model is able to utilize the actual terrain data with minimal smoothing for stability. We have found that isothermal profiles can be generated by the standing wave that develops due to weak wind flowing over the crater. However, the horizontal heterogeneity is greater than observed. Continued effort will explore enhancing horizontal mixing due to turbulence and radiative transfer. Louis Stokes Alliances for Minority Participation Program, Summer Research Opportunities Program.
Role of residual layer and large-scale phenomena on the evolution of the boundary layer
Blay, E.; Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Boer, van de A.; Coster, de O.; Faloona, I.; Garrouste, O.; Hartogensis, O.K.
2012-01-01
Mixed-layer theory and large-eddy simulations are used to analyze the dynamics of the boundary layer on two intensive operational periods during the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) campaign: 1st and 2nd of July 2011, when convective boundary layers (CBLs) were observed.
Bernardini, C.; Carnevale, M.; Manna, M.; Martelli, F.; Simoni, D.; Zunino, P.
2012-10-01
The present paper focuses on the analysis of a synthetic jet device (with a zero net massflow rate) on a separated boundary layer. Separation has been obtained on a flat plate installed within a converging-diverging test section specifically designed to attain a local velocity distribution typical of a high-lift LPT blade. Both experimental and numerical investigations have been carried out. Unsteady RANS results have been compared with experiments in terms of time-averaged velocity and turbulence intensity distributions. Two different Reynolds number cases have been investigated, namely Re = 200, 000 and Re = 70, 000, which characterize low-pressure turbine operating conditions during take-off/landing and cruise. A range of synthetic jet aerodynamic parameters (Strouhal number and blowing ratio) has been tested in order to analyze the features of control — separated boundary layer interaction for the aforementioned Reynolds numbers.
Helicity in the atmospheric boundary layer
Kurgansky, Michael; Koprov, Boris; Koprov, Victor; Chkhetiani, Otto
2017-04-01
An overview is presented of recent direct field measurements at the Tsimlyansk Scientific Station of A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics in Moscow of turbulent helicity (and potential vorticity) using four acoustic anemometers positioned, within the atmospheric surface-adjacent boundary layer, in the vertices of a rectangular tetrahedron, with an approximate 5 m distance between the anemometers and a 5.5 m elevation of the tetrahedron base above the ground surface (Koprov, Koprov, Kurgansky and Chkhetiani. Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 2015, Vol.51, 565-575). The same ideology was applied in a later field experiment in Tsimlyansk with the tetrahedron's size of 0.7 m and variable elevation over the ground from 3.5 to 25 m. It is illustrated with examples of the statistical distribution of instantaneous (both positive and negative) turbulent helicity values. A theory is proposed that explains the measured mean turbulent helicity sign, including the sign of contribution to helicity from the horizontal and vertical velocity & vorticity components, respectively, and the sign of helicity buoyant production term. By considering a superposition of the classic Ekman spiral solution and a jet-like wind profile that mimics a shallow breeze circulation over a non-uniformly heated Earth surface, a possible explanation is provided, why the measured mean turbulent helicity sign is negative. The pronounced breeze circulation over the Tsimlyansk polygon which is located nearby the Tsimlyansk Reservoir was, indeed, observed during the measurements period. Whereas, essentially positive helicity is injected into the boundary layer from the free atmosphere in the Northern Hemisphere.
Analytical solution for the convectively-mixed atmospheric boundary layer
Ouwersloot, H.G.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.
2013-01-01
Based on the prognostic equations of mixed-layer theory assuming a zeroth order jump at the entrainment zone, analytical solutions for the boundary-layer height evolution are derived with different degrees of accuracy. First, an exact implicit expression for the boundary-layer height for a situation
Simulation of Wind turbines in the atmospheric boundary layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chivaee, Hamid Sarlak; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming
Large eddy simulation of an arbitrary wind farm is studied in the neutral and thermally stratified atmospheric boundary Layer. Large eddy simulations of industrial flows usually requires full resolution of the flow near the wall and this is believed to be one of the main deficiencies of LES because...... layer. In the current study, another approach has been implemented to simulate the flow in a fully developed wind farm boundary layer. The approach is based on Immersed Boundary Method and involves implementation of an arbitrary prescribed initial boundary layer. An initial boundary layer is enforced...... through the whole domain, without wind turbines included, while the body forces that are required to maintain that flow field is calculated. The body forces are then stored and applied on the domain through the simulation of wind turbine and the boundary layer shape will be modified based on the turbine...
Boundary-Layer Bypass Transition Over Large-Scale Bodies
2016-12-16
AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2017-0007 Boundary - layer bypass transition over large-scale bodies Pierre Ricco UNIVERSITY OF SHEFFIELD, DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY...REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01 Sep 2013 to 31 Aug 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Boundary - layer bypass transition over large-scale...shape of the streamwise velocity profile compared to the flat-plate boundary layer . The research showed that the streamwise wavenumber plays a key role
Methods and results of boundary layer measurements on a glider
Nes, W. V.
1978-01-01
Boundary layer measurements were carried out on a glider under natural conditions. Two effects are investigated: the effect of inconstancy of the development of static pressure within the boundary layer and the effect of the negative pressure difference in a sublaminar boundary layer. The results obtained by means of an ion probe in parallel connection confirm those results obtained by means of a pressure probe. Additional effects which have occurred during these measurements are briefly dealt with.
Multi-layer seal for electrochemical devices
Chou, Yeong-Shyung [Richland, WA; Meinhardt, Kerry D [Kennewick, WA; Stevenson, Jeffry W [Richland, WA
2010-09-14
Multi-layer seals are provided that find advantageous use for reducing leakage of gases between adjacent components of electrochemical devices. Multi-layer seals of the invention include a gasket body defining first and second opposing surfaces and a compliant interlayer positioned adjacent each of the first and second surfaces. Also provided are methods for making and using the multi-layer seals, and electrochemical devices including said seals.
Pre-LBA Rondonia Boundary Layer Experiment (RBLE) Data
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is the layer of air closest to the ground which is directly influenced on a daily basis by the heating and cooling of the...
Pre-LBA Rondonia Boundary Layer Experiment (RBLE) Data
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is the layer of air closest to the ground which is directly influenced on a daily basis by the heating and cooling of...
Vortex properties in turbulent boundary layers
Gao, Qi; Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Ortiz-Duenas, Cecilia; Longmire, Ellen
2008-11-01
Swirl strength was used to identify vortices in turbulent boundary layers. Dual-plane PIV data at Reτ 1100 with coarser (Ganapathisubramani et al., 2006) and finer resolution (Saikrishnan et al., 2007) as well as DNS data at Reτ=590 (Moser et al., 1999) and Reτ=934 (del álamo et al., 2004) were analyzed. A new core-combination algorithm was developed to improve identification of in- and out-of-plane vortices. Core orientation was determined by the eigenvector of the velocity gradient tensor, and core radii were characterized. The effects of wall normal location, Reynolds number, and spatial resolution were studied. In general, the PDF of swirl magnitude is affected by both in- and out-of-plane spatial resolution as well as the wall normal location. Scaling of swirl will be discussed in the presentation. The results show that, in the logarithmic region, the mean angle between the eigenvector and the vorticity vector decreases and the mean core radius increases with wall normal distance. Joint PDFs show linear increases in circulation with core radius, as well as correlations between core inclination angle and circulation. Convection velocities of strong cores are typically smaller than the local mean velocity.
Boundary-layer effects in droplet splashing.
Riboux, Guillaume; Gordillo, José Manuel
2017-07-01
A drop falling onto a solid substrate will disintegrate into smaller parts when its impact velocity V exceeds the so-called critical velocity for splashing, i.e., when V>V^{*}. Under these circumstances, the very thin liquid sheet, which is ejected tangentially to the solid after the drop touches the substrate, lifts off as a consequence of the aerodynamic forces exerted on it. Subsequently, the growth of capillary instabilities breaks the toroidal rim bordering the ejecta into smaller droplets, violently ejected radially outward, provoking the splash [G. Riboux and J. M. Gordillo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 024507 (2014)]PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.113.024507. In this contribution, the effect of the growth of the boundary layer is included in the splash model presented in Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 024507 (2014)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.113.024507, obtaining very good agreement between the measured and the predicted values of V^{*} for wide ranges of liquid and gas material properties, atmospheric pressures, and substrate wettabilities. Our description also modifies the way at when the liquid sheet is first ejected, which can now be determined in a much more straightforward manner than that proposed in Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 024507 (2014)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.113.024507.
Motion of particles in a thermal boundary layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schefer, R.W.; Agrawal, Y.; Cheng, R.K.; Robben, F.; Talbot, L.
1978-06-15
In the course of using laser Doppler velocimetry to study combustion in a thermal boundary layer, the particle count rate was found to decrease abruptly to zero inside the boundary layer. Experimental and theoretical investigation of this phenomenon was carried out. The motion of the particles may be due to the combined effects of thermophoresis and radiative heating.
Hundred years of the boundary layer – Some aspects
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2005-08-02
Aug 2, 2005 ... at the Third International Congress of Mathematics held in Heidelberg and published in the. Proceedings of the Congress ..... Work on boundary layers is going on in many organizations in India. The above ... Rao G N V 1967 The law of the wall in thick axisymmetric turbulent boundary layers. J. Appl. Mech.
Numerical Simulation of tsunami-scale wave boundary layers
Williams, Isaac A.; Fuhrman, David R.
2016-01-01
This paper presents a numerical study of the boundary layer flow and properties induced by tsunami-scale waves. For this purpose, an existing one-dimensional vertical (1DV) boundary layer model, based on the horizontal component of the incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations,
Coherent structures in wave boundary layers. Part 2. Solitary motion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sumer, B. Mutlu; Jensen, Palle Martin; Sørensen, Lone B.
2010-01-01
This study continues the investigation of wave boundary layers reported by Carstensen, Sumer & Fredsøe (J. Fluid Mech., 2010, part 1 of this paper). The present paper summarizes the results of an experimental investigation of turbulent solitary wave boundary layers, simulated by solitary motion...
Characterization of the atmospheric boundary layer from radiosonde ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
moisture) or substances originating from the sur- face. It is usually flatter than the boundary layer, but fills the whole ABL in the deep convective boundary layers ..... Wea. Rev. 92 235–242. Holzworth G C 1967 Mixing depths, wind speeds and air pollution potential for selected locations in the United. States; J. Appl. Meteorol.
Coupled wake boundary layer model of wind-farms
Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria; Gayme, Dennice F.; Meneveau, Charles
2015-01-01
We present and test a coupled wake boundary layer (CWBL) model that describes the distribution of the power output in a wind-farm. This model couples the traditional, industry-standard wake model approach with a “top-down” model for the overall wind-farm boundary layer structure. The wake model
The turning of the wind in the atmospheric boundary layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Floors, Rogier Ralph
2014-01-01
Here we use accurate observations of the wind speed vector to analyze the behavior with height of the wind direction. The observations are a combination of tall meteorological mast and long-range wind lidar measurements covering the entire atmospheric boundary layer. The observations were performed...... winds underpredict the turning of the wind and the boundary-layer winds in general....
Marine boundary layer simulation and verification during BOBMEX ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. A global spectral model (T80L18) that is operational at NCMRWF is utilized to study the structure of the marine boundary layer over the Bay of Bengal during the BOBMEX-Pilot period. The vertical profiles of various meteorological parameters within the boundary layer are studied and verified against the available ...
Numerical simulation of the marine boundary layer characteristics ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A one-dimensional multi- level atmospheric boundary layer with TKE- closure scheme is employed to study the marine boundary layer characteristics. In this study two synoptic situations are chosen: one represents an active convection case and the other a suppressed convection. In the present article the marine ...
Linear stability analysis of interactions between mixing layer and boundary layer flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fengjun LIU
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The linear instabilities of incompressible confluent mixing layer and boundary layer were analyzed. The mixing layers include wake, shear layer and their combination. The mean velocity profile of confluent flow is taken as a superposition of a hyperbolic and exponential function to model a mixing layer and the Blasius similarity solution for a flat plate boundary layer. The stability equation of confluent flow was solved by using the global numerical method. The unstable modes associated with both the mixing and boundary layers were identified. They are the boundary layer mode, mixing layer mode 1 (nearly symmetrical mode and mode 2 (nearly anti-symmetrical mode. The interactions between the mixing layer stability and the boundary layer stability were examined. As the mixing layer approaches the boundary layer, the neutral curves of the boundary layer mode move to the upper left, the resulting critical Reynolds number decreases, and the growth rate of the most unstable mode increases. The wall tends to stabilize the mixing layer modes at low frequency. In addition, the mode switching behavior of the relative level of the spatial growth rate between the mixing layer mode 1 and mode 2 with the velocity ratio is found to occur at low frequency.
Diffusive boundary layers over varying topography
Dell, R. W.
2015-03-25
Diffusive bottom boundary layers can produce upslope flows in a stratified fluid. Accumulating observations suggest that these boundary layers may drive upwelling and mixing in mid-ocean ridge flank canyons. However, most studies of diffusive bottom boundary layers to date have concentrated on constant bottom slopes. We present a study of how diffusive boundary layers interact with various idealized topography, such as changes in bottom slope, slopes with corrugations and isolated sills. We use linear theory and numerical simulations in the regional ocean modeling system (ROMS) model to show changes in bottom slope can cause convergences and divergences within the boundary layer, in turn causing fluid exchanges that reach far into the overlying fluid and alter stratification far from the bottom. We also identify several different regimes of boundary-layer behaviour for topography with oceanographically relevant size and shape, including reversing flows and overflows, and we develop a simple theory that predicts the regime boundaries, including what topographies will generate overflows. As observations also suggest there may be overflows in deep canyons where the flow passes over isolated bumps and sills, this parameter range may be particularly significant for understanding the role of boundary layers in the deep ocean.
Studies of planetary boundary layer by infrared thermal imagery
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Albina, Bogdan; Dimitriu, Dan Gheorghe, E-mail: dimitriu@uaic.ro; Gurlui, Silviu Octavian, E-mail: dimitriu@uaic.ro [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, Atmosphere Optics, Spectroscopy and Lasers Laboratory, 11 Carol I Blvd., 700506 Iasi (Romania); Cazacu, Marius Mihai [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, Atmosphere Optics, Spectroscopy and Lasers Laboratory, 11 Carol I Blvd., 700506 Iasi, Romania and Department of Physics, Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, 59A Mangeron Blvd., 700 (Romania); Timofte, Adrian [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, Atmosphere Optics, Spectroscopy and Lasers Laboratory, 11 Carol I Blvd., 700506 Iasi, Romania and National Meteorological Administration, Regional Forecast Center Bacau, 1 Cuza Voda Str., 60 (Romania)
2014-11-24
The IR camera is a relatively novel device for remote sensing of atmospheric thermal processes from the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) based on measurements of the infrared radiation. Infrared radiation is energy radiated by the motion of atoms and molecules on the surface of aerosols, when their temperature is more than absolute zero. The IR camera measures directly the intensity of radiation emitted by aerosols which is converted by an imaging sensor into an electric signal, resulting a thermal image. Every image pixel that corresponds to a specific radiance is pre-processed to identify the brightness temperature. The thermal infrared imaging radiometer used in this study, NicAir, is a precision radiometer developed by Prata et al. The device was calibrated for the temperature range of 270–320 K and using a calibration table along with image processing software, important information about variations in temperature can be extracted from acquired IR images. The PBL is the lowest layer of the troposphere where the atmosphere interacts with the ground surfaces. The importance of PBL lies in the fact that it provides a finite but varying volume in which pollutants can disperse. The aim of this paper is to analyze the PBL altitude and thickness variations over Iasi region using the IR imaging camera as well as its behavior from day to night and thermal processes occurring in PBL.
Change of Surface Roughness and Planetary Boundary Layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Niels Otto
1978-01-01
The ratio between upstream and far downstream surface friction velocities relative to a change in surface roughness is given on the basis of results from surface Rossby number similarity theory. By simple theories for the internal boundary layer, which are found to compare quite well with recent...... numerical results from higher-order closure models, it is found that, even at a downwind distance such that the internal boundary layer has grown to the full height of the planetary boundary layers, the surface stress still considerably exceeds the equilibrium value...
Large Eddy Simulation of the ventilated wave boundary layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lohmann, Iris P.; Fredsøe, Jørgen; Sumer, B. Mutlu
2006-01-01
A Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of (1) a fully developed turbulent wave boundary layer and (2) case 1 subject to ventilation (i.e., suction and injection varying alternately in phase) has been performed, using the Smagorinsky subgrid-scale model to express the subgrid viscosity. The model was found...... slows down the flow in the full vertical extent of the boundary layer, destabilizes the flow and decreases the mean bed shear stress significantly; whereas suction generally speeds up the flow in the full vertical extent of the boundary layer, stabilizes the flow and increases the mean bed shear stress...
Effect of externally generated turbulence on wave boundary layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fredsøe, Jørgen; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Kozakiewicz, A.
2003-01-01
This experimental study deals with the effect of externally generated turbulence on the oscillatory boundary layer to simulate the turbulence in the wave boundary layer under broken waves in the swash zone. The subject has been investigated experimentally in a U-shaped, oscillating water tunnel...... results. The mean and turbulence quantities in the outer flow region are increased substantially with the introduction of the grids. It is shown that the externally generated turbulence is able to penetrate the bed boundary layer, resulting in an increase in the bed shear stress, and therefore...
Stable Boundary Layer Education (STABLE) Final Campaign Summary
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turner, David D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
2016-03-01
The properties of, and the processes that occur in, the nocturnal stable boundary layer are not well understood, making it difficult to represent adequately in numerical models. The nocturnal boundary layer often is characterized by a temperature inversion and, in the Southern Great Plains region, a low-level jet. To advance our understanding of the nocturnal stable boundary layer, high temporal and vertical resolution data on the temperature and wind properties are needed, along with both large-eddy simulation and cloud-resolving modeling.
Size distributions of boundary-layer clouds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stull, R.; Berg, L.; Modzelewski, H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
1996-04-01
Scattered fair-weather clouds are triggered by thermals rising from the surface layer. Not all surface layer air is buoyant enough to rise. Also, each thermal has different humidities and temperatures, resulting in interthermal variability of their lifting condensation levels (LCL). For each air parcel in the surface layer, it`s virtual potential temperature and it`s LCL height can be computed.
Influences on the Height of the Stable Boundary Layer as seen in LES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kosovic, B; Lundquist, J
2004-06-15
Climate models, numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, and atmospheric dispersion models often rely on parameterizations of planetary boundary layer height. In the case of a stable boundary layer, errors in boundary layer height estimation can result in gross errors in boundary-layer evolution and in prediction of turbulent mixing within the boundary layer.
Reactive boundary layers in metallic rolling contacts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burbank, John
2016-05-01
more thorough investigation into the effects of residual austenite on the properties of this material. The high-performance alternative steels, 36NiCrMoV1-5-7 (hot working steel) and 45SiCrMo6 (spring steel), were heat treated as recommended by their respective manufacturers, and were not case-hardened. The selection of materials with and materials without case-hardening allows for an investigation into whether or not case-hardening is even necessary to deliver acceptable friction behaviour and wear performance. Elemental analyses were conducted by multiple methods to ensure accurate results. Residual austenite contents of the steels and the depth profiles of residual stresses were determined by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), for 20MnCr5 ranging from approximately 6 - 14 vol.%, and under 2 vol.% for the alternative alloys. Hardness profiles were taken from the testing surfaces into the material core. The carburization of 20MnCr5 led to higher hardness and the greater concentration of carbon in the carburization zone more representative of a hardened SAE E52100, or 100Cr6/102Cr6, than of a non-case-hardened 20MnCr5. Residual stresses from machining and case-hardening were measured directly at the sample surface. The high-performance steels fulfilled manufacturer expectations in terms of elemental content, with hardness values between 50 - 55 HRC and strongly martensitic microstructure character. With characterization of the chosen materials complete, the materials could then be subjected to pre-conditioning. The first pre-conditioning method involved targeted generation of cold work hardening as induced boundary layers to protect the contact zone against wear. Work hardening was identified both by variations in residual stress profiles, i.e. the introduction of beneficial compressive residual stresses, and hardness increases in the contact zone, providing enhanced wear resistance. Parameters for work hardening were further optimized to reduce damage to the surface substrates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hayashi, Toshifumi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi
1994-09-09
A process control device comprises a memory device for memorizing a plant operation target, a plant state or a state of equipments related with each other as control data, a read-only memory device for storing programs, a plant instrumentation control device or other process control devices, an input/output device for performing input/output with an operator, and a processing device which conducts processing in accordance with the program and sends a control demand or a display demand to the input/output device. The program reads out control data relative to a predetermined operation target, compares and verify them with actual values to read out control data to be a practice premise condition which is further to be a practice premise condition if necessary, thereby automatically controlling the plant or requiring or displaying input. Practice presuming conditions for the operation target can be examined succesively in accordance with the program without constituting complicated logical figures and AND/OR graphs. (N.H.).
Transition Delay in Hypersonic Boundary Layers via Optimal Perturbations
Paredes, Pedro; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei
2016-01-01
The effect of nonlinear optimal streaks on disturbance growth in a Mach 6 axisymmetric flow over a 7deg half-angle cone is investigated in an e ort to expand the range of available techniques for transition control. Plane-marching parabolized stability equations are used to characterize the boundary layer instability in the presence of azimuthally periodic streaks. The streaks are observed to stabilize nominally planar Mack mode instabilities, although oblique Mack mode disturbances are destabilized. Experimentally measured transition onset in the absence of any streaks correlates with an amplification factor of N = 6 for the planar Mack modes. For high enough streak amplitudes, the transition threshold of N = 6 is not reached by the Mack mode instabilities within the length of the cone, but subharmonic first mode instabilities, which are destabilized by the presence of the streaks, reach N = 6 near the end of the cone. These results suggest a passive flow control strategy of using micro vortex generators to induce streaks that would delay transition in hypersonic boundary layers.
Viscous boundary layers in rotating fluids driven by periodic flows
Bergstrom, R. W.; Cogley, A. C.
1976-01-01
The paper analyzes the boundary layers formed in a rotating fluid by an oscillating flow over an infinite half plate, with particular attention paid to the effects of unsteadiness, the critical latitude effect and the structure of the solution to the boundary layer equations at resonance. The Navier-Stokes boundary layer equations are obtained through an asymptotic expansion with the incorporation of the Rossby and Ekman numbers and are analyzed as the sum of a nonlinear steady solution and a linearized unsteady solution. The solution is predominantly composed of two inertial wave vector components, one circularly polarized to the left and the other circularly polarized to the right. The problem considered here has relevance in oceanography and meteorology, with special reference to the unsteady atmospheric boundary layer.
Coherent structures in wave boundary layers. Part 1. Oscillatory motion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carstensen, Stefan; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen
2010-01-01
This work concerns oscillatory boundary layers over smooth beds. It comprises combined visual and quantitative techniques including bed shear stress measurements. The experiments were carried out in an oscillating water tunnel. The experiments reveal two significant coherent flow structures: (i) ...
Resistance Laws For Stable Baroclinic Boundary Layers Revisited
Zilitinkevich, S.; Baklanov, A.; Djolov, G.; Esau, I.
An advanced theoretical model is proposed including the effects of the free-flow sta- bility and baroclinicity in the resistance law for stable boundary layers. Theoretical predictions are verified against LES and experimental data. This new development ex- plains low accuracy of all earlier resistance law formulation and opens up fresh oppor- tunities for improved parameterisation of stable boundary layers in general circulation models.
MPLNET V3 Cloud and Planetary Boundary Layer Detection
Lewis, Jasper R.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Campbell, James R.; Haftings, Phillip C.
2016-01-01
The NASA Micropulse Lidar Network Version 3 algorithms for planetary boundary layer and cloud detection are described and differences relative to the previous Version 2 algorithms are highlighted. A year of data from the Goddard Space Flight Center site in Greenbelt, MD consisting of diurnal and seasonal trends is used to demonstrate the results. Both the planetary boundary layer and cloud algorithms show significant improvement of the previous version.
GLAS/ICESat L2 Global Planetary Boundary Layer & Elevated Aerosol Layer Heights V033
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The level 2 planetary boundary layer and elevated aerosol layer height data will be provided at a minimum of once per 4 seconds. Data granules will contain...
GLAS/ICESat L2 Global Planetary Boundary Layer & Elevated Aerosol Layers (HDF5) V033
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The level 2 planetary boundary layer and elevated aerosol layer height data will be provided at a minimum of once per 4 seconds. Data granules will contain...
Mikic, Gregor Veble; Stoll, Alex; Bevirt, JoeBen; Grah, Rok; Moore, Mark D.
2016-01-01
Theoretical and numerical aspects of aerodynamic efficiency of propulsion systems are studied. Focus is on types of propulsion that closely couples to the aerodynamics of the complete vehicle. We discuss the effects of local flow fields, which are affected both by conservative flow acceleration as well as total pressure losses, on the efficiency of boundary layer immersed propulsion devices. We introduce the concept of a boundary layer retardation turbine that helps reduce skin friction over the fuselage. We numerically investigate efficiency gains offered by boundary layer and wake interacting devices. We discuss the results in terms of a total energy consumption framework and show that efficiency gains offered depend on all the elements of the propulsion system.
Turbulent boundary layer in high Rayleigh number convection in air.
du Puits, Ronald; Li, Ling; Resagk, Christian; Thess, André; Willert, Christian
2014-03-28
Flow visualizations and particle image velocimetry measurements in the boundary layer of a Rayleigh-Bénard experiment are presented for the Rayleigh number Ra=1.4×1010. Our visualizations indicate that the appearance of the flow structures is similar to ordinary (isothermal) turbulent boundary layers. Our particle image velocimetry measurements show that vorticity with both positive and negative sign is generated and that the smallest flow structures are 1 order of magnitude smaller than the boundary layer thickness. Additional local measurements using laser Doppler velocimetry yield turbulence intensities up to I=0.4 as in turbulent atmospheric boundary layers. From our observations, we conclude that the convective boundary layer becomes turbulent locally and temporarily although its Reynolds number Re≈200 is considerably smaller than the value 420 underlying existing phenomenological theories. We think that, in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection, the transition of the boundary layer towards turbulence depends on subtle details of the flow field and is therefore not universal.
Boundary-Layer Linear Stability Theory
1984-06-01
tae vela &ity profile ia a ft feaaa-’z-v layer» «alia* a 2D baaadary layer, depends oa the dlreetlea, there la a different atablllty prablea te eel...ooaataat-phaae llama are given In Fig. 12.7. Vortex lo. 11 la tne one that ooaes Froa tbe point souroe, aad it la the only one with as amplitude
Analysis and Modeling of Boundary Layer Separation Method (BLSM).
Pethő, Dóra; Horváth, Géza; Liszi, János; Tóth, Imre; Paor, Dávid
2010-09-01
Nowadays rules of environmental protection strictly regulate pollution material emission into environment. To keep the environmental protection laws recycling is one of the useful methods of waste material treatment. We have developed a new method for the treatment of industrial waste water and named it boundary layer separation method (BLSM). We apply the phenomena that ions can be enriched in the boundary layer of the electrically charged electrode surface compared to the bulk liquid phase. The main point of the method is that the boundary layer at correctly chosen movement velocity can be taken out of the waste water without being damaged, and the ion-enriched boundary layer can be recycled. Electrosorption is a surface phenomenon. It can be used with high efficiency in case of large electrochemically active surface of electrodes. During our research work two high surface area nickel electrodes have been prepared. The value of electrochemically active surface area of electrodes has been estimated. The existence of diffusion part of the double layer has been experimentally approved. The electrical double layer capacity has been determined. Ion transport by boundary layer separation has been introduced. Finally we have tried to estimate the relative significance of physical adsorption and electrosorption.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Václav URUBA
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Separation of the turbulent boundary layer (BL on a flat plate under adverse pressure gradient was studied experimentally using Time-Resolved PIV technique. The results of spatio-temporal analysis of flow-field in the separation zone are presented. For this purpose, the POD (Proper Orthogonal Decomposition and its extension BOD (Bi-Orthogonal Decomposition techniques are applied as well as dynamical approach based on POPs (Principal Oscillation Patterns method. The study contributes to understanding physical mechanisms of a boundary layer separation process. The acquired information could be used to improve strategies of a boundary layer separation control.
On the modeling of electrical boundary layer (electrode layer) and ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The profiles of atmospheric electric field and electrical conductivity are also derived and a new term named as electrode layer constant is ... electrical conductivity and thickness of electrode layer (Willett 1978). A new simple method ... variation of the coefficient of eddy diffusivity. In all his calculations he had assumed the ...
Hydrodynamic structure of the boundary layers in a rotating cylindrical cavity with radial inflow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Herrmann-Priesnitz, Benjamín, E-mail: bherrman@ing.uchile.cl; Torres, Diego A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universidad de Chile, Beauchef 851, Santiago (Chile); Advanced Mining Technology Center, Universidad de Chile, Av. Tupper 2007, Santiago (Chile); Calderón-Muñoz, Williams R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universidad de Chile, Beauchef 851, Santiago (Chile); Energy Center, Universidad de Chile, Av. Tupper 2007, Santiago (Chile); Salas, Eduardo A. [CSIRO-Chile International Centre of Excellence, Apoquindo 2827, Floor 12, Santiago (Chile); Vargas-Uscategui, Alejandro [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universidad de Chile, Beauchef 851, Santiago (Chile); CSIRO-Chile International Centre of Excellence, Apoquindo 2827, Floor 12, Santiago (Chile); Duarte-Mermoud, Manuel A. [Advanced Mining Technology Center, Universidad de Chile, Av. Tupper 2007, Santiago (Chile); Department of Electrical Engineering, Universidad de Chile, Av. Tupper 2007, Santiago (Chile)
2016-03-15
A flow model is formulated to investigate the hydrodynamic structure of the boundary layers of incompressible fluid in a rotating cylindrical cavity with steady radial inflow. The model considers mass and momentum transfer coupled between boundary layers and an inviscid core region. Dimensionless equations of motion are solved using integral methods and a space-marching technique. As the fluid moves radially inward, entraining boundary layers develop which can either meet or become non-entraining. Pressure and wall shear stress distributions, as well as velocity profiles predicted by the model, are compared to numerical simulations using the software OpenFOAM. Hydrodynamic structure of the boundary layers is governed by a Reynolds number, Re, a Rossby number, Ro, and the dimensionless radial velocity component at the periphery of the cavity, U{sub o}. Results show that boundary layers merge for Re < < 10 and Ro > > 0.1, and boundary layers become predominantly non-entraining for low Ro, low Re, and high U{sub o}. Results may contribute to improve the design of technology, such as heat exchange devices, and turbomachinery.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shimizu, Y. [Mie University, Mie (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Suzuki, T. [Mie University, Mie (Japan); Mori, K. [Mizuno Corp., Osaka (Japan)
1998-09-25
Sport science progresses step by step in the world. The paper describes, the first, the relationships between fluid drag for a model of woman swimmer and the flow around it. The flow around the model swimmer is very complicated, and includes, for example, wave, some kinds of vortices, hydraulic jumping and so on. The complicated flows are visualized by the surface tufts method and so on. Second, the possibility of the reduction of fluid drag for a woman athlete swimming suit is challenged. The boundary layer control is applied to reduce the fluid drag. The separation occurs around the breast of a woman swimmer. The separation can be suppressed by the boundary layer control. Many beads are distributed on the breast area of a woman swimming suit. As the result, it is found that the fluid drag for the model swimmer can be reduced in a range of 1.5%--2% by the suit with the boundary layer control, which is carried out by many beads. 2 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.
Dynamics of Under Ice Boundary Layers Below Floating Ice Shelves
Shaw, W. J.; Stanton, T. P.
2016-02-01
Pine Island Glacier (PIG), a major outlet stream of the Western Antarctic Ice Sheet, has dramatically thinned and accelerated in recent decades. It is believed that a weakening of the floating portion of the glacier, known as the ice shelf, due to increased ocean thermal forcing is a primary cause of the observed increasing discharge of PIG. In order to better understand the controls on the exchange of heat between the PIG shelf and the underlying ocean cavity, a numerical model, MITgcm, has been configured to study the dynamics of the sloping, meltwater-forced, buoyant boundary layer below the ice shelf A 2-D approximation allows for high vertical resolution that resolves well the under shelf ocean boundary layer. We are particularly interested in the dynamical balance between buoyancy along the sloping ice shelf base, drag, and entrainment/detrainment and the associated feedback of basal melting of the ice shelf. Numerical results will be compared to in-situ observations obtained through a field campaign in 2013.
Turbulent Boundary Layer at Large Re
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Horia DUMITRESCU
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The fluids as deformable bodies without own shape, when starting from rest, experience interactions between the flowing fluid and the physical surfaces marking the bounds of flow. These interactions are a kind of impact process where there is a momentum exchange between two colliding bodies, i.e. the flow and its boundary surfaces. Within a short time of contact a post-impact shear flow occurs where two main effects are triggered off by the flow-induced collision: dramatic redistribution of the momentum and the boundary vorticity followed by the shear stress/viscosity change in the microstructure of the fluid which at the beginning behaves as linear reactive medium and latter as nonlinear dispersive medium. The disturbance of the starting flow induces the entanglement of the wall-bounded flow in the form of point-vortices or concentrated vorticity balls whence waves are emitted and propagated through flow field. The paper develops a wave mechanism for the transport of the concentrated boundary vorticity, directly related to the fascinating turbulence phenomenon, using the torsion concept of vorticity filaments associated with the hypothesis of thixotropic/nonlinear viscous fluid.
Marine boundary-layer height estimated from the HIRLAM model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gryning, Sven-Erik; Batchvarova, E.
2002-01-01
-number estimates based on output from the operational numerical weather prediction model HIRLAM (a version of SMHI with a grid resolution of 22.5 km x 22.5 km). For southwesterly winds it was found that a relatively large island (Bornholm) lying 20 km upwind of the measuring site influences the boundary...... to the measuring site is about 100 km and the Richardson methods reproduce the height of the marine boundary layer. This suggests that the HIRLAM model adequately resolves a water fetch of 100 km with respect to predictions of the height of the marine boundary layer....
Improved insulator layer for MIS devices
Miller, W. E.
1980-01-01
Insulating layer of supersonic conductor such as LaF sub 3 has been shown able to impart improved electrical properties to photoconductive detectors and promises to improve other metal/insulator/semiconductor (MIS) devices, e.g., MOSFET and integrated circuits.
Sun–Earth connection: Boundary layer waves and auroras
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
G S Lakhina et al. Figure 1. Schematics of the Earth's magnetosphere with various boundary layers. The plasma mantle, the exterior cusp, the entry layer, the .... The univer- sal time (UT), radial distance from the center of the earth (R ), magnetic latitude (λЕ), magnetic local time (MLT), and approximate L-shell value, are ...
Plasma boundary layer and magnetopause layer of the earth's magnetosphere
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eastman, T.E.
1979-06-01
IMP 6 observations of the plasma boundary layer (PBL) and magnetopause layer (MPL) of the earth's magnetosphere indicate that plasma in the low-latitude portion of the PBL is supplied primarily by direct transport of magnetosheath plasma across the MPL and that this transport process is relatively widespread over the entire sunward magnetospheric boundary.
A numerical simulation of longitudinal vortex in turbulent boundary layers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, J.S.; Lee, K.B. [Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea)
2000-06-01
This paper represents numerical computations of the interaction between the longitudinal vortex and a flat plate 3-D turbulent boundary layer. In the present study, the main interest is in the behavior of longitudinal vortices introduced in turbulent boundary layers. The flow field behind vortex generator is modeled by the information that is available from studies on the delta winglet. Also, the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stoke equations for three-dimensional turbulent flows, together with a two-layer turbulence model to resolve the near-wall flow, is solved by the method of pseudo compressibility. The present results show that the boundary layer is thinned in the regions where the secondary flow is directed toward the wall and thickened where it is directed away from the wall, and have a good agreement with the experimental data. (author). 12 refs., 12 figs.
Definition of Turbulent Boundary-Layer with Entropy Concept
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhao Rui
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The relationship between the entropy increment and the viscosity dissipation in turbulent boundary-layer is systematically investigated. Through theoretical analysis and direct numerical simulation (DNS, an entropy function fs is proposed to distinguish the turbulent boundary-layer from the external flow. This approach is proved to be reliable after comparing its performance in the following complex flows, namely, low-speed airfoil flows with different wall temperature, supersonic cavity-ramp flow dominated by the combination of free-shear layer, larger recirculation and shocks, and the hypersonic flow past an aeroplane configuration. Moreover, fs is deduced from the point of energy, independent of any particular turbulent quantities. That is, this entropy concept could be utilized by other engineering applications related with turbulent boundary-layer, such as turbulence modelling transition prediction and engineering thermal protection.
Nature, theory and modelling of geophysical convective planetary boundary layers
Zilitinkevich, Sergej
2015-04-01
Geophysical convective planetary boundary layers (CPBLs) are still poorly reproduced in oceanographic, hydrological and meteorological models. Besides the mean flow and usual shear-generated turbulence, CPBLs involve two types of motion disregarded in conventional theories: 'anarchy turbulence' comprised of the buoyancy-driven plumes, merging to form larger plumes instead of breaking down, as postulated in conventional theory (Zilitinkevich, 1973), large-scale organised structures fed by the potential energy of unstable stratification through inverse energy transfer in convective turbulence (and performing non-local transports irrespective of mean gradients of transporting properties). C-PBLs are strongly mixed and go on growing as long as the boundary layer remains unstable. Penetration of the mixed layer into the weakly turbulent, stably stratified free flow causes turbulent transports through the CPBL outer boundary. The proposed theory, taking into account the above listed features of CPBL, is based on the following recent developments: prognostic CPBL-depth equation in combination with diagnostic algorithm for turbulence fluxes at the CPBL inner and outer boundaries (Zilitinkevich, 1991, 2012, 2013; Zilitinkevich et al., 2006, 2012), deterministic model of self-organised convective structures combined with statistical turbulence-closure model of turbulence in the CPBL core (Zilitinkevich, 2013). It is demonstrated that the overall vertical transports are performed mostly by turbulence in the surface layer and entrainment layer (at the CPBL inner and outer boundaries) and mostly by organised structures in the CPBL core (Hellsten and Zilitinkevich, 2013). Principal difference between structural and turbulent mixing plays an important role in a number of practical problems: transport and dispersion of admixtures, microphysics of fogs and clouds, etc. The surface-layer turbulence in atmospheric and marine CPBLs is strongly enhanced by the velocity shears in
A bottom-landing water sampling system for the benthic boundary layer
Bale, A. J.; Barrett, C. D.
A novel water sampling device which enables vertical profiles of water samples to be obtained within the benthic boundary layer in shelf sea waters is described. A maximum of ten samples spread over 2 m immediately above the seabed can be obtained on each deployment. The design of the sample bottles minimizes disturbances to particle aggregates and positive displacement sampling ensures that the samples are representative of the environment. Suspended-solids profiles sampled in the benthic boundary layer over 15-hour period at a station in the English Channel are presented to demonstrate the utility of the system.
Coupled vs. decoupled boundary layers in VOCALS-REx
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. R. Jones
2011-07-01
Full Text Available We analyze the extent of subtropical stratocumulus-capped boundary layer decoupling and its relation to other boundary-layer characteristics and forcings using aircraft observations from VOCALS-REx along a swath of the subtropical southeast Pacific Ocean running west 1600 km from the coast of Northern Chile. We develop two complementary and consistent measures of decoupling. The first is based on boundary layer moisture and temperature stratification in flight profiles from near the surface to above the capping inversion, and the second is based the difference between the lifted condensation level (LCL and a mean lidar-derived cloud base measured on flight legs at 150 m altitude. Most flights took place during early-mid morning, well before the peak in insolation-induced decoupling.
We find that the boundary layer is typically shallower, drier, and well mixed near the shore, and tends to deepen, decouple, and produce more drizzle further offshore to the west. Decoupling is strongly correlated to the "mixed layer cloud thickness", defined as the difference between the capping inversion height and the LCL; other factors such as wind speed, cloud droplet concentration, and inversion thermodynamic jumps have little additional explanatory power. The results are broadly consistent with the deepening-warming theory of decoupling.
In the deeper boundary layers observed well offshore, there was frequently nearly 100 % boundary-layer cloud cover despite pronounced decoupling. The cloud cover was more strongly correlated to a κ parameter related to the inversion jumps of humidity and temperature, though the exact functional relation is slightly different than found in prior large-eddy simulation studies.
FOREWORD: International Conference on Planetary Boundary Layer and Climate Change
Djolov, G.; Esau, I.
2010-05-01
structural uncertainties is hard to reduce and this could be one of the reasons determining slow progress in narrowing the climate model uncertainty range over the last 30 years (Knutti and Hagerl, Nature Geoscience, 2008). One of the most prominent structural uncertainties in the ongoing transient climate change is related to poor understanding and hence incorrect modelling of the turbulent physics and dynamics processes in the planetary boundary layer. Nevertheless, the climate models continue to rely on physically incorrect boundary layer parameterizations (Cuxart et al., BLM, 2006), whose erroneous dynamical response in the climate models may lead to significant abnormalities in simulated climate. At present, international efforts in theoretical understanding of the turbulent mixing have resulted in significant progress in turbulence simulation, measurements and parameterizations. However, this understanding has not yet found its way to the climate research community. Vice versa, climate research is not usually addressed by the boundary layer research community. The gap needs to be closed in order to crucially complete the scientific basis of climate change studies. The focus of the proposed forum could be formulated as follows: The planetary boundary layer determines several key parameters controlling the Earth's climate system but being a dynamic sub-system, just a layer of turbulent mixing in the atmosphere/ocean, it is also controlled by the climate system and its changes. Such a dynamic relationship causes a planetary boundary layer feedback (PBL-feedback) which could be defined as the response of the surface air temperature on changes in the vertical turbulent mixing. The forum participants have discussed both climatological and fluid dynamic aspects of this response, in order to quantify their role in the Earth's transient heat uptake and its representation in climate models. The choice of the forum location and dates are motivated by the role of tropical oceans
Device Oriented Project Controller
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dalesio, Leo; Kraimer, Martin
2013-11-20
This proposal is directed at the issue of developing control systems for very large HEP projects. A de-facto standard in accelerator control is the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), which has been applied successfully to many physics projects. EPICS is a channel based system that requires that each channel of each device be configured and controlled. In Phase I, the feasibility of a device oriented extension to the distributed channel database was demonstrated by prototyping a device aware version of an EPICS I/O controller that functions with the current version of the channel access communication protocol. Extensions have been made to the grammar to define the database. Only a multi-stage position controller with limit switches was developed in the demonstration, but the grammar should support a full range of functional record types. In phase II, a full set of record types will be developed to support all existing record types, a set of process control functions for closed loop control, and support for experimental beam line control. A tool to configure these records will be developed. A communication protocol will be developed or extensions will be made to Channel Access to support introspection of components of a device. Performance bench marks will be made on both communication protocol and the database. After these records and performance tests are under way, a second of the grammar will be undertaken.
Effect of riblets on the streaky structures excited by free stream tip vortices in boundary layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boiko, Andrey V. [Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Jung, Kwang Hyo; Chun, Ho Hwan; Lee, Inwon [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2007-03-15
In this study, experimental investigations were made regarding the effect of riblets on the streak instability in boundary layer. The streak instability is now regarded as a major source of the self-regeneration mechanism for the hairpin type coherent structures in turbulent boundary layer flow. Thus, it is important to control the instability to suppress the drag-inducing vortical structure in terms of drag reduction. Toward enhancing the measurement accuracy and spatial resolution, an enlarged version of riblets was applied to a streak which was artificially induced by a microwing in a laminar boundary layer. It is found that the riblets have attenuation effect on the streak instability, i.e., to reduce the spanwise velocity gradient of the quasi-streamwise streak in boundary layer.
Effect of riblets on the streaky structures excited by free stream tip vortices in boundary layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boiko, Andrey V. [Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Jung, Kwang Hyo; Chun, Ho Hwan; Lee, In Won [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2007-01-15
In this study, experimental investigations were made regarding the effect of riblets on the streak instability in boundary layer. The streak instability is now regarded as a major source of the self-regeneration mechanism for the hairpin type coherent structures in turbulent boundary layer flow. Thus, it is important to control the instability to suppress the drag-inducing vortical structure in terms of drag reduction. Toward enhancing the measurement accuracy and spatial resolution, an enlarged version of riblets was applied to a streak which was artificially induced by a microwing in a laminar boundary layer. It is found that the riblets have attenuation effect on the streak instability, i.e., to reduce the spanwise velocity gradient of the quasi-streamwise streak in boundary layer
Numerical analysis and optimization of boundary layer suction on airfoils
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shi Yayun
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Numerical approach of hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC is investigated for the suction hole with a width between 0.5 mm and 7 mm. The accuracy of Menter and Langtry’s transition model applied for simulating the flow with boundary layer suction is validated. The experiment data are compared with the computational results. The solutions show that this transition model can predict the transition position with suction control accurately. A well designed laminar airfoil is selected in the present research. For suction control with a single hole, the physical mechanism of suction control, including the impact of suction coefficient and the width and position of the suction hole on control results, is analyzed. The single hole simulation results indicate that it is favorable for transition delay and drag reduction to increase the suction coefficient and set the hole position closer to the trailing edge properly. The modified radial basis function (RBF neural network and the modified differential evolution algorithm are used to optimize the design for suction control with three holes. The design variables are suction coefficient, hole width, hole position and hole spacing. The optimization target is to obtain the minimum drag coefficient. After optimization, the transition delay can be up to 17% and the aerodynamic drag coefficient can decrease by 12.1%.
The Atmospheric boundary layer over Arctic fjords
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kilpelaeinen, Tiina
2011-07-01
Arctic fjords represent one of the most challenging environments in the world for weather prediction and climate models. This is due to complex interactions between the large-scale weather conditions, land, sea, sea ice and surrounding topography consisting of mountains, valleys and glaciers. This thesis describes some special characteristics of the lowest part of the atmosphere over fjords in Svalbard. The main research topics are 1) the exchange of energy between the atmosphere and sea, 2) vertical structure of temperature, humidity and wind, 3) spatial variability of the meteorological variables and 4) identifying the main challenges for the weather prediction models. Kilpelaeinen has collected data using weather masts and tethered balloons at the coasts of fjords in Svalbard. In addition, she has made high-resolution simulations of the meteorological conditions over Svalbard fjords with a weather prediction model. Kilpelaeinens investigations show that the vertical profiles of temperature, humidity and wind over Arctic fjords are complex and therefore challenging for the weather prediction models to capture. Layers with a temperature and humidity increase with height are commonly found over Svalbard fjords, often even on multiple levels. A weather prediction model does not realistically capture these layers, which leads to fairly large errors in the modeled surface variables. Further, she found that a wind maximum at a low altitude is also a typical feature over Arctic fjords. The height of this wind maximum depends on the sea-ice conditions, being highest when sea ice is present. The thesis points out that due to the complex topography and the surface types (sea ice and water), spatial variability of meteorological variables within a fjord is very large and can reach levels comparable to the temporal variability. Hence, a high horizontal resolution in the order of 1 km is needed in the weather prediction models to realistically simulate all the significant
Boundary layer effects on particle impaction and capture
Rosner, D. E.; Fernandez De La Mora, J.
1984-01-01
The inertial impaction and deposition of small particles on larger bodies with viscous boundary layers are considered theoretically, in a detailed comment on a paper by Menguturk et al. (1983). Topics addressed include cushion effects, the dimensionless groups corresponding to the diameter range (3-6 microns) examined by Menguturk et al. in a numerical example, analogous effects of particle-gas energy and mass exchange in boundary layers, and the combined effects of particle inertia and diffusion. It is argued that the inertial effects can be characterized in terms of a body, boundary-layer, or sublayer Stokes number. In a reply by Menguturk et al., the focus is on the application of the theoretical model to the erosion of blade surfaces in large gas turbines; the Stokes number is found to be of limited practical value in these cases, because the particle motion is not primarily normal to the blade surfaces.
Numerical simulation of tsunami-scale wave boundary layers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Williams, Isaac A.; Fuhrman, David R.
2016-01-01
This paper presents a numerical study of the boundary layer flow and properties induced by tsunami-scalewaves. For this purpose, an existing one-dimensional vertical (1DV) boundary layer model, based on the horizontal component of the incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations...... demonstrating the ability to reproduce accurate velocity profiles, turbulence, and bed shear stresses on both smooth and rough beds.The validated model is then employed for the study of transient wave boundary layers at full tsunami scales,covering a wide and realistic geophysical range in terms of the flow...... duration, bottom roughness, and associated Reynolds numbers. For this purpose, three different “synthetic” (idealised) tsunami wave descriptions are considered i.e., invoking: (1) single wave (solitary-like, but with independent period and wave height),(2) sinusoidal, and (3) N-wave descriptions. The flow...
Vortex Generator Induced Flow in a High Re Boundary Layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Velte, Clara Marika; Braud, C.; Coudert, S.
2012-01-01
Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry measurements have been conducted in cross-planes behind three different geometries of Vortex Generators (VGs) in a high Reynolds number boundary layer. The VGs have been mounted in a cascade producing counter-rotating vortices and the downstream flow...... development was examined. Three VG geometries were investigated: rectangular, triangular and cambered. The various VG geometries tested are seen to produce different impacts on the boundary layer flow. Helical symmetry of the generated vortices is confirmed for all investigated VG geometries in this high...... Reynolds number boundary layer. From the parameters resulting from this analysis, it is observed at the most upstream measurement position that the rectangular and triangular VGs produce vortices of similar size, strength and velocity induction whilst the cambered VGs produce smaller and weaker vortices...
Boundary-layer temperatures in high accretion rate cataclysmic variables
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoare, M.G.; Drew, J.E. (Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Astrophysics)
1991-04-01
We use the Zanstra method to derive limits on boundary-layer temperatures in eclipsing dwarf novae during outburst and nova-like variables, using the observed He II {lambda}1640 and {lambda}4686 recombination lines. It is assumed that all the emission is produced in the wind rather than the accretion disc. This method constrains the boundary-layer temperatures to between 50 000 and 100 000 K depending on the degree of wind bipolarity. These estimates are lower than the T>or approx200 000 K predicted theoretically. Possible explanations include rapid rotation of the white dwarf and spreading of the boundary layer over the entire white-dwarf surface. (author).
Entropy Generation in Steady Laminar Boundary Layers with Pressure Gradients
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Donald M. McEligot
2014-07-01
Full Text Available In an earlier paper in Entropy [1] we hypothesized that the entropy generation rate is the driving force for boundary layer transition from laminar to turbulent flow. Subsequently, with our colleagues we have examined the prediction of entropy generation during such transitions [2,3]. We found that reasonable predictions for engineering purposes could be obtained for flows with negligible streamwise pressure gradients by adapting the linear combination model of Emmons [4]. A question then arises—will the Emmons approach be useful for boundary layer transition with significant streamwise pressure gradients as by Nolan and Zaki [5]. In our implementation the intermittency is calculated by comparison to skin friction correlations for laminar and turbulent boundary layers and is then applied with comparable correlations for the energy dissipation coefficient (i.e., non-dimensional integral entropy generation rate. In the case of negligible pressure gradients the Blasius theory provides the necessary laminar correlations.
Laminar boundary layers with uniform shear cross flow
Weidman, Patrick
2017-03-01
Laminar boundary layers with fully developed uniform shear cross flows are considered. The first streamwise laminar flow is a Blasius boundary layer flow, the second is uniform shear flow over a semi-infinite plate, and the third is the flow induced by a power-law stretching surface. In the first two cases, the effect of streamwise plate motion is taken into account by the parameter λ. In each case, the similarity solutions reduce the governing boundary layer equations to a primary ordinary differential equation for the streamwise flow and a secondary linear equation coupled to the primary solution for the cross flow. It is found that an infinity of solutions exist in each problem and the unique solution in each case is found by applying the Glauert criterion. In some instances, a simple exact solution for the cross flow is presented. Results for the wall shear stresses and velocity profiles are given in graphical form.
DNS of Turbulent Boundary Layers under Highenthalpy Conditions
Duan, Lian; Martín, Pino
2010-11-01
To study real-gas effects and turbulence-chemistry interaction, direct numerical simulations (DNS) of hypersonic boundary layers are conducted under typical hypersonic conditions. We consider the boundary layer on a lifting-body consisting of a flat plate at an angle of attack, which flies at altitude 30km with a Mach number 21. Two different inclined angles, 35^o and 8^o, are considered,representing blunt and slender bodies. Both noncatalytic and supercatalytic wall conditions are considered. The DNS data are studied to assess the validity of Morkovin's hypothesis, the strong Reynolds analogy, as well as the behaviors of turbulence structures under high-enthalpy conditions.Relative to low-enthalpy conditions [1], significant differences in typical scalings are observed. [4pt] [1] L. Duan and I. Beekman and M. P. Mart'in, Direct numerical simulation of hypersonic turbulent boundary layers. Part 2: Effect of temperature, J. Fluid Mech. 655 (2010), 419-445.
Integral analysis of boundary layer flows with pressure gradient
Wei, Tie; Maciel, Yvan; Klewicki, Joseph
2017-09-01
This Rapid Communication investigates boundary layer flows with a pressure gradient using a similarity/integral analysis of the continuity equation and momentum equation in the streamwise direction. The analysis yields useful analytical relations for Ve, the mean wall-normal velocity at the edge of the boundary layer, and for the skin friction coefficient Cf in terms of the boundary layer parameters and in particular βRC, the Rotta-Clauser pressure gradient parameter. The analytical results are compared with experimental and numerical data and are found to be valid. One of the main findings is that for large positive βRC (an important effect of an adverse pressure gradient), the friction coefficient is closely related to βRC as Cf∝1 /βRC , because δ /δ1,δ1/δ2=H , and d δ /d x become approximately constant. Here, δ is the boundary layer thickness, δ1 is the displacement thickness, δ2 is the momentum thickness, and H is the shape factor. Another finding is that the mean wall-normal velocity at the edge of the boundary layer is related to other flow variables as UeVe/uτ2=H +(1 +δ /δ1+H ) βRC , where Ue is the streamwise velocity at the edge of the boundary layer. At zero pressure gradient, this relation reduces to U∞V∞/uτ2=H , as recently derived by Wei and Klewicki [Phys. Rev. Fluids 1, 082401 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevFluids.1.082401].
Unsteady turbulent boundary layers in swimming rainbow trout.
Yanase, Kazutaka; Saarenrinne, Pentti
2015-05-01
The boundary layers of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, swimming at 1.02±0.09 L s(-1) (mean±s.d., N=4), were measured by the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique at a Reynolds number of 4×10(5). The boundary layer profile showed unsteadiness, oscillating above and beneath the classical logarithmic law of the wall with body motion. Across the entire surface regions that were measured, local Reynolds numbers based on momentum thickness, which is the distance that is perpendicular to the fish surface through which the boundary layer momentum flows at free-stream velocity, were greater than the critical value of 320 for the laminar-to-turbulent transition. The skin friction was dampened on the convex surface while the surface was moving towards a free-stream flow and increased on the concave surface while retreating. These observations contradict the result of a previous study using different species swimming by different methods. Boundary layer compression accompanied by an increase in local skin friction was not observed. Thus, the overall results may not support absolutely the Bone-Lighthill boundary layer thinning hypothesis that the undulatory motions of swimming fish cause a large increase in their friction drag because of the compression of the boundary layer. In some cases, marginal flow separation occurred on the convex surface in the relatively anterior surface region, but the separated flow reattached to the fish surface immediately downstream. Therefore, we believe that a severe impact due to induced drag components (i.e. pressure drag) on the swimming performance, an inevitable consequence of flow separation, was avoided. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Carbon vaporization into a nonequilibrium, stagnation-point boundary layer
Suzuki, T.
1978-01-01
The heat transfer to the stagnation point of an ablating carbonaceous heat shield, where both the gas-phase boundary layer and the heterogeneous surface reactions are not in chemical equilibrium, is examined. Specifically, the nonequilibrium changes in the mass fraction profiles of carbon species calculated for frozen flow are studied. A set of equations describing the steady-state, nonequilibrium laminar boundary layer in the axisymmetric stagnation region, over an ablating graphite surface, is solved, with allowance for the effects of finite rate of carbon vaporization.
Oscillations of the Boundary Layer and High-frequency QPOs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Blinova A. A.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We observed persistent high-frequency oscillations of the boundary layer near an accreting, weakly-magnetized star in global 3D MHD simulations. The tilted dipole magnetic field is not strong enough to open a gap between the star and the disk. Instead, it forms a highly-wrapped azimuthal field near the surface of the star which slows down rotation of the disk matter, while a small tilt of the field excites oscillations of the boundary layer with a frequency below the Keplerian frequency. This mechanism may be responsible for the high-frequency oscillations in accreting neutron stars, white dwarfs and classical T Tauri stars.
Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (LABLE) Final Campaign Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klein, P [University of Oklahoma - School of Meteorology; Bonin, TA; Newman, JF [National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Turner, DD [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Chilson, P [University of Oklahoma; Blumberg, WG [University of Oklahoma; Mishra, S; Wainwright, CE; Carney, M [University of Oklahoma - School of Meteorology; Jacobsen, EP [University of Oklahoma; Wharton, S [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
2015-11-01
The Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (LABLE) included two measurement campaigns conducted at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains site in Oklahoma during 2012 and 2013. LABLE was designed as a multi-phase, low-cost collaboration among the University of Oklahoma, the National Severe Storms Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the ARM program. A unique aspect was the role of graduate students in LABLE. They served as principal investigators and took the lead in designing and conducting experiments using different sampling strategies to best resolve boundary-layer phenomena.
Rough-wall turbulent boundary layers with constant skin friction
Sridhar, A.
2017-03-28
A semi-empirical model is presented that describes the development of a fully developed turbulent boundary layer in the presence of surface roughness with length scale ks that varies with streamwise distance x . Interest is centred on flows for which all terms of the von Kármán integral relation, including the ratio of outer velocity to friction velocity U+∞≡U∞/uτ , are streamwise constant. For Rex assumed large, use is made of a simple log-wake model of the local turbulent mean-velocity profile that contains a standard mean-velocity correction for the asymptotic fully rough regime and with assumed constant parameter values. It is then shown that, for a general power-law external velocity variation U∞∼xm , all measures of the boundary-layer thickness must be proportional to x and that the surface sand-grain roughness scale variation must be the linear form ks(x)=αx , where x is the distance from the boundary layer of zero thickness and α is a dimensionless constant. This is shown to give a two-parameter (m,α) family of solutions, for which U+∞ (or equivalently Cf ) and boundary-layer thicknesses can be simply calculated. These correspond to perfectly self-similar boundary-layer growth in the streamwise direction with similarity variable z/(αx) , where z is the wall-normal coordinate. Results from this model over a range of α are discussed for several cases, including the zero-pressure-gradient ( m=0 ) and sink-flow ( m=−1 ) boundary layers. Trends observed in the model are supported by wall-modelled large-eddy simulation of the zero-pressure-gradient case for Rex in the range 108−1010 and for four values of α . Linear streamwise growth of the displacement, momentum and nominal boundary-layer thicknesses is confirmed, while, for each α , the mean-velocity profiles and streamwise turbulent variances are found to collapse reasonably well onto z/(αx) . For given α , calculations of U+∞ obtained from large-eddy simulations are streamwise
Vertical pressure gradient and particle motions in wave boundary layers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Karsten Lindegård
and its role in the fully turbulent boundary layer. The pressure in the flow is obtained from the flow fields of the oscillatory boundary layer. What differs, the vertical pressure gradient, from other turbulent quantities, like e.g. velocity fluctuations is that it can detect newly generated turbulence....... The experiment is conducted in a oscillating water tunnel, for both smooth bed and rough bed. The particle motion is determined by utilizing particle tracking base on a video recording of the particle motion in the flow. In the oscillatory flow, in contrast to steady current, the particle motion is a function...
An interactive boundary layer modelling methodology for aerodynamic flows
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Smith, L
2013-01-01
Full Text Available is used. The artificial compressibility formulation allows for a finite value of c2 to be used for incompressible flows, calculated as per Malan et al. (2002). 3.2. Boundary layer solution 7 To ensure numerical stability, the Crank... � Similarity coordinate � Momentum thickness m � * Kinetic energy thickness � Dynamic viscosity kg.m-1.s-1 � Density kg.m-3 � Shear stress N.m-2 Kinematic viscosity m2.s-1 Coordinate parallel to the boundary layer m...
Optimal boundary control and boundary stabilization of hyperbolic systems
Gugat, Martin
2015-01-01
This brief considers recent results on optimal control and stabilization of systems governed by hyperbolic partial differential equations, specifically those in which the control action takes place at the boundary. The wave equation is used as a typical example of a linear system, through which the author explores initial boundary value problems, concepts of exact controllability, optimal exact control, and boundary stabilization. Nonlinear systems are also covered, with the Korteweg-de Vries and Burgers Equations serving as standard examples. To keep the presentation as accessible as possible, the author uses the case of a system with a state that is defined on a finite space interval, so that there are only two boundary points where the system can be controlled. Graduate and post-graduate students as well as researchers in the field will find this to be an accessible introduction to problems of optimal control and stabilization.
Spatially Developing Secondary Instabilities in Compressible Swept Airfoil Boundary Layers
Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan M.
2011-01-01
Two-dimensional eigenvalue analysis is used on a massive scale to study spatial instabilities of compressible shear flows with two inhomogeneous directions. The main focus of the study is crossflow dominated swept-wing boundary layers although the methodology can also be applied to study other type of flows, such as the attachment-line flow. Certain unique aspects of formulating a spatial, two-dimensional eigenvalue problem for the secondary instability of finite amplitude crossflow vortices are discussed, namely, fixing the spatial growth direction unambiguously through a non-orthogonal formulation of the linearized disturbance equations. A primary test case used for parameter study corresponds to the low-speed, NLF-0415(b) airfoil configuration as tested in the ASU Unsteady Wind Tunnel, wherein a spanwise periodic array of roughness elements was placed near the leading edge in order to excite stationary crossflow modes with a specified fundamental wavelength. The two classes of flow conditions selected for this analysis include those for which the roughness array spacing corresponds to either the naturally dominant crossflow wavelength, or a subcritical wavelength that serves to reduce the growth of the naturally excited dominant crossflow modes. Numerical predictions are compared with the measured database, both as indirect validation for the spatial instability analysis and to provide a basis for comparison with a higher Reynolds number, supersonic swept-wing configuration. Application of the eigenvalue analysis to the supersonic configuration reveals that a broad spectrum of stationary crossflow modes can sustain sufficiently strong secondary instabilities as to potentially cause transition over this configuration. Implications of this finding for transition control in swept wing boundary layers are examined.
Rapid cycling of reactive nitrogen in the marine boundary layer.
Ye, Chunxiang; Zhou, Xianliang; Pu, Dennis; Stutz, Jochen; Festa, James; Spolaor, Max; Tsai, Catalina; Cantrell, Christopher; Mauldin, Roy L; Campos, Teresa; Weinheimer, Andrew; Hornbrook, Rebecca S; Apel, Eric C; Guenther, Alex; Kaser, Lisa; Yuan, Bin; Karl, Thomas; Haggerty, Julie; Hall, Samuel; Ullmann, Kirk; Smith, James N; Ortega, John; Knote, Christoph
2016-04-28
Nitrogen oxides are essential for the formation of secondary atmospheric aerosols and of atmospheric oxidants such as ozone and the hydroxyl radical, which controls the self-cleansing capacity of the atmosphere. Nitric acid, a major oxidation product of nitrogen oxides, has traditionally been considered to be a permanent sink of nitrogen oxides. However, model studies predict higher ratios of nitric acid to nitrogen oxides in the troposphere than are observed. A 'renoxification' process that recycles nitric acid into nitrogen oxides has been proposed to reconcile observations with model studies, but the mechanisms responsible for this process remain uncertain. Here we present data from an aircraft measurement campaign over the North Atlantic Ocean and find evidence for rapid recycling of nitric acid to nitrous acid and nitrogen oxides in the clean marine boundary layer via particulate nitrate photolysis. Laboratory experiments further demonstrate the photolysis of particulate nitrate collected on filters at a rate more than two orders of magnitude greater than that of gaseous nitric acid, with nitrous acid as the main product. Box model calculations based on the Master Chemical Mechanism suggest that particulate nitrate photolysis mainly sustains the observed levels of nitrous acid and nitrogen oxides at midday under typical marine boundary layer conditions. Given that oceans account for more than 70 per cent of Earth's surface, we propose that particulate nitrate photolysis could be a substantial tropospheric nitrogen oxide source. Recycling of nitrogen oxides in remote oceanic regions with minimal direct nitrogen oxide emissions could increase the formation of tropospheric oxidants and secondary atmospheric aerosols on a global scale.
Analysis of differential infrared thermography for boundary layer transition detection
Gardner, A. D.; Eder, C.; Wolf, C. C.; Raffel, M.
2017-09-01
This paper presents an analysis of the differential infrared thermography (DIT) technique, a contactless method of measuring the unsteady movement of the boundary layer transition position on an unprepared surface. DIT has been shown to measure boundary layer transition positions which correlate well with those from other measurement methods. In this paper unsteady aerodynamics from a 2D URANS solution are used and the resulting wall temperatures computed. It is shown that the peak of the temperature difference signal correlates well with the boundary layer transition position, but that the start and end of boundary layer transition cannot be extracted. A small systematic time-lag cannot be reduced by using different surface materials, but the signal strength can be improved by reducing the heat capacity and heat transfer of the surface layer, for example by using a thin plastic coating. Reducing the image time separation used to produce the difference images reduces the time-lag and also the signal level, thus the optimum is when the signal to noise ratio is at the minimum which can be evaluated.
LAMINAR STABILITY ANALYSIS IN BOUNDARY LAYER FLOW
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mihaela CALUDESCU
2009-09-01
Full Text Available This study presents a numerical study concerning the flow control by suction and injection. The case study is over a symmetrical airfoil with suction and injection slots. The angle of attack is 3 degree with the Mach number 0.12.
Optoelectronic devices, low temperature preparation methods, and improved electron transport layers
Eita, Mohamed S.
2016-08-04
An optoelectronic device such as a photovoltaic device which has at least one layer, such as an electron transport layer, which comprises a plurality of alternating, oppositely charged layers including metal oxide layers. The metal oxide can be zinc oxide. The plurality of layers can be prepared by layer-by-layer processing in which alternating layers are built up step-by-step due to electrostatic attraction. The efficiency of the device can be increased by this processing method compared to a comparable method like sputtering. The number of layers can be controlled to improve device efficiency. Aqueous solutions can be used which is environmentally friendly. Annealing can be avoided. A quantum dot layer can be used next to the metal oxide layer to form a quantum dot heterojunction solar device.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vijayakumar, Ganesh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Brasseur, James [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Lavely, Adam; Jayaraman, Balaji; Craven, Brent
2016-01-04
We describe the response of the NREL 5 MW wind turbine blade boundary layer to the passage of atmospheric turbulence using blade-boundary-layer-resolved computational fluid dynamics with hybrid URANS-LES modeling.
The turbulent plasmasphere boundary layer and the outer radiation belt boundary
Mishin, Evgeny; Sotnikov, Vladimir
2017-12-01
We report on observations of enhanced plasma turbulence and hot particle distributions in the plasmasphere boundary layer formed by reconnection-injected hot plasma jets entering the plasmasphere. The data confirm that the electron pressure peak is formed just outward of the plasmapause in the premidnight sector. Free energy for plasma wave excitation comes from diamagnetic ion currents near the inner edge of the boundary layer due to the ion pressure gradient, electron diamagnetic currents in the entry layer near the electron plasma sheet boundary, and anisotropic (sometimes ring-like) ion distributions revealed inside, and further inward of, the inner boundary. We also show that nonlinear parametric coupling between lower oblique resonance and fast magnetosonic waves significantly contributes to the VLF whistler wave spectrum in the plasmasphere boundary layer. These emissions represent a distinctive subset of substorm/storm-related VLF activity in the region devoid of substorm injected tens keV electrons and could be responsible for the alteration of the outer radiation belt boundary during (sub)storms.
Numerical investigation of the boundary layer separation in chemical oxygen iodine laser
Huai, Ying; Jia, Shuqin; Wu, Kenan; Jin, Yuqi; Sang, Fengting
2017-11-01
Large eddy simulation is carried out to model the flow process in a supersonic chemical oxygen iodine laser. Unlike the common approaches relying on the tensor representation theory only, the model in the present work is an explicit anisotropy-resolving algebraic Subgrid-scale scalar flux formulation. With an accuracy in capturing the unsteady flow behaviours in the laser. Boundary layer separation initiated by the adverse pressure gradient is identified using Large Eddy Simulation. To quantify the influences of flow boundary layer on the laser performance, the fluid computations coupled with a physical optics loaded cavity model is developed. It has been found that boundary layer separation has a profound effect on the laser outputs due to the introduced shock waves. The F factor of the output beam decreases to 10% of the original one when the boundary transit into turbulence for the setup depicted in the paper. Because the pressure is always greater on the downstream of the boundary layer, there will always be a tendency of boundary separation in the laser. The results inspire designs of the laser to apply positive/passive control methods avoiding the boundary layer perturbation.
Boundary controllability of integrodifferential systems in Banach ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
the regularity of optimal boundary controls for parabolic equations with quadratic cost criterion. Recently Han and Park [7] derived a set of sufficient conditions for the boundary controllability of a semilinear system with a nonlocal condition. The purpose of this paper is to study the boundary controllability of nonlinear ...
The Temporal Behavior of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer in Israel.
Dayan, Uri; Rodnizki, Jacob
1999-06-01
Upper-air measurements collected for three consecutive years (1987-89) from the Israel Meteorological Service permanent sounding site, in Beit-Dagan, Israel, enabled the temporal behavior of the atmospheric boundary layer over Israel to be characterized. Data analyzed consisted of the layer depth, the thermal gradient within the layer, and occurrence frequency of radiative and elevated inversions. To adequately represent the multiyear seasonal and diurnal behavior, the 3-yr databases were merged based on the tested hypothesis that the month sample in each individual year comes from the same population. The analysis shows that the depth of the radiative ground-based inversion, its frequency, as well as its thermal profile are maximal during spring and early summer. The upper-inversion layer is well defined during the summer, its lowest base (0.5-1 km MSL) indicating a sharp interface layer formed between the marine turbulent boundary layer at the shallow layer of the atmosphere and the subsiding downward motion caused by the subtropical high pressure system. During the other three seasons a significant temporal variation of the upper-inversion base is observed as a result of the frequent larger-scale synoptic weather systems. The diurnal variation of the mixed-layer depth is most evident during the summer because it is mainly governed by heat fluxes and the daily sea-breeze cycle that are most intensive then. Henceforth, the layer minimal depth, along the coast, usually occurs during late afternoon hours when the wind speed of the cool sea breeze reaches its minimal rate and heat fluxes dissipate rapidly, leading to a decrease of the marine turbulent boundary layer.
Effects of coastal forcing on turbulence and boundary- layer structure
Strom, Linda Maria Viktoria
Coastal mountains of significant elevation impose constraints for the surrounding flow. The aim of this study is to describe the modifications of the marine atmospheric boundary layer that occur offshore of the west coast of the United States. Aircraft measurements, up to 1000 km off the coast from two experiments, are used. This boundary layer is capped by a subsidence inversion, which slopes down toward the coast and produces large thermal winds. Low-level wind maxima (i.e. jets) are typical for these conditions, commonly a 40-50% increase relative to the 30 m wind speed. The effects of coastal forcing on low-level winds cancel in average when no regard is taken for position relative a cape or point. The variability of the low-level wind speed increases nevertheless significantly toward the coast, the standard deviation is +/-40% of the offshore value. The scale of the adjustment downstream of a cape or point is specifically addressed. Some measurements support a formulation of the coastal extent based on an inviscid shallow-water concept; mean variables (i.e. 30 m wind speed and boundary-layer depth) and turbulent parameters (i.e. dissipation and shear production of turbulent kinetic energy) vary in a uniform, predicted manner. The effects of coastal forcing on winds result in cold sea surface temperatures at the coast, due to upwelling. Stability becomes a function of offshore distance. Surface-layer turbulence statistics and spectra (and cospectra) of turbulence variables are presented. Across- and along-wind sampled spectra (and cospectra) show that large wind shear and shallow boundary layer affect the scales of the turbulence eddies. The relation between the standard deviations of wind components are affected. The turbulence appears to be non-local in some aspects, entrainment fluxes are proposed to be important due to a shallow boundary layer with a sharp, sloping inversion and a low-level jet.
Innovative solar control devices
Erhorn, H.; Erhorn-Kluttig, H.
2010-01-01
Buildings are the EU's largest energy users, consuming over 40 % of Europe's total primary energy. One way of cutting this consumption is by avoiding or reducing cooling energy through proper solar shading. This paper presents examples of innovative solar control devices and emphasizes their relevance for the energy performance of buildings.
Park, Sinwook; Yossifon, Gilad
2014-11-01
The passage of an electric current through an ionic permselective medium under an applied electric field is characterized by the formation of ionic concentration gradients, which result in regions of depleted and enriched ionic concentration at opposite ends of the medium. Induced-current electro-osmosis (ICEO) and alternating-current-electro-osmosis (ACEO) are shown to control the growth of the diffusion layer (DL) which, in turn, controls the diffusion limited ion transport through the microchannel-membrane system. We fabricated and tested devices made of a Nafion membrane connecting two opposite PDMS microchannels. An interdigitated electrode array was embedded within the microchannel with various distances from the microchannel-membrane interface. The induced ICEO (floating electrodes) / ACEO (active electrodes) vortices formed at the electrode array stir the fluid and thereby suppress the growth of the DL. The intensity of the ACEO vortices is controlled by either varying the voltage amplitude or the frequency, each having its own unique effect. Enhancement of the limiting current by on-demand control of the diffusion length is of importance in on-chip electro-dialysis, desalination and preconcentration of analytes.
Understanding and prediction of stable atmospheric boundary layers over land
Steeneveld, G.J.
2007-01-01
The main objective of this thesis is to contribute to further understanding of the stable boundary layer (SBL) over land, and its representation in atmospheric models. A SBL develops during night due to radiative surface cooling. Observations in the SBL are difficult since many different physical
Page 1 Shock-wave-turbulent-boundary-layer interaction & its ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
shock .. rehabilitation shock with a turbulent boundary phase asºn: phase layer: M., + 1.47 (from Seddon. p x / So 1960). al 1977). Figures 16 and 17 show some of the important features of the separated flow and the surface pressure distributions as observed by Seddon (1960). The strong normal shock wave bifurcates near ...
On the marine atmospheric boundary layer characteristics over Bay ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Detailed measurements were carried out in the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer (MABL) during the Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB) which covered both Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal during March to May 2006. In this paper, we present the meteorological observations made ...
Boundary Layer Flows in Porous Media with Lateral Mass Flux
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nemati, H; H, Bararnia; Noori, F
2015-01-01
Solutions for free convection boundary layers on a heated vertical plate with lateral mass flux embedded in a saturated porous medium are presented using the Homotopy Analysis Method and Shooting Numerical Method. Homotopy Analysis Method yields an analytic solution in the form of a rapidly...
Influences of the boundary layer evolution on surface ozone ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 121; Issue 4. Influences of the boundary layer evolution on surface ozone variations at a tropical rural site in India. K K Reddy M Naja N Ojha P Mahesh S Lal. Volume 121 Issue 4 August 2012 pp 911-922 ...
Body surface adaptations to boundary-layer dynamics
Videler, J.J.
1995-01-01
Evolutionary processes have adapted nektonic animals to interact efficiently with the water that surrounds them. Not all these adaptations serve the same purpose. This paper concentrates on reduction of drag due to friction in the boundary layer close to the body surface. Mucus, compliant skins,
Turbulent Boundary Layer on a Cylinder in Axial Flow
1988-09-29
wall- norma 6caling or Rao’s wall-normal scaling. Other measurements of the mean velocity in a cylindrical boundary layer should be mentioned for...located near the wall at three azimuthal locations that wre 900 apa ,-t and at several streamwise spacings for flow conditions resulting in 8/a=8
The collapse of turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Van de Wiel, B J H; Clercx, H J H [Department of Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Moene, A F [Department of Meteorology and Air Quality, Wageningen University and Research Centre (Netherlands); Jonker, H J J, E-mail: b.j.h.v.d.wiel@tue.nl [Department of Multi-scale Pysics, Delft University of Technology (Netherlands)
2011-12-22
A well-known phenomenon in the atmospheric boundary layer is the fact that winds may become very weak in the evening after a clear sunny day. In these quiet conditions usually hardly any turbulence is present. Consequently this type of boundary layer is referred to as the quasi-laminar boundary layer. In spite of its relevance, the appearance of laminar boundary layers is poorly understood and forms a long standing problem in meteorological research. Here we investigate an analogue problem in the form of a stably stratified channel flow. The flow is studied with a simplified atmospheric model as well as with Direct Numerical Simulations. Both models show remarkably similar behaviour with respect to the mean variables such as temperature and wind speed. The similarity between both models opens new way for understanding and predicting the laminarization process. Mathematical analysis on the simplified model shows that relaminarization can be understood from the existence of a definite limit in the maximum sustainable heat flux under stably stratified conditions. This fascinating aspect will be elaborated in future work.
Workshop on Coherent Structure of Turbulent Boundary Layers.
1978-11-01
trying to investigate what you can visually determine within the boundary layer. In regard to the first of your questions, I am familiae with your work at...experiment like a nuclear physicist would do or you can do it in a more general fluid mechanical way. I just think I’ll leave it at that, interacting spots
Response of neutral boundary-layers to changes of roughness
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sempreviva, Anna Maria; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Mortensen, Niels Gylling
1990-01-01
When air blows across a change in surface roughness, an internal boundary layer (IBL) develops within which the wind adapts to the new surface. This process is well described for short fetches, > 1 km. However, few data exist for large fetches on how the IBL grows to become a new equilibrium boun...
Thermal Internal Boundary Layer characteristics at a tropical coastal ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
... Prabha1 R Venkatesan2 Erich Mursch-Radlgruber3 G Rengarajan3 N Jayanthi4. Crop and Soil Sciences, University of Georgia, GA, USA. Health and Safety Division, SHINE Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam, India 603 102. Boundary Layer Meteorology Division, Institut fuer Meteorologie und Physik (IMP-BOKU), Wien, Austria.
Flow visualization of swept wing boundary layer transition
Serpieri, J.; Kotsonis, M.
2015-01-01
In this work the flow visualization of the transition pattern occurring on a swept wing in a subsonic flow is presented. This is done by means of fluorescent oil flow technique and boundary layer hot-wire scans. The experiment was performed at Reynolds number of 2:15 . 106 and at angle of attack of
Atmospheric boundary layer evening transitions over West Texas
A systemic analysis of the atmospheric boundary layer behavior during some evening transitions over West Texas was done using the data from an extensive array of instruments which included small and large aperture scintillometers, net radiometers, and meteorological stations. The analysis also comp...
Effects of mussel filtering activity on boundary layer structure
Van Duren, L.A.; Herman, P.M.J.; Sandee, A.J.J.; Heip, C.H.R.
2006-01-01
The structure of the benthic boundary layer over a bed of mussels (Mytilus edulis) was investigated in a large racetrack flume. Flow was observed to be modified both by the physical roughness of the mussel bed and by the momentum input of the exhalent jets of the mussels. Particularly when the
Radio wave propagation in the marine boundary layer
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Kukushkin, Alexander
2004-01-01
... boundary layer. Two basic mathematical methods have been used, depending on the ease of obtaining a closed analytical solution: 1. 2. Expansion of the quantum-mechanical amplitude of the transition into a complete and orthogonal set of eigen functions of the continuous spectrum. The Feynman path integral. It is not intended to provide a full ste...
The use of a wave boundary layer model in SWAN
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Du, Jianting; Bolaños, Rodolfo; Larsén, Xiaoli Guo
2017-01-01
A Wave Boundary Layer Model (WBLM) is implemented in the third-generation ocean wave model SWAN to improve the wind-input source function under idealized, fetch-limited condition. Accordingly, the white capping dissipation parameters are re-calibrated to fit the new wind-input source function...
The role of boundary layer momentum advection in the mean ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A simple three-way balance between the pressure gradients, Coriolis force and effective Rayleigh friction has been classically used to diagnose the location of maximum boundary layer convergence in the near equatorial ITCZ. If such a balance can capture the dynamics of off-equatorial convergence was not known.
Characterization of the atmospheric boundary layer from radiosonde ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. In this paper, a comparison of two methods for the calculation of the height of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), using balloon-borne GPS radiosonde data is presented. ABL has been characterized using vertical profiles of meteorological parameter. The gradient of virtual potential temperature (v) profile for the ...
Analytical solution of the transpiration on the boundary layer flow ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
An analysis is carried out to study the effects that blowing/injection and suction on the steady mixed convection or combined forced and free convection boundary layer flows over a vertical slender cylinder with a mainstream velocity and a wall surface temperature proportional to the axial distance along the surface of the ...
Thermal Internal Boundary Layer characteristics at a tropical coastal ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
examined with the help of measurements carried out with a mini-SODAR (SOund Detection And ..... moisture upwards and periodic intrusion of mar- ..... Ocean System 2. 351–362. Kunhikrishnan P K, Gupta K S, Ramachandran R, Prakash. J W, Nair K N 1993 Study on thermal internal boundary layer structure over Thumba, ...
Temperature boundary layer profiles in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection
Ching, Emily S. C.; Emran, Mohammad S.; Horn, Susanne; Shishkina, Olga
2017-11-01
Classical boundary-layer theory for steady flows cannot adequately describe the boundary layer profiles in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection. We have developed a thermal boundary layer equation which takes into account fluctuations in terms of an eddy thermal diffusivity. Based on Prandtl's mixing length ideas, we relate the eddy thermal diffusivity to the stream function. With this proposed relation, we can solve the thermal boundary layer equation and obtain a closed-form expression for the dimensionless mean temperature profile in terms of two independent parameters: θ(ξ) =1/b∫0b ξ [ 1 +3a3/b3(η - arctan(η)) ] - c dη , where ξ is the similarity variable and the parameters a, b, and c are related by the condition θ(∞) = 1 . With a proper choice of the parameters, our predictions of the temperature profile are in excellent agreement with the results of our direct numerical simulations for a wide range of Prandtl numbers (Pr), from Pr=0.01 to Pr=2547.9. OS, ME and SH acknowledge the financial support by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under Grants Sh405/4-2 (Heisenberg fellowship), Sh405/3-2 and Ho 5890/1-1, respectively.
Global instabilities and transient growth in Blasius boundary-layer ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We develop a hybrid of computational and theoretical approaches suited to study the fluid–structure interaction (FSI) of a compliant panel, flush between rigid upstream and downstream wall sections, with a Blasius boundary-layer flow. The ensuing linear-stability analysis is focused upon global instability and transient ...
Conserved variable analysis of the marine boundary layer and air ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The present study is based on the observed features of the MBL (Marine Boundary Layer) during the Bay of Bengal and Monsoon Experiment (BOBMEX) - Pilot phase. Conserved Variable Analysis (CVA) of the conserved variables such as potential temperature, virtual potential temperature, equivalent potential temperature ...
Mechanisms of boundary layer transition induced by isolated roughnes
Ye, Q.
2017-01-01
Boundary layer transition is a relevant phenomenon in many aerodynamic and aero-thermodynamic problems and has been extensively investigated from the past century till recent times. Among the factors affecting the transition process, surface roughness plays a key role. When a roughness element with
Pressure Fluctuations Induced by a Hypersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer
Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Zhang, Chao
2016-01-01
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to examine the pressure fluctuations generated by a spatially-developed Mach 5.86 turbulent boundary layer. The unsteady pressure field is analyzed at multiple wall-normal locations, including those at the wall, within the boundary layer (including inner layer, the log layer, and the outer layer), and in the free stream. The statistical and structural variations of pressure fluctuations as a function of wall-normal distance are highlighted. Computational predictions for mean velocity pro les and surface pressure spectrum are in good agreement with experimental measurements, providing a first ever comparison of this type at hypersonic Mach numbers. The simulation shows that the dominant frequency of boundary-layer-induced pressure fluctuations shifts to lower frequencies as the location of interest moves away from the wall. The pressure wave propagates with a speed nearly equal to the local mean velocity within the boundary layer (except in the immediate vicinity of the wall) while the propagation speed deviates from the Taylor's hypothesis in the free stream. Compared with the surface pressure fluctuations, which are primarily vortical, the acoustic pressure fluctuations in the free stream exhibit a significantly lower dominant frequency, a greater spatial extent, and a smaller bulk propagation speed. The freestream pressure structures are found to have similar Lagrangian time and spatial scales as the acoustic sources near the wall. As the Mach number increases, the freestream acoustic fluctuations exhibit increased radiation intensity, enhanced energy content at high frequencies, shallower orientation of wave fronts with respect to the flow direction, and larger propagation velocity.
Radiographic quality control devices.
2000-04-01
In this study, we evaluate eight radiographic quality control (QC) devices, which noninvasively measure the output from a variety of diagnostic x-ray production systems. When used as part of a quality assurance (QA) program, radiographic QC devices help ensure that x-ray equipment is working within acceptable limits. This in turn helps ensure that high-quality images are achieved with appropriate radiation doses and that resources are used efficiently (for example, by minimizing the number of repeat exposures required). Our testing focused on the physical performance, ease of use, and service and maintenance characteristics that affect the use of these devices for periodic, routine measurements of x-ray system parameters. We found that all the evaluated models satisfactorily measure all the parameters normally needed for a QA program. However, we did identify a number of differences among the models--particularly in the range of exposure levels that can be effectively measured and the ease of use. Three models perform well for a variety of applications and are very easy to use; we rate them Preferred. Three additional models have minor limitations but otherwise perform well; we rate them Acceptable. We recommend against purchasing two models because, although each performs acceptably for most applications, neither model can measure low levels of radiation. This Evaluation covers devices designed to measure the output of x-ray tubes noninvasively. These devices, called radiographic quality control (QC) devices, or QC meters, are typically used by medical physicists, x-ray engineers, biomedical engineers, and suitably trained radiographic technologists to make QC measurements. We focus on the use of these devices as part of an overall quality assurance (QA) program. We have not evaluated their use for other applications, such as acceptance testing. To be included in this study, a device must be able to measure the exposure- and kVp-related characteristics of most x
Howe, Robert H. (Inventor); Flynn, Kenneth P. (Inventor); Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)
2014-01-01
A contaminate control device for filtering contaminates from a gas such as air is provided. The device includes a housing having a first inlet and a first outlet. An axial flow filter is fluidly coupled between the first inlet and the first outlet, the axial flow filter has a second inlet and a second outlet. A second filter disposed about the axial flow filter and is fluidly coupled between the first inlet and the first outlet, the second filter having a third inlet on an inner diameter and a third outlet disposed on an outer diameter. A flow restrictor is fluidly coupled between the second inlet and the first inlet.
Bean, Jonathan J.; Saito, Mitsuhiro; Fukami, Shunsuke; Sato, Hideo; Ikeda, Shoji; Ohno, Hideo; Ikuhara, Yuichi; McKenna, Keith P.
2017-04-01
Polycrystalline metal oxides find diverse applications in areas such as nanoelectronics, photovoltaics and catalysis. Although grain boundary defects are ubiquitous their structure and electronic properties are very poorly understood since it is extremely challenging to probe the structure of buried interfaces directly. In this paper we combine novel plan-view high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and first principles calculations to provide atomic level understanding of the structure and properties of grain boundaries in the barrier layer of a magnetic tunnel junction. We show that the highly [001] textured MgO films contain numerous tilt grain boundaries. First principles calculations reveal how these grain boundaries are associated with locally reduced band gaps (by up to 3 eV). Using a simple model we show how shunting a proportion of the tunnelling current through grain boundaries imposes limits on the maximum magnetoresistance that can be achieved in devices.
Linear segmentation algorithm for detecting layer boundary with lidar.
Mao, Feiyue; Gong, Wei; Logan, Timothy
2013-11-04
The automatic detection of aerosol- and cloud-layer boundary (base and top) is important in atmospheric lidar data processing, because the boundary information is not only useful for environment and climate studies, but can also be used as input for further data processing. Previous methods have demonstrated limitations in defining the base and top, window-size setting, and have neglected the in-layer attenuation. To overcome these limitations, we present a new layer detection scheme for up-looking lidars based on linear segmentation with a reasonable threshold setting, boundary selecting, and false positive removing strategies. Preliminary results from both real and simulated data show that this algorithm cannot only detect the layer-base as accurate as the simple multi-scale method, but can also detect the layer-top more accurately than that of the simple multi-scale method. Our algorithm can be directly applied to uncalibrated data without requiring any additional measurements or window size selections.
Encapsulation methods and dielectric layers for organic electrical devices
Blum, Yigal D; Chu, William Siu-Keung; MacQueen, David Brent; Shi, Yijan
2013-07-02
The disclosure provides methods and materials suitable for use as encapsulation barriers and dielectric layers in electronic devices. In one embodiment, for example, there is provided an electroluminescent device or other electronic device with a dielectric layer comprising alternating layers of a silicon-containing bonding material and a ceramic material. The methods provide, for example, electronic devices with increased stability and shelf-life. The invention is useful, for example, in the field of microelectronic devices.
Baroclinic Planetary Boundary Layer Model: Neutral and Stable Stratification Conditions
Yordanov, D.; Djolov, G.; Syrakov, D.
1998-01-01
The temperature and wind profiles in a baroclinic Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) are investigated. Assuming stationarity, the turbulent state in the PBL at stable and neutral conditions is uniquely determined by the Rossby number, the external stratification parameter and two external baroclinic parameters. A simple two-layer baroclinic model is developed. It consists of a Surface Layer (SL) and overlying Ekman type layer. The system of dynamic and heat transfer equations is close using the K-theory. In SL the turbulent exchange coefficient is consistent with the results of similarity theory while in the Ekman layer it is constant. The universal functions in the resistance, heat and humidity transfer laws can be deduced from the model. The internal PBL characteristics, necessary for the model calculations, are presented in terms of the external parameters. Favourable agreement of model results with experimental data is demonstrated.
Atmospheric boundary layers in storms: advanced theory and modelling applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. S. Zilitinkevich
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Turbulent planetary boundary layers (PBLs control the exchange processes between the atmosphere and the ocean/land. The key problems of PBL physics are to determine the PBL height, the momentum, energy and matter fluxes at the surface and the mean wind and scalar profiles throughout the layer in a range of regimes from stable and neutral to convective. Until present, the PBLs typical of stormy weather were always considered as neutrally stratified. Recent works have disclosed that such PBLs are in fact very strongly affected by the static stability of the free atmosphere and must be treated as factually stable (we call this type of the PBL "conventionally neutral" in contract to the "truly neutral" PBLs developed against the neutrally stratified free flow. It is common knowledge that basic features of PBLs exhibit a noticeable dependence on the free-flow static stability and baroclinicity. However, the concern of the traditional theory of neural and stable PBLs was almost without exception the barotropic nocturnal PBL, which develops at mid latitudes during a few hours in the night, on the background of a neutral or slightly stable residual layer. The latter separates this type of the PBL from the free atmosphere. It is not surprising that the nature of turbulence in such regimes is basically local and does not depend on the properties of the free atmosphere. Alternatively, long-lived neutral (in fact only conditionally neutral or stable PBLs, which have much more time to grow up, are placed immediately below the stably stratified free flow. Under these conditions, the turbulent transports of momentum and scalars even in the surface layer - far away from the PBL outer boundary - depend on the free-flow Brunt-Väisälä frequency, N. Furthermore, integral measures of the long-lived PBLs (their depths and the resistance law functions depend on N and also on the baroclinic shear, S. In the traditional PBL models both non-local parameters N and S
Cursor Control Device Characteristics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James Phillips
2000-05-01
Full Text Available An analysis of cursor positioning may provide guidelines for improvements in cursor control. Four experiments addressed efficiency of cursor control devices (Mouse, Digitising Pen, Accupoint, Trackball. Participants moved a cursor leftwards, upwards or rightwards, positioning it in large or small targets situated in near or far space on the computer screen. Cursor coordinates were sampled every 5 ms. The number of submovements and the proportion of time spent in deceleration were analysed. Participants could not plan movements controlled by an Accupoint. Cursor trajectories were more variable in near space for detachable manipulanda due to potential cartesian coordinate system incompatibilities
Tetervin, Neal; Lin, Chia Chiao
1951-01-01
A general integral form of the boundary-layer equation, valid for either laminar or turbulent incompressible boundary-layer flow, is derived. By using the experimental finding that all velocity profiles of the turbulent boundary layer form essentially a single-parameter family, the general equation is changed to an equation for the space rate of change of the velocity-profile shape parameter. The lack of precise knowledge concerning the surface shear and the distribution of the shearing stress across turbulent boundary layers prevented the attainment of a reliable method for calculating the behavior of turbulent boundary layers.
Boundary conditions for simulating large SAW devices using ANSYS.
Peng, Dasong; Yu, Fengqi; Hu, Jian; Li, Peng
2010-08-01
In this report, we propose improved substrate left and right boundary conditions for simulating SAW devices using ANSYS. Compared with the previous methods, the proposed method can greatly reduce computation time. Furthermore, the longer the distance from the first reflector to the last one, the more computation time can be reduced. To verify the proposed method, a design example is presented with device center frequency 971.14 MHz.
The decay of wake vortices in the convective boundary layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holzaepfel, F.; Gerz, T.; Frech, M.; Doernbrack, A.
2000-03-01
The decay of three wake vortex pairs of B-747 aircraft in a convectively driven atmospheric boundary layer is investigated by means of large-eddy simulations (LES). This situation is considered as being hazardous as the updraft velocities of a thermal may compensate the induced descent speed of the vortex pair resulting in vortices stalled in the flight path. The LES results, however, illustrate that (i) the primary rectilinear vortices are rapidly deformed on the scale of the alternating updraft and downdraft regions; (ii) parts of the vortices stay on flight level but are quickly eroded by the enhanced turbulence of an updraft; (iii) longest living sections of the vortices are found in regions of relatively calm downdraft flow which augments their descent. Strip theory calculations are used to illustrate the temporal and spatial development of lift and rolling moments experienced by a following medium weight class B-737 aircraft. Characteristics of the respective distributions are analysed. Initially, the maximum rolling moments slightly exceed the available roll control of the B-737. After 60 seconds the probability of rolling moments exceeding 50% of the roll control, a value which is considered as a threshold for acceptable rolling moments, has decreased to 1% of its initial probability. (orig.)
Boundary Layer Effect on Behavior of Discrete Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jan Eliáš
2017-02-01
Full Text Available The paper studies systems of rigid bodies with randomly generated geometry interconnected by normal and tangential bonds. The stiffness of these bonds determines the macroscopic elastic modulus while the macroscopic Poisson’s ratio of the system is determined solely by the normal/tangential stiffness ratio. Discrete models with no directional bias have the same probability of element orientation for any direction and therefore the same mechanical properties in a statistical sense at any point and direction. However, the layers of elements in the vicinity of the boundary exhibit biased orientation, preferring elements parallel with the boundary. As a consequence, when strain occurs in this direction, the boundary layer becomes stiffer than the interior for the normal/tangential stiffness ratio larger than one, and vice versa. Nonlinear constitutive laws are typically such that the straining of an element in shear results in higher strength and ductility than straining in tension. Since the boundary layer tends, due to the bias in the elemental orientation, to involve more tension than shear at the contacts, it also becomes weaker and less ductile. The paper documents these observations and compares them to the results of theoretical analysis.
Boundary Layer Effect on Behavior of Discrete Models.
Eliáš, Jan
2017-02-10
The paper studies systems of rigid bodies with randomly generated geometry interconnected by normal and tangential bonds. The stiffness of these bonds determines the macroscopic elastic modulus while the macroscopic Poisson's ratio of the system is determined solely by the normal/tangential stiffness ratio. Discrete models with no directional bias have the same probability of element orientation for any direction and therefore the same mechanical properties in a statistical sense at any point and direction. However, the layers of elements in the vicinity of the boundary exhibit biased orientation, preferring elements parallel with the boundary. As a consequence, when strain occurs in this direction, the boundary layer becomes stiffer than the interior for the normal/tangential stiffness ratio larger than one, and vice versa. Nonlinear constitutive laws are typically such that the straining of an element in shear results in higher strength and ductility than straining in tension. Since the boundary layer tends, due to the bias in the elemental orientation, to involve more tension than shear at the contacts, it also becomes weaker and less ductile. The paper documents these observations and compares them to the results of theoretical analysis.
Organic light emitting device having multiple separate emissive layers
Forrest, Stephen R [Ann Arbor, MI
2012-03-27
An organic light emitting device having multiple separate emissive layers is provided. Each emissive layer may define an exciton formation region, allowing exciton formation to occur across the entire emissive region. By aligning the energy levels of each emissive layer with the adjacent emissive layers, exciton formation in each layer may be improved. Devices incorporating multiple emissive layers with multiple exciton formation regions may exhibit improved performance, including internal quantum efficiencies of up to 100%.
Acoustic Radiation From a Mach 14 Turbulent Boundary Layer
Zhang, Chao; Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan M.
2016-01-01
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to examine the turbulence statistics and the radiation field generated by a high-speed turbulent boundary layer with a nominal freestream Mach number of 14 and wall temperature of 0:18 times the recovery temperature. The flow conditions fall within the range of nozzle exit conditions of the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) Hypervelocity Tunnel No. 9 facility. The streamwise domain size is approximately 200 times the boundary-layer thickness at the inlet, with a useful range of Reynolds number corresponding to Re 450 ?? 650. Consistent with previous studies of turbulent boundary layer at high Mach numbers, the weak compressibility hypothesis for turbulent boundary layers remains applicable under this flow condition and the computational results confirm the validity of both the van Driest transformation and Morkovin's scaling. The Reynolds analogy is valid at the surface; the RMS of fluctuations in the surface pressure, wall shear stress, and heat flux is 24%, 53%, and 67% of the surface mean, respectively. The magnitude and dominant frequency of pressure fluctuations are found to vary dramatically within the inner layer (z/delta 0.< or approx. 0.08 or z+ < or approx. 50). The peak of the pre-multiplied frequency spectrum of the pressure fluctuation is f(delta)/U(sub infinity) approx. 2.1 at the surface and shifts to a lower frequency of f(delta)/U(sub infinity) approx. 0.7 in the free stream where the pressure signal is predominantly acoustic. The dominant frequency of the pressure spectrum shows a significant dependence on the freestream Mach number both at the wall and in the free stream.
Structure Identification Within a Transitioning Swept-Wing Boundary Layer
Chapman, Keith; Glauser, Mark
1996-01-01
Extensive measurements are made in a transitioning swept-wing boundary layer using hot-film, hot-wire and cross-wire anemometry. The crossflow-dominated flow contains stationary vortices that breakdown near mid-chord. The most amplified vortex wavelength is forced by the use of artificial roughness elements near the leading edge. Two-component velocity and spanwise surface shear-stress correlation measurements are made at two constant chord locations, before and after transition. Streamwise surface shear stresses are also measured through the entire transition region. Correlation techniques are used to identify stationary structures in the laminar regime and coherent structures in the turbulent regime. Basic techniques include observation of the spatial correlations and the spatially distributed auto-spectra. The primary and secondary instability mechanisms are identified in the spectra in all measured fields. The primary mechanism is seen to grow, cause transition and produce large-scale turbulence. The secondary mechanism grows through the entire transition region and produces the small-scale turbulence. Advanced techniques use Linear Stochastic Estimation (LSE) and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) to identify the spatio-temporal evolutions of structures in the boundary layer. LSE is used to estimate the instantaneous velocity fields using temporal data from just two spatial locations and the spatial correlations. Reference locations are selected using maximum RMS values to provide the best available estimates. POD is used to objectively determine modes characteristic of the measured flow based on energy. The stationary vortices are identified in the first laminar modes of each velocity component and shear component. Experimental evidence suggests that neighboring vortices interact and produce large coherent structures with spanwise periodicity at double the stationary vortex wavelength. An objective transition region detection method is developed using
Shallow marine cloud topped boundary layer in atmospheric models
Janjic, Zavisa
2017-04-01
A common problem in many atmospheric models is excessive expansion over cold water of shallow marine planetary boundary layer (PBL) topped by a thin cloud layer. This phenomenon is often accompanied by spurious light precipitation. The "Cloud Top Entrainment Instability" (CTEI) was proposed as an explanation of the mechanism controlling this process in reality thereby preventing spurious enlargement of the cloudy area and widely spread light precipitation observed in the models. A key element of this hypothesis is evaporative cooling at the PBL top. However, the CTEI hypothesis remains controversial. For example, a recent direct simulation experiment indicated that the evaporative cooling couldn't explain the break-up of the cloudiness as hypothesized by the CTEI. Here, it is shown that the cloud break-up can be achieved in numerical models by a further modification of the nonsingular implementation of the Mellor-Yamada Level 2.5 turbulence closure model (MYJ) developed at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Washington. Namely, the impact of moist convective instability is included into the turbulent energy production/dissipation equation if (a) the stratification is stable, (b) the lifting condensation level (LCL) for a particle starting at a model level is below the next upper model level, and (c) there is enough turbulent kinetic energy so that, due to random vertical turbulent motions, a particle starting from a model level can reach its LCL. The criterion (c) should be sufficiently restrictive because otherwise the cloud cover can be completely removed. A real data example will be shown demonstrating the ability of the method to break the spurious cloud cover during the day, but also to allow its recovery over night.
A Thermal Plume Model for the Martian Convective Boundary Layer
Colaïtis, Arnaud; Hourdin, Frédéric; Rio, Catherine; Forget, François; Millour, Ehouarn
2013-01-01
The Martian Planetary Boundary Layer [PBL] is a crucial component of the Martian climate system. Global Climate Models [GCMs] and Mesoscale Models [MMs] lack the resolution to predict PBL mixing which is therefore parameterized. Here we propose to adapt the "thermal plume" model, recently developed for Earth climate modeling, to Martian GCMs, MMs, and single-column models. The aim of this physically-based parameterization is to represent the effect of organized turbulent structures (updrafts and downdrafts) on the daytime PBL transport, as it is resolved in Large-Eddy Simulations [LESs]. We find that the terrestrial thermal plume model needs to be modified to satisfyingly account for deep turbulent plumes found in the Martian convective PBL. Our Martian thermal plume model qualitatively and quantitatively reproduces the thermal structure of the daytime PBL on Mars: superadiabatic near-surface layer, mixing layer, and overshoot region at PBL top. This model is coupled to surface layer parameterizations taking ...
Conference on Boundary and Interior Layers : Computational and Asymptotic Methods
Stynes, Martin; Zhang, Zhimin
2017-01-01
This volume collects papers associated with lectures that were presented at the BAIL 2016 conference, which was held from 14 to 19 August 2016 at Beijing Computational Science Research Center and Tsinghua University in Beijing, China. It showcases the variety and quality of current research into numerical and asymptotic methods for theoretical and practical problems whose solutions involve layer phenomena. The BAIL (Boundary And Interior Layers) conferences, held usually in even-numbered years, bring together mathematicians and engineers/physicists whose research involves layer phenomena, with the aim of promoting interaction between these often-separate disciplines. These layers appear as solutions of singularly perturbed differential equations of various types, and are common in physical problems, most notably in fluid dynamics. This book is of interest for current researchers from mathematics, engineering and physics whose work involves the accurate app roximation of solutions of singularly perturbed diffe...
Ouwersloot, H.G.; Arellano, de J.V.G.
2013-01-01
In Ouwersloot and Vila-Guerau de Arellano (Boundary-Layer Meteorol. doi: 10. 1007/s10546-013-9816-z, 2013, this issue), the analytical solutions for the boundary-layer height and scalar evolutions are derived for the convective boundary layer, based on the prognostic equations of mixed-layer slab
Boundary Layer Instabilities Generated by Freestream Laser Perturbations
Chou, Amanda; Schneider, Steven P.
2015-01-01
A controlled, laser-generated, freestream perturbation was created in the freestream of the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel (BAM6QT). The freestream perturbation convected downstream in the Mach-6 wind tunnel to interact with a flared cone model. The geometry of the flared cone is a body of revolution bounded by a circular arc with a 3-meter radius. Fourteen PCB 132A31 pressure transducers were used to measure a wave packet generated in the cone boundary layer by the freestream perturbation. This wave packet grew large and became nonlinear before experiencing natural transition in quiet flow. Breakdown of this wave packet occurred when the amplitude of the pressure fluctuations was approximately 10% of the surface pressure for a nominally sharp nosetip. The initial amplitude of the second mode instability on the blunt flared cone is estimated to be on the order of 10 -6 times the freestream static pressure. The freestream laser-generated perturbation was positioned upstream of the model in three different configurations: on the centerline, offset from the centerline by 1.5 mm, and offset from the centerline by 3.0 mm. When the perturbation was offset from the centerline of a blunt flared cone, a larger wave packet was generated on the side toward which the perturbation was offset. The offset perturbation did not show as much of an effect on the wave packet on a sharp flared cone as it did on a blunt flared cone.
Initializing a Mesoscale Boundary-Layer Model with Radiosonde Observations
Berri, Guillermo J.; Bertossa, Germán
2018-01-01
A mesoscale boundary-layer model is used to simulate low-level regional wind fields over the La Plata River of South America, a region characterized by a strong daily cycle of land-river surface-temperature contrast and low-level circulations of sea-land breeze type. The initial and boundary conditions are defined from a limited number of local observations and the upper boundary condition is taken from the only radiosonde observations available in the region. The study considers 14 different upper boundary conditions defined from the radiosonde data at standard levels, significant levels, level of the inversion base and interpolated levels at fixed heights, all of them within the first 1500 m. The period of analysis is 1994-2008 during which eight daily observations from 13 weather stations of the region are used to validate the 24-h surface-wind forecast. The model errors are defined as the root-mean-square of relative error in wind-direction frequency distribution and mean wind speed per wind sector. Wind-direction errors are greater than wind-speed errors and show significant dispersion among the different upper boundary conditions, not present in wind speed, revealing a sensitivity to the initialization method. The wind-direction errors show a well-defined daily cycle, not evident in wind speed, with the minimum at noon and the maximum at dusk, but no systematic deterioration with time. The errors grow with the height of the upper boundary condition level, in particular wind direction, and double the errors obtained when the upper boundary condition is defined from the lower levels. The conclusion is that defining the model upper boundary condition from radiosonde data closer to the ground minimizes the low-level wind-field errors throughout the region.
Initializing a Mesoscale Boundary-Layer Model with Radiosonde Observations
Berri, Guillermo J.; Bertossa, Germán
2017-08-01
A mesoscale boundary-layer model is used to simulate low-level regional wind fields over the La Plata River of South America, a region characterized by a strong daily cycle of land-river surface-temperature contrast and low-level circulations of sea-land breeze type. The initial and boundary conditions are defined from a limited number of local observations and the upper boundary condition is taken from the only radiosonde observations available in the region. The study considers 14 different upper boundary conditions defined from the radiosonde data at standard levels, significant levels, level of the inversion base and interpolated levels at fixed heights, all of them within the first 1500 m. The period of analysis is 1994-2008 during which eight daily observations from 13 weather stations of the region are used to validate the 24-h surface-wind forecast. The model errors are defined as the root-mean-square of relative error in wind-direction frequency distribution and mean wind speed per wind sector. Wind-direction errors are greater than wind-speed errors and show significant dispersion among the different upper boundary conditions, not present in wind speed, revealing a sensitivity to the initialization method. The wind-direction errors show a well-defined daily cycle, not evident in wind speed, with the minimum at noon and the maximum at dusk, but no systematic deterioration with time. The errors grow with the height of the upper boundary condition level, in particular wind direction, and double the errors obtained when the upper boundary condition is defined from the lower levels. The conclusion is that defining the model upper boundary condition from radiosonde data closer to the ground minimizes the low-level wind-field errors throughout the region.
Lidar Scanning of Momentum Flux in the Marine Boundary Layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Mann, Jakob; Courtney, Michael
Momentum flux measurements are important for describing the wind profile in the atmospheric boundary layer, modeling the atmospheric flow over water, the accounting of exchange processes between air and sea, etc. It is also directly related to the friction velocity, which is a velocity scale...... required for wind engineering. Estimations of friction velocity over the sea can be performed by combining wind speed measurements, a sea roughness length formulation and the surface-layer wind profile, i.e. a bulk-derived method. This method was tested in Peña et al. (2008) by comparison with direct...
Turbulence structures in a strongly decelerated boundary layer
Gungor, Ayse G.; Maciel, Yvan; Simens, Mark P.
2014-11-01
The characteristics of three-dimensional intense Reynolds shear stress structures (Qs) are presented from a direct numerical simulation of an adverse pressure gradient boundary layer at Reθ = 1500 -2175. The intense Q2 (ejections) and Q4 (sweeps) structures separate into two groups: wall-attached and wall-detached structures. In the region where turbulent activity is maximal, between 0 . 2 δ and 0 . 6 δ , 94 % of the structures are detached structures. In comparison to canonical wall flows, the large velocity defect turbulent boundary layers are less efficient in extracting turbulent energy from the mean flow. There is, furthermore, much less turbulence activity and less velocity coherence near the wall. Additionally, the wall-detached structures are more frequent and carry a much larger amount of Reynolds shear stress. Funded in part by ITU, NSERC of Canada, and Multiflow program of the ERC.
Numerical simulation of tsunami-scale wave boundary layers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Williams, Isaac A.; Fuhrman, David R.
2016-01-01
duration, bottom roughness, and associated Reynolds numbers. For this purpose, three different “synthetic” (idealised) tsunami wave descriptions are considered i.e., invoking: (1) single wave (solitary-like, but with independent period and wave height),(2) sinusoidal, and (3) N-wave descriptions. The flow......, is newly extended to incorporate a transitional variant of the standard two-equation k–ω turbulence closure. The developed numerical model is successfully validated against recent experimental measurements involving transient solitary wave boundary layers as well as for oscillatory flows, collectively...... demonstrating the ability to reproduce accurate velocity profiles, turbulence, and bed shear stresses on both smooth and rough beds.The validated model is then employed for the study of transient wave boundary layers at full tsunami scales,covering a wide and realistic geophysical range in terms of the flow...
Boundary-layer turbulence as a kangaroo process
Dekker, H.; de Leeuw, G.; Maassen van den Brink, A.
1995-09-01
A nonlocal mixing-length theory of turbulence transport by finite size eddies is developed by means of a novel evaluation of the Reynolds stress. The analysis involves the contruct of a sample path space and a stochastic closure hypothesis. The simplifying property of exhange (strong eddies) is satisfied by an analytical sampling rate model. A nonlinear scaling relation maps the path space onto the semi-infinite boundary layer. The underlying near-wall behavior of fluctuating velocities perfectly agrees with recent direct numerical simulations. The resulting integro-differential equation for the mixing of scalar densities represents fully developed boundary-layer turbulence as a nondiffusive (Kubo-Anderson or kangaroo) type of stochastic process. The model involves a scaling exponent ɛ (with ɛ-->∞ in the diffusion limit). For the (partly analytical) solution for the mean velocity profile, excellent agreement with the experimental data yields ɛ~=0.58.
On Hydromagnetic Stresses in Accretion Disk Boundary Layers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pessah, Martin Elias; Chan, Chi-kwan
2012-01-01
Detailed calculations of the physical structure of accretion disk boundary layers, and thus their inferred observational properties, rely on the assumption that angular momentum transport is opposite to the radial angular frequency gradient of the disk. The standard model for turbulent shear...... viscosity satisfies this assumption by construction. However, this behavior is not supported by numerical simulations of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accretion disks, which show that angular momentum transport driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is inefficient in disk regions where......, as expected in boundary layers, the angular frequency increases with radius. In order to shed light on physically viable mechanisms for angular momentum transport in this inner disk region, we examine the generation of hydromagnetic stresses and energy density in differentially rotating backgrounds...
Flight Experiment Verification of Shuttle Boundary Layer Transition Prediction Tool
Berry, Scott A.; Berger, Karen T.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Wood, William A.
2016-01-01
Boundary layer transition at hypersonic conditions is critical to the design of future high-speed aircraft and spacecraft. Accurate methods to predict transition would directly impact the aerothermodynamic environments used to size a hypersonic vehicle's thermal protection system. A transition prediction tool, based on wind tunnel derived discrete roughness correlations, was developed and implemented for the Space Shuttle return-to-flight program. This tool was also used to design a boundary layer transition flight experiment in order to assess correlation uncertainties, particularly with regard to high Mach-number transition and tunnel-to-flight scaling. A review is provided of the results obtained from the flight experiment in order to evaluate the transition prediction tool implemented for the Shuttle program.
Measurement Science of the Intermittent Atmospheric Boundary Layer
2014-01-01
investigate intermittency fluxes of clear-air radar reflectivity inthe atmospheric boundary layer, 2013 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and...meridionally by 40 m), eight ultrasonic anemometers, two low-response thermometers, two low-response hygrometers, three quartz-crystal barometers, and...vertically spaced sonics can be used for post-facto calibration (Muschinski and Ayvazian, 2014) of relative biases in a pair of ultrasonic
Scaling laws and turbulence closures for stable boundary layers
Zilitinkevich, S.; Esau, I.; Baklanov, A.; Djolov, G.
2003-04-01
This paper presents a recently developed theory of non-local turbulence in the stably stratified planetary boundary layers (PBLs): basic theoretical results, new LES code specifically designed for LES of stably stratified flows, and comparison of theoretical predictions with LES and experimental data. The paper includes improved formulations for the PBL depth and resistance laws and outlines an advanced turbulence closure accounting for the transport properties of internal gravity waves.
Turbulence Scales Simulations in Atmospheric Boundary Layer Wind Tunnels
Teleman, Elena-Carmen; Silion, Radu; Axinte, Elena; Pescaru, Radu
2008-01-01
The simulation of the air flow over models in atmospheric boundary layer tunnels is a research domain based on advanced scientific technologies imposed by the necessity of studying the turbulent fluid movements in the proximity of the Earth’s surface. The experiment presented herein is developed in the wind tunnel from the Laboratory of Structural Aerodynamics of the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Building Services in Iassy. Measurements necessary for the determination of the turbulence sca...
Boundary Layer Study. Experimental Validation Test Plan. Phase 4
1990-11-01
profile aceros the boundary layer. Also included are the measurement of surface properties including pressure, temperature, heat transfer rate, and...the sninplos charged either by fric~tion or byy exposure to passes. The. voimelor owWj is displayed As the turntabie rotates. the sample a corona . N...When the Corona -charginig arm inso.e arm. After about 150 seconlds aale ur rors introducec! by variationis among tost levied, 11 Is exiendead to the
Partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystals for boundary layer investigations
Parmar, Devendra S.; Singh, Jag J.
1992-01-01
A new configuration termed partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystal in which the liquid crystal microdroplets dispersed in a rigid polymer matrix are partially entrapped on the free surface of the thin film deposited on a glass substrate is reported. Optical transmission characteristics of the partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystal thin film in response to an air flow induced shear stress field reveal its potential as a sensor for gas flow and boundary layer investigations.
Ozone in the Atlantic Ocean marine boundary layer
Patrick Boylan; Detlev Helmig; Samuel Oltmans
2015-01-01
Abstract In situ atmospheric ozone measurements aboard the R/V Ronald H. Brown during the 2008 Gas-Ex and AMMA research cruises were compared with data from four island and coastal Global Atmospheric Watch stations in the Atlantic Ocean to examine ozone transport in the marine boundary layer (MBL). Ozone measurements made at Tudor Hill, Bermuda, were subjected to continental outflow from the east coast of the United States, which resulted in elevated ozone levels above 50 ppbv. Ozone measurem...
Combined Wave and Current Bottom Boundary Layers: A Review
2016-03-01
wave mechanics for engineers and scientists. New Jersey: World Scientific . Dingler, J. R., and D. L. Inman. 1976. Wave-formed ripples in nearshore...sediment transport. New York: World Scientific . Papanicolaou, A. N., M. Elhakeem, G. Krallis, S. Prakash, and J. Edinger. 2008. Sediment transport...Boundary layers, Models, Near-shore processes, Review article , Sediment transport, Wave and current interaction 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF
The curved kinetic boundary layer of active matter.
Yan, Wen; Brady, John F
2018-01-03
A body submerged in active matter feels the swim pressure through a kinetic accumulation boundary layer on its surface. The boundary layer results from a balance between translational diffusion and advective swimming and occurs on the microscopic length scale . Here , D T is the Brownian translational diffusivity, τ R is the reorientation time and l = U 0 τ R is the swimmer's run length, with U 0 the swim speed [Yan and Brady, J. Fluid. Mech., 2015, 785, R1]. In this work we analyze the swim pressure on arbitrary shaped bodies by including the effect of local shape curvature in the kinetic boundary layer. When δ ≪ L and l ≪ L, where L is the body size, the leading order effects of curvature on the swim pressure are found analytically to scale as J S λδ 2 /L, where J S is twice the (non-dimensional) mean curvature. Particle-tracking simulations and direct solutions to the Smoluchowski equation governing the probability distribution of the active particles show that λδ 2 /L is a universal scaling parameter not limited to the regime δ, l ≪ L. The net force exerted on the body by the swimmers is found to scale as F net /(n ∞ k s T s L 2 ) = f(λδ 2 /L), where f(x) is a dimensionless function that is quadratic when x ≪ 1 and linear when x ∼ 1. Here, k s T s = ζU 0 2 τ R /6 defines the 'activity' of the swimmers, with ζ the drag coefficient, and n ∞ is the uniform number density of swimmers far from the body. We discuss the connection of this boundary layer to continuum mechanical descriptions of active matter and briefly present how to include hydrodynamics into this purely kinetic study.
Numerical Simulation of Roughness Induced Boundary Layer Transition
2016-03-30
901-918. 18. ZHENG Yun, LI Hongyang, LIU Daxiang. “Application and Analysis of γ-Reθ Transition Model in Hypersonic Flow”, Journal of Propulsion ...making the simulated result more accurate. Xiao [25] used a three-equation k-ω- γ transition model to study hypersonic flow around single roughness...point RANS Approach”, Journal of Turbomachinery, 2004, 126(1):193-202. 14. FU Song, WANG Liang. “Simulation of Hypersonic Boundary-Layer Transition
Review of Orbiter Flight Boundary Layer Transition Data
Mcginley, Catherine B.; Berry, Scott A.; Kinder, Gerald R.; Barnell, maria; Wang, Kuo C.; Kirk, Benjamin S.
2006-01-01
In support of the Shuttle Return to Flight program, a tool was developed to predict when boundary layer transition would occur on the lower surface of the orbiter during reentry due to the presence of protuberances and cavities in the thermal protection system. This predictive tool was developed based on extensive wind tunnel tests conducted after the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia. Recognizing that wind tunnels cannot simulate the exact conditions an orbiter encounters as it re-enters the atmosphere, a preliminary attempt was made to use the documented flight related damage and the orbiter transition times, as deduced from flight instrumentation, to calibrate the predictive tool. After flight STS-114, the Boundary Layer Transition Team decided that a more in-depth analysis of the historical flight data was needed to better determine the root causes of the occasional early transition times of some of the past shuttle flights. In this paper we discuss our methodology for the analysis, the various sources of shuttle damage information, the analysis of the flight thermocouple data, and how the results compare to the Boundary Layer Transition prediction tool designed for Return to Flight.
Dry intrusions: Lagrangian climatology and impact on the boundary layer
Raveh-Rubin, Shira; Wernli, Heini
2017-04-01
Dry air intrusions (DIs) are large-scale descending airstreams. A DI is typically referred to as a coherent airstream in the cold sector of an extratropical cyclone. Emerging evidence suggests that DIs are linked to severe surface wind gusts. However, there is yet no strict Lagrangian definition of DIs, and so their climatological frequency, dynamical characteristics as well as their seasonal and spatial distributions are unknown. Furthermore, the dynamical interaction between DIs and the planetary boundary layer is not fully understood. Here, we suggest a Lagrangian definition for DI air parcels, namely a minimum pressure increase along a trajectory of 400 hPa in 48 hours. Based on this criterion, the open questions are addressed by: (i) a novel global Lagrangian climatology for the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset for the years 1979-2014; (ii) a case study illustrating the interaction between DIs and the boundary layer. We find that DIs occur predominantly in winter. DIs coherently descend from the upper troposphere (their stratospheric origin is small), to the mid- and low levels, where they mix with their environment and diverge. Different physical characteristics typify DIs in the different regions and seasons. Finally, we demonstrate the different mechanisms by which DIs can destabilize the boundary layer and facilitate the formation of strong surface winds.
RANS Modeling of Benchmark Shockwave / Boundary Layer Interaction Experiments
Georgiadis, Nick; Vyas, Manan; Yoder, Dennis
2010-01-01
This presentation summarizes the computations of a set of shock wave / turbulent boundary layer interaction (SWTBLI) test cases using the Wind-US code, as part of the 2010 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) shock / boundary layer interaction workshop. The experiments involve supersonic flows in wind tunnels with a shock generator that directs an oblique shock wave toward the boundary layer along one of the walls of the wind tunnel. The Wind-US calculations utilized structured grid computations performed in Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes mode. Three turbulence models were investigated: the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model, the Menter Shear Stress Transport wavenumber-angular frequency two-equation model, and an explicit algebraic stress wavenumber-angular frequency formulation. Effects of grid resolution and upwinding scheme were also considered. The results from the CFD calculations are compared to particle image velocimetry (PIV) data from the experiments. As expected, turbulence model effects dominated the accuracy of the solutions with upwinding scheme selection indicating minimal effects.!
Evidence for renoxification in the tropical marine boundary layer
Reed, Chris; Evans, Mathew J.; Crilley, Leigh R.; Bloss, William J.; Sherwen, Tomás; Read, Katie A.; Lee, James D.; Carpenter, Lucy J.
2017-03-01
We present 2 years of NOx observations from the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory located in the tropical Atlantic boundary layer. We find that NOx mixing ratios peak around solar noon (at 20-30 pptV depending on season), which is counter to box model simulations that show a midday minimum due to OH conversion of NO2 to HNO3. Production of NOx via decomposition of organic nitrogen species and the photolysis of HNO3 appear insufficient to provide the observed noontime maximum. A rapid photolysis of nitrate aerosol to produce HONO and NO2, however, is able to simulate the observed diurnal cycle. This would make it the dominant source of NOx at this remote marine boundary layer site, overturning the previous paradigm according to which the transport of organic nitrogen species, such as PAN, is the dominant source. We show that observed mixing ratios (November-December 2015) of HONO at Cape Verde (˜ 3.5 pptV peak at solar noon) are consistent with this route for NOx production. Reactions between the nitrate radical and halogen hydroxides which have been postulated in the literature appear to improve the box model simulation of NOx. This rapid conversion of aerosol phase nitrate to NOx changes our perspective of the NOx cycling chemistry in the tropical marine boundary layer, suggesting a more chemically complex environment than previously thought.
Improving Wind-Ramp Forecasts in the Stable Boundary Layer
Jahn, David E.; Takle, Eugene S.; Gallus, William A.
2017-06-01
The viability of wind-energy generation is dependent on highly accurate numerical wind forecasts, which are impeded by inaccuracies in model representation of boundary-layer processes. This study revisits the basic theory of the Mellor, Yamada, Nakanishi, and Niino (MYNN) planetary boundary-layer parametrization scheme, focusing on the onset of wind-ramp events related to nocturnal low-level jets. Modifications to the MYNN scheme include: (1) calculation of new closure parameters that determine the relative effects of turbulent energy production, dissipation, and redistribution; (2) enhanced mixing in the stable boundary layer when the mean wind speed exceeds a specified threshold; (3) explicit accounting of turbulent potential energy in the energy budget. A mesoscale model is used to generate short-term (24 h) wind forecasts for a set of 15 cases from both the U.S.A. and Germany. Results show that the new set of closure parameters provides a marked forecast improvement only when used in conjunction with the new mixing length formulation and only for cases that are originally under- or over-forecast (10 of the 15 cases). For these cases, the mean absolute error (MAE) of wind forecasts at turbine-hub height is reduced on average by 17%. A reduction in MAE values on average by 26% is realized for these same cases when accounting for the turbulent potential energy together with the new mixing length. This last method results in an average reduction by at least 13% in MAE values across all 15 cases.
Wave boundary layer over a stone-covered bed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dixen, Martin; Hatipoglu, Figen; Sumer, B. Mutlu
2008-01-01
This paper summarizes the results of an experimental investigation on wave boundary layers over a bed with large roughness, simulating stone/rock/armour block cover on the sea bottom. The roughness elements used in the experiments were stones the size of 1.4cm and 3.85cm in one group of experiments...... and regular ping-pong balls the size 3.6cm in the other. The orbital-motion-amplitude-to-roughness ratio at the bed was rather small, in the range a/ks=0.6-3. The mean and turbulence properties of the boundary-layer flow were measured. Various configurations of the roughness elements were used in the ping...... for small values of a/ks. The results further show that the phase lead of the bed friction velocity over the surface elevation does not seem to change radically with a/ks, and found to be in the range 12°-23°. Furthermore the results show that the boundary-layer turbulence also is not extremely sensitive...
Huh, Jae-Won; Yu, Byeong-Hun; Shin, Dong-Myung; Yoon, Tae-Hoon
2015-03-01
Recently, a transparent display has got much attention as one of the next generation display devices. Especially, active studies on a transparent display using organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are in progress. However, since it is not possible to obtain black color using a transparent OLED, it suffers from poor visibility. This inevitable problem can be solved by using a light shutter. Light shutter technology can be divided into two types; light absorption and scattering. However, a light shutter based on light absorption cannot block the background image perfectly and a light shutter based on light scattering cannot provide black color. In this work we demonstrate a light shutter using two liquid crystal (LC) layers, a light absorption layer and a light scattering layer. To realize a light absorption layer and a light scattering layer, we use the planar state of a dye-doped chiral nematic LC (CNLC) cell and the focal-conic state of a long-pitch CNLC cell, respectively. The proposed light shutter device can block the background image perfectly and show black color. We expect that the proposed light shutter can increase the visibility of a transparent display.
A Study of stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer over highveld South Africa
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luhunga, P; Djolov, G [University of Pretoria (South Africa); Esau, I, E-mail: george.djolov@up.ac.z
2010-08-15
The study is part of the South African - Norwegian Programme for Research and Co-operation Phase II 'Analysis and Possibility for Control of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Processes to Facilitate Adaptation to Environmental Changes'. The research strategy of the project is based on 4 legged approach. 1) Application and further development of contemporary atmospheric boundary layer theory. 2) Use of modeling based on large eddy simulation techniques. 3) Experimental investigation of turbulent fluxes. 4) Training and developing academics capable of dealing with the present and new challenges. The paper presents some preliminary results on the micrometeorological variability of the basic meteorological parameters and turbulent fluxes.
A Study of stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer over highveld South Africa
Luhunga, P.; Esau, I.; Djolov, G.
2010-08-01
The study is part of the South African - Norwegian Programme for Research and Co-operation Phase II "Analysis and Possibility for Control of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Processes to Facilitate Adaptation to Environmental Changes". The research strategy of the project is based on 4 legged approach. 1) Application and further development of contemporary atmospheric boundary layer theory. 2) Use of modeling based on large eddy simulation techniques. 3) Experimental investigation of turbulent fluxes. 4) Training and developing academics capable of dealing with the present and new challenges. The paper presents some preliminary results on the micrometeorological variability of the basic meteorological parameters and turbulent fluxes.
Assessment of a transitional boundary layer theory at low hypersonic Mach numbers
Shamroth, S. J.; Mcdonald, H.
1972-01-01
An investigation was carried out to assess the accuracy of a transitional boundary layer theory in the low hypersonic Mach number regime. The theory is based upon the simultaneous numerical solution of the boundary layer partial differential equations for the mean motion and an integral form of the turbulence kinetic energy equation which controls the magnitude and development of the Reynolds stress. Comparisions with experimental data show the theory is capable of accurately predicting heat transfer and velocity profiles through the transitional regime and correctly predicts the effects of Mach number and wall cooling on transition Reynolds number. The procedure shows promise of predicting the initiation of transition for given free stream disturbance levels. The effects on transition predictions of the pressure dilitation term and of direct absorption of acoustic energy by the boundary layer were evaluated.
Measurements of atmospheric hydrocarbons and biogenic emission fluxes in the Amazon boundary layer
Zimmerman, P. R.; Greenberg, J. P.; Westberg, C. E.
1988-01-01
Tropospheric mixing ratios of methane, C2-C10 hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide were measured over the Amazon tropical forest near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, in July and August 1985. The measurements, consisting mostly of altitude profiles of these gases, were all made within the atmospheric boundary layer up to an altitude of 1000 m above ground level. Data characterize the diurnal hydrocarbon composition of the boundary layer. Biogenic emissions of isoprene control hydroxyl radical concentrations over the forest. Biogenic emission fluxes of isoprene and terpenes are estimated to be 25,000 micrograms/sq m per day and 5600 micrograms/sq m per day, respectively. This isoprene emission is equivalent to 2 percent of the net primary productivity of the tropical forest. Atmospheric oxidation of biogenic isoprene and terpenes emissions from the Amazon forest may account for daily increases of 8-13 ppb for carbon monoxide in the planetary boundary layer.
Combustion characteristics of methane hydrate in a laminar boundary layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakamura, Y.; Katsuki, R.; Yokomori, T.; Ohmura, R.; Ueda, T. [Keio Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Takahashi, M.; Iwasaki, T.; Uchida, K. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)
2008-07-01
The combustion characteristics of methane hydrates in a laminar boundary layer were investigated in order to examine the flame propagation speed of methane hydrates. The experiments were performed under atmospheric pressure using methane hydrate crystals previously stored at a liquid-nitrogen temperature. A wind tunnel was used to form an air laminar boundary layer. The crystals were packed in an insulated rectangular cell to ensure that the hydrate layer was level with a horizontal flat plate. The surface of the dissociating hydrate crystals was ignited using a pilot flame at the downstream end of the hydrate crystals. Flame location was measured using a video camera. Results showed that after the flame was extinguished, the methane hydrate crystals were not completely dissociated. The flame was extinguished by an ice layer that had formed over the methane hydrate crystals. Propagation rates were measured in order to explore the relationship between the flame propagation rate and free-stream velocity. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.
Smith, Kyle
2014-01-01
Syftet med detta projekt i aerodynamik ar att prova en metod för kontroll av gränsskiktets beteende med luftinsprutning. En modern vingprofil vid transsonisk hastighet används, som liknar de som finns på de festa kommersiella flygplan. Koordinater för en experimentell vingprofil som tidigare har använts i vindtunneltester används i denna analys. Vanlig branschprogramvara används, såsom Pointwise för mesh-generering och ANSYS Fluent för CFD-beräkningar. En fullständig svepning av anfallsvinkel...
Air Entrainment and Surface Ripples in a Turbulent Ship Hull Boundary Layer
Masnadi, Naeem; Erinin, Martin; Duncan, James H.
2017-11-01
The air entrainment and free-surface fluctuations caused by the interaction of a free surface and the turbulent boundary layer of a vertical surface-piercing plate is studied experimentally. In this experiment, a meter-wide stainless steel belt travels horizontally in a loop around two rollers with vertically oriented axes. This belt device is mounted inside a large water tank with the water level set just below the top edge of the belt. The belt, rollers, and supporting frame are contained within a sheet metal box to keep the device dry except for one 6-meter-long straight test section. The belt is accelerated suddenly from rest until reaching constant speed in order to create a temporally evolving boundary layer analogous to the spatially evolving boundary layer that would exist along a surface-piercing towed flat plate. Surface ripples are measured using a cinematic laser-induced fluorescence technique with the laser sheet oriented parallel or normal to the belt surface. Air entrainment events and bubble motions are recorded from underneath the water surface using a stereo imaging system. Measurements of small bubbles, that tend to stay submerged for a longer time, are planned via a high-speed digital in-line holographic system. The support of the Office of Naval Research is gratefully acknowledged.
Optoelectronic device with nanoparticle embedded hole injection/transport layer
Wang, Qingwu [Chelmsford, MA; Li, Wenguang [Andover, MA; Jiang, Hua [Methuen, MA
2012-01-03
An optoelectronic device is disclosed that can function as an emitter of optical radiation, such as a light-emitting diode (LED), or as a photovoltaic (PV) device that can be used to convert optical radiation into electrical current, such as a photovoltaic solar cell. The optoelectronic device comprises an anode, a hole injection/transport layer, an active layer, and a cathode, where the hole injection/transport layer includes transparent conductive nanoparticles in a hole transport material.
Boundary layer models for calving marine outlet glaciers
Schoof, Christian; Davis, Andrew D.; Popa, Tiberiu V.
2017-10-01
We consider the flow of marine-terminating outlet glaciers that are laterally confined in a channel of prescribed width. In that case, the drag exerted by the channel side walls on a floating ice shelf can reduce extensional stress at the grounding line. If ice flux through the grounding line increases with both ice thickness and extensional stress, then a longer shelf can reduce ice flux by decreasing extensional stress. Consequently, calving has an effect on flux through the grounding line by regulating the length of the shelf. In the absence of a shelf, it plays a similar role by controlling the above-flotation height of the calving cliff. Using two calving laws, one due to Nick et al. (2010) based on a model for crevasse propagation due to hydrofracture and the other simply asserting that calving occurs where the glacier ice becomes afloat, we pose and analyse a flowline model for a marine-terminating glacier by two methods: direct numerical solution and matched asymptotic expansions. The latter leads to a boundary layer formulation that predicts flux through the grounding line as a function of depth to bedrock, channel width, basal drag coefficient, and a calving parameter. By contrast with unbuttressed marine ice sheets, we find that flux can decrease with increasing depth to bedrock at the grounding line, reversing the usual stability criterion for steady grounding line location. Stable steady states can then have grounding lines located on retrograde slopes. We show how this anomalous behaviour relates to the strength of lateral versus basal drag on the grounded portion of the glacier and to the specifics of the calving law used.
Boundary layer models for calving marine outlet glaciers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Schoof
2017-10-01
Full Text Available We consider the flow of marine-terminating outlet glaciers that are laterally confined in a channel of prescribed width. In that case, the drag exerted by the channel side walls on a floating ice shelf can reduce extensional stress at the grounding line. If ice flux through the grounding line increases with both ice thickness and extensional stress, then a longer shelf can reduce ice flux by decreasing extensional stress. Consequently, calving has an effect on flux through the grounding line by regulating the length of the shelf. In the absence of a shelf, it plays a similar role by controlling the above-flotation height of the calving cliff. Using two calving laws, one due to Nick et al. (2010 based on a model for crevasse propagation due to hydrofracture and the other simply asserting that calving occurs where the glacier ice becomes afloat, we pose and analyse a flowline model for a marine-terminating glacier by two methods: direct numerical solution and matched asymptotic expansions. The latter leads to a boundary layer formulation that predicts flux through the grounding line as a function of depth to bedrock, channel width, basal drag coefficient, and a calving parameter. By contrast with unbuttressed marine ice sheets, we find that flux can decrease with increasing depth to bedrock at the grounding line, reversing the usual stability criterion for steady grounding line location. Stable steady states can then have grounding lines located on retrograde slopes. We show how this anomalous behaviour relates to the strength of lateral versus basal drag on the grounded portion of the glacier and to the specifics of the calving law used.
Modelling the Arctic Stable boundary layer and its coupling to the surface
Steeneveld, G.J.; Wiel, van de B.J.H.; Holtslag, A.A.M.
2006-01-01
The impact of coupling the atmosphere to the surface energy balance is examined for the stable boundary layer, as an extension of the first GABLS (GEWEX Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Study) one-dimensional model intercomparison. This coupling is of major importance for the stable boundary-layer
Thermographic analysis of turbulent non-isothermal water boundary layer
Znamenskaya, Irina A
2015-01-01
The paper is devoted to the investigation of the turbulent water boundary layer in the jet mixing flows using high-speed infrared (IR) thermography. Two turbulent mixing processes were studied: a submerged water jet impinging on a flat surface and two intersecting jets in a round disc-shaped vessel. An infrared camera (FLIR Systems SC7700) was focused on the window transparent for IR radiation; it provided high-speed recordings of heat fluxes from a thin water layer close to the window. Temperature versus time curves at different points of water boundary layer near the wall surface were acquired using the IR camera with the recording frequency of 100 Hz. The time of recording varied from 3 till 20 min. The power spectra for the temperature fluctuations at different points on the hot-cold water mixing zone were calculated using the Fast Fourier Transform algorithm. The obtained spectral behavior was compared to the Kolmogorov "-5/3 spectrum" (a direct energy cascade) and the dual-cascade scenario predicted for...
Characteristics of vortex packets in a boundary layer
Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram; Longmire, Ellen; Marusic, Ivan
2002-11-01
Stereo PIV was used to measure all three velocity components in streamwise-spanwise (x-y) planes of a turbulent boundary layer at Re_τ = 1060. Datasets were obtained in the log layer and beyond. The vector fields in the log layer (z^+ = 92 and 150, z - wall normal direction) revealed signatures of vortex packets similar to those found by Adrian and co-workers in their PIV experiments. Groups of legs of hairpin vortices appeared to be coherently arranged along the x direction. These regions also generated substantial Reynolds shear stress (-uw), sometimes as high as 40U_τ^2. A feature extraction algorithm was developed to automate the identification and characterization of these packets of hairpin vortices. Identified patches contributed 28% to the total -uw while occupying less than 5% of the total area in the log layer. Beyond the log layer (z^+ = 198, 530), the spatial organization into packets breaks down. Instead, large individual vortex cores and spanwise strips of positive and negative wall-normal velocity were observed. Supported by NSF (ACI-9982774, CTS-9983933).
Stability analysis of Boundary Layer in Poiseuille Flow Through A Modified Orr-Sommerfeld Equation
Monwanou, A V; Orou, J B Chabi; 10.5539/apr.v4n4p138
2013-01-01
For applications regarding transition prediction, wing design and control of boundary layers, the fundamental understanding of disturbance growth in the flat-plate boundary layer is an important issue. In the present work we investigate the stability of boundary layer in Poiseuille flow. We normalize pressure and time by inertial and viscous effects. The disturbances are taken to be periodic in the spanwise direction and time. We present a set of linear governing equations for the parabolic evolution of wavelike disturbances. Then, we derive modified Orr-Sommerfeld equations that can be applied in the layer. Contrary to what one might think, we find that Squire's theorem is not applicable for the boundary layer. We find also that normalization by inertial or viscous effects leads to the same order of stability or instability. For the 2D disturbances flow ($\\theta=0$), we found the same critical Reynolds number for our two normalizations. This value coincides with the one we know for neutral stability of the k...
Surface Temperature and Surface-Layer Turbulence in a Convective Boundary Layer
Garai, A.; Pardyjak, E.; Steeneveld, G.J.; Kleissl, J.
2013-01-01
Previous laboratory and atmospheric experiments have shown that turbulence influences the surface temperature in a convective boundary layer. The main objective of this study is to examine land-atmosphere coupled heat transport mechanism for different stability conditions. High frequency infrared
Boundary layer polarization and voltage in the 14 MLT region
Lundin, R.; Yamauchi, M.; Woch, J.; Marklund, G.
1995-05-01
Viking midlatitude observations of ions and electrons in the postnoon auroral region show that field-aligned acceleration of electrons and ions with energies up to a few kiloelectron volts takes place. The characteristics of the upgoing ion beams and the local transverse electric field observed by Viking indicate that parallel ion acceleration is primarily due to a quasi-electrostatic field-aligned acceleration process below Viking altitudes, i.e., below 10,000-13,500 km. A good correlation is found between the maximum upgoing ion beam energy and the depth of the local potential well determined by the Viking electric field experiment within dayside 'ion inverted Vs.' The total transverse potential throughout the entire region near the ion inverted Vs. is generally much higher than the field-aligned potential and may reach well above 10 kV. However, the detailed mapping of the transverse potential out to the boundary layer, a fundamental issue which remains controversial, was not attempted here. An important finding in this study is the strong correlation between the maximum up going ion beam energy of dayside ion inverted Vs and the solar wind velocity. This suggests a direct coupling of the solar wind plasma dynamo/voltage generator to the region of field-aligned particle acceleration. The fact that the center of dayside ion inverted Vs coincide with convection reversals/flow stagnation and upward Birkeland currents on what appears to be closed field lines (Woch et al., 1993), suggests that field-aligned potential structures connect to the inner part of an MHD dyanmo in the low-latitude boundary layer. Thus the Viking observations substantiate the idea of a solar wind induced boundary layer polarization where negatively charged perturbations in the postnoon sector persistently develops along the magnetic field lines, establishing accelerating potential drops along the geomagnetic field lines in the 0.5-10 kV range.
Modelling wave-boundary layer interaction for wind power applications
Jenkins, A. D.; Barstad, I.; Gupta, A.; Adakudlu, M.
2012-04-01
Marine wind power production facilities are subjected to direct and indirect effects of ocean waves. Direct effects include forces due to wave orbital motions and slamming of the water surface under breaking wave conditions, corrosion and icing due to sea spray, and the effects of wave-generated air bubbles. Indirect effects include include the influence of waves on the aerodynamic sea-surface roughness, air turbulence, the wind velocity profile, and air velocity oscillations, wave-induced currents and sediment transport. Field observations within the boundary layers from floating measurement may have to be corrected to account for biases induced as a result of wave-induced platform motions. To estimate the effect of waves on the atmospheric boundary layer we employ the WRF non-hydrostatic mesoscale atmosphere model, using the default YSU planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme and the WAM spectral wave model, running simultaneously and coupled using the open-source coupler MCEL which can interpolate between different model grids and timesteps. The model is driven by the WRF wind velocity at 10 m above the surface. The WRF model receives from WAM updated air-sea stress fields computed from the wind input source term, and computes new fields for the Charnock parameter and marine surface aerodynamic roughness. Results from a North Atlantic and Nordic Seas simulation indicate that the two-way coupling scheme alters the 10 metre wind predicted by WRF by up to 10 per cent in comparison with a simulation using a constant Charnock parameter. The changes are greatest in developing situations with passages of fronts, moving depressions and squalls. This may be directly due to roughness length changes, or may be due to changes in the timing of front/depression/squall passages. Ongoing work includes investigating the effect of grid refinement/nesting, employing different PBL schemes, and allowing the wave field to change the direction of the total air-sea stress.
Secondary flows in turbulent boundary layers over longitudinal surface roughness
Hwang, Hyeon Gyu; Lee, Jae Hwa
2018-01-01
Direct numerical simulations of turbulent boundary layers over longitudinal surface roughness are performed to investigate the impact of the surface roughness on the mean flow characteristics related to counter-rotating large-scale secondary flows. By systematically changing the two parameters of the pitch (P) and width (S) for roughness elements in the ranges of 0.57 ≤P /δ ≤2.39 and 0.15 ≤S /δ ≤1.12 , where δ is the boundary layer thickness, we find that the size of the secondary flow in each case is mostly determined by the value of P - S, i.e., the valley width, over the ridge-type roughness. However, the strength of the secondary flows on the cross-stream plane relative to the flow is increased when the value of P increases or when the value of S decreases. In addition to the secondary flows, additional tertiary and quaternary flows are observed both above the roughness crest and in the valley as the values of P and S increase further. Based on an analysis using the turbulent kinetic energy transport equation, it is shown that the secondary flow over the ridge-type roughness is both driven and sustained by the anisotropy of turbulence, consistent with previous observations of a turbulent boundary layer over strip-type roughness [Anderson et al., J. Fluid Mech. 768, 316 (2015), 10.1017/jfm.2015.91]. Careful inspection of the turbulent kinetic energy budget reveals that the opposite rotational sense of the secondary flow between the ridge- and strip-type roughness elements is primarily attributed to the local imbalance of energy budget created by the strong turbulent transport term over the ridge-type roughness. The active transport of the kinetic energy over the ridge-type roughness is closely associated with the upward deflection of spanwise motions in the valley, mostly due to the roughness edge.
Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer in Transitional Boundary Layers
Wang, Ting
2007-01-01
Experiments have been performed to investigate the effects of elevated free-stream turbulence and streamwise acceleration on flow and thermal structures in transitional boundary layers. The free-stream turbulence ranges from 0.5 to 6.4% and the streamwise acceleration ranges from K = 0 to 0.8 x 10(exp -6). The onset of transition, transition length and the turbulent spot formation rate are determined. The statistical results and conditionally sampled results of th streamwise and cross-stream velocity fluctuations, temperature fluctuations, Reynolds stress and Reynolds heat fluxes are presented.
Earth's magnetosphere formed by the low-latitude boundary layer
Heikkila, W J
2011-01-01
The author argues that, after five decades of debate about the interactive of solar wind with the magnetosphere, it is time to get back to basics. Starting with Newton's law, this book also examines Maxwell's equations and subsidiary equations such as continuity, constitutive relations and the Lorentz transformation; Helmholtz' theorem, and Poynting's theorem, among other methods for understanding this interaction. Includes chapters on prompt particle acceleration to high energies, plasma transfer event, and the low latitude boundary layer More than 200 figures illustrate the text Includes a color insert.
The Physics of Boundary-Layer Aero-Optic Effects
2012-09-01
Mach-number-dependent function, )(1 ∞ MF for the modified model Eq. (23) and [ ] 2/3 222 2 )/(12 11)( − ∞∞∞∞ − − += UUrMMMF c γ for the...model Eq. (20). To calculate )(1 ∞ MF from (24), experimentally-measured velocity profiles for a M = 0.5 boundary layer were used; Figure 17 shows the...Optical Engineering: The Design of Optical Systems, McGraw- Hill, NY, 1966, Chap. 3, pp. 49-71. [16] S. Gordeyev, E. Jumper, T. Ng and A. Cain , "Aero
Streaming effect of wall oscillation to boundary layer separation
Wu, X. H.; Wu, J. Z.; Wu, J. M.
1991-01-01
This paper presents a preliminary theoretical result on the time averaged streaming effect of local forcing excitation to the boundary layer separation from smooth surface. The problem is formulated as a periodic disturbance to a basic steady breakaway separating flow, for which the data are taken from a numerical triple-deck solution. The ratio of Strouhal number St and Reynolds number Re plays an important role, both being assumed sufficiently high. The analytical and numerical results show that this streaming effect is quite strong at proper values of St/Re exp 1/4, which may delay or even suppress the separation.
Injection-induced turbulence in stagnation-point boundary layers
Park, C.
1984-01-01
A theory is developed for the stagnation point boundary layer with injection under the hypothesis that turbulence is produced at the wall by injection. From the existing experimental heat transfer rate data obtained in wind tunnels, the wall mixing length is deduced to be a product of a time constant and an injection velocity. The theory reproduces the observed increase in heat transfer rates at high injection rates. For graphite and carbon-carbon composite, the time constant is determined to be 0.0002 sec from the existing ablation data taken in an arc-jet tunnel and a balistic range.
Effects of compressibility on boundary-layer turbulence
Acharya, M.
1976-01-01
A series of turbulence measurements in a subsonic compressible turbulent boundary-layer flow in the Mach number range of 0.1 to 0.7 is described. Measurements include detailed surveys of the turbulence intensities and Reynolds shear stresses, and other quantities such as the turbulent kinetic energy. These data are examined to bring out the effects of compressibility and show that the stream-wise and transverse fluctuations and the turbulent shear stress follow a universal scaling law. A preliminary attempt is made to examine some of the assumptions made in turbulence models commonly used in numerical codes for the calculation of compressible flows.
Numerical simulation of convective boundary layer above polynyas and leads.
Debolskiy, Andrey; Stepanenko, Victor
2013-04-01
Arctic region is very important as one of drivers for global atmosphere circulation. Meanwhile, results of modern global atmospheric models, both climatic and weather forecasting differs significantly from each other and observations in this region. One of the reasons for these uncertainties can be inaccurate simulation of ice and snow cover distribution, which accuracy depends in turn on variety of factors. Among others, appropriate parameterizations of atmospheric boundary layer over inhomogeneous surface, not explicitly resolved at the atmospheric model grid, can decrease these inaccuracies. The main objective of these parameterizations is to calculate surface heat and water vapor fluxes, averaged over the whole model cell. However, due to great differences in structure of boundary layers formed over cold ice and relatively warm open water, which cause nonlinear dependencies,the parameterizations suggested to the moment can hardly be regarded as applicable for "complete" set of synoptic scenarios . The present paper attempts to improve standard mosaic method of flux aggregation, which is still common in climate models [1]. The main idea is to derive heat fluxes using data from numerical experiments, explicitly reproducing most of sub grid (for global models) turbulence motions spectra, and compare with fluxes calculated using mosaic method implying the part of model domain to be a global model cell. The study is based on idealized high resolution (~10 m) experiments with typically observed surface parameters (temperature and roughness), ice-open water distribution, initial temperature and wind profiles distribution included in Large Eddy Simulation model of Insitute of Numerical Mathematics RAS [2],[3]. Analysis of other boundary layer characteristics such as its height, eddy diffusivity profiles, kinetic energy is presented. The modeling results are compared with field experiments' data gathered at White Sea. References: 1. V.M. Stepanenko, P.M. Miranda, V
Hypersonic boundary layer stabilization by using a wavy surface
Kirilovskiy, S. V.; Poplavskaya, T. V.
2017-10-01
Numerical simulation of hypersonic (M∞=6) flow and evolution of disturbances on a smooth plate and a shallow grooved plate was performed by solving two-dimensional Navier– Stokes equations. Computational soft-ware verification was conducted by comparison with existing data of pressure pulsations on plates surface. It was showed that wavy surface significantly decrease pressure pulsations on plate surface and does not increase the value of mean heat fluxes. Data about effect of wavy surfaces with different form on the disturbances intensity in hypersonic boundary layer was obtained.
Optimal Wentzell Boundary Control of Parabolic Equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luo, Yousong, E-mail: yousong.luo@rmit.edu.au [RMIT University, School of Mathematical and Geospatial Sciences (Australia)
2017-04-15
This paper deals with a class of optimal control problems governed by an initial-boundary value problem of a parabolic equation. The case of semi-linear boundary control is studied where the control is applied to the system via the Wentzell boundary condition. The differentiability of the state variable with respect to the control is established and hence a necessary condition is derived for the optimal solution in the case of both unconstrained and constrained problems. The condition is also sufficient for the unconstrained convex problems. A second order condition is also derived.
Nanodiamonds in the Younger Dryas boundary sediment layer.
Kennett, D J; Kennett, J P; West, A; Mercer, C; Hee, S S Que; Bement, L; Bunch, T E; Sellers, M; Wolbach, W S
2009-01-02
We report abundant nanodiamonds in sediments dating to 12.9 +/- 0.1 thousand calendar years before the present at multiple locations across North America. Selected area electron diffraction patterns reveal two diamond allotropes in this boundary layer but not above or below that interval. Cubic diamonds form under high temperature-pressure regimes, and n-diamonds also require extraordinary conditions, well outside the range of Earth's typical surficial processes but common to cosmic impacts. N-diamond concentrations range from approximately 10 to 3700 parts per billion by weight, comparable to amounts found in known impact layers. These diamonds provide strong evidence for Earth's collision with a rare swarm of carbonaceous chondrites or comets at the onset of the Younger Dryas cool interval, producing multiple airbursts and possible surface impacts, with severe repercussions for plants, animals, and humans in North America.
Interactions between the thermal internal boundary layer and sea breezes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steyn, D.G. [The Univ. of British Columbia, Dept. of Geography, Atmospheric Science Programme, Vancouver (Canada)
1997-10-01
In the absence of complex terrain, strongly curved coastline or strongly varying mean wind direction, the Thermal Internal Boundary Layer (TIBL) has well known square root behaviour with inland fetch. Existing slab modeling approaches to this phenomenon indicate no inland fetch limit at which this behaviour must cease. It is obvious however that the TIBL cannot continue to grow in depth with increasing fetch, since the typical continental Mixed Layer Depths (MLD) of 1500 to 2000 m must be reached between 100 and 200 km from the shoreline. The anticyclonic conditions with attendant strong convection and light winds which drive the TIBL, also drive daytime Sea Breeze Circulations (SBC) in the coastal zone. The onshore winds driving mesoscale advection of cool air are at the core of TIBL mechanisms, and are invariably part of a SBC. It is to be expected that TIBL and SBC be intimately linked through common mechanisms, as well as external conditions. (au)
Oishi, T.; Morita, S.; Dai, S. Y.; Kobayashi, M.; Kawamura, G.; Huang, X. L.; Zhang, H. M.; Liu, Y.; Goto, M.; the LHD Experiment Group
2018-01-01
The parallel flow of carbon impurity in a thick stochastic magnetic field layer called the ‘ergodic layer’ located at the edge plasma of the Large Helical Device (LHD) is studied by space-resolved vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectroscopy, using a 3 m normal incidence spectrometer. A full vertical profile of C3+ impurity flow is evaluated from the Doppler shift of the second order of CIV line emission (2 × 1548.20 Å) at a horizontally-elongated plasma position of LHD. The carbon flow at the top and bottom edges in the ergodic layer has the same direction toward the outboard side along the major radius direction. The observed flow quantitatively agrees with the simulation results calculated with a 3D simulation code, EMC3-EIRENE. It experimentally verifies the validity of edge parallel flow driving the impurity screening.
Characteristics of vortex packets in turbulent boundary layers
Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram; Longmire, Ellen K.; Marusic, Ivan
2003-03-01
Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure all three instantaneous components of the velocity field in streamwise spanwise planes of a turbulent boundary layer at Re[tau]=1060 (Re[theta]=2500). Datasets were obtained in the logarithmic layer and beyond. The vector fields in the log layer (z+=92 and 150) revealed signatures of vortex packets similar to those proposed by Adrian and co-workers in their PIV experiments. Groups of legs of hairpin vortices appeared to be coherently arranged in the streamwise direction. These regions also generated substantial Reynolds shear stress, sometimes as high as 40 times [minus sign]uw. A feature extraction algorithm was developed to automate the identification and characterization of these packets of hairpin vortices. Identified patches contributed 28% to [minus sign]uw while occupying only 4% of the total area at z+=92. At z+=150, these patches occupied 4.5% of the total area while contributing 25% to [minus sign]uw. Beyond the log layer (z+=198 and 530), the spatial organization into packets is seen to break down.
Thin film photovoltaic devices with a minimally conductive buffer layer
Barnes, Teresa M.; Burst, James
2016-11-15
A thin film photovoltaic device (100) with a tunable, minimally conductive buffer (128) layer is provided. The photovoltaic device (100) may include a back contact (150), a transparent front contact stack (120), and an absorber (140) positioned between the front contact stack (120) and the back contact (150). The front contact stack (120) may include a low resistivity transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer (124) and a buffer layer (128) that is proximate to the absorber layer (140). The photovoltaic device (100) may also include a window layer (130) between the buffer layer (128) and the absorber (140). In some cases, the buffer layer (128) is minimally conductive, with its resistivity being tunable, and the buffer layer (128) may be formed as an alloy from a host oxide and a high-permittivity oxide. The high-permittivity oxide may further be chosen to have a bandgap greater than the host oxide.
Orientation and circulation of vortices in a turbulent boundary layer
Gao, Qi; Ortiz-Dueñas, Cecilia; Longmire, Ellen
2007-11-01
The strengths of individual vortices are important in determining the generation and development of surrounding vortices in turbulent boundary layers. The dual-plane PIV data at z^+ = 110 and z/δ = 0.53 in a turbulent boundary layer at Reτ=1160 obtained by Ganapathisubramani et al. (2006) were investigated. 3D swirl strength was used to identify vortex cores. The eigenvector of the velocity gradient tensor was used to determine the orientation of each core, and the resulting eigenvector direction was compared with the average vorticity direction. Circulation of the cores was calculated using the vorticity vector only and using the vorticity vector projected onto the eigenvector. The probability distribution of the angle between the eigenvector and the vorticity vector indicated a peak at 15-20 degrees. The eigenvector angle distributions indicate that at z^+=110, more hairpin legs cross the measurement plane while at z/δ = 0.53, more heads are evident. Details of the orientation and circulation distributions will be discussed in the presentation.
Recovery of vortex packet organization in perturbed turbulent boundary layers
Tan, Yan Ming; Longmire, Ellen K.
2017-10-01
Turbulent boundary layers with R eτ=2500 were perturbed by an array of cylinders projecting outward from the wall, and the flow organization downstream was investigated at multiple measurement heights in the logarithmic region. Two array heights were considered: H =0.2 δ , extending through the log region and H =δ , extending to the top of the boundary layer. Results from instantaneous PIV in wall-parallel planes and a vortex packet identification algorithm clearly showed a bottom-up mechanism for packet recovery downstream of the H =δ array, even though streamwise velocity statistics remained strongly perturbed. In contrast, some indications of top-down recovery were observed for the flow perturbed by the shorter H =0.2 δ (H+=500 ) array. In this case, however, packet structures closer to the wall at z+=125 remained altered beyond the end of the measurement domain 7δ downstream of the cylinders even though streamwise velocity statistics relaxed nearly to the unperturbed values.
Competing disturbance amplification mechanisms in two-fluid boundary layers
Saha, Sandeep; Page, Jacob; Zaki, Tamer
2015-11-01
The linear stability of boundary layers above a thin wall film of lower viscosity is analyzed. Appropriate choice of the film thickness and viscosity excludes the possibility of interfacial instabilities. Transient amplification of disturbances is therefore the relevant destabilizing influence, and can take place via three different mechanisms in the two-fluid configuration. Each is examined in detail by solving an initial value problem whose initial condition comprises a pair of appropriately chosen eigenmodes from the discrete, continuous and interface modes. Two regimes are driven by the lift-up mechanism: (i) The response to a streamwise vortex and (ii) the normal vorticity generated by a stable Tollmien-Schlichting wave. Both are damped due to the film. The third regime is associated with the wall-normal vorticity that is generated by the interface displacement. It can lead to appreciable streamwise velocity disturbances in the near-wall region at relatively low viscosity ratios. The results demonstrate that a wall film can stabilize the early linear stages of boundary-layer transition, and explain the observations from the recent nonlinear direct numerical simulations of this configuration by Jung & Zaki (J. Fluid Mech., vol 772, 2015, 330-360).
Characteristics of turbulent boundary layer flow over algal biofilm
Murphy, Elizabeth; Barros, Julio; Schultz, Michael; Steppe, Cecily; Flack, Karen; Reidenbach, Matthew
2015-11-01
Algal biofilms are an important fouling community on ship hulls, with severe economic consequences due to drag-induced increases in fuel use and cleaning costs. Here, we characterize the boundary layer flow structure in turbulent flow over diatomaceous slime, a type of biofilm. Diatomaceous slime composed of three species of diatoms commonly found on ship hulls was grown on acrylic test plates under shear stress. The slime averages 1.6 mm in thickness and has a high density of streamers, which are flexible elongated growths with a length on the order of 1- 2 mm located at the top of the biofilm that interact with the flow. Fouled acrylic plates were placed in a water tunnel facility specialized for detailed turbulent boundary layer measurements. High resolution Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) data are analyzed for mean velocity profile as well as local turbulent stresses and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) production, dissipation and transport. Quadrant analysis is used to characterize the impact of the instantaneous events of Reynolds shear stress (RSS) in the flow. To investigate the coherence of the large-scale motion in the flow two-point correlation analysis is employed. Funding provided by the Office of Naval Research and the National Science Foundation.
Space Shuttle Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment Ground Testing Overview
Berger, Karen T.; Anderson, Brian P.; Campbell, Charles H.
2014-01-01
In support of the Boundary Layer Transition (BLT) Flight Experiment (FE) Project in which a manufactured protuberance tile was installed on the port wing of Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery for STS-119, STS- 128, STS-131 and STS-133 as well as Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour for STS-134, a significant ground test campaign was completed. The primary goals of the test campaign were to provide ground test data to support the planning and safety certification efforts required to fly the flight experiment as well as validation for the collected flight data. These test included Arcjet testing of the tile protuberance, aerothermal testing to determine the boundary layer transition behavior and resultant surface heating and planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) testing in order to gain a better understanding of the flow field characteristics associated with the flight experiment. This paper provides an overview of the BLT FE Project ground testing. High-level overviews of the facilities, models, test techniques and data are presented, along with a summary of the insights gained from each test.
Geostrophic convective turbulence: The effect of boundary layers
Ostilla-Mónico, Rodolfo; Kunnen, Rudie P J; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef
2014-01-01
This Letter presents results of the first direct numerical simulations of rotating Rayleigh--B\\'enard convection in the so-called geostrophic regime, (hence very small Ekman numbers $\\mathcal{O}(10^{-7})$ and high Rayleigh numbers~$Ra=10^{10}$ and~$5\\cdot 10^{10}$), employing the \\emph{full} Navier--Stokes equations. In the geostrophic regime the criteria of very strong rotation and large supercriticality are met simultaneously, which is true for many geophysical and astrophysical flows. Until now, numerical approaches of this regime have been based on \\emph{reduced} versions of the Navier--Stokes equations (cf. Sprague \\emph{et al.} J. Fluid Mech., \\textbf{551}, 141 (2006)), omitting the effect of the viscous (Ekman) boundary layers. By using different velocity boundary conditions at the plates, we study the effect of these Ekman layers. We find that the formation of large-scale structures (Rubio \\emph{et al.} (Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{112} (2014)), which indicates the presence of an inverse energy cascade, ...
Uddin, Mohammed J.; Khan, Waqar A.; Ismail, Ahmed I.
2012-01-01
Steady two dimensional MHD laminar free convective boundary layer flows of an electrically conducting Newtonian nanofluid over a solid stationary vertical plate in a quiescent fluid taking into account the Newtonian heating boundary condition is investigated numerically. A magnetic field can be used to control the motion of an electrically conducting fluid in micro/nano scale systems used for transportation of fluid. The transport equations along with the boundary conditions are first converted into dimensionless form and then using linear group of transformations, the similarity governing equations are developed. The transformed equations are solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. The effects of different controlling parameters, namely, Lewis number, Prandtl number, buoyancy ratio, thermophoresis, Brownian motion, magnetic field and Newtonian heating on the flow and heat transfer are investigated. The numerical results for the dimensionless axial velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction as well as the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood number have been presented graphically and discussed. It is found that the rate of heat and mass transfer increase as Newtonian heating parameter increases. The dimensionless velocity and temperature distributions increase with the increase of Newtonian heating parameter. The results of the reduced heat transfer rate is compared for convective heating boundary condition and found an excellent agreement. PMID:23166688
Uddin, Mohammed J; Khan, Waqar A; Ismail, Ahmed I
2012-01-01
Steady two dimensional MHD laminar free convective boundary layer flows of an electrically conducting Newtonian nanofluid over a solid stationary vertical plate in a quiescent fluid taking into account the Newtonian heating boundary condition is investigated numerically. A magnetic field can be used to control the motion of an electrically conducting fluid in micro/nano scale systems used for transportation of fluid. The transport equations along with the boundary conditions are first converted into dimensionless form and then using linear group of transformations, the similarity governing equations are developed. The transformed equations are solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. The effects of different controlling parameters, namely, Lewis number, Prandtl number, buoyancy ratio, thermophoresis, Brownian motion, magnetic field and Newtonian heating on the flow and heat transfer are investigated. The numerical results for the dimensionless axial velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction as well as the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood number have been presented graphically and discussed. It is found that the rate of heat and mass transfer increase as Newtonian heating parameter increases. The dimensionless velocity and temperature distributions increase with the increase of Newtonian heating parameter. The results of the reduced heat transfer rate is compared for convective heating boundary condition and found an excellent agreement.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammed J Uddin
Full Text Available Steady two dimensional MHD laminar free convective boundary layer flows of an electrically conducting Newtonian nanofluid over a solid stationary vertical plate in a quiescent fluid taking into account the Newtonian heating boundary condition is investigated numerically. A magnetic field can be used to control the motion of an electrically conducting fluid in micro/nano scale systems used for transportation of fluid. The transport equations along with the boundary conditions are first converted into dimensionless form and then using linear group of transformations, the similarity governing equations are developed. The transformed equations are solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. The effects of different controlling parameters, namely, Lewis number, Prandtl number, buoyancy ratio, thermophoresis, Brownian motion, magnetic field and Newtonian heating on the flow and heat transfer are investigated. The numerical results for the dimensionless axial velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction as well as the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood number have been presented graphically and discussed. It is found that the rate of heat and mass transfer increase as Newtonian heating parameter increases. The dimensionless velocity and temperature distributions increase with the increase of Newtonian heating parameter. The results of the reduced heat transfer rate is compared for convective heating boundary condition and found an excellent agreement.
Analytical investigation of boundary layer growth and swirl intensity decay rate in a pipe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maddahian, Reza; Kebriaee, Azadeh; Farhanieh, Bijan; Firoozabadi, Bahar [Sharif University of Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2011-04-15
In this research, the developing turbulent swirling flow in the entrance region of a pipe is investigated analytically by using the boundary layer integral method. The governing equations are integrated through the boundary layer and obtained differential equations are solved with forth-order Adams predictor-corrector method. The general tangential velocity is applied at the inlet region to consider both free and forced vortex velocity profiles. The comparison between present model and available experimental data demonstrates the capability of the model in predicting boundary layer parameters (e.g. boundary layer growth, shear rate and swirl intensity decay rate). Analytical results showed that the free vortex velocity profile can better predict the boundary layer parameters in the entrance region than in the forced one. Also, effects of pressure gradient inside the boundary layer is investigated and showed that if pressure gradient is ignored inside the boundary layer, results deviate greatly from the experimental data. (orig.)
COOLING, *POROUS MATERIALS), (*HEAT TRANSFER, *COMBUSTION), (* MASS TRANSFER , COMBUSTION), CONVECTION(HEAT TRANSFER), GAS FLOW, INJECTION, CHEMICAL REACTIONS, LAMINAR BOUNDARY LAYER, TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER, THERMAL INSULATION, USSR
The origin and structure of streak-like instabilities in laminar boundary layer flames
Gollner, Michael; Miller, Colin; Tang, Wei; Finney, Mark
2017-11-01
Streamwise streaks are consistently observed in wildland fires, at the base of pool fires, and in other heated flows within a boundary layer. This study examines both the origin of these structures and their role in influencing some of the macroscopic properties of the flow. Streaks were reproduced and characterized via experiments on stationary heated strips and liquid and gas-fueled burners in laminar boundary layer flows, providing a framework to develop theory based on both observed and measured physical phenomena. The incoming boundary layer was established as the controlling mechanism in forming streaks, which are generated by pre-existing coherent structures, while the amplification of streaks was determined to be compatible with quadratic growth of Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities, providing credence to the idea that the downstream growth of streaks is strongly tied to buoyancy. These local instabilities were also found to affect macroscopic properties of the flow, including heat transfer to the surface, indicating that a two-dimensional assumption may fail to adequately describe heat and mass transfer during flame spread and other reacting boundary layer flows. This work was supported by NSF (CBET-1554026) and the USDA-FS (13-CS-11221637-124).
How can a dusty cold pool change the diurnal evolution of the Saharan Atmospheric Boundary Layer ?
Kocha, Cécile; Flamant, Cyrille; Berckmans, Julie; Fink, Andreas; Garcia-Carreras, Luis; Knippertz, Peter; Lafore, Jean-Philippe; Marnas, Fabien; Marsham, John; Parker, Doug; Rosenberg, Philip; Ryder, Claire; Tulet, Pierre; Washington, Richard
2013-04-01
In the framework of the Fennec 2011 Special Observing period, a large and dusty density current (known as a haboob) was observed on the 21 June to cover half of the western part of the Sahara. Thanks to the AROME high resolution model used to forecast this event in real time, two research aircraft (the SAFIRE Falcon and the FAAM BAe 146) operated over Mauritania and Mali on that day, and we are able to document its characteristics in detail. Particularly large dust particles were observed in this haboob. These particles are known to absorb and scatter solar and thermal radiation. The comparison of AROME simulations with and without coupling with dust shows that the radiative impact of the dust induced a decrease of sensible heat fluxes by 200W/m²/AOD and an increase of the temperature in the atmospheric boundary layer by 1°C. Surface fluxes are one of the principal parameters controlling the growth of the boundary layer. However, during the day, the simulation coupled with dust shows a deeper boundary layer (reaching ~5km high) than the simulation without dust. Here, we explore the competition between surface heating and elevated heating in the boundary-layer development.
The atmospheric boundary layer during wintertime persistent inversions in the Grenoble valleys
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Yann Largeron
2016-07-01
Full Text Available This study addresses the atmospheric boundary layer dynamics in the Grenoble valleys during persistent inversions, for 5 months during the 2006-2007 winter. During a persistent inversion, the boundary layer contains a layer with a positive vertical temperature gradient over a few days. Temperature data recorded on the valley sidewalls are first used. A bulk measure of the boundary layer stability, based upon the temperature difference between the valley top and the valley bottom, is introduced and a criterion is proposed to detect persistent inversions. We show that this criterion is equivalently expressed in terms of the heat deficit inside the boundary layer. Nine episodes are detected and coincide with the PM10-polluted periods of the 2006-2007 winter.Secondly, the five strongest and longest persistent inversions are simulated using the MesoNH model. Focus is made on the stagnation stage of the episode, during which the inversion exhibits a diurnal cycle that does not significantly evolve from day to day. Whatever the episode, the inversion develops from the ground over a height of about 1200 m, with a nighttime temperature strength of about 20 K.The boundary-layer dynamics within the inversion layer are fully decoupled from the (anticyclonic, weak synoptic flow, independent from the synoptic-wind direction and similar whatever the episode. This implies that these dynamics are controlled by thermal winds and solely depends upon the geometry of the topography and upon the radiative cooling of the ground.Finally, a two-day high-resolution simulation is made for the strongest case, representative of any persistent inversion. The flow pattern displays a well-defined spatial structure, with a vertical layering resulting from the superposition of the down-valley winds flowing from the different valleys surrounding Grenoble. This pattern persists all day long over a shallow convective layer of about 50 m forming above the ground during the reduced
Boundary Controllability of Nonlinear Fractional Integrodifferential Systems
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Ahmed HamdyM
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Sufficient conditions for boundary controllability of nonlinear fractional integrodifferential systems in Banach space are established. The results are obtained by using fixed point theorems. We also give an application for integropartial differential equations of fractional order.
Near-Surface Boundary Layer Turbulence Along a Horizontally-Moving, Surface-Piercing Vertical Wall
Washuta, Nathan; Duncan, James H
2016-01-01
The complex interaction between turbulence and the free surface in boundary layer shear flow created by a vertical surface-piercing wall is considered. A laboratory-scale device was built that utilizes a surface-piercing stainless steel belt that travels in a loop around two vertical rollers, with one length of the belt between the rollers acting as a horizontally-moving flat wall. The belt is accelerated suddenly from rest until reaching constant speed in order to create a temporally-evolving boundary layer analogous to the spatially-evolving boundary layer that would exist along a surface-piercing towed flat plate. Surface profiles are measured with a cinematic laser-induced fluorescence system and sub-surface velocity fields are recorded using a high-speed planar particle image velocimetry system. It is found that the belt initially travels through the water without creating any significant waves, before the free surface bursts with activity close to the belt surface. These free surface ripples travel away...
Dekker, H.; de Leeuw, G.; van den Brink, A. Maassen
A nonlocal turbulence transport theory is presented by means of a novel analysis of the Reynolds stress, inter alia involving the construct of a sample path space and a stochastic hypothesis. An analytical sampling rate model (satisfying exchange) and a nonlinear scaling relation (mapping the path space onto the boundary layer) lead to an integro-differential equation for the mixing of scalar densities, which represents fully-developed boundary-layer turbulence as a nondiffusive (Kubo-Anderson or kangaroo) type stochastic process. The underlying near-wall behavior (i.e. for y +→0) of fluctuating velocities fully agrees with recent direct numerical simulations. The model involves a scaling exponent ɛ, with ɛ→∞ in the diffusion limit. For the (partly analytical) solution for the mean velocity profile, excellent agreement with the experimental data yields ɛ≈0.58. The significance of ɛ as a turbulence Cantor set dimension (in the logarithmic profile region, i.e. for y +→∞) is discussed.
A Lagrangian Study of Southeast Pacific Boundary Layer Clouds
Painter, Gallia
concentration which extend far offshore into regions of normally very clean cloud. We use Lagrangian trajectories to investigate the source of the high droplet concentrations of the mesoscale "hooks", and evaluate whether boundary layer transport of coastal pollutants alone can account for their extent. We find that boundary layer trajectories past 85 W do not pass sufficiently close to the coastline to explain high aerosol concentrations offshore.
Edlund, E M
2014-01-01
We present measurements of quasi-Keplerian flows in a Taylor-Couette device that identify the boundary conditions required to generate near-ideal flows that exhibit self-similarity under scaling of the Reynolds number. These experiments are contrasted with alternate boundary configurations that result in flows that progressively deviate from ideal Couette rotation as the Reynolds number is increased. These behaviors are quantitatively explained in terms of the tendency to generate global Ekman circulation and the balance of angular momentum fluxes through the axial and radial boundary layers.
Evaluating Langmuir turbulence parameterizations in the ocean surface boundary layer
Sutherland, G.; Christensen, K. H.; Ward, B.
2014-03-01
It is expected that surface gravity waves play an important role in the dynamics of the ocean surface boundary layer (OSBL), quantified with the turbulent Langmuir number (La=u*/us0, where u* and us0 are the friction velocity and surface Stokes drift, respectively). However, simultaneous measurements of the OSBL dynamics along with accurate measurements of the wave and atmospheric forcing are lacking. Measurements of the turbulent dissipation rate ɛ were collected using the Air-Sea Interaction Profiler (ASIP), a freely rising microstructure profiler. Two definitions for the OSBL depth are used: the mixed layer derived from measurements of density >(hρ>), and the mixing layer >(hɛ>) determined from direct measurements of ɛ. When surface buoyancy forces are relatively small, ɛ∝La-2 only near the surface with no dependency on La at mid-depths of the OSBL when using hρ as the turbulent length scale. However, if hɛ is used then the dependence of ɛ with La-2 is more uniform throughout the OSBL. For relatively high destabilizing surface buoyancy forces, ɛ is proportional to the ratio of the OSBL depth against the Langmuir stability length LL. During destabilizing conditions, the mixed and mixing layer depths are nearly identical, but we have relatively few measurements under these conditions, rather than any physical implications. Observations of epsilon are compared with the OSBL regime diagram of Belcher et al. (2012) and are generally within an order of magnitude, but there is an improved agreement if hɛ is used as the turbulent length scale rather than hρ.
Small particle transport across turbulent nonisothermal boundary layers
Rosner, D. E.; Fernandez De La Mora, J.
1982-01-01
The interaction between turbulent diffusion, Brownian diffusion, and particle thermophoresis in the limit of vanishing particle inertial effects is quantitatively modeled for applications in gas turbines. The model is initiated with consideration of the particle phase mass conservation equation for a two-dimensional boundary layer, including the thermophoretic flux term directed toward the cold wall. A formalism of a turbulent flow near a flat plate in a heat transfer problem is adopted, and variable property effects are neglected. Attention is given to the limit of very large Schmidt numbers and the particle concentration depletion outside of the Brownian sublayer. It is concluded that, in the parameter range of interest, thermophoresis augments the high Schmidt number mass-transfer coefficient by a factor equal to the product of the outer sink and the thermophoretic suction.
Modelling Unsteady Wall Pressures Beneath Turbulent Boundary Layers
Ahn, B-K.; Graham, W. R.; Rizzi, S. A.
2004-01-01
As a structural entity of turbulence, hairpin vortices are believed to play a major role in developing and sustaining the turbulence process in the near wall region of turbulent boundary layers and may be regarded as the simplest conceptual model that can account for the essential features of the wall pressure fluctuations. In this work we focus on fully developed typical hairpin vortices and estimate the associated surface pressure distributions and their corresponding spectra. On the basis of the attached eddy model, we develop a representation of the overall surface pressure spectra in terms of the eddy size distribution. Instantaneous wavenumber spectra and spatial correlations are readily derivable from this representation. The model is validated by comparison of predicted wavenumber spectra and cross-correlations with existing emperical models and experimental data.
Radiative transfer in a polluted urban planetary boundary layer
Viskanta, R.; Johnson, R. O.; Bergstrom, R. W.
1977-01-01
Radiative transfer in a polluted urban atmosphere is studied using a dynamic model. The diurnal nature of radiative transfer for summer conditions is simulated for an urban area 40 km in extent and the effects of various parameters arising in the problem are investigated. The results of numerical computations show that air pollution has the potential of playing a major role in the radiative regime of the urban area. Absorption of solar energy by aerosols in realistic models of urban atmosphere are of the same order of magnitude as that due to water vapor. The predicted effect of the air pollution aerosol in the city is to warm the earth-atmosphere system, and the net effect of gaseous pollutant is to warm the surface and cool the planetary boundary layer, particularly near the top.
Turbulence Scales Simulations in Atmospheric Boundary Layer Wind Tunnels
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Elena-Carmen Teleman
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The simulation of the air flow over models in atmospheric boundary layer tunnels is a research domain based on advanced scientific technologies imposed by the necessity of studying the turbulent fluid movements in the proximity of the Earth’s surface. The experiment presented herein is developed in the wind tunnel from the Laboratory of Structural Aerodynamics of the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Building Services in Iassy. Measurements necessary for the determination of the turbulence scales of the wind action in urban environment were conducted. The data obtained were processed and analyzed and interpreted with specific software. The results are used for a synthesis regarding the scales of turbulence of the model of flow and the actual accuracy of measurements. The paper presents some of the important elements of this synthesis.
The large Reynolds number - Asymptotic theory of turbulent boundary layers.
Mellor, G. L.
1972-01-01
A self-consistent, asymptotic expansion of the one-point, mean turbulent equations of motion is obtained. Results such as the velocity defect law and the law of the wall evolve in a relatively rigorous manner, and a systematic ordering of the mean velocity boundary layer equations and their interaction with the main stream flow are obtained. The analysis is extended to the turbulent energy equation and to a treatment of the small scale equilibrium range of Kolmogoroff; in velocity correlation space the two-thirds power law is obtained. Thus, the two well-known 'laws' of turbulent flow are imbedded in an analysis which provides a great deal of other information.
Shock Wave Turbulent Boundary Layer Interaction in Hypersonic Flow
1975-06-01
WORDS (Conllnum on rtvmf tldm II nocfmry Td Idmnllly by block number) Turbulent boundary layers Skin friction, heat transfer and pressure High... tD t{> • y rp < J -o ill ... |i| ;| ilh |I ti i llii ffPtffin i ini I ! til. ;■ ; ’ ! ’ : in •■•: \\1’. T ill j i i i...III [lii 5 ft" t H "H— im BJITT i’i 1 i Mt- B ianj ii ( !l!l Mi IF Ii ig| M»-H J , ■*« J J j 1JJ J 4^ Ul CD S D Z V) D -I O z > Ul QC
Boundary layer height estimation by sodar and sonic anemometer measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Contini, D; Cava, D; Martano, P; Donateo, A; Grasso, F M [CNR - Istituto di Scienze dell' Atmosfera e del Clima, U. O. di Lecce Str. Prv. Lecce-Monteroni km 1.2, 73100, Lecce (Italy)], E-mail: d.contini@isac.cnr.it
2008-05-01
In this paper an analysis of different methods for the calculation of the boundary layer height (BLH) using sodar and ultrasonic anemometer measurements is presented. All the methods used are based on single point surface measurements. In particular the automatic spectral routine developed for Remtech sodar is compared with the results obtained with the parameterization of the vertical velocity variance, with the calculation of a prognostic model and with a parameterization based on horizontal velocity spectra. Results indicate that in unstable conditions the different methods provide similar pattern, with BLH relatively low, even if the parameterization of the vertical velocity variance is affected by a large scatter that limits its efficiency in evaluating the BLH. In stable nocturnal conditions the performances of the Remtech routine are lower with respect to the ones in unstable conditions. The spectral method, applied to sodar or sonic anemometer data, seems to be the most promising in order to develop an efficient routine for BLH determination.
Hydromagnetic free convection currents effects on boundary layer thickness
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwanza, J.K., E-mail: kwanzakioko@yahoo.co [Department of Pure and Applied Mathematics, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, P.O. Box 62000-00200, Nairobi (Kenya); Marigi, E.M.; Kinyanjui, M. [Department of Pure and Applied Mathematics, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, P.O. Box 62000-00200, Nairobi (Kenya)
2010-06-15
In this study we discuss an unsteady free convection MHD flow past semi-infinite vertical porous plate. We have considered the flow in the presence of a strong magnetic field and therefore the electromagnetic force is very large. This brings in the phenomenon of Hall and Ion-slip currents. The effects of these two parameters together with that of viscous dissipation and radiation absorption among others on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are presented. The profiles are presented graphically. As the partial differential equations governing this problem are highly non-linear they are solved numerically by a finite difference method. It is found that in presence of heating of the plate by free convection current the velocity boundary layer thickness decreases.
Human convective boundary layer and its impact on personal exposure
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Licina, Dusan
in inaccurate exposure prediction. This highlights the importance of a detailed understanding of the complex air movements that take place in the vicinity of the human body and their impact on personal exposure. The two objectives of the present work are: (i) to examine the extent to which the room air...... temperature, ventilation flow, body posture, clothing insulation/design, table positioning and chair design affect the airflow characteristics (velocity, turbulence and temperature) around the human body; and (ii) to examine the pollution distribution within the human convective boundary layer (CBL....../s in front of the seated manikin. Dressing the nude manikin in a thin-tight clothing ensemble reduced the peak velocity in the breathing zone by 17%, and by 40% for a thick-loose ensemble. A lack of hair on the head increased the peak velocity from 0.17 to 0.187 m/s. Apart from their thermal insulation...
Vapor Control Layer Recommendations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
2009-09-08
This information sheet describes the level of vapor control required on the interior side of framed walls with typical fibrous cavity insulation (fibreglass, rockwool, or cellulose, based on DOE climate zone of construction.
Direct Numerical Simulation of Supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer with Spanwise Wall Oscillation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weidan Ni
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Direct numerical simulations (DNS of Mach = 2.9 supersonic turbulent boundary layers with spanwise wall oscillation (SWO are conducted to investigate the turbulent heat transport mechanism and its relation with the turbulent momentum transport. The turbulent coherent structures are suppressed by SWO and the drag is reduced. Although the velocity and temperature statistics are disturbed by SWO differently, the turbulence transports of momentum and heat are simultaneously suppressed. The Reynolds analogy and the strong Reynolds analogy are also preserved in all the controlled flows, proving the consistent mechanisms of momentum transport and heat transport in the turbulent boundary layer with SWO. Despite the extra dissipation and heat induced by SWO, a net wall heat flux reduction can be achieved with the proper selected SWO parameters. The consistent mechanism of momentum and heat transports supports the application of turbulent drag reduction technologies to wall heat flux controls in high-speed vehicles.
Coherence of simulated atmospheric boundary-layer turbulence
Jiadong, Zeng; Zhiguo, Li; Mingshui, Li
2017-12-01
The coherences in a plane perpendicular to incoming flow are measured in wind tunnel simulations of atmospheric turbulent flow. The measured coherences are compared with analytical expressions tailored to field measurements and with theoretical coherence models which assume homogeneous turbulence and the von Kármán’s spectrum. The comparison indicates that the simulated atmospheric boundary layer flow is approximately horizontally homogeneous turbulence. Based on the above assumption and the systematic analysis of lateral coherence, it can be concluded that the lateral coherences of simulated atmospheric boundary turbulence can be determined accurately using the von Kármán spectrum and the turbulence parameters measured by a few measurement points. The measured results also show that the spatial characteristics of vertical coherences are closely related to the dimensionless parameter {{Δ }}z/({\\bar{z}}0.3{L}ux 0.7). The vertical coherence at two heights can be roughly estimated by the ratio to {{Δ }}z/({\\bar{z}}0.3{L}ux 0.7). The relationship between the phase angles of u-, v- and w-components and the vertical separation distance and the height from the ground is further analyzed. Finally, the roles of the type of land surface roughness, the height from the ground, the turbulence intensity and the integral length scale in lateral and vertical coherences are also discussed in this study.
The Stokes boundary layer for a thixotropic or antithixotropic fluid
McArdle, Catriona R.
2012-10-01
We present a mathematical investigation of the oscillatory boundary layer in a semi-infinite fluid bounded by an oscillating wall (the so-called \\'Stokes problem\\'), when the fluid has a thixotropic or antithixotropic rheology. We obtain asymptotic solutions in the limit of small-amplitude oscillations, and we use numerical integration to validate the asymptotic solutions and to explore the behaviour of the system for larger-amplitude oscillations. The solutions that we obtain differ significantly from the classical solution for a Newtonian fluid. In particular, for antithixotropic fluids the velocity reaches zero at a finite distance from the wall, in contrast to the exponential decay for a thixotropic or a Newtonian fluid.For small amplitudes of oscillation, three regimes of behaviour are possible: the structure parameter may take values defined instantaneously by the shear rate, or by a long-term average; or it may behave hysteretically. The regime boundaries depend on the precise specification of structure build-up and breakdown rates in the rheological model, illustrating the subtleties of complex fluid models in non-rheometric settings. For larger amplitudes of oscillation the dominant behaviour is hysteretic. We discuss in particular the relationship between the shear stress and the shear rate at the oscillating wall. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Hirt, Stefanie M.
2015-01-01
A test was conducted in the 15 cm x 15 cm supersonic wind tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center that focused on corner effects of an oblique shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction. In an attempt to control the interaction in the corner region, eight corner fillet configurations were tested. Three parameters were considered for the fillet configurations: the radius, the fillet length, and the taper length from the square corner to the fillet radius. Fillets effectively reduced the boundary-layer thickness in the corner; however, there was an associated penalty in the form of increased boundary-layer thickness at the tunnel centerline. Larger fillet radii caused greater reductions in boundary-layer thickness along the corner bisector. To a lesser, but measureable, extent, shorter fillet lengths resulted in thinner corner boundary layers. Overall, of the configurations tested, the largest radius resulted in the best combination of control in the corner, evidenced by a reduction in boundary-layer thickness, coupled with minimal impacts at the tunnel centerline.
Uncertainties in the CO2 buget associated to boundary layer dynamics and CO2-advection
Kaikkonen, J.P.; Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.
2012-01-01
The relationship between boundary layer dynamics and carbon dioxide (CO2) budget in the convective boundary layer (CBL) is investigated by using mixed-layer theory. We derive a new set of analytical relations to quantify the uncertainties on the estimation of the bulk CO2 mixing ratio and the
Investigation of turbulent boundary layer structures using Tomographic PIV
Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Longmire, Ellen; Wieneke, Bernd
2008-11-01
Tomographic particle image velocimetry (TPIV) data were acquired in the logarithmic region of a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer flow at friction Reynolds number Reτ = 1160. Experiments were conducted in a suction type wind tunnel seeded with olive oil particles of diameter ˜ 1μm. The volume of interest was illuminated by two Nd:YAG laser beams expanded with appropriate optics into sheets of 8mm thickness in the wall-normal direction (z). Images were acquired by four 2k x 2k pixel cameras, and correlation of reconstructed fields provided the full velocity gradient tensor in a volume of 0.7δ x 0.7δ x 0.07δ, which resolved the region z^+ = 70-150 in the log layer. Various vortex identification techniques, such as Galilean decomposition and iso-surfaces of two- and three-dimensional swirl, were utilized to visualize and analyze the eddy structures present in instantaneous fields. The results of the present study will be compared to results from earlier experimental studies that relied on planar PIV data only to identify vortices and vortex packets as well as from a direct numerical simulation of fully developed channel flow at comparable Reτ.
Multi-layer micro/nanofluid devices with bio-nanovalves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Hao; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Auciello, Orlando H.; Firestone, Millicent A.
2013-01-01
A user-friendly multi-layer micro/nanofluidic flow device and micro/nano fabrication process are provided for numerous uses. The multi-layer micro/nanofluidic flow device can comprise: a substrate, such as indium tin oxide coated glass (ITO glass); a conductive layer of ferroelectric material, preferably comprising a PZT layer of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) positioned on the substrate; electrodes connected to the conductive layer; a nanofluidics layer positioned on the conductive layer and defining nanochannels; a microfluidics layer positioned upon the nanofluidics layer and defining microchannels; and biomolecular nanovalves providing bio-nanovalves which are moveable from a closed position to an open position to control fluid flow at a nanoscale.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Jähn
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Large eddy simulations (LESs are performed for the area of the Caribbean island Barbados to investigate island effects on boundary layer modification, cloud generation and vertical mixing of aerosols. Due to the presence of a topographically structured island surface in the domain center, the model setup has to be designed with open lateral boundaries. In order to generate inflow turbulence consistent with the upstream marine boundary layer forcing, we use the cell perturbation method based on finite amplitude potential temperature perturbations. In this work, this method is for the first time tested and validated for moist boundary layer simulations with open lateral boundary conditions. Observational data obtained from the SALTRACE field campaign is used for both model initialization and a comparison with Doppler wind and Raman lidar data. Several numerical sensitivity tests are carried out to demonstrate the problems related to “gray zone modeling” when using coarser spatial grid spacings beyond the inertial subrange of three-dimensional turbulence or when the turbulent marine boundary layer flow is replaced by laminar winds. Especially cloud properties in the downwind area west of Barbados are markedly affected in these kinds of simulations. Results of an additional simulation with a strong trade-wind inversion reveal its effect on cloud layer depth and location. Saharan dust layers that reach Barbados via long-range transport over the North Atlantic are included as passive tracers in the model. Effects of layer thinning, subsidence and turbulent downward transport near the layer bottom at z ≈ 1800 m become apparent. The exact position of these layers and strength of downward mixing is found to be mainly controlled atmospheric stability (especially inversion strength and wind shear. Comparisons of LES model output with wind lidar data show similarities in the downwind vertical wind structure. Additionally, the model results
Stability Analysis of High-Speed Boundary-Layer Flow with Gas Injection
2014-06-01
boundary-layer flow with gas injection 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Alexander V. Fedorov ...distribution unlimited Stability analysis of high-speed boundary-layer flow with gas injection Alexander V. Fedorov * and Vitaly G. Soudakov...Laminar Flow, AGARD Report Number 709, 1984. 2. Fedorov , A., “Transition and Stability of High-Speed Boundary Layers,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., Vol
Boundary layer friction of solvate ionic liquids as a function of potential.
Li, Hua; Rutland, Mark W; Watanabe, Masayoshi; Atkin, Rob
2017-07-01
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to investigate the potential dependent boundary layer friction at solvate ionic liquid (SIL)-highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and SIL-Au(111) interfaces. Friction trace and retrace loops of lithium tetraglyme bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide (Li(G4) TFSI) at HOPG present clearer stick-slip events at negative potentials than at positive potentials, indicating that a Li + cation layer adsorbed to the HOPG lattice at negative potentials which enhances stick-slip events. The boundary layer friction data for Li(G4) TFSI shows that at HOPG, friction forces at all potentials are low. The TFSI - anion rich boundary layer at positive potentials is more lubricating than the Li + cation rich boundary layer at negative potentials. These results suggest that boundary layers at all potentials are smooth and energy is predominantly dissipated via stick-slip events. In contrast, friction at Au(111) for Li(G4) TFSI is significantly higher at positive potentials than at negative potentials, which is comparable to that at HOPG at the same potential. The similarity of boundary layer friction at negatively charged HOPG and Au(111) surfaces indicates that the boundary layer compositions are similar and rich in Li + cations for both surfaces at negative potentials. However, at Au(111), the TFSI - rich boundary layer is less lubricating than the Li + rich boundary layer, which implies that anion reorientations rather than stick-slip events are the predominant energy dissipation pathways. This is confirmed by the boundary friction of Li(G4) NO 3 at Au(111), which shows similar friction to Li(G4) TFSI at negative potentials due to the same cation rich boundary layer composition, but even higher friction at positive potentials, due to higher energy dissipation in the NO 3 - rich boundary layer.
2016-10-01
AFRL-RQ-WP-TR-2017-0098 HYPERSONIC BOUNDARY LAYER TRANSITION EXPERIMENTS - HYPERSONIC INTERNATIONAL FLIGHT RESEARCH EXPERIMENTATION 5 (HiFIRE-5...DATES COVERED (From - To) October 2016 Interim 01 April 2015 – 13 June 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE HYPERSONIC BOUNDARY LAYER TRANSITION EXPERIMENTS...during fiscal year 2016. The objective of this task is to better understand boundary layer transition in hypersonic flowfields with spanwise
On the application of mixed-layer theory to the stratocumulus-topped boundary layer
Zhang, Yunyan
In this dissertation, we explore the applicability of mixed-layer theory to represent stratocumulus-topped boundary layer (STBL). Mixed-layer theory is used to study the STBL diurnal cycle. Our results show that the diurnal evolution of cloud thickness is sensitive to the entrainment efficiency. Specifically with low entrainment efficiencies, the cloud thickness evolution is in a better agreement with observations. We explain these effects through a consideration of the equilibrium state of cloud boundaries and their adjustment timescales. The susceptibility of cloud albedo to droplet number density dominates the entrainment effects. This suggests that estimates of aerosol indirect effects from stratocumulus clouds will not be particularly sensitive to the way entrainment is represented in large-scale models. The low-cloud amount (LCA) is diagnosed based on the equilibrium solutions of the mixed-layer model (MLM). ECMWF Reanalysis (ERA-40) data serve as large-scale boundary conditions. Results are compared to the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project D2 data, especially in light of the relationship between the LCA and the lower-troposphere stability (LTS). Our results show that the synoptic variability in divergence contributes to LCA climatology. This climatology reproduced from MLM is more sensitive to processes that redistribute the mass field as compared to heat and moisture. Other large-scale conditions contribute to LCA depending on their correlation with the LTS and the strength of the LTS signal in individual regions. An autoregressive noise model is proposed to represent the synoptic variability in divergence based on analysis of ERA-40 data. Using this model, the equilibrium cloud fraction is shown as a function of the mean divergence value, the noise level, and the noise autocorrelation time scale. Mixed-layer model with such noise produces a reasonable comparison to observations in LCA climatology. An interaction rule is specified based on
Organic electronic devices with multiple solution-processed layers
Forrest, Stephen R.; Lassiter, Brian E.; Zimmerman, Jeramy D.
2015-08-04
A method of fabricating a tandem organic photosensitive device involves depositing a first layer of an organic electron donor type material film by solution-processing of the organic electron donor type material dissolved in a first solvent; depositing a first layer of an organic electron acceptor type material over the first layer of the organic electron donor type material film by a dry deposition process; depositing a conductive layer over the interim stack by a dry deposition process; depositing a second layer of the organic electron donor type material over the conductive layer by solution-processing of the organic electron donor type material dissolved in a second solvent, wherein the organic electron acceptor type material and the conductive layer are insoluble in the second solvent; depositing a second layer of an organic electron acceptor type material over the second layer of the organic electron donor type material film by a dry deposition process, resulting in a stack.
Regularity of pointwise boundary control systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Michael
1992-01-01
We will in these notes address some problems arising in "real-life" control application, namely problems concerning distributional control inputs on the boundary of the spatial domain. We extend the classical variational approach and give easily checkable sufficient conditions for the solutions...
Efficient double-emitting layer inverted organic light-emitting devices with different spacer layers
Nie, Qu-yang; Zhang, Fang-hui
2017-09-01
Double-emitting layer inverted organic light-emitting devices (IOLEDs) with different spacer layers were investigated, where 2,20,7,70-tetrakis(carbazol-9-yl)-9,9-spirobifluorene (CBP), 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP), 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen) and 4,40,400-tris(N-carbazolyl)-triphenylamine (TCTA) were used as spacer layers, respectively, and GIr1 and R-4b were used as green and red guest phosphorescent materials, respectively. The results show that the device with BCP spacer layer has the best performance. The maximum current efficiency of the BCP spacer layer device reaches up to 24.15 cd·A-1 when the current density is 3.99 mA·cm-2, which is 1.23 times bigger than that of the CBP spacer layer device. The performance is better than that of corresponding conventional device observably. The color coordinate of the device with BCP spacer layer only changes from (0.625 1, 0.368 0) to (0.599 5, 0.392 8) when the driving voltage increases from 6 V to 10 V, so it shows good stability in color coordinate, which is due to the adoption of the co-doping evaporation method for cladding luminous layer and the effective restriction of spacer layer to carriers in emitting layer.
Boundary layer thickness effect on boattail drag. [wind tunnel tests for drag reduction
Blaha, B. J.; Chamberlin, R.; Bober, L. J.
1976-01-01
A combined experimental and analytical program has been conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center, to investigate the effects of boundary layer changes on the flow over high angle boattail nozzles. The tests were run on an isolated axisymmetric sting mounted model. Various boattail geometries were investigated at high subsonic speeds over a range of boundary layer thicknesses. In general, boundary layer effects were small at speeds up to Mach 0.8. However, at higher speeds significant regions of separated flow were present on the boattail. When separation was present large reductions in boattail drag resulted with increasing boundary layer thickness. The analysis predicts both of these trends.
Bubble and boundary layer behaviour in subcooled flow boiling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maurus, Reinhold; Sattelmayer, Thomas [Lehrstuhl fuer Thermodynamik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85747 Garching (Germany)
2006-03-15
Subcooled flow boiling is a commonly applied technique for achieving efficient heat transfer. In the study, an experimental investigation in the nucleate boiling regime was performed for water circulating in a closed loop at atmospheric pressure. The horizontal orientated test-section consists of a rectangular channel with a one side heated copper strip and good optical access. Various optical observation techniques were applied to study the bubble behaviour and the characteristics of the fluid phase. The bubble behaviour was recorded by the high-speed cinematography and by a digital high resolution camera. Automated image processing and analysis algorithms developed by the authors were applied for a wide range of mass flow rates and heat fluxes in order to extract characteristic length and time scales of the bubbly layer during the boiling process. Using this methodology, the bubbles were automatically analysed and the bubble size, bubble lifetime, waiting time between two cycles were evaluated. Due to the huge number of observed bubbles a statistical analysis was performed and distribution functions were derived. Using a two-dimensional cross-correlation algorithm, the averaged axial phase boundary velocity profile could be extracted. In addition, the fluid phase velocity profile was characterised by means of the particle image velocimetry (PIV) for the single phase flow as well as under subcooled flow boiling conditions. The results indicate that the bubbles increase the flow resistance. The impact on the flow exceeds by far the bubbly region and it depends on the magnitude of the boiling activity. Finally, the ratio of the averaged phase boundary velocity and of the averaged fluid velocity was evaluated for the bubbly region. (authors)
CFD simulation of neutral ABL flows; Atmospheric Boundary Layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xiaodong Zhang
2009-04-15
This work is to evaluate the CFD prediction of Atmospheric Boundary Layer flow field over different terrains employing Fluent 6.3 software. How accurate the simulation could achieve depend on following aspects: viscous model, wall functions, agreement of CFD model with inlet wind velocity profile and top boundary condition. Fluent employ wall function roughness modifications based on data from experiments with sand grain roughened pipes and channels, describe wall adjacent zone with Roughness Height (Ks) instead of Roughness Length (z{sub 0}). In a CFD simulation of ABL flow, the mean wind velocity profile is generally described with either a logarithmic equation by the presence of aerodynamic roughness length z{sub 0} or an exponential equation by the presence of exponent. As indicated by some former researchers, the disagreement between wall function model and ABL velocity profile description will result in some undesirable gradient along flow direction. There are some methods to improve the simulation model in literatures, some of them are discussed in this report, but none of those remedial methods are perfect to eliminate the streamwise gradients in mean wind speed and turbulence, as EllipSys3D could do. In this paper, a new near wall treatment function is designed, which, in some degree, can correct the horizontal gradients problem. Based on the corrected model constants and near wall treatment function, a simulation of Askervein Hill is carried out. The wind condition is neutrally stratified ABL and the measurements are best documented until now. Comparison with measured data shows that the CFD model can well predict the velocity field and relative turbulence kinetic energy field. Furthermore, a series of artificial complex terrains are designed, and some of the main simulation results are reported. (au)
Heterogeneous evaporation across a turbulent internal boundary layer
Shahraeeni, Ebrahim; Vanderborght, Jan; Vereecken, Harry
2014-05-01
In local evaporation from sufficiently uniform and large surfaces, horizontal advection close to the changes in surface condition is not significant. Under natural condition, this assumption is often invalid and horizontal inhomogeneity is important. When partially saturated air flows from a uniform dry land surface over a wet surface, all lower boundary conditions of transport equations change abruptly. Also surface humidity and roughness are likely to be different from their upwind values. Due to these changes, the velocity profile and turbulence structure of the airflow must readjust. The vertical profiles are no longer in equilibrium and the horizontal gradients do not equal to zero. When there is more than one of these changes in the domain of interest, the interaction between different patches with a contrast in roughness, temperature or surface water content is also important. Rigorous experimental and numerical analysis of turbulent transfer of mass and momentum in the so-called internal boundary layer (the region affected by such step changes in surface condition) is the aim of this work. A combination of numerical simulations using in-house codes and commercial softwares and experimental measurements in the environmental wind tunnel is performed. We are specifically interested in correct depiction of roughness, in a more accurate representation of the turbulent velocity profile and in a better description of turbulent diffusion close to the interface. A series of simplifying assumptions in the classical representation of this problem are investigated and a sensitivity analysis is performed to identify the contribution of neglected terms. We are also interested in the parameterization of the heat and mass exchange processes for the case with different wet patches in a background of dry soil, which is of interest in several field scale applications.
Effect of particle momentum transfer on an oblique-shock-wave/laminar-boundary-layer interaction
Teh, E.-J.; Johansen, C. T.
2016-11-01
Numerical simulations of solid particles seeded into a supersonic flow containing an oblique shock wave reflection were performed. The momentum transfer mechanism between solid and gas phases in the shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction was studied by varying the particle size and mass loading. It was discovered that solid particles were capable of significant modulation of the flow field, including suppression of flow separation. The particle size controlled the rate of momentum transfer while the particle mass loading controlled the magnitude of momentum transfer. The seeding of micro- and nano-sized particles upstream of a supersonic/hypersonic air-breathing propulsion system is proposed as a flow control concept.
Method of forming a nanocluster-comprising dielectric layer and device comprising such a layer
Kochupurackal, J.B.P.; Besling, W.F.A.; Klootwijk, J.H.; Wolters, A.M.; Roozeboom, F.
2012-01-01
A method of forming a dielectric layer on a further layer of a semiconductor device is disclosed. The method comprises depositing a dielectric precursor compound and a further precursor compound over the further layer, the dielectric precursor compound comprising a metal ion from the group
Boundary-layer height detection with a ceilometer at a coastal site in western Denmark
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hannesdóttir, Ásta; Hansen, Aksel Walle
with those from turbulence measurements of a wind lidar and the two methods are in good agreement. It is found that detecting the boundary-layer height from turbulence kinetic energy considerations with the wind lidar is not recommendable for detecting the boundary layer height during the presence of clouds......One year of data from ceilometer measurements is used to estimate the atmospheric boundary-layer height at the coastal site Høvsøre in western Denmark. The atmospheric boundary-layer height is a fundamental parameter for the evaluation of the wind speed profile, and an essential parameter...... in atmospheric transport- and dispersion models. A new method of filtering clouds from the ceilometer data is presented. This allows for the inclusion of more than half of the data in the subsequent analysis, as the presence of clouds would otherwise complicate the boundary-layer height estimations. The boundary...
The vertical structure of the boundary layer around compact objects
Hertfelder, Marius; Kley, Wilhelm
2017-09-01
Context. Mass transfer due to Roche lobe overflow leads to the formation of an accretion disk around a weakly magnetized white dwarf (WD) in cataclysmic variables. At the inner edge of the disk, the gas comes upon the surface of the WD and has to get rid of its excess kinetic energy in order to settle down on the more slowly rotating outer stellar layers. This region is known as the boundary layer (BL). Aims: In this work we investigate the vertical structure of the BL, which is still poorly understood. We shall provide details of the basic structure of the two-dimensional (2D) BL and how it depends on parameters such as stellar mass and rotation rate, as well as the mass-accretion rate. We further investigate the destination of the disk material and compare our results with previous one-dimensional (1D) simulations. Methods: We solve the 2D equations of radiation hydrodynamics in a spherical (r-ϑ) geometry using a parallel grid-based code that employs a Riemann solver. The radiation energy is considered in the two-temperature approach with a radiative flux given by the flux-limited diffusion approximation. Results: The BL around a non-rotating WD is characterized by a steep drop in angular velocity over a width of only 1% of the stellar radius, a heavy depletion of mass, and a high temperature ( 500 000 K) as a consequence of the strong shear. Variations in Ω∗,M∗, and Ṁ influence the extent of the changes of the variables in the BL but not the general structure. Depending on Ω∗, the disk material travels up to the poles or is halted at a certain latitude. The extent of mixing with the stellar material also depends on Ω∗. We find that the 1D approximation matches the 2D data well, apart from an underestimated temperature.
Gaseous Fluidics Control Device
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brahim, DENNAI
2008-04-01
Full Text Available Fluidics is a new technology arising from a re-appraisal of a very old technology, namely fluid power and its control. Fluidic technology based on natural oscillation phenomena is a relevant topic in several strategic areas. This technology of using the flow characteristics of liquids or gases to operate a control system is fairly old; it was in the 1960s that researchers started to use fluidics. Important contributions from fluidic logic technologies are associated with the fluid behavior known as the “Coanda effect”. A lot of attention has been paid to the transport phenomena in the micro geometries because micro fabrication enables us to manufacture low channels ranging from few micrometers to few hundred micrometers. This paper describes a new actuator for flow control applications. The gas diffusion, control is very important operation in the fields of nature and industry.
Gaseous Fluidics Control Device
Brahim, Dennai; Rachid KHELFAOUI; Boumedienne BENYOUCEF; Belkacem DRAOUI; Abdelkader SLIMANI
2008-01-01
Fluidics is a new technology arising from a re-appraisal of a very old technology, namely fluid power and its control. Fluidic technology based on natural oscillation phenomena is a relevant topic in several strategic areas. This technology of using the flow characteristics of liquids or gases to operate a control system is fairly old; it was in the 1960s that researchers started to use fluidics. Important contributions from fluidic logic technologies are associated with the fluid behavior kn...
Boundary-field-driven control of discontinuous phase transitions on hyperbolic lattices.
Lee, Yoju; Verstraete, Frank; Gendiar, Andrej
2016-08-01
The multistate Potts models on two-dimensional hyperbolic lattices are studied with respect to various boundary effects. The free energy is numerically calculated using the corner transfer matrix renormalization group method. We analyze phase transitions of the Potts models in the thermodynamic limit with respect to contracted boundary layers. A false phase transition is present even if a couple of the boundary layers are contracted. Its significance weakens, as the number of the contracted boundary layers increases, until the correct phase transition (deep inside the bulk) prevails over the false one. For this purpose, we derive a thermodynamic quantity, the so-called bulk excess free energy, which depends on the contracted boundary layers and memorizes additional boundary effects. In particular, the magnetic field is imposed on the outermost boundary layer. While the boundary magnetic field does not affect the second-order phase transition in the bulk if suppressing all the boundary effects on the hyperbolic lattices, the first-order (discontinuous) phase transition is significantly sensitive to the boundary magnetic field. Contrary to the phase transition on the Euclidean lattices, the discontinuous phase transition on the hyperbolic lattices can be continuously controlled (within a certain temperature coexistence region) by varying the boundary magnetic field.
Experimental investigation of vortex properties in a turbulent boundary layer
Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram; Longmire, Ellen K.; Marusic, Ivan
2006-05-01
Dual-plane particle image velocimetry experiments were performed in a turbulent boundary layer with Reτ=1160 to obtain all components of the velocity gradient tensor. Wall-normal locations in the logarithmic and wake region were examined. The availability of the complete gradient tensor facilitates improved identification of vortex cores and determination of their orientation and size. Inclination angles of vortex cores were computed using statistical tools such as two-point correlations and joint probability density functions. Also, a vortex identification technique was employed to identify individual cores and to compute inclination angles directly from instantaneous fields. The results reveal broad distributions of inclination angles at both locations. The results are consistent with the presence of many hairpin vortices which are most frequently inclined downstream at an angle of 45∘ with the wall. According to the probability density functions, a relatively small percentage of cores are inclined upstream. The number density of forward leaning cores decreases from the logarithmic to the outer region while the number density of backward-leaning cores remains relatively constant. These trends, together with the correlation statistics, suggest that the backward-leaning cores are part of smaller, weaker structures that have been distorted and convected by larger, predominantly forward-leaning eddies associated with the local shear.
Investigation of Boundary Layer Structure by Dual-Plane PIV
Longmire, E. K.; Ganapathisubramani, B.; Marusic, I.
2004-11-01
Dual-plane PIV was employed in a turbulent boundary layer at Re_τ ˜ 1100 to study the nature of the vortical structures there. Laser sheets separated by 1 mm were aligned in streamwise-spanwise (x,y) planes, and the scattered light was captured by three cameras: two in a stereo configuration and one in a normal configuration. All velocity gradient components were determined for fields in the log (z^+ = 125) and outer (z/δ = 0.5) regions. Three-dimensional swirl strength was used to isolate vortex cores, and the vorticity direction of individual swirl centers was determined. Instantaneous fields in the log region reveal signatures of hairpin vortex packets consistent with previous results. The packets contain evidence of smaller hairpin heads embedded within the long low-speed regions surrounded by larger hairpins. The data set at z^+ = 125 yielded a most probable hairpin inclination angle of 32^rc and an average inclination angle of 57^rc. In the presentation, these results will be contrasted with those at z/δ = 0.5.
Study of turbulent boundary layer structures using Tomographic PIV
Gao, Qi; Longmire, Ellen; Ortiz-Duenas, Cecilia
2009-11-01
Tomographic-PIV was applied to investigate vortical structures in the logarithmic region of turbulent boundary layers. Measurements were performed in a water channel facility with δ 110 mm for Reτ 2400 and 2900. Laser sheets with thickness up to 7mm were aligned parallel to the bounding surface. Four cameras with 2k x 2k pixels were placed in a rectangular array facing the measurement volume with tilt angle ˜30 to the wall normal direction. Magnification was ˜0.05 mm/pixel. The resulting measurement volumes were 0.8δ x 0.8δ in the streamwise and spanwise directions and 0.065δ or 120 viscous units in the wall-normal direction. Correlations were performed on 64^3 voxel volumes with 75% overlap yielding a vector spacing of 25^3 viscous units. The data were probed using swirl strength and direction as well as convection velocity to identify and characterize relatively large scale eddies and structures within the volumes. The results will be discussed and compared with results at similar wall-normal locations in lower Reynolds number DNS channel (Reτ=590, 934 of Moser et al., 1999 and del 'Alamo et al., 2004) and wind tunnel (Reτ=1160) flows.
Nonmethane hydrocarbon chemistry in the remote marine boundary layer
Donahue, Neil M.; Prinn, Ronald G.
1990-01-01
A photochemical model of the remote marine boundary layer (MBL) is presented, with focus placed on the role of reactive nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC). A wide range of NMHC air-sea fluxes with various relative distributions of NMHC regions are considered. In particular, the flux magnitude at which NMHC emissions become significant, and then dominant, players in MBL chemistry is identified. Emphasis is placed on diurnal variability, diurnal ozone variations and sensitivity to NMHC emission fluxes, to CO, O3, H2O, and UV light, and to kinetics and isometric composition. Model runs indicate that, in the range consistent with current observations, the NMHCs may either dominate MBL chemistry, or simply be contributors at the 10-percent level. These model runs also show that existing observations of NMHCs in ocean water find them to scarce for fluxes from bulk-flux air-sea gas exchange models to be consistent with the fluxes needed in the proposed model to maintain the lowest observed MBL NMHC.
Effect of free-stream turbulence on boundary layer transition.
Goldstein, M E
2014-07-28
This paper is concerned with the transition to turbulence in flat plate boundary layers due to moderately high levels of free-stream turbulence. The turbulence is assumed to be generated by an (idealized) grid and matched asymptotic expansions are used to analyse the resulting flow over a finite thickness flat plate located in the downstream region. The characteristic Reynolds number Rλ based on the mesh size λ and free-stream velocity is assumed to be large, and the turbulence intensity ε is assumed to be small. The asymptotic flow structure is discussed for the generic case where the turbulence Reynolds number εRλ and the plate thickness and are held fixed (at O(1) and O(λ), respectively) in the limit as [Formula: see text] and ε→0. But various limiting cases are considered in order to explain the relevant transition mechanisms. It is argued that there are two types of streak-like structures that can play a role in the transition process: (i) those that appear in the downstream region and are generated by streamwise vorticity in upstream flow and (ii) those that are concentrated near the leading edge and are generated by plate normal vorticity in upstream flow. The former are relatively unaffected by leading edge geometry and are usually referred to as Klebanoff modes while the latter are strongly affected by leading edge geometry and are more streamwise vortex-like in appearance. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Full-Scale Spectrum of Boundary-Layer Winds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Lundtang Petersen, Erik
2016-01-01
Extensive mean meteorological data and high frequency sonic anemometer data from two sites in Denmark, one coastal onshore and one offshore, have been used to study the full-scale spectrum of boundary-layer winds, over frequencies f from about 1 yr−1 to10 Hz. 10-min cup anemometer data are used...... to estimate the spectrum from about 1 yr−1 to 0.05 min−1; in addition, using 20-Hz sonic anemometer data, an ensemble of 1-day spectra covering the range 1 day−1 to 10 Hz has been calculated. The overlapping region in these two measured spectra is in good agreement. Classical topics regarding the various...... spectral ranges,including the spectral gap, are revisited. Following the seasonal peak at 1 yr−1, the frequency spectrum f S( f ) increases with f +1 and gradually reaches a peak at about 0.2 day−1. From this peak to about 1 hr−1, the spectrum f S( f ) decreases with frequency with a −2 slope...
Meteodrones - Meteorological Planetary Boundary Layer Measurements by Vertical Drone Soundings
Lauer, Jonas; Fengler, Martin
2017-04-01
As of today, there is a gap in the operational data collection of meteorological observations in the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL). This lack of spatially and temporally reliable knowledge of PBL conditions and energy fluxes with the surface causes shortcomings in the prediction of micro- and mesoscale phenomena such as convection, temperature inversions, local wind systems or fog. The currently used remote sensing instruments share the drawback of only partially covering necessary variables. To fill this data gap, since 2012, Meteomatics has been developing a drone measurement system, the Meteodrone, to measure the parameters wind speed, wind direction, dewpoint, temperature and air pressure of the PBL up to 1.5 km above ground. Both the data quality and the assimilation into a regional numerical weather model could be determined in several pilot studies. Besides, a project in cooperation with the NSSL (National Severe Storms Laboratory) was launched in October 2016 with the goal of capturing pre-convective conditions for improved severe storm forecasts in Oklahoma. Also, related measurements, such as air pollution measurements in the Misox valley to determine LDSP values, were successfully conducted. The main goal of the project is the operational data collection of PBL measurements and the assimilation of this data into regional numerical weather forecast models. Considering the high data quality indicated in all conducted studies as well as the trouble-free execution, this goal is both worthwhile and realistic.
Computational modeling of unsteady loads in tidal boundary layers
Alexander, Spencer R.
As ocean current turbines move from the design stage into production and installation, a better understanding of oceanic turbulent flows and localized loading is required to more accurately predict turbine performance and durability. In the present study, large eddy simulations (LES) are used to measure the unsteady loads and bending moments that would be experienced by an ocean current turbine placed in a tidal channel. The LES model captures currents due to winds, waves, thermal convection, and tides, thereby providing a high degree of physical realism. Probability density functions, means, and variances of unsteady loads are calculated, and further statistical measures of the turbulent environment are also examined, including vertical profiles of Reynolds stresses, two-point correlations, and velocity structure functions. The simulations show that waves and tidal velocity had the largest impact on the strength of off-axis turbine loads. By contrast, boundary layer stability and wind speeds were shown to have minimal impact on the strength of off- axis turbine loads. It is shown both analytically and using simulation results that either transverse velocity structure functions or two-point transverse velocity spatial correlations are good predictors of unsteady loading in tidal channels.
Subgrid-scale turbulence in shock-boundary layer flows
Jammalamadaka, Avinash; Jaberi, Farhad
2015-04-01
Data generated by direct numerical simulation (DNS) for a Mach 2.75 zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer interacting with shocks of different intensities are used for a priori analysis of subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence and various terms in the compressible filtered Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical method used for DNS is based on a hybrid scheme that uses a non-dissipative central scheme in the shock-free turbulent regions and a robust monotonicity-preserving scheme in the shock regions. The behavior of SGS stresses and their components, namely Leonard, Cross and Reynolds components, is examined in various regions of the flow for different shock intensities and filter widths. The backscatter in various regions of the flow is found to be significant only instantaneously, while the ensemble-averaged statistics indicate no significant backscatter. The budgets for the SGS kinetic energy equation are examined for a better understanding of shock-tubulence interactions at the subgrid level and also with the aim of providing useful information for one-equation LES models. A term-by-term analysis of SGS terms in the filtered total energy equation indicate that while each term in this equation is significant by itself, the net contribution by all of them is relatively small. This observation is consistent with our a posteriori analysis.
Increased Jet Noise Due to a "Nominally Laminar" State of Nozzle Exit Boundary Layer
Zaman, K. B. M. Q.
2017-01-01
A set of 2-inch diameter nozzles is used to investigate the effect of varying exit boundary layer state on the radiated noise from high-subsonic jets. It is confirmed that nozzles involving turbulent boundary layers are the quietest while nozzles involving a nominally-laminar boundary layer are loud especially on the high-frequency side of the sound pressure level spectrum. The latter boundary layer state involves a Blasius-like mean velocity profile but higher turbulence intensities compared to those in the turbulent state. The higher turbulence in the initial region of the jet shear layer leads to increased high-frequency noise. The results strongly suggest that an anomaly noted with subsonic jet noise databases in the literature is due to a similar effect of differences in the initial boundary layer state.
Design of Meteorological Element Detection Platform for Atmospheric Boundary Layer Based on UAV
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yonghong Zhang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Among current detection methods of the atmospheric boundary layer, sounding balloon has disadvantages such as low recovery and low reuse rate, anemometer tower has disadvantages such as fixed location and high cost, and remote sensing detection has disadvantages such as low data accuracy. In this paper, a meteorological element sensor was carried on a six-rotor UAV platform to achieve detection of meteorological elements of the atmospheric boundary layer, and the influence of different installation positions of the meteorological element sensor on the detection accuracy of the meteorological element sensor was analyzed through many experiments. Firstly, a six-rotor UAV platform was built through mechanical structure design and control system design. Secondly, data such as temperature, relative humidity, pressure, elevation, and latitude and longitude were collected by designing a meteorological element detection system. Thirdly, data management of the collected data was conducted, including local storage and real-time display on ground host computer. Finally, combined with the comprehensive analysis of the data of automatic weather station, the validity of the data was verified. This six-rotor UAV platform carrying a meteorological element sensor can effectively realize the direct measurement of the atmospheric boundary layer and in some cases can make up for the deficiency of sounding balloon, anemometer tower, and remote sensing detection.
Ünal, Uğur Oral; Ünal, Burcu; Atlar, Mehmet
2012-06-01
Whilst recent developments of nanotechnology are being exploited by chemists and marine biologists to understand how the completely environmentally friendly foul release coatings can control marine biofouling and how they can be developed further, the understanding of the hydrodynamic performances of these new generation coatings is being overlooked. This paper aims to investigate the relative boundary layer, roughness and drag characteristics of some novel nanostructured coatings, which were developed through a multi-European and multi-disciplined collaborative research project AMBIO (2010), within the framework of turbulent flows over rough surfaces. Zero-pressure-gradient, turbulent boundary layer flow measurements were conducted over flat surfaces coated with several newly developed nanostructured antifouling paints, along with some classic reference surfaces and a state-of-the-art commercial coating, in the Emerson Cavitation Tunnel (ECT) of Newcastle University. A large flat plane test bed that included interchangeable flat test sections was used for the experiments. The boundary layer data were collected with the aid of a two-dimensional DANTEC Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) system. These measurements provided the main hydrodynamic properties of the newly developed nanostructured coatings including local skin friction coefficients, roughness functions and Reynolds stresses. The tests and subsequent analysis indicated the exceptionally good frictional properties of all coatings tested, in particular, the drag benefit of some new nanostructured coatings in the Reynolds number range investigated. The rapidly decreasing roughness function trends of AKZO19 and AKZO20 as the ks^{ + } increases were remarkable along with the dissimilar roughness function character of all tested coatings to the well-known correlation curves warranting further research at higher Reynolds numbers. The wall similarity concept for the Reynolds stresses was only validated for the
Amazon boundary layer aerosol concentration sustained by vertical transport during rainfall
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Jian; Krejci, Radovan; Giangrande, Scott; Kuang, Chongai; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Chi, Xuguang; Comstock, Jennifer; Ditas, Florian; Lavric, Jost; Manninen, Hanna E.; Mei, Fan; Moran-Zuloaga, Daniel; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Saturno, Jorge; Schmid, Beat; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Springston, Stephen R.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Toto, Tami; Walter, David; Wimmer, Daniela; Smith, James N.; Kulmala, Markku; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Artaxo, Paulo; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Martin, Scot T.
2016-10-24
A necessary prerequisite of cloud formation, aerosol particles represent one of the largest uncertainties in computer simulations of climate change1,2, in part because of a poor understanding of processes under natural conditions3,4. The Amazon rainforest is one of the few continental regions where aerosol particles and their precursors can be studied under near-natural conditions5-7. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in clean Amazonia are mostly produced by the growth of smaller particles in the boundary layer8-10, whereas these smaller particles themselves 31 appear to be produced elsewhere5,11. Key questions are in what part of the atmosphere they might 32 be produced and what could be the transport processes that deliver them to the boundary layer, where they grow into CCN. Here, using recent aircraft measurements above central Amazonia, we show high concentrations of small particles in the lower free troposphere. The particle size spectrum shifts towards larger sizes with decreasing altitude, implying particle growth as air descends from the free troposphere towards Earth's surface. Complementary measurements at ground sites show that free tropospheric air having high concentrations of small particles (diameters of less than 50 nm) is transported into the boundary layer during precipitation events, both by strong convective downdrafts and by weaker downward motions in the trailing stratiform region. This vertical transport helps maintain the population of small particles and ultimately CCN in the boundary layer, thereby playing an important role in controlling the climate state under natural conditions. In contrast, this mechanism becomes masked under polluted conditions, which sometimes prevail at times in Amazonia as well as over other tropical continental regions5,12.
Boundary layers at a dynamic interface: Air-sea exchange of heat and mass
Szeri, Andrew J.
2017-04-01
Exchange of mass or heat across a turbulent liquid-gas interface is a problem of critical interest, especially in air-sea transfer of natural and anthropogenic gases involved in the study of climate. The goal in this research area is to determine the gas flux from air to sea or vice versa. For sparingly soluble nonreactive gases, this is controlled by liquid phase turbulent velocity fluctuations that act on the thin species concentration boundary layer on the liquid side of the interface. If the fluctuations in surface-normal velocity w' and gas concentration c' are known, then it is possible to determine the turbulent contribution to the gas flux. However, there is no suitable fundamental direct approach in the general case where neither w' nor c' can be easily measured. A new approach is presented to deduce key aspects about the near-surface turbulent motions from measurements that can be taken by an infrared (IR) camera. An equation is derived with inputs being the surface temperature and heat flux, and a solution method developed for the surface-normal strain experienced over time by boundary layers at the interface. Because the thermal and concentration boundary layers experience the same near-surface fluid motions, the solution for the surface-normal strain determines the gas flux or gas transfer velocity. Examples illustrate the approach in the cases of complete surface renewal, partial surface renewal, and insolation. The prospects for use of the approach in flows characterized by sheared interfaces or rapid boundary layer straining are explored.
Three-dimensional instability analysis of boundary layers perturbed by streamwise vortices
Martín, Juan A.; Paredes, Pedro
2017-12-01
A parametric study is presented for the incompressible, zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate boundary layer perturbed by streamwise vortices. The vortices are placed near the leading edge and model the vortices induced by miniature vortex generators (MVGs), which consist in a spanwise-periodic array of small winglet pairs. The introduction of MVGs has been experimentally proved to be a successful passive flow control strategy for delaying laminar-turbulent transition caused by Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves. The counter-rotating vortex pairs induce non-modal, transient growth that leads to a streaky boundary layer flow. The initial intensity of the vortices and their wall-normal distances to the plate wall are varied with the aim of finding the most effective location for streak generation and the effect on the instability characteristics of the perturbed flow. The study includes the solution of the three-dimensional, stationary, streaky boundary layer flows by using the boundary region equations, and the three-dimensional instability analysis of the resulting basic flows by using the plane-marching parabolized stability equations. Depending on the initial circulation and positioning of the vortices, planar TS waves are stabilized by the presence of the streaks, resulting in a reduction in the region of instability and shrink of the neutral stability curve. For a fixed maximum streak amplitude below the threshold for secondary instability (SI), the most effective wall-normal distance for the formation of the streaks is found to also offer the most stabilization of TS waves. By setting a maximum streak amplitude above the threshold for SI, sinuous shear layer modes become unstable, as well as another instability mode that is amplified in a narrow region near the vortex inlet position.
Hamiltonian discretization of boundary control systems
Golo, Goran; Talasila, Viswanath; Schaft, Arjan van der; Maschke, Bernhard
2004-01-01
A fundamental problem in the simulation and control of complex physical systems containing distributed-parameter components concerns finite-dimensional approximation. Numerical methods for partial differential equations (PDEs) usually assume the boundary conditions to be given, while more often than
Hamiltonian discretization of boundary control systems
Golo, G.; Talasila, V.; van der Schaft, Arjan; Maschke, B.M.
A fundamental problem in the simulation and control of complex physical systems containing distributed-parameter components concerns finite-dimensional approximation. Numerical methods for partial differential equations (PDEs) usually assume the boundary conditions to be given, while more often than
Mondal, Praloy; Das, Debajyoti
2016-07-27
consequence of the increased carrier concentration. Highly conducting and transparent c-axis oriented ZnO:Ga:H films grown by a device compatible process at a low TS are extremely useful for various stacked layer thin film devices, including solar cells.
Boundary controllability of Maxwell's equations in a spherical region
Kime, Katherine A.
1987-02-01
This paper examines the question of control of electromagnetic fields in a three dimensional spherical region by means of control currents on the boundary of that region. Results of this type are significant in connection with the theory of waveguides, electromagnetic pulse devices, and stealth technology, as well as being of independent mathematical interest. The necessary theory of divergence-free solutions of the vector wave equation is developed. By use of eigenfunctions of the vector Laplacian in appropriate divergence-free domains and moment problem techniques, sufficient conditions for controllability are set forth.
An Aircraft Investigation of a Convective Boundary Layer Over Lake Michigan
1989-05-01
convective boundary layer and the capping inversion, as a result of the exchange of air parcels between the inversion and boundary layer. Figure 1.2...une nappe liquids transportant de la chaleur par convection en regime permanent. Ann. Chim. Phys., 23, 62-144. Braham, R.R., and R.D. Kelly, 1982
Stochastic Theory of Turbulence Mixing by Finite Eddies in the Turbulent Boundary Layer
Dekker, H.; Leeuw, G. de; Maassen van den Brink, A.
1995-01-01
Turbulence mixing is treated by means of a novel formulation of nonlocal K-theory, involving sample paths and a stochastic hypothesis. The theory simplifies for mixing by exchange (strong-eddies) and is then applied to the boundary layer (involving scaling). This maps boundary layer turbulence onto
On the Nature, Theory, and Modeling of Atmospheric Planetary Boundary Layers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baklanov, Alexander A.; Grisogono, Branko; Bornstein, Robert
2011-01-01
The gap between our modern understanding of planetary boundary layer physics and its decades-old representations in current operational atmospheric models is widening, which has stimulated this review of the current state of the art and an analysis of the immediate needs in boundary layer theory......, measurements, and modeling....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sisman, A. [Energy Institute, Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: sismanal@itu.edu.tr; Ozturk, Z.F. [Energy Institute, Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey); Firat, C. [Energy Institute, Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)
2007-02-19
Density distribution of an ideal Maxwellian gas confined in a finite domain is not uniform even in thermodynamic equilibrium. Near to the boundaries, there is a layer in which the density goes to zero. Existence of this boundary layer explains the shape and size dependence of the thermodynamic quantities in nano scale.
Motion of a sphere in an oscillatory boundary layer: an optical ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Shankar Ghosh
2006-11-12
Introduction. Motion of a sphere in an oscillatory boundary layer: an optical tweezer based study. Shankar Ghosh. November 12, 2006. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research. Co-workers : S. Bhattacharya and Prerna Sharma. Shankar Ghosh. Motion of a sphere in an oscillatory boundary layer: an optical tweezer based ...
Shooting method for solution of boundary-layer flows with massive blowing
Liu, T.-M.; Nachtsheim, P. R.
1973-01-01
A modified, bidirectional shooting method is presented for solving boundary-layer equations under conditions of massive blowing. Unlike the conventional shooting method, which is unstable when the blowing rate increases, the proposed method avoids the unstable direction and is capable of solving complex boundary-layer problems involving mass and energy balance on the surface.
On boundary layer flow of a sisko fluid over a stretching sheet | Khan ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper, the steady boundary layer flow of a non-Newtonian fluid over a nonlinear stretching sheet is investigated. The Sisko fluid model, which is combination of power-law and Newtonian fluids in which the fluid may exhibit shear thinning/thickening behaviors, is considered. The boundary layer equations are derived ...
Early Warning Signals for Regime Transition in the Stable Boundary Layer : A Model Study
van Hooijdonk, I.G.S.; Moene, A. F.; Scheffer, M.; Clercx, H. J H; van de Wiel, B.J.H.
2017-01-01
The evening transition is investigated in an idealized model for the nocturnal boundary layer. From earlier studies it is known that the nocturnal boundary layer may manifest itself in two distinct regimes, depending on the ambient synoptic conditions: strong-wind or overcast conditions typically
Jong, A.N. de; Eijk, A.M.J. van; Benoist, K.W.; Gunter, W.H.; Vrahimis, G.; October, F.J.
2011-01-01
Knowledge on the marine boundary layer is of importance for the prediction of the optical image quality obtained from long range targets. One property of the boundary layer, that can be studied rather easily by means of optical refraction measurements, is the vertical temperature profile. This
Efficient modelling of aerodynamic flows in the boundary layer for high performance computing
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Smith, L
2011-01-01
Full Text Available A unique technique to couple boundary-layer solutions with an inviscid solver is introduced. The boundary-layer solution is obtained using the two-integral method to solve displacement thickness with Newton’s method, at a fraction of the cost of a...
Numerical experiments in the stability of leading edge boundary layer flow. A two-dimensional study
Theofilis, Vassilios; Theofilis, V.
1993-01-01
A numerical study is performed in order to gain insight to the stability of the infinite swept attachment line boundary layer. The basic flow is taken to be of the Hiemenz class with an added cross-flow giving rise to a constant thickness boundary layer along the attachment line. The full
Hedlund, Brock E.; Houpt, Alec W.; Gordeyev, Stanislav V.; Leonov, Sergey B.
2017-10-01
This study was performed to characterize the dominant frequencies present in the boundary layer uptsream of and in the corner separation zone of a compression surface in Mach 4.5 flow and to determine a control effect of transient plasma actuation on the boundary layer. Schlieren imaging was used to distinguish the corner separation zone for 20°, 25°, and 30° compression ramps mounted on flat plates. Spectra of the natural disturbances present in the boundary layer and separation zone were gathered using a high-speed Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and surface mounted PCBTM pressure sensors while varying flow parameters by adjusting total pressure, temperature, and ramp angle. Shallow cavity discharge plasma actuators were used as a high-frequency localized thermal forcing mechanism of the boundary layer. The plasma effect was negligible for forcing frequencies (50 kHz) below the natural dominant frequency (~55-80 kHz). High frequency perturbations that can promote the transition to turbulence were amplified when the plasma forcing frequency (100 kHz) was higher than the natural dominant frequency (~55-80 kHz). This technique can potentially be used for active control of hypersonic boundary layer transition and the supersonic flow structure on the compression surface.
Planetary boundary layer and circulation dynamics at Gale Crater, Mars
Fonseca, Ricardo M.; Zorzano-Mier, María-Paz; Martín-Torres, Javier
2018-03-01
The Mars implementation of the Planet Weather Research and Forecasting (PlanetWRF) model, MarsWRF, is used here to simulate the atmospheric conditions at Gale Crater for different seasons during a period coincident with the Curiosity rover operations. The model is first evaluated with the existing single-point observations from the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS), and is then used to provide a larger scale interpretation of these unique measurements as well as to give complementary information where there are gaps in the measurements. The variability of the planetary boundary layer depth may be a driver of the changes in the local dust and trace gas content within the crater. Our results show that the average time when the PBL height is deeper than the crater rim increases and decreases with the same rate and pattern as Curiosity's observations of the line-of-sight of dust within the crater and that the season when maximal (minimal) mixing is produced is Ls 225°-315° (Ls 90°-110°). Thus the diurnal and seasonal variability of the PBL depth seems to be the driver of the changes in the local dust content within the crater. A comparison with the available methane measurements suggests that changes in the PBL depth may also be one of the factors that accounts for the observed variability, with the model results pointing towards a local source to the north of the MSL site. The interaction between regional and local flows at Gale Crater is also investigated assuming that the meridional wind, the dynamically important component of the horizontal wind at Gale, anomalies with respect to the daily mean can be approximated by a sinusoidal function as they typically oscillate between positive (south to north) and negative (north to south) values that correspond to upslope/downslope or downslope/upslope regimes along the crater rim and Mount Sharp slopes and the dichotomy boundary. The smallest magnitudes are found in the northern crater floor in a region that
Mclean, J. D.; Randall, J. L.
1979-01-01
A system of computer programs for calculating three dimensional transonic flow over wings, including details of the three dimensional viscous boundary layer flow, was developed. The flow is calculated in two overlapping regions: an outer potential flow region, and a boundary layer region in which the first order, three dimensional boundary layer equations are numerically solved. A consistent matching of the two solutions is achieved iteratively, thus taking into account viscous-inviscid interaction. For the inviscid outer flow calculations, the Jameson-Caughey transonic wing program FLO 27 is used, and the boundary layer calculations are performed by a finite difference boundary layer prediction program. Interface programs provide communication between the two basic flow analysis programs. Computed results are presented for the NASA F8 research wing, both with and without distributed surface suction.
Advances in Unsteady Boundary Layer Transition Research, Part II: Experimental Verification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. T. Schobeiri
2003-01-01
Full Text Available This two-part article presents recent advances in boundary layer research into the unsteady boundary layer transition modeling and its validation. This, Part II, deals with the results of an inductive approach based on comprehensive experimental and theoretical studies of unsteady wake flow and unsteady boundary layer flow. The experiments were performed on a curved plate at a zero streamwise pressure gradient under periodic unsteady wake flow, in which the frequency of the periodic unsteady flow was varied. To validate the model, systematic experimental investigations were performed on the suction and pressure surfaces of turbine blades integrated into a high-subsonic cascade test facility, which was designed for unsteady boundary layer investigations. The analysis of the experiment's results and comparison with the model's prediction confirm the validity of the model and its ability to predict accurately the unsteady boundary layer transition.
Current Challenges in Understanding and Forecasting Stable Boundary Layers over Land and Ice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gert-Jan eSteeneveld
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is challenging. Many physical processes come into play in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling and heterogeneity, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag. The development of robust stable boundary-layer parameterizations for weather and climate models is difficult because of the multiplicity of processes and their complex interactions. As a result, these models suffer from biases in key variables, such as the 2-m temperature, boundary-layer depth and wind speed. This short paper briefly summarizes the state-of-the-art of stable boundary layer research, and highlights physical processes that received only limited attention so far, in particular orographically-induced gravity wave drag, longwave radiation divergence, and the land-atmosphere coupling over a snow-covered surface. Finally, a conceptual framework with relevant processes and particularly their interactions is proposed.
Ardema, M. D.; Yang, L.
1985-01-01
A method of solving the boundary-layer equations that arise in singular-perturbation analysis of flightpath optimization problems is presented. The method is based on Picard iterations of the integrated form of the equations and does not require iteration to find unknown boundary conditions. As an example, the method is used to develop a solution algorithm for the zero-order boundary-layer equations of the aircraft minimum-time-to-climb problem.
Isa, Siti Suzilliana Putri Mohamed; Arifin, Norihan Md.; Nazar, Roslinda; Bachok, Norfifah; Ali, Fadzilah Md
2017-12-01
A theoretical study that describes the magnetohydrodynamic mixed convection boundary layer flow with heat transfer over an exponentially stretching sheet with an exponential temperature distribution has been presented herein. This study is conducted in the presence of convective heat exchange at the surface and its surroundings. The system is controlled by viscous dissipation and internal heat generation effects. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential equations by a similarity transformation. The converted equations are then solved numerically using the shooting method. The results related to skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number, velocity and temperature profiles are presented for several sets of values of the parameters. The effects of the governing parameters on the features of the flow and heat transfer are examined in detail in this study.
Modelling wall pressure fluctuations under a turbulent boundary layer
Doisy, Yves
2017-07-01
The derivation of the wave vector-frequency (w-f) spectrum of wall pressure fluctuations below a turbulent boundary layer developed over a rigid flat plate is re-considered. The Lighthill's equation for pressure fluctuations is derived in a frame of reference fix with respect to the plate, at low Mach numbers, and transformed into the convected frame moving with the flow. To model the source terms of the Lighthill equation, it is assumed that in the inertial range, the turbulence is locally isotropic in the convected frame. The w-f spectrum of isotropic turbulence is obtained from symmetry considerations by extending the isotropy to space time, based on the concept of sweeping velocity. The resulting solution for the pressure w-f spectrum contains a term (the mean shear-turbulence term) which does not fulfill the Kraichnan Philipps theorem, due to the form of the selected turbulent velocity spectrum. The viscous effects are accounted for by a cut-off depending on wall distance; this procedure allows extending the model beyond the inertial range contribution. The w-f pressure spectrum is derived and compared to the experimental low wavenumber data of Farabee and Geib (1991) [8] and Bonness et al. (2010) [5], for which a good agreement is obtained. The derived expression is also compared to Chase theoretical model Chase (1987) [6] and found to agree well in the vicinity of the convective ridge of the subsonic domain and to differ significantly both in supersonic and subsonic low wavenumber limits. The pressure spectrum derived from the model and its scaling are discussed and compared to experimental data and to the empirical model of Goody (2002) [23], which results from the compilation of a large set of experimental data. Very good agreement is obtained, except at vanishing frequencies where it is claimed that the experimental results lack of significance due to the limited size of the experimental facilities. This hypothesis supported by the results obtained from
Boundary layer measurements of the NACA0015 and implications for noise modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bertagnolio, F.
2011-01-15
A NACA0015 airfoil section instrumented with an array of high frequency microphones flush-mounted beneath its surface was measured in the wind tunnel at LM Wind Power in Lunderskov. Various inflow speeds and angles of attack were investigated. In addition, a hot-wire device system was used to measure the velocity profiles and turbulence characteristics in the boundary layer near the trailing edge of the airfoil. The measured boundary layer data are presented in this report and compared with CFD results. A relative good agreement is observed, though a few discrepancies also appear. Comparisons of surface pressure fluctuations spectra are used to analyze and improve trailing edge noise modeling by the so-called TNO model. Finally, a pair of hot-wires were placed on each side of the trailing edge in order to measure the radiated trailing edge noise. However, there is no strong evidence that such noise could be measured in the higher frequency range. Nevertheless, low-frequency noise could be measured and related to the presence of the airfoil but its origin is unclear. (Author)
Yeh, Li-Hsien; Fang, Kuo-Ying; Hsu, Jyh-Ping; Tseng, Shiojenn
2011-12-01
The electrophoresis of a soft particle comprising a rigid core and a charged porous membrane layer in a narrow space is modeled. This simulates, for example, the capillary electrophoresis of biocolloids such as cells and microorganisms, and biosensor types of device. We show that, in addition to the boundary effect, the effects of double-layer polarization (DLP) and the electroosmotic retardation flow can be significant, yielding interesting electrophoretic behaviors. For example, if the friction coefficient of the membrane layer and/or the boundary is large, then the DLP effect can be offset by the electroosmotic retardation flow, making the particle mobility to decrease with increasing double layer thickness, which is qualitatively consistent with many experimental observations in the literature, but has not been explained clearly in previous analyses. In addition, depending upon the thickness of double layer, the friction of the membrane layer of a particle can either retard or accelerate its movement, an interesting result which has not been reported previously. This work is the first attempt to show solid evidence for the influence of a boundary on the effect of DLP and the electrophoretic behavior of soft particles. The model proposed is verified by the experimental data in the literature. The results of numerical simulation provide valuable information for the design of bio-analytical apparatus such as nanopore-based sensing applications and for the interpretation of relevant experimental data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cursor Control Device Test Battery
Holden, Kritina; Sandor, Aniko; Pace, John; Thompson, Shelby
2013-01-01
include all of the underlined characters, or includes non-underlined characters, it is recorded as an error. Task 6, Multi-size and Multi-distance Pointing, presents the participant with 24 consecutively numbered buttons of different sizes (63 to 163 pixels), and at different distances (60 to 80 pixels) from the Start button. The task is to click on the Start button, and then move directly to, and click on, each numbered target button in consecutive order. Clicks outside of the target area are errors. Task 7, Standard Interface Elements Task, involves interacting with standard interface elements as instructed in written procedures, including: drop-down menus, sliders, text boxes, radio buttons, and check boxes. Task completion time is recorded. In Task 8, a circular track is presented with a disc in it at the top. Track width and disc size are adjustable. The task is to move the disc with circular motion within the path without touching the boundaries of the track. Time and errors are recorded. Task 9 is a discrete task that allows evaluation of discrete cursor control devices that tab from target to target, such as a castle switch. The task is to follow a predefined path and to click on the yellow targets along the path.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fernandes Cauduro, André Luis; dos Reis, Roberto; Chen, Gong
2017-01-01
The ability to control the interfacial properties in metal-oxide thin films through surface defect engineering is vital to fine-tune their optoelectronic properties and thus their integration in novel optoelectronic devices. This is exemplified in photovoltaic devices based on organic, inorganic...... with structural characterizations, this work addresses a novel method for tuning, and correlating, the optoelectronic properties and microstructure of device-relevant MoOx layers....
Felder, James L.; Kim, Huyn Dae; Brown, Gerald V.; Chu, Julio
2011-01-01
A Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion (TeDP) system differs from other propulsion systems by the use of electrical power to transmit power from the turbine to the fan. Electrical power can be efficiently transmitted over longer distances and with complex topologies. Also the use of power inverters allows the generator and motors speeds to be independent of one another. This decoupling allows the aircraft designer to place the core engines and the fans in locations most advantageous for each. The result can be very different installation environments for the different devices. Thus the installation effects on this system can be quite different than conventional turbofans where the fan and core both see the same installed environments. This paper examines a propulsion system consisting of two superconducting generators, each driven by a turboshaft engine located so that their inlets ingest freestream air, superconducting electrical transmission lines, and an array of superconducting motor driven fan positioned across the upper/rear fuselage area of a hybrid wing body aircraft in a continuous nacelle that ingests all of the upper fuselage boundary layer. The effect of ingesting the boundary layer on the design of the system with a range of design pressure ratios is examined. Also the impact of ingesting the boundary layer on off-design performance is examined. The results show that when examining different design fan pressure ratios it is important to recalculate of the boundary layer mass-average Pt and MN up the height for each inlet height during convergence of the design point for each fan design pressure ratio examined. Correct estimation of off-design performance is dependent on the height of the column of air measured from the aircraft surface immediately prior to any external diffusion that will flow through the fan propulsors. The mass-averaged Pt and MN calculated for this column of air determine the Pt and MN seen by the propulsor inlet. Since the height
Experimental study of wind turbine wakes in a convective boundary layer
Zhang, W.; Markfort, C. D.; Porte-Agel, F.
2010-12-01
Understanding the interaction of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flows with wind turbines is important for optimizing the design of wind farms (maximizing energy output and mitigating fatigue loads) and improving the parameterization of wind farms in weather and climate models. Field observations have suggested that atmospheric stability affects ABL flow and its interaction with wind turbines, which in turn affects wind farm performance. However, the fluid mechanics involved has not been fully understood, highlighting the need of acquiring high quality data in clearly defined conditions. Well-controlled wind tunnel experiments of the wake of wind turbines immersed in thermally stratified or convective boundary layers are very limited. In this study, we investigate the wake structure of a miniature three-blade wind turbine model placed in a convective boundary layer (CBL) in the Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory wind tunnel. The objectives of this study are: 1) to understand how the CBL flow affects the wake behind a wind turbine in terms of tip vortices distribution, mean velocity deficit, turbulence intensities, Reynolds shear stress and heat flux modification; 2) to provide reliable data sets for validating and developing new parameterizations of turbulent fluxes and turbine-induced forces in numerical models, such as large-eddy simulation (LES). The CBL was generated by cooling the free stream air flow to 13 οC and heating up the test section floor to 80 οC. The free stream speed was set at 2.5 m/s, resulting in the Obukhov stability of δ/L=-3.15 and the bulk Richardson number about -0.16. The wake of a wind turbine model, whose height is about 1/3 the boundary layer thickness, was systematically studied using Stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV) and a hot-wire/cold-wire anemometer. Results revealed the top tip vortices (in Fig.1), noticeably degraded velocity deficit and significantly enhanced turbulence. Turbulent momentum and heat fluxes were also
Ene, Remus-Daniel; Marinca, Vasile; Marinca, Bogdan
2016-01-01
Analytic approximate solutions using Optimal Homotopy Perturbation Method (OHPM) are given for steady boundary layer flow over a nonlinearly stretching wall in presence of partial slip at the boundary. The governing equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equation by means of similarity transformations. Some examples are considered and the effects of different parameters are shown. OHPM is a very efficient procedure, ensuring a very rapid convergence of the solutions after only two iterations.
A Note on the bottom shear stress in oscillatory planetary boundary layer flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dag Myrhaug
1988-07-01
Full Text Available A simple analytical theory is presented, which describes the motion in a turbulent oscillatory planetary boundary layer near a rough seabed using a two-layer, time-invariant eddy viscosity model. The bottom shear stress is outlined, and comparison is made with Pingree and Griffiths' (1974 measurements of turbulent tidal planetary boundary layer flow on the continental shelf south-west of Lands End, England.
Photovoltaic device comprising compositionally graded intrinsic photoactive layer
Hoffbauer, Mark A; Williamson, Todd L
2013-04-30
Photovoltaic devices and methods of making photovoltaic devices comprising at least one compositionally graded photoactive layer, said method comprising providing a substrate; growing onto the substrate a uniform intrinsic photoactive layer having one surface disposed upon the substrate and an opposing second surface, said intrinsic photoactive layer consisting essentially of In.sub.1-xA.sub.xN,; wherein: i. 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1; ii. A is gallium, aluminum, or combinations thereof; and iii. x is at least 0 on one surface of the intrinsic photoactive layer and is compositionally graded throughout the layer to reach a value of 1 or less on the opposing second surface of the layer; wherein said intrinsic photoactive layer is isothermally grown by means of energetic neutral atom beam lithography and epitaxy at a temperature of 600.degree. C. or less using neutral nitrogen atoms having a kinetic energy of from about 1.0 eV to about 5.0 eV, and wherein the intrinsic photoactive layer is grown at a rate of from about 5 nm/min to about 100 nm/min.
Dutton, J. C.; Carroll, B. F.
1988-01-01
Multiple shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions in constant or nearly constant area supersonic duct flows occur in a variety of devices including scramjet inlets, gas ejectors, and supersonic wind tunnels. For sufficiently high duct exit pressures, a multiple shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction or shock train may form in the duct and cause a highly nonuniform, and possibly unsteady, flow at the duct exit. In this report, the mean flow characteristics of two shock train interactions, one with an initial Mach number of 2.5 the other at Mach 1.6, are investigated using spark Schlieren photography, surface oil flow visualization, and mean wall pressure measurements. The Mach 2.5 interaction was oblique and asymmetric in nature. A large separation occurs after the first oblique shock. The top and bottom wall boundary layer separation has been investigated, revealing that the shape of the reattachment lines and surface flow patterns for the two separation regions are quite different. This oblique shock flow pattern occurs in a neurally stable fashion with each type of opposing separation region alternately existing on either the top or bottom wall during the course of a run. A small scale unsteadiness in the shock train location, with movement on the order of a boundary layer thickness, is also observed.
Tao, Lei; Theruvakkattil Sreenivasan, Sreeprasad; Shahsavari, Rouzbeh
2017-01-11
Improving heat transfer in hybrid nano/microelectronic systems is a challenge, mainly due to the high thermal boundary resistance (TBR) across the interface. Herein, we focus on gallium nitride (GaN)/diamond interface-as a model system with various high power, high temperature, and optoelectronic applications-and perform extensive reverse nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, decoding the interplay between the pillar length, size, shape, hierarchy, density, arrangement, system size, and the interfacial heat transfer mechanisms to substantially reduce TBR in GaN-on-diamond devices. We found that changing the conventional planar interface to nanoengineered, interlaced architecture with optimal geometry results in >80% reduction in TBR. Moreover, introduction of conformal graphene buffer layer further reduces the TBR by ∼33%. Our findings demonstrate that the enhanced generation of intermediate frequency phonons activates the dominant group velocities, resulting in reduced TBR. This work has important implications on experimental studies, opening up a new space for engineering hybrid nano/microelectronics.
Stellmach, S; Julien, K; Vasil, G; Cheng, J S; Ribeiro, A; King, E M; Aurnou, J M
2014-01-01
Rapidly rotating Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection is studied by combining results from direct numerical simulations (DNS), laboratory experiments and asymptotic modeling. The asymptotic theory is shown to provide a good description of the bulk dynamics at low, but finite Rossby number. However, large deviations from the asymptotically predicted heat transfer scaling are found, with laboratory experiments and DNS consistently yielding much larger Nusselt numbers than expected. These deviations are traced down to dynamically active Ekman boundary layers, which are shown to play an integral part in controlling heat transfer even for Ekman numbers as small as $10^{-7}$. By adding an analytical parameterization of the Ekman transport to simulations using stress-free boundary conditions, we demonstrate that the heat transfer jumps from values broadly compatible with the asymptotic theory to states of strongly increased heat transfer, in good quantitative agreement with no-slip DNS and compatible with the experimental d...
Numerical simulation of 3D boundary-driven acoustic streaming in microfluidic devices.
Lei, Junjun; Hill, Martyn; Glynne-Jones, Peter
2014-02-07
This article discusses three-dimensional (3D) boundary-driven streaming in acoustofluidic devices. Firstly, the 3D Rayleigh streaming pattern in a microchannel is simulated and its effect on the movement of microparticles of various sizes is demonstrated. The results obtained from this model show good comparisons with 3D experimental visualisations and demonstrate the fully 3D nature of the acoustic streaming field and the associated acoustophoretic motion of microparticles in acoustofluidic devices. This method is then applied to another acoustofluidic device in order to gain insights into an unusual in-plane streaming pattern. The origin of this streaming has not been fully described and its characteristics cannot be explained from the classical theory of Rayleigh streaming. The simulated in-plane streaming pattern was in good agreement with the experimental visualisation. The mechanism behind it is shown to be related to the active sound intensity field, which supports our previous findings on the mechanism of the in-plane acoustic streaming pattern visualised and modelled in a thin-layered capillary device.
Boundary layer photochemistry during a total solar eclipse
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Fabian
2001-05-01
Full Text Available Simultaneous measurements of radiation, photolysis frequencies, O3, CO, OH, PAN and NOx species were carried out in the boundary layer, along with pertinent meteorological parameters, under total solar eclipse conditions. This experiment performed at about 34 solar zenith angle and noontime conditions thus provided a case study about the interactions between radiation and photochemistry under fast ''day-night'' and ''night-day'' transitions, at high solar elevation. The results reveal a close correlation of photolysis frequencies jO(1D and jNO2with the UV radiation flux. All three parameters show, due to the decreasing fraction of direct radiation at shorter wavelengths, much weaker cloud shading effects than global solar radiation. NO and OH concentrations decrease to essentially zero during totality. Subsequently, NO and OH concentrations increased almost symmetrically to their decrease preceding totality. The NO/NO2 ratio was proportional to jNO2over 30 min before and after totality indicating that the partitioning of NOx species is determined by jNO2. Simple box model simulations show the effect of reduced solar radiation on the photochemical production of O3 and PAN. WÄhrend der totalen Sonnenfinsternis am 11. August 1999 wurden simultane und kontinuierliche Messungen von O3, CO, OH, PAN and NOx, Strahlung, Photolysefrequenzen und relevanten meteorologischen Parametern durchgefÜhrt. Dieses Experiment, durchgefÜhrt etwa am Mittag, bei 34 Zenithwinkel der Sonne, ermöglichte die Untersuchung der Interaktion von Strahlung und Photochemie fÜr schnelle Tag-Nacht und Nacht-Tag-ÜbergÄnge bei hohem Sonnenstand. Die Ergebnisse zeigen eine enge Korrelation der Photolysefrequenzen jO(1D und jNO2 mit dem UV-Strahlungsfluss. Alle drei Parameter zeigen, wegen des abnehmenden Anteils direkter Sonnenstrahlung bei kurzen WellenlÄngen, erheblich geringere AbschwÄchung durch Wolken als die Globalstrahlung. NO und OH gehen wÄhrend der
Inviscid/Boundary-Layer Aeroheating Approach for Integrated Vehicle Design
Lee, Esther; Wurster, Kathryn E.
2017-01-01
A typical entry vehicle design depends on the synthesis of many essential subsystems, including thermal protection system (TPS), structures, payload, avionics, and propulsion, among others. The ability to incorporate aerothermodynamic considerations and TPS design into the early design phase is crucial, as both are closely coupled to the vehicle's aerodynamics, shape and mass. In the preliminary design stage, reasonably accurate results with rapid turn-representative entry envelope was explored. Initial results suggest that for Mach numbers ranging from 9-20, a few inviscid solutions could reasonably sup- port surface heating predictions at Mach numbers variation of +/-2, altitudes variation of +/-10 to 20 kft, and angle-of-attack variation of +/- 5. Agreement with Navier-Stokes solutions was generally found to be within 10-15% for Mach number and altitude, and 20% for angle of attack. A smaller angle-of-attack increment than the 5 deg around times for parametric studies and quickly evolving configurations are necessary to steer design decisions. This investigation considers the use of an unstructured 3D inviscid code in conjunction with an integral boundary-layer method; the former providing the flow field solution and the latter the surface heating. Sensitivity studies for Mach number, angle of attack, and altitude, examine the feasibility of using this approach to populate a representative entry flight envelope based on a limited set of inviscid solutions. Each inviscid solution is used to generate surface heating over the nearby trajectory space. A subset of a considered in this study is recommended. Results of the angle-of-attack sensitivity studies show that smaller increments may be needed for better heating predictions. The approach is well suited for application to conceptual multidisciplinary design and analysis studies where transient aeroheating environments are critical for vehicle TPS and thermal design. Concurrent prediction of aeroheating
Advances in Unsteady Boundary Layer Transition Research, Part I: Theory and Modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. T. Schobeiri
2003-01-01
Full Text Available This two-part article presents recent advances in boundary layer research that deal with the unsteady boundary layer transition modeling and its validation. A new unsteady boundary layer transition model was developed based on a universal unsteady intermittency function. It accounts for the effects of periodic unsteady wake flow on the boundary layer transition. To establish the transition model, an inductive approach was implemented; the approach was based on the results of comprehensive experimental and theoretical studies of unsteady wake flow and unsteady boundary layer flow. The experiments were performed on a curved plate at a zero streamwise pressure gradient under a periodic unsteady wake flow, where the frequency of the periodic unsteady flow was varied. To validate the model, systematic experimental investigations were performed on the suction and pressure surfaces of turbine blades integrated into a high-subsonic cascade test facility, which was designed for unsteady boundary layer investigations. The analysis of the experiment's results and comparison with the model's prediction confirm the validity of the model and its ability to predict accurately the unsteady boundary layer transition.
Physical modeling of the atmospheric boundary layer in the UNH Flow Physics Facility
Taylor-Power, Gregory; Gilooly, Stephanie; Wosnik, Martin; Klewicki, Joe; Turner, John
2016-11-01
The Flow Physics Facility (FPF) at UNH has test section dimensions W =6.0m, H =2.7m, L =72m. It can achieve high Reynolds number boundary layers, enabling turbulent boundary layer, wind energy and wind engineering research with exceptional spatial and temporal instrument resolution. We examined the FPF's ability to experimentally simulate different types of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) using upstream roughness arrays. The American Society for Civil Engineers defines standards for simulating ABLs for different terrain types, from open sea to dense city areas (ASCE 49-12). The standards require the boundary layer to match a power law shape, roughness height, and power spectral density criteria. Each boundary layer type has a corresponding power law exponent and roughness height. The exponent and roughness height both increase with increasing roughness. A suburban boundary layer was chosen for simulation and a roughness element fetch was created. Several fetch lengths were experimented with and the resulting boundary layers were measured and compared to standards in ASCE 49-12: Wind Tunnel Testing for Buildings and Other Structures. Pitot tube and hot wire anemometers were used to measure average and fluctuating flow characteristics. Velocity profiles, turbulence intensity and velocity spectra were found to compare favorably.
Caicedo, Vanessa; Rappenglück, Bernhard; Lefer, Barry; Morris, Gary; Toledo, Daniel; Delgado, Ruben
2017-04-01
Three algorithms for estimating the boundary layer heights are assessed: an aerosol gradient method, a cluster analysis method, and a Haar wavelet method. Over 40 daytime clear-sky radiosonde profiles are used to compare aerosol backscatter boundary layer heights retrieved by a Vaisala CL31 ceilometer. Overall good agreement between radiosonde- and aerosol-derived boundary layer heights was found for all methods. The cluster method was found to be particularly sensitive to noise in ceilometer signals and lofted aerosol layers (48.8 % of comparisons), while the gradient method showed limitations in low-aerosol-backscatter conditions. The Haar wavelet method was demonstrated to be the most robust, only showing limitations in 22.5 % of all observations. Occasional differences between thermodynamically and aerosol-derived boundary layer heights were observed.
Optimally growing boundary layer disturbances in a convergent nozzle preceded by a circular pipe
Uzun, Ali; Davis, Timothy B.; Alvi, Farrukh S.; Hussaini, M. Yousuff
2017-06-01
We report the findings from a theoretical analysis of optimally growing disturbances in an initially turbulent boundary layer. The motivation behind this study originates from the desire to generate organized structures in an initially turbulent boundary layer via excitation by disturbances that are tailored to be preferentially amplified. Such optimally growing disturbances are of interest for implementation in an active flow control strategy that is investigated for effective jet noise control. Details of the optimal perturbation theory implemented in this study are discussed. The relevant stability equations are derived using both the standard decomposition and the triple decomposition. The chosen test case geometry contains a convergent nozzle, which generates a Mach 0.9 round jet, preceded by a circular pipe. Optimally growing disturbances are introduced at various stations within the circular pipe section to facilitate disturbance energy amplification upstream of the favorable pressure gradient zone within the convergent nozzle, which has a stabilizing effect on disturbance growth. Effects of temporal frequency, disturbance input and output plane locations as well as separation distance between output and input planes are investigated. The results indicate that optimally growing disturbances appear in the form of longitudinal counter-rotating vortex pairs, whose size can be on the order of several times the input plane mean boundary layer thickness. The azimuthal wavenumber, which represents the number of counter-rotating vortex pairs, is found to generally decrease with increasing separation distance. Compared to the standard decomposition, the triple decomposition analysis generally predicts relatively lower azimuthal wavenumbers and significantly reduced energy amplification ratios for the optimal disturbances.
Modelling study of boundary-layer ozone over northern China - Part I: Ozone budget in summer
Tang, Guiqian; Zhu, Xiaowan; Xin, Jinyuan; Hu, Bo; Song, Tao; Sun, Yang; Zhang, Jinqiang; Wang, Lili; Cheng, Mengtian; Chao, Na; Kong, Lingbin; Li, Xin; Wang, Yuesi
2017-05-01
Regional photochemical pollution caused by ozone (O3) is serious in northern China during summer. In this study, we combined network observation data with the Fifth-Generation Pennsylvania State/National Centre for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model -Community Multiscale Air Quality (MM5-CMAQ) model system to simulate O3 and its precursors'concentrations over northern China in June 2008. Comparisons of the simulations and observations indicate that the model can accurately reproduce the temporal and spatial distributions of temperature, humidity, and wind as well as the evolution of O3 and its precursors over northern China. The monthly mean of the total oxidants (nitrogen dioxide + O3) at 15:00 LT exceeded 90 ppbv across the North China Plain, thereby indicating significant photochemical pollution in this area. Vertical diffusion is the main source of the near-ground O3, with contributions of more than 20 ppbv h- 1 in the urban areas. Dry deposition and chemical reactions are the main sinks for O3, with contributions of more than 20 ppbv h- 1 and 7 ppbv h- 1 in the forest and urban areas, respectively. Although vertical diffusion is the main source of near-ground O3, photochemical reactions dominate the O3 concentrations in the boundary layer because of the circulation between the lower and upper boundary layers. Considering that O3 is mainly produced in the upper boundary layer, both nitrogen oxide and volatile organic compounds should be controlled on the North China Plain. The results presented here are intended to provide guidance for redefining strategies to control photochemical pollution over northern China.
Geologic Basin Boundaries (Basins_GHGRP) GIS Layer
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a coverage shapefile of geologic basin boundaries which are used by EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. For onshore production, the "facility" includes...
Response Timescales and Multiple Equilibria in Boundary-Layer Cloud-Aerosol Interaction
Bretherton, C. S.; Berner, A.; Wood, R.
2012-12-01
Large-eddy simulations (LES) of subtropical stratocumulus-topped boundary layers coupled to an interactive aerosol model are run for multiday periods to examine their coupled equilibria and adjustment timescales. The LES includes two-moment Morrison microphysics, interactive radiation, and Razzak-Ghan cloud droplet activation from a single log-normal size distribution of hygroscopic aerosol with prognosed total aerosol mass and number. The aerosol evolves due to surface and entrainment sources, dry coalescence, precipitation sinks coupled to the Morrison microphysics due to autoconversion and accretion of cloud droplets (and a source due to raindrop evaporation), and cloud and rain scavenging of interstitial aerosol. Simulations are initialized with an idealized southeast Pacific stratocumulus sounding based on observations during VOCALS REx and forced with specified SST, mean subsidence, geostrophic wind, and free-tropospheric aerosol concentration. The surface aerosol source is based on the Clarke parameterization for the dependence of sea-salt number concentration on wind speed. Both surface and free-tropospheric aerosol are assumed to quickly grow to a specified size due to a surface DMS source. The goal is to explore the adjustment timescales and long-term equilibria produced by this model, to compare with studies such as Wood et al. (2012) that postulate that remote marine boundary layer aerosol concentrations are controlled as much by the precipitation sink as the surface and entrainment sources. We show that the coupled cloud-aerosol model supports rapid transitions from a solid, high aerosol, stratocumulus-capped state to a cumulus-like state reminisniscent of pockets of open cells as the liquid water path rises above a threshold supporting sufficient precipitation. The system can support multiple long-term equilibria for the same boundary forcing, or slow oscillations between a collapsed POC-like state and a deepening, thickening stratocumulus
Kaufman, L. G., II; Johnson, C. B.
1981-09-01
Empirical anaytic methods are presented for calculating thermal and pressure distributions in three-dimensional, shock-wave turbulent-boundary-layer, interaction-flow regions on the surface of controllable hypersonic aircraft and missiles. The methods, based on several experimental investigations, are useful and reliable for estimating both the extent and magnitude of the increased thermal and pressure loads on the vehicle surfaces.
Integral method for the calculation of three-dimensional, laminar and turbulent boundary layers
Stock, H. W.
1978-01-01
The method for turbulent flows is a further development of an existing method; profile families with two parameters and a lag entrainment method replace the simple entrainment method and power profiles with one parameter. The method for laminar flows is a new development. Moment of momentum equations were used for the solution of the problem, the profile families were derived from similar solutions of boundary layer equations. Laminar and turbulent flows at the wings were calculated. The influence of wing tapering on the boundary layer development was shown. The turbulent boundary layer for a revolution ellipsoid is calculated for 0 deg and 10 deg incidence angles.
Development of a Flow Field for Testing a Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Propulsor
Hirt, Stefanie M.; Arend, David J.; Wolter, John D.
2017-01-01
The test section of the 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center was modified to produce the test conditions for a boundary-layer-ingesting propulsor. A test was conducted to measure the flow properties in the modified test section before the propulsor was installed. Measured boundary layer and freestream conditions were compared to results from computational fluid dynamics simulations of the external surface for the reference vehicle. Testing showed that the desired freestream conditions and boundary layer thickness could be achieved; however, some non-uniformity of the freestream conditions, particularly the total temperature, were observed.
Marine boundary layer wind structure over the Bay of Bengal during MONEX79
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
SethuRaman, S.
1981-01-01
A marine boundary layer experiment was conducted at Digha, West Bengal, India, to determine the role of the atmospheric boundary layer on the Bay of Bengal cyclogenesis. The boundary layer experiment at Digha consisted of three main components: (1) a 10 m micrometeorological tower at the beach with instruments to observe turbulent fluxes of heat and momentum over the ocean; (2) a weather station that continuously recorded mean parameters; and (3) pilot balloon observations to a height of about 1000 m. The purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the preliminary results obtained through the analysis of the data.
Zaryankin, A. E.
2017-11-01
The compatibility of the semiempirical turbulence theory of L. Prandtl with the actual flow pattern in a turbulent boundary layer is considered in this article, and the final calculation results of the boundary layer is analyzed based on the mentioned theory. It shows that accepted additional conditions and relationships, which integrate the differential equation of L. Prandtl, associating the turbulent stresses in the boundary layer with the transverse velocity gradient, are fulfilled only in the near-wall region where the mentioned equation loses meaning and are inconsistent with the physical meaning on the main part of integration. It is noted that an introduced concept about the presence of a laminar sublayer between the wall and the turbulent boundary layer is the way of making of a physical meaning to the logarithmic velocity profile, and can be defined as adjustment of the actual flow to the formula that is inconsistent with the actual boundary conditions. It shows that coincidence of the experimental data with the actual logarithmic profile is obtained as a result of the use of not particular physical value, as an argument, but function of this value.
A numerical solution of a singular boundary value problem arising in boundary layer theory.
Hu, Jiancheng
2016-01-01
In this paper, a second-order nonlinear singular boundary value problem is presented, which is equivalent to the well-known Falkner-Skan equation. And the one-dimensional third-order boundary value problem on interval [Formula: see text] is equivalently transformed into a second-order boundary value problem on finite interval [Formula: see text]. The finite difference method is utilized to solve the singular boundary value problem, in which the amount of computational effort is significantly less than the other numerical methods. The numerical solutions obtained by the finite difference method are in agreement with those obtained by previous authors.
46 CFR 116.415 - Fire control boundaries.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire control boundaries. 116.415 Section 116.415... ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.415 Fire control boundaries. (a) Type and construction of fire control... Class 0 minutes (iv) Penetrations in B-Class fire control boundaries for electrical cables, pipes...
The Modelling of Particle Resuspension in a Turbulent Boundary Layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Fan
2011-10-20
uncorrelated curve-fitted model. In view of recent numerical data for lift and drag forces in turbulent boundary layers, the lift and drag we have con sidered and the impact of these data on predictions made by the non-Gaussian R'n'R model are compared with those based on O'Neill formula. The results indicate that, in terms of the long-term resuspension fraction, the difference is minor. It is concluded that as the particle size decreases the L and B method will lead to less-and-less long-term resuspension. Finally the ultimate model that has been developed in this work is a hybrid version of the R'n'R model adapted for application to multilayer deposits based on the Friess and Yadigaroglu multilayer approach. The deposit is modelled in several overlying layers where the coverage effect (masking) of the deposit layers has been studied; in the first instance a monodisperse deposit with a coverage ratio factor was modelled where this was subsequently replaced by the more general case of a polydisperse deposit with a particle size distribution.
A Boundary Control Problem for the Viscous Cahn–Hilliard Equation with Dynamic Boundary Conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Colli, Pierluigi, E-mail: pierluigi.colli@unipv.it; Gilardi, Gianni, E-mail: gianni.gilardi@unipv.it [Universitá di Pavia and Research Associate at the IMATI – C.N.R. PAVIA, Dipartimento di Matematica “F. Casorati” (Italy); Sprekels, Jürgen, E-mail: juergen.sprekels@wias-berlin.de [Weierstrass Institute (Germany)
2016-04-15
A boundary control problem for the viscous Cahn–Hilliard equations with possibly singular potentials and dynamic boundary conditions is studied and first order necessary conditions for optimality are proved.
Compact, Controlled Resistance Exercise Device
Paulus, David C.; DeWitt, John K.; Reich, Alton J.; Shaw, James E.; Deaconu, Stelu S.
2011-01-01
Spaceflight leads to muscle and bone atrophy. Isoinertial (free-weight) exercises provide a sufficient stimulus to elicit increases in both muscle strength and bone mineral density in Earth-based studies. While exercise equipment is in use on the International Space Station for crewmember health maintenance, current devices are too large to place in a transport vehicle or small spacecraft. Therefore, a portable computer controlled resistance exercise device is being developed that is able to simulate the inertial loading experienced when lifting a mass on Earth. This portable device weighs less than 50 lb and can simulate the resistance of lifting and lowering up to 600 lb of free-weights. The objective is to allow crewmembers to perform resistance exercise with loads capable of maintaining muscle and bone health. The device is reconfigurable and allows for the performance of typical Earth-based free-weight exercises. Forces exerted, volume of work, range of motion, time-under-tension, and speed/ acceleration of movement are recorded and can be remotely monitored to track progress and modify individual protocols based on exercise session data. A performance evaluation will be completed and data will be presented that include ground-reaction force comparisons between the device and free-weight dead-lifts over a spectrum of resistance levels. Movement biomechanics will also be presented.
Development of Enhanced Window layers for CIGS Photovoltaic Devices
Alexander, J. Nicholas
One of the most promising thin film devices right now is the Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS) solar cell with maximum reported power conversion efficiency of 22.3%. The Transparent Conducting Oxide (TCO) which is the top layer of the CIGS device also known as the window layer, is responsible for collecting the electrons generated in the CIGS device and conducting them to the circuit. Development of a very low resistivity film with a high optical transmission is crucial for optimal performance of devices as well as the ability to be deployed without changes to their properties for several decades. Current TCOs such as indium tin oxide (ITO) and aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) are met with limitations with either using large amounts of expensive materials such as indium, often requiring and anneal step to obtain good conductivity, or have shown poor long term reliability. This thesis is focused on development of InZnO and zirconium doped InZnO as a potential replacement TCO to obtain high conductivity and high transmission like the leading TCOs without needing heated depositions, post deposition annealing, and maintain a good film reliability. Zirconium doping was employed to farther enhance both the optical and electrical properties through enhancement of the films high frequency permittivity of InZnO while providing improved reliability to the film. The films were grown through a mix of DC and RF co-sputtering. InZnO films were deposited at varying indium concentration ( 10-30%) and samples were able to achieve low resistivity ( 7x10-4 O-cm), high mobility (>30 cm2/v.s), high carrier concentration (>10 20 cm-3), while maintaining high transmission (> 80%) in the visible and near-infrared region. After zirconium was incorporated into the InZnO films by replacement of the ZnO target with a ZrO2/ZnO (5:95) target, films of Zr:InZnO were deposit through the same method to achieve films that maintained very similar electrical and optical properties. The little
A numerical investigation on the effects of slot geometry on shock boundary layer interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bazazzadeh, M.; Menshadi, M. D.; Karbasizadeh, M. [Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Esfahan (Turkmenistan)
2017-01-15
Slot is one of the features that control Shock wave-boundary layer interaction (SBLI), which is generally used to prevent strong interference from shockwaves to the boundary layer in supersonic flows. With this feature, the height of the triple point of λ shock significantly increases, and this increase causes a decline in shock power and pressure drop rate. In the current paper, the main focus is on the monitoring of the geometrical effect of slot as an influential parameter on the structure of the shock and flow characteristics by using numerical methods. Therefore, the averaged implicit Navier-Stokes equations and two equation standard k-ω turbulence models for the numerical simulation of the flow field have been used. Results indicate that the numerical results are fairly consistent with the experimental data. Because of the increase in the number of slots (n), and the leading leg of the λ shock is located within the slot, the height of the triple point increases. However, because of the increasing drops due to viscosity, the total pressure changes are negligible. In addition, with an increase in this parameter, changes in the static pressure caused by the leading leg of the shock have increased. By increasing the width of the slots, the height of the triple point has had an upward trend up to s = 8 mm and then had nearly constant values. In this mode, the static pressure changes resulting from the leading leg of the shock are negligible. For increasing the number or the width of slots, the re-expansion waves formed within the slot are removed because of the reduction in the severity of the changes in the boundary layer. To simulate and compare the results with the data obtained from the experimental tests, results from the Cambridge University's wind tunnel tests have been used.
Experimental investigation of a counter-rotating compressor with boundary layer suction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shi Lei
2015-08-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the aspirated modification of a dual-stage counter-rotating compressor which contains inlet guide vanes (IGVs, two counter-rotating rotors (R1, R2, and outlet guide vanes (OGVs. Uniform circular holes are circumferentially distributed over the rotors’ tips on the shroud casing which are designed to remove the low-energy fluid near the shroud casing. OGVs are hollow blades with two slots designed on the suction side which can better control the flow on the suction surface through boundary layer suction. Related works about the experiments have been carried out since June 2012 and the effect of flow suction on the performance of the compressor is investigated in detail. Characteristic lines at a 70% corrected rotating speed are tested and those with higher rotating speeds will be studied in the near future. Experimental results indicate that boundary layer suction can improve the compressor characteristics and the best suction methodology varies along the operating line. At the near stall condition, suction from the R2 tip region can obviously increase the efficiency and the total pressure ratio, as well as improve the flow capacity. Isentropic efficiency can be maximally increased by 4.24% with an increase of 1.94% in massflow under a suction flow of 160 m3/h. Suction at the R1 position with a suction rate below 0.35% in a high flow situation can make the performance of the compressor better than others. Around the peak efficiency point, boundary layer suction from the slots of OGVs is the best choice in improving the efficiency, but it causes a 0.1% loss in the total pressure ratio.
Applications of the Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) 'MASC' in Atmospheric Boundary Layer Research
Wildmann, Norman; Platis, Andreas; Tupman, David-James; Bange, Jens
2015-04-01
The remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) MASC (Multipurpose Airborne Sensor Carrier) was developed at the University of Tübingen in cooperation with the University of Stuttgart, University of Applied Sciences Ostwestfalen-Lippe and 'ROKE-Modelle'. Its purpose is the investigation of thermodynamic processes in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), including observations of temperature, humidity and wind profiles, as well as the measurement of turbulent heat, moisture and momentum fluxes. The aircraft is electrically powered, has a maximum wingspan of 3.40~m and a total weight of 5-8~kg, depending on the battery- and payload. The standard meteorological payload consists of two temperature sensors, a humidity sensor, a flow probe, an inertial measurement unit and a GNSS. The sensors were optimized for the resolution of small-scale turbulence down to length scales in the sub-meter range. In normal operation, the aircraft is automatically controlled by the ROCS (Research Onboard Computer System) autopilot to be able to fly predefined paths at constant altitude and airspeed. Only take-off and landing are carried out by a human RC pilot. Since 2012, the system is operational and has since then been deployed in more than ten measurement campaigns, with more than 100 measurement flights. The fields of research that were tackled in these campaigns include sensor validation, fundamental boundary-layer research and wind-energy research. In 2014, for the first time, two MASC have been operated at the same time within a distance of a few kilometres, in order to investigate the wind field over an escarpment in the Swabian Alb. Furthermore, MASC was first deployed off-shore in October 2014, starting from the German island Heligoland in the North Sea, for the purpose of characterization of the marine boundary layer for offshore wind parks. Detailed descriptions of the experimental setup and first preliminary results will be presented.
Application of the Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) 'MASC' in Atmospheric Boundary Layer Research
Wildmann, Norman; Bange, Jens
2014-05-01
The remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) MASC (Multipurpose Airborne Sensor Carrier) was developed at the University of Tübingen in cooperation with the University of Stuttgart, University of Applied Sciences Ostwestfalen-Lippe and 'ROKE-Modelle'. Its purpose is the investigation of thermodynamic processes in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), including observations of temperature, humidity and wind profiles, as well as the measurement of turbulent heat, moisture and momentum fluxes. The aircraft is electrically powered, has a maximum wingspan of 3.40 m and a total weight of 5-8 kg, depending on battery- and payload. The standard meteorological payload consists of temperature sensors, a humidity sensor, a flow probe, an inertial measurement unit and a GNSS. In normal operation, the aircraft is automatically controlled by the ROCS (Research Onboard Computer System) autopilot to be able to fly predefined paths at constant altitude and airspeed. Since 2010 the system has been tested and improved intensively. In September 2012 first comparative tests could successfully be performed at the Lindenberg observatory of Germany's National Meteorological Service (DWD). In 2013, several campaigns were done with the system, including fundamental boundary layer research, wind energy meteorology and assistive measurements to aerosol investigations. The results of a series of morning transition experiments in summer 2013 will be presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the measurement system. On several convective days between May and September, vertical soundings were done to record the evolution of the ABL in the early morning, from about one hour after sunrise, until noon. In between the soundings, flight legs of up to 1 km length were performed to measure turbulent statistics and fluxes at a constant altitude. With the help of surface flux measurements of a sonic anemometer, methods of similarity theory could be applied to the RPA flux measurements to compare them to
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Stratmann
2003-01-01
Full Text Available During the SATURN experiment, which took place from 27 May to 14 June 2002, new particle formation in the continental boundary layer was investigated. Simultaneous ground-based and tethered-balloon-borne measurements were performed, including meteorological parameters, particle number concentrations and size distributions, gaseous precursor concentrations and SODAR and LIDAR observations. Newly formed particles were observed inside the residual layer, before the break-up process of the nocturnal inversion, and inside the mixing layer throughout the break-up of the nocturnal inversion and during the evolution of the planetary boundary layer.
Boundary control of fluid flow through porous media
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hasan, Agus; Foss, Bjarne; Sagatun, Svein Ivar
2010-01-01
The flow of fluids through porous media can be described by the Boussinesq’s equation with mixed boundary conditions; a Neumann’s boundary condition and a nonlinear boundary condition. The nonlinear boundary condition provides a means to control the fluid flow through porous media. In this paper...
Coastal Stratocumulus-Topped Boundary Layers and the Role of Cloud-Top Entrainment
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Eleuterio, Daniel
2004-01-01
...) to accurately forecast the height and structure of the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) in the coastal zone is analyzed and compared to surface and aircraft observations from the Dynamics and Evolution of Coastal Stratus (DECS...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Shock Wave / Turbulent Boundary Layer Flows at High Mach Numbers. This web page provides data from experiments that may be useful for the validation of turbulence...
Study of the blowing impact on a hot turbulent boundary layer using Thermal Large Eddy Simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brillant, G. [CEA/Grenoble DEN/DER/SSTH/LMDL, 17 rue des Martyrs 38054, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); INSA/Centre de Thermique de Lyon (UMR CNRS 5008), Bat. Sadi Carnot 69621, Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Husson, S. [INSA/Centre de Thermique de Lyon (UMR CNRS 5008), Bat. Sadi Carnot 69621, Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Bataille, F. [INSA/Centre de Thermique de Lyon (UMR CNRS 5008), Bat. Sadi Carnot 69621, Villeurbanne Cedex (France)], E-mail: Francoise.Daumas-Bataille@univ-perp.fr; Ducros, F. [CEA/Grenoble DEN/DER/SSTH/LMDL, 17 rue des Martyrs 38054, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)
2008-12-15
We investigate Thermal Large Eddy Simulation in a complex case using Trio U. We develop a thermal turbulent inflow condition based on parallel flows in order to simulate a turbulent thermal boundary layer. This inflow condition is tested with a turbulent channel flow. We show that it produces fine profiles for velocity and temperature. Later, this inlet condition is used in the case of blowing through a porous plate. Two different blowing regimes are studied: the classical turbulent boundary layer and the blown off boundary layer. Comparisons show that we obtain similar experimental and numerical profiles (Brillant, G., Husson, S., Bataille, F., 2008. Experimental study of the blowing impact on a hot turbulent boundary layer. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 51 (7-8), 1996-2005.). We finish with additional results obtained only through numerical simulations.
Turbulence Models: Shock Boundary Layer Interaction at M=2.05
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Exp: Shock Boundary Layer Interaction at M=2.05. This web page provides data from experiments that may be useful for the validation of turbulence models. This...
Von Doenhoff, Albert E
1938-01-01
Boundary-layer surveys were made throughout the transition region along a smooth flat plate placed in an airstream of practically zero turbulence and with an adverse pressure gradient. The boundary-layer Reynolds number at the laminar separation point was varied from 1,800 to 2,600. The test data, when considered in the light of certain theoretical deductions, indicated that transition probably began with separation of the laminar boundary layer. The extent of the transition region, defined as the distance from a calculated laminar separation point to the position of the first fully developed turbulent boundary-layer profile, could be expressed as a constant Reynolds number run of approximately 70,000. Some speculations are presented concerning the application of the foregoing concepts, after certain assumptions have been made, to the problem of the connection between transition on the upper surface of an airfoil at high angles of attack and the maximum lift.
Budget of Turbulent Kinetic Energy in a Shock Wave Boundary-Layer Interaction
Vyas, Manan A.; Waindim, Mbu; Gaitonde, Datta V.
2016-01-01
Implicit large-eddy simulation (ILES) of a shock wave/boundary-layer interaction (SBLI) was performed. Quantities present in the exact equation of the turbulent kinetic energy transport were accumulated and used to calculate terms like production, dissipation, molecular diffusion, and turbulent transport. The present results for a turbulent boundary layer were validated by comparison with direct numerical simulation data. It was found that a longer development domain was necessary for the boundary layer to reach an equilibrium state and a finer mesh resolution would improve the predictions. In spite of these findings, trends of the present budget match closely with that of the direct numerical simulation. Budgets for the SBLI region are presented at key axial stations. These budgets showed interesting dynamics as the incoming boundary layer transforms and the terms of the turbulent kinetic energy budget change behavior within the interaction region.
Global Stability Analysis of a Roughness Wake in a Falkner–Skan–Cooke Boundary Layer
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Brynjell-Rahkola, Mattias; Schlatter, Philipp; Hanifi, Ardeshir; Henningson, Dan S
2015-01-01
..., FOI, SE-164 90 Stockholm, SwedenAbstractA global stability analysis of a FalknerâSkanâCooke boundary layer with distributed three-dimensional surface roughness is per-formed using hig...
Clouds, Aerosols, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer: An Arm Mobile Facility Deployment
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Wood, Robert; Wyant, Matthew; Bretherton, Christopher S; Rémillard, Jasmine; Kollias, Pavlos; Fletcher, Jennifer; Stemmler, Jayson; de Szoeke, Simone; Yuter, Sandra; Miller, Matthew; Mechem, David; Tselioudis, George; Chiu, J. Christine; Mann, Julian A. L; O’Connor, Ewan J; Hogan, Robin J; Dong, Xiquan; Miller, Mark; Ghate, Virendra; Jefferson, Anne; Min, Qilong; Minnis, Patrick; Palikonda, Rabindra; Albrecht, Bruce; Luke, Ed; Hannay, Cecile; Lin, Yanluan
2015-01-01
.... The need for improved long-term but comprehensive measurements at a marine low-cloud site motivated the Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL; www.arm .gov/sites/amf/grw...
Slippage and boundary layer probed in an almost ideal gas by a nanomechanical oscillator.
Defoort, M; Lulla, K J; Crozes, T; Maillet, O; Bourgeois, O; Collin, E
2014-09-26
We measure the interaction between ⁴He gas at 4.2 K and a high-quality nanoelectromechanical string device for its first three symmetric modes (resonating at 2.2, 6.7, and 11 MHz with quality factor Q>0.1×10⁶) over almost 6 orders of magnitude in pressure. This fluid can be viewed as the best experimental implementation of an almost ideal monoatomic and inert gas of which properties are tabulated. The experiment ranges from high pressure where the flow is of laminar Stokes-type presenting slippage down to very low pressures where the flow is molecular. In the molecular regime, when the mean-free path is of the order of the distance between the suspended nanomechanical probe and the bottom of the trench, we resolve for the first time the signature of the boundary (Knudsen) layer onto the measured dissipation. Our results are discussed in the framework of the most recent theories investigating boundary effects in fluids (both analytic approaches and direct simulation Monte Carlo methods).
Allaerts, Dries; Meyers, Johan
2017-11-01
Wind farm design and control often relies on fast analytical wake models to predict turbine wake interactions and associated power losses. Essential input to these models are the inflow velocity and turbulent intensity at hub height, which come from prior measurement campaigns or wind-atlas data. Recent LES studies showed that in some situations large wind farms excite atmospheric gravity waves, which in turn affect the upstream wind conditions. In the current study, we develop a fast boundary-layer model that computes the excitation of gravity waves and the perturbation of the boundary-layer flow in response to an applied force. The core of the model is constituted by height-averaged, linearised Navier-Stokes equations for the inner and outer layer, and the effect of atmospheric gravity waves (excited by the boundary-layer displacement) is included via the pressure gradient. Coupling with analytical wake models allows us to study wind-farm wakes and upstream flow deceleration in various atmospheric conditions. Comparison with wind-farm LES results shows excellent agreement in terms of pressure and boundary-layer displacement levels. The authors acknowledge support from the European Research Council (FP7-Ideas, Grant No. 306471).
Jimenez, Maria A.; Angevine, Wayne M.; Bazile, Eric; Couvreux, Fleur; Cuxart, Joan; Pino, David; Sastre, Mariano
2014-05-01
The Convective (diurnal, CBL) and Stably stratified (nocturnal, SBL) Boundary Layers over land have been extensively observed and relatively successfully modeled. But the early morning transition, when the CBL emerges from the nocturnal boundary layer, and the late afternoon transition, when the CBL decays to an intermittently turbulent residual layer overlying a SBL, are difficult to observe and model due to the intermittency and anisotropy of turbulence, horizontal heterogeneity and rapid changes in time. The Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) experimental field campaign took place in Lannemezan, a plateau located at the foothills of the Pyrenees, during June and July 2011. The aim of this project is to have more and better observations of the late afternoon and morning transitions and to further explore the mechanisms that control it. In this work, different mesoscale models (WRF, MesoNH, AROME, ARPEGE) are run under the same conditions during 24 hours (from 0000 UTC 25th June 2011 to the next day) to evaluate their performance during both transitions. Particular effort has been made to analyze the surface conditions. For this reason, the WRF simulations include a novel technique to spin-up soil conditions to obtain a better representation of surface fluxes. The model outputs are compared to the observations (soundings, UAV, radar and surface stations). It is found that the results depend on the initial conditions but also on the parameterizations of the boundary layer and the surface.
Double graphene-layer structures for adaptive devices
Mitin, V.; Ryzhii, V.; Otsuji, T.; Ryzhii, M.; Shur, M. S.
2014-06-01
Among different carbon materials (diamond, graphite, fullerene, carbon nanotubes), graphene and more complex graphene-based structures attracted a considerable attention. The gapless energy spectrum of graphene implies that graphene can absorb and emit photons with rather low energies corresponding to terahertz (THz) and infrared (IR) ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. In this presentation, the discussion is focused on the double-graphene-layer (double-GL) structures. In these structures, GLs are separated by a barrier layer (Boron Nitride, Silicon Carbide, and so on). Applying voltage between GLs, one can realize the situation when one GL is filled with electrons while the other is filled with holes. The variation of the applied voltage leads to the variations of the Fermi energies and, hence, to the change of the interband and intraband absorption of electromagnetic radiation and to the variation of the tunneling current. The plasma oscillations in double-GL structures exhibit interesting features. This is mainly because each GL serves as the gate for the other GL. The spectrum of the plasma oscillations in the double-GL structures falls into the terahertz range (THz) of frequencies and can be effectively controlled by the bias voltage. In this paper, we discuss the effects of the excitation of the plasma oscillations by incoming THz radiation and by optical radiation of two lasers with close frequencies as well as negative differential conductivity of the N-type and Z-type. These effects can be used in resonant THz detectors and THz photomixers. The models of devices based on double-GL structures as well as their characteristics are discussed.
The Azimuthally Averaged Boundary Layer Structure of a Numerically Simulated Major Hurricane
2015-08-14
Williams et al., 2013; Williams, 2015; Slocum et al., 2014]. Other work argues that a quasi-linear generaliza- tion of Ekman theory suffices for obtaining...secondary eyewall formation and evolution [cf. Williams et al., 2013; Williams, 2015; Slocum et al., 2014]. 4.2. Boundary Layer Dynamics Figures 3–5...September, Mon. Weather Rev., 142, 3–28. Slocum , C. J., G. J. Williams, R. K. Taft, and W. H. Schubert (2014), Tropical cyclone boundary layer shocks
Assessment of CFD Modeling Capability for Hypersonic Shock Wave Boundary Layer Interactions
2015-11-30
RUTGERS UNIVERSITY Final Technical Report ONR Grant N00014-14-1-0827 Assessment of CFD Modeling Capability for Hypersonic Shock Wave Boundary...Layer Interactions 30 November 2015 Doyle Knight Dept Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey 98 Brett...30 September 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Assessment of CFD Modeling Capability for Hypersonic Shock Wave Boundary Layer Interactions 5a. CONTRACT
Stability Analysis of High-Speed Boundary-Layer Flow with Gas Injection (Briefing Charts)
2014-06-01
boundary-layer flow with gas injection 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Alexander V. Fedorov ...Release; Distribution Unlimited Stability analysis of high-speed boundary-layer flow with gas injection Alexander Fedorov and Vitaly Soudakov Moscow...Dispersion relation from WKB analysis*,**: *Guschin, V.R., & Fedorov , A.V., Fluid Dynamics, Vol. 24, No.1, 1989 **Guschin, V.R., & Fedorov , A.V., NASA
Study of stable atmospheric boundary layer characterization over highveld region of South Africa
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Luhunga, P
2011-09-01
Full Text Available ATMOSPHERIC BOUNDARY LAYER CHARACTERIZATION OVER HIGHVELD REGION OF SOUTH AFRICA Philbert Luhunga1, 2, 3, George Djolov1, Venkataraman Sivakumar1,4,5 1 University of Pretoria, Department of Geography Geoinformatics and Meterology, Lynnwood road, 0001.... INTRODUCTION The stable atmospheric boundary layer (SBL) study over the Highveld South Africa has a special relevance, since it has the majority of the electric power generating plants located in this region. SBL is characterized by a steady wind near...
SU-8 Guiding Layer for Love Wave Devices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael I. Newton
2007-11-01
Full Text Available SU-8 is a technologically important photoresist used extensively for thefabrication of microfluidics and MEMS, allowing high aspect ratio structures to beproduced. In this work we report the use of SU-8 as a Love wave sensor guiding layerwhich allows the possibility of integrating a guiding layer with flow cell during fabrication.Devices were fabricated on ST-cut quartz substrates with a single-single finger design suchthat a surface skimming bulk wave (SSBW at 97.4 MHz was excited. SU-8 polymer layerswere successively built up by spin coating and spectra recorded at each stage; showing afrequency decrease with increasing guiding layer thickness. The insertion loss andfrequency dependence as a function of guiding layer thickness was investigated over thefirst Love wave mode. Mass loading sensitivity of the resultant Love wave devices wasinvestigated by deposition of multiple gold layers. Liquid sensing using these devices wasalso demonstrated; water-glycerol mixtures were used to demonstrate sensing of density-viscosity and the physical adsorption and removal of protein was also assessed usingalbumin and fibrinogen as model proteins.
Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment in Spain (SABLES 98) : a report
Cuxart, J.; Yague, C.; Morales, G.; Terradelles, E.; Orbe, J.; Calvo, J.; Vilu-Guerau, de J.; Soler, M.R.; Infante, C.; Buenestado, P.; Espinalt, A.; Jorgensem, H.E.
2000-01-01
This paper describes the Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment in Spain (SABLES 98), which took place over the northern Spanish plateau comprising relatively flat grassland, in September 1998. The main objectives of the campaign were to study the properties of the mid-latitude stable boundary
Long-Wave Instability of Advective Flows in Inclined Layer with Solid Heat Conductive Boundaries
Sagitov, R V
2011-01-01
We investigate the stability of the steady convective flow in a plane tilted layer with ideal thermal conductivity of solid boundaries in the presence of uniform longitudinal temperature gradient. Analytically found the stability boundary with respect to the long-wave perturbations, find the critical Grashof number for the most dangerous among them of even spiral perturbation.
A boundary-layer cloud study using Southern Great Plains Cloud and radiation testbed (CART) data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Albrecht, B.; Mace, G.; Dong, X.; Syrett, W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others
1996-04-01
Boundary layer clouds-stratus and fairweather cumulus - are closely coupled involves the radiative impact of the clouds on the surface energy budget and the strong dependence of cloud formation and maintenance on the turbulent fluxes of heat and moisture in the boundary layer. The continuous data collection at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site provides a unique opportunity to study components of the coupling processes associated with boundary layer clouds and to provide descriptions of cloud and boundary layer structure that can be used to test parameterizations used in climate models. But before the CART data can be used for process studies and parameterization testing, it is necessary to evaluate and validate data and to develop techniques for effectively combining the data to provide meaningful descriptions of cloud and boundary layer characteristics. In this study we use measurements made during an intensive observing period we consider a case where low-level stratus were observed at the site for about 18 hours. This case is being used to examine the temporal evolution of cloud base, cloud top, cloud liquid water content, surface radiative fluxes, and boundary layer structure. A method for inferring cloud microphysics from these parameters is currently being evaluated.
Early Warning Signals for Regime Transition in the Stable Boundary Layer: A Model Study
van Hooijdonk, I. G. S.; Moene, A. F.; Scheffer, M.; Clercx, H. J. H.; van de Wiel, B. J. H.
2017-02-01
The evening transition is investigated in an idealized model for the nocturnal boundary layer. From earlier studies it is known that the nocturnal boundary layer may manifest itself in two distinct regimes, depending on the ambient synoptic conditions: strong-wind or overcast conditions typically lead to weakly stable, turbulent nights; clear-sky and weak-wind conditions, on the other hand, lead to very stable, weakly turbulent conditions. Previously, the dynamical behaviour near the transition between these regimes was investigated in an idealized setting, relying on Monin-Obukhov (MO) similarity to describe turbulent transport. Here, we investigate a similar set-up, using direct numerical simulation; in contrast to MO-based models, this type of simulation does not need to rely on turbulence closure assumptions. We show that previous predictions are verified, but now independent of turbulence parametrizations. Also, it appears that a regime shift to the very stable state is signaled in advance by specific changes in the dynamics of the turbulent boundary layer. Here, we show how these changes may be used to infer a quantitative estimate of the transition point from the weakly stable boundary layer to the very stable boundary layer. In addition, it is shown that the idealized, nocturnal boundary-layer system shares important similarities with generic non-linear dynamical systems that exhibit critical transitions. Therefore, the presence of other, generic early warning signals is tested as well. Indeed, indications are found that such signals are present in stably stratified turbulent flows.
Fuselage boundary-layer refraction of fan tones radiated from an installed turbofan aero-engine.
Gaffney, James; McAlpine, Alan; Kingan, Michael J
2017-03-01
A distributed source model to predict fan tone noise levels of an installed turbofan aero-engine is extended to include the refraction effects caused by the fuselage boundary layer. The model is a simple representation of an installed turbofan, where fan tones are represented in terms of spinning modes radiated from a semi-infinite circular duct, and the aircraft's fuselage is represented by an infinitely long, rigid cylinder. The distributed source is a disk, formed by integrating infinitesimal volume sources located on the intake duct termination. The cylinder is located adjacent to the disk. There is uniform axial flow, aligned with the axis of the cylinder, everywhere except close to the cylinder where there is a constant thickness boundary layer. The aim is to predict the near-field acoustic pressure, and in particular, to predict the pressure on the cylindrical fuselage which is relevant to assess cabin noise. Thus no far-field approximations are included in the modelling. The effect of the boundary layer is quantified by calculating the area-averaged mean square pressure over the cylinder's surface with and without the boundary layer included in the prediction model. The sound propagation through the boundary layer is calculated by solving the Pridmore-Brown equation. Results from the theoretical method show that the boundary layer has a significant effect on the predicted sound pressure levels on the cylindrical fuselage, owing to sound radiation of fan tones from an installed turbofan aero-engine.
Response of a hypersonic boundary layer to freestream pulse acoustic disturbance.
Wang, Zhenqing; Tang, Xiaojun; Lv, Hongqing
2014-01-01
The response of hypersonic boundary layer over a blunt wedge to freestream pulse acoustic disturbance was investigated. The stability characteristics of boundary layer for freestream pulse wave and continuous wave were analyzed comparatively. Results show that freestream pulse disturbance changes the thermal conductivity characteristics of boundary layer. For pulse wave, the number of main disturbance clusters decreases and the frequency band narrows along streamwise. There are competition and disturbance energy transfer among different modes in boundary layer. The dominant mode of boundary layer has an inhibitory action on other modes. Under continuous wave, the disturbance modes are mainly distributed near fundamental and harmonic frequencies, while under pulse wave, the disturbance modes are widely distributed in different modes. For both pulse and continuous waves, most of disturbance modes slide into a lower-growth or decay state in downstream, which is tending towards stability. The amplitude of disturbance modes in boundary layer under continuous wave is considerably larger than pulse wave. The growth rate for the former is also considerably larger than the later the disturbance modes with higher growth are mainly distributed near fundamental and harmonic frequencies for the former, while the disturbance modes are widely distributed in different frequencies for the latter.
Wind tunnel study of a vertical axis wind turbine in a turbulent boundary layer flow
Rolin, Vincent; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2015-04-01
Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) are in a relatively infant state of development when compared to their cousins the horizontal axis wind turbines. Very few studies have been carried out to characterize the wake flow behind VAWTs, and virtually none to observe the influence of the atmospheric boundary layer. Here we present results from an experiment carried out at the EPFL-WIRE boundary-layer wind tunnel and designed to study the interaction between a turbulent boundary layer flow and a VAWT. Specifically we use stereoscopic particle image velocimetry to observe and quantify the influence of the boundary layer flow on the wake generated by a VAWT, as well as the effect the VAWT has on the boundary layer flow profile downstream. We find that the wake behind the VAWT is strongly asymmetric, due to the varying aerodynamic forces on the blades as they change their position around the rotor. We also find that the wake adds strong turbulence levels to the flow, particularly on the periphery of the wake where vortices and strong velocity gradients are present. The boundary layer is also shown to cause greater momentum to be entrained downwards rather than upwards into the wake.
Allabakash, S.; Yasodha, P.; Bianco, L.; Venkatramana Reddy, S.; Srinivasulu, P.; Lim, S.
2017-09-01
This paper presents the efficacy of a "tuned" fuzzy logic method at determining the height of the boundary layer using the measurements from a 1280 MHz lower atmospheric radar wind profiler located in Gadanki (13.5°N, 79°E, 375 mean sea level), India, and discusses the diurnal and seasonal variations of the measured convective boundary layer over this tropical station. The original fuzzy logic (FL) method estimates the height of the atmospheric boundary layer combining the information from the range-corrected signal-to-noise ratio, the Doppler spectral width of the vertical velocity, and the vertical velocity itself, measured by the radar, through a series of thresholds and rules, which did not prove to be optimal for our radar system and geographical location. For this reason the algorithm was tuned to perform better on our data set. Atmospheric boundary layer heights obtained by this tuned FL method, the original FL method, and by a "standard method" (that only uses the information from the range-corrected signal-to-noise ratio) are compared with those obtained from potential temperature profiles measured by collocated Global Positioning System Radio Sonde during years 2011 and 2013. The comparison shows that the tuned FL method is more accurate than the other methods. Maximum convective boundary layer heights are observed between 14:00 and 15:00 local time (LT = UTC + 5:30) for clear-sky days. These daily maxima are found to be lower during winter and postmonsoon seasons and higher during premonsoon and monsoon seasons, due to net surface radiation and convective processes over this region being more intense during premonsoon and monsoon seasons and less intense in winter and postmonsoon seasons.
Wind Turbine Performance in an Atmospheric Boundary Layer: Betz Analysis Revisited
West, Jacob; Lele, Sanjiva
2017-11-01
Using large eddy simulation of an infinite (periodic in x and y) wind farm, we compute momentum and mean mechanical energy budgets. We focus on the control volume defined by a streamtube of the mean flow that intersects with a turbine actuator disk, in a similar way as traditional Betz analysis is done for a streamtube in inviscid, irrotational flow through an actuator disk. This analysis reveals that many of the same phenomena from Betz analysis are found in the atmospheric boundary layer case. The streamtube expands as the fluid decelerates through the turbine, and the pressure increases and then drops sharply across the actuator disk. However, away from the turbine, the downstream streamtube shrinks and fluid accelerates due to turbulent mixing. In this way, turbulence alters the idealization of the Betz streamtube. We anticipate that the Betz analysis can be applied most effectively to a wind turbine in the atmospheric boundary layer by focusing on the immediate vicinity around the turbine, where inviscid, potential flow effects dominate. Adjustments can be made to account for the vertical energy flux in wind farms, as well as the energy contained in velocity fluctuations.
Riley, Zachary Bryce
The use of thin-gauge, light-weight structures in combination with the severe aero-thermodynamic loading makes reusable hypersonic cruise vehicles prone to fluid-thermal-structural interactions. These interactions result in surface perturbations in the form of temperature changes and deformations that alter the stability and eventual transition of the boundary layer. The state of the boundary layer has a significant effect on the aerothermodynamic loads acting on a hypersonic vehicle. The inherent relationship between boundary-layer stability, aerothermodynamic loading, and surface conditions make the interaction between the structural response and boundary-layer transition an important area of study in high-speed flows. The goal of this dissertation is to examine the interaction between boundary layer transition and the response of aerothermally compliant structures. This is carried out by first examining the uncoupled problems of: (1) structural deformation and temperature changes altering boundary-layer stability and (2) the boundary layer state affecting structural response. For the former, the stability of boundary layers developing over geometries that typify the response of surface panels subject to combined aerodynamic and thermal loading is numerically assessed using linear stability theory and the linear parabolized stability equations. Numerous parameters are examined including: deformation direction, deformation location, multiple deformations in series, structural boundary condition, surface temperature, the combined effect of Mach number and altitude, and deformation mode shape. The deformation-induced pressure gradient alters the boundary-layer thickness, which changes the frequency of the most-unstable disturbance. In regions of small boundary-layer growth, the disturbance frequency modulation resulting from a single or multiple panels deformed into the flowfield is found to improve boundary-layer stability and potentially delay transition. For the
Velocity Spectra in the Unstable Planetary Boundary Layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Højstrup, Jørgen
1982-01-01
Models for velocity spectra of all three components in the lower half of the unstable PBL are presented. The model spectra are written as a sum of two parts, nS(n) = A(fi, z/zi)w*2 + B(f, z/zi)u*02, a mixed layer part with a stability dependence, and a surface layer part without stability...... dependence and with negligible influence of z/zi in B in the surface layer; A is independent of z/zi for the horizontal components. The model agrees very well with data for variances, peak frequencies and spectra from the Kansas and Minnesota experiments. Requirements for models of spectra in the upper half...
Pulsed Plasma with Synchronous Boundary Voltage for Rapid Atomic Layer Etching
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Economou, Demetre J.; Donnelly, Vincent M.
2014-05-13
Atomic Layer ETching (ALET) of a solid with monolayer precision is a critical requirement for advancing nanoscience and nanotechnology. Current plasma etching techniques do not have the level of control or damage-free nature that is needed for patterning delicate sub-20 nm structures. In addition, conventional ALET, based on pulsed gases with long reactant adsorption and purging steps, is very slow. In this work, novel pulsed plasma methods with synchronous substrate and/or “boundary electrode” bias were developed for highly selective, rapid ALET. Pulsed plasma and tailored bias voltage waveforms provided controlled ion energy and narrow energy spread, which are critical for highly selective and damage-free etching. The broad goal of the project was to investigate the plasma science and engineering that will lead to rapid ALET with monolayer precision. A combined experimental-simulation study was employed to achieve this goal.
Heerwaarden, van C.C.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Moene, A.F.; Holtslag, A.A.M.
2009-01-01
The influence of dry-air entrainment on surface heat fluxes and the convective boundary-layer (CBL) properties is studied for vegetated land surfaces, using a mixed-layer CBL model coupled to the Penman¿Monteith equation under a wide range of conditions. In order to address the complex behaviour of
Formulation of a Prototype Coupled Atmospheric and Oceanic Boundary Layer Model.
1982-12-01
layers. The approach will be to compare observed evolutions in the oceanic and atmospheric boundary layers with predictions from bulk modelo wherein...a very complex subject and is beyond the scope of this paper. An excellent review of this sub- ject has beer. published by Fairall (1981). An
A New Spectral Local Linearization Method for Nonlinear Boundary Layer Flow Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. S. Motsa
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a simple and efficient method for solving highly nonlinear systems of boundary layer flow problems with exponentially decaying profiles. The algorithm of the proposed method is based on an innovative idea of linearizing and decoupling the governing systems of equations and reducing them into a sequence of subsystems of differential equations which are solved using spectral collocation methods. The applicability of the proposed method, hereinafter referred to as the spectral local linearization method (SLLM, is tested on some well-known boundary layer flow equations. The numerical results presented in this investigation indicate that the proposed method, despite being easy to develop and numerically implement, is very robust in that it converges rapidly to yield accurate results and is more efficient in solving very large systems of nonlinear boundary value problems of the similarity variable boundary layer type. The accuracy and numerical stability of the SLLM can further be improved by using successive overrelaxation techniques.
An Experimental Investigation of the Boundary Layer under Pack Ice
1975-01-01
Layer- Under Pack Ice- 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AU.THOR(s) -8. CONTRACT OR GRANT’NUMBER(r) ’ eMiles -G. McPhee N-00014-67-A-0103-0021 .N-00014... nolds number the range of the spectrum in which dissipation occurs is locally Isotropic and depends only on the viscosity, v, and the energy
Clouds, Aerosols, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer: An Arm Mobile Facility Deployment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wood, Robert; Wyant, Matthew; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Rémillard, Jasmine; Kollias, Pavlos; Fletcher, Jennifer; Stemmler, Jayson; de Szoeke, Simone; Yuter, Sandra; Miller, Matthew; Mechem, David; Tselioudis, George; Chiu, J. Christine; Mann, Julian A. L.; O’Connor, Ewan J.; Hogan, Robin J.; Dong, Xiquan; Miller, Mark; Ghate, Virendra; Jefferson, Anne; Min, Qilong; Minnis, Patrick; Palikonda, Rabindra; Albrecht, Bruce; Luke, Ed; Hannay, Cecile; Lin, Yanluan
2015-03-01
The Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) 38 deployment at Graciosa Island in the Azores generated a 21 month (April 2009-December 2010) 39 comprehensive dataset documenting clouds, aerosols and precipitation using the Atmospheric 40 Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF). The scientific aim of the deployment is 41 to gain improved understanding of the interactions of clouds, aerosols and precipitation in the 42 marine boundary layer. 43 Graciosa Island straddles the boundary between the subtropics and midlatitudes in the 44 Northeast Atlantic Ocean, and consequently experiences a great diversity of meteorological and 45 cloudiness conditions. Low clouds are the dominant cloud type, with stratocumulus and cumulus 46 occurring regularly. Approximately half of all clouds contained precipitation detectable as radar 47 echoes below the cloud base. Radar and satellite observations show that clouds with tops from 1-48 11 km contribute more or less equally to surface-measured precipitation at Graciosa. A wide 49 range of aerosol conditions was sampled during the deployment consistent with the diversity of 50 sources as indicated by back trajectory analysis. Preliminary findings suggest important two-way 51 interactions between aerosols and clouds at Graciosa, with aerosols affecting light precipitation 52 and cloud radiative properties while being controlled in part by precipitation scavenging. 53 The data from at Graciosa are being compared with short-range forecasts made a variety 54 of models. A pilot analysis with two climate and two weather forecast models shows that they 55 reproduce the observed time-varying vertical structure of lower-tropospheric cloud fairly well, 56 but the cloud-nucleating aerosol concentrations less well. The Graciosa site has been chosen to 57 be a long-term ARM site that became operational in October 2013.
Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer: An ARM Mobile Facility Deployment
Wood, Robert; Wyant, Matthew; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Remillard, Jasmine; Kollias, Pavlos; Fletcher, Jennifer; Stemmler, Jayson; de Szoeke, Simone; Yuter, Sandra; Miller, Matthew;
2015-01-01
Capsule: A 21-month deployment to Graciosa Island in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean is providing an unprecedented record of the clouds, aerosols and meteorology in a poorly-sampled remote marine environment The Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) deployment at Graciosa Island in the Azores generated a 21 month (April 2009- December 2010) comprehensive dataset documenting clouds, aerosols and precipitation using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF). The scientific aim of the deployment is to gain improved understanding of the interactions of clouds, aerosols and precipitation in the marine boundary layer. Graciosa Island straddles the boundary between the subtropics and midlatitudes in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean, and consequently experiences a great diversity of meteorological and cloudiness conditions. Low clouds are the dominant cloud type, with stratocumulus and cumulus occurring regularly. Approximately half of all clouds contained precipitation detectable as radar echoes below the cloud base. Radar and satellite observations show that clouds with tops from 1- 11 km contribute more or less equally to surface-measured precipitation at Graciosa. A wide range of aerosol conditions was sampled during the deployment consistent with the diversity of sources as indicated by back trajectory analysis. Preliminary findings suggest important two-way interactions between aerosols and clouds at Graciosa, with aerosols affecting light precipitation and cloud radiative properties while being controlled in part by precipitation scavenging. The data from at Graciosa are being compared with short-range forecasts made a variety of models. A pilot analysis with two climate and two weather forecast models shows that they reproduce the observed time-varying vertical structure of lower-tropospheric cloud fairly well, but the cloud-nucleating aerosol concentrations less well. The Graciosa site has been chosen to be a
Dynamics, thermodynamics, radiation, and cloudiness associated with cumulus-topped marine boundary layers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghate, Virendra P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Miller, Mark [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)
2016-11-01
The overall goal of this project was to improve the understanding of marine boundary clouds by using data collected at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites, so that they can be better represented in global climate models (GCMs). Marine boundary clouds are observed regularly over the tropical and subtropical oceans. They are an important element of the Earth’s climate system because they have substantial impact on the radiation budget together with the boundary layer moisture, and energy transports. These clouds also have an impact on large-scale precipitation features like the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Because these clouds occur at temporal and spatial scales much smaller than those relevant to GCMs, their effects and the associated processes need to be parameterized in GCM simulations aimed at predicting future climate and energy needs. Specifically, this project’s objectives were to (1) characterize the surface turbulent fluxes, boundary layer thermodynamics, radiation field, and cloudiness associated with cumulus-topped marine boundary layers; (2) explore the similarities and differences in cloudiness and boundary layer conditions observed in the tropical and trade-wind regions; and (3) understand similarities and differences by using a simple bulk boundary layer model. In addition to working toward achieving the project’s three objectives, we also worked on understanding the role played by different forcing mechanisms in maintaining turbulence within cloud-topped boundary layers We focused our research on stratocumulus clouds during the first phase of the project, and cumulus clouds during the rest of the project. Below is a brief description of manuscripts published in peer-reviewed journals that describe results from our analyses.
Efficient light emitting devices based on phosphorescent partially doped emissive layers
Yang, Xiaohui
2013-05-29
We report efficient organic light emitting devices employing an ultrathin phosphor emissive layer. The electroluminescent spectra of these devices can be tuned by introducing a low-energy emitting phosphor layer into the emission zone. Devices with the emissive layer consisting of multiple platinum-complex/spacer layer cells show a peak external quantum efficiency of 18.1%, which is among the best EQE values for platinum-complex based light emitting devices. Devices with an ultrathin phosphor emissive layer show stronger luminance decay with the operating time compared to the counterpart devices having a host-guest emissive layer.
Dry Deposition, Surface Production and Dynamics of Aerosols in the Marine Boundary Layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fairall, C.W.; Larsen, Søren Ejling
1984-01-01
A model of downward aerosol panicle flux characterized by dry deposition velocity, Vd, due to Slinn and Slinn (1980) is generalized to the case of nonzero surface concentration (absorbing surface with a surface source). A more general expression for the flux at some reference height is developed...... which includes Vd and an effective surface source strength, Si, which is a function of the true surface source strength, Si, and the particle transport properties below the reference height. The general expression for the surface flux is incorporated into a dynamic mixed layer model of the type...... developed by Davidson et al. (1983). This three layer model (diffusion sublayer, turbulent surface layer and mixed layer) is applied to an open ocean marine regime where boundary layer advection is ignored. The aerosol concentration in the boundary layer is considered to consist of sea salt particles...
Effects of Refractive Index and Diffuse or Specular Boundaries on a Radiating Isothermal Layer
Siegel, R.; Spuckler, C. M.
1994-01-01
Equilibrium temperatures of an absorbing-emitting layer were obtained for exposure to incident radiation and with the layer boundaries either specular or diffuse. For high refractive indices the surface condition can influence the radiative heat balance if the layer optical thickness is small. Hence for a spectrally varying absorption coefficient the layer temperature is affected if there is significant radiative energy in the spectral range with a small absorption coefficient. Similar behavior was obtained for transient radiative cooling of a layer where the results are affected by the initial temperature and hence the fraction of energy radiated in the short wavelength region where the absorption coefficient is small. The results are a layer without internal scattering. If internal scattering is significant, the radiation reaching the internal surface of a boundary is diffused and the effect of the two different surface conditions would become small.
Numerical modeling of the boundary layer Ekman using explicit algebraic turbulence model
Kurbatskii, Albert; Kurbatskaya, Lyudmila
2017-10-01
Modeling turbulence is an important object of environmental sciences for describing an essential turbulent transport of heat and momentum in the boundary layer of the atmosphere. The many turbulence model used in the simulation of flows in the environment, based on the concept of eddy viscosity, and buoyancy effects are often included in the expression for the turbulent fluxes through empirical functions, based on the similarity theory of Monin-Obukhov, fair, strictly speaking, only in the surface layer. Furthermore, significant progress has been made in recent years in the development broader than standard hypothesis turbulent viscosity models for the eddy diffusivity momentum and heat, as a result of the recording of differential equations for the Reynolds stresses and vector turbulent heat flux in a weakly-equilibrium approximation, which neglects advection and the diffusion of certain dimensionless quantities. Explicit algebraic model turbulent Reynolds stresses and heat flux vector for the planetary boundary layer is tested in the neutral atmospheric boundary layer over the homogeneous rough surface. The present algebraic model of turbulence built on physical principles RANS (Reynolds Average Navier Stokes) approach for stratified turbulence uses three prognostic equations and shows correct reproduction of the main characteristics of the Ekman neutral planetary boundary layer (PBL): the components average of wind velocity, the angle of wind turn, turbulence statistics. Test calculations shows that this turbulence model can be used for the purposeful researches of the atmospheric boundary layer for solving of various problems of the environment.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, T.C. [Seoul National University Graduate School, Seoul (Korea); Jeon, W.P.; Kang, S.H. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)
2001-06-01
This paper describes the phenomena of wake-induced transition of the boundary layers on a NACA0012 airfoil using measured phase-averaged data. Especially, the phase-averaged wall shear stresses are reasonably evaluated using the principle of Computational Preston Tube Method. Due to the passing wake, the turbulent patch is generated in the laminar boundary layer on the airfoil and the boundary layer becomes temporarily transitional. The patches propagate downstream with less speed than free-stream velocity and merge with each other at further downstream station, and the boundary layer becomes more transitional. The generation of turbulent patch at the leading edge of the airfoil mainly depends on velocity defects and turbulent intensity profiles of passing wakes. However, the growth and merging of turbulent patches depend on local streamwise pressure gradients as well as characteristics of turbulent patches. In this transition process, the present experimental data show very similar features to the previous numerical and experimental studies. It is confirmed that the two phase-averaged mean velocity dips appear in the outer region of transitional boundary layer for each passing cycle. Relatively high values of the phase-averaged turbulent fluctuations in the outer region indicate the possibility that breakdown occurs in the outer layer not near the wall. (author). 21 refs., 12 figs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rezanova Ekaterina
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The dynamics of a viscous incompressible liquid layer and the temperature distribution in it are investigated numerically in three-dimensional case. The planar layer with free boundaries under condition of zero gravity is studied on the basis of the special class of exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. The thermocapillary forces and additional tangential stresses on the boundaries caused by the environment are taken into account. The influence of additional tangential stresses on the layer dynamics and heat distribution is studied.
Free surface simulation of a two-layer fluid by boundary element method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weoncheol Koo
2010-09-01
Full Text Available A two-layer fluid with free surface is simulated in the time domain by a two-dimensional potential-based Numerical Wave Tank (NWT. The developed NWT is based on the boundary element method and a leap-frog time integration scheme. A whole domain scheme including interaction terms between two layers is applied to solve the boundary integral equation. The time histories of surface elevations on both fluid layers in the respective wave modes are verified with analytic results. The amplitude ratios of upper to lower elevation for various density ratios and water depths are also compared.
Garrett, S. J.; Cooper, A. J.; Harris, J. H.; Özkan, M.; Segalini, A.; Thomas, P. J.
2016-01-01
We summarise results of a theoretical study investigating the distinct convective instability properties of steady boundary-layer flow over rough rotating disks. A generic roughness pattern of concentric circles with sinusoidal surface undulations in the radial direction is considered. The goal is to compare predictions obtained by means of two alternative, and fundamentally different, modelling approaches for surface roughness for the first time. The motivating rationale is to identify commonalities and isolate results that might potentially represent artefacts associated with the particular methodologies underlying one of the two modelling approaches. The most significant result of practical relevance obtained is that both approaches predict overall stabilising effects on type I instability mode of rotating disk flow. This mode leads to transition of the rotating-disk boundary layer and, more generally, the transition of boundary-layers with a cross-flow profile. Stabilisation of the type 1 mode means that it may be possible to exploit surface roughness for laminar-flow control in boundary layers with a cross-flow component. However, we also find differences between the two sets of model predictions, some subtle and some substantial. These will represent criteria for establishing which of the two alternative approaches is more suitable to correctly describe experimental data when these become available.
Farhat, Charbel; Lakshminarayan, Vinod K.
2014-04-01
Embedded Boundary Methods (EBMs) for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) are usually constructed in the Eulerian setting. They are particularly attractive for complex Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) problems characterized by large structural motions and deformations. They are also critical for flow problems with topological changes and FSI problems with cracking. For all of these problems, the alternative Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) methods are often unfeasible because of the issue of mesh crossovers. However for viscous flows, Eulerian EBMs for CFD do not track the boundary layers around dynamic rigid or flexible bodies. Consequently, the application of these methods to viscous FSI problems requires either a high mesh resolution in a large part of the computational fluid domain, or adaptive mesh refinement. Unfortunately, the first option is computationally inefficient, and the second one is labor intensive. For these reasons, an alternative approach is proposed in this paper for maintaining all moving boundary layers resolved during the simulation of a turbulent FSI problem using an EBM for CFD. In this approach, which is simple and computationally reasonable, the underlying non-body-fitted mesh is rigidly translated and/or rotated in order to track the rigid component of the motion of the dynamic obstacle. Then, the flow computations away from the embedded surface are performed using the ALE framework, and the wall boundary conditions are treated by the chosen Eulerian EBM for CFD. Hence, the solution of the boundary layer tracking problem proposed in this paper can be described as an ALE implementation of a given EBM for CFD. Its basic features are illustrated with the Large Eddy Simulation using a non-body-fitted mesh of a turbulent flow past an airfoil in heaving motion. Its strong potential for the solution of challenging FSI problems at reasonable computational costs is also demonstrated with the simulation of turbulent flows past a family of
Knupp, Kevin R.; Walters, Justin; Biggerstaff, Michael
2006-01-01
Detailed observations of boundary layer structure were acquired on 14 September 2001, prior to and during the landfall of Tropical Storm Gabrielle. The Mobile Integrated Profiling System (MIPS) and the Shared Mobile Atmospheric Research and Teaching Radar (SMART-R) were collocated at the western Florida coastline near Venice, very close to the wind center at landfall. Prior to landfall, the boundary layer was rendered weakly stable by a long period of evaporational cooling and mesoscale downdrafts within extensive stratiform precipitation that started 18 h before landfall. The cool air mass was expansive, with an area within the 23°C surface isotherm of about 50 000 km2. East-northeasterly surface flow transported this cool air off the west coast of Florida, toward the convergent warm core of the Gabrielle, and promoted the development of shallow warm and cold fronts that were prominent during the landfall phase.Airflow properties of the boundary layer around the coastal zone are examined using the MIPS and SMART-R data. Wind profiles exhibited considerable temporal variability throughout the period of observations. The stable offshore flow within stratiform precipitation exhibited a modest jet that descended from about 600 to 300 m within the 20-km zone centered on the coastline. In contrast, the onshore flow on the western side of the wind center produced a more turbulent boundary layer that exhibited a well-defined top varying between 400 and 1000 m MSL. The horizontal variability of each boundary layer is examined using high-resolution Doppler radar scans at locations up to 15 km on either side of the coastline, along the mean flow direction of the boundary layer. These analyses reveal that transitions in boundary layer structure for both the stable and unstable regimes were most substantial within 5 km of the coastline.
Multi-layer statistical gravity on the boundary
Mandrin, Pierre A.
2017-08-01
Starting from an important research path, we consider gravity as a collective phenomenon governed by statistical mechanics. While previous studies have focussed on the thermodynamic heat flow across a 2d-horizon as perceived by a single, accelerated observer, we evaluate here the number of microscopic states arising for multiple observers perceiving multiple horizons within foliations of the boundary of a space-time region. This yields a temperature-independent, Boltzmann-type “entropy” which is equivalent to the boundary action and which we call m-entropy. According to its statistical interpretation, the m-entropy distribution as a function of the gravitational field is maximum when Einstein’s Field Equations hold. However, if the number of “atoms of space” is small, Einstein’s Equations do not hold and no sharp geometry can be defined. On the other hand, the transition probability of microstates can be computed and can be interpreted as processes of a (alternative) model of quantum space-time.
The Influence of Boundary Layer Parameters on Interior Noise
Palumbo, Daniel L.; Rocha, Joana
2012-01-01
Predictions of the wall pressure in the turbulent boundary of an aerospace vehicle can differ substantially from measurement due to phenomena that are not well understood. Characterizing the phenomena will require additional testing at considerable cost. Before expending scarce resources, it is desired to quantify the effect of the uncertainty in wall pressure predictions and measurements on structural response and acoustic radiation. A sensitivity analysis is performed on four parameters of the Corcos cross spectrum model: power spectrum, streamwise and cross stream coherence lengths and Mach number. It is found that at lower frequencies where high power levels and long coherence lengths exist, the radiated sound power prediction has up to 7 dB of uncertainty in power spectrum levels with streamwise and cross stream coherence lengths contributing equally to the total.
CFD Modeling of Non-Neutral Atmospheric Boundary Layer Conditions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Koblitz, Tilman
cost than e.g. using large-eddy simulations. The developed ABL model is successfully validated using a range of different test cases with increasing complexity. Data from several large scale field campaigns, wind tunnel experiments, and previous numerical simulations is presented and compared against...... model results. A method is developed how to simulate the time-dependant non-neutral ABL flow over complex terrain: a precursor simulation is used to specify unsteady inlet boundary conditions on complex terrain domains. The advantage of the developed RANS model framework is its general applicability....... All implementations in the ABL model are tuning free, and except for standard site specific input parameters, no additional model coefficients need to be specified before the simulation. In summary the results show that the implemented modifications are applicable and reproduce the main flow...
Roles of Engineering Correlations in Hypersonic Entry Boundary Layer Transition Prediction
Campbell, Charles H.; King, Rudolph A.; Kergerise, Michael A.; Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.
2010-01-01
Efforts to design and operate hypersonic entry vehicles are constrained by many considerations that involve all aspects of an entry vehicle system. One of the more significant physical phenomenon that affect entry trajectory and thermal protection system design is the occurrence of boundary layer transition from a laminar to turbulent state. During the Space Shuttle Return To Flight activity following the loss of Columbia and her crew of seven, NASA's entry aerothermodynamics community implemented an engineering correlation based framework for the prediction of boundary layer transition on the Orbiter. The methodology for this implementation relies upon the framework of correlation techniques that have been in use for several decades. What makes the Orbiter boundary layer transition correlation implementation unique is that a statistically significant data set was acquired in multiple ground test facilities, flight data exists to assist in establishing a better correlation and the framework was founded upon state of the art chemical nonequilibrium Navier Stokes flow field simulations. The basic tenets that guided the formulation and implementation of the Orbiter Return To Flight boundary layer transition prediction capability will be reviewed as a recommended format for future empirical correlation efforts. The validity of this approach has since been demonstrated by very favorable comparison of recent entry flight testing performed with the Orbiter Discovery, which will be graphically summarized. These flight data can provide a means to validate discrete protuberance engineering correlation approaches as well as high fidelity prediction methods to higher confidence. The results of these Orbiter engineering and flight test activities only serve to reinforce the essential role that engineering correlations currently exercise in the design and operation of entry vehicles. The framework of information-related to the Orbiter empirical boundary layer transition
Electrodeposition and Properties of Copper Layer on NdFeB Device
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
LI Yue
2017-06-01
Full Text Available To decrease the impact of the regular Ni/Cu/Ni coating on the magnetic performance of sintered NdFeB device, alkaline system of HEDP complexing agent was applied to directly electro-deposit copper layer on NdFeB matrix, then nickel layer was electrodeposited on the copper layer and Cu/Ni coating was finally obtained to replace the regular Ni/Cu/Ni coating. The influence of concentration of HEDP complexing agent on deposition course was tested by electrochemical testing; morphology of copper layer was characterized by SEM, XRD and TEM; the binding force of copper layer and the thermal reduction of magnetic of NdFeB caused by electrodeposited coating were respectively explored through the thermal cycle test and thermal demagnetization test. The results show that the concentration of HEDP has great impact on the deposition overpotential of copper. In the initial electrodepositing stage, copper particles precipitate at the grain boundaries of NdFeB magnets with a preferred (111 orientation. The copper layer is compact and has enough binding force with the NdFeB matrix to meet the requirements in SJ 1282-1977. Furthermore, the thermal demagnetization loss rate of the sintered NdFeB with the protection of Cu/Ni coating is significantly less than that with the protection of Ni/Cu/Ni coating.